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Sample records for extraction vapex process

  1. Vapour extraction (VAPEX) process for recovery of heavy oil and bitumen

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, K.N.; Butler, R.M.; Lim, G.B.

    1995-12-31

    For over 90% of the vast resources of bitumen and heavy oil in Canada, in situ recovery processes have to be developed to produce and utilize them efficiently and economically. Thermal recovery processes using steam, although effective for thick reservoirs with good quality sands, are increasingly proving to be uneconomical, particularly for thin, shaley, or bottom water reservoirs. The inefficiency is caused by large heat losses, high water requirement, extensive surface facilities, and adverse environmental impact. To overcome these problems, a new non-thermal vapour extraction (VAPEX) process has been developed. The process is closely related to the Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) concept. However, in the VAPEX process the steam chamber is replaced with a chamber containing light hydrocarbon vapours close to its dew point at the reservoir pressure. If the pressure used is close to the saturation pressure of hydrocarbons, deasphalting may occur in the reservoir causing a substantial reduction in viscosity and heavy metal contents. Experiments conducted in a Hele-Shaw cell and in a 2D physical scaled model using Lloydminster, Cold Lake, and Peace River heavy oil/bitumen and ethane, propane, and butane as solvents demonstrated that this process is very promising technically as well as economically. An active aquifer underlying the bitumen zone made the reservoir more valuable because of spreading of the solvent vapour directly underneath the formation which increased the vapour-bitumen contact extensively. The investigation was extended from a dual horizontal continuous injection/production well strategy described above to a single horizontal well cyclic process for the Cold Lake reservoir in a 3D physical scaled model. The tests illustrated that ethane was an effective solvent in producing Cold Lake bitumen and that the cyclic VAPEX process has the potential to be a breakthrough recovery technology.

  2. SOLVENT-BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES TO DEVELOP WEST SAK ALASKA NORTH SLOPE HEAVY OIL RESOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    David O. Ogbe; Tao Zhu

    2004-01-01

    A one-year research program is conducted to evaluate the feasibility of applying solvent-based enhanced oil recovery processes to develop West Sak and Ugnu heavy oil resources found on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The project objective is to conduct research to develop technology to produce and market the 300-3000 cp oil in the West Sak and Ugnu sands. During the first phase of the research, background information was collected, and experimental and numerical studies of vapor extraction process (VAPEX) in West Sak and Ugnu are conducted. The experimental study is designed to foster understanding of the processes governing vapor chamber formation and growth, and to optimize oil recovery. A specially designed core-holder and a computed tomography (CT) scanner was used to measure the in-situ distribution of phases. Numerical simulation study of VAPEX was initiated during the first year. The numerical work completed during this period includes setting up a numerical model and using the analog data to simulate lab experiments of the VAPEX process. The goal was to understand the mechanisms governing the VAPEX process. Additional work is recommended to expand the VAPEX numerical study using actual field data obtained from Alaska North Slope.

  3. Extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Dente, M.; Porcari, G.; Robinson, L. F.

    1985-08-06

    Hydrocarbon liquids are recovered from oil shale and other solids containing organic matter by passing a liquid organic solvent downwardly through an extraction zone in contact with said solids at an elevated pressure sufficient to maintain said solvent in the liquid phase and at a temperature below about 900/sup 0/ F., preferably between about 650/sup 0/ F. and about 900/sup 0/ F., in order to extract hydrocarbons from the solids into the solvent. The extracted hydrocarbons are then recovered from the solvent by fractionation. Normally, heat is supplied to the extraction zone by passing a hot, nonoxidizing gas, preferably an oxygen-free gas generated within the process, downwardly through the extraction zone in cocurrent flow with the liquid organic solvent.

  4. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Jonke, A.A.

    1957-10-01

    In improved solvent extraction process is described for the extraction of metal values from highly dilute aqueous solutions. The process comprises contacting an aqueous solution with an organic substantially water-immiscible solvent, whereby metal values are taken up by a solvent extract phase; scrubbing the solvent extract phase with an aqueous scrubbing solution; separating an aqueous solution from the scrubbed solvent extract phase; and contacting the scrubbed solvent phase with an aqueous medium whereby the extracted metal values are removed from the solvent phase and taken up by said medium to form a strip solution containing said metal values, the aqueous scrubbing solution being a mixture of strip solution and an aqueous solution which contains mineral acids anions and is free of the metal values. The process is particularly effective for purifying uranium, where one starts with impure aqueous uranyl nitrate, extracts with tributyl phosphate dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, scrubs with aqueous nitric acid and employs water to strip the uranium from the scrubbed organic phase.

  5. URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, W.H.; Higgins, C.E.

    1958-12-16

    A process is described for recovering uranium values from acidic aqueous solutions containing hexavalent uranium by contacting the solution with an organic solution comprised of a substantially water-immiscible organlc diluent and an organic phosphate to extract the uranlum values into the organic phase. Carbon tetrachloride and a petroleum hydrocarbon fraction, such as kerosene, are sultable diluents to be used in combination with organlc phosphates such as dibutyl butylphosphonate, trlbutyl phosphine oxide, and tributyl phosphate.

  6. NEPTUNIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, L.R.; Fields, P.R.

    1959-10-01

    The separation of neptunium from an aqueous solution by solvent extraction and the extraction of neptunium from the solvent solution are described. Neptunium is separated from an aqueous solution containing tetravalent or hexavalent neptunium nitrate, nitric acid, and a nitrate salting out agent, such as sodium nitrate, by contacting the solution with an organic solvent such as diethyl ether. Subsequently, the neptunium nitrate is extracted from the organic solvent extract phase with water.

  7. METAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, G.W. Jr.; Rhodes, D.E.

    1957-11-01

    An improved method for extracting uranium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is presented. A difficulty encountered in solvent extraction operations using an organic extractant (e.g., tributyl phosphate dissolved in kerosene or carbon tetrachloride) is that emulsions sometimes form, and phase separation is difficult or impossible. This difficulty is overcome by dissolving the organic extractant in a molten wax which is a solid at operating temperatures. After cooling, the wax which now contains the extractant, is broken into small particles (preferably flakes) and this wax complex'' is used to contact the uranium bearing solutions and extract the metal therefrom. Microcrystalline petroleum wax and certain ethylene polymers have been found suitable for this purpose.

  8. URANIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.

    1959-09-01

    A method is given for extracting uranium values from ores of high phosphate content consisting of dissolving them in aqueous nitric acid, adjusting the concentration of the aqueous solution to about 2 M with respect to nitric acid, and then contacting it with diethyl ether which has previously been made 1 M with respect to nitric acid.

  9. Processes for metal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowersox, David F.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the processing of plutonium at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and operation illustrating concepts that may be applicable to the processing of lunar materials. The toxic nature of plutonium requires a highly closed system for processing lunar surface materials.

  10. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.H.; Asprey, L.B.

    1960-02-01

    A process of separating plutonium in at least the tetravalent state from fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution by extraction with alkyl phosphate is reported. The plutonium can then be back-extracted from the organic phase by contact with an aqueous solution of sulfuric, phosphoric, or oxalic acid as a complexing agent.

  11. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PROTACTINIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, E.K.; Katzin, L.I.; Wolf, M.J.

    1961-04-01

    A process is described for separating protactinium from thorium present together as the nitrates in a 0.1 to 10 N nitric acid solution. The separation is carried out by extraction with an aliphatic alcohol, ketone, and/or ester having at least six carbon atoms, such as n-amyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and diisopropyl ketone.

  12. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from aqueous inorganic acid solutions by the use of a water immiscible organic extractant liquid is described. The plutonium must be in the oxidized state, and the solvents covered by the patent include nitromethane, nitroethane, nitropropane, and nitrobenzene. The use of a salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate in the case of an aqueous nitric acid solution is advantageous. After contacting the aqueous solution with the organic extractant, the resulting extract and raffinate phases are separated. The plutonium may be recovered by any suitable method.

  13. PROCESS FOR UTILIZING ORGANIC ORTHOPHOSPHATE EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1958-11-11

    A process is presented for recovering uranium from its ores, the steps comprising producing the uranium in solution in the trivalent state, extracting the uranium from solution in an lmmiscible organic solvent extract phase which lncludes mono and dialkyl orthophosphorlc acid esters having a varying number of carbon atoms on the alkyl substituent, amd recovering the uranium from tbe extract phase.

  14. ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE METAL SOLVENT EXTRACTANTS AND PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Long, R.L.

    1958-09-30

    A process is presented for the recovery of uranium from aqueous mineral acidic solutions by solvent extraction. The extractant is a synmmetrical dialkyl pyrophosphate in which the alkyl substituents have a chain length of from 4 to 17 carbon atoms. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dioctyl pyrophosphate. The uranium is precipitated irom the organic extractant phase with an agent such as HF, fluoride salts. alcohol, or ammonia.

  15. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM RECOVERY

    DOEpatents

    Clark, H.M.; Duffey, D.

    1958-06-17

    A process is described for extracting uranium from uranium ore, wherein the uranium is substantially free from molybdenum contamination. In a solvent extraction process for recovering uranium, uranium and molybdenum ions are extracted from the ore with ether under high acidity conditions. The ether phase is then stripped with water at a lower controiled acidity, resaturated with salting materials such as sodium nitrate, and reextracted with the separation of the molybdenum from the uranium without interference from other metals that have been previously extracted.

  16. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

  17. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1992-12-08

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal. 3 figs.

  18. Highlights of the Salt Extraction Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasalizadeh, Aida; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Teng, Lidong; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Grinder, Olle; Izumi, Yukari; Barati, Mansoor

    2013-11-01

    This article presents the salient features of a new process for the recovery of metal values from secondary sources and waste materials such as slag and flue dusts. It is also feasible in extracting metals such as nickel and cobalt from ores that normally are difficult to enrich and process metallurgically. The salt extraction process is based on extraction of the metals from the raw materials by a molten salt bath consisting of NaCl, LiCl, and KCl corresponding to the eutectic composition with AlCl3 as the chlorinating agent. The process is operated in the temperature range 973 K (700°C) to 1173 K (900°C). The process was shown to be successful in extracting Cr and Fe from electric arc furnace (EAF) slag. Electrolytic copper could be produced from copper concentrate based on chalcopyrite in a single step. Conducting the process in oxygen-free atmosphere, sulfur could be captured in the elemental form. The method proved to be successful in extracting lead from spent cathode ray tubes. In order to prevent the loss of AlCl3 in the vapor form and also chlorine gas emission at the cathode during the electrolysis, liquid aluminum was used. The process was shown to be successful in extracting Nd and Dy from magnetic scrap. The method is a highly promising process route for the recovery of strategic metals. It also has the added advantage of being environmentally friendly.

  19. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING ALKYL ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1962-01-23

    A process is given for producing superior alkyl orthophosphoric acid extractants for use in solvent extraction methods to recover and purify various metals such as uranium and vanadium. The process comprises slurrying P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ in a solvent diluent such as kerosene, benzene, isopropyl ether, and the like. An alipbatic alcohol having from nine to seventeen carbon atoms, and w- hcrein ihc OH group is situated inward of the terminal carbon atoms, is added to the slurry while the reaction temperature is mainiained below 60 deg C. The alcohol is added in the mole ratio of about 2 to l, alcohol to P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. A pyrophosphate reaotion product is formed in the slurry-alcohol mixture. Subsequently, the pyrophosphate reaction product is hydrolyzed with dilute mineral acid to produce the desired alkyl orthophosphoric aeid extractant. The extraetant may then be separated and utilized in metal-recovery, solvent- extraction processes. (AEC)

  20. Information extraction during simultaneous motion processing.

    PubMed

    Rideaux, Reuben; Edwards, Mark

    2014-02-01

    When confronted with multiple moving objects the visual system can process them in two stages: an initial stage in which a limited number of signals are processed in parallel (i.e. simultaneously) followed by a sequential stage. We previously demonstrated that during the simultaneous stage, observers could discriminate between presentations containing up to 5 vs. 6 spatially localized motion signals (Edwards & Rideaux, 2013). Here we investigate what information is actually extracted during the simultaneous stage and whether the simultaneous limit varies with the detail of information extracted. This was achieved by measuring the ability of observers to extract varied information from low detail, i.e. the number of signals presented, to high detail, i.e. the actual directions present and the direction of a specific element, during the simultaneous stage. The results indicate that the resolution of simultaneous processing varies as a function of the information which is extracted, i.e. as the information extraction becomes more detailed, from the number of moving elements to the direction of a specific element, the capacity to process multiple signals is reduced. Thus, when assigning a capacity to simultaneous motion processing, this must be qualified by designating the degree of information extraction. PMID:24333279

  1. Partial oxidation process with extractant purification

    SciTech Connect

    Stellaccio, R.J.

    1983-09-06

    A partial oxidation process is disclosed with an extractant purifier for removing the particulate carbon entrained in a vaporized stream of normally liquid organic extractant-carbon-water dispersion from a decanter and producing a clean vaporized mixture of liquid organic extractant and water and a separate liquid stream of liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel-carbon dispersion. The extractant purifier comprises a closed, vertical, cylindrical, thermally insulated vessel with an unobstructed central passage. Supported in the upper section of the vessel is a gas-solids separator for separating the particulate carbon from the vaporized dispersion flowing up the vessel and discharging the particulate carbon into atomized liquid hydrocarbon fuel located within the lower section of the purifier.

  2. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M.; Zeitoon, B.M.

    1995-12-01

    Molten Metal Technology was awarded a contract to demonstrate the applicability of the Catalytic Extraction Process, a proprietary process that could be applied to US DOE`s inventory of low level mixed waste. This paper is a description of that technology, and included within this document are discussions of: (1) Program objectives, (2) Overall technology review, (3) Organic feed conversion to synthetic gas, (4) Metal, halogen, and transuranic recovery, (5) Demonstrations, (6) Design of the prototype facility, and (7) Results.

  3. Catalog solvent extraction: anticipate process adjustments

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, S.G.; Brass, E.A.; Brown, S.J.; Geeting, M.W.

    2008-07-01

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) utilizes commercially available centrifugal contactors to facilitate removal of radioactive cesium from highly alkaline salt solutions. During the fabrication of the contactor assembly, demonstrations revealed a higher propensity for foaming than was initially expected. A task team performed a series of single-phase experiments that revealed that the shape of the bottom vanes and the outer diameter of those vanes are key to the successful deployment of commercial contactors in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process. (authors)

  4. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    1995-01-01

    A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.

  5. Extraction of motion information from peripheral processes.

    PubMed

    Jain, R

    1981-05-01

    This paper is mainly concerned with low-level processes in machine perception of motion. A motion analysis system should exploit information contained in ``early warning signals'' during the intensity based peripheral phase of motion perception. We show that intensity based difference pictures contain motion information about objects in a dynamic scene, and present methods for the extraction of motion information in the peripheral phase. Some experiments with laboratory generated and real world scenes demonstrate the potential of the technique.

  6. Extracting enzyme processivity from kinetic assays

    SciTech Connect

    Barel, Itay; Brown, Frank L. H.; Reich, Norbert O.

    2015-12-14

    A steady-state analysis for the catalytic turnover of molecules containing two substrate sites is presented. A broad class of Markovian dynamic models, motivated by the action of DNA modifying enzymes and the rich variety of translocation mechanisms associated with these systems (e.g., sliding, hopping, intersegmental transfer, etc.), is considered. The modeling suggests an elementary and general method of data analysis, which enables the extraction of the enzyme’s processivity directly and unambiguously from experimental data. This analysis is not limited to the initial velocity regime. The predictions are validated both against detailed numerical models and by revisiting published experimental data for EcoRI endonuclease acting on DNA.

  7. Extracting enzyme processivity from kinetic assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barel, Itay; Reich, Norbert O.; Brown, Frank L. H.

    2015-12-01

    A steady-state analysis for the catalytic turnover of molecules containing two substrate sites is presented. A broad class of Markovian dynamic models, motivated by the action of DNA modifying enzymes and the rich variety of translocation mechanisms associated with these systems (e.g., sliding, hopping, intersegmental transfer, etc.), is considered. The modeling suggests an elementary and general method of data analysis, which enables the extraction of the enzyme's processivity directly and unambiguously from experimental data. This analysis is not limited to the initial velocity regime. The predictions are validated both against detailed numerical models and by revisiting published experimental data for EcoRI endonuclease acting on DNA.

  8. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  9. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  10. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-06

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

  11. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy issued a Planned Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) in 1993, with the objective of identifying unique technologies which could be applied to the most hazardous waste streams at DOE sites. The combination of radioactive contamination with additional contamination by hazardous constituents such as those identified by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) pose an especially challenging problem. Traditional remediation technologies are increasingly becoming less acceptable to stakeholders and regulators because of the risks they pose to public health and safety. Desirable recycling technologies were described by the DOE as: (1) easily installed, operated, and maintained; (2) exhibiting superior environmental performance; (3) protective of worker and public health and safety; (4) readily acceptable to a wide spectrum of evaluators; and (5) economically feasible. Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT) was awarded a contract as a result of the PRDA initiative to demonstrate the applicability of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP), MMT`s proprietary elemental recycling technology, to DOE`s inventory of low level mixed waste. This includes DOE`s inventory of radioactively- and RCRA-contaminated scrap metal and other waste forms expected to be generated by the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of DOE sites.

  12. URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS USING SYNERGISTIC REAGENTS

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, J.M.; Blake, C.A. Jr.; Brown, K.B.; Coleman, C.F.

    1958-11-01

    Improved methods are presented for recovering uranium values from aqueous solutions by organic solvent extraction. The improvement lies in the use, in combination, of two classes of organic compounds so that their extracting properties are enhanced synergistically. The two classes of organic compounds are dialkylphosphoric acid and certain neutral organophosphorus compounds such as trialkylphosphates, trialkylphosphonates, trlalkylphosphinates and trialkylphosphine oxides.

  13. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM FROM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Blake, C.A. Jr.; Brown, K.B.; Horner, D.E.

    1960-05-24

    An improvement was made in a uranium extraction process wherein the organic extractant is a phosphine oxide. An aqueous solution containing phosphate ions or sulfate ions together with uranium is provided with a source of chloride ions during the extraction step. The presence of the chloride ions enables a phosphine oxide to extract uranium in the presence of strong uranium- complexing ions such as phosphate or sulfate ions.

  14. Comparison of lignin extraction processes: Economic and environmental assessment.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Juan C; Gómez, Álvaro; Cardona, Carlos A

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the technical-economic and environmental assessment of four lignin extraction processes from two different raw materials (sugarcane bagasse and rice husks). The processes are divided into two categories, the first processes evaluates lignin extraction with prior acid hydrolysis step, while in the second case the extraction processes are evaluated standalone for a total analysis of 16 scenarios. Profitability indicators as the net present value (NPV) and environmental indicators as the potential environmental impact (PEI) are used through a process engineering approach to understand and select the best lignin extraction process. The results show that both economically and environmentally process with sulfites and soda from rice husk presents the best results; however the quality of lignin obtained with sulfites is not suitable for high value-added products. Then, the soda is an interesting option for the extraction of lignin if high quality lignin is required for high value-added products at low costs.

  15. Comparison of lignin extraction processes: Economic and environmental assessment.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Juan C; Gómez, Álvaro; Cardona, Carlos A

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the technical-economic and environmental assessment of four lignin extraction processes from two different raw materials (sugarcane bagasse and rice husks). The processes are divided into two categories, the first processes evaluates lignin extraction with prior acid hydrolysis step, while in the second case the extraction processes are evaluated standalone for a total analysis of 16 scenarios. Profitability indicators as the net present value (NPV) and environmental indicators as the potential environmental impact (PEI) are used through a process engineering approach to understand and select the best lignin extraction process. The results show that both economically and environmentally process with sulfites and soda from rice husk presents the best results; however the quality of lignin obtained with sulfites is not suitable for high value-added products. Then, the soda is an interesting option for the extraction of lignin if high quality lignin is required for high value-added products at low costs. PMID:27174614

  16. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR SEPARATING ACTINIDE AND LANTHANIDE METAL VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Hildebrandt, R.A.; Hyman, H.H.; Vogler, S.

    1962-08-14

    A process of countercurrently extracting an aqueous mineral acid feed solution for the separation of actinides from lanthanides dissolved therern is described. The feed solution is made acid-defrcient with alkali metal hydroxide prior to.contact with acid extractant; during extraction, however, acid is transferred from organic to aqueous solution and the aqueous solution gradually becomes acid. The acid-deficient phase ' of the process promotes the extraction of the actinides, while the latter acid phase'' of the process improves retention of the lanthanides in the aqueous solution. This provides for an improved separation. (AEC)

  17. Antioxidant activities of crude extracts of fucoidan extracted from Sargassum glaucescens by a compressional-puffing-hydrothermal extraction process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yung; Wu, Shu-Jing; Yang, Wen-Ning; Kuan, Ai-Wei; Chen, Cheng-Yo

    2016-04-15

    Fucoidan, a multifunctional marine polymer, is normally extracted from brown algae via extensive use of acid, solvent or high temperature water and a long reaction time. In present study, we developed a novel compressional-puffing-hydrothermal extraction (CPHE) process which primarily decomposes the cellular structure of algae and facilitates the release of fucoidan by hot water extraction. The CPHE process provides a number of advantages including simple procedure, reactant-saving, reduced pollution, and feasibility for continuous production. Sargassum glaucescens (SG) was utilized in this study, and the maximum extraction yield of polysaccharide was approximately 9.83 ± 0.11% (SG4). Thin layer chromatography (TLC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, and measurements of monosaccharide composition, fucose, sulfate, and uronic acid contents revealed that the extracted polysaccharide showed characteristics of fucoidan. All extracts exhibited antioxidant activities, and thus, further exploration of these extracts as potential natural and safe antioxidant agents is warranted.

  18. Antioxidant activities of crude extracts of fucoidan extracted from Sargassum glaucescens by a compressional-puffing-hydrothermal extraction process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yung; Wu, Shu-Jing; Yang, Wen-Ning; Kuan, Ai-Wei; Chen, Cheng-Yo

    2016-04-15

    Fucoidan, a multifunctional marine polymer, is normally extracted from brown algae via extensive use of acid, solvent or high temperature water and a long reaction time. In present study, we developed a novel compressional-puffing-hydrothermal extraction (CPHE) process which primarily decomposes the cellular structure of algae and facilitates the release of fucoidan by hot water extraction. The CPHE process provides a number of advantages including simple procedure, reactant-saving, reduced pollution, and feasibility for continuous production. Sargassum glaucescens (SG) was utilized in this study, and the maximum extraction yield of polysaccharide was approximately 9.83 ± 0.11% (SG4). Thin layer chromatography (TLC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, and measurements of monosaccharide composition, fucose, sulfate, and uronic acid contents revealed that the extracted polysaccharide showed characteristics of fucoidan. All extracts exhibited antioxidant activities, and thus, further exploration of these extracts as potential natural and safe antioxidant agents is warranted. PMID:26675848

  19. Assessment of critical-fluid extractions in the process industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The potential for critical-fluid extraction as a separation process for improving the productive use of energy in the process industries is assessed. Critical-fluid extraction involves the use of fluids, normally gaseous at ambient conditions, as extraction solvents at temperatures and pressures around the critical point. Equilibrium and kinetic properties in this regime are very favorable for solvent applications, and generally allow major reductions in the energy requirements for separating and purifying chemical component of a mixture.

  20. COGNIS TERRAMET® LEAD EXTRACTION PROCESS; INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents an evaluation of lead removal from sands and fines fractions of contaminated soils by the COGNIS TERRAMET® lead extraction process (COGNIS process). The evaluation was performed under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund Innovative Technolog...

  1. A combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Jensen, M.P.

    1996-03-01

    A new solvent extraction process for the simultaneous extraction of cesium and strontium from acidic nitrate media is described. This process uses a solvent formulation comprised of 0.05 M di-t-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), 0.1 M Crown 100{prime} (a proprietary, cesium-selective derivative of dibenzo-18-crown-6), 1.2 M tributyl phosphate (TBP), and 5% (v/v) lauryl nitrile in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. Distribution ratios for cesium and strontium from 4 M nitric acid are 4.13 and 3.46, respectively. A benchtop batch countercurrent extraction experiment indicates that >98% of the cesium and strontium initially present in the feed solution can be removed in only four extraction stages. Through proper choice of extraction and strip conditions, extracted cesium and strontium can be recovered either together or individually.

  2. ALKALINE CARBONATE LEACHING PROCESS FOR URANIUM EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Rabbitts, A.T.

    1957-11-12

    A process for the leaching of uranium from high carbonate ores is presented. According to the process, the ore is leached at a temperature of about 200 deg C and a pressure of about 200 p.s.i.g. with a solution containing alkali carbonate, alkali permanganate, and bicarbonate ion, the bicarbonate ion functionlng to prevent premature formation of alkali hydroxide and consequent precipitation of a diuranate. After the leaching is complete, the uranium present is recovered by precipitation with NaOH.

  3. Using solvent extraction to process nitrate anion exchange column effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbro, S.L.

    1987-10-01

    Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO), a new organophosphorous extractant, and a new centrifugal mixer-settler both recently developed at Argonne were evaluated for their potential use in the recovery of actinides from nitrate anion exchange column effluents. The performance of the extractant was evaluated by measuring the extraction coefficient values as a function of acid and salt concentration. Additional performance parameters include extraction coefficient behavior as a function of the total metal concentration in the organic phase, and comparison of different stripping and organic scrubbing techniques. A simulated effluent stream was used to evaluate the performance of the centrifugal mixer-settlers by comparing experimental and calculated interstage concentration profiles. Both the CMPO extractant and the centrifugal mixer-settlers have potential for processing nitrate column effluents, particularly if the stripping behavior can be improved. Details of the proposed process are presented in the flowsheet and contactor design analyses.

  4. Batch extracting process using magneticparticle held solvents

    DOEpatents

    Nunez, Luis; Vandergrift, George F.

    1995-01-01

    A process for selectively removing metal values which may include catalytic values from a mixture containing same, wherein a magnetic particle is contacted with a liquid solvent which selectively dissolves the metal values to absorb the liquid solvent onto the magnetic particle. Thereafter the solvent-containing magnetic particles are contacted with a mixture containing the heavy metal values to transfer metal values into the solvent carried by the magnetic particles, and then magnetically separating the magnetic particles. Ion exchange resins may be used for selective solvents.

  5. Recovery of organic extractant from secondary emulsions formed in the extraction of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Korchnak, J.D.; Fett, R.H.G.

    1984-01-03

    Uranium in wet-process phosphoric acid is extracted with an organic extractant. The pregnant extractant is then centrifuged to separate contaminants from the extractant. Secondary emulsions obtained by separating the contaminants following centrifugation are mixed with water or an acid leaching solution. After mixing, the mixture is centrifuged to separate and recover extractant which is recycled for stripping.

  6. Optimal processes for probabilistic work extraction beyond the second law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavina, Vasco; Mari, Andrea; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-07-01

    According to the second law of thermodynamics, for every transformation performed on a system which is in contact with an environment of fixed temperature, the average extracted work is bounded by the decrease of the free energy of the system. However, in a single realization of a generic process, the extracted work is subject to statistical fluctuations which may allow for probabilistic violations of the previous bound. We are interested in enhancing this effect, i.e. we look for thermodynamic processes that maximize the probability of extracting work above a given arbitrary threshold. For any process obeying the Jarzynski identity, we determine an upper bound for the work extraction probability that depends also on the minimum amount of work that we are willing to extract in case of failure, or on the average work we wish to extract from the system. Then we show that this bound can be saturated within the thermodynamic formalism of quantum discrete processes composed by sequences of unitary quenches and complete thermalizations. We explicitly determine the optimal protocol which is given by two quasi-static isothermal transformations separated by a finite unitary quench.

  7. Optimal processes for probabilistic work extraction beyond the second law.

    PubMed

    Cavina, Vasco; Mari, Andrea; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    According to the second law of thermodynamics, for every transformation performed on a system which is in contact with an environment of fixed temperature, the average extracted work is bounded by the decrease of the free energy of the system. However, in a single realization of a generic process, the extracted work is subject to statistical fluctuations which may allow for probabilistic violations of the previous bound. We are interested in enhancing this effect, i.e. we look for thermodynamic processes that maximize the probability of extracting work above a given arbitrary threshold. For any process obeying the Jarzynski identity, we determine an upper bound for the work extraction probability that depends also on the minimum amount of work that we are willing to extract in case of failure, or on the average work we wish to extract from the system. Then we show that this bound can be saturated within the thermodynamic formalism of quantum discrete processes composed by sequences of unitary quenches and complete thermalizations. We explicitly determine the optimal protocol which is given by two quasi-static isothermal transformations separated by a finite unitary quench. PMID:27377557

  8. Optimal processes for probabilistic work extraction beyond the second law.

    PubMed

    Cavina, Vasco; Mari, Andrea; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-07-05

    According to the second law of thermodynamics, for every transformation performed on a system which is in contact with an environment of fixed temperature, the average extracted work is bounded by the decrease of the free energy of the system. However, in a single realization of a generic process, the extracted work is subject to statistical fluctuations which may allow for probabilistic violations of the previous bound. We are interested in enhancing this effect, i.e. we look for thermodynamic processes that maximize the probability of extracting work above a given arbitrary threshold. For any process obeying the Jarzynski identity, we determine an upper bound for the work extraction probability that depends also on the minimum amount of work that we are willing to extract in case of failure, or on the average work we wish to extract from the system. Then we show that this bound can be saturated within the thermodynamic formalism of quantum discrete processes composed by sequences of unitary quenches and complete thermalizations. We explicitly determine the optimal protocol which is given by two quasi-static isothermal transformations separated by a finite unitary quench.

  9. Optimal processes for probabilistic work extraction beyond the second law

    PubMed Central

    Cavina, Vasco; Mari, Andrea; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    According to the second law of thermodynamics, for every transformation performed on a system which is in contact with an environment of fixed temperature, the average extracted work is bounded by the decrease of the free energy of the system. However, in a single realization of a generic process, the extracted work is subject to statistical fluctuations which may allow for probabilistic violations of the previous bound. We are interested in enhancing this effect, i.e. we look for thermodynamic processes that maximize the probability of extracting work above a given arbitrary threshold. For any process obeying the Jarzynski identity, we determine an upper bound for the work extraction probability that depends also on the minimum amount of work that we are willing to extract in case of failure, or on the average work we wish to extract from the system. Then we show that this bound can be saturated within the thermodynamic formalism of quantum discrete processes composed by sequences of unitary quenches and complete thermalizations. We explicitly determine the optimal protocol which is given by two quasi-static isothermal transformations separated by a finite unitary quench. PMID:27377557

  10. Bidentate organophosphorus solvent extraction process for actinide recovery and partition

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Wallace W.

    1976-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction process for the recovery and partitioning of actinide values from acidic nuclear waste aqueous solutions, the actinide values including trivalent, tetravalent and hexavalent oxidation states is provided and includes the steps of contacting the aqueous solution with a bidentate organophosphorous extractant to extract essentially all of the actinide values into the organic phase. Thereafter the respective actinide fractions are selectively partitioned into separate aqueous solutions by contact with dilute nitric or nitric-hydrofluoric acid solutions. The hexavalent uranium is finally removed from the organic phase by contact with a dilute sodium carbonate solution.

  11. Valve For Extracting Samples From A Process Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Dave

    1995-01-01

    Valve for extracting samples from process stream includes cylindrical body bolted to pipe that contains stream. Opening in valve body matched and sealed against opening in pipe. Used to sample process streams in variety of facilities, including cement plants, plants that manufacture and reprocess plastics, oil refineries, and pipelines.

  12. Sequential biological process for molybdenum extraction from hydrodesulphurization spent catalyst.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Shruti; Ting, Yen-Peng

    2016-10-01

    Spent catalyst bioleaching with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans has been widely studied and low Mo leaching has often been reported. This work describes an enhanced extraction of Mo via a two stage sequential process for the bioleaching of hydrodesulphurization spent catalyst containing Molybdenum, Nickel and, Aluminium. In the first stage, two-step bioleaching was performed using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, and achieved 89.4% Ni, 20.9% Mo and 12.7% Al extraction in 15 days. To increase Mo extraction, the bioleached catalyst was subjected to a second stage bioleaching using Escherichia coli, during which 99% of the remaining Mo was extracted in 25 days. This sequential bioleaching strategy selectively extracted Ni in the first stage and Mo in the second stage, and is a more environmentally friendly alternative to sequential chemical leaching with alkaline reagents for improved Mo extraction. Kinetic modelling to establish the rate determining step in both stages of bioleaching showed that in the first stage, Mo extraction was chemical reaction controlled whereas in the subsequent stage, product layer diffusion model provided the best fit. PMID:27351900

  13. Sequential biological process for molybdenum extraction from hydrodesulphurization spent catalyst.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Shruti; Ting, Yen-Peng

    2016-10-01

    Spent catalyst bioleaching with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans has been widely studied and low Mo leaching has often been reported. This work describes an enhanced extraction of Mo via a two stage sequential process for the bioleaching of hydrodesulphurization spent catalyst containing Molybdenum, Nickel and, Aluminium. In the first stage, two-step bioleaching was performed using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, and achieved 89.4% Ni, 20.9% Mo and 12.7% Al extraction in 15 days. To increase Mo extraction, the bioleached catalyst was subjected to a second stage bioleaching using Escherichia coli, during which 99% of the remaining Mo was extracted in 25 days. This sequential bioleaching strategy selectively extracted Ni in the first stage and Mo in the second stage, and is a more environmentally friendly alternative to sequential chemical leaching with alkaline reagents for improved Mo extraction. Kinetic modelling to establish the rate determining step in both stages of bioleaching showed that in the first stage, Mo extraction was chemical reaction controlled whereas in the subsequent stage, product layer diffusion model provided the best fit.

  14. Particle Formation by Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Expansion Process

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junbo; Li, Haiting; Quan, Can

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction and expansion (SFEE) patented technology combines the advantages of both supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and rapid expansion of supercritical solution (RESS) with on-line coupling, which makes the nanoparticle formation feasible directly from matrix such as Chinese herbal medicine. Supercritical fluid extraction is a green separation technology, which has been developed for decades and widely applied in traditional Chinese medicines or natural active components. In this paper, a SFEE patented instrument was firstly built up and controlled by LABVIEW work stations. Stearic acid was used to verify the SFEE process at optimized condition; via adjusting the preexpansion pressure and temperature one can get different sizes of particles. Furthermore, stearic acid was purified during the SFEE process with HPLC-ELSD detecting device; purity of stearic acid increased by 19%, and the device can purify stearic acid. PMID:24223031

  15. Enzyme-assisted extraction of lycopene from tomato processing waste.

    PubMed

    Zuorro, Antonio; Fidaleo, Marcello; Lavecchia, Roberto

    2011-12-10

    A central composite design was used to optimize the enzyme-assisted extraction of lycopene from the peel fraction of tomato processing waste. Tomato skins were pretreated by a food-grade enzyme preparation with pectinolytic and cellulolytic activities and then subjected to hexane extraction. The factors investigated included extraction temperature (10-50 °C), pretreatment time (0.5-6.5 h), extraction time (0.5-4.5 h), enzyme solution-to-solid ratio (10-50 dm³/kg) and enzyme load (0-0.2 kg/kg). Overall, an 8- to 18-fold increase in lycopene recovery was observed compared to the untreated plant material. From a response surface analysis of the data, a second-degree polynomial equation was developed which provided the following optimal extraction conditions: T=30 °C, extraction time=3.18 h and enzyme load=0.16 kg/kg. The obtained results strongly support the idea of using cell-wall degrading enzymes as an effective means for recovering lycopene from tomato waste.

  16. Reductive stripping process for uranium recovery from organic extracts

    DOEpatents

    Hurst, F.J. Jr.

    1983-06-16

    In the reductive stripping of uranium from an organic extractant in a uranium recovery process, the use of phosphoric acid having a molarity in the range of 8 to 10 increases the efficiency of the reductive stripping and allows the strip step to operate with lower aqueous to organic recycle ratios and shorter retention time in the mixer stages. Under these operating conditions, less solvent is required in the process, and smaller, less expensive process equipment can be utilized. The high strength H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ is available from the evaporator stage of the process.

  17. Reductive stripping process for uranium recovery from organic extracts

    DOEpatents

    Hurst, Jr., Fred J.

    1985-01-01

    In the reductive stripping of uranium from an organic extractant in a uranium recovery process, the use of phosphoric acid having a molarity in the range of 8 to 10 increases the efficiency of the reductive stripping and allows the strip step to operate with lower aqueous to organic recycle ratios and shorter retention time in the mixer stages. Under these operating conditions, less solvent is required in the process, and smaller, less expensive process equipment can be utilized. The high strength H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 is available from the evaporator stage of the process.

  18. Evaluation of N,N-dialkylamides as promising process extractants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, P. N.; Prabhu, D. R.; Kanekar, A. S.; Manchanda, V. K.

    2010-03-01

    Studies carried out at BARC, India on the development of new extractants for reprocessing of spent fuel suggested that while straight chain N,N-dihexyloctanamide (DHOA) is promising alternative to TBP for the reprocessing of irradiated uranium based fuels, branched chain N,N-di(2-ethylhexyl)isobutyramide (D2EHIBA) is suitable for the selective recovery of 233U from irradiated Th. In advanced fuel cycle scenarios, the coprocessing of U/Pu stream appears attractive particularly with respect to development of proliferation resistant technologies. DHOA extracted Pu(IV) more efficiently than TBP, both at trace-level concentration as well as under uranium/plutonium loading conditions. Uranium extraction behavior of DHOA was however, similar to that of TBP during the extraction cycle. Stripping behavior of U and Pu (without any reductant) was better for DHOA than that of TBP. It was observed during batch studies that whereas 99% Pu is stripped in four stages in case of DHOA, only 89% Pu is stripped in case of TBP under identical experimental conditions. DHOA offered better fission product decontamination than that of TBP. GANEX (Group ActiNide EXtraction) and ARTIST (Amide-based Radio-resources Treatment with Interim Storage of Transuranics) processes proposed for actinide partitioning use branched chain amides for the selective extraction of uranium from spent fuel feed solutions. The branched-alkyl monoamide (BAMA) proposed to be used in ARTIST process is N,N-di-(2-ethylhexyl)butyramide (D2EHBA). In this context, the extraction behavior of U(VI) and Pu(IV) were compared using D2EHIBA, TBP, and D2EHBA under similar concentration of nitric acid (0.5 — 6M) and of uranium (0-50g/L). These studies suggested that D2EHIBA is a promising extractant for selective extraction of uranium over plutonium in process streams. Similarly, D2EHIBA offered distinctly better decontamination of 233U over Th and fission products under THOREX feed conditions. The possibility of simultaneous

  19. Supercritical fluid extraction of peach (Prunus persica) almond oil: process yield and extract composition.

    PubMed

    Mezzomo, Natália; Mileo, Bruna R; Friedrich, Maria T; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2010-07-01

    Peach kernels are industrial residues from the peach processing, contain oil with important therapeutic properties and attractive nutritional aspects because of the high concentration of oleic and linoleic acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw matter is critical for product quality definition. Thus, the aim of this work was to compare peach almond extraction yields obtained by different procedures: soxhlet extractions (Sox) with different solvents; hydrodistillation (HD); ethanolic maceration (Mac) followed by fractionation with various solvents, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at 30, 40 and 50 degrees C and at 100, 200 and 300bar, performed with pure CO(2) and with a co-solvent. The extracts were evaluated with respect to fatty acid composition (FAC), fractionated chemical profile (FCP) and total phenolic content (TPC). The Sox total yields were generally higher than those obtained by SFE. The crossover pressure for SFE was between 260 and 280bar. The FAC results show oleic and linoleic acids as main components, especially for Sox and SFE extracts. The FCP for samples obtained by Sox and Mac indicated the presence of benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol, components responsible for almond flavor and with important industrial uses, whereas the SFE extracts present a high content of a possible flavonoid. The higher TPC values were obtained by Sox and Mac with ethanol. In general, the maximum pressure in SFE produced the highest yield, TPC and oleic acid content. The use of ethanol at 5% as co-solvent in SFE did not result in a significant effect on any evaluated parameter. The production of peach almond oil through all techniques is substantially adequate and SFE presented advantages, with respect to the quality of the extracts due to the high oleic acid content, as presented by some Sox samples.

  20. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, Lamar T.

    1988-01-01

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  1. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, L.T.

    1987-03-20

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  2. 77 FR 53236 - Proposed International Isotopes Fluorine Extraction Process and Depleted Uranium Deconversion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... COMMISSION Proposed International Isotopes Fluorine Extraction Process and Depleted Uranium Deconversion... International Isotopes Fluorine Extraction Process and Depleted Uranium Deconversion Plant (INIS) in Lea County... construction, operation, and decommissioning of a fluorine extraction and depleted uranium...

  3. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  4. RESEARCH ON CARBON PRODUCTS FROM COAL USING AN EXTRACTIVE PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo; Chong Chen; Brian Bland; David Fenton

    2002-03-31

    This report presents the results of a one-year effort directed at the exploration of the use of coal as a feedstock for a variety of industrially-relevant carbon products. The work was basically divided into three focus areas. The first area dealt with the acquisition of laboratory equipment to aid in the analysis and characterization of both the raw coal and the coal-derived feedstocks. Improvements were also made on the coal-extraction pilot plant which will now allow larger quantities of feedstock to be produced. Mass and energy balances were also performed on the pilot plant in an attempt to evaluate the scale-up potential of the process. The second focus area dealt with exploring hydrogenation conditions specifically aimed at testing several less-expensive candidate hydrogen-donor solvents. Through a process of filtration and vacuum distillation, viable pitch products were produced and evaluated. Moreover, a recycle solvent was also isolated so that the overall solvent balance in the system could be maintained. The effect of variables such as gas pressure and gas atmosphere were evaluated. The pitch product was analyzed and showed low ash content, reasonable yield, good coking value and a coke with anisotropic optical texture. A unique plot of coke yield vs. pitch softening point was discovered to be independent of reaction conditions or hydrogen-donor solvent. The third area of research centered on the investigation of alternate extraction solvents and processing conditions for the solvent extraction step. A wide variety of solvents, co-solvents and enhancement additives were tested with varying degrees of success. For the extraction of raw coal, the efficacy of the alternate solvents when compared to the benchmark solvent, N-methyl pyrrolidone, was not good. However when the same coal was partially hydrogenated prior to solvent extraction, all solvents showed excellent results even for extractions performed at room temperature. Standard analyses of the

  5. Economics of Beaver-Herter extraction process revealed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The Herter process is a surface-mined solvent extraction process which utilizes fatty acids as the solvent. The uniqueness of the Herter process if that it provides a low energy method of separating the fatty acids from the recovered oil for subsequent recycling. The Herter process recovers the fatty acid by saponification, followed by migration of the soap to the aqueous phase, and then desaponification of the resulting soap phase again followed by phase separation. The formation of a hydrocarbon-soap-water emulsion limits the process unless carefully controlled by the addition of an alcohol cosolvent. Addition of the short-chain alcohol limits emulsification and allows a meaningful separation to be accomplished. The modified process is known as the Beaver-Herter process. A bench-scale model of the process has recently been completed and has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the process. A computer model has been designed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the process on a site specific basis. This paper summarizes the process, the site selection (Oklahoma), and the economic analysis.

  6. Eco-friendly streamlined process for sporopollenin exine capsule extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundargi, Raghavendra C.; Potroz, Michael G.; Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Tan, Ee-Lin; Lee, Jae Ho; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) extracted from Lycopodium clavatum spores are an attractive biomaterial possessing a highly robust structure suitable for microencapsulation strategies. Despite several decades of research into SEC extraction methods, the protocols commonly used for L. clavatum still entail processing with both alkaline and acidolysis steps at temperatures up to 180 °C and lasting up to 7 days. Herein, we demonstrate a significantly streamlined processing regimen, which indicates that much lower temperatures and processing durations can be used without alkaline lysis. By employing CHN elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and dynamic image particle analysis (DIPA), the optimum conditions for L. clavatum SEC processing were determined to include 30 hours acidolysis at 70 °C without alkaline lysis. Extending these findings to proof-of-concept encapsulation studies, we further demonstrate that our SECs are able to achieve a loading of 0.170 ± 0.01 g BSA per 1 g SECs by vacuum-assisted loading. Taken together, our streamlined processing method and corresponding characterization of SECs provides important insights for the development of applications including drug delivery, cosmetics, personal care products, and foods.

  7. Eco-friendly streamlined process for sporopollenin exine capsule extraction

    PubMed Central

    Mundargi, Raghavendra C.; Potroz, Michael G.; Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Tan, Ee-Lin; Lee, Jae Ho; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) extracted from Lycopodium clavatum spores are an attractive biomaterial possessing a highly robust structure suitable for microencapsulation strategies. Despite several decades of research into SEC extraction methods, the protocols commonly used for L. clavatum still entail processing with both alkaline and acidolysis steps at temperatures up to 180 °C and lasting up to 7 days. Herein, we demonstrate a significantly streamlined processing regimen, which indicates that much lower temperatures and processing durations can be used without alkaline lysis. By employing CHN elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and dynamic image particle analysis (DIPA), the optimum conditions for L. clavatum SEC processing were determined to include 30 hours acidolysis at 70 °C without alkaline lysis. Extending these findings to proof-of-concept encapsulation studies, we further demonstrate that our SECs are able to achieve a loading of 0.170 ± 0.01 g BSA per 1 g SECs by vacuum-assisted loading. Taken together, our streamlined processing method and corresponding characterization of SECs provides important insights for the development of applications including drug delivery, cosmetics, personal care products, and foods. PMID:26818918

  8. Geometric feature extraction by a multimarked point process.

    PubMed

    Lafarge, Florent; Gimel'farb, Georgy; Descombes, Xavier

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a new stochastic marked point process for describing images in terms of a finite library of geometric objects. Image analysis based on conventional marked point processes has already produced convincing results but at the expense of parameter tuning, computing time, and model specificity. Our more general multimarked point process has simpler parametric setting, yields notably shorter computing times, and can be applied to a variety of applications. Both linear and areal primitives extracted from a library of geometric objects are matched to a given image using a probabilistic Gibbs model, and a Jump-Diffusion process is performed to search for the optimal object configuration. Experiments with remotely sensed images and natural textures show that the proposed approach has good potential. We conclude with a discussion about the insertion of more complex object interactions in the model by studying the compromise between model complexity and efficiency.

  9. Toward the automation of road networks extraction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leymarie, Frederic; Boichis, Nicolas; Airault, Sylvain; Jamet, Olivier

    1996-12-01

    Syseca and IGN are working on various steps in the ongoing march from digital photogrammetry to the semi-automation and ultimately the full automation of data manipulation, i.e., capture and analysis. The immediate goals are to reduce the production costs and the data availability delays. Within this context, we have tackle the distinctive problem of 'automated road network extraction.' The methodology adopted is to first study semi-automatic solutions which probably increase the global efficiency of human operators in topographic data capture; in a second step, automatic solutions are designed based upon the gained experience. We report on different (semi-)automatic solutions for the road following algorithm. One key aspect of our method is to have the stages of 'detection' and 'geometric recovery' cooperate together while remaining distinct. 'Detection' is based on a local (texture) analysis of the image, while 'geometric recovery' is concerned with the extraction of 'road objects' for both monocular and stereo information. 'Detection' is a low-level visual process, 'reasoning' directly at the level of image intensities, while the mid-level visual process, 'geometric recovery', uses contextual knowledge about roads, both generic, e.g. parallelism of borders, and specific, e.g. using previously extracted road segments and disparities. We then pursue our 'march' by reporting on steps we are exploring toward full automation. We have in particular made attempts at tackling the automation of the initialization step to start searching in a valid direction.

  10. [Optimization of extraction process for tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2 method].

    PubMed

    Xie, Song; Tong, Zhi-Ping; Tan, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Zhen

    2014-08-01

    In order to optimize extraction process conditions of tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2, the content of tannins was determined by phosphomolybdium tungsten acid-casein reaction, with extraction pressure, extraction temper- ature and extraction time as factors, the content of tannins from extract of G. orientali-tibeticum as index, technology conditions were optimized by orthogonal test. Optimum technology conditions were as follows: extraction pressure was 25 MPa, extraction temperature was 50 °C, extracted 1.5 h. The content of tannins in extract was 12.91 mg x g(-1), extract rate was 3.67%. The method established could be used for assay the contents of tannin in G. orientali-tibeticum. The circulated extraction was an effective extraction process that was stable and feasible, and that provides a way of the extraction process conditions of tannin from G. orientali-tibeticum.

  11. Processivity and collectivity of biomolecular motors extracting membrane nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Fontenele Araujo, Francisco; Storm, Cornelis

    2012-07-01

    Biomolecular motors can pull and viscously drag membranes. The resulting elongations include cell protrusions, tether networks, and sensorial tentacles. Here we focus on the extraction of a single tube from a vesicle. Via a force balance coupled to binding kinetics, we analytically determine the phase diagram of tube formation as function of the motor processivity, the surface viscosity of the membrane η'(m), and the density of motors on the vesicle ρ. Three tubulation mechanisms are identified: (i) tip pulling, due to the accumulation of motors at the leading edge of the membrane, (ii) viscous drag, emergent from the translation of motors along the tube, and (iii) hybrid extraction, such that tip pulling and viscous drag are equally important. For experimental values of η'(m) and ρ, we find that the growth of bionanotubes tends to be driven by viscous forces, whereas artificial membranes are dominated by tip pulling.

  12. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOEpatents

    Mullins, Lawrence J.; Christensen, Dana C.

    1984-01-01

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium from electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  13. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOEpatents

    Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.

    1982-09-20

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium for electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  14. Hemimorphite Ores: A Review of Processing Technologies for Zinc Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ailiang; Li, Mengchun; Qian, Zhen; Ma, Yutian; Che, Jianyong; Ma, Yalin

    2016-10-01

    With the gradual depletion of zinc sulfide ores, exploration of zinc oxide ores is becoming more and more important. Hemimorphite is a major zinc oxide ore, attracting much attention in the field of zinc metallurgy although it is not the major zinc mineral. This paper presents a critical review of the treatment for extraction of zinc with emphasis on flotation, pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods based on the properties of hemimorphite. The three-dimensional framework structure of hemimorphite with complex linkage of its structural units lead to difficult desilicification before extracting zinc in the many metallurgical technologies. It is found that the flotation method is generally effective in enriching zinc minerals from hemimorphite ores into a high-grade concentrate for recovery of zinc. Pure zinc can be produced from hemimorphite or/and willemite with a reducing reagent, like methane or carbon. Leaching reagents, such as acid and alkali, can break the complex structure of hemimorphite to release zinc in the leached solution without generation of silica gel in the hydrometallurgical process. For optimal zinc extraction, combing flotation with pyrometallurgical or hydrometallurgical methods may be required.

  15. Hemimorphite Ores: A Review of Processing Technologies for Zinc Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ailiang; Li, Mengchun; Qian, Zhen; Ma, Yutian; Che, Jianyong; Ma, Yalin

    2016-08-01

    With the gradual depletion of zinc sulfide ores, exploration of zinc oxide ores is becoming more and more important. Hemimorphite is a major zinc oxide ore, attracting much attention in the field of zinc metallurgy although it is not the major zinc mineral. This paper presents a critical review of the treatment for extraction of zinc with emphasis on flotation, pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods based on the properties of hemimorphite. The three-dimensional framework structure of hemimorphite with complex linkage of its structural units lead to difficult desilicification before extracting zinc in the many metallurgical technologies. It is found that the flotation method is generally effective in enriching zinc minerals from hemimorphite ores into a high-grade concentrate for recovery of zinc. Pure zinc can be produced from hemimorphite or/and willemite with a reducing reagent, like methane or carbon. Leaching reagents, such as acid and alkali, can break the complex structure of hemimorphite to release zinc in the leached solution without generation of silica gel in the hydrometallurgical process. For optimal zinc extraction, combing flotation with pyrometallurgical or hydrometallurgical methods may be required.

  16. Extraction of reusable water from a mineral mining process

    SciTech Connect

    Gleim, W.K.

    1982-01-19

    A method for the treatment of an aqueous effluent slime derived from a tar sand extraction process is disclosed. The effluent slime ph is adjusted to an acidic ph and treated with an anionic surface active agent to create flocculation of solid asphaltic material entrained within the slime. A solvent solution comprising chlorinated hydrocarbon and a solvent therefor is added so that upon centrifuging of the treated slime three physical layers of material comprising (1) water; (2) asphaltics in the solvent solution and (3) clay are formed.

  17. Study on electrical current variations in electromembrane extraction process: Relation between extraction recovery and magnitude of electrical current.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Turaj; Rahimi, Atyeh; Nojavan, Saeed

    2016-01-15

    This contribution presents an experimental approach to improve analytical performance of electromembrane extraction (EME) procedure, which is based on the scrutiny of current pattern under different extraction conditions such as using different organic solvents as supported liquid membrane, electrical potentials, pH values of donor and acceptor phases, variable extraction times, temperatures, stirring rates, different hollow fiber lengths and the addition of salts or organic solvents to the sample matrix. In this study, four basic drugs with different polarities were extracted under different conditions with the corresponding electrical current patterns compared against extraction recoveries. The extraction process was demonstrated in terms of EME-HPLC analyses of selected basic drugs. Comparing the obtained extraction recoveries with the electrical current patterns, most cases exhibited minimum recovery and repeatability at the highest investigated magnitude of electrical current. . It was further found that identical current patterns are associated with repeated extraction efficiencies. In other words, the pattern should be repeated for a successful extraction. The results showed completely different electrical currents under different extraction conditions, so that all variable parameters have contributions into the electrical current pattern. Finally, the current patterns of extractions from wastewater, plasma and urine samples were demonstrated. The results indicated an increase in the electrical current when extracting from complex matrices; this was seen to decrease the extraction efficiency.

  18. Emerging technologies in extraction and processing of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Ramana G.

    2003-04-01

    The growing need to conserve energy and materials and prevent environmental pollution led to an increased demand for better understanding of potential as well as existing processes. In this context, thermodynamic and transport modeling of materials and processes provides a rapid and cost-effective means of conducting and minimizing the complexity of experimental investigations and developing innovative and environmentally friendly metallurgical processes. This presentation concentrates on some fundamentals on new technologies as extractive metallurgy of copper, lead, aluminum, and other nonferrous metals and processing of nanocomposites. The newer routes of copper smelting and modeling of impurities in copper and lead slags and mattes are reviewed. The copper smelting capacity increased by a factor of 10 during the last three decades, the smelting rate increased by a factor of 6, and the process fuel equivalent decreased by a factor of 2. The a priori prediction, with no adjustable parameters, of impurity capacities of S and As in copper slags and S in lead slags, based on the Reddy-Blander model, is reviewed. Excellent agreement between the model-predicted capacities data and laboratory experimental and industrial data was observed. The model is an invaluable tool for optimization of process parameters in the efficient removal of impurities from the nonferrous-metals smelting and refining processes. A new in-situ processing technology for the production of a lightweight alloy matrix with ceramic particle reinforcements such as SiC in aluminum alloy matrix composites by bubbling reactive gas is reviewed. Thermal plasma processing of a nanoscale aluminum alloy matrix with TiC and TiN composites is discussed. The in-situ formed reinforcements are thermodynamically stable, and the composite particles are of uniform size. The optimum process parameters for the production of composite powders by thermal plasma are discussed. A low-temperature aluminum production and

  19. Membrane contactor assisted extraction/reaction process employing ionic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Yupo J.; Snyder, Seth W.

    2012-02-07

    The present invention relates to a functionalized membrane contactor extraction/reaction system and method for extracting target species from multi-phase solutions utilizing ionic liquids. One preferred embodiment of the invented method and system relates to an extraction/reaction system wherein the ionic liquid extraction solutions act as both extraction solutions and reaction mediums, and allow simultaneous separation/reactions not possible with prior art technology.

  20. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be

  1. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280... extraction process for citric acid. A solvent extraction process for recovery of citric acid from conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid...

  2. Extraction of Hydrological Proximity Measures from DEMs using Parallel Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Tesfa, Teklu K.; Tarboton, David G.; Watson, Daniel W.; Schreuders, Kimberly A.; Baker, Matthew M.; Wallace, Robert M.

    2011-12-01

    Land surface topography is one of the most important terrain properties which impact hydrological, geomorphological, and ecological processes active on a landscape. In our previous efforts to develop a soil depth model based upon topographic and land cover variables, we extracted a set of hydrological proximity measures (HPMs) from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) as potential explanatory variables for soil depth. These HPMs may also have other, more general modeling applicability in hydrology, geomorphology and ecology, and so are described here from a general perspective. The HPMs we derived are variations of the distance up to ridge points (cells with no incoming flow) and variations of the distance down to stream points (cells with a contributing area greater than a threshold), following the flow path. These HPMs were computed using the D-infinity flow model that apportions flow between adjacent neighbors based on the direction of steepest downward slope on the eight triangular facets constructed in a 3 x 3 grid cell window using the center cell and each pair of adjacent neighboring grid cells in turn. The D-infinity model typically results in multiple flow paths between 2 points on the topography, with the result that distances may be computed as the minimum, maximum or average of the individual flow paths. In addition, each of the HPMs, are calculated vertically, horizontally, and along the land surface. Previously, these HPMs were calculated using recursive serial algorithms which suffered from stack overflow problems when used to process large datasets, limiting the size of DEMs that could be analyzed using that method to approximately 7000 x 7000 cells. To overcome this limitation, we developed a message passing interface (MPI) parallel approach for calculating these HPMs. The parallel algorithms of the HPMs spatially partition the input grid into stripes which are each assigned to separate processes for computation. Each of those processes then uses a

  3. Improving flavonoid extraction from Ginkgo biloba leaves by prefermentation processing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiahong; Cao, Fuliang; Su, Erzheng; Wu, Caie; Zhao, Linguo; Ying, Ruifeng

    2013-06-19

    This paper presents a prefermentation treatment method involving fungi to improve flavonoid extraction from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba . The fungi employed for this treatment were screened from the soil present under an ancient ginkgo tree. Seventy-six strains belonging to 23 genera were isolated and identified by a molecular identification method employing 18S rDNA sequences. Thirty-three strains grew well using ginkgo leaves as the growth medium. One strain, Gyx086, with higher extracted yield of flavonoids and more similar to the control, was finally selected for prefermentation processing. The major fermentation factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The optimal conditions for the highest total falvonoid yield were 27.8 °C for temperature, 64.2% for moisture content, and 61 h for fermentation time. Under the optimal condition, a actual total flavonoid yield of 27.59 ± 0.52 mg/g dry weight culture sample was obtained, which was about 70% higher than that of unfermented gingko leaf samples.

  4. PROCESS OF EXTRACTING URANIUM AND RADIUM FROM ORES

    DOEpatents

    Sawyer, C.W.; Handley, R.W.

    1959-07-14

    A process is presented for extracting uranium and radium values from a uranium ore which comprises leaching the ore with a ferric chloride solution at an elevated temperature of above 50 deg C and at a pH less than 4; separating the ore residue from the leaching solution by filtration; precipitating the excess ferric iron present at a pH of less than 5 by adding CaCO/sub 3/ to the filtrate; separating the precipitate by filtration; precipitating the uranium present in the filtrate at a Ph less than 6 by adding BaCO/sub 3/ to the filtrate; separating the precipitate by filtration; and precipitating the radium present in the filtrate by adding H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to the filtrate.

  5. Solvent extractants for nickel and cobalt: New opportunities in aqueous processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihaylov, Indje

    2003-07-01

    The last two decades have witnessed unprecedented growth in the development and implementation of solvent extraction technology in the extractive metallurgy of nickel and cobalt. Solvent extraction is proving to be a powerful tool, opening new opportunities for simpler, more cost-efficient and environmentally sound metal refining processes. This article provides an overview of some of the latest developments regarding the solvent extractants.

  6. Ultrasound versus microwave as green processes for extraction of rosmarinic, carnosic and ursolic acids from rosemary.

    PubMed

    Jacotet-Navarro, M; Rombaut, N; Fabiano-Tixier, A-S; Danguien, M; Bily, A; Chemat, F

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound and microwave as green processes are investigated in this study, focusing on the extraction selectivity towards antioxidant extraction from rosemary leaves. Due to its richness in valuable compounds such as rosmarinic, carnosic and ursolic acids, rosemary is a reference matrix for extraction study. In this work, six alternative processes are compared: ultrasound (bath, reactor and probe), microwave (reflux under microwave, microwave under nitrogen pressure and microwave under vapor pressure). The main result of this study is that selective extraction can be achieved according to extraction techniques and therefore to the extraction process.

  7. Ultrasound enhanced process for extracting metal species in supercritical fluids

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Enokida, Youichi

    2006-10-31

    Improved methods for the extraction or dissolution of metals, metalloids or their oxides, especially lanthanides, actinides, uranium or their oxides, into supercritical solvents containing an extractant are disclosed. The disclosed embodiments specifically include enhancing the extraction or dissolution efficiency with ultrasound. The present methods allow the direct, efficient dissolution of UO2 or other uranium oxides without generating any waste stream or by-products.

  8. Combined Extraction Processes of Lipid from Chlorella vulgaris Microalgae: Microwave Prior to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Dejoye, Céline; Vian, Maryline Abert; Lumia, Guy; Bouscarle, Christian; Charton, Frederic; Chemat, Farid

    2011-01-01

    Extraction yields and fatty acid profiles from freeze-dried Chlorella vulgaris by microwave pretreatment followed by supercritical carbon dioxide (MW-SCCO2) extraction were compared with those obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction alone (SCCO2). Work performed with pressure range of 20–28 Mpa and temperature interval of 40–70 °C, gave the highest extraction yield (w/w dry weight) at 28 MPa/40 °C. MW-SCCO2 allowed to obtain the highest extraction yield (4.73%) compared to SCCO2 extraction alone (1.81%). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of microalgae oil showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acid were the most abundant identified fatty acids. Oils obtained by MW-SCCO2 extraction had the highest concentrations of fatty acids compared to SCCO2 extraction without pretreatment. Native form, and microwave pretreated and untreated microalgae were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). SEM micrographs of pretreated microalgae present tearing wall agglomerates. After SCCO2, microwave pretreated microalgae presented several micro cracks; while native form microalgae wall was slightly damaged. PMID:22272135

  9. Process optimization for reverse micellar extraction of stem bromelain with a focus on back extraction.

    PubMed

    Dhaneshwar, Amrut D; Chaurasiya, Ram Saran; Hebbar, H Umesh

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, reverse micellar extraction (RME) for the purification of stem bromelain was successfully achieved using the sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane system. A maximum forward extraction efficiency of 58.0% was obtained at 100 mM AOT concentration, aqueous phase pH of 8.0 and 0.2 M NaCl. Back extraction studies on altering stripping phase pH and KCl concentration, addition of counter-ion and iso-propyl alcohol (IPA) and mechanical agitation with glass beads indicated that IPA addition and agitation with glass beads have significant effects on extraction efficiency. The protein extraction was higher (51.9%) in case of the IPA (10% v/v) added system during back extraction as compared to a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (100 mM) added system (9.42%). The central composite design technique was used to optimize the back extraction conditions further. Concentration of IPA, amount of glass beads, mixing time, and agitation speed (in rpm) were the variables selected. IPA concentration of 8.5% (v/v), glass bead concentration of 0.6 (w/v), and mixing time of 45 min at 400 rpm resulted in higher back extraction efficiency of 45.6% and activity recovery of 88.8% with purification of 3.04-fold. The study indicated that mechanical agitation using glass beads could be used for destabilizing the reverse micelles and release of bromelain back into the fresh aqueous phase.

