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Sample records for extraction vapex process

  1. SOLVENT-BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES TO DEVELOP WEST SAK ALASKA NORTH SLOPE HEAVY OIL RESOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    David O. Ogbe; Tao Zhu

    2004-01-01

    A one-year research program is conducted to evaluate the feasibility of applying solvent-based enhanced oil recovery processes to develop West Sak and Ugnu heavy oil resources found on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The project objective is to conduct research to develop technology to produce and market the 300-3000 cp oil in the West Sak and Ugnu sands. During the first phase of the research, background information was collected, and experimental and numerical studies of vapor extraction process (VAPEX) in West Sak and Ugnu are conducted. The experimental study is designed to foster understanding of the processes governing vapor chamber formation and growth, and to optimize oil recovery. A specially designed core-holder and a computed tomography (CT) scanner was used to measure the in-situ distribution of phases. Numerical simulation study of VAPEX was initiated during the first year. The numerical work completed during this period includes setting up a numerical model and using the analog data to simulate lab experiments of the VAPEX process. The goal was to understand the mechanisms governing the VAPEX process. Additional work is recommended to expand the VAPEX numerical study using actual field data obtained from Alaska North Slope.

  2. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Jonke, A.A.

    1957-10-01

    In improved solvent extraction process is described for the extraction of metal values from highly dilute aqueous solutions. The process comprises contacting an aqueous solution with an organic substantially water-immiscible solvent, whereby metal values are taken up by a solvent extract phase; scrubbing the solvent extract phase with an aqueous scrubbing solution; separating an aqueous solution from the scrubbed solvent extract phase; and contacting the scrubbed solvent phase with an aqueous medium whereby the extracted metal values are removed from the solvent phase and taken up by said medium to form a strip solution containing said metal values, the aqueous scrubbing solution being a mixture of strip solution and an aqueous solution which contains mineral acids anions and is free of the metal values. The process is particularly effective for purifying uranium, where one starts with impure aqueous uranyl nitrate, extracts with tributyl phosphate dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, scrubs with aqueous nitric acid and employs water to strip the uranium from the scrubbed organic phase.

  3. URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, W.H.; Higgins, C.E.

    1958-12-16

    A process is described for recovering uranium values from acidic aqueous solutions containing hexavalent uranium by contacting the solution with an organic solution comprised of a substantially water-immiscible organlc diluent and an organic phosphate to extract the uranlum values into the organic phase. Carbon tetrachloride and a petroleum hydrocarbon fraction, such as kerosene, are sultable diluents to be used in combination with organlc phosphates such as dibutyl butylphosphonate, trlbutyl phosphine oxide, and tributyl phosphate.

  4. NEPTUNIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, L.R.; Fields, P.R.

    1959-10-01

    The separation of neptunium from an aqueous solution by solvent extraction and the extraction of neptunium from the solvent solution are described. Neptunium is separated from an aqueous solution containing tetravalent or hexavalent neptunium nitrate, nitric acid, and a nitrate salting out agent, such as sodium nitrate, by contacting the solution with an organic solvent such as diethyl ether. Subsequently, the neptunium nitrate is extracted from the organic solvent extract phase with water.

  5. METAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, G.W. Jr.; Rhodes, D.E.

    1957-11-01

    An improved method for extracting uranium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is presented. A difficulty encountered in solvent extraction operations using an organic extractant (e.g., tributyl phosphate dissolved in kerosene or carbon tetrachloride) is that emulsions sometimes form, and phase separation is difficult or impossible. This difficulty is overcome by dissolving the organic extractant in a molten wax which is a solid at operating temperatures. After cooling, the wax which now contains the extractant, is broken into small particles (preferably flakes) and this wax complex'' is used to contact the uranium bearing solutions and extract the metal therefrom. Microcrystalline petroleum wax and certain ethylene polymers have been found suitable for this purpose.

  6. URANIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.

    1959-09-01

    A method is given for extracting uranium values from ores of high phosphate content consisting of dissolving them in aqueous nitric acid, adjusting the concentration of the aqueous solution to about 2 M with respect to nitric acid, and then contacting it with diethyl ether which has previously been made 1 M with respect to nitric acid.

  7. Processes for metal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowersox, David F.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the processing of plutonium at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and operation illustrating concepts that may be applicable to the processing of lunar materials. The toxic nature of plutonium requires a highly closed system for processing lunar surface materials.

  8. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.H.; Asprey, L.B.

    1960-02-01

    A process of separating plutonium in at least the tetravalent state from fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution by extraction with alkyl phosphate is reported. The plutonium can then be back-extracted from the organic phase by contact with an aqueous solution of sulfuric, phosphoric, or oxalic acid as a complexing agent.

  9. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PROTACTINIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, E.K.; Katzin, L.I.; Wolf, M.J.

    1961-04-01

    A process is described for separating protactinium from thorium present together as the nitrates in a 0.1 to 10 N nitric acid solution. The separation is carried out by extraction with an aliphatic alcohol, ketone, and/or ester having at least six carbon atoms, such as n-amyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and diisopropyl ketone.

  10. Extractive condensation: A new separation process

    SciTech Connect

    Zeitsch, K.J.

    1999-10-01

    A new highly selective vapor-phase extraction process is described. Hydrogen bonding between a scavenging extractant and the substance to be extracted results in a high-boiling complex forming fog droplets readily separable from the remaining vapor. The process is exemplified by the extraction of acetic acid from the predominantly aqueous vapor stream of furfural reactors. Triethylamine is used as the extractant.

  11. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from aqueous inorganic acid solutions by the use of a water immiscible organic extractant liquid is described. The plutonium must be in the oxidized state, and the solvents covered by the patent include nitromethane, nitroethane, nitropropane, and nitrobenzene. The use of a salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate in the case of an aqueous nitric acid solution is advantageous. After contacting the aqueous solution with the organic extractant, the resulting extract and raffinate phases are separated. The plutonium may be recovered by any suitable method.

  12. PROCESS FOR UTILIZING ORGANIC ORTHOPHOSPHATE EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1958-11-11

    A process is presented for recovering uranium from its ores, the steps comprising producing the uranium in solution in the trivalent state, extracting the uranium from solution in an lmmiscible organic solvent extract phase which lncludes mono and dialkyl orthophosphorlc acid esters having a varying number of carbon atoms on the alkyl substituent, amd recovering the uranium from tbe extract phase.

  13. ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE METAL SOLVENT EXTRACTANTS AND PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Long, R.L.

    1958-09-30

    A process is presented for the recovery of uranium from aqueous mineral acidic solutions by solvent extraction. The extractant is a synmmetrical dialkyl pyrophosphate in which the alkyl substituents have a chain length of from 4 to 17 carbon atoms. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dioctyl pyrophosphate. The uranium is precipitated irom the organic extractant phase with an agent such as HF, fluoride salts. alcohol, or ammonia.

  14. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM RECOVERY

    DOEpatents

    Clark, H.M.; Duffey, D.

    1958-06-17

    A process is described for extracting uranium from uranium ore, wherein the uranium is substantially free from molybdenum contamination. In a solvent extraction process for recovering uranium, uranium and molybdenum ions are extracted from the ore with ether under high acidity conditions. The ether phase is then stripped with water at a lower controiled acidity, resaturated with salting materials such as sodium nitrate, and reextracted with the separation of the molybdenum from the uranium without interference from other metals that have been previously extracted.

  15. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

  16. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1992-12-08

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal. 3 figs.

  17. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1991-12-31

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and amercium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N.N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU`s to gather with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU`s and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

  18. Highlights of the Salt Extraction Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasalizadeh, Aida; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Teng, Lidong; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Grinder, Olle; Izumi, Yukari; Barati, Mansoor

    2013-11-01

    This article presents the salient features of a new process for the recovery of metal values from secondary sources and waste materials such as slag and flue dusts. It is also feasible in extracting metals such as nickel and cobalt from ores that normally are difficult to enrich and process metallurgically. The salt extraction process is based on extraction of the metals from the raw materials by a molten salt bath consisting of NaCl, LiCl, and KCl corresponding to the eutectic composition with AlCl3 as the chlorinating agent. The process is operated in the temperature range 973 K (700°C) to 1173 K (900°C). The process was shown to be successful in extracting Cr and Fe from electric arc furnace (EAF) slag. Electrolytic copper could be produced from copper concentrate based on chalcopyrite in a single step. Conducting the process in oxygen-free atmosphere, sulfur could be captured in the elemental form. The method proved to be successful in extracting lead from spent cathode ray tubes. In order to prevent the loss of AlCl3 in the vapor form and also chlorine gas emission at the cathode during the electrolysis, liquid aluminum was used. The process was shown to be successful in extracting Nd and Dy from magnetic scrap. The method is a highly promising process route for the recovery of strategic metals. It also has the added advantage of being environmentally friendly.

  19. Supercritical fluid extraction and processing of foods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumers are aware of the processing techniques used to manufacture food and health supplements and are concerned about the impact of those processes on their health and the environment. Processes that use supercritical fluids as an alternative to solvents that are used to extract nutrients and bio...

  20. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING ALKYL ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1962-01-23

    A process is given for producing superior alkyl orthophosphoric acid extractants for use in solvent extraction methods to recover and purify various metals such as uranium and vanadium. The process comprises slurrying P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ in a solvent diluent such as kerosene, benzene, isopropyl ether, and the like. An alipbatic alcohol having from nine to seventeen carbon atoms, and w- hcrein ihc OH group is situated inward of the terminal carbon atoms, is added to the slurry while the reaction temperature is mainiained below 60 deg C. The alcohol is added in the mole ratio of about 2 to l, alcohol to P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. A pyrophosphate reaotion product is formed in the slurry-alcohol mixture. Subsequently, the pyrophosphate reaction product is hydrolyzed with dilute mineral acid to produce the desired alkyl orthophosphoric aeid extractant. The extraetant may then be separated and utilized in metal-recovery, solvent- extraction processes. (AEC)

  1. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M.; Zeitoon, B.M.

    1995-12-01

    Molten Metal Technology was awarded a contract to demonstrate the applicability of the Catalytic Extraction Process, a proprietary process that could be applied to US DOE`s inventory of low level mixed waste. This paper is a description of that technology, and included within this document are discussions of: (1) Program objectives, (2) Overall technology review, (3) Organic feed conversion to synthetic gas, (4) Metal, halogen, and transuranic recovery, (5) Demonstrations, (6) Design of the prototype facility, and (7) Results.

  2. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    1995-01-01

    A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.

  3. Catalog solvent extraction: anticipate process adjustments

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, S.G.; Brass, E.A.; Brown, S.J.; Geeting, M.W.

    2008-07-01

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) utilizes commercially available centrifugal contactors to facilitate removal of radioactive cesium from highly alkaline salt solutions. During the fabrication of the contactor assembly, demonstrations revealed a higher propensity for foaming than was initially expected. A task team performed a series of single-phase experiments that revealed that the shape of the bottom vanes and the outer diameter of those vanes are key to the successful deployment of commercial contactors in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process. (authors)

  4. Extracting enzyme processivity from kinetic assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barel, Itay; Reich, Norbert O.; Brown, Frank L. H.

    2015-12-01

    A steady-state analysis for the catalytic turnover of molecules containing two substrate sites is presented. A broad class of Markovian dynamic models, motivated by the action of DNA modifying enzymes and the rich variety of translocation mechanisms associated with these systems (e.g., sliding, hopping, intersegmental transfer, etc.), is considered. The modeling suggests an elementary and general method of data analysis, which enables the extraction of the enzyme's processivity directly and unambiguously from experimental data. This analysis is not limited to the initial velocity regime. The predictions are validated both against detailed numerical models and by revisiting published experimental data for EcoRI endonuclease acting on DNA.

  5. Extracting enzyme processivity from kinetic assays

    SciTech Connect

    Barel, Itay; Brown, Frank L. H.; Reich, Norbert O.

    2015-12-14

    A steady-state analysis for the catalytic turnover of molecules containing two substrate sites is presented. A broad class of Markovian dynamic models, motivated by the action of DNA modifying enzymes and the rich variety of translocation mechanisms associated with these systems (e.g., sliding, hopping, intersegmental transfer, etc.), is considered. The modeling suggests an elementary and general method of data analysis, which enables the extraction of the enzyme’s processivity directly and unambiguously from experimental data. This analysis is not limited to the initial velocity regime. The predictions are validated both against detailed numerical models and by revisiting published experimental data for EcoRI endonuclease acting on DNA.

  6. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    The contract was conceived to establish the commercial capability of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) to treat contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. In so doing, Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT), pursued the following objectives: demonstration of the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal can be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP will concentrate the radionuclides in a dense vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP will convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which can be used as feed gases for chemical synthesis or as an energy source; recovery volatile heavy metals--that CEP`s off-gas treatment system will capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; and establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory--that CEP is a more cost-effective and, complete treatment and recycling technology than competing technologies for processing contaminated scrap. The process and its performance are described.

  7. Wavelet Signal Processing for Transient Feature Extraction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-15

    Research was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of applying Wavelets and Wavelet Transform methods to transient signal feature extraction problems... Wavelet transform techniques were developed to extract low dimensional feature data that allowed a simple classification scheme to easily separate

  8. [Optimization of extraction process of Dandelions (Taraxacum Weber)].

    PubMed

    Ma, Li-chun; Wei, Feng-ling

    2005-07-01

    To optimize the extraction conditions of Dandelions (Taraxacum Weber). Using the uniform design, the content of total flavonoids and quercetin were detected to investigate the extraction process of Dandelions. The ethanol concentration and the ethanol volume in the uniform test impacted the test mostly. The best extraction process of Dandelions was obtained as following: 13 times of 85% ethanol as the solvent, extraction for 2 times and 1 h for each time. The extraction ratio of total flavonoids and quercetin are higher according to the above extraction process.

  9. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-06

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

  10. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  11. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  12. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy issued a Planned Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) in 1993, with the objective of identifying unique technologies which could be applied to the most hazardous waste streams at DOE sites. The combination of radioactive contamination with additional contamination by hazardous constituents such as those identified by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) pose an especially challenging problem. Traditional remediation technologies are increasingly becoming less acceptable to stakeholders and regulators because of the risks they pose to public health and safety. Desirable recycling technologies were described by the DOE as: (1) easily installed, operated, and maintained; (2) exhibiting superior environmental performance; (3) protective of worker and public health and safety; (4) readily acceptable to a wide spectrum of evaluators; and (5) economically feasible. Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT) was awarded a contract as a result of the PRDA initiative to demonstrate the applicability of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP), MMT`s proprietary elemental recycling technology, to DOE`s inventory of low level mixed waste. This includes DOE`s inventory of radioactively- and RCRA-contaminated scrap metal and other waste forms expected to be generated by the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of DOE sites.

  13. URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS USING SYNERGISTIC REAGENTS

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, J.M.; Blake, C.A. Jr.; Brown, K.B.; Coleman, C.F.

    1958-11-01

    Improved methods are presented for recovering uranium values from aqueous solutions by organic solvent extraction. The improvement lies in the use, in combination, of two classes of organic compounds so that their extracting properties are enhanced synergistically. The two classes of organic compounds are dialkylphosphoric acid and certain neutral organophosphorus compounds such as trialkylphosphates, trialkylphosphonates, trlalkylphosphinates and trialkylphosphine oxides.

  14. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM FROM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Blake, C.A. Jr.; Brown, K.B.; Horner, D.E.

    1960-05-24

    An improvement was made in a uranium extraction process wherein the organic extractant is a phosphine oxide. An aqueous solution containing phosphate ions or sulfate ions together with uranium is provided with a source of chloride ions during the extraction step. The presence of the chloride ions enables a phosphine oxide to extract uranium in the presence of strong uranium- complexing ions such as phosphate or sulfate ions.

  15. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR SEPARATING ACTINIDE AND LANTHANIDE METAL VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Hildebrandt, R.A.; Hyman, H.H.; Vogler, S.

    1962-08-14

    A process of countercurrently extracting an aqueous mineral acid feed solution for the separation of actinides from lanthanides dissolved therern is described. The feed solution is made acid-defrcient with alkali metal hydroxide prior to.contact with acid extractant; during extraction, however, acid is transferred from organic to aqueous solution and the aqueous solution gradually becomes acid. The acid-deficient phase ' of the process promotes the extraction of the actinides, while the latter acid phase'' of the process improves retention of the lanthanides in the aqueous solution. This provides for an improved separation. (AEC)

  16. Assessment of critical-fluid extractions in the process industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The potential for critical-fluid extraction as a separation process for improving the productive use of energy in the process industries is assessed. Critical-fluid extraction involves the use of fluids, normally gaseous at ambient conditions, as extraction solvents at temperatures and pressures around the critical point. Equilibrium and kinetic properties in this regime are very favorable for solvent applications, and generally allow major reductions in the energy requirements for separating and purifying chemical component of a mixture.

  17. PROCESS OF SEPARATING URANIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Warf, J.C.

    1958-08-19

    A process is described for separating uranium values from aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions. The process consists in contacting the uramium bearing solution with an organic solvent, tributyl phosphate, preferably diluted with a less viscous organic liquida whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the organic solvent phase. The uranvl nitrate may be recovered from the solvent phase bv back extracting with an aqueous mediuin.

  18. COGNIS TERRAMET® LEAD EXTRACTION PROCESS; INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents an evaluation of lead removal from sands and fines fractions of contaminated soils by the COGNIS TERRAMET® lead extraction process (COGNIS process). The evaluation was performed under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund Innovative Technolog...

  19. A combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Jensen, M.P.

    1996-03-01

    A new solvent extraction process for the simultaneous extraction of cesium and strontium from acidic nitrate media is described. This process uses a solvent formulation comprised of 0.05 M di-t-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), 0.1 M Crown 100{prime} (a proprietary, cesium-selective derivative of dibenzo-18-crown-6), 1.2 M tributyl phosphate (TBP), and 5% (v/v) lauryl nitrile in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. Distribution ratios for cesium and strontium from 4 M nitric acid are 4.13 and 3.46, respectively. A benchtop batch countercurrent extraction experiment indicates that >98% of the cesium and strontium initially present in the feed solution can be removed in only four extraction stages. Through proper choice of extraction and strip conditions, extracted cesium and strontium can be recovered either together or individually.

  20. Glycerol extracting dealcoholization for the biodiesel separation process.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianchu; Sha, Yong; Zhang, Yun; Yuan, Yunlong; Wu, Housheng

    2011-04-01

    By means of utilizing sunflower oil and Jatropha oil as raw oil respectively, the biodiesel transesterification production and the multi-stage extracting separation were carried out experimentally. Results indicate that dealcoholized crude glycerol can be utilized as the extracting agent to achieve effective separation of methanol from the methyl ester phase, and the glycerol content in the dealcoholized methyl esters is as low as 0.02 wt.%. For the biodiesel separation process utilizing glycerol extracting dealcoholization, its technical and equipment information were acquired through the rigorous process simulation in contrast to the traditional biodiesel distillation separation process, and results show that its energy consumption decrease about 35% in contrast to that of the distillation separation process. The glycerol extracting dealcoholization has sufficient feasibility and superiority for the biodiesel separation process.

  1. ALKALINE CARBONATE LEACHING PROCESS FOR URANIUM EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Rabbitts, A.T.

    1957-11-12

    A process for the leaching of uranium from high carbonate ores is presented. According to the process, the ore is leached at a temperature of about 200 deg C and a pressure of about 200 p.s.i.g. with a solution containing alkali carbonate, alkali permanganate, and bicarbonate ion, the bicarbonate ion functionlng to prevent premature formation of alkali hydroxide and consequent precipitation of a diuranate. After the leaching is complete, the uranium present is recovered by precipitation with NaOH.

  2. [Multi-objective optimization of extraction process for red ginseng based upon extraction efficiency and cost control].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yi; Zhu, Jie-Qiang; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Kang, Li-Yuan; Li, Zheng

    2014-07-01

    It is the objective of this study to optimize the extraction process of red ginseng to minimize the unit cost of extracting effective ingredients. The relation between the target variables of total quantity of ginsenosides and first extraction time, first extraction solution amount, second extraction time, second extract solution amount were studied with Box-Behnken experimental design method. At the same we also considered the cost of extraction solution and energy usage. The objective function was set as unit cost of target (total quantity of ginsenosides or its purity) for the multi-objective optimization of extraction process. As a result, the optimal process parameters were found as first extraction time (108.7 min), first extraction solution amount folds (12), second extraction time (30 min), second extraction solution amount folds (8) to minimize the unit cost. It indicated that this approach could potentially be used to optimize industrial extraction process for manufacturing Chinese medicine.

  3. Batch extracting process using magneticparticle held solvents

    DOEpatents

    Nunez, Luis; Vandergrift, George F.

    1995-01-01

    A process for selectively removing metal values which may include catalytic values from a mixture containing same, wherein a magnetic particle is contacted with a liquid solvent which selectively dissolves the metal values to absorb the liquid solvent onto the magnetic particle. Thereafter the solvent-containing magnetic particles are contacted with a mixture containing the heavy metal values to transfer metal values into the solvent carried by the magnetic particles, and then magnetically separating the magnetic particles. Ion exchange resins may be used for selective solvents.

  4. Applications of ultrasound in food technology: Processing, preservation and extraction.

    PubMed

    Chemat, Farid; Zill-e-Huma; Khan, Muhammed Kamran

    2011-07-01

    Ultrasound is well known to have a significant effect on the rate of various processes in the food industry. Using ultrasound, full reproducible food processes can now be completed in seconds or minutes with high reproducibility, reducing the processing cost, simplifying manipulation and work-up, giving higher purity of the final product, eliminating post-treatment of waste water and consuming only a fraction of the time and energy normally needed for conventional processes. Several processes such as freezing, cutting, drying, tempering, bleaching, sterilization, and extraction have been applied efficiently in the food industry. The advantages of using ultrasound for food processing, includes: more effective mixing and micro-mixing, faster energy and mass transfer, reduced thermal and concentration gradients, reduced temperature, selective extraction, reduced equipment size, faster response to process extraction control, faster start-up, increased production, and elimination of process steps. Food processes performed under the action of ultrasound are believed to be affected in part by cavitation phenomena and mass transfer enhancement. This review presents a complete picture of current knowledge on application of ultrasound in food technology including processing, preservation and extraction. It provides the necessary theoretical background and some details about ultrasound the technology, the technique, and safety precautions. We will also discuss some of the factors which make the combination of food processing and ultrasound one of the most promising research areas in the field of modern food engineering.

  5. Comparison of lignin extraction processes: Economic and environmental assessment.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Juan C; Gómez, Álvaro; Cardona, Carlos A

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the technical-economic and environmental assessment of four lignin extraction processes from two different raw materials (sugarcane bagasse and rice husks). The processes are divided into two categories, the first processes evaluates lignin extraction with prior acid hydrolysis step, while in the second case the extraction processes are evaluated standalone for a total analysis of 16 scenarios. Profitability indicators as the net present value (NPV) and environmental indicators as the potential environmental impact (PEI) are used through a process engineering approach to understand and select the best lignin extraction process. The results show that both economically and environmentally process with sulfites and soda from rice husk presents the best results; however the quality of lignin obtained with sulfites is not suitable for high value-added products. Then, the soda is an interesting option for the extraction of lignin if high quality lignin is required for high value-added products at low costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimal processes for probabilistic work extraction beyond the second law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavina, Vasco; Mari, Andrea; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-07-01

    According to the second law of thermodynamics, for every transformation performed on a system which is in contact with an environment of fixed temperature, the average extracted work is bounded by the decrease of the free energy of the system. However, in a single realization of a generic process, the extracted work is subject to statistical fluctuations which may allow for probabilistic violations of the previous bound. We are interested in enhancing this effect, i.e. we look for thermodynamic processes that maximize the probability of extracting work above a given arbitrary threshold. For any process obeying the Jarzynski identity, we determine an upper bound for the work extraction probability that depends also on the minimum amount of work that we are willing to extract in case of failure, or on the average work we wish to extract from the system. Then we show that this bound can be saturated within the thermodynamic formalism of quantum discrete processes composed by sequences of unitary quenches and complete thermalizations. We explicitly determine the optimal protocol which is given by two quasi-static isothermal transformations separated by a finite unitary quench.

  7. Optimal processes for probabilistic work extraction beyond the second law.

    PubMed

    Cavina, Vasco; Mari, Andrea; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-07-05

    According to the second law of thermodynamics, for every transformation performed on a system which is in contact with an environment of fixed temperature, the average extracted work is bounded by the decrease of the free energy of the system. However, in a single realization of a generic process, the extracted work is subject to statistical fluctuations which may allow for probabilistic violations of the previous bound. We are interested in enhancing this effect, i.e. we look for thermodynamic processes that maximize the probability of extracting work above a given arbitrary threshold. For any process obeying the Jarzynski identity, we determine an upper bound for the work extraction probability that depends also on the minimum amount of work that we are willing to extract in case of failure, or on the average work we wish to extract from the system. Then we show that this bound can be saturated within the thermodynamic formalism of quantum discrete processes composed by sequences of unitary quenches and complete thermalizations. We explicitly determine the optimal protocol which is given by two quasi-static isothermal transformations separated by a finite unitary quench.

  8. Optimal processes for probabilistic work extraction beyond the second law

    PubMed Central

    Cavina, Vasco; Mari, Andrea; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    According to the second law of thermodynamics, for every transformation performed on a system which is in contact with an environment of fixed temperature, the average extracted work is bounded by the decrease of the free energy of the system. However, in a single realization of a generic process, the extracted work is subject to statistical fluctuations which may allow for probabilistic violations of the previous bound. We are interested in enhancing this effect, i.e. we look for thermodynamic processes that maximize the probability of extracting work above a given arbitrary threshold. For any process obeying the Jarzynski identity, we determine an upper bound for the work extraction probability that depends also on the minimum amount of work that we are willing to extract in case of failure, or on the average work we wish to extract from the system. Then we show that this bound can be saturated within the thermodynamic formalism of quantum discrete processes composed by sequences of unitary quenches and complete thermalizations. We explicitly determine the optimal protocol which is given by two quasi-static isothermal transformations separated by a finite unitary quench. PMID:27377557

  9. Recovery of organic extractant from secondary emulsions formed in the extraction of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Korchnak, J.D.; Fett, R.H.G.

    1984-01-03

    Uranium in wet-process phosphoric acid is extracted with an organic extractant. The pregnant extractant is then centrifuged to separate contaminants from the extractant. Secondary emulsions obtained by separating the contaminants following centrifugation are mixed with water or an acid leaching solution. After mixing, the mixture is centrifuged to separate and recover extractant which is recycled for stripping.

  10. Valve For Extracting Samples From A Process Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Dave

    1995-01-01

    Valve for extracting samples from process stream includes cylindrical body bolted to pipe that contains stream. Opening in valve body matched and sealed against opening in pipe. Used to sample process streams in variety of facilities, including cement plants, plants that manufacture and reprocess plastics, oil refineries, and pipelines.

  11. Solvent extraction of gold using ionic liquid based process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Zunita, Megawati; Rizki, Z.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-01-01

    In decades, many research and mineral processing industries are using solvent extraction technology for metal ions separation. Solvent extraction technique has been used for the purification of precious metals such as Au and Pd, and base metals such as Cu, Zn and Cd. This process uses organic compounds as solvent. Organic solvents have some undesired properties i.e. toxic, volatile, excessive used, flammable, difficult to recycle, low reusability, low Au recovery, together with the problems related to the disposal of spent extractants and diluents, even the costs associated with these processes are relatively expensive. Therefore, a lot of research have boosted into the development of safe and environmentally friendly process for Au separation. Ionic liquids (ILs) are the potential alternative for gold extraction because they possess several desirable properties, such as a the ability to expanse temperature process up to 300°C, good solvent properties for a wide range of metal ions, high selectivity, low vapor pressures, stability up to 200°C, easy preparation, environmentally friendly (commonly called as "green solvent"), and relatively low cost. This review paper is focused in investigate of some ILs that have the potentials as solvent in extraction of Au from mineral/metal alloy at various conditions (pH, temperature, and pressure). Performances of ILs extraction of Au are studied in depth, i.e. structural relationship of ILs with capability to separate Au from metal ions aggregate. Optimal extraction conditon in order to gain high percent of Au in mineral processing is also investigated.

  12. Hydrocarbon extraction agents and microbiological processes for their production

    SciTech Connect

    Zajic, J.E.; Gerson, D.F.

    1987-02-03

    A process is described for producing extraction agents useful in the separation of hydrocarbon values from mineral deposits. It comprises cultivating by an aerobic fermentation, in a growth promoting medium and under growth promoting conditions, and on a liquid hydrocarbon substrate, a selected microbial strain of a species of microorganism selected from the group consisting of Arthrobacter terregens, Arthrobacter xerosis, Bacillus megaterium, Corynebacterium lepus, Corynebacterium xerosis, Nocardia petroleophila, and Vibrio ficheri. This is done to produce an extraction agent of microbiological origin in the fermentation medium, subsequently recovering the extraction agent from the fermentation medium and drying the agent to powdered form.

  13. Bidentate organophosphorus solvent extraction process for actinide recovery and partition

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Wallace W.

    1976-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction process for the recovery and partitioning of actinide values from acidic nuclear waste aqueous solutions, the actinide values including trivalent, tetravalent and hexavalent oxidation states is provided and includes the steps of contacting the aqueous solution with a bidentate organophosphorous extractant to extract essentially all of the actinide values into the organic phase. Thereafter the respective actinide fractions are selectively partitioned into separate aqueous solutions by contact with dilute nitric or nitric-hydrofluoric acid solutions. The hexavalent uranium is finally removed from the organic phase by contact with a dilute sodium carbonate solution.

  14. Supercritical fluid extraction of lycopene from tomato processing byproducts.

    PubMed

    Rozzi, N L; Singh, R K; Vierling, R A; Watkins, B A

    2002-04-24

    Tomato seeds and skins acquired from the byproduct of a local tomato processing facility were studied for supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of phytochemicals. The extracts were analyzed for lycopene, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, and delta-tocopherol content using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection and compared to a chemically extracted control. SFEs were carried out using CO(2) at seven temperatures (32-86 degrees C) and six pressures (13.78-48.26 MPa). The effect of CO(2) flow rate and volume also was investigated. The results indicated that the percentage of lycopene extracted increased with elevated temperature and pressure until a maximum recovery of 38.8% was reached at 86 degrees C and 34.47 MPa, after which the amount of lycopene extracted decreased. Conditions for the optimum extraction of lycopene from 3 g of raw material were determined to be 86 degrees C, 34.47 MPa, and 500 mL of CO(2) at a flow rate of 2.5 mL/min. These conditions resulted in the extraction of 61.0% of the lycopene (7.19 microg lycopene/g).

  15. Sequential biological process for molybdenum extraction from hydrodesulphurization spent catalyst.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Shruti; Ting, Yen-Peng

    2016-10-01

    Spent catalyst bioleaching with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans has been widely studied and low Mo leaching has often been reported. This work describes an enhanced extraction of Mo via a two stage sequential process for the bioleaching of hydrodesulphurization spent catalyst containing Molybdenum, Nickel and, Aluminium. In the first stage, two-step bioleaching was performed using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, and achieved 89.4% Ni, 20.9% Mo and 12.7% Al extraction in 15 days. To increase Mo extraction, the bioleached catalyst was subjected to a second stage bioleaching using Escherichia coli, during which 99% of the remaining Mo was extracted in 25 days. This sequential bioleaching strategy selectively extracted Ni in the first stage and Mo in the second stage, and is a more environmentally friendly alternative to sequential chemical leaching with alkaline reagents for improved Mo extraction. Kinetic modelling to establish the rate determining step in both stages of bioleaching showed that in the first stage, Mo extraction was chemical reaction controlled whereas in the subsequent stage, product layer diffusion model provided the best fit.

  16. Particle Formation by Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Expansion Process

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junbo; Li, Haiting; Quan, Can

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction and expansion (SFEE) patented technology combines the advantages of both supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and rapid expansion of supercritical solution (RESS) with on-line coupling, which makes the nanoparticle formation feasible directly from matrix such as Chinese herbal medicine. Supercritical fluid extraction is a green separation technology, which has been developed for decades and widely applied in traditional Chinese medicines or natural active components. In this paper, a SFEE patented instrument was firstly built up and controlled by LABVIEW work stations. Stearic acid was used to verify the SFEE process at optimized condition; via adjusting the preexpansion pressure and temperature one can get different sizes of particles. Furthermore, stearic acid was purified during the SFEE process with HPLC-ELSD detecting device; purity of stearic acid increased by 19%, and the device can purify stearic acid. PMID:24223031

  17. SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE CF SYSTEMS ORGANIC EXTRACTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CF Systems Organic Extraction Process was used to remove PCBs from contaminated sediment dredged from the New Bedford Harbor. This work was done as part of a field demonstration under EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. The purpose of the SITE p...

  18. Extracting Coherent Information from Noise Based Correlation Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Extracting Coherent Information from Noise Based...LONG-TERM GOALS The goal of this research is to establish methodologies to utilize ambient noise in the ocean and to determine what scenarios...are best suited for applying these methods. OBJECTIVES Because noise -based correlation processing is based on equilibrium related stationary

  19. SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE CF SYSTEMS ORGANIC EXTRACTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CF Systems Organic Extraction Process was used to remove PCBs from contaminated sediment dredged from the New Bedford Harbor. This work was done as part of a field demonstration under EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. The purpose of the SITE p...

  20. Enzyme-assisted extraction of lycopene from tomato processing waste.

    PubMed

    Zuorro, Antonio; Fidaleo, Marcello; Lavecchia, Roberto

    2011-12-10

    A central composite design was used to optimize the enzyme-assisted extraction of lycopene from the peel fraction of tomato processing waste. Tomato skins were pretreated by a food-grade enzyme preparation with pectinolytic and cellulolytic activities and then subjected to hexane extraction. The factors investigated included extraction temperature (10-50 °C), pretreatment time (0.5-6.5 h), extraction time (0.5-4.5 h), enzyme solution-to-solid ratio (10-50 dm³/kg) and enzyme load (0-0.2 kg/kg). Overall, an 8- to 18-fold increase in lycopene recovery was observed compared to the untreated plant material. From a response surface analysis of the data, a second-degree polynomial equation was developed which provided the following optimal extraction conditions: T=30 °C, extraction time=3.18 h and enzyme load=0.16 kg/kg. The obtained results strongly support the idea of using cell-wall degrading enzymes as an effective means for recovering lycopene from tomato waste.

  1. Reductive stripping process for uranium recovery from organic extracts

    DOEpatents

    Hurst, Jr., Fred J.

    1985-01-01

    In the reductive stripping of uranium from an organic extractant in a uranium recovery process, the use of phosphoric acid having a molarity in the range of 8 to 10 increases the efficiency of the reductive stripping and allows the strip step to operate with lower aqueous to organic recycle ratios and shorter retention time in the mixer stages. Under these operating conditions, less solvent is required in the process, and smaller, less expensive process equipment can be utilized. The high strength H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 is available from the evaporator stage of the process.

  2. Reductive stripping process for uranium recovery from organic extracts

    DOEpatents

    Hurst, F.J. Jr.

    1983-06-16

    In the reductive stripping of uranium from an organic extractant in a uranium recovery process, the use of phosphoric acid having a molarity in the range of 8 to 10 increases the efficiency of the reductive stripping and allows the strip step to operate with lower aqueous to organic recycle ratios and shorter retention time in the mixer stages. Under these operating conditions, less solvent is required in the process, and smaller, less expensive process equipment can be utilized. The high strength H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ is available from the evaporator stage of the process.

  3. Distillation and solvent extraction process for rerefining used lubricating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, H.J.; Fletcher, L.C.; O'blasny, R.

    1982-11-23

    Used oil is rerefined by distillation and extraction with tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol. In accordance with the process, used oil is rerefined by distillation to remove a volatile forecut followed by further distillation with recirculation provisions to obtain the desired fractions of lubricating oil products while reducing the vaporization temperature of the oil. The recycle effect tends to reduce coking and cracking while providing a greater recovery of lubricating oil products through the carrier effect of the light ends. After the desired fractions of lubricating oil have been obtained by the distillation phase of the process, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol is utilized in an extraction process to remove impurities remaining in the distilled oil. The tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol-lube oil mixture is separated into a raffinate and extract stream for distilling and steam stripping the tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol therefrom. In one embodiment of the invention, a waste oil feedstock has water, gasoline and other similarly volatile components removed in a first stage evaporator (16). Heavier fuel, such as fuel oil is then removed in the second stage evaporator (28). A light lube oil fraction is then obtained by distillation with a third stage wiped-film evaporator (40). Finally, a heavy lube oil fraction is obtained by distillation of the bottoms from the evaporator (40) in a fourth-stage with a wiped-film evaporator (64). The heavy and light lube oil fractions are then treated in the fifth stage of the process in which each of the lube oil fractions mix with tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol in extraction columns (80) and (96). Each of the tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and oil fractions are then separated into raffinate and extract streams for further treatment to further separate and recover the finished light and heavy lube oil products and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol which is reused in the fifth stage of the process.

  4. Evaluation of N,N-dialkylamides as promising process extractants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, P. N.; Prabhu, D. R.; Kanekar, A. S.; Manchanda, V. K.

    2010-03-01

    Studies carried out at BARC, India on the development of new extractants for reprocessing of spent fuel suggested that while straight chain N,N-dihexyloctanamide (DHOA) is promising alternative to TBP for the reprocessing of irradiated uranium based fuels, branched chain N,N-di(2-ethylhexyl)isobutyramide (D2EHIBA) is suitable for the selective recovery of 233U from irradiated Th. In advanced fuel cycle scenarios, the coprocessing of U/Pu stream appears attractive particularly with respect to development of proliferation resistant technologies. DHOA extracted Pu(IV) more efficiently than TBP, both at trace-level concentration as well as under uranium/plutonium loading conditions. Uranium extraction behavior of DHOA was however, similar to that of TBP during the extraction cycle. Stripping behavior of U and Pu (without any reductant) was better for DHOA than that of TBP. It was observed during batch studies that whereas 99% Pu is stripped in four stages in case of DHOA, only 89% Pu is stripped in case of TBP under identical experimental conditions. DHOA offered better fission product decontamination than that of TBP. GANEX (Group ActiNide EXtraction) and ARTIST (Amide-based Radio-resources Treatment with Interim Storage of Transuranics) processes proposed for actinide partitioning use branched chain amides for the selective extraction of uranium from spent fuel feed solutions. The branched-alkyl monoamide (BAMA) proposed to be used in ARTIST process is N,N-di-(2-ethylhexyl)butyramide (D2EHBA). In this context, the extraction behavior of U(VI) and Pu(IV) were compared using D2EHIBA, TBP, and D2EHBA under similar concentration of nitric acid (0.5 — 6M) and of uranium (0-50g/L). These studies suggested that D2EHIBA is a promising extractant for selective extraction of uranium over plutonium in process streams. Similarly, D2EHIBA offered distinctly better decontamination of 233U over Th and fission products under THOREX feed conditions. The possibility of simultaneous

  5. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    DOEpatents

    Royer, L.T.

    1987-03-20

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  6. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    DOEpatents

    Royer, Lamar T.

    1988-01-01

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  7. Supercritical fluid extraction of peach (Prunus persica) almond oil: process yield and extract composition.

    PubMed

    Mezzomo, Natália; Mileo, Bruna R; Friedrich, Maria T; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2010-07-01

    Peach kernels are industrial residues from the peach processing, contain oil with important therapeutic properties and attractive nutritional aspects because of the high concentration of oleic and linoleic acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw matter is critical for product quality definition. Thus, the aim of this work was to compare peach almond extraction yields obtained by different procedures: soxhlet extractions (Sox) with different solvents; hydrodistillation (HD); ethanolic maceration (Mac) followed by fractionation with various solvents, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at 30, 40 and 50 degrees C and at 100, 200 and 300bar, performed with pure CO(2) and with a co-solvent. The extracts were evaluated with respect to fatty acid composition (FAC), fractionated chemical profile (FCP) and total phenolic content (TPC). The Sox total yields were generally higher than those obtained by SFE. The crossover pressure for SFE was between 260 and 280bar. The FAC results show oleic and linoleic acids as main components, especially for Sox and SFE extracts. The FCP for samples obtained by Sox and Mac indicated the presence of benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol, components responsible for almond flavor and with important industrial uses, whereas the SFE extracts present a high content of a possible flavonoid. The higher TPC values were obtained by Sox and Mac with ethanol. In general, the maximum pressure in SFE produced the highest yield, TPC and oleic acid content. The use of ethanol at 5% as co-solvent in SFE did not result in a significant effect on any evaluated parameter. The production of peach almond oil through all techniques is substantially adequate and SFE presented advantages, with respect to the quality of the extracts due to the high oleic acid content, as presented by some Sox samples. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  9. Extraction of lycopene from tomato processing waste: kinetics and modelling.

    PubMed

    Poojary, Mahesha M; Passamonti, Paolo

    2015-04-15

    Lycopene, a nutraceutical compound, was extracted from tomato processing waste, an abundantly available food industry by-product in Italy. The extraction kinetics was mathematically described using the first order kinetic model, the mass transfer model and Peleg's model to understand the physicochemical behaviour of the extraction. Samples were extracted using acetone/n-hexane mixtures at different ratios (1:3, 2:2 and 3:1, v/v) and at different temperatures (30, 40 and 50 °C) and simultaneously analysed using UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The lycopene yield was in the range 3.47-4.03 mg/100g, which corresponds to a percentage recovery of 65.22-75.75. All kinetic models gave a good fit to the experimental data, but the best one was Peleg's model, having the highest RAdj(2) and the lowest RMSE, MBE and χ(2) values. All the models confirmed that a temperature of 30 °C and solvent mixture of acetone/n-hexane 1:3 (v/v) provided optimal conditions for extraction of lycopene.

  10. Optimization extraction process of aroma components in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huayuan; Cheng, Heng; Du, WenJie; Wang, ShaoKun; Wang, Chao; Chang, Shourong; Dong, Shifei; Xu, Chunping; Zhang, Junsong

    2013-03-01

    This paper concerns the optimization of the simultaneous distillation extraction process of volatile aromatic components in flue-cured tobacco leaves by single-factor experiments and response surface methodology (RSM). The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the aroma components was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The single-factor experiments were adopted to investigate the effects of five independent variables (including material/liquid ratio, distillation time, dosage of NaCl, volume of CH(2)Cl(2) and water-bath temperature) on the extraction of aroma components in tobacco. Furthermore, RSM was employed to study the relationship among the five independent variables and their effects on the extraction of aroma components. The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions were as follows: 1:12 ratio of material to solvent, 3.20 h distillation time, 1:1 ratio of NaCl and tobacco, 2:1 ratio of CH2Cl2 and tobacco, 60°C water-bath temperature. Under the optimized conditions, the maximum extraction amount of aroma components reached 2.27 mg/g.

  11. Coal hydroconversion process comprising solvent extraction (OP-3472)

    SciTech Connect

    Stuntz, G.F.; Culross, C.C.; Reynolds, S.D.

    1991-06-25

    This patent describes a process for hydroconverting coal to produce a carbonaceous liquid. It comprises forming a mixture comprising coal particles, carbon monoxide and water in a pretreatment zone and heating the mixture to a temperature within the range of about 550{degrees} to 700{degrees} F and under a system pressure of at least about 1800 psi for a period of time sufficient to cause an increase in the solubility of the coal in organic solvent, the weight ratio of liquid water to coal present during the heating stage being at least about 0.5:1; extracting the pretreated coal with an organic solvent in an extraction zone to obtain from the coal an extract, comprising a substantial amount of soluble hydrocarbonaceous materials, and a residue comprising substantially all of the inorganic ash; forming a mixture comprising the extract and a catalyst, wherein the catalyst is comprised of dispersed particles of a sulfided metal containing compound, the metal being selected from the group consisting of Groups VA, VIA, VIIA and VIIIA of the Periodic Table of Elements and mixtures thereof; and treating the mixture of coal extract and catalyst with a hydrogen-containing gas under coal hydroconversion conditions, in a hydroconversion zone to obtain a hydrocarbonaceous liquid.

  12. Forensic print extraction using 3D technology and its processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeev, Srijith; Shreyas, Kamath K. M.; Panetta, Karen; Agaian, Sos S.

    2017-05-01

    Biometric evidence plays a crucial role in criminal scene analysis. Forensic prints can be extracted from any solid surface such as firearms, doorknobs, carpets and mugs. Prints such as fingerprints, palm prints, footprints and lip-prints can be classified into patent, latent, and three-dimensional plastic prints. Traditionally, law enforcement officers capture these forensic traits using an electronic device or extract them manually, and save the data electronically using special scanners. The reliability and accuracy of the method depends on the ability of the officer or the electronic device to extract and analyze the data. Furthermore, the 2-D acquisition and processing system is laborious and cumbersome. This can lead to the increase in false positive and true negative rates in print matching. In this paper, a method and system to extract forensic prints from any surface, irrespective of its shape, is presented. First, a suitable 3-D camera is used to capture images of the forensic print, and then the 3-D image is processed and unwrapped to obtain 2-D equivalent biometric prints. Computer simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of using 3-D technology for biometric matching of fingerprints, palm prints, and lip-prints. This system can be further extended to other biometric and non-biometric modalities.

  13. Extraction of Molybdenum from Molybdenite Concentrates with Hydrometallurgical Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Kaixi; Wang, Yufang; Zou, Xiaoping; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Sanping

    2012-11-01

    Molybdenite concentrates are usually treated by roasting, but low-concentration SO2 pollution is an associated problem. A hydrometallurgical process with pressure oxidation leaching (POX) and solvent extraction (SX) was developed in recent years. During POX, the oxidation of molybdenum (Mo) is above 98%. More than 95% of the rhenium (Re) and 15% to 20% of the Mo are leached into solution. The sulfur in the concentrate is converted to H2SO4, which results in high acidity of the solution. SX was used to recover the Re and Mo from the solution. The extraction of Re and Mo were above 98%. The loaded organic reagent is stripped with ammonia. More than 98% of the Mo can be stripped from the organic phase. Compared with the roasting process, the total recovery of Mo increased from 93% to 97% and that of Re from 60% to 90% when POX and SX are utilized.

  14. RESEARCH ON CARBON PRODUCTS FROM COAL USING AN EXTRACTIVE PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo; Chong Chen; Brian Bland; David Fenton

    2002-03-31

    This report presents the results of a one-year effort directed at the exploration of the use of coal as a feedstock for a variety of industrially-relevant carbon products. The work was basically divided into three focus areas. The first area dealt with the acquisition of laboratory equipment to aid in the analysis and characterization of both the raw coal and the coal-derived feedstocks. Improvements were also made on the coal-extraction pilot plant which will now allow larger quantities of feedstock to be produced. Mass and energy balances were also performed on the pilot plant in an attempt to evaluate the scale-up potential of the process. The second focus area dealt with exploring hydrogenation conditions specifically aimed at testing several less-expensive candidate hydrogen-donor solvents. Through a process of filtration and vacuum distillation, viable pitch products were produced and evaluated. Moreover, a recycle solvent was also isolated so that the overall solvent balance in the system could be maintained. The effect of variables such as gas pressure and gas atmosphere were evaluated. The pitch product was analyzed and showed low ash content, reasonable yield, good coking value and a coke with anisotropic optical texture. A unique plot of coke yield vs. pitch softening point was discovered to be independent of reaction conditions or hydrogen-donor solvent. The third area of research centered on the investigation of alternate extraction solvents and processing conditions for the solvent extraction step. A wide variety of solvents, co-solvents and enhancement additives were tested with varying degrees of success. For the extraction of raw coal, the efficacy of the alternate solvents when compared to the benchmark solvent, N-methyl pyrrolidone, was not good. However when the same coal was partially hydrogenated prior to solvent extraction, all solvents showed excellent results even for extractions performed at room temperature. Standard analyses of the

  15. Economics of Beaver-Herter extraction process revealed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The Herter process is a surface-mined solvent extraction process which utilizes fatty acids as the solvent. The uniqueness of the Herter process if that it provides a low energy method of separating the fatty acids from the recovered oil for subsequent recycling. The Herter process recovers the fatty acid by saponification, followed by migration of the soap to the aqueous phase, and then desaponification of the resulting soap phase again followed by phase separation. The formation of a hydrocarbon-soap-water emulsion limits the process unless carefully controlled by the addition of an alcohol cosolvent. Addition of the short-chain alcohol limits emulsification and allows a meaningful separation to be accomplished. The modified process is known as the Beaver-Herter process. A bench-scale model of the process has recently been completed and has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the process. A computer model has been designed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the process on a site specific basis. This paper summarizes the process, the site selection (Oklahoma), and the economic analysis.

  16. Eco-friendly streamlined process for sporopollenin exine capsule extraction.

    PubMed

    Mundargi, Raghavendra C; Potroz, Michael G; Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Tan, Ee-Lin; Lee, Jae Ho; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-01-28

    Sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) extracted from Lycopodium clavatum spores are an attractive biomaterial possessing a highly robust structure suitable for microencapsulation strategies. Despite several decades of research into SEC extraction methods, the protocols commonly used for L. clavatum still entail processing with both alkaline and acidolysis steps at temperatures up to 180 °C and lasting up to 7 days. Herein, we demonstrate a significantly streamlined processing regimen, which indicates that much lower temperatures and processing durations can be used without alkaline lysis. By employing CHN elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and dynamic image particle analysis (DIPA), the optimum conditions for L. clavatum SEC processing were determined to include 30 hours acidolysis at 70 °C without alkaline lysis. Extending these findings to proof-of-concept encapsulation studies, we further demonstrate that our SECs are able to achieve a loading of 0.170 ± 0.01 g BSA per 1 g SECs by vacuum-assisted loading. Taken together, our streamlined processing method and corresponding characterization of SECs provides important insights for the development of applications including drug delivery, cosmetics, personal care products, and foods.

  17. Eco-friendly streamlined process for sporopollenin exine capsule extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundargi, Raghavendra C.; Potroz, Michael G.; Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Tan, Ee-Lin; Lee, Jae Ho; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) extracted from Lycopodium clavatum spores are an attractive biomaterial possessing a highly robust structure suitable for microencapsulation strategies. Despite several decades of research into SEC extraction methods, the protocols commonly used for L. clavatum still entail processing with both alkaline and acidolysis steps at temperatures up to 180 °C and lasting up to 7 days. Herein, we demonstrate a significantly streamlined processing regimen, which indicates that much lower temperatures and processing durations can be used without alkaline lysis. By employing CHN elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and dynamic image particle analysis (DIPA), the optimum conditions for L. clavatum SEC processing were determined to include 30 hours acidolysis at 70 °C without alkaline lysis. Extending these findings to proof-of-concept encapsulation studies, we further demonstrate that our SECs are able to achieve a loading of 0.170 ± 0.01 g BSA per 1 g SECs by vacuum-assisted loading. Taken together, our streamlined processing method and corresponding characterization of SECs provides important insights for the development of applications including drug delivery, cosmetics, personal care products, and foods.

  18. Eco-friendly streamlined process for sporopollenin exine capsule extraction

    PubMed Central

    Mundargi, Raghavendra C.; Potroz, Michael G.; Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Tan, Ee-Lin; Lee, Jae Ho; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) extracted from Lycopodium clavatum spores are an attractive biomaterial possessing a highly robust structure suitable for microencapsulation strategies. Despite several decades of research into SEC extraction methods, the protocols commonly used for L. clavatum still entail processing with both alkaline and acidolysis steps at temperatures up to 180 °C and lasting up to 7 days. Herein, we demonstrate a significantly streamlined processing regimen, which indicates that much lower temperatures and processing durations can be used without alkaline lysis. By employing CHN elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and dynamic image particle analysis (DIPA), the optimum conditions for L. clavatum SEC processing were determined to include 30 hours acidolysis at 70 °C without alkaline lysis. Extending these findings to proof-of-concept encapsulation studies, we further demonstrate that our SECs are able to achieve a loading of 0.170 ± 0.01 g BSA per 1 g SECs by vacuum-assisted loading. Taken together, our streamlined processing method and corresponding characterization of SECs provides important insights for the development of applications including drug delivery, cosmetics, personal care products, and foods. PMID:26818918

  19. A novel high-pressure liquid-liquid extraction process for downstream processing in biotechnology: extraction of cardiac glycosides.

    PubMed

    Adrian, T; Freitag, J; Maurer, G

    2000-09-05

    This investigation examines phase equilibrium phenomena that can be used to create two water-like solvents for liquid-liquid extraction in downstream processing in biotechnology: a completely miscible, binary liquid mixture of water and a hydrophilic organic solvent (e. g., an alcohol) reveals a liquid phase split, when it is pressurized with a "near-critical" gas (i.e., a substance which at ambient conditions is a gas, near its critical temperature). This phase split results in two hydrophilic liquid phases. Making use of this phenomenon in process development first requires research on the phase split phenomenon and, second, research on the feasibility of biomolecule extraction and separation. In this study, basic fluid phase equilibrium phenomena are briefly described. Then, experimental results are reported for the partitioning of small amounts of cardiac glycosides (digitoxin and digoxin) on coexisting liquid phases in the high-pressure, three-phase, vapor-liquid-liquid equilibrium of the ternary system of "near critical" CO(2) + water + 1-propanol, at 313 K and 333 K. Finally, a process for extraction and separation of the aforementioned glycosides by means of the high-pressure phase equilibrium phenomenon is discussed. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Ultrasound assisted extraction of lycopene from tomato processing wastes.

    PubMed

    Kumcuoglu, Seher; Yilmaz, Tuncay; Tavman, Sebnem

    2014-12-01

    Tomato paste processing wastes, an important by-product of the paste industry, is rich in potentially health-promoting compounds such as lycopene. In this study, extraction yield of lycopene from tomato paste processing wastes by application of ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) was compared with conventional organic solvent extraction (COSE) method. BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) 0.05 % (w/v) added hexane:acetone:ethanol (2:1:1) mixture was used as solvent. Three different solvent solid ratios; 50:1, 35:1 and 20:1, (v/w) were used in both COSE and UAE. COSE experiments were performed at 20 °C, 40 °C and 60 °C for 10, 20, 30 and 40 min. 50, 65 and 90 W of ultrasonic power were applied in UAE for 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min. Lycopene contents of the samples were determined by spectrophotometric method. The effects of different factors, including the temperature, solvent solid ratio and ultrasonic power on lycopene yield were investigated. It was determined that the most efficient application for COSE was extracting samples by 50:1 solvent solid ratio at 60 °C for 40 min run, for UAE, 35:1 (v/w) solvent solid ratio, 90 W ultrasonic power for 30 min run. It was showed that UAE of lycopene requires less time, lower temperature and lower solvent than COSE.

  1. [Optimization of extraction process for tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2 method].

    PubMed

    Xie, Song; Tong, Zhi-Ping; Tan, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Zhen

    2014-08-01

    In order to optimize extraction process conditions of tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2, the content of tannins was determined by phosphomolybdium tungsten acid-casein reaction, with extraction pressure, extraction temper- ature and extraction time as factors, the content of tannins from extract of G. orientali-tibeticum as index, technology conditions were optimized by orthogonal test. Optimum technology conditions were as follows: extraction pressure was 25 MPa, extraction temperature was 50 °C, extracted 1.5 h. The content of tannins in extract was 12.91 mg x g(-1), extract rate was 3.67%. The method established could be used for assay the contents of tannin in G. orientali-tibeticum. The circulated extraction was an effective extraction process that was stable and feasible, and that provides a way of the extraction process conditions of tannin from G. orientali-tibeticum.

  2. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOEpatents

    Mullins, Lawrence J.; Christensen, Dana C.

    1984-01-01

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium from electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  3. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOEpatents

    Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.

    1982-09-20

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium for electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  4. An image-processing methodology for extracting bloodstain pattern features.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Ravishka M; Humburg, Philomena J; Hoogenboom, Jerry; Baiker, Martin; Taylor, Michael C; de Bruin, Karla G

    2017-08-01

    There is a growing trend in forensic science to develop methods to make forensic pattern comparison tasks more objective. This has generally involved the application of suitable image-processing methods to provide numerical data for identification or comparison. This paper outlines a unique image-processing methodology that can be utilised by analysts to generate reliable pattern data that will assist them in forming objective conclusions about a pattern. A range of features were defined and extracted from a laboratory-generated impact spatter pattern. These features were based in part on bloodstain properties commonly used in the analysis of spatter bloodstain patterns. The values of these features were consistent with properties reported qualitatively for such patterns. The image-processing method developed shows considerable promise as a way to establish measurable discriminating pattern criteria that are lacking in current bloodstain pattern taxonomies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hemimorphite Ores: A Review of Processing Technologies for Zinc Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ailiang; Li, Mengchun; Qian, Zhen; Ma, Yutian; Che, Jianyong; Ma, Yalin

    2016-10-01

    With the gradual depletion of zinc sulfide ores, exploration of zinc oxide ores is becoming more and more important. Hemimorphite is a major zinc oxide ore, attracting much attention in the field of zinc metallurgy although it is not the major zinc mineral. This paper presents a critical review of the treatment for extraction of zinc with emphasis on flotation, pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods based on the properties of hemimorphite. The three-dimensional framework structure of hemimorphite with complex linkage of its structural units lead to difficult desilicification before extracting zinc in the many metallurgical technologies. It is found that the flotation method is generally effective in enriching zinc minerals from hemimorphite ores into a high-grade concentrate for recovery of zinc. Pure zinc can be produced from hemimorphite or/and willemite with a reducing reagent, like methane or carbon. Leaching reagents, such as acid and alkali, can break the complex structure of hemimorphite to release zinc in the leached solution without generation of silica gel in the hydrometallurgical process. For optimal zinc extraction, combing flotation with pyrometallurgical or hydrometallurgical methods may be required.

  6. Extraction of reusable water from a mineral mining process

    SciTech Connect

    Gleim, W.K.

    1982-01-19

    A method for the treatment of an aqueous effluent slime derived from a tar sand extraction process is disclosed. The effluent slime ph is adjusted to an acidic ph and treated with an anionic surface active agent to create flocculation of solid asphaltic material entrained within the slime. A solvent solution comprising chlorinated hydrocarbon and a solvent therefor is added so that upon centrifuging of the treated slime three physical layers of material comprising (1) water; (2) asphaltics in the solvent solution and (3) clay are formed.

