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Sample records for extraction vapex process

  1. SOLVENT-BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES TO DEVELOP WEST SAK ALASKA NORTH SLOPE HEAVY OIL RESOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    David O. Ogbe; Tao Zhu

    2004-01-01

    A one-year research program is conducted to evaluate the feasibility of applying solvent-based enhanced oil recovery processes to develop West Sak and Ugnu heavy oil resources found on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The project objective is to conduct research to develop technology to produce and market the 300-3000 cp oil in the West Sak and Ugnu sands. During the first phase of the research, background information was collected, and experimental and numerical studies of vapor extraction process (VAPEX) in West Sak and Ugnu are conducted. The experimental study is designed to foster understanding of the processes governing vapor chamber formation and growth, and to optimize oil recovery. A specially designed core-holder and a computed tomography (CT) scanner was used to measure the in-situ distribution of phases. Numerical simulation study of VAPEX was initiated during the first year. The numerical work completed during this period includes setting up a numerical model and using the analog data to simulate lab experiments of the VAPEX process. The goal was to understand the mechanisms governing the VAPEX process. Additional work is recommended to expand the VAPEX numerical study using actual field data obtained from Alaska North Slope.

  2. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Jonke, A.A.

    1957-10-01

    In improved solvent extraction process is described for the extraction of metal values from highly dilute aqueous solutions. The process comprises contacting an aqueous solution with an organic substantially water-immiscible solvent, whereby metal values are taken up by a solvent extract phase; scrubbing the solvent extract phase with an aqueous scrubbing solution; separating an aqueous solution from the scrubbed solvent extract phase; and contacting the scrubbed solvent phase with an aqueous medium whereby the extracted metal values are removed from the solvent phase and taken up by said medium to form a strip solution containing said metal values, the aqueous scrubbing solution being a mixture of strip solution and an aqueous solution which contains mineral acids anions and is free of the metal values. The process is particularly effective for purifying uranium, where one starts with impure aqueous uranyl nitrate, extracts with tributyl phosphate dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, scrubs with aqueous nitric acid and employs water to strip the uranium from the scrubbed organic phase.

  3. URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, W.H.; Higgins, C.E.

    1958-12-16

    A process is described for recovering uranium values from acidic aqueous solutions containing hexavalent uranium by contacting the solution with an organic solution comprised of a substantially water-immiscible organlc diluent and an organic phosphate to extract the uranlum values into the organic phase. Carbon tetrachloride and a petroleum hydrocarbon fraction, such as kerosene, are sultable diluents to be used in combination with organlc phosphates such as dibutyl butylphosphonate, trlbutyl phosphine oxide, and tributyl phosphate.

  4. NEPTUNIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, L.R.; Fields, P.R.

    1959-10-01

    The separation of neptunium from an aqueous solution by solvent extraction and the extraction of neptunium from the solvent solution are described. Neptunium is separated from an aqueous solution containing tetravalent or hexavalent neptunium nitrate, nitric acid, and a nitrate salting out agent, such as sodium nitrate, by contacting the solution with an organic solvent such as diethyl ether. Subsequently, the neptunium nitrate is extracted from the organic solvent extract phase with water.

  5. METAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, G.W. Jr.; Rhodes, D.E.

    1957-11-01

    An improved method for extracting uranium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is presented. A difficulty encountered in solvent extraction operations using an organic extractant (e.g., tributyl phosphate dissolved in kerosene or carbon tetrachloride) is that emulsions sometimes form, and phase separation is difficult or impossible. This difficulty is overcome by dissolving the organic extractant in a molten wax which is a solid at operating temperatures. After cooling, the wax which now contains the extractant, is broken into small particles (preferably flakes) and this wax complex'' is used to contact the uranium bearing solutions and extract the metal therefrom. Microcrystalline petroleum wax and certain ethylene polymers have been found suitable for this purpose.

  6. URANIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.

    1959-09-01

    A method is given for extracting uranium values from ores of high phosphate content consisting of dissolving them in aqueous nitric acid, adjusting the concentration of the aqueous solution to about 2 M with respect to nitric acid, and then contacting it with diethyl ether which has previously been made 1 M with respect to nitric acid.

  7. Processes for metal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowersox, David F.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the processing of plutonium at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and operation illustrating concepts that may be applicable to the processing of lunar materials. The toxic nature of plutonium requires a highly closed system for processing lunar surface materials.

  8. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.H.; Asprey, L.B.

    1960-02-01

    A process of separating plutonium in at least the tetravalent state from fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution by extraction with alkyl phosphate is reported. The plutonium can then be back-extracted from the organic phase by contact with an aqueous solution of sulfuric, phosphoric, or oxalic acid as a complexing agent.

  9. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PROTACTINIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, E.K.; Katzin, L.I.; Wolf, M.J.

    1961-04-01

    A process is described for separating protactinium from thorium present together as the nitrates in a 0.1 to 10 N nitric acid solution. The separation is carried out by extraction with an aliphatic alcohol, ketone, and/or ester having at least six carbon atoms, such as n-amyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and diisopropyl ketone.

  10. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from aqueous inorganic acid solutions by the use of a water immiscible organic extractant liquid is described. The plutonium must be in the oxidized state, and the solvents covered by the patent include nitromethane, nitroethane, nitropropane, and nitrobenzene. The use of a salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate in the case of an aqueous nitric acid solution is advantageous. After contacting the aqueous solution with the organic extractant, the resulting extract and raffinate phases are separated. The plutonium may be recovered by any suitable method.

  11. PROCESS FOR UTILIZING ORGANIC ORTHOPHOSPHATE EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1958-11-11

    A process is presented for recovering uranium from its ores, the steps comprising producing the uranium in solution in the trivalent state, extracting the uranium from solution in an lmmiscible organic solvent extract phase which lncludes mono and dialkyl orthophosphorlc acid esters having a varying number of carbon atoms on the alkyl substituent, amd recovering the uranium from tbe extract phase.

  12. ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE METAL SOLVENT EXTRACTANTS AND PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Long, R.L.

    1958-09-30

    A process is presented for the recovery of uranium from aqueous mineral acidic solutions by solvent extraction. The extractant is a synmmetrical dialkyl pyrophosphate in which the alkyl substituents have a chain length of from 4 to 17 carbon atoms. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dioctyl pyrophosphate. The uranium is precipitated irom the organic extractant phase with an agent such as HF, fluoride salts. alcohol, or ammonia.

  13. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM RECOVERY

    DOEpatents

    Clark, H.M.; Duffey, D.

    1958-06-17

    A process is described for extracting uranium from uranium ore, wherein the uranium is substantially free from molybdenum contamination. In a solvent extraction process for recovering uranium, uranium and molybdenum ions are extracted from the ore with ether under high acidity conditions. The ether phase is then stripped with water at a lower controiled acidity, resaturated with salting materials such as sodium nitrate, and reextracted with the separation of the molybdenum from the uranium without interference from other metals that have been previously extracted.

  14. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1992-12-08

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal. 3 figs.

  15. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

  16. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1991-12-31

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and amercium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N.N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU`s to gather with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU`s and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

  17. Highlights of the Salt Extraction Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasalizadeh, Aida; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Teng, Lidong; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Grinder, Olle; Izumi, Yukari; Barati, Mansoor

    2013-11-01

    This article presents the salient features of a new process for the recovery of metal values from secondary sources and waste materials such as slag and flue dusts. It is also feasible in extracting metals such as nickel and cobalt from ores that normally are difficult to enrich and process metallurgically. The salt extraction process is based on extraction of the metals from the raw materials by a molten salt bath consisting of NaCl, LiCl, and KCl corresponding to the eutectic composition with AlCl3 as the chlorinating agent. The process is operated in the temperature range 973 K (700°C) to 1173 K (900°C). The process was shown to be successful in extracting Cr and Fe from electric arc furnace (EAF) slag. Electrolytic copper could be produced from copper concentrate based on chalcopyrite in a single step. Conducting the process in oxygen-free atmosphere, sulfur could be captured in the elemental form. The method proved to be successful in extracting lead from spent cathode ray tubes. In order to prevent the loss of AlCl3 in the vapor form and also chlorine gas emission at the cathode during the electrolysis, liquid aluminum was used. The process was shown to be successful in extracting Nd and Dy from magnetic scrap. The method is a highly promising process route for the recovery of strategic metals. It also has the added advantage of being environmentally friendly.

  18. Supercritical fluid extraction and processing of foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumers are aware of the processing techniques used to manufacture food and health supplements and are concerned about the impact of those processes on their health and the environment. Processes that use supercritical fluids as an alternative to solvents that are used to extract nutrients and bio...

  19. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING ALKYL ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1962-01-23

    A process is given for producing superior alkyl orthophosphoric acid extractants for use in solvent extraction methods to recover and purify various metals such as uranium and vanadium. The process comprises slurrying P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ in a solvent diluent such as kerosene, benzene, isopropyl ether, and the like. An alipbatic alcohol having from nine to seventeen carbon atoms, and w- hcrein ihc OH group is situated inward of the terminal carbon atoms, is added to the slurry while the reaction temperature is mainiained below 60 deg C. The alcohol is added in the mole ratio of about 2 to l, alcohol to P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. A pyrophosphate reaotion product is formed in the slurry-alcohol mixture. Subsequently, the pyrophosphate reaction product is hydrolyzed with dilute mineral acid to produce the desired alkyl orthophosphoric aeid extractant. The extraetant may then be separated and utilized in metal-recovery, solvent- extraction processes. (AEC)

  20. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M.; Zeitoon, B.M.

    1995-12-01

    Molten Metal Technology was awarded a contract to demonstrate the applicability of the Catalytic Extraction Process, a proprietary process that could be applied to US DOE`s inventory of low level mixed waste. This paper is a description of that technology, and included within this document are discussions of: (1) Program objectives, (2) Overall technology review, (3) Organic feed conversion to synthetic gas, (4) Metal, halogen, and transuranic recovery, (5) Demonstrations, (6) Design of the prototype facility, and (7) Results.

  1. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    1995-01-01

    A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.

  2. Extracting enzyme processivity from kinetic assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barel, Itay; Reich, Norbert O.; Brown, Frank L. H.

    2015-12-01

    A steady-state analysis for the catalytic turnover of molecules containing two substrate sites is presented. A broad class of Markovian dynamic models, motivated by the action of DNA modifying enzymes and the rich variety of translocation mechanisms associated with these systems (e.g., sliding, hopping, intersegmental transfer, etc.), is considered. The modeling suggests an elementary and general method of data analysis, which enables the extraction of the enzyme's processivity directly and unambiguously from experimental data. This analysis is not limited to the initial velocity regime. The predictions are validated both against detailed numerical models and by revisiting published experimental data for EcoRI endonuclease acting on DNA.

  3. Extracting enzyme processivity from kinetic assays

    SciTech Connect

    Barel, Itay; Brown, Frank L. H.; Reich, Norbert O.

    2015-12-14

    A steady-state analysis for the catalytic turnover of molecules containing two substrate sites is presented. A broad class of Markovian dynamic models, motivated by the action of DNA modifying enzymes and the rich variety of translocation mechanisms associated with these systems (e.g., sliding, hopping, intersegmental transfer, etc.), is considered. The modeling suggests an elementary and general method of data analysis, which enables the extraction of the enzyme’s processivity directly and unambiguously from experimental data. This analysis is not limited to the initial velocity regime. The predictions are validated both against detailed numerical models and by revisiting published experimental data for EcoRI endonuclease acting on DNA.

  4. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    The contract was conceived to establish the commercial capability of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) to treat contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. In so doing, Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT), pursued the following objectives: demonstration of the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal can be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP will concentrate the radionuclides in a dense vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP will convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which can be used as feed gases for chemical synthesis or as an energy source; recovery volatile heavy metals--that CEP`s off-gas treatment system will capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; and establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory--that CEP is a more cost-effective and, complete treatment and recycling technology than competing technologies for processing contaminated scrap. The process and its performance are described.

  5. Wavelet Signal Processing for Transient Feature Extraction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-15

    Research was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of applying Wavelets and Wavelet Transform methods to transient signal feature extraction problems... Wavelet transform techniques were developed to extract low dimensional feature data that allowed a simple classification scheme to easily separate

  6. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  7. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-06

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

  8. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  9. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy issued a Planned Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) in 1993, with the objective of identifying unique technologies which could be applied to the most hazardous waste streams at DOE sites. The combination of radioactive contamination with additional contamination by hazardous constituents such as those identified by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) pose an especially challenging problem. Traditional remediation technologies are increasingly becoming less acceptable to stakeholders and regulators because of the risks they pose to public health and safety. Desirable recycling technologies were described by the DOE as: (1) easily installed, operated, and maintained; (2) exhibiting superior environmental performance; (3) protective of worker and public health and safety; (4) readily acceptable to a wide spectrum of evaluators; and (5) economically feasible. Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT) was awarded a contract as a result of the PRDA initiative to demonstrate the applicability of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP), MMT`s proprietary elemental recycling technology, to DOE`s inventory of low level mixed waste. This includes DOE`s inventory of radioactively- and RCRA-contaminated scrap metal and other waste forms expected to be generated by the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of DOE sites.

  10. URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS USING SYNERGISTIC REAGENTS

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, J.M.; Blake, C.A. Jr.; Brown, K.B.; Coleman, C.F.

    1958-11-01

    Improved methods are presented for recovering uranium values from aqueous solutions by organic solvent extraction. The improvement lies in the use, in combination, of two classes of organic compounds so that their extracting properties are enhanced synergistically. The two classes of organic compounds are dialkylphosphoric acid and certain neutral organophosphorus compounds such as trialkylphosphates, trialkylphosphonates, trlalkylphosphinates and trialkylphosphine oxides.

  11. Comparison of lignin extraction processes: Economic and environmental assessment.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Juan C; Gómez, Álvaro; Cardona, Carlos A

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the technical-economic and environmental assessment of four lignin extraction processes from two different raw materials (sugarcane bagasse and rice husks). The processes are divided into two categories, the first processes evaluates lignin extraction with prior acid hydrolysis step, while in the second case the extraction processes are evaluated standalone for a total analysis of 16 scenarios. Profitability indicators as the net present value (NPV) and environmental indicators as the potential environmental impact (PEI) are used through a process engineering approach to understand and select the best lignin extraction process. The results show that both economically and environmentally process with sulfites and soda from rice husk presents the best results; however the quality of lignin obtained with sulfites is not suitable for high value-added products. Then, the soda is an interesting option for the extraction of lignin if high quality lignin is required for high value-added products at low costs.

  12. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM FROM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Blake, C.A. Jr.; Brown, K.B.; Horner, D.E.

    1960-05-24

    An improvement was made in a uranium extraction process wherein the organic extractant is a phosphine oxide. An aqueous solution containing phosphate ions or sulfate ions together with uranium is provided with a source of chloride ions during the extraction step. The presence of the chloride ions enables a phosphine oxide to extract uranium in the presence of strong uranium- complexing ions such as phosphate or sulfate ions.

  13. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR SEPARATING ACTINIDE AND LANTHANIDE METAL VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Hildebrandt, R.A.; Hyman, H.H.; Vogler, S.

    1962-08-14

    A process of countercurrently extracting an aqueous mineral acid feed solution for the separation of actinides from lanthanides dissolved therern is described. The feed solution is made acid-defrcient with alkali metal hydroxide prior to.contact with acid extractant; during extraction, however, acid is transferred from organic to aqueous solution and the aqueous solution gradually becomes acid. The acid-deficient phase ' of the process promotes the extraction of the actinides, while the latter acid phase'' of the process improves retention of the lanthanides in the aqueous solution. This provides for an improved separation. (AEC)

  14. Assessment of critical-fluid extractions in the process industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The potential for critical-fluid extraction as a separation process for improving the productive use of energy in the process industries is assessed. Critical-fluid extraction involves the use of fluids, normally gaseous at ambient conditions, as extraction solvents at temperatures and pressures around the critical point. Equilibrium and kinetic properties in this regime are very favorable for solvent applications, and generally allow major reductions in the energy requirements for separating and purifying chemical component of a mixture.

  15. PROCESS OF SEPARATING URANIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Warf, J.C.

    1958-08-19

    A process is described for separating uranium values from aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions. The process consists in contacting the uramium bearing solution with an organic solvent, tributyl phosphate, preferably diluted with a less viscous organic liquida whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the organic solvent phase. The uranvl nitrate may be recovered from the solvent phase bv back extracting with an aqueous mediuin.

  16. A combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Jensen, M.P.

    1996-03-01

    A new solvent extraction process for the simultaneous extraction of cesium and strontium from acidic nitrate media is described. This process uses a solvent formulation comprised of 0.05 M di-t-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), 0.1 M Crown 100{prime} (a proprietary, cesium-selective derivative of dibenzo-18-crown-6), 1.2 M tributyl phosphate (TBP), and 5% (v/v) lauryl nitrile in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. Distribution ratios for cesium and strontium from 4 M nitric acid are 4.13 and 3.46, respectively. A benchtop batch countercurrent extraction experiment indicates that >98% of the cesium and strontium initially present in the feed solution can be removed in only four extraction stages. Through proper choice of extraction and strip conditions, extracted cesium and strontium can be recovered either together or individually.

  17. Glycerol extracting dealcoholization for the biodiesel separation process.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianchu; Sha, Yong; Zhang, Yun; Yuan, Yunlong; Wu, Housheng

    2011-04-01

    By means of utilizing sunflower oil and Jatropha oil as raw oil respectively, the biodiesel transesterification production and the multi-stage extracting separation were carried out experimentally. Results indicate that dealcoholized crude glycerol can be utilized as the extracting agent to achieve effective separation of methanol from the methyl ester phase, and the glycerol content in the dealcoholized methyl esters is as low as 0.02 wt.%. For the biodiesel separation process utilizing glycerol extracting dealcoholization, its technical and equipment information were acquired through the rigorous process simulation in contrast to the traditional biodiesel distillation separation process, and results show that its energy consumption decrease about 35% in contrast to that of the distillation separation process. The glycerol extracting dealcoholization has sufficient feasibility and superiority for the biodiesel separation process.

  18. ALKALINE CARBONATE LEACHING PROCESS FOR URANIUM EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Rabbitts, A.T.

    1957-11-12

    A process for the leaching of uranium from high carbonate ores is presented. According to the process, the ore is leached at a temperature of about 200 deg C and a pressure of about 200 p.s.i.g. with a solution containing alkali carbonate, alkali permanganate, and bicarbonate ion, the bicarbonate ion functionlng to prevent premature formation of alkali hydroxide and consequent precipitation of a diuranate. After the leaching is complete, the uranium present is recovered by precipitation with NaOH.

  19. [Multi-objective optimization of extraction process for red ginseng based upon extraction efficiency and cost control].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yi; Zhu, Jie-Qiang; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Kang, Li-Yuan; Li, Zheng

    2014-07-01

    It is the objective of this study to optimize the extraction process of red ginseng to minimize the unit cost of extracting effective ingredients. The relation between the target variables of total quantity of ginsenosides and first extraction time, first extraction solution amount, second extraction time, second extract solution amount were studied with Box-Behnken experimental design method. At the same we also considered the cost of extraction solution and energy usage. The objective function was set as unit cost of target (total quantity of ginsenosides or its purity) for the multi-objective optimization of extraction process. As a result, the optimal process parameters were found as first extraction time (108.7 min), first extraction solution amount folds (12), second extraction time (30 min), second extraction solution amount folds (8) to minimize the unit cost. It indicated that this approach could potentially be used to optimize industrial extraction process for manufacturing Chinese medicine.

  20. Applications of ultrasound in food technology: Processing, preservation and extraction.

    PubMed

    Chemat, Farid; Zill-e-Huma; Khan, Muhammed Kamran

    2011-07-01

    Ultrasound is well known to have a significant effect on the rate of various processes in the food industry. Using ultrasound, full reproducible food processes can now be completed in seconds or minutes with high reproducibility, reducing the processing cost, simplifying manipulation and work-up, giving higher purity of the final product, eliminating post-treatment of waste water and consuming only a fraction of the time and energy normally needed for conventional processes. Several processes such as freezing, cutting, drying, tempering, bleaching, sterilization, and extraction have been applied efficiently in the food industry. The advantages of using ultrasound for food processing, includes: more effective mixing and micro-mixing, faster energy and mass transfer, reduced thermal and concentration gradients, reduced temperature, selective extraction, reduced equipment size, faster response to process extraction control, faster start-up, increased production, and elimination of process steps. Food processes performed under the action of ultrasound are believed to be affected in part by cavitation phenomena and mass transfer enhancement. This review presents a complete picture of current knowledge on application of ultrasound in food technology including processing, preservation and extraction. It provides the necessary theoretical background and some details about ultrasound the technology, the technique, and safety precautions. We will also discuss some of the factors which make the combination of food processing and ultrasound one of the most promising research areas in the field of modern food engineering.

  1. Batch extracting process using magneticparticle held solvents

    DOEpatents

    Nunez, Luis; Vandergrift, George F.

    1995-01-01

    A process for selectively removing metal values which may include catalytic values from a mixture containing same, wherein a magnetic particle is contacted with a liquid solvent which selectively dissolves the metal values to absorb the liquid solvent onto the magnetic particle. Thereafter the solvent-containing magnetic particles are contacted with a mixture containing the heavy metal values to transfer metal values into the solvent carried by the magnetic particles, and then magnetically separating the magnetic particles. Ion exchange resins may be used for selective solvents.

  2. Optimal processes for probabilistic work extraction beyond the second law

    PubMed Central

    Cavina, Vasco; Mari, Andrea; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    According to the second law of thermodynamics, for every transformation performed on a system which is in contact with an environment of fixed temperature, the average extracted work is bounded by the decrease of the free energy of the system. However, in a single realization of a generic process, the extracted work is subject to statistical fluctuations which may allow for probabilistic violations of the previous bound. We are interested in enhancing this effect, i.e. we look for thermodynamic processes that maximize the probability of extracting work above a given arbitrary threshold. For any process obeying the Jarzynski identity, we determine an upper bound for the work extraction probability that depends also on the minimum amount of work that we are willing to extract in case of failure, or on the average work we wish to extract from the system. Then we show that this bound can be saturated within the thermodynamic formalism of quantum discrete processes composed by sequences of unitary quenches and complete thermalizations. We explicitly determine the optimal protocol which is given by two quasi-static isothermal transformations separated by a finite unitary quench. PMID:27377557

  3. Recovery of organic extractant from secondary emulsions formed in the extraction of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Korchnak, J.D.; Fett, R.H.G.

    1984-01-03

    Uranium in wet-process phosphoric acid is extracted with an organic extractant. The pregnant extractant is then centrifuged to separate contaminants from the extractant. Secondary emulsions obtained by separating the contaminants following centrifugation are mixed with water or an acid leaching solution. After mixing, the mixture is centrifuged to separate and recover extractant which is recycled for stripping.

  4. Solvent extraction of gold using ionic liquid based process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Zunita, Megawati; Rizki, Z.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-01-01

    In decades, many research and mineral processing industries are using solvent extraction technology for metal ions separation. Solvent extraction technique has been used for the purification of precious metals such as Au and Pd, and base metals such as Cu, Zn and Cd. This process uses organic compounds as solvent. Organic solvents have some undesired properties i.e. toxic, volatile, excessive used, flammable, difficult to recycle, low reusability, low Au recovery, together with the problems related to the disposal of spent extractants and diluents, even the costs associated with these processes are relatively expensive. Therefore, a lot of research have boosted into the development of safe and environmentally friendly process for Au separation. Ionic liquids (ILs) are the potential alternative for gold extraction because they possess several desirable properties, such as a the ability to expanse temperature process up to 300°C, good solvent properties for a wide range of metal ions, high selectivity, low vapor pressures, stability up to 200°C, easy preparation, environmentally friendly (commonly called as "green solvent"), and relatively low cost. This review paper is focused in investigate of some ILs that have the potentials as solvent in extraction of Au from mineral/metal alloy at various conditions (pH, temperature, and pressure). Performances of ILs extraction of Au are studied in depth, i.e. structural relationship of ILs with capability to separate Au from metal ions aggregate. Optimal extraction conditon in order to gain high percent of Au in mineral processing is also investigated.

  5. Valve For Extracting Samples From A Process Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Dave

    1995-01-01

    Valve for extracting samples from process stream includes cylindrical body bolted to pipe that contains stream. Opening in valve body matched and sealed against opening in pipe. Used to sample process streams in variety of facilities, including cement plants, plants that manufacture and reprocess plastics, oil refineries, and pipelines.

  6. Bidentate organophosphorus solvent extraction process for actinide recovery and partition

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Wallace W.

    1976-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction process for the recovery and partitioning of actinide values from acidic nuclear waste aqueous solutions, the actinide values including trivalent, tetravalent and hexavalent oxidation states is provided and includes the steps of contacting the aqueous solution with a bidentate organophosphorous extractant to extract essentially all of the actinide values into the organic phase. Thereafter the respective actinide fractions are selectively partitioned into separate aqueous solutions by contact with dilute nitric or nitric-hydrofluoric acid solutions. The hexavalent uranium is finally removed from the organic phase by contact with a dilute sodium carbonate solution.

  7. Hydrocarbon extraction agents and microbiological processes for their production

    SciTech Connect

    Zajic, J.E.; Gerson, D.F.

    1987-02-03

    A process is described for producing extraction agents useful in the separation of hydrocarbon values from mineral deposits. It comprises cultivating by an aerobic fermentation, in a growth promoting medium and under growth promoting conditions, and on a liquid hydrocarbon substrate, a selected microbial strain of a species of microorganism selected from the group consisting of Arthrobacter terregens, Arthrobacter xerosis, Bacillus megaterium, Corynebacterium lepus, Corynebacterium xerosis, Nocardia petroleophila, and Vibrio ficheri. This is done to produce an extraction agent of microbiological origin in the fermentation medium, subsequently recovering the extraction agent from the fermentation medium and drying the agent to powdered form.

  8. Supercritical fluid extraction of lycopene from tomato processing byproducts.

    PubMed

    Rozzi, N L; Singh, R K; Vierling, R A; Watkins, B A

    2002-04-24

    Tomato seeds and skins acquired from the byproduct of a local tomato processing facility were studied for supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of phytochemicals. The extracts were analyzed for lycopene, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, and delta-tocopherol content using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection and compared to a chemically extracted control. SFEs were carried out using CO(2) at seven temperatures (32-86 degrees C) and six pressures (13.78-48.26 MPa). The effect of CO(2) flow rate and volume also was investigated. The results indicated that the percentage of lycopene extracted increased with elevated temperature and pressure until a maximum recovery of 38.8% was reached at 86 degrees C and 34.47 MPa, after which the amount of lycopene extracted decreased. Conditions for the optimum extraction of lycopene from 3 g of raw material were determined to be 86 degrees C, 34.47 MPa, and 500 mL of CO(2) at a flow rate of 2.5 mL/min. These conditions resulted in the extraction of 61.0% of the lycopene (7.19 microg lycopene/g).

  9. Sequential biological process for molybdenum extraction from hydrodesulphurization spent catalyst.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Shruti; Ting, Yen-Peng

    2016-10-01

    Spent catalyst bioleaching with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans has been widely studied and low Mo leaching has often been reported. This work describes an enhanced extraction of Mo via a two stage sequential process for the bioleaching of hydrodesulphurization spent catalyst containing Molybdenum, Nickel and, Aluminium. In the first stage, two-step bioleaching was performed using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, and achieved 89.4% Ni, 20.9% Mo and 12.7% Al extraction in 15 days. To increase Mo extraction, the bioleached catalyst was subjected to a second stage bioleaching using Escherichia coli, during which 99% of the remaining Mo was extracted in 25 days. This sequential bioleaching strategy selectively extracted Ni in the first stage and Mo in the second stage, and is a more environmentally friendly alternative to sequential chemical leaching with alkaline reagents for improved Mo extraction. Kinetic modelling to establish the rate determining step in both stages of bioleaching showed that in the first stage, Mo extraction was chemical reaction controlled whereas in the subsequent stage, product layer diffusion model provided the best fit.

  10. Particle Formation by Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Expansion Process

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junbo; Li, Haiting; Quan, Can

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction and expansion (SFEE) patented technology combines the advantages of both supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and rapid expansion of supercritical solution (RESS) with on-line coupling, which makes the nanoparticle formation feasible directly from matrix such as Chinese herbal medicine. Supercritical fluid extraction is a green separation technology, which has been developed for decades and widely applied in traditional Chinese medicines or natural active components. In this paper, a SFEE patented instrument was firstly built up and controlled by LABVIEW work stations. Stearic acid was used to verify the SFEE process at optimized condition; via adjusting the preexpansion pressure and temperature one can get different sizes of particles. Furthermore, stearic acid was purified during the SFEE process with HPLC-ELSD detecting device; purity of stearic acid increased by 19%, and the device can purify stearic acid. PMID:24223031

  11. SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE CF SYSTEMS ORGANIC EXTRACTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CF Systems Organic Extraction Process was used to remove PCBs from contaminated sediment dredged from the New Bedford Harbor. This work was done as part of a field demonstration under EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. The purpose of the SITE p...

  12. Enzyme-assisted extraction of lycopene from tomato processing waste.

    PubMed

    Zuorro, Antonio; Fidaleo, Marcello; Lavecchia, Roberto

    2011-12-10

    A central composite design was used to optimize the enzyme-assisted extraction of lycopene from the peel fraction of tomato processing waste. Tomato skins were pretreated by a food-grade enzyme preparation with pectinolytic and cellulolytic activities and then subjected to hexane extraction. The factors investigated included extraction temperature (10-50 °C), pretreatment time (0.5-6.5 h), extraction time (0.5-4.5 h), enzyme solution-to-solid ratio (10-50 dm³/kg) and enzyme load (0-0.2 kg/kg). Overall, an 8- to 18-fold increase in lycopene recovery was observed compared to the untreated plant material. From a response surface analysis of the data, a second-degree polynomial equation was developed which provided the following optimal extraction conditions: T=30 °C, extraction time=3.18 h and enzyme load=0.16 kg/kg. The obtained results strongly support the idea of using cell-wall degrading enzymes as an effective means for recovering lycopene from tomato waste.

  13. Reductive stripping process for uranium recovery from organic extracts

    DOEpatents

    Hurst, Jr., Fred J.

    1985-01-01

    In the reductive stripping of uranium from an organic extractant in a uranium recovery process, the use of phosphoric acid having a molarity in the range of 8 to 10 increases the efficiency of the reductive stripping and allows the strip step to operate with lower aqueous to organic recycle ratios and shorter retention time in the mixer stages. Under these operating conditions, less solvent is required in the process, and smaller, less expensive process equipment can be utilized. The high strength H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 is available from the evaporator stage of the process.

  14. Reductive stripping process for uranium recovery from organic extracts

    DOEpatents

    Hurst, F.J. Jr.

    1983-06-16

    In the reductive stripping of uranium from an organic extractant in a uranium recovery process, the use of phosphoric acid having a molarity in the range of 8 to 10 increases the efficiency of the reductive stripping and allows the strip step to operate with lower aqueous to organic recycle ratios and shorter retention time in the mixer stages. Under these operating conditions, less solvent is required in the process, and smaller, less expensive process equipment can be utilized. The high strength H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ is available from the evaporator stage of the process.

  15. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    DOEpatents

    Royer, L.T.

    1987-03-20

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  16. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    DOEpatents

    Royer, Lamar T.

    1988-01-01

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  17. Supercritical fluid extraction of peach (Prunus persica) almond oil: process yield and extract composition.

    PubMed

    Mezzomo, Natália; Mileo, Bruna R; Friedrich, Maria T; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2010-07-01

    Peach kernels are industrial residues from the peach processing, contain oil with important therapeutic properties and attractive nutritional aspects because of the high concentration of oleic and linoleic acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw matter is critical for product quality definition. Thus, the aim of this work was to compare peach almond extraction yields obtained by different procedures: soxhlet extractions (Sox) with different solvents; hydrodistillation (HD); ethanolic maceration (Mac) followed by fractionation with various solvents, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at 30, 40 and 50 degrees C and at 100, 200 and 300bar, performed with pure CO(2) and with a co-solvent. The extracts were evaluated with respect to fatty acid composition (FAC), fractionated chemical profile (FCP) and total phenolic content (TPC). The Sox total yields were generally higher than those obtained by SFE. The crossover pressure for SFE was between 260 and 280bar. The FAC results show oleic and linoleic acids as main components, especially for Sox and SFE extracts. The FCP for samples obtained by Sox and Mac indicated the presence of benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol, components responsible for almond flavor and with important industrial uses, whereas the SFE extracts present a high content of a possible flavonoid. The higher TPC values were obtained by Sox and Mac with ethanol. In general, the maximum pressure in SFE produced the highest yield, TPC and oleic acid content. The use of ethanol at 5% as co-solvent in SFE did not result in a significant effect on any evaluated parameter. The production of peach almond oil through all techniques is substantially adequate and SFE presented advantages, with respect to the quality of the extracts due to the high oleic acid content, as presented by some Sox samples.