  10. Energy from the in situ processing Antrim shale: process equipment used in the extraction trials

    SciTech Connect

    Murdick, D.A.

    1980-08-01

    As one phase of the 1976 contract between The Dow Chemical Company and the US Department of Energy investigating Antrim shale, three extraction trials were made at the shale research site at Peck, MI. This report is an overview of the process equipment used in those extraction trials. Equipment discussed in this report are: the air and nitrogen handling equipment, the methane fuel supply equipment, the field instrumentation, the flare, the well drying equipment, the control room and safety related equipment. After various problems related to each piece of equipment were solved, the equipment worked very well as a total unit. This functioning of the above ground equipment allowed the research group to focus most of its effort on the experimental problems encountered in the Antrim shale layer.

  11. Mercury extraction by the TRUEX process solvent: I. Kinetics, extractable species, dependence on nitric acid concentration and stoichiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, R.S.; Brewer, K.N.; Tranter, T.J.; Todd, T.A.

    1995-12-01

    Mercury extraction from acidic aqueous solutions by the TRUEX process solvent (0.2 M CMPO, 1.4 M TBP in n-dodecane) has not extensively been examined. Research at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant is currently in progress to evaluate the TRUEX process for actinide removal from several acidic waste streams, including liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW), which contains significant quantities of mercury. Preliminary experiments were performed involving the extraction of Hg{sup 203}, added as HgCl{sub 2}, from 0.01 to 10 M HNO{sub 3} solutions. Mercury distribution coefficients (D{sub Hg}) range between 3 and 60 from 0.01 M to 2 M HNO{sub 3}. At higher nitric acid concentrations, i.e. 5 M HNO{sub 3} or greater, D{sub Hg} significantly decreases to values less than 1. These results indicate mercury is extracted from acidic solutions {<=}{approximately}2 M HNO{sub 3} and stripped with nitric acid solutions {>=}{approximately}5 M HNO{sub 3}. Experimental results indicate the extractable species is HgCl{sub 2} from nitrate media, i.e., chloride must be present in the nitrate feed to extract mercury. Extractions from Hg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solutions indicated substantially reduced distribution ratios, typically D{sub Hg}< 1, for the range of nitric acid concentrations examined (0.01 to 8 M HNO{sub 3}). Extraction of mercury, as HgCl{sub 2}, by the individual components of the TRUEX solvent was also examined from 2 M HNO{sub 3}. The diluent, n-dodecane, does not measurably extract mercury. With a 1.4 M TBP/n-dodecane solvent, D{sub Hg} {approximately}3.4 compared with D{sub Hg} {approximately}7 for the TRUEX solvent. Classical slope analysis techniques were utilized to evaluate the stoichiometric coefficients of Hg extraction independently for both CMPO and TBP.

  12. Bioactive phytochemicals in wheat: Extraction, analysis, processing, and functional properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole wheat provides a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals namely, phenolic acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, alkylresorcinols, arabinoxylans, benzoxazinoids, phytosterols, and lignans. This review provides information on the distribution, extractability, analysis, and nutraceutical properties of...

  13. Process to upgrade coal liquids by extraction prior to hydrodenitrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Abraham; Hollstein, Elmer J.; Janoski, Edward J.; Scheibel, Edward G.

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen compounds are removed, e.g., by extraction, from a coal liquid prior to its hydrogenation. As a result, compared to hydrogenation of such a non-treated coal liquid, the rate of nitrogen removal is increased.

  14. Process for separation of the rare earths by solvent extraction

    DOEpatents

    Mason, George W.; Lewey, Sonia

    1977-04-05

    Production rates for solvent extraction separation of the rare earths and yttrium from each other can be improved by the substitution of di(2-ethylhexyl) mono-thiophosphoric acid for di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid. The di(2-ethylhexyl) mono-thiophosphoric acid does not form an insoluble polymer at approximately 50% saturation as does the former extractant, permitting higher feed solution concentration and thus greater throughput.

  15. Ionic liquids and deep eutectic mixtures: sustainable solvents for extraction processes.

    PubMed

    Pena-Pereira, Francisco; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, ionic liquids and deep eutectic mixtures have demonstrated great potential in extraction processes relevant to several scientific and technological activities. This review focuses on the applicability of these sustainable solvents in a variety of extraction techniques, including but not limited to liquid- and solid-phase (micro) extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction. Selected applications of ionic liquids and deep eutectic mixtures on analytical method development, removal of environmental pollutants, selective isolation, and recovery of target compounds, purification of fuels, and azeotrope breaking are described and discussed.

  16. High-pressure processing as emergent technology for the extraction of bioactive ingredients from plant materials.

    PubMed

    Jun, Xi

    2013-01-01

    High-pressure processing is a food processing technique that has shown great potentials in the food industry. Recently, it was developed to extract bioactive ingredients from plant materials, known as ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE), taking advantages of time saving, higher extraction yields, fewer impurities in the extraction solution, minimal heat and can avoid thermal degradation on the activity and structure of bioactive components, and so on. This review provides an overview of the developments in the UPE of bioactive ingredients from plant material. Apart from a brief presentation of the theories of UPE and extraction equipment systems, the principal parameters that influence the extraction efficiency to be optimized in the UPE (e.g., solvent, pressure, temperature, extraction time, and the number of cycle) were discussed in detail, and finally the more recent applications of UPE for the extraction of active compounds from plant materials were summarized.

  17. Process optimization for reverse micellar extraction of stem bromelain with a focus on back extraction.

    PubMed

    Dhaneshwar, Amrut D; Chaurasiya, Ram Saran; Hebbar, H Umesh

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, reverse micellar extraction (RME) for the purification of stem bromelain was successfully achieved using the sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane system. A maximum forward extraction efficiency of 58.0% was obtained at 100 mM AOT concentration, aqueous phase pH of 8.0 and 0.2 M NaCl. Back extraction studies on altering stripping phase pH and KCl concentration, addition of counter-ion and iso-propyl alcohol (IPA) and mechanical agitation with glass beads indicated that IPA addition and agitation with glass beads have significant effects on extraction efficiency. The protein extraction was higher (51.9%) in case of the IPA (10% v/v) added system during back extraction as compared to a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (100 mM) added system (9.42%). The central composite design technique was used to optimize the back extraction conditions further. Concentration of IPA, amount of glass beads, mixing time, and agitation speed (in rpm) were the variables selected. IPA concentration of 8.5% (v/v), glass bead concentration of 0.6 (w/v), and mixing time of 45 min at 400 rpm resulted in higher back extraction efficiency of 45.6% and activity recovery of 88.8% with purification of 3.04-fold. The study indicated that mechanical agitation using glass beads could be used for destabilizing the reverse micelles and release of bromelain back into the fresh aqueous phase. PMID:24616421

  18. The influence of cooking process on the microwave-assisted extraction of cottonseed oil.

    PubMed

    Taghvaei, Mostafa; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Nowrouzieh, Shahram; Alishah, Omran

    2015-02-01

    Cooking process is one of the most energy and time consuming steps in the edible oil extraction factories. The main goal of this study was cottonseed oil extraction by microwave radiation and elimination of any heat treatment of cottonseeds before extraction. The effect of cooking process on the physicochemical properties of extracted oil from two varieties of cottonseed (Pak and Sahel) was evaluated by free fatty acid content, melting point, smoke point and refractive index. Our results didn't show any significant differences between cooked and uncooked samples (P > 0.05) regarding physicochemical characteristics. From GC analysis of extracted oils, it was found there is no significant difference in fatty acid composition of cooked, uncooked and control (conventional extraction) samples. The thermal stability (Rancimat) analysis of oil samples showed the cooking process could cause a slight increase in the stability of oils for both varieties (about 40 min). The cooking process also increased total extracted phenolic compounds and considerably decreased total gossypol content of the cottonseed oil; but the extraction efficiency didn't change considerably after elimination of the cooking process. It can be concluded that microwave rays can destroy the structure of oil cells during process and facilitate the oil extraction without any heat treatment before extraction. PMID:25694730

  19. Insight of solvent extraction process: Reassessment of trace level determinations.

    PubMed

    Chandramouleeswaran, S; Ramkumar, Jayshree; Basu, M

    2016-09-28

    Solvent extraction is hoary yet modern technique with great scope of research due to the various intriguing phenomena in the system. Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) is a well known extractant which has been extensively used for separation of uranium matrix prior to elemental profiling. In this paper, one of the impurities namely Fe is being considered as it posed a challenge to the separation due to its co-extraction with TBP along with uranium. In these studies, for the first time, the existence of cation-cation inner sphere complexes between the UO2(2+)and Fe(3+) ions in both aqueous and organic phases have been establisted in addition to the selective separation of iron from uranium sample matrix using only TBP. The data from both spectrophotometric and thermophysical studies corroborated one another confirming the presence of cation-cation interactions (CCIs). The developed solvent extraction with only TBP showed almost no interferences on the iron extraction from matrix uranium and other co-ions like aluminum and copper. This has been the first time application of pure TBP for selective removal of iron from uranium samples. The procedure possessed excellent reproducibility and robustness. PMID:27619094

  20. System of extraction of volatiles from soil using microwave processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C. (Inventor); Kaukler, William F. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A device for the extraction and collection of volatiles from soil or planetary regolith. The device utilizes core drilled holes to gain access to underlying volatiles below the surface. Microwave energy beamed into the holes penetrates through the soil or regolith to heat it, and thereby produces vapor by sublimation. The device confines and transports volatiles to a cold trap for collection.

  1. Process for the extraction of technetium from uranium

    DOEpatents

    Gong, Cynthia-May S.; Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.

    2010-12-21

    A spent fuel reprocessing method contacts an aqueous solution containing Technetium(V) and uranyl with an acidic solution comprising hydroxylamine hydrochloride or acetohydroxamic acid to reduce Tc(V) to Tc(II, and then extracts the uranyl with an organic phase, leaving technetium(II) in aqueous solution.

  2. REMOVAL OF PCBS FROM A CONTAMINATED SOIL USING CF-SYSTEMS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA's START team in cooperation with EPA's SITE program evaluated a pilot scale solvent extraction process developed by CF-Systems. This process uses liquified propane to extract organic contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments. A pilot-scale evaluation was conducte...

  3. [Tracking analysis of three extraction processes of Arenaria Polytrichoides by Fourier transform infrared spectrocopy].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Wu, Xian-Xue; Tai, Xi; Xu, Liu-Xian; Zhu, Jin-Lan; Qin, Yao; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-Qin

    2014-10-01

    In order to develop a process analysis method to guide extraction process of Arenaria polytrichoides (AP) based on tracking analysis by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), IR spectra of petroleum ether extracts (PE-E), ethyl acetate extracts (EtOAc-E), n-butanol extracts (n-BuOH-E) and water extracts (H2O-E) of AP from three extraction methods were recorded. The FTIR and corresponding second derivative infrared (SDIR) spectra were analyzed comparatively from two aspects, namely, different extracts from a same extraction process and the same extracts from different methods. The spectral analysis results show that different extracts obtained from a same extraction process have distinctly different spectral absorbance character. Although the IR spectral absorption characteristics of the same extracts from different methods are rather similar in holistic, some explicit spectral differences still could be found among each other. In extraction process one (M1), main flavonoids and their glycosides of AP migrated to EtOAc-E and the rest part of them shift to n-BuOH-E according to FTIR peaks such as 1,603 and 1,123 cm(-1). However, the circumstances in method two (M2) and method three (M3) were just the reverse. Moreover, a few flavonoid glycosides got into H2O-E. The relative content of all kinds of aglycones and higher saturated alkyl are much higher in EtOAc-E of M2 than that of M1 and M3 according to the relative absorption intensive of peak at 2,850 cm(-1). Similarly, n-BuOH-E of M3 has relative rich contents of glycosides: and polysaccharides than those of M1 and M2 by peaks, such as 1,066 and 2,927 cm(-1). These results demonstrate that the migration rules of AP components are not always same in different extrac- tion process. The substance migration information during the extraction process could be recorded and disclosed in an intuitive way by FTIR tracking analysis of corresponding extracts. Consequently, FTIR tracking analysis is a fast, efficient, low-carbon and

  4. Assessing the accuracy of selectivity as a basis for solvent screening in extractive distillation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Momoh, S.O. )

    1991-01-01

    An important parameter for consideration in the screening of solvents for an extractive distillation process is selectivity at infinite dilution. The higher the selectivity, the better the solvent. This paper assesses the accuracy of using selectivity as a basis for solvent screening in extractive distillation processes. Three types of binary mixtures that are usually separated by an extractive distillation process are chosen for investigation. Having determined the optimum solvent feed rate to be two times the feed rate of the binary mixture, the total annual costs of extractive distillation processes for each of the chosen mixtures and for various solvents are carried out. The solvents are ranked on the basis of the total annual cost (obtained by design and costing equations) for the extractive distillation processes, and this ranking order is compared with that of selectivity at infinite dilution as determined by the UNIFAC method. This matching of selectivity with total annual cost does not produce a very good correlation.

  5. Image Processing for Planetary Limb/Terminator Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Udomkesmalee, S.; Zhu, D. Q.; Chu, C. -C.

    1995-01-01

    A novel image segmentation technique for extracting limb and terminator of planetary bodies is proposed. Conventional edge- based histogramming approaches are used to trace object boundaries. The limb and terminator bifurcation is achieved by locating the harmonized segment in the two equations representing the 2-D parameterized boundary curve. Real planetary images from Voyager 1 and 2 served as representative test cases to verify the proposed methodology.

  6. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METALS FROM PHOSPHORIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Bailes, R.H.; Long, R.S.

    1958-11-01

    > A solvent extraction process is presented for recovering metal values including uranium, thorium, and other lanthanide and actinide elements from crude industrial phosphoric acid solutions. The process conslsts of contacting said solution with an immisclble organic solvent extractant containing a diluent and a material selected from the group consisting of mono and di alkyl phosphates, alkyl phosphonates and alkyl phosphites. The uranlum enters the extractant phase and is subsequently recovered by any of the methods known to the art. Recovery is improved if the phosphate solution is treated with a reducing agent such as iron or aluminum powder prior to the extraction step.

  7. Evaluation of a sequential extraction process used for determining mercury binding mechanisms to coal combustion byproducts

    SciTech Connect

    James D. Noel; Pratim Biswas; Daniel E. Giammar

    2007-07-15

    This study evaluated the selectivity and effectiveness of a sequential extraction process used to determine mercury binding mechanisms to various materials that are present in coal combustion byproducts. A six-step sequential extraction process was applied to laboratory-synthesized materials with known mercury concentrations and binding mechanisms. These materials were calcite, hematite, goethite, and titanium dioxide. Fly ash from a full-scale coal-fired power plant was also investigated. The concentrations of mercury were measured using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry, whereas the major elements were measured by ICP atomic emission spectrometry. The materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The sequential extraction procedure provided information about the solid phases with which mercury was associated in the solid sample. The procedure effectively extracted mercury from the target phases. The procedure was generally selective in extracting mercury. However, some steps in the procedure extracted mercury from nontarget phases, and others resulted in mercury redistribution. Iron from hematite and goethite was only leached in the reducible and residual extraction steps. Some mercury associated with goethite was extracted in the ion exchangeable step, whereas mercury associated with hematite was extracted almost entirely in the residual step. Calcium in calcite and mercury associated with calcite were primarily removed in the acidsoluble extraction step. Titanium in titanium dioxide and mercury adsorbed onto titanium dioxide were extracted almost entirely in the residual step. 42 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Controllability of plutonium concentration for FBR fuel at a solvent extraction process in the PUREX process

    SciTech Connect

    Enokida, Youichi; Kitano, Motoki; Sawada, Kayo

    2013-07-01

    Typical Purex solvent extraction systems for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel have a feed material containing dilute, 1% in weight, plutonium, along with uranium and fission products. Current reprocessing proposals call for no separation of the pure plutonium. The work described in this paper studied, by computer simulation, the fundamental feasibility of preparing a 20% concentrated plutonium product solution from the 1% feed by adjusting only the feed rates and acid concentrations of the incoming streams and without the addition of redox reagents for the plutonium. A set of process design flowsheets has been developed to realize a concentrated plutonium solution of a 20% stream from the dilute plutonium feed without using redox reagents. (authors)

  9. Optimization of Process Parameters and Kinetic Model of Enzymatic Extraction of Polyphenols from Lonicerae Flos

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Fansheng; Yu, Shujuan; Bi, Yongguang; Huang, Xiaojun; Huang, Mengqian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To optimize and verify the cellulase extraction of polyphenols from honeysuckle and provide a reference for enzymatic extracting polyphenols from honeysuckle. Materials and Methods: The uniform design was used According to Fick's first law and kinetic model, fitting analysis of the dynamic process of enzymatic extracting polyphenols was conducted. Results: The optimum enzymatic extraction parameters for polyphenols from honeysuckle are found to be 80% (v/v) of alcohol, 35:1 (mL/g) of liquid-solid ratio, 80°C of extraction temperature, 8.5 of pH, 6.0 mg of enzyme levels, and 130 min of extraction time. Under the optimal conditions, the extraction rate of polyphenols was 3.03%. The kinetic experiments indicated kinetic equation had a good linear relationship with t even under the conditions of different levels of enzyme and temperature, which means fitting curve tallies well with the experimental values. Conclusion: The results of quantification showed that the results provide a reference for enzymatic extracting polyphenols from honeysuckle. SUMMARY Lonicerae flos (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) is a material of traditional Chinese medicine and healthy drinks, of which active compounds mainly is polyphenols. At present, plant polyphenols are the hotspots centents of food, cosmetic and medicine, because it has strong bioactivity. Several traditional methods are available for the extraction of plant polyphenols including impregnation, solvent extraction, ultrasonic extraction, hot-water extraction, alkaline dilute alcohol or alkaline water extraction, microwave extraction and Supercritical CO2 extraction. But now, an increasing number of research on using cellulase to extract active ingredients from plants. Enzymatic method is widely used for enzyme have excellent properties of high reaction efficiency and specificity, moderate reaction conditions, shorter extraction time and easier to control, less damage to the active ingredient. At present, the enzymatic

  10. Nozzle extraction process and handlemeter for measuring handle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alley, V. L., Jr.; Mchatton, A. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Method and apparatus for quantitatively measuring the handle of fabrics and other flexible materials is presented. Handle is that term used to refer to the qualities of drapability, flexibility, compressibility, foldability, stretchability, pliability, etc., possessed by fabrics and other flexible materials. In the present invention the handle of a material sample is quantified by measuring the force required to draw the sample through an orifice and expressing the resultant extractive force as a function of test apparatus geometry and the amount of sample drawn through the orifice to arrive at quantitative measure of handle, to be defined as handle modulus, for the sample in question.

  11. New geothermal heat extraction process to deliver clean power generation

    ScienceCinema

    Pete McGrail

    2016-07-12

    A new method for capturing significantly more heat from low-temperature geothermal resources holds promise for generating virtually pollution-free electrical energy. Scientists at the Department of Energys Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will determine if their innovative approach can safely and economically extract and convert heat from vast untapped geothermal resources. The goal is to enable power generation from low-temperature geothermal resources at an economical cost. In addition to being a clean energy source without any greenhouse gas emissions, geothermal is also a steady and dependable source of power.

  12. Process optimization and analysis of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel.

    PubMed

    Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sivakumar, V; Prakash Maran, J

    2014-11-01

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed for the extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel. The extracting parameters were optimized by using four-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM). RSM analysis indicated good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. 3D response surface plots were used to study the interactive effects of process variables on extraction of pectin. The optimum extraction conditions for the maximum yield of pectin were power of 400 W, temperature of 45 °C, extracting time of 20 min and solid-liquid ratio of 24 g/mL. Under these conditions, 7.5% of pectin was extracted.

  13. Optimization of enzymatic process for vanillin extraction using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Gu, Fenglin; Xu, Fei; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong; Chu, Zhong; Wang, Qinghuang

    2012-01-01

    Vanillin was extracted from vanilla beans using pretreatment with cellulase to produce enzymatic hydrolysis, and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the processing parameters of this extraction. The effects of heating time, enzyme quantity and temperature on enzymatic extraction of vanillin were evaluated. Extraction yield (mg/g) was used as the response value. The results revealed that the increase in heating time and the increase in enzyme quantity (within certain ranges) were associated with an enhancement of extraction yield, and that the optimal conditions for vanillin extraction were: Heating time 6 h, temperature 60 °C and enzyme quantity 33.5 mL. Calculated from the final polynomial functions, the optimal response of vanillin extraction yield was 7.62 mg/g. The predicted results for optimal reaction conditions were in good agreement with experimental values.

  14. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE SEPARATION OF URANIUM AND THORIUM FROM PROTACTINIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Rainey, R.H.; Moore, J.G.

    1962-08-14

    A liquid-liquid extraction process was developed for recovering thorium and uranium values from a neutron irradiated thorium composition. They are separated from a solvent extraction system comprising a first end extraction stage for introducing an aqueous feed containing thorium and uranium into the system consisting of a plurality of intermediate extractiorr stages and a second end extractron stage for introducing an aqueous immiscible selective organic solvent for thorium and uranium in countercurrent contact therein with the aqueous feed. A nitrate iondeficient aqueous feed solution containing thorium and uranium was introduced into the first end extraction stage in countercurrent contact with the organic solvent entering the system from the second end extraction stage while intro ducing an aqueous solution of salting nitric acid into any one of the intermediate extraction stages of the system. The resultant thorium and uranium-laden organic solvent was removed at a point preceding the first end extraction stage of the system. (AEC)

  15. Understanding leaf membrane protein extraction to develop a food-grade process.

    PubMed

    Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica; Boom, Remko M; van der Goot, Atze Jan

    2017-02-15

    Leaf membrane proteins are an underutilised protein fraction for food applications. Proteins from leaves can contribute to a more complete use of resources and help to meet the increasing protein demand. Leaf protein extraction and purification is applied by other disciplines, such as proteomics. Therefore, this study analysed proteomic extraction methods for membrane proteins as an inspiration for a food-grade alternative process. Sugar beet leaves were extracted with two proteomic protocols: solvent extraction and Triton X-114 phase partitioning method. Extraction steps contributed to protein purity and/or to selective fractionation, enabling the purification of specific proteins. It was observed that membrane proteins distributed among different solvents, buffers and solutions used due to their physicochemical heterogeneity. This heterogeneity does not allow a total membrane protein extraction by a unique method or even combinations of processing steps, but it enables the creation of different fractions with different physicochemical properties useful for food applications. PMID:27664631

  16. Protein extraction from heat-stabilized defatted rice bran. 1. Physical processing and enzyme treatments.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shanhu; Hettiarachchy, Navam S; Shellhammer, Thomas H

    2002-12-01

    Physical processing with or without enzyme treatments on protein extraction from heat-stabilized defatted rice bran (HDRB) was evaluated. Freeze-thaw, sonication, high-speed blending, and high-pressure methods extracted 12%, 15%, 16%, and 11% protein, respectively. Sonication (0-100%, 750 W), followed by amylase and combined amylase and protease treatments, extracted 25.6-33.9% and 54.0-57.8% protein, respectively. Blending followed by amylase and protease treatment extracted 5.0% more protein than the nonblended enzymatic treatments. High-pressure treatments, 0-800 MPa, with water or amylase-protease combinations, extracted 10.5-11.1% or 61.8-66.6% protein, respectively. These results suggest that physical processing in combination with enzyme treatments can be effective in extracting protein from HDRB.

  17. Understanding leaf membrane protein extraction to develop a food-grade process.

    PubMed

    Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica; Boom, Remko M; van der Goot, Atze Jan

    2017-02-15

    Leaf membrane proteins are an underutilised protein fraction for food applications. Proteins from leaves can contribute to a more complete use of resources and help to meet the increasing protein demand. Leaf protein extraction and purification is applied by other disciplines, such as proteomics. Therefore, this study analysed proteomic extraction methods for membrane proteins as an inspiration for a food-grade alternative process. Sugar beet leaves were extracted with two proteomic protocols: solvent extraction and Triton X-114 phase partitioning method. Extraction steps contributed to protein purity and/or to selective fractionation, enabling the purification of specific proteins. It was observed that membrane proteins distributed among different solvents, buffers and solutions used due to their physicochemical heterogeneity. This heterogeneity does not allow a total membrane protein extraction by a unique method or even combinations of processing steps, but it enables the creation of different fractions with different physicochemical properties useful for food applications.

  18. Integrated process for production of gasoline and ether from alcohol with feedstock extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1991-09-10

    This patent describes a continuous process for converting crude methanol to methyl tertiary-alkyl ethers and gasoline. It comprises contacting a crude methanolic feedstock containing a minor amount of water with a liquid olefinic hydrocarbon extraction solvent stream rich in C{sub 4}{sup +} iso-alkene hydrocarbon under extraction conditions favorable to selective extraction of the methanol, thereby providing a non-aqueous organic extract liquid stream rich in methanol and an aqueous raffinate stream containing unextracted methanol; charging liquid hydrocarbon extractant and extracted methanol substantially free of water to a first etherification catalytic reaction zone for contact with acid etherification catalyst under etherification process conditions for converting methanol and iso-alkene hydrocarbon to predominantly methyl tertiary-alkyl ether.

  19. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady Dadyburjor; Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-12-12

    High melting temperature synthetic pitches (Synpitches) were created using coal derivatives produced from a solvent extraction technique. Solvent extraction is used to separate hydrocarbons from mineral matter as well as other insolubles. Mild hydrogenation can be used to chemically modify resultant material to produce a true pitch. There are three main techniques which can be used to tailor the softening point of the Synpitch. First, the softening point can be controlled by varying the conditions of hydrogenation, chiefly the temperature, pressure and residence time in a hydrogen overpressure. Second, by selectively distilling light hydrocarbons, the softening point of the remaining pitch can be raised. Third, the Synpitch can be blended with another mutually soluble pitch or hydrocarbon liquid. Through such techniques, spinnable isotropic Synpitches have been created from coal feedstocks. Characteristics of Synpitches include high cross-linking reactivity and high molecular weight, resulting in carbon fibers with excellent mechanical properties. To date, mechanical properties have been achieved which are comparable to the state of the art achievable with conventional coal tar pitch or petroleum pitch.

  20. Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes for Coal Derived Carbon Products

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel

    2006-12-31

    This DOE NETL-sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous processes for producing carbon products from solvent-extracted coal. A key process step is removal of solids from liquefied coal. Three different processes were compared: gravity separation, centrifugation using a decanter-type Sharples Pennwalt centrifuge, and a Spinner-II centrifuge. The data suggest that extracts can be cleaned to as low as 0.5% ash level and probably lower using a combination of these techniques.

  1. Kinetics of solvent extraction/evaporation process for PLGA microparticle fabrication.

    PubMed

    Katou, Hajime; Wandrey, Anne Julia; Gander, Bruno

    2008-11-19

    Organic solvent extraction/evaporation from an o/w-dispersion has been widely used for the fabrication of PLGA microparticles. The purpose of this work was to elucidate the kinetics of the solvent extraction/evaporation process. A mathematical diffusion model was developed and applied to predict the duration of the solvent extraction. As the diffusion coefficient, D(p), plays a major role in the modeled process, a new and experimentally simple method for estimating D(p) was developed. Both the experimental method and the mathematical model were validated through PLGA microparticle fabrication experiments. For microparticles of mode diameters of 2 and 20 microm, the solvent was extracted in approximately 10 s. Sufficient hardening of the microparticles required, however, the evaporation of solvent from the extraction phase. Residual solvent in extraction phase exerted a strong effect on the morphology of the final product as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. Only if most solvent was removed from the aqueous extraction phase, a powdery product of individual microparticles was obtained. At residual organic solvent concentration of above 0.2% in the extraction phase, the microparticles strongly aggregated during collection on a membrane filter and final drying. The presented methods may be useful for better controlling microparticle fabrication processes by solvent extraction/evaporation.

  2. Evaluation of extractables in processed and unprocessed polymer materials used for pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Stults, Cheryl L M; Ansell, Jennifer M; Shaw, Arthur J; Nagao, Lee M

    2015-02-01

    Polymeric materials are often used in pharmaceutical packaging, delivery systems, and manufacturing components. There is continued concern that chemical entities from polymeric components may leach into various dosage forms, particularly those that are comprised of liquids such as parenterals, injectables, ophthalmics, and inhalation products. In some cases, polymeric components are subjected to routine extractables testing as a control measure. To reduce the risk of discovering leachables during stability studies late in the development process, or components that may fail extractables release criteria, it is proposed that extractables testing on polymer resins may be useful as a screening tool. Two studies have been performed to evaluate whether the extractables profile generated from a polymer resin is representative of the extractables profile of components made from that same resin. The ELSIE Consortium pilot program examined polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene, and another study evaluated polypropylene and a copolymer of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. The test materials were comprised of polymer resin and processed resin or molded components. Volatile, semi-volatile, and nonvolatile chemical profiles were evaluated after headspace sampling and extraction with solvents of varying polarity and pH. The findings from these studies indicate that there may or may not be differences between extractables profiles obtained from resins and processed forms of the resin depending on the type of material, the compounds of interest, and extraction conditions used. Extractables testing of polymer resins is useful for material screening and in certain situations may replace routine component testing. PMID:25227309

  3. Gulf/RTR oil sands extraction process. [Gulf/Rio Tinto TIL Holding S. A

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, A.; Devenny, D.; Porcari, G.; Corti, A.

    1984-06-01

    The activities carried out and the results obtained from a 15 tons/hour oil sands extraction pilot plant operated in Fort McMurray in Northern Alberta are described. The process is the Rio Tinto TIL Holding S.A. (RTR)/Gulf Canada Lt. Oil Sands Extraction Process. It is a modified hot water extraction process. It is used to extract bitumen from Athabasca oil sands. The test ran from July to December 1981 through ambient conditions ranging from plus 38/sup 0/C to minus 30/sup 0/C (100/sup 0/F to -22/sup 0/F). The process, the on-site facilities, the test program, an analysis of plant performance, an appraisal of the process economics, and an evaluation of its potential application are described.

  4. Direct extraction of palladium and silver from waste printed circuit boards powder by supercritical fluids oxidation-extraction process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kang; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2016-11-15

    The current study was carried out to develop an environmental benign process for direct recovery of palladium (Pd) and silver (Ag) from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) powder. The process ingeniously combined supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) and supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc-CO2) extraction techniques. SCWO treatment could effectively enrich Pd and Ag by degrading non-metallic component, and a precious metal concentrate (PMC) could be obtained, in which the enrichment factors of Pd and Ag reached 5.3 and 4.8, respectively. In the second stage, more than 93.7% Pd and 96.4% Ag could be extracted from PMC by Sc-CO2 modified with acetone and KI-I2 under optimum conditions. Mechanism study indicated that Pd and Ag extraction by Sc-CO2 was a complicated physiochemical process, involving oxidation, complexation, anion exchange, mass transfer and migration approaches. Accordingly, this study established a benign and effective process for selective recovery of dispersal precious metals from waste materials. PMID:27427888

  5. Direct extraction of palladium and silver from waste printed circuit boards powder by supercritical fluids oxidation-extraction process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kang; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2016-11-15

    The current study was carried out to develop an environmental benign process for direct recovery of palladium (Pd) and silver (Ag) from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) powder. The process ingeniously combined supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) and supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc-CO2) extraction techniques. SCWO treatment could effectively enrich Pd and Ag by degrading non-metallic component, and a precious metal concentrate (PMC) could be obtained, in which the enrichment factors of Pd and Ag reached 5.3 and 4.8, respectively. In the second stage, more than 93.7% Pd and 96.4% Ag could be extracted from PMC by Sc-CO2 modified with acetone and KI-I2 under optimum conditions. Mechanism study indicated that Pd and Ag extraction by Sc-CO2 was a complicated physiochemical process, involving oxidation, complexation, anion exchange, mass transfer and migration approaches. Accordingly, this study established a benign and effective process for selective recovery of dispersal precious metals from waste materials.

  6. Evaluation of a sequential extraction process used for determining mercury binding mechanisms to coal combustion byproducts.

    PubMed

    Noel, James D; Biswas, Pratim; Giammar, Daniel E

    2007-07-01

    Leaching of mercury from coal combustion byproducts is a concern because of the toxicity of mercury. Leachability of mercury can be assessed by using sequential extraction procedures. Sequential extraction procedures are commonly used to determine the speciation and mobility of trace metals in solid samples and are designed to differentiate among metals bound by different mechanisms and to different solid phases. This study evaluated the selectivity and effectiveness of a sequential extraction process used to determine mercury binding mechanisms to various materials. A six-step sequential extraction process was applied to laboratory-synthesized materials with known mercury concentrations and binding mechanisms. These materials were calcite, hematite, goethite, and titanium dioxide. Fly ash from a full-scale power plant was also investigated. The concentrations of mercury were measured using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry, whereas the major elements were measured by ICP atomic emission spectrometry. The materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The sequential extraction procedure provided information about the solid phases with which mercury was associated in the solid sample. The procedure effectively extracted mercury from the target phases. The procedure was generally selective in extracting mercury. However, some steps in the procedure extracted mercury from nontarget phases, and others resulted in mercury redistribution. Iron from hematite and goethite was only leached in the reducible and residual extraction steps. Some mercury associated with goethite was extracted in the ion exchangeable step, whereas mercury associated with hematite was extracted almost entirely in the residual step. Calcium in calcite and mercury associated with calcite were primarily removed in the acid-soluble extraction step. Titanium in titanium dioxide and mercury adsorbed onto

  7. Solutions for Arsenic Control in Mining Processes and Extractive Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neitola, Raisa; Korhonen, Tero; Backnäs, Soile; Turunen, Kaisa; Kaartinen, Tommi; Laine-Ylijoki, Jutta; Wahlström, Margareta; Venho, Antti; Ahoranta, Sarita; Nissilä, Marika; Puhakka, Jaakko

    2015-04-01

    In mining, quarrying and industrial minerals production arsenic is a common element, thus creating a challenge in mining processes. This project aimed to develop solutions to control and remove As-compounds in materials and effluents of beneficiation processes and other mining operations. Focus was on various technologies e.g. traditional mineral processing, bioprocessing, water treatment, as well as various materials such as gold ores and concentrates, industrial by-products, and mine waters. The results of suggest that by novel mineral processing and proper water treatment methods the amount of As-compounds in tailings and effluents can be reduced to levels that satisfy the regulations concerning mining waste management. According to the environmental research, mining activities tend to increase the proportion of potentially mobile and available elements in soil. The effect of mining activity on geogenic contamination needs to be considered in risk assessment.

  8. Extraction of rare earth elements from hydrate-phosphate precipitates of apatite processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andropov, M. O.; Anufrieva, A. V.; Buynovskiy, A. S.; Makaseev, Y. N.; Mazov, I. N.; Nefedov, R. A.; Sachkov, V. I.; Stepanova, O. B.; Valkov, AV

    2016-01-01

    The features of extraction of rare earth elements (REE) were considered from hydrate-phosphate precipitates of REE of apatite processing by nitric acid technology. The preliminary purification of nitrate solution of REE from impurities of titanium, aluminum, iron, uranium and thorium was suggested to obtain stable solutions not forming precipitates. Washing the extract was recommended with the evaporated reextract that allows to obtain directly on the cascade of REE extraction the concentrated solutions suitable for the separation into groups by the extraction method. Technical decisions were suggested for the separation of REE in groups without the use of salting-out agent.

  9. Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage.

    PubMed

    Ratanapariyanuch, Kornsulee; Tyler, Robert T; Shim, Youn Young; Reaney, Martin Jt

    2012-01-01

    Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs between 7.6 and 10.4 and salt concentrations between 3.4 × 10-2 and 1.2 M. The optimum extraction efficiency was pH 10.0 and 1.0 M NaCl. Napin and cruciferin were the most prevalent proteins in the isolate. The isolate exhibited high in vitro digestibility (74.9 ± 0.80%) and lysine content (5.2 ± 0.2 g/100 g of protein). No differences in the efficiency of extraction, SDS-PAGE profile, digestibility, lysine availability, or amino acid composition were observed between protein extracted with thin stillage and that extracted with NaCl solution. The use of thin stillage, in lieu of water, for protein extraction would decrease the energy requirements and waste disposal costs of the protein isolation and biofuel production processes. PMID:22239856

  10. Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs between 7.6 and 10.4 and salt concentrations between 3.4 × 10-2 and 1.2 M. The optimum extraction efficiency was pH 10.0 and 1.0 M NaCl. Napin and cruciferin were the most prevalent proteins in the isolate. The isolate exhibited high in vitro digestibility (74.9 ± 0.80%) and lysine content (5.2 ± 0.2 g/100 g of protein). No differences in the efficiency of extraction, SDS-PAGE profile, digestibility, lysine availability, or amino acid composition were observed between protein extracted with thin stillage and that extracted with NaCl solution. The use of thin stillage, in lieu of water, for protein extraction would decrease the energy requirements and waste disposal costs of the protein isolation and biofuel production processes. PMID:22239856

  11. Neptunium - Uranium - Plutonium Co-Extraction in TBP-based Solvent Extraction Processes for Spent Nuclear Fuel Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Arm, S.T.; Abrefah, J.; Lumetta, G.J.; Sinkov, S.I.

    2007-07-01

    The US, through the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, is currently engaged in efforts aimed at closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neptunium behavior is important to understand for transuranic recycling because of its complex oxidation chemistry. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is investigating neptunium oxidation chemistry in the context of the PUREX process. Neptunium extraction in the PUREX process relies on maintaining either IV or V oxidation states. Qualitative conversion of neptunium(V) to neptunium(VI) was achieved within 5 hours in 6 M nitric acid at 95 deg. C. However, the VI state was not maintained during a batch contact test simulating the PUREX process and neptunium reduced to the V state, rendering it inextractable. Vanadium(V) was found to be effective in maintaining neptunium(VI) by adding it to a simulated irradiated nuclear fuel feed in 6 M nitric acid and to the scrub acid in the batch contact simulation of the PUREX process. Computer simulations of the PUREX process with a typical irradiated nuclear fuel in 6 M nitric acid as feed indicated little impact of the higher acid concentration on the behavior of fission products of moderate extractability. We plan to perform countercurrent tests of this modified PUREX process in the near future. (authors)

  12. PROCESS OF RECOVERING ZIRCONIUM VALUES FROM HAFNIUM VALUES BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION WITH AN ALKYL PHOSPHATE

    DOEpatents

    Peppard, D.F.

    1960-02-01

    A process of separating hafnium nitrate from zirconium nitrate contained in a nitric acid solution by selectively. extracting the zirconium nitrate with a water-immiscible alkyl phosphate is reported.

  13. Study of process variables in supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of soybeans.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Nikolas; Hilton, Ramsey; Hendry, Doug; Venkitasamy, Chandrasekar; Jacoby, William

    2014-01-01

    Soybean flakes were extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide at 48.3 MPa and 80 °C, which is a higher temperature than previously reported. Several operational parameters were explored to determine their effect on extractions. Flakes, as typically used in this industry, provided the best extraction performance. Particle size distributions were created through grinding. Reducing average particle diameters smaller than 0.069 mm had no appreciable effect on increasing extraction efficiencies. Exploration of flow rate indicated that a residence time of less than 60 s for the supercritical carbon dioxide would be sufficient for complete extractions. A solvent mass to load mass ratio of 10:1 was found to be sufficient for extraction of oils from soybean flakes. Increasing moisture in the soybeans led to decreasing extraction efficiency of oils. Finally, soybean hulls had no effect on extraction efficiency. Thus, the de-hulling procedure can be removed from the extraction process without decreasing extraction efficiency.

  14. Extracting Process and Mapping Management for Heterogennous Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagara, Igor; Tanuška, Pavol; Duchovičová, Soňa

    2013-12-01

    A lot of papers describe three common methods of data selection from primary systems. This paper defines how to select the correct method or combinations of methods for minimizing the impact of production system and common operation. Before using any method, it is necessary to know the primary system and its databases structures for the optimal use of the actual data structure setup and the best design for ETL process. Databases structures are usually categorized into groups, which characterize their quality. The classification helps to find the ideal method for each group and thus design a solution of ETL process with the minimal impact on the data warehouse and production system.

  15. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  16. Use of Separator with Regular Granular Filling in Extraction Processes - 12209

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, Vladimir; Veselov, Sergey; Zherebtsov, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    The separator with a regular granular filling has been developed to be used for the operations of the removal of carbon-black impurities from the aqueous flow; the intra-cycle regeneration of back-extractants; and the concentrating back-extraction of plutonium in the extraction SNF reprocessing technology. The process conditions for those operations have been experimentally tested using this separator. Thus, the separator for operations of concentrating reextraction of plutonium and regeneration recycling extractant allows to: - derive plutonium from the organic stream into an extremely concentrated form, reducing the amount of liquid radioactive waste (raffinate, decantate) plutonium branches to a minimum; - controlling the processes of concentration of uranium and plutonium, get uranium-plutonium product with required concentration and the amount of metal with required ratio; - eliminate contamination of the emulsion flows; - simplify the purification of uranium from the extract plutonium; - test results showed that when working on a solution 'hydrazine-DTPA' in the separator it is achieved the extraction of plutonium re-extract - 82% TC - at 56-65%. With the transition to the reextraction by solution 'U (IV)-hydrazine', of plutonium into re-extract increases to 95%, technetium - up to 83%; - regenerate the extractant recycling minimizing the amount of liquid radioactive waste generated as a technology used as well as alternative 'salt-free' systems; - it is found that the regeneration of the extractant solution of soda and EDA in the separator at a load of 3.2 m{sup 3} / (m{sup 2}.h) it can be achieved almost complete phase separation. Residual carryover of 0,005-0,006% emulsion is on the verge of analytical detection. - It is shown that in the depth of separation phase a separation of the extractant regeneration of quality superior is more than 5-7 times to the extraction. (authors)

  17. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2001-06-30

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behaviors of hematite in the dextran (Dex)/Triton X-100 (TX100) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran systems were investigated and the effects of some ionic surfactants on solid partition were studied. In both biphase systems, the particles stayed in the bottom dextran-rich phase under all pH conditions. This behavior is attributable to the fact that the hydrophilic oxide particles prefer the more hydrophilic bottom phase. Also, the strong favorable interaction between dextran and ferric oxide facilitates the dispersion of the solids in the polysaccharide-rich phase. In the Dex/TX100 system, addition of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) or potassium oleate had no effect on the solid partition; on the other hand, addition of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) transferred the particles to the top phase or interface at high pH values. In the PEG/Dex system, the preferred location of hematite remained the bottom phase in the presence of either SDS or DTAB. The effects of anionic surfactants on the partition behavior are attributable to the fact that they are not able to replace the strongly adsorbed polysaccharide layer on the ferric oxide surface. The results with the cationic surfactant are due to electrostatic interaction between the cationic surfactant and the charged surface of the solid particles. The difference in solids partitioning in the two systems is the result of the different distribution of DTAB in these systems. In the Dex/TX100 system, DTAB prefers the top surfactant-rich phase, while it concentrates in the bottom phase in the PEG/dextran system.

  18. Ferric ion as a scavenging agent in a solvent extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Bruns, Lester E.; Martin, Earl C.

    1976-01-01

    Ferric ions are added into the aqueous feed of a plutonium scrap recovery process that employs a tributyl phosphate extractant. Radiolytic degradation products of tributyl phosphate such as dibutyl phosphate form a solid precipitate with iron and are removed from the extraction stages via the waste stream. Consequently, the solvent extraction characteristics are improved, particularly in respect to minimizing the formation of nonstrippable plutonium complexes in the stripping stages. The method is expected to be also applicable to the partitioning of plutonium and uranium in a scrap recovery process.

  19. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2001-06-30

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behaviors of silica in the polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran (Dex) and dextran/Triton X-100 (TX100) systems have been investigated, and the effects of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) on solid partition have been studied. In both biphase systems, silica particles stayed in the top PEG-rich phase at low pH. With increase in pH, the particles moved from the top phase to the interface, then to the bottom phase. At very high pH, the solids preferred the top phase again. These trends are attributable to variations in the polymer/solid and nonionic surfactant/solid interactions. Addition of ionic surfactants into these two systems introduces a weakly charged environment, since ionic surfactants concentrate into one phase, either the top phase or the bottom phase. Therefore, coulombic forces also play a key role in the partition of silica particles because electrostatic attractive or repulsive forces are produced between the solid surface and the ionic-surfactant-concentrated phase. For the PEG/dextran system in the presence of SDS, SiO{sub 2} preferred the bottom dextran-rich phase above its pH{sub PZC}. However, addition of DTAB moved the oxide particles from the top phase to the interface, and then to the bottom phase, with increase in pH. These different behaviors are attributable to the fact that SDS and DTAB concentrated into the opposite phase of the PEG/dextran system. On the other hand, in the dextran/Triton X-100 system, both ionic surfactants concentrated in the top surfactant-rich phase and formed mixed micelles with TX100. Therefore, addition of the anionic surfactant, SDS, moved the silica particles from top phase to the

  20. Intensification of microalgae drying and oil extraction process by vapor recompression and heat integration.

    PubMed

    Song, Chunfeng; Liu, Qingling; Ji, Na; Deng, Shuai; Zhao, Jun; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    Reducing energy penalty caused by drying and oil extraction is the most critical challenge in microalgae biodiesel production. In this study, vapor recompression and heat integration are utilized to optimize the performance of wet microalgae drying and oil extraction. In the microalgae drying stage, the hot exhaust stream is recompressed and coupled with wet microalgae to recover the condensate heat. In the oil extraction stage, the exergy rate of recovered solvent is also elevated by compressor and then exchanged heat with feed and bottom stream in the distillation column. Energy and mass balance of the intensified process is investigated and compared with the conventional microalgae drying-extraction process. The simulation results indicated that the total energy consumption of the intensified process can be saved by 52.4% of the conventional route.

  1. Batch extracting process using magnetic particle held solvents

    DOEpatents

    Nunez, L.; Vandergrift, G.F.

    1995-11-21

    A process is described for selectively removing metal values which may include catalytic values from a mixture containing same, wherein a magnetic particle is contacted with a liquid solvent which selectively dissolves the metal values to absorb the liquid solvent onto the magnetic particle. Thereafter the solvent-containing magnetic particles are contacted with a mixture containing the heavy metal values to transfer metal values into the solvent carried by the magnetic particles, and then magnetically separating the magnetic particles. Ion exchange resins may be used for selective solvents. 5 figs.

  2. Integrated microwave processing system for the extraction of organophosphorus pesticides in fresh vegetables.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Xu, Xu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-03-01

    A simple and efficient integrated microwave processing system (IMPS) was firstly assembled and validated for the extraction of organophosphorus pesticides in fresh vegetables. Two processes under microwave irradiation, dynamic microwave-assisted extraction (DMAE) and microwave-accelerated solvent elution (MASE), were integrated for simplifying the pretreatment of the sample. Extraction, separation, enrichment and elution were finished in a simple step. The organophosphorus pesticides were extracted from the fresh vegetables into hexane with DMAE, and then the extract was directly introduced into the enrichment column packed with active carbon fiber (ACF). Subsequently, the organophosphorus pesticides trapped on the ACF were eluted with ethyl acetate under microwave irradiation. No further filtration or cleanup was required before analysis of the eluate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Some experimental parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized, such as microwave output power, kind and volume of extraction solvent, extraction time, amount of sorbent, elution microwave power, kind and volume of elution solvent, elution solvent flow rate. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries were in the range of 71.5-105.2%, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 11.6%. The experiment results prove that the present method is a simple and effective sample preparation method for the determination of pesticides in solid samples.

  3. Comparison of DNA extraction methods for sweet corn and processed sweet corns.

    PubMed

    Takabatake, Reona; Noritake, Hiromichi; Noguchi, Akio; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    DNA was extracted from sweet corn and its processed products using four DNA extraction methods: the CTAB method, the DNeasy Plant Maxi kit, GM Quicker 3, and Genomic-tip 20/G. DNA was successfully extracted from raw sweet corn and baby corn samples using all four methods. Meanwhile, from frozen, canned, and dry pack products, DNA was well extracted using the DNeasy Plant Maxi kit, GM Quicker 3, and Genomic-tip 20/G, but not enough with the CTAB method. The highest yield of DNA was obtained with Genomic-tip 20/G. The degree of degradation of extracted DNA was observed to increase in the order of raw, frozen, canned, dry pack, and baby corn samples. To evaluate the quality of extracted DNA, real-time PCR analyses were conducted using three maize endogenous genes. The DNAs extracted using GM Quicker 3 had high purity, suggesting that GM Quicker 3 would be the most suitable method for DNA extraction from processed sweet corn products. PMID:24025210

  4. Fluid bed drying of guarana (Paullinia cupana HBK) extract: effect of process factors on caffeine content.

    PubMed

    Pagliarussi, Renata S; Bastos, Jairo K; Freitas, Luis A P

    2006-06-16

    The aim of this study was to study the convective drying of the hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from powdered guarana seeds in a spouted bed dryer. The influence of process variables, such as the convective airflow rate, extract feed rate, and air inlet temperature, on the quality of the dry extract was determined using the caffeine and moisture content for the process evaluation. The caffeine content in the alcoholic and dried extracts was determined by capillary gas chromatography. The experiments were performed following a 3(3) factorial design and the data analyzed by response surface. The analysis of dry extract showed that the air and extract feed rates did not significantly affect (25% level) the caffeine content, but that drying temperature is a major factor to consider when the extract is submitted to fluid bed drying. Caffeine losses were significant (1% level) for drying temperatures above 120 degrees C, while moisture content was lower than 3% for temperatures above 120 degrees C. The data showed that there is an optimum temperature for the drying of guarana extracts in spouted beds, and under the conditions used in this study it was 120 degrees C.

  5. Stable isolation of phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis associated with high-pressure extraction process.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yong Chang; Choi, Woo Seok; Park, Jong Ho; Park, Jin Oh; Jung, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2013-01-01

    A method for stably purifying a functional dye, phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis was developed by a hexane extraction process combined with high pressure. This was necessary because this dye is known to be very unstable during normal extraction processes. The purification yield of this method was estimated as 10.2%, whose value is 3%-5% higher than is the case from another conventional separation method using phosphate buffer. The isolated phycocyanin from this process also showed the highest purity of 0.909 based on absorbance of 2.104 at 280 nm and 1.912 at 620 nm. Two subunits of phycocyanin namely α-phycocyanin (18.4 kDa) and β-phycocyanin (21.3 kDa) were found to remain from the original mixtures after being extracted, based on SDS-PAGE analysis, clearly demonstrating that this process can stably extract phycocyanin and is not affected by extraction solvent, temperature, etc. The stability of the extracted phycocyanin was also confirmed by comparing its DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity, showing 83% removal of oxygen free radicals. This activity was about 15% higher than that of commercially available standard phycocyanin, which implies that the combined extraction method can yield relatively intact chromoprotein through absence of degradation. The results were achieved because the low temperature and high pressure extraction effectively disrupted the cell membrane of Spirulina platensis and degraded less the polypeptide subunits of phycocyanin (which is a temperature/pH-sensitive chromoprotein) as well as increasing the extraction yield. PMID:23325046

  6. Stable Isolation of Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis Associated with High-Pressure Extraction Process

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yong Chang; Choi, Woo Seok; Park, Jong Ho; Park, Jin Oh; Jung, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2013-01-01

    A method for stably purifying a functional dye, phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis was developed by a hexane extraction process combined with high pressure. This was necessary because this dye is known to be very unstable during normal extraction processes. The purification yield of this method was estimated as 10.2%, whose value is 3%–5% higher than is the case from another conventional separation method using phosphate buffer. The isolated phycocyanin from this process also showed the highest purity of 0.909 based on absorbance of 2.104 at 280 nm and 1.912 at 620 nm. Two subunits of phycocyanin namely α-phycocyanin (18.4 kDa) and β-phycocyanin (21.3 kDa) were found to remain from the original mixtures after being extracted, based on SDS-PAGE analysis, clearly demonstrating that this process can stably extract phycocyanin and is not affected by extraction solvent, temperature, etc. The stability of the extracted phycocyanin was also confirmed by comparing its DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity, showing 83% removal of oxygen free radicals. This activity was about 15% higher than that of commercially available standard phycocyanin, which implies that the combined extraction method can yield relatively intact chromoprotein through absence of degradation. The results were achieved because the low temperature and high pressure extraction effectively disrupted the cell membrane of Spirulina platensis and degraded less the polypeptide subunits of phycocyanin (which is a temperature/pH-sensitive chromoprotein) as well as increasing the extraction yield. PMID:23325046

  7. A pilot scale ultrasonic system to enhance extraction processes with dense gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riera, E.; Blasco, M.; Tornero, A.; Casas, E.; Roselló, C.; Simal, S.; Acosta, V. M.; Gallego-Juárez, J. A.

    2012-05-01

    The use of dense gases (supercritical fluids) as extracting agents has been attracting wide interest for years. In particular, supercritical carbon dioxide is considered nowadays as a green and very useful solvent. Nevertheless, the extraction process has a slow dynamics. Power ultrasound represents an efficient way for accelerating and enhancing the kinetics of the process by producing strong agitation and turbulence, compressions and decompressions, and heating in the media. For this purpose, a device prototype for using ultrasound in supercritical media was developed, tested and validated in extraction processes of oil from grounded almonds (55% oil content, wet basis and 3-4 mm particle size) in a 5 L extraction unit. An amount of 1500 g of grounded almonds was placed in a cylindrical basket during the trials inside the dense gas extractor (DGE) where solvent was introduced at different flow rates, pressures and temperatures. In all cases the ultrasonic energy confirmed the enhancement and acceleration of the almond oil extraction kinetics using supercritical CO2. Presently the power ultrasound effect in such a process is being deeply analyzed in a 5 L extraction unit before scaling-up a new ultrasonic system. This technology, still under development, has been designed for a bigger dense gas pilot-plant consisting of two extractors (20 L capacity), two separation units and has the possibility of operating at a pressure up to 50 MPa. The goal of this work is to study the effect of high-power ultrasound coupled to dense gas extraction inside the basket with the product, and to present a prototype for the use of power ultrasound in extraction processes with dense gases inside a new 20 L extractor unit.

  8. SLURRY SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METALS FROM SOLID MATERIALS

    DOEpatents

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1959-01-20

    A solvent extraction process is described for recovering uranium from low grade uranium bearing minerals such as carnotit or shale. The finely communited ore is made up as an aqueous slurry containing the necessary amount of acid to solubilize the uranium and simultaneously or subsequently contacted with an organic solvent extractant such as the alkyl ortho-, or pyro phosphoric acids, alkyl phosphites or alkyl phosphonates in combination with a diluent such as kerosene or carbon tetrachlorids. The extractant phase is separated from the slurry and treated by any suitable process to recover the uranium therefrom. One method for recovering the uranium comprises treating the extract with aqueous HF containing a reducing agent such as ferrous sulfate, which reduces the uranium and causes it to be precipitated as uranium tetrafluoride.

  9. Tackling correlated responses during process optimisation of rapeseed meal protein extraction.

    PubMed

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Dutta, Ganesh; Barthakur, Anasuya; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2015-03-01

    Setting of process variables to meet the required specifications of quality characteristics is a crucial task in the extraction technology or process quality control. Simultaneous optimisation of several conflicting characteristics poses a problem, especially when correlation exists. To remedy this shortfall, we present multi-response optimisation based on Response Surface Methodology (RSM)-Principal Component Analysis (PCA)-desirability function approach, combined with Multiple Linear Regression (MLR). Experimental manifestation of the proposed methodology was executed using a multi-responses-based protein extraction process from an industrial waste, rapeseed press-cake. The proposed optimal factor combination reflects a compromise between the partially conflicting natures of the original responses. Prediction accuracy of this new hybrid method was found to be better than RSM alone, verifying the adequacy and superiority of the said approach. Furthermore, this study suggests the feasibility of the exploitation of the waste rapeseed oil-cake for extraction of valuable protein, with improved colour properties using simple, viable process.

  10. Effects of combination processes on the extraction of pectins from rapeseed cake (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Han-Seob; Kim, Ho-Yong; Ahn, Sye Hee; Oh, Sei Chang; Yang, In; Choi, In-Gyu

    2013-08-15

    In this study, rapeseed cake (RSC) was used as a source of pectins due to its high carbohydrate content. Different combinations of treatments were applied to investigate the effect of combination processes on the extraction of pectin from RSC. The treatments chosen for combination were a fat removal process (FRP) (solvent extraction using an alcohol-benzene mixture), a chemical treatment (CT) (hydrolysis using 1% hydrochloric acid), and an enzymatic hydrolysis (EH). After the combined processes, pectins were extracted by isopropanol/ethanol precipitation and the residues were analysed by HPLC or an elemental analyser. The pectin yields and galacturonic acid contents were increased by FRP because 72.13% of the total fat was removed; additionally, EH had a similar effect. However, CT decreased the yields because the treatment was too harsh and the galacturonic acid broke down. Pectin yields and galacturonic acid contents were highest in the combination process FRP/EH (6.23% and 64.23%, respectively).

  11. An extraction process to recover vanadium from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Desheng; Zhao, Hongxin; Hu, Guoping; Qi, Tao; Yu, Hongdong; Zhang, Guozhi; Wang, Lina; Wang, Weijing

    2015-08-30

    An extraction process to recover vanadium from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite was developed. In this study, a mixed solvent system of di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (D2EHPA) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with kerosene was used for the selective extraction of vanadium from a hydrochloric acid leaching solution that contained low vanadium concentration with high concentrations of iron and impurities of Ca, Mg, and Al. In the extraction process, the initial solution pH and the phase ratio had considerable functions in the extraction of vanadium from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution. Under optimal extraction conditions (i.e., 30-40°C for 10min, 1:3 phase ratio (O/A), 20% D2EHPA concentration (v/v), and 0-0.8 initial solution pH), 99.4% vanadium and only 4.2% iron were extracted by the three-stage counter-current extraction process. In the stripping process with H2SO4 as the stripping agent and under optimal stripping conditions (i.e., 20% H2SO4 concentration, 5:1 phase ratio (O/A), 20min stripping time, and 40°C stripping temperature), 99.6% vanadium and only 5.4% iron were stripped by the three-stage counter-current stripping process. The stripping solution contained 40.16g/LV2O5,0.691g/L Fe, 0.007g/L TiO2, 0.006g/L SiO2 and 0.247g/L CaO. A V2O5 product with a purity of 99.12% V2O5 and only 0.026% Fe was obtained after the oxidation, precipitation, and calcination processes. The total vanadium recovered from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution was 85.5%. PMID:25840036

  12. An extraction process to recover vanadium from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Desheng; Zhao, Hongxin; Hu, Guoping; Qi, Tao; Yu, Hongdong; Zhang, Guozhi; Wang, Lina; Wang, Weijing

    2015-08-30

    An extraction process to recover vanadium from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite was developed. In this study, a mixed solvent system of di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (D2EHPA) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with kerosene was used for the selective extraction of vanadium from a hydrochloric acid leaching solution that contained low vanadium concentration with high concentrations of iron and impurities of Ca, Mg, and Al. In the extraction process, the initial solution pH and the phase ratio had considerable functions in the extraction of vanadium from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution. Under optimal extraction conditions (i.e., 30-40°C for 10min, 1:3 phase ratio (O/A), 20% D2EHPA concentration (v/v), and 0-0.8 initial solution pH), 99.4% vanadium and only 4.2% iron were extracted by the three-stage counter-current extraction process. In the stripping process with H2SO4 as the stripping agent and under optimal stripping conditions (i.e., 20% H2SO4 concentration, 5:1 phase ratio (O/A), 20min stripping time, and 40°C stripping temperature), 99.6% vanadium and only 5.4% iron were stripped by the three-stage counter-current stripping process. The stripping solution contained 40.16g/LV2O5,0.691g/L Fe, 0.007g/L TiO2, 0.006g/L SiO2 and 0.247g/L CaO. A V2O5 product with a purity of 99.12% V2O5 and only 0.026% Fe was obtained after the oxidation, precipitation, and calcination processes. The total vanadium recovered from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution was 85.5%.

  13. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING YTTRIUM FROM THE RARE EARTHS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Peppard, D.F.; Mason, G.W.

    1963-11-12

    A process of isolating yttrium from other rare earths present together with it in aqueous solutions is presented. Yttrium and rare earths heavier than yttrium are first extracted with dialkyl phosphoric acid, after adjustment of the acidity to 2 N, and then back-extracted with 5-6 N mineral acid to form a strip solution. Thiocyanate is added to the strip solution and the rare earths heavier than yttrium are then selectively extracted with trialkyl phosphate, dialkyl phosphoric acid, alkyl phosphonate, or dialkyl aryl phosphonate, leaving the yttrium in the aqueous solution. (AEC)

  14. CORROSION ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL COMPONENTS USED IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS EXTRACTION AND SEPARATION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Louthan, M.; Sindelar, R.

    2012-12-17

    This paper illustrated the magnitude of the systems, structures and components used at the Savannah River Site for nuclear materials extraction and separation processes. Corrosion issues, including stress corrosion cracking, pitting, crevice corrosion and other corrosion induced degradation processes are discussed and corrosion mitigation strategies such as a chloride exclusion program and corrosion release testing are also discussed.

  15. Green improved processes to extract bioactive phenolic compounds from brown macroalgae using Sargassum muticum as model.