  7. Emerging technologies in extraction and processing of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Ramana G.

    2003-04-01

    The growing need to conserve energy and materials and prevent environmental pollution led to an increased demand for better understanding of potential as well as existing processes. In this context, thermodynamic and transport modeling of materials and processes provides a rapid and cost-effective means of conducting and minimizing the complexity of experimental investigations and developing innovative and environmentally friendly metallurgical processes. This presentation concentrates on some fundamentals on new technologies as extractive metallurgy of copper, lead, aluminum, and other nonferrous metals and processing of nanocomposites. The newer routes of copper smelting and modeling of impurities in copper and lead slags and mattes are reviewed. The copper smelting capacity increased by a factor of 10 during the last three decades, the smelting rate increased by a factor of 6, and the process fuel equivalent decreased by a factor of 2. The a priori prediction, with no adjustable parameters, of impurity capacities of S and As in copper slags and S in lead slags, based on the Reddy-Blander model, is reviewed. Excellent agreement between the model-predicted capacities data and laboratory experimental and industrial data was observed. The model is an invaluable tool for optimization of process parameters in the efficient removal of impurities from the nonferrous-metals smelting and refining processes. A new in-situ processing technology for the production of a lightweight alloy matrix with ceramic particle reinforcements such as SiC in aluminum alloy matrix composites by bubbling reactive gas is reviewed. Thermal plasma processing of a nanoscale aluminum alloy matrix with TiC and TiN composites is discussed. The in-situ formed reinforcements are thermodynamically stable, and the composite particles are of uniform size. The optimum process parameters for the production of composite powders by thermal plasma are discussed. A low-temperature aluminum production and

  8. Study on electrical current variations in electromembrane extraction process: Relation between extraction recovery and magnitude of electrical current.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Turaj; Rahimi, Atyeh; Nojavan, Saeed

    2016-01-15

    This contribution presents an experimental approach to improve analytical performance of electromembrane extraction (EME) procedure, which is based on the scrutiny of current pattern under different extraction conditions such as using different organic solvents as supported liquid membrane, electrical potentials, pH values of donor and acceptor phases, variable extraction times, temperatures, stirring rates, different hollow fiber lengths and the addition of salts or organic solvents to the sample matrix. In this study, four basic drugs with different polarities were extracted under different conditions with the corresponding electrical current patterns compared against extraction recoveries. The extraction process was demonstrated in terms of EME-HPLC analyses of selected basic drugs. Comparing the obtained extraction recoveries with the electrical current patterns, most cases exhibited minimum recovery and repeatability at the highest investigated magnitude of electrical current. . It was further found that identical current patterns are associated with repeated extraction efficiencies. In other words, the pattern should be repeated for a successful extraction. The results showed completely different electrical currents under different extraction conditions, so that all variable parameters have contributions into the electrical current pattern. Finally, the current patterns of extractions from wastewater, plasma and urine samples were demonstrated. The results indicated an increase in the electrical current when extracting from complex matrices; this was seen to decrease the extraction efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be

  10. Membrane contactor assisted extraction/reaction process employing ionic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Yupo J [Naperville, IL; Snyder, Seth W [Lincolnwood, IL

    2012-02-07

    The present invention relates to a functionalized membrane contactor extraction/reaction system and method for extracting target species from multi-phase solutions utilizing ionic liquids. One preferred embodiment of the invented method and system relates to an extraction/reaction system wherein the ionic liquid extraction solutions act as both extraction solutions and reaction mediums, and allow simultaneous separation/reactions not possible with prior art technology.

  11. Extraction and downstream processing of plant-derived recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Buyel, J F; Twyman, R M; Fischer, R

    2015-11-01

    Plants offer the tantalizing prospect of low-cost automated manufacturing processes for biopharmaceutical proteins, but several challenges must be addressed before such goals are realized and the most significant hurdles are found during downstream processing (DSP). In contrast to the standardized microbial and mammalian cell platforms embraced by the biopharmaceutical industry, there are many different plant-based expression systems vying for attention, and those with the greatest potential to provide inexpensive biopharmaceuticals are also the ones with the most significant drawbacks in terms of DSP. This is because the most scalable plant systems are based on the expression of intracellular proteins in whole plants. The plant tissue must therefore be disrupted to extract the product, challenging the initial DSP steps with an unusually high load of both particulate and soluble contaminants. DSP platform technologies can accelerate and simplify process development, including centrifugation, filtration, flocculation, and integrated methods that combine solid-liquid separation, purification and concentration, such as aqueous two-phase separation systems. Protein tags can also facilitate these DSP steps, but they are difficult to transfer to a commercial environment and more generic, flexible and scalable strategies to separate target and host cell proteins are preferable, such as membrane technologies and heat/pH precipitation. In this context, clarified plant extracts behave similarly to the feed stream from microbes or mammalian cells and the corresponding purification methods can be applied, as long as they are adapted for plant-specific soluble contaminants such as the superabundant protein RuBisCO. Plant-derived pharmaceutical proteins cannot yet compete directly with established platforms but they are beginning to penetrate niche markets that allow the beneficial properties of plants to be exploited, such as the ability to produce 'biobetters' with tailored

  12. Extraction of Hydrological Proximity Measures from DEMs using Parallel Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Tesfa, Teklu K.; Tarboton, David G.; Watson, Daniel W.; Schreuders, Kimberly A.; Baker, Matthew M.; Wallace, Robert M.

    2011-12-01

    Land surface topography is one of the most important terrain properties which impact hydrological, geomorphological, and ecological processes active on a landscape. In our previous efforts to develop a soil depth model based upon topographic and land cover variables, we extracted a set of hydrological proximity measures (HPMs) from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) as potential explanatory variables for soil depth. These HPMs may also have other, more general modeling applicability in hydrology, geomorphology and ecology, and so are described here from a general perspective. The HPMs we derived are variations of the distance up to ridge points (cells with no incoming flow) and variations of the distance down to stream points (cells with a contributing area greater than a threshold), following the flow path. These HPMs were computed using the D-infinity flow model that apportions flow between adjacent neighbors based on the direction of steepest downward slope on the eight triangular facets constructed in a 3 x 3 grid cell window using the center cell and each pair of adjacent neighboring grid cells in turn. The D-infinity model typically results in multiple flow paths between 2 points on the topography, with the result that distances may be computed as the minimum, maximum or average of the individual flow paths. In addition, each of the HPMs, are calculated vertically, horizontally, and along the land surface. Previously, these HPMs were calculated using recursive serial algorithms which suffered from stack overflow problems when used to process large datasets, limiting the size of DEMs that could be analyzed using that method to approximately 7000 x 7000 cells. To overcome this limitation, we developed a message passing interface (MPI) parallel approach for calculating these HPMs. The parallel algorithms of the HPMs spatially partition the input grid into stripes which are each assigned to separate processes for computation. Each of those processes then uses a

  13. Improving flavonoid extraction from Ginkgo biloba leaves by prefermentation processing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiahong; Cao, Fuliang; Su, Erzheng; Wu, Caie; Zhao, Linguo; Ying, Ruifeng

    2013-06-19

    This paper presents a prefermentation treatment method involving fungi to improve flavonoid extraction from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba . The fungi employed for this treatment were screened from the soil present under an ancient ginkgo tree. Seventy-six strains belonging to 23 genera were isolated and identified by a molecular identification method employing 18S rDNA sequences. Thirty-three strains grew well using ginkgo leaves as the growth medium. One strain, Gyx086, with higher extracted yield of flavonoids and more similar to the control, was finally selected for prefermentation processing. The major fermentation factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The optimal conditions for the highest total falvonoid yield were 27.8 °C for temperature, 64.2% for moisture content, and 61 h for fermentation time. Under the optimal condition, a actual total flavonoid yield of 27.59 ± 0.52 mg/g dry weight culture sample was obtained, which was about 70% higher than that of unfermented gingko leaf samples.

  14. Solvent extraction process for rerefining used lubricating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, L.C.; O'blasny, R.H.

    1981-11-24

    In accordance with the present invention, a process is provided for removing impurities from heavy and light lube oil fractions that have been obtained from waste lubricating oil. The impurities in the light lube oil fraction are removed utilizing tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol in an extraction column (10). An oilrich raffinate has the solvent removed therefrom by steam distillation and stripping at reduced pressure in a distillation tower (20). The heavy lube oil fraction is purified in a manner similar to the purification of the light lube oil fraction. The finished heavy and light lube oil may then be subjected to further treatment, such as polishing steps or additives may be blended into the lube oil product depending on the desired use.

  15. PROCESS OF EXTRACTING URANIUM AND RADIUM FROM ORES

    DOEpatents

    Sawyer, C.W.; Handley, R.W.

    1959-07-14

    A process is presented for extracting uranium and radium values from a uranium ore which comprises leaching the ore with a ferric chloride solution at an elevated temperature of above 50 deg C and at a pH less than 4; separating the ore residue from the leaching solution by filtration; precipitating the excess ferric iron present at a pH of less than 5 by adding CaCO/sub 3/ to the filtrate; separating the precipitate by filtration; precipitating the uranium present in the filtrate at a Ph less than 6 by adding BaCO/sub 3/ to the filtrate; separating the precipitate by filtration; and precipitating the radium present in the filtrate by adding H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to the filtrate.

  16. Ice images processing interface for automatic features extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardif, Pierre M.

    2001-02-01

    Canadian Coast Guard has the mandate to maintain the navigability of the St.-Lawrence seaway. It must prevent ice jam formation. Radar, sonar sensors and cameras are used to verify ice movement and keep a record of pertinent data. The cameras are placed along the seaway at strategic locations. Images are processed and saved for future reference. The Ice Images Processing Interface (IIPI) is an integral part of Ices Integrated System (IIS). This software processes images to extract the ice speed, concentration, roughness, and rate of flow. Ice concentration is computed from image segmentation using color models and a priori information. Speed is obtained from a region-matching algorithm. Both concentration and speed calculations are complex, since they require a calibration step involving on-site measurements. Color texture features provide ice roughness estimation. Rate of flow uses ice thickness, which is estimated from sonar sensors on the river floor. Our paper will present how we modeled and designed the IIPI, the issues involved and its future. For more reliable results, we suggest that meteorological data be provided, change in camera orientation be changed, sun reflections be anticipated, and more a priori information, such as radar images available at some sites, be included.

  17. Ultrasound versus microwave as green processes for extraction of rosmarinic, carnosic and ursolic acids from rosemary.

    PubMed

    Jacotet-Navarro, M; Rombaut, N; Fabiano-Tixier, A-S; Danguien, M; Bily, A; Chemat, F

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound and microwave as green processes are investigated in this study, focusing on the extraction selectivity towards antioxidant extraction from rosemary leaves. Due to its richness in valuable compounds such as rosmarinic, carnosic and ursolic acids, rosemary is a reference matrix for extraction study. In this work, six alternative processes are compared: ultrasound (bath, reactor and probe), microwave (reflux under microwave, microwave under nitrogen pressure and microwave under vapor pressure). The main result of this study is that selective extraction can be achieved according to extraction techniques and therefore to the extraction process.

  18. Study on the in-situ coupling process of fermentation, extraction and distillation for biobutanol production: process analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Fuqiang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Hua, Dongliang; Xu, Haipeng; Li, Yan; Mu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The transfer process of the in-situ coupling process of fermentation, extraction and distillation for biobutanol production was discussed from a theoretical point of view. The existence of temperature gradient in the extraction section was proved. The force of solute in the extracted liquid was discussed. And the mass transfer mechanism and impetus of the FEDIC process was analyzed. The theoretical analysis could provide a foundation for the following research.

  19. Ultrasound enhanced process for extracting metal species in supercritical fluids

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Enokida, Youichi

    2006-10-31

    Improved methods for the extraction or dissolution of metals, metalloids or their oxides, especially lanthanides, actinides, uranium or their oxides, into supercritical solvents containing an extractant are disclosed. The disclosed embodiments specifically include enhancing the extraction or dissolution efficiency with ultrasound. The present methods allow the direct, efficient dissolution of UO2 or other uranium oxides without generating any waste stream or by-products.

  20. Processing of Rosa rubiginosa: extraction of oil and antioxidant substances.

    PubMed

    Franco, Daniel; Pinelo, Manuel; Sineiro, Jorge; Núñez, María José

    2007-12-01

    In this work, a study about the effect of various operational conditions on the quantity of oil and soluble solids capable of being extracted from rosa mosqueta rosehip seeds is undertaken. Both the particle sizes assayed (0.6mm, 0.6-1mm, and 1-2mm) and the solvent-to-solid ratios (15:1, 25:1, and 50:1) showed a remarkable influence on the extraction efficiency. Extracted substances obtained by using the minor particle size or the maximum solvent-to-solid ratio doubled, at least, those attained by working under any other conditions. A major weight of kinetics upon equilibrium factors can be inferred from the short extraction times and high effective diffusivity values (being the lower one 1.97x10(-11)m(2)s(-1)) assessed for any condition. The antioxidant power of extracts was evaluated by ability to scavenge the DPPH radical. Results noteworthy depended on the solvent used to extract; whilst an approximately 80% DPPH inhibition percentage was reached in ethanol extracts, values of 52.2% or 41% were found in methanol and aqueous extracts, respectively. Even so, antioxidant capacity of Rosa rubiginosa extracts was much higher than that reported for other agricultural matrixes.

  1. [Study on the extraction process for cannabinoids in hemp seed oil by orthogonal design].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gang; Guo, Jiangning; Bi, Kaishun

    2005-05-01

    To select the optimum extracting procedure for cannabinoids from hemp seed oil. The optimum extracting procedure was selected with the content of cannabinol and delta9-tetrehydrocannabinol from hemp seed oil by orthogonal test design. We have examined three factors that may influence the extraction rate: the time of extraction, the times of extraction and the amount of methanol. The optimum extraction condition was adding 5 ml, two times amount of methanol into hemp seed oil for 15 min. The above extraction process gave the most rational, stable, feasible and satisfactory results. The method is convenient.

  2. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare

    2000-06-02

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behavior of fly ash in the PEG-2000 Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O system was studied and the solid in each fraction was characterized by CHN analysis (carbon content), X-ray diffraction (XRD; crystal component), and inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometry (ICP; elemental composition in the ash). In the pH range from 2 to 5, the particles separated into two different layers, i.e., the polymer-rich (top) and salt-rich (bottom) layers. However, above pH 5, the particles in the polymer-rich phase split into two zones. The percent carbon content of the solids in the upper zone ({approximately}80 wt%) was higher than that in the parent sample (63.2 wt%), while the lower zone in the polymer-rich phase had the same percent ash content as the original sample. The particles in the salt-rich phase were mainly composed of ash (with < 4 wt% carbon content). However, when the solid concentration in the whole system increased from 1 wt% to 2 wt%, this 3-fraction phenomenon only occurred above pH 10. XRD results showed that the main crystal components in the ash included quartz, hematite, and mullite. The ICP results showed that Si, Al, and Fe were the major elements in the fly ash, with minor elements of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Ba. The composition of the ash in the lower zone of the polymer-rich phase remained almost the same as that in the parent fly ash. The largest amount of product ({approximately}60% yield) with the highest carbon content ({approximately}80 wt% C) was obtained in the range pH 6-9. Based on the experimental results obtained, a flowsheet is proposed for the beneficiation of high-carbon fly ash with the aqueous biphase extraction process.

  3. Combined Extraction Processes of Lipid from Chlorella vulgaris Microalgae: Microwave Prior to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Dejoye, Céline; Vian, Maryline Abert; Lumia, Guy; Bouscarle, Christian; Charton, Frederic; Chemat, Farid

    2011-01-01

    Extraction yields and fatty acid profiles from freeze-dried Chlorella vulgaris by microwave pretreatment followed by supercritical carbon dioxide (MW-SCCO2) extraction were compared with those obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction alone (SCCO2). Work performed with pressure range of 20–28 Mpa and temperature interval of 40–70 °C, gave the highest extraction yield (w/w dry weight) at 28 MPa/40 °C. MW-SCCO2 allowed to obtain the highest extraction yield (4.73%) compared to SCCO2 extraction alone (1.81%). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of microalgae oil showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acid were the most abundant identified fatty acids. Oils obtained by MW-SCCO2 extraction had the highest concentrations of fatty acids compared to SCCO2 extraction without pretreatment. Native form, and microwave pretreated and untreated microalgae were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). SEM micrographs of pretreated microalgae present tearing wall agglomerates. After SCCO2, microwave pretreated microalgae presented several micro cracks; while native form microalgae wall was slightly damaged. PMID:22272135

  4. Combined extraction processes of lipid from Chlorella vulgaris microalgae: microwave prior to supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    PubMed

    Dejoye, Céline; Vian, Maryline Abert; Lumia, Guy; Bouscarle, Christian; Charton, Frederic; Chemat, Farid

    2011-01-01

    Extraction yields and fatty acid profiles from freeze-dried Chlorella vulgaris by microwave pretreatment followed by supercritical carbon dioxide (MW-SCCO(2)) extraction were compared with those obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction alone (SCCO(2)). Work performed with pressure range of 20-28 Mpa and temperature interval of 40-70 °C, gave the highest extraction yield (w/w dry weight) at 28 MPa/40 °C. MW-SCCO(2) allowed to obtain the highest extraction yield (4.73%) compared to SCCO(2) extraction alone (1.81%). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of microalgae oil showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acid were the most abundant identified fatty acids. Oils obtained by MW-SCCO(2) extraction had the highest concentrations of fatty acids compared to SCCO(2) extraction without pretreatment. Native form, and microwave pretreated and untreated microalgae were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). SEM micrographs of pretreated microalgae present tearing wall agglomerates. After SCCO(2), microwave pretreated microalgae presented several micro cracks; while native form microalgae wall was slightly damaged.

  5. Process optimization for reverse micellar extraction of stem bromelain with a focus on back extraction.

    PubMed

    Dhaneshwar, Amrut D; Chaurasiya, Ram Saran; Hebbar, H Umesh

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, reverse micellar extraction (RME) for the purification of stem bromelain was successfully achieved using the sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane system. A maximum forward extraction efficiency of 58.0% was obtained at 100 mM AOT concentration, aqueous phase pH of 8.0 and 0.2 M NaCl. Back extraction studies on altering stripping phase pH and KCl concentration, addition of counter-ion and iso-propyl alcohol (IPA) and mechanical agitation with glass beads indicated that IPA addition and agitation with glass beads have significant effects on extraction efficiency. The protein extraction was higher (51.9%) in case of the IPA (10% v/v) added system during back extraction as compared to a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (100 mM) added system (9.42%). The central composite design technique was used to optimize the back extraction conditions further. Concentration of IPA, amount of glass beads, mixing time, and agitation speed (in rpm) were the variables selected. IPA concentration of 8.5% (v/v), glass bead concentration of 0.6 (w/v), and mixing time of 45 min at 400 rpm resulted in higher back extraction efficiency of 45.6% and activity recovery of 88.8% with purification of 3.04-fold. The study indicated that mechanical agitation using glass beads could be used for destabilizing the reverse micelles and release of bromelain back into the fresh aqueous phase.

  6. Process to upgrade coal liquids by extraction prior to hydrodenitrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Abraham; Hollstein, Elmer J.; Janoski, Edward J.; Scheibel, Edward G.

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen compounds are removed, e.g., by extraction, from a coal liquid prior to its hydrogenation. As a result, compared to hydrogenation of such a non-treated coal liquid, the rate of nitrogen removal is increased.

  7. Bioactive phytochemicals in wheat: Extraction, analysis, processing, and functional properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole wheat provides a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals namely, phenolic acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, alkylresorcinols, arabinoxylans, benzoxazinoids, phytosterols, and lignans. This review provides information on the distribution, extractability, analysis, and nutraceutical properties of...

  8. Process for separation of the rare earths by solvent extraction

    DOEpatents

    Mason, George W.; Lewey, Sonia

    1977-04-05

    Production rates for solvent extraction separation of the rare earths and yttrium from each other can be improved by the substitution of di(2-ethylhexyl) mono-thiophosphoric acid for di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid. The di(2-ethylhexyl) mono-thiophosphoric acid does not form an insoluble polymer at approximately 50% saturation as does the former extractant, permitting higher feed solution concentration and thus greater throughput.

  9. Effect of extraction conditions on lycopene extractions from tomato processing waste skin using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Devinder; Wani, Ali Abas; Oberoi, D P S; Sogi, D S

    2008-05-15

    Skin, rich in lycopene, is an important component of waste originating from tomato paste manufacturing plants. A central composite design with five independent variables, namely solvent/meal ratio (20:1, 30:1, 40:1, 50:1, and 60:1v/w); number of extractions (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5); temperature (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60°C); particle size (0.05, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.43mm); extraction time (4, 8, 12, 16 and 20min) was used to study their effects on lycopene extraction. The experimental values of lycopene ranged between 0.639 and 1.98mg/100g. The second order model obtained for extracted lycopene revealed a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.99 and a standard error of 0.03. Maximum lycopene (1.98mg/100g) was extracted when the solvent/meal ratio, number of extractions, temperature, particle size and extraction time were 30:1v/w, 4, 50°C, 0.15mm and 8min, respectively.

  10. High-pressure processing as emergent technology for the extraction of bioactive ingredients from plant materials.

    PubMed

    Jun, Xi

    2013-01-01

    High-pressure processing is a food processing technique that has shown great potentials in the food industry. Recently, it was developed to extract bioactive ingredients from plant materials, known as ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE), taking advantages of time saving, higher extraction yields, fewer impurities in the extraction solution, minimal heat and can avoid thermal degradation on the activity and structure of bioactive components, and so on. This review provides an overview of the developments in the UPE of bioactive ingredients from plant material. Apart from a brief presentation of the theories of UPE and extraction equipment systems, the principal parameters that influence the extraction efficiency to be optimized in the UPE (e.g., solvent, pressure, temperature, extraction time, and the number of cycle) were discussed in detail, and finally the more recent applications of UPE for the extraction of active compounds from plant materials were summarized.

  11. [Study on the extraction process of total flavonoids from Psoralea corylifolia by enzyme-assisted technique].

    PubMed

    Yan, You-Shao; Liao, Hua-Wei; Guo, Li-Bing

    2012-07-01

    To study the optimum extraction process of total flavonoids from Psoralea coryl folia by cellulose-assisted technique. Based on single-factor experiments, the effects of pH value, temperature of enzymatic hydrolysis, time of enzymatic hydrolysis and enzyme amount on the extraction yields of total flavonoids from Psoralea corylifolia were studied by response surface methodology. The optimum enzyme-assisted extraction process was: pH value 4.9, temperature 46 degrees C, time 150 min and enzyme amount 7.2 mg/g,under this condition,the relative error of the observed and predicted values was 1.16%. The optimum enzyme-assisted extraction process is simple and feasible, the extraction rate of total flavonoids increases by 28% compared with ultrasonic extraction, so it can be used to extract total flavonoids from Psoralea corylifolia.

  12. Insight of solvent extraction process: Reassessment of trace level determinations.

    PubMed

    Chandramouleeswaran, S; Ramkumar, Jayshree; Basu, M

    2016-09-28

    Solvent extraction is hoary yet modern technique with great scope of research due to the various intriguing phenomena in the system. Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) is a well known extractant which has been extensively used for separation of uranium matrix prior to elemental profiling. In this paper, one of the impurities namely Fe is being considered as it posed a challenge to the separation due to its co-extraction with TBP along with uranium. In these studies, for the first time, the existence of cation-cation inner sphere complexes between the UO2(2+)and Fe(3+) ions in both aqueous and organic phases have been establisted in addition to the selective separation of iron from uranium sample matrix using only TBP. The data from both spectrophotometric and thermophysical studies corroborated one another confirming the presence of cation-cation interactions (CCIs). The developed solvent extraction with only TBP showed almost no interferences on the iron extraction from matrix uranium and other co-ions like aluminum and copper. This has been the first time application of pure TBP for selective removal of iron from uranium samples. The procedure possessed excellent reproducibility and robustness.

  13. The influence of cooking process on the microwave-assisted extraction of cottonseed oil.

    PubMed

    Taghvaei, Mostafa; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Nowrouzieh, Shahram; Alishah, Omran

    2015-02-01

    Cooking process is one of the most energy and time consuming steps in the edible oil extraction factories. The main goal of this study was cottonseed oil extraction by microwave radiation and elimination of any heat treatment of cottonseeds before extraction. The effect of cooking process on the physicochemical properties of extracted oil from two varieties of cottonseed (Pak and Sahel) was evaluated by free fatty acid content, melting point, smoke point and refractive index. Our results didn't show any significant differences between cooked and uncooked samples (P > 0.05) regarding physicochemical characteristics. From GC analysis of extracted oils, it was found there is no significant difference in fatty acid composition of cooked, uncooked and control (conventional extraction) samples. The thermal stability (Rancimat) analysis of oil samples showed the cooking process could cause a slight increase in the stability of oils for both varieties (about 40 min). The cooking process also increased total extracted phenolic compounds and considerably decreased total gossypol content of the cottonseed oil; but the extraction efficiency didn't change considerably after elimination of the cooking process. It can be concluded that microwave rays can destroy the structure of oil cells during process and facilitate the oil extraction without any heat treatment before extraction.

  14. Feature extraction and signal processing for nylon DNA microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, F; Rougemont, J; Loriod, B; Bourgeois, A; Loï, L; Bertucci, F; Hingamp, P; Houlgatte, R; Granjeaud, S

    2004-01-01

    Background High-density DNA microarrays require automatic feature extraction methodologies and softwares. These can be a potential source of non-reproducibility of gene expression measurements. Variation in feature location or in signal integration methodology may be a significant contribution to the observed variance in gene expression levels. Results We explore sources of variability in feature extraction from DNA microarrays on Nylon membrane with radioactive detection. We introduce a mathematical model of the signal emission and derive methods for correcting biases such as overshining, saturation or variation in probe amount. We also provide a quality metric which can be used qualitatively to flag weak or untrusted signals or quantitatively to modulate the weight of each experiment or gene in higher level analyses (clustering or discriminant analysis). Conclusions Our novel feature extraction methodology, based on a mathematical model of the radioactive emission, reduces variability due to saturation, neighbourhood effects and variable probe amount. Furthermore, we provide a fully automatic feature extraction software, BZScan, which implements the algorithms described in this paper. PMID:15222896

  15. Process for the extraction of technetium from uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Cynthia-May S.; Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.

    2010-12-21

    A spent fuel reprocessing method contacts an aqueous solution containing Technetium(V) and uranyl with an acidic solution comprising hydroxylamine hydrochloride or acetohydroxamic acid to reduce Tc(V) to Tc(II, and then extracts the uranyl with an organic phase, leaving technetium(II) in aqueous solution.

  16. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady Dadyburjor; Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-12-12

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop technologies for carbon products from coal-derived feed-stocks. Carbon products can include precursor materials such as solvent extracted carbon ore (SECO) and synthetic pitch (Synpitch). In addition, derived products include carbon composites, fibers, foams and others.

  17. System of extraction of volatiles from soil using microwave processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C. (Inventor); Kaukler, William F. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A device for the extraction and collection of volatiles from soil or planetary regolith. The device utilizes core drilled holes to gain access to underlying volatiles below the surface. Microwave energy beamed into the holes penetrates through the soil or regolith to heat it, and thereby produces vapor by sublimation. The device confines and transports volatiles to a cold trap for collection.

  18. REMOVAL OF PCBS FROM A CONTAMINATED SOIL USING CF-SYSTEMS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA's START team in cooperation with EPA's SITE program evaluated a pilot scale solvent extraction process developed by CF-Systems. This process uses liquified propane to extract organic contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments. A pilot-scale evaluation was conducte...

  19. REMOVAL OF PCBS FROM A CONTAMINATED SOIL USING CF-SYSTEMS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA's START team in cooperation with EPA's SITE program evaluated a pilot scale solvent extraction process developed by CF-Systems. This process uses liquified propane to extract organic contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments. A pilot-scale evaluation was conducte...

  20. Processes affecting free-phase hydrocarbon removal by vapor extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, R.J.; Huntley, D.

    1997-12-31

    A laboratory-scale soil vapor extraction test was conducted to evaluate the mechanisms that affect removal of mobile free-phase hydrocarbon from the subsurface. The test was performed inside a steel-reinforced acrylic tank, 183 cm long by 183 cm high by 25 cm wide, which was filled with No. 60 industrial grade silica sand. A water table was initially established with a piezometric head of 54 cm above the base of the tank and a gradient of 0.01 to simulate a field groundwater system. Twenty liters (5.3 gallons) of gasoline (free-phase hydrocarbon) was added through the side of the tank to avoid residual phase hydrocarbon in the vadose zone. Upon equilibration, the oil/air interface at the inlet side was 68.5 cm and the piezometric surface was 54.1 cm above the base of the tank, respectively. Vapor extraction began at a rate of approximately 25.5 liters/min. (0.9 scfm), which resulted in an initially high mass removal rate of 3600 g/day (25 %/day) of gasoline range organics. This mass recovery rate decreased within the first 1.5 hours of extraction. During the course of five weeks of vapor extraction, cumulative mass recovery rates of total GRO (gasoline range organics) and eleven individual gasoline components, including BTEX and MTBE (methyl-tert-butyl-ether), continued to increase in a generally linear trend. Recovery rates at the end of five weeks were 50 g/day (0.35 %/day) for total GRO and 2 g/day (0.4 %/day) for benzene. MTBE showed an affinity to volatilize and be remediated through vapor extraction. MTBE comprised approximately 10.5 percent of the gasoline used for this experiment. Since vapor extraction began, approximately 40 percent of that initial mass had been removed and its mass removal rate continued to be approximately 13.5 g/day (0.88 %/day) at the end of the experiment.

  1. [Tracking analysis of three extraction processes of Arenaria Polytrichoides by Fourier transform infrared spectrocopy].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Wu, Xian-Xue; Tai, Xi; Xu, Liu-Xian; Zhu, Jin-Lan; Qin, Yao; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-Qin

    2014-10-01

    In order to develop a process analysis method to guide extraction process of Arenaria polytrichoides (AP) based on tracking analysis by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), IR spectra of petroleum ether extracts (PE-E), ethyl acetate extracts (EtOAc-E), n-butanol extracts (n-BuOH-E) and water extracts (H2O-E) of AP from three extraction methods were recorded. The FTIR and corresponding second derivative infrared (SDIR) spectra were analyzed comparatively from two aspects, namely, different extracts from a same extraction process and the same extracts from different methods. The spectral analysis results show that different extracts obtained from a same extraction process have distinctly different spectral absorbance character. Although the IR spectral absorption characteristics of the same extracts from different methods are rather similar in holistic, some explicit spectral differences still could be found among each other. In extraction process one (M1), main flavonoids and their glycosides of AP migrated to EtOAc-E and the rest part of them shift to n-BuOH-E according to FTIR peaks such as 1,603 and 1,123 cm(-1). However, the circumstances in method two (M2) and method three (M3) were just the reverse. Moreover, a few flavonoid glycosides got into H2O-E. The relative content of all kinds of aglycones and higher saturated alkyl are much higher in EtOAc-E of M2 than that of M1 and M3 according to the relative absorption intensive of peak at 2,850 cm(-1). Similarly, n-BuOH-E of M3 has relative rich contents of glycosides: and polysaccharides than those of M1 and M2 by peaks, such as 1,066 and 2,927 cm(-1). These results demonstrate that the migration rules of AP components are not always same in different extrac- tion process. The substance migration information during the extraction process could be recorded and disclosed in an intuitive way by FTIR tracking analysis of corresponding extracts. Consequently, FTIR tracking analysis is a fast, efficient, low-carbon and

  2. Microfluidic process monitor for industrial solvent extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Gelis, Artem; Pereira, Candido; Nichols, Kevin Paul Flood

    2016-01-12

    The present invention provides a system for solvent extraction utilizing a first electrode with a raised area formed on its surface, which defines a portion of a microfluidic channel; a second electrode with a flat surface, defining another portion of the microfluidic channel that opposes the raised area of the first electrode; a reversibly deformable substrate disposed between the first electrode and second electrode, adapted to accommodate the raised area of the first electrode and having a portion that extends beyond the raised area of the first electrode, that portion defining the remaining portions of the microfluidic channel; and an electrolyte of at least two immiscible liquids that flows through the microfluidic channel. Also provided is a system for performing multiple solvent extractions utilizing several microfluidic chips or unit operations connected in series.

  3. Image Processing for Planetary Limb/Terminator Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Udomkesmalee, S.; Zhu, D. Q.; Chu, C. -C.

    1995-01-01

    A novel image segmentation technique for extracting limb and terminator of planetary bodies is proposed. Conventional edge- based histogramming approaches are used to trace object boundaries. The limb and terminator bifurcation is achieved by locating the harmonized segment in the two equations representing the 2-D parameterized boundary curve. Real planetary images from Voyager 1 and 2 served as representative test cases to verify the proposed methodology.

  4. Image Processing for Planetary Limb/Terminator Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Udomkesmalee, S.; Zhu, D. Q.; Chu, C. -C.

    1995-01-01

    A novel image segmentation technique for extracting limb and terminator of planetary bodies is proposed. Conventional edge- based histogramming approaches are used to trace object boundaries. The limb and terminator bifurcation is achieved by locating the harmonized segment in the two equations representing the 2-D parameterized boundary curve. Real planetary images from Voyager 1 and 2 served as representative test cases to verify the proposed methodology.

  5. Controllability of plutonium concentration for FBR fuel at a solvent extraction process in the PUREX process

    SciTech Connect

    Enokida, Youichi; Kitano, Motoki; Sawada, Kayo

    2013-07-01

    Typical Purex solvent extraction systems for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel have a feed material containing dilute, 1% in weight, plutonium, along with uranium and fission products. Current reprocessing proposals call for no separation of the pure plutonium. The work described in this paper studied, by computer simulation, the fundamental feasibility of preparing a 20% concentrated plutonium product solution from the 1% feed by adjusting only the feed rates and acid concentrations of the incoming streams and without the addition of redox reagents for the plutonium. A set of process design flowsheets has been developed to realize a concentrated plutonium solution of a 20% stream from the dilute plutonium feed without using redox reagents. (authors)

  6. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METALS FROM PHOSPHORIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Bailes, R.H.; Long, R.S.

    1958-11-01

    > A solvent extraction process is presented for recovering metal values including uranium, thorium, and other lanthanide and actinide elements from crude industrial phosphoric acid solutions. The process conslsts of contacting said solution with an immisclble organic solvent extractant containing a diluent and a material selected from the group consisting of mono and di alkyl phosphates, alkyl phosphonates and alkyl phosphites. The uranlum enters the extractant phase and is subsequently recovered by any of the methods known to the art. Recovery is improved if the phosphate solution is treated with a reducing agent such as iron or aluminum powder prior to the extraction step.

  7. Experimental study on the optimization of extraction process of garlic oil and its antibacterial effects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yajie

    2014-01-01

    Garlic oil which is the main active constituent of garlic has a wide range of pharmacological activities, and a broad antibacterial spectrum. It also has a strong anti-cancer activity, and can significantly inhibit a variety of tumors such as liver cancer, gastric cancer and colon cancer. The objective is to study the extraction process of garlic oil and its antibacterial effects. CO2 Supercritical extraction was used to investigate the optimal processing conditions for garlic oil extraction; filter paper test and suspension dilution test were applied to determine the bacteriostatic action of garlic oil. In the CO2 supercritical extraction experiment, factors influencing the yield of garlic oil were: extraction pressure > extraction temperature > extraction time in descending order. Range analysis showed that the optimal experimental conditions for CO2 supercritical extraction of garlic oil were extraction pressure of 15 Mpa, temperature of 40 °C, and duration of 1 h. Different concentrations of garlic oil could all inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that garlic oil has an antibacterial effect. The optimal experimental conditions for CO2 supercritical extraction of garlic oil were: extraction pressure of 15 Mpa, temperature of 40 °C, and duration of 1 h; garlic oil has an antibacterial effect.

  8. Evaluation of a sequential extraction process used for determining mercury binding mechanisms to coal combustion byproducts

    SciTech Connect

    James D. Noel; Pratim Biswas; Daniel E. Giammar

    2007-07-15

    This study evaluated the selectivity and effectiveness of a sequential extraction process used to determine mercury binding mechanisms to various materials that are present in coal combustion byproducts. A six-step sequential extraction process was applied to laboratory-synthesized materials with known mercury concentrations and binding mechanisms. These materials were calcite, hematite, goethite, and titanium dioxide. Fly ash from a full-scale coal-fired power plant was also investigated. The concentrations of mercury were measured using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry, whereas the major elements were measured by ICP atomic emission spectrometry. The materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The sequential extraction procedure provided information about the solid phases with which mercury was associated in the solid sample. The procedure effectively extracted mercury from the target phases. The procedure was generally selective in extracting mercury. However, some steps in the procedure extracted mercury from nontarget phases, and others resulted in mercury redistribution. Iron from hematite and goethite was only leached in the reducible and residual extraction steps. Some mercury associated with goethite was extracted in the ion exchangeable step, whereas mercury associated with hematite was extracted almost entirely in the residual step. Calcium in calcite and mercury associated with calcite were primarily removed in the acidsoluble extraction step. Titanium in titanium dioxide and mercury adsorbed onto titanium dioxide were extracted almost entirely in the residual step. 42 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Nozzle extraction process and handlemeter for measuring handle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alley, V. L., Jr.; Mchatton, A. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Method and apparatus for quantitatively measuring the handle of fabrics and other flexible materials is presented. Handle is that term used to refer to the qualities of drapability, flexibility, compressibility, foldability, stretchability, pliability, etc., possessed by fabrics and other flexible materials. In the present invention the handle of a material sample is quantified by measuring the force required to draw the sample through an orifice and expressing the resultant extractive force as a function of test apparatus geometry and the amount of sample drawn through the orifice to arrive at quantitative measure of handle, to be defined as handle modulus, for the sample in question.

  10. New geothermal heat extraction process to deliver clean power generation

    ScienceCinema

    Pete McGrail

    2016-07-12

    A new method for capturing significantly more heat from low-temperature geothermal resources holds promise for generating virtually pollution-free electrical energy. Scientists at the Department of Energys Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will determine if their innovative approach can safely and economically extract and convert heat from vast untapped geothermal resources. The goal is to enable power generation from low-temperature geothermal resources at an economical cost. In addition to being a clean energy source without any greenhouse gas emissions, geothermal is also a steady and dependable source of power.

  11. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady Dadyburjor; Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-02-23

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop technologies for carbon products from coal-derived feedstocks. Carbon products can include precursor materials such as solvent extracted carbon ore (SECO) and synthetic pitch (Synpitch). In addition, derived products include carbon composites, fibers, foams and others. Key milestones included producing hydrogenated coal in the Hydrotreating Facility for the first time. The facility is now operational, although digital controls have not yet been completely wired. In addition, ultrasound is being used to investigate enhanced dissolution of coal. Experiments have been carried out.

  12. Optimization of Process Parameters and Kinetic Model of Enzymatic Extraction of Polyphenols from Lonicerae Flos

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Fansheng; Yu, Shujuan; Bi, Yongguang; Huang, Xiaojun; Huang, Mengqian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To optimize and verify the cellulase extraction of polyphenols from honeysuckle and provide a reference for enzymatic extracting polyphenols from honeysuckle. Materials and Methods: The uniform design was used According to Fick's first law and kinetic model, fitting analysis of the dynamic process of enzymatic extracting polyphenols was conducted. Results: The optimum enzymatic extraction parameters for polyphenols from honeysuckle are found to be 80% (v/v) of alcohol, 35:1 (mL/g) of liquid-solid ratio, 80°C of extraction temperature, 8.5 of pH, 6.0 mg of enzyme levels, and 130 min of extraction time. Under the optimal conditions, the extraction rate of polyphenols was 3.03%. The kinetic experiments indicated kinetic equation had a good linear relationship with t even under the conditions of different levels of enzyme and temperature, which means fitting curve tallies well with the experimental values. Conclusion: The results of quantification showed that the results provide a reference for enzymatic extracting polyphenols from honeysuckle. SUMMARY Lonicerae flos (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) is a material of traditional Chinese medicine and healthy drinks, of which active compounds mainly is polyphenols. At present, plant polyphenols are the hotspots centents of food, cosmetic and medicine, because it has strong bioactivity. Several traditional methods are available for the extraction of plant polyphenols including impregnation, solvent extraction, ultrasonic extraction, hot-water extraction, alkaline dilute alcohol or alkaline water extraction, microwave extraction and Supercritical CO2 extraction. But now, an increasing number of research on using cellulase to extract active ingredients from plants. Enzymatic method is widely used for enzyme have excellent properties of high reaction efficiency and specificity, moderate reaction conditions, shorter extraction time and easier to control, less damage to the active ingredient. At present, the enzymatic

  13. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady Dadyburjor; Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-12-12

    High melting temperature synthetic pitches (Synpitches) were created using coal derivatives produced from a solvent extraction technique. Solvent extraction is used to separate hydrocarbons from mineral matter as well as other insolubles. Mild hydrogenation can be used to chemically modify resultant material to produce a true pitch. There are three main techniques which can be used to tailor the softening point of the Synpitch. First, the softening point can be controlled by varying the conditions of hydrogenation, chiefly the temperature, pressure and residence time in a hydrogen overpressure. Second, by selectively distilling light hydrocarbons, the softening point of the remaining pitch can be raised. Third, the Synpitch can be blended with another mutually soluble pitch or hydrocarbon liquid. Through such techniques, spinnable isotropic Synpitches have been created from coal feedstocks. Characteristics of Synpitches include high cross-linking reactivity and high molecular weight, resulting in carbon fibers with excellent mechanical properties. To date, mechanical properties have been achieved which are comparable to the state of the art achievable with conventional coal tar pitch or petroleum pitch.

  14. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE SEPARATION OF URANIUM AND THORIUM FROM PROTACTINIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Rainey, R.H.; Moore, J.G.

    1962-08-14

    A liquid-liquid extraction process was developed for recovering thorium and uranium values from a neutron irradiated thorium composition. They are separated from a solvent extraction system comprising a first end extraction stage for introducing an aqueous feed containing thorium and uranium into the system consisting of a plurality of intermediate extractiorr stages and a second end extractron stage for introducing an aqueous immiscible selective organic solvent for thorium and uranium in countercurrent contact therein with the aqueous feed. A nitrate iondeficient aqueous feed solution containing thorium and uranium was introduced into the first end extraction stage in countercurrent contact with the organic solvent entering the system from the second end extraction stage while intro ducing an aqueous solution of salting nitric acid into any one of the intermediate extraction stages of the system. The resultant thorium and uranium-laden organic solvent was removed at a point preceding the first end extraction stage of the system. (AEC)

  15. [Extract process of cyclic adenosinemonophosphate (cAMP) in Ziziphus jujuba].

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Yang, Guo-lin; Mi, Sha; Gao, Xiang-yun; Wang, Ying; Li, Ming-run

    2007-09-01

    To study the extract process of Cyclic adenosinemonophosphate (cAMP) in Ziziphus jujuba. CAMP was extracted with water, separated and purificated by ion exchange and silica gel G column chromatography. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) of the extracts and control cAMP showed the same Rf 0.75; The UV-absorption of the extracts and control cAMP had maximal absorb peak at 260 nm and the least absorb value at 230 nm; Infra-red spectrum of the extracts was indistinguishable from that of control cAMP; Retention time of the extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determinate was 5.237 minute,unsettled impurity peak,content was 97%. Control cAMP was 5.350 minute,their retention time were of little difference. Chemistry structure of this extract with that of control cAMP is the same.

  16. Process optimization and analysis of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel.

    PubMed

    Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sivakumar, V; Prakash Maran, J

    2014-11-04

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed for the extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel. The extracting parameters were optimized by using four-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM). RSM analysis indicated good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. 3D response surface plots were used to study the interactive effects of process variables on extraction of pectin. The optimum extraction conditions for the maximum yield of pectin were power of 400 W, temperature of 45 °C, extracting time of 20 min and solid-liquid ratio of 24 g/mL. Under these conditions, 7.5% of pectin was extracted.

  17. Understanding leaf membrane protein extraction to develop a food-grade process.

    PubMed

    Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica; Boom, Remko M; van der Goot, Atze Jan

    2017-02-15

    Leaf membrane proteins are an underutilised protein fraction for food applications. Proteins from leaves can contribute to a more complete use of resources and help to meet the increasing protein demand. Leaf protein extraction and purification is applied by other disciplines, such as proteomics. Therefore, this study analysed proteomic extraction methods for membrane proteins as an inspiration for a food-grade alternative process. Sugar beet leaves were extracted with two proteomic protocols: solvent extraction and Triton X-114 phase partitioning method. Extraction steps contributed to protein purity and/or to selective fractionation, enabling the purification of specific proteins. It was observed that membrane proteins distributed among different solvents, buffers and solutions used due to their physicochemical heterogeneity. This heterogeneity does not allow a total membrane protein extraction by a unique method or even combinations of processing steps, but it enables the creation of different fractions with different physicochemical properties useful for food applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes for Coal Derived Carbon Products

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel

    2006-12-31

    This DOE NETL-sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous processes for producing carbon products from solvent-extracted coal. A key process step is removal of solids from liquefied coal. Three different processes were compared: gravity separation, centrifugation using a decanter-type Sharples Pennwalt centrifuge, and a Spinner-II centrifuge. The data suggest that extracts can be cleaned to as low as 0.5% ash level and probably lower using a combination of these techniques.

  19. Using A Natural Language Processing System to Extract and Code Family History Data from Admission Reports

    PubMed Central

    Friedlin, Jeff; McDonald, Clement J.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a rule-based natural language processing (NLP) system for extracting and coding clinical data from free text reports. We studied the systems ability to accurately extract and code family history data from hospital admission notes. The system searches the family history for 12 diseases (and relative degree). It achieved a sensitivity of .96 and a PPV of .97 for disease extraction, and .96 and .93 respectively for relative categorization. PMID:17238544

  20. Influence of process parameters on the extraction of soluble substances from OFMSW and methane production.

    PubMed

    Campuzano, Rosalinda; González-Martínez, Simón

    2017-04-01

    Microorganisms involved in anaerobic digestion require dissolved substrates to transport them through the cell wall to different processing units and finally to be disposed as waste, such as methane and carbon dioxide. In order to increase methane production, this work proposes to separate the soluble substances from OFMSW and analyse methane production from extracts and OFMSW. Using water as solvent, four extraction parameters were proposed: (1) Number of consecutive extractions, (2) Duration of mixing for every consecutive extraction, (3) OFMSW to water mass ratios 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 and, (4) The influence of temperature on the extraction process. Results indicated that is possible to separate 40% of VS from OFMSW with only three consecutive extraction with mixing of 30min in every extraction using ambient temperature water. For every OFMSW to water combination, the first three consecutive extracts were analysed for biochemical methane potential test during 21days at 35°C; OFMSW was also tested as reference. Methane production from all substrates is highest during the first day and then it slowly decreases to increase again during a second stage. This was identified as diauxic behaviour. Specific methane production at day 21 increased with increasing water content of the extracts where OFMSW methane production was the lowest of all with 535NL/kgVS. These results indicate that it is feasible to rapidly produce methane from extracted substances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel DNA selection and direct extraction process and its application in DNA recombination.

    PubMed

    Wang, An-Bang; Cheng, Chia-Wei; Lin, I-Chun; Lu, Fei-Yau; Tsai, Huai-Jen; Lin, Chiu-Chun; Yang, Chun-Hui; Pan, Po-Ting; Kuan, Chen-Chi; Chen, Yen-Chih; Lin, Yi-Wei; Chang, Chih-Ning; Wu, Yi-Hung; Kurniawan, Tetuko; Lin, Chii-Wann; Wo, Andrew M; Chen, Lin-Chi

    2011-02-01

    In the conventional bench-top approach, the DNA recombination process is time- and effort-consuming due to laborious procedures lasting from several hours to a day. A novel DNA selection and direct extraction process has been proposed, integrated and tested on chip. The integrative microfluidic chip can perform the whole procedure of DNA recombination, including DNA digestion, gel electrophoresis, DNA extraction and insert-vector ligation within 1 h. In this high-throughput design, the manual gel cutting was replaced by an automatic processing system that performed high-quality and high-recovery efficiency in DNA extraction process. With no need of gel-dissolving reagents and manipulation, the application of selection and direct extraction process could significantly eliminate the risks from UV and EtBr and also facilitate DNA recombination. Reliable output with high success rate of cloning has been achieved with a significant reduction in operational hazards, required materials, efforts and time.

  2. Gulf/RTR oil sands extraction process. [Gulf/Rio Tinto TIL Holding S. A

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, A.; Devenny, D.; Porcari, G.; Corti, A.

    1984-06-01

    The activities carried out and the results obtained from a 15 tons/hour oil sands extraction pilot plant operated in Fort McMurray in Northern Alberta are described. The process is the Rio Tinto TIL Holding S.A. (RTR)/Gulf Canada Lt. Oil Sands Extraction Process. It is a modified hot water extraction process. It is used to extract bitumen from Athabasca oil sands. The test ran from July to December 1981 through ambient conditions ranging from plus 38/sup 0/C to minus 30/sup 0/C (100/sup 0/F to -22/sup 0/F). The process, the on-site facilities, the test program, an analysis of plant performance, an appraisal of the process economics, and an evaluation of its potential application are described.

  3. Direct extraction of palladium and silver from waste printed circuit boards powder by supercritical fluids oxidation-extraction process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kang; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2016-11-15

    The current study was carried out to develop an environmental benign process for direct recovery of palladium (Pd) and silver (Ag) from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) powder. The process ingeniously combined supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) and supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc-CO2) extraction techniques. SCWO treatment could effectively enrich Pd and Ag by degrading non-metallic component, and a precious metal concentrate (PMC) could be obtained, in which the enrichment factors of Pd and Ag reached 5.3 and 4.8, respectively. In the second stage, more than 93.7% Pd and 96.4% Ag could be extracted from PMC by Sc-CO2 modified with acetone and KI-I2 under optimum conditions. Mechanism study indicated that Pd and Ag extraction by Sc-CO2 was a complicated physiochemical process, involving oxidation, complexation, anion exchange, mass transfer and migration approaches. Accordingly, this study established a benign and effective process for selective recovery of dispersal precious metals from waste materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Solutions for Arsenic Control in Mining Processes and Extractive Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neitola, Raisa; Korhonen, Tero; Backnäs, Soile; Turunen, Kaisa; Kaartinen, Tommi; Laine-Ylijoki, Jutta; Wahlström, Margareta; Venho, Antti; Ahoranta, Sarita; Nissilä, Marika; Puhakka, Jaakko

    2015-04-01

    In mining, quarrying and industrial minerals production arsenic is a common element, thus creating a challenge in mining processes. This project aimed to develop solutions to control and remove As-compounds in materials and effluents of beneficiation processes and other mining operations. Focus was on various technologies e.g. traditional mineral processing, bioprocessing, water treatment, as well as various materials such as gold ores and concentrates, industrial by-products, and mine waters. The results of suggest that by novel mineral processing and proper water treatment methods the amount of As-compounds in tailings and effluents can be reduced to levels that satisfy the regulations concerning mining waste management. According to the environmental research, mining activities tend to increase the proportion of potentially mobile and available elements in soil. The effect of mining activity on geogenic contamination needs to be considered in risk assessment.

  5. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR SEPARATING URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM FROM AQUEOUS ACIDIC SOLUTIONS OF NEUTRON IRRADIATED URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Bruce, F.R.

    1962-07-24

    A solvent extraction process was developed for separating actinide elements including plutonium and uranium from fission products. By this method the ion content of the acidic aqueous solution is adjusted so that it contains more equivalents of total metal ions than equivalents of nitrate ions. Under these conditions the extractability of fission products is greatly decreased. (AEC)

  6. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES: A SURVEY OF SYSTEMS IN THE SITE PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent extraction of contaminated soils, sludges and sediments has been successfully completed at a number ofSuperfund sites. Each commercialized process uses a unique operating system to extract organic contaminants from solids. These operating systems may be classified by the ...

  7. Evaluation of a sequential extraction process used for determining mercury binding mechanisms to coal combustion byproducts.

    PubMed

    Noel, James D; Biswas, Pratim; Giammar, Daniel E

    2007-07-01

    Leaching of mercury from coal combustion byproducts is a concern because of the toxicity of mercury. Leachability of mercury can be assessed by using sequential extraction procedures. Sequential extraction procedures are commonly used to determine the speciation and mobility of trace metals in solid samples and are designed to differentiate among metals bound by different mechanisms and to different solid phases. This study evaluated the selectivity and effectiveness of a sequential extraction process used to determine mercury binding mechanisms to various materials. A six-step sequential extraction process was applied to laboratory-synthesized materials with known mercury concentrations and binding mechanisms. These materials were calcite, hematite, goethite, and titanium dioxide. Fly ash from a full-scale power plant was also investigated. The concentrations of mercury were measured using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry, whereas the major elements were measured by ICP atomic emission spectrometry. The materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The sequential extraction procedure provided information about the solid phases with which mercury was associated in the solid sample. The procedure effectively extracted mercury from the target phases. The procedure was generally selective in extracting mercury. However, some steps in the procedure extracted mercury from nontarget phases, and others resulted in mercury redistribution. Iron from hematite and goethite was only leached in the reducible and residual extraction steps. Some mercury associated with goethite was extracted in the ion exchangeable step, whereas mercury associated with hematite was extracted almost entirely in the residual step. Calcium in calcite and mercury associated with calcite were primarily removed in the acid-soluble extraction step. Titanium in titanium dioxide and mercury adsorbed onto

  8. [Application of membrane separation technology in extraction process of Chuanxiong Chatiao granules].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liyan; Mei, Jixiong; Xie, Yu; Li, Menglin; Liu, Dejiang; He, Changqing

    2012-04-01

    To apply the membrane separation process in the concentration process of Chuanxiong Chatiao granules and to lay the foundation for its industrialized application. The type of membrane, the optimal pressure, the optimal temperature and the optimal detergent were selected by the single factor method. A comparative study was conducted between qualities of extracts from Chuanxiong Chatiao granules by new and traditional processes. The type of membrane was determined to be SMN-130A2350054. The optimal pressure was 1.7 MPa. The optimal temperature was 36 degrees C and the optimal detergent was 1% sodium polyphosphate. The qualities of extracts from Chuanxiong Chatiao granules by new and traditional processes showed no difference. The selected membrane separation process can effectively achieve concentration and save energy. The extracts from Chuanxiong Chatiao granules by the new process show no difference with traditional processes. Therefore, it provides basis for the industrialized application of Chuanxiong Chatiao granules.

  9. Extracting Process and Mapping Management for Heterogennous Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagara, Igor; Tanuška, Pavol; Duchovičová, Soňa

    2013-12-01

    A lot of papers describe three common methods of data selection from primary systems. This paper defines how to select the correct method or combinations of methods for minimizing the impact of production system and common operation. Before using any method, it is necessary to know the primary system and its databases structures for the optimal use of the actual data structure setup and the best design for ETL process. Databases structures are usually categorized into groups, which characterize their quality. The classification helps to find the ideal method for each group and thus design a solution of ETL process with the minimal impact on the data warehouse and production system.

  10. Neptunium - Uranium - Plutonium Co-Extraction in TBP-based Solvent Extraction Processes for Spent Nuclear Fuel Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Arm, S.T.; Abrefah, J.; Lumetta, G.J.; Sinkov, S.I.

    2007-07-01

    The US, through the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, is currently engaged in efforts aimed at closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neptunium behavior is important to understand for transuranic recycling because of its complex oxidation chemistry. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is investigating neptunium oxidation chemistry in the context of the PUREX process. Neptunium extraction in the PUREX process relies on maintaining either IV or V oxidation states. Qualitative conversion of neptunium(V) to neptunium(VI) was achieved within 5 hours in 6 M nitric acid at 95 deg. C. However, the VI state was not maintained during a batch contact test simulating the PUREX process and neptunium reduced to the V state, rendering it inextractable. Vanadium(V) was found to be effective in maintaining neptunium(VI) by adding it to a simulated irradiated nuclear fuel feed in 6 M nitric acid and to the scrub acid in the batch contact simulation of the PUREX process. Computer simulations of the PUREX process with a typical irradiated nuclear fuel in 6 M nitric acid as feed indicated little impact of the higher acid concentration on the behavior of fission products of moderate extractability. We plan to perform countercurrent tests of this modified PUREX process in the near future. (authors)

  11. PROCESS OF RECOVERING ZIRCONIUM VALUES FROM HAFNIUM VALUES BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION WITH AN ALKYL PHOSPHATE

    DOEpatents

    Peppard, D.F.

    1960-02-01

    A process of separating hafnium nitrate from zirconium nitrate contained in a nitric acid solution by selectively. extracting the zirconium nitrate with a water-immiscible alkyl phosphate is reported.

  12. Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs between 7.6 and 10.4 and salt concentrations between 3.4 × 10-2 and 1.2 M. The optimum extraction efficiency was pH 10.0 and 1.0 M NaCl. Napin and cruciferin were the most prevalent proteins in the isolate. The isolate exhibited high in vitro digestibility (74.9 ± 0.80%) and lysine content (5.2 ± 0.2 g/100 g of protein). No differences in the efficiency of extraction, SDS-PAGE profile, digestibility, lysine availability, or amino acid composition were observed between protein extracted with thin stillage and that extracted with NaCl solution. The use of thin stillage, in lieu of water, for protein extraction would decrease the energy requirements and waste disposal costs of the protein isolation and biofuel production processes. PMID:22239856

  13. Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage.

    PubMed

    Ratanapariyanuch, Kornsulee; Tyler, Robert T; Shim, Youn Young; Reaney, Martin Jt

    2012-01-12

    Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs between 7.6 and 10.4 and salt concentrations between 3.4 × 10-2 and 1.2 M. The optimum extraction efficiency was pH 10.0 and 1.0 M NaCl. Napin and cruciferin were the most prevalent proteins in the isolate. The isolate exhibited high in vitro digestibility (74.9 ± 0.80%) and lysine content (5.2 ± 0.2 g/100 g of protein). No differences in the efficiency of extraction, SDS-PAGE profile, digestibility, lysine availability, or amino acid composition were observed between protein extracted with thin stillage and that extracted with NaCl solution. The use of thin stillage, in lieu of water, for protein extraction would decrease the energy requirements and waste disposal costs of the protein isolation and biofuel production processes.

  14. Extraction of Lipids from Flax Processing Waste Using Hot Ethanol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cuticle of flax stems contain lipids that provide a protective barrier to pathogens and control moisture loss. These lipids include wax esters and long chain fatty alcohols or policosanols. Cuticle fragments generated during several different fiber processing operations retain these lipid compou...

  15. Optimization of extraction process of crude polysaccharides from Pomegranate peel by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Caiping; Liu, Xiaolin

    2013-02-15

    In this study, response surface methodology was employed to optimize the extraction process of crude polysaccharides from Pomegranate peel with water. Three independent and main variables, including extraction time (h), extraction temperature (°C) and ratio of water to raw material (ml/g), which were of significance for the yields of polysaccharides were studied and the Box-Behnken design was based on the results of a single-factors test. The experimental data were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis and also examined using the appropriate statistical methods. The best extraction conditions are as follows: extraction time 1.9h, extraction temperature 98 °C, ratio of water to raw material 37 ml/g. Under the optimization conditions, the experimental yield was 10.358%, which was well matched with the predictive yield of 10.423%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimization of Extraction Process for Polysaccharide in Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bunge Using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Yanhua, Wang; Fuhua, Wu; Zhaohan, Guo; Mingxing, Peng; Yanan, Zhang; Ling, Pang Zhen; Minhua, Du; Caiying, Zhang; Zian, Liang

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to optimize the extraction process for Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide using response surface methodology The results showed that four operating parameters including microwave power, microwave time and the particle size had notable effects on the polysaccharide extraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The effects could be ranked in decreasing order of importance as follows:. Microwave power > microwave time > the comminution degree. The optimal extraction parameters were determined as 573.83W of Microwave power and 8.4min of microwave time and 67.51mesh of the comminution degree, resulting in the yield of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide of 101.161mg / g. The established regression model describing polysaccharide extraction from as a function of the three extraction parameters was highly significant (R 2 = 0.9953). The predicted and experimental results were found to be in good agreement. Thus, the model can be applicable for the prediction of polysaccharide extraction from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

  17. Optimization of Extraction Process for Polysaccharide in Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bunge Using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Yanhua, Wang; Fuhua, Wu; Zhaohan, Guo; Mingxing, Peng; Yanan, Zhang; Ling, Pang Zhen; Minhua, Du; Caiying, Zhang; Zian, Liang

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to optimize the extraction process for Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide using response surface methodology The results showed that four operating parameters including microwave power, microwave time and the particle size had notable effects on the polysaccharide extraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The effects could be ranked in decreasing order of importance as follows:. Microwave power > microwave time > the comminution degree. The optimal extraction parameters were determined as 573.83W of Microwave power and 8.4min of microwave time and 67.51mesh of the comminution degree, resulting in the yield of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide of 101.161mg / g. The established regression model describing polysaccharide extraction from as a function of the three extraction parameters was highly significant (R 2 = 0.9953). The predicted and experimental results were found to be in good agreement. Thus, the model can be applicable for the prediction of polysaccharide extraction from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

  18. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2001-06-30

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behaviors of hematite in the dextran (Dex)/Triton X-100 (TX100) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran systems were investigated and the effects of some ionic surfactants on solid partition were studied. In both biphase systems, the particles stayed in the bottom dextran-rich phase under all pH conditions. This behavior is attributable to the fact that the hydrophilic oxide particles prefer the more hydrophilic bottom phase. Also, the strong favorable interaction between dextran and ferric oxide facilitates the dispersion of the solids in the polysaccharide-rich phase. In the Dex/TX100 system, addition of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) or potassium oleate had no effect on the solid partition; on the other hand, addition of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) transferred the particles to the top phase or interface at high pH values. In the PEG/Dex system, the preferred location of hematite remained the bottom phase in the presence of either SDS or DTAB. The effects of anionic surfactants on the partition behavior are attributable to the fact that they are not able to replace the strongly adsorbed polysaccharide layer on the ferric oxide surface. The results with the cationic surfactant are due to electrostatic interaction between the cationic surfactant and the charged surface of the solid particles. The difference in solids partitioning in the two systems is the result of the different distribution of DTAB in these systems. In the Dex/TX100 system, DTAB prefers the top surfactant-rich phase, while it concentrates in the bottom phase in the PEG/dextran system.