  18. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  19. Extraction of lycopene from tomato processing waste: kinetics and modelling.

    PubMed

    Poojary, Mahesha M; Passamonti, Paolo

    2015-04-15

    Lycopene, a nutraceutical compound, was extracted from tomato processing waste, an abundantly available food industry by-product in Italy. The extraction kinetics was mathematically described using the first order kinetic model, the mass transfer model and Peleg's model to understand the physicochemical behaviour of the extraction. Samples were extracted using acetone/n-hexane mixtures at different ratios (1:3, 2:2 and 3:1, v/v) and at different temperatures (30, 40 and 50 °C) and simultaneously analysed using UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The lycopene yield was in the range 3.47-4.03 mg/100g, which corresponds to a percentage recovery of 65.22-75.75. All kinetic models gave a good fit to the experimental data, but the best one was Peleg's model, having the highest RAdj(2) and the lowest RMSE, MBE and χ(2) values. All the models confirmed that a temperature of 30 °C and solvent mixture of acetone/n-hexane 1:3 (v/v) provided optimal conditions for extraction of lycopene.

  20. RESEARCH ON CARBON PRODUCTS FROM COAL USING AN EXTRACTIVE PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo; Chong Chen; Brian Bland; David Fenton

    2002-03-31

    This report presents the results of a one-year effort directed at the exploration of the use of coal as a feedstock for a variety of industrially-relevant carbon products. The work was basically divided into three focus areas. The first area dealt with the acquisition of laboratory equipment to aid in the analysis and characterization of both the raw coal and the coal-derived feedstocks. Improvements were also made on the coal-extraction pilot plant which will now allow larger quantities of feedstock to be produced. Mass and energy balances were also performed on the pilot plant in an attempt to evaluate the scale-up potential of the process. The second focus area dealt with exploring hydrogenation conditions specifically aimed at testing several less-expensive candidate hydrogen-donor solvents. Through a process of filtration and vacuum distillation, viable pitch products were produced and evaluated. Moreover, a recycle solvent was also isolated so that the overall solvent balance in the system could be maintained. The effect of variables such as gas pressure and gas atmosphere were evaluated. The pitch product was analyzed and showed low ash content, reasonable yield, good coking value and a coke with anisotropic optical texture. A unique plot of coke yield vs. pitch softening point was discovered to be independent of reaction conditions or hydrogen-donor solvent. The third area of research centered on the investigation of alternate extraction solvents and processing conditions for the solvent extraction step. A wide variety of solvents, co-solvents and enhancement additives were tested with varying degrees of success. For the extraction of raw coal, the efficacy of the alternate solvents when compared to the benchmark solvent, N-methyl pyrrolidone, was not good. However when the same coal was partially hydrogenated prior to solvent extraction, all solvents showed excellent results even for extractions performed at room temperature. Standard analyses of the

  1. Extraction of Molybdenum from Molybdenite Concentrates with Hydrometallurgical Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Kaixi; Wang, Yufang; Zou, Xiaoping; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Sanping

    2012-11-01

    Molybdenite concentrates are usually treated by roasting, but low-concentration SO2 pollution is an associated problem. A hydrometallurgical process with pressure oxidation leaching (POX) and solvent extraction (SX) was developed in recent years. During POX, the oxidation of molybdenum (Mo) is above 98%. More than 95% of the rhenium (Re) and 15% to 20% of the Mo are leached into solution. The sulfur in the concentrate is converted to H2SO4, which results in high acidity of the solution. SX was used to recover the Re and Mo from the solution. The extraction of Re and Mo were above 98%. The loaded organic reagent is stripped with ammonia. More than 98% of the Mo can be stripped from the organic phase. Compared with the roasting process, the total recovery of Mo increased from 93% to 97% and that of Re from 60% to 90% when POX and SX are utilized.

  2. Economics of Beaver-Herter extraction process revealed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The Herter process is a surface-mined solvent extraction process which utilizes fatty acids as the solvent. The uniqueness of the Herter process if that it provides a low energy method of separating the fatty acids from the recovered oil for subsequent recycling. The Herter process recovers the fatty acid by saponification, followed by migration of the soap to the aqueous phase, and then desaponification of the resulting soap phase again followed by phase separation. The formation of a hydrocarbon-soap-water emulsion limits the process unless carefully controlled by the addition of an alcohol cosolvent. Addition of the short-chain alcohol limits emulsification and allows a meaningful separation to be accomplished. The modified process is known as the Beaver-Herter process. A bench-scale model of the process has recently been completed and has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the process. A computer model has been designed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the process on a site specific basis. This paper summarizes the process, the site selection (Oklahoma), and the economic analysis.

  3. Eco-friendly streamlined process for sporopollenin exine capsule extraction

    PubMed Central

    Mundargi, Raghavendra C.; Potroz, Michael G.; Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Tan, Ee-Lin; Lee, Jae Ho; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) extracted from Lycopodium clavatum spores are an attractive biomaterial possessing a highly robust structure suitable for microencapsulation strategies. Despite several decades of research into SEC extraction methods, the protocols commonly used for L. clavatum still entail processing with both alkaline and acidolysis steps at temperatures up to 180 °C and lasting up to 7 days. Herein, we demonstrate a significantly streamlined processing regimen, which indicates that much lower temperatures and processing durations can be used without alkaline lysis. By employing CHN elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and dynamic image particle analysis (DIPA), the optimum conditions for L. clavatum SEC processing were determined to include 30 hours acidolysis at 70 °C without alkaline lysis. Extending these findings to proof-of-concept encapsulation studies, we further demonstrate that our SECs are able to achieve a loading of 0.170 ± 0.01 g BSA per 1 g SECs by vacuum-assisted loading. Taken together, our streamlined processing method and corresponding characterization of SECs provides important insights for the development of applications including drug delivery, cosmetics, personal care products, and foods. PMID:26818918

  4. Eco-friendly streamlined process for sporopollenin exine capsule extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundargi, Raghavendra C.; Potroz, Michael G.; Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Tan, Ee-Lin; Lee, Jae Ho; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) extracted from Lycopodium clavatum spores are an attractive biomaterial possessing a highly robust structure suitable for microencapsulation strategies. Despite several decades of research into SEC extraction methods, the protocols commonly used for L. clavatum still entail processing with both alkaline and acidolysis steps at temperatures up to 180 °C and lasting up to 7 days. Herein, we demonstrate a significantly streamlined processing regimen, which indicates that much lower temperatures and processing durations can be used without alkaline lysis. By employing CHN elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and dynamic image particle analysis (DIPA), the optimum conditions for L. clavatum SEC processing were determined to include 30 hours acidolysis at 70 °C without alkaline lysis. Extending these findings to proof-of-concept encapsulation studies, we further demonstrate that our SECs are able to achieve a loading of 0.170 ± 0.01 g BSA per 1 g SECs by vacuum-assisted loading. Taken together, our streamlined processing method and corresponding characterization of SECs provides important insights for the development of applications including drug delivery, cosmetics, personal care products, and foods.

  5. [Optimization of extraction process for tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2 method].

    PubMed

    Xie, Song; Tong, Zhi-Ping; Tan, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Zhen

    2014-08-01

    In order to optimize extraction process conditions of tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2, the content of tannins was determined by phosphomolybdium tungsten acid-casein reaction, with extraction pressure, extraction temper- ature and extraction time as factors, the content of tannins from extract of G. orientali-tibeticum as index, technology conditions were optimized by orthogonal test. Optimum technology conditions were as follows: extraction pressure was 25 MPa, extraction temperature was 50 °C, extracted 1.5 h. The content of tannins in extract was 12.91 mg x g(-1), extract rate was 3.67%. The method established could be used for assay the contents of tannin in G. orientali-tibeticum. The circulated extraction was an effective extraction process that was stable and feasible, and that provides a way of the extraction process conditions of tannin from G. orientali-tibeticum.

  6. Ultrasound assisted extraction of lycopene from tomato processing wastes.

    PubMed

    Kumcuoglu, Seher; Yilmaz, Tuncay; Tavman, Sebnem

    2014-12-01

    Tomato paste processing wastes, an important by-product of the paste industry, is rich in potentially health-promoting compounds such as lycopene. In this study, extraction yield of lycopene from tomato paste processing wastes by application of ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) was compared with conventional organic solvent extraction (COSE) method. BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) 0.05 % (w/v) added hexane:acetone:ethanol (2:1:1) mixture was used as solvent. Three different solvent solid ratios; 50:1, 35:1 and 20:1, (v/w) were used in both COSE and UAE. COSE experiments were performed at 20 °C, 40 °C and 60 °C for 10, 20, 30 and 40 min. 50, 65 and 90 W of ultrasonic power were applied in UAE for 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min. Lycopene contents of the samples were determined by spectrophotometric method. The effects of different factors, including the temperature, solvent solid ratio and ultrasonic power on lycopene yield were investigated. It was determined that the most efficient application for COSE was extracting samples by 50:1 solvent solid ratio at 60 °C for 40 min run, for UAE, 35:1 (v/w) solvent solid ratio, 90 W ultrasonic power for 30 min run. It was showed that UAE of lycopene requires less time, lower temperature and lower solvent than COSE.

  7. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOEpatents

    Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.

    1982-09-20

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium for electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  8. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOEpatents

    Mullins, Lawrence J.; Christensen, Dana C.

    1984-01-01

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium from electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  9. Hemimorphite Ores: A Review of Processing Technologies for Zinc Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ailiang; Li, Mengchun; Qian, Zhen; Ma, Yutian; Che, Jianyong; Ma, Yalin

    2016-10-01

    With the gradual depletion of zinc sulfide ores, exploration of zinc oxide ores is becoming more and more important. Hemimorphite is a major zinc oxide ore, attracting much attention in the field of zinc metallurgy although it is not the major zinc mineral. This paper presents a critical review of the treatment for extraction of zinc with emphasis on flotation, pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods based on the properties of hemimorphite. The three-dimensional framework structure of hemimorphite with complex linkage of its structural units lead to difficult desilicification before extracting zinc in the many metallurgical technologies. It is found that the flotation method is generally effective in enriching zinc minerals from hemimorphite ores into a high-grade concentrate for recovery of zinc. Pure zinc can be produced from hemimorphite or/and willemite with a reducing reagent, like methane or carbon. Leaching reagents, such as acid and alkali, can break the complex structure of hemimorphite to release zinc in the leached solution without generation of silica gel in the hydrometallurgical process. For optimal zinc extraction, combing flotation with pyrometallurgical or hydrometallurgical methods may be required.

  10. Study on electrical current variations in electromembrane extraction process: Relation between extraction recovery and magnitude of electrical current.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Turaj; Rahimi, Atyeh; Nojavan, Saeed

    2016-01-15

    This contribution presents an experimental approach to improve analytical performance of electromembrane extraction (EME) procedure, which is based on the scrutiny of current pattern under different extraction conditions such as using different organic solvents as supported liquid membrane, electrical potentials, pH values of donor and acceptor phases, variable extraction times, temperatures, stirring rates, different hollow fiber lengths and the addition of salts or organic solvents to the sample matrix. In this study, four basic drugs with different polarities were extracted under different conditions with the corresponding electrical current patterns compared against extraction recoveries. The extraction process was demonstrated in terms of EME-HPLC analyses of selected basic drugs. Comparing the obtained extraction recoveries with the electrical current patterns, most cases exhibited minimum recovery and repeatability at the highest investigated magnitude of electrical current. . It was further found that identical current patterns are associated with repeated extraction efficiencies. In other words, the pattern should be repeated for a successful extraction. The results showed completely different electrical currents under different extraction conditions, so that all variable parameters have contributions into the electrical current pattern. Finally, the current patterns of extractions from wastewater, plasma and urine samples were demonstrated. The results indicated an increase in the electrical current when extracting from complex matrices; this was seen to decrease the extraction efficiency.

  11. 77 FR 53236 - Proposed International Isotopes Fluorine Extraction Process and Depleted Uranium Deconversion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... COMMISSION Proposed International Isotopes Fluorine Extraction Process and Depleted Uranium Deconversion... International Isotopes Fluorine Extraction Process and Depleted Uranium Deconversion Plant (INIS) in Lea County, New Mexico. On December 30, 2009, International Isotopes Fluorine Products, Inc. (IIFP), a...

  12. Emerging technologies in extraction and processing of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Ramana G.

    2003-04-01

    The growing need to conserve energy and materials and prevent environmental pollution led to an increased demand for better understanding of potential as well as existing processes. In this context, thermodynamic and transport modeling of materials and processes provides a rapid and cost-effective means of conducting and minimizing the complexity of experimental investigations and developing innovative and environmentally friendly metallurgical processes. This presentation concentrates on some fundamentals on new technologies as extractive metallurgy of copper, lead, aluminum, and other nonferrous metals and processing of nanocomposites. The newer routes of copper smelting and modeling of impurities in copper and lead slags and mattes are reviewed. The copper smelting capacity increased by a factor of 10 during the last three decades, the smelting rate increased by a factor of 6, and the process fuel equivalent decreased by a factor of 2. The a priori prediction, with no adjustable parameters, of impurity capacities of S and As in copper slags and S in lead slags, based on the Reddy-Blander model, is reviewed. Excellent agreement between the model-predicted capacities data and laboratory experimental and industrial data was observed. The model is an invaluable tool for optimization of process parameters in the efficient removal of impurities from the nonferrous-metals smelting and refining processes. A new in-situ processing technology for the production of a lightweight alloy matrix with ceramic particle reinforcements such as SiC in aluminum alloy matrix composites by bubbling reactive gas is reviewed. Thermal plasma processing of a nanoscale aluminum alloy matrix with TiC and TiN composites is discussed. The in-situ formed reinforcements are thermodynamically stable, and the composite particles are of uniform size. The optimum process parameters for the production of composite powders by thermal plasma are discussed. A low-temperature aluminum production and

  13. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be

  14. Membrane contactor assisted extraction/reaction process employing ionic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Yupo J [Naperville, IL; Snyder, Seth W [Lincolnwood, IL

    2012-02-07

    The present invention relates to a functionalized membrane contactor extraction/reaction system and method for extracting target species from multi-phase solutions utilizing ionic liquids. One preferred embodiment of the invented method and system relates to an extraction/reaction system wherein the ionic liquid extraction solutions act as both extraction solutions and reaction mediums, and allow simultaneous separation/reactions not possible with prior art technology.

  15. Extraction of Hydrological Proximity Measures from DEMs using Parallel Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Tesfa, Teklu K.; Tarboton, David G.; Watson, Daniel W.; Schreuders, Kimberly A.; Baker, Matthew M.; Wallace, Robert M.

    2011-12-01

    Land surface topography is one of the most important terrain properties which impact hydrological, geomorphological, and ecological processes active on a landscape. In our previous efforts to develop a soil depth model based upon topographic and land cover variables, we extracted a set of hydrological proximity measures (HPMs) from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) as potential explanatory variables for soil depth. These HPMs may also have other, more general modeling applicability in hydrology, geomorphology and ecology, and so are described here from a general perspective. The HPMs we derived are variations of the distance up to ridge points (cells with no incoming flow) and variations of the distance down to stream points (cells with a contributing area greater than a threshold), following the flow path. These HPMs were computed using the D-infinity flow model that apportions flow between adjacent neighbors based on the direction of steepest downward slope on the eight triangular facets constructed in a 3 x 3 grid cell window using the center cell and each pair of adjacent neighboring grid cells in turn. The D-infinity model typically results in multiple flow paths between 2 points on the topography, with the result that distances may be computed as the minimum, maximum or average of the individual flow paths. In addition, each of the HPMs, are calculated vertically, horizontally, and along the land surface. Previously, these HPMs were calculated using recursive serial algorithms which suffered from stack overflow problems when used to process large datasets, limiting the size of DEMs that could be analyzed using that method to approximately 7000 x 7000 cells. To overcome this limitation, we developed a message passing interface (MPI) parallel approach for calculating these HPMs. The parallel algorithms of the HPMs spatially partition the input grid into stripes which are each assigned to separate processes for computation. Each of those processes then uses a

  16. Improving flavonoid extraction from Ginkgo biloba leaves by prefermentation processing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiahong; Cao, Fuliang; Su, Erzheng; Wu, Caie; Zhao, Linguo; Ying, Ruifeng

    2013-06-19

    This paper presents a prefermentation treatment method involving fungi to improve flavonoid extraction from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba . The fungi employed for this treatment were screened from the soil present under an ancient ginkgo tree. Seventy-six strains belonging to 23 genera were isolated and identified by a molecular identification method employing 18S rDNA sequences. Thirty-three strains grew well using ginkgo leaves as the growth medium. One strain, Gyx086, with higher extracted yield of flavonoids and more similar to the control, was finally selected for prefermentation processing. The major fermentation factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The optimal conditions for the highest total falvonoid yield were 27.8 °C for temperature, 64.2% for moisture content, and 61 h for fermentation time. Under the optimal condition, a actual total flavonoid yield of 27.59 ± 0.52 mg/g dry weight culture sample was obtained, which was about 70% higher than that of unfermented gingko leaf samples.

  17. PROCESS OF EXTRACTING URANIUM AND RADIUM FROM ORES

    DOEpatents

    Sawyer, C.W.; Handley, R.W.

    1959-07-14

    A process is presented for extracting uranium and radium values from a uranium ore which comprises leaching the ore with a ferric chloride solution at an elevated temperature of above 50 deg C and at a pH less than 4; separating the ore residue from the leaching solution by filtration; precipitating the excess ferric iron present at a pH of less than 5 by adding CaCO/sub 3/ to the filtrate; separating the precipitate by filtration; precipitating the uranium present in the filtrate at a Ph less than 6 by adding BaCO/sub 3/ to the filtrate; separating the precipitate by filtration; and precipitating the radium present in the filtrate by adding H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to the filtrate.

  18. Ice images processing interface for automatic features extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardif, Pierre M.

    2001-02-01

    Canadian Coast Guard has the mandate to maintain the navigability of the St.-Lawrence seaway. It must prevent ice jam formation. Radar, sonar sensors and cameras are used to verify ice movement and keep a record of pertinent data. The cameras are placed along the seaway at strategic locations. Images are processed and saved for future reference. The Ice Images Processing Interface (IIPI) is an integral part of Ices Integrated System (IIS). This software processes images to extract the ice speed, concentration, roughness, and rate of flow. Ice concentration is computed from image segmentation using color models and a priori information. Speed is obtained from a region-matching algorithm. Both concentration and speed calculations are complex, since they require a calibration step involving on-site measurements. Color texture features provide ice roughness estimation. Rate of flow uses ice thickness, which is estimated from sonar sensors on the river floor. Our paper will present how we modeled and designed the IIPI, the issues involved and its future. For more reliable results, we suggest that meteorological data be provided, change in camera orientation be changed, sun reflections be anticipated, and more a priori information, such as radar images available at some sites, be included.

  19. Ultrasound versus microwave as green processes for extraction of rosmarinic, carnosic and ursolic acids from rosemary.

    PubMed

    Jacotet-Navarro, M; Rombaut, N; Fabiano-Tixier, A-S; Danguien, M; Bily, A; Chemat, F

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound and microwave as green processes are investigated in this study, focusing on the extraction selectivity towards antioxidant extraction from rosemary leaves. Due to its richness in valuable compounds such as rosmarinic, carnosic and ursolic acids, rosemary is a reference matrix for extraction study. In this work, six alternative processes are compared: ultrasound (bath, reactor and probe), microwave (reflux under microwave, microwave under nitrogen pressure and microwave under vapor pressure). The main result of this study is that selective extraction can be achieved according to extraction techniques and therefore to the extraction process.

  20. Study on the in-situ coupling process of fermentation, extraction and distillation for biobutanol production: process analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Fuqiang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Hua, Dongliang; Xu, Haipeng; Li, Yan; Mu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The transfer process of the in-situ coupling process of fermentation, extraction and distillation for biobutanol production was discussed from a theoretical point of view. The existence of temperature gradient in the extraction section was proved. The force of solute in the extracted liquid was discussed. And the mass transfer mechanism and impetus of the FEDIC process was analyzed. The theoretical analysis could provide a foundation for the following research.

  1. Ultrasound enhanced process for extracting metal species in supercritical fluids

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Enokida, Youichi

    2006-10-31

    Improved methods for the extraction or dissolution of metals, metalloids or their oxides, especially lanthanides, actinides, uranium or their oxides, into supercritical solvents containing an extractant are disclosed. The disclosed embodiments specifically include enhancing the extraction or dissolution efficiency with ultrasound. The present methods allow the direct, efficient dissolution of UO2 or other uranium oxides without generating any waste stream or by-products.

  2. Processing of Rosa rubiginosa: extraction of oil and antioxidant substances.

    PubMed

    Franco, Daniel; Pinelo, Manuel; Sineiro, Jorge; Núñez, María José

    2007-12-01

    In this work, a study about the effect of various operational conditions on the quantity of oil and soluble solids capable of being extracted from rosa mosqueta rosehip seeds is undertaken. Both the particle sizes assayed (0.6mm, 0.6-1mm, and 1-2mm) and the solvent-to-solid ratios (15:1, 25:1, and 50:1) showed a remarkable influence on the extraction efficiency. Extracted substances obtained by using the minor particle size or the maximum solvent-to-solid ratio doubled, at least, those attained by working under any other conditions. A major weight of kinetics upon equilibrium factors can be inferred from the short extraction times and high effective diffusivity values (being the lower one 1.97x10(-11)m(2)s(-1)) assessed for any condition. The antioxidant power of extracts was evaluated by ability to scavenge the DPPH radical. Results noteworthy depended on the solvent used to extract; whilst an approximately 80% DPPH inhibition percentage was reached in ethanol extracts, values of 52.2% or 41% were found in methanol and aqueous extracts, respectively. Even so, antioxidant capacity of Rosa rubiginosa extracts was much higher than that reported for other agricultural matrixes.

  3. Process optimization for reverse micellar extraction of stem bromelain with a focus on back extraction.

    PubMed

    Dhaneshwar, Amrut D; Chaurasiya, Ram Saran; Hebbar, H Umesh

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, reverse micellar extraction (RME) for the purification of stem bromelain was successfully achieved using the sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane system. A maximum forward extraction efficiency of 58.0% was obtained at 100 mM AOT concentration, aqueous phase pH of 8.0 and 0.2 M NaCl. Back extraction studies on altering stripping phase pH and KCl concentration, addition of counter-ion and iso-propyl alcohol (IPA) and mechanical agitation with glass beads indicated that IPA addition and agitation with glass beads have significant effects on extraction efficiency. The protein extraction was higher (51.9%) in case of the IPA (10% v/v) added system during back extraction as compared to a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (100 mM) added system (9.42%). The central composite design technique was used to optimize the back extraction conditions further. Concentration of IPA, amount of glass beads, mixing time, and agitation speed (in rpm) were the variables selected. IPA concentration of 8.5% (v/v), glass bead concentration of 0.6 (w/v), and mixing time of 45 min at 400 rpm resulted in higher back extraction efficiency of 45.6% and activity recovery of 88.8% with purification of 3.04-fold. The study indicated that mechanical agitation using glass beads could be used for destabilizing the reverse micelles and release of bromelain back into the fresh aqueous phase.

  4. Bioactive phytochemicals in wheat: Extraction, analysis, processing, and functional properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole wheat provides a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals namely, phenolic acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, alkylresorcinols, arabinoxylans, benzoxazinoids, phytosterols, and lignans. This review provides information on the distribution, extractability, analysis, and nutraceutical properties of...

  5. Process to upgrade coal liquids by extraction prior to hydrodenitrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Abraham; Hollstein, Elmer J.; Janoski, Edward J.; Scheibel, Edward G.

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen compounds are removed, e.g., by extraction, from a coal liquid prior to its hydrogenation. As a result, compared to hydrogenation of such a non-treated coal liquid, the rate of nitrogen removal is increased.

  6. Process for separation of the rare earths by solvent extraction

    DOEpatents

    Mason, George W.; Lewey, Sonia

    1977-04-05

    Production rates for solvent extraction separation of the rare earths and yttrium from each other can be improved by the substitution of di(2-ethylhexyl) mono-thiophosphoric acid for di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid. The di(2-ethylhexyl) mono-thiophosphoric acid does not form an insoluble polymer at approximately 50% saturation as does the former extractant, permitting higher feed solution concentration and thus greater throughput.

  7. Effect of extraction conditions on lycopene extractions from tomato processing waste skin using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Devinder; Wani, Ali Abas; Oberoi, D P S; Sogi, D S

    2008-05-15

    Skin, rich in lycopene, is an important component of waste originating from tomato paste manufacturing plants. A central composite design with five independent variables, namely solvent/meal ratio (20:1, 30:1, 40:1, 50:1, and 60:1v/w); number of extractions (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5); temperature (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60°C); particle size (0.05, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.43mm); extraction time (4, 8, 12, 16 and 20min) was used to study their effects on lycopene extraction. The experimental values of lycopene ranged between 0.639 and 1.98mg/100g. The second order model obtained for extracted lycopene revealed a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.99 and a standard error of 0.03. Maximum lycopene (1.98mg/100g) was extracted when the solvent/meal ratio, number of extractions, temperature, particle size and extraction time were 30:1v/w, 4, 50°C, 0.15mm and 8min, respectively.

  8. The influence of cooking process on the microwave-assisted extraction of cottonseed oil.

    PubMed

    Taghvaei, Mostafa; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Nowrouzieh, Shahram; Alishah, Omran

    2015-02-01

    Cooking process is one of the most energy and time consuming steps in the edible oil extraction factories. The main goal of this study was cottonseed oil extraction by microwave radiation and elimination of any heat treatment of cottonseeds before extraction. The effect of cooking process on the physicochemical properties of extracted oil from two varieties of cottonseed (Pak and Sahel) was evaluated by free fatty acid content, melting point, smoke point and refractive index. Our results didn't show any significant differences between cooked and uncooked samples (P > 0.05) regarding physicochemical characteristics. From GC analysis of extracted oils, it was found there is no significant difference in fatty acid composition of cooked, uncooked and control (conventional extraction) samples. The thermal stability (Rancimat) analysis of oil samples showed the cooking process could cause a slight increase in the stability of oils for both varieties (about 40 min). The cooking process also increased total extracted phenolic compounds and considerably decreased total gossypol content of the cottonseed oil; but the extraction efficiency didn't change considerably after elimination of the cooking process. It can be concluded that microwave rays can destroy the structure of oil cells during process and facilitate the oil extraction without any heat treatment before extraction.

  9. Insight of solvent extraction process: Reassessment of trace level determinations.

    PubMed

    Chandramouleeswaran, S; Ramkumar, Jayshree; Basu, M

    2016-09-28

    Solvent extraction is hoary yet modern technique with great scope of research due to the various intriguing phenomena in the system. Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) is a well known extractant which has been extensively used for separation of uranium matrix prior to elemental profiling. In this paper, one of the impurities namely Fe is being considered as it posed a challenge to the separation due to its co-extraction with TBP along with uranium. In these studies, for the first time, the existence of cation-cation inner sphere complexes between the UO2(2+)and Fe(3+) ions in both aqueous and organic phases have been establisted in addition to the selective separation of iron from uranium sample matrix using only TBP. The data from both spectrophotometric and thermophysical studies corroborated one another confirming the presence of cation-cation interactions (CCIs). The developed solvent extraction with only TBP showed almost no interferences on the iron extraction from matrix uranium and other co-ions like aluminum and copper. This has been the first time application of pure TBP for selective removal of iron from uranium samples. The procedure possessed excellent reproducibility and robustness.

  10. Process for the extraction of technetium from uranium

    DOEpatents

    Gong, Cynthia-May S.; Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.

    2010-12-21

    A spent fuel reprocessing method contacts an aqueous solution containing Technetium(V) and uranyl with an acidic solution comprising hydroxylamine hydrochloride or acetohydroxamic acid to reduce Tc(V) to Tc(II, and then extracts the uranyl with an organic phase, leaving technetium(II) in aqueous solution.

  11. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady Dadyburjor; Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-12-12

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop technologies for carbon products from coal-derived feed-stocks. Carbon products can include precursor materials such as solvent extracted carbon ore (SECO) and synthetic pitch (Synpitch). In addition, derived products include carbon composites, fibers, foams and others.

  12. System of extraction of volatiles from soil using microwave processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C. (Inventor); Kaukler, William F. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A device for the extraction and collection of volatiles from soil or planetary regolith. The device utilizes core drilled holes to gain access to underlying volatiles below the surface. Microwave energy beamed into the holes penetrates through the soil or regolith to heat it, and thereby produces vapor by sublimation. The device confines and transports volatiles to a cold trap for collection.

  13. REMOVAL OF PCBS FROM A CONTAMINATED SOIL USING CF-SYSTEMS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA's START team in cooperation with EPA's SITE program evaluated a pilot scale solvent extraction process developed by CF-Systems. This process uses liquified propane to extract organic contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments. A pilot-scale evaluation was conducte...

  14. Microfluidic process monitor for industrial solvent extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Gelis, Artem; Pereira, Candido; Nichols, Kevin Paul Flood

    2016-01-12

    The present invention provides a system for solvent extraction utilizing a first electrode with a raised area formed on its surface, which defines a portion of a microfluidic channel; a second electrode with a flat surface, defining another portion of the microfluidic channel that opposes the raised area of the first electrode; a reversibly deformable substrate disposed between the first electrode and second electrode, adapted to accommodate the raised area of the first electrode and having a portion that extends beyond the raised area of the first electrode, that portion defining the remaining portions of the microfluidic channel; and an electrolyte of at least two immiscible liquids that flows through the microfluidic channel. Also provided is a system for performing multiple solvent extractions utilizing several microfluidic chips or unit operations connected in series.

  15. Image Processing for Planetary Limb/Terminator Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Udomkesmalee, S.; Zhu, D. Q.; Chu, C. -C.

    1995-01-01

    A novel image segmentation technique for extracting limb and terminator of planetary bodies is proposed. Conventional edge- based histogramming approaches are used to trace object boundaries. The limb and terminator bifurcation is achieved by locating the harmonized segment in the two equations representing the 2-D parameterized boundary curve. Real planetary images from Voyager 1 and 2 served as representative test cases to verify the proposed methodology.

  16. Controllability of plutonium concentration for FBR fuel at a solvent extraction process in the PUREX process

    SciTech Connect

    Enokida, Youichi; Kitano, Motoki; Sawada, Kayo

    2013-07-01

    Typical Purex solvent extraction systems for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel have a feed material containing dilute, 1% in weight, plutonium, along with uranium and fission products. Current reprocessing proposals call for no separation of the pure plutonium. The work described in this paper studied, by computer simulation, the fundamental feasibility of preparing a 20% concentrated plutonium product solution from the 1% feed by adjusting only the feed rates and acid concentrations of the incoming streams and without the addition of redox reagents for the plutonium. A set of process design flowsheets has been developed to realize a concentrated plutonium solution of a 20% stream from the dilute plutonium feed without using redox reagents. (authors)

  17. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METALS FROM PHOSPHORIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Bailes, R.H.; Long, R.S.

    1958-11-01

    > A solvent extraction process is presented for recovering metal values including uranium, thorium, and other lanthanide and actinide elements from crude industrial phosphoric acid solutions. The process conslsts of contacting said solution with an immisclble organic solvent extractant containing a diluent and a material selected from the group consisting of mono and di alkyl phosphates, alkyl phosphonates and alkyl phosphites. The uranlum enters the extractant phase and is subsequently recovered by any of the methods known to the art. Recovery is improved if the phosphate solution is treated with a reducing agent such as iron or aluminum powder prior to the extraction step.