    PubMed

    Anaëlle, Tanniou; Serrano Leon, Esteban; Laurent, Vandanjon; Elena, Ibanez; Mendiola, Jose A; Stéphane, Cerantola; Nelly, Kervarec; Stéphane, La Barre; Luc, Marchal; Valérie, Stiger-Pouvreau

    2013-01-30

    A comparative study between "alternative" extraction processes such as centrifugal partition extraction (CPE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and classical solid/liquid used in the laboratory are currently focusing on the efficiency (selectivity and productivity) to obtain bioactive phenolic compounds from the phaeophyte Sargassum muticum model. The choice of the best process was based on several measurements: (i) the total phenolic content measured by the colorimetric Folin-Ciocalteu assay, (ii) radical scavenger and antioxidant activities assessed by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay, and the β-carotene bleaching method and finally (iii) the method productivity. Irrespective of the solvent used in the processes, alternative methods are always sharply more effective than classical ones. With the exception of SFE which does not allow extracting the totality of the active phenolic compounds, two of the other extraction methods were particularly promising. First, CPE afforded the most important yields in concentrated phenolic compounds (PC) (22.90±0.65% DW) also displaying the best activities (0.52±0.02 and 0.58±0.19 mg/mL for IC50 and AAC700, respectively). Secondly, PLE using an EtOH:water mixture 75:25 (v/v) allowed a good PC extraction (10.18±0.25% DW) with huge efficiency. Despite a lesser activity of the extracts (0.77±0.01 and 1.59±0.15 mg/mL for IC50 and AAC700, respectively) PLE is a green process and potentially complies European norms requirements for the prospective valorization of phenolic compounds from S. muticum in Brittany. PMID:23597887

  16. Combined effect of ohmic heating and enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process on soy oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Pare, Akash; Nema, Anurag; Singh, V K; Mandhyan, B L

    2014-08-01

    This research describes a new technological process for soybean oil extraction. The process deals with the combined effect of ohmic heating and enzyme assisted aqueous oil extraction process (EAEP) on enhancement of oil recovery from soybean seed. The experimental process consisted of following basic steps, namely, dehulling, wet grinding, enzymatic treatment, ohmic heating, aqueous extraction and centrifugation. The effect of ohmic heating parameters namely electric field strength (EFS), end point temperature (EPT) and holding time (HT) on aqueous oil extraction process were investigated. Three levels of electric field strength (i.e. OH600V, OH750V and OH900V), 3 levels of end point temperature (i.e. 70, 80 and 90 °C) and 3 levels of holding time (i.e. 0, 5 and 10 min.) were taken as independent variables using full factorial design. Percentage oil recovery from soybean by EAEP alone and EAEP coupled with ohmic heating were 53.12 % and 56.86 % to 73 % respectively. The maximum oil recovery (73 %) was obtained when the sample was heated and maintained at 90 °C using electric field strength of OH600V for a holding time of 10 min. The free fatty acid (FFA) of the extracted oil (i.e. in range of 0.97 to 1.29 %) was within the acceptable limit of 3 % (oleic acid) and 0.5-3 % prescribed respectively by PFA and BIS.

  17. Foodborne Pathogens Prevention and Sensory Attributes Enhancement in Processed Cheese via Flavoring with Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Ahmed A; Hussein, Heba; Sorour, Noha M; El-Tras, Wael F

    2015-12-01

    Cheese contaminations with foodborne bacterial pathogens, and their health outbreaks, are serious worldwide problems that could happen from diverse sources during cheese production or storage. Plants, and their derivatives, were always regarded as the potential natural and safe antimicrobial alternatives for food preservation and improvement. The extracts from many plants, which are commonly used as spices and flavoring agents, were evaluated as antibacterial agents against serious foodborne pathogens, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, using qualitative and quantitative assaying methods. Dairy-based media were also used for evaluating the practical application of plant extracts as antimicrobial agents. Most of the examined plant extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity; the extracts of cinnamon, cloves, garden cress, and lemon grass were the most powerful, either in synthetic or in dairy-based media. Flavoring processed cheese with plant extracts resulted in the enhancement of cheese sensory attributes, for example odor, taste, color, and overall quality, especially in flavored samples with cinnamon, lemon grass, and oregano. It can be concluded that plant extracts are strongly recommended, as powerful and safe antibacterial and flavoring agents, for the preservation and sensory enhancement of processed cheese.

  18. CONTINUOUS CHELATION-EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE SEPARATION AND PURIFICATION OF METALS

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, J.R.; Hicks, T.E.; Rubin, B.; Crandall, H.W.

    1959-12-01

    A continuous process is presented for separating metal values and groups of metal values from each other. A complex mixture. e.g., neutron-irradiated uranium, can be resolved into component parts. In the present process the values are dissolved in an acidic solution and adjusted to the proper oxidation state. Thenceforth the solution is contacted with an extractant phase comprising a fluorinated beta -diketone in an organic solvent under centain pH conditions whereupon plutonium and zirconium are extracted. Plutonium is extracted from the foregoing extract with reducing aqueous solutions or under specified acidic conditions and can be recovered from the aqueous solution. Zirconium is then removed with an oxalic acid aqueous phase. The uranium is recovered from the residual original solution using hexone and hexone-diketone extractants leaving residual fission products in the original solution. The uranium is extracted from the hexone solution with dilute nitric acid. Improved separations and purifications are achieved using recycled scrub solutions and the "self-salting" effect of uranyl ions.

  19. Primary flavonoids in marigold dye: extraction, structure and involvement in the dyeing process.

    PubMed

    Guinot, Pauline; Gargadennec, Annick; Valette, Gilles; Fruchier, Alain; Andary, Claude

    2008-01-01

    Flavonoids extracted from marigold flowers were investigated for their dyeing potential. Patulitrin (1) and patuletin (2) were isolated and their structures established using NMR and HPLC-MS. These compounds were identified as the main flavonoids present in the dyeing bath. Following the dyeing process, it was demonstrated that aglycone 2 bound more strongly to wool fibres than its glucoside 1. Moreover, analysis focused on 1 and 2 dynamics during plant growth revealed that these components were only found in flowers during and after flowering. The influence of growing location was also investigated and it appeared that cultivation under Mediterranean conditions enhanced biosynthesis of 1 and 2 . Finally, several solvents were tested for their potential to extract the flavonoids: the use of a water-ethanol mixture gave a high extraction efficiency and allowed selective extraction of 1 and 2. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to the development of marigold as a potential dyeing plant. PMID:17654539

  20. Near-infrared image formation and processing for the extraction of hand veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzida, Nabila; Hakim Bendada, Abdel; Maldague, Xavier P.

    2010-10-01

    The main objective of this work is to extract the hand vein network using a non-invasive technique in the near-infrared region (NIR). The visualization of the veins is based on a relevant feature of the blood in relation with certain wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. In the present paper, we first introduce the image formation in the NIR spectral band. Then, the acquisition system will be presented as well as the method used for the image processing in order to extract the vein signature. Extractions of this pattern on the finger, on the wrist and on the dorsal hand are achieved after exposing the hand to an optical stimulation by reflection or transmission of light. We present meaningful results of the extracted vein pattern demonstrating the utility of the method for a clinical application like the diagnosis of vein disease, of primitive varicose vein and also for applications in vein biometrics.

  1. Downstream extraction process development for recovery of organic acids from a fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Bekatorou, Argyro; Dima, Agapi; Tsafrakidou, Panagiotia; Boura, Konstantina; Lappa, Katerina; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Pissaridi, Katerina; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2016-11-01

    The present study focused on organic acids (OAs) recovery from an acidogenic fermentation broth, which is the main problem regarding the use of OAs for production of ester-based new generation biofuels or other applications. Specifically, 10 solvents were evaluated for OAs recovery from aqueous media and fermentation broths. The effects of pH, solvent/OAs solution ratios and application of successive extractions were studied. The 1:1 solvent/OAs ratio showed the best recovery rates in most cases. Butyric and isobutyric acids showed the highest recovery rates (80-90%), while lactic, succinic, and acetic acids were poorly recovered (up to 45%). The OAs recovery was significantly improved by successive 10-min extractions. Alcohols presented the best extraction performance. The process using repeated extractions with 3-methyl-1-butanol led to the highest OAs recovery. However, 1-butanol can be considered as the most cost-effective option taking into account its price and availability. PMID:27560489

  2. Efficient extraction of canthaxanthin from Escherichia coli by a 2-step process with organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Scaife, Mark A; Ma, Cynthia A; Armenta, Roberto E

    2012-05-01

    Canthaxanthin has a substantial commercial market in aquaculture, poultry production, and cosmetic and nutraceutical industries. Commercial production is dominated by chemical synthesis; however, changing consumer demands fuel research into the development of biotechnology processes. Highly productive microbial systems to produce carotenoids can be limited by the efficiency of extraction methods. Extraction with hexane, acetone, methanol, 2-propanol, ethanol, 1-butanol, tetrahydrofuran and ethyl acetate was carried out with each solvent separately, and subsequently the most efficient solvents were tested in combination, both as mixtures and sequentially. Sequential application of methanol followed by acetone proved most efficient. Extraction efficiency remained stable over a solvent to biomass range of 100:1 to 55:1, but declined significantly at a ratio of 25:1. Application of this method to a canthaxanthin-producing Escherichia coli production system enabled efficient canthaxanthin extraction of up to 8.5 mg g(-1) dry biomass. PMID:22353211

  3. Downstream extraction process development for recovery of organic acids from a fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Bekatorou, Argyro; Dima, Agapi; Tsafrakidou, Panagiotia; Boura, Konstantina; Lappa, Katerina; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Pissaridi, Katerina; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2016-11-01

    The present study focused on organic acids (OAs) recovery from an acidogenic fermentation broth, which is the main problem regarding the use of OAs for production of ester-based new generation biofuels or other applications. Specifically, 10 solvents were evaluated for OAs recovery from aqueous media and fermentation broths. The effects of pH, solvent/OAs solution ratios and application of successive extractions were studied. The 1:1 solvent/OAs ratio showed the best recovery rates in most cases. Butyric and isobutyric acids showed the highest recovery rates (80-90%), while lactic, succinic, and acetic acids were poorly recovered (up to 45%). The OAs recovery was significantly improved by successive 10-min extractions. Alcohols presented the best extraction performance. The process using repeated extractions with 3-methyl-1-butanol led to the highest OAs recovery. However, 1-butanol can be considered as the most cost-effective option taking into account its price and availability.

  4. Next Generation Solvent Performance in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process - 15495

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Tara E.; Scherman, Carl; Martin, David; Suggs, Patricia

    2015-01-14

    Changes to the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) flow-sheet were implemented in the facility. Implementation included changing the scrub and strip chemicals and concentrations, modifying the O/A ratios for the strip, scrub, and extraction contactor banks, and blending the current BoBCalixC6 extractant-based solvent in MCU with clean MaxCalix extractant-based solvent. During the successful demonstration period, the MCU process was subject to rigorous oversight to ensure hydraulic stability and chemical/radionuclide analysis of the key process tanks (caustic wash tank, solvent hold tank, strip effluent hold tank, and decontaminated salt solution hold tank) to evaluate solvent carryover to downstream facilities and the effectiveness of cesium removal from the liquid salt waste. Results indicated the extraction of cesium was significantly more effective with an average Decontamination Factor (DF) of 1,129 (range was 107 to 1,824) and that stripping was effective. The contactor hydraulic performance was stable and satisfactory, as indicated by contactor vibration, contactor rotational speed, and flow stability; all of which remained at or near target values. Furthermore, the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) level and specific gravity was as expected, indicating that solvent integrity and organic hydraulic stability were maintained. The coalescer performances were in the range of processing results under the BOBCalixC6 flow sheet, indicating negligible adverse impact of NGS deployment. After the Demonstration period, MCU began processing via routine operations. Results to date reiterate the enhanced cesium extraction and stripping capability of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) flow sheet. This paper presents process performance results of the NGS Demonstration and continued operations of MCU utilizing the blended BobCalixC6-MaxCalix solvent under the NGS flowsheet.

  5. Optimization Extraction Process of Polysaccharides from Suillus granulatus and Their Antioxidant and Immunological Activities In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Feng; Yan, Song; Chen, Shuang; Gong, Liying; Su, Tingting; Wang, Zhanyong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Suillus granulatus is an edible and medicinal fungus in China. S. granulatus polysaccharide (SGP) was considered as the main bioactivity compounds in S. granulatus. Therefore, the extraction of SGP and their antioxidant activities were studied in this work. Materials and Methods: Fruiting bodies of S. granulatus were purchased from a local market (Fushun, China). Response surface methodology was adopted to optimize the extraction conditions of SGP. The antioxidant and immunological activities in vitro were also assayed. Results: The extraction of SGP was optimized by a Box–Behnken design. The optimal conditions for the extraction of polysaccharides were as follows: Pre-extraction time, 2 h; extraction temperature, 94°C; ratio of water to raw material, 25; and extraction frequency, 2. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of polysaccharides was 5.38% ±0.15%, which agreed with the predicted yield. The antioxidant assay in vitro showed that SGPs had relatively high scavenging ability for hydroxyl radicals and higher scavenging ability for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical. However, the scavenging ability of SGPs for superoxide anion radical and reducing power was relatively low. The polysaccharides also significantly increased splenocyte proliferation in vitro. Conclusion: SGP possessed good antioxidant and immunological activities in vitro and explored as a novel natural antioxidant or functional food. SUMMARY The predictive model of Suillus granulatus polysaccharide (SGP) extraction is adequate for the extraction processSGP possessed a good antioxidant activity in vitroLymphocyte proliferation in vitro was significantly increased by SGPPictorial abstract (in MS Powerpoint Format) is submitted as a separated file in the online submission system. Abbreviation used: SGP: Suillus granulatus polysaccharides, RSM: Response surface methodology, BBD: Box–Behnken design, Vc: Ascorbic acid, DPPH: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, MTT: 3

  6. Extraction processes for the production of aluminum, titanium, iron, magnesium, and oxygen and nonterrestrial sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, D. B.; Choudary, U. V.; Erstfeld, T. E.; Williams, R. J.; Chang, Y. A.

    1979-01-01

    The suitability of existing terrestrial extractive metallurgical processes for the production of Al, Ti, Fe, Mg, and O2 from nonterrestrial resources is examined from both thermodynamic and kinetic points of view. Carbochlorination of lunar anorthite concentrate in conjunction with Alcoa electrolysis process for Al; carbochlorination of lunar ilmenite concentrate followed by Ca reduction of TiO2; and subsequent reduction of Fe2O3 by H2 for Ti and Fe, respectively, are suggested. Silicothermic reduction of olivine concentrate was found to be attractive for the extraction of Mg becaue of the technological knowhow of the process. Aluminothermic reduction of olivine is the other possible alternative for the production of magnesium. The large quantities of carbon monoxide generated in the metal extraction processes can be used to recover carbon and oxygen by a combination of the following methods: (1) simple disproportionation of CO,(2) methanation of CO and electrolysis of H2O, and (3) solid-state electrolysis of gas mixtures containing CO, CO2, and H2O. The research needed for the adoption of earth-based extraction processes for lunar and asteroidal minerals is outlined.

  7. Modeling of extraction process of crude polysaccharides from Basil seeds (Ocimum basilicum l.) as affected by process variables.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Fakhreddin; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Tadayyon, Ali; Arabameri, Fatemeh

    2015-08-01

    Basil seed (Ocimum basilicum L.) has practical amounts of gum with good functional properties. In this work, extraction of gum from Basil seed was studied. Effect of pH, temperature and water/seed ratio on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters; entropy, enthalpy and free energy of extraction were investigated. The maximum gum yield was 17.95 % at 50 °C for pH=7 and water/seed ratio 30:1. In this study, the experimental data were fitted to a mathematical model of mass transfer and equations constants were obtained. The kinetic of Basil seed gum extraction was found to be a first order mass transfer model. Statistical results indicated that the model used in this study will be able to predict the gum extraction from Basil seed adequately. It also found that ΔH and ΔS were positive and ΔG was negative indicating that the extraction process was spontaneous, irreversible and endothermic. The ΔH, ΔS and ΔG values were 0.26-7.87 kJ/mol, 8.12-33.2 J/mol K and 1.62-4.42 kJ/mol, respectively.

  8. Modeling of extraction process of crude polysaccharides from Basil seeds (Ocimum basilicum l.) as affected by process variables.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Fakhreddin; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Tadayyon, Ali; Arabameri, Fatemeh

    2015-08-01

    Basil seed (Ocimum basilicum L.) has practical amounts of gum with good functional properties. In this work, extraction of gum from Basil seed was studied. Effect of pH, temperature and water/seed ratio on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters; entropy, enthalpy and free energy of extraction were investigated. The maximum gum yield was 17.95 % at 50 °C for pH=7 and water/seed ratio 30:1. In this study, the experimental data were fitted to a mathematical model of mass transfer and equations constants were obtained. The kinetic of Basil seed gum extraction was found to be a first order mass transfer model. Statistical results indicated that the model used in this study will be able to predict the gum extraction from Basil seed adequately. It also found that ΔH and ΔS were positive and ΔG was negative indicating that the extraction process was spontaneous, irreversible and endothermic. The ΔH, ΔS and ΔG values were 0.26-7.87 kJ/mol, 8.12-33.2 J/mol K and 1.62-4.42 kJ/mol, respectively. PMID:26243945

  9. Potential for in situ chemical oxidation of acid extractable organics in oil sands process affected groundwater.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, V; Ross, M S; Martin, J W; Barker, J F

    2013-11-01

    The process of bitumen extraction from oil sands in Alberta, Canada leads to an accumulation of toxic acid-extractable organics (AEOs) in oil sands process water (OSPW). Infiltration of OSPW from tailings ponds and from their retaining sand dykes and subsequent transport towards surface water has occurred. Given the apparent lack of significant natural attenuation of AEOs in groundwater, remediation may be required. This laboratory study evaluates the potential use of unactivated persulfate and permanganate as in situ oxidation agents for remediation of AEOs in groundwater. Naphthenic acids (NAs; CnH2n+zO2), which are a component of the acutely toxic AEOs, were degraded by both oxidants in OSPW samples. Permanganate oxidation yielded some residual dissolved organic carbon (DOC) whereas persulfate mineralized the AEO compounds with less residual DOC. Acid-extractable organics from oxidized OSPW had essentially no Microtox toxicity.

  10. Solvent extraction and recovery of the transuranic elements from waste solutions using the TRUEX process

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Schulz, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    High-level liquid waste is produced during the processing of irradiated nuclear fuel by the PUREX process. In some cases the treatment of metallurgical scrap to recover the plutonium values also generates a nitric acid waste solution. Both waste solutions contain sufficient concentrations of transuranic elements (mostly /sup 241/Am) to require handling and disposal as a TRU waste. This paper describes a recently developed solvent extraction/recovery process called TRUEX (transuranium extraction) which is designed to reduce the TRU concentration in nitric waste solutions to <100 nCi/g of disposed form (1,2). (In the USA, non-TRU waste is defined as <100 nCi of TRU/g of disposed form.) The process utilizes PUREX process solvent (TBP in a normal paraffinic hydrocarbon or carbon tetrachloride) modified by a small concentration of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (abbrev. CMPO). The presence of CMPO enables the modified PUREX process solvent to extract trivalent actinides as well as tetra- and hexavalent actinides. A major feature of the TRUEX process is that is is applicable to waste solutions containing a wide range of nitric acid, salt, and fission product concentrations and at the same time is very compatible with existing liquid-liquid extraction technology as usually practiced in a fuel reprocessing plant. To date the process has been tested on two different types of synthetic waste solutions. The first solution is a typical high-level nitric acid waste and the second a typical waste solution generated in metallurgical scrap processing. Results are discussed. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  11. Commercial Light Water Reactor -Tritium Extraction Facility Process Waste Assessment (Project S-6091)

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.; Delley, A.O.; Alexander, G.J.; Clark, E.A.; Holder, J.S.; Lutz, R.N.; Malstrom, R.A.; Nobles, B.R.; Carson, S.D.; Peterson, P.K.

    1997-11-30

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) to design and construct a Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) to process irradiated tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) from a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR). The plan is for the CLWR-TEF to provide tritium to the SRS Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) in Building 233-H in support of DOE requirements. The CLWR-TEF is being designed to provide 3 kg of new tritium per year, from TPBARS and other sources of tritium (Ref. 1-4).The CLWR TPBAR concept is being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The TPBAR assemblies will be irradiated in a Commercial Utility light water nuclear reactor and transported to the SRS for tritium extraction and processing at the CLWR-TEF. A Conceptual Design Report for the CLWR-TEF Project was issued in July 1997 (Ref. 4).The scope of this Process Waste Assessment (PWA) will be limited to CLWR-TEF processing of CLWR irradiated TPBARs. Although the CLWR- TEF will also be designed to extract APT tritium-containing materials, they will be excluded at this time to facilitate timely development of this PWA. As with any process, CLWR-TEF waste stream characteristics will depend on process feedstock and contaminant sources. If irradiated APT tritium-containing materials are to be processed in the CLWR-TEF, this PWA should be revised to reflect the introduction of this contaminant source term.

  12. SEPARATION OF URANYL AND RUTHENIUM VALUES BY THE TRIBUTYL PHOSPHATE EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, A.S.

    1961-05-01

    A process is given for separating uranyl values from ruthenium values contained in an aqueous 3 to 4 M nitric acid solution. After the addition of hydrogen peroxide to obtain a concentration of 0.3 M, the uranium is selectively extracted with kerosene-diluted tributyl phosphate.

  13. Integrated extraction and anaerobic digestion process for recovery of nutraceuticals and biogas from pomegranate marcs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pomegranate marc (PM), a by-product from pomegranate juice processing, has not been effectively utilized. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the yields and properties of antioxidants (henceforth referring to total phenolics in terms of tannic acid equivalent) and oil extracted from v...

  14. Biologically-based signal processing system applied to noise removal for signal extraction

    DOEpatents

    Fu, Chi Yung; Petrich, Loren I.

    2004-07-13

    The method and system described herein use a biologically-based signal processing system for noise removal for signal extraction. A wavelet transform may be used in conjunction with a neural network to imitate a biological system. The neural network may be trained using ideal data derived from physical principles or noiseless signals to determine to remove noise from the signal.

  15. Point process algorithm: a new Bayesian approach for TPF-I planet signal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velusamy, T.; Marsh, K. A.; Ware, B.

    2005-01-01

    TPF-I capability for planetary signal extraction, including both detection and spectral characterization, can be optimized by taking proper account of instrumental characteristics and astrophysical prior information. We have developed the Point Process Algorithm, a Bayesian technique for estracting planetary signals using the sine/cosine chopped outputs of a dual nulling interferometer.

  16. Aqueous biphasic extraction process with pH and particle control

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.; Mensah-Biney, R.

    1995-01-01

    A process for aqueous biphasic extraction of metallic oxides and the like from substances containing silica. Control of media pH enables efficient and effective partition of mixture components. The inventive method may be employed to remove excess silica from kaolin clay.

  17. EPA SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE TERRA VAC IN SITU VACUUM EXTRACTION PROCESS IN GROVELAND, MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an EPA evaluation of the patented Terra Vac, Inc.'s in situ vacuum extraction process that was field-demonstrated on a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated soil in Groveland, MA, under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. he Terra...

  18. Aqueous biphasic extraction process with pH and particle control

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.

    1995-05-02

    A process for aqueous biphasic extraction of metallic oxides and the like from substances containing silica. Control of media pH enables efficient and effective partition of mixture components. The inventive method may be employed to remove excess silica from kaolin clay. 2 figs.

  19. Optimization of Extraction Process for Polysaccharide in Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bunge Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Yanhua, Wang; Fuhua, Wu; Zhaohan, Guo; Mingxing, Peng; Yanan, Zhang; Ling, Pang Zhen; Minhua, Du; Caiying, Zhang; Zian, Liang

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to optimize the extraction process for Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide using response surface methodology The results showed that four operating parameters including microwave power, microwave time and the particle size had notable effects on the polysaccharide extraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The effects could be ranked in decreasing order of importance as follows:. Microwave power > microwave time > the comminution degree. The optimal extraction parameters were determined as 573.83W of Microwave power and 8.4min of microwave time and 67.51mesh of the comminution degree, resulting in the yield of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide of 101.161mg / g. The established regression model describing polysaccharide extraction from as a function of the three extraction parameters was highly significant (R 2 = 0.9953). The predicted and experimental results were found to be in good agreement. Thus, the model can be applicable for the prediction of polysaccharide extraction from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. PMID:26998185

  20. Recovery of Uranium from Wet Phosphoric Acid by Solvent Extraction Processes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Beltrami, Denis; Cote, Gérard; Mokhtari, Hamid; Courtaud, Bruno; Moyer, Bruce A.; Chagnes, Alexandre

    2014-11-17

    Between 1951 and 1991, we developed about 17 processes to recover uranium from wet phosphoric acid (WPA), but the viability of these processes was subject to the variation of the uranium price market. Nowadays, uranium from WPA appears to be attractive due to the increase of the global uranium demand resulting from the emergence of developing countries. Moreover, the increasing demand provides impetus for a new look at the applicable technology with a view to improvements as well as altogether new approaches. This paper gives an overview on extraction processes developed in the past to recover uranium from wet phosphoricmore » acid (WPA) as well as the physicochemistry involved in these processes. Recent advances concerning the development of new extraction systems are also reported and discussed.« less

  1. Recovery of Uranium from Wet Phosphoric Acid by Solvent Extraction Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Beltrami, Denis; Cote, Gérard; Mokhtari, Hamid; Courtaud, Bruno; Moyer, Bruce A.; Chagnes, Alexandre

    2014-11-17

    Between 1951 and 1991, we developed about 17 processes to recover uranium from wet phosphoric acid (WPA), but the viability of these processes was subject to the variation of the uranium price market. Nowadays, uranium from WPA appears to be attractive due to the increase of the global uranium demand resulting from the emergence of developing countries. Moreover, the increasing demand provides impetus for a new look at the applicable technology with a view to improvements as well as altogether new approaches. This paper gives an overview on extraction processes developed in the past to recover uranium from wet phosphoric acid (WPA) as well as the physicochemistry involved in these processes. Recent advances concerning the development of new extraction systems are also reported and discussed.

  2. Extraction of humic acid by coacervate: investigation of direct and back processes.

    PubMed

    Ghouas, H; Haddou, B; Kameche, M; Derriche, Z; Gourdon, C

    2012-02-29

    The two aqueous phases extraction process is widely used in environmental clean up of industrial effluents and fine chemical products for their reuse. This process can be made by cloud point of polyethoxylated alcohols and micellar solubilization phenomenon. It is commonly called "coacervate extraction" and is used, in our case, for humic acid extraction from aqueous solution at 100mg/L. The surfactants used are alcohol polyethoxylate and alkylphenol polyethoxylate. Phase diagrams of binary water/surfactant and pseudo-binary are plotted. The extraction results are expressed by the following responses: percentage of solute extracted, E (%), residual concentrations of solute and surfactant in dilute phase (X(s,w), and X(t,w) respectively) and volume fraction of coacervate at equilibrium (ϕ). For each parameter, the experimental results are fitted to empirical equations in three dimensions. The aim of this study is to find out the best compromise between E and ϕC. The comparison between experimental and calculated values allows models validation. Sodium sulfate, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) addition and pH effect are also studied. Finally, the possibility of recycling the surfactant has been proved.

  3. Process optimization for extraction of carotenoids from medicinal caterpillar fungus, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Sun, Junde; Lian, Tiantian; Wang, Wenzhao; Dong, Cai-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Natural carotenoids have attracted great attention for their important beneficial effects on human health and food coloring function. Cordyceps militaris, a well-known edible and medicinal fungus, is a potential source of natural carotenoids. The present study aimed to optimize the process parameters for carotenoid extraction from this mushroom. The effects of different methods of breaking the fungal cell wall and organic solvents were studied by the one-factor-at-a-time method. Subsequently, the process parameters including the duration of the extraction time, the number of extractions, and the solvent to solid ratio were optimized by using the Box-Behnken design. The optimal extraction conditions included using an acid-heating method to break the cell wall and later extracting three times, each for a 1 h duration, with a 4:1 mixture of acetone: petroleum ether and a solvent: solid ratio of 24:1. The carotenoid content varied from 2122.50 to 3847.50 µg/g dry weights in different commercially obtained fruit bodies of C. militaris. The results demonstrated that the C. militaris contained more carotenoid content in its fruit bodies than other known mushrooms. Stability monitoring by HPLC demonstrated that the carotenoids could be stored at 4°C for 40 d. It is suggested that the carotenoid content should be considered as the quality standard of commercial products of this valued mushroom. These findings will facilitate the exploration of carotenoids from C. militaris. PMID:24941034

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Madhavi Nallani-Chakravartula; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-27

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-08

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  6. Use of electronic worksheets for calculation of stagewise solvent extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The electronic worksheet, a powerful new tool for engineering analysis, is used to calculate flowsheets for stagewise solvent extraction processes. The algorithms presented give the component concentration of each stage at steady-state conditions and an estimate of the time to reach steady state. Any number of inlet and exit streams can be included and a different distribution ratio can be specified for each stage. The procedure is illustrated using a nuclear waste flowsheet. Although this paper deals with stagewise solvent extraction, it shows the utility of the electronic worksheet for many types of scientific and engineering calculations.

  7. Magnetic Nanofluid Rare Earth Element Extraction Process Report, Techno Economic Analysis, and Results for Geothermal Fluids

    DOE Data Explorer

    Pete McGrail

    2016-03-14

    This GDR submission is an interim technical report and raw data files from the first year of testing on functionalized nanoparticles for rare earth element extraction from geothermal fluids. The report contains Rare Earth Element uptake results (percent removal, mg Rare Earth Element/gram of sorbent, distribution coefficient) for the elements of Neodymium, Europium, Yttrium, Dysprosium, and Cesium. A detailed techno economic analysis is also presented in the report for a scaled up geothermal rare earth element extraction process. All rare earth element uptake testing was done on simulated geothermal brines with one rare earth element in each brine. The rare earth element uptake testing was conducted at room temperature.

  8. Invariant feature extraction for color image mosaic by graph card processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin; Chen, Lin; Li, Deren

    2009-10-01

    Image mosaic can be widely used in remote measuring, scout in battlefield and Panasonic image demonstration. In this project, we find a general method for video (or sequence images) mosaic by techniques, such as extracting invariant features, gpu processing, multi-color feature selection, ransac algorithm for homograph matching. In order to match the image sequence automatically without influence of rotation, scale and contrast transform, local invariant feature descriptor have been extracted by graph card unit. The gpu mosaic algorithm performs very well that can be compare to slow CPU version of mosaic program with little cost time.

  9. Method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1999-01-01

    A method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction is provided. An aqueous biphase system is generated by contacting a process stream comprised of water, salt, and organic species with an aqueous polymer solution. The organic species transfer from the salt-rich phase to the polymer-rich phase, and the phases are separated. Next, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer phase by selectively extracting the polymer into an organic phase at an elevated temperature, while the organic species remain in a substantially salt-free aqueous solution. Alternatively, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer by a temperature induced phase separation (cloud point extraction), whereby the polymer and the organic species separate into two distinct solutions. The method for separating water-miscible organic species is applicable to the treatment of industrial wastewater streams, including the extraction and recovery of complexed metal ions from salt solutions, organic contaminants from mineral processing streams, and colorants from spent dye baths.

  10. Simultaneous extraction and biotransformation process to obtain high bioactivity phenolic compounds from Brazilian citrus residues.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Jose Valdo; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have pointed to a reduction in the incidence of some cancers, diabetes, and neuro-degenerative diseases as a result of human health benefits from flavanones. Currently, flavanones are obtained by chemical synthesis or extraction from plants, and these processes are only produced in the glycosylated form. An interesting environmentally friendly alternative that deserves attention regarding phenolic compound production is the simultaneous extraction and biotransformation of these molecules. Orange juice consumption has become a worldwide dietary habit and Brazil is the largest producer of orange juice in the world. Approximately half of the citrus fruit is discarded after the juice is processed, thus generating large amounts of residues (peel and pectinolytic material). Hence, finding an environmentally clean technique to extract natural products and bioactive compounds from different plant materials has presented a challenging task over the last decades. The aim of this study was to obtain phenolics from Brazilian citrus residues with high bioactivity, using simultaneous extraction (cellulase and pectinase) and biotransformation (tannase) by enzymatic process. The highest hesperetin, naringenin and ellagic acid production in the experiment were 120, 80, and 11,250 µg g(-1), respectively, at 5.0 U mL(-1) of cellulase and 7.0 U mL(-1) of tannase at 40°C and 200 rpm. Also, the development of this process generated an increase of 77% in the total antioxidant capacity. These results suggest that the bioprocess obtained innovative results where the simultaneous enzymatic and biotransformatic extracted flavanones from agro-industrial residues was achieved without the use of organic solvents. The methodology can therefore be considered a green technology.

  11. An integrated process for the extraction of fuel and chemicals from marine macroalgal biomass

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Nitin; Baghel, Ravi S.; Bothwell, John; Gupta, Vishal; Reddy, C. R. K.; Lali, Arvind M.; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    We describe an integrated process that can be applied to biomass of the green seaweed, Ulva fasciata, to allow the sequential recovery of four economically important fractions; mineral rich liquid extract (MRLE), lipid, ulvan, and cellulose. The main benefits of our process are: a) its simplicity and b) the consistent yields obtained from the residual biomass after each successive extraction step. For example, dry Ulva biomass yields ~26% of its starting mass as MRLE, ~3% as lipid, ~25% as ulvan, and ~11% as cellulose, with the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of the final cellulose fraction under optimized conditions producing ethanol at a competitive 0.45 g/g reducing sugar. These yields are comparable to those obtained by direct processing of the individual components from primary biomass. We propose that this integration of ethanol production and chemical feedstock recovery from macroalgal biomass could substantially enhance the sustainability of marine biomass use. PMID:27470705

  12. An integrated process for the extraction of fuel and chemicals from marine macroalgal biomass.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Nitin; Baghel, Ravi S; Bothwell, John; Gupta, Vishal; Reddy, C R K; Lali, Arvind M; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    We describe an integrated process that can be applied to biomass of the green seaweed, Ulva fasciata, to allow the sequential recovery of four economically important fractions; mineral rich liquid extract (MRLE), lipid, ulvan, and cellulose. The main benefits of our process are: a) its simplicity and b) the consistent yields obtained from the residual biomass after each successive extraction step. For example, dry Ulva biomass yields ~26% of its starting mass as MRLE, ~3% as lipid, ~25% as ulvan, and ~11% as cellulose, with the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of the final cellulose fraction under optimized conditions producing ethanol at a competitive 0.45 g/g reducing sugar. These yields are comparable to those obtained by direct processing of the individual components from primary biomass. We propose that this integration of ethanol production and chemical feedstock recovery from macroalgal biomass could substantially enhance the sustainability of marine biomass use. PMID:27470705

  13. Application of reverse micelle extraction process for amylase recovery using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Bera, Manav B; Panesar, Parmjit S; Panesar, Reeba; Singh, Bahadur

    2008-06-01

    The effect of different process variables of reverse micelle extraction process like pH, addition of surfactant (AOT) concentration and potassium chloride (KCl) concentration on amylase recovery has been studied and analysed. Solid-state fermentation was used for the production of amylase enzyme. Response surface methodology (RSM) using central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed to analyse and optimize the enzyme extraction process. The regression analysis indicates that the effect of AOT concentration, and KCl concentration were significant, whereas the effect of pH was non-significant on enzyme recovery. For the maximum recovery of enzyme, the optimum operating condition for pH, AOT concentration (M) and KCl concentration were 10.43, 0.05 and 1.00, respectively. Under these optimal conditions, the enzyme recovery was 83.16%.

  14. Printed circuit board recycling: Physical processing and copper extraction by selective leaching.

    PubMed

    Silvas, Flávia P C; Correa, Mónica M Jiménez; Caldas, Marcos P K; de Moraes, Viviane T; Espinosa, Denise C R; Tenório, Jorge A S

    2015-12-01

    Global generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is about 40 million tons per year. Constant increase in WEEE generation added to international legislations has improved the development of processes for materials recovery and sustainability of electrical and electronic industry. This paper describes a new hydrometallurgical route (leaching process) to recycle printed circuit boards (PCBs) from printers to recover copper. Methodology included PCBs characterization and a combined route of physical and hydrometallurgical processing. Magnetic separation, acid digestion and chemical analysis by ICP-OES were performed. On leaching process were used two stages: the first one in a sulfuric media and the second in an oxidant media. The results showed that the PCBs composition was 74.6 wt.% of non-magnetic material and 25.4 wt.% of magnetic one. The metallic fraction corresponded to 44.0 wt.%, the polymeric to 28.5 wt.% and the ceramic to 27.5 wt.%. The main metal was copper and its initial content was 32.5 wt.%. On sulfuric leaching 90 wt.% of Al, 40 wt.% of Zn and 8.6 wt.% of Sn were extracted, whereas on oxidant leaching tests the extraction percentage of Cu was 100 wt.%, of Zn 60 wt.% and of Al 10 wt.%. At the end of the hydrometallurgical processing was obtained 100% of copper extraction and the recovery factor was 98.46%, which corresponds to a 32 kg of Cu in 100 kg of PCB.

  15. Inline Monitors for Measuring Cs-137 in the SRS Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, V

    2006-04-24

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, a portion of dissolved saltcake waste will be processed through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). The MCU employs the CSSX process, a continuous process that uses a novel solvent to extract cesium from waste and concentrate it in dilute nitric acid. Of primary concern is Cs-137 which makes the solution highly radioactive. Since the MCU does not have the capacity to wait for sample results while continuing to operate, the Waste Acceptance Strategy is to perform inline analyses. Gamma-ray monitors are used to: measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) before entering the DSS Hold Tank; measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent (SE) before entering the SE Hold Tank; and verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process. Since this gamma ray monitoring system application is unique, specially designed shielding was developed and software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling the monitor hardware and communicating with the host Distributed Control System. This paper presents the design, fabrication and implementation of this monitoring system.

  16. Extracting important information from Chinese Operation Notes with natural language processing methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Weide; Zeng, Qiang; Li, Zuofeng; Feng, Kaiyan; Liu, Lei

    2014-04-01

    Extracting information from unstructured clinical narratives is valuable for many clinical applications. Although natural Language Processing (NLP) methods have been profoundly studied in electronic medical records (EMR), few studies have explored NLP in extracting information from Chinese clinical narratives. In this study, we report the development and evaluation of extracting tumor-related information from operation notes of hepatic carcinomas which were written in Chinese. Using 86 operation notes manually annotated by physicians as the training set, we explored both rule-based and supervised machine-learning approaches. Evaluating on unseen 29 operation notes, our best approach yielded 69.6% in precision, 58.3% in recall and 63.5% F-score.

  17. Knowledge Extraction from MEDLINE by Combining Clustering with Natural Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Miñarro-Giménez, Jose A.; Kreuzthaler, Markus; Schulz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The identification of relevant predicates between co-occurring concepts in scientific literature databases like MEDLINE is crucial for using these sources for knowledge extraction, in order to obtain meaningful biomedical predications as subject-predicate-object triples. We consider the manually assigned MeSH indexing terms (main headings and subheadings) in MEDLINE records as a rich resource for extracting a broad range of domain knowledge. In this paper, we explore the combination of a clustering method for co-occurring concepts based on their related MeSH subheadings in MEDLINE with the use of SemRep, a natural language processing engine, which extracts predications from free text documents. As a result, we generated sets of clusters of co-occurring concepts and identified the most significant predicates for each cluster. The association of such predicates with the co-occurrences of the resulting clusters produces the list of predications, which were checked for relevance. PMID:26958228

  18. Extracting business vocabularies from business process models: SBVR and BPMN standards-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skersys, Tomas; Butleris, Rimantas; Kapocius, Kestutis

    2013-10-01

    Approaches for the analysis and specification of business vocabularies and rules are very relevant topics in both Business Process Management and Information Systems Development disciplines. However, in common practice of Information Systems Development, the Business modeling activities still are of mostly empiric nature. In this paper, basic aspects of the approach for business vocabularies' semi-automated extraction from business process models are presented. The approach is based on novel business modeling-level OMG standards "Business Process Model and Notation" (BPMN) and "Semantics for Business Vocabularies and Business Rules" (SBVR), thus contributing to OMG's vision about Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) and to model-driven development in general.

  19. Enhancement of Cognitive Functions by Aronia melanocarpa Elliot Through an Intermittent Ultrasonication Extraction Process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Young; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2016-03-01

    To increase the cognitive enhancement provided by Aronia melanocarpa Elliot (Aronia), Aronia was extracted using 70% ethanol solvent and six cycles of intermittent ultrasonication at 120 KHz for 50 min, followed by a rest for 10 min (UE), and was also extracted using 70% ethanol for 24 h at 80°C (EE) as a control process. In both in vivo water maze and passive avoidance tests, the UE showed better performance enhancement than the EE: in the water maze, mice treated with EE and UE showed escape latencies of 62.6 s and 54.3 s, respectively; for passive avoidance, they showed retention times of 45.9 s and 38.9 s, respectively. UE downregulated the expression level of acetylcholinesterase genes to 1.46 times compared with 1.72 for EE. However, there were no significant histological differences in the hippocampus between the mice fed with EE and those fed UE. Additionally, the UE was confirmed to have a greater antioxidant effect, 0.728 versus 0.561 for EE. Comparison of the high-performance liquid chromatography chromatograms of the extracts demonstrates that the intermittent ultrasonication process may improve the cognitive activities of Aronia by eluting higher amounts of cyanidin-3-galactoside (C3G). This work is the first to report that the crude extract from the intermittent ultrasonication process provided better cognitive enhancement than a single major bioactive substance, C3G itself, possibly through the synergistic effects of other anthocyanins present in the extract, such as delphine galactoside, cyanidin arabinoside, and cyanidin glucoside. We also believe that these findings may provide a reliable basis for developing natural plant drugs to compensate for the side effects of purified and/or chemically synthesized single-component drugs rather than to compete with them.

  20. Flaking process increases the NF-κB inhibition activity and melanoidin extractability of coffee

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yi-Fang; Hu, Kang; Hatzold, Thomas; Black, Richard M; Chen, Don

    2013-01-01

    Research on the health impacts of coffee has escalated. However, few studies were devoted to understanding the potential impact of mechanical processing on coffee's chemistry and subsequent health implications. Coffee flaking is a commonly used process to improve extractability and aroma characteristics. In this study, we studied the biochemical activity, chemical composition, and microstructure of coffee before and after flaking. We found that flaked coffee extract had 3.3-fold higher activity in inhibiting nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation than regular coffee extract. Interestingly, flaking did not significantly alter the amount of coffee phenolics. It increased coffee melanoidin, by 2.1-fold, which likely contributed to the observed higher activity in inhibiting NF-κB activation. Flaking crushed cell walls revealed by microscopy might possibly result in disruption of polysaccharide entanglement and release of high-molecular-weight compounds, such as melanoidins. Consequently, the increased melanoidin content in the brew resulted in the increased inhibition of NF-κB activation. Small molecules, like coffee phenolics, are readily soluble in water during coffee brewing even without flaking, suggesting that flaking has no effect on its extractability. In summary, our investigation revealed that flaking enhanced NF-κB inhibition activity, possibly through the release of melanoidins from crushed cell microstructures. PMID:24804042

  1. Flaking process increases the NF-κB inhibition activity and melanoidin extractability of coffee.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yi-Fang; Hu, Kang; Hatzold, Thomas; Black, Richard M; Chen, Don

    2013-09-01

    Research on the health impacts of coffee has escalated. However, few studies were devoted to understanding the potential impact of mechanical processing on coffee's chemistry and subsequent health implications. Coffee flaking is a commonly used process to improve extractability and aroma characteristics. In this study, we studied the biochemical activity, chemical composition, and microstructure of coffee before and after flaking. We found that flaked coffee extract had 3.3-fold higher activity in inhibiting nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation than regular coffee extract. Interestingly, flaking did not significantly alter the amount of coffee phenolics. It increased coffee melanoidin, by 2.1-fold, which likely contributed to the observed higher activity in inhibiting NF-κB activation. Flaking crushed cell walls revealed by microscopy might possibly result in disruption of polysaccharide entanglement and release of high-molecular-weight compounds, such as melanoidins. Consequently, the increased melanoidin content in the brew resulted in the increased inhibition of NF-κB activation. Small molecules, like coffee phenolics, are readily soluble in water during coffee brewing even without flaking, suggesting that flaking has no effect on its extractability. In summary, our investigation revealed that flaking enhanced NF-κB inhibition activity, possibly through the release of melanoidins from crushed cell microstructures. PMID:24804042

  2. A process for reduction in viscosity of coffee extract by enzymatic hydrolysis of mannan.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Prakram Singh; Sharma, Prince; Puri, Neena; Gupta, Naveen

    2014-07-01

    Mannan is the main polysaccharide component of coffee extract and is responsible for its high viscosity, which in turn negatively affects the technological processing involved in making instant coffee. In our study, we isolated mannan from coffee beans and extract of commercial coffee and it was enzymatically hydrolyzed using alkali-thermostable mannanase obtained from Bacillus nealsonii PN-11. As mannan is found to be more soluble under alkaline conditions, an alkali-thermostable mannanase is well suited for its hydrolysis. The process of enzymatic hydrolysis was optimized by response surface methodology. Under the following optimized conditions viz enzyme dose of 11.50 U mannanase g(-1) coffee extract, temperature of 44.50 °C and time of 35.80 min, significant twofold decrease in viscosity (50 mPas to 26.00 ± 1.56 mPas) was achieved. The application of this process in large-scale industrial production of coffee will help in reduction of energy consumption used during freeze-drying. It will also make technological processing involved in making coffee more economical.

  3. Detoxification of Abrus precatorius L. seeds by Ayurvedic Shodhana process and anti-inflammatory potential of the detoxified extract

    PubMed Central

    Dhoble, Sagar B.; Majumdar, Anuradha S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abrus precatorius seeds traditionally used for the treatment of sciatica and alopecia contains the toxic protein, abrin, a Type II Ribosome Inactivating Protein. Ayurveda recommends the use of Abrus seeds after the Shodhana process (detoxification). Objective: The current study was aimed at performing the Shodhana process, swedana (boiling) of Abrus precatorius seeds using water as a medium and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of seed extract post detoxification. Materials and Methods: Non-detoxified and detoxified extracts were prepared and subsequently subjected to various in vitro and in vivo assays. In hemagglutination assay, the non-detoxified extract shows higher agglutination of RBCs than detoxified extract indicating riddance of toxic hemagglutinating proteins by Shodhana. This was confirmed by the SDSPAGE analysis of detoxified extract revealing the absence of abrin band in detoxified extract when compared to non-detoxified extract. Results: The cytotoxicity assay in HeLa cell line expresses a higher reduction in growth percentage of the cells with non-detoxified extract as compared to detoxified extract indicating successful detoxification. Brine shrimp lethality test indicated the reduction in toxicity index of detoxified extract as compared to non-detoxified extract. Further, the whole body apoptosis assay in zebrafish revealed that percentage of viable cells were greater for detoxified extract than non-detoxified extract. The anti-inflammatory studies using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats was carried out on the extracts with doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, per oral, where the detoxified extract exhibited significant inhibition of rat paw edema at both the doses comparable to that of Diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Absence of toxicity and the retention of the anti-inflammatory activity of detoxified Abrus seed extract confirmed that the Swedana process is effective in carrying out the detoxification without affecting

  4. Sabah snake grass extract pre-processing: Preliminary studies in drying and fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solibun, A.; Sivakumar, K.

    2016-06-01

    Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. F.) Lindau which also known as ‘Sabah Snake Grass’ among Malaysians have been studied in terms of its medicinal and chemical properties in Asian countries which is used to treat various diseases from cancer to viral-related diseases such as varicella-zoster virus lesions. Traditionally, this plant has been used by the locals to treat insect and snake bites, skin rashes, diabetes and dysentery. In Malaysia, the fresh leaves of this plant are usually boiled with water and consumed as herbal tea. The objectives of this study are to determine the key process parameters for Sabah Snake Grass fermentation which affect the chemical and biological constituent concentrations within the tea, extraction kinetics of fermented and unfermented tea and the optimal process parameters for the fermentation of this tea. Experimental methods such as drying, fermenting and extraction of C.nutans leaves were conducted before subjecting them to analysis of antioxidant capacity. Conventional oven- dried (40, 45 and 50°C) and fermented (6, 12 and 18 hours) whole C.nutans leaves were subjected to tea infusion extraction (water temperature was 80°C, duration was 90 minutes) and the sample liquid was extracted for every 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 40th, 60th and 90th minute. Analysis for antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) were conducted by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocaltheu reagent, respectively. The 40°C dried leaves sample produced the highest phenolic content at 0.1344 absorbance value in 15 minutes of extraction while 50°C dried leaves sample produced 0.1298 absorbance value in 10 minutes of extraction. The highest antioxidant content was produced by 50°C dried leaves sample with absorbance value of 1.6299 in 5 minutes of extraction. For 40°C dried leaves sample, the highest antioxidant content could be observed in 25 minutes of extraction with the absorbance value of 1.1456. The largest diameter of disc

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Quentin C. Berg; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Jason C. Hissam; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Abha Saddawi; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-07

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of carbon electrodes for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells (DCFC), and on carbon foam composites used in ballistic armor, as well as the hydrotreatment of solvents used in the basic solvent extraction process. A major goal is the production of 1500 pounds of binder pitch, corresponding to about 3000 pounds of hydrotreated solvent.

  6. Hybrid Discrete Wavelet Transform and Gabor Filter Banks Processing for Features Extraction from Biomedical Images

    PubMed Central

    Lahmiri, Salim; Boukadoum, Mounir

    2013-01-01

    A new methodology for automatic feature extraction from biomedical images and subsequent classification is presented. The approach exploits the spatial orientation of high-frequency textural features of the processed image as determined by a two-step process. First, the two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is applied to obtain the HH high-frequency subband image. Then, a Gabor filter bank is applied to the latter at different frequencies and spatial orientations to obtain new Gabor-filtered image whose entropy and uniformity are computed. Finally, the obtained statistics are fed to a support vector machine (SVM) binary classifier. The approach was validated on mammograms, retina, and brain magnetic resonance (MR) images. The obtained classification accuracies show better performance in comparison to common approaches that use only the DWT or Gabor filter banks for feature extraction. PMID:27006906

  7. Bicoid signal extraction with a selection of parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Ghodsi, Zara; Silva, Emmanuel Sirimal; Hassani, Hossein

    2015-06-01

    The maternal segmentation coordinate gene bicoid plays a significant role during Drosophila embryogenesis. The gradient of Bicoid, the protein encoded by this gene, determines most aspects of head and thorax development. This paper seeks to explore the applicability of a variety of signal processing techniques at extracting bicoid expression signal, and whether these methods can outperform the current model. We evaluate the use of six different powerful and widely-used models representing both parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques to determine the most efficient method for signal extraction in bicoid. The results are evaluated using both real and simulated data. Our findings show that the Singular Spectrum Analysis technique proposed in this paper outperforms the synthesis diffusion degradation model for filtering the noisy protein profile of bicoid whilst the exponential smoothing technique was found to be the next best alternative followed by the autoregressive integrated moving average.

  8. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its application to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.N. ); King, C.J. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports on solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents which increase sharply as the concentration of water in the solvent increases. This phenomenon leads to a method of regeneration for solvent-extraction processes whereby coextracted water is selectively removed from the extract, such as by stripping, thereby precipitating the acid. The removal of a minor constituent to cause precipitation reduces energy consumption, in contrast with bulk removal of solvent. Solubilities of fumaric acid were measured in a number of organic solvents, with varying amounts of water in the organic phase. Cyclohexanone and methylcyclohexanone were chosen as solvents for which detailed solid-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria were measured for adipic, fumaric, and succinic acids in the presence of varying concentrations of water, at both 25 and 45[degrees]C. Batch precipitation experiments were performed to demonstrate the processing concept and determine the relative volatility of water to solvent in the presence of carbon.

  9. Bicoid Signal Extraction with a Selection of Parametric and Nonparametric Signal Processing Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsi, Zara; Silva, Emmanuel Sirimal; Hassani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    The maternal segmentation coordinate gene bicoid plays a significant role during Drosophila embryogenesis. The gradient of Bicoid, the protein encoded by this gene, determines most aspects of head and thorax development. This paper seeks to explore the applicability of a variety of signal processing techniques at extracting bicoid expression signal, and whether these methods can outperform the current model. We evaluate the use of six different powerful and widely-used models representing both parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques to determine the most efficient method for signal extraction in bicoid. The results are evaluated using both real and simulated data. Our findings show that the Singular Spectrum Analysis technique proposed in this paper outperforms the synthesis diffusion degradation model for filtering the noisy protein profile of bicoid whilst the exponential smoothing technique was found to be the next best alternative followed by the autoregressive integrated moving average. PMID:26197438

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-08-11

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the facility modifications for continuous hydrotreating, as well as developing improved protocols for producing synthetic pitches.

  11. Solvent extraction of organic acids from stillage for its re-use in ethanol production process.

    PubMed

    Castro, G A; Caicedo, L A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Sanchez, O F

    2010-06-01

    Stillage re-use in the fermentation stage in ethanol production is a technique used for the reduction of water and fermentation nutrients consumption. However, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth of the by-products and feed components that remains in stillage increases with re-use and reduces the number of possible recycles. Several methods such as ultrafiltration, electrodialysis and advanced oxidation processes have been used in stillage treatment prior its re-use in the fermentation stage. Nevertheless, few studies evaluating the effect of solvent extraction as a stillage treatment option have been performed. In this work, the inhibitory effect of serial stillage recycling over ethanol and biomass production was determined, using acetic acid as a monitoring compound during the fermentation and solvent extraction process. Raw palm oil methyl ester showed the highest acetic acid extraction from the aqueous phase, presenting a distribution coefficient of 3.10 for a 1:1 aqueous phase mixture:solvent ratio. Re-using stillage without treatment allowed up to three recycles with an ethanol production of 53.7 +/- 2.0 g L(-1), which was reduced 25% in the fifth recycle. Alternatively, treated stillage allowed up to five recycles with an ethanol final concentration of 54.7 +/- 1.3 g L(- 1). These results show that reduction of acetic acid concentration by an extraction process with raw palm oil methyl ester before re-using stillage improves the number of recycles without a major effect on ethanol production. The proposed process generates a palm oil methyl ester that contains organic acids, among other by-products, that could be used for product recovery and as an alternative fuel.

  12. Optimization of extraction process by response surface methodology and preliminary structural analysis of polysaccharides from defatted peanut (Arachis hypogaea) cakes.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Du, Bingjian; Zhou, Ting; Han, Bing; Yu, Fei; Yang, Rui; Hu, Xiaosong; Ni, Yuanying; Li, Quanhong

    2011-02-01

    In this work, response surface methodology was used to determine optimum conditions for extraction of polysaccharides from defatted peanut cake. A central composite design including independent variables, such as extraction temperature (x(1)), extraction time (x(2)), and ethanol concentration (x(3)) was used. Selected response which evaluates the extraction process was polysaccharide yield, and the second-order model obtained for polysaccharide yield revealed coefficient of determination of 97.81%. The independent variable with the largest effect on response was ethanol concentration (x(3)). The optimum extraction conditions were found to be extraction temperature 48.7°C, extraction time 1.52 h, and ethanol concentration of 61.9% (v/v), respectively. Under these conditions, the extraction efficiency of polysaccharide can increase to 25.89%. The results of structural analysis showed that the main composition of defatted peanut cake polysaccharide was α-galactose.

  13. Soy Sauce Residue Oil Extracted by a Novel Continuous Phase Transition Extraction under Low Temperature and Its Refining Process.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lichao; Zhang, Yong; He, Liping; Dai, Weijie; Lai, Yingyi; Yao, Xueyi; Cao, Yong

    2014-03-28

    On the basis of previous single-factor experiments, extraction parameters of soy sauce residue (SSR) oil extracted using a self-developed continuous phase transition extraction method at low temperature was optimized using the response surface methodology. The established optimal conditions for maximum oil yield were n-butane solvent, 0.5 MPa extraction pressure, 45 °C temperature, 62 min extraction time, and 45 mesh raw material granularity. Under these conditions, the actual yield was 28.43% ± 0.17%, which is relatively close to the predicted yield. Meanwhile, isoflavone was extracted from defatted SSR using the same method, but the parameters and solvent used were altered. The new solvent was 95% (v/v) ethanol, and extraction was performed under 1.0 MPa at 60 °C for 90 min. The extracted isoflavones, with 0.18% ± 0.012% yield, mainly comprised daidzein and genistein, two kinds of aglycones. The novel continuous phase transition extraction under low temperature could provide favorable conditions for the extraction of nonpolar or strongly polar substances. The oil physicochemical properties and fatty acids compositions were analyzed. Results showed that the main drawback of the crude oil was the excess of acid value (AV, 63.9 ± 0.1 mg KOH/g) and peroxide value (POV, 9.05 ± 0.3 mmol/kg), compared with that of normal soybean oil. However, through molecular distillation, AV and POV dropped to 1.78 ± 0.12 mg KOH/g and 5.9 ± 0.08 mmol/kg, respectively. This refined oil may be used as feedstuff oil. PMID:24650165

  14. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Jeffry

    2007-02-13

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacts a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  15. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOEpatents

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Curry, Randy Dale; Clevenger, Thomas E.; Golden, Jeffry

    2000-01-01

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacting a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  16. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOEpatents

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Curry, Randy Dale; Clevenger, Thomas E.; Golden, Jeffry

    2003-05-27

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacts a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  17. Analysis of a reactive extraction process for biodiesel production using a lipase immobilized on magnetic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Dussan, K J; Cardona, C A; Giraldo, O H; Gutiérrez, L F; Pérez, V H

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by coprecipitating Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) ions in a sodium hydroxide solution and used as support for lipase. The lipase-coated particles were applied in a reactive extraction process that allowed separation of the products formed during transesterification. Kinetics data for triolein and ethanol consumption during biodiesel (ethyl oleate) synthesis together with a thermodynamic phase equilibrium model (liquid-liquid) were used for simulation of batch and continuous processes. The analysis demonstrated the possibility of applying this biocatalytic system in the reactive zone using external magnetic fields. This approach implies new advantages in efficient location and use of lipases in column reactors for producing biodiesel. PMID:20716486

  18. Semantic extraction and processing of medical records for patient-oriented visual index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weilin; Dong, Wenjie; Chen, Xiangjiao; Zhang, Jianguo

    2012-02-01

    To have comprehensive and completed understanding healthcare status of a patient, doctors need to search patient medical records from different healthcare information systems, such as PACS, RIS, HIS, USIS, as a reference of diagnosis and treatment decisions for the patient. However, it is time-consuming and tedious to do these procedures. In order to solve this kind of problems, we developed a patient-oriented visual index system (VIS) to use the visual technology to show health status and to retrieve the patients' examination information stored in each system with a 3D human model. In this presentation, we present a new approach about how to extract the semantic and characteristic information from the medical record systems such as RIS/USIS to create the 3D Visual Index. This approach includes following steps: (1) Building a medical characteristic semantic knowledge base; (2) Developing natural language processing (NLP) engine to perform semantic analysis and logical judgment on text-based medical records; (3) Applying the knowledge base and NLP engine on medical records to extract medical characteristics (e.g., the positive focus information), and then mapping extracted information to related organ/parts of 3D human model to create the visual index. We performed the testing procedures on 559 samples of radiological reports which include 853 focuses, and achieved 828 focuses' information. The successful rate of focus extraction is about 97.1%.

  19. High hydrostatic pressure processing: a method having high success potential in pollen protein extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murat Altuner, Ergin; Çeter, Talip; Alpas, Hami

    2012-06-01

    Even a single peptide that is present in the pollen wall and cytoplasm could cause pollen allergy. To produce skin-prick test kits, the first step is the extraction of these molecules. In this study, Cedrus atlantica pollens were subjected to 220 and 330 MPa for 10 and 30 min in order to extract these molecules. After high hydrostatic pressure processing (HHPP), the total amounts of proteins (TAPs) are measured and compared with the results of the conventional extraction method (CEM). As a result, the TAPs extracted by HHPP is 18.0210 μ g/mL at 220 MPa for 10 min, 22.5770 μ g/mL at 220 MPa for 30 min, 23.3810 μ g/mL at 330 MPa for 10 min and 25.9270 μ g/mL at 330 MPa for 30 min, while this is 1.9460 μ g/mL in 24 h by the CEM. In addition to these results, visual pollen deformation and eruption, pollen wall and surface damage have also been observed.

  20. Concentration of antioxidant polyphenols from Thymus capitatus extracts by membrane process technology.

    PubMed

    Achour, Sami; Khelifi, Eltaief; Attia, Yesmine; Ferjani, Ezzeddine; Noureddine Hellal, Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    Thymus capitatus is a Mediterranean plant characterized by its antioxidant polyphenols of which the most known are the carnosic and rosmarinic acids. In this way, this study aims to concentrate these acids by membrane processes. The thyme essential oil composition was established by capillary GC-MS and 27 components were identified representing 98.93%± 1.97% of total oils. The antioxidant test for permeate and retentate of methanolic and aqueous extract were determined using 3 types of membranes. The results showed that the synthetic NF membrane is able to trap and concentrate phenolic compounds in the retentate much better than the NF commercial and UF synthetic membrane. The results of the total phenolic content (TPC) showed a significant value of the polyphenol content present in the aqueous extract with 175.53 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE)/g of extract. The spectrum of the aqueous extract of Thymus capitatus showed the presence of 3 visible peaks, the 1st one at 217 nm corresponding to the carnosic acid, the 2nd one at 277 nm for essential oils, and the last one at 326 nm attributed to the rosmarinic acid. The commercial membrane NF-DK succeeded to concentrate rosmarinic acid and can be considered as a stage towards the concentration of this product with a high added value. PMID:22612548

  1. Separation processes for recovering alloy steels from grinding sludge: Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and aqueous cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, H.; Matthews, M.A.

    1999-04-01

    Two separation processes have been developed to remove contaminants (cutting oil with trace phosphorus additive) from high-speed steel grinding sludge. One process uses an aqueous surfactant washing technique, and the second process uses supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO{sub 2}) extraction. Bench-scale aqueous washings have shown that the required phosphorus removal is easily obtained, but a sufficient oil removal is more difficult. The experimental results also indicate a strong dependence of the aqueous washing efficiency on the choice of a suitable surfactant. A mass transfer model is used to simulate a semi-continuous washing process. SCCO{sub 2} extraction at 80 C and 340 atm shows that approximately 80% of the oil can be removed from the sludge during a 60-minute process to produce a batch of recyclable steel, and that the phosphorus removal also reaches the required level. A linear desorption model is used to describe the irreversible desorption of oil from the solid phase into the CO{sub 2} phase, and the simulated results agree very well with the experimental data.

  2. Nuclei extraction from histopathological images using a marked point process approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikova, Maria; Veillard, Antoine; Roux, Ludovic; Racoceanu, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Morphology of cell nuclei is a central aspect in many histopathological studies, in particular in breast cancer grading. Therefore, the automatic detection and extraction of cell nuclei from microscopic images obtained from cancer tissue slides is one of the most important problems in digital histopathology. We propose to tackle the problem using a model based on marked point processes (MPP), a methodology for extraction of multiple objects from images. The advantage of MPP based models is their ability to take into account the geometry of objects; and the information about their spatial repartition in the image. Previously, the MPP models have been applied for the extraction of objects of simple geometrical shapes. For histological grading, a morphological criterion known as nuclear pleomorphism corresponding to fine morphological differences between the nuclei is assessed by pathologists. Therefore, the accurate delineation of nuclei became an issue of even greater importance than optimal nuclei detection. Recently, the MPP framework has been defined on the space of arbitrarily-shaped objects allowing more accurate extraction of complex-shaped objects. The nuclei often appear joint or even overlap in histopathological images. The model still allows to extract them as individual joint or overlapping objects without discarding the overlapping parts and therefore without significant loss in delineation precision. We aim to compare the MPP model with two state-of-the-art methods selected from a comprehensive review of the available methods. The experiments are performed using a database of H&E stained breast cancer images covering a wide range of histological grades.