  19. Study of process variables in supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of soybeans.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Nikolas; Hilton, Ramsey; Hendry, Doug; Venkitasamy, Chandrasekar; Jacoby, William

    2014-01-01

    Soybean flakes were extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide at 48.3 MPa and 80 °C, which is a higher temperature than previously reported. Several operational parameters were explored to determine their effect on extractions. Flakes, as typically used in this industry, provided the best extraction performance. Particle size distributions were created through grinding. Reducing average particle diameters smaller than 0.069 mm had no appreciable effect on increasing extraction efficiencies. Exploration of flow rate indicated that a residence time of less than 60 s for the supercritical carbon dioxide would be sufficient for complete extractions. A solvent mass to load mass ratio of 10:1 was found to be sufficient for extraction of oils from soybean flakes. Increasing moisture in the soybeans led to decreasing extraction efficiency of oils. Finally, soybean hulls had no effect on extraction efficiency. Thus, the de-hulling procedure can be removed from the extraction process without decreasing extraction efficiency.

  20. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  1. Characterization of filter extractables by proton NMR spectroscopy: studies on intact filters with process buffers.

    PubMed

    Kao, Y H; Bender, J; Hagewiesche, A; Wong, P; Huang, Y; Vanderlaan, M

    2001-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize potential extractables from sterilizing grade filters. The focus of this report is the 0.22 micron Durapore (hydrophilic modified PVDF) filter which is used throughout our recovery processes. The objectives of this study are (1) to identify potential filter extractables from the hydrophilic PVDF filters; (2) to show that NMR spectroscopy may be used to detect filter extractables in the presence of product and excipients; and (3) to establish levels of filter extractables obtained by extraction with a variety of buffers. The data show that the primary source of filter extractables is the hydrophilic modification of the PVDF membrane surface. Extractables from the modified hydrophilic PVDF filter include propylene glycol (PG) and soluble oligomers of the hydroxypropyl acrylate and cross-linker. Propylene glycol, arising from the hydrolysis of the hydroxypropyl acrylate, appears to be the primary extractable in buffers above pH 11. Since the 1H-NMR method can easily detect the methyl proton signals of PG, an NMR assay was developed to detect PG in the presence of buffer excipients and final product. Propylene glycol can be used as a marker for the extractables from Durapore hydrophilic PVDF filters. Although numerous buffers were used to generate extractables from the PVDF filter, significant extractables (PG and soluble oligomers) were found only in high pH extraction buffers. As a result of this finding, only a limited number of new buffers or new PVDF filters will require testing for future validation studies. Process validation studies have shown that neither PG nor soluble oligomers are at levels that impact the quality or safety of the product.

  2. Use of Separator with Regular Granular Filling in Extraction Processes - 12209

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, Vladimir; Veselov, Sergey; Zherebtsov, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    The separator with a regular granular filling has been developed to be used for the operations of the removal of carbon-black impurities from the aqueous flow; the intra-cycle regeneration of back-extractants; and the concentrating back-extraction of plutonium in the extraction SNF reprocessing technology. The process conditions for those operations have been experimentally tested using this separator. Thus, the separator for operations of concentrating reextraction of plutonium and regeneration recycling extractant allows to: - derive plutonium from the organic stream into an extremely concentrated form, reducing the amount of liquid radioactive waste (raffinate, decantate) plutonium branches to a minimum; - controlling the processes of concentration of uranium and plutonium, get uranium-plutonium product with required concentration and the amount of metal with required ratio; - eliminate contamination of the emulsion flows; - simplify the purification of uranium from the extract plutonium; - test results showed that when working on a solution 'hydrazine-DTPA' in the separator it is achieved the extraction of plutonium re-extract - 82% TC - at 56-65%. With the transition to the reextraction by solution 'U (IV)-hydrazine', of plutonium into re-extract increases to 95%, technetium - up to 83%; - regenerate the extractant recycling minimizing the amount of liquid radioactive waste generated as a technology used as well as alternative 'salt-free' systems; - it is found that the regeneration of the extractant solution of soda and EDA in the separator at a load of 3.2 m{sup 3} / (m{sup 2}.h) it can be achieved almost complete phase separation. Residual carryover of 0,005-0,006% emulsion is on the verge of analytical detection. - It is shown that in the depth of separation phase a separation of the extractant regeneration of quality superior is more than 5-7 times to the extraction. (authors)

  3. Retinal vessel extraction using Lattice Neural Networks with Dendritic Processing.

    PubMed

    Vega, Roberto; Sanchez-Ante, Gildardo; Falcon-Morales, Luis E; Sossa, Humberto; Guevara, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    Retinal images can be used to detect and follow up several important chronic diseases. The classification of retinal images requires an experienced ophthalmologist. This has been a bottleneck to implement routine screenings performed by general physicians. It has been proposed to create automated systems that can perform such task with little intervention from humans, with partial success. In this work, we report advances in such endeavor, by using a Lattice Neural Network with Dendritic Processing (LNNDP). We report results using several metrics, and compare against well known methods such as Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Multilayer Perceptrons (MLP). Our proposal shows better performance than other approaches reported in the literature. An additional advantage is that unlike those other tools, LNNDP requires no parameters, and it automatically constructs its structure to solve a particular problem. The proposed methodology requires four steps: (1) Pre-processing, (2) Feature computation, (3) Classification and (4) Post-processing. The Hotelling T(2) control chart was used to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector, from 7 that were used before to 5 in this work. The experiments were run on images of DRIVE and STARE databases. The results show that on average, F1-Score is better in LNNDP, compared with SVM and MLP implementations. Same improvement is observed for MCC and the accuracy.

  4. Ferric ion as a scavenging agent in a solvent extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Bruns, Lester E.; Martin, Earl C.

    1976-01-01

    Ferric ions are added into the aqueous feed of a plutonium scrap recovery process that employs a tributyl phosphate extractant. Radiolytic degradation products of tributyl phosphate such as dibutyl phosphate form a solid precipitate with iron and are removed from the extraction stages via the waste stream. Consequently, the solvent extraction characteristics are improved, particularly in respect to minimizing the formation of nonstrippable plutonium complexes in the stripping stages. The method is expected to be also applicable to the partitioning of plutonium and uranium in a scrap recovery process.

  5. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2001-06-30

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behaviors of silica in the polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran (Dex) and dextran/Triton X-100 (TX100) systems have been investigated, and the effects of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) on solid partition have been studied. In both biphase systems, silica particles stayed in the top PEG-rich phase at low pH. With increase in pH, the particles moved from the top phase to the interface, then to the bottom phase. At very high pH, the solids preferred the top phase again. These trends are attributable to variations in the polymer/solid and nonionic surfactant/solid interactions. Addition of ionic surfactants into these two systems introduces a weakly charged environment, since ionic surfactants concentrate into one phase, either the top phase or the bottom phase. Therefore, coulombic forces also play a key role in the partition of silica particles because electrostatic attractive or repulsive forces are produced between the solid surface and the ionic-surfactant-concentrated phase. For the PEG/dextran system in the presence of SDS, SiO{sub 2} preferred the bottom dextran-rich phase above its pH{sub PZC}. However, addition of DTAB moved the oxide particles from the top phase to the interface, and then to the bottom phase, with increase in pH. These different behaviors are attributable to the fact that SDS and DTAB concentrated into the opposite phase of the PEG/dextran system. On the other hand, in the dextran/Triton X-100 system, both ionic surfactants concentrated in the top surfactant-rich phase and formed mixed micelles with TX100. Therefore, addition of the anionic surfactant, SDS, moved the silica particles from top phase to the

  6. [Effects of post-harvest processing and extraction methods on polysaccharides content of Dendrobium officinale].

    PubMed

    Li, Cong; Ning, Li-Dan; Si, Jin-Ping; Wu, Ling-Shang; Liu, Jing-Jing; Song, Xian-Shui; Yu, Qiao-Xian

    2013-02-01

    To reveal the quality variation of polysaccharide in Dendrobium officinale by post-harvest processing and extraction methods, and provide a basis for post-harvest processing and clinical and hygienical applications of Tiepifengdou (Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis). The content of polysaccharides were studied by 4 post-harvest processing methods, i. e. drying by drying closet, drying after scalding by boiling water, drying while twisting, and drying while twisting after scalding by boiling water. And a series of temperatures were set in each processing procedure. An orthogonal test L9 (3(4)) with crushed degrees, solid-liquid ratio, extraction time and extraction times as factors were designed to analyze the dissolution rate of polysaccharides in Tiepifengdou processed by drying while twisting at 80 degrees C. The content of polysaccharides was ranged from 26.59% to 32.70% in different samples processed by different processing methods, among which drying while twisting at 80 degrees C and 100 degrees C respectively were the best. Crushed degree was the most important influence on the dissolution rate of polysaccharides. The dissolution rate of polysaccharides was extremely low when the sample was boiled directly without crushing and sieving. Drying while twisting at 80 degrees C was the best post-harvest processing method, which can help to dry the fresh herbs and improve the accumulation of polysaccharides. Boiling the uncrushed Tiepifengdou for a long time as traditional method could not fully extract polysaccharides, while boiling the crushed Tiepifengdou can efficiently extract polysaccharides.

  7. Batch extracting process using magnetic particle held solvents

    DOEpatents

    Nunez, L.; Vandergrift, G.F.

    1995-11-21

    A process is described for selectively removing metal values which may include catalytic values from a mixture containing same, wherein a magnetic particle is contacted with a liquid solvent which selectively dissolves the metal values to absorb the liquid solvent onto the magnetic particle. Thereafter the solvent-containing magnetic particles are contacted with a mixture containing the heavy metal values to transfer metal values into the solvent carried by the magnetic particles, and then magnetically separating the magnetic particles. Ion exchange resins may be used for selective solvents. 5 figs.

  8. Accelerating Biomedical Signal Processing Using GPU: A Case Study of Snore Sound Feature Extraction.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Gongxuan; Xu, Huijie; Schuller, Björn

    2017-09-25

    The advent of 'Big Data' and 'Deep Learning' offers both, a great challenge and a huge opportunity for personalised health-care. In machine learning-based biomedical data analysis, feature extraction is a key step for 'feeding' the subsequent classifiers. With increasing numbers of biomedical data, extracting features from these 'big' data is an intensive and time-consuming task. In this case study, we employ a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) via Python to extract features from a large corpus of snore sound data. Those features can subsequently be imported into many well-known deep learning training frameworks without any format processing. The snore sound data were collected from several hospitals (20 subjects, with 770-990 MB per subject - in total 17.20 GB). Experimental results show that our GPU-based processing significantly speeds up the feature extraction phase, by up to seven times, as compared to the previous CPU system.

  9. Intensification of microalgae drying and oil extraction process by vapor recompression and heat integration.

    PubMed

    Song, Chunfeng; Liu, Qingling; Ji, Na; Deng, Shuai; Zhao, Jun; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    Reducing energy penalty caused by drying and oil extraction is the most critical challenge in microalgae biodiesel production. In this study, vapor recompression and heat integration are utilized to optimize the performance of wet microalgae drying and oil extraction. In the microalgae drying stage, the hot exhaust stream is recompressed and coupled with wet microalgae to recover the condensate heat. In the oil extraction stage, the exergy rate of recovered solvent is also elevated by compressor and then exchanged heat with feed and bottom stream in the distillation column. Energy and mass balance of the intensified process is investigated and compared with the conventional microalgae drying-extraction process. The simulation results indicated that the total energy consumption of the intensified process can be saved by 52.4% of the conventional route.

  10. Comparison of DNA extraction methods for sweet corn and processed sweet corns.

    PubMed

    Takabatake, Reona; Noritake, Hiromichi; Noguchi, Akio; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    DNA was extracted from sweet corn and its processed products using four DNA extraction methods: the CTAB method, the DNeasy Plant Maxi kit, GM Quicker 3, and Genomic-tip 20/G. DNA was successfully extracted from raw sweet corn and baby corn samples using all four methods. Meanwhile, from frozen, canned, and dry pack products, DNA was well extracted using the DNeasy Plant Maxi kit, GM Quicker 3, and Genomic-tip 20/G, but not enough with the CTAB method. The highest yield of DNA was obtained with Genomic-tip 20/G. The degree of degradation of extracted DNA was observed to increase in the order of raw, frozen, canned, dry pack, and baby corn samples. To evaluate the quality of extracted DNA, real-time PCR analyses were conducted using three maize endogenous genes. The DNAs extracted using GM Quicker 3 had high purity, suggesting that GM Quicker 3 would be the most suitable method for DNA extraction from processed sweet corn products.

  11. Integrated microwave processing system for the extraction of organophosphorus pesticides in fresh vegetables.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Xu, Xu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-03-01

    A simple and efficient integrated microwave processing system (IMPS) was firstly assembled and validated for the extraction of organophosphorus pesticides in fresh vegetables. Two processes under microwave irradiation, dynamic microwave-assisted extraction (DMAE) and microwave-accelerated solvent elution (MASE), were integrated for simplifying the pretreatment of the sample. Extraction, separation, enrichment and elution were finished in a simple step. The organophosphorus pesticides were extracted from the fresh vegetables into hexane with DMAE, and then the extract was directly introduced into the enrichment column packed with active carbon fiber (ACF). Subsequently, the organophosphorus pesticides trapped on the ACF were eluted with ethyl acetate under microwave irradiation. No further filtration or cleanup was required before analysis of the eluate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Some experimental parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized, such as microwave output power, kind and volume of extraction solvent, extraction time, amount of sorbent, elution microwave power, kind and volume of elution solvent, elution solvent flow rate. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries were in the range of 71.5-105.2%, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 11.6%. The experiment results prove that the present method is a simple and effective sample preparation method for the determination of pesticides in solid samples.

  12. Fluid bed drying of guarana (Paullinia cupana HBK) extract: effect of process factors on caffeine content.

    PubMed

    Pagliarussi, Renata S; Bastos, Jairo K; Freitas, Luis A P

    2006-06-16

    The aim of this study was to study the convective drying of the hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from powdered guarana seeds in a spouted bed dryer. The influence of process variables, such as the convective airflow rate, extract feed rate, and air inlet temperature, on the quality of the dry extract was determined using the caffeine and moisture content for the process evaluation. The caffeine content in the alcoholic and dried extracts was determined by capillary gas chromatography. The experiments were performed following a 3(3) factorial design and the data analyzed by response surface. The analysis of dry extract showed that the air and extract feed rates did not significantly affect (25% level) the caffeine content, but that drying temperature is a major factor to consider when the extract is submitted to fluid bed drying. Caffeine losses were significant (1% level) for drying temperatures above 120 degrees C, while moisture content was lower than 3% for temperatures above 120 degrees C. The data showed that there is an optimum temperature for the drying of guarana extracts in spouted beds, and under the conditions used in this study it was 120 degrees C.

  13. Stable Isolation of Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis Associated with High-Pressure Extraction Process

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yong Chang; Choi, Woo Seok; Park, Jong Ho; Park, Jin Oh; Jung, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2013-01-01

    A method for stably purifying a functional dye, phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis was developed by a hexane extraction process combined with high pressure. This was necessary because this dye is known to be very unstable during normal extraction processes. The purification yield of this method was estimated as 10.2%, whose value is 3%–5% higher than is the case from another conventional separation method using phosphate buffer. The isolated phycocyanin from this process also showed the highest purity of 0.909 based on absorbance of 2.104 at 280 nm and 1.912 at 620 nm. Two subunits of phycocyanin namely α-phycocyanin (18.4 kDa) and β-phycocyanin (21.3 kDa) were found to remain from the original mixtures after being extracted, based on SDS-PAGE analysis, clearly demonstrating that this process can stably extract phycocyanin and is not affected by extraction solvent, temperature, etc. The stability of the extracted phycocyanin was also confirmed by comparing its DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity, showing 83% removal of oxygen free radicals. This activity was about 15% higher than that of commercially available standard phycocyanin, which implies that the combined extraction method can yield relatively intact chromoprotein through absence of degradation. The results were achieved because the low temperature and high pressure extraction effectively disrupted the cell membrane of Spirulina platensis and degraded less the polypeptide subunits of phycocyanin (which is a temperature/pH-sensitive chromoprotein) as well as increasing the extraction yield. PMID:23325046

  14. Stable isolation of phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis associated with high-pressure extraction process.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yong Chang; Choi, Woo Seok; Park, Jong Ho; Park, Jin Oh; Jung, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2013-01-16

    A method for stably purifying a functional dye, phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis was developed by a hexane extraction process combined with high pressure. This was necessary because this dye is known to be very unstable during normal extraction processes. The purification yield of this method was estimated as 10.2%, whose value is 3%-5% higher than is the case from another conventional separation method using phosphate buffer. The isolated phycocyanin from this process also showed the highest purity of 0.909 based on absorbance of 2.104 at 280 nm and 1.912 at 620 nm. Two subunits of phycocyanin namely α-phycocyanin (18.4 kDa) and β-phycocyanin (21.3 kDa) were found to remain from the original mixtures after being extracted, based on SDS-PAGE analysis, clearly demonstrating that this process can stably extract phycocyanin and is not affected by extraction solvent, temperature, etc. The stability of the extracted phycocyanin was also confirmed by comparing its DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity, showing 83% removal of oxygen free radicals. This activity was about 15% higher than that of commercially available standard phycocyanin, which implies that the combined extraction method can yield relatively intact chromoprotein through absence of degradation. The results were achieved because the low temperature and high pressure extraction effectively disrupted the cell membrane of Spirulina platensis and degraded less the polypeptide subunits of phycocyanin (which is a temperature/pH-sensitive chromoprotein) as well as increasing the extraction yield.

  15. A pilot scale ultrasonic system to enhance extraction processes with dense gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riera, E.; Blasco, M.; Tornero, A.; Casas, E.; Roselló, C.; Simal, S.; Acosta, V. M.; Gallego-Juárez, J. A.

    2012-05-01

    The use of dense gases (supercritical fluids) as extracting agents has been attracting wide interest for years. In particular, supercritical carbon dioxide is considered nowadays as a green and very useful solvent. Nevertheless, the extraction process has a slow dynamics. Power ultrasound represents an efficient way for accelerating and enhancing the kinetics of the process by producing strong agitation and turbulence, compressions and decompressions, and heating in the media. For this purpose, a device prototype for using ultrasound in supercritical media was developed, tested and validated in extraction processes of oil from grounded almonds (55% oil content, wet basis and 3-4 mm particle size) in a 5 L extraction unit. An amount of 1500 g of grounded almonds was placed in a cylindrical basket during the trials inside the dense gas extractor (DGE) where solvent was introduced at different flow rates, pressures and temperatures. In all cases the ultrasonic energy confirmed the enhancement and acceleration of the almond oil extraction kinetics using supercritical CO2. Presently the power ultrasound effect in such a process is being deeply analyzed in a 5 L extraction unit before scaling-up a new ultrasonic system. This technology, still under development, has been designed for a bigger dense gas pilot-plant consisting of two extractors (20 L capacity), two separation units and has the possibility of operating at a pressure up to 50 MPa. The goal of this work is to study the effect of high-power ultrasound coupled to dense gas extraction inside the basket with the product, and to present a prototype for the use of power ultrasound in extraction processes with dense gases inside a new 20 L extractor unit.

  16. Optimization of the ethanol recycling reflux extraction process for saponins using a design space approach.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xingchu; Zhang, Ying; Pan, Jianyang; Qu, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    A solvent recycling reflux extraction process for Panax notoginseng was optimized using a design space approach to improve the batch-to-batch consistency of the extract. Saponin yields, total saponin purity, and pigment yield were defined as the process critical quality attributes (CQAs). Ethanol content, extraction time, and the ratio of the recycling ethanol flow rate and initial solvent volume in the extraction tank (RES) were identified as the critical process parameters (CPPs) via quantitative risk assessment. Box-Behnken design experiments were performed. Quadratic models between CPPs and process CQAs were developed, with determination coefficients higher than 0.88. As the ethanol concentration decreases, saponin yields first increase and then decrease. A longer extraction time leads to higher yields of the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd. The total saponin purity increases as the ethanol concentration increases. The pigment yield increases as the ethanol concentration decreases or extraction time increases. The design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with an acceptable probability of 0.90. Normal operation ranges to attain process CQA criteria with a probability of more than 0.914 are recommended as follows: ethanol content of 79-82%, extraction time of 6.1-7.1 h, and RES of 0.039-0.040 min-1. Most of the results of the verification experiments agreed well with the predictions. The verification experiment results showed that the selection of proper operating ethanol content, extraction time, and RES within the design space can ensure that the CQA criteria are met.

  17. Optimization of the Ethanol Recycling Reflux Extraction Process for Saponins Using a Design Space Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xingchu; Zhang, Ying; Pan, Jianyang; Qu, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    A solvent recycling reflux extraction process for Panax notoginseng was optimized using a design space approach to improve the batch-to-batch consistency of the extract. Saponin yields, total saponin purity, and pigment yield were defined as the process critical quality attributes (CQAs). Ethanol content, extraction time, and the ratio of the recycling ethanol flow rate and initial solvent volume in the extraction tank (RES) were identified as the critical process parameters (CPPs) via quantitative risk assessment. Box-Behnken design experiments were performed. Quadratic models between CPPs and process CQAs were developed, with determination coefficients higher than 0.88. As the ethanol concentration decreases, saponin yields first increase and then decrease. A longer extraction time leads to higher yields of the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd. The total saponin purity increases as the ethanol concentration increases. The pigment yield increases as the ethanol concentration decreases or extraction time increases. The design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with an acceptable probability of 0.90. Normal operation ranges to attain process CQA criteria with a probability of more than 0.914 are recommended as follows: ethanol content of 79–82%, extraction time of 6.1–7.1 h, and RES of 0.039–0.040 min−1. Most of the results of the verification experiments agreed well with the predictions. The verification experiment results showed that the selection of proper operating ethanol content, extraction time, and RES within the design space can ensure that the CQA criteria are met. PMID:25470598

  18. Design space development for the extraction process of Danhong injection using a Monte Carlo simulation method.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xingchu; Li, Yao; Chen, Huali; Qu, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    A design space approach was applied to optimize the extraction process of Danhong injection. Dry matter yield and the yields of five active ingredients were selected as process critical quality attributes (CQAs). Extraction number, extraction time, and the mass ratio of water and material (W/M ratio) were selected as critical process parameters (CPPs). Quadratic models between CPPs and CQAs were developed with determination coefficients higher than 0.94. Active ingredient yields and dry matter yield increased as the extraction number increased. Monte-Carlo simulation with models established using a stepwise regression method was applied to calculate the probability-based design space. Step length showed little effect on the calculation results. Higher simulation number led to results with lower dispersion. Data generated in a Monte Carlo simulation following a normal distribution led to a design space with a smaller size. An optimized calculation condition was obtained with 10,000 simulation times, 0.01 calculation step length, a significance level value of 0.35 for adding or removing terms in a stepwise regression, and a normal distribution for data generation. The design space with a probability higher than 0.95 to attain the CQA criteria was calculated and verified successfully. Normal operating ranges of 8.2-10 g/g of W/M ratio, 1.25-1.63 h of extraction time, and two extractions were recommended. The optimized calculation conditions can conveniently be used in design space development for other pharmaceutical processes.

  19. Design Space Development for the Extraction Process of Danhong Injection Using a Monte Carlo Simulation Method

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xingchu; Li, Yao; Chen, Huali; Qu, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    A design space approach was applied to optimize the extraction process of Danhong injection. Dry matter yield and the yields of five active ingredients were selected as process critical quality attributes (CQAs). Extraction number, extraction time, and the mass ratio of water and material (W/M ratio) were selected as critical process parameters (CPPs). Quadratic models between CPPs and CQAs were developed with determination coefficients higher than 0.94. Active ingredient yields and dry matter yield increased as the extraction number increased. Monte-Carlo simulation with models established using a stepwise regression method was applied to calculate the probability-based design space. Step length showed little effect on the calculation results. Higher simulation number led to results with lower dispersion. Data generated in a Monte Carlo simulation following a normal distribution led to a design space with a smaller size. An optimized calculation condition was obtained with 10000 simulation times, 0.01 calculation step length, a significance level value of 0.35 for adding or removing terms in a stepwise regression, and a normal distribution for data generation. The design space with a probability higher than 0.95 to attain the CQA criteria was calculated and verified successfully. Normal operating ranges of 8.2-10 g/g of W/M ratio, 1.25-1.63 h of extraction time, and two extractions were recommended. The optimized calculation conditions can conveniently be used in design space development for other pharmaceutical processes. PMID:26020778

  20. Development and demonstration of solvent extraction processes for the separation of radionuclides from acidic radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.D.; Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Todd, T.A.; Wood, D.J.

    1999-06-01

    The presence of long-lived radionuclides presents a challenge to the management of radioactive wastes. Immobilization of these radionuclides must be accomplished prior to long-term, permanent disposal. Separation of the radionuclides from the waste solutions has the potential of significantly decreasing the costs associated with the immobilization and disposal of the radioactive waste by minimizing waste volumes. Several solvent extraction processes have been developed and demonstrated at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for the separation of transuranic element (TRUs), {sup 90}Sr, and/or {sup 137}Cs from acidic radioactive waste solutions. The Transuranic Extraction (TRUEX) and phosphine oxide (POR) processes for the separation of TRUs, the Strontium Extraction (SREX) process for the separation of {sup 90}Sr, the chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (ChCoDiC) process for the separation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, and a universal solvent extraction process for the simultaneous separation of TRUs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs have all been demonstrated in centrifugal contactors using actual radioactive waste solutions. This article summarizes the most recent results of each of the flowsheet demonstrations and allows for comparison of the technologies. The successful demonstration of these solvent extraction processes indicates that they are all viable for the treatment of acidic radioactive waste solutions.

  1. Tackling correlated responses during process optimisation of rapeseed meal protein extraction.

    PubMed

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Dutta, Ganesh; Barthakur, Anasuya; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2015-03-01

    Setting of process variables to meet the required specifications of quality characteristics is a crucial task in the extraction technology or process quality control. Simultaneous optimisation of several conflicting characteristics poses a problem, especially when correlation exists. To remedy this shortfall, we present multi-response optimisation based on Response Surface Methodology (RSM)-Principal Component Analysis (PCA)-desirability function approach, combined with Multiple Linear Regression (MLR). Experimental manifestation of the proposed methodology was executed using a multi-responses-based protein extraction process from an industrial waste, rapeseed press-cake. The proposed optimal factor combination reflects a compromise between the partially conflicting natures of the original responses. Prediction accuracy of this new hybrid method was found to be better than RSM alone, verifying the adequacy and superiority of the said approach. Furthermore, this study suggests the feasibility of the exploitation of the waste rapeseed oil-cake for extraction of valuable protein, with improved colour properties using simple, viable process.

  2. SLURRY SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METALS FROM SOLID MATERIALS

    DOEpatents

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1959-01-20

    A solvent extraction process is described for recovering uranium from low grade uranium bearing minerals such as carnotit or shale. The finely communited ore is made up as an aqueous slurry containing the necessary amount of acid to solubilize the uranium and simultaneously or subsequently contacted with an organic solvent extractant such as the alkyl ortho-, or pyro phosphoric acids, alkyl phosphites or alkyl phosphonates in combination with a diluent such as kerosene or carbon tetrachlorids. The extractant phase is separated from the slurry and treated by any suitable process to recover the uranium therefrom. One method for recovering the uranium comprises treating the extract with aqueous HF containing a reducing agent such as ferrous sulfate, which reduces the uranium and causes it to be precipitated as uranium tetrafluoride.

  3. A method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1997-12-01

    The present invention relates to a method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction. In particular, the method includes extracting the organic species into a polymer-rich phase of an aqueous biphase system in which the process stream comprises the salt-rich phase, and, next, separating the polymer from the extracted organic species by contacting the loaded, polymer-rich phase with a water-immiscible organic phase. Alternatively, the polymer can be separated from the extracted organic species by raising the temperature of the loaded, polymer-rich phase above the cloud point, such that the polymer and the water-soluble organic species separate into two distinct aqueous phases. In either case, a substantially salt-free, concentrated aqueous solution containing the organic species is recovered.

  4. CORROSION ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL COMPONENTS USED IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS EXTRACTION AND SEPARATION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Louthan, M.; Sindelar, R.

    2012-12-17

    This paper illustrated the magnitude of the systems, structures and components used at the Savannah River Site for nuclear materials extraction and separation processes. Corrosion issues, including stress corrosion cracking, pitting, crevice corrosion and other corrosion induced degradation processes are discussed and corrosion mitigation strategies such as a chloride exclusion program and corrosion release testing are also discussed.

  5. Characteristics of extraction and functionality of protein from tomato pomace produced with different industrial processing methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The seeds from tomato pomace, a by-product of tomato processing, contains valuable but underutilized protein with unique functional properties. The objectives of this research were to study the impact of industrial hot and cold break tomato processing on protein extraction from defatted tomato seeds...

  6. Quantum Catalytic Extraction Process{trademark}:Applications to low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, C.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation details the Quantum method for catalytic extraction processing of low-level radioactive wastes. Resource recovery, waste volume reduction, and fundamentals of the processing technology are discussed. The results of two case studies, and a description of two demonstration units are provided.

  7. An extraction process to recover vanadium from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Desheng; Zhao, Hongxin; Hu, Guoping; Qi, Tao; Yu, Hongdong; Zhang, Guozhi; Wang, Lina; Wang, Weijing

    2015-08-30

    An extraction process to recover vanadium from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite was developed. In this study, a mixed solvent system of di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (D2EHPA) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with kerosene was used for the selective extraction of vanadium from a hydrochloric acid leaching solution that contained low vanadium concentration with high concentrations of iron and impurities of Ca, Mg, and Al. In the extraction process, the initial solution pH and the phase ratio had considerable functions in the extraction of vanadium from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution. Under optimal extraction conditions (i.e., 30-40°C for 10min, 1:3 phase ratio (O/A), 20% D2EHPA concentration (v/v), and 0-0.8 initial solution pH), 99.4% vanadium and only 4.2% iron were extracted by the three-stage counter-current extraction process. In the stripping process with H2SO4 as the stripping agent and under optimal stripping conditions (i.e., 20% H2SO4 concentration, 5:1 phase ratio (O/A), 20min stripping time, and 40°C stripping temperature), 99.6% vanadium and only 5.4% iron were stripped by the three-stage counter-current stripping process. The stripping solution contained 40.16g/LV2O5,0.691g/L Fe, 0.007g/L TiO2, 0.006g/L SiO2 and 0.247g/L CaO. A V2O5 product with a purity of 99.12% V2O5 and only 0.026% Fe was obtained after the oxidation, precipitation, and calcination processes. The total vanadium recovered from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution was 85.5%.

  8. [Optimization of alcohol precipitation process for extract of Carthamus tinctorius by multiple guidelines grading method].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jia; Li, Ye-rui; Chen, Yong; Wang, Long-hu; Liu, Xue-song

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the optimal alcohol precipitation parameters for extract of Carthamus tinctorius. The effects of different factors on the transfer rate of hydroxy safflower yellow A (HSYA) was studied via single factor experiments, including the final alcohol concentration of the liquor, the speed of stirring, the initial density of the extract, the temperature and the pH of the liquor. Based on the results of single factor experiments, the final alcohol concentration of the liquor, the speed of stirring, the initial density of the extract and the pH of the liquor were studied by an orthogonal test and a multiple guidelines grading method, and the transfer rate of HSYA, the yield and the purity of extract in the supernatant were used as comprehensive evaluation index. The optimal alcohol precipitation process of Carthamus tinctorius extract was as follows: the final alcohol concentration of the liquor 50%, the speed of stirring 500 r/min, the initial density of the extract 1.15 g/ml and the pH of the liquor 5.0. The proposed alcohol precipitation process is convenient and steady with high transfer rate of HSYA, high yield and purity of extract in the supernatant.

  9. Development of an extraction process for removal of heteroatoms from coal liquids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The main goal of this contract was to develop an extraction process for upgrading coal liquids; and in doing so, to reduce the hydrogen requirement in downstream upgrading processes and to yield valuable byproducts. This goal was to be achieved by developing a novel carbon dioxide extraction process for heteroatom removal from coal-derived naphtha, diesel, and jet fuel. The research plan called for the optimization of three critical process variables using a statistically-designed experimental matrix. The commercial potential of the new process was to be evaluated by demonstrating quantitatively the effectiveness of heteroatom removal from three different feedstocks and by conducting a comparative economic analysis of alternate heteroatom removal technologies. Accomplishments are described for the following tasks: food procurement and analysis process variable screening studies; and process assessment.

  10. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING YTTRIUM FROM THE RARE EARTHS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Peppard, D.F.; Mason, G.W.

    1963-11-12

    A process of isolating yttrium from other rare earths present together with it in aqueous solutions is presented. Yttrium and rare earths heavier than yttrium are first extracted with dialkyl phosphoric acid, after adjustment of the acidity to 2 N, and then back-extracted with 5-6 N mineral acid to form a strip solution. Thiocyanate is added to the strip solution and the rare earths heavier than yttrium are then selectively extracted with trialkyl phosphate, dialkyl phosphoric acid, alkyl phosphonate, or dialkyl aryl phosphonate, leaving the yttrium in the aqueous solution. (AEC)

  11. The optimal extracting process, manufacturing technique and biological evaluation of Lithospermum erythrorhizon microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Lou, Ching-Wen; Chang, Chiung-Yun; Wu, Zong-Han; Lin, Jia-Horng

    2015-03-01

    Lithospermum erythrorhizon has been proved to be anti-inflammatory, by recent studies. This study extracts L. erythrorhizon with ethanol at various solid-liquid ratios (1:4, 1:6, 1:8, and 1:12), extraction temperatures (40°C, 50°C, and 60°C), and extraction times (4, 24 and 36h) in order to determine the optimal parameters. The optimal parameters are extracted and condensed into L. erythrorhizon extract; then the antibacterial property and cell compatibility of L. erythrorhizon extract are evaluated with various concentrations of L. erythrorhizon extract solution and different weights of L. erythrorhizon extract powder, respectively. The concentrations of solution are 0.1mg/ml, 0.5mg/ml, 1.0mg/ml, and 2.0mg/ml and ethanol is chosen as the solvent, and different weights of powder are varied as 0.1mg, 1.0mg, 2.0mg, and 10mg. The cell viability test and animal study are performed on L. erythrorhizon microcapsules. The experiment results show that sodium alginate/pectin L. erythrorhizon (SPL) microcapsules possess a 120-hour drug release. The results of cell viability and animal study show that the L. erythrorhizon microcapsules (SPL) have good cell viability (99%) and can help in the wound healing process (the wound size reduction reaches 91.3% on Day 11). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Combined effect of ohmic heating and enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process on soy oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Pare, Akash; Nema, Anurag; Singh, V K; Mandhyan, B L

    2014-08-01

    This research describes a new technological process for soybean oil extraction. The process deals with the combined effect of ohmic heating and enzyme assisted aqueous oil extraction process (EAEP) on enhancement of oil recovery from soybean seed. The experimental process consisted of following basic steps, namely, dehulling, wet grinding, enzymatic treatment, ohmic heating, aqueous extraction and centrifugation. The effect of ohmic heating parameters namely electric field strength (EFS), end point temperature (EPT) and holding time (HT) on aqueous oil extraction process were investigated. Three levels of electric field strength (i.e. OH600V, OH750V and OH900V), 3 levels of end point temperature (i.e. 70, 80 and 90 °C) and 3 levels of holding time (i.e. 0, 5 and 10 min.) were taken as independent variables using full factorial design. Percentage oil recovery from soybean by EAEP alone and EAEP coupled with ohmic heating were 53.12 % and 56.86 % to 73 % respectively. The maximum oil recovery (73 %) was obtained when the sample was heated and maintained at 90 °C using electric field strength of OH600V for a holding time of 10 min. The free fatty acid (FFA) of the extracted oil (i.e. in range of 0.97 to 1.29 %) was within the acceptable limit of 3 % (oleic acid) and 0.5-3 % prescribed respectively by PFA and BIS.

  13. Process analysis and modeling of a single-step lutein extraction method for wet microalgae.

    PubMed

    Gong, Mengyue; Wang, Yuruihan; Bassi, Amarjeet

    2017-09-30

    Lutein is a commercial carotenoid with potential health benefits. Microalgae are alternative sources for the lutein production in comparison to conventional approaches using marigold flowers. In this study, a process analysis of a single-step simultaneous extraction, saponification, and primary purification process for free lutein production from wet microalgae biomass was carried out. The feasibility of binary solvent mixtures for wet biomass extraction was successfully demonstrated, and the extraction kinetics of lutein from chloroplast in microalgae were first evaluated. The effects of types of organic solvent, solvent polarity, cell disruption method, and alkali and solvent usage on lutein yields were examined. A mathematical model based on Fick's second law of diffusion was applied to model the experimental data. The mass transfer coefficients were used to estimate the extraction rates. The extraction rate was found more significantly related with alkali ratio to solvent than to biomass. The best conditions for extraction efficiency were found to be pre-treatment with ultrasonication at 0.5 s working cycle per second, react 0.5 h in 0.27 L/g solvent to biomass ratio, and 1:3 ether/ethanol (v/v) with 1.25 g KOH/L. The entire process can be controlled within 1 h and yield over 8 mg/g lutein, which is more economical for scale-up.

  14. Ionic-Liquid-Mediated Extraction and Separation Processes for Bioactive Compounds: Past, Present, and Future Trends.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Sónia P M; E Silva, Francisca A; Quental, Maria V; Mondal, Dibyendu; Freire, Mara G; Coutinho, João A P

    2017-02-02

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been proposed as promising media for the extraction and separation of bioactive compounds from the most diverse origins. This critical review offers a compilation on the main results achieved by the use of ionic-liquid-based processes in the extraction and separation/purification of a large range of bioactive compounds (including small organic extractable compounds from biomass, lipids, and other hydrophobic compounds, proteins, amino acids, nucleic acids, and pharmaceuticals). ILs have been studied as solvents, cosolvents, cosurfactants, electrolytes, and adjuvants, as well as used in the creation of IL-supported materials for separation purposes. The IL-based processes hitherto reported, such as IL-based solid-liquid extractions, IL-based liquid-liquid extractions, IL-modified materials, and IL-based crystallization approaches, are here reviewed and compared in terms of extraction and separation performance. The key accomplishments and future challenges to the field are discussed, with particular emphasis on the major lacunas found within the IL community dedicated to separation processes and by suggesting some steps to overcome the current limitations.

  15. White wine taste and mouthfeel as affected by juice extraction and processing.

    PubMed

    Gawel, Richard; Day, Martin; Van Sluyter, Steven C; Holt, Helen; Waters, Elizabeth J; Smith, Paul A

    2014-10-15

    The juice used to make white wine can be extracted using various physical processes that affect the amount and timing of contact of juice with skins. The influence of juice extraction processes on the mouthfeel and taste of white wine and their relationship to wine composition were determined. The amount and type of interaction of juice with skins affected both wine total phenolic concentration and phenolic composition. Wine pH strongly influenced perceived viscosity, astringency/drying, and acidity. Despite a 5-fold variation in total phenolics among wines, differences in bitter taste were small. Perceived viscosity was associated with higher phenolics but was not associated with either glycerol or polysaccharide concentration. Bitterness may be reduced by using juice extraction and handling processes that minimize phenolic concentration, but lowering phenolic concentration may also result in wines of lower perceived viscosity.

  16. Developing and testing an alkaline-side solvent extraction process for technetium separation from tank waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.A.; Conner, C.; Liberatore, M.W.; Bonnesen, P.V.; Moyer, B.A.; Presley, D.J.; Lumetta, G.J.

    1997-12-05

    Engineering development and testing of the SRTALK solvent extraction process are discussed in this paper. This process provides a way to carry out alkaline-side removal and recovery of technetium in the form of pertechnetate anion from nuclear waste tanks within the DOE complex. The SRTALK extractant consists of a crown ether, bis-4,4'(5')[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano] -18-crown-6, in a modifier, tributyl phosphate, and a diluent, Isopar{reg_sign}L. The SRTALK flowsheet given here separates technetium from the waste and concentrates it by a factor often to minimize the load on the downstream evaporator for the technetium effluent. In this work, we initially generated and correlated the technetium extraction data, measured the dispersion number for various processing conditions, and determined hydraulic performance in a single-stage 2-cm centrifugal contactor. Then we used extraction-factor analysis, single-stage contactor tests, and stage-to-stage process calculations to develop a SRTALK flowsheet. Key features of the flowsheet are (1) a low organic-to-aqueous (O/A) flow ratio in the extraction section and a high O/A flow ratio in the strip section concentrate the technetium and (2) the use of a scrub section to reduce the salt load in the concentrated technetium effluent. Finally, the SRTALK process was evaluated in a multistage test using a synthetic tank waste. This test was very successful. Initial tests with actual waste from the Hanford nuclear waste tanks show the same technetium extractability as determined with the synthetic waste feed. Therefore, technetium removal from actual tank wastes should also work well using the SRTALK process.

  17. Comparisons of chemical and physical properties of catfish oils prepared from different extracting processes.

    PubMed

    Sathivel, S; Yin, H; Prinyawiwatkul, W; King, J M

    2009-03-01

    Four different catfish oil extraction processes were used to extract oil from catfish viscera: process CF1 involved a mixture of ground catfish viscera and water, no heat treatment, and centrifugation; process CF2 involved ground catfish viscera (no added water), heat treatment, and centrifugation; process CF3 involved a mixture of ground catfish viscera and water, heat treatment, and centrifugation; process CF4 involved ground catfish viscera, enzymatic hydrolysis, and centrifugation. Chemical and physical properties of the resulting of catfish oils were evaluated. The CF4 process recovered significantly higher amounts of crude oil from catfish viscera than the other 3 extraction methods. The CF4 oil contained a higher percent of free fatty acid and peroxide values than CF1, CF2, and CF3 oils. Oleic acid in catfish oil was the predominant fatty acid accounting for about 50% of total fatty acids. Weight loss of oils increased with increasing temperatures between 250 and 500 degrees C. All the catfish oil samples melted around -32 degrees C regardless of the extraction methods. The flow behavior index of all the oil samples was less than 1, which indicated that the catfish oils exhibited non-Newtonian fluid behavior. The apparent viscosity at -5 and 0 degrees C was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C. The average magnitude of activation energy for apparent viscosity of the oil was higher for CF2 than CF1, CF3, and CF4.

  18. Vaccinium meridionale Swartz Supercritical CO₂ Extraction: Effect of Process Conditions and Scaling Up.

    PubMed

    López-Padilla, Alexis; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Restrepo Flórez, Claudia Estela; Rivero Barrios, Diana Marsela; Reglero, Guillermo; Fornari, Tiziana

    2016-06-25

    Vaccinium meridionale Swartz (Mortiño or Colombian blueberry) is one of the Vaccinium species abundantly found across the Colombian mountains, which are characterized by high contents of polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins and flavonoids). The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Vaccinium species has mainly focused on the study of V. myrtillus L. (blueberry). In this work, the SFE of Mortiño fruit from Colombia was studied in a small-scale extraction cell (273 cm³) and different extraction pressures (20 and 30 MPa) and temperatures (313 and 343 K) were investigated. Then, process scaling-up to a larger extraction cell (1350 cm³) was analyzed using well-known semi-empirical engineering approaches. The Broken and Intact Cell (BIC) model was adjusted to represent the kinetic behavior of the low-scale extraction and to simulate the large-scale conditions. Extraction yields obtained were in the range 0.1%-3.2%. Most of the Mortiño solutes are readily accessible and, thus, 92% of the extractable material was recovered in around 30 min. The constant CO₂ residence time criterion produced excellent results regarding the small-scale kinetic curve according to the BIC model, and this conclusion was experimentally validated in large-scale kinetic experiments.

  19. Characterization of selenium species in extract from Niboshi (a processed Japanese anchovy).

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Sakura; Haratake, Mamoru; Fuchigami, Takeshi; Nakayama, Morio

    2012-01-01

    Fish are selenium rich foodstuffs and a major selenium source for the Japanese population. Niboshi is processed from Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) and commonly used to prepare soup stock for Japanese dishes. In this study, we characterized selenium species in the Niboshi extract by ultrafiltration, ion-exchange chromatography and mass spectrometry. Selenium species in the Niboshi were more extractable by polar solvents (water and ethanol) than an apolar one (hexane) along with amino acids and proteinous species. Selenium in the water-extract from the Niboshi was mostly ascribed to organoselenium compounds with a molecular mass less than 5 kDa. Although selenoamino acids and selenoproteins and their fragments were involved in the extract, a large portion of the selenium species appeared to be low-molecular-mass organoselenium compounds other than selenoamino acids and their derivatives. Ion-exchange chromatographic separations revealed that most of the selenium species in the extract possess anionic and/or amphoteric characteristics. One of these selenium species from the Niboshi extract was detected at m/z 577 for 80Se by mass spectrometry subsequent to ion-pair extraction.

  20. Vaccinium meridionale Swartz Supercritical CO2 Extraction: Effect of Process Conditions and Scaling Up

    PubMed Central

    López-Padilla, Alexis; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Restrepo Flórez, Claudia Estela; Rivero Barrios, Diana Marsela; Reglero, Guillermo; Fornari, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinium meridionale Swartz (Mortiño or Colombian blueberry) is one of the Vaccinium species abundantly found across the Colombian mountains, which are characterized by high contents of polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins and flavonoids). The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Vaccinium species has mainly focused on the study of V. myrtillus L. (blueberry). In this work, the SFE of Mortiño fruit from Colombia was studied in a small-scale extraction cell (273 cm3) and different extraction pressures (20 and 30 MPa) and temperatures (313 and 343 K) were investigated. Then, process scaling-up to a larger extraction cell (1350 cm3) was analyzed using well-known semi-empirical engineering approaches. The Broken and Intact Cell (BIC) model was adjusted to represent the kinetic behavior of the low-scale extraction and to simulate the large-scale conditions. Extraction yields obtained were in the range 0.1%–3.2%. Most of the Mortiño solutes are readily accessible and, thus, 92% of the extractable material was recovered in around 30 min. The constant CO2 residence time criterion produced excellent results regarding the small-scale kinetic curve according to the BIC model, and this conclusion was experimentally validated in large-scale kinetic experiments. PMID:28773640

  1. Foodborne Pathogens Prevention and Sensory Attributes Enhancement in Processed Cheese via Flavoring with Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Ahmed A; Hussein, Heba; Sorour, Noha M; El-Tras, Wael F

    2015-12-01

    Cheese contaminations with foodborne bacterial pathogens, and their health outbreaks, are serious worldwide problems that could happen from diverse sources during cheese production or storage. Plants, and their derivatives, were always regarded as the potential natural and safe antimicrobial alternatives for food preservation and improvement. The extracts from many plants, which are commonly used as spices and flavoring agents, were evaluated as antibacterial agents against serious foodborne pathogens, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, using qualitative and quantitative assaying methods. Dairy-based media were also used for evaluating the practical application of plant extracts as antimicrobial agents. Most of the examined plant extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity; the extracts of cinnamon, cloves, garden cress, and lemon grass were the most powerful, either in synthetic or in dairy-based media. Flavoring processed cheese with plant extracts resulted in the enhancement of cheese sensory attributes, for example odor, taste, color, and overall quality, especially in flavored samples with cinnamon, lemon grass, and oregano. It can be concluded that plant extracts are strongly recommended, as powerful and safe antibacterial and flavoring agents, for the preservation and sensory enhancement of processed cheese. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. CONTINUOUS CHELATION-EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE SEPARATION AND PURIFICATION OF METALS

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, J.R.; Hicks, T.E.; Rubin, B.; Crandall, H.W.

    1959-12-01

    A continuous process is presented for separating metal values and groups of metal values from each other. A complex mixture. e.g., neutron-irradiated uranium, can be resolved into component parts. In the present process the values are dissolved in an acidic solution and adjusted to the proper oxidation state. Thenceforth the solution is contacted with an extractant phase comprising a fluorinated beta -diketone in an organic solvent under centain pH conditions whereupon plutonium and zirconium are extracted. Plutonium is extracted from the foregoing extract with reducing aqueous solutions or under specified acidic conditions and can be recovered from the aqueous solution. Zirconium is then removed with an oxalic acid aqueous phase. The uranium is recovered from the residual original solution using hexone and hexone-diketone extractants leaving residual fission products in the original solution. The uranium is extracted from the hexone solution with dilute nitric acid. Improved separations and purifications are achieved using recycled scrub solutions and the "self-salting" effect of uranyl ions.

  3. [Simultaneous determination and optimization of extraction process of catalpol and acteoside from rehmanniae radix].

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Ting; Sun, Shao-Ping; Zheng, Ying

    2012-08-01

    To establish a method for simultaneously quantification of the Catalpol and Acteoside from Rehmanniae Radix and optimize the extraction process from Rehmanniae Radix by response surface methodology (RSM) using central composite design (CCD). The effect of ethanol concentration and the solvent-material ratio of the extraction were investigated on the overall extraction efficiency. Design Expert was used for regression analysis and determination coefficient of the regression equation. A good linear relationship was obtained from 0.047 - 3.00 microg and 0.016 - 1.00 microg for Catalpol and Acteoside, respectively. The optimal condition of extraction process was as follows: raw material was extracted with 19.3 mL/g solvent-material ratio of 38.0% ethanol. The R-Squared of binomial fitting of the complex model was 0.7498 (P < 0.05). The experimental values were accordance with values obtained from model prediction. The accuracy and precision of the developed HPLC protocol is adequate for simultaneous quantification of Catalpol and Acteoside in Rehmanniae Radix. The optimized extraction condition could be obtained by RSM using CCD.

  4. Improved extraction of avocado oil by application of sono-physical processes.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Padilla, Laura Patricia; Franke, Lisa; Xu, Xin-Qing; Juliano, Pablo

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasound treatment is known to increase the oil extractability in olive and palm oil processes. This work examined the effect of ultrasound conditioning of avocado puree on oil extractability and quality, at low (18+40kHz) and high (2MHz) frequencies, at litre-scale. Other ultrasound parameters evaluated included high frequency effect (0.4, 0.6, and 2MHz; 5min; 90kJ/kg) and sonication time (2.5-10min at 2MHz), without malaxation. Finally, a megasonic post-malaxation intervention was assessed at selected malaxation times (15, 30, and 60min). Both low and high frequency ultrasound treatments of the non-malaxed avocado puree improved extractability by 15-24% additional oil recovery, with the highest extractability achieved after 2MHz treatments, depending on the fruit maturity and oil content. There was no preferential improvement on oil extractability observed across high frequencies, even though extractability increased with sonication time. Ultrasound treatment also showed a positive effect after puree malaxation. Oils obtained from sonicated purees showed peroxide and free fatty acid values below the industrial specification levels and an increase in total phenolic compounds after 2MHz treatment. High frequency ultrasound conditioning of avocado puree can enhance oil separation and potentially decrease the malaxation time in industrial processes without impacting on oil quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. DNA extract characterization process for microbial detection methods development and validation.

    PubMed

    Olson, Nathan D; Morrow, Jayne B

    2012-12-03

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays used in pathogen detection require rigorous methods development including characterizing DNA extraction products. A DNA extract characterization process is demonstrated using DNA extracted from five different cells types (two Gram-negatives: Escherichia coli, and Burkholderia thailandensis, spores and vegetative cells from the Gram-positive Bacillus cereus, and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with six different methods. DNA extract quantity (concentration and extraction efficiency) and quality (purity and intactness) varied by cell type and extraction method enabling the demonstration of different DNA characterization methods. DNA purity was measured using UV spectroscopy, where the A260/A280 and A260/A230 ratios are indicators of different contaminants. Reproducibility of UV spectroscopy measurements decreased for DNA concentrations less than 17.5 ng/μL. Forty-seven extracts had concentrations greater than 17.5 ng/μL, 25 had A260/A280 above 2.0, and 28 had A260/A230 ratios below 1.8 indicating RNA and polysaccharide contamination respectively. Based on a qPCR inhibition assay the contaminants did not inhibit PCR. Extract intactness was evaluated using microfluidic gel electrophoresis. Thirty-five samples had concentrations above the limit of quantification (LOQ, roughly 11 ng/ μL), 93.5% of the DNA was larger than 1kb and 1% was smaller than 300 bp. Extract concentrations ranged from 1502.2 ng/μL to below the LOQ when UV spectroscopy, fluorometry, and qPCR were used. LOQ for UV spectroscopic and fluorometric measurements were 3.5 ng/μL and 0.25 ng/μL respectively. The qPCR LOQ varied by cell type (5.72 × 10-3 ng/μL for E. coli, 2.66 × 10-3 ng/μL, for B. cereus, 3.78 × 10-3 ng/μL for B. thailandensis, and 7.67 × 10-4 ng/μL for S. cerevisiae). A number of samples were below the UV spectroscopy (n = 27), flurometry (n = 15), and qPCR (n = 3) LOQ. The presented DNA extract

  6. Near-infrared image formation and processing for the extraction of hand veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzida, Nabila; Hakim Bendada, Abdel; Maldague, Xavier P.

    2010-10-01

    The main objective of this work is to extract the hand vein network using a non-invasive technique in the near-infrared region (NIR). The visualization of the veins is based on a relevant feature of the blood in relation with certain wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. In the present paper, we first introduce the image formation in the NIR spectral band. Then, the acquisition system will be presented as well as the method used for the image processing in order to extract the vein signature. Extractions of this pattern on the finger, on the wrist and on the dorsal hand are achieved after exposing the hand to an optical stimulation by reflection or transmission of light. We present meaningful results of the extracted vein pattern demonstrating the utility of the method for a clinical application like the diagnosis of vein disease, of primitive varicose vein and also for applications in vein biometrics.

  7. Microemulsions and Aggregation Formation in Extraction Processes for Used Nuclear Fuel: Thermodynamic and Structural Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, Mikael

    2016-05-04

    Advanced nuclear fuel cycles rely on successful chemical separation of various elements in the used fuel. Numerous solvent extraction (SX) processes have been developed for the recovery and purification of metal ions from this used material. However, the predictability of process operations has been challenged by the lack of a fundamental understanding of the chemical interactions in several of these separation systems. For example, gaps in the thermodynamic description of the mechanism and the complexes formed will make predictions very challenging. Recent studies of certain extraction systems under development and a number of more established SX processes have suggested that aggregate formation in the organic phase results in a transformation of its selectivity and efficiency. Aggregation phenomena have consistently been interfering in SX process development, and have, over the years, become synonymous with an undesirable effect that must be prevented. This multiyear, multicollaborative research effort was carried out to study solvation and self-organization in non-aqueous solutions at conditions promoting aggregation phenomena. Our approach to this challenging topic was to investigate extraction systems comprising more than one extraction reagent where synergy of the metal ion could be observed. These systems were probed for the existence of stable microemulsions in the organic phase, and a number of high-end characterization tools were employed to elucidate the role of the aggregates in metal ion extraction. The ultimate goal was to find connections between synergy of metal ion extraction and reverse micellar formation. Our main accomplishment for this project was the expansion of the understanding of metal ion complexation in the extraction system combining tributyl phosphate (TBP) and dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP). We have found that for this system no direct correlation exists for the metal ion extraction and the formation of aggregates, meaning that the

  8. Next Generation Solvent Performance in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process - 15495

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Tara E.; Scherman, Carl; Martin, David; Suggs, Patricia

    2015-01-14

    Changes to the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) flow-sheet were implemented in the facility. Implementation included changing the scrub and strip chemicals and concentrations, modifying the O/A ratios for the strip, scrub, and extraction contactor banks, and blending the current BoBCalixC6 extractant-based solvent in MCU with clean MaxCalix extractant-based solvent. During the successful demonstration period, the MCU process was subject to rigorous oversight to ensure hydraulic stability and chemical/radionuclide analysis of the key process tanks (caustic wash tank, solvent hold tank, strip effluent hold tank, and decontaminated salt solution hold tank) to evaluate solvent carryover to downstream facilities and the effectiveness of cesium removal from the liquid salt waste. Results indicated the extraction of cesium was significantly more effective with an average Decontamination Factor (DF) of 1,129 (range was 107 to 1,824) and that stripping was effective. The contactor hydraulic performance was stable and satisfactory, as indicated by contactor vibration, contactor rotational speed, and flow stability; all of which remained at or near target values. Furthermore, the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) level and specific gravity was as expected, indicating that solvent integrity and organic hydraulic stability were maintained. The coalescer performances were in the range of processing results under the BOBCalixC6 flow sheet, indicating negligible adverse impact of NGS deployment. After the Demonstration period, MCU began processing via routine operations. Results to date reiterate the enhanced cesium extraction and stripping capability of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) flow sheet. This paper presents process performance results of the NGS Demonstration and continued operations of MCU utilizing the blended BobCalixC6-MaxCalix solvent under the NGS flowsheet.

  9. Supercritical fluid extraction of the pesticides carbosulfan and imidacloprid from process dust waste.

    PubMed

    Eskilsson, C S; Mathiasson, L

    2000-11-01

    Large amounts of contaminated process dust remain from the procedure of pesticide treatments applied to seed pellets. A pilot study in analytical-scale supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was performed to determine the possibility of using supercritical carbon dioxide for the extraction of the nonpolar insecticide carbosulfan and the more polar insecticide imidacloprid present in contaminated dust waste, at concentrations of up to 20% (w/w). The effects of various experimental conditions, such as temperature, flow rate, and addition of modifier, on the recovery of the analytes were evaluated by extracting the pesticides both from spiked support material and from real dust samples. It was found that carbosulfan could easily be extracted from the dust waste within 30 min at 138 bar and 40 degrees C with a recovery of 98.9% (RSD = 2.3%, n = 10), compared to values obtained with a validated liquid extraction method. A sufficient removal of the more polar substance imidacloprid required the addition of a modifier, and the results showed a strong dependence of the extraction efficiency on the choice of modifier. Extractions at 276 bar and 80 degrees C with a solvent consisting of supercritical carbon dioxide modified with methanol (5%) gave a recovery of 97.0% (RSD = 3.6%, n = 10) using a 40 min extraction time. The results indicate that it seems to be possible to use process-scale SFE for the decontamination of pesticides from dust waste. The conditions outlined also permit analytical determinations of the two insecticides based on a combination of SFE and liquid chromatography.

  10. Green tea extract enhances parieto-frontal connectivity during working memory processing.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, André; Hammann, Felix; Wölnerhanssen, Bettina; Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Drewe, Jürgen; Beglinger, Christoph; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    It has been proposed that green tea extract may have a beneficial impact on cognitive functioning, suggesting promising clinical implications. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this putative cognitive enhancing effect of green tea extract still remain unknown. This study investigates whether the intake of green tea extract modulates effective brain connectivity during working memory processing and whether connectivity parameters are related to task performance. Using a double-blind, counterbalanced, within-subject design, 12 healthy volunteers received a milk whey-based soft drink containing 27.5 g of green tea extract or a milk whey-based soft drink without green tea as control substance while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Working memory effect on effective connectivity between frontal and parietal brain regions was evaluated using dynamic causal modeling. Green tea extract increased the working memory induced modulation of connectivity from the right superior parietal lobule to the middle frontal gyrus. Notably, the magnitude of green tea induced increase in parieto-frontal connectivity positively correlated with improvement in task performance. Our findings provide first evidence for the putative beneficial effect of green tea on cognitive functioning, in particular, on working memory processing at the neural system level by suggesting changes in short-term plasticity of parieto-frontal brain connections. Modeling effective connectivity among frontal and parietal brain regions during working memory processing might help to assess the efficacy of green tea for the treatment of cognitive impairments in psychiatric disorders such as dementia.