  18. Extracting Coherent Information from Noise Based Correlation Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    signal processing that overcome the effects of the fluctuating ocean by essentilly developing techniques that speed up the processing to time scales...appropriate signal processing methods. WORK COMPLETED There have been two thrusts –the first has been related to extending the range/ valdity of the...Correlation Processing W. A. Kuperman and W. S. Hodgkiss Marine Physical Laboratory of the Scripps Institution of Ocenaography Univeritiy of

  19. Optimization of Process Parameters and Kinetic Model of Enzymatic Extraction of Polyphenols from Lonicerae Flos

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Fansheng; Yu, Shujuan; Bi, Yongguang; Huang, Xiaojun; Huang, Mengqian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To optimize and verify the cellulase extraction of polyphenols from honeysuckle and provide a reference for enzymatic extracting polyphenols from honeysuckle. Materials and Methods: The uniform design was used According to Fick's first law and kinetic model, fitting analysis of the dynamic process of enzymatic extracting polyphenols was conducted. Results: The optimum enzymatic extraction parameters for polyphenols from honeysuckle are found to be 80% (v/v) of alcohol, 35:1 (mL/g) of liquid-solid ratio, 80°C of extraction temperature, 8.5 of pH, 6.0 mg of enzyme levels, and 130 min of extraction time. Under the optimal conditions, the extraction rate of polyphenols was 3.03%. The kinetic experiments indicated kinetic equation had a good linear relationship with t even under the conditions of different levels of enzyme and temperature, which means fitting curve tallies well with the experimental values. Conclusion: The results of quantification showed that the results provide a reference for enzymatic extracting polyphenols from honeysuckle. SUMMARY Lonicerae flos (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) is a material of traditional Chinese medicine and healthy drinks, of which active compounds mainly is polyphenols. At present, plant polyphenols are the hotspots centents of food, cosmetic and medicine, because it has strong bioactivity. Several traditional methods are available for the extraction of plant polyphenols including impregnation, solvent extraction, ultrasonic extraction, hot-water extraction, alkaline dilute alcohol or alkaline water extraction, microwave extraction and Supercritical CO2 extraction. But now, an increasing number of research on using cellulase to extract active ingredients from plants. Enzymatic method is widely used for enzyme have excellent properties of high reaction efficiency and specificity, moderate reaction conditions, shorter extraction time and easier to control, less damage to the active ingredient. At present, the enzymatic

  20. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady Dadyburjor; Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-02-23

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop technologies for carbon products from coal-derived feedstocks. Carbon products can include precursor materials such as solvent extracted carbon ore (SECO) and synthetic pitch (Synpitch). In addition, derived products include carbon composites, fibers, foams and others. Key milestones included producing hydrogenated coal in the Hydrotreating Facility for the first time. The facility is now operational, although digital controls have not yet been completely wired. In addition, ultrasound is being used to investigate enhanced dissolution of coal. Experiments have been carried out.

  1. New geothermal heat extraction process to deliver clean power generation

    ScienceCinema

    Pete McGrail

    2016-07-12

    A new method for capturing significantly more heat from low-temperature geothermal resources holds promise for generating virtually pollution-free electrical energy. Scientists at the Department of Energys Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will determine if their innovative approach can safely and economically extract and convert heat from vast untapped geothermal resources. The goal is to enable power generation from low-temperature geothermal resources at an economical cost. In addition to being a clean energy source without any greenhouse gas emissions, geothermal is also a steady and dependable source of power.

  2. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE SEPARATION OF URANIUM AND THORIUM FROM PROTACTINIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Rainey, R.H.; Moore, J.G.

    1962-08-14

    A liquid-liquid extraction process was developed for recovering thorium and uranium values from a neutron irradiated thorium composition. They are separated from a solvent extraction system comprising a first end extraction stage for introducing an aqueous feed containing thorium and uranium into the system consisting of a plurality of intermediate extractiorr stages and a second end extractron stage for introducing an aqueous immiscible selective organic solvent for thorium and uranium in countercurrent contact therein with the aqueous feed. A nitrate iondeficient aqueous feed solution containing thorium and uranium was introduced into the first end extraction stage in countercurrent contact with the organic solvent entering the system from the second end extraction stage while intro ducing an aqueous solution of salting nitric acid into any one of the intermediate extraction stages of the system. The resultant thorium and uranium-laden organic solvent was removed at a point preceding the first end extraction stage of the system. (AEC)

  3. Process optimization and analysis of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel.

    PubMed

    Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sivakumar, V; Prakash Maran, J

    2014-11-04

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed for the extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel. The extracting parameters were optimized by using four-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM). RSM analysis indicated good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. 3D response surface plots were used to study the interactive effects of process variables on extraction of pectin. The optimum extraction conditions for the maximum yield of pectin were power of 400 W, temperature of 45 °C, extracting time of 20 min and solid-liquid ratio of 24 g/mL. Under these conditions, 7.5% of pectin was extracted.

  4. Understanding leaf membrane protein extraction to develop a food-grade process.

    PubMed

    Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica; Boom, Remko M; van der Goot, Atze Jan

    2017-02-15

    Leaf membrane proteins are an underutilised protein fraction for food applications. Proteins from leaves can contribute to a more complete use of resources and help to meet the increasing protein demand. Leaf protein extraction and purification is applied by other disciplines, such as proteomics. Therefore, this study analysed proteomic extraction methods for membrane proteins as an inspiration for a food-grade alternative process. Sugar beet leaves were extracted with two proteomic protocols: solvent extraction and Triton X-114 phase partitioning method. Extraction steps contributed to protein purity and/or to selective fractionation, enabling the purification of specific proteins. It was observed that membrane proteins distributed among different solvents, buffers and solutions used due to their physicochemical heterogeneity. This heterogeneity does not allow a total membrane protein extraction by a unique method or even combinations of processing steps, but it enables the creation of different fractions with different physicochemical properties useful for food applications.

  5. Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes for Coal Derived Carbon Products

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel

    2006-12-31

    This DOE NETL-sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous processes for producing carbon products from solvent-extracted coal. A key process step is removal of solids from liquefied coal. Three different processes were compared: gravity separation, centrifugation using a decanter-type Sharples Pennwalt centrifuge, and a Spinner-II centrifuge. The data suggest that extracts can be cleaned to as low as 0.5% ash level and probably lower using a combination of these techniques.

  6. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady Dadyburjor; Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-12-12

    High melting temperature synthetic pitches (Synpitches) were created using coal derivatives produced from a solvent extraction technique. Solvent extraction is used to separate hydrocarbons from mineral matter as well as other insolubles. Mild hydrogenation can be used to chemically modify resultant material to produce a true pitch. There are three main techniques which can be used to tailor the softening point of the Synpitch. First, the softening point can be controlled by varying the conditions of hydrogenation, chiefly the temperature, pressure and residence time in a hydrogen overpressure. Second, by selectively distilling light hydrocarbons, the softening point of the remaining pitch can be raised. Third, the Synpitch can be blended with another mutually soluble pitch or hydrocarbon liquid. Through such techniques, spinnable isotropic Synpitches have been created from coal feedstocks. Characteristics of Synpitches include high cross-linking reactivity and high molecular weight, resulting in carbon fibers with excellent mechanical properties. To date, mechanical properties have been achieved which are comparable to the state of the art achievable with conventional coal tar pitch or petroleum pitch.

  7. Influence of process parameters on the extraction of soluble substances from OFMSW and methane production.

    PubMed

    Campuzano, Rosalinda; González-Martínez, Simón

    2017-02-19

    Microorganisms involved in anaerobic digestion require dissolved substrates to transport them through the cell wall to different processing units and finally to be disposed as waste, such as methane and carbon dioxide. In order to increase methane production, this work proposes to separate the soluble substances from OFMSW and analyse methane production from extracts and OFMSW. Using water as solvent, four extraction parameters were proposed: (1) Number of consecutive extractions, (2) Duration of mixing for every consecutive extraction, (3) OFMSW to water mass ratios 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 and, (4) The influence of temperature on the extraction process. Results indicated that is possible to separate 40% of VS from OFMSW with only three consecutive extraction with mixing of 30min in every extraction using ambient temperature water. For every OFMSW to water combination, the first three consecutive extracts were analysed for biochemical methane potential test during 21days at 35°C; OFMSW was also tested as reference. Methane production from all substrates is highest during the first day and then it slowly decreases to increase again during a second stage. This was identified as diauxic behaviour. Specific methane production at day 21 increased with increasing water content of the extracts where OFMSW methane production was the lowest of all with 535NL/kgVS. These results indicate that it is feasible to rapidly produce methane from extracted substances.

  8. A novel DNA selection and direct extraction process and its application in DNA recombination.

    PubMed

    Wang, An-Bang; Cheng, Chia-Wei; Lin, I-Chun; Lu, Fei-Yau; Tsai, Huai-Jen; Lin, Chiu-Chun; Yang, Chun-Hui; Pan, Po-Ting; Kuan, Chen-Chi; Chen, Yen-Chih; Lin, Yi-Wei; Chang, Chih-Ning; Wu, Yi-Hung; Kurniawan, Tetuko; Lin, Chii-Wann; Wo, Andrew M; Chen, Lin-Chi

    2011-02-01

    In the conventional bench-top approach, the DNA recombination process is time- and effort-consuming due to laborious procedures lasting from several hours to a day. A novel DNA selection and direct extraction process has been proposed, integrated and tested on chip. The integrative microfluidic chip can perform the whole procedure of DNA recombination, including DNA digestion, gel electrophoresis, DNA extraction and insert-vector ligation within 1 h. In this high-throughput design, the manual gel cutting was replaced by an automatic processing system that performed high-quality and high-recovery efficiency in DNA extraction process. With no need of gel-dissolving reagents and manipulation, the application of selection and direct extraction process could significantly eliminate the risks from UV and EtBr and also facilitate DNA recombination. Reliable output with high success rate of cloning has been achieved with a significant reduction in operational hazards, required materials, efforts and time.

  9. Direct extraction of palladium and silver from waste printed circuit boards powder by supercritical fluids oxidation-extraction process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kang; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2016-11-15

    The current study was carried out to develop an environmental benign process for direct recovery of palladium (Pd) and silver (Ag) from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) powder. The process ingeniously combined supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) and supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc-CO2) extraction techniques. SCWO treatment could effectively enrich Pd and Ag by degrading non-metallic component, and a precious metal concentrate (PMC) could be obtained, in which the enrichment factors of Pd and Ag reached 5.3 and 4.8, respectively. In the second stage, more than 93.7% Pd and 96.4% Ag could be extracted from PMC by Sc-CO2 modified with acetone and KI-I2 under optimum conditions. Mechanism study indicated that Pd and Ag extraction by Sc-CO2 was a complicated physiochemical process, involving oxidation, complexation, anion exchange, mass transfer and migration approaches. Accordingly, this study established a benign and effective process for selective recovery of dispersal precious metals from waste materials.

  10. Evaluation of a sequential extraction process used for determining mercury binding mechanisms to coal combustion byproducts.

    PubMed

    Noel, James D; Biswas, Pratim; Giammar, Daniel E

    2007-07-01

    Leaching of mercury from coal combustion byproducts is a concern because of the toxicity of mercury. Leachability of mercury can be assessed by using sequential extraction procedures. Sequential extraction procedures are commonly used to determine the speciation and mobility of trace metals in solid samples and are designed to differentiate among metals bound by different mechanisms and to different solid phases. This study evaluated the selectivity and effectiveness of a sequential extraction process used to determine mercury binding mechanisms to various materials. A six-step sequential extraction process was applied to laboratory-synthesized materials with known mercury concentrations and binding mechanisms. These materials were calcite, hematite, goethite, and titanium dioxide. Fly ash from a full-scale power plant was also investigated. The concentrations of mercury were measured using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry, whereas the major elements were measured by ICP atomic emission spectrometry. The materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The sequential extraction procedure provided information about the solid phases with which mercury was associated in the solid sample. The procedure effectively extracted mercury from the target phases. The procedure was generally selective in extracting mercury. However, some steps in the procedure extracted mercury from nontarget phases, and others resulted in mercury redistribution. Iron from hematite and goethite was only leached in the reducible and residual extraction steps. Some mercury associated with goethite was extracted in the ion exchangeable step, whereas mercury associated with hematite was extracted almost entirely in the residual step. Calcium in calcite and mercury associated with calcite were primarily removed in the acid-soluble extraction step. Titanium in titanium dioxide and mercury adsorbed onto

  11. Solutions for Arsenic Control in Mining Processes and Extractive Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neitola, Raisa; Korhonen, Tero; Backnäs, Soile; Turunen, Kaisa; Kaartinen, Tommi; Laine-Ylijoki, Jutta; Wahlström, Margareta; Venho, Antti; Ahoranta, Sarita; Nissilä, Marika; Puhakka, Jaakko

    2015-04-01

    In mining, quarrying and industrial minerals production arsenic is a common element, thus creating a challenge in mining processes. This project aimed to develop solutions to control and remove As-compounds in materials and effluents of beneficiation processes and other mining operations. Focus was on various technologies e.g. traditional mineral processing, bioprocessing, water treatment, as well as various materials such as gold ores and concentrates, industrial by-products, and mine waters. The results of suggest that by novel mineral processing and proper water treatment methods the amount of As-compounds in tailings and effluents can be reduced to levels that satisfy the regulations concerning mining waste management. According to the environmental research, mining activities tend to increase the proportion of potentially mobile and available elements in soil. The effect of mining activity on geogenic contamination needs to be considered in risk assessment.

  12. Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs between 7.6 and 10.4 and salt concentrations between 3.4 × 10-2 and 1.2 M. The optimum extraction efficiency was pH 10.0 and 1.0 M NaCl. Napin and cruciferin were the most prevalent proteins in the isolate. The isolate exhibited high in vitro digestibility (74.9 ± 0.80%) and lysine content (5.2 ± 0.2 g/100 g of protein). No differences in the efficiency of extraction, SDS-PAGE profile, digestibility, lysine availability, or amino acid composition were observed between protein extracted with thin stillage and that extracted with NaCl solution. The use of thin stillage, in lieu of water, for protein extraction would decrease the energy requirements and waste disposal costs of the protein isolation and biofuel production processes. PMID:22239856

  13. PROCESS OF RECOVERING ZIRCONIUM VALUES FROM HAFNIUM VALUES BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION WITH AN ALKYL PHOSPHATE

    DOEpatents

    Peppard, D.F.

    1960-02-01

    A process of separating hafnium nitrate from zirconium nitrate contained in a nitric acid solution by selectively. extracting the zirconium nitrate with a water-immiscible alkyl phosphate is reported.

  14. Neptunium - Uranium - Plutonium Co-Extraction in TBP-based Solvent Extraction Processes for Spent Nuclear Fuel Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Arm, S.T.; Abrefah, J.; Lumetta, G.J.; Sinkov, S.I.

    2007-07-01

    The US, through the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, is currently engaged in efforts aimed at closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neptunium behavior is important to understand for transuranic recycling because of its complex oxidation chemistry. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is investigating neptunium oxidation chemistry in the context of the PUREX process. Neptunium extraction in the PUREX process relies on maintaining either IV or V oxidation states. Qualitative conversion of neptunium(V) to neptunium(VI) was achieved within 5 hours in 6 M nitric acid at 95 deg. C. However, the VI state was not maintained during a batch contact test simulating the PUREX process and neptunium reduced to the V state, rendering it inextractable. Vanadium(V) was found to be effective in maintaining neptunium(VI) by adding it to a simulated irradiated nuclear fuel feed in 6 M nitric acid and to the scrub acid in the batch contact simulation of the PUREX process. Computer simulations of the PUREX process with a typical irradiated nuclear fuel in 6 M nitric acid as feed indicated little impact of the higher acid concentration on the behavior of fission products of moderate extractability. We plan to perform countercurrent tests of this modified PUREX process in the near future. (authors)

  15. Optimization of Extraction Process for Polysaccharide in Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bunge Using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Yanhua, Wang; Fuhua, Wu; Zhaohan, Guo; Mingxing, Peng; Yanan, Zhang; Ling, Pang Zhen; Minhua, Du; Caiying, Zhang; Zian, Liang

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to optimize the extraction process for Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide using response surface methodology The results showed that four operating parameters including microwave power, microwave time and the particle size had notable effects on the polysaccharide extraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The effects could be ranked in decreasing order of importance as follows:. Microwave power > microwave time > the comminution degree. The optimal extraction parameters were determined as 573.83W of Microwave power and 8.4min of microwave time and 67.51mesh of the comminution degree, resulting in the yield of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide of 101.161mg / g. The established regression model describing polysaccharide extraction from as a function of the three extraction parameters was highly significant (R 2 = 0.9953). The predicted and experimental results were found to be in good agreement. Thus, the model can be applicable for the prediction of polysaccharide extraction from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

  16. Optimization of Extraction Process for Polysaccharide in Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bunge Using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Yanhua, Wang; Fuhua, Wu; Zhaohan, Guo; Mingxing, Peng; Yanan, Zhang; Ling, Pang Zhen; Minhua, Du; Caiying, Zhang; Zian, Liang

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to optimize the extraction process for Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide using response surface methodology The results showed that four operating parameters including microwave power, microwave time and the particle size had notable effects on the polysaccharide extraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The effects could be ranked in decreasing order of importance as follows:. Microwave power > microwave time > the comminution degree. The optimal extraction parameters were determined as 573.83W of Microwave power and 8.4min of microwave time and 67.51mesh of the comminution degree, resulting in the yield of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide of 101.161mg / g. The established regression model describing polysaccharide extraction from as a function of the three extraction parameters was highly significant (R 2 = 0.9953). The predicted and experimental results were found to be in good agreement. Thus, the model can be applicable for the prediction of polysaccharide extraction from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

  17. Extracting Process and Mapping Management for Heterogennous Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagara, Igor; Tanuška, Pavol; Duchovičová, Soňa

    2013-12-01

    A lot of papers describe three common methods of data selection from primary systems. This paper defines how to select the correct method or combinations of methods for minimizing the impact of production system and common operation. Before using any method, it is necessary to know the primary system and its databases structures for the optimal use of the actual data structure setup and the best design for ETL process. Databases structures are usually categorized into groups, which characterize their quality. The classification helps to find the ideal method for each group and thus design a solution of ETL process with the minimal impact on the data warehouse and production system.

  18. Study of process variables in supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of soybeans.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Nikolas; Hilton, Ramsey; Hendry, Doug; Venkitasamy, Chandrasekar; Jacoby, William

    2014-01-01

    Soybean flakes were extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide at 48.3 MPa and 80 °C, which is a higher temperature than previously reported. Several operational parameters were explored to determine their effect on extractions. Flakes, as typically used in this industry, provided the best extraction performance. Particle size distributions were created through grinding. Reducing average particle diameters smaller than 0.069 mm had no appreciable effect on increasing extraction efficiencies. Exploration of flow rate indicated that a residence time of less than 60 s for the supercritical carbon dioxide would be sufficient for complete extractions. A solvent mass to load mass ratio of 10:1 was found to be sufficient for extraction of oils from soybean flakes. Increasing moisture in the soybeans led to decreasing extraction efficiency of oils. Finally, soybean hulls had no effect on extraction efficiency. Thus, the de-hulling procedure can be removed from the extraction process without decreasing extraction efficiency.

  19. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  20. Extraction of Lipids from Flax Processing Waste Using Hot Ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cuticle of flax stems contain lipids that provide a protective barrier to pathogens and control moisture loss. These lipids include wax esters and long chain fatty alcohols or policosanols. Cuticle fragments generated during several different fiber processing operations retain these lipid compou...

  1. Use of Separator with Regular Granular Filling in Extraction Processes - 12209

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, Vladimir; Veselov, Sergey; Zherebtsov, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    The separator with a regular granular filling has been developed to be used for the operations of the removal of carbon-black impurities from the aqueous flow; the intra-cycle regeneration of back-extractants; and the concentrating back-extraction of plutonium in the extraction SNF reprocessing technology. The process conditions for those operations have been experimentally tested using this separator. Thus, the separator for operations of concentrating reextraction of plutonium and regeneration recycling extractant allows to: - derive plutonium from the organic stream into an extremely concentrated form, reducing the amount of liquid radioactive waste (raffinate, decantate) plutonium branches to a minimum; - controlling the processes of concentration of uranium and plutonium, get uranium-plutonium product with required concentration and the amount of metal with required ratio; - eliminate contamination of the emulsion flows; - simplify the purification of uranium from the extract plutonium; - test results showed that when working on a solution 'hydrazine-DTPA' in the separator it is achieved the extraction of plutonium re-extract - 82% TC - at 56-65%. With the transition to the reextraction by solution 'U (IV)-hydrazine', of plutonium into re-extract increases to 95%, technetium - up to 83%; - regenerate the extractant recycling minimizing the amount of liquid radioactive waste generated as a technology used as well as alternative 'salt-free' systems; - it is found that the regeneration of the extractant solution of soda and EDA in the separator at a load of 3.2 m{sup 3} / (m{sup 2}.h) it can be achieved almost complete phase separation. Residual carryover of 0,005-0,006% emulsion is on the verge of analytical detection. - It is shown that in the depth of separation phase a separation of the extractant regeneration of quality superior is more than 5-7 times to the extraction. (authors)

  2. Characterization of filter extractables by proton NMR spectroscopy: studies on intact filters with process buffers.

    PubMed

    Kao, Y H; Bender, J; Hagewiesche, A; Wong, P; Huang, Y; Vanderlaan, M

    2001-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize potential extractables from sterilizing grade filters. The focus of this report is the 0.22 micron Durapore (hydrophilic modified PVDF) filter which is used throughout our recovery processes. The objectives of this study are (1) to identify potential filter extractables from the hydrophilic PVDF filters; (2) to show that NMR spectroscopy may be used to detect filter extractables in the presence of product and excipients; and (3) to establish levels of filter extractables obtained by extraction with a variety of buffers. The data show that the primary source of filter extractables is the hydrophilic modification of the PVDF membrane surface. Extractables from the modified hydrophilic PVDF filter include propylene glycol (PG) and soluble oligomers of the hydroxypropyl acrylate and cross-linker. Propylene glycol, arising from the hydrolysis of the hydroxypropyl acrylate, appears to be the primary extractable in buffers above pH 11. Since the 1H-NMR method can easily detect the methyl proton signals of PG, an NMR assay was developed to detect PG in the presence of buffer excipients and final product. Propylene glycol can be used as a marker for the extractables from Durapore hydrophilic PVDF filters. Although numerous buffers were used to generate extractables from the PVDF filter, significant extractables (PG and soluble oligomers) were found only in high pH extraction buffers. As a result of this finding, only a limited number of new buffers or new PVDF filters will require testing for future validation studies. Process validation studies have shown that neither PG nor soluble oligomers are at levels that impact the quality or safety of the product.

  3. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2001-06-30

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behaviors of hematite in the dextran (Dex)/Triton X-100 (TX100) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran systems were investigated and the effects of some ionic surfactants on solid partition were studied. In both biphase systems, the particles stayed in the bottom dextran-rich phase under all pH conditions. This behavior is attributable to the fact that the hydrophilic oxide particles prefer the more hydrophilic bottom phase. Also, the strong favorable interaction between dextran and ferric oxide facilitates the dispersion of the solids in the polysaccharide-rich phase. In the Dex/TX100 system, addition of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) or potassium oleate had no effect on the solid partition; on the other hand, addition of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) transferred the particles to the top phase or interface at high pH values. In the PEG/Dex system, the preferred location of hematite remained the bottom phase in the presence of either SDS or DTAB. The effects of anionic surfactants on the partition behavior are attributable to the fact that they are not able to replace the strongly adsorbed polysaccharide layer on the ferric oxide surface. The results with the cationic surfactant are due to electrostatic interaction between the cationic surfactant and the charged surface of the solid particles. The difference in solids partitioning in the two systems is the result of the different distribution of DTAB in these systems. In the Dex/TX100 system, DTAB prefers the top surfactant-rich phase, while it concentrates in the bottom phase in the PEG/dextran system.

  4. Ferric ion as a scavenging agent in a solvent extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Bruns, Lester E.; Martin, Earl C.

    1976-01-01

    Ferric ions are added into the aqueous feed of a plutonium scrap recovery process that employs a tributyl phosphate extractant. Radiolytic degradation products of tributyl phosphate such as dibutyl phosphate form a solid precipitate with iron and are removed from the extraction stages via the waste stream. Consequently, the solvent extraction characteristics are improved, particularly in respect to minimizing the formation of nonstrippable plutonium complexes in the stripping stages. The method is expected to be also applicable to the partitioning of plutonium and uranium in a scrap recovery process.

  5. Retinal vessel extraction using Lattice Neural Networks with Dendritic Processing.

    PubMed

    Vega, Roberto; Sanchez-Ante, Gildardo; Falcon-Morales, Luis E; Sossa, Humberto; Guevara, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    Retinal images can be used to detect and follow up several important chronic diseases. The classification of retinal images requires an experienced ophthalmologist. This has been a bottleneck to implement routine screenings performed by general physicians. It has been proposed to create automated systems that can perform such task with little intervention from humans, with partial success. In this work, we report advances in such endeavor, by using a Lattice Neural Network with Dendritic Processing (LNNDP). We report results using several metrics, and compare against well known methods such as Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Multilayer Perceptrons (MLP). Our proposal shows better performance than other approaches reported in the literature. An additional advantage is that unlike those other tools, LNNDP requires no parameters, and it automatically constructs its structure to solve a particular problem. The proposed methodology requires four steps: (1) Pre-processing, (2) Feature computation, (3) Classification and (4) Post-processing. The Hotelling T(2) control chart was used to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector, from 7 that were used before to 5 in this work. The experiments were run on images of DRIVE and STARE databases. The results show that on average, F1-Score is better in LNNDP, compared with SVM and MLP implementations. Same improvement is observed for MCC and the accuracy.

  6. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2001-06-30

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behaviors of silica in the polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran (Dex) and dextran/Triton X-100 (TX100) systems have been investigated, and the effects of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) on solid partition have been studied. In both biphase systems, silica particles stayed in the top PEG-rich phase at low pH. With increase in pH, the particles moved from the top phase to the interface, then to the bottom phase. At very high pH, the solids preferred the top phase again. These trends are attributable to variations in the polymer/solid and nonionic surfactant/solid interactions. Addition of ionic surfactants into these two systems introduces a weakly charged environment, since ionic surfactants concentrate into one phase, either the top phase or the bottom phase. Therefore, coulombic forces also play a key role in the partition of silica particles because electrostatic attractive or repulsive forces are produced between the solid surface and the ionic-surfactant-concentrated phase. For the PEG/dextran system in the presence of SDS, SiO{sub 2} preferred the bottom dextran-rich phase above its pH{sub PZC}. However, addition of DTAB moved the oxide particles from the top phase to the interface, and then to the bottom phase, with increase in pH. These different behaviors are attributable to the fact that SDS and DTAB concentrated into the opposite phase of the PEG/dextran system. On the other hand, in the dextran/Triton X-100 system, both ionic surfactants concentrated in the top surfactant-rich phase and formed mixed micelles with TX100. Therefore, addition of the anionic surfactant, SDS, moved the silica particles from top phase to the

  7. Intensification of microalgae drying and oil extraction process by vapor recompression and heat integration.

    PubMed

    Song, Chunfeng; Liu, Qingling; Ji, Na; Deng, Shuai; Zhao, Jun; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    Reducing energy penalty caused by drying and oil extraction is the most critical challenge in microalgae biodiesel production. In this study, vapor recompression and heat integration are utilized to optimize the performance of wet microalgae drying and oil extraction. In the microalgae drying stage, the hot exhaust stream is recompressed and coupled with wet microalgae to recover the condensate heat. In the oil extraction stage, the exergy rate of recovered solvent is also elevated by compressor and then exchanged heat with feed and bottom stream in the distillation column. Energy and mass balance of the intensified process is investigated and compared with the conventional microalgae drying-extraction process. The simulation results indicated that the total energy consumption of the intensified process can be saved by 52.4% of the conventional route.

  8. Batch extracting process using magnetic particle held solvents

    DOEpatents

    Nunez, L.; Vandergrift, G.F.

    1995-11-21

    A process is described for selectively removing metal values which may include catalytic values from a mixture containing same, wherein a magnetic particle is contacted with a liquid solvent which selectively dissolves the metal values to absorb the liquid solvent onto the magnetic particle. Thereafter the solvent-containing magnetic particles are contacted with a mixture containing the heavy metal values to transfer metal values into the solvent carried by the magnetic particles, and then magnetically separating the magnetic particles. Ion exchange resins may be used for selective solvents. 5 figs.

  9. Fluid bed drying of guarana (Paullinia cupana HBK) extract: effect of process factors on caffeine content.

    PubMed

    Pagliarussi, Renata S; Bastos, Jairo K; Freitas, Luis A P

    2006-06-16

    The aim of this study was to study the convective drying of the hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from powdered guarana seeds in a spouted bed dryer. The influence of process variables, such as the convective airflow rate, extract feed rate, and air inlet temperature, on the quality of the dry extract was determined using the caffeine and moisture content for the process evaluation. The caffeine content in the alcoholic and dried extracts was determined by capillary gas chromatography. The experiments were performed following a 3(3) factorial design and the data analyzed by response surface. The analysis of dry extract showed that the air and extract feed rates did not significantly affect (25% level) the caffeine content, but that drying temperature is a major factor to consider when the extract is submitted to fluid bed drying. Caffeine losses were significant (1% level) for drying temperatures above 120 degrees C, while moisture content was lower than 3% for temperatures above 120 degrees C. The data showed that there is an optimum temperature for the drying of guarana extracts in spouted beds, and under the conditions used in this study it was 120 degrees C.

  10. Integrated microwave processing system for the extraction of organophosphorus pesticides in fresh vegetables.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Xu, Xu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-03-01

    A simple and efficient integrated microwave processing system (IMPS) was firstly assembled and validated for the extraction of organophosphorus pesticides in fresh vegetables. Two processes under microwave irradiation, dynamic microwave-assisted extraction (DMAE) and microwave-accelerated solvent elution (MASE), were integrated for simplifying the pretreatment of the sample. Extraction, separation, enrichment and elution were finished in a simple step. The organophosphorus pesticides were extracted from the fresh vegetables into hexane with DMAE, and then the extract was directly introduced into the enrichment column packed with active carbon fiber (ACF). Subsequently, the organophosphorus pesticides trapped on the ACF were eluted with ethyl acetate under microwave irradiation. No further filtration or cleanup was required before analysis of the eluate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Some experimental parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized, such as microwave output power, kind and volume of extraction solvent, extraction time, amount of sorbent, elution microwave power, kind and volume of elution solvent, elution solvent flow rate. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries were in the range of 71.5-105.2%, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 11.6%. The experiment results prove that the present method is a simple and effective sample preparation method for the determination of pesticides in solid samples.

  11. Comparison of DNA extraction methods for sweet corn and processed sweet corns.

    PubMed

    Takabatake, Reona; Noritake, Hiromichi; Noguchi, Akio; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    DNA was extracted from sweet corn and its processed products using four DNA extraction methods: the CTAB method, the DNeasy Plant Maxi kit, GM Quicker 3, and Genomic-tip 20/G. DNA was successfully extracted from raw sweet corn and baby corn samples using all four methods. Meanwhile, from frozen, canned, and dry pack products, DNA was well extracted using the DNeasy Plant Maxi kit, GM Quicker 3, and Genomic-tip 20/G, but not enough with the CTAB method. The highest yield of DNA was obtained with Genomic-tip 20/G. The degree of degradation of extracted DNA was observed to increase in the order of raw, frozen, canned, dry pack, and baby corn samples. To evaluate the quality of extracted DNA, real-time PCR analyses were conducted using three maize endogenous genes. The DNAs extracted using GM Quicker 3 had high purity, suggesting that GM Quicker 3 would be the most suitable method for DNA extraction from processed sweet corn products.

  12. Stable isolation of phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis associated with high-pressure extraction process.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yong Chang; Choi, Woo Seok; Park, Jong Ho; Park, Jin Oh; Jung, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2013-01-16

    A method for stably purifying a functional dye, phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis was developed by a hexane extraction process combined with high pressure. This was necessary because this dye is known to be very unstable during normal extraction processes. The purification yield of this method was estimated as 10.2%, whose value is 3%-5% higher than is the case from another conventional separation method using phosphate buffer. The isolated phycocyanin from this process also showed the highest purity of 0.909 based on absorbance of 2.104 at 280 nm and 1.912 at 620 nm. Two subunits of phycocyanin namely α-phycocyanin (18.4 kDa) and β-phycocyanin (21.3 kDa) were found to remain from the original mixtures after being extracted, based on SDS-PAGE analysis, clearly demonstrating that this process can stably extract phycocyanin and is not affected by extraction solvent, temperature, etc. The stability of the extracted phycocyanin was also confirmed by comparing its DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity, showing 83% removal of oxygen free radicals. This activity was about 15% higher than that of commercially available standard phycocyanin, which implies that the combined extraction method can yield relatively intact chromoprotein through absence of degradation. The results were achieved because the low temperature and high pressure extraction effectively disrupted the cell membrane of Spirulina platensis and degraded less the polypeptide subunits of phycocyanin (which is a temperature/pH-sensitive chromoprotein) as well as increasing the extraction yield.