  3. Fluoro-alcohol phase modifiers and process for cesium solvent extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bonnesen, Peter V.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.

    2003-05-20

    The invention relates to a class of phenoxy fluoro-alcohols, their preparation, and their use as phase modifiers and solvating agents in a solvent composition for the extraction of cesium from alkaline solutions. These phenoxy fluoro-alcohols comply with the formula: ##STR1## in which n=2 to 4; X represents a hydrogen or a fluorine atom, and R.sup.2 -R.sup.6 are hydrogen or alkyl substituents. These phenoxy fluoro-alcohol phase modifiers are a necessary component to a robust solvent composition and process useful for the removal of radioactive cesium from alkaline nuclear waste streams. The fluoro-alcohols can also be used in solvents designed to extract other cesium from acidic or neutral solutions.

  4. Hybrid joule heating/electro-osmosis process for extracting contaminants from soil layers

    DOEpatents

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Nitao, John J.

    2003-06-10

    Joule (ohmic) heating and electro-osmosis are combined in a hybrid process for removal of both water-soluble contaminants and non-aqueous phase liquids from contaminated, low-permeability soil formations that are saturated. Central to this hybrid process is the partial desaturation of the formation or layer using electro-osmosis to remove a portion of the pore fluids by induction of a ground water flow to extraction wells. Joule heating is then performed on a partially desaturated formation. The joule heating and electro-osmosis operations can be carried out simultaneously or sequentially if the desaturation by electro-osmosis occurs initially. Joule heating of the desaturated formation results in a very effective transfer or partitioning of liquid state contaminants to the vapor phase. The heating also substantially increases the vapor phase pressure in the porous formation. As a result, the contaminant laden vapor phase is forced out into soil layers of a higher permeability where other conventional removal processes, such as steam stripping or ground water extraction can be used to capture the contaminants. This hybrid process is more energy efficient than joule heating or steam stripping for cleaning low permeability formations and can share electrodes to minimize facility costs.

  5. Digital processing considerations for extraction of ocean wave image spectra from raw synthetic aperture radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahaie, I. J.; Dias, A. R.; Darling, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The digital processing requirements of several algorithms for extracting the spectrum of a detected synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image from the raw SAR data are described and compared. The most efficient algorithms for image spectrum extraction from raw SAR data appear to be those containing an intermediate image formation step. It is shown that a recently developed compact formulation of the image spectrum in terms of the raw data is computationally inefficient when evaluated directly, in comparison with the classical method where matched-filter image formation is an intermediate result. It is also shown that a proposed indirect procedure for digitally implementing the same compact formulation is somewhat more efficient than the classical matched-filtering approach. However, this indirect procedure includes the image formation process as part of the total algorithm. Indeed, the computational savings afforded by the indirect implementation are identical to those obtained in SAR image formation processing when the matched-filtering algorithm is replaced by the well-known 'dechirp-Fourier transform' technique. Furthermore, corrections to account for slant-to-ground range conversion, spherical earth, etc., are often best implemented in the image domain, making intermediate image formation a valuable processing feature.

  6. Molecullar and biochemical effect of alcohlic extract of Alpinia galanga on rat spermatogenesis process

    PubMed Central

    Mazaheri, Mahta; Shahdadi, Vahid; Nazari Boron, Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alpinia galanga (A. galanga) belongs to the Zingiberaceae family has anti-oxidant effects in animals and humans body and often is used as medicament or part of medicaments in Asian folk medicine for various applications. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular and biochemical influence of alcoholic extract from the rhizomes of A. galangal on the spermatogenesis process in male rat. Materials and Methods: Forty five Wistar male rats were divided into three groups, control (n=15) and two tested groups (n=30). Alcoholic extract (5%) of plant was given by oral route at doses of 100 and 300 mg/day for 56 days and spermatogenesis parameters, hormone changes and expression level of the cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM) gene were assessed. Results: Methanol extract of A. galanga increased serum testosterones level significantly in both treated groups in comparison with control group (p<0.05). Besides, the percentage of sperm viability and motility in both tested groups were significantly increased. Follicle stimulating hormone FSH hormone, morphology and weight were affected in both treated groups. With 300 mg/day an increase in sperm count was observed. Sperm motility was increased in two treated groups whereas testis weight was decreased in treated groups. Real time analysis of treated cells of testis showed increase level of mRNA related to CREM gene involved in spermatogenesis process after 56 days induction. Conclusion: It is concluded that application of ethanolic extract of A. galanga significantly increased sperm percentage, viability, motility and testosterone hormone. This suggested that this plant may be promising in enhancing sperm healthy parameters. PMID:25709632

  7. A comparison of essential oils obtained from lavandin via different extraction processes: Ultrasound, microwave, turbohydrodistillation, steam and hydrodistillation.

    PubMed

    Périno-Issartier, Sandrine; Ginies, Christian; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Chemat, Farid

    2013-08-30

    A total of eight extraction techniques ranging from conventional methods (hydrodistillation (HD), steam distillation (SD), turbohydrodistillation (THD)), through innovative techniques (ultrasound assisted extraction (US-SD) and finishing with microwave assisted extraction techniques such as In situ microwave-generated hydrodistillation (ISMH), microwave steam distillation (MSD), microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG), and microwave steam diffusion (MSDf)) were used to extract essential oil from lavandin flowers and their results were compared. Extraction time, yield, essential oil composition and sensorial analysis were considered as the principal terms of comparison. The essential oils extracted using the more innovative processes were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained from the conventional techniques. The method which gave the best results was the microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) method which gave reduced extraction time (30min against 220min for SD) and gave no differences in essential oil yield and sensorial perception. PMID:23890545

  8. Effects of Extraction and Processing Methods on Antioxidant Compound Contents and Radical Scavenging Activities of Laver (Porphyra tenera)

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Eun-Sun; Thi, Nhuan Do

    2014-01-01

    Laver is one of the most consumed edible red algae seaweeds in the genus Porphyra. Laver is primarily prepared in the form of dried, roasted, and seasoned products. We investigated the total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of laver products, and evaluated the in vitro antioxidant properties of solvent extracts from commercially processed laver products. Significant differences in the concentration of phenolic compounds were found among differently processed laver. The total phenolic content for laver extracts ranged from 10.81 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract to 32.14 mg GAE/g extract, depending on extraction solvent and temperature. Laver extracts contained very few flavonoids (0.55 mg catechin equivalent/g extracts to 1.75 mg catechin equivalent/g extracts). 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion scavenging assays were used to determine the radical scavenging capacities of laver extracts. These assays revealed that the processing method and extraction condition affected the antioxidant potentials of laver. Antioxidant activity of dried laver, roasted laver, and seasoned laver increased in a concentration-dependent manner (100~1,000 μg/mL). The radical scavenging activities of 37°C and 100°C water extracts were lower than that of a 37°C 70% ethanol extract. The highest radical scavenging capacity was observed in the 37°C 70% ethanol extracts of dried laver, roasted laver, and seasoned laver. Overall, these results support that notion that laver contains bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols and flavonoids, which may have a positive effect on health. PMID:24772408

  9. Synthesis and extraction studies with a rationally designed diamide ligand selective to actinide(iv) pertinent to the plutonium uranium redox extraction process.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shikha; Panja, Surajit; Bhattacharyya, Arunasis; Dhami, Prem S; Gandhi, Preetam M; Ghosh, Sunil K

    2016-05-01

    A new class of conformationally constrained oxa-bridged tricyclo-dicarboxamide (OTDA) ligand was rationally designed for the selective extraction of tetravalent actinides pertinent to the Plutonium Uranium Redox EXtraction (PUREX) process. Two of the designed diamide ligands were synthesized and extraction studies were performed for Pu(iv) from HNO3 medium. The mechanism of extraction was investigated by studying various parameters such as feed HNO3, NaNO3 and OTDA concentrations. The nature of the extracted species was found to be [Pu(NO3)4(OTDA)]. One of the OTDA ligands was elaborately tested and showed the selective extraction of Pu(iv) and Np(iv) over other actinide species, viz., U(vi), Np(v), Am(iii), lanthanides and fission products contained in a nuclear waste from the PUREX process. DFT calculations predicted the charge density on each of the coordinating 'O' atoms of OTDA supporting its high Pu(iv) selectivity over other ions studied and also provided the energy optimized structure of OTDA and its Pu(iv) complex. PMID:27054892

  10. Development of a process for the extraction of {sup 137}Cs from acidic HLLW based on crown-calix extractant use of di-alkylamide modifier

    SciTech Connect

    Alexova, J.; Sirova, M.; Rais, J.; Suzuki, S.; Hirata, M.; Kimura, T.; Tachimori, S.

    2008-07-01

    Within the framework of the ARTIST project of total fuel retreatment with ecological mixtures of solvents and extractants containing only C, H, O, and N atoms, a process segment of extraction of {sup 137}Cs from acidic stream was developed. The process with 25,27-Bis(1-octyloxy)calix[4]arene-crown- 6, DOC[4]C6, dissolved at its 0.01 M concentration in a mixture of 90 vol % 1-octanol and 10% dihexyl octanamide, DHOA was proposed as a viable variant due to its good multicycle performance, even with irradiated solvent, and due to the good chemical stability of the chosen combination of solvent mixture. (authors)

  11. Bio-processing of solid wastes and secondary resources for metal extraction - A review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Chun; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2012-01-01

    Metal containing wastes/byproducts of various industries, used consumer goods, and municipal waste are potential pollutants, if not treated properly. They may also be important secondary resources if processed in eco-friendly manner for secured supply of contained metals/materials. Bio-extraction of metals from such resources with microbes such as bacteria, fungi and archaea is being increasingly explored to meet the twin objectives of resource recycling and pollution mitigation. This review focuses on the bio-processing of solid wastes/byproducts of metallurgical and manufacturing industries, chemical/petrochemical plants, electroplating and tanning units, besides sewage sludge and fly ash of municipal incinerators, electronic wastes (e-wastes/PCBs), used batteries, etc. An assessment has been made to quantify the wastes generated and its compositions, microbes used, metal leaching efficiency etc. Processing of certain effluents and wastewaters comprising of metals is also included in brief. Future directions of research are highlighted.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. Table 1 provides an overview of the major markets for carbon products. Current sources of materials for these processes generally rely on petroleum distillation products or coal tar distillates obtained as a byproduct of metcoke production facilities. In the former case, the American materials industry, just as the energy industry, is dependent upon foreign sources of petroleum. In the latter case, metcoke production is decreasing every year due to the combined difficulties associated with poor economics and a significant environmental burden. Thus, a significant need exists for an environmentally clean process which can used domestically obtained raw materials and which can still be very competitive economically.

  13. Partitioning of trivalent actinides from a Purex raffinate using a TODGA-based solvent-extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Modolo, G.; Vijgen, H.; Malmbeck, R.; Magnusson, D.; Sorel, C.

    2008-07-01

    A TODGA/TBP process has been developed to separate trivalent actinides from a PUREX raffinate using a mixture of tetraoctyl-diglycolamide (TODGA) and tributylphosphate (TBP). Batch extraction experiments allowed us to choose and optimize the composition of the organic extractant and the aqueous feed solutions. With the aid of computer-code calculations, a countercurrent process has been developed, and an optimized flowsheet has been tested with a spiked feed solution and finally with a genuine PUREX raffinate. The results of the two tests were very promising, demonstrating that more than 99.9% of the trivalent actinides are extracted, and very high decontamination factors are obtained to the non-lanthanide fission products. Co-extracted ruthenium (10% during spiked test, 18% during hot test) is less efficiently back-extracted and therefore requires further process development. (authors)

  14. Comparative of signal processing techniques for micro-Doppler signature extraction with automotive radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Hervas, Berta; Maile, Michael; Flores, Benjamin C.

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, the automotive industry has experienced an evolution toward more powerful driver assistance systems that provide enhanced vehicle safety. These systems typically operate in the optical and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and have demonstrated high efficiency in collision and risk avoidance. Microwave radar systems are particularly relevant due to their operational robustness under adverse weather or illumination conditions. Our objective is to study different signal processing techniques suitable for extraction of accurate micro-Doppler signatures of slow moving objects in dense urban environments. Selection of the appropriate signal processing technique is crucial for the extraction of accurate micro-Doppler signatures that will lead to better results in a radar classifier system. For this purpose, we perform simulations of typical radar detection responses in common driving situations and conduct the analysis with several signal processing algorithms, including short time Fourier Transform, continuous wavelet or Kernel based analysis methods. We take into account factors such as the relative movement between the host vehicle and the target, and the non-stationary nature of the target's movement. A comparison of results reveals that short time Fourier Transform would be the best approach for detection and tracking purposes, while the continuous wavelet would be the best suited for classification purposes.

  15. Plant RNA processing: soybean pre-mRNA in a pea cell-free extract

    SciTech Connect

    Schuler, M.A.; Hanley, B.A.

    1987-05-01

    Using a pea cell-free extract they have demonstrated the splicing of an SP6 fusion transcript containing an intron derived from the soybean seed storage protein ..beta..-subunit gene. Intron 115 from the conglycinin gene was cloned into a SP6 vector and transcribed using standard recombinant DNA techniques. Incubation of radioactively labeled fusion transcripts in the cell-free system produced a number of products which were identified by primer extension and S1 nuclease analysis. All the products are linear RNA molecules. Lariat intermediates, similar to those found in the yeast and HeLa cell RNA processing systems, have not been detected. The linear RNA products detected in their plant in vitro processing system have various portions of the intron removed which suggests that alternative splice sites are used in processing of this plant intron due to activation of cryptic splice sites or creation of splice sites in the fusion construction. The kinetics of the reactions and parameters of the extract are similar to those determined for the HeLa cell system. Sucrose gradient analysis has demonstrated that the plant RNA products sedimented in a 30S particle, similar in size to that found for the spliceosome of the HeLa cell system.

  16. Sentence-processing in echo state networks: a qualitative analysis by finite state machine extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Stefan L.; Jacobsson, Henrik

    2010-06-01

    It has been shown that the ability of echo state networks (ESNs) to generalise in a sentence-processing task can be increased by adjusting their input connection weights to the training data. We present a qualitative analysis of the effect of such weight adjustment on an ESN that is trained to perform the next-word prediction task. Our analysis makes use of CrySSMEx, an algorithm for extracting finite state machines (FSMs) from the data about the inputs, internal states, and outputs of recurrent neural networks that process symbol sequences. We find that the ESN with adjusted input weights yields a concise and comprehensible FSM. In contrast, the standard ESN, which shows poor generalisation, results in a massive and complex FSM. The extracted FSMs show how the two networks differ behaviourally. Moreover, poor generalisation is shown to correspond to a highly fragmented quantisation of the network's state space. Such findings indicate that CrySSMEx can be a useful tool for analysing ESN sentence processing.

  17. Lymphangiogenesis and NOS Localization in Healing Process after Tooth Extraction in Akita Mouse.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shinya; Kikuchi, Ryuta; Ambe, Kimiharu; Nakagawa, Toshihiro; Takada, Satoshi; Ohno, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    Type I diabetes, an autoimmune disease, induces insulin deficiency, which then disrupts vascular endothelial cell function, affecting blood and lymphatic vessels. Nitric oxide (NO) is an immune-induced destructive mediator in type I diabetes, and inhibition of its production promotes arteriosclerosis. In this study, lymphangiogenesis and expression of NO synthase (NOS) during the healing process after tooth extraction were investigated immunohistochemically in control (C57BL) and Akita mice as a diabetes model. Between 1, 4, and 10 days after extraction, expression of NOS, vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), VEGF receptor-3 (VEGFR-3), and von Willebrand factor was strongest during the granulation tissue phase. This suggests that severe inflammation triggers regulation of NOS and these other angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors. During the callus phase, a few days after extraction, induced osteoblasts were positive for VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 in both the control and Akita mice, suggesting that bone formation is active in this period. Bone formation in the Akita group exceeded that in the controls. Bone tissue formation was disrupted under hyperglycemic conditions, however, suggesting that such activity would be insufficient to produce new bone. PMID:27665690

  18. Extraction of CYP chemical interactions from biomedical literature using natural language processing methods.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Dazhi; Wild, David J

    2009-02-01

    This paper proposes a system that automatically extracts CYP protein and chemical interactions from journal article abstracts, using natural language processing (NLP) and text mining methods. In our system, we employ a maximum entropy based learning method, using results from syntactic, semantic, and lexical analysis of texts. We first present our system architecture and then discuss the data set for training our machine learning based models and the methods in building components in our system, such as part of speech (POS) tagging, Named Entity Recognition (NER), dependency parsing, and relation extraction. An evaluation of the system is conducted at the end, yielding very promising results: The POS, dependency parsing, and NER components in our system have achieved a very high level of accuracy as measured by precision, ranging from 85.9% to 98.5%, and the precision and the recall of the interaction extraction component are 76.0% and 82.6%, and for the overall system are 68.4% and 72.2%, respectively.

  19. 2D-CELL: image processing software for extraction and analysis of 2-dimensional cellular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righetti, F.; Telley, H.; Leibling, Th. M.; Mocellin, A.

    1992-01-01

    2D-CELL is a software package for the processing and analyzing of photographic images of cellular structures in a largely interactive way. Starting from a binary digitized image, the programs extract the line network (skeleton) of the structure and determine the graph representation that best models it. Provision is made for manually correcting defects such as incorrect node positions or dangling bonds. Then a suitable algorithm retrieves polygonal contours which define individual cells — local boundary curvatures are neglected for simplicity. Using elementary analytical geometry relations, a range of metric and topological parameters describing the population are then computed, organized into statistical distributions and graphically displayed.

  20. PROCESS FOR EXTRACTING NEPTUNIUM AND PLUTONIUM FROM NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS OF SAME CONTAINING URANYL NITRATE WITH A TERTIARY AMINE

    DOEpatents

    Sheppard, J.C.

    1962-07-31

    A process of selectively extracting plutonium nitrate and neptunium nitrate with an organic solution of a tertiary amine, away from uranyl nitrate present in an aqueous solution in a maximum concentration of 1M is described. The nitric acid concentration is adjusted to about 4M and nitrous acid is added prior to extraction. (AEC)

  1. A Natural Language Processing Tool for Large-Scale Data Extraction from Echocardiography Reports

    PubMed Central

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R.

    2016-01-01

    Large volumes of data are continuously generated from clinical notes and diagnostic studies catalogued in electronic health records (EHRs). Echocardiography is one of the most commonly ordered diagnostic tests in cardiology. This study sought to explore the feasibility and reliability of using natural language processing (NLP) for large-scale and targeted extraction of multiple data elements from echocardiography reports. An NLP tool, EchoInfer, was developed to automatically extract data pertaining to cardiovascular structure and function from heterogeneously formatted echocardiographic data sources. EchoInfer was applied to echocardiography reports (2004 to 2013) available from 3 different on-going clinical research projects. EchoInfer analyzed 15,116 echocardiography reports from 1684 patients, and extracted 59 quantitative and 21 qualitative data elements per report. EchoInfer achieved a precision of 94.06%, a recall of 92.21%, and an F1-score of 93.12% across all 80 data elements in 50 reports. Physician review of 400 reports demonstrated that EchoInfer achieved a recall of 92–99.9% and a precision of >97% in four data elements, including three quantitative and one qualitative data element. Failure of EchoInfer to correctly identify or reject reported parameters was primarily related to non-standardized reporting of echocardiography data. EchoInfer provides a powerful and reliable NLP-based approach for the large-scale, targeted extraction of information from heterogeneous data sources. The use of EchoInfer may have implications for the clinical management and research analysis of patients undergoing echocardiographic evaluation. PMID:27124000

  2. A Natural Language Processing Tool for Large-Scale Data Extraction from Echocardiography Reports.

    PubMed

    Nath, Chinmoy; Albaghdadi, Mazen S; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R

    2016-01-01

    Large volumes of data are continuously generated from clinical notes and diagnostic studies catalogued in electronic health records (EHRs). Echocardiography is one of the most commonly ordered diagnostic tests in cardiology. This study sought to explore the feasibility and reliability of using natural language processing (NLP) for large-scale and targeted extraction of multiple data elements from echocardiography reports. An NLP tool, EchoInfer, was developed to automatically extract data pertaining to cardiovascular structure and function from heterogeneously formatted echocardiographic data sources. EchoInfer was applied to echocardiography reports (2004 to 2013) available from 3 different on-going clinical research projects. EchoInfer analyzed 15,116 echocardiography reports from 1684 patients, and extracted 59 quantitative and 21 qualitative data elements per report. EchoInfer achieved a precision of 94.06%, a recall of 92.21%, and an F1-score of 93.12% across all 80 data elements in 50 reports. Physician review of 400 reports demonstrated that EchoInfer achieved a recall of 92-99.9% and a precision of >97% in four data elements, including three quantitative and one qualitative data element. Failure of EchoInfer to correctly identify or reject reported parameters was primarily related to non-standardized reporting of echocardiography data. EchoInfer provides a powerful and reliable NLP-based approach for the large-scale, targeted extraction of information from heterogeneous data sources. The use of EchoInfer may have implications for the clinical management and research analysis of patients undergoing echocardiographic evaluation. PMID:27124000

  3. Bio-processing of solid wastes and secondary resources for metal extraction - A review

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae-chun; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Review focuses on bio-extraction of metals from solid wastes of industries and consumer goods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bio-processing of certain effluents/wastewaters with metals is also included in brief. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantity/composition of wastes are assessed, and microbes used and leaching conditions included. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bio-recovery using bacteria, fungi and archaea is highlighted for resource recycling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Process methodology/mechanism, R and D direction and scope of large scale use are briefly included. - Abstract: Metal containing wastes/byproducts of various industries, used consumer goods, and municipal waste are potential pollutants, if not treated properly. They may also be important secondary resources if processed in eco-friendly manner for secured supply of contained metals/materials. Bio-extraction of metals from such resources with microbes such as bacteria, fungi and archaea is being increasingly explored to meet the twin objectives of resource recycling and pollution mitigation. This review focuses on the bio-processing of solid wastes/byproducts of metallurgical and manufacturing industries, chemical/petrochemical plants, electroplating and tanning units, besides sewage sludge and fly ash of municipal incinerators, electronic wastes (e-wastes/PCBs), used batteries, etc. An assessment has been made to quantify the wastes generated and its compositions, microbes used, metal leaching efficiency etc. Processing of certain effluents and wastewaters comprising of metals is also included in brief. Future directions of research are highlighted.

  4. Extraction and characterization of alumina nanopowders from aluminum dross by acid dissolution process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarker, Md. Saifur Rahman; Alam, Md. Zahangir; Qadir, Md. Rakibul; Gafur, M. A.; Moniruzzaman, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    A significant amount of aluminum dross is available as a waste in foundry industries in Bangladesh. In this study, alumina was extracted from aluminum dross collected from two foundry industries situated in Dhamrai and Manikgang, near the capital city, Dhaka. Aluminum dross samples were found to approximately contain 75wt% Al2O3 and 12wt% SiO2. An acid dissolution process was used to recover the alumina value from the dross. The effects of various parameters, e.g., temperature, acid concentration, and leaching time, on the extraction of alumina were studied to optimize the dissolution process. First, Al(OH)3 was produced in the form of a gel. Calcination of the Al(OH)3 gel at 1000°C, 1200°C, and 1400°C for 2 h produced γ-Al2O3, (α+γ)-Al2O3, and α-alumina powder, respectively. Thermal characterization of the Al(OH)3 gel was performed by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The phases and crystallite size of the alumina were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The dimensions of the alumina were found to be on the nano level. The chemical compositions of the aluminum dross and alumina were determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. The microstructure and morphology of the alumina were studied with scanning electron microscopy. The purity of the alumina extracted in this study was found to be 99.0%. Thus, it is expected that the obtained alumina powders can be potentially utilized as biomaterials.

  5. Isolation and characterization of fish scale collagen from tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) by a novel extrusion-hydro-extraction process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yung; Kuo, Jen-Min; Wu, Shu-Jing; Tsai, Hsing-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    Collagen is highly valued both as a food additive and a functional food ingredient. It is generally extracted by treatments with acid or alkali, enzyme, and microorganisms. However these methods are generally batch type, time-, energy-, reactant-, and cost-consuming. Extrusion is widely used in the food industry, and offers many advantages, such as ease of operation, continuous production, high yield, and little waste. In this study, we developed a novel extrusion-hydro-extraction (EHE) process for extraction of collagen from tilapia fish scale. Extruded scale samples had a 2-3 times higher protein extraction yield than that of non-extruded scale samples. All extracts contained hydroxyproline (61-73 residues/1000 residues) and hydroxylysine (5-6 residues/1000 residues) and were identified as type-I collagens by FTIR, SDS-PAGE, and molecular weight distribution analyses. The physicochemical studies revealed that extracted collagens could have promising applications in the food, medical, and cosmetic industries.

  6. PRODUCTION OF FOAMS, FIBERS AND PITCHES USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Pete G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-06-20

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed processes for converting coal feedstocks to carbon products, including coal-derived pitch, coke foams and fibers based on solvent extraction processes. A key technology is the use of hydrogenation accomplished at elevated temperatures and pressures to obtain a synthetic coal pitch. Hydrogenation, or partial direct liquefaction of coal, is used to modify the properties of raw coal such that a molten synthetic pitch can be obtained. The amount of hydrogen required to produce a synthetic pitch is about an order of magnitude less than the amount required to produce synthetic crude oil. Hence the conditions for synthetic pitch production consume very little hydrogen and can be accomplished at substantially lower pressure. In the molten state, hot filtration or centrifugation can be used to separate dissolved coal chemicals from mineral matter and insolubles (inertinite), resulting in the production of a purified hydrocarbon pitch. Alternatively, if hydrogenation is not used, aromatic hydrocarbon liquids appropriate for use as precursors to carbon products can obtained by dissolving coal in a solvent. As in the case for partial direct liquefaction pitches, undissolved coal is removed via hot filtration or centrifugation. Excess solvent is boiled off and recovered. The resultant solid material, referred to as Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore or SECO, has been used successfully to produce artificial graphite and carbon foam.

  7. Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes For Coal Derived Carbon Products

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Dady B. Dadyburjor; Gregory W. Hackett; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; Robert C. Svensson; John W. Zondlo

    2006-09-30

    In this reporting period, tonnage quantities of coal extract were produced but solid separation was not accomplished in a timely manner. It became clear that the originally selected filtration process would not be effective enough for a serious commercial process. Accordingly, centrifugation was investigated as a superior means for removing solids from the extract. Results show acceptable performance. Petrographic analysis of filtered solids was carried out by R and D Carbon Petrography under the auspices of Koppers and consultant Ken Krupinski. The general conclusion is that the material appears to be amenable to centrifugation. Filtered solids shows a substantial pitch component as well as some mesophase, resulting in increased viscosity. This is likely a contributing reason for the difficulty in filtering the material. Cost estimates were made for the hydotreatment and digestion reactors that would be needed for a 20,000 ton per year demonstration plants, with the aid of ChemTech Inc. The estimates show that the costs of scaling up the existing tank reactors are acceptable. However, a strong recommendation was made to consider pipe reactors, which are thought to be more cost effective and potentially higher performance in large scale systems. The alternate feedstocks for coke and carbon products were used to fabricate carbon electrodes as described in the last quarterly report. Gregory Hackett successfully defended his MS Thesis on the use of these electrodes in Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC), which is excerpted in Section 2.4 of this quarterly report.

  8. Comparative assessment of various lipid extraction protocols and optimization of transesterification process for microalgal biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shovon; Patnaik, Reeza; Singh, Amit Kumar; Mallick, Nirupama

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, using microalgae as feedstocks, is being explored as the most potent form of alternative diesel fuel for sustainable economic development. A comparative assessment of various protocols for microalgal lipid extraction was carried out using five green algae, six blue-green algae and two diatom species treated with different single and binary solvents both at room temperature and using a soxhlet. Lipid recovery was maximum with chloroform-methanol in the soxhlet extractor. Pretreatments ofbiomass, such as sonication, homogenization, bead-beating, lyophilization, autoclaving, microwave treatment and osmotic shock did not register any significant rise in lipid recovery. As lipid recovery using chloroform-methanol at room temperature demonstrated a marginally lower value than that obtained under the soxhlet extractor, on economical point of view, the former is recommended for microalgal total lipid extraction. Transesterification process enhances the quality of biodiesel. Experiments were designed to determine the effects of catalyst type and quantity, methanol to oil ratio, reaction temperature and time on the transesterification process using response surface methodology. Fatty acid methyl ester yield reached up to 91% with methanol:HCl:oil molar ratio of 82:4:1 at 65 degrees C for 6.4h reaction time. The biodiesel yield relative to the weight of the oil was found to be 69%.

  9. Nanocrystalline cellulose extraction process and utilization of the byproduct for biofuels production.

    PubMed

    Pirani, Sanaa; Hashaikeh, Raed

    2013-03-01

    Cellulose consists of amorphous and crystalline regions. It is the crystalline regions which may be exploited to produce nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC). In order to extract nanocrystalline cellulose from native cellulose, sulfuric acid hydrolysis is typically used. The amorphous regions of cellulose are hydrolyzed and degraded into soluble products while the crystalline regions remain intact. In an effort to make the NCC extraction process more feasible, a new process was developed to recover and utilize the hydrolyzed regions of cellulose as a byproduct. The acid hydrolyzed amorphous regions were separated and then recovered (regenerated) into solid particles. XRD data revealed that the recovered material is characteristic of cellulose II. Hydrolysis conditions were optimized to maximize the yield of the recovered material and at the same time produce NCC material. Preliminary experiments showed yield values of approximately 61% for the cellulose I crystalline portions and values of about 21.7% for the recovered material (cellulose II). Enzymatic hydrolysis experiments of the recovered material revealed high susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis which makes it a promising source for biofuels production.

  10. Evaluation of liquid-liquid extraction process for separating acrylic acid produced from renewable sugars.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M E T; Moraes, E B; Machado, A B; Maciel Filho, R; Wolf-Maciel, M R

    2007-04-01

    In this article, the separation and the purification of the acrylic acid produced from renewable sugars were studied using the liquid-liquid extraction process. Nonrandom two-liquids and universal quasi-chemical models and the prediction method universal quasi-chemical functional activity coefficients were used for generating liquid-liquid equilibrium diagrams for systems made up of acrylic acid, water, and solvents (diisopropyl ether, isopropyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and methyl isobutyl ketone) and the results were compared with available liquid-liquid equilibrium experimental data. Aspen Plus (Aspen Technology, Inc., version 2004.1) software was used for equilibrium and process calculations. High concentration of acrylic acid was obtained in this article using diisopropyl ether as solvent.

  11. Signal processing method and system for noise removal and signal extraction

    DOEpatents

    Fu, Chi Yung; Petrich, Loren

    2009-04-14

    A signal processing method and system combining smooth level wavelet pre-processing together with artificial neural networks all in the wavelet domain for signal denoising and extraction. Upon receiving a signal corrupted with noise, an n-level decomposition of the signal is performed using a discrete wavelet transform to produce a smooth component and a rough component for each decomposition level. The n.sup.th level smooth component is then inputted into a corresponding neural network pre-trained to filter out noise in that component by pattern recognition in the wavelet domain. Additional rough components, beginning at the highest level, may also be retained and inputted into corresponding neural networks pre-trained to filter out noise in those components also by pattern recognition in the wavelet domain. In any case, an inverse discrete wavelet transform is performed on the combined output from all the neural networks to recover a clean signal back in the time domain.

  12. TUNGSTEN SHIELDS FOR CS-137 INLINE MONITORS IN THE CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, V; Mark Hogue, M; Javier Reyes-Jimenez, J; Paul Filpus-Luyckx, P; Timothy Riley, T; Fred Ogden, F; Donald Pak, D

    2007-05-10

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The CSSX process is a continuous process that uses a novel solvent to extract cesium from highly radioactive waste and concentrate it in dilute nitric acid. In-line analyses are performed with gamma-ray monitors to measure the C-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) and in the strip effluent (SE). Sodium iodide (NaI) monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration before the DSS Hold Tank, while Geiger-Mueller (GM) monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the SE hold tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to provide the needed reduction of the process background radiation at the detector positions. A one-inch tungsten cylindrical shield reduced the background radiation by a factor of fifty that was adequate for the GM detectors, while a three-and-one-half-inch tungsten cylindrical shield was required for the NaI detectors. Testing of the NaI shield was performed at the SRS Instrument Calibration Facility. Based on this testing, the as-built shield is predicted to be able to detect the MCU DSS stream at concentrations above 0.003 Ci/gal under the ''worst case'' field conditions with a MCU feed solution of 1.1 Ci/gal and all of the process tanks completely full. This paper discusses the design, fabrication, testing and implementation of the tungsten shields in the MCU facility.

  13. Use of /sup 238/Th as a label in the study of the distribution of thorium in extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Naumov, M.A.; Petrov, A.M.; Ragimov, T.K.; Timoshin, V.I.

    1987-03-01

    A ..gamma..-spectrometric method was developed for monitoring the distribution of thorium in products of extraction technology using /sup 228/Th as the label. Gamma radiation with an energy of 238.6 keV, emitted by /sup 212/Pb, a daughter nuclide of /sup 228/Th, was recorded with a semiconductor ..gamma.. spectrometer. On account of the disruption of the radioactive equilibrium between /sup 228/Th and its daughter nuclides during extraction, they measured the activity of /sup 212/Pb on the second and fourth days after extraction. The method permits a determination of the fraction of thorium in the organic phase of the extraction process from 2 to 50% with a relative error from 30 to 4% at the confidence level P = 0.95. Thorium fractions in the aqueous phase of the extraction process in the range from 50 to 98% were determined with a relative error from 7 to 0.6% at P = 0.95.

  14. Extraction of water and solutes from argillaceous rocks for geochemical characterisation: Methods, processes and current understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacchi, Elisa; Michelot, Jean-Luc; Pitsch, Helmut; Lalieux, Philippe; Aranyossy, Jean-François

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of a comprehensive critical review, initiated by the OECD/NEA "Clay Club," of the extraction techniques available to obtain water and solutes from argillaceous rocks. The paper focuses on the mechanisms involved in the extraction processes, the consequences on the isotopic and chemical composition of the extracted pore water and the attempts made to reconstruct its original composition. Finally, it provides some examples of reliable techniques and information, as a function of the purpose of the geochemical study. Résumé. Cet article résume les résultats d'une synthèse critique d'ensemble, lancée par le OECD/NEA "Clay Club", sur les techniques d'extraction disponibles pour obtenir l'eau et les solutés de roches argileuses. L'article est consacré aux mécanismes impliqués dans les processus d'extraction, aux conséquences sur la composition isotopique et chimique de l'eau porale extraite et aux tentatives faites pour reconstituer sa composition originelle. Finalement, il donne quelques exemples de techniques fiables et d'informations, en fonction du but de l'étude géochimique. Resúmen. Este artículo resume los resultados de una revisión crítica exhaustiva (iniciada por el "Clay Club" OECD/NEA) de las técnicas de extracción disponibles para obtener agua y solutos en rocas arcillosas. El artículo se centra en los mecanismos involucrados en los procesos extractivos, las consecuencias en la composición isotópica y química del agua intersticial extraída, y en los intentos realizados para reconstruir su composición original. Finalmente, se presentan algunos ejemplos de técnicas fiables e información, en función del propósito del estudio geoquímico.

  15. APPLICATIONS OF SOLVENT EXTRACTION IN THE HIGH-YIELD MULTI-PROCESS REDUCTION/SEPARATION OF Eu FROM EXCESS Sm

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Sudowe, Ralf; Nitsche, Heino; Hoffman, Darleane C.

    2008-05-15

    A novel multi-process method for separating Eu from neighbouring lanthanides (Ln) has been developed that chemically reduces Eu(III) to Eu(II) prior to solvent extraction of Ln(III) with thenoyltrifluoroacetone in benzene. This method is capable of achieving higher purities (>99%) and separation yields than previously published multi-process methods that stabilize and separate the reduced Eu(II) as a sulphate solid and is ideal for enriching materials of high-value. Results from a variety of combinations of a chemical or electrochemical reduction process preceding a separation process using either ion exchange chromatography, reversed phase chromatography, or solvent extraction are discussed.

  16. Effect of presolvent extraction processing method on the nutritional value of soybean meal for chicks.

    PubMed

    Douglas, M W; Parsons, C M

    2000-11-01

    This study evaluated the effect of extruding or expander processing prior to solvent extraction on the nutritional value of soybean meal (SBM). Three samples of SBM containing 100% nonexpander SBM, 100% expander SBM, or a mixture of nonexpander and expander SBM were obtained from a commercial plant. An experiment was conducted using Peterson x Hubbard commercial male broiler chicks fed 20% CP corn-SBM-corn gluten meal diets from 8 to 21 d of age. The experiment had a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial design, with three SBM types, two levels of Met + Cys (0.77 and 0.90%), and two levels of Lys (0.95 and 1.20%). Processing method had no effect on the amino acid concentration or protein solubility of the SBM. Dietary treatment had no significant effect on chick weight gain or feed intake. Feed efficiency was significantly improved (P < 0.05) by Met and Lys supplementation, but SBM processing method had no significant effect. The results of this study indicate that presolvent processing method (expander or nonexpander) had no significant effect on the nutritional value of SBM for broiler chicks.

  17. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration

  18. Automated extraction of BI-RADS final assessment categories from radiology reports with natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Sippo, Dorothy A; Warden, Graham I; Andriole, Katherine P; Lacson, Ronilda; Ikuta, Ichiro; Birdwell, Robyn L; Khorasani, Ramin

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate a natural language processing (NLP) algorithm that determines American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) final assessment categories from radiology reports. This HIPAA-compliant study was granted institutional review board approval with waiver of informed consent. This cross-sectional study involved 1,165 breast imaging reports in the electronic medical record (EMR) from a tertiary care academic breast imaging center from 2009. Reports included screening mammography, diagnostic mammography, breast ultrasound, combined diagnostic mammography and breast ultrasound, and breast magnetic resonance imaging studies. Over 220 reports were included from each study type. The recall (sensitivity) and precision (positive predictive value) of a NLP algorithm to collect BI-RADS final assessment categories stated in the report final text was evaluated against a manual human review standard reference. For all breast imaging reports, the NLP algorithm demonstrated a recall of 100.0 % (95 % confidence interval (CI), 99.7, 100.0 %) and a precision of 96.6 % (95 % CI, 95.4, 97.5 %) for correct identification of BI-RADS final assessment categories. The NLP algorithm demonstrated high recall and precision for extraction of BI-RADS final assessment categories from the free text of breast imaging reports. NLP may provide an accurate, scalable data extraction mechanism from reports within EMRs to create databases to track breast imaging performance measures and facilitate optimal breast cancer population management strategies. PMID:23868515

  19. Recommended Guanidine Suppressor for the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Duncan, Nathan C; Ensor, Dale; Hill, Talon G; Lee, Denise L; Roach, Benjamin D; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V; Williams, Neil J

    2013-01-01

    The guanidine recommended for the Next-Generation Caustic-Side is N,N ,N -tris(3,7-dimethyloctyl)guanidine (TiDG). Systematic testing has shown that it is significantly more lipophilic than the previously recommended guanidine DCiTG, the active extractant in the commercial guanidine product LIX -79, while not otherwise changing the solvent performance. Previous testing indicated that the extent of partitioning of the DCiTG suppressor to the aqueous strip solution is significantly greater than expected, potentially leading to rapid depletion of the suppressor from the solvent and unwanted organic concentrations in process effluents. Five candidate guanidines were tested as potential replacements for DCiTG. The tests included batch extraction with simulated waste and flowsheet solutions, third-phase formation, emulsion formation, and partition ratios of the guanidine between the solvent and aqueous strip solution. Preliminary results of a thermal stability test of the TiDG solvent at one month duration indicated performance approximately equivalent to DCiTG. Two of the guanidines proved adequate in all respects, and the choice of TiDG was deemed slightly preferable vs the next best guanidine BiTABG.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; R. Michael Bergen; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; W. Morgan Summers; John W. Zondlo

    2006-05-12

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, coking and composite fabrication continued using coal-derived samples. These samples were tested in direct carbon fuel cells. Methodology was refined for determining the aromatic character of hydro treated liquid, based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Tests at GrafTech International showed that binder pitches produced using the WVU solvent extraction protocol can result in acceptable graphite electrodes for use in arc furnaces. These tests were made at the pilot scale.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. The Hydrotreatment Facility is being prepared for trials with coal liquids. Raw coal tar distillate trials have been carried out by heating coal tar in the holding tank in the Hydrotreatment Facility. The liquids are centrifuged to warm the system up in preparation for the coal liquids. The coal tar distillate is then recycled to keep the centrifuge hot. In this way, the product has been distilled such that a softening point of approximately 110 C is reached. Then an ash test is conducted.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady B. Dadyburjor; Mark E. Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; J. Joshua Maybury; Alfred H. Stiller; Joseph M. Stoffa; John W. Zondlo

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, and porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, hydrotreatment of solvent was completed in preparation for pitch fabrication for graphite electrodes. Coal digestion has lagged but is expected to be complete by next quarter. Studies are reported on coal dissolution, pitch production, foam synthesis using physical blowing agents, and alternate coking techniques.

  3. Desulfurization process for dibenzothiophenes from light oil by photochemical reaction and liquid-liquid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Takayuki; Ogawa, Ken; Komasawa, Isao

    1996-02-01

    A desulfurization process for dibenzothiophene (DBT) and its derivatives such as 4-methyldibenzothiophene (4-MDBT) and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) by combination of photochemical reaction and liquid-liquid extraction has been investigated. In this, the DBTs dissolved in tetradecane were quantitatively photodecomposed by the use of a high-pressure mercury lamp and were removed to the water phase as SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} at conditions of room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The order of reactivity for the DBTs was DBT < 4-MDBT < 4,6-DMDBT, thus indicating a different tendency from that reported for the hydrodesulfurization method. The desulfurization yield of commercial light oil, however, by the proposed method was only 22% following 30 h irradiation and was caused mainly by the depression of the photoreaction of DBT by the presence of aromatic compounds in the light oil.

  4. Process variables influence on microwave assisted extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L. peel.

    PubMed

    Maran, J Prakash; Prakash, K Arun

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate and optimize the influence of process variables such as microwave power, pH, time and solid-liquid ratio on the extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L peel. The experiments were carried out based on a four factors three level Box-Behnken response surface design. A quadratic model was developed from the experimental data in order to predict the pectin yield. The optimal condition was found to be: microwave power of 512 w, pH of 1.8, time of 140 s and solid-liquid ratio of 1:15 g/ml with maximum pectin yield (25.41%).

  5. Process development for elemental recovery from PGM tailings by thermochemical treatment: Preliminary major element extraction studies using ammonium sulphate as extracting agent.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Sameera; van der Merwe, Elizabet M; Altermann, Wladyslaw; Doucet, Frédéric J

    2016-04-01

    Mine tailings can represent untapped secondary resources of non-ferrous, ferrous, precious, rare and trace metals. Continuous research is conducted to identify opportunities for the utilisation of these materials. This preliminary study investigated the possibility of extracting major elements from South African tailings associated with the mining of Platinum Group Metals (PGM) at the Two Rivers mine operations. These PGM tailings typically contain four major elements (11% Al2O3; 12% MgO; 22% Fe2O3; 34% Cr2O3), with lesser amounts of SiO2 (18%) and CaO (2%). Extraction was achieved via thermochemical treatment followed by aqueous dissolution, as an alternative to conventional hydrometallurgical processes. The thermochemical treatment step used ammonium sulphate, a widely available, low-cost, recyclable chemical agent. Quantification of the efficiency of the thermochemical process required the development and optimisation of the dissolution technique. Dissolution in water promoted the formation of secondary iron precipitates, which could be prevented by leaching thermochemically-treated tailings in 0.6M HNO3 solution. The best extraction efficiencies were achieved for aluminium (ca. 60%) and calcium (ca. 80%). 35% iron and 32% silicon were also extracted, alongside chromium (27%) and magnesium (25%). Thermochemical treatment using ammonium sulphate may therefore represent a promising technology for extracting valuable elements from PGM tailings, which could be subsequently converted to value-added products. However, it is not element-selective, and major elements were found to compete with the reagent to form water-soluble sulphate-metal species. Further development of this integrated process, which aims at achieving the full potential of utilisation of PGM tailings, is currently underway.

  6. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2007-03-27

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  7. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2004-06-22

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  8. Methane gas generation from waste water extraction process of crude palm oil in experimental digesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, A.; Penafiel, R.; Garzón, P. V.; Ochoa, V.

    2015-12-01

    Industrial processes to extract crude palm oil, generates large amounts of waste water. High concentrations of COD, ST, SV, NH4 + and low solubility of O2, make the treatment of these effluents starts with anaerobic processes. The anaerobic digestion process has several advantages over aerobic degradation: lower operating costs (not aeration), low sludge production, methane gas generation. The 4 stages of anaerobic digestion are: hydrolysis, acidogenic, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. Through the action of enzymes synthesized by microbial consortia are met. The products of each step to serve as reagents is conducted as follows. The organic load times and cell hydraulic retention, solids content, nutrient availability, pH and temperature are factors that influence directly in biodigesters. The objectives of this presentation is to; characterize the microbial inoculum and water (from palm oil wasted water) to be used in biodigestores, make specific methanogenic activity in bioassays, acclimatize the microorganisms to produce methane gas using basal mineral medium with acetate for the input power, and to determine the production of methane gas digesters high organic load.

  9. Continuous Production of Biodiesel Via an Intensified Reactive/Extractive Process

    SciTech Connect

    Tsouris, Costas; McFarlane, Joanna; Birdwell Jr, Joseph F; Jennings, Hal L

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel is considered as a means to diversify our supply of transportation fuel, addressing the goal of reducing our dependence on oil. For a number of reasons ranging from production issues to end use, biodiesel represents only a small fraction of the transportation fuel used worldwide. This work addresses the aspect of biodiesel production that limits it to a slow batch process. Conventional production methods are batch in nature, based on the assumption that the rates of the key chemical reactions are slow. The hypothesis motivating this work is that the reaction kinetics for the transesterification of the reagent triglyceride is sufficiently fast, particularly in an excess of catalyst, and that interfacial mass transfer and phase separation control the process. If this is the case, an intensified two-phase reactor adapted from solvent extraction equipment may be utilized to greatly increase biodiesel production rates by increasing interphase transport and phase separation. To prove this idea, we are investigating two aspects: (1) determining the rate-limiting step in biodiesel production by evaluating the reaction kinetics, and (2) enhancing biodiesel production rates by using an intensified reactor. A centrifugal contactor combining interphase mass transfer, chemical reaction, and phase separation is employed for process intensification.

  10. Process optimization for the extraction of polyphenol from Malaysian brown seaweed, Sargassum sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Norra; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    The optimum extraction parameters of Malaysian brown seaweed, Sargassum sp. were determined by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Central Composite Face-centered Design (CCFD) was used to study the influence of extraction temperature (40-60°C), extraction time (60-180 minute) and liquid to solid ratio (20-40 mL/g) on total phenolic content (TPC) of Sargassum sp. dried extracts. The statistical analysis of the experiment indicated that extraction temperatue and time had significant effect on Sargassum sp. total phenolic contents (TPC). The CCFD showed that quadratic regression models were in good agreement with the experimental results with the coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.8066 for Sargassum sp. TPC. The extraction temperature of 40°C, extraction time of 180 minute and liquid-solid ratio of 40 mL/g were the most efficient for the extraction of polyphenols from Sargassum sp. dried powder.

  11. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni as a natural antioxidant/antimicrobial for high pressure processed fruit extract: processing parameter optimization.

    PubMed

    Barba, Francisco José; Criado, María Nieves; Belda-Galbis, Clara Miracle; Esteve, María José; Rodrigo, Dolores

    2014-04-01

    Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the optimal high pressure processing treatment (300-500 MPa, 5-15 min) combined with Stevia rebaudiana (Stevia) addition (0-2.5% (w/v)) to guarantee food safety while maintaining maximum retention of nutritional properties. A fruit extract matrix was selected and Listeria monocytogenes inactivation was followed from the food safety point of view while polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (TEAC and ORAC) were studied from the food quality point of view. A combination of treatments achieved higher levels of inactivation of L. monocytogenes and of the oxidative enzymes, succeeding in completely inactivating POD and also increasing the levels of TPC, TEAC and ORAC. A treatment of 453 MPa for 5 min with a 2.5% (w/v) of Stevia succeeded in inactivating over 5 log cycles of L. monocytogenes and maximizing inactivation of PPO and POD, with the greatest retention of bioactive components.

  12. Recovery of fatty acid from a solvated hydrocarbon mixture applicable to the Beaver-Herter solvent extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Beaver, W.H.; Turpin, J.L.; Babcock, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Herter process is a patented solvent extraction enhanced oil recovery process. This process utilizes fatty acid as a solvent to mix with and reduce the viscosity of a heavy reservoir oil or a tar sand. This method differs from other solvent extraction oil recovery methods in that the recovery of the fatty acid solvent for further use, rather than the initial expense of the solvent, is the prime economic consideration. The fatty acid is recovered by saponification of the solvated oil mixture using an aqueous base, followed by migration of the resulting soap into the aqueous phase, and then desaponification of the aqueous phase.

  13. Irradiation Effects on Phase-Separation Performance Using a Centrifugal Contactor in a Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Birdwell, J.F.

    2001-09-12

    A test program has been conducted to determine the extent to which irradiation of a calixarene-based cesium extractant affects-separation of the organic (solvent) phase from aqueous solutions with which it is contacted in a prototype extraction flowsheet. A caustic-side solvent extraction process, known as CSSX, has been developed for the selective removal of cesium from wastes generated by the processing of irradiated nuclear reactor fuels. This process consists of a cascade of mass transfer stages in which cesium is transferred from an aqueous feed into the CSSX extractant (BOBCalixC6), the extract is scrubbed with 0.05 M nitric acid to remove coextracted elements, and the solvated cesium is stripped (or back-extracted) into 0.001 M HNO{sub 3}. Removal of cesium from stored waste supernatants is desirable as a means of segregating high-activity cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) from the solution, thereby reducing the volume of material that must be processed and disposed of as high-level waste. The CSSX process is one of three cesium removal technologies currently being considered for deployment for treatment of wastes that are stored at the U. S. Department of Energy's (USDOE's) Savannah River Site (SRS). The irradiation tests described in this report were designed to simulate the effect of 2 years of continuous solvent irradiation under conditions present in the stripping and extraction sections of the CSSX cascade. Stated simply, the irradiation tests consisted of continuously mixing an aqueous process solution (either simulated SRS waste supernatant or dilute nitric acid) with the CSSX solvent. The aqueous solutions used in testing were spiked with {sup 137}Cs at known activity levels. Test durations were determined based on the activity levels in the experiment and the estimated solvent exposures to radionuclides in a full-scale CSSX facility.

  14. Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Thermal Technologies in the Australian Minerals Processing and Extractive Metallurgical Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eglinton, Thomas; Hinkley, Jim; Beath, Andrew; Dell'Amico, Mark

    2013-12-01

    The Australian minerals processing and extractive metallurgy industries are responsible for about 20% of Australia's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This article reviews the potential applications of concentrated solar thermal (CST) energy in the Australian minerals processing industry to reduce this impact. Integrating CST energy into these industries would reduce their reliance upon conventional fossil fuels and reduce GHG emissions. As CST technologies become more widely deployed and cheaper, and as fuel prices rise, CST energy will progressively become more competitive with conventional energy sources. Some of the applications identified in this article are expected to become commercially competitive provided the costs for pollution abatement and GHG mitigation are internalized. The areas of potential for CST integration identified in this study can be classed as either medium/low-temperature or high-temperature applications. The most promising medium/low-grade applications are electricity generation and low grade heating of liquids. Electricity generation with CST energy—also known as concentrated solar power—has the greatest potential to reduce GHG emissions out of all the potential applications identified because of the 24/7 dispatchability when integrated with thermal storage. High-temperature applications identified include the thermal decomposition of alumina and the calcination of limestone to lime in solar kilns, as well as the production of syngas from natural gas and carbonaceous materials for various metallurgical processes including nickel and direct reduced iron production. Hybridization and integration with thermal storage could enable CST to sustain these energy-intensive metallurgical processes continuously. High-temperature applications are the focus of this paper.

  15. Understanding the partitioning processes of mobile lead in soakaway sediments using sequential extraction and isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Furumai, Hiroaki; Kurisu, Futoshi; Kasuga, Ikuro

    2009-01-01

    Lead (Pb) isotopic data were used in this study to first distinguish the partitioning of anthropogenic and natural lead in different fractions, obtained by BCR sequential extraction, and then to anticipate their mixing process in the soakaway sediment of artificial infiltration facilities (AIF). Total metal content was found higher in soakaway sediment samples than that of soil. The lowest (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios were mostly observed in exchangeable fractions of soil and sediment samples, while residual fractions mostly showed the highest (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb ratios than those of other fractions. In general, both ratios were higher in the soil than those of sediments. Further among soil samples, residual fraction of bottom soil exhibited higher ratios than surface soil indicating higher contribution of natural lead with depth. In addition, the difference in Pb content, partitioning and its isotope signature among four sediment samples were also investigated considering their sampling locations. The plot of (206)Pb/(207)Pb versus (208)Pb/(207)Pb showed two well demarcated cluster formations by soil and sediments samples that describe the partitioning between anthropogenic and natural lead; and some points falling in between soil and sediment samples pertinently illustrated the mixing processes between these two different pools of lead.

  16. High Accuracy Extraction of Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia with Statistical Processing using Normal Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numata, Takashi; Ogawa, Yutaro; Yoshida, Lui; Kotani, Kiyoshi; Jimbo, Yasuhiko

    The autonomic nervous system is important in maintaining homeostasis by mediating the opposing effects of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity on organs. Although it is known that the amplitude of RSA (Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia) is an index of parasympathetic nervous activity, it is difficult to estimate that activity in real-time in everyday situations. It is partly caused by body motions and extrasystoles. Also, automatic recognition of the R-wave on electrocardiograms is required for real-time analysis of RSA amplitude, there is an unresolved problem of false recognition of the R-wave. In this paper, we propose a method to evaluate the amplitude of RSA accurately using statistical processing with probabilistic models. Then, we estimate parasympathetic nervous activity during body motion and isometric exercise to examine the validity of the method. As a result, using the proposed method, we demonstrate that the amplitude of RSA can be extracted with false recognition of the R-wave. In addition, an appropriate threshold for the estimate is one or five percent because waveforms of RSA amplitude do not follow the abrupt changes of the parasympathetic nervous activity evoked by isometric exercise with the threshold at ten percent. Furthermore, the method using normal distribution is found to be more appropriate than that of chi-square distribution for statistical processing. Therefore, we expect that the proposed method can evaluate parasympathetic nervous activity with high accuracy in everyday situations.

  17. X-ray Microprobe Investigation of Iron During a Simulated Silicon Feedstock Extraction Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardis, Sarah; Fakra, Sirine C.; Dal Martello, Elena; Larsen, Rune B.; Newman, Bonna K.; Fenning, David P.; Di Sabatino, Marisa; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2016-08-01

    Elemental silicon is extracted through carbothermic reduction from silicon-bearing raw feedstock materials such as quartz and quartzites. We investigate the micron-scale distribution and valence state of iron, a deleterious impurity in several iron-sensitive applications, in hydrothermal quartz samples of industrial relevance during a laboratory-scale simulated reduction process. We use X-ray diffraction to inspect the quartz structural change and synchrotron-based microprobe techniques to monitor spatial distribution and oxidation state of iron. In the untreated quartz, most of the iron is embedded in foreign minerals, both as ferric (Fe3+, e.g., in muscovite) and ferrous (Fe2+, e.g., as in biotite) iron. Upon heating the quartz to 1273 K (1000 °C) under industrial-like conditions in a CO(g) environment, iron is found in ferrous (Fe2+) particles. At this temperature, its chemical state is influenced by mineral decomposition and melting processes, whereas at higher temperatures it is influenced by the silicate melts. As the quartz grains partially transform to cristobalite 1873 K (1600 °C), iron diffuses towards liquid-solid interfaces forming ferrous clusters. Silica is liquid at 2173 K (1900 °C) and the iron migrates towards the interfaces between gas phases and the silicate liquid.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. A process has been developed which results in high quality binder pitch suitable for use in graphite electrodes or carbon anodes. A detailed description of the protocol is given by Clendenin. Briefly, aromatic heavy oils are hydro-treated under mild conditions in order to increase their ability to dissolve coal. An example of an aromatic heavy oil is Koppers Carbon Black Base (CBB) oil. CBB oil has been found to be an effective solvent and acceptably low cost (i.e., significantly below the market price for binder pitch, or about $280 per ton at the time of this writing). It is also possible to use solvents derived from hydrotreated coal and avoid reliance on coke oven recovery products completely if so desired.

  19. Collaborative processing to extract myocardium from a sequence of two-dimensional echocardiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revankar, Shriram V.; Sher, David B.; Rosenthal, Steven

    1991-06-01

    Echocardiography is an important clinical method for identification and assessment of the entire spectrum of cardiac diseases. Visual assessment of the echocardiograms is tedious and subjective, but on the other hand, owing to the poor quality of the data, the automatic techniques are unreliable. One can minimize these drawbacks through collaborative processing. The authors describe a collaborative method to extract the myocardium from a sequence of two-dimensional echocardiograms. Initially, a morphologically adaptive thresholding scheme generates a rough estimate of the myocardium, and then a collaborative scheme refines the estimate. The threshold is computed at each pixel as a function of the local morphology and a default threshold. The points that have echodensities greater than the threshold form a rough estimate of the myocardium. This is collaboratively refined in accordance with the corrections specified by the operator, through mouse gestures. The gestures are mapped on to an image processing scheme that decides the precise boundaries of the intended regions that are to be added to or deleted from the estimated myocardium.

  20. Erythrina variegata extract exerts osteoprotective effects by suppression of the process of bone resorption.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Qi; Li, Xiaoli; Wan, Hoi-Ying; Wong, Man-Sau

    2010-10-01

    Our previous study showed that Erythrina variegata L. (EV) inhibited bone loss and improved bone properties in ovariectomised rats. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the potential mechanism involved in mediating the osteoprotective actions of EV. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a phyto-oestrogen-free diet and subjected to either ovariectomy or a sham operation. Ovariectomised rats were treated with genistein (40 mg/kg) as well as low (200 mg/kg), medium (500 mg/kg) or high (1000 mg/kg) doses of EV extract. Bone properties and mRNA expressions were evaluated by micro-computed tomography and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Osteoclast differentiation in RAW 264.7 cells was studied by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. High doses of EV could decrease urinary Ca and P excretion, maintain serum Ca and P level, and exert beneficial effects on the micro-structure and morphology of trabecular bone and cortical bone in ovariectomised rats. EV suppressed the up-regulation of cathepsin K mRNA and the down-regulation of osteoprotegrin mRNA in the tibia of ovariectomised rats. TRAP-positive cell numbers were significantly decreased in receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced RAW 264.7 cells when co-cultured with EV extracts. The present study indicated that the protective effects of EV on bone properties in ovariectomised rats are likely to be mediated by its inhibitory actions on the process of bone resorption via the suppression of osteoclast differentiation and maturation. PMID:20487580

  1. Improvement of oleuropein extractability by optimising steam blanching process as pre-treatment of olive leaf extraction via response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Stamatopoulos, Konstantinos; Katsoyannos, Evangelos; Chatzilazarou, Arhontoula; Konteles, Spyros J

    2012-07-15

    Impact of steam, hot water blanching and UV-C irradiation as pre-treatments on extraction of oleuropein and related biophenols from olive leaves (OLs), was investigated. Moreover, particle size effect of olive leaves and steam blanching duration were selected as independent variables to optimise steam blanching process in terms of oleuropein content (OC) and antioxidant activity (AC) of ethanolic extracts, by using response surface methodology. Optimum conditions for OC and AC were 10 min steam blanching of 20-11 and 3-1mm olive leaf fraction, respectively. Depending on the extraction procedure, at optimum conditions of steaming the results indicate that steam blanching of OL prior to extraction can significantly increase oleuropein yield from 25 to 35 times compared to non-steam blanched sample, whereas the antioxidant activity increased from 4 to 13 times. No significant UV-C effect was observed in OC and AC, while hot water blanched samples showed significantly higher oleuropein yields and antioxidant activity compared to untreated samples.

  2. Study of the extraction process and in vivo inhibitory effect of ganoderma triterpenes in oral mucosa cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Zhang, Ruhui; Zhang, Juan; Gao, Shang; Gao, Wenxin; Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Haotian; Han, Bing

    2011-06-24

    The aim of the reported study was to optimize the extraction process for ganoderma triterpenes and to investigate the in vivo inhibitory effect of ganoderma triterpenes on the genesis and progression of oral cancer. Single-factor and orthogonal methods were used to investigate the effects of extraction solvent, solvent amount, extraction time, extraction temperature, and number of extractions, on the extraction rate for ganoderma triterpenes. A golden hamster model with cheek pouch dynamic canceration was established to receive oral treatment of ganoderma triterpenes water solution. Animals were continuously monitored, oral tissue samples were collected for histopathologic examination, and changes in the expression of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and Caspase-3 were detected by immunohistochemical methods. Optimization of the experimental conditions allowed the identification of the optimal extraction conditions: 90% ethanol as the extraction solvent, a solvent amount by the liquid-material ratio of 35 mL/g, extraction time of 2 h and extraction temperature of 80 °C. Under these conditions, the average extraction rate of ganoderma triterpenes was 1.09%. Tests in golden hamsters showed that compared with the model group during the same period, animals in the treatment group had better conditions, constantly larger number of normal cases shown by histopathologic results (P < 0.01), and consistently smaller numbers of cases with paraplasm (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical results showed that compared with the model group, the treatment group had significantly lower (P < 0.05) rates of positive VEGF expression in the normal state, simple epithelial hyperplasia, epithelial dysplasia or squamous cell carcinoma disease stages. Caspase-3 expression showed a tendency toward a gradual increase with the worsening of disease severity in each group. Compared with the model group, the treatment group had significantly lower (P < 0.05) rates of positive Caspase-3 in

  3. Energy-conserving, pollution-free extraction process for the recovery of lead from lead sulfide concentrates. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Y.K.

    1981-09-01

    Research concerned with the development of a new process for the extraction of lead from lead sulfide concentrates is described. The process consists of smelting lead sulfide concentrates with lime and carbon to produce liquid lead. The sulfur in the concentrates is tied up as solid calcium sulfide residue which can be further processed to regenerate lime. No sulfur oxides are generated during the process. The off-gases consist of CO and CO/sub 2/. Coke, coal, coal-char or lignite-char may be used as reducing agents. The reduction process can be catalyzed to an appreciable degree by the addition of small concentrations of catalysts. For the most part, these catalytic substances are either pure or mixed alkali-metal salts. The present process can be applied for extracting zinc from zinc sulfide concentrates and also for the recovery of copper and nickel from their respective sulfide concentrates.