  11. The extraction and integration framework: a two-process account of statistical learning.

    PubMed

    Thiessen, Erik D; Kronstein, Alexandra T; Hufnagle, Daniel G

    2013-07-01

    The term statistical learning in infancy research originally referred to sensitivity to transitional probabilities. Subsequent research has demonstrated that statistical learning contributes to infant development in a wide array of domains. The range of statistical learning phenomena necessitates a broader view of the processes underlying statistical learning. Learners are sensitive to a much wider range of statistical information than the conditional relations indexed by transitional probabilities, including distributional and cue-based statistics. We propose a novel framework that unifies learning about all of these kinds of statistical structure. From our perspective, learning about conditional relations outputs discrete representations (such as words). Integration across these discrete representations yields sensitivity to cues and distributional information. To achieve sensitivity to all of these kinds of statistical structure, our framework combines processes that extract segments of the input with processes that compare across these extracted items. In this framework, the items extracted from the input serve as exemplars in long-term memory. The similarity structure of those exemplars in long-term memory leads to the discovery of cues and categorical structure, which guides subsequent extraction. The extraction and integration framework provides a way to explain sensitivity to both conditional statistical structure (such as transitional probabilities) and distributional statistical structure (such as item frequency and variability), and also a framework for thinking about how these different aspects of statistical learning influence each other. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Process optimization and characterization of fragrant oil from red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seed extracted by subcritical butane extraction.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ling-Biao; Pang, Hui-Li; Lu, Ke-Ke; Liu, Hua-Min; Wang, Xue-De; Qin, Guang-Yong

    2017-04-01

    Red pepper seeds account for 450-500 g kg(-1) of the total pepper weight and are often discarded as waste. In this study, process optimization and characterization of fragrant oil from roasted red pepper seed extracted by subcritical butane extraction were carried out. The optimal conditions of extraction were a temperature of 74.61 °C, a time of 68.65 min and a liquid/solid ratio of 30.24:1. The oil had a refractive index (25 °C) of 1.471, a relative density of 0.900, an acid value of 1.421 mg g(-1) oil, an iodine value of 127.035 g per 100 g, a saponification value of 184.060 mg KOH g(-1) , an unsaponifiable matter content of 12.400 g kg(-1) , a peroxide value of 2.465 meq. O2 kg(-1) and a viscosity of 52.094 cP. The main fatty acids in the oil were linoleic acid (72.95%) followed by palmitic acid (11.43%) and oleic acid (10.00%). The oil showed desirable thermal and oxidative stability. A total of 19 volatile compounds, mostly aldehydes and alkenes, were identified from the oil. The results indicated that the method is appropriate for the preparation of fragrant red pepper seed oil, and the oil is suitable for used as edible oil. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Extraction processes for the production of aluminum, titanium, iron, magnesium, and oxygen and nonterrestrial sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, D. B.; Choudary, U. V.; Erstfeld, T. E.; Williams, R. J.; Chang, Y. A.

    1979-01-01

    The suitability of existing terrestrial extractive metallurgical processes for the production of Al, Ti, Fe, Mg, and O2 from nonterrestrial resources is examined from both thermodynamic and kinetic points of view. Carbochlorination of lunar anorthite concentrate in conjunction with Alcoa electrolysis process for Al; carbochlorination of lunar ilmenite concentrate followed by Ca reduction of TiO2; and subsequent reduction of Fe2O3 by H2 for Ti and Fe, respectively, are suggested. Silicothermic reduction of olivine concentrate was found to be attractive for the extraction of Mg becaue of the technological knowhow of the process. Aluminothermic reduction of olivine is the other possible alternative for the production of magnesium. The large quantities of carbon monoxide generated in the metal extraction processes can be used to recover carbon and oxygen by a combination of the following methods: (1) simple disproportionation of CO,(2) methanation of CO and electrolysis of H2O, and (3) solid-state electrolysis of gas mixtures containing CO, CO2, and H2O. The research needed for the adoption of earth-based extraction processes for lunar and asteroidal minerals is outlined.

  14. Extraction processes for the production of aluminum, titanium, iron, magnesium, and oxygen and nonterrestrial sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, D. B.; Choudary, U. V.; Erstfeld, T. E.; Williams, R. J.; Chang, Y. A.

    1979-01-01

    The suitability of existing terrestrial extractive metallurgical processes for the production of Al, Ti, Fe, Mg, and O2 from nonterrestrial resources is examined from both thermodynamic and kinetic points of view. Carbochlorination of lunar anorthite concentrate in conjunction with Alcoa electrolysis process for Al; carbochlorination of lunar ilmenite concentrate followed by Ca reduction of TiO2; and subsequent reduction of Fe2O3 by H2 for Ti and Fe, respectively, are suggested. Silicothermic reduction of olivine concentrate was found to be attractive for the extraction of Mg becaue of the technological knowhow of the process. Aluminothermic reduction of olivine is the other possible alternative for the production of magnesium. The large quantities of carbon monoxide generated in the metal extraction processes can be used to recover carbon and oxygen by a combination of the following methods: (1) simple disproportionation of CO,(2) methanation of CO and electrolysis of H2O, and (3) solid-state electrolysis of gas mixtures containing CO, CO2, and H2O. The research needed for the adoption of earth-based extraction processes for lunar and asteroidal minerals is outlined.

  15. A comparision of TRUEX and CMP solvent extraction processes for actinide removal from ICPP wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, R.S.; Brewer, K.N.; Garn, T.G.; Law, J.D.

    1996-04-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is currently engaged in development efforts for the decontamination of high-level radioactive wastes generated from decades of nuclear fuel reprocessing. These wastes include several types of calcine, generated by high temperature solidification of reprocessing raffinates. In addition to calcine, there are smaller quantities of secondary wastes from decontamination and solvent wash activities which are typically referred to as sodium-bearing waste (SBW). Solvent extraction technologies based on octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO, the active extractant in the TRUEX process) and dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate (DHDECMP, the active extractant in the CMP process) are being evaluated for actinide partitioning from these waste streams. Calcines must first be dissolved in an appropriate acidic solution prior to treatment in solvent extraction based processes. The SBW is currently stored as an acidic solution and readily amenable to liquid extraction techniques. Development efforts to date have revolved around defining and refining baseline flowsheets with the TRUEX and CMP processes for each waste stream. Another objective of this work was to determine which of these technologies are best suited for the treatment of ICPP wastes. Laboratory batch contacts were performed to identify relevant chemistry and distribution coefficients. This information was then used to establish baseline flowsheet configuration with regard to chemistry. The laboratory data were used to model the behavior of the actinides and other constituents in the wastes in countercurrent, continuous processes based on centrifugal contactor technology. The laboratory data and modelling results form the basis for comparison of the two processes.

  16. Modeling of extraction process of crude polysaccharides from Basil seeds (Ocimum basilicum l.) as affected by process variables.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Fakhreddin; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Tadayyon, Ali; Arabameri, Fatemeh

    2015-08-01

    Basil seed (Ocimum basilicum L.) has practical amounts of gum with good functional properties. In this work, extraction of gum from Basil seed was studied. Effect of pH, temperature and water/seed ratio on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters; entropy, enthalpy and free energy of extraction were investigated. The maximum gum yield was 17.95 % at 50 °C for pH=7 and water/seed ratio 30:1. In this study, the experimental data were fitted to a mathematical model of mass transfer and equations constants were obtained. The kinetic of Basil seed gum extraction was found to be a first order mass transfer model. Statistical results indicated that the model used in this study will be able to predict the gum extraction from Basil seed adequately. It also found that ΔH and ΔS were positive and ΔG was negative indicating that the extraction process was spontaneous, irreversible and endothermic. The ΔH, ΔS and ΔG values were 0.26-7.87 kJ/mol, 8.12-33.2 J/mol K and 1.62-4.42 kJ/mol, respectively.

  17. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction, Centrifugation and Ultrafiltration: Multistage Process for Polyphenol Recovery from Purple Sweet Potatoes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhenzhou; Jiang, Tian; He, Jingren; Barba, Francisco J; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Koubaa, Mohamed

    2016-11-20

    This work provides an evaluation of an ultrasound-assisted, combined extraction, centrifugation and ultrafiltration process for the optimal recovery of polyphenols. A purple sweet potato (PSP) extract has been obtained using ultrasonic circulating extraction equipment at a power of 840 W, a frequency of 59 kHz and using water as solvent. Extract ultrafiltration, using polyethersulfone (PES), was carried out for the recovery of polyphenol, protein and anthocyanin. Pre-treatment, via the centrifugation of purple sweet potato extract at 2500 rpm over 6 min, led to better polyphenol recovery, with satisfactory protein removal (reused for future purposes), than PSP extract filtration without centrifugation. Results showed that anthocyanin was efficiently recovered (99%) from permeate. The exponential model fit well with the experimental ultrafiltration data and led to the calculation of the membrane's fouling coefficient. The optimization of centrifugation conditions showed that, at a centrifugation speed of 4000 rpm (1195× g) and duration of 7.74 min, the optimized polyphenol recovery and fouling coefficient were 34.5% and 29.5 m(-1), respectively. The removal of proteins in the centrifugation process means that most of the anthocyanin content (90%) remained after filtration. No significant differences in the intensities of the HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS² peaks were found in the samples taken before and after centrifugation for the main anthocyanins; peonidin-3-feruloylsophoroside-5-glucoside, peonidin-3-caffeoyl-p-hydroxybenzoylsophoroside-5-glucoside, and peonidin-3-caffeoyl-feruloyl sophoroside-5-glucoside. This proves that centrifugation is an efficient method for protein removal without anthocyanin loss. This study considers this process an ultrasound-assisted extraction-centrifugation-ultrafiltration for purple sweet potato valorization in "green" technology.

  18. Solvent screening study and conceptual extractive distillation process to produce anhydrous ethanol from fermentation broth

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, F-M.; Pahl, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    This solvent screening study indicates that glycols are very selective solvents for producing anhydrous ethanol from fermentation broth by extractive distillation. The promising solvents are glycerin, ethylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, and triethylene glycol. An improved extractive distillation process for producing anhydrous ethanol was conceptually developed which was based on the analysis of the experimental solvent screening data. The basic idea of this process is to add an extractive solvent only to the ethanol-rich portion of the fractionator to eliminate the ethanol-water azeotrope and to change the undesirable shape of the vapor-liquid equilibrium curve to one more favorable for distillation. With a suitable solvent, such as ethylene glycol, anhydrous ethanol could be produced from the fermentation broth in a column with only 18 theoretical trays. A low reflux ratio of 1.5 and a low solvent-to-feed ratio of 0.27 (based on fermentation broth) would be needed for the separation.

  19. A novel process for extraction of edible oils: Enzyme assisted three phase partitioning (EATPP).

    PubMed

    Gaur, Ruchi; Sharma, Aparna; Khare, S K; Gupta, Munishwar Nath

    2007-02-01

    Three phase partitioning (TPP), a technique used in protein purification has been evaluated, for extraction of oil from three different plant sources viz: mango kernel, soybean and rice bran. The process consists of simultaneous addition of t-butanol (1:1,v/v) and ammonium sulphate (w/v) to a crude preparation/slurry. Under optimized condition, the protein appears as an interfacial precipitate between upper t-butanol containing oil and lower aqueous phase. Pretreatment of the slurries with a commercial enzyme preparation of proteases, Protizyme, followed by three phase partitioning resulted in 98%, 86% and 79% (w/w) oil yields in case of soybean, rice bran and mango kernel, respectively. The efficiency of the present technique is comparable to solvent extraction with an added advantage of being less time consuming and using t-butanol which is a safer solvent as compared to n-hexane used in conventional oil extraction process.

  20. Commercial Light Water Reactor -Tritium Extraction Facility Process Waste Assessment (Project S-6091)

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.; Delley, A.O.; Alexander, G.J.; Clark, E.A.; Holder, J.S.; Lutz, R.N.; Malstrom, R.A.; Nobles, B.R.; Carson, S.D.; Peterson, P.K.

    1997-11-30

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) to design and construct a Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) to process irradiated tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) from a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR). The plan is for the CLWR-TEF to provide tritium to the SRS Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) in Building 233-H in support of DOE requirements. The CLWR-TEF is being designed to provide 3 kg of new tritium per year, from TPBARS and other sources of tritium (Ref. 1-4).The CLWR TPBAR concept is being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The TPBAR assemblies will be irradiated in a Commercial Utility light water nuclear reactor and transported to the SRS for tritium extraction and processing at the CLWR-TEF. A Conceptual Design Report for the CLWR-TEF Project was issued in July 1997 (Ref. 4).The scope of this Process Waste Assessment (PWA) will be limited to CLWR-TEF processing of CLWR irradiated TPBARs. Although the CLWR- TEF will also be designed to extract APT tritium-containing materials, they will be excluded at this time to facilitate timely development of this PWA. As with any process, CLWR-TEF waste stream characteristics will depend on process feedstock and contaminant sources. If irradiated APT tritium-containing materials are to be processed in the CLWR-TEF, this PWA should be revised to reflect the introduction of this contaminant source term.

  1. SEPARATION OF URANYL AND RUTHENIUM VALUES BY THE TRIBUTYL PHOSPHATE EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, A.S.

    1961-05-01

    A process is given for separating uranyl values from ruthenium values contained in an aqueous 3 to 4 M nitric acid solution. After the addition of hydrogen peroxide to obtain a concentration of 0.3 M, the uranium is selectively extracted with kerosene-diluted tributyl phosphate.

  2. Aqueous biphasic extraction process with pH and particle control

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.

    1995-05-02

    A process for aqueous biphasic extraction of metallic oxides and the like from substances containing silica. Control of media pH enables efficient and effective partition of mixture components. The inventive method may be employed to remove excess silica from kaolin clay. 2 figs.

  3. Aqueous biphasic extraction process with pH and particle control

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.; Mensah-Biney, R.

    1995-01-01

    A process for aqueous biphasic extraction of metallic oxides and the like from substances containing silica. Control of media pH enables efficient and effective partition of mixture components. The inventive method may be employed to remove excess silica from kaolin clay.

  4. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280 Section 173.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  5. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280 Section 173.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  6. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280 Section 173.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  7. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280 Section 173.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  8. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280 Section 173.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...

  9. Integrated extraction and anaerobic digestion process for recovery of nutraceuticals and biogas from pomegranate marcs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pomegranate marc (PM), a by-product from pomegranate juice processing, has not been effectively utilized. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the yields and properties of antioxidants (henceforth referring to total phenolics in terms of tannic acid equivalent) and oil extracted from v...

  10. Biologically-based signal processing system applied to noise removal for signal extraction

    DOEpatents

    Fu, Chi Yung; Petrich, Loren I.

    2004-07-13

    The method and system described herein use a biologically-based signal processing system for noise removal for signal extraction. A wavelet transform may be used in conjunction with a neural network to imitate a biological system. The neural network may be trained using ideal data derived from physical principles or noiseless signals to determine to remove noise from the signal.

  11. Micro-scale methods for characterization of supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation processes. [Trichothecene mycotoxins

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.D.; Wright, B.W.; Udseth, H.R.

    1984-11-01

    The development of new supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation processes requires exploration of wide ranges of fluid temperature and pressure. As the fluid phase becomes more complex, conventional methods become inadequate unless augmented by increasingly sophisticated analytical instrumentation. In addition to chemical complexity, analysis is often hindered by characteristics of the analyte which makes supercritical fluid extraction desirable (e.g., thermal lability). Micro-scale methods are described which address these problems while providing the additional benefits of speed, reduced cost, greatly reduced sample and solvent consumption, and safety. Techniques are described in which the fluid phase from micro-scale (0.005 to 5 ml) high pressure cells is sampled and analyzed in either continuous or periodic modes. The methods developed in our laboratory utilize capillary supercritical fluid chromatography and direct fluid injection-mass spectrometry (or their combination), in addition to conventional analytical techniques, for the characterization of complex supercritical fluid mixtures. The application of these methods to various extraction and fractionation processes involving CO/sub 2/ and NH/sub 3/, solubility studies of simple and complex mixtures, and the study of rapid chemical processes in supercritical water is described. New methods for the automated examination of extraction processes using capillary chromatography are also described and their initial application illustrated.

  12. EPA SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE TERRA VAC IN SITU VACUUM EXTRACTION PROCESS IN GROVELAND, MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an EPA evaluation of the patented Terra Vac, Inc.'s in situ vacuum extraction process that was field-demonstrated on a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated soil in Groveland, MA, under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. he Terra...

  13. Point process algorithm: a new Bayesian approach for TPF-I planet signal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velusamy, T.; Marsh, K. A.; Ware, B.

    2005-01-01

    TPF-I capability for planetary signal extraction, including both detection and spectral characterization, can be optimized by taking proper account of instrumental characteristics and astrophysical prior information. We have developed the Point Process Algorithm, a Bayesian technique for estracting planetary signals using the sine/cosine chopped outputs of a dual nulling interferometer.

  14. Point process algorithm: a new Bayesian approach for TPF-I planet signal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velusamy, T.; Marsh, K. A.; Ware, B.

    2005-01-01

    TPF-I capability for planetary signal extraction, including both detection and spectral characterization, can be optimized by taking proper account of instrumental characteristics and astrophysical prior information. We have developed the Point Process Algorithm, a Bayesian technique for estracting planetary signals using the sine/cosine chopped outputs of a dual nulling interferometer.

  15. EPA SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE TERRA VAC IN SITU VACUUM EXTRACTION PROCESS IN GROVELAND, MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an EPA evaluation of the patented Terra Vac, Inc.'s in situ vacuum extraction process that was field-demonstrated on a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated soil in Groveland, MA, under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. he Terra...

  16. Recovery of Uranium from Wet Phosphoric Acid by Solvent Extraction Processes

    DOE PAGES

    Beltrami, Denis; Cote, Gérard; Mokhtari, Hamid; ...

    2014-11-17

    Between 1951 and 1991, we developed about 17 processes to recover uranium from wet phosphoric acid (WPA), but the viability of these processes was subject to the variation of the uranium price market. Nowadays, uranium from WPA appears to be attractive due to the increase of the global uranium demand resulting from the emergence of developing countries. Moreover, the increasing demand provides impetus for a new look at the applicable technology with a view to improvements as well as altogether new approaches. This paper gives an overview on extraction processes developed in the past to recover uranium from wet phosphoricmore » acid (WPA) as well as the physicochemistry involved in these processes. Recent advances concerning the development of new extraction systems are also reported and discussed.« less

  17. Recovery of Uranium from Wet Phosphoric Acid by Solvent Extraction Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Beltrami, Denis; Cote, Gérard; Mokhtari, Hamid; Courtaud, Bruno; Moyer, Bruce A.; Chagnes, Alexandre

    2014-11-17

    Between 1951 and 1991, we developed about 17 processes to recover uranium from wet phosphoric acid (WPA), but the viability of these processes was subject to the variation of the uranium price market. Nowadays, uranium from WPA appears to be attractive due to the increase of the global uranium demand resulting from the emergence of developing countries. Moreover, the increasing demand provides impetus for a new look at the applicable technology with a view to improvements as well as altogether new approaches. This paper gives an overview on extraction processes developed in the past to recover uranium from wet phosphoric acid (WPA) as well as the physicochemistry involved in these processes. Recent advances concerning the development of new extraction systems are also reported and discussed.

  18. Effects of composting process on the dissipation of extractable sulfonamides in swine manure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bei; Li, Yanxia; Zhang, Xuelian; Feng, Chenghong; Gao, Min; Shen, Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Effects of composting on the fate of sulfonamides (SAs) in the manure-straw mixture were explored through a simulation of aerobic composting process. Additionally, factors of temperature and coexistence of heavy metal Cu that might influence the removal efficiency were particularly investigated. As shown in the results, the extractable SAs dissipated rapidly during the composting process. The coexistence of Cu in the composting process might have delayed the decline of SAs, but the drugs could still be completely removed by the end of the composting. In contrast to the thermophilic aerobic composting, extractable SAs in air-temperature-placed mixture dissipated much slower and 1.12-1.56mg/kg could be detected after 35days of incubation. The results confirmed that temperature could influence the dissipation of SAs, which was identified as a more important factor than Cu-coexistence. Hence, thermophilic aerobic composting is an effective process to eliminate VAs before manure land application.

  19. Extraction and processing for the treatment and minimization of wastes: 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hager, J.P.; Hansen, B.J.; Imrie, W.P.; Pusateri, J.F.; Ramachandran, V.

    1993-01-01

    This volume contains 78 papers presented at the International Symposium on Extraction and Processing for the Treatment and Minimization of Wastes. The symposium was held in conjunction with the 1994 Annual Meeting of The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society in San Francisco, California, February 27--March 3, 1994. The symposium was organized by the Extraction and Processing Division (EPD) of TMS with the co-sponsorship of the 16 groups shown on the Title Page. Over a third of the papers have been contributed by authors from outside the United States. The papers are arranged under these topics: treatment of heavy metal waste; liquid effluent treatment; treatment of contaminated soils; treatment of steel industry waste; treatment of aluminum industry waste; mining waste; pyro-process waste; radioactive waste; thermal processing systems; and waste characterization. Each of the 78 papers has been prepared individually for inclusion to the appropriate data bases.

  20. Optimization of Extraction Process for Polysaccharide in Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bunge Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Yanhua, Wang; Fuhua, Wu; Zhaohan, Guo; Mingxing, Peng; Yanan, Zhang; Ling, Pang Zhen; Minhua, Du; Caiying, Zhang; Zian, Liang

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to optimize the extraction process for Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide using response surface methodology The results showed that four operating parameters including microwave power, microwave time and the particle size had notable effects on the polysaccharide extraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The effects could be ranked in decreasing order of importance as follows:. Microwave power > microwave time > the comminution degree. The optimal extraction parameters were determined as 573.83W of Microwave power and 8.4min of microwave time and 67.51mesh of the comminution degree, resulting in the yield of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide of 101.161mg / g. The established regression model describing polysaccharide extraction from as a function of the three extraction parameters was highly significant (R 2 = 0.9953). The predicted and experimental results were found to be in good agreement. Thus, the model can be applicable for the prediction of polysaccharide extraction from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. PMID:26312073

  1. Optimization of Extraction Process for Polysaccharide in Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bunge Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Yanhua, Wang; Fuhua, Wu; Zhaohan, Guo; Mingxing, Peng; Yanan, Zhang; Ling, Pang Zhen; Minhua, Du; Caiying, Zhang; Zian, Liang

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to optimize the extraction process for Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide using response surface methodology The results showed that four operating parameters including microwave power, microwave time and the particle size had notable effects on the polysaccharide extraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The effects could be ranked in decreasing order of importance as follows:. Microwave power > microwave time > the comminution degree. The optimal extraction parameters were determined as 573.83W of Microwave power and 8.4min of microwave time and 67.51mesh of the comminution degree, resulting in the yield of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide of 101.161mg / g. The established regression model describing polysaccharide extraction from as a function of the three extraction parameters was highly significant (R 2 = 0.9953). The predicted and experimental results were found to be in good agreement. Thus, the model can be applicable for the prediction of polysaccharide extraction from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. PMID:26998185

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-08

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Madhavi Nallani-Chakravartula; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-27

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  4. Processing of copper anodic-slimes for extraction of valuable metals.

    PubMed

    Amer, A M

    2003-01-01

    This work focuses on processing of anodic slimes obtained from an Egyptian copper electrorefining plant. The anodic slimes are characterized by high concentrations of copper, lead, tin and silver. The proposed hydrometallurgical process consists of two leaching stages for the extraction of copper (H(2)SO(4)-O(2)) and silver (thiourea-Fe3+), and pyrometallurgical treatment of the remaining slimes for production of Pb-Sn soldering alloy. Factors affecting both the leaching and smelting stages were studied.

  5. Fault detection and classification in chemical processes based on neural networks with feature extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yifeng; Hahn, Juergen; Mannan, M Sam

    2003-10-01

    Feed forward neural networks are investigated here for fault diagnosis in chemical processes, especially batch processes. The use of the neural model prediction error as the residual for fault diagnosis of sensor and component is analyzed. To reduce the training time required for the neural process model, an input feature extraction process for the neural model is implemented. An additional radial basis function neural classifier is developed to isolate faults from the residual generated, and results are presented to demonstrate the satisfactory detection and isolation of faults using this approach.

  6. Processing of Arroyo Grande tar sand using the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE copyright ) process

    SciTech Connect

    King, S.B.

    1989-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to (1) evaluate the applications of the ROPE{copyright} process to a California tar sand using the screw pyrolysis reactor-process development unit (SPR-PDU) reactor, (2) produce kinetics data for the recycle product oil-spent sand interaction, and (3) produce oil for end-use evaluation. 6 refs., 1 fig., 23 tabs.

  7. Magnetic Nanofluid Rare Earth Element Extraction Process Report, Techno Economic Analysis, and Results for Geothermal Fluids

    DOE Data Explorer

    Pete McGrail

    2016-03-14

    This GDR submission is an interim technical report and raw data files from the first year of testing on functionalized nanoparticles for rare earth element extraction from geothermal fluids. The report contains Rare Earth Element uptake results (percent removal, mg Rare Earth Element/gram of sorbent, distribution coefficient) for the elements of Neodymium, Europium, Yttrium, Dysprosium, and Cesium. A detailed techno economic analysis is also presented in the report for a scaled up geothermal rare earth element extraction process. All rare earth element uptake testing was done on simulated geothermal brines with one rare earth element in each brine. The rare earth element uptake testing was conducted at room temperature.

  8. Method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1999-01-01

    A method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction is provided. An aqueous biphase system is generated by contacting a process stream comprised of water, salt, and organic species with an aqueous polymer solution. The organic species transfer from the salt-rich phase to the polymer-rich phase, and the phases are separated. Next, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer phase by selectively extracting the polymer into an organic phase at an elevated temperature, while the organic species remain in a substantially salt-free aqueous solution. Alternatively, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer by a temperature induced phase separation (cloud point extraction), whereby the polymer and the organic species separate into two distinct solutions. The method for separating water-miscible organic species is applicable to the treatment of industrial wastewater streams, including the extraction and recovery of complexed metal ions from salt solutions, organic contaminants from mineral processing streams, and colorants from spent dye baths.

  9. Method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mego, W.A.

    1999-09-07

    A method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction is provided. An aqueous biphase system is generated by contacting a process stream comprised of water, salt, and organic species with an aqueous polymer solution. The organic species transfer from the salt-rich phase to the polymer-rich phase, and the phases are separated. Next, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer phase by selectively extracting the polymer into an organic phase at an elevated temperature, while the organic species remain in a substantially salt-free aqueous solution. Alternatively, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer by a temperature induced phase separation (cloud point extraction), whereby the polymer and the organic species separate into two distinct solutions. The method for separating water-miscible organic species is applicable to the treatment of industrial wastewater streams, including the extraction and recovery of complexed metal ions from salt solutions, organic contaminants from mineral processing streams, and colorants from spent dye baths.

  10. In vitro Anti-Thrombotic Activity of Extracts from Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra) Processing Waste

    PubMed Central

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Hines, Barney M.; Addepalli, Rama; Chen, Wei; Masci, Paul; Gobe, Glenda; Osborne, Simone A.

    2016-01-01

    Waste generated from the processing of marine organisms for food represents an underutilized resource that has the potential to provide bioactive molecules with pharmaceutical applications. Some of these molecules have known anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities and are being investigated as alternatives to common anti-thrombotic drugs, like heparin and warfarin that have serious side effects. In the current study, extracts prepared from blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) processing waste, using food grade enzymes papain and bromelain, were found to contain sulphated polysaccharide with anti-thrombotic activity. Extracts were found to be enriched with sulphated polysaccharides and assessed for anti-thrombotic activity in vitro through heparin cofactor-II (HCII)-mediated inhibition of thrombin. More than 60% thrombin inhibition was observed in response to 100 μg/mL sulphated polysaccharides. Anti-thrombotic potential was further assessed as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and blood, using prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thromboelastography (TEG). All abalone extracts had significant activity compared with saline control. Anion exchange chromatography was used to separate extracts into fractions with enhanced anti-thrombotic activity, improving HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition, PT and aPTT almost 2-fold. Overall this study identifies an alternative source of anti-thrombotic molecules that can be easily processed offering alternatives to current anti-thrombotic agents like heparin. PMID:28042854

  11. In vitro Anti-Thrombotic Activity of Extracts from Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra) Processing Waste.

    PubMed

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Hines, Barney M; Addepalli, Rama; Chen, Wei; Masci, Paul; Gobe, Glenda; Osborne, Simone A

    2016-12-31

    Waste generated from the processing of marine organisms for food represents an underutilized resource that has the potential to provide bioactive molecules with pharmaceutical applications. Some of these molecules have known anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities and are being investigated as alternatives to common anti-thrombotic drugs, like heparin and warfarin that have serious side effects. In the current study, extracts prepared from blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) processing waste, using food grade enzymes papain and bromelain, were found to contain sulphated polysaccharide with anti-thrombotic activity. Extracts were found to be enriched with sulphated polysaccharides and assessed for anti-thrombotic activity in vitro through heparin cofactor-II (HCII)-mediated inhibition of thrombin. More than 60% thrombin inhibition was observed in response to 100 μg/mL sulphated polysaccharides. Anti-thrombotic potential was further assessed as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and blood, using prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thromboelastography (TEG). All abalone extracts had significant activity compared with saline control. Anion exchange chromatography was used to separate extracts into fractions with enhanced anti-thrombotic activity, improving HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition, PT and aPTT almost 2-fold. Overall this study identifies an alternative source of anti-thrombotic molecules that can be easily processed offering alternatives to current anti-thrombotic agents like heparin.

  12. An integrated process for the extraction of fuel and chemicals from marine macroalgal biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, Nitin; Baghel, Ravi S.; Bothwell, John; Gupta, Vishal; Reddy, C. R. K.; Lali, Arvind M.; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-07-01

    We describe an integrated process that can be applied to biomass of the green seaweed, Ulva fasciata, to allow the sequential recovery of four economically important fractions; mineral rich liquid extract (MRLE), lipid, ulvan, and cellulose. The main benefits of our process are: a) its simplicity and b) the consistent yields obtained from the residual biomass after each successive extraction step. For example, dry Ulva biomass yields ~26% of its starting mass as MRLE, ~3% as lipid, ~25% as ulvan, and ~11% as cellulose, with the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of the final cellulose fraction under optimized conditions producing ethanol at a competitive 0.45 g/g reducing sugar. These yields are comparable to those obtained by direct processing of the individual components from primary biomass. We propose that this integration of ethanol production and chemical feedstock recovery from macroalgal biomass could substantially enhance the sustainability of marine biomass use.

  13. An integrated process for the extraction of fuel and chemicals from marine macroalgal biomass

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Nitin; Baghel, Ravi S.; Bothwell, John; Gupta, Vishal; Reddy, C. R. K.; Lali, Arvind M.; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    We describe an integrated process that can be applied to biomass of the green seaweed, Ulva fasciata, to allow the sequential recovery of four economically important fractions; mineral rich liquid extract (MRLE), lipid, ulvan, and cellulose. The main benefits of our process are: a) its simplicity and b) the consistent yields obtained from the residual biomass after each successive extraction step. For example, dry Ulva biomass yields ~26% of its starting mass as MRLE, ~3% as lipid, ~25% as ulvan, and ~11% as cellulose, with the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of the final cellulose fraction under optimized conditions producing ethanol at a competitive 0.45 g/g reducing sugar. These yields are comparable to those obtained by direct processing of the individual components from primary biomass. We propose that this integration of ethanol production and chemical feedstock recovery from macroalgal biomass could substantially enhance the sustainability of marine biomass use. PMID:27470705

  14. Printed circuit board recycling: Physical processing and copper extraction by selective leaching.

    PubMed

    Silvas, Flávia P C; Correa, Mónica M Jiménez; Caldas, Marcos P K; de Moraes, Viviane T; Espinosa, Denise C R; Tenório, Jorge A S

    2015-12-01

    Global generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is about 40 million tons per year. Constant increase in WEEE generation added to international legislations has improved the development of processes for materials recovery and sustainability of electrical and electronic industry. This paper describes a new hydrometallurgical route (leaching process) to recycle printed circuit boards (PCBs) from printers to recover copper. Methodology included PCBs characterization and a combined route of physical and hydrometallurgical processing. Magnetic separation, acid digestion and chemical analysis by ICP-OES were performed. On leaching process were used two stages: the first one in a sulfuric media and the second in an oxidant media. The results showed that the PCBs composition was 74.6 wt.% of non-magnetic material and 25.4 wt.% of magnetic one. The metallic fraction corresponded to 44.0 wt.%, the polymeric to 28.5 wt.% and the ceramic to 27.5 wt.%. The main metal was copper and its initial content was 32.5 wt.%. On sulfuric leaching 90 wt.% of Al, 40 wt.% of Zn and 8.6 wt.% of Sn were extracted, whereas on oxidant leaching tests the extraction percentage of Cu was 100 wt.%, of Zn 60 wt.% and of Al 10 wt.%. At the end of the hydrometallurgical processing was obtained 100% of copper extraction and the recovery factor was 98.46%, which corresponds to a 32 kg of Cu in 100 kg of PCB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Inline Monitors for Measuring Cs-137 in the SRS Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, V

    2006-04-24

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, a portion of dissolved saltcake waste will be processed through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). The MCU employs the CSSX process, a continuous process that uses a novel solvent to extract cesium from waste and concentrate it in dilute nitric acid. Of primary concern is Cs-137 which makes the solution highly radioactive. Since the MCU does not have the capacity to wait for sample results while continuing to operate, the Waste Acceptance Strategy is to perform inline analyses. Gamma-ray monitors are used to: measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) before entering the DSS Hold Tank; measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent (SE) before entering the SE Hold Tank; and verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process. Since this gamma ray monitoring system application is unique, specially designed shielding was developed and software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling the monitor hardware and communicating with the host Distributed Control System. This paper presents the design, fabrication and implementation of this monitoring system.

  16. Simultaneous extraction and biotransformation process to obtain high bioactivity phenolic compounds from Brazilian citrus residues.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Jose Valdo; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have pointed to a reduction in the incidence of some cancers, diabetes, and neuro-degenerative diseases as a result of human health benefits from flavanones. Currently, flavanones are obtained by chemical synthesis or extraction from plants, and these processes are only produced in the glycosylated form. An interesting environmentally friendly alternative that deserves attention regarding phenolic compound production is the simultaneous extraction and biotransformation of these molecules. Orange juice consumption has become a worldwide dietary habit and Brazil is the largest producer of orange juice in the world. Approximately half of the citrus fruit is discarded after the juice is processed, thus generating large amounts of residues (peel and pectinolytic material). Hence, finding an environmentally clean technique to extract natural products and bioactive compounds from different plant materials has presented a challenging task over the last decades. The aim of this study was to obtain phenolics from Brazilian citrus residues with high bioactivity, using simultaneous extraction (cellulase and pectinase) and biotransformation (tannase) by enzymatic process. The highest hesperetin, naringenin and ellagic acid production in the experiment were 120, 80, and 11,250 µg g(-1), respectively, at 5.0 U mL(-1) of cellulase and 7.0 U mL(-1) of tannase at 40°C and 200 rpm. Also, the development of this process generated an increase of 77% in the total antioxidant capacity. These results suggest that the bioprocess obtained innovative results where the simultaneous enzymatic and biotransformatic extracted flavanones from agro-industrial residues was achieved without the use of organic solvents. The methodology can therefore be considered a green technology.

  17. Potential for improved extraction of tellurium as a byproduct of current copper mining processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, S. M.; Spaleta, K. J.; Skidmore, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Tellurium (Te) is classified as a critical element due to its increasing use in high technology applications, low average crustal abundance (3 μg kg-1), and primary source as a byproduct of copper extraction. Although Te can be readily recovered from copper processing, previous studies have estimated a 4 percent extraction efficiency, and few studies have addressed Te behavior during the entire copper extraction process. The goals of the present study are to perform a mass balance examining Te behavior during copper extraction and to connect these observations with mineralogy of Te-bearing phases which are essential first steps in devising ways to optimize Te recovery. Our preliminary mass balance results indicate that less than 3 percent of Te present in copper ore is recovered, with particularly high losses during initial concentration of copper ore minerals by flotation. Tellurium is present in the ore in telluride minerals (e.g., Bi-Te-S phases, altaite, and Ag-S-Se-Te phases identified using electron microprobe) with limited substitution into sulfide minerals (possibly 10 mg kg-1 Te in bulk pyrite and chalcopyrite). This work has also identified Te accumulation in solid-phase intermediate extraction products that could be further processed to recover Te, including smelter dusts (158 mg kg-1) and pressed anode slimes (2.7 percent by mass). In both the smelter dusts and anode slimes, X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicates that about two thirds of the Te is present as reduced tellurides. In anode slimes, electron microscopy shows that the remaining Te is present in an oxidized form in a complex Te-bearing oxidate phase also containing Pb, Cu, Ag, As, Sb, and S. These results clearly indicate that more efficient, increased recovery of Te may be possible, likely at minimal expense from operating copper processing operations, thereby providing more Te for manufacturing of products such as inexpensive high-efficiency solar panels.

  18. Extracting important information from Chinese Operation Notes with natural language processing methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Weide; Zeng, Qiang; Li, Zuofeng; Feng, Kaiyan; Liu, Lei

    2014-04-01

    Extracting information from unstructured clinical narratives is valuable for many clinical applications. Although natural Language Processing (NLP) methods have been profoundly studied in electronic medical records (EMR), few studies have explored NLP in extracting information from Chinese clinical narratives. In this study, we report the development and evaluation of extracting tumor-related information from operation notes of hepatic carcinomas which were written in Chinese. Using 86 operation notes manually annotated by physicians as the training set, we explored both rule-based and supervised machine-learning approaches. Evaluating on unseen 29 operation notes, our best approach yielded 69.6% in precision, 58.3% in recall and 63.5% F-score. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Knowledge Extraction from MEDLINE by Combining Clustering with Natural Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Miñarro-Giménez, Jose A.; Kreuzthaler, Markus; Schulz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The identification of relevant predicates between co-occurring concepts in scientific literature databases like MEDLINE is crucial for using these sources for knowledge extraction, in order to obtain meaningful biomedical predications as subject-predicate-object triples. We consider the manually assigned MeSH indexing terms (main headings and subheadings) in MEDLINE records as a rich resource for extracting a broad range of domain knowledge. In this paper, we explore the combination of a clustering method for co-occurring concepts based on their related MeSH subheadings in MEDLINE with the use of SemRep, a natural language processing engine, which extracts predications from free text documents. As a result, we generated sets of clusters of co-occurring concepts and identified the most significant predicates for each cluster. The association of such predicates with the co-occurrences of the resulting clusters produces the list of predications, which were checked for relevance. PMID:26958228

  20. Supercritical fluid extraction of N-nitrosamines in hams processed in elastic rubber nettings.

    PubMed

    Pensabene, J W; Fiddler, W; Maxwell, R J; Lightfield, A R; Hampson, J W

    1995-01-01

    A method for analysing N-nitrosamines in hams processed in elastic rubber nettings by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is described. The study was carried out with the prototype of a commercial extractor with a silica gel adsorption cartridge integrally attached to the variable restrictor. The SFE method was compared with a solid-phase extraction procedure currently used for ham analysis. Both methods used the same gas chromatographic-chemiluminescence detection conditions. No significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between results obtained with the 2 methods. Repeatability standard deviation of the SFE method was 1.7 ppb, with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 2.7%, compared with 2.2 ppb, with a CV of 3.5%, for solid-phase extraction. SFE permits minimal use of solvent and more rapid analysis of nitrosamines.

  1. Developing an Intelligent Automatic Appendix Extraction Method from Ultrasonography Based on Fuzzy ART and Image Processing

    PubMed Central

    Song, Doo Heon; Han, Sang-suk

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound examination (US) does a key role in the diagnosis and management of the patients with clinically suspected appendicitis which is the most common abdominal surgical emergency. Among the various sonographic findings of appendicitis, outer diameter of the appendix is most important. Therefore, clear delineation of the appendix on US images is essential. In this paper, we propose a new intelligent method to extract appendix automatically from abdominal sonographic images as a basic building block of developing such an intelligent tool for medical practitioners. Knowing that the appendix is located at the lower organ area below the bottom fascia line, we conduct a series of image processing techniques to find the fascia line correctly. And then we apply fuzzy ART learning algorithm to the organ area in order to extract appendix accurately. The experiment verifies that the proposed method is highly accurate (successful in 38 out of 40 cases) in extracting appendix. PMID:26089963

  2. Extracting business vocabularies from business process models: SBVR and BPMN standards-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skersys, Tomas; Butleris, Rimantas; Kapocius, Kestutis

    2013-10-01

    Approaches for the analysis and specification of business vocabularies and rules are very relevant topics in both Business Process Management and Information Systems Development disciplines. However, in common practice of Information Systems Development, the Business modeling activities still are of mostly empiric nature. In this paper, basic aspects of the approach for business vocabularies' semi-automated extraction from business process models are presented. The approach is based on novel business modeling-level OMG standards "Business Process Model and Notation" (BPMN) and "Semantics for Business Vocabularies and Business Rules" (SBVR), thus contributing to OMG's vision about Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) and to model-driven development in general.

  3. Enhanced anthocyanin extraction from red cabbage using pulsed electric field processing.

    PubMed

    Gachovska, Tanya; Cassada, David; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan; Hanna, Milford; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Snow, Daniel

    2010-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on anthocyanin extraction from red cabbage using water as a solvent. Mashed cabbage was placed in a batch treatment chamber and subjected to PEF (2.5 kV/cm electric field strength; 15 micros pulse width and 50 pulses, specific energy 15.63 J/g). Extracted anthocyanin concentrations (16 to 889 microg/mL) were determined using HPLC. Heat and light stabilities of the control and PEF-treated samples, having approximately the same initial concentrations, were studied. PEF treatments enhanced total anthocyanin extraction in water from red cabbage by 2.15 times with a higher proportion of nonacylated forms than the control (P < 0.05). The heat and light stabilities of the PEF-treated samples and control samples were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Practical Application: An innovative pretreatment technology, pulsed electric field processing, enhanced total anthocyanin extraction in water from red cabbage by 2.15 times. Manufacturers of natural colors can use this technology to extract anthocyanins from red cabbage efficiently.

  4. Storage stability of traditional Tunisian butter enriched with antioxidant extract from tomato processing by-products.

    PubMed

    Abid, Yousra; Azabou, Samia; Jridi, Mourad; Khemakhem, Ibtihel; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Attia, Hamadi

    2017-10-15

    Traditional Tunisian butter (TTB) is one of the most appreciated dairy products in Tunisia. Herein, the storage stability of TTB enriched with antioxidants from tomato processing by-products (TPB) was evaluated during 60days of storage at 4°C. TPB extract contains significant amounts of lycopene and phenolics. TTB enriched with 400mg of TPB extract/kg of TTB revealed the lowest peroxide values at all the determination intervals. Adding 400mg of TPB extract/kg of TTB did not exhibit any undesired effect on lactic bacteria which are necessary for development of aroma and chemical properties of TTB. However, raw TTB and highly enriched TTB (800mg of TPB extract/kg of TTB) displayed higher lipid peroxidation. The detrimental effect of high antioxidant amounts on TTB stability could be due to a possible pro-oxidant character. Thus, appropriate supplementation of TPB extract could be used in TTB as a protective agent against lipid peroxidation to extend its shelf-life up to two months. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A process for reduction in viscosity of coffee extract by enzymatic hydrolysis of mannan.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Prakram Singh; Sharma, Prince; Puri, Neena; Gupta, Naveen

    2014-07-01

    Mannan is the main polysaccharide component of coffee extract and is responsible for its high viscosity, which in turn negatively affects the technological processing involved in making instant coffee. In our study, we isolated mannan from coffee beans and extract of commercial coffee and it was enzymatically hydrolyzed using alkali-thermostable mannanase obtained from Bacillus nealsonii PN-11. As mannan is found to be more soluble under alkaline conditions, an alkali-thermostable mannanase is well suited for its hydrolysis. The process of enzymatic hydrolysis was optimized by response surface methodology. Under the following optimized conditions viz enzyme dose of 11.50 U mannanase g(-1) coffee extract, temperature of 44.50 °C and time of 35.80 min, significant twofold decrease in viscosity (50 mPas to 26.00 ± 1.56 mPas) was achieved. The application of this process in large-scale industrial production of coffee will help in reduction of energy consumption used during freeze-drying. It will also make technological processing involved in making coffee more economical.

  6. Effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract on healing process of surgical wounds in rat.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Sayyed Yazdan; Parsaei, Pouya; Karimi, Mehrdad; Ezzati, Sareh; Zamiri, Alaleh; Mohammadizadeh, Fereshteh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and may enhance wound healing process. The present study, therefore, was aimed to examine the effect of green tea ethanolic extract on wound healing process. For this experimental study, 36 healthy male Wistar rats were randomly designated to three groups of A, B, and C which, respectively treated with, Vaseline + 0.6% green tea extract, Vaseline and normal saline for 21 days. Wounds' length and area were measured by caliper every other day and specimens were taken at 3rd, 12th, and 21st day for microscopical examinations. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 using survival analysis (Breslow test), repeated measured ANOVA, one-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The mean healing duration of surgical wounds in groups A and B was 14.66 and 20.66 (P = 0.018), respectively. Decrease in healing duration in the group A was significantly higher within the first two weeks compared with control groups (P = 0.05). Microscopic examinations also indicated a significant difference in wound healing process between groups A and C throughout the whole study duration as well as groups A and B during the 3rd week of the study (P < 0.05). Green tea extract could help wound healing process, probably effective on surgical wounds healing.

  7. Effects of combination processes on the extraction of pectins from rapeseed cake (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Han-Seob; Kim, Ho-Yong; Ahn, Sye Hee; Oh, Sei Chang; Yang, In; Choi, In-Gyu

    2013-08-15

    In this study, rapeseed cake (RSC) was used as a source of pectins due to its high carbohydrate content. Different combinations of treatments were applied to investigate the effect of combination processes on the extraction of pectin from RSC. The treatments chosen for combination were a fat removal process (FRP) (solvent extraction using an alcohol-benzene mixture), a chemical treatment (CT) (hydrolysis using 1% hydrochloric acid), and an enzymatic hydrolysis (EH). After the combined processes, pectins were extracted by isopropanol/ethanol precipitation and the residues were analysed by HPLC or an elemental analyser. The pectin yields and galacturonic acid contents were increased by FRP because 72.13% of the total fat was removed; additionally, EH had a similar effect. However, CT decreased the yields because the treatment was too harsh and the galacturonic acid broke down. Pectin yields and galacturonic acid contents were highest in the combination process FRP/EH (6.23% and 64.23%, respectively). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of extraction and concentration processes on properties of longan syrup.

    PubMed

    Surin, Siriluck; Thakeow, Prodpran; Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Angeli, Sergio; Phimolsiripol, Yuthana

    2014-09-01

    Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) syrup is a novel liquid sweetener produced from longan, one of the traditional and economic fruits in the Northern of Thailand. In this research, the effect of extraction and concentration processes on properties of longan syrup was investigated. There were two extraction methods (juice extractor and hydraulic press) and three concentration methods (direct heating, steam heating and vacuum evaporation). Results overall showed that the extraction method had no significant (p ≥ 0.05) effect on longan syrup properties, while concentration resulted in the quality changes of longan syrup. Concentration using direct heating of longan juice caused reduction of sucrose content, and longan syrup dark in color. The headspace volatile compounds of longan syrup were sampled using direct headspace technique and further characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The identified volatile compounds could be divided into two groups of aroma characteristics which were (1) floral aroma: 3-methybutyl acetate, (β)-ocimene and 2-phenylethyl alcohol and (2) caramel aroma: butyraldehyde, furfural and benzaldehyde. 2-Phenylethyl alcohol, contributing to floral odor, was retained using vacuum evaporation as a concentration method. Result revealed that the optimal concentration process for longan syrup production was vacuum evaporation, providing the highest floral volatile and lowest caramel volatile. Sensory tests confirmed that longan flavor of the syrup produced from the vacuum evaporation process had significantly higher hedonic scores than other processes.

  9. Enhancement of Cognitive Functions by Aronia melanocarpa Elliot Through an Intermittent Ultrasonication Extraction Process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Young; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2016-03-01

    To increase the cognitive enhancement provided by Aronia melanocarpa Elliot (Aronia), Aronia was extracted using 70% ethanol solvent and six cycles of intermittent ultrasonication at 120 KHz for 50 min, followed by a rest for 10 min (UE), and was also extracted using 70% ethanol for 24 h at 80°C (EE) as a control process. In both in vivo water maze and passive avoidance tests, the UE showed better performance enhancement than the EE: in the water maze, mice treated with EE and UE showed escape latencies of 62.6 s and 54.3 s, respectively; for passive avoidance, they showed retention times of 45.9 s and 38.9 s, respectively. UE downregulated the expression level of acetylcholinesterase genes to 1.46 times compared with 1.72 for EE. However, there were no significant histological differences in the hippocampus between the mice fed with EE and those fed UE. Additionally, the UE was confirmed to have a greater antioxidant effect, 0.728 versus 0.561 for EE. Comparison of the high-performance liquid chromatography chromatograms of the extracts demonstrates that the intermittent ultrasonication process may improve the cognitive activities of Aronia by eluting higher amounts of cyanidin-3-galactoside (C3G). This work is the first to report that the crude extract from the intermittent ultrasonication process provided better cognitive enhancement than a single major bioactive substance, C3G itself, possibly through the synergistic effects of other anthocyanins present in the extract, such as delphine galactoside, cyanidin arabinoside, and cyanidin glucoside. We also believe that these findings may provide a reliable basis for developing natural plant drugs to compensate for the side effects of purified and/or chemically synthesized single-component drugs rather than to compete with them.

  10. Natural Language Processing Techniques for Extracting and Categorizing Finding Measurements in Narrative Radiology Reports.

    PubMed

    Sevenster, M; Buurman, J; Liu, P; Peters, J F; Chang, P J

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating quantitative outcome parameters may contribute to constructing a healthcare organization in which outcomes of clinical procedures are reproducible and predictable. In imaging studies, measurements are the principal category of quantitative para meters. The purpose of this work is to develop and evaluate two natural language processing engines that extract finding and organ measurements from narrative radiology reports and to categorize extracted measurements by their "temporality". The measurement extraction engine is developed as a set of regular expressions. The engine was evaluated against a manually created ground truth. Automated categorization of measurement temporality is defined as a machine learning problem. A ground truth was manually developed based on a corpus of radiology reports. A maximum entropy model was created using features that characterize the measurement itself and its narrative context. The model was evaluated in a ten-fold cross validation protocol. The measurement extraction engine has precision 0.994 and recall 0.991. Accuracy of the measurement classification engine is 0.960. The work contributes to machine understanding of radiology reports and may find application in software applications that process medical data.

  11. Natural Language Processing Techniques for Extracting and Categorizing Finding Measurements in Narrative Radiology Reports

    PubMed Central

    Buurman, J.; Liu, P.; Peters, J.F.; Chang, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Accumulating quantitative outcome parameters may contribute to constructing a healthcare organization in which outcomes of clinical procedures are reproducible and predictable. In imaging studies, measurements are the principal category of quantitative para meters. Objectives The purpose of this work is to develop and evaluate two natural language processing engines that extract finding and organ measurements from narrative radiology reports and to categorize extracted measurements by their “temporality”. Methods The measurement extraction engine is developed as a set of regular expressions. The engine was evaluated against a manually created ground truth. Automated categorization of measurement temporality is defined as a machine learning problem. A ground truth was manually developed based on a corpus of radiology reports. A maximum entropy model was created using features that characterize the measurement itself and its narrative context. The model was evaluated in a ten-fold cross validation protocol. Results The measurement extraction engine has precision 0.994 and recall 0.991. Accuracy of the measurement classification engine is 0.960. Conclusions The work contributes to machine understanding of radiology reports and may find application in software applications that process medical data. PMID:26448801

  12. Flaking process increases the NF-κB inhibition activity and melanoidin extractability of coffee

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yi-Fang; Hu, Kang; Hatzold, Thomas; Black, Richard M; Chen, Don

    2013-01-01

    Research on the health impacts of coffee has escalated. However, few studies were devoted to understanding the potential impact of mechanical processing on coffee's chemistry and subsequent health implications. Coffee flaking is a commonly used process to improve extractability and aroma characteristics. In this study, we studied the biochemical activity, chemical composition, and microstructure of coffee before and after flaking. We found that flaked coffee extract had 3.3-fold higher activity in inhibiting nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation than regular coffee extract. Interestingly, flaking did not significantly alter the amount of coffee phenolics. It increased coffee melanoidin, by 2.1-fold, which likely contributed to the observed higher activity in inhibiting NF-κB activation. Flaking crushed cell walls revealed by microscopy might possibly result in disruption of polysaccharide entanglement and release of high-molecular-weight compounds, such as melanoidins. Consequently, the increased melanoidin content in the brew resulted in the increased inhibition of NF-κB activation. Small molecules, like coffee phenolics, are readily soluble in water during coffee brewing even without flaking, suggesting that flaking has no effect on its extractability. In summary, our investigation revealed that flaking enhanced NF-κB inhibition activity, possibly through the release of melanoidins from crushed cell microstructures. PMID:24804042

  13. Enumeration and rapid identification of yeasts during extraction processes of extra virgin olive oil in Tuscany.

    PubMed

    Mari, Eleonora; Guerrini, Simona; Granchi, Lisa; Vincenzini, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of yeast populations during different olive oil extraction processes, carried out in three consecutive years in Tuscany (Italy), by analysing crushed pastes, kneaded pastes, oil from decanter and pomaces. The results showed yeast concentrations ranging between 10(3) and 10(5) CFU/g or per mL. Seventeen dominant yeast species were identified by random amplified polymorphic DNA with primer M13 and their identification was confirmed by restriction fragments length polymorphism of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and sequencing rRNA genes. The isolation frequencies of each species in the collected samples pointed out that the occurrence of the various yeast species in olive oil extraction process was dependent not only on the yeasts contaminating the olives but also on the yeasts colonizing the plant for oil extraction. In fact, eleven dominant yeast species were detected from the washed olives, but only three of them were also found in oil samples at significant isolation frequency. On the contrary, the most abundant species in oil samples, Yamadazyma terventina, did not occur in washed olive samples. These findings suggest a phenomenon of contamination of the plant for oil extraction that selects some yeast species that could affect the quality of olive oil.

  14. Sabah snake grass extract pre-processing: Preliminary studies in drying and fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solibun, A.; Sivakumar, K.

    2016-06-01

    Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. F.) Lindau which also known as ‘Sabah Snake Grass’ among Malaysians have been studied in terms of its medicinal and chemical properties in Asian countries which is used to treat various diseases from cancer to viral-related diseases such as varicella-zoster virus lesions. Traditionally, this plant has been used by the locals to treat insect and snake bites, skin rashes, diabetes and dysentery. In Malaysia, the fresh leaves of this plant are usually boiled with water and consumed as herbal tea. The objectives of this study are to determine the key process parameters for Sabah Snake Grass fermentation which affect the chemical and biological constituent concentrations within the tea, extraction kinetics of fermented and unfermented tea and the optimal process parameters for the fermentation of this tea. Experimental methods such as drying, fermenting and extraction of C.nutans leaves were conducted before subjecting them to analysis of antioxidant capacity. Conventional oven- dried (40, 45 and 50°C) and fermented (6, 12 and 18 hours) whole C.nutans leaves were subjected to tea infusion extraction (water temperature was 80°C, duration was 90 minutes) and the sample liquid was extracted for every 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 40th, 60th and 90th minute. Analysis for antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) were conducted by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocaltheu reagent, respectively. The 40°C dried leaves sample produced the highest phenolic content at 0.1344 absorbance value in 15 minutes of extraction while 50°C dried leaves sample produced 0.1298 absorbance value in 10 minutes of extraction. The highest antioxidant content was produced by 50°C dried leaves sample with absorbance value of 1.6299 in 5 minutes of extraction. For 40°C dried leaves sample, the highest antioxidant content could be observed in 25 minutes of extraction with the absorbance value of 1.1456. The largest diameter of disc

  15. Detoxification of Abrus precatorius L. seeds by Ayurvedic Shodhana process and anti-inflammatory potential of the detoxified extract

    PubMed Central

    Dhoble, Sagar B.; Majumdar, Anuradha S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abrus precatorius seeds traditionally used for the treatment of sciatica and alopecia contains the toxic protein, abrin, a Type II Ribosome Inactivating Protein. Ayurveda recommends the use of Abrus seeds after the Shodhana process (detoxification). Objective: The current study was aimed at performing the Shodhana process, swedana (boiling) of Abrus precatorius seeds using water as a medium and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of seed extract post detoxification. Materials and Methods: Non-detoxified and detoxified extracts were prepared and subsequently subjected to various in vitro and in vivo assays. In hemagglutination assay, the non-detoxified extract shows higher agglutination of RBCs than detoxified extract indicating riddance of toxic hemagglutinating proteins by Shodhana. This was confirmed by the SDSPAGE analysis of detoxified extract revealing the absence of abrin band in detoxified extract when compared to non-detoxified extract. Results: The cytotoxicity assay in HeLa cell line expresses a higher reduction in growth percentage of the cells with non-detoxified extract as compared to detoxified extract indicating successful detoxification. Brine shrimp lethality test indicated the reduction in toxicity index of detoxified extract as compared to non-detoxified extract. Further, the whole body apoptosis assay in zebrafish revealed that percentage of viable cells were greater for detoxified extract than non-detoxified extract. The anti-inflammatory studies using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats was carried out on the extracts with doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, per oral, where the detoxified extract exhibited significant inhibition of rat paw edema at both the doses comparable to that of Diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Absence of toxicity and the retention of the anti-inflammatory activity of detoxified Abrus seed extract confirmed that the Swedana process is effective in carrying out the detoxification without affecting

  16. The solvent absorption-extractive distillation (SAED) process for ethanol recovery from gas/vapor streams

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, M.C.

    1993-12-31

    A low energy system for ethanol recovery and dehydration has been developed. This system utilizes a solvent for (1) absorption of ethanol vapors, and then the same solvent for (2) extractive distillation. The ideal solvent for this process would have a high affinity for ethanol, and no affinity for water. Heavy alcohols such as dodecanol, and tridecanol, some phosphorals, and some fatty acids have been determined to meet the desired specifications. These solvents have the effect of making water more volatile than ethanol. Thus, a water stream is taken off initially in the dehydration column, and a near anhydrous ethanol stream is recovered from the ethanol/solvent stripper column. Thus the solvent serves dual uses (1) absorption media, and (2) dehydration media. The SAED process as conceptualized would use a solvent similar to solvents used for direct extractive separation of ethanol from aqueous ethanol solutions.

  17. Hybrid Discrete Wavelet Transform and Gabor Filter Banks Processing for Features Extraction from Biomedical Images.

    PubMed

    Lahmiri, Salim; Boukadoum, Mounir

    2013-01-01

    A new methodology for automatic feature extraction from biomedical images and subsequent classification is presented. The approach exploits the spatial orientation of high-frequency textural features of the processed image as determined by a two-step process. First, the two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is applied to obtain the HH high-frequency subband image. Then, a Gabor filter bank is applied to the latter at different frequencies and spatial orientations to obtain new Gabor-filtered image whose entropy and uniformity are computed. Finally, the obtained statistics are fed to a support vector machine (SVM) binary classifier. The approach was validated on mammograms, retina, and brain magnetic resonance (MR) images. The obtained classification accuracies show better performance in comparison to common approaches that use only the DWT or Gabor filter banks for feature extraction.