  13. Stable Isolation of Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis Associated with High-Pressure Extraction Process

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yong Chang; Choi, Woo Seok; Park, Jong Ho; Park, Jin Oh; Jung, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2013-01-01

    A method for stably purifying a functional dye, phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis was developed by a hexane extraction process combined with high pressure. This was necessary because this dye is known to be very unstable during normal extraction processes. The purification yield of this method was estimated as 10.2%, whose value is 3%–5% higher than is the case from another conventional separation method using phosphate buffer. The isolated phycocyanin from this process also showed the highest purity of 0.909 based on absorbance of 2.104 at 280 nm and 1.912 at 620 nm. Two subunits of phycocyanin namely α-phycocyanin (18.4 kDa) and β-phycocyanin (21.3 kDa) were found to remain from the original mixtures after being extracted, based on SDS-PAGE analysis, clearly demonstrating that this process can stably extract phycocyanin and is not affected by extraction solvent, temperature, etc. The stability of the extracted phycocyanin was also confirmed by comparing its DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity, showing 83% removal of oxygen free radicals. This activity was about 15% higher than that of commercially available standard phycocyanin, which implies that the combined extraction method can yield relatively intact chromoprotein through absence of degradation. The results were achieved because the low temperature and high pressure extraction effectively disrupted the cell membrane of Spirulina platensis and degraded less the polypeptide subunits of phycocyanin (which is a temperature/pH-sensitive chromoprotein) as well as increasing the extraction yield. PMID:23325046

  14. A pilot scale ultrasonic system to enhance extraction processes with dense gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riera, E.; Blasco, M.; Tornero, A.; Casas, E.; Roselló, C.; Simal, S.; Acosta, V. M.; Gallego-Juárez, J. A.

    2012-05-01

    The use of dense gases (supercritical fluids) as extracting agents has been attracting wide interest for years. In particular, supercritical carbon dioxide is considered nowadays as a green and very useful solvent. Nevertheless, the extraction process has a slow dynamics. Power ultrasound represents an efficient way for accelerating and enhancing the kinetics of the process by producing strong agitation and turbulence, compressions and decompressions, and heating in the media. For this purpose, a device prototype for using ultrasound in supercritical media was developed, tested and validated in extraction processes of oil from grounded almonds (55% oil content, wet basis and 3-4 mm particle size) in a 5 L extraction unit. An amount of 1500 g of grounded almonds was placed in a cylindrical basket during the trials inside the dense gas extractor (DGE) where solvent was introduced at different flow rates, pressures and temperatures. In all cases the ultrasonic energy confirmed the enhancement and acceleration of the almond oil extraction kinetics using supercritical CO2. Presently the power ultrasound effect in such a process is being deeply analyzed in a 5 L extraction unit before scaling-up a new ultrasonic system. This technology, still under development, has been designed for a bigger dense gas pilot-plant consisting of two extractors (20 L capacity), two separation units and has the possibility of operating at a pressure up to 50 MPa. The goal of this work is to study the effect of high-power ultrasound coupled to dense gas extraction inside the basket with the product, and to present a prototype for the use of power ultrasound in extraction processes with dense gases inside a new 20 L extractor unit.

  15. Optimization of the Ethanol Recycling Reflux Extraction Process for Saponins Using a Design Space Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xingchu; Zhang, Ying; Pan, Jianyang; Qu, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    A solvent recycling reflux extraction process for Panax notoginseng was optimized using a design space approach to improve the batch-to-batch consistency of the extract. Saponin yields, total saponin purity, and pigment yield were defined as the process critical quality attributes (CQAs). Ethanol content, extraction time, and the ratio of the recycling ethanol flow rate and initial solvent volume in the extraction tank (RES) were identified as the critical process parameters (CPPs) via quantitative risk assessment. Box-Behnken design experiments were performed. Quadratic models between CPPs and process CQAs were developed, with determination coefficients higher than 0.88. As the ethanol concentration decreases, saponin yields first increase and then decrease. A longer extraction time leads to higher yields of the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd. The total saponin purity increases as the ethanol concentration increases. The pigment yield increases as the ethanol concentration decreases or extraction time increases. The design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with an acceptable probability of 0.90. Normal operation ranges to attain process CQA criteria with a probability of more than 0.914 are recommended as follows: ethanol content of 79–82%, extraction time of 6.1–7.1 h, and RES of 0.039–0.040 min−1. Most of the results of the verification experiments agreed well with the predictions. The verification experiment results showed that the selection of proper operating ethanol content, extraction time, and RES within the design space can ensure that the CQA criteria are met. PMID:25470598

  16. Optimization of the ethanol recycling reflux extraction process for saponins using a design space approach.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xingchu; Zhang, Ying; Pan, Jianyang; Qu, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    A solvent recycling reflux extraction process for Panax notoginseng was optimized using a design space approach to improve the batch-to-batch consistency of the extract. Saponin yields, total saponin purity, and pigment yield were defined as the process critical quality attributes (CQAs). Ethanol content, extraction time, and the ratio of the recycling ethanol flow rate and initial solvent volume in the extraction tank (RES) were identified as the critical process parameters (CPPs) via quantitative risk assessment. Box-Behnken design experiments were performed. Quadratic models between CPPs and process CQAs were developed, with determination coefficients higher than 0.88. As the ethanol concentration decreases, saponin yields first increase and then decrease. A longer extraction time leads to higher yields of the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd. The total saponin purity increases as the ethanol concentration increases. The pigment yield increases as the ethanol concentration decreases or extraction time increases. The design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with an acceptable probability of 0.90. Normal operation ranges to attain process CQA criteria with a probability of more than 0.914 are recommended as follows: ethanol content of 79-82%, extraction time of 6.1-7.1 h, and RES of 0.039-0.040 min-1. Most of the results of the verification experiments agreed well with the predictions. The verification experiment results showed that the selection of proper operating ethanol content, extraction time, and RES within the design space can ensure that the CQA criteria are met.

  17. Design Space Development for the Extraction Process of Danhong Injection Using a Monte Carlo Simulation Method

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xingchu; Li, Yao; Chen, Huali; Qu, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    A design space approach was applied to optimize the extraction process of Danhong injection. Dry matter yield and the yields of five active ingredients were selected as process critical quality attributes (CQAs). Extraction number, extraction time, and the mass ratio of water and material (W/M ratio) were selected as critical process parameters (CPPs). Quadratic models between CPPs and CQAs were developed with determination coefficients higher than 0.94. Active ingredient yields and dry matter yield increased as the extraction number increased. Monte-Carlo simulation with models established using a stepwise regression method was applied to calculate the probability-based design space. Step length showed little effect on the calculation results. Higher simulation number led to results with lower dispersion. Data generated in a Monte Carlo simulation following a normal distribution led to a design space with a smaller size. An optimized calculation condition was obtained with 10000 simulation times, 0.01 calculation step length, a significance level value of 0.35 for adding or removing terms in a stepwise regression, and a normal distribution for data generation. The design space with a probability higher than 0.95 to attain the CQA criteria was calculated and verified successfully. Normal operating ranges of 8.2-10 g/g of W/M ratio, 1.25-1.63 h of extraction time, and two extractions were recommended. The optimized calculation conditions can conveniently be used in design space development for other pharmaceutical processes. PMID:26020778

  18. Design space development for the extraction process of Danhong injection using a Monte Carlo simulation method.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xingchu; Li, Yao; Chen, Huali; Qu, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    A design space approach was applied to optimize the extraction process of Danhong injection. Dry matter yield and the yields of five active ingredients were selected as process critical quality attributes (CQAs). Extraction number, extraction time, and the mass ratio of water and material (W/M ratio) were selected as critical process parameters (CPPs). Quadratic models between CPPs and CQAs were developed with determination coefficients higher than 0.94. Active ingredient yields and dry matter yield increased as the extraction number increased. Monte-Carlo simulation with models established using a stepwise regression method was applied to calculate the probability-based design space. Step length showed little effect on the calculation results. Higher simulation number led to results with lower dispersion. Data generated in a Monte Carlo simulation following a normal distribution led to a design space with a smaller size. An optimized calculation condition was obtained with 10,000 simulation times, 0.01 calculation step length, a significance level value of 0.35 for adding or removing terms in a stepwise regression, and a normal distribution for data generation. The design space with a probability higher than 0.95 to attain the CQA criteria was calculated and verified successfully. Normal operating ranges of 8.2-10 g/g of W/M ratio, 1.25-1.63 h of extraction time, and two extractions were recommended. The optimized calculation conditions can conveniently be used in design space development for other pharmaceutical processes.

  19. SLURRY SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METALS FROM SOLID MATERIALS

    DOEpatents

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1959-01-20

    A solvent extraction process is described for recovering uranium from low grade uranium bearing minerals such as carnotit or shale. The finely communited ore is made up as an aqueous slurry containing the necessary amount of acid to solubilize the uranium and simultaneously or subsequently contacted with an organic solvent extractant such as the alkyl ortho-, or pyro phosphoric acids, alkyl phosphites or alkyl phosphonates in combination with a diluent such as kerosene or carbon tetrachlorids. The extractant phase is separated from the slurry and treated by any suitable process to recover the uranium therefrom. One method for recovering the uranium comprises treating the extract with aqueous HF containing a reducing agent such as ferrous sulfate, which reduces the uranium and causes it to be precipitated as uranium tetrafluoride.

  20. A method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1997-12-01

    The present invention relates to a method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction. In particular, the method includes extracting the organic species into a polymer-rich phase of an aqueous biphase system in which the process stream comprises the salt-rich phase, and, next, separating the polymer from the extracted organic species by contacting the loaded, polymer-rich phase with a water-immiscible organic phase. Alternatively, the polymer can be separated from the extracted organic species by raising the temperature of the loaded, polymer-rich phase above the cloud point, such that the polymer and the water-soluble organic species separate into two distinct aqueous phases. In either case, a substantially salt-free, concentrated aqueous solution containing the organic species is recovered.

  1. Tackling correlated responses during process optimisation of rapeseed meal protein extraction.

    PubMed

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Dutta, Ganesh; Barthakur, Anasuya; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2015-03-01

    Setting of process variables to meet the required specifications of quality characteristics is a crucial task in the extraction technology or process quality control. Simultaneous optimisation of several conflicting characteristics poses a problem, especially when correlation exists. To remedy this shortfall, we present multi-response optimisation based on Response Surface Methodology (RSM)-Principal Component Analysis (PCA)-desirability function approach, combined with Multiple Linear Regression (MLR). Experimental manifestation of the proposed methodology was executed using a multi-responses-based protein extraction process from an industrial waste, rapeseed press-cake. The proposed optimal factor combination reflects a compromise between the partially conflicting natures of the original responses. Prediction accuracy of this new hybrid method was found to be better than RSM alone, verifying the adequacy and superiority of the said approach. Furthermore, this study suggests the feasibility of the exploitation of the waste rapeseed oil-cake for extraction of valuable protein, with improved colour properties using simple, viable process.

  2. An extraction process to recover vanadium from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Desheng; Zhao, Hongxin; Hu, Guoping; Qi, Tao; Yu, Hongdong; Zhang, Guozhi; Wang, Lina; Wang, Weijing

    2015-08-30

    An extraction process to recover vanadium from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite was developed. In this study, a mixed solvent system of di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (D2EHPA) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with kerosene was used for the selective extraction of vanadium from a hydrochloric acid leaching solution that contained low vanadium concentration with high concentrations of iron and impurities of Ca, Mg, and Al. In the extraction process, the initial solution pH and the phase ratio had considerable functions in the extraction of vanadium from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution. Under optimal extraction conditions (i.e., 30-40°C for 10min, 1:3 phase ratio (O/A), 20% D2EHPA concentration (v/v), and 0-0.8 initial solution pH), 99.4% vanadium and only 4.2% iron were extracted by the three-stage counter-current extraction process. In the stripping process with H2SO4 as the stripping agent and under optimal stripping conditions (i.e., 20% H2SO4 concentration, 5:1 phase ratio (O/A), 20min stripping time, and 40°C stripping temperature), 99.6% vanadium and only 5.4% iron were stripped by the three-stage counter-current stripping process. The stripping solution contained 40.16g/LV2O5,0.691g/L Fe, 0.007g/L TiO2, 0.006g/L SiO2 and 0.247g/L CaO. A V2O5 product with a purity of 99.12% V2O5 and only 0.026% Fe was obtained after the oxidation, precipitation, and calcination processes. The total vanadium recovered from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution was 85.5%.

  3. CORROSION ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL COMPONENTS USED IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS EXTRACTION AND SEPARATION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Louthan, M.; Sindelar, R.

    2012-12-17

    This paper illustrated the magnitude of the systems, structures and components used at the Savannah River Site for nuclear materials extraction and separation processes. Corrosion issues, including stress corrosion cracking, pitting, crevice corrosion and other corrosion induced degradation processes are discussed and corrosion mitigation strategies such as a chloride exclusion program and corrosion release testing are also discussed.

  4. Quantum Catalytic Extraction Process{trademark}:Applications to low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, C.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation details the Quantum method for catalytic extraction processing of low-level radioactive wastes. Resource recovery, waste volume reduction, and fundamentals of the processing technology are discussed. The results of two case studies, and a description of two demonstration units are provided.

  5. Characteristics of extraction and functionality of protein from tomato pomace produced with different industrial processing methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seeds from tomato pomace, a by-product of tomato processing, contains valuable but underutilized protein with unique functional properties. The objectives of this research were to study the impact of industrial hot and cold break tomato processing on protein extraction from defatted tomato seeds...

  6. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING YTTRIUM FROM THE RARE EARTHS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Peppard, D.F.; Mason, G.W.

    1963-11-12

    A process of isolating yttrium from other rare earths present together with it in aqueous solutions is presented. Yttrium and rare earths heavier than yttrium are first extracted with dialkyl phosphoric acid, after adjustment of the acidity to 2 N, and then back-extracted with 5-6 N mineral acid to form a strip solution. Thiocyanate is added to the strip solution and the rare earths heavier than yttrium are then selectively extracted with trialkyl phosphate, dialkyl phosphoric acid, alkyl phosphonate, or dialkyl aryl phosphonate, leaving the yttrium in the aqueous solution. (AEC)

  7. Development of an extraction process for removal of heteroatoms from coal liquids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The main goal of this contract was to develop an extraction process for upgrading coal liquids; and in doing so, to reduce the hydrogen requirement in downstream upgrading processes and to yield valuable byproducts. This goal was to be achieved by developing a novel carbon dioxide extraction process for heteroatom removal from coal-derived naphtha, diesel, and jet fuel. The research plan called for the optimization of three critical process variables using a statistically-designed experimental matrix. The commercial potential of the new process was to be evaluated by demonstrating quantitatively the effectiveness of heteroatom removal from three different feedstocks and by conducting a comparative economic analysis of alternate heteroatom removal technologies. Accomplishments are described for the following tasks: food procurement and analysis process variable screening studies; and process assessment.

  8. Ionic-Liquid-Mediated Extraction and Separation Processes for Bioactive Compounds: Past, Present, and Future Trends.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Sónia P M; E Silva, Francisca A; Quental, Maria V; Mondal, Dibyendu; Freire, Mara G; Coutinho, João A P

    2017-02-02

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been proposed as promising media for the extraction and separation of bioactive compounds from the most diverse origins. This critical review offers a compilation on the main results achieved by the use of ionic-liquid-based processes in the extraction and separation/purification of a large range of bioactive compounds (including small organic extractable compounds from biomass, lipids, and other hydrophobic compounds, proteins, amino acids, nucleic acids, and pharmaceuticals). ILs have been studied as solvents, cosolvents, cosurfactants, electrolytes, and adjuvants, as well as used in the creation of IL-supported materials for separation purposes. The IL-based processes hitherto reported, such as IL-based solid-liquid extractions, IL-based liquid-liquid extractions, IL-modified materials, and IL-based crystallization approaches, are here reviewed and compared in terms of extraction and separation performance. The key accomplishments and future challenges to the field are discussed, with particular emphasis on the major lacunas found within the IL community dedicated to separation processes and by suggesting some steps to overcome the current limitations.

  9. White wine taste and mouthfeel as affected by juice extraction and processing.

    PubMed

    Gawel, Richard; Day, Martin; Van Sluyter, Steven C; Holt, Helen; Waters, Elizabeth J; Smith, Paul A

    2014-10-15

    The juice used to make white wine can be extracted using various physical processes that affect the amount and timing of contact of juice with skins. The influence of juice extraction processes on the mouthfeel and taste of white wine and their relationship to wine composition were determined. The amount and type of interaction of juice with skins affected both wine total phenolic concentration and phenolic composition. Wine pH strongly influenced perceived viscosity, astringency/drying, and acidity. Despite a 5-fold variation in total phenolics among wines, differences in bitter taste were small. Perceived viscosity was associated with higher phenolics but was not associated with either glycerol or polysaccharide concentration. Bitterness may be reduced by using juice extraction and handling processes that minimize phenolic concentration, but lowering phenolic concentration may also result in wines of lower perceived viscosity.

  10. Comparisons of chemical and physical properties of catfish oils prepared from different extracting processes.

    PubMed

    Sathivel, S; Yin, H; Prinyawiwatkul, W; King, J M

    2009-03-01

    Four different catfish oil extraction processes were used to extract oil from catfish viscera: process CF1 involved a mixture of ground catfish viscera and water, no heat treatment, and centrifugation; process CF2 involved ground catfish viscera (no added water), heat treatment, and centrifugation; process CF3 involved a mixture of ground catfish viscera and water, heat treatment, and centrifugation; process CF4 involved ground catfish viscera, enzymatic hydrolysis, and centrifugation. Chemical and physical properties of the resulting of catfish oils were evaluated. The CF4 process recovered significantly higher amounts of crude oil from catfish viscera than the other 3 extraction methods. The CF4 oil contained a higher percent of free fatty acid and peroxide values than CF1, CF2, and CF3 oils. Oleic acid in catfish oil was the predominant fatty acid accounting for about 50% of total fatty acids. Weight loss of oils increased with increasing temperatures between 250 and 500 degrees C. All the catfish oil samples melted around -32 degrees C regardless of the extraction methods. The flow behavior index of all the oil samples was less than 1, which indicated that the catfish oils exhibited non-Newtonian fluid behavior. The apparent viscosity at -5 and 0 degrees C was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C. The average magnitude of activation energy for apparent viscosity of the oil was higher for CF2 than CF1, CF3, and CF4.

  11. Foodborne Pathogens Prevention and Sensory Attributes Enhancement in Processed Cheese via Flavoring with Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Ahmed A; Hussein, Heba; Sorour, Noha M; El-Tras, Wael F

    2015-12-01

    Cheese contaminations with foodborne bacterial pathogens, and their health outbreaks, are serious worldwide problems that could happen from diverse sources during cheese production or storage. Plants, and their derivatives, were always regarded as the potential natural and safe antimicrobial alternatives for food preservation and improvement. The extracts from many plants, which are commonly used as spices and flavoring agents, were evaluated as antibacterial agents against serious foodborne pathogens, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, using qualitative and quantitative assaying methods. Dairy-based media were also used for evaluating the practical application of plant extracts as antimicrobial agents. Most of the examined plant extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity; the extracts of cinnamon, cloves, garden cress, and lemon grass were the most powerful, either in synthetic or in dairy-based media. Flavoring processed cheese with plant extracts resulted in the enhancement of cheese sensory attributes, for example odor, taste, color, and overall quality, especially in flavored samples with cinnamon, lemon grass, and oregano. It can be concluded that plant extracts are strongly recommended, as powerful and safe antibacterial and flavoring agents, for the preservation and sensory enhancement of processed cheese.

  12. CONTINUOUS CHELATION-EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE SEPARATION AND PURIFICATION OF METALS

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, J.R.; Hicks, T.E.; Rubin, B.; Crandall, H.W.

    1959-12-01

    A continuous process is presented for separating metal values and groups of metal values from each other. A complex mixture. e.g., neutron-irradiated uranium, can be resolved into component parts. In the present process the values are dissolved in an acidic solution and adjusted to the proper oxidation state. Thenceforth the solution is contacted with an extractant phase comprising a fluorinated beta -diketone in an organic solvent under centain pH conditions whereupon plutonium and zirconium are extracted. Plutonium is extracted from the foregoing extract with reducing aqueous solutions or under specified acidic conditions and can be recovered from the aqueous solution. Zirconium is then removed with an oxalic acid aqueous phase. The uranium is recovered from the residual original solution using hexone and hexone-diketone extractants leaving residual fission products in the original solution. The uranium is extracted from the hexone solution with dilute nitric acid. Improved separations and purifications are achieved using recycled scrub solutions and the "self-salting" effect of uranyl ions.

  13. Downstream extraction process development for recovery of organic acids from a fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Bekatorou, Argyro; Dima, Agapi; Tsafrakidou, Panagiotia; Boura, Konstantina; Lappa, Katerina; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Pissaridi, Katerina; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2016-11-01

    The present study focused on organic acids (OAs) recovery from an acidogenic fermentation broth, which is the main problem regarding the use of OAs for production of ester-based new generation biofuels or other applications. Specifically, 10 solvents were evaluated for OAs recovery from aqueous media and fermentation broths. The effects of pH, solvent/OAs solution ratios and application of successive extractions were studied. The 1:1 solvent/OAs ratio showed the best recovery rates in most cases. Butyric and isobutyric acids showed the highest recovery rates (80-90%), while lactic, succinic, and acetic acids were poorly recovered (up to 45%). The OAs recovery was significantly improved by successive 10-min extractions. Alcohols presented the best extraction performance. The process using repeated extractions with 3-methyl-1-butanol led to the highest OAs recovery. However, 1-butanol can be considered as the most cost-effective option taking into account its price and availability.

  14. Microemulsions and Aggregation Formation in Extraction Processes for Used Nuclear Fuel: Thermodynamic and Structural Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, Mikael

    2016-05-04

    Advanced nuclear fuel cycles rely on successful chemical separation of various elements in the used fuel. Numerous solvent extraction (SX) processes have been developed for the recovery and purification of metal ions from this used material. However, the predictability of process operations has been challenged by the lack of a fundamental understanding of the chemical interactions in several of these separation systems. For example, gaps in the thermodynamic description of the mechanism and the complexes formed will make predictions very challenging. Recent studies of certain extraction systems under development and a number of more established SX processes have suggested that aggregate formation in the organic phase results in a transformation of its selectivity and efficiency. Aggregation phenomena have consistently been interfering in SX process development, and have, over the years, become synonymous with an undesirable effect that must be prevented. This multiyear, multicollaborative research effort was carried out to study solvation and self-organization in non-aqueous solutions at conditions promoting aggregation phenomena. Our approach to this challenging topic was to investigate extraction systems comprising more than one extraction reagent where synergy of the metal ion could be observed. These systems were probed for the existence of stable microemulsions in the organic phase, and a number of high-end characterization tools were employed to elucidate the role of the aggregates in metal ion extraction. The ultimate goal was to find connections between synergy of metal ion extraction and reverse micellar formation. Our main accomplishment for this project was the expansion of the understanding of metal ion complexation in the extraction system combining tributyl phosphate (TBP) and dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP). We have found that for this system no direct correlation exists for the metal ion extraction and the formation of aggregates, meaning that the

  15. Supercritical fluid extraction of the pesticides carbosulfan and imidacloprid from process dust waste.

    PubMed

    Eskilsson, C S; Mathiasson, L

    2000-11-01

    Large amounts of contaminated process dust remain from the procedure of pesticide treatments applied to seed pellets. A pilot study in analytical-scale supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was performed to determine the possibility of using supercritical carbon dioxide for the extraction of the nonpolar insecticide carbosulfan and the more polar insecticide imidacloprid present in contaminated dust waste, at concentrations of up to 20% (w/w). The effects of various experimental conditions, such as temperature, flow rate, and addition of modifier, on the recovery of the analytes were evaluated by extracting the pesticides both from spiked support material and from real dust samples. It was found that carbosulfan could easily be extracted from the dust waste within 30 min at 138 bar and 40 degrees C with a recovery of 98.9% (RSD = 2.3%, n = 10), compared to values obtained with a validated liquid extraction method. A sufficient removal of the more polar substance imidacloprid required the addition of a modifier, and the results showed a strong dependence of the extraction efficiency on the choice of modifier. Extractions at 276 bar and 80 degrees C with a solvent consisting of supercritical carbon dioxide modified with methanol (5%) gave a recovery of 97.0% (RSD = 3.6%, n = 10) using a 40 min extraction time. The results indicate that it seems to be possible to use process-scale SFE for the decontamination of pesticides from dust waste. The conditions outlined also permit analytical determinations of the two insecticides based on a combination of SFE and liquid chromatography.

  16. Next Generation Solvent Performance in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process - 15495

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Tara E.; Scherman, Carl; Martin, David; Suggs, Patricia

    2015-01-14

    Changes to the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) flow-sheet were implemented in the facility. Implementation included changing the scrub and strip chemicals and concentrations, modifying the O/A ratios for the strip, scrub, and extraction contactor banks, and blending the current BoBCalixC6 extractant-based solvent in MCU with clean MaxCalix extractant-based solvent. During the successful demonstration period, the MCU process was subject to rigorous oversight to ensure hydraulic stability and chemical/radionuclide analysis of the key process tanks (caustic wash tank, solvent hold tank, strip effluent hold tank, and decontaminated salt solution hold tank) to evaluate solvent carryover to downstream facilities and the effectiveness of cesium removal from the liquid salt waste. Results indicated the extraction of cesium was significantly more effective with an average Decontamination Factor (DF) of 1,129 (range was 107 to 1,824) and that stripping was effective. The contactor hydraulic performance was stable and satisfactory, as indicated by contactor vibration, contactor rotational speed, and flow stability; all of which remained at or near target values. Furthermore, the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) level and specific gravity was as expected, indicating that solvent integrity and organic hydraulic stability were maintained. The coalescer performances were in the range of processing results under the BOBCalixC6 flow sheet, indicating negligible adverse impact of NGS deployment. After the Demonstration period, MCU began processing via routine operations. Results to date reiterate the enhanced cesium extraction and stripping capability of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) flow sheet. This paper presents process performance results of the NGS Demonstration and continued operations of MCU utilizing the blended BobCalixC6-MaxCalix solvent under the NGS flowsheet.

  17. The extraction and integration framework: a two-process account of statistical learning.

    PubMed

    Thiessen, Erik D; Kronstein, Alexandra T; Hufnagle, Daniel G

    2013-07-01

    The term statistical learning in infancy research originally referred to sensitivity to transitional probabilities. Subsequent research has demonstrated that statistical learning contributes to infant development in a wide array of domains. The range of statistical learning phenomena necessitates a broader view of the processes underlying statistical learning. Learners are sensitive to a much wider range of statistical information than the conditional relations indexed by transitional probabilities, including distributional and cue-based statistics. We propose a novel framework that unifies learning about all of these kinds of statistical structure. From our perspective, learning about conditional relations outputs discrete representations (such as words). Integration across these discrete representations yields sensitivity to cues and distributional information. To achieve sensitivity to all of these kinds of statistical structure, our framework combines processes that extract segments of the input with processes that compare across these extracted items. In this framework, the items extracted from the input serve as exemplars in long-term memory. The similarity structure of those exemplars in long-term memory leads to the discovery of cues and categorical structure, which guides subsequent extraction. The extraction and integration framework provides a way to explain sensitivity to both conditional statistical structure (such as transitional probabilities) and distributional statistical structure (such as item frequency and variability), and also a framework for thinking about how these different aspects of statistical learning influence each other.

  18. Extraction processes for the production of aluminum, titanium, iron, magnesium, and oxygen and nonterrestrial sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, D. B.; Choudary, U. V.; Erstfeld, T. E.; Williams, R. J.; Chang, Y. A.

    1979-01-01

    The suitability of existing terrestrial extractive metallurgical processes for the production of Al, Ti, Fe, Mg, and O2 from nonterrestrial resources is examined from both thermodynamic and kinetic points of view. Carbochlorination of lunar anorthite concentrate in conjunction with Alcoa electrolysis process for Al; carbochlorination of lunar ilmenite concentrate followed by Ca reduction of TiO2; and subsequent reduction of Fe2O3 by H2 for Ti and Fe, respectively, are suggested. Silicothermic reduction of olivine concentrate was found to be attractive for the extraction of Mg becaue of the technological knowhow of the process. Aluminothermic reduction of olivine is the other possible alternative for the production of magnesium. The large quantities of carbon monoxide generated in the metal extraction processes can be used to recover carbon and oxygen by a combination of the following methods: (1) simple disproportionation of CO,(2) methanation of CO and electrolysis of H2O, and (3) solid-state electrolysis of gas mixtures containing CO, CO2, and H2O. The research needed for the adoption of earth-based extraction processes for lunar and asteroidal minerals is outlined.

  19. A comparision of TRUEX and CMP solvent extraction processes for actinide removal from ICPP wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, R.S.; Brewer, K.N.; Garn, T.G.; Law, J.D.

    1996-04-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is currently engaged in development efforts for the decontamination of high-level radioactive wastes generated from decades of nuclear fuel reprocessing. These wastes include several types of calcine, generated by high temperature solidification of reprocessing raffinates. In addition to calcine, there are smaller quantities of secondary wastes from decontamination and solvent wash activities which are typically referred to as sodium-bearing waste (SBW). Solvent extraction technologies based on octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO, the active extractant in the TRUEX process) and dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate (DHDECMP, the active extractant in the CMP process) are being evaluated for actinide partitioning from these waste streams. Calcines must first be dissolved in an appropriate acidic solution prior to treatment in solvent extraction based processes. The SBW is currently stored as an acidic solution and readily amenable to liquid extraction techniques. Development efforts to date have revolved around defining and refining baseline flowsheets with the TRUEX and CMP processes for each waste stream. Another objective of this work was to determine which of these technologies are best suited for the treatment of ICPP wastes. Laboratory batch contacts were performed to identify relevant chemistry and distribution coefficients. This information was then used to establish baseline flowsheet configuration with regard to chemistry. The laboratory data were used to model the behavior of the actinides and other constituents in the wastes in countercurrent, continuous processes based on centrifugal contactor technology. The laboratory data and modelling results form the basis for comparison of the two processes.

  20. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction, Centrifugation and Ultrafiltration: Multistage Process for Polyphenol Recovery from Purple Sweet Potatoes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhenzhou; Jiang, Tian; He, Jingren; Barba, Francisco J; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Koubaa, Mohamed

    2016-11-20

    This work provides an evaluation of an ultrasound-assisted, combined extraction, centrifugation and ultrafiltration process for the optimal recovery of polyphenols. A purple sweet potato (PSP) extract has been obtained using ultrasonic circulating extraction equipment at a power of 840 W, a frequency of 59 kHz and using water as solvent. Extract ultrafiltration, using polyethersulfone (PES), was carried out for the recovery of polyphenol, protein and anthocyanin. Pre-treatment, via the centrifugation of purple sweet potato extract at 2500 rpm over 6 min, led to better polyphenol recovery, with satisfactory protein removal (reused for future purposes), than PSP extract filtration without centrifugation. Results showed that anthocyanin was efficiently recovered (99%) from permeate. The exponential model fit well with the experimental ultrafiltration data and led to the calculation of the membrane's fouling coefficient. The optimization of centrifugation conditions showed that, at a centrifugation speed of 4000 rpm (1195× g) and duration of 7.74 min, the optimized polyphenol recovery and fouling coefficient were 34.5% and 29.5 m(-1), respectively. The removal of proteins in the centrifugation process means that most of the anthocyanin content (90%) remained after filtration. No significant differences in the intensities of the HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS² peaks were found in the samples taken before and after centrifugation for the main anthocyanins; peonidin-3-feruloylsophoroside-5-glucoside, peonidin-3-caffeoyl-p-hydroxybenzoylsophoroside-5-glucoside, and peonidin-3-caffeoyl-feruloyl sophoroside-5-glucoside. This proves that centrifugation is an efficient method for protein removal without anthocyanin loss. This study considers this process an ultrasound-assisted extraction-centrifugation-ultrafiltration for purple sweet potato valorization in "green" technology.

  1. Modeling of extraction process of crude polysaccharides from Basil seeds (Ocimum basilicum l.) as affected by process variables.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Fakhreddin; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Tadayyon, Ali; Arabameri, Fatemeh

    2015-08-01

    Basil seed (Ocimum basilicum L.) has practical amounts of gum with good functional properties. In this work, extraction of gum from Basil seed was studied. Effect of pH, temperature and water/seed ratio on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters; entropy, enthalpy and free energy of extraction were investigated. The maximum gum yield was 17.95 % at 50 °C for pH=7 and water/seed ratio 30:1. In this study, the experimental data were fitted to a mathematical model of mass transfer and equations constants were obtained. The kinetic of Basil seed gum extraction was found to be a first order mass transfer model. Statistical results indicated that the model used in this study will be able to predict the gum extraction from Basil seed adequately. It also found that ΔH and ΔS were positive and ΔG was negative indicating that the extraction process was spontaneous, irreversible and endothermic. The ΔH, ΔS and ΔG values were 0.26-7.87 kJ/mol, 8.12-33.2 J/mol K and 1.62-4.42 kJ/mol, respectively.