  4. Energy-conserving, pollution-free extraction process for the recovery of lead from lead sulfide concentrates. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Y.K.

    1981-09-01

    Research concerned with the development of a new process for the extraction of lead from lead sulfide concentrates is described. The process consists of smelting lead sulfide concentrates with lime and carbon to produce liquid lead. The sulfur in the concentrates is tied up as solid calcium sulfide residue which can be further processed to regenerate lime. No sulfur oxides are generated during the process. The off-gas consist of CO and CO/sub 2/. Coke, coal, coal-char or lignite-char may be used as reducing agents. The reduction process can be catalyzed to an appreciable degree by the addition of small concentrations of catalysts. For the most part, these catalytic substances are either pure or mixed alkali-metal salts. The present process can be applied for extracting zinc from zinc sulfide concentrates and also for the recovery of copper and nickel from their respective sulfide concentrates.

  5. Pectin extraction from quince (Cydonia oblonga) pomace applying alternative methods: effect of process variables and preliminary optimization.

    PubMed

    Brown, Valeria Anahí; Lozano, Jorge E; Genovese, Diego Bautista

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to introduce alternative methods in the process of pectin extraction from quince pomace, to determine the effect of selected process variables (factors) on the obtained pectin, and to perform a preliminary optimization of the process. A fractional factorial experimental design was applied, where the factors considered were six: quince pomace pretreatment (washing vs blanching), drying method (hot air vs LPSSD), acid extraction conditions (pH, temperature, and time), and pectin extract concentration method (vacuum evaporation vs ultrafiltration). The effects of these factors and their interactions on pectin yield (Y: 0.2-34.2 mg/g), GalA content (44.5-76.2%), and DM (47.5-90.9%), were determined. For these three responses, extraction pH was the main effect, but it was involved in two and three factors interactions. Regarding alternative methods, LPSSD was required for maximum Y and GalA, and ultrafiltration for maximum GalA and DM. Response models were used to predict optimum process conditions (quince blanching, pomace drying by LPSSD, acid extraction at pH 2.20, 80 , 3 h, and concentration under vacuum) to simultaneously maximize Y (25.2 mg/g), GalA (66.3%), and DM (66.4%).

  6. Final Technical Report EMSP 70045 Investigation of Pore Scale Processes That Affect Soil Vapor Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Valocchi, Albert J.; Werth, Charles W.; Webb, Andrew W.

    2004-12-10

    Dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination in the vadose zone is a significant problem at Department of Energy sites. Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is commonly used to remediate DNAPLs from the vadose zone. In most cases, a period of high recovery has been followed by a sustained period of low recovery. This behavior has been attributed to multiple processes including slow interphase mass transfer, retarded vapor phase transport, and diffusion from unswept zones of low permeability. This research project used a combination of laboratory experimentation and mathematical modeling to determine how these various processes interact to limit the removal of DNAPL components in heterogeneous porous media during SVE. Our results were applied to scenarios typical of the carbon tetrachloride spill zone at the Hanford Site. Our results indicate that: (a) the initial distribution of the spilled DNAPL (i.e., the spill-zone architecture) has a major influence upon the performance of any subsequent SVE operations; (b) while the pattern of higher and lower conductivity soil zones has an important impact upon spill zone architecture, soil moisture distribution plays an even larger role when there are large quantities of co-disposed waste-water (as in the Hanford scenario); (c) depending upon soil moisture dynamics, liquid DNAPL that is trapped by surrounding water is extremely difficult to remove by SVE; (d) natural barometric pumping can remove a large amount of the initial DNAPL mass for spills occurring close to the land surface, and hence the initial spilled inventory will be over-estimated if this process is neglected.

  7. Overview of image processing tools to extract physical information from JET videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciunescu, T.; Murari, A.; Gelfusa, M.; Tiseanu, I.; Zoita, V.; EFDA Contributors, JET

    2014-11-01

    In magnetic confinement nuclear fusion devices such as JET, the last few years have witnessed a significant increase in the use of digital imagery, not only for the surveying and control of experiments, but also for the physical interpretation of results. More than 25 cameras are routinely used for imaging on JET in the infrared (IR) and visible spectral regions. These cameras can produce up to tens of Gbytes per shot and their information content can be very different, depending on the experimental conditions. However, the relevant information about the underlying physical processes is generally of much reduced dimensionality compared to the recorded data. The extraction of this information, which allows full exploitation of these diagnostics, is a challenging task. The image analysis consists, in most cases, of inverse problems which are typically ill-posed mathematically. The typology of objects to be analysed is very wide, and usually the images are affected by noise, low levels of contrast, low grey-level in-depth resolution, reshaping of moving objects, etc. Moreover, the plasma events have time constants of ms or tens of ms, which imposes tough conditions for real-time applications. On JET, in the last few years new tools and methods have been developed for physical information retrieval. The methodology of optical flow has allowed, under certain assumptions, the derivation of information about the dynamics of video objects associated with different physical phenomena, such as instabilities, pellets and filaments. The approach has been extended in order to approximate the optical flow within the MPEG compressed domain, allowing the manipulation of the large JET video databases and, in specific cases, even real-time data processing. The fast visible camera may provide new information that is potentially useful for disruption prediction. A set of methods, based on the extraction of structural information from the visual scene, have been developed for the

  8. A process optimization study on ultrasonic extraction of paclitaxel from Taxus cuspidata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujie; Li, Chun; Wang, Hujun; Zhong, Xiangmei; Zhao, Jing; Zhou, Yajun

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the extraction rate of paclitaxel from Taxus cuspidata in order to determine the most effective combination of ultrasonic extraction and thin-layer chromatography-ultraviolet (TLC-UV) rapid separation method. The study was performed using the Box-Behnken test design to conduct single-factor experiments using ultrasonic extraction of paclitaxel from Taxus cuspidata. The study showed ethanol to be the best extraction solvent. When mixed with dichloromethane (1:1), the ratio of material to liquid was 1:50 when using an ultrasonic time of 1 hr at a power of 200 W. The correction coefficient K for the separation and detection of paclitaxel using the TLC-UV spectrophotometric method was 0.009152. Multifactor experiments determined the effect of the rate of liquid to material (X1), ultrasonic time (X2), and ultrasonic power (X3) on extraction using extraction volume as the dependent variable. Response surface analysis allowed a regression equation to be obtained, with the optimal conditions for extraction when the rate of liquid to material was 53.23 mL/g as an ultrasonic time of 1.11 hr and an ultrasonic power of 207.88 W. Using these parameters, the average amount of extracted paclitaxel was about 130.576 µg/g, which was significantly better than for other extraction methods. PMID:25830908

  9. High-power ultrasonic system for the enhancement of mass transfer in supercritical CO2 extraction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riera, Enrique; Blanco, Alfonso; García, José; Benedito, José; Mulet, Antonio; Gallego-Juárez, Juan A.; Blasco, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Oil is an important component of almonds and other vegetable substrates that can show an influence on human health. In this work the development and validation of an innovative, robust, stable, reliable and efficient ultrasonic system at pilot scale to assist supercritical CO2 extraction of oils from different substrates is presented. In the extraction procedure ultrasonic energy represents an efficient way of producing deep agitation enhancing mass transfer processes because of some mechanisms (radiation pressure, streaming, agitation, high amplitude vibrations, etc.). A previous work to this research pointed out the feasibility of integrating an ultrasonic field inside a supercritical extractor without losing a significant volume fraction. This pioneer method enabled to accelerate mass transfer and then, improving supercritical extraction times. To commercially develop the new procedure fulfilling industrial requirements, a new configuration device has been designed, implemented, tested and successfully validated for supercritical fluid extraction of oil from different vegetable substrates.

  10. High-power ultrasonic system for the enhancement of mass transfer in supercritical CO2 extraction processes.

    PubMed

    Riera, Enrique; Blanco, Alfonso; García, José; Benedito, José; Mulet, Antonio; Gallego-Juárez, Juan A; Blasco, Miguel

    2010-02-01

    Oil is an important component of almonds and other vegetable substrates that can show an influence on human health. In this work the development and validation of an innovative, robust, stable, reliable and efficient ultrasonic system at pilot scale to assist supercritical CO(2) extraction of oils from different substrates is presented. In the extraction procedure ultrasonic energy represents an efficient way of producing deep agitation enhancing mass transfer processes because of some mechanisms (radiation pressure, streaming, agitation, high amplitude vibrations, etc.). A previous work to this research pointed out the feasibility of integrating an ultrasonic field inside a supercritical extractor without losing a significant volume fraction. This pioneer method enabled to accelerate mass transfer and then, improving supercritical extraction times. To commercially develop the new procedure fulfilling industrial requirements, a new configuration device has been designed, implemented, tested and successfully validated for supercritical fluid extraction of oil from different vegetable substrates.

  11. Effect of the drying process on the intensification of phenolic compounds recovery from grape pomace using accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Rajha, Hiba N; Ziegler, Walter; Louka, Nicolas; Hobaika, Zeina; Vorobiev, Eugene; Boechzelt, Herbert G; Maroun, Richard G

    2014-01-01

    In light of their environmental and economic interests, food byproducts have been increasingly exploited and valorized for their richness in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are antioxidant bioactive molecules highly present in grape byproducts. Herein, the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of phenolic compounds from wet and dried grape pomace, at 45 °C, was conducted and the highest phenolic compounds yield (PCY) for wet (16.2 g GAE/100 g DM) and dry (7.28 g GAE/100 g DM) grape pomace extracts were obtained with 70% ethanol/water solvent at 140 °C. The PCY obtained from wet pomace was up to two times better compared to the dry byproduct and up to 15 times better compared to the same food matrices treated with conventional methods. With regard to Resveratrol, the corresponding dry pomace extract had a better free radical scavenging activity (49.12%) than the wet extract (39.8%). The drying pretreatment process seems to ameliorate the antiradical activity, especially when the extraction by ASE is performed at temperatures above 100 °C. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the diversity of the flavonoid and the non-flavonoid compounds found in the extracts was seriously affected by the extraction temperature and the pretreatment of the raw material. This diversity seems to play a key role in the scavenging activity demonstrated by the extracts. Our results emphasize on ASE usage as a promising method for the preparation of highly concentrated and bioactive phenolic extracts that could be used in several industrial applications.

  12. Effect of the Drying Process on the Intensification of Phenolic Compounds Recovery from Grape Pomace Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Rajha, Hiba N.; Ziegler, Walter; Louka, Nicolas; Hobaika, Zeina; Vorobiev, Eugene; Boechzelt, Herbert G.; Maroun, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    In light of their environmental and economic interests, food byproducts have been increasingly exploited and valorized for their richness in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are antioxidant bioactive molecules highly present in grape byproducts. Herein, the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of phenolic compounds from wet and dried grape pomace, at 45 °C, was conducted and the highest phenolic compounds yield (PCY) for wet (16.2 g GAE/100 g DM) and dry (7.28 g GAE/100 g DM) grape pomace extracts were obtained with 70% ethanol/water solvent at 140 °C. The PCY obtained from wet pomace was up to two times better compared to the dry byproduct and up to 15 times better compared to the same food matrices treated with conventional methods. With regard to Resveratrol, the corresponding dry pomace extract had a better free radical scavenging activity (49.12%) than the wet extract (39.8%). The drying pretreatment process seems to ameliorate the antiradical activity, especially when the extraction by ASE is performed at temperatures above 100 °C. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the diversity of the flavonoid and the non-flavonoid compounds found in the extracts was seriously affected by the extraction temperature and the pretreatment of the raw material. This diversity seems to play a key role in the scavenging activity demonstrated by the extracts. Our results emphasize on ASE usage as a promising method for the preparation of highly concentrated and bioactive phenolic extracts that could be used in several industrial applications. PMID:25322155

  13. Chemical kinetics and transport processes in supercritical fluid extraction of coal. Final report, August 10, 1990--December 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, B.J.; Smith, J.M.; Wang, M.; Zhang, C.J.

    1993-02-01

    The overall objective of this project was to study the supercritical fluid extraction of hydrocarbons from coal. Beyond the practical concern of deriving products from coal, the research has provided insights into the structure, properties, and reactivities of coal. Information on engineering fundamentals of coal thermolysis and extraction, including physical and chemical processes, is presented in this final report. To accomplish the goals of the project we developed continuous-flow experiments for fixed-bed samples of coal that allow two types of analysis of the extract: continuous spectrophotometric absorbance measurements of the lumped concentration of extract, and chromatographic determinations of molecular-weight distributions as a function of time. Thermolysis of coal yields a complex mixture of many extract products whose molecular-weight distribution (MWD) varies with time for continuous-flow, semibatch experiments. The flow reactor with a differential, fixed bed of coal particles contacted by supercritical t-butanol was employed to provide dynamic MWD data by means of HPLC gel permeation chromatography of the extract. The experimental results, time-dependent MWDs of extract molecules, were interpreted by a novel mathematical model based on continuous-mixture kinetics for thermal cleavage of chemical bonds in the coal network. The parameters for the MWDs of extractable groups in the coal and the rate constants for one- and two-fragment reaction are determined from the experimental data. The significant effect of temperature on the kinetics of the extraction was explained in terms of one- and two-fragment reactions in the coal.

  14. Energy from true in situ processing of Antrim oil shale: initial in situ extraction trials

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, P.H.

    1980-04-01

    This report covers the three in situ extraction trials performed at The Dow Chemical Company's existing oil shale site near Peck, Michigan, from August 11, 1977 to May 24, 1978 and the subsequent analysis. The trials were conducted at a depth of 1200 to 1300 feet for a total operating time of 109 days. Ignition was achieved by an electric heater and by a propane burner using coal and charcoal to increase the input of energy. Gas having an energy value of 50 to 55 Btu/scf was prodcued. The energy recovered in the third and most productive trial compared to the energy used for ignition reached a ratio of 4.8. A cyclic operation, called Huff and Puff, gave a 47 to 65% improvement in energy recovery compared to a single forward combustion. No sulfur compounds were detected in the production gas. Particulate measurement was not of value in monitoring the burning process. The trials reported, and the information gathered for them, provide a basis for a trial at a new site adjacent to the existing site.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-23

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. There are a number of parameters which are important for the production of acceptable cokes, including purity, structure, density, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity etc. From the standpoint of a manufacturer of graphite electrodes such as GrafTech, one of the most important parameters is coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Because GrafTech material is usually fully graphitized (i.e., heat treated at 3100 C), very high purity is automatically achieved. The degree of graphitization controls properties such as CTE, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and density. Thus it is usually possible to correlate these properties using a single parameter. CTE has proven to be a useful index for the quality of coke. Pure graphite actually has a slightly negative coefficient of thermal expansion, whereas more disordered carbon has a positive coefficient.

  16. Decontamination of PCBs-containing soil using subcritical water extraction process.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Park, Jeong-Hun; Shin, Moon-Su; Park, Ha-Seung

    2014-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one of the excision compounds listed at the Stockholm convention in 2001. Although their use has been heavily restricted, PCBs can be found in some specific site-contaminated soils. Either removal or destruction is required prior to disposal. The subcritical water extraction (SCWE) of organic hazardous compounds from contaminated soils is a promising technique for hazardous waste contaminated-site cleanup. In this study, the removal of PCBs by the SCWE process was investigated. The effects of temperature and treatment time on removal efficiency have been determined. In the SCWE experiments, a removal percentage of 99.7% was obtained after 1h of treatment at 250°C. The mass removal efficiency of low-chlorinated species was higher than high-chlorinated congeners at lower temperatures, but it was oppositely observed at higher temperatures because the lower chlorinated congeners are formed by dechlorination of higher chlorinated congeners. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that the PCBs underwent partial degradation. Several degradation products including mono- and di-chlorinated biphenyls, oxygen-containing aromatic compounds, and small-size hydrocarbons were identified in the effluent water, which were not initially present in the contaminated soil.

  17. Toxicity and composition profiles of solid phase extracts of oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Yue, Siqing; Ramsay, Bruce A; Wang, Jiaxi; Ramsay, Juliana

    2015-12-15

    After fractionation using sequential solid phase extraction, the presence of toxic components in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) was detected by the Microtox® acute toxicity assay using effect-directed analysis. The composition of each fraction was determined by high-resolution electrospray ionization-Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to determine which chemical constituents in all seven fractions co-varied most strongly with toxicity. Although O2 compounds with double bond equivalence (DBE) between 3 and 9 positively correlated with toxicity, C15-C18 O2-NAs with DBE=4 (tricyclic structure), as well as C14-C17 O2-NAs with DBE=3 (bicyclic structure), were found to be most likely associated with OSPW toxicity, consistent with published toxicity studies of surrogate NAs. O4, many O3 (i.e. possibly hydroxylated O2 c-NAs) and a few O2 compounds were found to negatively correlate with toxicity. The results demonstrate the utility of the fractionation and the PLS-DA approach for evaluating composition-response relationships in a complex mixture and also contribute to a better understanding of the toxic compounds in OSPW. These findings will help to focus study on the most environmentally significant components in OSPW. PMID:26318810

  18. Evaluation of Preclinical Assays to Investigate an Anthroposophic Pharmaceutical Process Applied to Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Flückiger, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Extracts from European mistletoe (Viscum album L.) developed in anthroposophic medicine are based on specific pharmaceutical procedures to enhance remedy efficacy. One such anthroposophic pharmaceutical process was evaluated regarding effects on cancer cell toxicity in vitro and on colchicine tumor formation in Lepidium sativum. Anthroposophically processed Viscum album extract (APVAE) was produced by mixing winter and summer mistletoe extracts in the edge of a high-speed rotating disk and was compared with manually mixed Viscum album extract (VAE). The antiproliferative effect of VAE/APVAE was determined in five cell lines (NCI-H460, DU-145, HCC1143, MV3, and PA-TU-8902) by WST-1 assay in vitro; no difference was found between VAE and APVAE in any cell line tested (P > 0.14). Incidence of colchicine tumor formation was assessed by measurement of the root/shoot-ratio of seedlings of Lepidium sativum treated with colchicine as well as VAE, APVAE, or water. Colchicine tumor formation decreased after application of VAE (−5.4% compared to water, P < 0.001) and was even stronger by APVAE (−8.8% compared to water, P < 0.001). The high-speed mistletoe extract mixing process investigated thus did not influence toxicity against cancer cells but seemed to sustain morphostasis and to enhance resistance against external noxious influences leading to phenomenological malformations. PMID:24876872

  19. Rapid-extraction oxidation process to recover and reuse copper chromium and arsenic from industrial wood preservative sludge.

    PubMed

    Kazi, F K M; Cooper, P A

    2002-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative can form insoluble sludges when the hexavalent chromium component is reduced by wood extractives, wood particles and preservative additives in the solution. This sludge accumulates in treating solution work tanks, sumps and in-line filters and must be disposed of as hazardous wastes by waste disposal companies at high costs. A number of commercial sludges were investigated and found to contain 18-94% copper, chromium and arsenic as oxides combined with sand, oil, wood particles, additives and wood extractives. We have developed a multi-stage recycling process whereby approximately 97% of the CCA components are recovered from the sludge. It involves extraction with sodium hypochlorite to remove and oxidize chromium (more than 90%) and extract most of the arsenic (approx. 80%) followed by extraction of the copper and remaining arsenic and chromium with phosphoric acid. The phosphoric acid extract contains some trivalent chromium, which is subsequently oxidized by sodium hypochlorite. The combined oxidized extract containing CrVI, CuII and AsV was compatible with CCA treating solutions and could be re-used commercially for treating wood without having a significant effect on the preservative fixation rate or the leach resistance of the treated wood. A cost analysis showed that the economic savings from recovery of CCA chemicals and reduced landfill costs exceeded the variable costs for materials and energy for the process by as much as Can $966 per tonne of sludge if sodium sulfite can be acquired in bulk quantities for the process. PMID:11952176

  20. Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed proteins: sequential extraction processing and fraction characterization.

    PubMed

    Rezig, Leila; Chibani, Farhat; Chouaibi, Moncef; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Hessini, Kamel; Guéguen, Jacques; Hamdi, Salem

    2013-08-14

    Seed proteins extracted from Tunisian pumpkin seeds ( Cucurbita maxima ) were investigated for their solubility properties and sequentially extracted according to the Osborne procedure. The solubility of pumpkin proteins from seed flour was greatly influenced by pH changes and ionic strength, with higher values in the alkaline pH regions. It also depends on the seed defatting solvent. Protein solubility was decreased by using chloroform/methanol (CM) for lipid extraction instead of pentane (P). On the basis of differential solubility fractionation and depending on the defatting method, the alkali extract (AE) was the major fraction (42.1 (P), 22.3% (CM)) compared to the salt extract (8.6 (P), 7.5% (CM)). In salt, alkali, and isopropanol extracts, all essential amino acids with the exceptions of threonine and lysine met the minimum requirements for preschool children (FAO/WHO/UNU). The denaturation temperatures were 96.6 and 93.4 °C for salt and alkali extracts, respectively. Pumpkin protein extracts with unique protein profiles and higher denaturation temperatures could impart novel characteristics when used as food ingredients.

  1. The extraction process optimization of antioxidant polysaccharides from Marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.) roots.

    PubMed

    Pakrokh Ghavi, Peyman

    2015-04-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) based on five levels was employed to model and optimize four experimental operating conditions of extraction temperature (10-90 °C) and time (6-30 h), particle size (6-24 mm) and water to solid (W/S, 10-50) ratio, obtaining polysaccharides from Althaea officinalis roots with high yield and antioxidant activity. For each response, a second-order polynomial model with high R(2) values (> 0.966) was developed using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the most significant (P < 0.05) extraction conditions that affect the yield and antioxidant activity of extracted polysaccharides were the main effect of extraction temperature and the interaction effect of the particle size and W/S ratio. The optimum conditions to maximize yield (10.80%) and antioxidant activity (84.09%) for polysaccharides extraction from A. officinalis roots were extraction temperature 60.90 °C, extraction time 12.01 h, particle size 12.0mm and W/S ratio of 40.0. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with those predicted, indicating the models suitability for optimizing the polysaccharides extraction conditions.

  2. Starch extraction process coupled to protein recovery from leguminous tuberous roots (Pachyrhizus ahipa).

    PubMed

    Díaz, Andrea; Dini, Cecilia; Viña, Sonia Z; García, María A

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this work was to fit together the starch extraction from Pachyrhizus ahipa roots and the recovery of the proteins present in these storage organs, making an improved use of this novel raw material. The replacement of water by buffer PO4(-3)/NaCl as solvent in the first extraction steps improved protein extraction without lowering the starch yield. The starches obtained from the traditional and the proposed methods exhibited some differences in appearance and technological and thermal properties, which were endorsed to the adjustment in the methodology of extraction rather than to the use of buffer as solvent. Thus, P. ahipa starch obtaining procedure could be coupled to protein extraction with a minimum change in the methodology. This innovation did not significantly shift the characteristics of the starch obtained and allowed to obtain a protein yield of 135.7mg BSA equivalent protein/100g of fresh roots. PMID:27516269

  3. Phytochemical analysis and effects of Pteris vittata extract on visual processes.

    PubMed

    Wahid, Fazli; Khan, Taous; Shehzad, Omer; Shehzad, Adeeb; Kim, You Young

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore the possible effects of Pteris vittata on visual sensitivity, ERG waves, and other components of the visual system. Electrophysiological techniques including electroretinography (ERG) were used in the present study. The phytochemical composition of the extract was investigated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques. The results indicated that the extract significantly augmented dark- and light-adapted ERG b-wave amplitude. Furthermore, these findings showed that P. vittata extract does not have Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor antagonistic activity but may function as a retinal neural antagonist in bullfrog retina. P. vittata extract improved the visual sensitivity by 0.8 log unit of light intensity, and reduced the regeneration time for rhodopsin. The six main peaks obtained through LC-MS were identified as flavonoids. Based on these results, it was concluded that P. vittata extract or its constituents may be used to treat eye diseases. PMID:26232896

  4. Starch extraction process coupled to protein recovery from leguminous tuberous roots (Pachyrhizus ahipa).

    PubMed

    Díaz, Andrea; Dini, Cecilia; Viña, Sonia Z; García, María A

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this work was to fit together the starch extraction from Pachyrhizus ahipa roots and the recovery of the proteins present in these storage organs, making an improved use of this novel raw material. The replacement of water by buffer PO4(-3)/NaCl as solvent in the first extraction steps improved protein extraction without lowering the starch yield. The starches obtained from the traditional and the proposed methods exhibited some differences in appearance and technological and thermal properties, which were endorsed to the adjustment in the methodology of extraction rather than to the use of buffer as solvent. Thus, P. ahipa starch obtaining procedure could be coupled to protein extraction with a minimum change in the methodology. This innovation did not significantly shift the characteristics of the starch obtained and allowed to obtain a protein yield of 135.7mg BSA equivalent protein/100g of fresh roots.

  5. A solvent extraction approach to recover acetic acid from mixed waste acids produced during semiconductor wafer process.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Ju-Yup; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Mohapatra, Debasish; Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Gwan; Bae, Wookeun

    2009-03-15

    Recovery of acetic acid (HAc) from the waste etching solution discharged from silicon wafer manufacturing process has been attempted by using solvent extraction process. For this purpose 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (EHA) was used as organic solvent. In the pre-treatment stage >99% silicon and hydrofluoric acid was removed from the solution by precipitation. The synthesized product, Na(2)SiF(6) having 98.2% purity was considered of commercial grade having good market value. The waste solution containing 279 g/L acetic acid, 513 g/L nitric acid, 0.9 g/L hydrofluoric acid and 0.030 g/L silicon was used for solvent extraction study. From the batch test results equilibrium conditions for HAc recovery were optimized and found to be 4 stages of extraction at an organic:aqueous (O:A) ratio of 3, 4 stages of scrubbing and 4 stages of stripping at an O:A ratio of 1. Deionized water (DW) was used as stripping agent to elute HAc from organic phase. In the whole batch process 96.3% acetic acid recovery was achieved. Continuous operations were successfully conducted for 100 h using a mixer-settler to examine the feasibility of the extraction system for its possible commercial application. Finally, a complete process flowsheet with material balance for the separation and recovery of HAc has been proposed.

  6. Advances in Development of the Fission Product Extraction Process for the Separation of Cesium and Strontium from Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    JAck D. Law

    2007-09-01

    The Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) Process is being developed as part of the United States Department of Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative for the simultaneous separation of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel. Separation of the Cs and Sr will reduce the short-term heat load in a geological repository, and when combined with the separation of americium (Am) and curium (Cm), could increase the capacity of the geological repository by a factor of approximately 100. The FPEX process is based on two highly specific extractants: 4,4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6). The DtBuCH18C6 extractant is selective for strontium and the BOBCalixC6 extractant is selective for cesium. Results of flowsheet testing of the FPEX process with a simulated feed solution in 3.3-cm centrifugal contactors are detailed. Removal efficiencies, distribution coefficient data, coextraction of metals, and process hydrodynamic performance are discussed along with recommendations for future flowsheet testing with actual spent nuclear fuel.

  7. Removal of lipid soluble process chemicals from biological materials by extraction with naturally occurring oils or synthetic substitutes thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, K.R.; Orme, T.W.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes a method of removing lipid soluble process chemicals from biological materials comprising blood plasma and fractions thereof containing the lipid soluble process chemicals. The lipid soluble process chemical is a virus attenuating solvent having a high flash point, a detergent, or a mixture thereof. It comprises bringing the biological materials containing the lipid soluble process chemicals into contact with an effective amount of a naturally occurring oil extracted from a plant or an animal or a synthetic compound of similar chemical structure. Also described is a method of removing lymphokine inducing phorbol esters from lympholkine-containing biological material. It comprises bringing the biological materials containing the phorbol esters into contact with an effective amount of a naturally occurring oil extracted from a plant or an animal or a synthetic compound of similar chemical structure so as to remove 80% or more of the phorbol esters.

  8. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Ampelopsis grossedentata Stems: Process Optimization and Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuefei; Ying, Le; Sun, Da; Zhang, Shikang; Zhu, Yuejin; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of bioactive compounds including flavonoids and phenolics from Ampelopsis grossedentata stems was carried out. Extraction parameters such as pressure, temperature, dynamic time and modifier, were optimized using an orthogonal array design of L9 (34), and antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) assay. The best conditions obtained for SC-CO2 extraction of flavonoids was 250 bar, 40 °C, 50 min, and with a modifier of methanol/ethanol (1:3, v/v), and that for phenolics extraction was 250 bar, 40 °C, 50 min, and with a modifier of methanol/ethanol (1:1, v/v). Meantime, flavonoids and phenolics were found to be mainly responsible for the DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts, but not for the chelating activity on ferrous ion according to Pearson correlation analysis. Furthermore, several unreported flavonoids such as apigenin, vitexin, luteolin, etc., have been detected in the extracts from A. grossedentata stems. PMID:22072923

  9. Identification, quantification, and sensory characterization of steviol glycosides from differently processed Stevia rebaudiana commercial extracts.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, María Inés; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Sanders, Mark; Castro, Cristian; Stieger, Markus; Agosin, Eduardo

    2014-12-10

    Stevia rebaudiana is known for its sweet-tasting ent-kaurene diterpenoid glycosides. Several manufacturing strategies are currently employed to obtain Stevia sweeteners with the lowest possible off-flavors. The chemical composition of four commercial S. rebaudiana extracts, obtained by different technologies, was characterized using UHPLC-ESI-MS(n). The composition of one of the ethanol-crystallized extracts (EC2) was entirely rebaudioside A, whereas the enzymatically modified (EM) extract contained the lowest concentration of this compound (2.7 mg/100 mg). The membrane-purified (MP) extract had the highest content of minor natural steviol glycosides (23.7 mg/100 mg total extract) versus an average of 2.4 mg/100 mg total extract for the EC samples. Thirteen trained panelists evaluated sweetness, bitterness, licorice, and metallic attributes of all four extracts. The highest licorice intensity (p ≤ 0.05) was found for MP. Both samples EC1 and EC2, despite their different chemical compositions, showed no significant differences in sensory perception.

  10. Influence of process variables on extraction of Cefalexin in a novel biocompatible ionic liquid based-aqueous two phase system.

    PubMed

    Abdolrahimi, Shiva; Nasernejad, Bahram; Pazuki, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that ionic liquid-based aqueous two phase systems (ATPSs) have been widely studied for extraction purposes, the adequacy of biodegradable organic salts as salting out agents has been left unexploited. In this study, we investigated the ability of sodium-based organic salts in the formation of ATPS in the presence of a common ionic liquid, [C4mim]BF4. In the pioneering aspect of this work, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on three-variable central composite design (CCD) was employed for determination of the effect of pH and the initial concentration of phase components on the partition coefficient of Cefalexin. Consequently, regression model equations and contour plots were applied to evaluate the effect of system's parameters on biomolecule's extraction. The tie-line (TL) data were determined for each experimental run and their reliability was confirmed by Othmer-Tobias and Bancroft correlations. In order to investigate the salting-out ability the effective excluded volume (EEV) was determined from the binodal data. Furthermore, FTIR spectra confirmed no chemical interactions between Cefalexin and [C4mim]BF4 in the extraction process. The microscopic structure of the top phase was analyzed by DLS, conductivity and TEM in order to investigate the mechanism of extraction. Hydrophobic interaction, the salting-out effect and the aggregation phenomena played the dominant role in the study of the extraction process. PMID:25407265

  11. Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation

    DOEpatents

    Tedder, Daniel W.

    1985-05-14

    Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

  12. Process optimization for extraction of carotenoids from shrimp waste with vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Sachindra, N M; Mahendrakar, N S

    2005-07-01

    Shrimp waste is an important source of natural carotenoid. Studies were carried out to determine the extraction yield of shrimp waste carotenoids in different vegetable oils. Highest yield was obtained by extraction using refined sunflower oil compared to groundnut oil, gingelly oil, mustard oil, soy oil, coconut oil and rice bran oil. The extraction yield of carotenoids in sunflower oil was significantly influenced by level of oil to waste (p < 0.05), time (p < 0.01) and temperature (p < 0.001) of heating waste with oil before centrifugation to separate pigmented oil. A regression equation was derived for carotenoid yield as a function of time of heating, temperature of heating and oil level to waste. The optimized conditions for extraction of shrimp waste carotenoids in sunflower oil were determined to be oil level to waste of 2, temperature of 70 degrees C and heating time of 150 min.

  13. Liquid CO2 extraction of Jasminum grandiflorum and comparison with conventional processes.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Sahoo, Deeptanjali; Rout, Prasant Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The concrete (0.35%) of Jasminum grandiflorum L. flowers was prepared by extraction in n-pentane, and the absolute (0.27%) by fractionation of the n-pentane extract (concrete) with cold methanol. Direct extraction of flowers with liquid CO2 gave a relatively fat-free product in 0.26% yield. The liquid CO2 extract was enriched with terpenoids and benzenoids, thus providing the organoleptically accepted product. The major compounds, such as benzyl acetate, (E,E)-alpha-farnesene and (Z)-3-hexenyl benzoate, along with compounds like indole, methyl anthranilate, (Z)-jasmone, (Z)-methyl jasmonoate and (Z)-methyl epi-jasmonoate, are responsible for the high diffusivity of the jasmine fragrance. These compounds have been obtained with improved recoveries in the liquid CO2 extract. On the other hand, the yield of the essential oil was poor (0.05%), and some polar compounds (oxygenated terpenoids) were recovered in less amounts in comparison with either the n-pentane or liquid CO2 extract. PMID:22428256

  14. A novel liquid/liquid extraction process composed of surfactant and acetonitrile for purification of polygalacturonase enzyme from Durio zibethinus.

    PubMed

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Yazid; Azmira, Farhana; Hussin, Muhaini; Sarker, Zaidul Islam

    2015-07-01

    Polygalacturonase is one of the important enzymes used in various industries such as food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, pulp and paper. A novel liquid/liquid extraction process composed of surfactant and acetonitrile was employed for the first time to purify polygalacturonase from Durio zibethinus. The influences of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, concentrations of acetonitrile and composition of surfactant/acetonitrile on partitioning behavior and recovery of polygalacturonase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of pH of system and crude load on purification fold and yield of purified polygalacturonase were studied. The results of the experiment indicated the polygalacturonase was partitioned into surfactant top rich phase with impurities being partitioned into acetonitrile bottom rich phase in the novel method of liquid/liquid process composed of 23% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 19% (w/w) acetonitrile, at 55.6% of TLL (tie line length) crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 6.0. Recovery and recycling of components also was measured in each successive step of liquid/liquid extraction process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the method with a high purification factor of 14.3 and yield of 97.3% while phase components were also recovered and recycled above 95%. This study demonstrated that the novel method of liquid/liquid extraction process can be used as an efficient and economical extraction method rather than the traditional methods of extraction for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme. PMID:25973865

  15. A novel liquid/liquid extraction process composed of surfactant and acetonitrile for purification of polygalacturonase enzyme from Durio zibethinus.

    PubMed

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Yazid; Azmira, Farhana; Hussin, Muhaini; Sarker, Zaidul Islam

    2015-07-01

    Polygalacturonase is one of the important enzymes used in various industries such as food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, pulp and paper. A novel liquid/liquid extraction process composed of surfactant and acetonitrile was employed for the first time to purify polygalacturonase from Durio zibethinus. The influences of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, concentrations of acetonitrile and composition of surfactant/acetonitrile on partitioning behavior and recovery of polygalacturonase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of pH of system and crude load on purification fold and yield of purified polygalacturonase were studied. The results of the experiment indicated the polygalacturonase was partitioned into surfactant top rich phase with impurities being partitioned into acetonitrile bottom rich phase in the novel method of liquid/liquid process composed of 23% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 19% (w/w) acetonitrile, at 55.6% of TLL (tie line length) crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 6.0. Recovery and recycling of components also was measured in each successive step of liquid/liquid extraction process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the method with a high purification factor of 14.3 and yield of 97.3% while phase components were also recovered and recycled above 95%. This study demonstrated that the novel method of liquid/liquid extraction process can be used as an efficient and economical extraction method rather than the traditional methods of extraction for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme.

  16. THE LIBERATION OF ARSENOSUGARS FROM MATRIX COMPONENTS IN DIFFICULT TO EXTRACT SEAFOOD SAMPLES UTILIZING TMAOH/ACETIC ACID SEQUENTIALLY IN A TWO-STAGE EXTRACTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sample extraction is one of the most important steps in arsenic speciation analysis of solid dietary samples. One of the problem areas in this analysis is the partial extraction of arsenicals from seafood samples. The partial extraction allows the toxicity of the extracted arse...

  17. Formation of calcium aluminates in the lime sinter process. [Extraction of alumina from fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, K.S.

    1980-03-01

    A study of the formation of several calcium aluminates from pure components in the lime sinter process was undertaken to determine the kinetics of formation and subsequent leaching using a dilute sodium carbonate solution. The composition CaO 61.98%, SiO/sub 2/ 26.67%, and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 11.53% was used. Isothermal sintering runs of 0.2 to 10.0 h were carried out at 1200, 1250, 1300, and 1350/sup 0/C. When the sintering temperature was below the eutectic temperature (1335/sup 0/C), the ternary mixture behaved like two binary systems, i.e. CaO-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and CaO-SiO/sub 2/. Only one compound, 3CaO.SiO/sub 2/, was formed between CaO and SiO/sub 2/. With lower sintering temperature and shorter sintering time, the ..beta..-phase was dominant. However, when both temperature and time increased, more and more of the ..beta..-C/sub 2/S was transformed into the ..gamma..-phase. Several different aluminates were formed during the sintering of CaO and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The compounds CaO.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and 3CaO.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ were observed at all tested sintering temperatures, while the 5CaO.3Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ phase was found only at 1200/sup 0/C and 12CaO.7Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ at 1250/sup 0/C or higher. The first compound formed between CaO and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was probably 12CaO.7Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, but the amount did not increase immediately with time. The first dominant compound between CaO and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was CaO.3Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. When the calcium ion diffused through the product layer of CaO.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 3CaO.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was formed. If unreacted Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ were present after the formation of CaO.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, CaO.2Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ would form. Subsequent leaching of the sinters showed that the extractable alumina in the products increased with both sintering temperature and time, reaching a max of about 90%. These extraction data corresponded very well to the quantities of aluminates in the sinters. 59 figures, 13 tables.

  18. The effect of aqueous cinnamon extract on the apoptotic process in acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells

    PubMed Central

    Assadollahi, Vahideh; Parivar, Kazem; Roudbari, Nasim Hayati; Khalatbary, Ali Reza; Motamedi, Masoumeh; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Dashti, Gholam Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is an acute leukemia diagnosed by translocation of chromosomes 15 and 17 [T (15,17)] and aggregation of neoplastic promyelocytes which are incapable of being converted into mature cells. Today, many tend to use medicinal herbs in studies and clinical applications for treatment of cancers. Cinnamon with scientific name “cinnamomumzelanicum” is a shrub of Laurales order, lauraceae family with cinnamomum genus. It is a medicinal shrub with anti-proliferation effect on tumor cells. This study was conducted to determine the effects of aqueous cinnamon extract on HL-60 cells as a model for APL. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro experimental study, HL-60 cell line was cultured under the influence of cinnamon extract's concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 2 mg/ml in with intervals of 24, 48, and 72 h. Growth inhibition and toxic effects of cinnamon extract were evaluated through tetrazolium salt reduction. The effect of this herb on the cell cycle was studied by flow cytometry. The Hoechst stain was used to detect apoptotic cell nuclei. Results: Cinnamon extract inhibited the growth of HL-60 cells as correlated with concentration and time. After 72 h of treating HL-60 cells with 0.01 mg/l cinnamon extract, the growth of cells was inhibited by 90.1%. Cinnamon extract stopped the cell cycle in G1 phase and the Hoechst staining verified the apoptotic process in those cells. Conclusion: Considering the inhibitory property of cinnamon extract, we recommend it as a single drug or besides other medications for treating promyelocytic leukemia. PMID:23977653

  19. Process development for recovery of vanadium and nickel from an industrial solid waste by a leaching-solvent extraction technique.

    PubMed

    Barik, S P; Park, K H; Nam, C W

    2014-12-15

    A process for recovering V(V) and Ni(II) from an industrial solid waste using sulfuric acid leaching, solvent extraction, precipitation and crystallization has been developed. The leaching parameters investigated were time, temperature and H2SO4 concentration. To quantify the linear and interaction coefficients a 2(3) full factorial experimental design was used. Regression equations for the extraction of V(V) and Ni(II) were determined and the adequacy of these equations was tested by Student's t-Test. More than 98% of both V(V) and Ni(II) were extracted in 90 min using 1.35 M H2SO4 at 40 °C. In addition, solvent extraction of V(V) with LIX 84-I in kerosene from the acidic leach liquor bearing 10.922 g/L V(V) and 18.871 g/L of Ni(II) was investigated. V(V) was extracted selectively using 40% LIX 84-I followed by stripping with NH4OH solution. McCabe-Thiele plots at O:A = 2:3 with 40% LIX 84-I and O:A = 3:1 with 15% (v/v) NH4OH showed two and three theoretical stages are needed for quantitative extraction and stripping of V(V), respectively. Ni(II) was selectively recovered from the V(V) free raffinate by adding ammonium oxalate at 60 °C. The purity of different products such as ammonium vanadate, nickel oxalate and nickel oxide obtained during the processes were analyzed and confirmed from the XRD studies.

  20. Process development for recovery of vanadium and nickel from an industrial solid waste by a leaching-solvent extraction technique.

    PubMed

    Barik, S P; Park, K H; Nam, C W

    2014-12-15

    A process for recovering V(V) and Ni(II) from an industrial solid waste using sulfuric acid leaching, solvent extraction, precipitation and crystallization has been developed. The leaching parameters investigated were time, temperature and H2SO4 concentration. To quantify the linear and interaction coefficients a 2(3) full factorial experimental design was used. Regression equations for the extraction of V(V) and Ni(II) were determined and the adequacy of these equations was tested by Student's t-Test. More than 98% of both V(V) and Ni(II) were extracted in 90 min using 1.35 M H2SO4 at 40 °C. In addition, solvent extraction of V(V) with LIX 84-I in kerosene from the acidic leach liquor bearing 10.922 g/L V(V) and 18.871 g/L of Ni(II) was investigated. V(V) was extracted selectively using 40% LIX 84-I followed by stripping with NH4OH solution. McCabe-Thiele plots at O:A = 2:3 with 40% LIX 84-I and O:A = 3:1 with 15% (v/v) NH4OH showed two and three theoretical stages are needed for quantitative extraction and stripping of V(V), respectively. Ni(II) was selectively recovered from the V(V) free raffinate by adding ammonium oxalate at 60 °C. The purity of different products such as ammonium vanadate, nickel oxalate and nickel oxide obtained during the processes were analyzed and confirmed from the XRD studies. PMID:25156262

  1. Discovery of plant extracts that greatly delay yeast chronological aging and have different effects on longevity-defining cellular processes.

    PubMed

    Lutchman, Vicky; Medkour, Younes; Samson, Eugenie; Arlia-Ciommo, Anthony; Dakik, Pamela; Cortes, Berly; Feldman, Rachel; Mohtashami, Sadaf; McAuley, Mélissa; Chancharoen, Marisa; Rukundo, Belise; Simard, Éric; Titorenko, Vladimir I

    2016-03-29

    We discovered six plant extracts that increase yeast chronological lifespan to a significantly greater extent than any of the presently known longevity-extending chemical compounds. One of these extracts is the most potent longevity-extending pharmacological intervention yet described. We show that each of the six plant extracts is a geroprotector which delays the onset and decreases the rate of yeast chronological aging by eliciting a hormetic stress response. We also show that each of these extracts has different effects on cellular processes that define longevity in organisms across phyla. These effects include the following: 1) increased mitochondrial respiration and membrane potential; 2) augmented or reduced concentrations of reactive oxygen species; 3) decreased oxidative damage to cellular proteins, membrane lipids, and mitochondrial and nuclear genomes; 4) enhanced cell resistance to oxidative and thermal stresses; and 5) accelerated degradation of neutral lipids deposited in lipid droplets. Our findings provide new insights into mechanisms through which chemicals extracted from certain plants can slow biological aging. PMID:26918729

  2. Extraction, processing, and storage effects on curcuminoids and oleoresin yields from Curcuma longa L. grown in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Green, Cheryl E; Hibbert, Sheridan L; Bailey-Shaw, Yvonne A; Williams, Lawrence A D; Mitchell, Sylvia; Garraway, Eric

    2008-05-28

    Aromatic diarylheptanoid compounds from Curcuma longa Linn grown in Jamaica were quantified by UV-vis spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analyses. The oleoresin yields from ethanolic extracts were quantified and evaluated with regard to the effects of the type of postharvesting process and the type of extraction method conducted on the plant material. Fresh samples that were hot solvent extracted provided the highest oleoresin yields of 15.7% +/- 0.4 ( n = 3), and the lowest oleoresin yields of 7.8% +/- 0.2 ( n = 3) were from the dried milled samples that were cold solvent extracted. Data from the ASTA spectrophotometer assay confirmed that dried samples contained the highest curcuminoid content of 55.5% +/- 2.2 ( n = 6) at the fifth month of storage, and the fresh samples showed a curcuminoid content of 47.1% +/- 6.4 ( n = 6) at the third month of storage. A modified HPLC analysis was used to quantify curcumin content. Data from the HPLC analysis confirmed that the dried treated, hot extracted, room temperature stored samples had the highest curcumin content of 24.3%. A novel high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method provided a chemical fingerprint of the C. longa with the use of a commercial curcumin standard. PMID:18454547

  3. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2002-01-01

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  4. Discovery of plant extracts that greatly delay yeast chronological aging and have different effects on longevity-defining cellular processes

    PubMed Central

    Samson, Eugenie; Arlia-Ciommo, Anthony; Dakik, Pamela; Cortes, Berly; Feldman, Rachel; Mohtashami, Sadaf; McAuley, Mélissa; Chancharoen, Marisa; Rukundo, Belise; Simard, Éric; Titorenko, Vladimir I.

    2016-01-01

    We discovered six plant extracts that increase yeast chronological lifespan to a significantly greater extent than any of the presently known longevity-extending chemical compounds. One of these extracts is the most potent longevity-extending pharmacological intervention yet described. We show that each of the six plant extracts is a geroprotector which delays the onset and decreases the rate of yeast chronological aging by eliciting a hormetic stress response. We also show that each of these extracts has different effects on cellular processes that define longevity in organisms across phyla. These effects include the following: 1) increased mitochondrial respiration and membrane potential; 2) augmented or reduced concentrations of reactive oxygen species; 3) decreased oxidative damage to cellular proteins, membrane lipids, and mitochondrial and nuclear genomes; 4) enhanced cell resistance to oxidative and thermal stresses; and 5) accelerated degradation of neutral lipids deposited in lipid droplets. Our findings provide new insights into mechanisms through which chemicals extracted from certain plants can slow biological aging. PMID:26918729

  5. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2006-07-11

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  6. Using bacterial extract along with differential gene expression in Acropora millepora larvae to decouple the processes of attachment and metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Siboni, Nachshon; Abrego, David; Seneca, Francois; Motti, Cherie A; Andreakis, Nikos; Tebben, Jan; Blackall, Linda L; Harder, Tilmann

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms of the bacterium Pseudoalteromonas induce metamorphosis of acroporid coral larvae. The bacterial metabolite tetrabromopyrrole (TBP), isolated from an extract of Pseudoalteromonas sp. associated with the crustose coralline alga (CCA) Neogoniolithon fosliei, induced coral larval metamorphosis (100%) with little or no attachment (0-2%). To better understand the molecular events and mechanisms underpinning the induction of Acropora millepora larval metamorphosis, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, migration, adhesion and biomineralisation, two novel coral gene expression assays were implemented. These involved the use of reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and employed 47 genes of interest (GOI), selected based on putative roles in the processes of settlement and metamorphosis. Substantial differences in transcriptomic responses of GOI were detected following incubation of A. millepora larvae with a threshold concentration and 10-fold elevated concentration of TBP-containing extracts of Pseudoalteromonas sp. The notable and relatively abrupt changes of the larval body structure during metamorphosis correlated, at the molecular level, with significant differences (p<0.05) in gene expression profiles of 24 GOI, 12 hours post exposure. Fourteen of those GOI also presented differences in expression (p<0.05) following exposure to the threshold concentration of bacterial TBP-containing extract. The specificity of the bacterial TBP-containing extract to induce the metamorphic stage in A. millepora larvae without attachment, using a robust, low cost, accurate, ecologically relevant and highly reproducible RT-qPCR assay, allowed partially decoupling of the transcriptomic processes of attachment and metamorphosis. The bacterial TBP-containing extract provided a unique opportunity to monitor the regulation of genes exclusively involved in the process of metamorphosis, contrasting previous gene expression studies that utilized cues

  7. Using Bacterial Extract along with Differential Gene Expression in Acropora millepora Larvae to Decouple the Processes of Attachment and Metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Siboni, Nachshon; Abrego, David; Seneca, Francois; Motti, Cherie A.; Andreakis, Nikos; Tebben, Jan; Blackall, Linda L.; Harder, Tilmann

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms of the bacterium Pseudoalteromonas induce metamorphosis of acroporid coral larvae. The bacterial metabolite tetrabromopyrrole (TBP), isolated from an extract of Pseudoalteromonas sp. associated with the crustose coralline alga (CCA) Neogoniolithon fosliei, induced coral larval metamorphosis (100%) with little or no attachment (0–2%). To better understand the molecular events and mechanisms underpinning the induction of Acropora millepora larval metamorphosis, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, migration, adhesion and biomineralisation, two novel coral gene expression assays were implemented. These involved the use of reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and employed 47 genes of interest (GOI), selected based on putative roles in the processes of settlement and metamorphosis. Substantial differences in transcriptomic responses of GOI were detected following incubation of A. millepora larvae with a threshold concentration and 10-fold elevated concentration of TBP-containing extracts of Pseudoalteromonas sp. The notable and relatively abrupt changes of the larval body structure during metamorphosis correlated, at the molecular level, with significant differences (p<0.05) in gene expression profiles of 24 GOI, 12 hours post exposure. Fourteen of those GOI also presented differences in expression (p<0.05) following exposure to the threshold concentration of bacterial TBP-containing extract. The specificity of the bacterial TBP-containing extract to induce the metamorphic stage in A. millepora larvae without attachment, using a robust, low cost, accurate, ecologically relevant and highly reproducible RT-qPCR assay, allowed partially decoupling of the transcriptomic processes of attachment and metamorphosis. The bacterial TBP-containing extract provided a unique opportunity to monitor the regulation of genes exclusively involved in the process of metamorphosis, contrasting previous gene expression studies that utilized cues

  8. Extraction and recovery of plutonium and americium from nitric acid waste solutions by the TRUEX process - continuing development studies

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.A.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Kalina, D.G.; Fischer, D.F.; Bane, R.W.; Burris, L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Chiarisia, R.; Diamond, H.

    1985-09-01

    This report summarizes the work done to date on the application of the TRUEX solvent extraction process for removing and separately recovering plutonium and americium from a nitric acid waste solution containing these elements, uranium, and a complement of inert metal ions. This simulated waste stream is typical of a raffinate from a tributyl phosphate (TBP)-based solvent extraction process for removing uranium and plutonium from dissolved plutonium-containing metallurgical scrap. The TRUEX process solvent in these experiments was a solution of TBP and octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) dissolved in carbon tetrachloride. A flowsheet was designed on the basis of measured batch distribution ratios to reduce the TRU content of the solidified raffinate to less than or equal to 10 nCi/g and was tested in a countercurrent experiment performed in a 14-stage Argonne-model centrifugal contractor. The process solvent was recycled without cleanup. An unexpectedly high evaporative loss of CCl/sub 4/ resulted in concentration of the active extractant, CMPO, to nearly 0.30M in the solvent. Results are consistent with this higher CMPO concentration. The raffinate contained only 2 nCi/g of TRU, but the higher CMPO concentration resulted in reduced effectiveness in the stripping of americium from the solvent. Conditions can be easily adjusted to give high yields and good separation of americium and plutonium. Experimental studies of the hydrolytic and gamma-radiolytic degradation of the TRUEX-CCl/sub 4/ showed that solvent degradation would be (1) minimal for a year of processing this typical feed, which contained no fission products, and (2) could be explained almost entirely by hydrolytic and radiolytic damage to TBP. Even for gross amounts of solvent damage, scrubbing with aqueous sodium carbonate solution restored the original americium extraction and stripping capability of the solvent. 43 refs., 5 figs., 36 tabs.

  9. Factors Controlling Redox Speciation of Plutonium and Neptunium in Extraction Separation Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Paulenova, Alena; Vandegrift, III, George F.

    2013-09-24

    The objective of the project was to examine the factors controlling redox speciation of plutonium and neptunium in UREX+ extraction in terms of redox potentials, redox mechanism, kinetics and thermodynamics. Researchers employed redox-speciation extractions schemes in parallel to the spectroscopic experiments. The resulting distribution of redox species w studied uring spectroscopic, electrochemical, and spectro-electrochemical methods. This work reulted in collection of data on redox stability and distribution of redox couples in the nitric acid/nitrate electrolyte and the development of redox buffers to stabilize the desired oxidation state of separated radionuclides. The effects of temperature and concentrations on the redox behavior of neptunium were evaluated.

  10. RESULTS OF THE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING USING AN IMPROVED SOLVENT FORMULATION AND SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY SIMULATED WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-09

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent - also known as the next generation solvent (NGS) - for deployment at the Savannah River Site to remove cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is a collaborative effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). As part of the program, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed a number of Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests. These batch contact tests serve as first indicators of the cesium mass transfer solvent performance with actual or simulated waste. The test detailed in this report used simulated Tank 49H material, with the addition of extra potassium. The potassium was added at 1677 mg/L, the maximum projected (i.e., a worst case feed scenario) value for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The results of the test gave favorable results given that the potassium concentration was elevated (1677 mg/L compared to the current 513 mg/L). The cesium distribution value, DCs, for extraction was 57.1. As a comparison, a typical D{sub Cs} in an ESS test, using the baseline solvent formulation and the typical waste feed, is {approx}15. The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) uses the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process to remove cesium (Cs) from alkaline waste. This process involves the use of an organic extractant, BoBCalixC6, in an organic matrix to selectively remove cesium from the caustic waste. The organic solvent mixture flows counter-current to the caustic aqueous waste stream within centrifugal contactors. After extracting the cesium, the loaded solvent is stripped of cesium by contact with dilute nitric acid and the cesium concentrate is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), while the organic solvent is cleaned and recycled for further use. The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), under

  11. Analysis of fingerprints features of infrared spectra of various processed products of Rhizoma Coptidis and their different extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Beilei; Zhang, Guijun; Xu, Changhua; Sun, Suqin

    2015-09-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) associated with second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR) are employed to analyze various processed products and different extracts of Rhizoma Coptidis. There is a shift of the peak of 1641 cm-1 of raw Rhizoma Coptidis after processed, which drifts to lower wave number. Peaks at 1508, 1387, 1363, 1332, 1274 and 1234 cm-1 barely change in most samples, except an obvious enhancement of these peaks after processed, suggesting that processed Rhizoma Coptidis may have higher content of berberine than raw material, which is corresponding to the results of correlation coefficients analysis. There are some differences in the absorption peaks in the range of 1800-1000 cm-1 in the SD-IR spectra, which have better resolution, of different processed products. 2D-IR spectra, which elevate the resolution further, can present more differences among the products in the range of 1300-800 cm-1 and 1800-1300 cm-1. Analysis of aqueous, ethanol and petroleum ether extracts of various processed products proves that there are distinctive differences of all auto-peaks in shapes and intensities in all of them. With the advantages of high resolution, high speed and convenience, FT-IR combined with 2D-IR can quickly and precisely distinguish various processed products of Rhizoma Coptidis and can be applied to predict the tendency of transformation of the complicated chemical mixture systems under heat perturbation.

  12. PRELIMINARY COMPARATIVE STUDY OF METHODS TO EXTRACT VIRUS FROM RAW AND PROCESSED SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two simple virus extraction techniques were compared to an EPA standard method for detection of human enteric viruses in raw sewage sludge and class A biosolids. The techniques were used to detect both indigenous and seeded virus from a plant that distributes class A material pr...

  13. Value Added Processing of Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal: Aflatoxin Sequestration During Protein Extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of a bentonite clay, Astra-Ben 20A (AB20A), to sequester aflatoxin from contaminated (~110 ppb) peanut meal during protein extraction was studied. Aqueous peanut meal dispersions (10% w/w) were prepared varying pH, temperature, enzymatic hydrolysis conditions, and concentrations of AB2...

  14. The development of a "Green" aqueous enzymatic process to extract corn oil from corn germ

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 2.4 million tons of commercial corn oil were produced worldwide in 2012, compared to 2012 world production of palm oil (53.3 MT) and soybean oil (43.1 MT) according to FAS, USDA. Most commercial corn oil (~90%) is produced from corn germ that is expeller pressed and/or hexane extracte...

  15. Prooxidative Potential of Photo-Irradiated Aqueous Extracts of Grape Pomace, a Recyclable Resource from Winemaking Process.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Mana; Nakashima, Takuji; Kamachi, Toshiaki; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that aqueous extract of grape pomace obtained from a winemaking process could exert bactericidal action upon photo-irradiation via reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. In the present study, we focused on chemical composition and prooxidative profile of the extract. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis showed that polyphenolic compounds including catechin monomers, dimers, trimers, and polyphenolic glucosides were contained. The polyphenol rich fraction used for the LC-ESI-MS analysis generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) upon photo-irradiation possibly initiated by photo-oxidation of phenolic hydroxyl group. That is, reduction of dissolved oxygen by proton-coupled electron transferred from the photo-oxidized phenolic hydroxyl group would form H2O2. The resultant H2O2 was then photolyzed to generate hydroxyl radical (•OH). The prooxidative profile of the extract in terms of •OH generation pattern upon photo-irradiation was similar to that of grape seed extract (GSE) as an authentic polyphenol product and (+)-catechin as a pure polyphenolic compound, and in all the three samples •OH generation could be retained during photo-irradiation for at least a couple of hours. The prooxidant activity of the photo-irradiated extract indicated by •OH yield was more potent than that of the photo-irradiated GSE and (+)-catechin, and this was well reflected in their bactericidal activity in which the photo-irradiated extract could kill the bacteria more efficiently than did the photo-irradiated GSE and (+)-catechin.

  16. Prooxidative Potential of Photo-Irradiated Aqueous Extracts of Grape Pomace, a Recyclable Resource from Winemaking Process.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Mana; Nakashima, Takuji; Kamachi, Toshiaki; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that aqueous extract of grape pomace obtained from a winemaking process could exert bactericidal action upon photo-irradiation via reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. In the present study, we focused on chemical composition and prooxidative profile of the extract. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis showed that polyphenolic compounds including catechin monomers, dimers, trimers, and polyphenolic glucosides were contained. The polyphenol rich fraction used for the LC-ESI-MS analysis generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) upon photo-irradiation possibly initiated by photo-oxidation of phenolic hydroxyl group. That is, reduction of dissolved oxygen by proton-coupled electron transferred from the photo-oxidized phenolic hydroxyl group would form H2O2. The resultant H2O2 was then photolyzed to generate hydroxyl radical (•OH). The prooxidative profile of the extract in terms of •OH generation pattern upon photo-irradiation was similar to that of grape seed extract (GSE) as an authentic polyphenol product and (+)-catechin as a pure polyphenolic compound, and in all the three samples •OH generation could be retained during photo-irradiation for at least a couple of hours. The prooxidant activity of the photo-irradiated extract indicated by •OH yield was more potent than that of the photo-irradiated GSE and (+)-catechin, and this was well reflected in their bactericidal activity in which the photo-irradiated extract could kill the bacteria more efficiently than did the photo-irradiated GSE and (+)-catechin. PMID:27341398

  17. Prooxidative Potential of Photo-Irradiated Aqueous Extracts of Grape Pomace, a Recyclable Resource from Winemaking Process

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Takuji; Kamachi, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that aqueous extract of grape pomace obtained from a winemaking process could exert bactericidal action upon photo-irradiation via reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. In the present study, we focused on chemical composition and prooxidative profile of the extract. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis showed that polyphenolic compounds including catechin monomers, dimers, trimers, and polyphenolic glucosides were contained. The polyphenol rich fraction used for the LC-ESI-MS analysis generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) upon photo-irradiation possibly initiated by photo-oxidation of phenolic hydroxyl group. That is, reduction of dissolved oxygen by proton-coupled electron transferred from the photo-oxidized phenolic hydroxyl group would form H2O2. The resultant H2O2 was then photolyzed to generate hydroxyl radical (•OH). The prooxidative profile of the extract in terms of •OH generation pattern upon photo-irradiation was similar to that of grape seed extract (GSE) as an authentic polyphenol product and (+)-catechin as a pure polyphenolic compound, and in all the three samples •OH generation could be retained during photo-irradiation for at least a couple of hours. The prooxidant activity of the photo-irradiated extract indicated by •OH yield was more potent than that of the photo-irradiated GSE and (+)-catechin, and this was well reflected in their bactericidal activity in which the photo-irradiated extract could kill the bacteria more efficiently than did the photo-irradiated GSE and (+)-catechin. PMID:27341398

  18. Expression pattern of sonic hedgehog signaling and calcitonin gene-related peptide in the socket healing process after tooth extraction.

    PubMed

    Pang, Pai; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Takada, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Kenichi; Yoshioka, Norie; Ibaragi, Soichiro; Sasaki, Akira

    2015-11-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), a neural development inducer, plays a significant role in the bone healing process. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a neuropeptide marker of sensory nerves, has been demonstrated to affect bone formation. The roles of SHH signaling and CGRP-positive sensory nerves in the alveolar bone formation process have been unknown. Here we examined the expression patterns of SHH signaling and CGRP in mouse socket by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analysis. We found that the expression level of SHH peaked at day 3 and was then decreased at 5 days after tooth extraction. CGRP, PTCH1 and GLI2 were each expressed in a similar pattern with their highest expression levels at day 5 and day 7 after tooth extraction. CGRP and GLI2 were co-expressed in some inflammatory cells and bone forming cells. In some areas, CGRP-positive neurons expressed GLI2. In conclusion, SHH may affect alveolar bone healing by interacting with CGRP-positive sensory neurons and thus regulate the socket's healing process after tooth extraction. PMID:26427874

  19. Massively Parallel Signal Processing using the Graphics Processing Unit for Real-Time Brain-Computer Interface Feature Extraction.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J Adam; Williams, Justin C

    2009-01-01

    The clock speeds of modern computer processors have nearly plateaued in the past 5 years. Consequently, neural prosthetic systems that rely on processing large quantities of data in a short period of time face a bottleneck, in that it may not be possible to process all of the data recorded from an electrode array with high channel counts and bandwidth, such as electrocorticographic grids or other implantable systems. Therefore, in this study a method of using the processing capabilities of a graphics card [graphics processing unit (GPU)] was developed for real-time neural signal processing of a brain-computer interface (BCI). The NVIDIA CUDA system was used to offload processing to the GPU, which is capable of running many operations in parallel, potentially greatly increasing the speed of existing algorithms. The BCI system records many channels of data, which are processed and translated into a control signal, such as the movement of a computer cursor. This signal processing chain involves computing a matrix-matrix multiplication (i.e., a spatial filter), followed by calculating the power spectral density on every channel using an auto-regressive method, and finally classifying appropriate features for control. In this study, the first two computationally intensive steps were implemented on the GPU, and the speed was compared to both the current implementation and a central processing unit-based implementation that uses multi-threading. Significant performance gains were obtained with GPU processing: the current implementation processed 1000 channels of 250 ms in 933 ms, while the new GPU method took only 27 ms, an improvement of nearly 35 times.