  18. Bicoid signal extraction with a selection of parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Ghodsi, Zara; Silva, Emmanuel Sirimal; Hassani, Hossein

    2015-06-01

    The maternal segmentation coordinate gene bicoid plays a significant role during Drosophila embryogenesis. The gradient of Bicoid, the protein encoded by this gene, determines most aspects of head and thorax development. This paper seeks to explore the applicability of a variety of signal processing techniques at extracting bicoid expression signal, and whether these methods can outperform the current model. We evaluate the use of six different powerful and widely-used models representing both parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques to determine the most efficient method for signal extraction in bicoid. The results are evaluated using both real and simulated data. Our findings show that the Singular Spectrum Analysis technique proposed in this paper outperforms the synthesis diffusion degradation model for filtering the noisy protein profile of bicoid whilst the exponential smoothing technique was found to be the next best alternative followed by the autoregressive integrated moving average.

  19. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its application to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.N. ); King, C.J. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports on solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents which increase sharply as the concentration of water in the solvent increases. This phenomenon leads to a method of regeneration for solvent-extraction processes whereby coextracted water is selectively removed from the extract, such as by stripping, thereby precipitating the acid. The removal of a minor constituent to cause precipitation reduces energy consumption, in contrast with bulk removal of solvent. Solubilities of fumaric acid were measured in a number of organic solvents, with varying amounts of water in the organic phase. Cyclohexanone and methylcyclohexanone were chosen as solvents for which detailed solid-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria were measured for adipic, fumaric, and succinic acids in the presence of varying concentrations of water, at both 25 and 45[degrees]C. Batch precipitation experiments were performed to demonstrate the processing concept and determine the relative volatility of water to solvent in the presence of carbon.

  20. Bicoid Signal Extraction with a Selection of Parametric and Nonparametric Signal Processing Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsi, Zara; Silva, Emmanuel Sirimal; Hassani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    The maternal segmentation coordinate gene bicoid plays a significant role during Drosophila embryogenesis. The gradient of Bicoid, the protein encoded by this gene, determines most aspects of head and thorax development. This paper seeks to explore the applicability of a variety of signal processing techniques at extracting bicoid expression signal, and whether these methods can outperform the current model. We evaluate the use of six different powerful and widely-used models representing both parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques to determine the most efficient method for signal extraction in bicoid. The results are evaluated using both real and simulated data. Our findings show that the Singular Spectrum Analysis technique proposed in this paper outperforms the synthesis diffusion degradation model for filtering the noisy protein profile of bicoid whilst the exponential smoothing technique was found to be the next best alternative followed by the autoregressive integrated moving average. PMID:26197438

  1. Potato peel extract-a natural antioxidant for retarding lipid peroxidation in radiation processed lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Kanatt, Sweetie R; Chander, Ramesh; Radhakrishna, P; Sharma, Arun

    2005-03-09

    The effective utilization of potato peel, a waste generated in large quantities by the food industry, as an antioxidant was investigated. Potato peel extract (PPE) exhibited high phenolic content (70.82 mg of catechin equivalent/100 g), chlorogenic acid (27.56 mg/100 g of sample) being the major component. The yield of total phenolics and chlorogenic acid increased by 26 and 60%, respectively, when the extract was prepared from gamma irradiated (150 Gy) potatoes. PPE showed excellent antioxidant activity as determined by beta-carotene bleaching and radical scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The suitability of PPE for controlling lipid oxidation of radiation processed lamb meat was also investigated. PPE (0.04%) when added to meat before radiation processing was found to retard lipid peroxidation of irradiated meat as measured by TBA number and carbonyl content. The antioxidant activity of PPE was found to be comparable to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT).

  2. Hybrid Discrete Wavelet Transform and Gabor Filter Banks Processing for Features Extraction from Biomedical Images

    PubMed Central

    Lahmiri, Salim; Boukadoum, Mounir

    2013-01-01

    A new methodology for automatic feature extraction from biomedical images and subsequent classification is presented. The approach exploits the spatial orientation of high-frequency textural features of the processed image as determined by a two-step process. First, the two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is applied to obtain the HH high-frequency subband image. Then, a Gabor filter bank is applied to the latter at different frequencies and spatial orientations to obtain new Gabor-filtered image whose entropy and uniformity are computed. Finally, the obtained statistics are fed to a support vector machine (SVM) binary classifier. The approach was validated on mammograms, retina, and brain magnetic resonance (MR) images. The obtained classification accuracies show better performance in comparison to common approaches that use only the DWT or Gabor filter banks for feature extraction. PMID:27006906

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Quentin C. Berg; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Jason C. Hissam; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Abha Saddawi; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-07

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of carbon electrodes for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells (DCFC), and on carbon foam composites used in ballistic armor, as well as the hydrotreatment of solvents used in the basic solvent extraction process. A major goal is the production of 1500 pounds of binder pitch, corresponding to about 3000 pounds of hydrotreated solvent.

  4. DNA extract characterization process for microbial detection methods development and validation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays used in pathogen detection require rigorous methods development including characterizing DNA extraction products. A DNA extract characterization process is demonstrated using DNA extracted from five different cells types (two Gram-negatives: Escherichia coli, and Burkholderia thailandensis, spores and vegetative cells from the Gram-positive Bacillus cereus, and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with six different methods. Results DNA extract quantity (concentration and extraction efficiency) and quality (purity and intactness) varied by cell type and extraction method enabling the demonstration of different DNA characterization methods. DNA purity was measured using UV spectroscopy, where the A260/A280 and A260/A230 ratios are indicators of different contaminants. Reproducibility of UV spectroscopy measurements decreased for DNA concentrations less than 17.5 ng/μL. Forty-seven extracts had concentrations greater than 17.5 ng/μL, 25 had A260/A280 above 2.0, and 28 had A260/A230 ratios below 1.8 indicating RNA and polysaccharide contamination respectively. Based on a qPCR inhibition assay the contaminants did not inhibit PCR. Extract intactness was evaluated using microfluidic gel electrophoresis. Thirty-five samples had concentrations above the limit of quantification (LOQ, roughly 11 ng/ μL), 93.5% of the DNA was larger than 1kb and 1% was smaller than 300 bp. Extract concentrations ranged from 1502.2 ng/μL to below the LOQ when UV spectroscopy, fluorometry, and qPCR were used. LOQ for UV spectroscopic and fluorometric measurements were 3.5 ng/μL and 0.25 ng/μL respectively. The qPCR LOQ varied by cell type (5.72 × 10-3 ng/μL for E. coli, 2.66 × 10-3 ng/μL, for B. cereus, 3.78 × 10-3 ng/μL for B. thailandensis, and 7.67 × 10-4 ng/μL for S. cerevisiae). A number of samples were below the UV spectroscopy (n = 27), flurometry (n = 15), and qPCR (n = 3) LOQ

  5. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant phaseout/deactivation study

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, M.W.; Thompson, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The decision to cease all US Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels was made on April 28, 1992. This study provides insight into and a comparison of the management, technical, compliance, and safety strategies for deactivating the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this study is to ensure that lessons-learned and future plans are coordinated between the two facilities.

  6. Solvent extraction of organic acids from stillage for its re-use in ethanol production process.

    PubMed

    Castro, G A; Caicedo, L A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Sanchez, O F

    2010-06-01

    Stillage re-use in the fermentation stage in ethanol production is a technique used for the reduction of water and fermentation nutrients consumption. However, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth of the by-products and feed components that remains in stillage increases with re-use and reduces the number of possible recycles. Several methods such as ultrafiltration, electrodialysis and advanced oxidation processes have been used in stillage treatment prior its re-use in the fermentation stage. Nevertheless, few studies evaluating the effect of solvent extraction as a stillage treatment option have been performed. In this work, the inhibitory effect of serial stillage recycling over ethanol and biomass production was determined, using acetic acid as a monitoring compound during the fermentation and solvent extraction process. Raw palm oil methyl ester showed the highest acetic acid extraction from the aqueous phase, presenting a distribution coefficient of 3.10 for a 1:1 aqueous phase mixture:solvent ratio. Re-using stillage without treatment allowed up to three recycles with an ethanol production of 53.7 +/- 2.0 g L(-1), which was reduced 25% in the fifth recycle. Alternatively, treated stillage allowed up to five recycles with an ethanol final concentration of 54.7 +/- 1.3 g L(- 1). These results show that reduction of acetic acid concentration by an extraction process with raw palm oil methyl ester before re-using stillage improves the number of recycles without a major effect on ethanol production. The proposed process generates a palm oil methyl ester that contains organic acids, among other by-products, that could be used for product recovery and as an alternative fuel.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-08-11

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the facility modifications for continuous hydrotreating, as well as developing improved protocols for producing synthetic pitches.

  8. Improving the two-step remediation process for CCA-treated wood. Part I, Evaluating oxalic acid extraction

    Treesearch

    Carol Clausen

    2004-01-01

    In this study, three possible improvements to a remediation process for chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA) treated wood were evaluated. The process involves two steps: oxalic acid extraction of wood fiber followed by bacterial culture with Bacillus licheniformis CC01. The three potential improvements to the oxalic acid extraction step were (1) reusing oxalic acid for...

  9. Extracting gravitational waves induced by plasma turbulence in the early Universe through an averaging process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, David; Ramirez, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    This work is a follow-up to the paper, ‘Numerical relativity as a tool for studying the early Universe’. In this article, we determine if cosmological gravitational waves can be accurately extracted from a dynamical spacetime using an averaging process as opposed to conventional methods of gravitational wave extraction using a complex Weyl scalar. We calculate the normalized energy density, strain and degree of polarization of gravitational waves produced by a simulated turbulent plasma similar to what was believed to have existed shortly after the electroweak scale. This calculation is completed using two numerical codes, one which utilizes full general relativity calculations based on modified BSSN equations while the other utilizes a linearized approximation of general relativity. Our results show that the spectrum of gravitational waves calculated from the nonlinear code using an averaging process is nearly indistinguishable from those calculated from the linear code. This result validates the use of the averaging process for gravitational wave extraction of cosmological systems.

  10. Simulation and optimization of a supercritical extraction process for recovering provitamin A.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Elenise Bannwart; Alvarez, Mario Eusebio Torres; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Maciel Filho, Rubens

    2006-01-01

    In this work, a simulation procedure of a supercritical extraction process was developed through the use of the commercial simulator HYSYS (Hyprotech Ltd.), adapting the existing units to the operating conditions typical of the supercritical extraction process. The objective is to recover provitamin A (beta-carotene) from palm oil (esterified) using carbon dioxide/ethanol as the supercritical mixed solvent. This example characterizes the problem for recovering high added value product from natural sources, as the palm oil, which is desired by the market. Owing to the fact that esterified palm oil is a complex mixture, made by several components, in order to characterize this system in the simulator, it was necessary to create hypothetical components using the UNIFAC (universal function-group activity coefficients model) group contribution, because they are not present in a conventional database and, then, their physical properties must be estimated and/or predicted before the simulation. The optimization was carried out in each simulation for each equipment, in terms of operating conditions (temperature and pressure), in order to obtain the maximum recovery of carotenes. According to the results, it was possible to concentrate carotenes through two cycles of supercritical extraction with high yield. Furthermore, ethyl esters (biodiesel) were also obtained, as a byproduct of the proposed process, which can also be used as an alternative fuel, with the important characteristic that it is renewable.

  11. Mass Transfer Coefficientin Stirred Tank for p-Cresol Extraction Process from Coal Tar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fardhyanti, D. S.; Tyaningsih, D. S.; Afifah, S. N.

    2017-04-01

    Indonesia is a country that has a lot of coal resources. The Indonesian coal has a low caloric value. Pyrolysis is one of the process to increase the caloric value. One of the by-product of the pyrolysis process is coal tar. It contains a lot of aliphatic or aromatic compounds such asp-cresol (11% v/v). It is widely used as a disinfectant. Extractionof p-Cresol increases the economic value of waste of coal. The aim of this research isto study about mass tranfer coefficient in the baffled stirred tank for p-Cresolextraction from coal tar. Mass transfer coefficient is useful for design and scale up of industrial equipment. Extraction is conducted inthe baffled stirred tank equipped with a four-bladed axial impeller placed vertically in the vessel. Sample for each time processing (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30minutes) was poured into a separating funnel, settled for an hour and separated into two phases. Then the two phases were weighed. The extract phases and raffinate phases were analyzed by Spectronic UV-Vis. The result showed that mixing speed of p-Cresol extraction increasesthe yield of p-Cresol and the mass transfer coefficient. The highest yield of p-Cresol is 49.32% and the highest mass transfer coefficient is 4.757 x 10-6kg/m2s.

  12. Analysis of a reactive extraction process for biodiesel production using a lipase immobilized on magnetic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Dussan, K J; Cardona, C A; Giraldo, O H; Gutiérrez, L F; Pérez, V H

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by coprecipitating Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) ions in a sodium hydroxide solution and used as support for lipase. The lipase-coated particles were applied in a reactive extraction process that allowed separation of the products formed during transesterification. Kinetics data for triolein and ethanol consumption during biodiesel (ethyl oleate) synthesis together with a thermodynamic phase equilibrium model (liquid-liquid) were used for simulation of batch and continuous processes. The analysis demonstrated the possibility of applying this biocatalytic system in the reactive zone using external magnetic fields. This approach implies new advantages in efficient location and use of lipases in column reactors for producing biodiesel.

  13. Extraction and purification methods in downstream processing of plant-based recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Łojewska, Ewelina; Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Olejniczak, Szymon; Sakowicz, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    During the last two decades, the production of recombinant proteins in plant systems has been receiving increased attention. Currently, proteins are considered as the most important biopharmaceuticals. However, high costs and problems with scaling up the purification and isolation processes make the production of plant-based recombinant proteins a challenging task. This paper presents a summary of the information regarding the downstream processing in plant systems and provides a comprehensible overview of its key steps, such as extraction and purification. To highlight the recent progress, mainly new developments in the downstream technology have been chosen. Furthermore, besides most popular techniques, alternative methods have been described.

  14. [Optimize the extraction process with supercritical CO2 fluid from lotus leaves by the uniform design and analysis on the chemical constituents by GC-MS].

    PubMed

    Yin, Hui-jing; Qian, Yi-fan; Pu, Cun-hai

    2007-04-01

    To study the optimum parameters of the supercritical CO, fluid extraction of lotus leaves and chemical constituents of extractive matters. Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction condition was selected by uniform design. The extraction pressure, extraction temperature, extraction time were three factors in the experiment. GC-MS was applied for analyzing the extraction. The optimum condition were obtained: the extraction pressure was 26 Mpa, the extraction temperature was 40 degrees C, the extracion time was 90 minutes. The major constituent was 1H-Pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, 1-ethyl-in extractive matters. Uniform design can optimize the CO2 Supercritical Fluid Extraction process quickly and accuratly with satisfactory results.

  15. Downstream extraction process development for recovery of organic acids from a fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Bekatorou, Argyro; Dima, Agapi; Tsafrakidou, Panagiotia; Boura, Konstantina; Lappa, Katerina; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Pissaridi, Katerina; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2016-11-01

    The present study focused on organic acids (OAs) recovery from an acidogenic fermentation broth, which is the main problem regarding the use of OAs for production of ester-based new generation biofuels or other applications. Specifically, 10 solvents were evaluated for OAs recovery from aqueous media and fermentation broths. The effects of pH, solvent/OAs solution ratios and application of successive extractions were studied. The 1:1 solvent/OAs ratio showed the best recovery rates in most cases. Butyric and isobutyric acids showed the highest recovery rates (80-90%), while lactic, succinic, and acetic acids were poorly recovered (up to 45%). The OAs recovery was significantly improved by successive 10-min extractions. Alcohols presented the best extraction performance. The process using repeated extractions with 3-methyl-1-butanol led to the highest OAs recovery. However, 1-butanol can be considered as the most cost-effective option taking into account its price and availability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimization of squalene extraction from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) in multistage process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibuyo, Leah; Widiputri, Diah; Legowo, Evita

    2017-01-01

    Squalene is a compound widely known as one of the natural antioxidants used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. As the main source of squalene, which is shark liver oil, is becoming more limited in its availability, attempts have been made to extract squalene from other sources, e.g. from vegetable oils. Research has found that one of the wastes produced by palm oil industry, namely the palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), contains squalene among other useful compounds. Since Indonesia is one of the largest producers of palm oil, the abundant amount of PFAD becomes very interesting to be a solution in coping with today demand of natural squalene. In this research, the extraction of squalene from PFAD is optimized through a multiple-stage extraction process, where results show a significant increase of squalene yield. Furthermore, the liquid-liquid phase equilibrium data for an extraction using dichloromethane (DCM) were plotted to develop a ternary-phase-diagram between squalene, DCM and free-fatty acids.

  17. Concentration of antioxidant polyphenols from Thymus capitatus extracts by membrane process technology.

    PubMed

    Achour, Sami; Khelifi, Eltaief; Attia, Yesmine; Ferjani, Ezzeddine; Noureddine Hellal, Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    Thymus capitatus is a Mediterranean plant characterized by its antioxidant polyphenols of which the most known are the carnosic and rosmarinic acids. In this way, this study aims to concentrate these acids by membrane processes. The thyme essential oil composition was established by capillary GC-MS and 27 components were identified representing 98.93%± 1.97% of total oils. The antioxidant test for permeate and retentate of methanolic and aqueous extract were determined using 3 types of membranes. The results showed that the synthetic NF membrane is able to trap and concentrate phenolic compounds in the retentate much better than the NF commercial and UF synthetic membrane. The results of the total phenolic content (TPC) showed a significant value of the polyphenol content present in the aqueous extract with 175.53 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE)/g of extract. The spectrum of the aqueous extract of Thymus capitatus showed the presence of 3 visible peaks, the 1st one at 217 nm corresponding to the carnosic acid, the 2nd one at 277 nm for essential oils, and the last one at 326 nm attributed to the rosmarinic acid. The commercial membrane NF-DK succeeded to concentrate rosmarinic acid and can be considered as a stage towards the concentration of this product with a high added value.

  18. High hydrostatic pressure processing: a method having high success potential in pollen protein extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murat Altuner, Ergin; Çeter, Talip; Alpas, Hami

    2012-06-01

    Even a single peptide that is present in the pollen wall and cytoplasm could cause pollen allergy. To produce skin-prick test kits, the first step is the extraction of these molecules. In this study, Cedrus atlantica pollens were subjected to 220 and 330 MPa for 10 and 30 min in order to extract these molecules. After high hydrostatic pressure processing (HHPP), the total amounts of proteins (TAPs) are measured and compared with the results of the conventional extraction method (CEM). As a result, the TAPs extracted by HHPP is 18.0210 μ g/mL at 220 MPa for 10 min, 22.5770 μ g/mL at 220 MPa for 30 min, 23.3810 μ g/mL at 330 MPa for 10 min and 25.9270 μ g/mL at 330 MPa for 30 min, while this is 1.9460 μ g/mL in 24 h by the CEM. In addition to these results, visual pollen deformation and eruption, pollen wall and surface damage have also been observed.

  19. Semantic extraction and processing of medical records for patient-oriented visual index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weilin; Dong, Wenjie; Chen, Xiangjiao; Zhang, Jianguo

    2012-02-01

    To have comprehensive and completed understanding healthcare status of a patient, doctors need to search patient medical records from different healthcare information systems, such as PACS, RIS, HIS, USIS, as a reference of diagnosis and treatment decisions for the patient. However, it is time-consuming and tedious to do these procedures. In order to solve this kind of problems, we developed a patient-oriented visual index system (VIS) to use the visual technology to show health status and to retrieve the patients' examination information stored in each system with a 3D human model. In this presentation, we present a new approach about how to extract the semantic and characteristic information from the medical record systems such as RIS/USIS to create the 3D Visual Index. This approach includes following steps: (1) Building a medical characteristic semantic knowledge base; (2) Developing natural language processing (NLP) engine to perform semantic analysis and logical judgment on text-based medical records; (3) Applying the knowledge base and NLP engine on medical records to extract medical characteristics (e.g., the positive focus information), and then mapping extracted information to related organ/parts of 3D human model to create the visual index. We performed the testing procedures on 559 samples of radiological reports which include 853 focuses, and achieved 828 focuses' information. The successful rate of focus extraction is about 97.1%.

  20. Biodiesel production from wet microalgae feedstock using sequential wet extraction/transesterification and direct transesterification processes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Lung; Huang, Chien-Chang; Ho, Kao-Chia; Hsiao, Ping-Xuan; Wu, Meng-Shan; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-10-01

    Although producing biodiesel from microalgae seems promising, there is still a lack of technology for the quick and cost-effective conversion of biodiesel from wet microalgae. This study was aimed to develop a novel microalgal biodiesel producing method, consisting of an open system of microwave disruption, partial dewatering (via combination of methanol treatment and low-speed centrifugation), oil extraction, and transesterification without the pre-removal of the co-solvent, using Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4 with 68.7 wt% water content as the feedstock. Direct transesterification with the disrupted wet microalgae was also conducted. The biomass content of the wet microalgae increased to 56.6 and 60.5 wt%, respectively, after microwave disruption and partial dewatering. About 96.2% oil recovery was achieved under the conditions of: extraction temperature, 45°C; hexane/methanol ratio, 3:1; extraction time, 80 min. Transesterification of the extracted oil reached 97.2% conversion within 15 min at 45°C and 6:1 solvent/methanol ratio with simultaneous Chlorophyll removal during the process. Nearly 100% biodiesel conversion was also obtained while conducting direct transesterification of the disrupted oil-bearing microalgal biomass.

  1. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOEpatents

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Curry, Randy Dale; Clevenger, Thomas E.; Golden, Jeffry

    2003-05-27

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacts a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  2. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOEpatents

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Curry, Randy Dale; Clevenger, Thomas E.; Golden, Jeffry

    2000-01-01

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacting a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  3. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Jeffry

    2007-02-13

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacts a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  4. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of red ginseng extracts produced with different processing methods.

    PubMed

    Yoon, E K; Hong, J H; Lê, S; Kim, K O

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were: to develop objective and effective sample preparation and presentation procedures for the sensory analysis of red ginseng extracts (RGE); to identify their sensory attributes in relation with the consumer acceptability of RGEs produced with different processing techniques. The samples included 7 different types of RGE, among which 2 samples were of commercial products and the other samples were specially prepared for the study. The samples differed in processing methods (traditional method, high-hydrostatic pressure [HHP], and fermentation) and extraction solvents (ethanol, water). For the descriptive analysis, 7 trained panelists developed and evaluated 30 attributes. Principal component analysis was conducted to summarize the relationships between the sensory attributes and to get a representation of the samples according to those attributes. Consumers evaluated the appearance and flavor acceptability of the extracts. Hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted on consumer acceptability of flavor. The results showed that the clear differences among the RGEs in terms of sensory perceptions were explained by the processing methods. Consumers were segmented into 3 distinct groups in terms of preference: a consumer cluster that likes the RGEs produced with HHP or fermentation, a cluster that likes a product with strong ginseng flavor, and a cluster that likes a RGE with sweet taste and jujube flavor. These 3 clusters differed somewhat in their consumption frequency and purchase factors, also. The red ginseng extract (RGE) market is rapidly growing due to the consumer awareness of its superior health-promoting effects. However, little attention has been given to sensory properties that are a critical factor in determining quality and consumer preference. The results of this study will be helpful for researchers and manufacturers to understand the sensory characteristics of RGEs and to detect the driving factors of consumer acceptability

  5. Second international symposium on extraction and processing for the treatment and minimization of wastes - 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandran, V.; Nesbitt, C.C.

    1996-12-31

    This volume contains 71 papers presented at the Second International symposium on Extraction and Processing for the Treatment and Minimization of Wastes. 21 papers were selected for the database. The papers selected covered topics in chemical, environmental, and mechanical engineering related to radioactive and nonradioactive wastes. Specific topics include spent catalyst processing of petroleum refinery wastes; redox alloy for water treatment; thermodynamic modeling of uranium fluoride waste processing; calcination of radioactive wastes; geochemical modeling of radioactive waste processing; removal and/or stabilization of arsenic, selenium, mercury, lead and other metals from soils and ground water; pond dredging and dewatering; options for complying with water quality based metal limitations; removal of thorium from ilmenite; and electroslag remelting of fusion reactor vanadium alloy.

  6. Vanadium recovery from oil fly ash by leaching, precipitation and solvent extraction processes.

    PubMed

    Navarro, R; Guzman, J; Saucedo, I; Revilla, J; Guibal, E

    2007-01-01

    In order to reduce the environmental impact due to land disposal of oil fly ash from power plants and to valorize this waste material, the removal of vanadium was investigated using leaching processes (acidic and alkaline treatments), followed by a second step of metal recovery from leachates involving either solvent extraction or selective precipitation. Despite a lower leaching efficiency (compared to sulfuric acid), sodium hydroxide was selected for vanadium leaching since it is more selective for vanadium (versus other transition metals). Precipitation was preferred to solvent extraction for the second step in the treatment since: (a) it is more selective; enabling complete recovery of vanadate from the leachate in the form of pure ammonium vanadate; and (b) stripping of the loaded organic phase (in the solvent extraction process) was not efficient. Precipitation was performed in a two-step procedure: (a) aluminum was first precipitated at pH 8; (b) then ammonium chloride was added at pH 5 to bring about vanadium precipitation.

  7. Multichannel processing for dispersion curves extraction of ultrasonic axial-transmission signals: Comparisons and case studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kailiang; Ta, Dean; Cassereau, Didier; Hu, Bo; Wang, Weiqi; Laugier, Pascal; Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    Some pioneering studies have shown the clinical feasibility of long bones evaluation using ultrasonic guided waves. Such a strategy is typically designed to determine the dispersion information of the guided modes to infer the elastic and structural characteristics of cortical bone. However, there are still some challenges to extract multimode dispersion curves due to many practical limitations, e.g., high spectral density of modes, limited spectral resolution and poor signal-to-noise ratio. Recently, two representative signal processing methods have been proposed to improve the dispersion curves extraction. The first method is based on singular value decomposition (SVD) with advantages of multi-emitter and multi-receiver configuration for enhanced mode extraction; the second one uses linear Radon transform (LRT) with high-resolution imaging of the dispersion curves. To clarify the pros and cons, a face to face comparison was performed between the two methods. The results suggest that the LRT method is suitable to separate the guided modes at low frequency-thickness-product ( fh) range; for multimode signals in broadband fh range, the SVD-based method shows more robust performances for weak mode enhancement and noise filtering. Different methods are valuable to cover the entire fh range for processing ultrasonic axial transmission signals measured in long cortical bones.

  8. Vanadium recovery from oil fly ash by leaching, precipitation and solvent extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, R.; Guzman, J.; Saucedo, I.; Guibal, E.

    2007-07-01

    In order to reduce the environmental impact due to land disposal of oil fly ash from power plants and to valorize this waste material, the removal of vanadium was investigated using leaching processes (acidic and alkaline treatments), followed by a second step of metal recovery from leachates involving either solvent extraction or selective precipitation. Despite a lower leaching efficiency (compared to sulfuric acid), sodium hydroxide was selected for vanadium leaching since it is more selective for vanadium (versus other transition metals). Precipitation was preferred to solvent extraction for the second step in the treatment since: (a) it is more selective; enabling complete recovery of vanadate from the leachate in the form of pure ammonium vanadate; and (b) stripping of the loaded organic phase (in the solvent extraction process) was not efficient. Precipitation was performed in a two-step procedure: (a) aluminum was first precipitated at pH 8; (b) then ammonium chloride was added at pH 5 to bring about vanadium precipitation.

  9. Advancement of green process through microwave-assisted extraction of bioactive metabolites from Arthrospira Platensis and bioactivity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Hernández, Diego A; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José; Rostro-Alanis, Magdalena; Cuéllar-Bermúdez, Sara P; Mancera-Andrade, Elena I; Núñez-Echevarría, Jade E; García-Pérez, J Saúl; Chandra, Rashmi; Parra-Saldívar, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Bioactivity and functional properties of cyanobacterial extract mostly depends on process of extraction, temperature and solvent used (polar or non-polar). To evaluate these parameters a design of experiment (DOE; using a 2(k) design) was performed with Arthrospira platensis. Extraction process was optimized through microwave-assisted extraction considering solvent ratio, temperature and time of extraction with polar (PS) and non-polar (NPS). Maximum extract yield obtained was 4.32±0.25% and 5.26±0.11% (w/w) respectively for PS and NPS. Maximum content of bioactive metabolites in PS extracts were thiamine (846.57±14.12μg/g), riboflavin (101.09±1.63μg/g), C-phycocyanin (2.28±0.10μg/g) and A-phycocyanin (4.11±0.03μg/g), while for NPS extracts were α-tocopherol (37.86±0.78μg/g), β-carotene (123.64±1.45μg/g) and 19.44±0.21mg/g of fatty acids. A. platensis PS extracts showed high antimicrobial activity and PS extracts had antioxidant activity of 0.79±0.12μmolTE/g for FRAP assay, while for NPS extracts 1.03±0.08μmol α-TE/g for FRAP assay.

  10. Fluoro-alcohol phase modifiers and process for cesium solvent extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bonnesen, Peter V.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.

    2003-05-20

    The invention relates to a class of phenoxy fluoro-alcohols, their preparation, and their use as phase modifiers and solvating agents in a solvent composition for the extraction of cesium from alkaline solutions. These phenoxy fluoro-alcohols comply with the formula: ##STR1## in which n=2 to 4; X represents a hydrogen or a fluorine atom, and R.sup.2 -R.sup.6 are hydrogen or alkyl substituents. These phenoxy fluoro-alcohol phase modifiers are a necessary component to a robust solvent composition and process useful for the removal of radioactive cesium from alkaline nuclear waste streams. The fluoro-alcohols can also be used in solvents designed to extract other cesium from acidic or neutral solutions.

  11. Hybrid joule heating/electro-osmosis process for extracting contaminants from soil layers

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Nitao, John J.

    2003-06-10

    Joule (ohmic) heating and electro-osmosis are combined in a hybrid process for removal of both water-soluble contaminants and non-aqueous phase liquids from contaminated, low-permeability soil formations that are saturated. Central to this hybrid process is the partial desaturation of the formation or layer using electro-osmosis to remove a portion of the pore fluids by induction of a ground water flow to extraction wells. Joule heating is then performed on a partially desaturated formation. The joule heating and electro-osmosis operations can be carried out simultaneously or sequentially if the desaturation by electro-osmosis occurs initially. Joule heating of the desaturated formation results in a very effective transfer or partitioning of liquid state contaminants to the vapor phase. The heating also substantially increases the vapor phase pressure in the porous formation. As a result, the contaminant laden vapor phase is forced out into soil layers of a higher permeability where other conventional removal processes, such as steam stripping or ground water extraction can be used to capture the contaminants. This hybrid process is more energy efficient than joule heating or steam stripping for cleaning low permeability formations and can share electrodes to minimize facility costs.

  12. [Performance optimization of property-improved biodiesel manufacturing process coupled with butanol extractive fermentation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Longyun; Yang, Ying; Shi, Zhongping

    2008-11-01

    The products concentrations in traditional acetone-butanol (AB) fermentation are too low that large amount of energy has to be consumed in the distillation and product recovery process. Aiming at direct utilization of the fermentation products, in this study, optimization of property-improved biodiesel manufacturing process coupled with AB extractive fermentation was conducted, under the condition of using the biodiesel originated from waste cooking oil as the extractant and high concentrated corn flour medium. The effect of biodiesel/broth volume ratio, waste supernatant recycle ratio, and electronic carrier addition on the major process performance index was carefully investigated. Under the optimized condition, the biodiesel quality was improved with the cetane value increased from 51.4 to 54.4; "actual butanol yield" reached to a level of 18%, and waste supernatant recycle ratio exceeded 50%. In this way, elimination of energy-consuming product recovery process and realization of "energy-saving & waste minimization" industrial production target advocated by the state government, could be potentially expected.

  13. An image processing based paradigm for the extraction of tonal sounds in cetacean communications.

    PubMed

    Kershenbaum, Arik; Roch, Marie A

    2013-12-01

    Dolphins and whales use tonal whistles for communication, and it is known that frequency modulation encodes contextual information. An automated mathematical algorithm could characterize the frequency modulation of tonal calls for use with clustering and classification. Most automatic cetacean whistle processing techniques are based on peak or edge detection or require analyst assistance in verifying detections. An alternative paradigm is introduced using techniques of image processing. Frequency information is extracted as ridges in whistle spectrograms. Spectral ridges are the fundamental structure of tonal vocalizations, and ridge detection is a well-established image processing technique, easily applied to vocalization spectrograms. This paradigm is implemented as freely available matlab scripts, coined IPRiT (image processing ridge tracker). Its fidelity in the reconstruction of synthesized whistles is compared to another published whistle detection software package, silbido. Both algorithms are also applied to real-world recordings of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops trunactus) signature whistles and tested for the ability to identify whistles belonging to different individuals. IPRiT gave higher fidelity and lower false detection than silbido with synthesized whistles, and reconstructed dolphin identity groups from signature whistles, whereas silbido could not. IPRiT appears to be superior to silbido for the extraction of the precise frequency variation of the whistle.

  14. Concentration of Tea Extracts by Osmotic Evaporation: Optimisation of Process Parameters and Effect on Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Marisa P.; Alves, Vítor D.; Coelhoso, Isabel M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the concentration process of three different tea extracts (medicinal Rosil No. 6, Black, and Forest Fruit teas) using the osmotic evaporation (OE) process, was studied. The effect of the OE process on the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was evaluated. The concentration process was carried out in a hollow-fibre membrane contactor with an effective surface area of 0.54 m2. The tea extract was circulated through the shell side of the contactor, while a concentrated osmotic solution (CaCl2 5 M) was circulated inside the fibres. The flux, the driving force, and the mass transfer coefficient were evaluated. A decrease of the water flux over time was observed and was attributed only to the decrease of the driving force, caused by the dilution of the osmotic solution. Using a surface area/feed volume ratio of 774 m2·m−3, it is possible to reach a tea concentration of 40% (w/w) in 5 h, with a constant water flux and without losing the phenolic content and antioxidant potential in most teas. PMID:28036043

  15. An image processing based paradigm for the extraction of tonal sounds in cetacean communications

    PubMed Central

    Kershenbaum, Arik; Roch, Marie A.

    2013-01-01

    Dolphins and whales use tonal whistles for communication, and it is known that frequency modulation encodes contextual information. An automated mathematical algorithm could characterize the frequency modulation of tonal calls for use with clustering and classification. Most automatic cetacean whistle processing techniques are based on peak or edge detection or require analyst assistance in verifying detections. An alternative paradigm is introduced using techniques of image processing. Frequency information is extracted as ridges in whistle spectrograms. Spectral ridges are the fundamental structure of tonal vocalizations, and ridge detection is a well-established image processing technique, easily applied to vocalization spectrograms. This paradigm is implemented as freely available matlab scripts, coined IPRiT (image processing ridge tracker). Its fidelity in the reconstruction of synthesized whistles is compared to another published whistle detection software package, silbido. Both algorithms are also applied to real-world recordings of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops trunactus) signature whistles and tested for the ability to identify whistles belonging to different individuals. IPRiT gave higher fidelity and lower false detection than silbido with synthesized whistles, and reconstructed dolphin identity groups from signature whistles, whereas silbido could not. IPRiT appears to be superior to silbido for the extraction of the precise frequency variation of the whistle. PMID:25669255

  16. Chemical analysis of extracting transition metal oxides from polymetallic ore by sulphate process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enkh-Uyanga, Otgon-Uul; Munkhtsetseg, Baatar; Urangoo, Urtnasan; Tserendulam, Enkhtur; Agiimaa, Davaadorj

    2017-06-01

    In this research work we attempt to improve the purity of polymetallic ores in Mongolia whilst developing practical applications of its refinement processes and this paper presents the results of chemical research of extracting transition metal titanium oxides, ferrous oxide and rare earth oxides from polymetallic ore. Thereby, chemical and mineral analysis of polymetallic ore is carried out basis of responses to the support process at various degrees of water whereas transition metal sulphates solubility differ. As a result of sulphate and resulphurization process we have extracted anatase with 62.5 percent titanium dioxide and brookite mineral with 89.6 percent of titanium dioxide as well as mineral with 83.8 percent of ferrous oxide hematite and rare earth oxides with 57.6 percent of cerium oxide. These oxides are identified under various conditions in the thermal processing. The morphology structure and chemical content compound of the mineral has been verified as a result of the XRF, XRD, SEM-EDX analysis.

  17. Molecullar and biochemical effect of alcohlic extract of Alpinia galanga on rat spermatogenesis process

    PubMed Central

    Mazaheri, Mahta; Shahdadi, Vahid; Nazari Boron, Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alpinia galanga (A. galanga) belongs to the Zingiberaceae family has anti-oxidant effects in animals and humans body and often is used as medicament or part of medicaments in Asian folk medicine for various applications. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular and biochemical influence of alcoholic extract from the rhizomes of A. galangal on the spermatogenesis process in male rat. Materials and Methods: Forty five Wistar male rats were divided into three groups, control (n=15) and two tested groups (n=30). Alcoholic extract (5%) of plant was given by oral route at doses of 100 and 300 mg/day for 56 days and spermatogenesis parameters, hormone changes and expression level of the cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM) gene were assessed. Results: Methanol extract of A. galanga increased serum testosterones level significantly in both treated groups in comparison with control group (p<0.05). Besides, the percentage of sperm viability and motility in both tested groups were significantly increased. Follicle stimulating hormone FSH hormone, morphology and weight were affected in both treated groups. With 300 mg/day an increase in sperm count was observed. Sperm motility was increased in two treated groups whereas testis weight was decreased in treated groups. Real time analysis of treated cells of testis showed increase level of mRNA related to CREM gene involved in spermatogenesis process after 56 days induction. Conclusion: It is concluded that application of ethanolic extract of A. galanga significantly increased sperm percentage, viability, motility and testosterone hormone. This suggested that this plant may be promising in enhancing sperm healthy parameters. PMID:25709632

  18. Molecullar and biochemical effect of alcohlic extract of Alpinia galanga on rat spermatogenesis process.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Mahta; Shahdadi, Vahid; Nazari Boron, Ashraf

    2014-11-01

    Alpinia galanga (A. galanga) belongs to the Zingiberaceae family has anti-oxidant effects in animals and humans body and often is used as medicament or part of medicaments in Asian folk medicine for various applications. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular and biochemical influence of alcoholic extract from the rhizomes of A. galangal on the spermatogenesis process in male rat. Forty five Wistar male rats were divided into three groups, control (n=15) and two tested groups (n=30). Alcoholic extract (5%) of plant was given by oral route at doses of 100 and 300 mg/day for 56 days and spermatogenesis parameters, hormone changes and expression level of the cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM) gene were assessed. Methanol extract of A. galanga increased serum testosterones level significantly in both treated groups in comparison with control group (p<0.05). Besides, the percentage of sperm viability and motility in both tested groups were significantly increased. Follicle stimulating hormone FSH hormone, morphology and weight were affected in both treated groups. With 300 mg/day an increase in sperm count was observed. Sperm motility was increased in two treated groups whereas testis weight was decreased in treated groups. Real time analysis of treated cells of testis showed increase level of mRNA related to CREM gene involved in spermatogenesis process after 56 days induction. It is concluded that application of ethanolic extract of A. galanga significantly increased sperm percentage, viability, motility and testosterone hormone. This suggested that this plant may be promising in enhancing sperm healthy parameters.

  19. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of process stream extracts from a coal gasification system.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, R W; Benson, J M; Li, A P; Henderson, R F; Brooks, A L

    1984-01-01

    Extracts of three complex organic environmental mixtures, two from an experimental coal gasifier (a raw gas and a clean gas sample) and one from a coke oven main, were examined for genotoxicity. Three short-term genotoxicity assay systems were used: Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, Chinese hamster ovary cell/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) gene locus mutation assay, and the Chinese hamster lung primary culture/sister chromatid exchange (CHL/SCE) assay. Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate fraction (S-9) was required to observe genotoxicity in both gene locus mutation assays (CHO/HGPRT and Ames). The relative survival of CHO cells exposed to extracts was highest in cells exposed to clean gas samples, with the raw gas sample being the most cytotoxic either with or without the addition of S-9. All three complex mixtures induced sister chromatid exchanges in primary lung cell cultures without the addition of S-9. The relative genotoxicity ranking of the samples varied between the mammalian and prokaryotic assay systems. Coke oven main extract produced fewer revertants in bacteria than the raw gas sample. However, the coke oven main extract was more genotoxic in the two eukaryotic systems (CHL/SCE and CHO/HGPRT) than was the raw gas sample. The results of all three assays indicate that the cleanup process used in the experimental gasifier was effective in decreasing the genotoxic materials in the process stream. These data also reemphasize the necessity of evaluating genotoxicity of complex mixtures in a variety of short-term systems.

  20. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of process stream extracts from a coal gasification system

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, R.W.; Benson, J.M.; Li, A.P.; Henderson, R.F.; Brooks, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Extracts of three complex organic environmental mixtures, two from an experimental coal gasifier (a raw gas and a clean gas sample) and one from a coke oven main, were examined for genotoxicity. Three short-term genotoxicity assay systems were used: Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, Chinese hamster ovary cell/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) gene locus mutation assay, and the Chinese hamster lung primary culture/sister chromatid exchange (CHL/SCE) assay. Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate fraction (S-9) was required to observe genotoxicity in both gene locus mutation assays. The relative survival of CHO cells exposed to extracts was highest in cells exposed to clean gas samples, with the raw gas sample being the most cytotoxic either with or without the addition of S-9. All three complex mixtures induced sister chromatid exchanges in primary lung cell cultures without the addition of S-9. The relative genotoxicity ranking of the samples varied between the mammalian and prokaryotic assay systems. Coke oven main extract produced fewer revertants in bacteria than the raw gas sample. However, the coke oven main extract was more genotoxic in the two eukaryotic systems (CHL/SCE and CHO/HGPRT) than was the raw gas sample. The results of all three assays indicate that the cleanup process used in the experimental gasifier was effective in decreasing the genotoxic materials in the process stream. These data also reemphasize the necessity of evaluating genotoxicity of complex mixtures in a variety of short-term systems. 24 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  1. A comparison of essential oils obtained from lavandin via different extraction processes: Ultrasound, microwave, turbohydrodistillation, steam and hydrodistillation.

    PubMed

    Périno-Issartier, Sandrine; Ginies, Christian; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Chemat, Farid

    2013-08-30

    A total of eight extraction techniques ranging from conventional methods (hydrodistillation (HD), steam distillation (SD), turbohydrodistillation (THD)), through innovative techniques (ultrasound assisted extraction (US-SD) and finishing with microwave assisted extraction techniques such as In situ microwave-generated hydrodistillation (ISMH), microwave steam distillation (MSD), microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG), and microwave steam diffusion (MSDf)) were used to extract essential oil from lavandin flowers and their results were compared. Extraction time, yield, essential oil composition and sensorial analysis were considered as the principal terms of comparison. The essential oils extracted using the more innovative processes were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained from the conventional techniques. The method which gave the best results was the microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) method which gave reduced extraction time (30min against 220min for SD) and gave no differences in essential oil yield and sensorial perception.

  2. Towards the industrial production of antioxidants from food processing by-products with ultrasound-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Virot, Matthieu; Tomao, Valérie; Le Bourvellec, Carine; Renard, Catherine M C G; Chemat, Farid

    2010-08-01

    Apple pomace, a by-product of the cider production, has been studied as a potential source of polyphenols, compounds of great interest for the industry. Ultrasound has been used to improve extraction efficiency in terms of time needed and total polyphenol content. A preliminary study has been first investigated to optimize ethanol proportion of aqueous extractant (50%, v/v) and solid/liquid ratio (<15%, w/v). A response surface methodology has then been used to maximize total polyphenol content of extracts and investigate influence of parameters involved in extraction procedures for both total polyphenols content and composition of extracts. Optimal settings reached from a central composite design were applied for ultrasound-assisted extraction and were compared to conventional procedure: yields were increased by more than 20%. Ultrasound-assisted polyphenols extraction from apple pomace appears to be a relevant, rapid, sustainable alternative to conventional procedure, and that scale up of the process is possible.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. Table 1 provides an overview of the major markets for carbon products. Current sources of materials for these processes generally rely on petroleum distillation products or coal tar distillates obtained as a byproduct of metcoke production facilities. In the former case, the American materials industry, just as the energy industry, is dependent upon foreign sources of petroleum. In the latter case, metcoke production is decreasing every year due to the combined difficulties associated with poor economics and a significant environmental burden. Thus, a significant need exists for an environmentally clean process which can used domestically obtained raw materials and which can still be very competitive economically.

  4. Development of a process for the extraction of {sup 137}Cs from acidic HLLW based on crown-calix extractant use of di-alkylamide modifier

    SciTech Connect

    Alexova, J.; Sirova, M.; Rais, J.; Suzuki, S.; Hirata, M.; Kimura, T.; Tachimori, S.

    2008-07-01

    Within the framework of the ARTIST project of total fuel retreatment with ecological mixtures of solvents and extractants containing only C, H, O, and N atoms, a process segment of extraction of {sup 137}Cs from acidic stream was developed. The process with 25,27-Bis(1-octyloxy)calix[4]arene-crown- 6, DOC[4]C6, dissolved at its 0.01 M concentration in a mixture of 90 vol % 1-octanol and 10% dihexyl octanamide, DHOA was proposed as a viable variant due to its good multicycle performance, even with irradiated solvent, and due to the good chemical stability of the chosen combination of solvent mixture. (authors)

  5. [Selection of optimal ultrasonic extraction process of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. by uniform design].

    PubMed

    Jiang, F; Xie, J; Dan, J; Liu, J; Wang, H

    2001-12-01

    The influences of ultrasonic frequency, ultrasonic time and solvent content on the extraction rate of fat oil in Elaeagnus angustifolia L. were studied. The optimum extraction condition was obtained. The results showed that the ultrasonic extraction method of fat oil in Elaeagnus angustifolia L. could save time, improve extraction rate and need not be hot compared with traditional extraction method.

  6. Understanding the effects of pre-processing on extracted signal features from gait accelerometry signals.

    PubMed

    Millecamps, Alexandre; Lowry, Kristin A; Brach, Jennifer S; Perera, Subashan; Redfern, Mark S; Sejdić, Ervin

    2015-07-01

    Gait accelerometry is an important approach for gait assessment. Previous contributions have adopted various pre-processing approaches for gait accelerometry signals, but none have thoroughly investigated the effects of such pre-processing operations on the obtained results. Therefore, this paper investigated the influence of pre-processing operations on signal features extracted from gait accelerometry signals. These signals were collected from 35 participants aged over 65years: 14 of them were healthy controls (HC), 10 had Parkinson׳s disease (PD) and 11 had peripheral neuropathy (PN). The participants walked on a treadmill at preferred speed. Signal features in time, frequency and time-frequency domains were computed for both raw and pre-processed signals. The pre-processing stage consisted of applying tilt correction and denoising operations to acquired signals. We first examined the effects of these operations separately, followed by the investigation of their joint effects. Several important observations were made based on the obtained results. First, the denoising operation alone had almost no effects in comparison to the trends observed in the raw data. Second, the tilt correction affected the reported results to a certain degree, which could lead to a better discrimination between groups. Third, the combination of the two pre-processing operations yielded similar trends as the tilt correction alone. These results indicated that while gait accelerometry is a valuable approach for the gait assessment, one has to carefully adopt any pre-processing steps as they alter the observed findings.

  7. Characterization of lignin extracted from birch wood by a modified hydrotropic process.

    PubMed

    Gabov, Konstantin; Gosselink, Richard J A; Smeds, Annika I; Fardim, Pedro

    2014-11-05

    In this work an environmentally friendly hydrotropic process was used to extract lignin from industrial birch wood chips. Two hydrotropic treatments were performed, a conventional and a modified process. The lignins were characterized using FTIR, pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (pyrolysis-GC-MS), (31)P and (1)H-(13)C HSQC NMR, and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The chemical (carbohydrates, extractives, etc.) and elemental compositions of the lignins were also determined. The yields of both lignins were 16.1% (dry wood basis), and the obtained lignins had very low contents of non-lignin compounds. The treatments resulted in significant changes of the structure of the lignins, a decrease in aliphatic hydroxyls and an increase in phenolic ones. The lignin isolated by the modified treatment underwent more substantial change than the reference one. It is believed that the data presented will facilitate utilization of hydrotropic lignin and promote the adoption of the hydrotropic process in the pulp and biorefinery industry.

  8. Comparative of signal processing techniques for micro-Doppler signature extraction with automotive radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Hervas, Berta; Maile, Michael; Flores, Benjamin C.

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, the automotive industry has experienced an evolution toward more powerful driver assistance systems that provide enhanced vehicle safety. These systems typically operate in the optical and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and have demonstrated high efficiency in collision and risk avoidance. Microwave radar systems are particularly relevant due to their operational robustness under adverse weather or illumination conditions. Our objective is to study different signal processing techniques suitable for extraction of accurate micro-Doppler signatures of slow moving objects in dense urban environments. Selection of the appropriate signal processing technique is crucial for the extraction of accurate micro-Doppler signatures that will lead to better results in a radar classifier system. For this purpose, we perform simulations of typical radar detection responses in common driving situations and conduct the analysis with several signal processing algorithms, including short time Fourier Transform, continuous wavelet or Kernel based analysis methods. We take into account factors such as the relative movement between the host vehicle and the target, and the non-stationary nature of the target's movement. A comparison of results reveals that short time Fourier Transform would be the best approach for detection and tracking purposes, while the continuous wavelet would be the best suited for classification purposes.

  9. Manipulation of heterogeneity product in 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin biotransformation process by using yeast extract as nitrogen source.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Li, Hong-Mei; Wan, Duan-Ji; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Manipulation of product heterogeneity was attempted by using yeast extract as nitrogen source in Alternaria alternata S-f6 transformation process of 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin. When the nitrogen source of NaNO(3) was replaced by yeast extract, the heterogeneity of biotransformation products was significantly varied from a single product (i.e., 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxone) to four podophyllum derivates. According to the kinetics of 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin biotransformation process by A. alternata S-f6, the starting substrate of 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin was preferentially transformed to produce 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxone (1) with an oxidation reaction. By the further comparison of products configuration, 4β-caprinoyl-4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin (3) was produced from 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxone (1) instead of 4'-demethylisopicropodophyllone (2), which might be produced from 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxone (1) with the isomerization of lactone. Finally, 4'-demethylisopicropodophyllone (2) was hydrolyzed to produce 3α-hydroxymethyl-(6, 7)-dioxol-4-one-naphthalene (4). This work shows new information on the 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin biotransformation process by A. alternata S-f6 and provides a foundation for further studies on the structural diversification of a bioactive natural lead compound.

  10. Plant RNA processing: soybean pre-mRNA in a pea cell-free extract

    SciTech Connect

    Schuler, M.A.; Hanley, B.A.

    1987-05-01

    Using a pea cell-free extract they have demonstrated the splicing of an SP6 fusion transcript containing an intron derived from the soybean seed storage protein ..beta..-subunit gene. Intron 115 from the conglycinin gene was cloned into a SP6 vector and transcribed using standard recombinant DNA techniques. Incubation of radioactively labeled fusion transcripts in the cell-free system produced a number of products which were identified by primer extension and S1 nuclease analysis. All the products are linear RNA molecules. Lariat intermediates, similar to those found in the yeast and HeLa cell RNA processing systems, have not been detected. The linear RNA products detected in their plant in vitro processing system have various portions of the intron removed which suggests that alternative splice sites are used in processing of this plant intron due to activation of cryptic splice sites or creation of splice sites in the fusion construction. The kinetics of the reactions and parameters of the extract are similar to those determined for the HeLa cell system. Sucrose gradient analysis has demonstrated that the plant RNA products sedimented in a 30S particle, similar in size to that found for the spliceosome of the HeLa cell system.

  11. Feature extraction from 3D lidar point clouds using image processing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ling; Shortridge, Ashton; Lusch, David; Shi, Ruoming

    2011-10-01

    Airborne LiDAR data have become cost-effective to produce at local and regional scales across the United States and internationally. These data are typically collected and processed into surface data products by contractors for state and local communities. Current algorithms for advanced processing of LiDAR point cloud data are normally implemented in specialized, expensive software that is not available for many users, and these users are therefore unable to experiment with the LiDAR point cloud data directly for extracting desired feature classes. The objective of this research is to identify and assess automated, readily implementable GIS procedures to extract features like buildings, vegetated areas, parking lots and roads from LiDAR data using standard image processing tools, as such tools are relatively mature with many effective classification methods. The final procedure adopted employs four distinct stages. First, interpolation is used to transfer the 3D points to a high-resolution raster. Raster grids of both height and intensity are generated. Second, multiple raster maps - a normalized surface model (nDSM), difference of returns, slope, and the LiDAR intensity map - are conflated to generate a multi-channel image. Third, a feature space of this image is created. Finally, supervised classification on the feature space is implemented. The approach is demonstrated in both a conceptual model and on a complex real-world case study, and its strengths and limitations are addressed.

  12. Sentence-processing in echo state networks: a qualitative analysis by finite state machine extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Stefan L.; Jacobsson, Henrik

    2010-06-01

    It has been shown that the ability of echo state networks (ESNs) to generalise in a sentence-processing task can be increased by adjusting their input connection weights to the training data. We present a qualitative analysis of the effect of such weight adjustment on an ESN that is trained to perform the next-word prediction task. Our analysis makes use of CrySSMEx, an algorithm for extracting finite state machines (FSMs) from the data about the inputs, internal states, and outputs of recurrent neural networks that process symbol sequences. We find that the ESN with adjusted input weights yields a concise and comprehensible FSM. In contrast, the standard ESN, which shows poor generalisation, results in a massive and complex FSM. The extracted FSMs show how the two networks differ behaviourally. Moreover, poor generalisation is shown to correspond to a highly fragmented quantisation of the network's state space. Such findings indicate that CrySSMEx can be a useful tool for analysing ESN sentence processing.

  13. Partitioning of trivalent actinides from a Purex raffinate using a TODGA-based solvent-extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Modolo, G.; Vijgen, H.; Malmbeck, R.; Magnusson, D.; Sorel, C.

    2008-07-01

    A TODGA/TBP process has been developed to separate trivalent actinides from a PUREX raffinate using a mixture of tetraoctyl-diglycolamide (TODGA) and tributylphosphate (TBP). Batch extraction experiments allowed us to choose and optimize the composition of the organic extractant and the aqueous feed solutions. With the aid of computer-code calculations, a countercurrent process has been developed, and an optimized flowsheet has been tested with a spiked feed solution and finally with a genuine PUREX raffinate. The results of the two tests were very promising, demonstrating that more than 99.9% of the trivalent actinides are extracted, and very high decontamination factors are obtained to the non-lanthanide fission products. Co-extracted ruthenium (10% during spiked test, 18% during hot test) is less efficiently back-extracted and therefore requires further process development. (authors)

  14. Effect of radiation process on antinutrients and HCl extractability of calcium, phosphorus and iron during processing and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, ElShazali Ahmed; Abdelraheem Ali, Nahid; Ahmed, Salma Hashim; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A.; Babiker, Elfadil E.

    2010-07-01

    Whole and dehulled flours of millet cultivars Ashana and Dembi were stored for 30 and 60 days before and after radiation and/or cooking. Phytic acid and polyphenols contents were assayed for all treatments. The results revealed that the storage period was found to have no effect on phytate and polyphenols contents. Moreover, dehulling of the grains reduced more than 50% of phytate and polyphenols of both cultivars. Cooking of the raw whole and dehulled flour significantly ( P≤0.05) reduced phytate and polyphenols contents for both cultivars. Radiation process alone had no effect on phytate and polyphenols contents but when followed by cooking significantly ( P≤0.05) reduced the level of such antinutrients for the whole and dehulled flour of both cultivars. Dehulling alone significantly ( P≤0.05) decreased Ca and P content but slightly decreased Fe content. Radiation alone or in combination with cooking was found to have slight effect on minerals content of the whole and dehulled raw flour for both cultivars. Cooking alone or in combination with radiation of whole or dehulled raw flour significantly ( P≤0.05) improved the extractable Ca but had no significant ( P≤0.05) effect on extractable P and Fe for both cultivars.

  15. Extraction of CYP chemical interactions from biomedical literature using natural language processing methods.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Dazhi; Wild, David J

    2009-02-01

    This paper proposes a system that automatically extracts CYP protein and chemical interactions from journal article abstracts, using natural language processing (NLP) and text mining methods. In our system, we employ a maximum entropy based learning method, using results from syntactic, semantic, and lexical analysis of texts. We first present our system architecture and then discuss the data set for training our machine learning based models and the methods in building components in our system, such as part of speech (POS) tagging, Named Entity Recognition (NER), dependency parsing, and relation extraction. An evaluation of the system is conducted at the end, yielding very promising results: The POS, dependency parsing, and NER components in our system have achieved a very high level of accuracy as measured by precision, ranging from 85.9% to 98.5%, and the precision and the recall of the interaction extraction component are 76.0% and 82.6%, and for the overall system are 68.4% and 72.2%, respectively.

  16. Crystallization of silver through reduction process using Elaeis guineensis biosolid extract.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Shim, Jaehong; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Lee, Kui-Jae; Oh, Byung-Taek; Balachandar, Vellingiri; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a special, economically valuable, unprecedented eco-friendly green process for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticles were obtained from a waste material with oil palm biosolid extract as the reducing agent. The use of the oil palm biosolid extract for the nanoparticle synthesis offers the benefit of amenability for large-scale production. An aqueous solution of silver (Ag(+) ) ions was treated with the oil palm biosolid extract for the formation of Ag nanoparticles. The nanometallic dispersion was characterized by surface plasmon absorbance measuring 428 nm. Transmission electron microscopy showed the formation of silver nanoparticles in the range of 5-50 nm. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis of the freeze-dried powder confirmed the formation of metallic silver nanoparticles. Moreover, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy provided evidence of phenolics or proteins as the biomolecules that were likely responsible for the reduction and capping agent, which helps to increase the stability of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. In addition, we have optimized the production with various parameters. Copyright © 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  17. 2D-CELL: image processing software for extraction and analysis of 2-dimensional cellular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righetti, F.; Telley, H.; Leibling, Th. M.; Mocellin, A.

    1992-01-01

    2D-CELL is a software package for the processing and analyzing of photographic images of cellular structures in a largely interactive way. Starting from a binary digitized image, the programs extract the line network (skeleton) of the structure and determine the graph representation that best models it. Provision is made for manually correcting defects such as incorrect node positions or dangling bonds. Then a suitable algorithm retrieves polygonal contours which define individual cells — local boundary curvatures are neglected for simplicity. Using elementary analytical geometry relations, a range of metric and topological parameters describing the population are then computed, organized into statistical distributions and graphically displayed.

  18. Validation of a DNA IQ-based extraction method for TECAN robotic liquid handling workstations for processing casework.