  2. A novel process for extraction of edible oils: Enzyme assisted three phase partitioning (EATPP).

    PubMed

    Gaur, Ruchi; Sharma, Aparna; Khare, S K; Gupta, Munishwar Nath

    2007-02-01

    Three phase partitioning (TPP), a technique used in protein purification has been evaluated, for extraction of oil from three different plant sources viz: mango kernel, soybean and rice bran. The process consists of simultaneous addition of t-butanol (1:1,v/v) and ammonium sulphate (w/v) to a crude preparation/slurry. Under optimized condition, the protein appears as an interfacial precipitate between upper t-butanol containing oil and lower aqueous phase. Pretreatment of the slurries with a commercial enzyme preparation of proteases, Protizyme, followed by three phase partitioning resulted in 98%, 86% and 79% (w/w) oil yields in case of soybean, rice bran and mango kernel, respectively. The efficiency of the present technique is comparable to solvent extraction with an added advantage of being less time consuming and using t-butanol which is a safer solvent as compared to n-hexane used in conventional oil extraction process.

  3. Commercial Light Water Reactor -Tritium Extraction Facility Process Waste Assessment (Project S-6091)

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.; Delley, A.O.; Alexander, G.J.; Clark, E.A.; Holder, J.S.; Lutz, R.N.; Malstrom, R.A.; Nobles, B.R.; Carson, S.D.; Peterson, P.K.

    1997-11-30

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) to design and construct a Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) to process irradiated tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) from a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR). The plan is for the CLWR-TEF to provide tritium to the SRS Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) in Building 233-H in support of DOE requirements. The CLWR-TEF is being designed to provide 3 kg of new tritium per year, from TPBARS and other sources of tritium (Ref. 1-4).The CLWR TPBAR concept is being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The TPBAR assemblies will be irradiated in a Commercial Utility light water nuclear reactor and transported to the SRS for tritium extraction and processing at the CLWR-TEF. A Conceptual Design Report for the CLWR-TEF Project was issued in July 1997 (Ref. 4).The scope of this Process Waste Assessment (PWA) will be limited to CLWR-TEF processing of CLWR irradiated TPBARs. Although the CLWR- TEF will also be designed to extract APT tritium-containing materials, they will be excluded at this time to facilitate timely development of this PWA. As with any process, CLWR-TEF waste stream characteristics will depend on process feedstock and contaminant sources. If irradiated APT tritium-containing materials are to be processed in the CLWR-TEF, this PWA should be revised to reflect the introduction of this contaminant source term.

  4. Point process algorithm: a new Bayesian approach for TPF-I planet signal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velusamy, T.; Marsh, K. A.; Ware, B.

    2005-01-01

    TPF-I capability for planetary signal extraction, including both detection and spectral characterization, can be optimized by taking proper account of instrumental characteristics and astrophysical prior information. We have developed the Point Process Algorithm, a Bayesian technique for estracting planetary signals using the sine/cosine chopped outputs of a dual nulling interferometer.

  5. Biologically-based signal processing system applied to noise removal for signal extraction

    DOEpatents

    Fu, Chi Yung; Petrich, Loren I.

    2004-07-13

    The method and system described herein use a biologically-based signal processing system for noise removal for signal extraction. A wavelet transform may be used in conjunction with a neural network to imitate a biological system. The neural network may be trained using ideal data derived from physical principles or noiseless signals to determine to remove noise from the signal.

  6. SEPARATION OF URANYL AND RUTHENIUM VALUES BY THE TRIBUTYL PHOSPHATE EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, A.S.

    1961-05-01

    A process is given for separating uranyl values from ruthenium values contained in an aqueous 3 to 4 M nitric acid solution. After the addition of hydrogen peroxide to obtain a concentration of 0.3 M, the uranium is selectively extracted with kerosene-diluted tributyl phosphate.

  7. EPA SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE TERRA VAC IN SITU VACUUM EXTRACTION PROCESS IN GROVELAND, MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an EPA evaluation of the patented Terra Vac, Inc.'s in situ vacuum extraction process that was field-demonstrated on a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated soil in Groveland, MA, under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. he Terra...

  8. Micro-scale methods for characterization of supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation processes. [Trichothecene mycotoxins

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.D.; Wright, B.W.; Udseth, H.R.

    1984-11-01

    The development of new supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation processes requires exploration of wide ranges of fluid temperature and pressure. As the fluid phase becomes more complex, conventional methods become inadequate unless augmented by increasingly sophisticated analytical instrumentation. In addition to chemical complexity, analysis is often hindered by characteristics of the analyte which makes supercritical fluid extraction desirable (e.g., thermal lability). Micro-scale methods are described which address these problems while providing the additional benefits of speed, reduced cost, greatly reduced sample and solvent consumption, and safety. Techniques are described in which the fluid phase from micro-scale (0.005 to 5 ml) high pressure cells is sampled and analyzed in either continuous or periodic modes. The methods developed in our laboratory utilize capillary supercritical fluid chromatography and direct fluid injection-mass spectrometry (or their combination), in addition to conventional analytical techniques, for the characterization of complex supercritical fluid mixtures. The application of these methods to various extraction and fractionation processes involving CO/sub 2/ and NH/sub 3/, solubility studies of simple and complex mixtures, and the study of rapid chemical processes in supercritical water is described. New methods for the automated examination of extraction processes using capillary chromatography are also described and their initial application illustrated.

  9. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280 Section 173.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  10. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280 Section 173.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  11. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280 Section 173.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  12. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280 Section 173.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  13. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280 Section 173.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...

  14. Aqueous biphasic extraction process with pH and particle control

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.; Mensah-Biney, R.

    1995-01-01

    A process for aqueous biphasic extraction of metallic oxides and the like from substances containing silica. Control of media pH enables efficient and effective partition of mixture components. The inventive method may be employed to remove excess silica from kaolin clay.

  15. Aqueous biphasic extraction process with pH and particle control

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.

    1995-05-02

    A process for aqueous biphasic extraction of metallic oxides and the like from substances containing silica. Control of media pH enables efficient and effective partition of mixture components. The inventive method may be employed to remove excess silica from kaolin clay. 2 figs.

  16. Integrated extraction and anaerobic digestion process for recovery of nutraceuticals and biogas from pomegranate marcs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pomegranate marc (PM), a by-product from pomegranate juice processing, has not been effectively utilized. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the yields and properties of antioxidants (henceforth referring to total phenolics in terms of tannic acid equivalent) and oil extracted from v...

  17. Effects of composting process on the dissipation of extractable sulfonamides in swine manure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bei; Li, Yanxia; Zhang, Xuelian; Feng, Chenghong; Gao, Min; Shen, Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Effects of composting on the fate of sulfonamides (SAs) in the manure-straw mixture were explored through a simulation of aerobic composting process. Additionally, factors of temperature and coexistence of heavy metal Cu that might influence the removal efficiency were particularly investigated. As shown in the results, the extractable SAs dissipated rapidly during the composting process. The coexistence of Cu in the composting process might have delayed the decline of SAs, but the drugs could still be completely removed by the end of the composting. In contrast to the thermophilic aerobic composting, extractable SAs in air-temperature-placed mixture dissipated much slower and 1.12-1.56mg/kg could be detected after 35days of incubation. The results confirmed that temperature could influence the dissipation of SAs, which was identified as a more important factor than Cu-coexistence. Hence, thermophilic aerobic composting is an effective process to eliminate VAs before manure land application.

  18. Recovery of Uranium from Wet Phosphoric Acid by Solvent Extraction Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Beltrami, Denis; Cote, Gérard; Mokhtari, Hamid; Courtaud, Bruno; Moyer, Bruce A.; Chagnes, Alexandre

    2014-11-17

    Between 1951 and 1991, we developed about 17 processes to recover uranium from wet phosphoric acid (WPA), but the viability of these processes was subject to the variation of the uranium price market. Nowadays, uranium from WPA appears to be attractive due to the increase of the global uranium demand resulting from the emergence of developing countries. Moreover, the increasing demand provides impetus for a new look at the applicable technology with a view to improvements as well as altogether new approaches. This paper gives an overview on extraction processes developed in the past to recover uranium from wet phosphoric acid (WPA) as well as the physicochemistry involved in these processes. Recent advances concerning the development of new extraction systems are also reported and discussed.

  19. Recovery of Uranium from Wet Phosphoric Acid by Solvent Extraction Processes

    DOE PAGES

    Beltrami, Denis; Cote, Gérard; Mokhtari, Hamid; ...

    2014-11-17

    Between 1951 and 1991, we developed about 17 processes to recover uranium from wet phosphoric acid (WPA), but the viability of these processes was subject to the variation of the uranium price market. Nowadays, uranium from WPA appears to be attractive due to the increase of the global uranium demand resulting from the emergence of developing countries. Moreover, the increasing demand provides impetus for a new look at the applicable technology with a view to improvements as well as altogether new approaches. This paper gives an overview on extraction processes developed in the past to recover uranium from wet phosphoricmore » acid (WPA) as well as the physicochemistry involved in these processes. Recent advances concerning the development of new extraction systems are also reported and discussed.« less

  20. Optimization of Extraction Process for Polysaccharide in Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bunge Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Yanhua, Wang; Fuhua, Wu; Zhaohan, Guo; Mingxing, Peng; Yanan, Zhang; Ling, Pang Zhen; Minhua, Du; Caiying, Zhang; Zian, Liang

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to optimize the extraction process for Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide using response surface methodology The results showed that four operating parameters including microwave power, microwave time and the particle size had notable effects on the polysaccharide extraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The effects could be ranked in decreasing order of importance as follows:. Microwave power > microwave time > the comminution degree. The optimal extraction parameters were determined as 573.83W of Microwave power and 8.4min of microwave time and 67.51mesh of the comminution degree, resulting in the yield of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide of 101.161mg / g. The established regression model describing polysaccharide extraction from as a function of the three extraction parameters was highly significant (R 2 = 0.9953). The predicted and experimental results were found to be in good agreement. Thus, the model can be applicable for the prediction of polysaccharide extraction from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. PMID:26312073

  1. Optimization of Extraction Process for Polysaccharide in Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bunge Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Yanhua, Wang; Fuhua, Wu; Zhaohan, Guo; Mingxing, Peng; Yanan, Zhang; Ling, Pang Zhen; Minhua, Du; Caiying, Zhang; Zian, Liang

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to optimize the extraction process for Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide using response surface methodology The results showed that four operating parameters including microwave power, microwave time and the particle size had notable effects on the polysaccharide extraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The effects could be ranked in decreasing order of importance as follows:. Microwave power > microwave time > the comminution degree. The optimal extraction parameters were determined as 573.83W of Microwave power and 8.4min of microwave time and 67.51mesh of the comminution degree, resulting in the yield of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide of 101.161mg / g. The established regression model describing polysaccharide extraction from as a function of the three extraction parameters was highly significant (R 2 = 0.9953). The predicted and experimental results were found to be in good agreement. Thus, the model can be applicable for the prediction of polysaccharide extraction from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. PMID:26998185

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-08

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Madhavi Nallani-Chakravartula; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-27

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  4. Fault detection and classification in chemical processes based on neural networks with feature extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yifeng; Hahn, Juergen; Mannan, M Sam

    2003-10-01

    Feed forward neural networks are investigated here for fault diagnosis in chemical processes, especially batch processes. The use of the neural model prediction error as the residual for fault diagnosis of sensor and component is analyzed. To reduce the training time required for the neural process model, an input feature extraction process for the neural model is implemented. An additional radial basis function neural classifier is developed to isolate faults from the residual generated, and results are presented to demonstrate the satisfactory detection and isolation of faults using this approach.

  5. Magnetic Nanofluid Rare Earth Element Extraction Process Report, Techno Economic Analysis, and Results for Geothermal Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Pete McGrail

    2016-03-14

    This GDR submission is an interim technical report and raw data files from the first year of testing on functionalized nanoparticles for rare earth element extraction from geothermal fluids. The report contains Rare Earth Element uptake results (percent removal, mg Rare Earth Element/gram of sorbent, distribution coefficient) for the elements of Neodymium, Europium, Yttrium, Dysprosium, and Cesium. A detailed techno economic analysis is also presented in the report for a scaled up geothermal rare earth element extraction process. All rare earth element uptake testing was done on simulated geothermal brines with one rare earth element in each brine. The rare earth element uptake testing was conducted at room temperature.

  6. Processing of Arroyo Grande tar sand using the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE copyright ) process

    SciTech Connect

    King, S.B.

    1989-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to (1) evaluate the applications of the ROPE{copyright} process to a California tar sand using the screw pyrolysis reactor-process development unit (SPR-PDU) reactor, (2) produce kinetics data for the recycle product oil-spent sand interaction, and (3) produce oil for end-use evaluation. 6 refs., 1 fig., 23 tabs.

  7. Method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1999-01-01

    A method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction is provided. An aqueous biphase system is generated by contacting a process stream comprised of water, salt, and organic species with an aqueous polymer solution. The organic species transfer from the salt-rich phase to the polymer-rich phase, and the phases are separated. Next, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer phase by selectively extracting the polymer into an organic phase at an elevated temperature, while the organic species remain in a substantially salt-free aqueous solution. Alternatively, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer by a temperature induced phase separation (cloud point extraction), whereby the polymer and the organic species separate into two distinct solutions. The method for separating water-miscible organic species is applicable to the treatment of industrial wastewater streams, including the extraction and recovery of complexed metal ions from salt solutions, organic contaminants from mineral processing streams, and colorants from spent dye baths.

  8. In vitro Anti-Thrombotic Activity of Extracts from Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra) Processing Waste

    PubMed Central

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Hines, Barney M.; Addepalli, Rama; Chen, Wei; Masci, Paul; Gobe, Glenda; Osborne, Simone A.

    2016-01-01

    Waste generated from the processing of marine organisms for food represents an underutilized resource that has the potential to provide bioactive molecules with pharmaceutical applications. Some of these molecules have known anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities and are being investigated as alternatives to common anti-thrombotic drugs, like heparin and warfarin that have serious side effects. In the current study, extracts prepared from blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) processing waste, using food grade enzymes papain and bromelain, were found to contain sulphated polysaccharide with anti-thrombotic activity. Extracts were found to be enriched with sulphated polysaccharides and assessed for anti-thrombotic activity in vitro through heparin cofactor-II (HCII)-mediated inhibition of thrombin. More than 60% thrombin inhibition was observed in response to 100 μg/mL sulphated polysaccharides. Anti-thrombotic potential was further assessed as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and blood, using prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thromboelastography (TEG). All abalone extracts had significant activity compared with saline control. Anion exchange chromatography was used to separate extracts into fractions with enhanced anti-thrombotic activity, improving HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition, PT and aPTT almost 2-fold. Overall this study identifies an alternative source of anti-thrombotic molecules that can be easily processed offering alternatives to current anti-thrombotic agents like heparin. PMID:28042854

  9. Method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mego, W.A.

    1999-09-07

    A method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction is provided. An aqueous biphase system is generated by contacting a process stream comprised of water, salt, and organic species with an aqueous polymer solution. The organic species transfer from the salt-rich phase to the polymer-rich phase, and the phases are separated. Next, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer phase by selectively extracting the polymer into an organic phase at an elevated temperature, while the organic species remain in a substantially salt-free aqueous solution. Alternatively, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer by a temperature induced phase separation (cloud point extraction), whereby the polymer and the organic species separate into two distinct solutions. The method for separating water-miscible organic species is applicable to the treatment of industrial wastewater streams, including the extraction and recovery of complexed metal ions from salt solutions, organic contaminants from mineral processing streams, and colorants from spent dye baths.

  10. An integrated process for the extraction of fuel and chemicals from marine macroalgal biomass

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Nitin; Baghel, Ravi S.; Bothwell, John; Gupta, Vishal; Reddy, C. R. K.; Lali, Arvind M.; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    We describe an integrated process that can be applied to biomass of the green seaweed, Ulva fasciata, to allow the sequential recovery of four economically important fractions; mineral rich liquid extract (MRLE), lipid, ulvan, and cellulose. The main benefits of our process are: a) its simplicity and b) the consistent yields obtained from the residual biomass after each successive extraction step. For example, dry Ulva biomass yields ~26% of its starting mass as MRLE, ~3% as lipid, ~25% as ulvan, and ~11% as cellulose, with the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of the final cellulose fraction under optimized conditions producing ethanol at a competitive 0.45 g/g reducing sugar. These yields are comparable to those obtained by direct processing of the individual components from primary biomass. We propose that this integration of ethanol production and chemical feedstock recovery from macroalgal biomass could substantially enhance the sustainability of marine biomass use. PMID:27470705

  11. An integrated process for the extraction of fuel and chemicals from marine macroalgal biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, Nitin; Baghel, Ravi S.; Bothwell, John; Gupta, Vishal; Reddy, C. R. K.; Lali, Arvind M.; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-07-01

    We describe an integrated process that can be applied to biomass of the green seaweed, Ulva fasciata, to allow the sequential recovery of four economically important fractions; mineral rich liquid extract (MRLE), lipid, ulvan, and cellulose. The main benefits of our process are: a) its simplicity and b) the consistent yields obtained from the residual biomass after each successive extraction step. For example, dry Ulva biomass yields ~26% of its starting mass as MRLE, ~3% as lipid, ~25% as ulvan, and ~11% as cellulose, with the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of the final cellulose fraction under optimized conditions producing ethanol at a competitive 0.45 g/g reducing sugar. These yields are comparable to those obtained by direct processing of the individual components from primary biomass. We propose that this integration of ethanol production and chemical feedstock recovery from macroalgal biomass could substantially enhance the sustainability of marine biomass use.

  12. Simultaneous extraction and biotransformation process to obtain high bioactivity phenolic compounds from Brazilian citrus residues.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Jose Valdo; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have pointed to a reduction in the incidence of some cancers, diabetes, and neuro-degenerative diseases as a result of human health benefits from flavanones. Currently, flavanones are obtained by chemical synthesis or extraction from plants, and these processes are only produced in the glycosylated form. An interesting environmentally friendly alternative that deserves attention regarding phenolic compound production is the simultaneous extraction and biotransformation of these molecules. Orange juice consumption has become a worldwide dietary habit and Brazil is the largest producer of orange juice in the world. Approximately half of the citrus fruit is discarded after the juice is processed, thus generating large amounts of residues (peel and pectinolytic material). Hence, finding an environmentally clean technique to extract natural products and bioactive compounds from different plant materials has presented a challenging task over the last decades. The aim of this study was to obtain phenolics from Brazilian citrus residues with high bioactivity, using simultaneous extraction (cellulase and pectinase) and biotransformation (tannase) by enzymatic process. The highest hesperetin, naringenin and ellagic acid production in the experiment were 120, 80, and 11,250 µg g(-1), respectively, at 5.0 U mL(-1) of cellulase and 7.0 U mL(-1) of tannase at 40°C and 200 rpm. Also, the development of this process generated an increase of 77% in the total antioxidant capacity. These results suggest that the bioprocess obtained innovative results where the simultaneous enzymatic and biotransformatic extracted flavanones from agro-industrial residues was achieved without the use of organic solvents. The methodology can therefore be considered a green technology.

  13. Inline Monitors for Measuring Cs-137 in the SRS Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, V

    2006-04-24

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, a portion of dissolved saltcake waste will be processed through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). The MCU employs the CSSX process, a continuous process that uses a novel solvent to extract cesium from waste and concentrate it in dilute nitric acid. Of primary concern is Cs-137 which makes the solution highly radioactive. Since the MCU does not have the capacity to wait for sample results while continuing to operate, the Waste Acceptance Strategy is to perform inline analyses. Gamma-ray monitors are used to: measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) before entering the DSS Hold Tank; measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent (SE) before entering the SE Hold Tank; and verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process. Since this gamma ray monitoring system application is unique, specially designed shielding was developed and software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling the monitor hardware and communicating with the host Distributed Control System. This paper presents the design, fabrication and implementation of this monitoring system.

  14. Supercritical fluid extraction of N-nitrosamines in hams processed in elastic rubber nettings.

    PubMed

    Pensabene, J W; Fiddler, W; Maxwell, R J; Lightfield, A R; Hampson, J W

    1995-01-01

    A method for analysing N-nitrosamines in hams processed in elastic rubber nettings by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is described. The study was carried out with the prototype of a commercial extractor with a silica gel adsorption cartridge integrally attached to the variable restrictor. The SFE method was compared with a solid-phase extraction procedure currently used for ham analysis. Both methods used the same gas chromatographic-chemiluminescence detection conditions. No significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between results obtained with the 2 methods. Repeatability standard deviation of the SFE method was 1.7 ppb, with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 2.7%, compared with 2.2 ppb, with a CV of 3.5%, for solid-phase extraction. SFE permits minimal use of solvent and more rapid analysis of nitrosamines.

  15. Developing an Intelligent Automatic Appendix Extraction Method from Ultrasonography Based on Fuzzy ART and Image Processing

    PubMed Central

    Song, Doo Heon; Han, Sang-suk

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound examination (US) does a key role in the diagnosis and management of the patients with clinically suspected appendicitis which is the most common abdominal surgical emergency. Among the various sonographic findings of appendicitis, outer diameter of the appendix is most important. Therefore, clear delineation of the appendix on US images is essential. In this paper, we propose a new intelligent method to extract appendix automatically from abdominal sonographic images as a basic building block of developing such an intelligent tool for medical practitioners. Knowing that the appendix is located at the lower organ area below the bottom fascia line, we conduct a series of image processing techniques to find the fascia line correctly. And then we apply fuzzy ART learning algorithm to the organ area in order to extract appendix accurately. The experiment verifies that the proposed method is highly accurate (successful in 38 out of 40 cases) in extracting appendix. PMID:26089963

  16. Knowledge Extraction from MEDLINE by Combining Clustering with Natural Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Miñarro-Giménez, Jose A.; Kreuzthaler, Markus; Schulz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The identification of relevant predicates between co-occurring concepts in scientific literature databases like MEDLINE is crucial for using these sources for knowledge extraction, in order to obtain meaningful biomedical predications as subject-predicate-object triples. We consider the manually assigned MeSH indexing terms (main headings and subheadings) in MEDLINE records as a rich resource for extracting a broad range of domain knowledge. In this paper, we explore the combination of a clustering method for co-occurring concepts based on their related MeSH subheadings in MEDLINE with the use of SemRep, a natural language processing engine, which extracts predications from free text documents. As a result, we generated sets of clusters of co-occurring concepts and identified the most significant predicates for each cluster. The association of such predicates with the co-occurrences of the resulting clusters produces the list of predications, which were checked for relevance. PMID:26958228

  17. Extracting important information from Chinese Operation Notes with natural language processing methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Weide; Zeng, Qiang; Li, Zuofeng; Feng, Kaiyan; Liu, Lei

    2014-04-01

    Extracting information from unstructured clinical narratives is valuable for many clinical applications. Although natural Language Processing (NLP) methods have been profoundly studied in electronic medical records (EMR), few studies have explored NLP in extracting information from Chinese clinical narratives. In this study, we report the development and evaluation of extracting tumor-related information from operation notes of hepatic carcinomas which were written in Chinese. Using 86 operation notes manually annotated by physicians as the training set, we explored both rule-based and supervised machine-learning approaches. Evaluating on unseen 29 operation notes, our best approach yielded 69.6% in precision, 58.3% in recall and 63.5% F-score.

  18. Enhanced anthocyanin extraction from red cabbage using pulsed electric field processing.

    PubMed

    Gachovska, Tanya; Cassada, David; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan; Hanna, Milford; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Snow, Daniel

    2010-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on anthocyanin extraction from red cabbage using water as a solvent. Mashed cabbage was placed in a batch treatment chamber and subjected to PEF (2.5 kV/cm electric field strength; 15 micros pulse width and 50 pulses, specific energy 15.63 J/g). Extracted anthocyanin concentrations (16 to 889 microg/mL) were determined using HPLC. Heat and light stabilities of the control and PEF-treated samples, having approximately the same initial concentrations, were studied. PEF treatments enhanced total anthocyanin extraction in water from red cabbage by 2.15 times with a higher proportion of nonacylated forms than the control (P < 0.05). The heat and light stabilities of the PEF-treated samples and control samples were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Practical Application: An innovative pretreatment technology, pulsed electric field processing, enhanced total anthocyanin extraction in water from red cabbage by 2.15 times. Manufacturers of natural colors can use this technology to extract anthocyanins from red cabbage efficiently.

  19. Enhancement of Cognitive Functions by Aronia melanocarpa Elliot Through an Intermittent Ultrasonication Extraction Process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Young; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2016-03-01

    To increase the cognitive enhancement provided by Aronia melanocarpa Elliot (Aronia), Aronia was extracted using 70% ethanol solvent and six cycles of intermittent ultrasonication at 120 KHz for 50 min, followed by a rest for 10 min (UE), and was also extracted using 70% ethanol for 24 h at 80°C (EE) as a control process. In both in vivo water maze and passive avoidance tests, the UE showed better performance enhancement than the EE: in the water maze, mice treated with EE and UE showed escape latencies of 62.6 s and 54.3 s, respectively; for passive avoidance, they showed retention times of 45.9 s and 38.9 s, respectively. UE downregulated the expression level of acetylcholinesterase genes to 1.46 times compared with 1.72 for EE. However, there were no significant histological differences in the hippocampus between the mice fed with EE and those fed UE. Additionally, the UE was confirmed to have a greater antioxidant effect, 0.728 versus 0.561 for EE. Comparison of the high-performance liquid chromatography chromatograms of the extracts demonstrates that the intermittent ultrasonication process may improve the cognitive activities of Aronia by eluting higher amounts of cyanidin-3-galactoside (C3G). This work is the first to report that the crude extract from the intermittent ultrasonication process provided better cognitive enhancement than a single major bioactive substance, C3G itself, possibly through the synergistic effects of other anthocyanins present in the extract, such as delphine galactoside, cyanidin arabinoside, and cyanidin glucoside. We also believe that these findings may provide a reliable basis for developing natural plant drugs to compensate for the side effects of purified and/or chemically synthesized single-component drugs rather than to compete with them.

  20. Enumeration and rapid identification of yeasts during extraction processes of extra virgin olive oil in Tuscany.

    PubMed

    Mari, Eleonora; Guerrini, Simona; Granchi, Lisa; Vincenzini, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of yeast populations during different olive oil extraction processes, carried out in three consecutive years in Tuscany (Italy), by analysing crushed pastes, kneaded pastes, oil from decanter and pomaces. The results showed yeast concentrations ranging between 10(3) and 10(5) CFU/g or per mL. Seventeen dominant yeast species were identified by random amplified polymorphic DNA with primer M13 and their identification was confirmed by restriction fragments length polymorphism of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and sequencing rRNA genes. The isolation frequencies of each species in the collected samples pointed out that the occurrence of the various yeast species in olive oil extraction process was dependent not only on the yeasts contaminating the olives but also on the yeasts colonizing the plant for oil extraction. In fact, eleven dominant yeast species were detected from the washed olives, but only three of them were also found in oil samples at significant isolation frequency. On the contrary, the most abundant species in oil samples, Yamadazyma terventina, did not occur in washed olive samples. These findings suggest a phenomenon of contamination of the plant for oil extraction that selects some yeast species that could affect the quality of olive oil.

  1. Effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract on healing process of surgical wounds in rat.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Sayyed Yazdan; Parsaei, Pouya; Karimi, Mehrdad; Ezzati, Sareh; Zamiri, Alaleh; Mohammadizadeh, Fereshteh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and may enhance wound healing process. The present study, therefore, was aimed to examine the effect of green tea ethanolic extract on wound healing process. For this experimental study, 36 healthy male Wistar rats were randomly designated to three groups of A, B, and C which, respectively treated with, Vaseline + 0.6% green tea extract, Vaseline and normal saline for 21 days. Wounds' length and area were measured by caliper every other day and specimens were taken at 3rd, 12th, and 21st day for microscopical examinations. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 using survival analysis (Breslow test), repeated measured ANOVA, one-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The mean healing duration of surgical wounds in groups A and B was 14.66 and 20.66 (P = 0.018), respectively. Decrease in healing duration in the group A was significantly higher within the first two weeks compared with control groups (P = 0.05). Microscopic examinations also indicated a significant difference in wound healing process between groups A and C throughout the whole study duration as well as groups A and B during the 3rd week of the study (P < 0.05). Green tea extract could help wound healing process, probably effective on surgical wounds healing.

  2. Detoxification of Abrus precatorius L. seeds by Ayurvedic Shodhana process and anti-inflammatory potential of the detoxified extract

    PubMed Central

    Dhoble, Sagar B.; Majumdar, Anuradha S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abrus precatorius seeds traditionally used for the treatment of sciatica and alopecia contains the toxic protein, abrin, a Type II Ribosome Inactivating Protein. Ayurveda recommends the use of Abrus seeds after the Shodhana process (detoxification). Objective: The current study was aimed at performing the Shodhana process, swedana (boiling) of Abrus precatorius seeds using water as a medium and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of seed extract post detoxification. Materials and Methods: Non-detoxified and detoxified extracts were prepared and subsequently subjected to various in vitro and in vivo assays. In hemagglutination assay, the non-detoxified extract shows higher agglutination of RBCs than detoxified extract indicating riddance of toxic hemagglutinating proteins by Shodhana. This was confirmed by the SDSPAGE analysis of detoxified extract revealing the absence of abrin band in detoxified extract when compared to non-detoxified extract. Results: The cytotoxicity assay in HeLa cell line expresses a higher reduction in growth percentage of the cells with non-detoxified extract as compared to detoxified extract indicating successful detoxification. Brine shrimp lethality test indicated the reduction in toxicity index of detoxified extract as compared to non-detoxified extract. Further, the whole body apoptosis assay in zebrafish revealed that percentage of viable cells were greater for detoxified extract than non-detoxified extract. The anti-inflammatory studies using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats was carried out on the extracts with doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, per oral, where the detoxified extract exhibited significant inhibition of rat paw edema at both the doses comparable to that of Diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Absence of toxicity and the retention of the anti-inflammatory activity of detoxified Abrus seed extract confirmed that the Swedana process is effective in carrying out the detoxification without affecting

  3. Sabah snake grass extract pre-processing: Preliminary studies in drying and fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solibun, A.; Sivakumar, K.

    2016-06-01

    Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. F.) Lindau which also known as ‘Sabah Snake Grass’ among Malaysians have been studied in terms of its medicinal and chemical properties in Asian countries which is used to treat various diseases from cancer to viral-related diseases such as varicella-zoster virus lesions. Traditionally, this plant has been used by the locals to treat insect and snake bites, skin rashes, diabetes and dysentery. In Malaysia, the fresh leaves of this plant are usually boiled with water and consumed as herbal tea. The objectives of this study are to determine the key process parameters for Sabah Snake Grass fermentation which affect the chemical and biological constituent concentrations within the tea, extraction kinetics of fermented and unfermented tea and the optimal process parameters for the fermentation of this tea. Experimental methods such as drying, fermenting and extraction of C.nutans leaves were conducted before subjecting them to analysis of antioxidant capacity. Conventional oven- dried (40, 45 and 50°C) and fermented (6, 12 and 18 hours) whole C.nutans leaves were subjected to tea infusion extraction (water temperature was 80°C, duration was 90 minutes) and the sample liquid was extracted for every 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 40th, 60th and 90th minute. Analysis for antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) were conducted by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocaltheu reagent, respectively. The 40°C dried leaves sample produced the highest phenolic content at 0.1344 absorbance value in 15 minutes of extraction while 50°C dried leaves sample produced 0.1298 absorbance value in 10 minutes of extraction. The highest antioxidant content was produced by 50°C dried leaves sample with absorbance value of 1.6299 in 5 minutes of extraction. For 40°C dried leaves sample, the highest antioxidant content could be observed in 25 minutes of extraction with the absorbance value of 1.1456. The largest diameter of disc

  4. Bicoid Signal Extraction with a Selection of Parametric and Nonparametric Signal Processing Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsi, Zara; Silva, Emmanuel Sirimal; Hassani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    The maternal segmentation coordinate gene bicoid plays a significant role during Drosophila embryogenesis. The gradient of Bicoid, the protein encoded by this gene, determines most aspects of head and thorax development. This paper seeks to explore the applicability of a variety of signal processing techniques at extracting bicoid expression signal, and whether these methods can outperform the current model. We evaluate the use of six different powerful and widely-used models representing both parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques to determine the most efficient method for signal extraction in bicoid. The results are evaluated using both real and simulated data. Our findings show that the Singular Spectrum Analysis technique proposed in this paper outperforms the synthesis diffusion degradation model for filtering the noisy protein profile of bicoid whilst the exponential smoothing technique was found to be the next best alternative followed by the autoregressive integrated moving average. PMID:26197438

  5. The solvent absorption-extractive distillation (SAED) process for ethanol recovery from gas/vapor streams

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, M.C.