  20. [Effect of air humidity on traditional Chinese medicine extract of spray drying process and prediction of its powder stability].

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Xie, Yin; Zheng, Long-jin; Liu, Wei; Rao, Xiao-yong; Luo, Xiao-jian

    2015-02-01

    In order to solve the adhesion and the softening problems of traditional Chinese medicine extract during spray drying, a new method of adding dehumidified air into spray drying process was proposed, and the storage stability conditions of extract powder could be predicted. Kouyanqing extract was taken as model drug to investigate on the wet air (RH = 70%) and dry air conditions of spray drying. Under the dry air condition, the influence of the spray drying result with different air compression ratio and the spray-dried powder properties (extract powder recovery rate, adhesion percentage, water content, angle of repose, compression ratio, particle size and distribution) with 100, 110, 120, 130, 140 °C inlet temperature were studied. The hygroscopic investigation and Tg value with different moisture content of ideal powder were determined. The water activity-equilibrium moisture content (aw-EMC) and the equilibrium moisture content-Tg (EMC-Tg) relationships were fitted by GAB equation and Gordon-Taylor model respectively, and the state diagram of kouyanqing powder was obtained to guide the rational storage conditions. The study found that in the condition of dry air, the extract powder water content decreased with the increase of air compression ratio and the spray drying effect with air compression ratio of 100% was the best performance; in the condition of wet air, the extract powder with high water content and low yield, and the value were 4.26% and 16.73 °C, while, in the dry air condition the values were 2.43% and 24.86 °C with the same other instru- ment parameters. From the analysis of kouyanqing powder state diagram, in order to keep the stability, the critical water content of 3.42% and the critical water content of 0.188. As the water decreased Tg value of extract powder is the major problem of causing adhesion and softening during spray drying, it is meaningful to aid dehumidified air during the process. PMID:26084164

  1. Microfabricated Devices for Sample Extraction, Concentrations, and Related Sample Processing Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe

    2006-12-01

    This is an invited book chapter. As with other analytical techniques, sample pretreatments, sample extraction, sample introduction, and related techniques are of extreme importance for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Bio-MEMS devices and systems start with a sampling step. The biological sample then usually undergoes some kinds of sample preparation steps before the actual analysis. These steps may involve extracting the target sample from its matrix, removing interferences from the sample, derivatizing the sample to detectable species, or performing a sample preconcentration step. The integration of the components for sample pretreatment into microfluidic devices represents one of the remaining the bottle-neck towards achieving true miniaturized total analysis systems (?TAS). This chapter provides a thorough state-of-art of the developments in this field to date.

  2. Mechanism of nanocapsules of Matricaria recutita L. extract formation by the emulsion-diffusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Saremnia, Betsabe; Koohian, Ata; Rezazadeh, Shamsali

    2011-10-01

    Nanocapsules coated by medicinal plants have many applications in drug manufacturing. Medicinal plants can be loaded on nanocapsules with polyesteric triblock copolymer poly ethylene glycol-poly butylene adipate-poly ethylene glycol (PEG-PBA-PEG) as shell and olive oil can be introduced as a core of nanocapsules by a method known as polymer deposition solvent evaporation method. In this research, first, certain amount of polymer, Matricaria recutita extract and olive oil were mixed with acetone and then, water was added to the solution using magnetic stirrer. After which the acetone was removed by vacuuming and finally nanocapsules were found by freezing-drier. The study showed the size of nanocapsules depends on variety of factors such as the ratio of polymer to oil and concentration of polymers and plant extract. The nanocapsules were identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and zeta potential sizer (ZPS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).

  3. Modular continuous wavelet processing of biosignals: extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video signal

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A novel method of extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video-based biosignal is described. The method comprises a novel modular continuous wavelet transform approach which includes: performing the transform, undertaking running wavelet archetyping to enhance the pulse information, extraction of the pulse ridge time–frequency information [and thus a heart rate (HRvid) signal], creation of a wavelet ratio surface, projection of the pulse ridge onto the ratio surface to determine the ratio of ratios from which a saturation trending signal is derived, and calibrating this signal to provide an absolute saturation signal (SvidO2). The method is illustrated through its application to a video photoplethysmogram acquired during a porcine model of acute desaturation. The modular continuous wavelet transform-based approach is advocated by the author as a powerful methodology to deal with noisy, non-stationary biosignals in general. PMID:27382479

  4. Modular continuous wavelet processing of biosignals: extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video signal.

    PubMed

    Addison, Paul S

    2016-06-01

    A novel method of extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video-based biosignal is described. The method comprises a novel modular continuous wavelet transform approach which includes: performing the transform, undertaking running wavelet archetyping to enhance the pulse information, extraction of the pulse ridge time-frequency information [and thus a heart rate (HRvid) signal], creation of a wavelet ratio surface, projection of the pulse ridge onto the ratio surface to determine the ratio of ratios from which a saturation trending signal is derived, and calibrating this signal to provide an absolute saturation signal (SvidO2). The method is illustrated through its application to a video photoplethysmogram acquired during a porcine model of acute desaturation. The modular continuous wavelet transform-based approach is advocated by the author as a powerful methodology to deal with noisy, non-stationary biosignals in general. PMID:27382479

  5. Comparative assessment of genomic DNA extraction processes for Plasmodium: Identifying the appropriate method.

    PubMed

    Mann, Riti; Sharma, Supriya; Mishra, Neelima; Valecha, Neena; Anvikar, Anupkumar R

    2015-12-01

    Plasmodium DNA, in addition to being used for molecular diagnosis of malaria, find utility in monitoring patient responses to antimalarial drugs, drug resistance studies, genotyping and sequencing purposes. Over the years, numerous protocols have been proposed for extracting Plasmodium DNA from a variety of sources. Given that DNA isolation is fundamental to successful molecular studies, here we review the most commonly used methods for Plasmodium genomic DNA isolation, emphasizing their pros and cons. A comparison of these existing methods has been made, to evaluate their appropriateness for use in different applications and identify the method suitable for a particular laboratory based study. Selection of a suitable and accessible DNA extraction method for Plasmodium requires consideration of many factors, the most important being sensitivity, cost-effectiveness and, purity and stability of isolated DNA. Need of the hour is to accentuate on the development of a method that upholds well on all these parameters.

  6. FACILITY UPGRADES FOR RECEIPT FROM ACTINIDE REMOVAL AND MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, T; Stephen Phillips, S; Benjamin Culbertson, B; Beverly02 Davis, B; Aaron Staub, A

    2007-02-13

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently on an aggressive program to empty its High Level Waste (HLW) tanks and immobilize its radioactive waste into a durable borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). As a part of that program, two new processes will be brought on-line to assist in emptying the HLW tanks. These processes are in addition to the current sludge removal process and are called the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (MCU) Process. In order to accept and process the streams generated from these two new processes, several facility modifications are required and are broken down into several projects. These projects are handling the facility modifications required for the Tank Farm (241-96H), and DWPF vitrification facility (221-S), and DWPF ancillary facilities (511-S, and 512-S). Additional modifications to the 221-S building were required to address the flammability concern from the solvent carryover from the MCU process. This paper will describe a summary of the modifications impacting the 511-S, 512-S, and the 221-S facilities in order to receive the new streams from the ARP and MCU processes at the DWPF.

  7. Processing of rayon waste effluent for the recovery of zinc and separation of calcium using thiophosphinic extractant.

    PubMed

    Jha, M K; Kumar, V; Bagchi, D; Singh, R J; Lee, Jae-chun

    2007-06-25

    Zinc is used in various metallurgical, chemical and textile industries. In textile industries, waste effluent containing zinc is generated during the manufacture of rayon yarn. Due to the strict environmental regulations and the presence of toxic metallic and other constituents, the discharge of effluents in sewage is restricted. In view of above a process has been developed for the recovery of zinc from rayon waste effluent following solvent extraction technique using thiophosphinic extractants Cyanex 272 and 302. Before recycling of zinc sulphate solution in spinning bath, solution must be free from calcium, which is deleterious to the process as gypsum precipitates and forms scale. The extractant Cyanex 302 has been found selective for the recovery of 99.99% of zinc in the form of [R(2)Zn](org) from the effluent above equilibrium pH 3.4 maintaining the O/A ratio of 1/30 leaving all the calcium in the raffinate. The zinc from the loaded Cyanex 302 can be stripped with 10% sulphuric acid at even O/A ratio of 10. The stripped solution thus obtained could be recycled in the spinning bath of the rayon plant and raffinate could be disposed safely without affecting environment.

  8. Separation of alpha-amylase by reversed micellar extraction. Effect of solvent type and cosolvent concentration on the transfer process.

    PubMed

    Chang, Q L; Chen, J Y

    1997-01-01

    The recovery of alpha-amylase from the crude enzyme preparation by the reversed micellar liquid-liquid extraction was investigated. The reversed micellar solution was formed by dissolving a cationic surfactant Aliquat 336 in six different alkanes (cyclohexane, n-hexane, isooctane, n-octane, n-decane, and n-dodecane) respectively with addition of a cosolvent n-octanol. It was found that a minimal quantity of n-octanol was needed for Aliquat 336 to dissolve in apolar solvent and form reversed micelles. Furthermore, this minimal amount of n-octanol needed was found to be different when Aliquat 336 was dissolved in different alkanes. It tended to increase with the number of carbon atoms in alkane and also depended on the solvent structure. During the forward extraction process, it was revealed that a high value of solubilization of protein in Aliquat 336 reversed micelles could be achieved when four out of the six alkanes (cyclohexane, n-hexane, isooctane, n-octane) were used as the solvent for Aliquat 336. After a full forward and backward extraction cycle, however, a high recovery of both the protein mass and alpha-amylase activity in the stripping solution could be obtained only when two out of the six alkanes (n-hexane and isooctane) were used as the solvent for Aliquat 336. When n-hexane and isooctane were used as the solvent for Aliquat 336, up to 80% of the total alpha-amylase activity in the crude enzyme preparation could be recovered at the end of extraction cycle, meanwhile alpha-amylase could be concentrated about 1.4-fold. In the cases of other four alkanes (cyclohexane, n-octane, n-decane, and n-dodecane) as solvent, most of the alpha-amylase activity in the crude enzyme preparation would be denatured after an extraction cycle.

  9. Simultaneous determination of 15 phenolic compounds and caffeine in teas and mate using RP-HPLC/UV detection: method development and optimization of extraction process.

    PubMed

    Bae, In Kyung; Ham, Hyeon Mi; Jeong, Min Hee; Kim, Dong Ho; Kim, Ho Jin

    2015-04-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic coupled to ultraviolet detection (RP-HPLC/UV) method was developed for simultaneous determination of 15 phenolic compounds and caffeine in TEAS (green tea, oolong tea, black tea and mate). Furthermore, the extraction process of total phenolic contents (TPC) from TEAS were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design (CCD) and then applied to extraction of TEAS. The best conditions obtained using the model were as follow: green tea--extraction time of 123 min, extraction temperature of 70 °C and ethanol concentration of 75%, oolong tea--extraction time of 98 min, extraction temperature of 70 °C and ethanol concentration of 69%, black tea--extraction time of 105 min, extraction temperature of 71 °C and ethanol concentration of 63%, and mate--extraction time of 103 min, extraction temperature of 71 °C and ethanol concentration of 61%. Among the extraction methods used in this study, heat-reflux extraction was found to result in the highest values of TPC. The chromatographic peaks of the 16 studied compounds were successfully identified by comparing their retention time and UV spectra with the reference standards. Method validation was performed by means of linearity, sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy and precision. The developed method was found to be simple, specific and reliable and is suited for routine analysis of phenolic compounds and caffeine in TEAS.

  10. Simultaneous determination of 15 phenolic compounds and caffeine in teas and mate using RP-HPLC/UV detection: method development and optimization of extraction process.

    PubMed

    Bae, In Kyung; Ham, Hyeon Mi; Jeong, Min Hee; Kim, Dong Ho; Kim, Ho Jin

    2015-04-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic coupled to ultraviolet detection (RP-HPLC/UV) method was developed for simultaneous determination of 15 phenolic compounds and caffeine in TEAS (green tea, oolong tea, black tea and mate). Furthermore, the extraction process of total phenolic contents (TPC) from TEAS were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design (CCD) and then applied to extraction of TEAS. The best conditions obtained using the model were as follow: green tea--extraction time of 123 min, extraction temperature of 70 °C and ethanol concentration of 75%, oolong tea--extraction time of 98 min, extraction temperature of 70 °C and ethanol concentration of 69%, black tea--extraction time of 105 min, extraction temperature of 71 °C and ethanol concentration of 63%, and mate--extraction time of 103 min, extraction temperature of 71 °C and ethanol concentration of 61%. Among the extraction methods used in this study, heat-reflux extraction was found to result in the highest values of TPC. The chromatographic peaks of the 16 studied compounds were successfully identified by comparing their retention time and UV spectra with the reference standards. Method validation was performed by means of linearity, sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy and precision. The developed method was found to be simple, specific and reliable and is suited for routine analysis of phenolic compounds and caffeine in TEAS. PMID:25442580

  11. Peculiarities of highly burned-up NPP SNF reprocessing and new approach to simulation of solvent extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, Y.S.; Zilberman, B.Y.; Goletskiy, N.D.; Puzikov, E.A.; Ryabkov, D.V.; Rodionov, S.A.; Beznosyuk, V.I.; Petrov, Y.Y.; Saprykin, V.F.; Murzin, A.A.; Bibichev, B.A.; Aloy, A.S.; Kudinov, A.S.; Blazheva, I.V.; Kurenkov, N.V.

    2013-07-01

    Substantiation, general description and performance characteristics of a reprocessing flowsheet for WWER-1000 spent fuel with burn-up >60 GW*day/t U is given. Pu and U losses were <0.1%, separation factor > 10{sup 4}; their decontamination factor from γ-emitting fission products was 4*10{sup 4} and 3*10{sup 7}, respectively. Zr, Tc, Np removal was >98% at U and Pu losses <0.05%. A new approach to simulation of extraction equilibrium has been developed. It is based on a set of simultaneous chemical reactions characterized by apparent concentration constants. A software package was created for simulation of spent fuel component distribution in multistage countercurrent extraction processes in the presence of salting out agents. (authors)

  12. Room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong H.; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Williams, Spencer T.; Jen, Alex K.-Y.

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we describe a room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer (EEL) for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PHJ PVSCs). This EEL is composed of a bilayered fulleropyrrolidinium iodide (FPI)-polyethyleneimine (PEIE) and PC61BM, which yields a promising power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.7% with insignificant hysteresis. We reveal that PC61BM can serve as a surface modifier of FPI-PEIE to simultaneously facilitate the crystallization of perovskite and the charge extraction at FPI-PEIE/CH3NH3PbI3 interface. Furthermore, the FPI-PEIE can also tune the work function of ITO and dope PC61BM to promote the efficient electron transport between ITO and PC61BM. Based on the advantages of room-temperature processability and decent electrical property of FPI-PEIE/PC61BM EEL, a high-performance flexible PVSC with a PCE ~10% is eventually demonstrated. This study shows the potential of low-temperature processed organic EEL to replace transition metal oxide-based interlayers for highly printing compatible PVSCs with high-performance.In this work, we describe a room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer (EEL) for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PHJ PVSCs). This EEL is composed of a bilayered fulleropyrrolidinium iodide (FPI)-polyethyleneimine (PEIE) and PC61BM, which yields a promising power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.7% with insignificant hysteresis. We reveal that PC61BM can serve as a surface modifier of FPI-PEIE to simultaneously facilitate the crystallization of perovskite and the charge extraction at FPI-PEIE/CH3NH3PbI3 interface. Furthermore, the FPI-PEIE can also tune the work function of ITO and dope PC61BM to promote the efficient electron transport between ITO and PC61BM. Based on the advantages of room-temperature processability and decent electrical property of FPI-PEIE/PC61BM EEL, a high-performance flexible PVSC with a PCE ~10% is

  13. Single sample extraction and HPLC processing for quantification of NAD and NADH levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Sporty, J; Kabir, M M; Turteltaub, K; Ognibene, T; Lin, S; Bench, G

    2008-01-10

    A robust redox extraction protocol for quantitative and reproducible metabolite isolation and recovery has been developed for simultaneous measurement of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its reduced form, NADH, from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Following culture in liquid media, approximately 10{sup 8} yeast cells were harvested by centrifugation and then lysed under non-oxidizing conditions by bead blasting in ice-cold, nitrogen-saturated 50-mM ammonium acetate. To enable protein denaturation, ice cold nitrogen-saturated CH{sub 3}CN + 50-mM ammonium acetate (3:1; v:v) was added to the cell lysates. After sample centrifugation to pellet precipitated proteins, organic solvent removal was performed on supernatants by chloroform extraction. The remaining aqueous phase was dried and resuspended in 50-mM ammonium acetate. NAD and NADH were separated by HPLC and quantified using UV-VIS absorbance detection. Applicability of this procedure for quantifying NAD and NADH levels was evaluated by culturing yeast under normal (2% glucose) and calorie restricted (0.5% glucose) conditions. NAD and NADH contents are similar to previously reported levels in yeast obtained using enzymatic assays performed separately on acid (for NAD) and alkali (for NADH) extracts. Results demonstrate that it is possible to perform a single preparation to reliably and robustly quantitate both NAD and NADH contents in the same sample. Robustness of the protocol suggests it will be (1) applicable to quantification of these metabolites in mammalian and bacterial cell cultures; and (2) amenable to isotope labeling strategies to determine the relative contribution of specific metabolic pathways to total NAD and NADH levels in cell cultures.

  14. An advanced study on the hydrometallurgical processing of waste computer printed circuit boards to extract their valuable content of metals.

    PubMed

    Birloaga, Ionela; Coman, Vasile; Kopacek, Bernd; Vegliò, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    This study refers to two chemical leaching systems for the base and precious metals extraction from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs); sulfuric acid with hydrogen peroxide have been used for the first group of metals, meantime thiourea with the ferric ion in sulfuric acid medium were employed for the second one. The cementation process with zinc, copper and iron metal powders was attempted for solutions purification. The effects of hydrogen peroxide volume in rapport with sulfuric acid concentration and temperature were evaluated for oxidative leaching process. 2M H2SO4 (98% w/v), 5% H2O2, 25 °C, 1/10 S/L ratio and 200 rpm were founded as optimal conditions for Cu extraction. Thiourea acid leaching process, performed on the solid filtrate obtained after three oxidative leaching steps, was carried out with 20 g/L of CS(NH2)2, 6g/L of Fe(3+), 0.5M H2SO4, The cross-leaching method was applied by reusing of thiourea liquid suspension and immersing 5 g/L of this reagent for each other experiment material of leaching. This procedure has lead to the doubling and, respectively, tripling, of gold and silver concentrations into solution. These results reveal a very efficient, promising and environmental friendly method for WPCBs processing.

  15. Recent Advances in the Development and Application of Power Plate Transducers in Dense Gas Extraction and Aerosol Agglomeration Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riera, E.; Cardoni, A.; Gallego-Juárez, J. A.; Acosta, V. M.; Blanco, A.; Rodríguez, G.; Blasco, M.; Herranz, L. E.

    Power ultrasound (PU) is an emerging, innovative, energy saving and environmental friendly technology that is generating a great interest in sectors such as food and pharmaceutical industries, green chemistry, environmental pollution, and other processes, where sustainable and energy efficient methods are required to improve and/or produce specific effects. Two typical effects of PU are the enhancement of mass transfer in gases and liquids, and the induction of particle agglomeration in aerosols. These effects are activated by a variety of mechanisms associated to the nonlinear propagation of high amplitude ultrasonic waves such as diffusion, agitation, entrainment, turbulence, etc. During the last years a great effort has been jointly made by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) and the company Pusonics towards introducing novel processes into the market based on airborne ultrasonic plate transducers. This technology was specifically developed for the treatment of gas and multiphasic media characterized by low specific acoustic impedance and high acoustic absorption. Different strategies have been developed to mitigate the effects of the nonlinear dynamic behavior of such ultrasonic piezoelectric transducers in order to enhance and stabilize their response at operational power conditions. This work deals with the latter advances in the mitigation of nonlinear problems found in power transducers; besides it describes two applications assisted by ultrasound developed at semi-industrial and laboratory scales and consisting in extraction via dense gases and particle agglomeration. Dense Gas Extraction (DGE) assisted by PU is a new process with a potential to enhance the extraction kinetics with supercritical CO2. Acoustic agglomeration of fine aerosol particles has a great potential for the treatment of air pollution problems generated by particulate materials. Experimental and numerical results in both processes will be shown and discussed.

  16. A Solution Processed Flexible Nanocomposite Electrode with Efficient Light Extraction for Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lu; Liang, Jiajie; Chou, Shu-Yu; Zhu, Xiaodan; Niu, Xiaofan; ZhibinYu; Pei, Qibing

    2014-01-01

    Highly efficient organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on multiple layers of vapor evaporated small molecules, indium tin oxide transparent electrode, and glass substrate have been extensively investigated and are being commercialized. The light extraction from the exciton radiative decay is limited to less than 30% due to plasmonic quenching on the metallic cathode and the waveguide in the multi-layer sandwich structure. Here we report a flexible nanocomposite electrode comprising single-walled carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires stacked and embedded in the surface of a polymer substrate. Nanoparticles of barium strontium titanate are dispersed within the substrate to enhance light extraction efficiency. Green polymer OLED (PLEDs) fabricated on the nanocomposite electrode exhibit a maximum current efficiency of 118 cd/A at 10,000 cd/m2 with the calculated external quantum efficiency being 38.9%. The efficiencies of white PLEDs are 46.7 cd/A and 30.5%, respectively. The devices can be bent to 3 mm radius repeatedly without significant loss of electroluminescent performance. The nanocomposite electrode could pave the way to high-efficiency flexible OLEDs with simplified device structure and low fabrication cost. PMID:24632742

  17. A solution processed flexible nanocomposite electrode with efficient light extraction for organic light emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Liang, Jiajie; Chou, Shu-Yu; Zhu, Xiaodan; Niu, Xiaofan; ZhibinYu; Pei, Qibing

    2014-03-17

    Highly efficient organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on multiple layers of vapor evaporated small molecules, indium tin oxide transparent electrode, and glass substrate have been extensively investigated and are being commercialized. The light extraction from the exciton radiative decay is limited to less than 30% due to plasmonic quenching on the metallic cathode and the waveguide in the multi-layer sandwich structure. Here we report a flexible nanocomposite electrode comprising single-walled carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires stacked and embedded in the surface of a polymer substrate. Nanoparticles of barium strontium titanate are dispersed within the substrate to enhance light extraction efficiency. Green polymer OLED (PLEDs) fabricated on the nanocomposite electrode exhibit a maximum current efficiency of 118 cd/A at 10,000 cd/m(2) with the calculated external quantum efficiency being 38.9%. The efficiencies of white PLEDs are 46.7 cd/A and 30.5%, respectively. The devices can be bent to 3 mm radius repeatedly without significant loss of electroluminescent performance. The nanocomposite electrode could pave the way to high-efficiency flexible OLEDs with simplified device structure and low fabrication cost.

  18. Interaction of bisphenol A with dissolved organic matter in extractive and adsorptive removal processes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fei-Die; Choo, Kwang-Ho; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Lee, Byunghwan

    2012-05-01

    The fate of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in natural and engineered systems is complicated due to their interactions with various water constituents. This study investigated the interaction of bisphenol A (BPA) with dissolved organic matter (DOM) and colloids present in surface water and secondary effluent as well as its adsorptive removal by powdered activated carbons. The solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) method followed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was utilized for determining the distribution of BPA molecules in water. The BPA removal by SPME decreased with the increased DOM content, where the formation of BPA-DOM complexes in an aqueous matrix was responsible for the reduced extraction of BPA. Colloidal particles in water samples sorbed BPA leading to the marked reduction of liquid phase BPA. BPA-DOM complexes had a negative impact on the adsorptive removal of BPA by powered activated carbons. The complex formation was characterized based on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, along with the calculation of molecular interactions between BPA and functional groups in DOM. It was found that the hydrogen bonding between DOM and BPA would be preferred over aromatic interactions. A pseudo-equilibrium molecular coordination model for the complexation between a BPA molecule and a hydroxyl group of the DOM was developed, which enabled estimation of the maximum sorption site and complex formation constant as well as prediction of organic complexes at various DOM levels. PMID:22330311

  19. Extraction process optimization of polyphenols from Indian Citrus sinensis – as novel antiglycative agents in the management of diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by increased blood glucose level. It has become an epidemic disease in the 21st century where, India leads the world with largest number of diabetic subjects. Non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) is severe form of diabetes, occurs between reducing sugar and proteins which results in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that leads to the other complicated secondary disorders. In this context, Mangifera indica (Mango), Syzygium cumini (Jambul), Vitis vinifera (Grapes), Citrus sinensis (Orange), Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit), Manilkara zapota (Sapodilla) seeds were evaluated for their antiglyation activity. Attempts were made to isolate the polyphenols in the seeds that have recorded the maximum activity. Methods Different extraction methods (shake flask, centrifugation and pressurized hot water) using various extractants (organic solvents, hot water and pressurized hot water) were adopted to investigate the in vitro antiglycation activity. Central composite (CCD) design based Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was espoused to optimize the extraction process of polyphenols from the fruit seeds that have recorded poor antiglycation activity. The PTLC analysis was performed to isolate the polyphenols (Flavonoids and phenolic acids) and LC-PDA-MS analysis was done for structure prediction. Results Pressurized hot water extraction of Artocarpus heterophyllus (87.52%) and Citrus sinensis seeds (74.79%) was found to possess high and low antiglycation activity, respectively. The RSM mediated optimization process adopted for the Citrus sinensis seeds have revealed that 1:15 solvent ratio (hexane to heptane), 6 minutes and 1:20 solid to liquid ratio as the optimal conditions for the extraction of polyphenols with a maximum antiglycation activity (89.79%). The LC-PDA-MS analysis of preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC) eluates of Artocarpus heterophyllus seed has

  20. Chemical and biological processes for multi-metal extraction from waste printed circuit boards of computers and mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Shah, Monal B; Tipre, Devayani R; Dave, Shailesh R

    2014-11-01

    E-waste printed circuit boards (PCB) of computers, mobile-phones, televisions, LX (LongXiang) PCB in LED lights and bulbs, and tube-lights were crushed to ≥250 µm particle size and 16 different metals were analysed. A comparative study has been carried out to evaluate the extraction of Cu-Zn-Ni from computer printed circuit boards (c-PCB) and mobile-phone printed circuit boards (m-PCB) by chemical and biological methods. Chemical process showed the extraction of Cu-Zn-Ni by ferric sulphate was best among the studied chemical lixiviants. Bioleaching experiments were carried out with the iron oxidising consortium, which showed that when E-waste and inoculum were added simultaneously in the medium (one-step process); 60.33% and 87.50% Cu, 75.67% and 85.67% Zn and 71.09% and 81.87% Ni were extracted from 10 g L(-1) of c-PCB and m-PCB, respectively, within 10-15 days of reaction time. Whereas, E-waste added after the complete oxidation of Fe(2+) to Fe(3+) iron containing medium (two-step process) showed 85.26% and 99.99% Cu, 96.75% and 99.49% Zn and 93.23% and 84.21% Ni extraction from c-PCB and m-PCB, respectively, only in 6-8 days. Influence of varying biogenerated Fe(3+) and c-PCB concentrations showed that 16.5 g L(-1) of Fe(3+) iron was optimum up to 100 g L(-1) of c-PCB. Changes in pH, acid consumed and redox potential during the process were also studied. The present study shows the ability of an eco-friendly process for the recovery of multi-metals from E-waste even at 100 g L(-1) printed circuit boards concentration.

  1. Oxygen extraction from lunar materials - An experimental test of an ilmenite reduction process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The reaction of ilmenite with hydrogen to produce water has been studied experimentally in order to evaluate the effectiveness of using a cold trap to improve yields in a continuous flow process. Yields were enhanced, but not to the degree observed in batch processing systems. The terrestrial simulant used in these studies contained traces of iron sulfide, which released H2S during processing with a deleterious effect on several components of the test system. More sophisticated testing should be undertaken to obtain kinetic data and attention given to the removal of sulfides in the pre-process beneficiation.

  2. Processing technologies for extracting cobalt from domestic resources. Information Circular/1988

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    A summary of the cobalt processing technologies for the major domestic resources is presented. The processing technologies for the Blackbird, Madison Mine, Duluth Gabbro, iron ore pyrite, laterites, and manganese sea nodules are nearly complete, but the economics are not favorable. Research on these resources should be limited to approaches that promise to cut the total processing costs by at least 50 pct. The most-promising sources of cobalt are the spent-copper leach solutions and siegenite from the Missouri lead ores. Research on cobalt processing from these two sources needs to be completed.

  3. SCALE-UP OF CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR REMOVAL OF CESIUM AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Geeting, M

    2007-10-19

    In 2004, the Department of Energy (DOE) directed Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) to develop a Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process at the Savannah River Site (SRS) capable of removing cesium from 1 million gallons a year of dissolved salt solution. This facility would provide interim processing for cesium containing salt solution until the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) comes on-line. The DOE design inputs1 were to utilize contactors similar in design to those to be used in the SWPF, assume class C waste with less than 0.5 Ci/gal Cs-137, achieve a Decontamination Factor (DF) greater than 12, include the ability to clean the contactors in place, and assume an operating life of three years. WSRC embarked on a design, test, and build program to achieve these criteria as described in the following text. All DOE design criteria have been met or exceeded by WSRC.

  4. Coupling of ultrasound-assisted extraction and expanded bed adsorption for simplified medicinal plant processing and its theoretical model: extraction and enrichment of ginsenosides from Radix Ginseng as a case study.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jianing; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Hongyang; Wang, Yuerong; Wu, Shikun; Hu, Ping

    2013-02-01

    A high-efficient and environmental-friendly method for the preparation of ginsenosides from Radix Ginseng using the method of coupling of ultrasound-assisted extraction with expanded bed adsorption is described. Based on the optimal extraction conditions screened by surface response methodology, ginsenosides were extracted and adsorbed, then eluted by the two-step elution protocol. The comparison results between the coupling of ultrasound-assisted extraction with expanded bed adsorption method and conventional method showed that the former was better than the latter in both process efficiency and greenness. The process efficiency and energy efficiency of the coupling of ultrasound-assisted extraction with expanded bed adsorption method rapidly increased by 1.4-fold and 18.5-fold of the conventional method, while the environmental cost and CO(2) emission of the conventional method were 12.9-fold and 17.0-fold of the new method. Furthermore, the theoretical model for the extraction of targets was derived. The results revealed that the theoretical model suitably described the process of preparing ginsenosides by the coupling of ultrasound-assisted extraction with expanded bed adsorption system.

  5. Influence of processing procedure on the quality of Radix Scrophulariae: a quantitative evaluation of the main compounds obtained by accelerated solvent extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gang; Wu, Xin; Li, Qinglin; Cai, Hao; Cai, Baochang; Zhu, Xuemei

    2015-02-01

    An improved high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection combined with accelerated solvent extraction method was used to simultaneously determine six compounds in crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae samples. Accelerated solvent extraction parameters such as extraction solvent, temperature, number of cycles, and analysis procedure were systematically optimized. The results indicated that compared with crude Radix Scrophulariae samples, the processed samples had lower contents of harpagide and harpagoside but higher contents of catalpol, acteoside, angoroside C, and cinnamic acid. The established method was sufficiently rapid and reliable for the global quality evaluation of crude and processed herbal medicines.

  6. Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of condensed tannins in acetonic extract of selected raw and processed indigenous food ingredients from Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kunyanga, Catherine Nkirote; Imungi, Jasper Kathenya; Okoth, Michael; Momanyi, Clare; Biesalski, Han Konrad; Vadivel, Vellingiri

    2011-05-01

    Recently, tannins have received considerable attention as health-promoting component in various plant foods and several studies have reported on its nutraceutical properties. However, no study has established the role of condensed tannins in indigenous foods of Kenya. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP) and antidiabetic effects (α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities) of condensed tannins in some selected raw and traditionally processed indigenous cereals, legumes, oil seeds, and vegetables. The condensed tannin content of the grains and vegetables ranged between 2.55 and 4.35 g/100 g DM and 1.53 and 5.73 g/100 g DM, respectively. The scavenging effect of acetonic extract on DPPH radical ranged from 77% to 90% while the reducing power was found to be 31 to 574 mmol Fe(II)/g DM in all the investigated food ingredients. The condensed tannin extracts of the analyzed samples showed promising antidiabetic effects with potential α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities of 23% to 44% and 58% to 88%, respectively. Condensed tannins extracted from the amaranth grain, finger millet, field bean, sunflower seeds, drumstick, and amaranth leaves exerted significantly higher antioxidant and antidiabetic activities than other food ingredients. Among the traditional processing methods, roasting of grains and cooking of vegetables were found to be more suitable mild treatments for preserving the tannin compound and its functional properties as opposed to soaking + cooking and blanching treatments. The identified elite sources of optimally processed indigenous food ingredients with promising results could be used as health-promoting ingredients through formulation of therapeutic diets.

  7. A Software Tool for Processing the Displacement Time Series Extracted from Raw Radar Data

    SciTech Connect

    Coppi, Francesco; Paolo Ricci, Pier; Gentile, Carmelo

    2010-05-28

    The application of high-resolution radar waveform and interferometric principles recently led to the development of a microwave interferometer, suitable to simultaneously measuring the (static or dynamic) deflection of several points on a large structure. From the technical standpoint, the sensor is a Stepped Frequency Continuous Wave (SF-CW), coherent radar, operating in the K{sub u} frequency band.In the paper, the main procedures adopted to extract the deflection time series from raw radar data and to assess the quality of data are addressed, and the MATLAB toolbox developed is described. Subsequently, other functions implemented in the software tool (e.g. evaluation of the spectral matrix of the deflection time-histories, identification of natural frequencies and operational mode shapes evaluation) are described and the application to data recorded on full-scale bridges is exemplified.

  8. Energy from true in situ processing of antrim shale: Extraction trials in an explosively fractured site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderploeg, M. L.; Peil, C. A.; Kinkel, C. G.; Pihlaja, R. K.; Murdick, D. A.; Frost, J. R.; Lund, M. M.

    1980-08-01

    Three in situ energy extraction trials were conducted at an oil shale site in Michigan. Here the Antrim shale layer occurs between 1200 and 1400 feet underground. The three trials, lasting 7, 60 and 17 days respectively, were conducted in a formation prepared by explosive fracturing. Ignition energy was generated with a methane burner. Some energy in the form of a dilute fuel gas was recovered in each trial but upon ignition drastic decreases in flow communication occurred between injection and production wells. That problem prevented the planned exploration of techniques which would raise the energy value of the production gas. Upon cool down of the formation after each trial, air permeability tests showed inter-well communication levels returning to near preburn levels. Thermal expansion is the most likely cause of the reduced permeability experienced under retorting conditions.

  9. A PROCESS FOR SEPARATING AZEOTROPIC MIXTURES BY EXTRACTIVE AND CONVECTIVE DISTILLATION

    DOEpatents

    Frazer, J.W.

    1961-12-19

    A method is described for separating an azeotrope of carbon tetrachloride and 1,1,2,2-tetrafluorodinitroethane boiling at 60 deg C. The ndethod comnprises, specifically, feeding azeotrope vapors admixed with a non- reactive gas into an extractive distillation column heated to a temperature preferably somewhat above the boiling point of the constant boiling mixture. A solvent, di-n-butylphthalate, is metered into the column above the gas inlet and permitted to flow downward, earrying with it the higher bomling fraction, while the constituent having the lower boiling point passes out of the top of the column with the non-reactive gas and is collected in a nitrogen cold trap. Other solvents which alter the vapor pressure relationship may be substituted. The method is generally applicable to azeotropic mixtures. A number of specific mixtures whicb may be separated are disclosed. (AEC)

  10. Effects of different encapsulation agents and drying process on stability of betalains extract.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Kavitha; Palaniraj, Ravichandran; Saw, Nay Min Min Thaw; Gabr, Ahmed M M; Ahmed, Abdelrahman R; Knorr, Dietrich; Smetanska, Iryna

    2014-09-01

    Red beet plants are rich in betalains that can be used as food natural colorants. Betalains were extracted from red beet and encapsulated with different carrier agents and freeze or spray dried. Effect of different encapsulating agents as maltodextrin, guar gum, gum Arabic, pectin and xanthan gum with different concentration (as encapsulating agents) were studied on the betalain stability. Encapsulated betalains with xanthan gum with maltodextrin showed about 65 % more recovery than the control. Encapsulation showed a higher recovery of betalains during freeze drying by 1.3 times than during spray drying. Spray dried samples has L* (lightness) higher than the freeze dried samples. The variations of maltodextrin with xanthan and guar gum freeze dried have highest chroma value of 21. The stabilization of pure betalain pigments may boost the use of these colouring molecules in the food industry and promote their application. PMID:25190886

  11. A Software Tool for Processing the Displacement Time Series Extracted from Raw Radar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, Francesco; Gentile, Carmelo; Paolo Ricci, Pier

    2010-05-01

    The application of high-resolution radar waveform and interferometric principles recently led to the development of a microwave interferometer, suitable to simultaneously measuring the (static or dynamic) deflection of several points on a large structure. From the technical standpoint, the sensor is a Stepped Frequency Continuous Wave (SF-CW), coherent radar, operating in the Ku frequency band. In the paper, the main procedures adopted to extract the deflection time series from raw radar data and to assess the quality of data are addressed, and the MATLAB toolbox developed is described. Subsequently, other functions implemented in the software tool (e.g. evaluation of the spectral matrix of the deflection time-histories, identification of natural frequencies and operational mode shapes evaluation) are described and the application to data recorded on full-scale bridges is exemplified.

  12. Determination of Key Flavor Components in Methylene Chloride Extracts from Processed Grapefruit Juice.

    PubMed

    Jella; Rouseff; Goodner; Widmer

    1998-01-19

    The relative correlation of 52 aroma and 5 taste components in commercial not-from-concentrate grapefruit juices with flavor panel preference was determined. Methylene chloride extracts of juice were analyzed using GC/MS with a DB-5 column. Nonvolatiles determined included limonin and naringin by HPLC, degrees Brix, total acids, and degrees Brix/acid ratio. Juice samples were classified into low, medium, or high categories, based on average taste panel preference scores (nine-point hedonic scale). Principal component analysis demonstrated that highest quality juices were tightly clustered. Discriminant analysis indicated that 82% of the samples could be identified in the correct preference category using only myrcene, beta-caryophyllene, linalool, nootkatone, and degrees Brix. Nootkatone alone was not strongly associated with preference scores. The most preferred juices were strongly associated with low myrcene, low linalool, and intermediate levels of beta-caryophyllene. PMID:10554226

  13. Maple leaf (Acer sp.) extract mediated green process for the functionalization of ZnO powders with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Vivekanandhan, Singaravelu; Schreiber, Makoto; Mason, Cynthia; Mohanty, Amar Kumar; Misra, Manjusri

    2014-01-01

    The functionalization of ZnO powders with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) through a novel maple leaf extract mediated biological process was demonstrated. Maple leaf extract was found to be a very effective bioreduction agent for the reduction of silver ions. The reduction rate of Ag(+) into Ag(0) was found to be much faster than other previously reported bioreduction rates and was comparable to the reduction rates obtained through chemical means. The functionalization of ZnO particles with silver nanoparticles through maple leaf extract mediated bioreduction of silver was investigated through UV-visible spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found that the ZnO particles were coated with silver nanoparticles 5-20 nm in diameter. The photocatalytic ability of the ZnO particles functionalized with silver nanoparticles was found to be significantly improved compared to the photocatalytic ability of the neat ZnO particles. The silver functionalized ZnO particles reached 90% degradation of the dye an hour before the neat ZnO particles.

  14. Molten salt extraction process for the recovery of valued transition metals from land-based and deep-sea minerals

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, Victor A.; von Winbush, Samuel

    1988-01-01

    A process for extracting transition metals and particularly cobalt and manganese together with iron, copper and nickel from low grade ores (including ocean-floor nodules) by converting the metal oxides or other compositions to chlorides in a molten salt, and subsequently using a combination of selective distillation at temperatures below about 500.degree. C., electrolysis at a voltage not more negative than about -1.5 volt versus Ag/AgCl, and precipitation to separate the desired manganese and cobalt salts from other metals and provide cobalt and manganese in metallic forms or compositions from which these metals may be more easily recovered.

  15. Molten salt extraction process for the recovery of valued transition metals from land-based and deep-sea minerals

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, V.A.; von Winbush, S.

    1987-05-01

    A process for extracting transition metals and particularly cobalt and manganese together with iron, copper and nickel from low grade ores (including ocean-floor nodules) by converting the metal oxides or other compositions to chlorides in a molten salt, and subsequently using a combination of selective distillation at temperatures below about 500/degree/C, electrolysis at a voltage not more negative that about /minus/1.5 volt versus Ag/AgCl, and precipitation to separate the desired manganese and cobalt salts from other metals and provide cobalt and manganese in metallic forms or compositions from which these metals may be more easily recovered.

  16. MEASUREMENT OF ENTRAINED ORGANIC DROPLET SIZES AND TOTAL CONCENTRATION FOR AQUEOUS STREAMS FROM THE CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C; Samuel Fink, S; Michael Restivo, M; Dan Burns, D; Wallace Smith, W; S Crump, S; Zane Nelson, Z; Thomas Peters, T; Fernando Fondeur, F; Michael Norato, M

    2007-02-01

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and the Salt Waste Processing Facility will remove radioactive cesium from Savannah River Site supernate wastes using an organic solvent system. Both designs include decanters and coalescers to reduce carryover of organic solvent droplets. Savannah River National Laboratory personnel conducted experimental demonstrations using a series of four 2-cm centrifugal contactors. They also examined organic carryover during operation of a CINC (Costner Industries Nevada Corporation) V-5 contactor under prototypical conditions covering the range of expected MCU operation. This report details the findings from those studies and the implications on design for the MCU.

  17. Extracting features of Gaussian self-similar stochastic processes via the Bandt-Pompe approach.

    PubMed

    Rosso, O A; Zunino, L; Pérez, D G; Figliola, A; Larrondo, H A; Garavaglia, M; Martín, M T; Plastino, A

    2007-12-01

    By recourse to appropriate information theory quantifiers (normalized Shannon entropy and Martín-Plastino-Rosso intensive statistical complexity measure), we revisit the characterization of Gaussian self-similar stochastic processes from a Bandt-Pompe viewpoint. We show that the ensuing approach exhibits considerable advantages with respect to other treatments. In particular, clear quantifiers gaps are found in the transition between the continuous processes and their associated noises.

  18. Extracting features of Gaussian self-similar stochastic processes via the Bandt-Pompe approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosso, O. A.; Zunino, L.; Pérez, D. G.; Figliola, A.; Larrondo, H. A.; Garavaglia, M.; Martín, M. T.; Plastino, A.

    2007-12-01

    By recourse to appropriate information theory quantifiers (normalized Shannon entropy and Martín-Plastino-Rosso intensive statistical complexity measure), we revisit the characterization of Gaussian self-similar stochastic processes from a Bandt-Pompe viewpoint. We show that the ensuing approach exhibits considerable advantages with respect to other treatments. In particular, clear quantifiers gaps are found in the transition between the continuous processes and their associated noises.

  19. Carbon Disulfide (CS2) Interference in Glucose Metabolism from Unconventional Oil and Gas Extraction and Processing Emissions.

    PubMed

    Rich, Alisa L; Patel, Jay T; Al-Angari, Samiah S

    2016-01-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2) has been historically associated with the manufacturing of rayon, cellophane, and carbon tetrachloride production. This study is one of the first to identify elevated atmospheric levels of CS2 above national background levels and its mechanisms to dysregulate normal glucose metabolism. Interference in glucose metabolism can indirectly cause other complications (diabetes, neurodegenerative disease, and retinopathy), which may be preventable if proper precautions are taken. Rich et al found CS2 and 12 associated sulfide compounds present in the atmosphere in residential areas where unconventional shale oil and gas extraction and processing operations were occurring. Ambient atmospheric concentrations of CS2 ranged from 0.7 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) to 103 ppbv over a continuous 24-hour monitoring period. One-hour ambient atmospheric concentrations ranged from 3.4 ppbv to 504.6 ppbv. Using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Urban Air Toxic Monitoring Program study as a baseline comparison for atmospheric CS2 concentrations found in this study, it was determined that CS2 atmospheric levels were consistently elevated in areas where unconventional oil and gas extraction and processing occurred. The mechanisms by which CS2 interferes in normal glucose metabolism by dysregulation of the tryptophan metabolism pathway are presented in this study. The literature review found an increased potential for alteration of normal glucose metabolism in viscose rayon occupational workers exposed to CS2. Occupational workers in the energy extraction industry exposed to CS2 and other sulfide compounds may have an increased potential for glucose metabolism interference, which has been an indicator for diabetogenic effect and other related health impacts. The recommendation of this study is for implementation of regular monitoring of blood glucose levels in CS2-exposed populations as a preventative health measure.

  20. Carbon Disulfide (CS2) Interference in Glucose Metabolism from Unconventional Oil and Gas Extraction and Processing Emissions.

    PubMed

    Rich, Alisa L; Patel, Jay T; Al-Angari, Samiah S

    2016-01-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2) has been historically associated with the manufacturing of rayon, cellophane, and carbon tetrachloride production. This study is one of the first to identify elevated atmospheric levels of CS2 above national background levels and its mechanisms to dysregulate normal glucose metabolism. Interference in glucose metabolism can indirectly cause other complications (diabetes, neurodegenerative disease, and retinopathy), which may be preventable if proper precautions are taken. Rich et al found CS2 and 12 associated sulfide compounds present in the atmosphere in residential areas where unconventional shale oil and gas extraction and processing operations were occurring. Ambient atmospheric concentrations of CS2 ranged from 0.7 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) to 103 ppbv over a continuous 24-hour monitoring period. One-hour ambient atmospheric concentrations ranged from 3.4 ppbv to 504.6 ppbv. Using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Urban Air Toxic Monitoring Program study as a baseline comparison for atmospheric CS2 concentrations found in this study, it was determined that CS2 atmospheric levels were consistently elevated in areas where unconventional oil and gas extraction and processing occurred. The mechanisms by which CS2 interferes in normal glucose metabolism by dysregulation of the tryptophan metabolism pathway are presented in this study. The literature review found an increased potential for alteration of normal glucose metabolism in viscose rayon occupational workers exposed to CS2. Occupational workers in the energy extraction industry exposed to CS2 and other sulfide compounds may have an increased potential for glucose metabolism interference, which has been an indicator for diabetogenic effect and other related health impacts. The recommendation of this study is for implementation of regular monitoring of blood glucose levels in CS2-exposed populations as a preventative health measure. PMID:27042092

  1. Carbon Disulfide (CS2) Interference in Glucose Metabolism from Unconventional Oil and Gas Extraction and Processing Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Alisa L.; Patel, Jay T.; Al-Angari, Samiah S.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2) has been historically associated with the manufacturing of rayon, cellophane, and carbon tetrachloride production. This study is one of the first to identify elevated atmospheric levels of CS2 above national background levels and its mechanisms to dysregulate normal glucose metabolism. Interference in glucose metabolism can indirectly cause other complications (diabetes, neurodegenerative disease, and retinopathy), which may be preventable if proper precautions are taken. Rich et al found CS2 and 12 associated sulfide compounds present in the atmosphere in residential areas where unconventional shale oil and gas extraction and processing operations were occurring. Ambient atmospheric concentrations of CS2 ranged from 0.7 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) to 103 ppbv over a continuous 24-hour monitoring period. One-hour ambient atmospheric concentrations ranged from 3.4 ppbv to 504.6 ppbv. Using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Urban Air Toxic Monitoring Program study as a baseline comparison for atmospheric CS2 concentrations found in this study, it was determined that CS2 atmospheric levels were consistently elevated in areas where unconventional oil and gas extraction and processing occurred. The mechanisms by which CS2 interferes in normal glucose metabolism by dysregulation of the tryptophan metabolism pathway are presented in this study. The literature review found an increased potential for alteration of normal glucose metabolism in viscose rayon occupational workers exposed to CS2. Occupational workers in the energy extraction industry exposed to CS2 and other sulfide compounds may have an increased potential for glucose metabolism interference, which has been an indicator for diabetogenic effect and other related health impacts. The recommendation of this study is for implementation of regular monitoring of blood glucose levels in CS2-exposed populations as a preventative health measure. PMID:27042092

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Mark Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; James Mayberry; Alfred Stiller; Joseph Stoffa; Christopher Yurchick; John Zondlo

    2009-12-31

    This NETL sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous technologies for the production of carbon products, which may be thought of as the heavier products currently produced from refining of crude petroleum and coal tars obtained from metallurgical grade coke ovens. This effort took binder grade pitch, produced from liquefaction of West Virginia bituminous grade coal, all the way to commercial demonstration in a state of the art arc furnace. Other products, such as crude oil, anode grade coke and metallurgical grade coke were demonstrated successfully at the bench scale. The technology developed herein diverged from the previous state of the art in direct liquefaction (also referred to as the Bergius process), in two major respects. First, direct liquefaction was accomplished with less than a percent of hydrogen per unit mass of product, or about 3 pound per barrel or less. By contrast, other variants of the Bergius process require the use of 15 pounds or more of hydrogen per barrel, resulting in an inherent materials cost. Second, the conventional Bergius process requires high pressure, in the range of 1500 psig to 3000 psig. The WVU process variant has been carried out at pressures below 400 psig, a significant difference. Thanks mainly to DOE sponsorship, the WVU process has been licensed to a Canadian Company, Quantex Energy Inc, with a commercial demonstration unit plant scheduled to be erected in 2011.

  3. Negative ion production and beam extraction processes in a large ion source (invited).

    PubMed

    Tsumori, K; Ikeda, K; Nakano, H; Kisaki, M; Geng, S; Wada, M; Sasaki, K; Nishiyama, S; Goto, M; Serianni, G; Agostinetti, P; Sartori, E; Brombin, M; Veltri, P; Wimmer, C; Nagaoka, K; Osakabe, M; Takeiri, Y; Kaneko, O

    2016-02-01

    Recent research results on negative-ion-rich plasmas in a large negative ion source have been reviewed. Spatial density and flow distributions of negative hydrogen ions (H(-)) and positive hydrogen ions together with those of electrons are investigated with a 4-pin probe and a photodetachment (PD) signal of a Langmuir probe. The PD signal is converted to local H(-) density from signal calibration to a scanning cavity ring down PD measurement. Introduction of Cs changes the slope of plasma potential local distribution depending upon the plasma grid bias. A higher electron density H2 plasma locally shields the bias potential and behaves like a metallic free electron gas. On the other hand, the bias and extraction electric fields penetrate in a Cs-seeded electronegative plasma even when the electron density is similar. Electrons are transported by the penetrated electric fields from the driver region along and across the filter and electron deflection magnetic fields. Plasma ions exhibited a completely different response against the penetration of electric fields. PMID:26932108

  4. Abarema cochliacarpos Extract Decreases the Inflammatory Process and Skeletal Muscle Injury Induced by Bothrops leucurus Venom

    PubMed Central

    Saturnino-Oliveira, Jeison; Santos, Daiana Do Carmo; Guimarães, Adriana Gibara; Santos Dias, Antônio; Tomaz, Marcelo Amorim; Monteiro-Machado, Marcos; Estevam, Charles Santos; Lucca Júnior, Waldecy De; Maria, Durvanei Augusto; Melo, Paulo A.; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana; Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Meneses; Pereira de Oliveira, Aldeidia; Quintans Júnior, Lucindo José

    2014-01-01

    Snakebites are a public health problem, especially in tropical countries. However, treatment with antivenom has limited effectiveness against venoms' local effects. Here, we investigated the ability of Abarema cochliacarpos hydroethanolic extract (EAc) to protect mice against injection of Bothrops leucurus venom. Swiss mice received perimuscular venom injection and were subsequently treated orally with EAc in different doses. Treatment with EAc 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg reduced the edema induced by B. leucurus in 1%, 13%, and 39%, respectively. Although lower doses showed no antihypernociceptive effect in the Von Frey test, the higher dose significantly reduced hyperalgesia induced by the venom. Antimyotoxic activity of EAc was also observed by microscopy assessment, with treated muscles presenting preserved structures, decreased edema, and inflammatory infiltrate as compared to untreated ones. Finally, on the rotarod test, the treated mice showed better motor function, once muscle fibers were preserved and there were less edema and pain. Treated mice could stand four times more time on the rotating rod than untreated ones. Our results have shown that EAc presented relevant activities against injection of B. leucurus venom in mice, suggesting that it can be considered as an adjuvant in the treatment of envenomation. PMID:25136627

  5. A Distinguishing Arterial Pulse Waves Approach by Using Image Processing and Feature Extraction Technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsing-Chung; Kuo, Shyi-Shiun; Sun, Shen-Ching; Chang, Chia-Hui

    2016-10-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is based on five main types of diagnoses methods consisting of inspection, auscultation, olfaction, inquiry, and palpation. The most important one is palpation also called pulse diagnosis which is to measure wrist artery pulse by doctor's fingers for detecting patient's health state. In this paper, it is carried out by using a specialized pulse measuring instrument to classify one's pulse type. The measured pulse waves (MPWs) were segmented into the arterial pulse wave curve (APWC) by image proposing method. The slopes and periods among four specific points on the APWC were taken to be the pulse features. Three algorithms are proposed in this paper, which could extract these features from the APWCs and compared their differences between each of them to the average feature matrix, individually. These results show that the method proposed in this study is superior and more accurate than the previous studies. The proposed method could significantly save doctors a large amount of time, increase accuracy and decrease data volume. PMID:27562483

  6. Negative ion production and beam extraction processes in a large ion source (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumori, K.; Ikeda, K.; Nakano, H.; Kisaki, M.; Geng, S.; Wada, M.; Sasaki, K.; Nishiyama, S.; Goto, M.; Serianni, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Sartori, E.; Brombin, M.; Veltri, P.; Wimmer, C.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.

    2016-02-01

    Recent research results on negative-ion-rich plasmas in a large negative ion source have been reviewed. Spatial density and flow distributions of negative hydrogen ions (H-) and positive hydrogen ions together with those of electrons are investigated with a 4-pin probe and a photodetachment (PD) signal of a Langmuir probe. The PD signal is converted to local H- density from signal calibration to a scanning cavity ring down PD measurement. Introduction of Cs changes the slope of plasma potential local distribution depending upon the plasma grid bias. A higher electron density H2 plasma locally shields the bias potential and behaves like a metallic free electron gas. On the other hand, the bias and extraction electric fields penetrate in a Cs-seeded electronegative plasma even when the electron density is similar. Electrons are transported by the penetrated electric fields from the driver region along and across the filter and electron deflection magnetic fields. Plasma ions exhibited a completely different response against the penetration of electric fields.

  7. Abarema cochliacarpos extract decreases the inflammatory process and skeletal muscle injury induced by Bothrops leucurus venom.

    PubMed

    Saturnino-Oliveira, Jeison; Santos, Daiana Do Carmo; Guimarães, Adriana Gibara; Santos Dias, Antônio; Tomaz, Marcelo Amorim; Monteiro-Machado, Marcos; Estevam, Charles Santos; De Lucca Júnior, Waldecy; Maria, Durvanei Augusto; Melo, Paulo A; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana; Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Meneses; Pereira de Oliveira, Aldeidia; Quintans Júnior, Lucindo José

    2014-01-01

    Snakebites are a public health problem, especially in tropical countries. However, treatment with antivenom has limited effectiveness against venoms' local effects. Here, we investigated the ability of Abarema cochliacarpos hydroethanolic extract (EAc) to protect mice against injection of Bothrops leucurus venom. Swiss mice received perimuscular venom injection and were subsequently treated orally with EAc in different doses. Treatment with EAc 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg reduced the edema induced by B. leucurus in 1%, 13%, and 39%, respectively. Although lower doses showed no antihypernociceptive effect in the Von Frey test, the higher dose significantly reduced hyperalgesia induced by the venom. Antimyotoxic activity of EAc was also observed by microscopy assessment, with treated muscles presenting preserved structures, decreased edema, and inflammatory infiltrate as compared to untreated ones. Finally, on the rotarod test, the treated mice showed better motor function, once muscle fibers were preserved and there were less edema and pain. Treated mice could stand four times more time on the rotating rod than untreated ones. Our results have shown that EAc presented relevant activities against injection of B. leucurus venom in mice, suggesting that it can be considered as an adjuvant in the treatment of envenomation. PMID:25136627

  8. Energy from true in situ processing of Antrim Shale: extraction trials in an explosively fractured site

    SciTech Connect

    VanDerPloeg, M.L.; Peil, C.A.; Kinkel, C.G.; Pihlaja, R.K.; Murdick, D.A.; Frost, J.R.; Lund, M.M.

    1980-08-01

    Three in situ energy extraction trials were conducted at The Dow Chemical Company's oil shale site, in Michigan's Sanilac County, near the town of Peck. Here the Antrim shale layer occurs between 1200 and 1400 feet underground. The trials began on October 14, 1979, and ended on April 1, 1980. The three trials, lasting 7, 60 and 17 days respectively, were conducted in a formation prepared by explosive fracturing. Ignition energy was generated with a methane burner. Some energy in the form of a dilute fuel gas (5 to 50 btu/scf) was recovered in each trial but upon ignition drastic decreases in flow communication occurred between injection and production wells. That problem prevented the planned exploration of techniques which would raise the energy value of the production gas. Upon cool down of the formation after each trial, air permeability tests showed inter-well communication levels returning to near preburn levels. Thermal expansion is the most likely cause of the reduced permeability experienced under retorting conditions.

  9. Impact of postharvest dehydration process of winegrapes on mechanical and acoustic properties of the seeds and their relationship with flavanol extraction during simulated maceration.

    PubMed

    Río Segade, Susana; Torchio, Fabrizio; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Giacosa, Simone; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa; Rolle, Luca

    2016-05-15

    This study represents the first time that the extraction of phenolic compounds from the seeds is assessed from instrumental texture properties for dehydrated grapes. Nebbiolo winegrapes were postharvest dehydrated at 20°C and 41% relative humidity. During the dehydration process, sampling was performed at 15%, 30%, 45% and 60% weight loss. The extractable fraction and extractability of phenolic compounds from the seeds were determined after simulated maceration. The evolution of mechanical and acoustic attributes of intact seeds was also determined during grape dehydration to evaluate how these changes affected the extraction of phenolic compounds. The extractable content and extractability of monomeric flavanols and proanthocyanidins, as well as the galloylation percentage of flavanols, might be predicted easily and quickly from the mechanical and acoustic properties of intact seeds. This would help in decision-making on the optimal dehydration level of winegrapes and the best management of winemaking of dehydrated grapes.

  10. A two-step nanofiltration process for the production of phenolic-rich fractions from artichoke aqueous extracts.

    PubMed

    Cassano, Alfredo; Conidi, Carmela; Figueroa, René Ruby; Muñoz, Roberto Castro

    2015-01-01

    Commercial nanofiltration (NF) membranes in spiral-wound configuration (NP030 from Microdyn Nadir and Desal DK from GE Water & Process Technologies) were used in a sequential design in order to produce a separated fraction of phenolic and sugar compounds from an aqueous artichoke extract. For both membranes, the effect of transmembrane pressure (TMP) on the permeation flux was evaluated. In optimized conditions of TMP, the NP030 membrane exhibited high rejections of apigenin, cynarin and chlorogenic acid (higher than 85%); on the other hand, very low rejections of fructose, glucose and sucrose (lower than 4%) were measured. Starting from an extract with a total antioxidant activity (TAA) of 5.28 mM trolox a retentate fraction with a TAA of 47.75 mM trolox was obtained. The NF permeate from the NP030 membrane was processed with the Desal DK membrane in optimized conditions of TMP producing a permeate stream free of phenolic and sugar compounds. Accordingly, as most part of phenolic compounds was removed in the first NF step, the concentration of sugar compounds in the NF retentate had much higher results than that of phenolic compounds. PMID:25913377

  11. A Online NIR Sensor for the Pilot-Scale Extraction Process in Fructus Aurantii Coupled with Single and Ensemble Methods

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaoning; Li, Yang; Wu, Zhisheng; Zhang, Qiao; Zheng, Zhou; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2015-01-01

    Model performance of the partial least squares method (PLS) alone and bagging-PLS was investigated in online near-infrared (NIR) sensor monitoring of pilot-scale extraction process in Fructus aurantii. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference method to identify the active pharmaceutical ingredients: naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin. Several preprocessing methods and synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS) and moving window partial least squares (MWPLS) variable selection methods were compared. Single quantification models (PLS) and ensemble methods combined with partial least squares (bagging-PLS) were developed for quantitative analysis of naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin. SiPLS was compared to SiPLS combined with bagging-PLS. Final results showed the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of bagging-PLS to be lower than that of PLS regression alone. For this reason, an ensemble method of online NIR sensor is here proposed as a means of monitoring the pilot-scale extraction process in Fructus aurantii, which may also constitute a suitable strategy for online NIR monitoring of CHM. PMID:25875194

  12. A two-step nanofiltration process for the production of phenolic-rich fractions from artichoke aqueous extracts.

    PubMed

    Cassano, Alfredo; Conidi, Carmela; Figueroa, René Ruby; Muñoz, Roberto Castro

    2015-04-22

    Commercial nanofiltration (NF) membranes in spiral-wound configuration (NP030 from Microdyn Nadir and Desal DK from GE Water & Process Technologies) were used in a sequential design in order to produce a separated fraction of phenolic and sugar compounds from an aqueous artichoke extract. For both membranes, the effect of transmembrane pressure (TMP) on the permeation flux was evaluated. In optimized conditions of TMP, the NP030 membrane exhibited high rejections of apigenin, cynarin and chlorogenic acid (higher than 85%); on the other hand, very low rejections of fructose, glucose and sucrose (lower than 4%) were measured. Starting from an extract with a total antioxidant activity (TAA) of 5.28 mM trolox a retentate fraction with a TAA of 47.75 mM trolox was obtained. The NF permeate from the NP030 membrane was processed with the Desal DK membrane in optimized conditions of TMP producing a permeate stream free of phenolic and sugar compounds. Accordingly, as most part of phenolic compounds was removed in the first NF step, the concentration of sugar compounds in the NF retentate had much higher results than that of phenolic compounds.