    PubMed

    Frégeau, Chantal J; Lett, C Marc; Fourney, Ron M

    2010-10-01

    A semi-automated DNA extraction process for casework samples based on the Promega DNA IQ™ system was optimized and validated on TECAN Genesis 150/8 and Freedom EVO robotic liquid handling stations configured with fixed tips and a TECAN TE-Shake™ unit. The use of an orbital shaker during the extraction process promoted efficiency with respect to DNA capture, magnetic bead/DNA complex washes and DNA elution. Validation studies determined the reliability and limitations of this shaker-based process. Reproducibility with regards to DNA yields for the tested robotic workstations proved to be excellent and not significantly different than that offered by the manual phenol/chloroform extraction. DNA extraction of animal:human blood mixtures contaminated with soil demonstrated that a human profile was detectable even in the presence of abundant animal blood. For exhibits containing small amounts of biological material, concordance studies confirmed that DNA yields for this shaker-based extraction process are equivalent or greater to those observed with phenol/chloroform extraction as well as our original validated automated magnetic bead percolation-based extraction process. Our data further supports the increasing use of robotics for the processing of casework samples. Crown Copyright © 2009. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. DIAMIDE DERIVATIVES OF DIPICOLINIC ACID AS ACTINIDE AND LANTHANIDE EXTRACTANTS IN A VARIATION OF THE UNEX PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    D. R. Peterman; R. S. Herbst; J. D. Law; R. D. Tillotson; T. G. Garn; T. A. Todd; V. N. Romanovskiy; V. A. Babain; M. Yu. Alyapyshev; I. V. Smirnov

    2007-09-01

    The Universal Extraction (UNEX) process has been developed for simultaneous extraction of cesium, strontium, and actinides from acidic solutions. This process utilizes an extractant consisting of 0.08 M chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (HCCD), 0.007-0.02 M polyethylene glycol (PEG-400), and 0.02 M diphenyl-N,N-di-n-butylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (Ph2CMPO) in the diluent trifluoromethylphenyl sulfone (CF3C6H5SO2, designated FS-13) and provides simultaneous extraction of Cs, Sr, actinides, and lanthanides from HNO3 solutions. The UNEX process is of limited utility for processing acidic solutions containing large quantities of lanthanides and/or actinides, such as dissolved spent nuclear fuel solutions. These constraints are primarily attributed to the limited concentrations of CMPO (a maximum of ~0.02 M) in the organic phase and limited solubility of the CMPO-metal complexes. As a result, alternative actinide and lanthanide extractants are being investigated for use with HCCD as an improvement for waste processing and for applications where higher concentrations of the metals are present. Our preliminary results indicate that diamide derivatives of dipicolinic acid may function as efficient actinide and lanthanide extractants. The results to be presented indicate that, of the numerous diamides studied to date, the tetrabutyldiamide of dipicolinic acid, TBDPA, shows the most promise as an alternative actinide/lanthanide extractant in the UNEX process.

  20. PROCESS FOR EXTRACTING NEPTUNIUM AND PLUTONIUM FROM NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS OF SAME CONTAINING URANYL NITRATE WITH A TERTIARY AMINE

    DOEpatents

    Sheppard, J.C.

    1962-07-31

    A process of selectively extracting plutonium nitrate and neptunium nitrate with an organic solution of a tertiary amine, away from uranyl nitrate present in an aqueous solution in a maximum concentration of 1M is described. The nitric acid concentration is adjusted to about 4M and nitrous acid is added prior to extraction. (AEC)

  1. Elemental and spectroscopic characterization of fractions of an acidic extract of oil sands process water.

    PubMed

    Jones, D; Scarlett, A G; West, C E; Frank, R A; Gieleciak, R; Hager, D; Pureveen, J; Tegelaar, E; Rowland, S J

    2013-11-01

    'Naphthenic acids' (NAs) in petroleum produced water and oil sands process water (OSPW), have been implicated in toxicological effects. However, many are not well characterized. A method for fractionation of NAs of an OSPW was used herein and a multi-method characterization of the fractions conducted. The unfractionated OSPW acidic extract was characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray ionization-Orbitrap-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and an esterified extract by Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV) absorption spectroscopy and by comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography-MS (GCxGC-MS). Methyl esters were fractionated by argentation solid phase extraction (Ag(+) SPE) and fractions eluting with: hexane; diethyl ether: hexane and diethyl ether, examined. Each was weighed, examined by elemental analysis, FTIR, UV, GC-MS and GCxGC-MS (both nominal and high resolution MS). The ether fraction, containing sulfur, was also examined by GCxGC-sulfur chemiluminescence detection (GCxGC-SCD). The major ions detected by ESI-MS in the OSPW extract were assigned to alicyclic and aromatic 'O2' acids; sulfur was also present. Components recovered by Ag(+) SPE were also methyl esters of alicyclic and aromatic acids; these contained little sulfur or nitrogen. FTIR spectra showed that hydroxy acids and sulfoxides were absent or minor. UV spectra, along with the C/H ratio, further confirmed the aromaticity of the hexane:ether eluate. The more minor ether eluate contained further aromatics and 1.5% sulfur. FTIR spectra indicated free carboxylic acids, in addition to esters. Four major sulfur compounds were detected by GCxGC-SCD. GCxGC-high resolution MS indicated these were methyl esters of C18 S-containing, diaromatics with ≥C3 carboxylic acid side chains. Copyright © 2013 Crown Copyright and Elsevier Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Experiment on the treatment of waste extraction solvent from the molybdenum-99 process

    SciTech Connect

    Hsien-Ming Hsiao; Chang-Liang Hu; Kuang-Li Chien; Wen-Cheng Lee; Tsong-Yang Wei

    2013-07-01

    In the Mo-99 (Molybdenum-99) isotope extraction test process for radiopharmaceutical applications, organic solvent is used to extract Mo-99 from an irradiated UO{sub 2} dissolution. The extraction solvent was stored when the test work was stopped. A total of about 120 liters of waste solvent was stored at INER (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan). The extraction solvent consisted of 5% di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and kerosene. The radionuclides found in the waste solvent include Cs-137, Am-241, Tc-99, and Sr-90, which give off gross alpha and beta radioactivity of 1898 and 471 Bq/ml, respectively. This study aims to remove radionuclides from the waste solvent using sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide solutions in different concentrations. After mixing the waste solvent with the alkaline solution followed by settling, a third phase other than organic and aqueous phase appeared which is expected due to the saponification reaction. The experimental results showed that increasing the number of washing and the alkaline solution concentration could enhance the radionuclides removal rate. An optimal removal method was proposed using 2 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution twice followed by 1 M NaOH solution one time for the third phase generated early in the mixing stages. The remaining gross alpha and beta radioactivity of the treated organic solvent was 2 and 3 Bq/ml, respectively. The treated solvent could be stabilized by ashing at 500 deg. C and then immobilized. The alkaline solution would be neutralized by hydrochloric or nitric acid and then treated using a variety of adsorbents or bone char via adsorption to remove nuclides to meet the wastewater discharge limitation. (authors)

  3. Screening of genotoxicity and mutagenicity in extractable organics from oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Zetouni, Nikolas C; Siraki, Arno G; Weinfeld, Michael; Pereira, Alberto Dos Santos; Martin, Jonathan W

    2016-11-01

    Large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) are produced by the oil sands surface mining industry during alkaline hot-water extraction of bitumen. It is well documented that the acid extractable organics (AEOs) in OSPW, a highly complex mixture of acidic and polar neutral substances, are acutely toxic; but few studies have examined the genotoxicity or mutagenicity of this mixture. In the present study, the in vitro SOS Chromotest and the Ames test (TA98 and TA100 strains) were used to evaluate genotoxicity and mutagenicity for whole OSPW AEOs in the presence and absence of biotransformation by rat S9 liver enzymes. Two subfractions were also examined in the same assays: neutral extractable fraction (F1-NE), and the subsequent acid extractable fraction (F2-AE). In the SOS assay, whole AEO was cytotoxic when concentrated 2× (i.e., twice as concentrated as the environmental sample) and showed increasing genotoxic response above 6×. Co-exposure with S9 had a protective effect on the cell SOS-inducing factor and survival but did not eliminate genotoxicity above 6× concentrations. Most of the cytotoxicity was attributable to F2-AE, but both F1-NE and F2-AE had similar genotoxic dose-responses above 6×. In the Ames test without S9, whole AEO was mutagenic in both strains above 10× concentrations. Co-incubation with S9 had little effect on the TA100 strain but with TA98 resulted in bioactivation at midlevel doses (1.5-6.3×) and protection at higher doses (10-25×). The 2 subfractions were mutagenic in both strains but with different dose-responses. Further research in vivo or in more relevant cells is warranted to investigate the carcinogenic risks of OSPW. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-8. © 2016 SETAC.

  4. A Natural Language Processing Tool for Large-Scale Data Extraction from Echocardiography Reports

    PubMed Central

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R.

    2016-01-01

    Large volumes of data are continuously generated from clinical notes and diagnostic studies catalogued in electronic health records (EHRs). Echocardiography is one of the most commonly ordered diagnostic tests in cardiology. This study sought to explore the feasibility and reliability of using natural language processing (NLP) for large-scale and targeted extraction of multiple data elements from echocardiography reports. An NLP tool, EchoInfer, was developed to automatically extract data pertaining to cardiovascular structure and function from heterogeneously formatted echocardiographic data sources. EchoInfer was applied to echocardiography reports (2004 to 2013) available from 3 different on-going clinical research projects. EchoInfer analyzed 15,116 echocardiography reports from 1684 patients, and extracted 59 quantitative and 21 qualitative data elements per report. EchoInfer achieved a precision of 94.06%, a recall of 92.21%, and an F1-score of 93.12% across all 80 data elements in 50 reports. Physician review of 400 reports demonstrated that EchoInfer achieved a recall of 92–99.9% and a precision of >97% in four data elements, including three quantitative and one qualitative data element. Failure of EchoInfer to correctly identify or reject reported parameters was primarily related to non-standardized reporting of echocardiography data. EchoInfer provides a powerful and reliable NLP-based approach for the large-scale, targeted extraction of information from heterogeneous data sources. The use of EchoInfer may have implications for the clinical management and research analysis of patients undergoing echocardiographic evaluation. PMID:27124000

  5. Bio-processing of solid wastes and secondary resources for metal extraction - A review

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae-chun; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Review focuses on bio-extraction of metals from solid wastes of industries and consumer goods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bio-processing of certain effluents/wastewaters with metals is also included in brief. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantity/composition of wastes are assessed, and microbes used and leaching conditions included. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bio-recovery using bacteria, fungi and archaea is highlighted for resource recycling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Process methodology/mechanism, R and D direction and scope of large scale use are briefly included. - Abstract: Metal containing wastes/byproducts of various industries, used consumer goods, and municipal waste are potential pollutants, if not treated properly. They may also be important secondary resources if processed in eco-friendly manner for secured supply of contained metals/materials. Bio-extraction of metals from such resources with microbes such as bacteria, fungi and archaea is being increasingly explored to meet the twin objectives of resource recycling and pollution mitigation. This review focuses on the bio-processing of solid wastes/byproducts of metallurgical and manufacturing industries, chemical/petrochemical plants, electroplating and tanning units, besides sewage sludge and fly ash of municipal incinerators, electronic wastes (e-wastes/PCBs), used batteries, etc. An assessment has been made to quantify the wastes generated and its compositions, microbes used, metal leaching efficiency etc. Processing of certain effluents and wastewaters comprising of metals is also included in brief. Future directions of research are highlighted.

  6. Extraction and characterization of alumina nanopowders from aluminum dross by acid dissolution process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarker, Md. Saifur Rahman; Alam, Md. Zahangir; Qadir, Md. Rakibul; Gafur, M. A.; Moniruzzaman, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    A significant amount of aluminum dross is available as a waste in foundry industries in Bangladesh. In this study, alumina was extracted from aluminum dross collected from two foundry industries situated in Dhamrai and Manikgang, near the capital city, Dhaka. Aluminum dross samples were found to approximately contain 75wt% Al2O3 and 12wt% SiO2. An acid dissolution process was used to recover the alumina value from the dross. The effects of various parameters, e.g., temperature, acid concentration, and leaching time, on the extraction of alumina were studied to optimize the dissolution process. First, Al(OH)3 was produced in the form of a gel. Calcination of the Al(OH)3 gel at 1000°C, 1200°C, and 1400°C for 2 h produced γ-Al2O3, (α+γ)-Al2O3, and α-alumina powder, respectively. Thermal characterization of the Al(OH)3 gel was performed by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The phases and crystallite size of the alumina were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The dimensions of the alumina were found to be on the nano level. The chemical compositions of the aluminum dross and alumina were determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. The microstructure and morphology of the alumina were studied with scanning electron microscopy. The purity of the alumina extracted in this study was found to be 99.0%. Thus, it is expected that the obtained alumina powders can be potentially utilized as biomaterials.

  7. Downstream processing of human antibodies integrating an extraction capture step and cation exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Ana M; Rosa, Paula A J; Ferreira, I Filipa; de Vries, J; Visser, T J; Aires-Barros, M Raquel

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we explore an alternative process for the purification of human antibodies from a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell supernatant comprising a ligand-enhanced extraction capture step and cation exchange chromatography (CEX). The extraction of human antibodies was performed in an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) composed of dextran and polyethylene glycol (PEG), in which the terminal hydroxyl groups of the PEG molecule were modified with an amino acid mimetic ligand in order to enhance the partition of the antibodies to the PEG-rich phase. This capture step was optimized using a design of experiments and a central composite design allowed the determination of the conditions that favor the partition of the antibodies to the phase containing the PEG diglutaric acid (PEG-GA) polymer, in terms of system composition. Accordingly, higher recovery yields were obtained for higher concentrations of PEG-GA and lower concentrations of dextran. The highest yield experimentally obtained was observed for an ATPS composed of 5.17% (w/w) dextran and 8% (w/w) PEG-GA. Higher purities were however predicted for higher concentrations of both polymers. A compromise between yield and purity was achieved using 5% dextran and 10% PEG-GA, which allowed the recovery of 82% of the antibodies with a protein purity of 96% and a total purity of 63%, determined by size-exclusion chromatography. ATPS top phases were further purified by cation exchange chromatography and it was observed that the most adequate cation exchange ligand was carboxymethyl, as the sulfopropyl ligand induced the formation of multi-aggregates or denatured forms. This column allowed the elution of 89% of the antibodies present in the top phase, with a protein purity of 100% and a total purity of 91%. The overall process containing a ligand-enhanced extraction step and a cation exchange chromatography step had an overall yield of 73%.

  8. [Extraction of oleanolic acid from leaves of Chaenomeles speciosa and processing techniques of its HP-beta-cyclodextrin inclusion compound].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiu-shi; Wu, Jie; Li, Wei; Cheng, Bei

    2010-05-01

    To select the best extraction of oleanolic acid from leaves of Chaenomeles speciosa and processing techniques of its HP-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) inclusion compound. The study was carried out with orthogonal experiment. Ultrasonic treatment time, extraction time, temperature of extraction and ratio of material to liquor were used as indices. The optimum inclusion technique was chosen by determining the oleanolic acid-bearing rate. The processing techniques of the HP-beta-CD inclusion compound was optimized by taking the ratio of HP-beta-CD to oleanolic acid, the time and temperature of the inclusion process as factors and with the yield of the inclusion compound and the inclusion rate of the volatile oil as the indices. The optimal process for oleanolic acid extraction were as following: ultrasonic treatment time as 40 min, extraction time as 70 min, temperature of extraction as 60 degrees C, ratio of material to liquor as 1:10. The optimal processing conditions for HP-beta-CD inclusion compound of oleanolic acid were as following: the ratio of HP-beta-CD to oleanolic acid was 1:2, the inclusion time of the compound was 3.0 hours at 60 degrees C. High extraction yield of oleanolic acid and stable inclusion compound can be obtained using the above method.

  9. PRODUCTION OF FOAMS, FIBERS AND PITCHES USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Pete G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-06-20

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed processes for converting coal feedstocks to carbon products, including coal-derived pitch, coke foams and fibers based on solvent extraction processes. A key technology is the use of hydrogenation accomplished at elevated temperatures and pressures to obtain a synthetic coal pitch. Hydrogenation, or partial direct liquefaction of coal, is used to modify the properties of raw coal such that a molten synthetic pitch can be obtained. The amount of hydrogen required to produce a synthetic pitch is about an order of magnitude less than the amount required to produce synthetic crude oil. Hence the conditions for synthetic pitch production consume very little hydrogen and can be accomplished at substantially lower pressure. In the molten state, hot filtration or centrifugation can be used to separate dissolved coal chemicals from mineral matter and insolubles (inertinite), resulting in the production of a purified hydrocarbon pitch. Alternatively, if hydrogenation is not used, aromatic hydrocarbon liquids appropriate for use as precursors to carbon products can obtained by dissolving coal in a solvent. As in the case for partial direct liquefaction pitches, undissolved coal is removed via hot filtration or centrifugation. Excess solvent is boiled off and recovered. The resultant solid material, referred to as Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore or SECO, has been used successfully to produce artificial graphite and carbon foam.

  10. In situ remediation of hydrocarbon contamination using an injection-extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, A.; Tremblay, C.; Boulanger, C.

    1995-12-31

    Ecosite Inc. has developed a soil treatment technology to be applied in situ using an injection-extraction system (IES). This new restoration process uses custom-designed equipment for recovering free-phase hydrocarbons and for injection/recovery of different treatment solutions through cyclic manipulation of the water table level. Process development applied the basic principles of soil washing with improved distribution of the washing solution and improved hydraulic control using air sparging and vacuum capability. In this case study, free-phase recovery and soil washing have been used successfully to remediate the site. During the fall and winter of 1993--94, in situ restoration of soil contaminated with cutting oil below a machine shop was begun. The contamination extended from 1.83 to 4.27 m underneath the concrete slab. This represents a volume of 1,800 m{sup 3} of oil-laden soil with concentrations reaching 200,000 mg/kg. Moreover, free-floating phase hydrocarbons up to 1 m thick were observed. To clean the site, 400 injection/recovery points were arranged into three networks. A data collection system was used to monitor the water table level. A total of 160,000 kg of oil was extracted from the subsoil in less than 110 days of operation.

  11. Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes For Coal Derived Carbon Products

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Dady B. Dadyburjor; Gregory W. Hackett; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; Robert C. Svensson; John W. Zondlo

    2006-09-30

    In this reporting period, tonnage quantities of coal extract were produced but solid separation was not accomplished in a timely manner. It became clear that the originally selected filtration process would not be effective enough for a serious commercial process. Accordingly, centrifugation was investigated as a superior means for removing solids from the extract. Results show acceptable performance. Petrographic analysis of filtered solids was carried out by R and D Carbon Petrography under the auspices of Koppers and consultant Ken Krupinski. The general conclusion is that the material appears to be amenable to centrifugation. Filtered solids shows a substantial pitch component as well as some mesophase, resulting in increased viscosity. This is likely a contributing reason for the difficulty in filtering the material. Cost estimates were made for the hydotreatment and digestion reactors that would be needed for a 20,000 ton per year demonstration plants, with the aid of ChemTech Inc. The estimates show that the costs of scaling up the existing tank reactors are acceptable. However, a strong recommendation was made to consider pipe reactors, which are thought to be more cost effective and potentially higher performance in large scale systems. The alternate feedstocks for coke and carbon products were used to fabricate carbon electrodes as described in the last quarterly report. Gregory Hackett successfully defended his MS Thesis on the use of these electrodes in Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC), which is excerpted in Section 2.4 of this quarterly report.

  12. Dynamic variation of bioactive compounds and aflatoxins in contaminated Radix Astragali during extraction process.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yichen; Kong, Weijun; Luo, Hongli; Zhao, Lianhua; Yang, Meihua

    2016-03-30

    Although increasing attention has been paid to the health threat caused by mycotoxins in commodities such as food or medicines, mycotoxin transfer processes from crude material to products have raised little concern so far. Radix Astragali is a commonly used edible and medicinal herbal plant that is susceptible to contamination with aflatoxins from Aspergillus flavus. There have been no studies on mycotoxin transfer into pharmaceutical preparations or derivative products. To facilitate the aflatoxin reduction and bioactivity retention, the dynamic variations of aflatoxins as well as herbal compounds, namely calycosin-7-glucoside, astragaloside and formononetin, in Radix Astragali contaminated by A. flavus during water decoction and ethanol refluxing treatments were evaluated simultaneously by an ultra-fast liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry method. After the extraction processes, although the amount of alfatoxins was reduced remarkably, aflatoxin residuals in preparation still exceed recommended limits, manifesting the great need to establish a limit for aflatoxins in herbal extractions or derivative products. Meanwhile, due to the hydrolysis of glucoside, water decoction period should be no longer than 4 h. This investigation would benefit from the determination of the dynamic variation of aflatoxins in infected herbs in preparation treatments, in order to further develop aflatoxin limits in herbal preparations. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Chromium Extraction via Chemical Processing of Fe-Cr Alloys Fine Powder with High Carbon Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, D. M.; Navarro, R. C. S.; Souza, R. F. M.; Brocchi, E. A.

    2017-03-01

    Ferrous alloys are important raw materials for special steel production. In this context, alloys from the Fe-Cr system, with typical Cr weight fraction ranging from 0.45 to 0.95, are prominent, particularly for the stainless steel industry. During the process in which these alloys are obtained, there is considerable production of fine powder, which could be reused after suitable chemical treatment, for example, through coupling pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical processes. In the present study, the extraction of chromium from fine powder generated during the production of a Fe-Cr alloy with high C content was investigated. Roasting reactions were performed at 1073 K, 1173 K, and 1273 K (800 °C, 900 °C, and 1000 °C) with 300 pct (w/w) excess NaOH in an oxidizing atmosphere (air), followed by solubilization in deionized water, selective precipitation, and subsequent calcination at 1173 K (900 °C) in order to convert the obtained chromium hydroxide to Cr2O3. The maximum achieved Cr recovery was around 86 pct, suggesting that the proposed chemical route was satisfactory regarding the extraction of the chromium initially present. Moreover, after X-ray diffraction analysis, the final produced oxide has proven to be pure Cr2O3 with a mean crystallite size of 200 nm.

  14. Nanocrystalline cellulose extraction process and utilization of the byproduct for biofuels production.

    PubMed

    Pirani, Sanaa; Hashaikeh, Raed

    2013-03-01

    Cellulose consists of amorphous and crystalline regions. It is the crystalline regions which may be exploited to produce nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC). In order to extract nanocrystalline cellulose from native cellulose, sulfuric acid hydrolysis is typically used. The amorphous regions of cellulose are hydrolyzed and degraded into soluble products while the crystalline regions remain intact. In an effort to make the NCC extraction process more feasible, a new process was developed to recover and utilize the hydrolyzed regions of cellulose as a byproduct. The acid hydrolyzed amorphous regions were separated and then recovered (regenerated) into solid particles. XRD data revealed that the recovered material is characteristic of cellulose II. Hydrolysis conditions were optimized to maximize the yield of the recovered material and at the same time produce NCC material. Preliminary experiments showed yield values of approximately 61% for the cellulose I crystalline portions and values of about 21.7% for the recovered material (cellulose II). Enzymatic hydrolysis experiments of the recovered material revealed high susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis which makes it a promising source for biofuels production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chromium Extraction via Chemical Processing of Fe-Cr Alloys Fine Powder with High Carbon Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, D. M.; Navarro, R. C. S.; Souza, R. F. M.; Brocchi, E. A.

    2017-06-01

    Ferrous alloys are important raw materials for special steel production. In this context, alloys from the Fe-Cr system, with typical Cr weight fraction ranging from 0.45 to 0.95, are prominent, particularly for the stainless steel industry. During the process in which these alloys are obtained, there is considerable production of fine powder, which could be reused after suitable chemical treatment, for example, through coupling pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical processes. In the present study, the extraction of chromium from fine powder generated during the production of a Fe-Cr alloy with high C content was investigated. Roasting reactions were performed at 1073 K, 1173 K, and 1273 K (800 °C, 900 °C, and 1000 °C) with 300 pct (w/w) excess NaOH in an oxidizing atmosphere (air), followed by solubilization in deionized water, selective precipitation, and subsequent calcination at 1173 K (900 °C) in order to convert the obtained chromium hydroxide to Cr2O3. The maximum achieved Cr recovery was around 86 pct, suggesting that the proposed chemical route was satisfactory regarding the extraction of the chromium initially present. Moreover, after X-ray diffraction analysis, the final produced oxide has proven to be pure Cr2O3 with a mean crystallite size of 200 nm.

  16. Comparative assessment of various lipid extraction protocols and optimization of transesterification process for microalgal biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shovon; Patnaik, Reeza; Singh, Amit Kumar; Mallick, Nirupama

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, using microalgae as feedstocks, is being explored as the most potent form of alternative diesel fuel for sustainable economic development. A comparative assessment of various protocols for microalgal lipid extraction was carried out using five green algae, six blue-green algae and two diatom species treated with different single and binary solvents both at room temperature and using a soxhlet. Lipid recovery was maximum with chloroform-methanol in the soxhlet extractor. Pretreatments ofbiomass, such as sonication, homogenization, bead-beating, lyophilization, autoclaving, microwave treatment and osmotic shock did not register any significant rise in lipid recovery. As lipid recovery using chloroform-methanol at room temperature demonstrated a marginally lower value than that obtained under the soxhlet extractor, on economical point of view, the former is recommended for microalgal total lipid extraction. Transesterification process enhances the quality of biodiesel. Experiments were designed to determine the effects of catalyst type and quantity, methanol to oil ratio, reaction temperature and time on the transesterification process using response surface methodology. Fatty acid methyl ester yield reached up to 91% with methanol:HCl:oil molar ratio of 82:4:1 at 65 degrees C for 6.4h reaction time. The biodiesel yield relative to the weight of the oil was found to be 69%.

  17. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of process stream extracts from a coal gasification system

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, R.W.; Benson, J.M.; Li, A.P.; Henderson, R.F.; Brooks, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Extracts of three complex organic environmental mixtures, two from an experimental coal gasifier (a raw gas and a clean gas sample) and one from a coke oven main, were examined for genotoxicity. Three short-term genotoxicity assay systems were used: Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, Chinese hamster ovary cell/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) gene locus mutation assay, and the Chinese hamster lung primary culture/sister chromatid exchange (CHL/SCE) assay. Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate fraction (S-9) was required to observe genotoxicity in both gene locus mutation assays (CHO/HGPRT and Ames). The relative survival of CHO cells exposed to extracts was highest in cells exposed to clean gas samples, with the raw gas sample being the most cytotoxic either with or without the addition of S-9. All three complex mixtures induced sister chromatid exchanges in primary lung cell cultures without the addition of S-9. The relative genotoxicity ranking of the samples varied between the mammalian and prokaryotic assay systems. The results of all three assays indicate that the cleanup process used in the experimental gasifier was effective in decreasing the genotoxic materials in the process stream. These data also reemphasize the necessity of evaluating genotoxicity of complex mixtures in a variety of short-term systems.

  18. Processing of waste material of radix physochlainae for preparation of fine chemicals after extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, A.; Yohannes, A.; Feng, X. T.; Yao, S.

    2017-02-01

    Waste residues of Chinese traditional medicine radix physochlainae (Huashanshen) contain a large amount of hemicelluloses after extraction. After the removal of the cellulose and lignin, main components of the solution are different degree of hydrolysis products of hemicelluloses. In the degradation process, hemicelluloses firstly become pentose, and then pentose loses 3 molecules of water and turns into furfural. This study explored a series of conditions of the method; finally the yield of furfural can reach 8.5% (calculated with the weight of raw residues) under the condition of pH of 0.2-0.3, temperature of 104-106°C, hydrolysis duration for 10 minutes. Furfural can be further processed to be resin materials.

  19. Aroma extract dilution analysis of a beeflike process flavor from extruded enzyme-hydrolyzed soybean protein.

    PubMed

    Baek, H H; Kim, C J; Ahn, B H; Nam, H S; Cadwallader, K R

    2001-02-01

    Aroma-active compounds from a beeflike process flavor, produced by extrusion of enzyme-hydrolyzed vegetable protein (E-HVP), were analyzed using aroma extract dilution analysis. The number of aroma-active compounds and the aroma intensity were increased by the addition of aroma precursors prior to extrusion. The most intense compound was 2-methyl-3-furanthiol having a cooked rice/vitamin-like/meaty aroma note. Several sulfur-containing furans, such as 2-methyl-3-(methylthio)furan, 2-methyl-3-(methyldithio)furan, and bis(2-methylfuryl)disulfide, were detected with high flavor dilution (FD) factors. Some pyrazines, such as 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2,6-diethylpyrazine, and 3,5-diethyl-2-methylpyrazine, also had high FD factors. It is hypothesized that sulfur-containing amino acids and thiamin were important precursors in aroma formation in process flavor from E-HVP.

  20. An extraction/separation process with extreme energy efficiency: Technical report, 1984/1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The phases involved in the extraction process were experimentally determined for an ionic surfactant combination. The results showed transient appearance of thick layers of liquid crystals also for compositions, which did not contain such a structure in their final state. These observations revealed a potential for a new tertiary oil recovery process; the ramifications in that area are being explored. The fundamental calculations of the thermodynamics of the microemulsion formulation have been successful during this year and the model for microemulsion droplets which includes both bending and stretching components of the surface free energy has given results in excellent agreement with experimental finding. The efforts under this contract were an essential part of the basis for the ACS Award in Colloid and Surface Chemistry, the Kendall Award, being given to Stig Friberg for 1985. 2 refs.

  1. Evaluation of Liquid-Liquid Extraction Process for Separating Acrylic Acid Produced From Renewable Sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, M. E. T.; Moraes, E. B.; Machado, A. B.; Maciel Filho, R.; Wolf-Maciel, M. R.

    In this article, the separation and the purification of the acrylic acid produced from renewable sugars were studied using the liquid-liquid extraction process. Nonrandom two-liquids and universal quasi-chemical models and the prediction method univeral quasi-chemical functional activity coefficients were used for generating liquid-liquid equilibrium diagrams for systems made up of acrylic acid, water, and solvents (diisopropyl ether, isopropyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and methyl isobutyl ketone) and the results were compared with available liquid-liquid equilibrium experimental data. Aspen Plus (Aspen Technology, Inc., version 2004.1) software was used for equilibrium and process calculations. High concentration of acrylic acid was obtained in this article using diisopropyl ether as solvent.

  2. Signal processing method and system for noise removal and signal extraction

    DOEpatents

    Fu, Chi Yung; Petrich, Loren

    2009-04-14

    A signal processing method and system combining smooth level wavelet pre-processing together with artificial neural networks all in the wavelet domain for signal denoising and extraction. Upon receiving a signal corrupted with noise, an n-level decomposition of the signal is performed using a discrete wavelet transform to produce a smooth component and a rough component for each decomposition level. The n.sup.th level smooth component is then inputted into a corresponding neural network pre-trained to filter out noise in that component by pattern recognition in the wavelet domain. Additional rough components, beginning at the highest level, may also be retained and inputted into corresponding neural networks pre-trained to filter out noise in those components also by pattern recognition in the wavelet domain. In any case, an inverse discrete wavelet transform is performed on the combined output from all the neural networks to recover a clean signal back in the time domain.

  3. Evaluation of liquid-liquid extraction process for separating acrylic acid produced from renewable sugars.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M E T; Moraes, E B; Machado, A B; Maciel Filho, R; Wolf-Maciel, M R

    2007-04-01

    In this article, the separation and the purification of the acrylic acid produced from renewable sugars were studied using the liquid-liquid extraction process. Nonrandom two-liquids and universal quasi-chemical models and the prediction method universal quasi-chemical functional activity coefficients were used for generating liquid-liquid equilibrium diagrams for systems made up of acrylic acid, water, and solvents (diisopropyl ether, isopropyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and methyl isobutyl ketone) and the results were compared with available liquid-liquid equilibrium experimental data. Aspen Plus (Aspen Technology, Inc., version 2004.1) software was used for equilibrium and process calculations. High concentration of acrylic acid was obtained in this article using diisopropyl ether as solvent.

  4. Probing free radical processes during storage of extracts from whole roasted coffee beans: impact of O2 exposure during extraction and storage.

    PubMed

    Yeretzian, Chahan; Pascual, Ederlinda C; Goodman, Bernard A

    2013-04-03

    Development of liquid coffee products of good quality with extended shelf lives is hampered by their rapid quality degradation as a result of both physical and flavor instability. One approach that is being considered for extending the shelf lives of liquid coffees is that of supplementing the beverage with a very mild and slow continuous extraction from intact roasted beans that are held within an aluminum can. This paper reports the use of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to examine the effects of key parameters that affect the stability of liquid coffee prepared from aqueous extracts from whole roasted coffee beans, namely, the O2 content of the water and headspace during extraction and the temperature during storage. It was found that the magnitude of the free radical signal was sensitive to the O2 content of the water used for extraction and storage time and temperature, whereas the intensity of the Fe(III) (g = 4.3) signal was affected only by the O2 content of the water and the Mn signal was insensitive to the experimental parameters. The most critical factor was the O2 content of the water used for extraction, and careful control of O2 exposure at the extraction stage could be a crucial factor for generating products with resistance to oxidative processes during storage.

  5. [Study on the technological process of extraction and clathration for Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae oil with beta-cyclodextrin].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiang-Hong

    2007-05-01

    To study the optimal extraction and clathration technology of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae oil in Heweilichang Pill. Orthogonal test was employed for selecting the optimum of extraction technology of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae oil and the oil extraction rate were used as a index. The optimum including technology was chosen by determining the oil-bearing rate and extract ratio of inclusion compound. The inclusion compound were identified with thin chromatogram. The extraction technology was 10 volumes of water, extracted 6h with thick granula of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae. The optimum preparation conditions for clathrate were established as beta-CD: oil was 6: 1, 3. 5 times of water, triturated for 75 minutes. The process is feasible and the method can be used for production.

  6. Isolation and characterization of fish scale collagen from tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) by a novel extrusion-hydro-extraction process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yung; Kuo, Jen-Min; Wu, Shu-Jing; Tsai, Hsing-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    Collagen is highly valued both as a food additive and a functional food ingredient. It is generally extracted by treatments with acid or alkali, enzyme, and microorganisms. However these methods are generally batch type, time-, energy-, reactant-, and cost-consuming. Extrusion is widely used in the food industry, and offers many advantages, such as ease of operation, continuous production, high yield, and little waste. In this study, we developed a novel extrusion-hydro-extraction (EHE) process for extraction of collagen from tilapia fish scale. Extruded scale samples had a 2-3 times higher protein extraction yield than that of non-extruded scale samples. All extracts contained hydroxyproline (61-73 residues/1000 residues) and hydroxylysine (5-6 residues/1000 residues) and were identified as type-I collagens by FTIR, SDS-PAGE, and molecular weight distribution analyses. The physicochemical studies revealed that extracted collagens could have promising applications in the food, medical, and cosmetic industries.

  7. Optimized extraction and characterization of antimicrobial phenolic compounds from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) cultivation and processing waste.

    PubMed

    Palakawong, Choothaweep; Sophanodora, Pairat; Toivonen, Peter; Delaquis, Pascal

    2013-12-01

    Applications for antimicrobials derived from the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) plant are presently restricted by high production costs. Extraction from cultivation or processing waste streams using a solvent-free approach could lessen to permit commercial applications in food processing and preservation. Phenolics were extracted from mangosteen bark, leaf and fruit pericarp in methanol and in water using response surface methodology to optimize recovery. Initial examination of antimicrobial effects revealed a lack of antimicrobial activity against fungi and weak activity against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. In contrast, extracts prepared from bark or fruit pericarp exhibited strong pH-dependent bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects against Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Activity was slightly weaker in aqueous extracts due to lower concentrations of tartaric acid esters and flavonols than in methanolic extracts. Measurement of propidium iodide uptake and ATP leakage indicated that the extracts induced damage to the membrane of Gram-positive bacteria. Extracts of mangosteen bark and fruit pericarp contain mixtures of phenolic compounds with activity against Gram-positive bacteria, notably Listeria monocytogenes. Extraction of phenolics from mangosteen waste could yield fractions for potential applications in the formulation of low-cost processing aids or sanitizers for the food industry. © 2013 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Evaluation and Optimization of Downstream Process Parameters for Extraction of Betulinic Acid from the Bark of Ziziphus jujubae L.

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Kashyap Kumar; Goel, Nitika

    2013-01-01

    Present work investigated an apposite and efficient method for extraction of betulinic acid (BA) from the bark of Ziziphus jujubae. Various extraction methods like stirring extraction, soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) were evaluated for increasing recovery percentage of BA. From the raffinate so obtained, BA was isolated. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to analyze the extract and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quantification. The results revealed that the percentage extraction of BA from Z. jujubae by MAE was more proficient. As recovery percentage of BA by MAE technique turned out to be maximum, by using response surface methodology (RSM), three process parameters (pH, temperature, and time) were optimized by MAE and it was observed that the optimum parameters (pH 6.5, temp. 70.23°C, and time 3.5 min) gave the maximum recovery of BA (0.44% w/w). To validate the RSM model, experiments were performed and the highest recovery of BA was found to be 0.4% w/w which is ±0.04% to the predicted value. Henceforth the extraction efficiency and the substantial saving of time by MAE was more capable than the other extraction techniques. PMID:24324374

  9. Extraction of water and solutes from argillaceous rocks for geochemical characterisation: Methods, processes and current understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacchi, Elisa; Michelot, Jean-Luc; Pitsch, Helmut; Lalieux, Philippe; Aranyossy, Jean-François

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of a comprehensive critical review, initiated by the OECD/NEA "Clay Club," of the extraction techniques available to obtain water and solutes from argillaceous rocks. The paper focuses on the mechanisms involved in the extraction processes, the consequences on the isotopic and chemical composition of the extracted pore water and the attempts made to reconstruct its original composition. Finally, it provides some examples of reliable techniques and information, as a function of the purpose of the geochemical study. Résumé. Cet article résume les résultats d'une synthèse critique d'ensemble, lancée par le OECD/NEA "Clay Club", sur les techniques d'extraction disponibles pour obtenir l'eau et les solutés de roches argileuses. L'article est consacré aux mécanismes impliqués dans les processus d'extraction, aux conséquences sur la composition isotopique et chimique de l'eau porale extraite et aux tentatives faites pour reconstituer sa composition originelle. Finalement, il donne quelques exemples de techniques fiables et d'informations, en fonction du but de l'étude géochimique. Resúmen. Este artículo resume los resultados de una revisión crítica exhaustiva (iniciada por el "Clay Club" OECD/NEA) de las técnicas de extracción disponibles para obtener agua y solutos en rocas arcillosas. El artículo se centra en los mecanismos involucrados en los procesos extractivos, las consecuencias en la composición isotópica y química del agua intersticial extraída, y en los intentos realizados para reconstruir su composición original. Finalmente, se presentan algunos ejemplos de técnicas fiables e información, en función del propósito del estudio geoquímico.

  10. Use of /sup 238/Th as a label in the study of the distribution of thorium in extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Naumov, M.A.; Petrov, A.M.; Ragimov, T.K.; Timoshin, V.I.

    1987-03-01

    A ..gamma..-spectrometric method was developed for monitoring the distribution of thorium in products of extraction technology using /sup 228/Th as the label. Gamma radiation with an energy of 238.6 keV, emitted by /sup 212/Pb, a daughter nuclide of /sup 228/Th, was recorded with a semiconductor ..gamma.. spectrometer. On account of the disruption of the radioactive equilibrium between /sup 228/Th and its daughter nuclides during extraction, they measured the activity of /sup 212/Pb on the second and fourth days after extraction. The method permits a determination of the fraction of thorium in the organic phase of the extraction process from 2 to 50% with a relative error from 30 to 4% at the confidence level P = 0.95. Thorium fractions in the aqueous phase of the extraction process in the range from 50 to 98% were determined with a relative error from 7 to 0.6% at P = 0.95.

  11. Thermal degradation of the solvent employed in the next-generation caustic-side solvent extraction process and its effect on the extraction, scrubbing, and stripping of cesium

    DOE PAGES

    Roach, Benjamin D.; Williams, Neil J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2015-09-02

    As part of the ongoing development of the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NGS) process, the thermal stability of the process solvent was investigated and shown to be adequate for industrial application. The solvent was thermally treated at 35 C over a period of 13 months whilst in dynamic contact with each of the aqueous phases of the current NGS process, namely SRS 15 (a highly caustic waste simulant), sodium hydroxide scrub solution (0.025 M), and boric acid strip solution (0.01 M). The effect of thermal treatment was evaluated by assessing batch extract/scrub/strip performance as a function of time, by monitoringmore » the sodium extraction capacity of the solvent, and by analysis of the solvent using electrospray mass spectrometry. Current studies indicate that the NGS solvent should be thermally robust for a period of XXX months at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) pilot plant located at Savannah River Site. Furthermore, the guanidine suppressor appears to be the solvent component most significantly impacted by thermal treatment of the solvent, showing significant degradation over time.« less

  12. Thermal degradation of the solvent employed in the next-generation caustic-side solvent extraction process and its effect on the extraction, scrubbing, and stripping of cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Benjamin D.; Williams, Neil J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2015-09-02

    As part of the ongoing development of the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NGS) process, the thermal stability of the process solvent was investigated and shown to be adequate for industrial application. The solvent was thermally treated at 35 C over a period of 13 months whilst in dynamic contact with each of the aqueous phases of the current NGS process, namely SRS 15 (a highly caustic waste simulant), sodium hydroxide scrub solution (0.025 M), and boric acid strip solution (0.01 M). The effect of thermal treatment was evaluated by assessing batch extract/scrub/strip performance as a function of time, by monitoring the sodium extraction capacity of the solvent, and by analysis of the solvent using electrospray mass spectrometry. Current studies indicate that the NGS solvent should be thermally robust for a period of XXX months at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) pilot plant located at Savannah River Site. Furthermore, the guanidine suppressor appears to be the solvent component most significantly impacted by thermal treatment of the solvent, showing significant degradation over time.

  13. A novel solvent extraction process with bottom gas injection for liquid waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, H.Y.; Doungdeethaveeratana, D.

    1996-12-31

    A novel solvent extraction process in which the emulsion is generated by bottom gas injection rather than mechanical stirring has been developed. This process has a number of advantages over the mixer-settler unit or the spray column in terms of simple equipment configuration and the ease of cleaning and process control while providing a large interfacial area for mass transfer. The equipment consists of a horizontal cylindrical vessel in which the two immiscible liquids flow countercurrently. High-strength gas jets are injected from the bottom at certain intervals along the length of the vessel. The gas jet creates a plume zone consisting of an emulsion of the two liquids which contains a large interfacial area for rapid mass transfer. The two liquids then disengage and flow in the opposite directions before entering another plume zone. Thus, the process combines the simplicity of a cylindrical vessel, having no moving parts, with the contacting efficiency of a mixer-settler. The gas can be recycled in a closed loop, thus eliminating mist and other emission problems. These advantages would be especially significant for treating large-volume/low-value liquid streams which contain hazardous substances and/or suspended solid particulates. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Processing of a complex multiply damaged DNA site by human cell extracts and purified repair proteins

    PubMed Central

    Eot-Houllier, Grégory; Eon-Marchais, Séverine; Gasparutto, Didier; Sage, Evelyne

    2005-01-01

    Clustered DNA lesions, possibly induced by ionizing radiation, constitute a trial for repair processes. Indeed, recent studies suggest that repair of such lesions may be compromised, potentially leading to the formation of lethal double-strand breaks (DSBs). A complex multiply damaged site (MDS) composed of 8-oxoguanine and 8-oxoadenine on one strand, 5-hydroxyuracil, 5-formyluracil and a 1 nt gap on the other strand, within 17 bp was built and used to challenge several steps of base excision repair (BER) pathway with human whole-cell extracts and purified repair enzymes as well. We show a hierarchy in the processing of lesions within the MDS, in particular at the base excision step. In the present configuration, efficient excision of 5-hydroxyuracil and low cleavage at 8-oxoguanine prevent DSB formation and generate a short single-stranded region carrying the 8-oxoguanine. On the other hand, rejoining of the 1 nt gap occurs by the short-patch BER pathway, but is slightly retarded by the presence of the oxidized bases. Taken together, our results suggest a hierarchy in the processing of the lesions within the MDS, which prevents the formation of DSB, but would dramatically enhance mutagenesis. They also indicate that the mutagenic (or lethal) consequences of a complex MDS will largely depend on the first event in the processing of the MDS. PMID:15647508

  15. Using Natural Language Processing to Extract Abnormal Results From Cancer Screening Reports.

    PubMed

    Moore, Carlton R; Farrag, Ashraf; Ashkin, Evan

    2017-09-01

    Numerous studies show that follow-up of abnormal cancer screening results, such as mammography and Papanicolaou (Pap) smears, is frequently not performed in a timely manner. A contributing factor is that abnormal results may go unrecognized because they are buried in free-text documents in electronic medical records (EMRs), and, as a result, patients are lost to follow-up. By identifying abnormal results from free-text reports in EMRs and generating alerts to clinicians, natural language processing (NLP) technology has the potential for improving patient care. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the performance of NLP software for extracting abnormal results from free-text mammography and Pap smear reports stored in an EMR. A sample of 421 and 500 free-text mammography and Pap reports, respectively, were manually reviewed by a physician, and the results were categorized for each report. We tested the performance of NLP to extract results from the reports. The 2 assessments (criterion standard versus NLP) were compared to determine the precision, recall, and accuracy of NLP. When NLP was compared with manual review for mammography reports, the results were as follows: precision, 98% (96%-99%); recall, 100% (98%-100%); and accuracy, 98% (96%-99%). For Pap smear reports, the precision, recall, and accuracy of NLP were all 100%. Our study developed NLP models that accurately extract abnormal results from mammography and Pap smear reports. Plans include using NLP technology to generate real-time alerts and reminders for providers to facilitate timely follow-up of abnormal results.

  16. APPLICATIONS OF SOLVENT EXTRACTION IN THE HIGH-YIELD MULTI-PROCESS REDUCTION/SEPARATION OF Eu FROM EXCESS Sm

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Sudowe, Ralf; Nitsche, Heino; Hoffman, Darleane C.

    2008-05-15

    A novel multi-process method for separating Eu from neighbouring lanthanides (Ln) has been developed that chemically reduces Eu(III) to Eu(II) prior to solvent extraction of Ln(III) with thenoyltrifluoroacetone in benzene. This method is capable of achieving higher purities (>99%) and separation yields than previously published multi-process methods that stabilize and separate the reduced Eu(II) as a sulphate solid and is ideal for enriching materials of high-value. Results from a variety of combinations of a chemical or electrochemical reduction process preceding a separation process using either ion exchange chromatography, reversed phase chromatography, or solvent extraction are discussed.

  17. Mechanical Mercury Extraction Process® Test Results at Combie Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monohan, C.; Alpers, C. N.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    More than 4,500,000 kilograms (10,000,000 pounds) of mercury (Hg) were used during hydraulic and hard rock mining during the California Gold Rush era, and it is estimated that 10-30% of liquid Hg was lost to the environment. Mercury is entrained in river gravels containing hydraulic mining debris and is incorporated into the aquatic food chain, causing numerous environmental and public health problems for California communities today. One of the problems is that Hg-contaminated sediment accumulates in water-supply reservoirs such as the Combie Reservoir. Sand miners and irrigation districts have removed these accumulated materials for more than 30 years. The Combie Reservoir Sediment and Mercury Removal Project is to dredge Hg-contaminated sediment from Combie Reservoir while implementing an innovative recovery process to remove the free elemental Hg (Hg(0)) from the dredged material. The project is estimated to take 3 to 5 years to complete and would remove and treat an estimated 100,000 cubic meters (135,000 cubic yards) of sediment from the upstream end of Combie Reservoir. The dredged material will be processed with the Pegasus Mercury Extraction Process® which passes the material through a specialized centrifuge, thereby removing Hg(0) as well as other heavy minerals, including gold (Au) and Au-Hg amalgam. To measure the effectiveness of removal process, multiple equipment tests were conducted in September and October 2009. Total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg) and reactive Hg(II) (operationally defined by reduction of divalent inorganic Hg(II) to Hg(0) with tin(II)) were measured in heads (input material) and tails (output material) from replicate closed system tests. Mass balances were calculated for water, sediment and the above forms of Hg to estimate Hg removal effectiveness in different grain-size fractions. The free Hg(0) in the sand size fraction (> 0.063 mm) that was removed by the Pegasus Mercury Extraction Process® represents approximately 93% of

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; R. Michael Bergen; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; W. Morgan Summers; John W. Zondlo

    2006-05-12

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, coking and composite fabrication continued using coal-derived samples. These samples were tested in direct carbon fuel cells. Methodology was refined for determining the aromatic character of hydro treated liquid, based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Tests at GrafTech International showed that binder pitches produced using the WVU solvent extraction protocol can result in acceptable graphite electrodes for use in arc furnaces. These tests were made at the pilot scale.

  19. Separation of lignocellulosic materials by combined processes of pre-hydrolysis and ethanol extraction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zehua; Fatehi, Pedram; Jahan, M Sarwar; Ni, Yonghao

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed a new modification for an ethanol-based pulping process, which would consist of the pre-hydrolysis (pre-extraction) of wood chips for removing hemicelluloses; the ethanol extraction of pre-hydrolyzed wood chips for removing lignin; and the post purification of cellulose, leading to the production of pure cellulose. We also experimentally evaluated the separation of hemicelluloses from the pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) obtained from a pulp mill. To remove lignin from the PHL, it was acidified to a pH of 2, which resulted in 47% lignin precipitation. The lignin separation from the acidified PHL was further improved via adding polyethylene oxide and poly aluminum chloride or adding ethyl acetate. To recover the hemicelluloses from the acidified PHL, ethanol was added to the acidified PHL with a volumetric ratio of 4 to 1. The isolated lignin and hemicelluloses were characterized by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and a gas permeation chromatography (GPC). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. EEG artifact elimination by extraction of ICA-component features using image processing algorithms.

    PubMed

    Radüntz, T; Scouten, J; Hochmuth, O; Meffert, B

    2015-03-30

    Artifact rejection is a central issue when dealing with electroencephalogram recordings. Although independent component analysis (ICA) separates data in linearly independent components (IC), the classification of these components as artifact or EEG signal still requires visual inspection by experts. In this paper, we achieve automated artifact elimination using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for classification of feature vectors extracted from ICA components via image processing algorithms. We compare the performance of this automated classifier to visual classification by experts and identify range filtering as a feature extraction method with great potential for automated IC artifact recognition (accuracy rate 88%). We obtain almost the same level of recognition performance for geometric features and local binary pattern (LBP) features. Compared to the existing automated solutions the proposed method has two main advantages: First, it does not depend on direct recording of artifact signals, which then, e.g. have to be subtracted from the contaminated EEG. Second, it is not limited to a specific number or type of artifact. In summary, the present method is an automatic, reliable, real-time capable and practical tool that reduces the time intensive manual selection of ICs for artifact removal. The results are very promising despite the relatively small channel resolution of 25 electrodes.

  1. Recommended Guanidine Suppressor for the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Duncan, Nathan C; Ensor, Dale; Hill, Talon G; Lee, Denise L; Roach, Benjamin D; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V; Williams, Neil J

    2013-01-01

    The guanidine recommended for the Next-Generation Caustic-Side is N,N ,N -tris(3,7-dimethyloctyl)guanidine (TiDG). Systematic testing has shown that it is significantly more lipophilic than the previously recommended guanidine DCiTG, the active extractant in the commercial guanidine product LIX -79, while not otherwise changing the solvent performance. Previous testing indicated that the extent of partitioning of the DCiTG suppressor to the aqueous strip solution is significantly greater than expected, potentially leading to rapid depletion of the suppressor from the solvent and unwanted organic concentrations in process effluents. Five candidate guanidines were tested as potential replacements for DCiTG. The tests included batch extraction with simulated waste and flowsheet solutions, third-phase formation, emulsion formation, and partition ratios of the guanidine between the solvent and aqueous strip solution. Preliminary results of a thermal stability test of the TiDG solvent at one month duration indicated performance approximately equivalent to DCiTG. Two of the guanidines proved adequate in all respects, and the choice of TiDG was deemed slightly preferable vs the next best guanidine BiTABG.

  2. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, Loree Joanne; King, C. Judson

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO2 and H2S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The

  3. Coal mining with Triple-section extraction process in stagger arrangement roadway layout method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zimo; Liu, Baozhu; Zhao, Jingli; Chanda, Emmanuel

    2017-03-01

    This paper introduces the Triple-section extraction process in the three-dimensional roadway layout of stagger arrangement method for longwall top-coal caving mining. This 3-D roadway layout of stagger arrangement method without coal pillars, which arranged the air intake roadway and air return roadway in different horizons, realizing the design theory transformation of roadway layout from 2D system to 3D system. And the paper makes systematic analysis to the geological, technical and economic factors, applies this new mining roadway layout technology for raising coal recovery ratio and solving the problems about full-seam mining in thick coal seam synthetically according to theoretical study and mining practice. Furthermore, the paper presents a physical simulation about inner staggered roadway layout of this particular longwall top-coal caving method.

  4. Process variables influence on microwave assisted extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L. peel.

    PubMed

    Maran, J Prakash; Prakash, K Arun

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate and optimize the influence of process variables such as microwave power, pH, time and solid-liquid ratio on the extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L peel. The experiments were carried out based on a four factors three level Box-Behnken response surface design. A quadratic model was developed from the experimental data in order to predict the pectin yield. The optimal condition was found to be: microwave power of 512 w, pH of 1.8, time of 140 s and solid-liquid ratio of 1:15 g/ml with maximum pectin yield (25.41%). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Solution processed sodium chloride interlayers for efficient electron extraction from polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickel, Felix; Reinhard, Manuel; Zhang, Zhenhao; Pütz, Andreas; Kettlitz, Siegfried; Lemmer, Uli; Colsmann, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    We investigate a solution-processable, non-toxic sodium chloride (NaCl) interlayer for aluminum cathodes in organic solar cells. The electron extraction at the cathode interface is strongly improved upon the insertion of NaCl leading to power conversion efficiencies of up to 2.9% as compared to 1.8% efficient devices without interlayer. Scanning electron and kelvin probe force microscopy studies reveal that the formation of NaCl crystals causes a decrease of the aluminum work function by more than 300 mV. By impedance spectroscopy, we found evidence that the NaCl crystals improve the energetic alignment at the polymer/metal interface.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady B. Dadyburjor; Mark E. Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; J. Joshua Maybury; Alfred H. Stiller; Joseph M. Stoffa; John W. Zondlo

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, and porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, hydrotreatment of solvent was completed in preparation for pitch fabrication for graphite electrodes. Coal digestion has lagged but is expected to be complete by next quarter. Studies are reported on coal dissolution, pitch production, foam synthesis using physical blowing agents, and alternate coking techniques.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. The Hydrotreatment Facility is being prepared for trials with coal liquids. Raw coal tar distillate trials have been carried out by heating coal tar in the holding tank in the Hydrotreatment Facility. The liquids are centrifuged to warm the system up in preparation for the coal liquids. The coal tar distillate is then recycled to keep the centrifuge hot. In this way, the product has been distilled such that a softening point of approximately 110 C is reached. Then an ash test is conducted.

  8. Nutritional and mineral contents of honey extracted by centrifugation and pressed processes.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Samir Moura; Zaluski, Rodrigo; Orsi, Ricardo de Oliveira

    2017-03-01

    In this study, wild honey samples extracted by two different methods (centrifugation and pressed processing) were characterized and compared based on their physicochemical, and nutritional properties, macro- and micro-mineral contents, and pollen counts. Twelve colonies of Africanized Apis mellifera were used; six honey samples were obtained by centrifugation and six by honeycomb press. All physicochemical parameters of honey samples (moisture, pH, total acidity, ash, dry matter, and qualitative absence of hydroxymethylfurfural) were within the limits established by EU legislation, and all parameters in pressed honey were superior (p<0.05). Nutritional contents (total carbohydrates, total lipids, total proteins, flavonoids, and ascorbic acid) and minerals (K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Li, Zn) were also higher in pressed honey. The quantity of pollen in pressed honey samples was 5.6-fold higher than in centrifuged samples. Pressed honey, can be marked as a differentiated product with a higher mineral content and several nutritional properties.

  9. Methane gas generation from waste water extraction process of crude palm oil in experimental digesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, A.; Penafiel, R.; Garzón, P. V.; Ochoa, V.

    2015-12-01

    Industrial processes to extract crude palm oil, generates large amounts of waste water. High concentrations of COD, ST, SV, NH4 + and low solubility of O2, make the treatment of these effluents starts with anaerobic processes. The anaerobic digestion process has several advantages over aerobic degradation: lower operating costs (not aeration), low sludge production, methane gas generation. The 4 stages of anaerobic digestion are: hydrolysis, acidogenic, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. Through the action of enzymes synthesized by microbial consortia are met. The products of each step to serve as reagents is conducted as follows. The organic load times and cell hydraulic retention, solids content, nutrient availability, pH and temperature are factors that influence directly in biodigesters. The objectives of this presentation is to; characterize the microbial inoculum and water (from palm oil wasted water) to be used in biodigestores, make specific methanogenic activity in bioassays, acclimatize the microorganisms to produce methane gas using basal mineral medium with acetate for the input power, and to determine the production of methane gas digesters high organic load.

  10. Novel process for the simultaneous extraction and degumming of banana fibers under solid-state cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Nicemol; Prema, Parukuttyamma

    2008-01-01

    Various process parameters for the production of polygalacturonase by Streptomyces lydicus under solid-state fermentation were optimized. The optimum particle size of wheat bran for polygalacturonase production was in the range of 500-1000 μm. Initial moisture content of 70% was found to be the optimum for enzyme production. The most suitable inoculum size was 1.25 × 105 CFU/mL and the optimum incubation temperature was 30°C. Addition of carbon sources resulted in 37% increase in enzyme yield (425 U/g), whereas no significant enhancement was obtained on nitrogen supplementation. Maximum enzyme yield was recorded at 72 h. When compared to the initial production medium (108.5 U/g), the enzyme yield was 3.9 fold after optimization. Solid-state fermentation was effectively employed to develop a novel process for the simultaneous extraction and degumming of banana fibers. Streptomyces lydicus was allowed to grow on wheat bran medium in which banana leaf sheath pieces were incorporated and the fiber bundles were separated after a two-step fermentative process. PMID:24031190

  11. [A microbiological study of an underground gas storage in the process of gas extraction].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, A E; Borzenkov, I A; Tarasov, A L; Milekhina, E I; Beliaev, S S

    2007-01-01

    The numbers of microorganisms belonging to ecologically significant groups and the rates of terminal microbial processes of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were determined in the liquid phase of an underground gas storage (UGS) in the period of gas extraction. The total number of microorganisms in water samples from the operation and injection wells reached 2.1 x 10(6) cells/ml. Aerobic organotrophs (including hydrocarbon- and oil-oxidizing ones) and various anaerobic microorganisms (fermenting bacteria, methanogens, acetogens, sulfate-, nitrate-, and iron-reducing bacteria) were constituent parts of the community. The radioisotopic method showed that, in all the UGS units, the terminal stages of organic matter decomposition included sulfate reduction and methanogenesis, with the maximal rate of these processes recorded in the aqueous phase of above-ground technological equipment which the gas enters from the operation wells. A comparative analysis by these parameters of different anaerobic ecotopes, including natural hydrocarbon fields, allows us to assess the rate of these processes in the UGS as high throughout the annual cycle of its operation. The data obtained indicate the existence in the UGS of a bacterial community that is unique in its diversity and metabolic capacities and able to make a certain contribution to the geochemistry of organic and inorganic compounds in the natural and technogenic ecosystem of the UGS and thus influence the industrial gas composition.