    1993-12-31

    A low energy system for ethanol recovery and dehydration has been developed. This system utilizes a solvent for (1) absorption of ethanol vapors, and then the same solvent for (2) extractive distillation. The ideal solvent for this process would have a high affinity for ethanol, and no affinity for water. Heavy alcohols such as dodecanol, and tridecanol, some phosphorals, and some fatty acids have been determined to meet the desired specifications. These solvents have the effect of making water more volatile than ethanol. Thus, a water stream is taken off initially in the dehydration column, and a near anhydrous ethanol stream is recovered from the ethanol/solvent stripper column. Thus the solvent serves dual uses (1) absorption media, and (2) dehydration media. The SAED process as conceptualized would use a solvent similar to solvents used for direct extractive separation of ethanol from aqueous ethanol solutions.

  6. Hybrid Discrete Wavelet Transform and Gabor Filter Banks Processing for Features Extraction from Biomedical Images

    PubMed Central

    Lahmiri, Salim; Boukadoum, Mounir

    2013-01-01

    A new methodology for automatic feature extraction from biomedical images and subsequent classification is presented. The approach exploits the spatial orientation of high-frequency textural features of the processed image as determined by a two-step process. First, the two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is applied to obtain the HH high-frequency subband image. Then, a Gabor filter bank is applied to the latter at different frequencies and spatial orientations to obtain new Gabor-filtered image whose entropy and uniformity are computed. Finally, the obtained statistics are fed to a support vector machine (SVM) binary classifier. The approach was validated on mammograms, retina, and brain magnetic resonance (MR) images. The obtained classification accuracies show better performance in comparison to common approaches that use only the DWT or Gabor filter banks for feature extraction. PMID:27006906

  7. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its application to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.N. ); King, C.J. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports on solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents which increase sharply as the concentration of water in the solvent increases. This phenomenon leads to a method of regeneration for solvent-extraction processes whereby coextracted water is selectively removed from the extract, such as by stripping, thereby precipitating the acid. The removal of a minor constituent to cause precipitation reduces energy consumption, in contrast with bulk removal of solvent. Solubilities of fumaric acid were measured in a number of organic solvents, with varying amounts of water in the organic phase. Cyclohexanone and methylcyclohexanone were chosen as solvents for which detailed solid-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria were measured for adipic, fumaric, and succinic acids in the presence of varying concentrations of water, at both 25 and 45[degrees]C. Batch precipitation experiments were performed to demonstrate the processing concept and determine the relative volatility of water to solvent in the presence of carbon.

  8. Bicoid signal extraction with a selection of parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Ghodsi, Zara; Silva, Emmanuel Sirimal; Hassani, Hossein

    2015-06-01

    The maternal segmentation coordinate gene bicoid plays a significant role during Drosophila embryogenesis. The gradient of Bicoid, the protein encoded by this gene, determines most aspects of head and thorax development. This paper seeks to explore the applicability of a variety of signal processing techniques at extracting bicoid expression signal, and whether these methods can outperform the current model. We evaluate the use of six different powerful and widely-used models representing both parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques to determine the most efficient method for signal extraction in bicoid. The results are evaluated using both real and simulated data. Our findings show that the Singular Spectrum Analysis technique proposed in this paper outperforms the synthesis diffusion degradation model for filtering the noisy protein profile of bicoid whilst the exponential smoothing technique was found to be the next best alternative followed by the autoregressive integrated moving average.

  9. Hybrid Discrete Wavelet Transform and Gabor Filter Banks Processing for Features Extraction from Biomedical Images.

    PubMed

    Lahmiri, Salim; Boukadoum, Mounir

    2013-01-01

    A new methodology for automatic feature extraction from biomedical images and subsequent classification is presented. The approach exploits the spatial orientation of high-frequency textural features of the processed image as determined by a two-step process. First, the two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is applied to obtain the HH high-frequency subband image. Then, a Gabor filter bank is applied to the latter at different frequencies and spatial orientations to obtain new Gabor-filtered image whose entropy and uniformity are computed. Finally, the obtained statistics are fed to a support vector machine (SVM) binary classifier. The approach was validated on mammograms, retina, and brain magnetic resonance (MR) images. The obtained classification accuracies show better performance in comparison to common approaches that use only the DWT or Gabor filter banks for feature extraction.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Quentin C. Berg; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Jason C. Hissam; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Abha Saddawi; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-07

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of carbon electrodes for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells (DCFC), and on carbon foam composites used in ballistic armor, as well as the hydrotreatment of solvents used in the basic solvent extraction process. A major goal is the production of 1500 pounds of binder pitch, corresponding to about 3000 pounds of hydrotreated solvent.

  11. Solvent extraction of organic acids from stillage for its re-use in ethanol production process.

    PubMed

    Castro, G A; Caicedo, L A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Sanchez, O F

    2010-06-01

    Stillage re-use in the fermentation stage in ethanol production is a technique used for the reduction of water and fermentation nutrients consumption. However, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth of the by-products and feed components that remains in stillage increases with re-use and reduces the number of possible recycles. Several methods such as ultrafiltration, electrodialysis and advanced oxidation processes have been used in stillage treatment prior its re-use in the fermentation stage. Nevertheless, few studies evaluating the effect of solvent extraction as a stillage treatment option have been performed. In this work, the inhibitory effect of serial stillage recycling over ethanol and biomass production was determined, using acetic acid as a monitoring compound during the fermentation and solvent extraction process. Raw palm oil methyl ester showed the highest acetic acid extraction from the aqueous phase, presenting a distribution coefficient of 3.10 for a 1:1 aqueous phase mixture:solvent ratio. Re-using stillage without treatment allowed up to three recycles with an ethanol production of 53.7 +/- 2.0 g L(-1), which was reduced 25% in the fifth recycle. Alternatively, treated stillage allowed up to five recycles with an ethanol final concentration of 54.7 +/- 1.3 g L(- 1). These results show that reduction of acetic acid concentration by an extraction process with raw palm oil methyl ester before re-using stillage improves the number of recycles without a major effect on ethanol production. The proposed process generates a palm oil methyl ester that contains organic acids, among other by-products, that could be used for product recovery and as an alternative fuel.

  12. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant phaseout/deactivation study

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, M.W.; Thompson, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The decision to cease all US Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels was made on April 28, 1992. This study provides insight into and a comparison of the management, technical, compliance, and safety strategies for deactivating the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this study is to ensure that lessons-learned and future plans are coordinated between the two facilities.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-08-11

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the facility modifications for continuous hydrotreating, as well as developing improved protocols for producing synthetic pitches.

  14. Simulation and optimization of a supercritical extraction process for recovering provitamin A.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Elenise Bannwart; Alvarez, Mario Eusebio Torres; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Maciel Filho, Rubens

    2006-01-01

    In this work, a simulation procedure of a supercritical extraction process was developed through the use of the commercial simulator HYSYS (Hyprotech Ltd.), adapting the existing units to the operating conditions typical of the supercritical extraction process. The objective is to recover provitamin A (beta-carotene) from palm oil (esterified) using carbon dioxide/ethanol as the supercritical mixed solvent. This example characterizes the problem for recovering high added value product from natural sources, as the palm oil, which is desired by the market. Owing to the fact that esterified palm oil is a complex mixture, made by several components, in order to characterize this system in the simulator, it was necessary to create hypothetical components using the UNIFAC (universal function-group activity coefficients model) group contribution, because they are not present in a conventional database and, then, their physical properties must be estimated and/or predicted before the simulation. The optimization was carried out in each simulation for each equipment, in terms of operating conditions (temperature and pressure), in order to obtain the maximum recovery of carotenes. According to the results, it was possible to concentrate carotenes through two cycles of supercritical extraction with high yield. Furthermore, ethyl esters (biodiesel) were also obtained, as a byproduct of the proposed process, which can also be used as an alternative fuel, with the important characteristic that it is renewable.

  15. Analysis of a reactive extraction process for biodiesel production using a lipase immobilized on magnetic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Dussan, K J; Cardona, C A; Giraldo, O H; Gutiérrez, L F; Pérez, V H

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by coprecipitating Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) ions in a sodium hydroxide solution and used as support for lipase. The lipase-coated particles were applied in a reactive extraction process that allowed separation of the products formed during transesterification. Kinetics data for triolein and ethanol consumption during biodiesel (ethyl oleate) synthesis together with a thermodynamic phase equilibrium model (liquid-liquid) were used for simulation of batch and continuous processes. The analysis demonstrated the possibility of applying this biocatalytic system in the reactive zone using external magnetic fields. This approach implies new advantages in efficient location and use of lipases in column reactors for producing biodiesel.

  16. Extraction and purification methods in downstream processing of plant-based recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Łojewska, Ewelina; Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Olejniczak, Szymon; Sakowicz, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    During the last two decades, the production of recombinant proteins in plant systems has been receiving increased attention. Currently, proteins are considered as the most important biopharmaceuticals. However, high costs and problems with scaling up the purification and isolation processes make the production of plant-based recombinant proteins a challenging task. This paper presents a summary of the information regarding the downstream processing in plant systems and provides a comprehensible overview of its key steps, such as extraction and purification. To highlight the recent progress, mainly new developments in the downstream technology have been chosen. Furthermore, besides most popular techniques, alternative methods have been described.

  17. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOEpatents

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Curry, Randy Dale; Clevenger, Thomas E.; Golden, Jeffry

    2003-05-27

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacts a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  18. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOEpatents

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Curry, Randy Dale; Clevenger, Thomas E.; Golden, Jeffry

    2000-01-01

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacting a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  19. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Jeffry

    2007-02-13

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacts a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  20. Concentration of antioxidant polyphenols from Thymus capitatus extracts by membrane process technology.

    PubMed

    Achour, Sami; Khelifi, Eltaief; Attia, Yesmine; Ferjani, Ezzeddine; Noureddine Hellal, Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    Thymus capitatus is a Mediterranean plant characterized by its antioxidant polyphenols of which the most known are the carnosic and rosmarinic acids. In this way, this study aims to concentrate these acids by membrane processes. The thyme essential oil composition was established by capillary GC-MS and 27 components were identified representing 98.93%± 1.97% of total oils. The antioxidant test for permeate and retentate of methanolic and aqueous extract were determined using 3 types of membranes. The results showed that the synthetic NF membrane is able to trap and concentrate phenolic compounds in the retentate much better than the NF commercial and UF synthetic membrane. The results of the total phenolic content (TPC) showed a significant value of the polyphenol content present in the aqueous extract with 175.53 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE)/g of extract. The spectrum of the aqueous extract of Thymus capitatus showed the presence of 3 visible peaks, the 1st one at 217 nm corresponding to the carnosic acid, the 2nd one at 277 nm for essential oils, and the last one at 326 nm attributed to the rosmarinic acid. The commercial membrane NF-DK succeeded to concentrate rosmarinic acid and can be considered as a stage towards the concentration of this product with a high added value.

  1. Semantic extraction and processing of medical records for patient-oriented visual index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weilin; Dong, Wenjie; Chen, Xiangjiao; Zhang, Jianguo

    2012-02-01

    To have comprehensive and completed understanding healthcare status of a patient, doctors need to search patient medical records from different healthcare information systems, such as PACS, RIS, HIS, USIS, as a reference of diagnosis and treatment decisions for the patient. However, it is time-consuming and tedious to do these procedures. In order to solve this kind of problems, we developed a patient-oriented visual index system (VIS) to use the visual technology to show health status and to retrieve the patients' examination information stored in each system with a 3D human model. In this presentation, we present a new approach about how to extract the semantic and characteristic information from the medical record systems such as RIS/USIS to create the 3D Visual Index. This approach includes following steps: (1) Building a medical characteristic semantic knowledge base; (2) Developing natural language processing (NLP) engine to perform semantic analysis and logical judgment on text-based medical records; (3) Applying the knowledge base and NLP engine on medical records to extract medical characteristics (e.g., the positive focus information), and then mapping extracted information to related organ/parts of 3D human model to create the visual index. We performed the testing procedures on 559 samples of radiological reports which include 853 focuses, and achieved 828 focuses' information. The successful rate of focus extraction is about 97.1%.

  2. Biodiesel production from wet microalgae feedstock using sequential wet extraction/transesterification and direct transesterification processes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Lung; Huang, Chien-Chang; Ho, Kao-Chia; Hsiao, Ping-Xuan; Wu, Meng-Shan; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-10-01

    Although producing biodiesel from microalgae seems promising, there is still a lack of technology for the quick and cost-effective conversion of biodiesel from wet microalgae. This study was aimed to develop a novel microalgal biodiesel producing method, consisting of an open system of microwave disruption, partial dewatering (via combination of methanol treatment and low-speed centrifugation), oil extraction, and transesterification without the pre-removal of the co-solvent, using Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4 with 68.7 wt% water content as the feedstock. Direct transesterification with the disrupted wet microalgae was also conducted. The biomass content of the wet microalgae increased to 56.6 and 60.5 wt%, respectively, after microwave disruption and partial dewatering. About 96.2% oil recovery was achieved under the conditions of: extraction temperature, 45°C; hexane/methanol ratio, 3:1; extraction time, 80 min. Transesterification of the extracted oil reached 97.2% conversion within 15 min at 45°C and 6:1 solvent/methanol ratio with simultaneous Chlorophyll removal during the process. Nearly 100% biodiesel conversion was also obtained while conducting direct transesterification of the disrupted oil-bearing microalgal biomass.

  3. High hydrostatic pressure processing: a method having high success potential in pollen protein extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murat Altuner, Ergin; Çeter, Talip; Alpas, Hami

    2012-06-01

    Even a single peptide that is present in the pollen wall and cytoplasm could cause pollen allergy. To produce skin-prick test kits, the first step is the extraction of these molecules. In this study, Cedrus atlantica pollens were subjected to 220 and 330 MPa for 10 and 30 min in order to extract these molecules. After high hydrostatic pressure processing (HHPP), the total amounts of proteins (TAPs) are measured and compared with the results of the conventional extraction method (CEM). As a result, the TAPs extracted by HHPP is 18.0210 μ g/mL at 220 MPa for 10 min, 22.5770 μ g/mL at 220 MPa for 30 min, 23.3810 μ g/mL at 330 MPa for 10 min and 25.9270 μ g/mL at 330 MPa for 30 min, while this is 1.9460 μ g/mL in 24 h by the CEM. In addition to these results, visual pollen deformation and eruption, pollen wall and surface damage have also been observed.

  4. Optimization of squalene extraction from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) in multistage process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibuyo, Leah; Widiputri, Diah; Legowo, Evita

    2017-01-01

    Squalene is a compound widely known as one of the natural antioxidants used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. As the main source of squalene, which is shark liver oil, is becoming more limited in its availability, attempts have been made to extract squalene from other sources, e.g. from vegetable oils. Research has found that one of the wastes produced by palm oil industry, namely the palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), contains squalene among other useful compounds. Since Indonesia is one of the largest producers of palm oil, the abundant amount of PFAD becomes very interesting to be a solution in coping with today demand of natural squalene. In this research, the extraction of squalene from PFAD is optimized through a multiple-stage extraction process, where results show a significant increase of squalene yield. Furthermore, the liquid-liquid phase equilibrium data for an extraction using dichloromethane (DCM) were plotted to develop a ternary-phase-diagram between squalene, DCM and free-fatty acids.

  5. Second international symposium on extraction and processing for the treatment and minimization of wastes - 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandran, V.; Nesbitt, C.C.

    1996-12-31

    This volume contains 71 papers presented at the Second International symposium on Extraction and Processing for the Treatment and Minimization of Wastes. 21 papers were selected for the database. The papers selected covered topics in chemical, environmental, and mechanical engineering related to radioactive and nonradioactive wastes. Specific topics include spent catalyst processing of petroleum refinery wastes; redox alloy for water treatment; thermodynamic modeling of uranium fluoride waste processing; calcination of radioactive wastes; geochemical modeling of radioactive waste processing; removal and/or stabilization of arsenic, selenium, mercury, lead and other metals from soils and ground water; pond dredging and dewatering; options for complying with water quality based metal limitations; removal of thorium from ilmenite; and electroslag remelting of fusion reactor vanadium alloy.

  6. Advancement of green process through microwave-assisted extraction of bioactive metabolites from Arthrospira Platensis and bioactivity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Hernández, Diego A; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José; Rostro-Alanis, Magdalena; Cuéllar-Bermúdez, Sara P; Mancera-Andrade, Elena I; Núñez-Echevarría, Jade E; García-Pérez, J Saúl; Chandra, Rashmi; Parra-Saldívar, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Bioactivity and functional properties of cyanobacterial extract mostly depends on process of extraction, temperature and solvent used (polar or non-polar). To evaluate these parameters a design of experiment (DOE; using a 2(k) design) was performed with Arthrospira platensis. Extraction process was optimized through microwave-assisted extraction considering solvent ratio, temperature and time of extraction with polar (PS) and non-polar (NPS). Maximum extract yield obtained was 4.32±0.25% and 5.26±0.11% (w/w) respectively for PS and NPS. Maximum content of bioactive metabolites in PS extracts were thiamine (846.57±14.12μg/g), riboflavin (101.09±1.63μg/g), C-phycocyanin (2.28±0.10μg/g) and A-phycocyanin (4.11±0.03μg/g), while for NPS extracts were α-tocopherol (37.86±0.78μg/g), β-carotene (123.64±1.45μg/g) and 19.44±0.21mg/g of fatty acids. A. platensis PS extracts showed high antimicrobial activity and PS extracts had antioxidant activity of 0.79±0.12μmolTE/g for FRAP assay, while for NPS extracts 1.03±0.08μmol α-TE/g for FRAP assay.

  7. Vanadium recovery from oil fly ash by leaching, precipitation and solvent extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, R.; Guzman, J.; Saucedo, I.; Guibal, E.

    2007-07-01

    In order to reduce the environmental impact due to land disposal of oil fly ash from power plants and to valorize this waste material, the removal of vanadium was investigated using leaching processes (acidic and alkaline treatments), followed by a second step of metal recovery from leachates involving either solvent extraction or selective precipitation. Despite a lower leaching efficiency (compared to sulfuric acid), sodium hydroxide was selected for vanadium leaching since it is more selective for vanadium (versus other transition metals). Precipitation was preferred to solvent extraction for the second step in the treatment since: (a) it is more selective; enabling complete recovery of vanadate from the leachate in the form of pure ammonium vanadate; and (b) stripping of the loaded organic phase (in the solvent extraction process) was not efficient. Precipitation was performed in a two-step procedure: (a) aluminum was first precipitated at pH 8; (b) then ammonium chloride was added at pH 5 to bring about vanadium precipitation.

  8. Vanadium recovery from oil fly ash by leaching, precipitation and solvent extraction processes.

    PubMed

    Navarro, R; Guzman, J; Saucedo, I; Revilla, J; Guibal, E

    2007-01-01

    In order to reduce the environmental impact due to land disposal of oil fly ash from power plants and to valorize this waste material, the removal of vanadium was investigated using leaching processes (acidic and alkaline treatments), followed by a second step of metal recovery from leachates involving either solvent extraction or selective precipitation. Despite a lower leaching efficiency (compared to sulfuric acid), sodium hydroxide was selected for vanadium leaching since it is more selective for vanadium (versus other transition metals). Precipitation was preferred to solvent extraction for the second step in the treatment since: (a) it is more selective; enabling complete recovery of vanadate from the leachate in the form of pure ammonium vanadate; and (b) stripping of the loaded organic phase (in the solvent extraction process) was not efficient. Precipitation was performed in a two-step procedure: (a) aluminum was first precipitated at pH 8; (b) then ammonium chloride was added at pH 5 to bring about vanadium precipitation.

  9. Fluoro-alcohol phase modifiers and process for cesium solvent extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bonnesen, Peter V.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.

    2003-05-20

    The invention relates to a class of phenoxy fluoro-alcohols, their preparation, and their use as phase modifiers and solvating agents in a solvent composition for the extraction of cesium from alkaline solutions. These phenoxy fluoro-alcohols comply with the formula: ##STR1## in which n=2 to 4; X represents a hydrogen or a fluorine atom, and R.sup.2 -R.sup.6 are hydrogen or alkyl substituents. These phenoxy fluoro-alcohol phase modifiers are a necessary component to a robust solvent composition and process useful for the removal of radioactive cesium from alkaline nuclear waste streams. The fluoro-alcohols can also be used in solvents designed to extract other cesium from acidic or neutral solutions.

  10. An image processing based paradigm for the extraction of tonal sounds in cetacean communications

    PubMed Central

    Kershenbaum, Arik; Roch, Marie A.

    2013-01-01

    Dolphins and whales use tonal whistles for communication, and it is known that frequency modulation encodes contextual information. An automated mathematical algorithm could characterize the frequency modulation of tonal calls for use with clustering and classification. Most automatic cetacean whistle processing techniques are based on peak or edge detection or require analyst assistance in verifying detections. An alternative paradigm is introduced using techniques of image processing. Frequency information is extracted as ridges in whistle spectrograms. Spectral ridges are the fundamental structure of tonal vocalizations, and ridge detection is a well-established image processing technique, easily applied to vocalization spectrograms. This paradigm is implemented as freely available matlab scripts, coined IPRiT (image processing ridge tracker). Its fidelity in the reconstruction of synthesized whistles is compared to another published whistle detection software package, silbido. Both algorithms are also applied to real-world recordings of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops trunactus) signature whistles and tested for the ability to identify whistles belonging to different individuals. IPRiT gave higher fidelity and lower false detection than silbido with synthesized whistles, and reconstructed dolphin identity groups from signature whistles, whereas silbido could not. IPRiT appears to be superior to silbido for the extraction of the precise frequency variation of the whistle. PMID:25669255

  11. An image processing based paradigm for the extraction of tonal sounds in cetacean communications.

    PubMed

    Kershenbaum, Arik; Roch, Marie A

    2013-12-01

    Dolphins and whales use tonal whistles for communication, and it is known that frequency modulation encodes contextual information. An automated mathematical algorithm could characterize the frequency modulation of tonal calls for use with clustering and classification. Most automatic cetacean whistle processing techniques are based on peak or edge detection or require analyst assistance in verifying detections. An alternative paradigm is introduced using techniques of image processing. Frequency information is extracted as ridges in whistle spectrograms. Spectral ridges are the fundamental structure of tonal vocalizations, and ridge detection is a well-established image processing technique, easily applied to vocalization spectrograms. This paradigm is implemented as freely available matlab scripts, coined IPRiT (image processing ridge tracker). Its fidelity in the reconstruction of synthesized whistles is compared to another published whistle detection software package, silbido. Both algorithms are also applied to real-world recordings of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops trunactus) signature whistles and tested for the ability to identify whistles belonging to different individuals. IPRiT gave higher fidelity and lower false detection than silbido with synthesized whistles, and reconstructed dolphin identity groups from signature whistles, whereas silbido could not. IPRiT appears to be superior to silbido for the extraction of the precise frequency variation of the whistle.

  12. Concentration of Tea Extracts by Osmotic Evaporation: Optimisation of Process Parameters and Effect on Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Marisa P.; Alves, Vítor D.; Coelhoso, Isabel M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the concentration process of three different tea extracts (medicinal Rosil No. 6, Black, and Forest Fruit teas) using the osmotic evaporation (OE) process, was studied. The effect of the OE process on the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was evaluated. The concentration process was carried out in a hollow-fibre membrane contactor with an effective surface area of 0.54 m2. The tea extract was circulated through the shell side of the contactor, while a concentrated osmotic solution (CaCl2 5 M) was circulated inside the fibres. The flux, the driving force, and the mass transfer coefficient were evaluated. A decrease of the water flux over time was observed and was attributed only to the decrease of the driving force, caused by the dilution of the osmotic solution. Using a surface area/feed volume ratio of 774 m2·m−3, it is possible to reach a tea concentration of 40% (w/w) in 5 h, with a constant water flux and without losing the phenolic content and antioxidant potential in most teas. PMID:28036043

  13. Hybrid joule heating/electro-osmosis process for extracting contaminants from soil layers

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Nitao, John J.

    2003-06-10

    Joule (ohmic) heating and electro-osmosis are combined in a hybrid process for removal of both water-soluble contaminants and non-aqueous phase liquids from contaminated, low-permeability soil formations that are saturated. Central to this hybrid process is the partial desaturation of the formation or layer using electro-osmosis to remove a portion of the pore fluids by induction of a ground water flow to extraction wells. Joule heating is then performed on a partially desaturated formation. The joule heating and electro-osmosis operations can be carried out simultaneously or sequentially if the desaturation by electro-osmosis occurs initially. Joule heating of the desaturated formation results in a very effective transfer or partitioning of liquid state contaminants to the vapor phase. The heating also substantially increases the vapor phase pressure in the porous formation. As a result, the contaminant laden vapor phase is forced out into soil layers of a higher permeability where other conventional removal processes, such as steam stripping or ground water extraction can be used to capture the contaminants. This hybrid process is more energy efficient than joule heating or steam stripping for cleaning low permeability formations and can share electrodes to minimize facility costs.

  14. [Performance optimization of property-improved biodiesel manufacturing process coupled with butanol extractive fermentation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Longyun; Yang, Ying; Shi, Zhongping

    2008-11-01

    The products concentrations in traditional acetone-butanol (AB) fermentation are too low that large amount of energy has to be consumed in the distillation and product recovery process. Aiming at direct utilization of the fermentation products, in this study, optimization of property-improved biodiesel manufacturing process coupled with AB extractive fermentation was conducted, under the condition of using the biodiesel originated from waste cooking oil as the extractant and high concentrated corn flour medium. The effect of biodiesel/broth volume ratio, waste supernatant recycle ratio, and electronic carrier addition on the major process performance index was carefully investigated. Under the optimized condition, the biodiesel quality was improved with the cetane value increased from 51.4 to 54.4; "actual butanol yield" reached to a level of 18%, and waste supernatant recycle ratio exceeded 50%. In this way, elimination of energy-consuming product recovery process and realization of "energy-saving & waste minimization" industrial production target advocated by the state government, could be potentially expected.

  15. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of process stream extracts from a coal gasification system.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, R W; Benson, J M; Li, A P; Henderson, R F; Brooks, A L

    1984-01-01

    Extracts of three complex organic environmental mixtures, two from an experimental coal gasifier (a raw gas and a clean gas sample) and one from a coke oven main, were examined for genotoxicity. Three short-term genotoxicity assay systems were used: Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, Chinese hamster ovary cell/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) gene locus mutation assay, and the Chinese hamster lung primary culture/sister chromatid exchange (CHL/SCE) assay. Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate fraction (S-9) was required to observe genotoxicity in both gene locus mutation assays (CHO/HGPRT and Ames). The relative survival of CHO cells exposed to extracts was highest in cells exposed to clean gas samples, with the raw gas sample being the most cytotoxic either with or without the addition of S-9. All three complex mixtures induced sister chromatid exchanges in primary lung cell cultures without the addition of S-9. The relative genotoxicity ranking of the samples varied between the mammalian and prokaryotic assay systems. Coke oven main extract produced fewer revertants in bacteria than the raw gas sample. However, the coke oven main extract was more genotoxic in the two eukaryotic systems (CHL/SCE and CHO/HGPRT) than was the raw gas sample. The results of all three assays indicate that the cleanup process used in the experimental gasifier was effective in decreasing the genotoxic materials in the process stream. These data also reemphasize the necessity of evaluating genotoxicity of complex mixtures in a variety of short-term systems.

  16. Molecullar and biochemical effect of alcohlic extract of Alpinia galanga on rat spermatogenesis process

    PubMed Central

    Mazaheri, Mahta; Shahdadi, Vahid; Nazari Boron, Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alpinia galanga (A. galanga) belongs to the Zingiberaceae family has anti-oxidant effects in animals and humans body and often is used as medicament or part of medicaments in Asian folk medicine for various applications. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular and biochemical influence of alcoholic extract from the rhizomes of A. galangal on the spermatogenesis process in male rat. Materials and Methods: Forty five Wistar male rats were divided into three groups, control (n=15) and two tested groups (n=30). Alcoholic extract (5%) of plant was given by oral route at doses of 100 and 300 mg/day for 56 days and spermatogenesis parameters, hormone changes and expression level of the cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM) gene were assessed. Results: Methanol extract of A. galanga increased serum testosterones level significantly in both treated groups in comparison with control group (p<0.05). Besides, the percentage of sperm viability and motility in both tested groups were significantly increased. Follicle stimulating hormone FSH hormone, morphology and weight were affected in both treated groups. With 300 mg/day an increase in sperm count was observed. Sperm motility was increased in two treated groups whereas testis weight was decreased in treated groups. Real time analysis of treated cells of testis showed increase level of mRNA related to CREM gene involved in spermatogenesis process after 56 days induction. Conclusion: It is concluded that application of ethanolic extract of A. galanga significantly increased sperm percentage, viability, motility and testosterone hormone. This suggested that this plant may be promising in enhancing sperm healthy parameters. PMID:25709632

  17. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of process stream extracts from a coal gasification system

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, R.W.; Benson, J.M.; Li, A.P.; Henderson, R.F.; Brooks, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Extracts of three complex organic environmental mixtures, two from an experimental coal gasifier (a raw gas and a clean gas sample) and one from a coke oven main, were examined for genotoxicity. Three short-term genotoxicity assay systems were used: Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, Chinese hamster ovary cell/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) gene locus mutation assay, and the Chinese hamster lung primary culture/sister chromatid exchange (CHL/SCE) assay. Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate fraction (S-9) was required to observe genotoxicity in both gene locus mutation assays. The relative survival of CHO cells exposed to extracts was highest in cells exposed to clean gas samples, with the raw gas sample being the most cytotoxic either with or without the addition of S-9. All three complex mixtures induced sister chromatid exchanges in primary lung cell cultures without the addition of S-9. The relative genotoxicity ranking of the samples varied between the mammalian and prokaryotic assay systems. Coke oven main extract produced fewer revertants in bacteria than the raw gas sample. However, the coke oven main extract was more genotoxic in the two eukaryotic systems (CHL/SCE and CHO/HGPRT) than was the raw gas sample. The results of all three assays indicate that the cleanup process used in the experimental gasifier was effective in decreasing the genotoxic materials in the process stream. These data also reemphasize the necessity of evaluating genotoxicity of complex mixtures in a variety of short-term systems. 24 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  18. A comparison of essential oils obtained from lavandin via different extraction processes: Ultrasound, microwave, turbohydrodistillation, steam and hydrodistillation.

    PubMed

    Périno-Issartier, Sandrine; Ginies, Christian; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Chemat, Farid

    2013-08-30

    A total of eight extraction techniques ranging from conventional methods (hydrodistillation (HD), steam distillation (SD), turbohydrodistillation (THD)), through innovative techniques (ultrasound assisted extraction (US-SD) and finishing with microwave assisted extraction techniques such as In situ microwave-generated hydrodistillation (ISMH), microwave steam distillation (MSD), microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG), and microwave steam diffusion (MSDf)) were used to extract essential oil from lavandin flowers and their results were compared. Extraction time, yield, essential oil composition and sensorial analysis were considered as the principal terms of comparison. The essential oils extracted using the more innovative processes were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained from the conventional techniques. The method which gave the best results was the microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) method which gave reduced extraction time (30min against 220min for SD) and gave no differences in essential oil yield and sensorial perception.

  19. Towards the industrial production of antioxidants from food processing by-products with ultrasound-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Virot, Matthieu; Tomao, Valérie; Le Bourvellec, Carine; Renard, Catherine M C G; Chemat, Farid

    2010-08-01

    Apple pomace, a by-product of the cider production, has been studied as a potential source of polyphenols, compounds of great interest for the industry. Ultrasound has been used to improve extraction efficiency in terms of time needed and total polyphenol content. A preliminary study has been first investigated to optimize ethanol proportion of aqueous extractant (50%, v/v) and solid/liquid ratio (<15%, w/v). A response surface methodology has then been used to maximize total polyphenol content of extracts and investigate influence of parameters involved in extraction procedures for both total polyphenols content and composition of extracts. Optimal settings reached from a central composite design were applied for ultrasound-assisted extraction and were compared to conventional procedure: yields were increased by more than 20%. Ultrasound-assisted polyphenols extraction from apple pomace appears to be a relevant, rapid, sustainable alternative to conventional procedure, and that scale up of the process is possible.