  13. A Two-Step Nanofiltration Process for the Production of Phenolic-Rich Fractions from Artichoke Aqueous Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Cassano, Alfredo; Conidi, Carmela; Ruby Figueroa, René; Castro Muñoz, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Commercial nanofiltration (NF) membranes in spiral-wound configuration (NP030 from Microdyn Nadir and Desal DK from GE Water & Process Technologies) were used in a sequential design in order to produce a separated fraction of phenolic and sugar compounds from an aqueous artichoke extract. For both membranes, the effect of transmembrane pressure (TMP) on the permeation flux was evaluated. In optimized conditions of TMP, the NP030 membrane exhibited high rejections of apigenin, cynarin and chlorogenic acid (higher than 85%); on the other hand, very low rejections of fructose, glucose and sucrose (lower than 4%) were measured. Starting from an extract with a total antioxidant activity (TAA) of 5.28 mM trolox a retentate fraction with a TAA of 47.75 mM trolox was obtained. The NF permeate from the NP030 membrane was processed with the Desal DK membrane in optimized conditions of TMP producing a permeate stream free of phenolic and sugar compounds. Accordingly, as most part of phenolic compounds was removed in the first NF step, the concentration of sugar compounds in the NF retentate had much higher results than that of phenolic compounds. PMID:25913377

  14. Influence of juice processing factors on quality of black chokeberry pomace as a future resource for colour extraction.

    PubMed

    Vagiri, Michael; Jensen, Martin

    2017-02-15

    Aronia melanocarpa berries are a rich source of anthocyanins and its pomace, a by-product of juice processing, could be efficiently used for extraction of natural colours for the food industry. This study evaluated the influence blanching, freezing, maceration temperatures (2°C, 50°C) and enzyme treatments before juice pressing on the yield and anthocyanin composition of both juice and pomace. Total anthocyanin levels in pomace were affected mostly by enzyme treatment followed by maceration temperature. The pre-heating of the mash prior to processing increased juice yield and retention of anthocyanins in the pomace. Cold maceration of frozen berries without enzyme addition gave the highest concentrations of anthocyanins in the pomace, and both cold and hot maceration of fresh unblanched berries with enzyme the lowest. The results support future exploitation of natural colours from pomace side streams of Aronia, thus increasing competitiveness of Aronia berry production. PMID:27664652

  15. HPARSER: extracting formal patient data from free text history and physical reports using natural language processing software.

    PubMed

    Sponsler, J L

    2001-01-01

    A prototype, HPARSER, processes a patient history and physical report such that specific data are obtained and stored in a patient data record. HPARSER is a recursive transition network (RTN) parser, and includes English and medical grammar rules, lexicon, and database constraints. Medical grammar rules augment the grammar rule base and specify common phrases seen in patient reports (e.g., "pupils are equal and reactive"). Each database constraint associates a grammar rule with a database table and attribute. Constraint behavior is such that if a rule is satisfied, data is extracted from the parse tree and stored into the database. Control reports guided construction of grammar and constraint rules. Test reports were processed with the control rules. 85% of test report sentences parsed and a 60% data capture rate, compared to controls, was achieved. HPARSER demonstrates use of an RTN to parse patient reports, and database constraints to transfer formal data from parse trees into a database.

  16. HPARSER: extracting formal patient data from free text history and physical reports using natural language processing software.

    PubMed Central

    Sponsler, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    A prototype, HPARSER, processes a patient history and physical report such that specific data are obtained and stored in a patient data record. HPARSER is a recursive transition network (RTN) parser, and includes English and medical grammar rules, lexicon, and database constraints. Medical grammar rules augment the grammar rule base and specify common phrases seen in patient reports (e.g., "pupils are equal and reactive"). Each database constraint associates a grammar rule with a database table and attribute. Constraint behavior is such that if a rule is satisfied, data is extracted from the parse tree and stored into the database. Control reports guided construction of grammar and constraint rules. Test reports were processed with the control rules. 85% of test report sentences parsed and a 60% data capture rate, compared to controls, was achieved. HPARSER demonstrates use of an RTN to parse patient reports, and database constraints to transfer formal data from parse trees into a database. PMID:11825263

  17. Application of high-temperature simulated distillation to the residuum oil supercritical extraction process in petroleum refining

    PubMed

    Raia; Villalanti; Subramanian; Williams

    2000-01-01

    The gas chromatographic method of high-temperature simulated distillation (HTSD) is described, and the results are presented for the application of HTSD to the characterization of petroleum refinery feed and products from solvent deasphalting operations. Results are presented for refinery residual feed, deasphalted oil, and asphaltene fractions from the residual oil supercritical extraction process. Asphaltene removal from petroleum residuum using solvent deasphalting results in the improved quality and high recovery of deasphalted oil product for use as lube oil, fluid catalytic cracking, or hydrocracker feedstocks. The HTSD procedure presented here proves valuable for characterizing the fractions from the deasphalting process to obtain the percentage yield with boiling point data over the range from approximately 36 degrees C (97 degrees F) to 733 degrees C (1352 degrees F), which covers the boiling range of n-paraffins of carbon number C5 to C108.

  18. Influence of juice processing factors on quality of black chokeberry pomace as a future resource for colour extraction.

    PubMed

    Vagiri, Michael; Jensen, Martin

    2017-02-15

    Aronia melanocarpa berries are a rich source of anthocyanins and its pomace, a by-product of juice processing, could be efficiently used for extraction of natural colours for the food industry. This study evaluated the influence blanching, freezing, maceration temperatures (2°C, 50°C) and enzyme treatments before juice pressing on the yield and anthocyanin composition of both juice and pomace. Total anthocyanin levels in pomace were affected mostly by enzyme treatment followed by maceration temperature. The pre-heating of the mash prior to processing increased juice yield and retention of anthocyanins in the pomace. Cold maceration of frozen berries without enzyme addition gave the highest concentrations of anthocyanins in the pomace, and both cold and hot maceration of fresh unblanched berries with enzyme the lowest. The results support future exploitation of natural colours from pomace side streams of Aronia, thus increasing competitiveness of Aronia berry production.

  19. Processing of Egyptian boiler-ash for extraction of vanadium and nickel.

    PubMed

    Amer, A M

    2002-01-01

    Proposed technique in this investigation is given for vanadium and nickel enrichment in the Egyptian boiler ash. Among the various concepts for recovery of vanadium and nickel from boiler ash, the pyro-metallurgical approach is technically feasible, but is not cost-effective from an operational economy standpoint. Another technically viable process which, however, needs further development and presented in this investigation, is the hydrometallurgical processing that involves acid leaching under oxygen pressure of ground ash, followed by electrolytic separation of nickel from sulphate solution and vanadium is then neutralized and precipitated by adjustment the pH value and calcined to produce V2O5.

  20. High-purity biodiesel production from microalgae and added-value lipid extraction: a new process.

    PubMed

    Veillette, M; Giroir-Fendler, A; Faucheux, N; Heitz, M

    2015-01-01

    A new process was tested in order to produce and purify biodiesel from microalgae lipids and to recover unsaponifiable (added-value) lipids. This process is a two-step biodiesel production including a saponification reaction step followed by an esterification reaction step. The process includes a recovery of the unsaponified lipids between both reaction steps. Among the conditions tested, the following conditions were found to be the best: temperature for both steps (90 °C), saponification time (30 min), esterification time (30 min), sulfuric acid/potassium hydroxide (1.21, w/w), and methanol-lipid ratio (13.3 mL/g). Under these conditions, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield and the biodiesel purity were, respectively, 32% (g FAME/g lipid) and 77% (g FAME/g biodiesel). This study also showed that the two-step biodiesel process allows a FAME mass composition rich in palmitate (27.9-29.4 wt%), palmitoleate (24.9-26.0 wt%), elaidate (14.8-15.2 wt%), and myristate (12.1-13.0 wt%).

  1. Influence of postharvest storage, processing, and extraction methods on the analysis of phenolic phytochemicals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter provides an overview of the challenges associated with accurate analysis of phenolic compounds from foods, dietary supplements, and other matrices. It discusses the significance of sample preparation, post-harvest processing, and storage conditions on the assay of phenolic phytochemica...

  2. Extraction and recovery of pectic fragments from citrus processing waste for co-production with ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steam treatment of citrus processing waste (CPW) at 160°C followed by a rapid decompression (steam explosion) at either pH 2.8 or 4.5 provides an efficient and rapid fragmentation of protopectin in CPW and renders a large fraction of fragmented pectins, arabinans, galactans and arabinogalactans solu...

  3. Computer-aided feature extraction, classification, and acceptance processing of digital NDE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildreth, Joseph H.

    1996-11-01

    As part of the advanced Launch System technology development effort begun in 1989, the Air Force initiated a program to automate, to the extent possible, the processing of NDE data from the inspection of slid rocket motors during fabrication. The computerized system, called the Automated NDE Data Evaluation System or ANDES, was developed under contract to Martin Marietta, now Lockheed Martin. The ANDES system is generic in structure and is highly tailorable. The system can be configured to process digital or digitized data from any source, to process data from a single or from multiple acquisition systems, and to function as a single stand-alone system or in a multiple workstation distributed network. The system can maintain multiple configurations from which the user can select. In large measure, a configuration is defined through the system's user interface and is stored in the system's data base to be recalled by the user at any time. Three operational systems are currently in use. These systems ar located at Hill AFB in Ogden, Utah, Kelly AFB in San Antonio, TX, and the Phillips Laboratory at Edwards AFB in California. Each of these systems is configured to process x-ray computed tomography, CT, images. The Hill AFB installation supports the aging surveillance effort on Minuteman third stage rocket motors. The Kelly AFB system supports the acceptance inspection of airframe and engine components and torpedo housing components. The installation at Edwards AFB provides technical support to the other two locations.

  4. Principles of Stagewise Separation Process Calculations: A Simple Algebraic Approach Using Solvent Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crittenden, Barry D.

    1991-01-01

    A simple liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) system involving a constant partition coefficient based on solute ratios is used to develop an algebraic understanding of multistage contacting in a first-year separation processes course. This algebraic approach to the LLE system is shown to be operable for the introduction of graphical techniques…

  5. Economic on-line optimization for liquids extraction and treating in gas processing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, P.N.; Gamez, J.P.

    1995-11-01

    Significant changes in the gas processing industry are driving processors to become more dependent on their ability to adapt plant operations to respond to changing third party contracts, wide variability of inlet conditions, plus the volatile market pricing of NGL`s and residue gas in order to remain competitive and profitable. The need for flexible operations at each facility requires an on-line, real time supervisory controller/optimizer that manipulates the process to achieve its economic optimum. Economic optimum does not equal process optimum and the traditional approach of only meeting the control objectives is insufficient for today`s gas plant operations. Because gas plants have no storage of products or residue gas, lost opportunity is immediate with no means to regain lost profitability. The nonlinear characteristics of the process makes typical available control technologies unacceptable for these applications. A new solution that incorporates economics, process dynamics and the economic arrangements of the gas processor has been developed with the cooperation of industry, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and Continental Controls, Inc. (CCI). The objective function of this software solution is the maximization of profit for the plant and its co-owners. Thus, the optimum set of controlled variables is also dynamic, dependent on product price margins, variability of the inlet gas, and the cost of utilities. This simultaneous control and optimization solution has produced benefits that have paid for the project in as little as two and one half months and typically four to seven months depending on the gas throughput and its richness.

  6. Systematic review of the association between oil and natural gas extraction processes and human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Balise, Victoria D; Meng, Chun-Xia; Cornelius-Green, Jennifer N; Kassotis, Christopher D; Kennedy, Rana; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-09-15

    This systematic review identified 45 original published research articles related to oil and gas extraction activities and human reproductive endpoints. Reproductive outcomes were categorized as [1] birth outcomes associated with maternal exposure, [2] semen quality, fertility, and birth outcomes associated with adult paternal exposure, [3] reproductive cancers, and [4] disruption of human sex steroid hormone receptors. The results indicate there is moderate evidence for an increased risk of preterm birth, miscarriage, birth defects, decreased semen quality, and prostate cancer. The quality of the evidence is low and/or inadequate for stillbirth, sex ratio, and birth outcomes associated with paternal exposure, and testicular cancer, female reproductive tract cancers, and breast cancer, and the evidence is inconsistent for an increased risk of low birth weight; therefore, no conclusions can be drawn for these health effects. There is ample evidence for disruption of the estrogen, androgen, and progesterone receptors by oil and gas chemicals, which provides a mechanistic rationale for how exposure to oil and gas activities may increase the health risks we have outlined. The results from this systematic review suggest there is a negative impact on human reproduction from exposure to oil and gas activities. Many of the 45 studies reviewed identified potential human health effects. Most of these studies focused on conventional oil and gas activities. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate the impact of unconventional oil and gas operations on human health. The impact of unconventional oil and gas activities may be greater than that of conventional activity, given that unconventional activities employ many of the same approaches and use dozens of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals in hydraulic fracturing. PMID:27568524

  7. Systematic review of the association between oil and natural gas extraction processes and human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Balise, Victoria D; Meng, Chun-Xia; Cornelius-Green, Jennifer N; Kassotis, Christopher D; Kennedy, Rana; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-09-15

    This systematic review identified 45 original published research articles related to oil and gas extraction activities and human reproductive endpoints. Reproductive outcomes were categorized as [1] birth outcomes associated with maternal exposure, [2] semen quality, fertility, and birth outcomes associated with adult paternal exposure, [3] reproductive cancers, and [4] disruption of human sex steroid hormone receptors. The results indicate there is moderate evidence for an increased risk of preterm birth, miscarriage, birth defects, decreased semen quality, and prostate cancer. The quality of the evidence is low and/or inadequate for stillbirth, sex ratio, and birth outcomes associated with paternal exposure, and testicular cancer, female reproductive tract cancers, and breast cancer, and the evidence is inconsistent for an increased risk of low birth weight; therefore, no conclusions can be drawn for these health effects. There is ample evidence for disruption of the estrogen, androgen, and progesterone receptors by oil and gas chemicals, which provides a mechanistic rationale for how exposure to oil and gas activities may increase the health risks we have outlined. The results from this systematic review suggest there is a negative impact on human reproduction from exposure to oil and gas activities. Many of the 45 studies reviewed identified potential human health effects. Most of these studies focused on conventional oil and gas activities. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate the impact of unconventional oil and gas operations on human health. The impact of unconventional oil and gas activities may be greater than that of conventional activity, given that unconventional activities employ many of the same approaches and use dozens of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals in hydraulic fracturing.

  8. Near-infrared for on-line determination of quality parameter of Sophora japonica L. (formula particles): From lab investigation to pilot-scale extraction process

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Shi, Xinyuan; Wu, Zhisheng; Guo, Mingye; Xu, Bing; Pan, Xiaoning; Ma, Qun; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Extraction process of dried flowers of formula particles should be investigated from lab investigation to pilot-scale because of good water absorbing capacity and obscure active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) dissolution. Objective: Reliable analysis of on-line near-infrared (NIR) technique and novel application in fascinating modern, traditional Chinese medicine production (formula particles) was proved. Materials and Methods: The extraction process of Sophora japonica L. (formula particles) was used as an example, the rutin was regarded as API. On-line NIR technology was used to monitor the variation of rutin in the extraction process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference method to determine the content of rutin during the extraction process. The sample set was selected by Kennard-Stone (KS) algorithm. Different pretreatment methods were compared. The synergy interval partial least square (SiPLS) algorithm was applied. Chemometrics indicators and multivariate detection limits method were mutually used to assess the model. Results: According to both errors α (0.05) and β (0.05), rutin content could be detected by on-line NIR, which was more than 0.181 mg/mL. Conclusions: This work demonstrated the feasibility of NIR for on-line determination of rutin in the pilot-scale extraction process of S. japonica. L. It provided technical support for the NIR application in the extraction process of formula particles. PMID:25709204

  9. Extraction of DBP and MBP from actinides: application to the recovery of actinides from TBP-sodium carbonate scrub solutions. [Aralex process

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Mason, G.W.; Bloomquist, C.A.A.; Leonard, R.A.; Bernstein, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    A flowsheet for the recovery of actinides from TBP-Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ scrub waste solutions has been developed, based on batch extraction data, and tested, using laboratory scale counter-current extraction techniques. The process, called the ARALEX process, utilizes 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2-EHOH) to extract the TBP degradation products (HDBP and H/sub 2/MBP) from acidified Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ scrub waste leaving the actinides in the aqueous phase. Dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acids are attached to the 2-EHOH molecules through hydrogen bonds. These hydrogen bonds also diminish the ability of the HDBP and H/sub 2/MBP to complex actinides and thus all actinides remain in the aqueous raffinate. Dilute sodium hydroxide solutions can be used to back-extract the dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acid esters as their sodium salts. The 2-EHOH can then be recycled. After extraction of the acidified carbonate waste with 2-EHOH, the actinides may be readily extracted from the raffinate with DHDECMP or, in the case of tetra- and hexavalent actinides, with TBP. The ARALEX process is relatively simple and involves inexpensive and readily available chamicals. The ARALEX process can also be applied to other actinide waste streams which contain appreciable concentrations of polar organic compounds that interfere with conventional actinide ion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction procedures. One such application is the removal of detergents from laundry or clean-up solutions contaminated with actinides.

  10. Wavelet analysis of molecular dynamics: Efficient extraction of time-frequency information in ultrafast optical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Prior, Javier; Castro, Enrique; Chin, Alex W.; Almeida, Javier; Huelga, Susana F.; Plenio, Martin B.

    2013-12-14

    New experimental techniques based on nonlinear ultrafast spectroscopies have been developed over the last few years, and have been demonstrated to provide powerful probes of quantum dynamics in different types of molecular aggregates, including both natural and artificial light harvesting complexes. Fourier transform-based spectroscopies have been particularly successful, yet “complete” spectral information normally necessitates the loss of all information on the temporal sequence of events in a signal. This information though is particularly important in transient or multi-stage processes, in which the spectral decomposition of the data evolves in time. By going through several examples of ultrafast quantum dynamics, we demonstrate that the use of wavelets provide an efficient and accurate way to simultaneously acquire both temporal and frequency information about a signal, and argue that this greatly aids the elucidation and interpretation of physical process responsible for non-stationary spectroscopic features, such as those encountered in coherent excitonic energy transport.

  11. Elastic properties of silica aerogels from a new rapid supercritical extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, J.; Coronado, P.R.; Hair, L.M.; Hrubesh, L.W.

    1997-08-11

    Silica aerogels were produced by a new process from Tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) with ammonia as base catalyst. the process involves pouring the liquid sol in a stainless steel mold and immediately heating it to supercritical conditions. Gelation and aging occurs during heating and reaction rates are high die to high average temperatures. the gel fills the container completely, which enables relatively fast venting of the supercritical fluid by providing a constraint for swelling and failure of the gel monolith. The whole process can be completed in 6 h or less. Longitudinal and shear moduli were measured in the dried aerogels by ultrasonic velocity measurements both as a function of chemical composition of the original sol and of position in the aerogel. It was found that the sound velocity exhibits marked maxima on the surface of the cylindrical specimens and specifically close to the ends, where the fluid left during venting. Specimens with high catalyst concentration and high water:TMOS ratio exhibited higher average moduli.

  12. Cinnamon extract improves the body composition and attenuates lipogenic processes in the liver and adipose tissue of rats.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Bruna P; Gaique, Thaiane G; Souza, Luana L; Paula, Gabriela S M; Kluck, George E G; Atella, Georgia C; Gomes, Anne Caroline C; Simas, Naomi K; Kuster, Ricardo M; Ortiga-Carvalho, Tania M; Pazos-Moura, Carmen C; Oliveira, Karen J

    2015-10-01

    In models of metabolic disorders, cinnamon improves glucose and lipid metabolism. This study explores the effect of chronic supplementation with aqueous cinnamon extract (CE) on the lipid metabolism of rats. Male adult Wistar rats were separated into a control group (CTR) receiving water and a CE Group receiving aqueous cinnamon extract (400 mg of cinnamon per kg body mass per day) by gavage for 25 consecutive days. Cinnamon supplementation did not change the food intake or the serum lipid profile but promoted the following changes: lower body mass gain (P = 0.008), lower relative mass of white adipose tissue (WAT) compartments (P = 0.045) and higher protein content (percentage of the carcass) (P = 0.049). The CE group showed lower leptin mRNA expression in the WAT (P = 0.0017) and an important tendency for reduced serum leptin levels (P = 0.059). Cinnamon supplementation induced lower mRNA expression of SREBP1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c) in the WAT (P = 0.001) and liver (P = 0.013) and lower mRNA expression of SREBP2 (P = 0.002), HMGCoA reductase (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase) (P = 0.0003), ACAT1 (acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1) (P = 0.032) and DGAT2 (diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2) (P = 0.03) in the liver. These changes could be associated with the reduced esterified cholesterol and triacylglycerol content detected in this tissue. Our results suggest that chronic ingestion of aqueous cinnamon extract attenuates lipogenic processes, regulating the expression of key enzymes and transcriptional factors and their target genes, which are directly involved in lipogenesis. These molecular changes possibly promote adaptations that would prevent an increase in circulating cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels and prevent lipid accumulation in tissues, such as liver and WAT. Therefore, we speculate that cinnamon may also be useful for preventing or retarding the development of lipid disorders.

  13. Purification of precursors of Yb3+-doped YLF crystals by solvent extraction and electrochemical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boncher, William L.; Judge, Elizabeth; Sansinena, Jose-Maria; Dirmyer, Matthew R.; Hehlen, Markus P.

    2015-03-01

    Optical refrigeration by laser irradiation of YLiF4:Yb3+ (YLF:Yb) crystals has been shown to be strongly deteriorated by impurities, which absorb energy at the laser wavelength, and relax non-radiatively, negating cooling produced from anti-Stokes fluorescence. We aim to increase the efficiency of optical refrigeration through materials purification. We start with the purest sources commercially available and process them in a cleanroom environment. Our method proceeds through electrochemical purification, separating out the transition metal impurities by their redox potentials, and can be scaled up to produce the amounts of material needed for crystal growth.

  14. Stability of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Process Solvent: Effect of High Nitrite on Solvent Nitration

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnesen, P.V.

    2002-06-26

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether nitrated organic compounds could be formed during operation of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process, and whether such compounds would present a safety concern. The CSSX process was developed to remove cesium from alkaline high-level salt waste stored at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). The solvent is composed of the cesium extractant calix[4]arene-bis-(4-tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6), a fluorinated alcohol phase modifier, tri-n-octylamine (TOA), and an isoparaffinic diluent (Iospar{reg_sign}). During the CSSX process, the solvent is expected to be exposed to high concentrations of nitrate and nitrite dissolved in the alkaline waste feed. The solvent will also be exposed to dilute (50 mM) nitric acid solutions containing low concentrations of nitrite during scrubbing, followed by stripping with 1 mM nitric acid. The solvent is expected to last for one year of plant operation, and the temperatures the solvent may experience during the process could range from as low as 15 C to as high as 35 C. Excursions from standard process conditions could result in the solvent experiencing higher temperatures, as well as concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, and most importantly nitric acid, that exceed normal operating conditions. Accordingly, conditions may exist where nitration reactions involving the solvent components, possibly leading to other chemical reactions stemming from nitration reactions, could occur. To model such nitration reactions, the solvent was exposed to the types of nitrate- and nitrite-containing solutions that might be expected to be encountered during the process (even under off-normal conditions), as a function of time, temperature, and concentration of nitrate, nitrite, and nitric acid. The experiments conducted as part of this report were designed to examine the more specific effect that high nitrite concentrations could have on forming nitrated

  15. Hydroethanolic Pistacia atlantica hulls extract improved wound healing process; evidence for mast cells infiltration, angiogenesis and RNA stability.

    PubMed

    Farahpour, Mohammad Reza; Mirzakhani, Navideh; Doostmohammadi, Jamal; Ebrahimzadeh, Mahmood

    2015-05-01

    In Iranian traditional therapy folk, the Pistacia is used for treatment of wound inflammation. Here in the present study, the In vivo effect of Pistacia atlantica hulls ointment (PAO) on the wound healing process was assessed. Excision and incision wounds were induced in rats. Three different doses of PAO were administrated. Following 3, 7, 14 and 21 days, the tissue samples were obtained and skin irritation ratio, hydroxyproline content, as well as immune cells, fibroblasts, fibrocytes distribution and collagen density were analyzed. Moreover, the cellular RNA damage examined using epi-fluorescent microscope. Hydroethanolic extract of PAO significantly (P < 0.05) increased wound contraction percentage and up-regulated hydroxyproline content. The animals in medium and high dose PAO-treated groups exhibited remarkably (P < 0.05) higher fibroblast distribution and significantly (P < 0.05) lower immune cells infiltration. PAO up-regulated mast cells distribution on day 7 and elevated neovascularization in a dose dependent manner. Significantly lower RNA damage was revealed in PAO-treated animals. Our data showed that, PAO shortened the inflammation phase by provoking the fibroblast proliferation. Moreover, PAO enhanced mast cells distribution and infiltration, which in turn promoted the neovascularization. Ultimately, promoted angiogenesis increased RNA stability in different cell types. Thus, Hydroethanolic extract of PAO can be considered as an appropriate compound for wound healing medicine.

  16. Algebraic processing technique for extracting frequency-dependent shear-wave splitting parameters in an anisotropic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kai-Feng; Zeng, Xin-Wu

    2011-06-01

    Based on the dual source cumulative rotation technique in the time-domain proposed by Zeng and MacBeth (1993), a new algebraic processing technique for extracting shear-wave splitting parameters from multi-component VSP data in frequency-dependent medium has been developed. By using this dual source cumulative rotation technique in the frequency-domain (DCTF), anisotropic parameters, including polarization direction of the shear-waves and timedelay between the fast and slow shear-waves, can be estimated for each frequency component in the frequency domain. It avoids the possible error which comes from using a narrow-band filter in the current commonly used method. By using synthetic seismograms, the feasibility and validity of the technique was tested and a comparison with the currently used method was also given. The results demonstrate that the shear-wave splitting parameters frequency dependence can be extracted directly from four-component seismic data using the DCTF. In the presence of larger scale fractures, substantial frequency dependence would be found in the seismic frequency range, which implies that dispersion would occur at seismic frequencies. Our study shows that shear-wave anisotropy decreases as frequency increases.

  17. Digital image processing techniques applied to pressure analysis and morphological features extraction in footprints.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchelly, F. J.; Mayorca, D.; Ballarín, V.; Pastore, J.

    2016-04-01

    This paper shows the correlation between foot morphology and pressure distribution on footplant by means of a morphological parameters analysis and pressure calculation. Footprint images were acquired using an optical pedobarograph and then processed for obtaining binary masks and intensity images in gray scale. Morphological descriptors were obtained from the binary images and the Hernandez Corvo (HC) index was automatically calculated for determine the type of foot. Pressure distributions were obtained from gray scale images making a correspondence between light intensity in footprints and pressure. Pressure analysis was performed by finding the maximum pressure, the mean pressure and the ratio between them that determines the uniformity of the distribution. Finally, a high correlation was found between this ratio and the type of foot determined by HC index.

  18. Method for improving dissolution efficiency in gas-absorption and liquid extraction processes. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Kanak, B.E.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1980-01-11

    A method is described for improving dissolution efficiency in processes in which a feed fluid is introduced to a zone where it is contacted with a liquid solvent for preferentially removing a component of the feed and where part of the solvent so contacted undergoes transfer into the feed fluid to saturate the same. It has been found that such transfer significantly impairs dissolution efficiency. In accordance with the invention, an amount of the above-mentioned solvent is added to the feed fluid being introduced to the contact zone, the solvent being added in an amount sufficient to effect reduction or elimination of the above-mentioned transfer. Preferably, the solvent is added to the feed fluid in an amount saturating or supersaturating the feed fluid under the conditions prevailing in the contact zone.

  19. Method for improving dissolution efficiency in gas-absorption and liquid extraction processes

    DOEpatents

    Kanak, Brant E.; Stephenson, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    This invention is a method for improving dissolution efficiency in processes in which a feed fluid is introduced to a zone where it is contacted with a liquid solvent for preferentially removing a component of the feed and where part of the solvent so contacted undergoes transfer into the feed fluid to saturate the same. It has been found that such transfer significantly impairs dissolution efficiency. In accordance with the invention, an amount of the above-mentioned solvent is added to the feed fluid being introduced to the contact zone, the solvent being added in an amount sufficient to effect reduction or elimination of the above-mentioned transfer. Preferably, the solvent is added to the feed fluid in an amount saturating or supersaturating the feed fluid under the conditions prevailing in the contact zone.

  20. The extraction-flocculation re-refining lubricating oil process using ternary organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, J.P.

    1997-09-01

    The disposal of waste lubricating oils in landfills and/or city sewers can be disastrous due to the possible contamination of soils and waterways. Waste lubricating oils may be re-refined with organic solvents that dissolve base oil and segregate the additives and solid particles. The present paper emphasizes the composition effect on the efficiency of a ternary solvent composed by n-hexane/20propanol/1-butanol. Using the ternary diagram of waste oil/basic organic component/polar compound containing 3 g/L KOH where the phase envelope and the curves of constant sludge removal are plotted, it is proposed the composition of 0.25 waste oil/0.35 n-hexane/0.40 polar compound (80% 2-propanol + 20% 1-butanol, with 3 g/L KOH) for the process. A contribution for the understanding of polymethacrylate flocculation supported on infrared spectra is given.

  1. Extracting insights from electronic health records: case studies, a visual analytics process model, and design recommendations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Taowei David; Wongsuphasawat, Krist; Plaisant, Catherine; Shneiderman, Ben

    2011-10-01

    Current electronic health record (EHR) systems facilitate the storage, retrieval, persistence, and sharing of patient data. However, the way physicians interact with EHRs has not changed much. More specifically, support for temporal analysis of a large number of EHRs has been lacking. A number of information visualization techniques have been proposed to alleviate this problem. Unfortunately, due to their limited application to a single case study, the results are often difficult to generalize across medical scenarios. We present the usage data of Lifelines2 (Wang et al. 2008), our information visualization system, and user comments, both collected over eight different medical case studies. We generalize our experience into a visual analytics process model for multiple EHRs. Based on our analysis, we make seven design recommendations to information visualization tools to explore EHR systems.

  2. Process Optimization for Solid Extraction, Flavor Improvement and Fat Removal in the Production of Soymilk From Full Fat Soy Flakes

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley Prawiradjaja

    2003-05-31

    Traditionally soymilk has been made with whole soybeans; however, there are other alternative raw ingredients for making soymilk, such as soy flour or full-fat soy flakes. US markets prefer soymilk with little or no beany flavor. modifying the process or using lipoxygenase-free soybeans can be used to achieve this. Unlike the dairy industry, fat reduction in soymilk has been done through formula modification instead of by conventional fat removal (skimming). This project reports the process optimization for solids and protein extraction, flavor improvement and fat removal in the production of 5, 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix soymilk from full fat soy flakes and whole soybeans using the Takai soymilk machine. Proximate analyses, and color measurement were conducted in 5, 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix soymilk. Descriptive analyses with trained panelists (n = 9) were conducted using 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix lipoxygenase-free and high protein blend soy flake soymilks. Rehydration of soy flakes is necessary to prevent agglomeration during processing and increase extractability. As the rehydration temperature increases from 15 to 50 to 85 C, the hexanal concentration was reduced. Enzyme inactivation in soy flakes milk production (measured by hexanal levels) is similar to previous reports with whole soybeans milk production; however, shorter rehydration times can be achieved with soy flakes (5 to 10 minutes) compared to whole beans (8 to 12 hours). Optimum rehydration conditions for a 5, 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix soymilk are 50 C for 5 minutes, 85 C for 5 minutes and 85 C for 10 minutes, respectively. In the flavor improvement study of soymilk, the hexanal date showed differences between undeodorized HPSF in contrast to triple null soymilk and no differences between deodorized HPSF in contrast to deodorized triple null. The panelists could not differentiate between the beany, cereal, and painty flavors. However, the panelists responded that the overall aroma of deodorized 8 {sup o}Brix triple null

  3. Laboratory-Scale Bismuth Phosphate Extraction Process Simulation To Track Fate of Fission Products

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R. JEFFREY; Lindberg, Michael J.; Jones, Thomas E.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2007-02-28

    Recent field investigation that collected and characterized vadose zone sediments from beneath inactive liquid disposal facilities at the Hanford 200 Areas show lower than expected concentrations of a long-term risk driver, Tc-99. Therefore laboratory studies were performed to re-create one of the three processes that were used to separate the plutonium from spent fuel and that created most of the wastes disposed or currently stored in tanks at Hanford. The laboratory simulations were used to compare with current estimates based mainly on flow sheet estimates and spotty historical data. Three simulations of the bismuth phosphate precipitation process show that less that 1% of the Tc-99, Cs-135/137, Sr-90, I-129 carry down with the Pu product and thus these isotopes should have remained within the metals waste streams that after neutralization were sent to single shell tanks. Conversely, these isotopes should not be expected to be found in the first and subsequent cycle waste streams that went to cribs. Measurable quantities (~20 to 30%) of the lanthanides, yttrium, and trivalent actinides (Am and Cm) do precipitate with the Pu product, which is higher than the 10% estimate made for current inventory projections. Surprisingly, Se (added as selenate form) also shows about 10% association with the Pu/bismuth phosphate solids. We speculate that the incorporation of some Se into the bismuth phosphate precipitate is caused by selenate substitution into crystal lattice sites for the phosphate. The bulk of the U daughter product Th-234 and Np-237 daughter product Pa-233 also associate with the solids. We suspect that the Pa daughter products of U (Pa-234 and Pa-231) would also co-precipitate with the bismuth phosphate induced solids. No more than 1 % of the Sr-90 and Sb-125 should carry down with the Pu product that ultimately was purified. Thus the current scheme used to estimate where fission products end up being disposed overestimates by one order of magnitude the

  4. Linking attentional processes and conceptual problem solving: visual cues facilitate the automaticity of extracting relevant information from diagrams

    PubMed Central

    Rouinfar, Amy; Agra, Elise; Larson, Adam M.; Rebello, N. Sanjay; Loschky, Lester C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated links between visual attention processes and conceptual problem solving. This was done by overlaying visual cues on conceptual physics problem diagrams to direct participants’ attention to relevant areas to facilitate problem solving. Participants (N = 80) individually worked through four problem sets, each containing a diagram, while their eye movements were recorded. Each diagram contained regions that were relevant to solving the problem correctly and separate regions related to common incorrect responses. Problem sets contained an initial problem, six isomorphic training problems, and a transfer problem. The cued condition saw visual cues overlaid on the training problems. Participants’ verbal responses were used to determine their accuracy. This study produced two major findings. First, short duration visual cues which draw attention to solution-relevant information and aid in the organizing and integrating of it, facilitate both immediate problem solving and generalization of that ability to new problems. Thus, visual cues can facilitate re-representing a problem and overcoming impasse, enabling a correct solution. Importantly, these cueing effects on problem solving did not involve the solvers’ attention necessarily embodying the solution to the problem, but were instead caused by solvers attending to and integrating relevant information in the problems into a solution path. Second, this study demonstrates that when such cues are used across multiple problems, solvers can automatize the extraction of problem-relevant information extraction. These results suggest that low-level attentional selection processes provide a necessary gateway for relevant information to be used in problem solving, but are generally not sufficient for correct problem solving. Instead, factors that lead a solver to an impasse and to organize and integrate problem information also greatly facilitate arriving at correct solutions. PMID:25324804

  5. Linking attentional processes and conceptual problem solving: visual cues facilitate the automaticity of extracting relevant information from diagrams.

    PubMed

    Rouinfar, Amy; Agra, Elise; Larson, Adam M; Rebello, N Sanjay; Loschky, Lester C

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated links between visual attention processes and conceptual problem solving. This was done by overlaying visual cues on conceptual physics problem diagrams to direct participants' attention to relevant areas to facilitate problem solving. Participants (N = 80) individually worked through four problem sets, each containing a diagram, while their eye movements were recorded. Each diagram contained regions that were relevant to solving the problem correctly and separate regions related to common incorrect responses. Problem sets contained an initial problem, six isomorphic training problems, and a transfer problem. The cued condition saw visual cues overlaid on the training problems. Participants' verbal responses were used to determine their accuracy. This study produced two major findings. First, short duration visual cues which draw attention to solution-relevant information and aid in the organizing and integrating of it, facilitate both immediate problem solving and generalization of that ability to new problems. Thus, visual cues can facilitate re-representing a problem and overcoming impasse, enabling a correct solution. Importantly, these cueing effects on problem solving did not involve the solvers' attention necessarily embodying the solution to the problem, but were instead caused by solvers attending to and integrating relevant information in the problems into a solution path. Second, this study demonstrates that when such cues are used across multiple problems, solvers can automatize the extraction of problem-relevant information extraction. These results suggest that low-level attentional selection processes provide a necessary gateway for relevant information to be used in problem solving, but are generally not sufficient for correct problem solving. Instead, factors that lead a solver to an impasse and to organize and integrate problem information also greatly facilitate arriving at correct solutions.

  6. Automated global structure extraction for effective local building block processing in XCS.

    PubMed

    Butz, Martin V; Pelikan, Martin; Llorà, Xavier; Goldberg, David E

    2006-01-01

    Learning Classifier Systems (LCSs), such as the accuracy-based XCS, evolve distributed problem solutions represented by a population of rules. During evolution, features are specialized, propagated, and recombined to provide increasingly accurate subsolutions. Recently, it was shown that, as in conventional genetic algorithms (GAs), some problems require efficient processing of subsets of features to find problem solutions efficiently. In such problems, standard variation operators of genetic and evolutionary algorithms used in LCSs suffer from potential disruption of groups of interacting features, resulting in poor performance. This paper introduces efficient crossover operators to XCS by incorporating techniques derived from competent GAs: the extended compact GA (ECGA) and the Bayesian optimization algorithm (BOA). Instead of simple crossover operators such as uniform crossover or one-point crossover, ECGA or BOA-derived mechanisms are used to build a probabilistic model of the global population and to generate offspring classifiers locally using the model. Several offspring generation variations are introduced and evaluated. The results show that it is possible to achieve performance similar to runs with an informed crossover operator that is specifically designed to yield ideal problem-dependent exploration, exploiting provided problem structure information. Thus, we create the first competent LCSs, XCS/ECGA and XCS/BOA, that detect dependency structures online and propagate corresponding lower-level dependency structures effectively without any information about these structures given in advance.

  7. Flowsheet Testing of the Fission Product Extraction Process as Part of Advanced Aqueous Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Jack Law; Dean R. Peterman; catherine Riddle; David H. Meikrantz; Terry Todd

    2007-06-01

    As part of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), the reduction in volume and heat generation of spent nuclear fuel requiring geologic disposal is currently being addressed. The goal is to optimize utilization of the nation’s first repository and potentially reduce or eliminate the need for additional repositories. This will be achieved through separating long-lived, highly toxic elements, reducing high-level waste volumes and the toxicity of spent nuclear fuel, and reducing the heat generation of spent nuclear fuel. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with a team of national laboratories and other organizations to support development of these separations processes. Key to the reduction of short-term heat load in a geological repository is the separation of 137Cs and 90Sr. Removal of these highly radioactive fission products reduces the short-term (~100 yr) heat generation source of the spent nuclear fuel. Once separated, the Cs and Sr would be placed in storage until the activity has decayed to LLW levels, at which time it could potentially be disposed of as a non-transuranic (TRU) low-level waste (LLW).

  8. Fetal QRS extraction from abdominal recordings via model-based signal processing and intelligent signal merging.

    PubMed

    Haghpanahi, Masoumeh; Borkholder, David A

    2014-08-01

    Noninvasive fetal ECG (fECG) monitoring has potential applications in diagnosing congenital heart diseases in a timely manner and assisting clinicians to make more appropriate decisions during labor. However, despite advances in signal processing and machine learning techniques, the analysis of fECG signals has still remained in its preliminary stages. In this work, we describe an algorithm to automatically locate QRS complexes in noninvasive fECG signals obtained from a set of four electrodes placed on the mother's abdomen. The algorithm is based on an iterative decomposition of the maternal and fetal subspaces and filtering of the maternal ECG (mECG) components from the fECG recordings. Once the maternal components are removed, a novel merging technique is applied to merge the signals and detect the fetal QRS (fQRS) complexes. The algorithm was trained and tested on the fECG datasets provided by the PhysioNet/CinC challenge 2013. The final results indicate that the algorithm is able to detect fetal peaks for a variety of signals with different morphologies and strength levels encountered in clinical practice.

  9. Extraction of linguistic information from successive words during reading: evidence for spatially distributed lexical processing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chin-An; Inhoff, Albrecht W

    2013-06-01

    Two experiments examined whether word recognition progressed from one word to the next during reading, as maintained by sequential attention shift models such as the E-Z Reader model. The boundary technique was used to control the visibility of to-be-identified short target words, so that they were either previewed in the parafovea or masked. The eyes skipped a masked target on more than a quarter of the trials, and the following fixation must have been mislocated, if word recognition and saccade targeting progressed from one word to the next. Readers responded to the skipping parafoveally masked target words with relatively long viewing duration for the following posttarget word or with corrective saccades that returned the eyes from the posttarget word to the target. Experiment 2 manipulated the time-line of posttarget onset after target skipping, so that the posttarget word was either visible immediately upon fixation or after a short delay. The delay influenced posttarget viewing even when attention should have been focused at the target location according to E-Z Reader 10 simulations. These findings favor theoretical conceptions according to which lexical processing can encompass more than one word at a time.

  10. Single step aqueous two-phase extraction for downstream processing of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Chethana, S; Nayak, Chetan A; Madhusudhan, M C; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2015-04-01

    C-phycocyanin, a natural food colorant, is gaining importance worldwide due to its several medical and pharmaceutical applications. In the present study, aqueous two-phase extraction was shown to be an attractive alternative for the downstream processing of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis. By employing differential partitioning, C-phycocyanin selectively partitioned to the polymer rich (top) phase in concentrated form and contaminant proteins to the salt rich (bottom) phase. This resulted in an increase in the product purity (without losing much of the yield) in a single step without the need of multiple processing steps. Effect of process parameters such as molecular weight, tie line length, phase volume ratio, concentration of phase components on the partitioning behavior of C-phycocyanin was studied. The results were explained based on relative free volume of the phase systems. C-phycocyanin with a purity of 4.32 and yield of about 79 % was obtained at the standardized conditions. PMID:25829627

  11. Fundamental studies of the plasma extraction and ion beam formation processes in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Hongsen

    1995-02-10

    The fundamental and practical aspects are described for extracting ions from atmospheric pressure plasma sources into an analytical mass spectrometer. Methodologies and basic concepts of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are emphasized in the discussion, including ion source, sampling interface, supersonic expansion, slumming process, ion optics and beam focusing, and vacuum considerations. Some new developments and innovative designs are introduced. The plasma extraction process in ICP-MS was investigated by Langmuir measurements in the region between the skimmer and first ion lens. Electron temperature (T{sub e}) is in the range 2000--11000 K and changes with probe position inside an aerosol gas flow. Electron density (n{sub e}) is in the range 10{sup 8}--10{sup 10} {sup {minus}cm }at the skimmer tip and drops abruptly to 10{sup 6}--10{sup 8} cm{sup {minus}3} near the skimmer tip and drops abruptly to 10{sup 6}--10{sup 8} cm{sup {minus}3} downstream further behind the skimmer. Electron density in the beam leaving the skimmer also depends on water loading and on the presence and mass of matrix elements. Axially resolved distributions of electron number-density and electron temperature were obtained to characterize the ion beam at a variety of plasma operating conditions. The electron density dropped by a factor of 101 along the centerline between the sampler and skimmer cones in the first stage and continued to drop by factors of 10{sup 4}--10{sup 5} downstream of skimmer to the entrance of ion lens. The electron density in the beam expansion behind sampler cone exhibited a 1/z{sup 2} intensity fall-off (z is the axial position). An second beam expansion originated from the skimmer entrance, and the beam flow underwent with another 1/z{sup 2} fall-off behind the skimmer. Skimmer interactions play an important role in plasma extraction in the ICP-MS instrument.

  12. Value-Added Processing of Peanut Skins: Antioxidant Capacity,Total Phenolics,and Procyanidin Content of Spray Dried Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore a potential use for peanut skins as a functional food ingredient, milled skins were extracted with 70% ethanol, separated into a soluble extract and insoluble material by filtration, and spray dried with or without the addition of maltodextrin. Peanut skin extracts had high levels of proc...

  13. Value-Added Processing of Peanut Skins: Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolics, and Procyanidin Content of Spray Dried Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore a potential use for peanut skins as a functional food ingredient, milled skins were extracted with 70% ethanol, separated into a soluble extract and insoluble material by filtration, and spray dried with or without the addition of maltodextrin. Peanut skin extracts had high levels of proc...

  14. Evaluation of an alkaline-side solvent extraction process for cesium removal from SRS tank waste using laboratory-scale centrifugal contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R. A.; Conner, C.; Liberatore, M. W.; Sedlet, J.; Aase, S. B.; Vandegrift, G. F.

    1999-11-29

    An alkaline-side solvent extraction process for cesium removal from Savannah River Site (SRS) tank waste was evaluated experimentally using a laboratory-scale centrifugal contactor. Single-stage and multistage tests were conducted with this contactor to determine hydraulic performance, stage efficiency, and general operability of the process flowsheet. The results and conclusions of these tests are reported along with those from various supporting tests. Also discussed is the ability to scale-up from laboratory- to plant-scale operation when centrifugal contractors are used to carry out the solvent extraction process. While some problems were encountered, a promising solution for each problem has been identified. Overall, this alkaline-side cesium extraction process appears to be an excellent candidate for removing cesium from SRS tank waste.

  15. A new selective liquid membrane extraction method for the determination of basic herbicides in agro-processed fruit juices and Ethiopian honey wine (Tej) samples.

    PubMed

    Megersa, Negussie; Kassahun, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Supported liquid membrane (SLM) extraction was optimised for trace extraction and enrichment of selected triazine herbicides from a variety of agro-processed fruit juices and Ethiopian honey wine (Tej) samples. In the extraction process, a 1:1 mixture of n-undecane and di-n-hexylether was immobilised in a thin porous PTFE membrane that forms a barrier between two aqueous phases (the donor and acceptor phases) in a flow system. The extracts constitute the selectively enriched analytes collected from the acceptor phase and were analysed by transferring to a HPLC-UV system using a diode array detector at 235 nm. High enrichment factors were obtained with very good repeatability of results, and the detection limit was lower than 3.00 µg l⁻¹ for ametryn in apple juice. The optimised method showed very good linearity of over 50-500 µg l⁻¹ with a correlation coefficient of >0.990 or better for triplicate analysis. All chromatograms gave well resolved peaks with no interfering peaks at the retention times of the selected triazines, showing high selectivity of the SLM extraction method in combination with HPLC-UV for the selected matrices. The optimised method can be used as an alternative solventless extraction method for microgram-level extraction of other triazine herbicides and a variety of pesticides from liquid and semi-liquid environmental, biological and food matrices. PMID:22324905

  16. Dissolution of D2EHPA in liquid-liquid extraction process: implication on metal removal and organic content of the treated water.

    PubMed

    Lee, Po-Ching; Li, Chi-Wang; Chen, Jie-Yuan; Li, Ying-Sheng; Chen, Shiao-Shing

    2011-11-15

    Effects of pH, extractant/diluent ratios, and metal concentrations on the extent of extractant dissolution during liquid-liquid extraction were investigated. Experimental result shows that D(2)EHPA dissolution increases dramatically at pH above 4, leveling off at pH 6-7. The phenomenon is consistent with deprotonation of D(2)EHPA and the domination of negatively charged D(2)EHPA species at pH of higher than 4. Concentration of D(2)EHPA in the aqueous phase, i.e., the extent of extractant dissolution, drops after addition of metal and decreases with increasing metal concentration. The amount of D(2)EHPA 're-entering' the organic phase is calculated to be 2.04 mol per mol of Cd added, which is quite closed to the stoichiometric molar ratio of 2 between D(2)EHPA and Cd via ion exchange reaction. The effect of metal species on the extent of extractant/metal complexes re-entering is in the order of Cd ≈ Zn > Ag, which might be coincident to the complexation stability of these metals with D(2)EHPA. The extent of extractant dissolution in liquid-liquid extraction process depends on the type and concentration of metal to be removed, pH of aqueous phase, and extractant/diluent ratios. PMID:21937070

  17. Intramembranous Bone Healing Process Subsequent to Tooth Extraction in Mice: Micro-Computed Tomography, Histomorphometric and Molecular Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Andreia Espindola; Repeke, Carlos Eduardo; Ferreira Junior, Samuel de Barros; Colavite, Priscila Maria; Biguetti, Claudia Cristina; Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; Assis, Gerson Francisco; Taga, Rumio; Trombone, Ana Paula Favaro; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue has a significant potential for healing, which involves a significant the interplay between bone and immune cells. While fracture healing represents a useful model to investigate endochondral bone healing, intramembranous bone healing models are yet to be developed and characterized. In this study, a micro-computed tomography, histomorphometric and molecular (RealTimePCRarray) characterization of post tooth-extraction alveolar bone healing was performed on C57Bl/6 WT mice. After the initial clot dominance (0h), the development of a provisional immature granulation tissue is evident (7d), characterized by marked cell proliferation, angiogenesis and inflammatory cells infiltration; associated with peaks of growth factors (BMP-2-4-7,TGFβ1,VEGFa), cytokines (TNFα, IL-10), chemokines & receptors (CXCL12, CCL25, CCR5, CXCR4), matrix (Col1a1-2, ITGA4, VTN, MMP1a) and MSCs (CD105, CD106, OCT4, NANOG, CD34, CD146) markers expression. Granulation tissue is sequentially replaced by more mature connective tissue (14d), characterized by inflammatory infiltrate reduction along the increased bone formation, marked expression of matrix remodeling enzymes (MMP-2-9), bone formation/maturation (RUNX2, ALP, DMP1, PHEX, SOST) markers, and chemokines & receptors associated with healing (CCL2, CCL17, CCR2). No evidences of cartilage cells or tissue were observed, strengthening the intramembranous nature of bone healing. Bone microarchitecture analysis supports the evolving healing, with total tissue and bone volumes as trabecular number and thickness showing a progressive increase over time. The extraction socket healing process is considered complete (21d) when the dental socket is filled by trabeculae bone with well-defined medullary canals; it being the expression of mature bone markers prevalent at this period. Our data confirms the intramembranous bone healing nature of the model used, revealing parallels between the gene expression profile and the histomorphometric

  18. The effect of processing additives for charge generation, recombination, and extraction in bulk heterojunction layers of all-polymer photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yu Jin; Ahn, Sunyong; Wang, Dong Hwan; Park, Chan Eon

    2015-08-01

    Bulk heterojunction all-polymer solar cells, fabricated with poly{[4,8-bis-(2-ethyl-hexyl-thiophene-5-yl)-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl]-alt-[2-(2-ethyl-hexanoyl)-thieno[3,4-b']thiophen-4,6-diyl]} (PBDTTT-CT) as a donor polymer, and a acceptor polymer, poly{[N,N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-bithiophene)} (P(NDI2OD-T2)), have been demonstrated and have achieved a power conversion efficiency exceeding 3.7% by using 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) as a processing additive. Based on the analysis of charge carrier dynamics (charge generation, separation, and extraction), we found that the appropriate ratio of processing solvent additive (5 vol. % DIO) leads to enhanced device performance and favorable morphological characteristics. This research, therefore, indicates that the incorporation of a DIO additive in all-polymer blends is an effective way to form a morphologically ideal heterojunction network and thereby improve charge carrier kinetics for efficient photovoltaic devices.

  19. Fractionation of yeast extract by nanofiltration process to assess key compounds involved in CHO cell culture improvement.

    PubMed

    Mosser, Mathilde; Kapel, Romain; Chevalot, Isabelle; Olmos, Eric; Marc, Ivan; Marc, Annie; Oriol, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Yeast extract (YE) is known to greatly enhance mammalian cell culture performances, but its undefined composition decreases process reliability. Accordingly, in the present study, the nature of YE compounds involved in the improvement of recombinant CHO cell growth and IgG production was investigated. First, the benefits of YE were verified, revealing that it increased maximal concentrations of viable cells and IgG up to 73 and 60%, respectively compared to a reference culture. Then, the analyses of YE composition highlighted the presence of molecules such as amino acids, vitamins, salts, nucleobase, and glucose that were contained in reference medium, while others including peptides, trehalose, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids were not. Consequently, YE was fractionated by a nanofiltration process to deeper evaluate its effects on CHO cell cultures. The YE molecules already contained in reference medium were mainly isolated in the permeate fraction together with trehalose and short peptides, while other molecules were concentrated in the retentate. Permeate, which was free of macromolecules, exhibited a similar positive effect than raw YE on maximal concentrations. Additional studies on cell energetic metabolism underlined that dipeptides and tripeptides in permeate were used as an efficient source of nitrogenous substrates.

  20. Integrated downstream processing of lactoperoxidase from milk whey involving aqueous two-phase extraction and ultrasound-assisted ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Nandini, K E; Rastogi, Navin K

    2011-01-01

    The present work involves the adoption of an integrated approach for the purification of lactoperoxidase from milk whey by coupling aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) with ultrasound-assisted ultrafiltration. The effect of system parameters of ATPE such as type of phase system, polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecular mass, system pH, tie line length and phase volume ratio was evaluated so as to obtain differential partitioning of contaminant proteins and lactoperoxidase in top and bottom phases, respectively. PEG 6000-potassium phosphate system was found to be suitable for the maximum activity recovery of lactoperoxidase 150.70% leading to 2.31-fold purity. Further, concentration and purification of enzyme was attempted using ultrafiltration. The activity recovery and purification factor achieved after ultrafiltration were 149.85% and 3.53-fold, respectively. To optimise productivity and cost-effectiveness of integrated process, influence of ultrasound for the enhancement of permeate flux during ultrafiltration was also investigated. Intermittent use of ultrasound along with stirring (2 min acoustic and 2 min stirring) resulted in increased permeate flux from 0.94 to 2.18 l/m(2) h in comparison to the ultrafiltration without ultrasound. The use of ultrasound during ultrafiltration resulted in increase in flux, but there was no significant change in activity recovery and purification factor. The integrated approach involving ATPE and ultrafiltration may prove to be a feasible method for the downstream processing of lactoperoxidase from milk whey.

  1. Characterization and Application of Superlig 620 Solid Phase Extraction Resin for Automated Process Monitoring of 90Sr

    SciTech Connect

    Devol, Timothy A.; Clements, John P.; Farawila, Anne F.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Egorov, Oleg; Grate, Jay W.

    2009-11-30

    Characterization of SuperLig® 620 solid phase extraction resin was performed in order to develop an automated on-line process monitor for 90Sr. The main focus was on strontium separation from barium, with the goal of developing an automated separation process for 90Sr in high-level wastes. High-level waste contains significant 137Cs activity, of which 137mBa is of great concern as an interference to the quantification of strontium. In addition barium, yttrium and plutonium were studied as potential interferences to strontium uptake and detection. A number of complexants were studied in a series of batch Kd experiments, as SuperLig® 620 was not previously known to elute strontium in typical mineral acids. The optimal separation was found using a 2M nitric acid load solution with a strontium elution step of ~0.49M ammonium citrate and a barium elution step of ~1.8M ammonium citrate. 90Sr quantification of Hanford high-level tank waste was performed on a sequential injection analysis microfluidics system coupled to a flow-cell detector. The results of the on-line procedure are compared to standard radiochemical techniques in this paper.

  2. The Powdering Process with a Set of Ceramic Mills for Green Tea Promoted Catechin Extraction and the ROS Inhibition Effect.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Kouki; Iwamoto, Takeo; Shima, Hidekazu; Tomaru, Keiko; Saito, Hideki; Ohtsuka, Masaki; Yoshidome, Akihiro; Kawamura, Yuri; Manome, Yoshinobu

    2016-04-11

    For serving green tea, there are two prominent methods: steeping the leaf or the powdered leaf (matcha style) in hot water. The purpose of the present study was to reveal chemical and functional differences before and after the powdering process of green tea leaf, since powdered green tea may contribute to expanding the functionality because of the different ingesting style. In this study, we revealed that the powdering process with a ceramic mill and stirring in hot water increased the average extracted concentration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) by more than three times compared with that in leaf tea using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses. Moreover, powdered green tea has a higher inhibition effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in vitro compared with the same amount of leaf tea. Our data suggest that powdered green tea might have a different function from leaf tea due to the higher catechin contents and particles.

  3. Processing Effects on the Antioxidant Activities of Beverage Blends Developed from Cyperus esculentus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Moringa oleifera Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Badejo, Adebanjo A.; Damilare, Akintoroye; Ojuade, Temitope D.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of bioactive compounds in foods has changed the dietary lifestyle of many people. Cyperus esculentus (tigernut) is highly underutilized in Africa, yet tigernut extract is highly profitable in Europe. This study aims to add value to tigernut extract by revealing its health benefits and food value. In this study, tigernut tubers were germinated or roasted and the extracts were combined with Moringa oleifera extract (MOE) or Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) and spiced with ginger to produce functional drinks. The drinks were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics, sensory parameters, and antioxidant potentials. The total phenolic content of each beverage was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the antioxidant activity of each beverage was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assays. The beverages from the germinated tigernut extracts had the highest titratable acidity and the lowest pH, while beverages containing the roasted tigernut extract had the highest ∘Brix. Germination and roasting significantly enhanced the total phenolic content of the drinks. The beverage containing HSE and germinated tigernut extract had a total phenolic content of 45.67 mg/100 mL gallic acid equivalents, which was significantly higher than the total phenolic content of all other samples. The DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with germinated tigernut extracts was significantly higher than the DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with fresh tigernut extract. The taste and overall acceptability of drinks containing the roasted tigernut extract were preferred, while the color and appearance of drinks with the germinated samples were preferred. Roasting or germinating tigernuts before extraction and addition of MOE or HSE extracts is another way to add value and enhance the utilization of tigernuts. PMID:25320721

  4. Processing Effects on the Antioxidant Activities of Beverage Blends Developed from Cyperus esculentus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Moringa oleifera Extracts.

    PubMed

    Badejo, Adebanjo A; Damilare, Akintoroye; Ojuade, Temitope D

    2014-09-01

    The discovery of bioactive compounds in foods has changed the dietary lifestyle of many people. Cyperus esculentus (tigernut) is highly underutilized in Africa, yet tigernut extract is highly profitable in Europe. This study aims to add value to tigernut extract by revealing its health benefits and food value. In this study, tigernut tubers were germinated or roasted and the extracts were combined with Moringa oleifera extract (MOE) or Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) and spiced with ginger to produce functional drinks. The drinks were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics, sensory parameters, and antioxidant potentials. The total phenolic content of each beverage was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the antioxidant activity of each beverage was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assays. The beverages from the germinated tigernut extracts had the highest titratable acidity and the lowest pH, while beverages containing the roasted tigernut extract had the highest ∘Brix. Germination and roasting significantly enhanced the total phenolic content of the drinks. The beverage containing HSE and germinated tigernut extract had a total phenolic content of 45.67 mg/100 mL gallic acid equivalents, which was significantly higher than the total phenolic content of all other samples. The DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with germinated tigernut extracts was significantly higher than the DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with fresh tigernut extract. The taste and overall acceptability of drinks containing the roasted tigernut extract were preferred, while the color and appearance of drinks with the germinated samples were preferred. Roasting or germinating tigernuts before extraction and addition of MOE or HSE extracts is another way to add value and enhance the utilization of tigernuts. PMID:25320721

  5. Influence of pH on hydrothermal treatment of swine manure: Impact on extraction of nitrogen and phosphorus in process water.

    PubMed

    Ekpo, U; Ross, A B; Camargo-Valero, M A; Fletcher, L A

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the influence of pH on extraction of nitrogen and phosphorus from swine manure following hydrothermal treatment. Conditions include thermal hydrolysis (TH) at 120°C and 170°C, and hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) at 200°C and 250°C in either water alone or in the presence of 0.1M NaOH, H2SO4, CH3COOH or HCOOH. Phosphorus extraction is pH and temperature dependent and is enhanced under acidic conditions. The highest level of phosphorus is extracted using H2SO4 reaching 94% at 170°C. The phosphorus is largely retained in the residue for all other conditions. The extraction of nitrogen is not as significantly influenced by pH, although the maximum N extraction is achieved using H2SO4. A significant level of organic-N is extracted into the process waters following hydrothermal treatment. The results indicate that operating hydrothermal treatment in the presence of acidic additives has benefits in terms of improving the extraction of phosphorus and nitrogen.

  6. Influence of pH on hydrothermal treatment of swine manure: Impact on extraction of nitrogen and phosphorus in process water.

    PubMed

    Ekpo, U; Ross, A B; Camargo-Valero, M A; Fletcher, L A

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the influence of pH on extraction of nitrogen and phosphorus from swine manure following hydrothermal treatment. Conditions include thermal hydrolysis (TH) at 120°C and 170°C, and hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) at 200°C and 250°C in either water alone or in the presence of 0.1M NaOH, H2SO4, CH3COOH or HCOOH. Phosphorus extraction is pH and temperature dependent and is enhanced under acidic conditions. The highest level of phosphorus is extracted using H2SO4 reaching 94% at 170°C. The phosphorus is largely retained in the residue for all other conditions. The extraction of nitrogen is not as significantly influenced by pH, although the maximum N extraction is achieved using H2SO4. A significant level of organic-N is extracted into the process waters following hydrothermal treatment. The results indicate that operating hydrothermal treatment in the presence of acidic additives has benefits in terms of improving the extraction of phosphorus and nitrogen. PMID:27187568

  7. Characterization of Key Aroma Compounds in Raw and Thermally Processed Prawns and Thermally Processed Lobsters by Application of Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mall, Veronika; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-08-24

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to an aroma distillate of blanched prawn meat (Litopenaeus vannamei) (BPM) revealed 40 odorants in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to 1024. The highest FD factors were assigned to 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. To understand the influence of different processing conditions on odorant formation, fried prawn meat was investigated by means of AEDA in the same way, revealing 31 odorants with FD factors between 4 and 2048. Also, the highest FD factors were determined for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, followed by 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. As a source of the typical marine, sea breeze-like odor attribute of the seafood, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole was identified in raw prawn meat as one of the contributors. Additionally, the aroma of blanched prawn meat was compared to that of blanched Norway and American lobster meat, respectively (Nephrops norvegicus and Homarus americanus). Identification experiments revealed the same set of odorants, however, with differing FD factors. In particular, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone was found as the key aroma compound in blanched Norway lobster, whereas American lobster contained 3-methylindole with a high FD factor.