  12. Bio-processing of solid wastes and secondary resources for metal extraction - A review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Chun; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2012-01-01

    Metal containing wastes/byproducts of various industries, used consumer goods, and municipal waste are potential pollutants, if not treated properly. They may also be important secondary resources if processed in eco-friendly manner for secured supply of contained metals/materials. Bio-extraction of metals from such resources with microbes such as bacteria, fungi and archaea is being increasingly explored to meet the twin objectives of resource recycling and pollution mitigation. This review focuses on the bio-processing of solid wastes/byproducts of metallurgical and manufacturing industries, chemical/petrochemical plants, electroplating and tanning units, besides sewage sludge and fly ash of municipal incinerators, electronic wastes (e-wastes/PCBs), used batteries, etc. An assessment has been made to quantify the wastes generated and its compositions, microbes used, metal leaching efficiency etc. Processing of certain effluents and wastewaters comprising of metals is also included in brief. Future directions of research are highlighted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Process variables in biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, A.; Raichur, Ashok M.; Chandrasekaran, N.; Prathna, T. C.; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    Owing to widespread applications, synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles is recently attracting considerable attention. Increasing environmental concerns over chemical synthesis routes have resulted in attempts to develop biomimetic approaches. One of them is synthesis using plant parts, which eliminates the elaborate process of maintaining the microbial culture and often found to be kinetically favourable than other bioprocesses. The present study deals with investigating the effect of process variables like reductant concentrations, reaction pH, mixing ratio of the reactants and interaction time on the morphology and size of silver nanoparticles synthesized using aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves. The formation of crystalline silver nanoparticles was confirmed using X-ray diffraction analysis. By means of UV spectroscopy, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy techniques, it was observed that the morphology and size of the nanoparticles were strongly dependent on the process parameters. Within 4 h interaction period, nanoparticles below 20-nm-size with nearly spherical shape were produced. On increasing interaction time (ageing) to 66 days, both aggregation and shape anisotropy (ellipsoidal, polyhedral and capsular) of the particles increased. In alkaline pH range, the stability of cluster distribution increased with a declined tendency for aggregation of the particles. It can be inferred from the study that fine tuning the bioprocess parameters will enhance possibilities of desired nano-product tailor made for particular applications.

  14. Characterization of co-products from producing ethanol by sequential extraction processing of corn

    SciTech Connect

    Hojilla-Evangelista, M.P.; Johnson, L.A.; Pometto, A.L. III; Svendsen, L.K.

    1996-12-31

    Sequential Extraction Processing (SEP) is a new process for ethanol production that has potential to produce more valuable co-products than alternative processes. Previous work determined the yields of oil and protein and evaluated their chemical and functional properties. The properties of the crude fiber and spent solids, however, have yet to be studied. This research was conducted to evaluate the potential of SEP corn fiber to increase ethanol conversion and as replacement for gum arabic, and evaluate the potential of SEP starch and fiber to be fermented to ethanol. SEP hemicellulose from crude fiber was readily dispersible in water and its solution (5%) gave low viscosity despite having high solids content. These properties indicated potential utilization as stabilizers, thickeners, and adhesive for coatings and batters in food and industrial products. Enzyme hydrolysis studies and batch fermentation of SEP starch/fiber indicated that SEP crude fiber was more readily accessible to the action of cellulases. More ethanol (about 10%) was produced from the fermentation of SEP starch/fiber than from undegermed or degermed soft dent corn, particularly when the hemicellulose fraction was absent from the SEP fiber.

  15. Continuous Production of Biodiesel Via an Intensified Reactive/Extractive Process

    SciTech Connect

    Tsouris, Costas; McFarlane, Joanna; Birdwell Jr, Joseph F; Jennings, Hal L

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel is considered as a means to diversify our supply of transportation fuel, addressing the goal of reducing our dependence on oil. For a number of reasons ranging from production issues to end use, biodiesel represents only a small fraction of the transportation fuel used worldwide. This work addresses the aspect of biodiesel production that limits it to a slow batch process. Conventional production methods are batch in nature, based on the assumption that the rates of the key chemical reactions are slow. The hypothesis motivating this work is that the reaction kinetics for the transesterification of the reagent triglyceride is sufficiently fast, particularly in an excess of catalyst, and that interfacial mass transfer and phase separation control the process. If this is the case, an intensified two-phase reactor adapted from solvent extraction equipment may be utilized to greatly increase biodiesel production rates by increasing interphase transport and phase separation. To prove this idea, we are investigating two aspects: (1) determining the rate-limiting step in biodiesel production by evaluating the reaction kinetics, and (2) enhancing biodiesel production rates by using an intensified reactor. A centrifugal contactor combining interphase mass transfer, chemical reaction, and phase separation is employed for process intensification.

  16. Process development for elemental recovery from PGM tailings by thermochemical treatment: Preliminary major element extraction studies using ammonium sulphate as extracting agent.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Sameera; van der Merwe, Elizabet M; Altermann, Wladyslaw; Doucet, Frédéric J

    2016-04-01

    Mine tailings can represent untapped secondary resources of non-ferrous, ferrous, precious, rare and trace metals. Continuous research is conducted to identify opportunities for the utilisation of these materials. This preliminary study investigated the possibility of extracting major elements from South African tailings associated with the mining of Platinum Group Metals (PGM) at the Two Rivers mine operations. These PGM tailings typically contain four major elements (11% Al2O3; 12% MgO; 22% Fe2O3; 34% Cr2O3), with lesser amounts of SiO2 (18%) and CaO (2%). Extraction was achieved via thermochemical treatment followed by aqueous dissolution, as an alternative to conventional hydrometallurgical processes. The thermochemical treatment step used ammonium sulphate, a widely available, low-cost, recyclable chemical agent. Quantification of the efficiency of the thermochemical process required the development and optimisation of the dissolution technique. Dissolution in water promoted the formation of secondary iron precipitates, which could be prevented by leaching thermochemically-treated tailings in 0.6M HNO3 solution. The best extraction efficiencies were achieved for aluminium (ca. 60%) and calcium (ca. 80%). 35% iron and 32% silicon were also extracted, alongside chromium (27%) and magnesium (25%). Thermochemical treatment using ammonium sulphate may therefore represent a promising technology for extracting valuable elements from PGM tailings, which could be subsequently converted to value-added products. However, it is not element-selective, and major elements were found to compete with the reagent to form water-soluble sulphate-metal species. Further development of this integrated process, which aims at achieving the full potential of utilisation of PGM tailings, is currently underway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Extracting antipsychotic polypharmacy data from electronic health records: developing and evaluating a novel process.

    PubMed

    Kadra, Giouliana; Stewart, Robert; Shetty, Hitesh; Jackson, Richard G; Greenwood, Mark A; Roberts, Angus; Chang, Chin-Kuo; MacCabe, James H; Hayes, Richard D

    2015-07-22

    Antipsychotic prescription information is commonly derived from structured fields in clinical health records. However, utilising diverse and comprehensive sources of information is especially important when investigating less frequent patterns of medication prescribing such as antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP). This study describes and evaluates a novel method of extracting APP data from both structured and free-text fields in electronic health records (EHRs), and its use for research purposes. Using anonymised EHRs, we identified a cohort of patients with serious mental illness (SMI) who were treated in South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust mental health care services between 1 January and 30 June 2012. Information about antipsychotic co-prescribing was extracted using a combination of natural language processing and a bespoke algorithm. The validity of the data derived through this process was assessed against a manually coded gold standard to establish precision and recall. Lastly, we estimated the prevalence and patterns of antipsychotic polypharmacy. Individual instances of antipsychotic prescribing were detected with high precision (0.94 to 0.97) and moderate recall (0.57-0.77). We detected baseline APP (two or more antipsychotics prescribed in any 6-week window) with 0.92 precision and 0.74 recall and long-term APP (antipsychotic co-prescribing for 6 months) with 0.94 precision and 0.60 recall. Of the 7,201 SMI patients receiving active care during the observation period, 338 (4.7 %; 95 % CI 4.2-5.2) were identified as receiving long-term APP. Two second generation antipsychotics (64.8 %); and first -second generation antipsychotics were most commonly co-prescribed (32.5 %). These results suggest that this is a potentially practical tool for identifying polypharmacy from mental health EHRs on a large scale. Furthermore, extracted data can be used to allow researchers to characterize patterns of polypharmacy over time including different drug

  18. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni as a natural antioxidant/antimicrobial for high pressure processed fruit extract: processing parameter optimization.

    PubMed

    Barba, Francisco José; Criado, María Nieves; Belda-Galbis, Clara Miracle; Esteve, María José; Rodrigo, Dolores

    2014-04-01

    Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the optimal high pressure processing treatment (300-500 MPa, 5-15 min) combined with Stevia rebaudiana (Stevia) addition (0-2.5% (w/v)) to guarantee food safety while maintaining maximum retention of nutritional properties. A fruit extract matrix was selected and Listeria monocytogenes inactivation was followed from the food safety point of view while polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (TEAC and ORAC) were studied from the food quality point of view. A combination of treatments achieved higher levels of inactivation of L. monocytogenes and of the oxidative enzymes, succeeding in completely inactivating POD and also increasing the levels of TPC, TEAC and ORAC. A treatment of 453 MPa for 5 min with a 2.5% (w/v) of Stevia succeeded in inactivating over 5 log cycles of L. monocytogenes and maximizing inactivation of PPO and POD, with the greatest retention of bioactive components. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of processing and extraction conditions on content, profile, and stability of isoflavones in a soymilk system.

    PubMed

    Nufer, Katherine R; Ismail, Baraem; Hayes, Kirby D

    2009-02-25

    The effect of processing temperature and pH as well as enzyme-assisted extraction on the content and profile of isoflavones in a soymilk system was investigated. Isoflavone content in thermally treated soymilk at pH 7 and pH 9 was determined following a standard solvent extraction or an enzyme-assisted extraction protocol. Upon thermal processing, at both pH 7 and pH 9, significant interconversions were noted, indicated by the observed decrease in malonylglucosides with the concurrent increase in beta-glucosides. Enzyme-assisted extraction resulted in enhanced isoflavone extraction efficiency and revealed significant loss in total isoflavone content upon processing. This observation suggested that protein-isoflavone interactions, which are dependent on the protein structure and isoflavone form, affect isoflavone extractability, leading to underestimation of any loss that might have occurred in previously reported thermal studies. Accurate isoflavone measurements are essential to determine the processing conditions that result in the least loss of the biologically relevant isoflavone content.

  20. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2004-06-22

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  1. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2007-03-27

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  2. Process optimization for the extraction of polyphenol from Malaysian brown seaweed, Sargassum sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Norra; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    The optimum extraction parameters of Malaysian brown seaweed, Sargassum sp. were determined by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Central Composite Face-centered Design (CCFD) was used to study the influence of extraction temperature (40-60°C), extraction time (60-180 minute) and liquid to solid ratio (20-40 mL/g) on total phenolic content (TPC) of Sargassum sp. dried extracts. The statistical analysis of the experiment indicated that extraction temperatue and time had significant effect on Sargassum sp. total phenolic contents (TPC). The CCFD showed that quadratic regression models were in good agreement with the experimental results with the coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.8066 for Sargassum sp. TPC. The extraction temperature of 40°C, extraction time of 180 minute and liquid-solid ratio of 40 mL/g were the most efficient for the extraction of polyphenols from Sargassum sp. dried powder.

  3. Recovery of fatty acid from a solvated hydrocarbon mixture applicable to the Beaver-Herter solvent extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Beaver, W.H.; Turpin, J.L.; Babcock, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Herter process is a patented solvent extraction enhanced oil recovery process. This process utilizes fatty acid as a solvent to mix with and reduce the viscosity of a heavy reservoir oil or a tar sand. This method differs from other solvent extraction oil recovery methods in that the recovery of the fatty acid solvent for further use, rather than the initial expense of the solvent, is the prime economic consideration. The fatty acid is recovered by saponification of the solvated oil mixture using an aqueous base, followed by migration of the resulting soap into the aqueous phase, and then desaponification of the aqueous phase.

  4. Effect of extraction method on quality of orange juice: hand-squeezed, commercial-fresh squeezed and processed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fresh orange juice is perceived to be more wholesome than processed juice. Fresh juice may have flavor and nutrients that differ from pasteurized or processed juice. In this study, ‘Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’ oranges were extracted using a commercial food service juicer, pasteurized or not, resulting in...

  5. Diamide derivatives of di-picolinic acid as actinide and lanthanide extractants in a variation of the UNEX process

    SciTech Connect

    Peterman, D.R.; Herbst, R.S.; Law, J.D.; Tillotson, R.D.; Garn, T.G.; Todd, T.A.; Romanovskiy, V.N.; Babain, V.A.; Alyapyshev, M. Yu.; Smirnov, I.V.

    2007-07-01

    The Universal Extraction (UNEX) process has been developed for simultaneous extraction of cesium, strontium, and actinides from acidic solutions. This process utilizes an extractant consisting of 0.08 M chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (HCCD), 0.007-0.02 M polyethylene glycol (PEG-400), and 0.02 M diphenyl- N,N-di-n-butyl-carbamoyl-methyl-phosphine oxide (Ph{sub 2}CMPO) in the diluent tri-fluoro-methyl-phenyl sulfone (CF{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}SO{sub 2}, designated FS-13) and provides simultaneous extraction of Cs, Sr, actinides, and lanthanides from HNO{sub 3} solutions. The UNEX process is of limited utility for processing acidic solutions containing large quantities of lanthanides and/or actinides, such as dissolved spent nuclear fuel solutions. These constraints are primarily attributed to the limited concentrations of CMPO (a maximum of {approx} 0.02 M) in the organic phase and limited solubility of the CMPO-metal complexes. As a result, alternative actinide and lanthanide extractants are being investigated for use with HCCD as an improvement for waste processing and for applications where higher concentrations of the metals are present. Our preliminary results indicate that diamide derivatives of di-picolinic acid may function as efficient actinide and lanthanide extractants. The results to be presented indicate that, of the numerous diamides studied to date, the tetra-butyl-diamide of di-picolinic acid, TBDPA, shows the most promise as an alternative actinide/lanthanide extractant in the UNEX process. (authors)

  6. Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Thermal Technologies in the Australian Minerals Processing and Extractive Metallurgical Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eglinton, Thomas; Hinkley, Jim; Beath, Andrew; Dell'Amico, Mark

    2013-12-01

    The Australian minerals processing and extractive metallurgy industries are responsible for about 20% of Australia's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This article reviews the potential applications of concentrated solar thermal (CST) energy in the Australian minerals processing industry to reduce this impact. Integrating CST energy into these industries would reduce their reliance upon conventional fossil fuels and reduce GHG emissions. As CST technologies become more widely deployed and cheaper, and as fuel prices rise, CST energy will progressively become more competitive with conventional energy sources. Some of the applications identified in this article are expected to become commercially competitive provided the costs for pollution abatement and GHG mitigation are internalized. The areas of potential for CST integration identified in this study can be classed as either medium/low-temperature or high-temperature applications. The most promising medium/low-grade applications are electricity generation and low grade heating of liquids. Electricity generation with CST energy—also known as concentrated solar power—has the greatest potential to reduce GHG emissions out of all the potential applications identified because of the 24/7 dispatchability when integrated with thermal storage. High-temperature applications identified include the thermal decomposition of alumina and the calcination of limestone to lime in solar kilns, as well as the production of syngas from natural gas and carbonaceous materials for various metallurgical processes including nickel and direct reduced iron production. Hybridization and integration with thermal storage could enable CST to sustain these energy-intensive metallurgical processes continuously. High-temperature applications are the focus of this paper.

  7. Antioxidant effect of leaf extracts from Cressa cretica against oxidation process in soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Afshari, Afsaneh; Sayyed-Alangi, S Zahra

    2017-03-01

    Phenolic compounds from Cressa cretica leaves were extracted using different solvents (water and ethanol 70%) during 3-24 h by immersion method and were determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were investigated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferric reduction activity potential and total antioxidant capacity assays compared with synthetic antioxidant namely BHT. The results were shown that the most total phenol content was outcome of the ethanolic extract after 18 h (68.512 ± 0.36( )mg gallic acid/g dry extract) extraction. The results of different assays for determination of antioxidant potential of the extracts as well as their EC50 values were indicated antioxidant activities in order: BHT>ethanolic extract>aqueous extract. Also, the antioxidant activities were enhanced with increasing of the extracts and BHT concentrations. The results of Peroxide value (PV) and Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) tests were revealed that the ethanolic extract with various concentrations (200-1000 ppm) were suppressed the oxidation of soybean oil. The highest oxidation inhibitor was belonged to 1000 ppm concentration of the ethanolic extract so that can be good alternative for BHT.

  8. A brief understanding of process optimisation in microwave-assisted extraction of botanical materials: options and opportunities with chemometric tools.

    PubMed

    Das, Anup Kumar; Mandal, Vivekananda; Mandal, Subhash C

    2014-01-01

    Extraction forms the very basic step in research on natural products for drug discovery. A poorly optimised and planned extraction methodology can jeopardise the entire mission. To provide a vivid picture of different chemometric tools and planning for process optimisation and method development in extraction of botanical material, with emphasis on microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of botanical material. A review of studies involving the application of chemometric tools in combination with MAE of botanical materials was undertaken in order to discover what the significant extraction factors were. Optimising a response by fine-tuning those factors, experimental design or statistical design of experiment (DoE), which is a core area of study in chemometrics, was then used for statistical analysis and interpretations. In this review a brief explanation of the different aspects and methodologies related to MAE of botanical materials that were subjected to experimental design, along with some general chemometric tools and the steps involved in the practice of MAE, are presented. A detailed study on various factors and responses involved in the optimisation is also presented. This article will assist in obtaining a better insight into the chemometric strategies of process optimisation and method development, which will in turn improve the decision-making process in selecting influential extraction parameters. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Lignin isolation process from rice husk by alkaline hydrogen peroxide: Lignin and silica extracted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma'ruf, Anwar; Pramudono, Bambang; Aryanti, Nita

    2017-03-01

    Biomass is one of abundance resources in the world. Biomass consists of three main materials such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Therefore, biomass can be referred to lignocellulosic material. Both the cellulose and hemicelluloses fractions are polymers of sugars, and thereby a potential source of fermentable sugars, or other processes that convert sugars into products. Lignin is a polymer compound which contains of phenolic compounds. Rice husk is one of biomass, which has high contain of lignin. Rice husk has special characteristics because of silica content. The aim of this paper is to analyze lignin and silica extracted during lignin isolation process of rice husk using alkaline hydrogen peroxide. Three main variables such as solvent/solid ratio, concentration of hydrogen peroxide and pH of the mixture are studied. The optimum conditions for lignin isolation are at solvent/solid ratio 9:1 ml/gr, hydrogen peroxide concentration of 1.5%v and pH of the mixture of 11.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. A process has been developed which results in high quality binder pitch suitable for use in graphite electrodes or carbon anodes. A detailed description of the protocol is given by Clendenin. Briefly, aromatic heavy oils are hydro-treated under mild conditions in order to increase their ability to dissolve coal. An example of an aromatic heavy oil is Koppers Carbon Black Base (CBB) oil. CBB oil has been found to be an effective solvent and acceptably low cost (i.e., significantly below the market price for binder pitch, or about $280 per ton at the time of this writing). It is also possible to use solvents derived from hydrotreated coal and avoid reliance on coke oven recovery products completely if so desired.

  11. Leveraging Terminology Services for Extract-Transform-Load Processes: A User-Centered Approach

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Kevin J.; Jiang, Guoqian; Brue, Scott M.; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Terminology services serve an important role supporting clinical and research applications, and underpin a diverse set of processes and use cases. Through standardization efforts, terminology service-to-system interactions can leverage well-defined interfaces and predictable integration patterns. Often, however, users interact more directly with terminologies, and no such blueprints are available for describing terminology service-to-user interactions. In this work, we explore the main architecture principles necessary to build a user-centered terminology system, using an Extract-Transform-Load process as our primary usage scenario. To analyze our architecture, we present a prototype implementation based on the Common Terminology Services 2 (CTS2) standard using the Patient-Centered Network of Learning Health Systems (LHSNet) project as a concrete use case. We perform a preliminary evaluation of our prototype architecture using three architectural quality attributes: interoperability, adaptability and usability. We find that a design-time focus on user needs, cognitive models, and existing patterns is essential to maximize system utility. PMID:28269898

  12. Monitoring of Extraction Efficiency by a Sample Process Control Virus Added Immediately Upon Sample Receipt.

    PubMed

    Ruhanya, Vurayai; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; D'Agostino, Martin; Cook, Nigel; Hernández, Marta; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2015-12-01

    When analysing food samples for enteric viruses, a sample process control virus (SPCV) must be added at the commencement of the analytical procedure, to verify that the analysis has been performed correctly. Samples can on occasion arrive at the laboratory late in the working day or week. The analyst may consequently have insufficient time to commence and complete the complex procedure, and the samples must consequently be stored. To maintain the validity of the analytical result, it will be necessary to consider storage as part of the process, and the analytical procedure as commencing on sample receipt. The aim of this study was to verify that an SPCV can be recovered after sample storage, and thus indicate the effective recovery of enteric viruses. Two types of samples (fresh and frozen raspberries) and two types of storage (refrigerated and frozen) were studied using Mengovirus vMC0 as SPCV. SPCV recovery was not significantly different (P > 0.5) regardless of sample type or duration of storage (up to 14 days at -20 °C). Accordingly, samples can be stored without a significant effect on the performance of the analysis. The results of this study should assist the analyst by demonstrating that they can verify that viruses can be extracted from food samples even if samples have been stored.

  13. Leveraging Terminology Services for Extract-Transform-Load Processes: A User-Centered Approach.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kevin J; Jiang, Guoqian; Brue, Scott M; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Terminology services serve an important role supporting clinical and research applications, and underpin a diverse set of processes and use cases. Through standardization efforts, terminology service-to-system interactions can leverage well-defined interfaces and predictable integration patterns. Often, however, users interact more directly with terminologies, and no such blueprints are available for describing terminology service-to-user interactions. In this work, we explore the main architecture principles necessary to build a user-centered terminology system, using an Extract-Transform-Load process as our primary usage scenario. To analyze our architecture, we present a prototype implementation based on the Common Terminology Services 2 (CTS2) standard using the Patient-Centered Network of Learning Health Systems (LHSNet) project as a concrete use case. We perform a preliminary evaluation of our prototype architecture using three architectural quality attributes: interoperability, adaptability and usability. We find that a design-time focus on user needs, cognitive models, and existing patterns is essential to maximize system utility.

  14. X-ray Microprobe Investigation of Iron During a Simulated Silicon Feedstock Extraction Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardis, Sarah; Fakra, Sirine C.; Dal Martello, Elena; Larsen, Rune B.; Newman, Bonna K.; Fenning, David P.; Di Sabatino, Marisa; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2016-12-01

    Elemental silicon is extracted through carbothermic reduction from silicon-bearing raw feedstock materials such as quartz and quartzites. We investigate the micron-scale distribution and valence state of iron, a deleterious impurity in several iron-sensitive applications, in hydrothermal quartz samples of industrial relevance during a laboratory-scale simulated reduction process. We use X-ray diffraction to inspect the quartz structural change and synchrotron-based microprobe techniques to monitor spatial distribution and oxidation state of iron. In the untreated quartz, most of the iron is embedded in foreign minerals, both as ferric (Fe3+, e.g., in muscovite) and ferrous (Fe2+, e.g., as in biotite) iron. Upon heating the quartz to 1273 K (1000 °C) under industrial-like conditions in a CO(g) environment, iron is found in ferrous (Fe2+) particles. At this temperature, its chemical state is influenced by mineral decomposition and melting processes, whereas at higher temperatures it is influenced by the silicate melts. As the quartz grains partially transform to cristobalite 1873 K (1600 °C), iron diffuses towards liquid-solid interfaces forming ferrous clusters. Silica is liquid at 2173 K (1900 °C) and the iron migrates towards the interfaces between gas phases and the silicate liquid.

  15. [Study on extraction process of coumarin in a Mongolian drug Chagan-sorlo (Radix Glehniae)].

    PubMed

    Borjigidai, Almaz; Cui, Xun; Pang, Zong-Ran; Cui, Jian; Kang, Feng

    2014-04-01

    The present paper discusses ultrasonic extraction method aided extraction of coumarin from a Mongolian drug, Chagan-sorlo (Radix Glehniae), aiming to study out how much coumarin contained in Chagan-sorlo, and to provide the scientific basis and production guidance for extracting coumarin from Chagan-sorlo. Under different conditions the coumarin in Chagan-sorlo was extracted by ultrasonic, measured and analyzed, and then HPLC was used to carry out the measurement. Result showed that with solvent volume fraction of 70%, extraction time of 20 min, ultrasonic power of 175 W, temperature of 25 degrees C, solid-liquid ratio of 1 : 20, and 80-100 mesh extraction, the coumarin extraction reaches the highest yield.

  16. Obtaining bixin from semi-defatted annatto seeds by a mechanical method and solvent extraction: Process integration and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Alcázar-Alay, Sylvia C; Osorio-Tobón, J Felipe; Forster-Carneiro, Tânia; Meireles, M Angela A

    2017-09-01

    This work involves the application of physical separation methods to concentrate the pigment of semi-defatted annatto seeds, a noble vegetal biomass rich in bixin pigments. Semi-defatted annatto seeds are the residue produced after the extraction of the lipid fraction from annatto seeds using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Semi-defatted annatto seeds are use in this work due to three important reasons: i) previous lipid extraction is necessary to recovery the tocotrienol-rich oil present in the annatto seeds, ii) an initial removal of the oil via SFE process favors bixin separation and iii) the cost of raw material is null. Physical methods including i) the mechanical fractionation method and ii) an integrated process of mechanical fractionation method and low-pressure solvent extraction (LPSE) were studied. The integrated process was proposed for processing two different semi-defatted annatto materials denoted Batches 1 and 2. The cost of manufacture (COM) was calculated for two different production scales (5 and 50L) considering the integrated process vs. only the mechanical fractionation method. The integrated process showed a significantly higher COM than mechanical fractionation method. This work suggests that mechanical fractionation method is an adequate and low-cost process to obtain a rich-pigment product from semi-defatted annatto seeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of the extraction process and in vivo inhibitory effect of ganoderma triterpenes in oral mucosa cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Zhang, Ruhui; Zhang, Juan; Gao, Shang; Gao, Wenxin; Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Haotian; Han, Bing

    2011-06-24

    The aim of the reported study was to optimize the extraction process for ganoderma triterpenes and to investigate the in vivo inhibitory effect of ganoderma triterpenes on the genesis and progression of oral cancer. Single-factor and orthogonal methods were used to investigate the effects of extraction solvent, solvent amount, extraction time, extraction temperature, and number of extractions, on the extraction rate for ganoderma triterpenes. A golden hamster model with cheek pouch dynamic canceration was established to receive oral treatment of ganoderma triterpenes water solution. Animals were continuously monitored, oral tissue samples were collected for histopathologic examination, and changes in the expression of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and Caspase-3 were detected by immunohistochemical methods. Optimization of the experimental conditions allowed the identification of the optimal extraction conditions: 90% ethanol as the extraction solvent, a solvent amount by the liquid-material ratio of 35 mL/g, extraction time of 2 h and extraction temperature of 80 °C. Under these conditions, the average extraction rate of ganoderma triterpenes was 1.09%. Tests in golden hamsters showed that compared with the model group during the same period, animals in the treatment group had better conditions, constantly larger number of normal cases shown by histopathologic results (P < 0.01), and consistently smaller numbers of cases with paraplasm (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical results showed that compared with the model group, the treatment group had significantly lower (P < 0.05) rates of positive VEGF expression in the normal state, simple epithelial hyperplasia, epithelial dysplasia or squamous cell carcinoma disease stages. Caspase-3 expression showed a tendency toward a gradual increase with the worsening of disease severity in each group. Compared with the model group, the treatment group had significantly lower (P < 0.05) rates of positive Caspase-3 in

  18. Improvement of oleuropein extractability by optimising steam blanching process as pre-treatment of olive leaf extraction via response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Stamatopoulos, Konstantinos; Katsoyannos, Evangelos; Chatzilazarou, Arhontoula; Konteles, Spyros J

    2012-07-15

    Impact of steam, hot water blanching and UV-C irradiation as pre-treatments on extraction of oleuropein and related biophenols from olive leaves (OLs), was investigated. Moreover, particle size effect of olive leaves and steam blanching duration were selected as independent variables to optimise steam blanching process in terms of oleuropein content (OC) and antioxidant activity (AC) of ethanolic extracts, by using response surface methodology. Optimum conditions for OC and AC were 10 min steam blanching of 20-11 and 3-1mm olive leaf fraction, respectively. Depending on the extraction procedure, at optimum conditions of steaming the results indicate that steam blanching of OL prior to extraction can significantly increase oleuropein yield from 25 to 35 times compared to non-steam blanched sample, whereas the antioxidant activity increased from 4 to 13 times. No significant UV-C effect was observed in OC and AC, while hot water blanched samples showed significantly higher oleuropein yields and antioxidant activity compared to untreated samples.

  19. An integrated strategy for the rapid extraction and screening of phosphatidylcholines and lysophosphatidylcholines using semi-automatic solid phase extraction and data processing technology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenzhu; Zhang, Yani; Yin, Jia; Li, Yubo

    2016-08-26

    This study attempts to establish a comprehensive strategy for the rapid extraction and screening of phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoPCs) in biological samples using semi-automatic solid phase extraction (SPE) and data processing technology based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). First, the Ostro sample preparation method (i.e., semi-automatic SPE) was compared with the Bligh-Dyer method in terms of substance coverage, reproducibility and sample preparation time. Meanwhile, the screening method for PCs and LysoPCs was built through mass range screening, mass defect filtering and diagnostic fragments filtering. Then, the Ostro sample preparation method and the aforementioned screening method were combined under optimal conditions to establish a rapid extraction and screening platform. Finally, this developed method was validated and applied to the preparation and data analysis of tissue samples. Through a systematic evaluation, this developed method was shown to provide reliable and high-throughput experimental results and was suitable for the preparation and analysis of tissue samples. Our method provides a novel strategy for the rapid extraction and analysis of functional phospholipids. In addition, this study will promote further study of phospholipids in disease research.

  20. Effect of extraction process on composition, oxidative stability and rheological properties of purslane seed oil.

    PubMed

    Delfan-Hosseini, Sasan; Nayebzadeh, Kooshan; Mirmoghtadaie, Leila; Kavosi, Maryam; Hosseini, Seyede Marzieh

    2017-05-01

    Purslane seed oil could be considered as potential nutritious oil due to its desirable fatty acid composition and other biological active compounds. In this study the effect of three extraction procedure including solvent extraction, cold pressing and microwave pretreatment (MW) followed by cold pressing on oil yield, physicochemical properties, oxidative stability and rheological behaviors of oil was investigated. Solvent extracted oil had the highest extraction yield (72.31%). Pretreatment by microwave before cold press extraction resulted in an increase in extraction yield, total phenolic compound (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Cold press extracted oil had the lowest oxidative stability (4.64h). This property was greatly enhanced by microwave irradiation, so that the longest oxidative stability was found in MW-cold press extracted oil with 9.67h. Furthermore, all extracted oils demonstrated Newtonian flow behaviors. MW-cold press extracted oil had the greatest apparent viscosity and highest sensitivity to temperature changes (Ea=29.18kJ/mol(-1)).

  1. Extraction process of palm kernel cake as a source of mannan for feed additive on poultry diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafsin, M.; Hanafi, N. D.; Yusraini, E.

    2017-05-01

    Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) is a by-product of palm kernel oil extraction and found in large quantity in Indonesia. The inclusion of PKC on poultry diet are limited due to some nutritional problems such as anti-nutritional properties (mannan). On the other hand, mannan containing polysaccharides play in various biological functions particularly in enhancing the immune response and to control pathogen in poultry. The research objective to find out the extraction process of PKC and conducted at animal nutrition and Feed Science Laboratory, Agricultural Faculty, University of Sumatera Utara. Various extraction methode were used in this experiment, including fraction analysis used 7 number sieves, and followed by water and acetic acid extraction. The result indicated that PKC had different particle size according to sieve size and dominated by particle size 850 um. The analysis of sugar content indicated that each particle size had different characteristic on treatment by hot water extraction. The particle size 180—850 um had higher sugar content than coarse PKC (2000—3000 um). The total sugar content were recovered vary between 0.9—3,2% from PKC were extracted. Treatment grinding method followed by hot water extraction (100—120 °C, 1 h) increased total sugar content than previous treatments and reach 8% from PKC were extracted. Utilisation acetic acid decreased the total amount of total sugar from PKC were extracted. It is concluded that treatment by hot temperature (110—120 °C) for 1 h show highest yield to extract sugar from PKC.

  2. Final Technical Report EMSP 70045 Investigation of Pore Scale Processes That Affect Soil Vapor Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Valocchi, Albert J.; Werth, Charles W.; Webb, Andrew W.

    2004-12-10

    Dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination in the vadose zone is a significant problem at Department of Energy sites. Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is commonly used to remediate DNAPLs from the vadose zone. In most cases, a period of high recovery has been followed by a sustained period of low recovery. This behavior has been attributed to multiple processes including slow interphase mass transfer, retarded vapor phase transport, and diffusion from unswept zones of low permeability. This research project used a combination of laboratory experimentation and mathematical modeling to determine how these various processes interact to limit the removal of DNAPL components in heterogeneous porous media during SVE. Our results were applied to scenarios typical of the carbon tetrachloride spill zone at the Hanford Site. Our results indicate that: (a) the initial distribution of the spilled DNAPL (i.e., the spill-zone architecture) has a major influence upon the performance of any subsequent SVE operations; (b) while the pattern of higher and lower conductivity soil zones has an important impact upon spill zone architecture, soil moisture distribution plays an even larger role when there are large quantities of co-disposed waste-water (as in the Hanford scenario); (c) depending upon soil moisture dynamics, liquid DNAPL that is trapped by surrounding water is extremely difficult to remove by SVE; (d) natural barometric pumping can remove a large amount of the initial DNAPL mass for spills occurring close to the land surface, and hence the initial spilled inventory will be over-estimated if this process is neglected.

  3. Pectin extraction from quince (Cydonia oblonga) pomace applying alternative methods: effect of process variables and preliminary optimization.

    PubMed

    Brown, Valeria Anahí; Lozano, Jorge E; Genovese, Diego Bautista

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to introduce alternative methods in the process of pectin extraction from quince pomace, to determine the effect of selected process variables (factors) on the obtained pectin, and to perform a preliminary optimization of the process. A fractional factorial experimental design was applied, where the factors considered were six: quince pomace pretreatment (washing vs blanching), drying method (hot air vs LPSSD), acid extraction conditions (pH, temperature, and time), and pectin extract concentration method (vacuum evaporation vs ultrafiltration). The effects of these factors and their interactions on pectin yield (Y: 0.2-34.2 mg/g), GalA content (44.5-76.2%), and DM (47.5-90.9%), were determined. For these three responses, extraction pH was the main effect, but it was involved in two and three factors interactions. Regarding alternative methods, LPSSD was required for maximum Y and GalA, and ultrafiltration for maximum GalA and DM. Response models were used to predict optimum process conditions (quince blanching, pomace drying by LPSSD, acid extraction at pH 2.20, 80 , 3 h, and concentration under vacuum) to simultaneously maximize Y (25.2 mg/g), GalA (66.3%), and DM (66.4%).

  4. Overview of image processing tools to extract physical information from JET videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciunescu, T.; Murari, A.; Gelfusa, M.; Tiseanu, I.; Zoita, V.; EFDA Contributors, JET

    2014-11-01

    In magnetic confinement nuclear fusion devices such as JET, the last few years have witnessed a significant increase in the use of digital imagery, not only for the surveying and control of experiments, but also for the physical interpretation of results. More than 25 cameras are routinely used for imaging on JET in the infrared (IR) and visible spectral regions. These cameras can produce up to tens of Gbytes per shot and their information content can be very different, depending on the experimental conditions. However, the relevant information about the underlying physical processes is generally of much reduced dimensionality compared to the recorded data. The extraction of this information, which allows full exploitation of these diagnostics, is a challenging task. The image analysis consists, in most cases, of inverse problems which are typically ill-posed mathematically. The typology of objects to be analysed is very wide, and usually the images are affected by noise, low levels of contrast, low grey-level in-depth resolution, reshaping of moving objects, etc. Moreover, the plasma events have time constants of ms or tens of ms, which imposes tough conditions for real-time applications. On JET, in the last few years new tools and methods have been developed for physical information retrieval. The methodology of optical flow has allowed, under certain assumptions, the derivation of information about the dynamics of video objects associated with different physical phenomena, such as instabilities, pellets and filaments. The approach has been extended in order to approximate the optical flow within the MPEG compressed domain, allowing the manipulation of the large JET video databases and, in specific cases, even real-time data processing. The fast visible camera may provide new information that is potentially useful for disruption prediction. A set of methods, based on the extraction of structural information from the visual scene, have been developed for the

  5. A process optimization study on ultrasonic extraction of paclitaxel from Taxus cuspidata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujie; Li, Chun; Wang, Hujun; Zhong, Xiangmei; Zhao, Jing; Zhou, Yajun

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the extraction rate of paclitaxel from Taxus cuspidata in order to determine the most effective combination of ultrasonic extraction and thin-layer chromatography-ultraviolet (TLC-UV) rapid separation method. The study was performed using the Box-Behnken test design to conduct single-factor experiments using ultrasonic extraction of paclitaxel from Taxus cuspidata. The study showed ethanol to be the best extraction solvent. When mixed with dichloromethane (1:1), the ratio of material to liquid was 1:50 when using an ultrasonic time of 1 hr at a power of 200 W. The correction coefficient K for the separation and detection of paclitaxel using the TLC-UV spectrophotometric method was 0.009152. Multifactor experiments determined the effect of the rate of liquid to material (X1), ultrasonic time (X2), and ultrasonic power (X3) on extraction using extraction volume as the dependent variable. Response surface analysis allowed a regression equation to be obtained, with the optimal conditions for extraction when the rate of liquid to material was 53.23 mL/g as an ultrasonic time of 1.11 hr and an ultrasonic power of 207.88 W. Using these parameters, the average amount of extracted paclitaxel was about 130.576 µg/g, which was significantly better than for other extraction methods.

  6. A novel integrated approach to quantitatively evaluate the efficiency of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extraction process.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing; Harada, Hideki

    2012-12-01

    A novel integrated approach is developed to quantitatively evaluate the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extraction efficiency after taking into account EPS yield, EPS damage, and cell lysis. This approach incorporates grey relational analysis and fuzzy logic analysis, in which the evaluation procedure is established on the basis of grey relational coefficients generation, membership functions construction, and fuzzy rules description. The flocculation activity and DNA content of EPS are chosen as the two evaluation responses. To verify the feasibility and effectiveness of this integrated approach, EPS from Bacillus megaterium TF10 are extracted using five different extraction methods, and their extraction efficiencies are evaluated as one real case study. Based on the evaluation results, the maximal extraction grades and corresponding optimal extraction times of the five extraction methods are ordered as EDTA, 10 h > formaldehyde + NaOH, 60 min > heating, 120 min > ultrasonication, 30 min > H₂SO₄, 30 min > control. The proposed approach here offers an effective tool to select appropriate EPS extraction methods and determine the optimal extraction conditions.

  7. Natural language processing to extract symptoms of severe mental illness from clinical text: the Clinical Record Interactive Search Comprehensive Data Extraction (CRIS-CODE) project.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Richard G; Patel, Rashmi; Jayatilleke, Nishamali; Kolliakou, Anna; Ball, Michael; Gorrell, Genevieve; Roberts, Angus; Dobson, Richard J; Stewart, Robert

    2017-01-17

    We sought to use natural language processing to develop a suite of language models to capture key symptoms of severe mental illness (SMI) from clinical text, to facilitate the secondary use of mental healthcare data in research. Development and validation of information extraction applications for ascertaining symptoms of SMI in routine mental health records using the Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) data resource; description of their distribution in a corpus of discharge summaries. Electronic records from a large mental healthcare provider serving a geographic catchment of 1.2 million residents in four boroughs of south London, UK. The distribution of derived symptoms was described in 23 128 discharge summaries from 7962 patients who had received an SMI diagnosis, and 13 496 discharge summaries from 7575 patients who had received a non-SMI diagnosis. Fifty SMI symptoms were identified by a team of psychiatrists for extraction based on salience and linguistic consistency in records, broadly categorised under positive, negative, disorganisation, manic and catatonic subgroups. Text models for each symptom were generated using the TextHunter tool and the CRIS database. We extracted data for 46 symptoms with a median F1 score of 0.88. Four symptom models performed poorly and were excluded. From the corpus of discharge summaries, it was possible to extract symptomatology in 87% of patients with SMI and 60% of patients with non-SMI diagnosis. This work demonstrates the possibility of automatically extracting a broad range of SMI symptoms from English text discharge summaries for patients with an SMI diagnosis. Descriptive data also indicated that most symptoms cut across diagnoses, rather than being restricted to particular groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Natural language processing to extract symptoms of severe mental illness from clinical text: the Clinical Record Interactive Search Comprehensive Data Extraction (CRIS-CODE) project

    PubMed Central

    Jayatilleke, Nishamali; Kolliakou, Anna; Ball, Michael; Gorrell, Genevieve; Roberts, Angus; Stewart, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We sought to use natural language processing to develop a suite of language models to capture key symptoms of severe mental illness (SMI) from clinical text, to facilitate the secondary use of mental healthcare data in research. Design Development and validation of information extraction applications for ascertaining symptoms of SMI in routine mental health records using the Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) data resource; description of their distribution in a corpus of discharge summaries. Setting Electronic records from a large mental healthcare provider serving a geographic catchment of 1.2 million residents in four boroughs of south London, UK. Participants The distribution of derived symptoms was described in 23 128 discharge summaries from 7962 patients who had received an SMI diagnosis, and 13 496 discharge summaries from 7575 patients who had received a non-SMI diagnosis. Outcome measures Fifty SMI symptoms were identified by a team of psychiatrists for extraction based on salience and linguistic consistency in records, broadly categorised under positive, negative, disorganisation, manic and catatonic subgroups. Text models for each symptom were generated using the TextHunter tool and the CRIS database. Results We extracted data for 46 symptoms with a median F1 score of 0.88. Four symptom models performed poorly and were excluded. From the corpus of discharge summaries, it was possible to extract symptomatology in 87% of patients with SMI and 60% of patients with non-SMI diagnosis. Conclusions This work demonstrates the possibility of automatically extracting a broad range of SMI symptoms from English text discharge summaries for patients with an SMI diagnosis. Descriptive data also indicated that most symptoms cut across diagnoses, rather than being restricted to particular groups. PMID:28096249

  9. High-power ultrasonic system for the enhancement of mass transfer in supercritical CO2 extraction processes.

    PubMed

    Riera, Enrique; Blanco, Alfonso; García, José; Benedito, José; Mulet, Antonio; Gallego-Juárez, Juan A; Blasco, Miguel

    2010-02-01

    Oil is an important component of almonds and other vegetable substrates that can show an influence on human health. In this work the development and validation of an innovative, robust, stable, reliable and efficient ultrasonic system at pilot scale to assist supercritical CO(2) extraction of oils from different substrates is presented. In the extraction procedure ultrasonic energy represents an efficient way of producing deep agitation enhancing mass transfer processes because of some mechanisms (radiation pressure, streaming, agitation, high amplitude vibrations, etc.). A previous work to this research pointed out the feasibility of integrating an ultrasonic field inside a supercritical extractor without losing a significant volume fraction. This pioneer method enabled to accelerate mass transfer and then, improving supercritical extraction times. To commercially develop the new procedure fulfilling industrial requirements, a new configuration device has been designed, implemented, tested and successfully validated for supercritical fluid extraction of oil from different vegetable substrates.

  10. Forest point processes for the automatic extraction of networks in raster data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Alena; Lafarge, Florent; Brenner, Claus; Rottensteiner, Franz; Heipke, Christian

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a new stochastic approach for the automatic detection of network structures in raster data. We represent a network as a set of trees with acyclic planar graphs. We embed this model in the probabilistic framework of spatial point processes and determine the most probable configuration of trees by stochastic sampling. That is, different configurations are constructed randomly by modifying the graph parameters and by adding or removing nodes and edges to/ from the current trees. Each configuration is evaluated based on the probabilities for these changes and an energy function describing the conformity with a predefined model. By using the Reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler, an approximation of the global optimum of the energy function is iteratively reached. Although our main target application is the extraction of rivers and tidal channels in digital terrain models, experiments with other types of networks in images show the transferability to further applications. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations demonstrate the competitiveness of our approach with respect to existing algorithms.

  11. Date seed characterisation, substrate extraction and process modelling for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate by Cupriavidus necator.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, R G; Winterburn, J B

    2016-12-01

    Poly-3-hydroxybutrate (PHB) is a biodegradable polymer synthesised via bacterial fermentation as a means of storing carbon and energy under unbalanced growth conditions. The production cost of petroleum-based plastics is currently lower than that for biopolymers, and the carbon source is the most significant contributor to biopolymer production cost. A feasibility study to assess the suitability of using a date seed derived media as an alternative for PHB production under various stress conditions was investigated. Results include fructose extraction from date seeds and a mass transfer model to describe the process, demonstrating that the high nutrient content of date seeds makes them a promising raw material for microbial growth and that a meaningful amount of PHB can be produced without supplementation. Maximum dry cell weight and PHB concentrations were 6.3g/l and 4.6g/l respectively, giving a PHB content of 73%, when an initial fructose concentration of 10.8g/l was used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-23

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. There are a number of parameters which are important for the production of acceptable cokes, including purity, structure, density, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity etc. From the standpoint of a manufacturer of graphite electrodes such as GrafTech, one of the most important parameters is coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Because GrafTech material is usually fully graphitized (i.e., heat treated at 3100 C), very high purity is automatically achieved. The degree of graphitization controls properties such as CTE, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and density. Thus it is usually possible to correlate these properties using a single parameter. CTE has proven to be a useful index for the quality of coke. Pure graphite actually has a slightly negative coefficient of thermal expansion, whereas more disordered carbon has a positive coefficient.

  13. Cellulase-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Malva sylvestris: Process optimization and potential functionalities.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Hosein; Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi

    2017-03-19

    Enzyme-assisted extraction process of the water-soluble Malva sylvestris polysaccharides (MSPs) was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The highest yield (10.40%) of MSPs was achieved at 5.64% cellulase, 55.65°C temperature, 3.4h time, and 5.22 pH. Three homogeneous polysaccharide fractions (MSP-1, MSP-2, MSP-3) were purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 chromatography, which were composed of galactose, glucuronic acid, arabinose, rhamnose and mannose in different molar ratios with molecular weight range of 2.6×10(5)-8.8×10(5)Da. The fractions could significantly increase antioxidant, antitumor and antimicrobial activities in a dose-dependent pattern. MSP-2 revealed stronger antioxidant activities than MSP-1 and MSP-3, including reducing power and scavenging activity of DPPH and OH radicals. The antiproliferative activity of MSP-2 (1.0mg/mL) on the growth of A549 and HepG2 cells was 45.1% and 53.2%, respectively. The Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus PTCC 1015 and Staphylococcus aureus PTCC 1112) compared with Gram-negative ones (Escherichia coli PTCC 1763 and Salmonella typhimurium PTCC 1709) showed less sensitivity against the various MSPs (3-15mg/mL).

  14. Energy from true in situ processing of Antrim oil shale: initial in situ extraction trials

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, P.H.

    1980-04-01

    This report covers the three in situ extraction trials performed at The Dow Chemical Company's existing oil shale site near Peck, Michigan, from August 11, 1977 to May 24, 1978 and the subsequent analysis. The trials were conducted at a depth of 1200 to 1300 feet for a total operating time of 109 days. Ignition was achieved by an electric heater and by a propane burner using coal and charcoal to increase the input of energy. Gas having an energy value of 50 to 55 Btu/scf was prodcued. The energy recovered in the third and most productive trial compared to the energy used for ignition reached a ratio of 4.8. A cyclic operation, called Huff and Puff, gave a 47 to 65% improvement in energy recovery compared to a single forward combustion. No sulfur compounds were detected in the production gas. Particulate measurement was not of value in monitoring the burning process. The trials reported, and the information gathered for them, provide a basis for a trial at a new site adjacent to the existing site.

  15. Replication-fork stalling and processing at a single psoralen interstrand crosslink in Xenopus egg extracts.

    PubMed

    Le Breton, Cyrille; Hennion, Magali; Arimondo, Paola B; Hyrien, Olivier

    2011-04-15

    Interstrand crosslink (ICL)-inducing agents block the separation of the two DNA strands. They prevent transcription and replication and are used in clinics for the treatment of cancer and skin diseases. Here, we have introduced a single psoralen ICL at a specific site in plasmid DNA using a triplex-forming-oligonucleotide (TFO)-psoralen conjugate and studied its repair in Xenopus egg extracts that support nuclear assembly and replication of plasmid DNA. Replication forks arriving from either side stalled at the psoralen ICL. In contrast to previous observations with other ICL-inducing agents, the leading strands advanced up to the lesion without any prior pausing. Subsequently, incisions were introduced on one parental strand on both sides of the ICL. These incisions could be detected whether one or both forks reached the ICL. Using small molecule inhibitors, we found that the ATR-Chk1 pathway, but not the ATM-Chk2 pathway, stimulated both the incision step and the subsequent processing of the broken replication intermediates. Our results highlight both similarities and differences in fork stalling and repair induced by psoralen and by other ICL-forming agents.

  16. Decontamination of PCBs-containing soil using subcritical water extraction process.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Park, Jeong-Hun; Shin, Moon-Su; Park, Ha-Seung

    2014-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one of the excision compounds listed at the Stockholm convention in 2001. Although their use has been heavily restricted, PCBs can be found in some specific site-contaminated soils. Either removal or destruction is required prior to disposal. The subcritical water extraction (SCWE) of organic hazardous compounds from contaminated soils is a promising technique for hazardous waste contaminated-site cleanup. In this study, the removal of PCBs by the SCWE process was investigated. The effects of temperature and treatment time on removal efficiency have been determined. In the SCWE experiments, a removal percentage of 99.7% was obtained after 1h of treatment at 250°C. The mass removal efficiency of low-chlorinated species was higher than high-chlorinated congeners at lower temperatures, but it was oppositely observed at higher temperatures because the lower chlorinated congeners are formed by dechlorination of higher chlorinated congeners. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that the PCBs underwent partial degradation. Several degradation products including mono- and di-chlorinated biphenyls, oxygen-containing aromatic compounds, and small-size hydrocarbons were identified in the effluent water, which were not initially present in the contaminated soil.

  17. Enhancement of fermentation process in Pu-erh tea by tea-leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Hou, C W; Jeng, K C; Chen, Y S

    2010-01-01

    Pu-erh tea is known as a fermented tea and longer storage enhances its flavor and taste. Recently, Aspergillus, Blastobotrys, and Streptomyces are found to play important roles in nutritional enhancement of Pu-erh tea by fermentation. Since water and temperature affect the microbial growth, we therefore explored the factors that might enhance the Pu-erh tea fermentation. The results showed that the addition of fresh tea-leaf extract (TLE) enhanced the withered tea fermentation (at 37 degrees C, 80 to 85% RH) as compared with the water only. Contents of statin, GABA, gallic acid, DPPH scavenging and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities were increased, whereas polyphenols and caffeine were decreased over 6 mo. TLE dose-dependently enhanced some of the qualities (that is, statin, PPO) of Pu-erh tea significantly as compared with the water only. The effect was related to the increase population of A. niger and A. carbonarius at 6 mo (from 7.6 +/- 1.2 x 10(1) and 3.2 +/- 1.3 x 10(1) to 3.1 +/- 1.2 x 10(6) and 2.4 +/- 1.1 x 10(5) colony forming units [CFU]/g, respectively). After drying process (90 degrees C, 30 min), the total microbial count from these samples returned to background level (3 +/- 0.5 x 10(2) CFU/g). None of ochratoxin and fumonisin, toxins from Aspergillus, was detected in the final products. The flavor and taste were also enhanced by treatment with TLE. The inoculation with S. cinereus Y11 with 2% TLE further enhanced these functional contents (about 2-fold increase of statin level) in the experimental Pu-erh tea. Therefore, this result may add a new process for Pu-erh tea manufacture.

  18. Taggiasca extra virgin olive oil colonization by yeasts during the extraction process.

    PubMed

    Ciafardini, G; Cioccia, G; Zullo, B A

    2017-04-01

    The opalescent appearance of the newly produced olive oil is due to the presence of solid particles and microdrops of vegetation water in which the microorganisms from the olives' carposphere are trapped. Present research has demonstrated that the microbiota of the fresh extracted olive oil, produced in the mills, is mainly composed of yeasts and to a lesser extent of molds. The close link between the composition of the microbiota of the olives' carposphere undergoing to processing, and that of the microbiota of the newly produced olive oil, concerns only the yeasts and molds, given that the bacterial component is by and large destroyed mainly in the kneaded paste during the malaxation process. Six physiologically homogenous yeast groups were highlighted in the wash water, kneaded paste and newly produced olive oil from the Taggiasca variety which had been collected in mills located in the Liguria region. The more predominant yeasts of each group belonged to a single species called respectively: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Candida oleophila, Candida diddensiae, Candida norvegica, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Debaryomyces hansenii. Apart from K. marxianus, which was found only in the wash water, all the other species were found in the wash water and in the kneaded paste as well as in the newly produced olive oil, while in the six-month stored olive oil, was found only one physiologically homogeneous group of yeast represented by the W. anomalus specie. These findings in according to our previous studies carried out on other types of mono varietal olive oils, confirms that the habitat of the Taggiascas' extra virgin olive oil, had a strong selective pressure on the yeast biota, allowing only to a few member of yeast species, contaminating the fresh product, to survive and reproduce in it during storage.

  19. Adaboost face detector based on Joint Integral Histogram and Genetic Algorithms for feature extraction process.

    PubMed

    Jammoussi, Ameni Yangui; Ghribi, Sameh Fakhfakh; Masmoudi, Dorra Sellami

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many classes of objects can be efficiently detected by the way of machine learning techniques. In practice, boosting techniques are among the most widely used machine learning for various reasons. This is mainly due to low false positive rate of the cascade structure offering the possibility to be trained by different classes of object. However, it is especially used for face detection since it is the most popular sub-problem within object detection. The challenges of Adaboost based face detector include the selection of the most relevant features from a large feature set which are considered as weak classifiers. In many scenarios, however, selection of features based on lowering classification errors leads to computation complexity and excess of memory use. In this work, we propose a new method to train an effective detector by discarding redundant weak classifiers while achieving the pre-determined learning objective. To achieve this, on the one hand, we modify AdaBoost training so that the feature selection process is not based any more on the weak learner's training error. This is by incorporating the Genetic Algorithm (GA) on the training process. On the other hand, we make use of the Joint Integral Histogram in order to extract more powerful features. Experimental performance on human faces show that our proposed method requires smaller number of weak classifiers than the conventional learning algorithm, resulting in higher learning and faster classification rates. So, our method outperforms significantly state-of-the-art cascade methods in terms of detection rate and false positive rate and especially in reducing the number of weak classifiers per stage.

  20. Evaluation of Preclinical Assays to Investigate an Anthroposophic Pharmaceutical Process Applied to Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Flückiger, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Extracts from European mistletoe (Viscum album L.) developed in anthroposophic medicine are based on specific pharmaceutical procedures to enhance remedy efficacy. One such anthroposophic pharmaceutical process was evaluated regarding effects on cancer cell toxicity in vitro and on colchicine tumor formation in Lepidium sativum. Anthroposophically processed Viscum album extract (APVAE) was produced by mixing winter and summer mistletoe extracts in the edge of a high-speed rotating disk and was compared with manually mixed Viscum album extract (VAE). The antiproliferative effect of VAE/APVAE was determined in five cell lines (NCI-H460, DU-145, HCC1143, MV3, and PA-TU-8902) by WST-1 assay in vitro; no difference was found between VAE and APVAE in any cell line tested (P > 0.14). Incidence of colchicine tumor formation was assessed by measurement of the root/shoot-ratio of seedlings of Lepidium sativum treated with colchicine as well as VAE, APVAE, or water. Colchicine tumor formation decreased after application of VAE (−5.4% compared to water, P < 0.001) and was even stronger by APVAE (−8.8% compared to water, P < 0.001). The high-speed mistletoe extract mixing process investigated thus did not influence toxicity against cancer cells but seemed to sustain morphostasis and to enhance resistance against external noxious influences leading to phenomenological malformations. PMID:24876872

  1. Effect of the drying process on the intensification of phenolic compounds recovery from grape pomace using accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Rajha, Hiba N; Ziegler, Walter; Louka, Nicolas; Hobaika, Zeina; Vorobiev, Eugene; Boechzelt, Herbert G; Maroun, Richard G

    2014-10-15

    In light of their environmental and economic interests, food byproducts have been increasingly exploited and valorized for their richness in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are antioxidant bioactive molecules highly present in grape byproducts. Herein, the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of phenolic compounds from wet and dried grape pomace, at 45 °C, was conducted and the highest phenolic compounds yield (PCY) for wet (16.2 g GAE/100 g DM) and dry (7.28 g GAE/100 g DM) grape pomace extracts were obtained with 70% ethanol/water solvent at 140 °C. The PCY obtained from wet pomace was up to two times better compared to the dry byproduct and up to 15 times better compared to the same food matrices treated with conventional methods. With regard to Resveratrol, the corresponding dry pomace extract had a better free radical scavenging activity (49.12%) than the wet extract (39.8%). The drying pretreatment process seems to ameliorate the antiradical activity, especially when the extraction by ASE is performed at temperatures above 100 °C. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the diversity of the flavonoid and the non-flavonoid compounds found in the extracts was seriously affected by the extraction temperature and the pretreatment of the raw material. This diversity seems to play a key role in the scavenging activity demonstrated by the extracts. Our results emphasize on ASE usage as a promising method for the preparation of highly concentrated and bioactive phenolic extracts that could be used in several industrial applications.

  2. Effect of the Drying Process on the Intensification of Phenolic Compounds Recovery from Grape Pomace Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Rajha, Hiba N.; Ziegler, Walter; Louka, Nicolas; Hobaika, Zeina; Vorobiev, Eugene; Boechzelt, Herbert G.; Maroun, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    In light of their environmental and economic interests, food byproducts have been increasingly exploited and valorized for their richness in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are antioxidant bioactive molecules highly present in grape byproducts. Herein, the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of phenolic compounds from wet and dried grape pomace, at 45 °C, was conducted and the highest phenolic compounds yield (PCY) for wet (16.2 g GAE/100 g DM) and dry (7.28 g GAE/100 g DM) grape pomace extracts were obtained with 70% ethanol/water solvent at 140 °C. The PCY obtained from wet pomace was up to two times better compared to the dry byproduct and up to 15 times better compared to the same food matrices treated with conventional methods. With regard to Resveratrol, the corresponding dry pomace extract had a better free radical scavenging activity (49.12%) than the wet extract (39.8%). The drying pretreatment process seems to ameliorate the antiradical activity, especially when the extraction by ASE is performed at temperatures above 100 °C. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the diversity of the flavonoid and the non-flavonoid compounds found in the extracts was seriously affected by the extraction temperature and the pretreatment of the raw material. This diversity seems to play a key role in the scavenging activity demonstrated by the extracts. Our results emphasize on ASE usage as a promising method for the preparation of highly concentrated and bioactive phenolic extracts that could be used in several industrial applications. PMID:25322155

  3. Chemical kinetics and transport processes in supercritical fluid extraction of coal. Final report, August 10, 1990--December 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, B.J.; Smith, J.M.; Wang, M.; Zhang, C.J.

    1993-02-01

    The overall objective of this project was to study the supercritical fluid extraction of hydrocarbons from coal. Beyond the practical concern of deriving products from coal, the research has provided insights into the structure, properties, and reactivities of coal. Information on engineering fundamentals of coal thermolysis and extraction, including physical and chemical processes, is presented in this final report. To accomplish the goals of the project we developed continuous-flow experiments for fixed-bed samples of coal that allow two types of analysis of the extract: continuous spectrophotometric absorbance measurements of the lumped concentration of extract, and chromatographic determinations of molecular-weight distributions as a function of time. Thermolysis of coal yields a complex mixture of many extract products whose molecular-weight distribution (MWD) varies with time for continuous-flow, semibatch experiments. The flow reactor with a differential, fixed bed of coal particles contacted by supercritical t-butanol was employed to provide dynamic MWD data by means of HPLC gel permeation chromatography of the extract. The experimental results, time-dependent MWDs of extract molecules, were interpreted by a novel mathematical model based on continuous-mixture kinetics for thermal cleavage of chemical bonds in the coal network. The parameters for the MWDs of extractable groups in the coal and the rate constants for one- and two-fragment reaction are determined from the experimental data. The significant effect of temperature on the kinetics of the extraction was explained in terms of one- and two-fragment reactions in the coal.