  20. Development of a process for the extraction of {sup 137}Cs from acidic HLLW based on crown-calix extractant use of di-alkylamide modifier

    SciTech Connect

    Alexova, J.; Sirova, M.; Rais, J.; Suzuki, S.; Hirata, M.; Kimura, T.; Tachimori, S.

    2008-07-01

    Within the framework of the ARTIST project of total fuel retreatment with ecological mixtures of solvents and extractants containing only C, H, O, and N atoms, a process segment of extraction of {sup 137}Cs from acidic stream was developed. The process with 25,27-Bis(1-octyloxy)calix[4]arene-crown- 6, DOC[4]C6, dissolved at its 0.01 M concentration in a mixture of 90 vol % 1-octanol and 10% dihexyl octanamide, DHOA was proposed as a viable variant due to its good multicycle performance, even with irradiated solvent, and due to the good chemical stability of the chosen combination of solvent mixture. (authors)

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. Table 1 provides an overview of the major markets for carbon products. Current sources of materials for these processes generally rely on petroleum distillation products or coal tar distillates obtained as a byproduct of metcoke production facilities. In the former case, the American materials industry, just as the energy industry, is dependent upon foreign sources of petroleum. In the latter case, metcoke production is decreasing every year due to the combined difficulties associated with poor economics and a significant environmental burden. Thus, a significant need exists for an environmentally clean process which can used domestically obtained raw materials and which can still be very competitive economically.

  2. [Selection of optimal ultrasonic extraction process of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. by uniform design].

    PubMed

    Jiang, F; Xie, J; Dan, J; Liu, J; Wang, H

    2001-12-01

    The influences of ultrasonic frequency, ultrasonic time and solvent content on the extraction rate of fat oil in Elaeagnus angustifolia L. were studied. The optimum extraction condition was obtained. The results showed that the ultrasonic extraction method of fat oil in Elaeagnus angustifolia L. could save time, improve extraction rate and need not be hot compared with traditional extraction method.

  3. Partitioning of trivalent actinides from a Purex raffinate using a TODGA-based solvent-extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Modolo, G.; Vijgen, H.; Malmbeck, R.; Magnusson, D.; Sorel, C.

    2008-07-01

    A TODGA/TBP process has been developed to separate trivalent actinides from a PUREX raffinate using a mixture of tetraoctyl-diglycolamide (TODGA) and tributylphosphate (TBP). Batch extraction experiments allowed us to choose and optimize the composition of the organic extractant and the aqueous feed solutions. With the aid of computer-code calculations, a countercurrent process has been developed, and an optimized flowsheet has been tested with a spiked feed solution and finally with a genuine PUREX raffinate. The results of the two tests were very promising, demonstrating that more than 99.9% of the trivalent actinides are extracted, and very high decontamination factors are obtained to the non-lanthanide fission products. Co-extracted ruthenium (10% during spiked test, 18% during hot test) is less efficiently back-extracted and therefore requires further process development. (authors)

  4. Understanding the effects of pre-processing on extracted signal features from gait accelerometry signals.

    PubMed

    Millecamps, Alexandre; Lowry, Kristin A; Brach, Jennifer S; Perera, Subashan; Redfern, Mark S; Sejdić, Ervin

    2015-07-01

    Gait accelerometry is an important approach for gait assessment. Previous contributions have adopted various pre-processing approaches for gait accelerometry signals, but none have thoroughly investigated the effects of such pre-processing operations on the obtained results. Therefore, this paper investigated the influence of pre-processing operations on signal features extracted from gait accelerometry signals. These signals were collected from 35 participants aged over 65years: 14 of them were healthy controls (HC), 10 had Parkinson׳s disease (PD) and 11 had peripheral neuropathy (PN). The participants walked on a treadmill at preferred speed. Signal features in time, frequency and time-frequency domains were computed for both raw and pre-processed signals. The pre-processing stage consisted of applying tilt correction and denoising operations to acquired signals. We first examined the effects of these operations separately, followed by the investigation of their joint effects. Several important observations were made based on the obtained results. First, the denoising operation alone had almost no effects in comparison to the trends observed in the raw data. Second, the tilt correction affected the reported results to a certain degree, which could lead to a better discrimination between groups. Third, the combination of the two pre-processing operations yielded similar trends as the tilt correction alone. These results indicated that while gait accelerometry is a valuable approach for the gait assessment, one has to carefully adopt any pre-processing steps as they alter the observed findings.

  5. Feature extraction from 3D lidar point clouds using image processing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ling; Shortridge, Ashton; Lusch, David; Shi, Ruoming

    2011-10-01

    Airborne LiDAR data have become cost-effective to produce at local and regional scales across the United States and internationally. These data are typically collected and processed into surface data products by contractors for state and local communities. Current algorithms for advanced processing of LiDAR point cloud data are normally implemented in specialized, expensive software that is not available for many users, and these users are therefore unable to experiment with the LiDAR point cloud data directly for extracting desired feature classes. The objective of this research is to identify and assess automated, readily implementable GIS procedures to extract features like buildings, vegetated areas, parking lots and roads from LiDAR data using standard image processing tools, as such tools are relatively mature with many effective classification methods. The final procedure adopted employs four distinct stages. First, interpolation is used to transfer the 3D points to a high-resolution raster. Raster grids of both height and intensity are generated. Second, multiple raster maps - a normalized surface model (nDSM), difference of returns, slope, and the LiDAR intensity map - are conflated to generate a multi-channel image. Third, a feature space of this image is created. Finally, supervised classification on the feature space is implemented. The approach is demonstrated in both a conceptual model and on a complex real-world case study, and its strengths and limitations are addressed.

  6. Characterization of lignin extracted from birch wood by a modified hydrotropic process.

    PubMed

    Gabov, Konstantin; Gosselink, Richard J A; Smeds, Annika I; Fardim, Pedro

    2014-11-05

    In this work an environmentally friendly hydrotropic process was used to extract lignin from industrial birch wood chips. Two hydrotropic treatments were performed, a conventional and a modified process. The lignins were characterized using FTIR, pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (pyrolysis-GC-MS), (31)P and (1)H-(13)C HSQC NMR, and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The chemical (carbohydrates, extractives, etc.) and elemental compositions of the lignins were also determined. The yields of both lignins were 16.1% (dry wood basis), and the obtained lignins had very low contents of non-lignin compounds. The treatments resulted in significant changes of the structure of the lignins, a decrease in aliphatic hydroxyls and an increase in phenolic ones. The lignin isolated by the modified treatment underwent more substantial change than the reference one. It is believed that the data presented will facilitate utilization of hydrotropic lignin and promote the adoption of the hydrotropic process in the pulp and biorefinery industry.

  7. Manipulation of heterogeneity product in 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin biotransformation process by using yeast extract as nitrogen source.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Li, Hong-Mei; Wan, Duan-Ji; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Manipulation of product heterogeneity was attempted by using yeast extract as nitrogen source in Alternaria alternata S-f6 transformation process of 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin. When the nitrogen source of NaNO(3) was replaced by yeast extract, the heterogeneity of biotransformation products was significantly varied from a single product (i.e., 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxone) to four podophyllum derivates. According to the kinetics of 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin biotransformation process by A. alternata S-f6, the starting substrate of 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin was preferentially transformed to produce 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxone (1) with an oxidation reaction. By the further comparison of products configuration, 4β-caprinoyl-4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin (3) was produced from 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxone (1) instead of 4'-demethylisopicropodophyllone (2), which might be produced from 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxone (1) with the isomerization of lactone. Finally, 4'-demethylisopicropodophyllone (2) was hydrolyzed to produce 3α-hydroxymethyl-(6, 7)-dioxol-4-one-naphthalene (4). This work shows new information on the 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin biotransformation process by A. alternata S-f6 and provides a foundation for further studies on the structural diversification of a bioactive natural lead compound.

  8. DIAMIDE DERIVATIVES OF DIPICOLINIC ACID AS ACTINIDE AND LANTHANIDE EXTRACTANTS IN A VARIATION OF THE UNEX PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    D. R. Peterman; R. S. Herbst; J. D. Law; R. D. Tillotson; T. G. Garn; T. A. Todd; V. N. Romanovskiy; V. A. Babain; M. Yu. Alyapyshev; I. V. Smirnov

    2007-09-01

    The Universal Extraction (UNEX) process has been developed for simultaneous extraction of cesium, strontium, and actinides from acidic solutions. This process utilizes an extractant consisting of 0.08 M chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (HCCD), 0.007-0.02 M polyethylene glycol (PEG-400), and 0.02 M diphenyl-N,N-di-n-butylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (Ph2CMPO) in the diluent trifluoromethylphenyl sulfone (CF3C6H5SO2, designated FS-13) and provides simultaneous extraction of Cs, Sr, actinides, and lanthanides from HNO3 solutions. The UNEX process is of limited utility for processing acidic solutions containing large quantities of lanthanides and/or actinides, such as dissolved spent nuclear fuel solutions. These constraints are primarily attributed to the limited concentrations of CMPO (a maximum of ~0.02 M) in the organic phase and limited solubility of the CMPO-metal complexes. As a result, alternative actinide and lanthanide extractants are being investigated for use with HCCD as an improvement for waste processing and for applications where higher concentrations of the metals are present. Our preliminary results indicate that diamide derivatives of dipicolinic acid may function as efficient actinide and lanthanide extractants. The results to be presented indicate that, of the numerous diamides studied to date, the tetrabutyldiamide of dipicolinic acid, TBDPA, shows the most promise as an alternative actinide/lanthanide extractant in the UNEX process.

  9. Validation of a DNA IQ-based extraction method for TECAN robotic liquid handling workstations for processing casework.

    PubMed

    Frégeau, Chantal J; Lett, C Marc; Fourney, Ron M

    2010-10-01

    A semi-automated DNA extraction process for casework samples based on the Promega DNA IQ™ system was optimized and validated on TECAN Genesis 150/8 and Freedom EVO robotic liquid handling stations configured with fixed tips and a TECAN TE-Shake™ unit. The use of an orbital shaker during the extraction process promoted efficiency with respect to DNA capture, magnetic bead/DNA complex washes and DNA elution. Validation studies determined the reliability and limitations of this shaker-based process. Reproducibility with regards to DNA yields for the tested robotic workstations proved to be excellent and not significantly different than that offered by the manual phenol/chloroform extraction. DNA extraction of animal:human blood mixtures contaminated with soil demonstrated that a human profile was detectable even in the presence of abundant animal blood. For exhibits containing small amounts of biological material, concordance studies confirmed that DNA yields for this shaker-based extraction process are equivalent or greater to those observed with phenol/chloroform extraction as well as our original validated automated magnetic bead percolation-based extraction process. Our data further supports the increasing use of robotics for the processing of casework samples.

  10. Extraction of CYP chemical interactions from biomedical literature using natural language processing methods.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Dazhi; Wild, David J

    2009-02-01

    This paper proposes a system that automatically extracts CYP protein and chemical interactions from journal article abstracts, using natural language processing (NLP) and text mining methods. In our system, we employ a maximum entropy based learning method, using results from syntactic, semantic, and lexical analysis of texts. We first present our system architecture and then discuss the data set for training our machine learning based models and the methods in building components in our system, such as part of speech (POS) tagging, Named Entity Recognition (NER), dependency parsing, and relation extraction. An evaluation of the system is conducted at the end, yielding very promising results: The POS, dependency parsing, and NER components in our system have achieved a very high level of accuracy as measured by precision, ranging from 85.9% to 98.5%, and the precision and the recall of the interaction extraction component are 76.0% and 82.6%, and for the overall system are 68.4% and 72.2%, respectively.

  11. 2D-CELL: image processing software for extraction and analysis of 2-dimensional cellular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righetti, F.; Telley, H.; Leibling, Th. M.; Mocellin, A.

    1992-01-01

    2D-CELL is a software package for the processing and analyzing of photographic images of cellular structures in a largely interactive way. Starting from a binary digitized image, the programs extract the line network (skeleton) of the structure and determine the graph representation that best models it. Provision is made for manually correcting defects such as incorrect node positions or dangling bonds. Then a suitable algorithm retrieves polygonal contours which define individual cells — local boundary curvatures are neglected for simplicity. Using elementary analytical geometry relations, a range of metric and topological parameters describing the population are then computed, organized into statistical distributions and graphically displayed.

  12. Effect of radiation process on antinutrients and HCl extractability of calcium, phosphorus and iron during processing and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, ElShazali Ahmed; Abdelraheem Ali, Nahid; Ahmed, Salma Hashim; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A.; Babiker, Elfadil E.

    2010-07-01

    Whole and dehulled flours of millet cultivars Ashana and Dembi were stored for 30 and 60 days before and after radiation and/or cooking. Phytic acid and polyphenols contents were assayed for all treatments. The results revealed that the storage period was found to have no effect on phytate and polyphenols contents. Moreover, dehulling of the grains reduced more than 50% of phytate and polyphenols of both cultivars. Cooking of the raw whole and dehulled flour significantly ( P≤0.05) reduced phytate and polyphenols contents for both cultivars. Radiation process alone had no effect on phytate and polyphenols contents but when followed by cooking significantly ( P≤0.05) reduced the level of such antinutrients for the whole and dehulled flour of both cultivars. Dehulling alone significantly ( P≤0.05) decreased Ca and P content but slightly decreased Fe content. Radiation alone or in combination with cooking was found to have slight effect on minerals content of the whole and dehulled raw flour for both cultivars. Cooking alone or in combination with radiation of whole or dehulled raw flour significantly ( P≤0.05) improved the extractable Ca but had no significant ( P≤0.05) effect on extractable P and Fe for both cultivars.

  13. PROCESS FOR EXTRACTING NEPTUNIUM AND PLUTONIUM FROM NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS OF SAME CONTAINING URANYL NITRATE WITH A TERTIARY AMINE

    DOEpatents

    Sheppard, J.C.

    1962-07-31

    A process of selectively extracting plutonium nitrate and neptunium nitrate with an organic solution of a tertiary amine, away from uranyl nitrate present in an aqueous solution in a maximum concentration of 1M is described. The nitric acid concentration is adjusted to about 4M and nitrous acid is added prior to extraction. (AEC)

  14. A Natural Language Processing Tool for Large-Scale Data Extraction from Echocardiography Reports

    PubMed Central

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R.

    2016-01-01

    Large volumes of data are continuously generated from clinical notes and diagnostic studies catalogued in electronic health records (EHRs). Echocardiography is one of the most commonly ordered diagnostic tests in cardiology. This study sought to explore the feasibility and reliability of using natural language processing (NLP) for large-scale and targeted extraction of multiple data elements from echocardiography reports. An NLP tool, EchoInfer, was developed to automatically extract data pertaining to cardiovascular structure and function from heterogeneously formatted echocardiographic data sources. EchoInfer was applied to echocardiography reports (2004 to 2013) available from 3 different on-going clinical research projects. EchoInfer analyzed 15,116 echocardiography reports from 1684 patients, and extracted 59 quantitative and 21 qualitative data elements per report. EchoInfer achieved a precision of 94.06%, a recall of 92.21%, and an F1-score of 93.12% across all 80 data elements in 50 reports. Physician review of 400 reports demonstrated that EchoInfer achieved a recall of 92–99.9% and a precision of >97% in four data elements, including three quantitative and one qualitative data element. Failure of EchoInfer to correctly identify or reject reported parameters was primarily related to non-standardized reporting of echocardiography data. EchoInfer provides a powerful and reliable NLP-based approach for the large-scale, targeted extraction of information from heterogeneous data sources. The use of EchoInfer may have implications for the clinical management and research analysis of patients undergoing echocardiographic evaluation. PMID:27124000

  15. Screening of genotoxicity and mutagenicity in extractable organics from oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Zetouni, Nikolas C; Siraki, Arno G; Weinfeld, Michael; Pereira, Alberto Dos Santos; Martin, Jonathan W

    2016-11-01

    Large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) are produced by the oil sands surface mining industry during alkaline hot-water extraction of bitumen. It is well documented that the acid extractable organics (AEOs) in OSPW, a highly complex mixture of acidic and polar neutral substances, are acutely toxic; but few studies have examined the genotoxicity or mutagenicity of this mixture. In the present study, the in vitro SOS Chromotest and the Ames test (TA98 and TA100 strains) were used to evaluate genotoxicity and mutagenicity for whole OSPW AEOs in the presence and absence of biotransformation by rat S9 liver enzymes. Two subfractions were also examined in the same assays: neutral extractable fraction (F1-NE), and the subsequent acid extractable fraction (F2-AE). In the SOS assay, whole AEO was cytotoxic when concentrated 2× (i.e., twice as concentrated as the environmental sample) and showed increasing genotoxic response above 6×. Co-exposure with S9 had a protective effect on the cell SOS-inducing factor and survival but did not eliminate genotoxicity above 6× concentrations. Most of the cytotoxicity was attributable to F2-AE, but both F1-NE and F2-AE had similar genotoxic dose-responses above 6×. In the Ames test without S9, whole AEO was mutagenic in both strains above 10× concentrations. Co-incubation with S9 had little effect on the TA100 strain but with TA98 resulted in bioactivation at midlevel doses (1.5-6.3×) and protection at higher doses (10-25×). The 2 subfractions were mutagenic in both strains but with different dose-responses. Further research in vivo or in more relevant cells is warranted to investigate the carcinogenic risks of OSPW. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-8. © 2016 SETAC.

  16. Experiment on the treatment of waste extraction solvent from the molybdenum-99 process

    SciTech Connect

    Hsien-Ming Hsiao; Chang-Liang Hu; Kuang-Li Chien; Wen-Cheng Lee; Tsong-Yang Wei

    2013-07-01

    In the Mo-99 (Molybdenum-99) isotope extraction test process for radiopharmaceutical applications, organic solvent is used to extract Mo-99 from an irradiated UO{sub 2} dissolution. The extraction solvent was stored when the test work was stopped. A total of about 120 liters of waste solvent was stored at INER (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan). The extraction solvent consisted of 5% di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and kerosene. The radionuclides found in the waste solvent include Cs-137, Am-241, Tc-99, and Sr-90, which give off gross alpha and beta radioactivity of 1898 and 471 Bq/ml, respectively. This study aims to remove radionuclides from the waste solvent using sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide solutions in different concentrations. After mixing the waste solvent with the alkaline solution followed by settling, a third phase other than organic and aqueous phase appeared which is expected due to the saponification reaction. The experimental results showed that increasing the number of washing and the alkaline solution concentration could enhance the radionuclides removal rate. An optimal removal method was proposed using 2 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution twice followed by 1 M NaOH solution one time for the third phase generated early in the mixing stages. The remaining gross alpha and beta radioactivity of the treated organic solvent was 2 and 3 Bq/ml, respectively. The treated solvent could be stabilized by ashing at 500 deg. C and then immobilized. The alkaline solution would be neutralized by hydrochloric or nitric acid and then treated using a variety of adsorbents or bone char via adsorption to remove nuclides to meet the wastewater discharge limitation. (authors)

  17. Bio-processing of solid wastes and secondary resources for metal extraction - A review

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae-chun; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Review focuses on bio-extraction of metals from solid wastes of industries and consumer goods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bio-processing of certain effluents/wastewaters with metals is also included in brief. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantity/composition of wastes are assessed, and microbes used and leaching conditions included. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bio-recovery using bacteria, fungi and archaea is highlighted for resource recycling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Process methodology/mechanism, R and D direction and scope of large scale use are briefly included. - Abstract: Metal containing wastes/byproducts of various industries, used consumer goods, and municipal waste are potential pollutants, if not treated properly. They may also be important secondary resources if processed in eco-friendly manner for secured supply of contained metals/materials. Bio-extraction of metals from such resources with microbes such as bacteria, fungi and archaea is being increasingly explored to meet the twin objectives of resource recycling and pollution mitigation. This review focuses on the bio-processing of solid wastes/byproducts of metallurgical and manufacturing industries, chemical/petrochemical plants, electroplating and tanning units, besides sewage sludge and fly ash of municipal incinerators, electronic wastes (e-wastes/PCBs), used batteries, etc. An assessment has been made to quantify the wastes generated and its compositions, microbes used, metal leaching efficiency etc. Processing of certain effluents and wastewaters comprising of metals is also included in brief. Future directions of research are highlighted.

  18. Downstream processing of human antibodies integrating an extraction capture step and cation exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Ana M; Rosa, Paula A J; Ferreira, I Filipa; de Vries, J; Visser, T J; Aires-Barros, M Raquel

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we explore an alternative process for the purification of human antibodies from a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell supernatant comprising a ligand-enhanced extraction capture step and cation exchange chromatography (CEX). The extraction of human antibodies was performed in an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) composed of dextran and polyethylene glycol (PEG), in which the terminal hydroxyl groups of the PEG molecule were modified with an amino acid mimetic ligand in order to enhance the partition of the antibodies to the PEG-rich phase. This capture step was optimized using a design of experiments and a central composite design allowed the determination of the conditions that favor the partition of the antibodies to the phase containing the PEG diglutaric acid (PEG-GA) polymer, in terms of system composition. Accordingly, higher recovery yields were obtained for higher concentrations of PEG-GA and lower concentrations of dextran. The highest yield experimentally obtained was observed for an ATPS composed of 5.17% (w/w) dextran and 8% (w/w) PEG-GA. Higher purities were however predicted for higher concentrations of both polymers. A compromise between yield and purity was achieved using 5% dextran and 10% PEG-GA, which allowed the recovery of 82% of the antibodies with a protein purity of 96% and a total purity of 63%, determined by size-exclusion chromatography. ATPS top phases were further purified by cation exchange chromatography and it was observed that the most adequate cation exchange ligand was carboxymethyl, as the sulfopropyl ligand induced the formation of multi-aggregates or denatured forms. This column allowed the elution of 89% of the antibodies present in the top phase, with a protein purity of 100% and a total purity of 91%. The overall process containing a ligand-enhanced extraction step and a cation exchange chromatography step had an overall yield of 73%.

  19. Extraction and characterization of alumina nanopowders from aluminum dross by acid dissolution process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarker, Md. Saifur Rahman; Alam, Md. Zahangir; Qadir, Md. Rakibul; Gafur, M. A.; Moniruzzaman, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    A significant amount of aluminum dross is available as a waste in foundry industries in Bangladesh. In this study, alumina was extracted from aluminum dross collected from two foundry industries situated in Dhamrai and Manikgang, near the capital city, Dhaka. Aluminum dross samples were found to approximately contain 75wt% Al2O3 and 12wt% SiO2. An acid dissolution process was used to recover the alumina value from the dross. The effects of various parameters, e.g., temperature, acid concentration, and leaching time, on the extraction of alumina were studied to optimize the dissolution process. First, Al(OH)3 was produced in the form of a gel. Calcination of the Al(OH)3 gel at 1000°C, 1200°C, and 1400°C for 2 h produced γ-Al2O3, (α+γ)-Al2O3, and α-alumina powder, respectively. Thermal characterization of the Al(OH)3 gel was performed by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The phases and crystallite size of the alumina were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The dimensions of the alumina were found to be on the nano level. The chemical compositions of the aluminum dross and alumina were determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. The microstructure and morphology of the alumina were studied with scanning electron microscopy. The purity of the alumina extracted in this study was found to be 99.0%. Thus, it is expected that the obtained alumina powders can be potentially utilized as biomaterials.

  20. Isolation and characterization of fish scale collagen from tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) by a novel extrusion-hydro-extraction process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yung; Kuo, Jen-Min; Wu, Shu-Jing; Tsai, Hsing-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    Collagen is highly valued both as a food additive and a functional food ingredient. It is generally extracted by treatments with acid or alkali, enzyme, and microorganisms. However these methods are generally batch type, time-, energy-, reactant-, and cost-consuming. Extrusion is widely used in the food industry, and offers many advantages, such as ease of operation, continuous production, high yield, and little waste. In this study, we developed a novel extrusion-hydro-extraction (EHE) process for extraction of collagen from tilapia fish scale. Extruded scale samples had a 2-3 times higher protein extraction yield than that of non-extruded scale samples. All extracts contained hydroxyproline (61-73 residues/1000 residues) and hydroxylysine (5-6 residues/1000 residues) and were identified as type-I collagens by FTIR, SDS-PAGE, and molecular weight distribution analyses. The physicochemical studies revealed that extracted collagens could have promising applications in the food, medical, and cosmetic industries.

  1. Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes For Coal Derived Carbon Products

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Dady B. Dadyburjor; Gregory W. Hackett; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; Robert C. Svensson; John W. Zondlo

    2006-09-30

    In this reporting period, tonnage quantities of coal extract were produced but solid separation was not accomplished in a timely manner. It became clear that the originally selected filtration process would not be effective enough for a serious commercial process. Accordingly, centrifugation was investigated as a superior means for removing solids from the extract. Results show acceptable performance. Petrographic analysis of filtered solids was carried out by R and D Carbon Petrography under the auspices of Koppers and consultant Ken Krupinski. The general conclusion is that the material appears to be amenable to centrifugation. Filtered solids shows a substantial pitch component as well as some mesophase, resulting in increased viscosity. This is likely a contributing reason for the difficulty in filtering the material. Cost estimates were made for the hydotreatment and digestion reactors that would be needed for a 20,000 ton per year demonstration plants, with the aid of ChemTech Inc. The estimates show that the costs of scaling up the existing tank reactors are acceptable. However, a strong recommendation was made to consider pipe reactors, which are thought to be more cost effective and potentially higher performance in large scale systems. The alternate feedstocks for coke and carbon products were used to fabricate carbon electrodes as described in the last quarterly report. Gregory Hackett successfully defended his MS Thesis on the use of these electrodes in Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC), which is excerpted in Section 2.4 of this quarterly report.

  2. PRODUCTION OF FOAMS, FIBERS AND PITCHES USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Pete G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-06-20

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed processes for converting coal feedstocks to carbon products, including coal-derived pitch, coke foams and fibers based on solvent extraction processes. A key technology is the use of hydrogenation accomplished at elevated temperatures and pressures to obtain a synthetic coal pitch. Hydrogenation, or partial direct liquefaction of coal, is used to modify the properties of raw coal such that a molten synthetic pitch can be obtained. The amount of hydrogen required to produce a synthetic pitch is about an order of magnitude less than the amount required to produce synthetic crude oil. Hence the conditions for synthetic pitch production consume very little hydrogen and can be accomplished at substantially lower pressure. In the molten state, hot filtration or centrifugation can be used to separate dissolved coal chemicals from mineral matter and insolubles (inertinite), resulting in the production of a purified hydrocarbon pitch. Alternatively, if hydrogenation is not used, aromatic hydrocarbon liquids appropriate for use as precursors to carbon products can obtained by dissolving coal in a solvent. As in the case for partial direct liquefaction pitches, undissolved coal is removed via hot filtration or centrifugation. Excess solvent is boiled off and recovered. The resultant solid material, referred to as Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore or SECO, has been used successfully to produce artificial graphite and carbon foam.

  3. In situ remediation of hydrocarbon contamination using an injection-extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, A.; Tremblay, C.; Boulanger, C.

    1995-12-31

    Ecosite Inc. has developed a soil treatment technology to be applied in situ using an injection-extraction system (IES). This new restoration process uses custom-designed equipment for recovering free-phase hydrocarbons and for injection/recovery of different treatment solutions through cyclic manipulation of the water table level. Process development applied the basic principles of soil washing with improved distribution of the washing solution and improved hydraulic control using air sparging and vacuum capability. In this case study, free-phase recovery and soil washing have been used successfully to remediate the site. During the fall and winter of 1993--94, in situ restoration of soil contaminated with cutting oil below a machine shop was begun. The contamination extended from 1.83 to 4.27 m underneath the concrete slab. This represents a volume of 1,800 m{sup 3} of oil-laden soil with concentrations reaching 200,000 mg/kg. Moreover, free-floating phase hydrocarbons up to 1 m thick were observed. To clean the site, 400 injection/recovery points were arranged into three networks. A data collection system was used to monitor the water table level. A total of 160,000 kg of oil was extracted from the subsoil in less than 110 days of operation.

  4. Chromium Extraction via Chemical Processing of Fe-Cr Alloys Fine Powder with High Carbon Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, D. M.; Navarro, R. C. S.; Souza, R. F. M.; Brocchi, E. A.

    2017-03-01

    Ferrous alloys are important raw materials for special steel production. In this context, alloys from the Fe-Cr system, with typical Cr weight fraction ranging from 0.45 to 0.95, are prominent, particularly for the stainless steel industry. During the process in which these alloys are obtained, there is considerable production of fine powder, which could be reused after suitable chemical treatment, for example, through coupling pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical processes. In the present study, the extraction of chromium from fine powder generated during the production of a Fe-Cr alloy with high C content was investigated. Roasting reactions were performed at 1073 K, 1173 K, and 1273 K (800 °C, 900 °C, and 1000 °C) with 300 pct (w/w) excess NaOH in an oxidizing atmosphere (air), followed by solubilization in deionized water, selective precipitation, and subsequent calcination at 1173 K (900 °C) in order to convert the obtained chromium hydroxide to Cr2O3. The maximum achieved Cr recovery was around 86 pct, suggesting that the proposed chemical route was satisfactory regarding the extraction of the chromium initially present. Moreover, after X-ray diffraction analysis, the final produced oxide has proven to be pure Cr2O3 with a mean crystallite size of 200 nm.

  5. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of process stream extracts from a coal gasification system

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, R.W.; Benson, J.M.; Li, A.P.; Henderson, R.F.; Brooks, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Extracts of three complex organic environmental mixtures, two from an experimental coal gasifier (a raw gas and a clean gas sample) and one from a coke oven main, were examined for genotoxicity. Three short-term genotoxicity assay systems were used: Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, Chinese hamster ovary cell/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) gene locus mutation assay, and the Chinese hamster lung primary culture/sister chromatid exchange (CHL/SCE) assay. Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate fraction (S-9) was required to observe genotoxicity in both gene locus mutation assays (CHO/HGPRT and Ames). The relative survival of CHO cells exposed to extracts was highest in cells exposed to clean gas samples, with the raw gas sample being the most cytotoxic either with or without the addition of S-9. All three complex mixtures induced sister chromatid exchanges in primary lung cell cultures without the addition of S-9. The relative genotoxicity ranking of the samples varied between the mammalian and prokaryotic assay systems. The results of all three assays indicate that the cleanup process used in the experimental gasifier was effective in decreasing the genotoxic materials in the process stream. These data also reemphasize the necessity of evaluating genotoxicity of complex mixtures in a variety of short-term systems.

  6. Comparative assessment of various lipid extraction protocols and optimization of transesterification process for microalgal biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shovon; Patnaik, Reeza; Singh, Amit Kumar; Mallick, Nirupama

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, using microalgae as feedstocks, is being explored as the most potent form of alternative diesel fuel for sustainable economic development. A comparative assessment of various protocols for microalgal lipid extraction was carried out using five green algae, six blue-green algae and two diatom species treated with different single and binary solvents both at room temperature and using a soxhlet. Lipid recovery was maximum with chloroform-methanol in the soxhlet extractor. Pretreatments ofbiomass, such as sonication, homogenization, bead-beating, lyophilization, autoclaving, microwave treatment and osmotic shock did not register any significant rise in lipid recovery. As lipid recovery using chloroform-methanol at room temperature demonstrated a marginally lower value than that obtained under the soxhlet extractor, on economical point of view, the former is recommended for microalgal total lipid extraction. Transesterification process enhances the quality of biodiesel. Experiments were designed to determine the effects of catalyst type and quantity, methanol to oil ratio, reaction temperature and time on the transesterification process using response surface methodology. Fatty acid methyl ester yield reached up to 91% with methanol:HCl:oil molar ratio of 82:4:1 at 65 degrees C for 6.4h reaction time. The biodiesel yield relative to the weight of the oil was found to be 69%.

  7. Processing of waste material of radix physochlainae for preparation of fine chemicals after extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, A.; Yohannes, A.; Feng, X. T.; Yao, S.

    2017-02-01

    Waste residues of Chinese traditional medicine radix physochlainae (Huashanshen) contain a large amount of hemicelluloses after extraction. After the removal of the cellulose and lignin, main components of the solution are different degree of hydrolysis products of hemicelluloses. In the degradation process, hemicelluloses firstly become pentose, and then pentose loses 3 molecules of water and turns into furfural. This study explored a series of conditions of the method; finally the yield of furfural can reach 8.5% (calculated with the weight of raw residues) under the condition of pH of 0.2-0.3, temperature of 104-106°C, hydrolysis duration for 10 minutes. Furfural can be further processed to be resin materials.