  8. Characterization of Key Aroma Compounds in Raw and Thermally Processed Prawns and Thermally Processed Lobsters by Application of Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mall, Veronika; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-08-24

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to an aroma distillate of blanched prawn meat (Litopenaeus vannamei) (BPM) revealed 40 odorants in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to 1024. The highest FD factors were assigned to 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. To understand the influence of different processing conditions on odorant formation, fried prawn meat was investigated by means of AEDA in the same way, revealing 31 odorants with FD factors between 4 and 2048. Also, the highest FD factors were determined for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, followed by 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. As a source of the typical marine, sea breeze-like odor attribute of the seafood, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole was identified in raw prawn meat as one of the contributors. Additionally, the aroma of blanched prawn meat was compared to that of blanched Norway and American lobster meat, respectively (Nephrops norvegicus and Homarus americanus). Identification experiments revealed the same set of odorants, however, with differing FD factors. In particular, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone was found as the key aroma compound in blanched Norway lobster, whereas American lobster contained 3-methylindole with a high FD factor. PMID:27486834

  9. Determination of strychnine, brucine, strychnine N-oxide, and brucine N-oxide in plasma samples after the oral administration of processed semen strychni extract by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultrasound-assisted mixed cloud point extraction.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun; Meng, Hua; Li, Huang Huang; Wang, Qiao Feng

    2016-07-01

    A sensitive and efficient mixed cloud point extraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography was developed for the simultaneous separation and determination of four alkaloids (strychnine, strychnine N-oxide, brucine, and brucine N-oxide) in plasma after the oral administration of processed semen strychni extract. Tergitol TMN-6 and cetyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide were chosen as the mixed surfactants, and ultrasound was employed to enhance the extraction efficiency. Some important parameters affecting the mixed cloud point extraction efficiency, such as the content of Tergitol TMN-6 and cetyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide, pH, salt effect, extraction temperature, and ultrasound time were studied and optimized. Under optimum conditions, the linear range of four alkaloids was from 1.0 to 1000 ng/mL. All correlation coefficients of the calibration curves were higher than 0.9993. The intraday and interday precision were below 8.65% and the limits of detection for the four alkaloids were less than 1.0 ng/mL (S/N = 3).

  10. Investigation of the impact of organic solvent type and solution pH on the extraction efficiency of naphthenic acids from oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rongfu; McPhedran, Kerry N; Sun, Nian; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) from oil sand process-affected water (OSPW) were liquid-liquid extracted using six organic solvents (n-pentane, n-hexane, cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ethyl ether, and ethyl acetate) at three pHs (2.0, 8.5, and 12.0). The NAs exist in ionic (ions) and non-ionic (molecules) forms in the water phase depending on their dissociation constants and the solution pH. Results showed the extractability of NA molecules depends on the solvent polarity and the extractability of NA ions on the water solubility in solvent. The organic solvent type and solution pH were found to not only impact the extracted amounts of each NA species, but also the NAs distribution in terms of molecule carbon number and hydrogen deficiency. Overall, it is concluded that ethyl ether can be used as an alternative to dichloromethane (DCM) given their similar extraction efficiencies and extracted NA profiles. This is important since DCM is known to have metabolic toxicity and transitioning to the safer ethyl ether would eliminate laboratory DCM exposures and risk to human health. Despite the higher extraction efficiency of NAs at pH 2.0, extraction at pH 12.0 could be useful for targeted extraction of low-concentration nonpolar organic compounds in OSPW. This knowledge may assist in the determination of the specific NAs species that are known to have chronic, sub-chronic and acute toxicity to various organisms, and the potential targeting of treatment to these NAs species.

  11. GEOEYE-1 Satellite Stereo-Pair DEM Extraction Using Scale-Invariant Feature Transform on a Parallel Processing Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2013-04-01

    A module for Digital Elevation Model (DEM) extraction from Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite stereo-pair imagery was developed. A procedure for parallel processing of cascading image tiles is used for handling the large datasets requirements of VHR satellite imagery. The Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm is used to detect potentially homogeneous features in the members of the stereo-pair. The resulting feature pairs are filtered using the RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC) algorithm by using a variable distance threshold. Finally, homogeneous pairs are converted to point cloud ground coordinates for DEM generation. The module is tested with a 0.5mx0.5m Geoeye-1 stereo-pair acquired over an area of 25sqkm in the island of Crete, Greece. A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the optimum module parameterization. The criteria of average point spacing irregularity is introduced to evaluate the quality and assess the effective resolution of the produced DEMs. The resulting 1.5mx1.5m DEM has superior detail over the 2m and 5m DEMs used as reference and yields a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of about 1m compared to ground truth measurements.

  12. Assessing spatial and temporal variability of acid-extractable organics in oil sands process-affected waters.

    PubMed

    Frank, Richard A; Milestone, Craig B; Rowland, Steve J; Headley, John V; Kavanagh, Richard J; Lengger, Sabine K; Scarlett, Alan G; West, Charles E; Peru, Kerry M; Hewitt, L Mark

    2016-10-01

    The acid-extractable organic compounds (AEOs), including naphthenic acids (NAs), present within oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) receive great attention due to their known toxicity. While recent progress in advanced separation and analytical methodologies for AEOs has improved our understanding of the composition of these mixtures, little is known regarding any variability (i.e., spatial, temporal) inherent within, or between, tailings ponds. In this study, 5 samples were collected from the same location of one tailings pond over a 2-week period. In addition, 5 samples were collected simultaneously from different locations within a tailings pond from a different mine site, as well as its associated recycling pond. In both cases, the AEOs were analyzed using SFS, ESI-MS, HRMS, GC×GC-ToF/MS, and GC- & LC-QToF/MS (GC analyses following conversion to methyl esters). Principal component analysis of HRMS data was able to distinguish the ponds from each other, while data from GC×GC-ToF/MS, and LC- and GC-QToF/MS were used to differentiate samples from within the temporal and spatial sample sets, with the greater variability associated with the latter. Spatial differences could be attributed to pond dynamics, including differences in inputs of tailings and surface run-off. Application of novel chemometric data analyses of unknown compounds detected by LC- and GC-QToF/MS allowed further differentiation of samples both within and between data sets, providing an innovative approach for future fingerprinting studies.

  13. PEACE: pulsar evaluation algorithm for candidate extraction - a software package for post-analysis processing of pulsar survey candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. J.; Stovall, K.; Jenet, F. A.; Martinez, J.; Dartez, L. P.; Mata, A.; Lunsford, G.; Cohen, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Rohr, M.; Flanigan, J.; Walker, A.; Banaszak, S.; Allen, B.; Barr, E. D.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bogdanov, S.; Brazier, A.; Camilo, F.; Champion, D. J.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J.; Desvignes, G.; Ferdman, R. D.; Freire, P.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kaspi, V. M.; Knispel, B.; Kramer, M.; Lazarus, P.; Lynch, R.; Lyne, A.; McLaughlin, M.; Ransom, S.; Scholz, P.; Siemens, X.; Spitler, L.; Stairs, I.; Tan, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; Zhu, W. W.

    2013-07-01

    Modern radio pulsar surveys produce a large volume of prospective candidates, the majority of which are polluted by human-created radio frequency interference or other forms of noise. Typically, large numbers of candidates need to be visually inspected in order to determine if they are real pulsars. This process can be labour intensive. In this paper, we introduce an algorithm called Pulsar Evaluation Algorithm for Candidate Extraction (PEACE) which improves the efficiency of identifying pulsar signals. The algorithm ranks the candidates based on a score function. Unlike popular machine-learning-based algorithms, no prior training data sets are required. This algorithm has been applied to data from several large-scale radio pulsar surveys. Using the human-based ranking results generated by students in the Arecibo Remote Command Center programme, the statistical performance of PEACE was evaluated. It was found that PEACE ranked 68 per cent of the student-identified pulsars within the top 0.17 per cent of sorted candidates, 95 per cent within the top 0.34 per cent and 100 per cent within the top 3.7 per cent. This clearly demonstrates that PEACE significantly increases the pulsar identification rate by a factor of about 50 to 1000. To date, PEACE has been directly responsible for the discovery of 47 new pulsars, 5 of which are millisecond pulsars that may be useful for pulsar timing based gravitational-wave detection projects.

  14. Using Medical Text Extraction, Reasoning and Mapping System (MTERMS) to Process Medication Information in Outpatient Clinical Notes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Li; Plasek, Joseph M; Mahoney, Lisa M; Karipineni, Neelima; Chang, Frank; Yan, Xuemin; Chang, Fenny; Dimaggio, Dana; Goldman, Debora S.; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical information is often coded using different terminologies, and therefore is not interoperable. Our goal is to develop a general natural language processing (NLP) system, called Medical Text Extraction, Reasoning and Mapping System (MTERMS), which encodes clinical text using different terminologies and simultaneously establishes dynamic mappings between them. MTERMS applies a modular, pipeline approach flowing from a preprocessor, semantic tagger, terminology mapper, context analyzer, and parser to structure inputted clinical notes. Evaluators manually reviewed 30 free-text and 10 structured outpatient clinical notes compared to MTERMS output. MTERMS achieved an overall F-measure of 90.6 and 94.0 for free-text and structured notes respectively for medication and temporal information. The local medication terminology had 83.0% coverage compared to RxNorm’s 98.0% coverage for free-text notes. 61.6% of mappings between the terminologies are exact match. Capture of duration was significantly improved (91.7% vs. 52.5%) from systems in the third i2b2 challenge. PMID:22195230

  15. Extraction of convective cloud parameters from Doppler Weather Radar MAX(Z) product using Image Processing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, M. S.; Puli, Anil; Anuradha, B.

    2016-07-01

    In the present work continuous extraction of convective cloud optical information and reflectivity (MAX(Z) in dBZ) using online retrieval technique for time series data production from Doppler Weather Radar (DWR) located at Indian Meteorological Department, Chennai has been developed in MATLAB. Reflectivity measurements for different locations within the DWR range of 250 Km radii of circular disc area can be retrieved using this technique. It gives both time series reflectivity of point location and also Range Time Intensity (RTI) maps of reflectivity for the corresponding location. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) developed for the cloud reflectivity is user friendly; it also provides the convective cloud optical information such as cloud base height (CBH), cloud top height (CTH) and cloud optical depth (COD). This technique is also applicable for retrieving other DWR products such as Plan Position Indicator (Z, in dBZ), Plan Position Indicator (Z, in dBZ)-Close Range, Volume Velocity Processing (V, in knots), Plan Position Indicator (V, in m/s), Surface Rainfall Intensity (SRI, mm/hr), Precipitation Accumulation (PAC) 24 hrs at 0300UTC. Keywords: Reflectivity, cloud top height, cloud base, cloud optical depth

  16. Removing tannins from medicinal plant extracts using an alkaline ethanol precipitation process: a case study of Danshen injection.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xingchu; Li, Yao; Qu, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    The alkaline ethanol precipitation process is investigated as an example of a technique for the removal of tannins extracted from Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma for the manufacture of Danshen injection. More than 90% of the tannins can be removed. However, the recoveries of danshensu, rosmarinic acid, and salvianolic acid B were less than 60%. Total tannin removal increased as the refrigeration temperature decreased or the amount of NaOH solution added increased. Phenolic compound recoveries increased as refrigeration temperature increased or the amount of NaOH solution added decreased. When operated at a low refrigeration temperature, a relative high separation selectivity can be realized. Phenolic compound losses and tannin removal were mainly caused by precipitation. The formation of phenol salts, whose solubility is small in the mixture of ethanol and water used, is probably the reason for the precipitation. A model considering dissociation equilibrium and dissolution equilibrium was established. Satisfactory correlation results were obtained for phenolic compound recoveries and total tannin removal. Two important parameters in the model, which are the water content and pH value of alkaline supernatant, are suggested to be monitored and controlled to obtain high batch-to-batch consistency.

  17. Assessing spatial and temporal variability of acid-extractable organics in oil sands process-affected waters.

    PubMed

    Frank, Richard A; Milestone, Craig B; Rowland, Steve J; Headley, John V; Kavanagh, Richard J; Lengger, Sabine K; Scarlett, Alan G; West, Charles E; Peru, Kerry M; Hewitt, L Mark

    2016-10-01

    The acid-extractable organic compounds (AEOs), including naphthenic acids (NAs), present within oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) receive great attention due to their known toxicity. While recent progress in advanced separation and analytical methodologies for AEOs has improved our understanding of the composition of these mixtures, little is known regarding any variability (i.e., spatial, temporal) inherent within, or between, tailings ponds. In this study, 5 samples were collected from the same location of one tailings pond over a 2-week period. In addition, 5 samples were collected simultaneously from different locations within a tailings pond from a different mine site, as well as its associated recycling pond. In both cases, the AEOs were analyzed using SFS, ESI-MS, HRMS, GC×GC-ToF/MS, and GC- & LC-QToF/MS (GC analyses following conversion to methyl esters). Principal component analysis of HRMS data was able to distinguish the ponds from each other, while data from GC×GC-ToF/MS, and LC- and GC-QToF/MS were used to differentiate samples from within the temporal and spatial sample sets, with the greater variability associated with the latter. Spatial differences could be attributed to pond dynamics, including differences in inputs of tailings and surface run-off. Application of novel chemometric data analyses of unknown compounds detected by LC- and GC-QToF/MS allowed further differentiation of samples both within and between data sets, providing an innovative approach for future fingerprinting studies. PMID:27391053

  18. Nanocrystalline rutile electron extraction layer enables low-temperature solution processed perovskite photovoltaics with 13.7% efficiency.

    PubMed

    Yella, Aswani; Heiniger, Leo-Philipp; Gao, Peng; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Grätzel, Michael

    2014-05-14

    We demonstrate low-temperature (70 °C) solution processing of TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells, resulting in impressive power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.7%. Along with the high efficiency, a strikingly high open circuit potential (VOC) of 1110 mV was realized using this low-temperature chemical bath deposition approach. To the best of our knowledge, this is so far the highest VOC value for solution-processed TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells. We deposited a nanocrystalline TiO2 (rutile) hole-blocking layer on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass substrate via hydrolysis of TiCl4 at 70 °C, forming the electron selective contact with the photoactive CH3NH3PbI3 film. We find that the nanocrystalline rutile TiO2 achieves a much better performance than a planar TiO2 (anatase) film prepared by high-temperature spin coating of TiCl4, which produces a much lower PCE of 3.7%. We attribute this to the formation of an intimate junction of large interfacial area between the nanocrystalline rutile TiO2 and the CH3NH3PbI3 layer, which is much more effective in extracting photogenerated electrons than the planar anatase film. Since the complete fabrication of the solar cell is carried out below 100 °C, this method can be easily extended to plastic substrates.

  19. Effect of juice extraction methods and processing temperature-time on juice quality of Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) during storage.

    PubMed

    Pareek, Sunil; Paliwal, Ravinder; Mukherjee, Subrata

    2011-04-01

    Influence of juice extraction methods and pasteurization temperature and time on quality of mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) juice was studied. The experiment consisted of 65 °C pasteurization temperature with 15, 25 and 35 min holding time; 75 °C with 10, 20 and 30 min and 85 °C with 5, 10 and 15 min holding times and two types of juice extraction methods. The experiment was laid out in factorial completely randomized Design with three replications. Juice extracted with screw type juice extractor and processed at 65 °C for 15 min maintained better qualitative characteristics like total soluble solids, acidity, ascorbic acid, sugars and non-enzymatic browning during 6 months storage. Naringin and limonin contents were minimum with the screw extractor and 65 °C processing temperature for 15 min.

  20. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  1. Carbonate extraction process for the metabolic, isozymic and proteomic profiling of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.), a hyper-acidic plant.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Sangwan, Neelam Singh; Sharma, Pankaj Kumar; Chaurasiya, Narayan Das; Mishra, Siddhartha Kumar; Tyagi, Bali Ram; Srivastava, Avdhesh Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.) is a valuable monoterpene-yielding plant. It has been well characterised phytochemically through the isolation of >270 secondary metabolites, however, there is hardly any biochemical or metabolic information concerning this plant. Initial attempts to investigate its metabolism failed to produce any enzyme activity in the tissue extracts prepared in routine extraction buffers owing to the intrinsic properties of the tissue matrix. It was recognised that cellular hyper-acidity (cell sap pH approximately 3.0) gave rise to very low protein levels in the extracts, thus prohibiting detection of activities of even primary metabolic enzymes that are usually abundantly present in plants. Tissue extraction in Tris solution without pH adjustment (as used for studies involving citrus and banana) led to little or no improvement. Therefore, a novel approach using sodium carbonate solution as an efficient extraction system for enzymes and proteins from the plant was studied. Functionality of the carbonate extraction has been demonstrated through its effectiveness, a several-fold superior performance, in yielding protein, monitoring primary metabolism and secondary metabolic enzymes, and isozymic and polypeptide profiling. The process may also be helpful in the reliable analysis of other acidic plant tissues.

  2. Evaluation of Drying Process on the Composition of Black Pepper Ethanolic Extract by High Performance Liquid Chromatography With Diode Array Detector

    PubMed Central

    Namjoyan, Foroogh; Hejazi, Hoda; Ramezani, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    Background Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is one of the well-known spices extensively used worldwide especially in India, and Southeast Asia. The presence of alkaloids in the pepper, namely, piperine and its three stereoisomers, isopiperine, chavicine and isochavicine are well noticed. Objectives The current study evaluated the effect of lyophilization and oven drying on the stability and decomposition of constituents of black pepper ethanolic extract. Materials and Methods In the current study ethanolic extract of black pepper obtained by maceration method was dried using two methods. The effect of freeze and oven drying on the chemical composition of the extract especially piperine and its three isomers were evaluated by HPLC analysis of the ethanolic extract before and after drying processes using diode array detector. The UV Vis spectra of the peaks at piperine retention time before and after each drying methods indicated maximum absorbance at 341.2 nm corresponding to standard piperine. Results The results indicated a decrease in intensity of the chromatogram peaks at approximately all retention times after freeze drying, indicating a few percent loss of piperine and its isomers upon lyophilization. Two impurity peaks were completely removed from the extract. Conclusions In oven dried samples two of the piperine stereoisomers were completely removed from the extract and the intensity of piperine peak was increased. PMID:24624176

  3. Design of the extraction process for terpenes and other volatiles from allspice by solid-phase microextraction and hydrodistillation.

    PubMed

    Bajer, Tomáš; Ligor, Magdalena; Ligor, Tomasz; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2016-02-01

    Methods for the separation and determination of terpenes (mono- and sesqui-) and phenylpropanoids such as eugenol and methyleugenol from samples of allspice berries have been developed. Chromatographic analyses of isolated groups of compounds were carried out by means of gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. A comparison of various types of solid-phase microextraction fibers was performed. The highest yields of terpenes were extracted by polydimethylsiloxane and divinylbenzene/Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fibers (almost the same for these two fibers), approximately twice as much as by Carbowax/divinylbenzene fiber. The highest amounts of monoterpenes were extracted by divinylbenzene/Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber, and the highest amounts of sesquiterpenes were extracted by polydimethylsiloxane fiber. Moreover, the effect of water addition on extraction yields as well as time and temperature of extraction were tested. Aroma profiles of extracts obtained by solid-phase microextraction and essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of allspice berries were compared. The aroma profile of the divinylbenzene/Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber extract was similar to the aroma profile of essential oil. Particular characteristics of volatile allspice matters were presented. The linear retention indices for each compound were calculated.

  4. Optimization of extraction process and investigation of antioxidant effect of polysaccharides from the root of Limonium sinense Kuntze

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xinhui; Yan, Lifang; Gao, Jing; Ge, Haiyan; Yang, Haidong; Lin, Na

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To optimize the extraction technology for polysaccharides from the root of Limonium sinense (Girard) Kuntze, Plumbaginaceae and evaluate the antioxidant capacity of polysaccharides from L. sinense (LSEP) Materials and Methods: One-singer factor and response surface methodology(RSM) were established to extract the polysaccharides from L. sinense. Then, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, hydroxyl radical(.OH), and 2,2’-Azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt free radical assays were established to measure the antioxidant capacity of the LSEP in vitro. Results: According to analysis, extraction temperature significantly affected extraction yield. The optimum extraction conditions for LSEP were as follows: extraction temperature, 95°C; ultrasonic time 50 minutes; and dosage liquor ratio, 1: 12. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of crude LSEP was 12.80±0.19% which was well matched with the predicted models. The antioxidant capacity data suggested that LSEP has strong antioxidant activity. Conclusion: One-singer factor and RSM were used to extract of LSEP are simple and feasible and LSEP could be developed as a nutraceutical agent for itsstrong antioxidant activity. PMID:21969788

  5. Design of the extraction process for terpenes and other volatiles from allspice by solid-phase microextraction and hydrodistillation.

    PubMed

    Bajer, Tomáš; Ligor, Magdalena; Ligor, Tomasz; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2016-02-01

    Methods for the separation and determination of terpenes (mono- and sesqui-) and phenylpropanoids such as eugenol and methyleugenol from samples of allspice berries have been developed. Chromatographic analyses of isolated groups of compounds were carried out by means of gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. A comparison of various types of solid-phase microextraction fibers was performed. The highest yields of terpenes were extracted by polydimethylsiloxane and divinylbenzene/Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fibers (almost the same for these two fibers), approximately twice as much as by Carbowax/divinylbenzene fiber. The highest amounts of monoterpenes were extracted by divinylbenzene/Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber, and the highest amounts of sesquiterpenes were extracted by polydimethylsiloxane fiber. Moreover, the effect of water addition on extraction yields as well as time and temperature of extraction were tested. Aroma profiles of extracts obtained by solid-phase microextraction and essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of allspice berries were compared. The aroma profile of the divinylbenzene/Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber extract was similar to the aroma profile of essential oil. Particular characteristics of volatile allspice matters were presented. The linear retention indices for each compound were calculated. PMID:26632088

  6. Modeling Tidal Stream Energy Extraction and its Effects on Transport Processes in a Tidal Channel and Bay System Using a Three-dimensional Coastal Ocean Model

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-02-28

    This paper presents a numerical modeling study for simulating in-stream tidal energy extraction and assessing its effects on the hydrodynamics and transport processes in a tidal channel and bay system connecting to coastal ocean. A marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) module was implemented in a three-dimensional (3-D) coastal ocean model using the momentum sink approach. The MHK model was validated with the analytical solutions for tidal channels under one-dimensional (1-D) conditions. Model simulations were further carried out to compare the momentum sink approach with the quadratic bottom friction approach. The effects of 3-D simulations on the vertical velocity profile, maximum extractable energy, and volume flux reduction across the channel were investigated through a series of numerical experiments. 3-D model results indicate that the volume flux reduction at the maximum extractable power predicted by the 1-D analytical model or two-dimensional (2-D) depth-averaged numerical model may be overestimated. Maximum extractable energy strongly depends on the turbine hub height in the water column, and which reaches a maximum when turbine hub height is located at mid-water depth. Far-field effects of tidal turbines on the flushing time of the tidal bay were also investigated. Model results demonstrate that tidal energy extraction has a greater effect on the flushing time than volume flux reduction, which could negatively affect the biogeochemical processes in estuarine and coastal waters that support primary productivity and higher forms of marine life.

  7. Accelerated processing of solitary and clustered abasic site DNA damage lesions by APE1 in the presence of aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Bhavini; DAS, Prolay; Kumari, Rekha

    2016-06-01

    The stimulatory effect of the aqueous extract of G. lucidum, a basidiomycetes class fungus in the APE1-enzyme-mediated processing of solitary and bistranded clustered abasic sites DNA damages is presented. Abasic sites are considered the most common type of DNA damage lesions. Our study shows enhanced activity of APE1 in the processing of abasic sites in the presence of the polysaccharides fraction of G. lucidum. Remarkable increase in the amount of single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) from solitary and bistranded clustered abasic sites respectively with APE1 in the presence of the extract was found. This trend is maintained when abasic sites in DNA oligomers are exposed to fibroblast cell extracts in the presence of the extract. While DNA conformational alteration is negligible, APE1 enzyme shows characteristic changes in the alpha helix and beta strand ratio after incubation with G. lucidum extract. The enhanced reactivity of APE1 at the molecular level in the presence of G. lucidium is attributed to this effect. This study potentially amplifies the scope of the use of G. lucidum, which was earlier shown to have only reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging properties with regards to DNA damage inhibition. PMID:27240987

  8. Accelerated processing of solitary and clustered abasic site DNA damage lesions by APE1 in the presence of aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Bhavini; DAS, Prolay; Kumari, Rekha

    2016-06-01

    The stimulatory effect of the aqueous extract of G. lucidum, a basidiomycetes class fungus in the APE1-enzyme-mediated processing of solitary and bistranded clustered abasic sites DNA damages is presented. Abasic sites are considered the most common type of DNA damage lesions. Our study shows enhanced activity of APE1 in the processing of abasic sites in the presence of the polysaccharides fraction of G. lucidum. Remarkable increase in the amount of single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) from solitary and bistranded clustered abasic sites respectively with APE1 in the presence of the extract was found. This trend is maintained when abasic sites in DNA oligomers are exposed to fibroblast cell extracts in the presence of the extract. While DNA conformational alteration is negligible, APE1 enzyme shows characteristic changes in the alpha helix and beta strand ratio after incubation with G. lucidum extract. The enhanced reactivity of APE1 at the molecular level in the presence of G. lucidium is attributed to this effect. This study potentially amplifies the scope of the use of G. lucidum, which was earlier shown to have only reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging properties with regards to DNA damage inhibition.

  9. Chemical composition and molecular structure of polysaccharide-protein biopolymer from Durio zibethinus seed: extraction and purification process

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The biological functions of natural biopolymers from plant sources depend on their chemical composition and molecular structure. In addition, the extraction and further processing conditions significantly influence the chemical and molecular structure of the plant biopolymer. The main objective of the present study was to characterize the chemical and molecular structure of a natural biopolymer from Durio zibethinus seed. A size-exclusion chromatography coupled to multi angle laser light-scattering (SEC-MALS) was applied to analyze the molecular weight (Mw), number average molecular weight (Mn), and polydispersity index (Mw/Mn). Results The most abundant monosaccharide in the carbohydrate composition of durian seed gum were galactose (48.6-59.9%), glucose (37.1-45.1%), arabinose (0.58-3.41%), and xylose (0.3-3.21%). The predominant fatty acid of the lipid fraction from the durian seed gum were palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and linolenic acid (C18:2). The most abundant amino acids of durian seed gum were: leucine (30.9-37.3%), lysine (6.04-8.36%), aspartic acid (6.10-7.19%), glycine (6.07-7.42%), alanine (5.24-6.14%), glutamic acid (5.57-7.09%), valine (4.5-5.50%), proline (3.87-4.81%), serine (4.39-5.18%), threonine (3.44-6.50%), isoleucine (3.30-4.07%), and phenylalanine (3.11-9.04%). Conclusion The presence of essential amino acids in the chemical structure of durian seed gum reinforces its nutritional value. PMID:23062269

  10. THE CHEMICAL AND RADIATION RESISTANCE OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIIDE AS ENCOUNTERED IN THE MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.; Herman, D.; Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-30

    Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) is a semicrystalline polymer with excellent engineering plastic properties and suitable processing temperatures. PPS can also be made containing branches (using a trifunctional monomer) and with crosslinked microstructure (when curing the monomer at high temperature in the presence of oxygen). PPS is made from the condensation reaction between para-dichlorobenzene and sodium sulfide with the assistance of a catalyst (to lower the activation barrier). The synthesis conditions for making PPS has evolved since its invention in the 1960's to the optimal conditions developed by the Philips Corporation in the 1970's. The resulting polymer consists of chemically stable molecular moieties such as benzene rings and ether like sulfur linkages between the aromatic rings. Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) is extremely resistant to gamma irradiation, caustic solution, and dilute nitric acid. PPS is the material of construction for the coalescers used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). After applying the equivalent of 3.3 E8 rad (330 Mrad), or the equivalent of 11 years of gamma irradiation (assuming a stripping solution concentration of 7.5 Ci/gal), and several months of exposures to 3M caustic solution and caustic salt simulant, no dimensional changes nor chemical changes were detected in PPS whether the PPS was in fiber form or in a composite with E-glass fibers. However, PPS acts as a media for heterogeneous nucleation. In particular, PPS appears to favor aluminosilicate formation in saturated solutions of aluminum and silicon in caustic environments. Parallel testing, in progress, is examining the stability of PPS when exposed to the new solvent formulation under development for MCU. Preliminary data, after two months of exposure, demonstrates PPS is stable to the new solvent.

  11. Transuranic decontamination of nitric acid solutions by the TRUEX solvent extraction process: preliminary development studies. [Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Leonard, R.A.; Steindler, M.J.; Horwitz, E.P.; Basile, L.J.; Diamond, H.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.

    1984-07-01

    This report summarizes the work that has been performed to date at Argonne National Laboratory on the development of the TRUEX process, a solvent extraction process employing a bifunctional organophosphorous reagent in a PUREX process solvent (tributyl phosphate-normal paraffinic hydrocarbons). The purpose of this extraction process is to separate and concentrate transuranic (TRU) elements from nuclear waste. Assessments were made of the use of two TRUEX solvents: one incorporating the well-studied dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate (DHDECMP) and a second incorporating an extractant with superior properties for a 1M HNO/sub 3/ acid feed, octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (O/sub phi/D(IB)CMPO). In this report, conceptual flowsheets for the removal of soluble TRUs from high-level nuclear wastes using these two TRUEX proces solvents are presented, and flowsheet features are discussed in detail. The conceptual flowsheet for TRU-element removal from a PUREX waste by the O/sub phi/D(IB)CMPO-TRUEX process solvent was tested in a bench-scale countercurrent experiment, and results of that experiment are presented and discussed. The conclusion of this study is that the TRUEX process is able to separate TRUs from high-level wastes so that the major portion of the solid waste (approx. 99%) can be classified as non-TRU. Areas where more experimentation is needed are listed at the end of the report. 45 references, 17 figures, 56 tables.

  12. Preparation and characterisation of Punica granatum pericarp aqueous extract loaded chitosan-collagen-starch membrane: role in wound healing process.

    PubMed

    Amal, B; Veena, B; Jayachandran, V P; Shilpa, Joy

    2015-05-01

    Engineered scaffolds made from natural biomaterials are crucial elements in tissue engineering strategies. In this study, biological scaffold like chitosan-collagen-starch membrane (CCSM) loaded with the antibacterial agent, Punica granatum pericarp aqueous extract was explored for enhanced regeneration of epithelial tissue during wound healing. Collagen was extracted from Rachycentron canadum fish skin. Membranous scaffold was prepared by mixing collagen, starch and chitosan in a fixed proportion, loaded with aqueous extract of P. granatum and its anti-pseudomonal activity was studied. Morphological characterization by SEM and mechanical property like tensile strength of the membrane were studied. Excision wound of 2 cm(2) size was induced in Guinea pig and the effect of P. granatum extract loaded CCSM in wound healing was studied. The SEM image showed deep pores in the membrane and also possessed good tensile strength. Wound surface area was reduced prominently in the experimental group with P. granatum extract loaded CCSM when compared to the group with unloaded membrane and the one with no membrane. Punica granatum extract loaded CCSM has antipseudomonal property and supported enhanced epithelial cell proliferation without leaving a scar after wound healing. This has significant therapeutic application in membranous scaffold mediated skin repair and regeneration.

  13. [Study on process and principle of lactose grinding modification to decrease hygroscopic of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ding-Kun; Zhang, Fang; Lin, Jun-Zhi; Han, Li; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Yang, Ying-Guang; Yang, Ming

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract,with high hygroscopic,was selected as research model, while lactose was selected as modifiers to study the effect of the grinding modification method on the hygroscopic. Subsequently, particle size distribution, scannin electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were adopted for a phase analysis. The results showed that the modified extract, prepared by Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract grinding 5 min with the same amount of lactose UP2, which hygroscopic initial velocity, acceleration, and critical relative humidity moisture were less than that of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract and the mixture dramatically. In addition, compared with the mixture, the size distribution of modified extract was much less, the microstructure was also difference, while the infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were similar with that of lactose. It is the main principle that lactose particle adhered to the surface of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract after grinding mofication to decress the moisture obviously. PMID:25039174

  14. The forward and backward transport processes in the AOT/hexane reversed micellar extraction of soybean protein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Chen, Fengliang; Wang, Xianchang; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Ao, Qiang

    2014-10-01

    Soybean protein was taken as a model protein to investigate two aspects of the protein extraction by sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) reverse micelles: (1) the forward protein extraction from the solid state, and the effect of pH, AOT concentration, alcohol and water content (W0) on the transfer efficiency; (2) the back-transfer, the capability of the protein to be recovered from the micellar solution. The experimental results led to the conclusion that the highest forward extraction efficiency of soybean protein was reached at AOT concentration 180 mmol l(-1), aqueous pH 7.0, KCl concentration 0.05 mol l(-1), 0.5 % (v/v) alcohol, W0 18. Under these conditions, the forward extraction efficiency of soybean protein achieved 70.1 %. It was noted that the percentage of protein back extraction depended on the salt concentration and pH value. Around 92 % of protein recovery was obtained after back extraction. PMID:25328237

  15. PEG-salt aqueous two-phase systems: an attractive and versatile liquid-liquid extraction technology for the downstream processing of proteins and enzymes.

    PubMed

    Glyk, Anna; Scheper, Thomas; Beutel, Sascha

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, there is an increasing demand to establish new feasible, efficient downstream processing (DSP) techniques in biotechnology and related fields. Although several conventional DSP technologies have been widely employed, they are usually expensive and time-consuming and often provide only low recovery yields. Hence, the DSP is one major bottleneck for the commercialization of biological products. In this context, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-salt aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) represent a promising, efficient liquid-liquid extraction technology for the DSP of various biomolecules, such as proteins and enzymes. Furthermore, ATPS can overcome the limitations of traditional DSP techniques and have gained importance for applications in several fields of biotechnology due to versatile advantages over conventional DSP methods, such as biocompatibility, technical simplicity, and easy scale-up potential. In the present review, various practical applications of PEG-salt ATPS are presented to highlight their feasibility to operate as an attractive and versatile liquid-liquid extraction technology for the DSP of proteins and enzymes, thus facilitating the approach of new researchers to this technique. Thereby, single- and multi-stage extraction, several process integration methods, as well as large-scale extraction and purification of proteins regarding technical aspects, scale-up, recycling of process chemicals, and economic aspects are discussed.

  16. Process modeling and analysis of pulp mill-based integrated biorefinery with hemicellulose pre-extraction for ethanol production: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hua-Jiang; Ramaswamy, Shri; Al-Dajani, Waleed Wafa; Tschirner, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Pulp and paper mills represent a major platform to use more effectively an abundant, renewable bio-resource - wood. Modification of the modern day pulp mills into integrated forest biorefineries (IFBR) presents an excellent opportunity to produce, in addition to valuable cellulose fiber, co-products including fuel grade ethanol and additional energy, thus resulting in increased revenue streams and profitability and potentially lower the greenhouse gas emissions. A process model to simulate the integrate forest biorefinery manufacturing pulp and other co-products has been developed. This model has been used to compare three integrated biorefinery scenarios: the conventional Kraft pulping process, the pulp mill-based IFBR with hemicelluloses extraction prior to pulping for ethanol production, and the pulp mill-based IFBR with both pre-extracted hemicelluloses and the short fiber for ethanol production. Based on a fixed feedstock throughput of 2000 dry Mg wood/day, results show that the pulp mill-based IFBR with both pre-extracted hemicelluloses and the short fiber cellulose converted to ethanol can produce 0.038 MM m(3) (10.04 MM gal) ethanol per year at a minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) of $491/m(3) ($1.86/gal). The economic feasibility of IFBR can be further improved by using further improvements in the pre-extraction process, other biomass such as corn stover for producing ethanol, and taking advantage of the economies of scale.

  17. Rapid determination of major bioactive isoflavonoid compounds during the extraction process of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) by near-infrared transmission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pei; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Hailong; Nie, Lei; Zang, Hengchang

    2015-02-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been developed into an indispensable tool for both academic research and industrial quality control in a wide field of applications. The feasibility of NIR spectroscopy to monitor the concentration of puerarin, daidzin, daidzein and total isoflavonoid (TIF) during the extraction process of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) was verified in this work. NIR spectra were collected in transmission mode and pretreated with smoothing and derivative. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was used to establish calibration models. Three different variable selection methods, including correlation coefficient method, interval partial least squares (iPLS), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were performed and compared with models based on all of the variables. The results showed that the approach was very efficient and environmentally friendly for rapid determination of the four quality indices (QIs) in the kudzu extraction process. This method established may have the potential to be used as a process analytical technological (PAT) tool in the future.

  18. A numerical study of EGS heat extraction process based on a thermal non-equilibrium model for heat transfer in subsurface porous heat reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiliang; Jiang, Fangming

    2016-02-01

    With a previously developed numerical model, we perform a detailed study of the heat extraction process in enhanced or engineered geothermal system (EGS). This model takes the EGS subsurface heat reservoir as an equivalent porous medium while it considers local thermal non-equilibrium between the rock matrix and the fluid flowing in the fractured rock mass. The application of local thermal non-equilibrium model highlights the temperature-difference heat exchange process occurring in EGS reservoirs, enabling a better understanding of the involved heat extraction process. The simulation results unravel the mechanism of preferential flow or short-circuit flow forming in homogeneously fractured reservoirs of different permeability values. EGS performance, e.g. production temperature and lifetime, is found to be tightly related to the flow pattern in the reservoir. Thermal compensation from rocks surrounding the reservoir contributes little heat to the heat transmission fluid if the operation time of an EGS is shorter than 15 years. We find as well the local thermal equilibrium model generally overestimates EGS performance and for an EGS with better heat exchange conditions in the heat reservoir, the heat extraction process acts more like the local thermal equilibrium process.

  19. Brewery waste as a potential source of phenolic compounds: optimisation of the extraction process and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Pereira, Letricia; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Vilches, Patxi; Angulo, Inmaculada; LLuis, Jaume; Fité, Benet; Paseiro-Losada, Perfecto; Cruz, José Manuel

    2014-02-15

    This paper reports the development of an extraction process that allows selective recovery of polyphenols from a brewery waste stream. The antioxidant activity of this extract (EC50 = 0.23-0.3g/L) was very high, similar to that of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and higher than that of other synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Crude extracts exhibited a high level of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, when applied at concentrations of 1% and 3% (w/v). The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities can probably be attributed to the major phenolic compounds, such as protocatechuic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids and catechin. With this procedure, the waste polyphenols could be used as cheap source of natural compounds, with potential applications in the food and health sectors. Substitution of synthetic additives with safe and effective natural additives may be of further benefit to the food industry. PMID:24128467

  20. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part II. Recovery of Ammonia from Sour Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, SUCCiOlC acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration

  1. Process development for the separation and recovery of Mo and Co from chloride leach liquors of petroleum refining catalyst by solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Banda, Raju; Sohn, Seong Ho; Lee, Man Seung

    2012-04-30

    The separation and recovery of Mo and Co from the synthetic chloride leach liquors of petroleum refining catalyst has been investigated by employing TOPO and Alamine 308 as extractants. The synthetic leach liquor contained Mo 394 mg/L, Al 1782 mg/L, Co 119 mg/L in 3 M HCl. The separation of Mo from Co and Al was achieved with 0.05 M TOPO in Escaid 110 and complete stripping of Mo was attained with combination of 0.1M NH(4)OH and 0.05 M (NH(4))(2)CO(3). After separation of molybdenum, cobalt can be selectively extracted by Alamine 308 from Mo free raffinate after adjusting the concentration of chloride ion to 5 M by adding AlCl(3). The back-extraction of cobalt was obtained easily from loaded Alamine 308 with acidified water (pH=1.0). McCabe-Thiele diagrams were constructed from the extraction and stripping experiments of each element (Mo and Co). From the batch simulation of the counter-current extraction and stripping experiments, it was confirmed that Mo and Co recovery of 99.4% and 99.1% respectively was obtained from the synthetic leach liquor of the chloride solutions. Finally a hydrometallurgical process flow sheet was developed.

  2. Optimization of Processing Parameters for Extraction of Amylase Enzyme from Dragon (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Peel Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Manap, Mohd Yazid; Zohdi, Norkhanani

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the effect of extraction conditions on the enzymatic properties of thermoacidic amylase enzyme derived from dragon peel. The studied extraction variables were the buffer-to-sample (B/S) ratio (1 : 2 to 1 : 6, w/w), temperature (−18°C to 25°), mixing time (60 to 180 seconds), and the pH of the buffer (2.0 to 8.0). The results indicate that the enzyme extraction conditions exhibited the least significant (P < 0.05) effect on temperature stability. Conversely, the extraction conditions had the most significant (P < 0.05) effect on the specific activity and pH stability. The results also reveal that the main effect of the B/S ratio, followed by its interaction with the pH of the buffer, was significant (P < 0.05) among most of the response variables studied. The optimum extraction condition caused the amylase to achieve high enzyme activity (648.4 U), specific activity (14.2 U/mg), temperature stability (88.4%), pH stability (85.2%), surfactant agent stability (87.2%), and storage stability (90.3%). PMID:25050403

  3. Optimization of processing parameters for extraction of amylase enzyme from dragon (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abdul; Zohdi, Norkhanani

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the effect of extraction conditions on the enzymatic properties of thermoacidic amylase enzyme derived from dragon peel. The studied extraction variables were the buffer-to-sample (B/S) ratio (1:2 to 1:6, w/w), temperature (-18°C to 25°), mixing time (60 to 180 seconds), and the pH of the buffer (2.0 to 8.0). The results indicate that the enzyme extraction conditions exhibited the least significant (P < 0.05) effect on temperature stability. Conversely, the extraction conditions had the most significant (P < 0.05) effect on the specific activity and pH stability. The results also reveal that the main effect of the B/S ratio, followed by its interaction with the pH of the buffer, was significant (P < 0.05) among most of the response variables studied. The optimum extraction condition caused the amylase to achieve high enzyme activity (648.4 U), specific activity (14.2 U/mg), temperature stability (88.4%), pH stability (85.2%), surfactant agent stability (87.2%), and storage stability (90.3%).

  4. Dimethyl adipimidate/Thin film Sample processing (DTS); A simple, low-cost, and versatile nucleic acid extraction assay for downstream analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yong; Lim, Swee Yin; Lee, Tae Yoon; Park, Mi Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    Sample processing, especially that involving nucleic acid extraction, is a prerequisite step for the isolation of high quantities of relatively pure DNA for downstream analyses in many life science and biomedical engineering studies. However, existing methods still have major problems, including labor-intensive time-consuming methods and high costs, as well as requirements for a centrifuge and the complex fabrication of filters and membranes. Here, we first report a versatile Dimethyl adipimidate/Thin film based Sample processing (DTS) procedure without the limitations of existing methods. This procedure is useful for the extraction of DNA from a variety of sources, including 6 eukaryotic cells, 6 bacteria cells, and 2 body fluids in a single step. Specifically, the DTS procedure does not require a centrifuge and has improved time efficiency (30 min), affordability, and sensitivity in downstream analysis. We validated the DTS procedure for the extraction of DNA from human body fluids, as well as confirmed that the quality and quantity of the extracted DNA were sufficient to allow robust detection of genetic and epigenetic biomarkers in downstream analysis. PMID:26370251

  5. Production of citric acid using its extraction wastewater treated by anaerobic digestion and ion exchange in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of extraction wastewater pollution in citric acid industry, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process is proposed in this study. Extraction wastewater was treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion and then used to make mash for the next batch of citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was done for seven batches. Citric acid production (82.4 g/L on average) decreased by 34.1 % in the recycling batches (2nd-7th) compared with the first batch. And the residual reducing sugar exceeded 40 g/L on average in the recycling batches. Pigment substances, acetic acid, ammonium, and metal ions in anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) were considered to be the inhibitors, and their effects on the fermentation were studied. Results indicated that ammonium, Na(+) and K(+) in the ADE significantly inhibited citric acid fermentation. Therefore, the ADE was treated by acidic cation exchange resin prior to reuse to make mash for citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was performed for ten batches, and citric acid productions in the recycling batches were 126.6 g/L on average, increasing by 1.7 % compared with the first batch. This process could eliminate extraction wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption.

  6. Food allergen analysis for processed food using a novel extraction method to eliminate harmful reagents for both ELISA and lateral-flow tests.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kaori; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Oyama, Yuriko; Tsuruma, Rieko; Saito, Eriko; Saito, Yoshikazu; Ozu, Takeshi; Honjoh, Tsutomu; Adachi, Reiko; Sakai, Shinobu; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Shoji, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is commonly used to determine food allergens in food products. However, a significant number of ELISAs give an erroneous result, especially when applied to highly processed food. Accordingly, an improved ELISA, which utilizes an extraction solution comprising the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS) and reductant 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), has been specially developed to analyze food allergens in highly processed food by enhancing analyte protein extraction. Recently, however, the use of 2-ME has become undesirable. In the present study, a new extraction solution containing a human- and eco-friendly reductant, which is convenient to use at the food manufacturing site, has been established. Among three chemicals with different reducing properties, sodium sulfite, tris(3-hydroxypropyl)phosphine, and mercaptoethylamine sodium sulfite was selected as a 2-ME substitute. The protein extraction ability of SDS/0.1 M sodium sulfite solution was comparable to that of SDS/2-ME solution. Next, the ELISA performance for egg, milk, wheat, peanut, and buckwheat was evaluated by using model-processed foods and commercially available food products. The data showed that the SDS/0.1 M sulfite ELISA significantly correlated with the SDS/2-ME ELISA for all food allergens examined (p < 0.01), thereby establishing the validity of the SDS/0.1 M sulfite ELISA performance. Furthermore, the new SDS/0.1 M sulfite solution was investigated for its applicability to the lateral-flow (LF) test. The result demonstrated the successful analysis of food allergens in processed food, showing consistency with the SDS/0.1 M sulfite ELISA results. Accordingly, a harmonized analysis system for processed food comprising a screening LF test and a quantitative ELISA with identical extraction solution has been established. The ELISA based on the SDS/0.1 M sulfite extraction solution has now been authorized as the revised official method for food allergen

  7. Food allergen analysis for processed food using a novel extraction method to eliminate harmful reagents for both ELISA and lateral-flow tests.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kaori; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Oyama, Yuriko; Tsuruma, Rieko; Saito, Eriko; Saito, Yoshikazu; Ozu, Takeshi; Honjoh, Tsutomu; Adachi, Reiko; Sakai, Shinobu; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Shoji, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is commonly used to determine food allergens in food products. However, a significant number of ELISAs give an erroneous result, especially when applied to highly processed food. Accordingly, an improved ELISA, which utilizes an extraction solution comprising the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS) and reductant 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), has been specially developed to analyze food allergens in highly processed food by enhancing analyte protein extraction. Recently, however, the use of 2-ME has become undesirable. In the present study, a new extraction solution containing a human- and eco-friendly reductant, which is convenient to use at the food manufacturing site, has been established. Among three chemicals with different reducing properties, sodium sulfite, tris(3-hydroxypropyl)phosphine, and mercaptoethylamine sodium sulfite was selected as a 2-ME substitute. The protein extraction ability of SDS/0.1 M sodium sulfite solution was comparable to that of SDS/2-ME solution. Next, the ELISA performance for egg, milk, wheat, peanut, and buckwheat was evaluated by using model-processed foods and commercially available food products. The data showed that the SDS/0.1 M sulfite ELISA significantly correlated with the SDS/2-ME ELISA for all food allergens examined (p < 0.01), thereby establishing the validity of the SDS/0.1 M sulfite ELISA performance. Furthermore, the new SDS/0.1 M sulfite solution was investigated for its applicability to the lateral-flow (LF) test. The result demonstrated the successful analysis of food allergens in processed food, showing consistency with the SDS/0.1 M sulfite ELISA results. Accordingly, a harmonized analysis system for processed food comprising a screening LF test and a quantitative ELISA with identical extraction solution has been established. The ELISA based on the SDS/0.1 M sulfite extraction solution has now been authorized as the revised official method for food allergen

  8. Improvement in lipids extraction processes for biodiesel production from wet microalgal pellets grown on diammonium phosphate and sodium bicarbonate combinations.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Hasnain; Raja, Iftikhar Ahmed; Mahmood, Qaisar; Pervez, Arshid

    2016-08-01

    Biomass productivity and growth kinetics for microalgae grown on sodium bicarbonate and diammonium phosphate were investigated. Different carbon and nitrogen ratios have shown different growth rates and biomass productivity and C:N ratio 50:10 as mgL(-1) has shown the best production than all. For effective lipids extraction from biomass thermolysis and sonolysis were carried out from wet biomass. Sonolysis at 2.3W intensity for 5min has released 8.58mg at neutral pH. More quantity of lipids was extracted when extraction was made at pH 4 and 10 which resulted 9mg and 9.28mg lipids respectively. Thermal treatment at 100°C for 10min has released 12.82mg lipid at neutral pH. In the same thermolysis at pH 4 and 10 more quantity of lipids was extracted which were 15.16mg and 14.81mg respectively. Finally transesterified lipids were analyzed through GC-MS for FAME composition analysis. PMID:27132228

  9. Evaluation of Keyphrase Extraction Algorithm and Tiling Process for a Document/Resource Recommender within E-Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangina, Eleni; Kilbride, John

    2008-01-01

    The research presented in this paper is an examination of the applicability of IUI techniques in an online e-learning environment. In particular we make use of user modeling techniques, information retrieval and extraction mechanisms and collaborative filtering methods. The domains of e-learning, web-based training and instruction and intelligent…

  10. Experimental and theoretical analysis of a nondispersive solvent extraction pilot plant for the removal of Cr(VI) from a galvanic process wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, A.I.; Galan, B.; Gonzalez, M.; Ortiz, I.

    1999-04-01

    The scale-up of a chemical process from the results obtained in a laboratory scale involves a high degree of uncertainty. Experimental tests in pilot plants are therefore necessary in order to decrease that uncertainty. When the processes are not simple, these experimental tests should be supplemented by simulation studies which are a highly useful tool in the analysis of a chemical plant. A nondispersive solvent extraction (NDSX) plant includes two processes, extraction and stripping, coupled by an organic phase. Because of this fact, the variables of the system are interrelated, making the prediction of the behavior of the whole system difficult. Because of this complexity, in this work, the behavior of a NDSX pilot plant has been experimentally and theoretically analyzed. The removal and recovery of chromium(VI) from wastewaters of a galvanic process have been used as a case study for the simulation and experimental analysis of the NDSX process. The mathematical model consists of nonlinear partial differential equations which are solved using the process simulator gPROMS. Once the suitability of the proposed model and parameters for the description of removal and concentration of Cr(VI) in the NDSX pilot plant was checked, the simulation was used to perform a sensitivity analysis to operating variables such as flow rates, volumes, total carrier concentration, and initial complex species concentration. The theoretically predicted behavior was checked with some experimental results, and a satisfactory performance of the pilot plant was achieved.

  11. Fractionation of oil sands-process affected water using pH-dependent extractions: a study of dissociation constants for naphthenic acids species.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rongfu; Sun, Nian; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; McPhedran, Kerry N; Changalov, Mohamed; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    The fractionation of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) via pH-dependent extractions was performed to quantitatively investigate naphthenic acids (NAs, CnH2n+ZO2) and oxidized NAs (Ox-NAs) species (CnH2n+ZO3 and CnH2n+ZO4) using ultra-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOFMS). A mathematical model was also developed to estimate the dissociation constant pKa for NAs species, considering the liquid-liquid extraction process and the aqueous layer acid-base equilibrium. This model provides estimated dissociation constants for compounds in water samples based on fractionation extraction and relative quantification. Overall, the sum of O2-, O3-, and O4-NAs species accounted for 33.6% of total extracted organic matter. Accumulative extracted masses at different pHs revealed that every oxygen atom added to NAs increases the pKa (i.e., O2-NAs

  12. Exploring the role of curcumin containing ethanolic extract obtained from Curcuma longa (rhizomes) against retardation of wound healing process by aspirin

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Rajesh Singh; Toppo, Fedelic Ashish; Mandloi, Avinash Singh; Shaikh, Shabnam

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the curcumin containing ethanolic extract (EtOH) obtained from Curcuma longa (Cl) against retardation of wound healing by aspirin. Materials and Methods: Wound healing process was retarded by administering the dose of 150 mg/kg body weight of aspirin orally for 9 days to observe the effect of EtOH obtained from Cl using excision and incision wound model in rats. The various parameters such as % wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline, tensile strength were observed at variant time intervals and histopathological study was also performed. Results: Curcumin containing 5% and 10% ethanolic extract ointment have shown significant (P < 0.01) wound healing activity against an aspirin (administered 150 mg/kg body weight orally for 9 days) retarded wound healing process. Topical application of ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) difference as compared to the control group. Histopathological studies also showed healing of the epidermis, increased collagen, fibroblasts and blood vessels. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of Cl ointment (EtOHCl) containing 10% curcumin displayed remarkable healing process against wound retardation by aspirin. PMID:25878374

  13. Extracting Electronic Health Record Data in a Practice-Based Research Network: Processes to Support Translational Research across Diverse Practice Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Allison M.; Stephens, Kari A.; Keppel, Gina A.; Estiri, Hossein; Baldwin, Laura-Mae

    2016-01-01

    Context: The widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) offers significant opportunities to conduct research with clinical data from patients outside traditional academic research settings. Because EHRs are designed primarily for clinical care and billing, significant challenges are inherent in the use of EHR data for clinical and translational research. Efficient processes are needed for translational researchers to overcome these challenges. The Data QUEST Coordinating Center (DQCC), which oversees Data Query Extraction Standardization Translation (Data QUEST) – a primary-care, EHR data-sharing infrastructure – created processes that guide EHR data extraction for clinical and translational research across these diverse practices. We describe these processes and their application in a case example. Case Description: The DQCC process for developing EHR data extractions not only supports researchers’ access to EHR data, but supports this access for the purpose of answering scientific questions. This process requires complex coordination across multiple domains, including the following: (1) understanding the context of EHR data; (2) creating and maintaining a governance structure to support exchange of EHR data; and (3) defining data parameters that are used in order to extract data from the EHR. We use the Northwest-Alaska Pharmacogenomics Research Network (NWA-PGRN) as a case example that focuses on pharmacogenomic discovery and clinical applications to describe the DQCC process. The NWA-PGRN collaborates with Data QUEST to explore ways to leverage primary-care EHR data to support pharmacogenomics research. Findings: Preliminary analysis on the case example shows that initial decisions about how researchers define the study population can influence study outcomes. Major Themes and Conclusions: The experience of the DQCC demonstrates that coordinating centers provide expertise in helping researchers understand the context of EHR data, create and

  14. SALTSTONE VAULT CLASSIFICATION SAMPLES MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT/ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS WASTE STREAM APRIL 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Eibling, R.

    2011-09-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to prepare saltstone from samples of Tank 50H obtained by SRNL on April 5, 2011 (Tank 50H sampling occurred on April 4, 2011) during 2QCY11 to determine the non-hazardous nature of the grout and for additional vault classification analyses. The samples were cured and shipped to Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Group-Radioisotope and Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (B&W TSG-RACL) to perform the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and subsequent extract analysis on saltstone samples for the analytes required for the quarterly analysis saltstone sample. In addition to the eight toxic metals - arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium and silver - analytes included the underlying hazardous constituents (UHC) antimony, beryllium, nickel, and thallium which could not be eliminated from analysis by process knowledge. Additional inorganic species determined by B&W TSG-RACL include aluminum, boron, chloride, cobalt, copper, fluoride, iron, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate/nitrite as Nitrogen, strontium, sulfate, uranium, and zinc and the following radionuclides: gross alpha, gross beta/gamma, 3H, 60Co, 90Sr, 99Tc, 106Ru, 106Rh, 125Sb, 137Cs, 137mBa, 154Eu, 238Pu, 239/240Pu, 241Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 243/244Cm. B&W TSG-RACL provided subsamples to GEL Laboratories, LLC for analysis for the VOCs benzene, toluene, and 1-butanol. GEL also determines phenol (total) and the following radionuclides: 147Pm, 226Ra and 228Ra. Preparation of the 2QCY11 saltstone samples for the quarterly analysis and for vault classification purposes and the subsequent TCLP analyses of these samples showed that: (1) The saltstone waste form disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility in 2QCY11 was not characteristically hazardous for toxicity. (2) The concentrations of the eight RCRA metals and UHCs identified as possible in the saltstone waste form were present at levels below the UTS. (3) Most of the

  15. Simultaneous extraction of oil and antioxidant compounds from oil palm fruit (Elaeis guineensis) by an aqueous enzymatic process.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Camilo B; Macedo, Gabriela A; Macedo, Juliana A; da Silva, Luiza Helena M; da C Rodrigues, Antonio Manoel

    2013-02-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) fruit was treated with enzymes to facilitate simultaneous recovery of oil and bioactive compounds. Tannase from Paecilomyces variotii, cellulase and pectinase were evaluated for their influence on oil recovery and antioxidant capacity (DPPH), oxidative stability (Rancimat), fatty acid profile, total phenols, total carotenoids and tocols of the oil. Maximum oil recovery (90-93% total oil) was obtained with central composite design using 4% of enzyme preparation (w/w) as 80 U of tannase, 240 U of cellulase and 178 U of pectinase, pH 4, ratio of solution to pulp of 2:1 and 30 min of incubation at 50 °C. Tannase improved the phenolic compounds extraction by 51% and pectinase plus cellulase improved carotene extraction by 153%. Samples treated with tannase showed a 27% and 53% higher antioxidant capacity for the lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions.

  16. Extraction processes and solvents for recovery of cesium, strontium, rare earth elements, technetium and actinides from liquid radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Zaitsev, Boris N.; Esimantovskiy, Vyacheslav M.; Lazarev, Leonard N.; Dzekun, Evgeniy G.; Romanovskiy, Valeriy N.; Todd, Terry A.; Brewer, Ken N.; Herbst, Ronald S.; Law, Jack D.

    2001-01-01

    Cesium and strontium are extracted from aqueous acidic radioactive waste containing rare earth elements, technetium and actinides, by contacting the waste with a composition of a complex organoboron compound and polyethylene glycol in an organofluorine diluent mixture. In a preferred embodiment the complex organoboron compound is chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, the polyethylene glycol has the formula RC.sub.6 H.sub.4 (OCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.n OH, and the organofluorine diluent is a mixture of bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of diethylene glycol with at least one of bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of ethylene glycol and bis-tetrafluoropropyl formal. The rare earths, technetium and the actinides (especially uranium, plutonium and americium), are extracted from the aqueous phase using a phosphine oxide in a hydrocarbon diluent, and reextracted from the resulting organic phase into an aqueous phase by using a suitable strip reagent.

  17. Abacus: a computational tool for extracting and pre-processing spectral count data for label-free quantitative proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Fermin, Damian; Basrur, Venkatesha; Yocum, Anastasia K; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I

    2011-04-01

    We describe Abacus, a computational tool for extracting spectral counts from MS/MS data sets. The program aggregates data from multiple experiments, adjusts spectral counts to accurately account for peptides shared across multiple proteins, and performs common normalization steps. It can also output the spectral count data at the gene level, thus simplifying the integration and comparison between gene and protein expression data. Abacus is compatible with the widely used Trans-Proteomic Pipeline suite of tools and comes with a graphical user interface making it easy to interact with the program. The main aim of Abacus is to streamline the analysis of spectral count data by providing an automated, easy to use solution for extracting this information from proteomic data sets for subsequent, more sophisticated statistical analysis.

  18. Efficient extraction column saves $143,000/y. [Upjohn Plant in North Haven, Conn. - continuous process replaces batch, saving chemicals, labor, and improving performance

    SciTech Connect

    Claveloux, L.A.; Hodel, A.E.

    1983-11-01

    A reciprocating plate extraction column (RPEC), 18 in. in dia with 37 ft of plate stack, was installed to perform continuous extraction of a toluene solution of an organic intermediate containing an organic impurity. The column is designed for a throughput of ca 1200 gal/h/ft/sup 2/. Expanded disengaging chambers are included and a zirconium shell and fittings and Teflon plates have been used to withstand the hydrochloric acid (HCl) and solvent environment. The toluene and HCl enter opposite ends of the column at controlled rates. The RPEC is designed for maximum extraction efficiency. The extract containing the impurity is withdrawn at a controlled rate from the bottom of the column. The purified organic solution overflows from the top of the column. Satisfactory optimization runs were performed. More than 2 years of operating experience with the column has proven the installation successful. The materials used in construction are corrosion resistant. The cost savings/y compared to the original batch process are: HCl $45,000; caustic soda $88,000; and labor $10,000.

  19. Use of feature extraction techniques for the texture and context information in ERTS imagery: Spectral and textural processing of ERTS imagery. [classification of Kansas land use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haralick, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Bosley, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A procedure was developed to extract cross-band textural features from ERTS MSS imagery. Evolving from a single image texture extraction procedure which uses spatial dependence matrices to measure relative co-occurrence of nearest neighbor grey tones, the cross-band texture procedure uses the distribution of neighboring grey tone N-tuple differences to measure the spatial interrelationships, or co-occurrences, of the grey tone N-tuples present in a texture pattern. In both procedures, texture is characterized in such a way as to be invariant under linear grey tone transformations. However, the cross-band procedure complements the single image procedure by extracting texture information and spectral information contained in ERTS multi-images. Classification experiments show that when used alone, without spectral processing, the cross-band texture procedure extracts more information than the single image texture analysis. Results show an improvement in average correct classification from 86.2% to 88.8% for ERTS image no. 1021-16333 with the cross-band texture procedure. However, when used together with spectral features, the single image texture plus spectral features perform better than the cross-band texture plus spectral features, with an average correct classification of 93.8% and 91.6%, respectively.

  20. Effects of process parameters on supercritical CO2 extraction of total phenols from strawberry (Arbutus unedo L.) fruits: An optimization study.

    PubMed

    Akay, Seref; Alpak, Ilknur; Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work was to optimize total phenolic yield of Arbutus unedo fruits using supercritical fluid extraction. A Box-Behnken statistical design was used to evaluate the effect of various values of pressure (50-300 bar), temperature (30-80°C) and concentration of ethanol as co-solvent (0-20%) by CO2 flow rate of 15 g/min for 60 min. The most effective variable was co-solvent ratio (p<0.005). Evaluative criteria for both dependent variables (total phenols and radical scavenging activity) in the model were assigned maximum. Optimum extraction conditions were elicited as 60 bar, 48°C and 19.7% yielding 25.72 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) total phenols/g extract and 99.9% radical scavenging capacity, which were higher than the values obtained by conventional water (24.89 mg/g; 83.8%) and ethanol (15.12 mg/g; 95.8%) extractions demonstrating challenges as a green separation process with improved product properties for industrial applications. PMID:21695688