  4. Rapid-extraction oxidation process to recover and reuse copper chromium and arsenic from industrial wood preservative sludge.

    PubMed

    Kazi, F K M; Cooper, P A

    2002-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative can form insoluble sludges when the hexavalent chromium component is reduced by wood extractives, wood particles and preservative additives in the solution. This sludge accumulates in treating solution work tanks, sumps and in-line filters and must be disposed of as hazardous wastes by waste disposal companies at high costs. A number of commercial sludges were investigated and found to contain 18-94% copper, chromium and arsenic as oxides combined with sand, oil, wood particles, additives and wood extractives. We have developed a multi-stage recycling process whereby approximately 97% of the CCA components are recovered from the sludge. It involves extraction with sodium hypochlorite to remove and oxidize chromium (more than 90%) and extract most of the arsenic (approx. 80%) followed by extraction of the copper and remaining arsenic and chromium with phosphoric acid. The phosphoric acid extract contains some trivalent chromium, which is subsequently oxidized by sodium hypochlorite. The combined oxidized extract containing CrVI, CuII and AsV was compatible with CCA treating solutions and could be re-used commercially for treating wood without having a significant effect on the preservative fixation rate or the leach resistance of the treated wood. A cost analysis showed that the economic savings from recovery of CCA chemicals and reduced landfill costs exceeded the variable costs for materials and energy for the process by as much as Can $966 per tonne of sludge if sodium sulfite can be acquired in bulk quantities for the process.

  5. Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed proteins: sequential extraction processing and fraction characterization.

    PubMed

    Rezig, Leila; Chibani, Farhat; Chouaibi, Moncef; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Hessini, Kamel; Guéguen, Jacques; Hamdi, Salem

    2013-08-14

    Seed proteins extracted from Tunisian pumpkin seeds ( Cucurbita maxima ) were investigated for their solubility properties and sequentially extracted according to the Osborne procedure. The solubility of pumpkin proteins from seed flour was greatly influenced by pH changes and ionic strength, with higher values in the alkaline pH regions. It also depends on the seed defatting solvent. Protein solubility was decreased by using chloroform/methanol (CM) for lipid extraction instead of pentane (P). On the basis of differential solubility fractionation and depending on the defatting method, the alkali extract (AE) was the major fraction (42.1 (P), 22.3% (CM)) compared to the salt extract (8.6 (P), 7.5% (CM)). In salt, alkali, and isopropanol extracts, all essential amino acids with the exceptions of threonine and lysine met the minimum requirements for preschool children (FAO/WHO/UNU). The denaturation temperatures were 96.6 and 93.4 °C for salt and alkali extracts, respectively. Pumpkin protein extracts with unique protein profiles and higher denaturation temperatures could impart novel characteristics when used as food ingredients.

  6. Use of liquid/supercritical CO2 extraction process for butanol recovery from fermentation broth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In order for butanol fermentation to be a viable option, it is essential to recover it from fermentation broth using economical alternate in-situ product recovery techniques such as liquid/supercritical CO2 extraction as compared to distillation. This technique (liquid CO2 extraction & supercritical...

  7. The extraction process optimization of antioxidant polysaccharides from Marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.) roots.

    PubMed

    Pakrokh Ghavi, Peyman

    2015-04-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) based on five levels was employed to model and optimize four experimental operating conditions of extraction temperature (10-90 °C) and time (6-30 h), particle size (6-24 mm) and water to solid (W/S, 10-50) ratio, obtaining polysaccharides from Althaea officinalis roots with high yield and antioxidant activity. For each response, a second-order polynomial model with high R(2) values (> 0.966) was developed using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the most significant (P < 0.05) extraction conditions that affect the yield and antioxidant activity of extracted polysaccharides were the main effect of extraction temperature and the interaction effect of the particle size and W/S ratio. The optimum conditions to maximize yield (10.80%) and antioxidant activity (84.09%) for polysaccharides extraction from A. officinalis roots were extraction temperature 60.90 °C, extraction time 12.01 h, particle size 12.0mm and W/S ratio of 40.0. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with those predicted, indicating the models suitability for optimizing the polysaccharides extraction conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Phytochemical analysis and effects of Pteris vittata extract on visual processes.

    PubMed

    Wahid, Fazli; Khan, Taous; Shehzad, Omer; Shehzad, Adeeb; Kim, You Young

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore the possible effects of Pteris vittata on visual sensitivity, ERG waves, and other components of the visual system. Electrophysiological techniques including electroretinography (ERG) were used in the present study. The phytochemical composition of the extract was investigated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques. The results indicated that the extract significantly augmented dark- and light-adapted ERG b-wave amplitude. Furthermore, these findings showed that P. vittata extract does not have Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor antagonistic activity but may function as a retinal neural antagonist in bullfrog retina. P. vittata extract improved the visual sensitivity by 0.8 log unit of light intensity, and reduced the regeneration time for rhodopsin. The six main peaks obtained through LC-MS were identified as flavonoids. Based on these results, it was concluded that P. vittata extract or its constituents may be used to treat eye diseases.

  9. Starch extraction process coupled to protein recovery from leguminous tuberous roots (Pachyrhizus ahipa).

    PubMed

    Díaz, Andrea; Dini, Cecilia; Viña, Sonia Z; García, María A

    2016-11-05

    The objective of this work was to fit together the starch extraction from Pachyrhizus ahipa roots and the recovery of the proteins present in these storage organs, making an improved use of this novel raw material. The replacement of water by buffer PO4(-3)/NaCl as solvent in the first extraction steps improved protein extraction without lowering the starch yield. The starches obtained from the traditional and the proposed methods exhibited some differences in appearance and technological and thermal properties, which were endorsed to the adjustment in the methodology of extraction rather than to the use of buffer as solvent. Thus, P. ahipa starch obtaining procedure could be coupled to protein extraction with a minimum change in the methodology. This innovation did not significantly shift the characteristics of the starch obtained and allowed to obtain a protein yield of 135.7mg BSA equivalent protein/100g of fresh roots. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of lipid extraction process on the rheological characteristics, swelling power, and granule size of rice starches in excess water.

    PubMed

    Kar, Aditi; Jacquier, Jean-Christophe; Morgan, Desmond J; Lyng, James G; McKenna, Brian M

    2005-10-19

    The influence of the lipid extraction process on both macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of nonwaxy rice starch gelatinization in excess water was examined. Surface lipids extraction did not change the thermodynamics of starch gelatinization but lead to a significant reduction (33%) in the enthalpy of starch-lipid complex melting at high temperature, resulting in less viscous dispersions. Internal lipid extraction using hot aqueous alcoholic solutions resulted in an irreversible increase in starch granule diameter (50% increase in D[4,3]) and a dramatic change in cooking characteristics of the starch. Instead of the bimodal swelling observed for native nonwaxy rice starch, only one broad transition in swelling, solubility, granule size, and viscosity was observed in the case of the totally defatted starch. While the total removal of lipids resulted in a slight increase in starch swelling at intermediate temperatures, the harshness of the process caused irreparable changes leading to notably lower swelling at high temperatures.

  11. Recovery and stability of oleuropein and other phenolic compounds during extraction and processing of olive leaves (Olea europaeaL.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyphenols in olive leaves, especially oleuropein, are of great interest to researchers, household consumers and commercial entities due to many health benefits of these compounds. Various processing and extraction methods were investigated to evaluate stability and recovery of oleuropein and othe...

  12. A solvent extraction approach to recover acetic acid from mixed waste acids produced during semiconductor wafer process.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Ju-Yup; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Mohapatra, Debasish; Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Gwan; Bae, Wookeun

    2009-03-15

    Recovery of acetic acid (HAc) from the waste etching solution discharged from silicon wafer manufacturing process has been attempted by using solvent extraction process. For this purpose 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (EHA) was used as organic solvent. In the pre-treatment stage >99% silicon and hydrofluoric acid was removed from the solution by precipitation. The synthesized product, Na(2)SiF(6) having 98.2% purity was considered of commercial grade having good market value. The waste solution containing 279 g/L acetic acid, 513 g/L nitric acid, 0.9 g/L hydrofluoric acid and 0.030 g/L silicon was used for solvent extraction study. From the batch test results equilibrium conditions for HAc recovery were optimized and found to be 4 stages of extraction at an organic:aqueous (O:A) ratio of 3, 4 stages of scrubbing and 4 stages of stripping at an O:A ratio of 1. Deionized water (DW) was used as stripping agent to elute HAc from organic phase. In the whole batch process 96.3% acetic acid recovery was achieved. Continuous operations were successfully conducted for 100 h using a mixer-settler to examine the feasibility of the extraction system for its possible commercial application. Finally, a complete process flowsheet with material balance for the separation and recovery of HAc has been proposed.

  13. Advances in Development of the Fission Product Extraction Process for the Separation of Cesium and Strontium from Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    JAck D. Law

    2007-09-01

    The Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) Process is being developed as part of the United States Department of Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative for the simultaneous separation of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel. Separation of the Cs and Sr will reduce the short-term heat load in a geological repository, and when combined with the separation of americium (Am) and curium (Cm), could increase the capacity of the geological repository by a factor of approximately 100. The FPEX process is based on two highly specific extractants: 4,4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6). The DtBuCH18C6 extractant is selective for strontium and the BOBCalixC6 extractant is selective for cesium. Results of flowsheet testing of the FPEX process with a simulated feed solution in 3.3-cm centrifugal contactors are detailed. Removal efficiencies, distribution coefficient data, coextraction of metals, and process hydrodynamic performance are discussed along with recommendations for future flowsheet testing with actual spent nuclear fuel.

  14. Conversion of Extracted Oil Cake Fibers into Bioethanol Including DDGS, Canola, Sunflower, Seasame, Soy, and Peanut for Integrated Biodiesel Processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have come up with a novel integrated approach where biodiesel processing can be potentially done in-house by producing ethanol from edible oilseeds after hexane extraction to remove residual oil. In addition, we have demonstrated how ethanol could be manufactured from widely available oil cakes ...

  15. Green dyeing process of modified cotton fibres using natural dyes extracted from Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst. leaves.

    PubMed

    Baaka, Noureddine; Mahfoudhi, Adel; Haddar, Wafa; Mhenni, Mohamed Farouk; Mighri, Zine

    2017-01-01

    This research work involves an eco-friendly dyeing process of modified cotton with the aqueous extract of Tamarix aphylla leaves. During this process, the dyeing step was carried out on modified cotton by several cationising agents in order to improve its dyeability. The influence of the main dyeing conditions (dye bath pH, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, salt addition) on the performances of this dyeing process were studied. The dyeing performances of this process were appreciated by measuring the colour yield (K/S) and the fastness properties of the dyed samples. The effect of mordant type with different mordanting methods on dyeing quality was also studied. The results showed that mordanting gave deeper shades and enhanced fastness properties. In addition, environmental indicators (BOD5, COD and COD/BOD5) were used to describe potential improvements in the biodegradability of the dyebath wastewater. Further, HPLC was used to identify the major phenolic compounds in the extracted dye.

  16. How does roasting process influence the retention of coffee aroma compounds by lyophilized coffee extract?

    PubMed

    López-Galilea, I; Andriot, I; de Peña, M P; Cid, C; Guichard, E

    2008-04-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to study the effect of lyophilized coffee extract on the retention of aroma compounds and (2) to study if aroma compounds selected are differently affected by the lyophilized coffee extracts obtained from conventional and Torrefacto coffee brews prepared by filter coffeemaker and by espresso coffee machine. Variable amounts of lyophilized coffee extracts, relative to coffee powder, containing different percentages of high molecular weight compounds, mainly melanoidins (value given in parentheses), were obtained: 20.9% (14.8) and 24.9% (23.3), respectively, for conventional and Torrefacto coffee brew prepared by filter coffeemaker and 18.1% (18.8) and 20.7% (57.5), respectively, for conventional and Torrefacto coffee brew prepared by espresso coffee machine. The retention of aroma compounds increased by increasing the lyophilized coffee extract concentration and was found to be dependent on the aroma compounds. The retention of aroma compounds was found to be slightly different depending on the brewing procedure employed, showing lyophilized coffee extracts obtained with espresso coffee machine had higher retention values that those extracted by filter coffeemaker. Retention capacity of lyophilized coffee extracts obtained from the conventional and the Torrefacto roasted coffee did not show differences except in the case of ethyl nonanoate.

  17. Identification, quantification, and sensory characterization of steviol glycosides from differently processed Stevia rebaudiana commercial extracts.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, María Inés; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Sanders, Mark; Castro, Cristian; Stieger, Markus; Agosin, Eduardo

    2014-12-10

    Stevia rebaudiana is known for its sweet-tasting ent-kaurene diterpenoid glycosides. Several manufacturing strategies are currently employed to obtain Stevia sweeteners with the lowest possible off-flavors. The chemical composition of four commercial S. rebaudiana extracts, obtained by different technologies, was characterized using UHPLC-ESI-MS(n). The composition of one of the ethanol-crystallized extracts (EC2) was entirely rebaudioside A, whereas the enzymatically modified (EM) extract contained the lowest concentration of this compound (2.7 mg/100 mg). The membrane-purified (MP) extract had the highest content of minor natural steviol glycosides (23.7 mg/100 mg total extract) versus an average of 2.4 mg/100 mg total extract for the EC samples. Thirteen trained panelists evaluated sweetness, bitterness, licorice, and metallic attributes of all four extracts. The highest licorice intensity (p ≤ 0.05) was found for MP. Both samples EC1 and EC2, despite their different chemical compositions, showed no significant differences in sensory perception.

  18. Low-energy process to extract anhydrous ethanol from fermentation beers. Alcohol-Fuels Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, L.D.; Allen, M.B.; Cekala, C.

    1982-11-01

    The feasibility of an energy efficient technique was demonstrated utilizing patented POROPLASTIC ultramicroporous membranes for the separation of ethanol from fermentation beers. Initial research focused on the selection of the best solvent for extracting ethanol from aqueous ethanol feed streams. The most promising solvents were selected on the basis of physical properties, distribution coefficients, water rejection capabilities and cost. Several of the best strip solvents were then employed in actual membrane extractions. A single-membrane extraction module was constructed, in which a strip solvent stream and an aqueous ethanol stream encountered a Poroplastic membrane. The membrane established the interface where ethanol transfer occurred. Membrane extraction systems with good ethanol extraction characteristics were successfully designed. A 33% ethanol solution was reduced to 26% in a long-term extraction experiment with a net transport rate of 476 ..mu..g/cm/sup 2//min. Even though the rates of ethanol recovery appeared very promising the rates of water transfer were also significant. The co-extraction of water and ethanol prevented the production of an anhydrous ethanol product stream.

  19. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Ampelopsis grossedentata Stems: Process Optimization and Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuefei; Ying, Le; Sun, Da; Zhang, Shikang; Zhu, Yuejin; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of bioactive compounds including flavonoids and phenolics from Ampelopsis grossedentata stems was carried out. Extraction parameters such as pressure, temperature, dynamic time and modifier, were optimized using an orthogonal array design of L9 (34), and antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) assay. The best conditions obtained for SC-CO2 extraction of flavonoids was 250 bar, 40 °C, 50 min, and with a modifier of methanol/ethanol (1:3, v/v), and that for phenolics extraction was 250 bar, 40 °C, 50 min, and with a modifier of methanol/ethanol (1:1, v/v). Meantime, flavonoids and phenolics were found to be mainly responsible for the DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts, but not for the chelating activity on ferrous ion according to Pearson correlation analysis. Furthermore, several unreported flavonoids such as apigenin, vitexin, luteolin, etc., have been detected in the extracts from A. grossedentata stems. PMID:22072923

  20. Extraction of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum L.) Seed Oil Using Subcritical Butane: Characterization and Process Optimization.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ling-Biao; Liu, Xiao-Ning; Liu, Hua-Min; Pang, Hui-Li; Qin, Guang-Yong

    2017-02-02

    In this study, the subcritical butane extraction process of fenugreek seed oil was optimized using response surface methodology with a Box-Behnken design. The optimum conditions for extracted oil from fenugreek seed was as follows: extraction temperature of 43.24 °C , extraction time of 32.80 min, and particle size of 0.26 mm. No significant differences were found between the experimental and predicted values. The physical and chemical properties of the oil showed that the oil could be used as edible oil. Fatty acid composition of oils obtained by subcritical butane under the optimum conditions and by accelerated solvent extraction showed negligible difference. The oils were rich in linoleic acid (42.71%-42.80%), linolenic acid (26.03%-26.15%), and oleic acid (14.24%-14.40%). The results revealed that the proposed method was feasible, and this essay shows the way to exploit fenugreek seeds by subcritical butane extraction under the scope of edible oils.

  1. An Ontology-Enabled Natural Language Processing Pipeline for Provenance Metadata Extraction from Biomedical Text (Short Paper).

    PubMed

    Valdez, Joshua; Rueschman, Michael; Kim, Matthew; Redline, Susan; Sahoo, Satya S

    2016-10-01

    Extraction of structured information from biomedical literature is a complex and challenging problem due to the complexity of biomedical domain and lack of appropriate natural language processing (NLP) techniques. High quality domain ontologies model both data and metadata information at a fine level of granularity, which can be effectively used to accurately extract structured information from biomedical text. Extraction of provenance metadata, which describes the history or source of information, from published articles is an important task to support scientific reproducibility. Reproducibility of results reported by previous research studies is a foundational component of scientific advancement. This is highlighted by the recent initiative by the US National Institutes of Health called "Principles of Rigor and Reproducibility". In this paper, we describe an effective approach to extract provenance metadata from published biomedical research literature using an ontology-enabled NLP platform as part of the Provenance for Clinical and Healthcare Research (ProvCaRe). The ProvCaRe-NLP tool extends the clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System (cTAKES) platform using both provenance and biomedical domain ontologies. We demonstrate the effectiveness of ProvCaRe-NLP tool using a corpus of 20 peer-reviewed publications. The results of our evaluation demonstrate that the ProvCaRe-NLP tool has significantly higher recall in extracting provenance metadata as compared to existing NLP pipelines such as MetaMap.

  2. Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation

    DOEpatents

    Tedder, Daniel W.

    1985-05-14

    Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

  3. Process for producing fuel grade alcohol by solvent extraction and carrier gas stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Tedder, D.W.

    1985-04-09

    Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol; extracting said aqueous fermentation liquor with an organic solvent containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate; contacting said alcohol-organic solvent phase with a carrier gas thereby separating said alcohol from said alcohol-organic solvent phase and forming an alcohol laden solvent vapor; and separating alcohol substantially free of water from said carrier gas.

  4. Optimization of process parameters for supercritical fluid extraction of cholesterol from whole milk powder using ethanol as co-solvent.

    PubMed

    Dey Paul, Indira; Jayakumar, Chitra; Niwas Mishra, Hari

    2016-12-01

    In spite of being highly nutritious, the consumption of milk is hindered because of its high cholesterol content, which is responsible for numerous cardiac diseases. Supercritical carbon dioxide using ethanol as co-solvent was employed to extract cholesterol from whole milk powder (WMP). This study was undertaken to optimize the process parameters of supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE), viz. extraction temperature, pressure and volume of ethanol. The cholesterol content of WMP was quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. The impact of the extraction conditions on the fat content (FC), solubility index (SI) and lightness (L*) of the SCFE-treated WMP were also investigated. The process parameters were optimized using response surface methodology. About 46% reduction in cholesterol was achieved at the optimized conditions of 48 °C, 17 MPa and 31 mL co-solvent; flow rate of expanded CO2 , static time and dynamic time of extraction were 6 L min(-1) , 10 min and 80 min respectively. The treated WMP retained its FC, SI, and L* at moderate limits of 183.67 g kg(-1) , 96.3% and 96.90, respectively. This study demonstrated the feasibility of ethanol-modified SCFE of cholesterol from WMP with negligible changes in its physicochemical properties. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Influence of process variables on extraction of Cefalexin in a novel biocompatible ionic liquid based-aqueous two phase system.

    PubMed

    Abdolrahimi, Shiva; Nasernejad, Bahram; Pazuki, Gholamreza

    2015-01-07

    Despite the fact that ionic liquid-based aqueous two phase systems (ATPSs) have been widely studied for extraction purposes, the adequacy of biodegradable organic salts as salting out agents has been left unexploited. In this study, we investigated the ability of sodium-based organic salts in the formation of ATPS in the presence of a common ionic liquid, [C4mim]BF4. In the pioneering aspect of this work, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on three-variable central composite design (CCD) was employed for determination of the effect of pH and the initial concentration of phase components on the partition coefficient of Cefalexin. Consequently, regression model equations and contour plots were applied to evaluate the effect of system's parameters on biomolecule's extraction. The tie-line (TL) data were determined for each experimental run and their reliability was confirmed by Othmer-Tobias and Bancroft correlations. In order to investigate the salting-out ability the effective excluded volume (EEV) was determined from the binodal data. Furthermore, FTIR spectra confirmed no chemical interactions between Cefalexin and [C4mim]BF4 in the extraction process. The microscopic structure of the top phase was analyzed by DLS, conductivity and TEM in order to investigate the mechanism of extraction. Hydrophobic interaction, the salting-out effect and the aggregation phenomena played the dominant role in the study of the extraction process.

  6. Application of a Box-Behnken design for optimizing the extraction process of agave fructans (Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul).

    PubMed

    Flores-Girón, Emmanuel; Salazar-Montoya, Juan Alfredo; Ramos-Ramírez, Emma Gloria

    2016-08-01

    Agave (Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul) is an industrially important crop in México since it is the only raw material appropriate to produce tequila, an alcoholic beverage. Nowadays, however, these plants have also a nutritional interest as a source of functional food ingredients, owing to the prebiotic potential of agave fructans. In this study, a Box-Behnken design was employed to determine the influence of temperature, liquid:solid ratio and time in a maceration process for agave fructan extraction and optimization. The developed regression model indicates that the selected study variables were statistical determinants for the extraction yield, and the optimal conditions for maximum extraction were a temperature of 60 °C, a liquid:solid ratio of 10:1 (v/w) and a time of 26.7 min, corresponding to a predicted extraction yield of 37.84%. Through selective separation via precipitation with ethanol, fructans with a degree of polymerization of 29.1 were obtained. Box-Behnken designs are useful statistical methods for optimizing the extraction process of agave fructans. A mixture of carbohydrates was obtained from agave powder. This optimized method can be used to obtain fructans for use as prebiotics or as raw material for obtaining functional oligosaccharides. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Nucleic acid quantity and quality from paraffin blocks: defining optimal fixation, processing and DNA/RNA extraction techniques.

    PubMed

    Turashvili, Gulisa; Yang, Winnie; McKinney, Steven; Kalloger, Steve; Gale, Nadia; Ng, Ying; Chow, Katie; Bell, Lynda; Lorette, Julie; Carrier, Melinda; Luk, Margaret; Aparicio, Samuel; Huntsman, David; Yip, Stephen

    2012-02-01

    Although the extraction and analysis of nucleic acids from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues is a routine and growing part of pathology practice, no generally accepted recommendations exist to guide laboratories in their selection of tissue fixation, processing and DNA/RNA extraction techniques. The aim of this study was to determine how fixation method and length, paraffin embedding, processing conditions and nucleic acid extraction methods affect quality and quantity of DNA and RNA, and their performance in downstream applications. Nine tissue samples were subjected to freezing, fixation in formalin for <24 h and 7 days followed by conventional processing, and fixation in molecular fixative for <24 h and 7 days followed by rapid processing. DNA and RNA were isolated using in-house extraction and commercial kits, and assessed by PCR reactions for amplicons with varying sizes ranging from 268 to 1327 bp and one-step RT-PCR for 621 bp and 816 bp amplicons of housekeeping genes. Molecular fixative (MF) appeared to perform well under nearly all circumstances (extraction methods, fixation lengths and longer amplicons), often performing as well as frozen samples. Formalin fixation generally performed well only for shorter length amplicons and short fixation (<24 h). WaxFree kit showed consistently higher success rates for DNA and poorer rates for RNA. RecoverAll kit generally performed suboptimally in combination with prolonged formalin fixation. In conclusion, the Molecular Fixative regardless of fixation length, and the rapid tissue processing system were able to preserve large DNA and RNA fragments in paraffin blocks, making these techniques preferable for use in downstream molecular diagnostic assays. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [The effect of dry standardized plant extracts on the process of arbutin release from topical preparations produced on Carbopol base].

    PubMed

    Piechota-Urbańska, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    An attempt was made to estimate the effect of plant extract components (nettle extract, sage extract) on the process of arbutin release from new prescriptions of skin-bleaching gels. Formulations containing arbutin and dry standardized plant extracts were produced for this purpose. The suggested hydrogel vehicles were prepared on the base of two polymers: Carbopol Ultrez 10 and Noveon AA-1. The preparations were subjected to physicochemical tests. Viscosity parameters were determined using cone-plate digital rheometer. Potentiometric method was used to measure pH of the produced hydrogels. The rate of arbutin release through a semipermeable membrane to the acceptor fluid was tested in vitro. The rate of the process of release was determined at defined time intervals by spectrophotometric method. The effect of plant extract components on arbutin process of diffusion was estimated. The highest pharmaceutical availability of arbutin was obtained for hydrogels on Noveon AA-1 base with dry sage extract (F2-A+Sz). The area under the curve of arbutin release from this hydrogel was 25,94 c.u. The arbutin content in the last sample collected during the test of its release was 5,6509 mg/cm2 of the area of release. There were also obtained beneficial applicative rheological parameters, such as: low structural viscosity value (31497 mPa x s at shear rate 2,01 l/s) and yield stress (22,9 N/m2) for F2-A+Sz formulation. All tested formulations demonstrated rheological stability and high pharmaceutical availability after six months of storage.

  9. Process optimization for extraction of carotenoids from shrimp waste with vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Sachindra, N M; Mahendrakar, N S

    2005-07-01

    Shrimp waste is an important source of natural carotenoid. Studies were carried out to determine the extraction yield of shrimp waste carotenoids in different vegetable oils. Highest yield was obtained by extraction using refined sunflower oil compared to groundnut oil, gingelly oil, mustard oil, soy oil, coconut oil and rice bran oil. The extraction yield of carotenoids in sunflower oil was significantly influenced by level of oil to waste (p < 0.05), time (p < 0.01) and temperature (p < 0.001) of heating waste with oil before centrifugation to separate pigmented oil. A regression equation was derived for carotenoid yield as a function of time of heating, temperature of heating and oil level to waste. The optimized conditions for extraction of shrimp waste carotenoids in sunflower oil were determined to be oil level to waste of 2, temperature of 70 degrees C and heating time of 150 min.

  10. Liquid CO2 extraction of Jasminum grandiflorum and comparison with conventional processes.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Sahoo, Deeptanjali; Rout, Prasant Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The concrete (0.35%) of Jasminum grandiflorum L. flowers was prepared by extraction in n-pentane, and the absolute (0.27%) by fractionation of the n-pentane extract (concrete) with cold methanol. Direct extraction of flowers with liquid CO2 gave a relatively fat-free product in 0.26% yield. The liquid CO2 extract was enriched with terpenoids and benzenoids, thus providing the organoleptically accepted product. The major compounds, such as benzyl acetate, (E,E)-alpha-farnesene and (Z)-3-hexenyl benzoate, along with compounds like indole, methyl anthranilate, (Z)-jasmone, (Z)-methyl jasmonoate and (Z)-methyl epi-jasmonoate, are responsible for the high diffusivity of the jasmine fragrance. These compounds have been obtained with improved recoveries in the liquid CO2 extract. On the other hand, the yield of the essential oil was poor (0.05%), and some polar compounds (oxygenated terpenoids) were recovered in less amounts in comparison with either the n-pentane or liquid CO2 extract.

  11. Processing of mono-, di- and tricistronic transfer RNAs precursors in a spinach or pea chloroplast soluble extract.

    PubMed

    Marion-Poll, A; Hibbert, C S; Radebaugh, C A; Hallick, R B

    1988-01-01

    Monomeric, dimeric and trimeric chloroplast tRNA precursors from Euglena gracilis were synthesized by Sp6, T7 or T3 RNA polymerases using an in vitro transcription system. The length of the 3' and 5' ends of these precursors was varied to facilitate the identification of processing intermediates, and to study the effect of the structure of the tRNA precursors on the processing reactions. All the tRNA precursors studied, independent of their structure, are processed to mature tRNAs in both spinach and pea chloroplast soluble extracts. 5'-and 3' endonucleases are involved in the cleavage of 5' and 3' ends of the pre-tRNAs. These two reactions are not ordered in vitro. Other enzymatic activities can be detected in the chloroplast soluble extract including exonucleases, and CCA-adding enzyme.

  12. Formation of calcium aluminates in the lime sinter process. [Extraction of alumina from fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, K.S.

    1980-03-01

    A study of the formation of several calcium aluminates from pure components in the lime sinter process was undertaken to determine the kinetics of formation and subsequent leaching using a dilute sodium carbonate solution. The composition CaO 61.98%, SiO/sub 2/ 26.67%, and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 11.53% was used. Isothermal sintering runs of 0.2 to 10.0 h were carried out at 1200, 1250, 1300, and 1350/sup 0/C. When the sintering temperature was below the eutectic temperature (1335/sup 0/C), the ternary mixture behaved like two binary systems, i.e. CaO-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and CaO-SiO/sub 2/. Only one compound, 3CaO.SiO/sub 2/, was formed between CaO and SiO/sub 2/. With lower sintering temperature and shorter sintering time, the ..beta..-phase was dominant. However, when both temperature and time increased, more and more of the ..beta..-C/sub 2/S was transformed into the ..gamma..-phase. Several different aluminates were formed during the sintering of CaO and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The compounds CaO.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and 3CaO.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ were observed at all tested sintering temperatures, while the 5CaO.3Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ phase was found only at 1200/sup 0/C and 12CaO.7Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ at 1250/sup 0/C or higher. The first compound formed between CaO and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was probably 12CaO.7Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, but the amount did not increase immediately with time. The first dominant compound between CaO and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was CaO.3Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. When the calcium ion diffused through the product layer of CaO.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 3CaO.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was formed. If unreacted Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ were present after the formation of CaO.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, CaO.2Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ would form. Subsequent leaching of the sinters showed that the extractable alumina in the products increased with both sintering temperature and time, reaching a max of about 90%. These extraction data corresponded very well to the quantities of aluminates in the sinters. 59 figures, 13 tables.

  13. A novel liquid/liquid extraction process composed of surfactant and acetonitrile for purification of polygalacturonase enzyme from Durio zibethinus.

    PubMed

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Yazid; Azmira, Farhana; Hussin, Muhaini; Sarker, Zaidul Islam

    2015-07-01

    Polygalacturonase is one of the important enzymes used in various industries such as food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, pulp and paper. A novel liquid/liquid extraction process composed of surfactant and acetonitrile was employed for the first time to purify polygalacturonase from Durio zibethinus. The influences of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, concentrations of acetonitrile and composition of surfactant/acetonitrile on partitioning behavior and recovery of polygalacturonase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of pH of system and crude load on purification fold and yield of purified polygalacturonase were studied. The results of the experiment indicated the polygalacturonase was partitioned into surfactant top rich phase with impurities being partitioned into acetonitrile bottom rich phase in the novel method of liquid/liquid process composed of 23% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 19% (w/w) acetonitrile, at 55.6% of TLL (tie line length) crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 6.0. Recovery and recycling of components also was measured in each successive step of liquid/liquid extraction process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the method with a high purification factor of 14.3 and yield of 97.3% while phase components were also recovered and recycled above 95%. This study demonstrated that the novel method of liquid/liquid extraction process can be used as an efficient and economical extraction method rather than the traditional methods of extraction for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme.

  14. Engineering liposomes of leaf extract of seabuckthorn (SBT) by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2)-mediated process.

    PubMed

    Ghatnur, Shashidhar M; Sonale, R Swapna; Balaraman, Manohar; Kadimi, Udaya Sankar

    2012-09-01

    Seabuckthorn (SBT; Hipphophae rhamnoides) leaf extract obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO(2)) using ethanol as an entrainer, containing mainly flavanoids as bioactive principles with antioxidant and antibacterial properties, was used for the preparation of liposomes. Liposomes are promising drug carriers with sustained release because they can enhance the membrane penetration of drugs, deliver the entrapped drugs across cell membranes, and improve extract stability and bioavailability. The aim of the present study was to compare the two different methods of liposome production: the Bangham thin-film method and SCCO(2) gas antisolvent method (SCCO(2) GAS) for the incorporation of SBT leaf extract in terms of particle size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, antioxidant activity, and thermal stability. Liposomes obtained with the thin-film method were multilamellar vesicles with average particle size (3,740 nm), encapsulation efficiency (14.60%), and particle-size range (1.57-6.0 µm), respectively. On the other hand, liposomes by the SCCO(2) GAS method were nanosized (930 nm) with an improved encapsulation efficiency (28.42%) and narrow range of size distribution (0.48-1.07 µm), respectively. Further, the antioxidant activity of leaf extract of SBT was determined by the 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method and expressed as Trolox equivalents as well as of the intercalated extract in liposomes. The oxidative stability of SBT encapsulated in liposomes was again estimated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thermal-oxidative decomposition of the samples (i.e., pure liposomes and encapsulated extracts) and the modification of the main transition temperature for the lipid mixture and the splitting of the calorimetric peak in the presence of the antioxidants were also studied by DSC. After encapsulation in liposomes, antioxidant activity proved to be higher than those of the same extracts in pure form.

  15. [Technological process of cell disruption for extracting astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma by acid method under autoclave conditions].

    PubMed

    Lu, Baoju; Xiao, Anfeng; Lil, Lijun; Ni, Hui; Cai, Huinong; Su, Wenjin

    2008-07-01

    Phaffia rhodozyma is one of the organisms for production of astaxanthin, and the key process for extracting intracellular astaxanthin is cell disruption. In this work, cell disruption for extracting astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma was studied with autoclave method at low acid concentration. The optimum disrupting conditions were: autoclave pressure 0.1 MPa, 121 degrees C; hydrochloric acid concentration 0.5 mol/L; liquid to material ratio (V/W) 30 mL/g dry cell weight and disruption time 2 min. Under the optimum conditions, medium scale experiment showed that astaxanthin and total carotenoids recovery from Phaffia rhodozyma were (84.8 +/- 3.2)% and (93.3 +/- 2)%, respectively. This new method can lead to no poisonous residues and get high extraction yield, which have good prospects to be put into industrial production.

  16. In vitro studies on the relationship between the anti-inflammatory activity of Physalis peruviana extracts and the phagocytic process.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Willington; Ospina, Luis Fernando; Granados, Diana; Delgado, Gabriela

    2010-03-01

    The study of plants used in traditional medicine has drawn the attention of researchers as an alternative in the development of new therapeutics agents, such as the American Solanaceae Physalis peruviana, which has significant anti-inflammatory activity. The Physalis peruviana anti-inflammatory effect of ethanol or ether calyces extracts on the phagocytic process was assessed by using an in vitro phagocytosis model (Leishmania panamensis infection to murine macrophages). The Physalis peruviana extracts do not inhibit microorganism internalization and have no parasiticide effect. Most ET and EP extracts negatively affected the parasite's invasion of macrophages (Infected cells increased.). This observation might result from a down-regulation of the macrophage's microbicide ability associated with a selective reduction of proinflammatory cytokines levels. Physalis peruviana's anti-inflammatory activity described in this model is related to an immunomodulatory effect exerted on macrophages infected, which directly or indirectly "blocks" their ability to secrete soluble proinflammatory mediators.

  17. THE LIBERATION OF ARSENOSUGARS FROM MATRIX COMPONENTS IN DIFFICULT TO EXTRACT SEAFOOD SAMPLES UTILIZING TMAOH/ACETIC ACID SEQUENTIALLY IN A TWO-STAGE EXTRACTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sample extraction is one of the most important steps in arsenic speciation analysis of solid dietary samples. One of the problem areas in this analysis is the partial extraction of arsenicals from seafood samples. The partial extraction allows the toxicity of the extracted arse...

  18. THE LIBERATION OF ARSENOSUGARS FROM MATRIX COMPONENTS IN DIFFICULT TO EXTRACT SEAFOOD SAMPLES UTILIZING TMAOH/ACETIC ACID SEQUENTIALLY IN A TWO-STAGE EXTRACTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sample extraction is one of the most important steps in arsenic speciation analysis of solid dietary samples. One of the problem areas in this analysis is the partial extraction of arsenicals from seafood samples. The partial extraction allows the toxicity of the extracted arse...

  19. FY10 Report on Multi-scale Simulation of Solvent Extraction Processes: Molecular-scale and Continuum-scale Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wardle, Kent E.; Frey, Kurt; Pereira, Candido

    2014-02-02

    This task is aimed at predictive modeling of solvent extraction processes in typical extraction equipment through multiple simulation methods at various scales of resolution. We have conducted detailed continuum fluid dynamics simulation on the process unit level as well as simulations of the molecular-level physical interactions which govern extraction chemistry. Through combination of information gained through simulations at each of these two tiers along with advanced techniques such as the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) which can bridge these two scales, we can develop the tools to work towards predictive simulation for solvent extraction on the equipment scale (Figure 1). The goal of such a tool-along with enabling optimized design and operation of extraction units-would be to allow prediction of stage extraction effrciency under specified conditions. Simulation efforts on each of the two scales will be described below. As the initial application of FELBM in the work performed during FYl0 has been on annular mixing it will be discussed in context of the continuum-scale. In the future, however, it is anticipated that the real value of FELBM will be in its use as a tool for sub-grid model development through highly refined DNS-like multiphase simulations facilitating exploration and development of droplet models including breakup and coalescence which will be needed for the large-scale simulations where droplet level physics cannot be resolved. In this area, it can have a significant advantage over traditional CFD methods as its high computational efficiency allows exploration of significantly greater physical detail especially as computational resources increase in the future.

  20. Process development for recovery of vanadium and nickel from an industrial solid waste by a leaching-solvent extraction technique.

    PubMed

    Barik, S P; Park, K H; Nam, C W

    2014-12-15

    A process for recovering V(V) and Ni(II) from an industrial solid waste using sulfuric acid leaching, solvent extraction, precipitation and crystallization has been developed. The leaching parameters investigated were time, temperature and H2SO4 concentration. To quantify the linear and interaction coefficients a 2(3) full factorial experimental design was used. Regression equations for the extraction of V(V) and Ni(II) were determined and the adequacy of these equations was tested by Student's t-Test. More than 98% of both V(V) and Ni(II) were extracted in 90 min using 1.35 M H2SO4 at 40 °C. In addition, solvent extraction of V(V) with LIX 84-I in kerosene from the acidic leach liquor bearing 10.922 g/L V(V) and 18.871 g/L of Ni(II) was investigated. V(V) was extracted selectively using 40% LIX 84-I followed by stripping with NH4OH solution. McCabe-Thiele plots at O:A = 2:3 with 40% LIX 84-I and O:A = 3:1 with 15% (v/v) NH4OH showed two and three theoretical stages are needed for quantitative extraction and stripping of V(V), respectively. Ni(II) was selectively recovered from the V(V) free raffinate by adding ammonium oxalate at 60 °C. The purity of different products such as ammonium vanadate, nickel oxalate and nickel oxide obtained during the processes were analyzed and confirmed from the XRD studies.

  1. Influence of plant matrix on microwave-assisted extraction process. The case of diosgenin extracted from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.).

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Béatrice; Rudaz, Serge; Cherkaoui, Samir; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Christen, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    A focused microwave-assisted extraction method was developed for the extraction of diosgenin from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds, air-dried and fresh leaves and air-dried roots. Several experimental parameters were studied, including extraction time, microwave power applied and percentage of 2-propanol in the extraction mixture as well as their interactions, in order to optimize the extraction efficiency. The two latter parameters were found to be the most important. Response surface modelling was used to predict the extraction yield of diosgenin in selected matrices. The analysis of diosgenin in crude extracts was carried out by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

  2. Chemical composition and flavour characteristics of a liquid extract occurring as waste in crab (Ovalipes punctatus) processing.

    PubMed

    Bu, Junzhi; Dai, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Tao; Lu, Yanbin; Jiang, Qianqian

    2013-07-01

    The crab processing industry has generated a considerable quantity of by-products, and these untapped residues resulted in environmental problem and waste of natural resources. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to evaluate the further usage potential of Ovalipes punctatus extract. The proximate composition, minerals, fatty acids, amino acids, tasty components (free amino acid, flavour 5'-nucleotides, glycine betaine and inorganic ions) and volatile flavour components were studied. O. punctatus extract was found to have a high protein (31.2 g kg⁻¹), but a low fat content (0.13 g kg⁻¹). The protein contained high amounts of arginine (110.2 g kg⁻¹ protein) and glutamic acid (108.9 g kg⁻¹). The fatty acid profiles were dominated by saturated fatty acids, while C20 n-3 and n-6 fatty acids accounted for 85% of its polyunsaturated fatty acids. Arginine, alanine, glycine, glycine betaine, glutamic acid and chloridion (taste active value greater than 1) were primary taste-active components. A total of 77 volatiles were identified, and benzaldehyde and pyrazines were the major flavour contributors to the aroma of O. punctatus extract. Furthermore, sensory evaluation with a five-point hedonic scale showed that the overall flavour of O. punctatus extract had high acceptance. Results presented in this study indicated that O. punctatus extract could be utilised to produce nutritious food or value-added products. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2006-07-11

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  4. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2002-01-01

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  5. Low phase noise microwave extraction from femtosecond laser by frequency conversion pair and IF-domain processing.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yitang; Cen, Qizhuang; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Yue; Yin, Feifei; Dai, Jian; Li, Jianqiang; Xu, Kun

    2015-12-14

    Extraction of a microwave component from a low-time-jitter femtosecond pulse train has been attractive for current generation of spectrally pure microwave. In order to avoid the transfer from the optical amplitude noise to microwave phase noise (AM-PM), we propose to down-convert the target component to intermediate frequency (IF) before the opto-electronic conversion. Due to the much lower carrier frequency, the AM-PM is greatly suppressed. The target is then recovered by up-conversion with the same microwave local oscillation (LO). As long as the time delay of the second LO matches that of the IF carrier, the phase noise of the LO shows no impact on the extraction process. The residual noise of the proposed extraction is analyzed in theory, which is also experimentally demonstrated as averagely around -155 dBc/Hz under offset frequency larger than 1 kHz when 10-GHz tone is extracted from a home-made femtosecond fiber laser. Large tunable extraction from 1 GHz to 10 GHz is also reported.

  6. Discovery of plant extracts that greatly delay yeast chronological aging and have different effects on longevity-defining cellular processes

    PubMed Central

    Samson, Eugenie; Arlia-Ciommo, Anthony; Dakik, Pamela; Cortes, Berly; Feldman, Rachel; Mohtashami, Sadaf; McAuley, Mélissa; Chancharoen, Marisa; Rukundo, Belise; Simard, Éric; Titorenko, Vladimir I.

    2016-01-01

    We discovered six plant extracts that increase yeast chronological lifespan to a significantly greater extent than any of the presently known longevity-extending chemical compounds. One of these extracts is the most potent longevity-extending pharmacological intervention yet described. We show that each of the six plant extracts is a geroprotector which delays the onset and decreases the rate of yeast chronological aging by eliciting a hormetic stress response. We also show that each of these extracts has different effects on cellular processes that define longevity in organisms across phyla. These effects include the following: 1) increased mitochondrial respiration and membrane potential; 2) augmented or reduced concentrations of reactive oxygen species; 3) decreased oxidative damage to cellular proteins, membrane lipids, and mitochondrial and nuclear genomes; 4) enhanced cell resistance to oxidative and thermal stresses; and 5) accelerated degradation of neutral lipids deposited in lipid droplets. Our findings provide new insights into mechanisms through which chemicals extracted from certain plants can slow biological aging. PMID:26918729

  7. Paradise Lost: Uncertainties in melting and melt extraction processes beneath oceanic spreading ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    In many ways, decompression melting and focused melt transport beneath oceanic spreading ridges is the best understood igneous process on Earth. However, there are remaining - increasing - uncertainties in interpreting residual mantle peridotites. Indicators of degree of melting in residual peridotite are questionable. Yb concentration and spinel Cr# are affected by (a) small scale variations in reactive melt transport, (b) variable extents of melt extraction, and (c) "impregnation", i.e. partial crystallization of cooling melt in pore space. Roughly 75% of abyssal peridotites have undergone major element refertilization. Many may have undergone several melting events. The following three statements are inconsistent: (1) Peridotite melt productivity beyond cpx exhaustion is > 0.1%/GPa. (2) Crustal thickness is independent of spreading rate at rates > 2 cm/yr full rate (excluding ultra-slow spreading ridges). (3) Thermal models predict, and observations confirm, thick thermal boundary layers beneath slow spreading ridges. If (a) melt productivity is << 0.1%/GPa beyond cpx-out, and (b) cpx-out occurs > 15 km below the seafloor beneath most ridges, then the independence of crustal thickness with spreading rate can be understood. Most sampled peridotites from ridges melted beyond cpx-out. Cpx in these rocks formed via impregnation and/or exsolution during cooling. Most peridotites beneath ridges may undergo cpx exhaustion during decompression melting. This would entail an upward modification of potential temperature estimates. Alternatively, perhaps oceanic crustal thickness does vary with spreading rate but this is masked by complicated tectonics and serpentinization at slow-spreading ridges. Dissolution channels (dunites) are predicted to coalesce downstream, but numerical models of these have not shown why > 95% of oceanic crust forms in a zone < 5 km wide. There may be permeability barriers guiding deeper melt toward the ridge, but field studies have not identified

  8. The transfer of natural Rhodamine B contamination from raw paprika fruit to capsicum oleoresin during the extraction process.

    PubMed

    Wu, Naiying; Gao, Wei; Lian, Yunhe; Du, Jingjing; Tie, Xiaowei

    2017-12-15

    Occurrence of Rhodamine B (RhB) contamination in paprika caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process has been reported. It may transfer during the process of active compounds extraction, and eventually exist in final products. Herein, the re-distribution of RhB during the extraction process was assessed in terms of RhB contents, as well as mass, color value and capsaicinoids yield of each process. Results revealed that natural RhB contamination at 0.55-1.11µg/kg originated from raw paprika fruit then transferred with the extraction proceeded. About 95.5% of RhB was found in red oleoresin. After separation of red oleoresin, 91.6% of RhB was remained in capsicum oleoresin, only 3.7% in paprika red. These results were consistent with total capsaicinoids recovery of each product. The RhB levels in edible capsicum oleoresin in our present study at 0.01-0.34µg/kg did not exceed the legal limits established by the European Union. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Parameter extraction using global particle swarm optimization approach and the influence of polymer processing temperature on the solar cell parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Singh, A.; Dhar, A.

    2017-08-01

    The accurate estimation of the photovoltaic parameters is fundamental to gain an insight of the physical processes occurring inside a photovoltaic device and thereby to optimize its design, fabrication processes, and quality. A simulative approach of accurately determining the device parameters is crucial for cell array and module simulation when applied in practical on-field applications. In this work, we have developed a global particle swarm optimization (GPSO) approach to estimate the different solar cell parameters viz., ideality factor (η), short circuit current (Isc), open circuit voltage (Voc), shunt resistant (Rsh), and series resistance (Rs) with wide a search range of over ±100 % for each model parameter. After validating the accurateness and global search power of the proposed approach with synthetic and noisy data, we applied the technique to the extract the PV parameters of ZnO/PCDTBT based hybrid solar cells (HSCs) prepared under different annealing conditions. Further, we examine the variation of extracted model parameters to unveil the physical processes occurring when different annealing temperatures are employed during the device fabrication and establish the role of improved charge transport in polymer films from independent FET measurements. The evolution of surface morphology, optical absorption, and chemical compositional behaviour of PCDTBT co-polymer films as a function of processing temperature has also been captured in the study and correlated with the findings from the PV parameters extracted using GPSO approach.

  10. Development of a normalized extraction to further aid in fast, high-throughput processing of forensic DNA reference samples.

    PubMed

    Connon, Catherine C; LeFebvre, Aaron K; Benjamin, Robert C

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a "normalized" extraction procedure to be used in conjunction with previously validated 3μL fast PCR reactions (42-51min utilizing KAPA2G™ Fast Multiplex PCR Kit) and alternative capillary electrophoresis (24-28min injection using POP-6™ Polymer and a 22cm array). This was the final phase of a workflow overhaul for the database unit at Cellmark Forensics to achieve a substantial reduction in processing time for forensic DNA database samples without incurring significant added costs and/or the need for new instrumentation, while still generating high quality STR profiles. Extraction normalization aimed to consistently yield a small range of DNA concentrations, thereby eliminating the need for sample quantification and dilution. This was specifically achieved using the ChargeSwitch(®) Forensic DNA Purification Kit and a reduction in extraction bead quantity, thereby forcing an increase in bead binding efficiency. Following development of this extraction procedure, an evaluation ensued to assess the combination of normalized extraction, 3μL fast PCR (with PowerPlex 16 HS, Identifiler Plus and Identifiler primer sets), and alternative CE detection - further referred to as new "first pass" procedures. These modifications resulted in a 37% reduction in processing time and were evaluated via an in depth validation, from which nearly 2000 STR profiles were generated, of which 554 profiles from 77 swab donors and 210 profiles from 35 buccal collector donors specifically arose from the new first pass procedures. This validation demonstrates the robustness of these processes for buccal swabs and Buccal DNA Collectors™ using the three primer sets evaluated and their ability to generate high quality STR profiles with 95-99% and 88-91% pass rates, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Using Bacterial Extract along with Differential Gene Expression in Acropora millepora Larvae to Decouple the Processes of Attachment and Metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Siboni, Nachshon; Abrego, David; Seneca, Francois; Motti, Cherie A.; Andreakis, Nikos; Tebben, Jan; Blackall, Linda L.; Harder, Tilmann

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms of the bacterium Pseudoalteromonas induce metamorphosis of acroporid coral larvae. The bacterial metabolite tetrabromopyrrole (TBP), isolated from an extract of Pseudoalteromonas sp. associated with the crustose coralline alga (CCA) Neogoniolithon fosliei, induced coral larval metamorphosis (100%) with little or no attachment (0–2%). To better understand the molecular events and mechanisms underpinning the induction of Acropora millepora larval metamorphosis, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, migration, adhesion and biomineralisation, two novel coral gene expression assays were implemented. These involved the use of reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and employed 47 genes of interest (GOI), selected based on putative roles in the processes of settlement and metamorphosis. Substantial differences in transcriptomic responses of GOI were detected following incubation of A. millepora larvae with a threshold concentration and 10-fold elevated concentration of TBP-containing extracts of Pseudoalteromonas sp. The notable and relatively abrupt changes of the larval body structure during metamorphosis correlated, at the molecular level, with significant differences (p<0.05) in gene expression profiles of 24 GOI, 12 hours post exposure. Fourteen of those GOI also presented differences in expression (p<0.05) following exposure to the threshold concentration of bacterial TBP-containing extract. The specificity of the bacterial TBP-containing extract to induce the metamorphic stage in A. millepora larvae without attachment, using a robust, low cost, accurate, ecologically relevant and highly reproducible RT-qPCR assay, allowed partially decoupling of the transcriptomic processes of attachment and metamorphosis. The bacterial TBP-containing extract provided a unique opportunity to monitor the regulation of genes exclusively involved in the process of metamorphosis, contrasting previous gene expression studies that utilized cues

  12. Using bacterial extract along with differential gene expression in Acropora millepora larvae to decouple the processes of attachment and metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Siboni, Nachshon; Abrego, David; Seneca, Francois; Motti, Cherie A; Andreakis, Nikos; Tebben, Jan; Blackall, Linda L; Harder, Tilmann

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms of the bacterium Pseudoalteromonas induce metamorphosis of acroporid coral larvae. The bacterial metabolite tetrabromopyrrole (TBP), isolated from an extract of Pseudoalteromonas sp. associated with the crustose coralline alga (CCA) Neogoniolithon fosliei, induced coral larval metamorphosis (100%) with little or no attachment (0-2%). To better understand the molecular events and mechanisms underpinning the induction of Acropora millepora larval metamorphosis, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, migration, adhesion and biomineralisation, two novel coral gene expression assays were implemented. These involved the use of reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and employed 47 genes of interest (GOI), selected based on putative roles in the processes of settlement and metamorphosis. Substantial differences in transcriptomic responses of GOI were detected following incubation of A. millepora larvae with a threshold concentration and 10-fold elevated concentration of TBP-containing extracts of Pseudoalteromonas sp. The notable and relatively abrupt changes of the larval body structure during metamorphosis correlated, at the molecular level, with significant differences (p<0.05) in gene expression profiles of 24 GOI, 12 hours post exposure. Fourteen of those GOI also presented differences in expression (p<0.05) following exposure to the threshold concentration of bacterial TBP-containing extract. The specificity of the bacterial TBP-containing extract to induce the metamorphic stage in A. millepora larvae without attachment, using a robust, low cost, accurate, ecologically relevant and highly reproducible RT-qPCR assay, allowed partially decoupling of the transcriptomic processes of attachment and metamorphosis. The bacterial TBP-containing extract provided a unique opportunity to monitor the regulation of genes exclusively involved in the process of metamorphosis, contrasting previous gene expression studies that utilized cues

  13. Solvent extraction of uranium from leach solutions obtained in processing of Polish low-grade ores.

    PubMed

    Kiegiel, Katarzyna; Abramowska, Anna; Biełuszka, Paweł; Zakrzewska-Kołtuniewicz, Grażyna; Wołkowicz, Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    Solvent extraction of uranium from acidic and alkaline post-leaching liquors that were obtained by leaching of Polish ores is reported in this paper. The stripping of uranium from organic to aqueous phase was also studied. The synergistic mixture of 2-diethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and tri-n-butylphosphate (0.2 M:0.2 M) was found as a good extracting agent for uranium. Recovery of uranium was reached even 98 %. The effect of such parameters like uranium concentration and concentration of reagents used in the experiments was evaluated in advance by using a model uranium solutions.

  14. Factors Controlling Redox Speciation of Plutonium and Neptunium in Extraction Separation Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Paulenova, Alena; Vandegrift, III, George F.

    2013-09-24

    The objective of the project was to examine the factors controlling redox speciation of plutonium and neptunium in UREX+ extraction in terms of redox potentials, redox mechanism, kinetics and thermodynamics. Researchers employed redox-speciation extractions schemes in parallel to the spectroscopic experiments. The resulting distribution of redox species w studied uring spectroscopic, electrochemical, and spectro-electrochemical methods. This work reulted in collection of data on redox stability and distribution of redox couples in the nitric acid/nitrate electrolyte and the development of redox buffers to stabilize the desired oxidation state of separated radionuclides. The effects of temperature and concentrations on the redox behavior of neptunium were evaluated.

  15. Analysis of fingerprints features of infrared spectra of various processed products of Rhizoma Coptidis and their different extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Beilei; Zhang, Guijun; Xu, Changhua; Sun, Suqin

    2015-09-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) associated with second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR) are employed to analyze various processed products and different extracts of Rhizoma Coptidis. There is a shift of the peak of 1641 cm-1 of raw Rhizoma Coptidis after processed, which drifts to lower wave number. Peaks at 1508, 1387, 1363, 1332, 1274 and 1234 cm-1 barely change in most samples, except an obvious enhancement of these peaks after processed, suggesting that processed Rhizoma Coptidis may have higher content of berberine than raw material, which is corresponding to the results of correlation coefficients analysis. There are some differences in the absorption peaks in the range of 1800-1000 cm-1 in the SD-IR spectra, which have better resolution, of different processed products. 2D-IR spectra, which elevate the resolution further, can present more differences among the products in the range of 1300-800 cm-1 and 1800-1300 cm-1. Analysis of aqueous, ethanol and petroleum ether extracts of various processed products proves that there are distinctive differences of all auto-peaks in shapes and intensities in all of them. With the advantages of high resolution, high speed and convenience, FT-IR combined with 2D-IR can quickly and precisely distinguish various processed products of Rhizoma Coptidis and can be applied to predict the tendency of transformation of the complicated chemical mixture systems under heat perturbation.

  16. RESULTS OF THE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING USING AN IMPROVED SOLVENT FORMULATION AND SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY SIMULATED WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-09

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent - also known as the next generation solvent (NGS) - for deployment at the Savannah River Site to remove cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is a collaborative effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). As part of the program, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed a number of Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests. These batch contact tests serve as first indicators of the cesium mass transfer solvent performance with actual or simulated waste. The test detailed in this report used simulated Tank 49H material, with the addition of extra potassium. The potassium was added at 1677 mg/L, the maximum projected (i.e., a worst case feed scenario) value for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The results of the test gave favorable results given that the potassium concentration was elevated (1677 mg/L compared to the current 513 mg/L). The cesium distribution value, DCs, for extraction was 57.1. As a comparison, a typical D{sub Cs} in an ESS test, using the baseline solvent formulation and the typical waste feed, is {approx}15. The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) uses the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process to remove cesium (Cs) from alkaline waste. This process involves the use of an organic extractant, BoBCalixC6, in an organic matrix to selectively remove cesium from the caustic waste. The organic solvent mixture flows counter-current to the caustic aqueous waste stream within centrifugal contactors. After extracting the cesium, the loaded solvent is stripped of cesium by contact with dilute nitric acid and the cesium concentrate is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), while the organic solvent is cleaned and recycled for further use. The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), under

  17. PRELIMINARY COMPARATIVE STUDY OF METHODS TO EXTRACT VIRUS FROM RAW AND PROCESSED SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two simple virus extraction techniques were compared to an EPA standard method for detection of human enteric viruses in raw sewage sludge and class A biosolids. The techniques were used to detect both indigenous and seeded virus from a plant that distributes class A material pr...

  18. Value Added Processing of Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal: Aflatoxin Sequestration During Protein Extraction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The efficacy of a bentonite clay, Astra-Ben 20A (AB20A), to sequester aflatoxin from contaminated (~110 ppb) peanut meal during protein extraction was studied. Aqueous peanut meal dispersions (10% w/w) were prepared varying pH, temperature, enzymatic hydrolysis conditions, and concentrations of AB2...

  19. Optimization of cellulase-assisted extraction process and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Tricholoma mongolicum Imai.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong-Ming; Song, Jin-Hui; Wang, Jin; Yang, Jian-Ming; Wang, Zhi-Bao; Liu, Ying-Hui

    2016-10-01

    Tricholoma mongolicum Imai is a well-known edible and medicinal mushroom which in recent years has attracted increasing attention because of its bioactivities. In this study, water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from T. mongolicum Imai by cellulase-assisted extraction and their antioxidant activities were investigated. In order to improve the yield of polysaccharides, four variables, cellulase amount (X1 ), pH (X2 ), temperature (X3 ) and extraction time (X4 ), were investigated with a Box-Behnken design. The optimal conditions were predicted to be cellulase amount of 20 g kg(-1) , pH of 4.0, temperature of 50 °C and extraction time of 127 min, with a predicted polysaccharide yield of 190.1 g kg(-1) . The actual yield of polysaccharides under these conditions was 189.6 g kg(-1) , which matched the predicted value well. The crude polysaccharides were purified to obtain four fractions, and characterization of each was carried out. In addition, antioxidant properties of four polysaccharides assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryldydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays indicated that polysaccharides from T. mongolicum Imai (TMIPs) possessed antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner. TMIPs show moderate antioxidant activities in vitro. Therefore it is suggested that TMIPs are potential natural antioxidants for use in functional foods. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. The development of a "Green" aqueous enzymatic process to extract corn oil from corn germ

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Approximately 2.4 million tons of commercial corn oil were produced worldwide in 2012, compared to 2012 world production of palm oil (53.3 MT) and soybean oil (43.1 MT) according to FAS, USDA. Most commercial corn oil (~90%) is produced from corn germ that is expeller pressed and/or hexane extracte...