  8. Signal processing method and system for noise removal and signal extraction

    DOEpatents

    Fu, Chi Yung; Petrich, Loren

    2009-04-14

    A signal processing method and system combining smooth level wavelet pre-processing together with artificial neural networks all in the wavelet domain for signal denoising and extraction. Upon receiving a signal corrupted with noise, an n-level decomposition of the signal is performed using a discrete wavelet transform to produce a smooth component and a rough component for each decomposition level. The n.sup.th level smooth component is then inputted into a corresponding neural network pre-trained to filter out noise in that component by pattern recognition in the wavelet domain. Additional rough components, beginning at the highest level, may also be retained and inputted into corresponding neural networks pre-trained to filter out noise in those components also by pattern recognition in the wavelet domain. In any case, an inverse discrete wavelet transform is performed on the combined output from all the neural networks to recover a clean signal back in the time domain.

  9. An extraction/separation process with extreme energy efficiency: Technical report, 1984/1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The phases involved in the extraction process were experimentally determined for an ionic surfactant combination. The results showed transient appearance of thick layers of liquid crystals also for compositions, which did not contain such a structure in their final state. These observations revealed a potential for a new tertiary oil recovery process; the ramifications in that area are being explored. The fundamental calculations of the thermodynamics of the microemulsion formulation have been successful during this year and the model for microemulsion droplets which includes both bending and stretching components of the surface free energy has given results in excellent agreement with experimental finding. The efforts under this contract were an essential part of the basis for the ACS Award in Colloid and Surface Chemistry, the Kendall Award, being given to Stig Friberg for 1985. 2 refs.

  10. Evaluation of Liquid-Liquid Extraction Process for Separating Acrylic Acid Produced From Renewable Sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, M. E. T.; Moraes, E. B.; Machado, A. B.; Maciel Filho, R.; Wolf-Maciel, M. R.

    In this article, the separation and the purification of the acrylic acid produced from renewable sugars were studied using the liquid-liquid extraction process. Nonrandom two-liquids and universal quasi-chemical models and the prediction method univeral quasi-chemical functional activity coefficients were used for generating liquid-liquid equilibrium diagrams for systems made up of acrylic acid, water, and solvents (diisopropyl ether, isopropyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and methyl isobutyl ketone) and the results were compared with available liquid-liquid equilibrium experimental data. Aspen Plus (Aspen Technology, Inc., version 2004.1) software was used for equilibrium and process calculations. High concentration of acrylic acid was obtained in this article using diisopropyl ether as solvent.

  11. Evaluation of liquid-liquid extraction process for separating acrylic acid produced from renewable sugars.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M E T; Moraes, E B; Machado, A B; Maciel Filho, R; Wolf-Maciel, M R

    2007-04-01

    In this article, the separation and the purification of the acrylic acid produced from renewable sugars were studied using the liquid-liquid extraction process. Nonrandom two-liquids and universal quasi-chemical models and the prediction method universal quasi-chemical functional activity coefficients were used for generating liquid-liquid equilibrium diagrams for systems made up of acrylic acid, water, and solvents (diisopropyl ether, isopropyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and methyl isobutyl ketone) and the results were compared with available liquid-liquid equilibrium experimental data. Aspen Plus (Aspen Technology, Inc., version 2004.1) software was used for equilibrium and process calculations. High concentration of acrylic acid was obtained in this article using diisopropyl ether as solvent.

  12. Probing free radical processes during storage of extracts from whole roasted coffee beans: impact of O2 exposure during extraction and storage.

    PubMed

    Yeretzian, Chahan; Pascual, Ederlinda C; Goodman, Bernard A

    2013-04-03

    Development of liquid coffee products of good quality with extended shelf lives is hampered by their rapid quality degradation as a result of both physical and flavor instability. One approach that is being considered for extending the shelf lives of liquid coffees is that of supplementing the beverage with a very mild and slow continuous extraction from intact roasted beans that are held within an aluminum can. This paper reports the use of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to examine the effects of key parameters that affect the stability of liquid coffee prepared from aqueous extracts from whole roasted coffee beans, namely, the O2 content of the water and headspace during extraction and the temperature during storage. It was found that the magnitude of the free radical signal was sensitive to the O2 content of the water used for extraction and storage time and temperature, whereas the intensity of the Fe(III) (g = 4.3) signal was affected only by the O2 content of the water and the Mn signal was insensitive to the experimental parameters. The most critical factor was the O2 content of the water used for extraction, and careful control of O2 exposure at the extraction stage could be a crucial factor for generating products with resistance to oxidative processes during storage.

  13. Evaluation and Optimization of Downstream Process Parameters for Extraction of Betulinic Acid from the Bark of Ziziphus jujubae L.

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Kashyap Kumar; Goel, Nitika

    2013-01-01

    Present work investigated an apposite and efficient method for extraction of betulinic acid (BA) from the bark of Ziziphus jujubae. Various extraction methods like stirring extraction, soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) were evaluated for increasing recovery percentage of BA. From the raffinate so obtained, BA was isolated. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to analyze the extract and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quantification. The results revealed that the percentage extraction of BA from Z. jujubae by MAE was more proficient. As recovery percentage of BA by MAE technique turned out to be maximum, by using response surface methodology (RSM), three process parameters (pH, temperature, and time) were optimized by MAE and it was observed that the optimum parameters (pH 6.5, temp. 70.23°C, and time 3.5 min) gave the maximum recovery of BA (0.44% w/w). To validate the RSM model, experiments were performed and the highest recovery of BA was found to be 0.4% w/w which is ±0.04% to the predicted value. Henceforth the extraction efficiency and the substantial saving of time by MAE was more capable than the other extraction techniques. PMID:24324374

  14. Use of /sup 238/Th as a label in the study of the distribution of thorium in extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Naumov, M.A.; Petrov, A.M.; Ragimov, T.K.; Timoshin, V.I.

    1987-03-01

    A ..gamma..-spectrometric method was developed for monitoring the distribution of thorium in products of extraction technology using /sup 228/Th as the label. Gamma radiation with an energy of 238.6 keV, emitted by /sup 212/Pb, a daughter nuclide of /sup 228/Th, was recorded with a semiconductor ..gamma.. spectrometer. On account of the disruption of the radioactive equilibrium between /sup 228/Th and its daughter nuclides during extraction, they measured the activity of /sup 212/Pb on the second and fourth days after extraction. The method permits a determination of the fraction of thorium in the organic phase of the extraction process from 2 to 50% with a relative error from 30 to 4% at the confidence level P = 0.95. Thorium fractions in the aqueous phase of the extraction process in the range from 50 to 98% were determined with a relative error from 7 to 0.6% at P = 0.95.

  15. Extraction of water and solutes from argillaceous rocks for geochemical characterisation: Methods, processes and current understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacchi, Elisa; Michelot, Jean-Luc; Pitsch, Helmut; Lalieux, Philippe; Aranyossy, Jean-François

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of a comprehensive critical review, initiated by the OECD/NEA "Clay Club," of the extraction techniques available to obtain water and solutes from argillaceous rocks. The paper focuses on the mechanisms involved in the extraction processes, the consequences on the isotopic and chemical composition of the extracted pore water and the attempts made to reconstruct its original composition. Finally, it provides some examples of reliable techniques and information, as a function of the purpose of the geochemical study. Résumé. Cet article résume les résultats d'une synthèse critique d'ensemble, lancée par le OECD/NEA "Clay Club", sur les techniques d'extraction disponibles pour obtenir l'eau et les solutés de roches argileuses. L'article est consacré aux mécanismes impliqués dans les processus d'extraction, aux conséquences sur la composition isotopique et chimique de l'eau porale extraite et aux tentatives faites pour reconstituer sa composition originelle. Finalement, il donne quelques exemples de techniques fiables et d'informations, en fonction du but de l'étude géochimique. Resúmen. Este artículo resume los resultados de una revisión crítica exhaustiva (iniciada por el "Clay Club" OECD/NEA) de las técnicas de extracción disponibles para obtener agua y solutos en rocas arcillosas. El artículo se centra en los mecanismos involucrados en los procesos extractivos, las consecuencias en la composición isotópica y química del agua intersticial extraída, y en los intentos realizados para reconstruir su composición original. Finalmente, se presentan algunos ejemplos de técnicas fiables e información, en función del propósito del estudio geoquímico.

  16. Thermal degradation of the solvent employed in the next-generation caustic-side solvent extraction process and its effect on the extraction, scrubbing, and stripping of cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Benjamin D.; Williams, Neil J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2015-09-02

    As part of the ongoing development of the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NGS) process, the thermal stability of the process solvent was investigated and shown to be adequate for industrial application. The solvent was thermally treated at 35 C over a period of 13 months whilst in dynamic contact with each of the aqueous phases of the current NGS process, namely SRS 15 (a highly caustic waste simulant), sodium hydroxide scrub solution (0.025 M), and boric acid strip solution (0.01 M). The effect of thermal treatment was evaluated by assessing batch extract/scrub/strip performance as a function of time, by monitoring the sodium extraction capacity of the solvent, and by analysis of the solvent using electrospray mass spectrometry. Current studies indicate that the NGS solvent should be thermally robust for a period of XXX months at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) pilot plant located at Savannah River Site. Furthermore, the guanidine suppressor appears to be the solvent component most significantly impacted by thermal treatment of the solvent, showing significant degradation over time.

  17. Thermal degradation of the solvent employed in the next-generation caustic-side solvent extraction process and its effect on the extraction, scrubbing, and stripping of cesium

    DOE PAGES

    Roach, Benjamin D.; Williams, Neil J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2015-09-02

    As part of the ongoing development of the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NGS) process, the thermal stability of the process solvent was investigated and shown to be adequate for industrial application. The solvent was thermally treated at 35 C over a period of 13 months whilst in dynamic contact with each of the aqueous phases of the current NGS process, namely SRS 15 (a highly caustic waste simulant), sodium hydroxide scrub solution (0.025 M), and boric acid strip solution (0.01 M). The effect of thermal treatment was evaluated by assessing batch extract/scrub/strip performance as a function of time, by monitoringmore » the sodium extraction capacity of the solvent, and by analysis of the solvent using electrospray mass spectrometry. Current studies indicate that the NGS solvent should be thermally robust for a period of XXX months at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) pilot plant located at Savannah River Site. Furthermore, the guanidine suppressor appears to be the solvent component most significantly impacted by thermal treatment of the solvent, showing significant degradation over time.« less

  18. APPLICATIONS OF SOLVENT EXTRACTION IN THE HIGH-YIELD MULTI-PROCESS REDUCTION/SEPARATION OF Eu FROM EXCESS Sm

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Sudowe, Ralf; Nitsche, Heino; Hoffman, Darleane C.

    2008-05-15

    A novel multi-process method for separating Eu from neighbouring lanthanides (Ln) has been developed that chemically reduces Eu(III) to Eu(II) prior to solvent extraction of Ln(III) with thenoyltrifluoroacetone in benzene. This method is capable of achieving higher purities (>99%) and separation yields than previously published multi-process methods that stabilize and separate the reduced Eu(II) as a sulphate solid and is ideal for enriching materials of high-value. Results from a variety of combinations of a chemical or electrochemical reduction process preceding a separation process using either ion exchange chromatography, reversed phase chromatography, or solvent extraction are discussed.

  19. A novel solvent extraction process with bottom gas injection for liquid waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, H.Y.; Doungdeethaveeratana, D.

    1996-12-31

    A novel solvent extraction process in which the emulsion is generated by bottom gas injection rather than mechanical stirring has been developed. This process has a number of advantages over the mixer-settler unit or the spray column in terms of simple equipment configuration and the ease of cleaning and process control while providing a large interfacial area for mass transfer. The equipment consists of a horizontal cylindrical vessel in which the two immiscible liquids flow countercurrently. High-strength gas jets are injected from the bottom at certain intervals along the length of the vessel. The gas jet creates a plume zone consisting of an emulsion of the two liquids which contains a large interfacial area for rapid mass transfer. The two liquids then disengage and flow in the opposite directions before entering another plume zone. Thus, the process combines the simplicity of a cylindrical vessel, having no moving parts, with the contacting efficiency of a mixer-settler. The gas can be recycled in a closed loop, thus eliminating mist and other emission problems. These advantages would be especially significant for treating large-volume/low-value liquid streams which contain hazardous substances and/or suspended solid particulates. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Recommended Guanidine Suppressor for the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Duncan, Nathan C; Ensor, Dale; Hill, Talon G; Lee, Denise L; Roach, Benjamin D; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V; Williams, Neil J

    2013-01-01

    The guanidine recommended for the Next-Generation Caustic-Side is N,N ,N -tris(3,7-dimethyloctyl)guanidine (TiDG). Systematic testing has shown that it is significantly more lipophilic than the previously recommended guanidine DCiTG, the active extractant in the commercial guanidine product LIX -79, while not otherwise changing the solvent performance. Previous testing indicated that the extent of partitioning of the DCiTG suppressor to the aqueous strip solution is significantly greater than expected, potentially leading to rapid depletion of the suppressor from the solvent and unwanted organic concentrations in process effluents. Five candidate guanidines were tested as potential replacements for DCiTG. The tests included batch extraction with simulated waste and flowsheet solutions, third-phase formation, emulsion formation, and partition ratios of the guanidine between the solvent and aqueous strip solution. Preliminary results of a thermal stability test of the TiDG solvent at one month duration indicated performance approximately equivalent to DCiTG. Two of the guanidines proved adequate in all respects, and the choice of TiDG was deemed slightly preferable vs the next best guanidine BiTABG.

  1. EEG artifact elimination by extraction of ICA-component features using image processing algorithms.

    PubMed

    Radüntz, T; Scouten, J; Hochmuth, O; Meffert, B

    2015-03-30

    Artifact rejection is a central issue when dealing with electroencephalogram recordings. Although independent component analysis (ICA) separates data in linearly independent components (IC), the classification of these components as artifact or EEG signal still requires visual inspection by experts. In this paper, we achieve automated artifact elimination using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for classification of feature vectors extracted from ICA components via image processing algorithms. We compare the performance of this automated classifier to visual classification by experts and identify range filtering as a feature extraction method with great potential for automated IC artifact recognition (accuracy rate 88%). We obtain almost the same level of recognition performance for geometric features and local binary pattern (LBP) features. Compared to the existing automated solutions the proposed method has two main advantages: First, it does not depend on direct recording of artifact signals, which then, e.g. have to be subtracted from the contaminated EEG. Second, it is not limited to a specific number or type of artifact. In summary, the present method is an automatic, reliable, real-time capable and practical tool that reduces the time intensive manual selection of ICs for artifact removal. The results are very promising despite the relatively small channel resolution of 25 electrodes.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; R. Michael Bergen; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; W. Morgan Summers; John W. Zondlo

    2006-05-12

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, coking and composite fabrication continued using coal-derived samples. These samples were tested in direct carbon fuel cells. Methodology was refined for determining the aromatic character of hydro treated liquid, based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Tests at GrafTech International showed that binder pitches produced using the WVU solvent extraction protocol can result in acceptable graphite electrodes for use in arc furnaces. These tests were made at the pilot scale.

  3. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration

  4. Solution processed sodium chloride interlayers for efficient electron extraction from polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickel, Felix; Reinhard, Manuel; Zhang, Zhenhao; Pütz, Andreas; Kettlitz, Siegfried; Lemmer, Uli; Colsmann, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    We investigate a solution-processable, non-toxic sodium chloride (NaCl) interlayer for aluminum cathodes in organic solar cells. The electron extraction at the cathode interface is strongly improved upon the insertion of NaCl leading to power conversion efficiencies of up to 2.9% as compared to 1.8% efficient devices without interlayer. Scanning electron and kelvin probe force microscopy studies reveal that the formation of NaCl crystals causes a decrease of the aluminum work function by more than 300 mV. By impedance spectroscopy, we found evidence that the NaCl crystals improve the energetic alignment at the polymer/metal interface.

  5. Nutritional and mineral contents of honey extracted by centrifugation and pressed processes.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Samir Moura; Zaluski, Rodrigo; Orsi, Ricardo de Oliveira

    2017-03-01

    In this study, wild honey samples extracted by two different methods (centrifugation and pressed processing) were characterized and compared based on their physicochemical, and nutritional properties, macro- and micro-mineral contents, and pollen counts. Twelve colonies of Africanized Apis mellifera were used; six honey samples were obtained by centrifugation and six by honeycomb press. All physicochemical parameters of honey samples (moisture, pH, total acidity, ash, dry matter, and qualitative absence of hydroxymethylfurfural) were within the limits established by EU legislation, and all parameters in pressed honey were superior (p<0.05). Nutritional contents (total carbohydrates, total lipids, total proteins, flavonoids, and ascorbic acid) and minerals (K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Li, Zn) were also higher in pressed honey. The quantity of pollen in pressed honey samples was 5.6-fold higher than in centrifuged samples. Pressed honey, can be marked as a differentiated product with a higher mineral content and several nutritional properties.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady B. Dadyburjor; Mark E. Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; J. Joshua Maybury; Alfred H. Stiller; Joseph M. Stoffa; John W. Zondlo

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, and porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, hydrotreatment of solvent was completed in preparation for pitch fabrication for graphite electrodes. Coal digestion has lagged but is expected to be complete by next quarter. Studies are reported on coal dissolution, pitch production, foam synthesis using physical blowing agents, and alternate coking techniques.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. The Hydrotreatment Facility is being prepared for trials with coal liquids. Raw coal tar distillate trials have been carried out by heating coal tar in the holding tank in the Hydrotreatment Facility. The liquids are centrifuged to warm the system up in preparation for the coal liquids. The coal tar distillate is then recycled to keep the centrifuge hot. In this way, the product has been distilled such that a softening point of approximately 110 C is reached. Then an ash test is conducted.

  8. Coal mining with Triple-section extraction process in stagger arrangement roadway layout method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zimo; Liu, Baozhu; Zhao, Jingli; Chanda, Emmanuel

    2017-03-01

    This paper introduces the Triple-section extraction process in the three-dimensional roadway layout of stagger arrangement method for longwall top-coal caving mining. This 3-D roadway layout of stagger arrangement method without coal pillars, which arranged the air intake roadway and air return roadway in different horizons, realizing the design theory transformation of roadway layout from 2D system to 3D system. And the paper makes systematic analysis to the geological, technical and economic factors, applies this new mining roadway layout technology for raising coal recovery ratio and solving the problems about full-seam mining in thick coal seam synthetically according to theoretical study and mining practice. Furthermore, the paper presents a physical simulation about inner staggered roadway layout of this particular longwall top-coal caving method.

  9. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2004-06-22

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  10. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2007-03-27

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  11. Methane gas generation from waste water extraction process of crude palm oil in experimental digesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, A.; Penafiel, R.; Garzón, P. V.; Ochoa, V.

    2015-12-01

    Industrial processes to extract crude palm oil, generates large amounts of waste water. High concentrations of COD, ST, SV, NH4 + and low solubility of O2, make the treatment of these effluents starts with anaerobic processes. The anaerobic digestion process has several advantages over aerobic degradation: lower operating costs (not aeration), low sludge production, methane gas generation. The 4 stages of anaerobic digestion are: hydrolysis, acidogenic, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. Through the action of enzymes synthesized by microbial consortia are met. The products of each step to serve as reagents is conducted as follows. The organic load times and cell hydraulic retention, solids content, nutrient availability, pH and temperature are factors that influence directly in biodigesters. The objectives of this presentation is to; characterize the microbial inoculum and water (from palm oil wasted water) to be used in biodigestores, make specific methanogenic activity in bioassays, acclimatize the microorganisms to produce methane gas using basal mineral medium with acetate for the input power, and to determine the production of methane gas digesters high organic load.

  12. Continuous Production of Biodiesel Via an Intensified Reactive/Extractive Process

    SciTech Connect

    Tsouris, Costas; McFarlane, Joanna; Birdwell Jr, Joseph F; Jennings, Hal L

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel is considered as a means to diversify our supply of transportation fuel, addressing the goal of reducing our dependence on oil. For a number of reasons ranging from production issues to end use, biodiesel represents only a small fraction of the transportation fuel used worldwide. This work addresses the aspect of biodiesel production that limits it to a slow batch process. Conventional production methods are batch in nature, based on the assumption that the rates of the key chemical reactions are slow. The hypothesis motivating this work is that the reaction kinetics for the transesterification of the reagent triglyceride is sufficiently fast, particularly in an excess of catalyst, and that interfacial mass transfer and phase separation control the process. If this is the case, an intensified two-phase reactor adapted from solvent extraction equipment may be utilized to greatly increase biodiesel production rates by increasing interphase transport and phase separation. To prove this idea, we are investigating two aspects: (1) determining the rate-limiting step in biodiesel production by evaluating the reaction kinetics, and (2) enhancing biodiesel production rates by using an intensified reactor. A centrifugal contactor combining interphase mass transfer, chemical reaction, and phase separation is employed for process intensification.

  13. Novel process for the simultaneous extraction and degumming of banana fibers under solid-state cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Nicemol; Prema, Parukuttyamma

    2008-01-01

    Various process parameters for the production of polygalacturonase by Streptomyces lydicus under solid-state fermentation were optimized. The optimum particle size of wheat bran for polygalacturonase production was in the range of 500-1000 μm. Initial moisture content of 70% was found to be the optimum for enzyme production. The most suitable inoculum size was 1.25 × 105 CFU/mL and the optimum incubation temperature was 30°C. Addition of carbon sources resulted in 37% increase in enzyme yield (425 U/g), whereas no significant enhancement was obtained on nitrogen supplementation. Maximum enzyme yield was recorded at 72 h. When compared to the initial production medium (108.5 U/g), the enzyme yield was 3.9 fold after optimization. Solid-state fermentation was effectively employed to develop a novel process for the simultaneous extraction and degumming of banana fibers. Streptomyces lydicus was allowed to grow on wheat bran medium in which banana leaf sheath pieces were incorporated and the fiber bundles were separated after a two-step fermentative process. PMID:24031190

  14. Characterization of co-products from producing ethanol by sequential extraction processing of corn

    SciTech Connect

    Hojilla-Evangelista, M.P.; Johnson, L.A.; Pometto, A.L. III; Svendsen, L.K.

    1996-12-31

    Sequential Extraction Processing (SEP) is a new process for ethanol production that has potential to produce more valuable co-products than alternative processes. Previous work determined the yields of oil and protein and evaluated their chemical and functional properties. The properties of the crude fiber and spent solids, however, have yet to be studied. This research was conducted to evaluate the potential of SEP corn fiber to increase ethanol conversion and as replacement for gum arabic, and evaluate the potential of SEP starch and fiber to be fermented to ethanol. SEP hemicellulose from crude fiber was readily dispersible in water and its solution (5%) gave low viscosity despite having high solids content. These properties indicated potential utilization as stabilizers, thickeners, and adhesive for coatings and batters in food and industrial products. Enzyme hydrolysis studies and batch fermentation of SEP starch/fiber indicated that SEP crude fiber was more readily accessible to the action of cellulases. More ethanol (about 10%) was produced from the fermentation of SEP starch/fiber than from undegermed or degermed soft dent corn, particularly when the hemicellulose fraction was absent from the SEP fiber.

  15. [A microbiological study of an underground gas storage in the process of gas extraction].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, A E; Borzenkov, I A; Tarasov, A L; Milekhina, E I; Beliaev, S S

    2007-01-01

    The numbers of microorganisms belonging to ecologically significant groups and the rates of terminal microbial processes of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were determined in the liquid phase of an underground gas storage (UGS) in the period of gas extraction. The total number of microorganisms in water samples from the operation and injection wells reached 2.1 x 10(6) cells/ml. Aerobic organotrophs (including hydrocarbon- and oil-oxidizing ones) and various anaerobic microorganisms (fermenting bacteria, methanogens, acetogens, sulfate-, nitrate-, and iron-reducing bacteria) were constituent parts of the community. The radioisotopic method showed that, in all the UGS units, the terminal stages of organic matter decomposition included sulfate reduction and methanogenesis, with the maximal rate of these processes recorded in the aqueous phase of above-ground technological equipment which the gas enters from the operation wells. A comparative analysis by these parameters of different anaerobic ecotopes, including natural hydrocarbon fields, allows us to assess the rate of these processes in the UGS as high throughout the annual cycle of its operation. The data obtained indicate the existence in the UGS of a bacterial community that is unique in its diversity and metabolic capacities and able to make a certain contribution to the geochemistry of organic and inorganic compounds in the natural and technogenic ecosystem of the UGS and thus influence the industrial gas composition.

  16. Process optimization for the extraction of polyphenol from Malaysian brown seaweed, Sargassum sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Norra; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    The optimum extraction parameters of Malaysian brown seaweed, Sargassum sp. were determined by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Central Composite Face-centered Design (CCFD) was used to study the influence of extraction temperature (40-60°C), extraction time (60-180 minute) and liquid to solid ratio (20-40 mL/g) on total phenolic content (TPC) of Sargassum sp. dried extracts. The statistical analysis of the experiment indicated that extraction temperatue and time had significant effect on Sargassum sp. total phenolic contents (TPC). The CCFD showed that quadratic regression models were in good agreement with the experimental results with the coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.8066 for Sargassum sp. TPC. The extraction temperature of 40°C, extraction time of 180 minute and liquid-solid ratio of 40 mL/g were the most efficient for the extraction of polyphenols from Sargassum sp. dried powder.

  17. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni as a natural antioxidant/antimicrobial for high pressure processed fruit extract: processing parameter optimization.

    PubMed

    Barba, Francisco José; Criado, María Nieves; Belda-Galbis, Clara Miracle; Esteve, María José; Rodrigo, Dolores

    2014-04-01

    Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the optimal high pressure processing treatment (300-500 MPa, 5-15 min) combined with Stevia rebaudiana (Stevia) addition (0-2.5% (w/v)) to guarantee food safety while maintaining maximum retention of nutritional properties. A fruit extract matrix was selected and Listeria monocytogenes inactivation was followed from the food safety point of view while polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (TEAC and ORAC) were studied from the food quality point of view. A combination of treatments achieved higher levels of inactivation of L. monocytogenes and of the oxidative enzymes, succeeding in completely inactivating POD and also increasing the levels of TPC, TEAC and ORAC. A treatment of 453 MPa for 5 min with a 2.5% (w/v) of Stevia succeeded in inactivating over 5 log cycles of L. monocytogenes and maximizing inactivation of PPO and POD, with the greatest retention of bioactive components.

  18. Recovery of fatty acid from a solvated hydrocarbon mixture applicable to the Beaver-Herter solvent extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Beaver, W.H.; Turpin, J.L.; Babcock, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Herter process is a patented solvent extraction enhanced oil recovery process. This process utilizes fatty acid as a solvent to mix with and reduce the viscosity of a heavy reservoir oil or a tar sand. This method differs from other solvent extraction oil recovery methods in that the recovery of the fatty acid solvent for further use, rather than the initial expense of the solvent, is the prime economic consideration. The fatty acid is recovered by saponification of the solvated oil mixture using an aqueous base, followed by migration of the resulting soap into the aqueous phase, and then desaponification of the aqueous phase.

  19. Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Thermal Technologies in the Australian Minerals Processing and Extractive Metallurgical Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eglinton, Thomas; Hinkley, Jim; Beath, Andrew; Dell'Amico, Mark

    2013-12-01

    The Australian minerals processing and extractive metallurgy industries are responsible for about 20% of Australia's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This article reviews the potential applications of concentrated solar thermal (CST) energy in the Australian minerals processing industry to reduce this impact. Integrating CST energy into these industries would reduce their reliance upon conventional fossil fuels and reduce GHG emissions. As CST technologies become more widely deployed and cheaper, and as fuel prices rise, CST energy will progressively become more competitive with conventional energy sources. Some of the applications identified in this article are expected to become commercially competitive provided the costs for pollution abatement and GHG mitigation are internalized. The areas of potential for CST integration identified in this study can be classed as either medium/low-temperature or high-temperature applications. The most promising medium/low-grade applications are electricity generation and low grade heating of liquids. Electricity generation with CST energy—also known as concentrated solar power—has the greatest potential to reduce GHG emissions out of all the potential applications identified because of the 24/7 dispatchability when integrated with thermal storage. High-temperature applications identified include the thermal decomposition of alumina and the calcination of limestone to lime in solar kilns, as well as the production of syngas from natural gas and carbonaceous materials for various metallurgical processes including nickel and direct reduced iron production. Hybridization and integration with thermal storage could enable CST to sustain these energy-intensive metallurgical processes continuously. High-temperature applications are the focus of this paper.

  20. [Study on extraction process of coumarin in a Mongolian drug Chagan-sorlo (Radix Glehniae)].

    PubMed

    Borjigidai, Almaz; Cui, Xun; Pang, Zong-Ran; Cui, Jian; Kang, Feng

    2014-04-01

    The present paper discusses ultrasonic extraction method aided extraction of coumarin from a Mongolian drug, Chagan-sorlo (Radix Glehniae), aiming to study out how much coumarin contained in Chagan-sorlo, and to provide the scientific basis and production guidance for extracting coumarin from Chagan-sorlo. Under different conditions the coumarin in Chagan-sorlo was extracted by ultrasonic, measured and analyzed, and then HPLC was used to carry out the measurement. Result showed that with solvent volume fraction of 70%, extraction time of 20 min, ultrasonic power of 175 W, temperature of 25 degrees C, solid-liquid ratio of 1 : 20, and 80-100 mesh extraction, the coumarin extraction reaches the highest yield.

  1. Leveraging Terminology Services for Extract-Transform-Load Processes: A User-Centered Approach.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kevin J; Jiang, Guoqian; Brue, Scott M; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Terminology services serve an important role supporting clinical and research applications, and underpin a diverse set of processes and use cases. Through standardization efforts, terminology service-to-system interactions can leverage well-defined interfaces and predictable integration patterns. Often, however, users interact more directly with terminologies, and no such blueprints are available for describing terminology service-to-user interactions. In this work, we explore the main architecture principles necessary to build a user-centered terminology system, using an Extract-Transform-Load process as our primary usage scenario. To analyze our architecture, we present a prototype implementation based on the Common Terminology Services 2 (CTS2) standard using the Patient-Centered Network of Learning Health Systems (LHSNet) project as a concrete use case. We perform a preliminary evaluation of our prototype architecture using three architectural quality attributes: interoperability, adaptability and usability. We find that a design-time focus on user needs, cognitive models, and existing patterns is essential to maximize system utility.

  2. Lignin isolation process from rice husk by alkaline hydrogen peroxide: Lignin and silica extracted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma'ruf, Anwar; Pramudono, Bambang; Aryanti, Nita

    2017-03-01

    Biomass is one of abundance resources in the world. Biomass consists of three main materials such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Therefore, biomass can be referred to lignocellulosic material. Both the cellulose and hemicelluloses fractions are polymers of sugars, and thereby a potential source of fermentable sugars, or other processes that convert sugars into products. Lignin is a polymer compound which contains of phenolic compounds. Rice husk is one of biomass, which has high contain of lignin. Rice husk has special characteristics because of silica content. The aim of this paper is to analyze lignin and silica extracted during lignin isolation process of rice husk using alkaline hydrogen peroxide. Three main variables such as solvent/solid ratio, concentration of hydrogen peroxide and pH of the mixture are studied. The optimum conditions for lignin isolation are at solvent/solid ratio 9:1 ml/gr, hydrogen peroxide concentration of 1.5%v and pH of the mixture of 11.

  3. Leveraging Terminology Services for Extract-Transform-Load Processes: A User-Centered Approach

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Kevin J.; Jiang, Guoqian; Brue, Scott M.; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Terminology services serve an important role supporting clinical and research applications, and underpin a diverse set of processes and use cases. Through standardization efforts, terminology service-to-system interactions can leverage well-defined interfaces and predictable integration patterns. Often, however, users interact more directly with terminologies, and no such blueprints are available for describing terminology service-to-user interactions. In this work, we explore the main architecture principles necessary to build a user-centered terminology system, using an Extract-Transform-Load process as our primary usage scenario. To analyze our architecture, we present a prototype implementation based on the Common Terminology Services 2 (CTS2) standard using the Patient-Centered Network of Learning Health Systems (LHSNet) project as a concrete use case. We perform a preliminary evaluation of our prototype architecture using three architectural quality attributes: interoperability, adaptability and usability. We find that a design-time focus on user needs, cognitive models, and existing patterns is essential to maximize system utility. PMID:28269898

  4. Monitoring of Extraction Efficiency by a Sample Process Control Virus Added Immediately Upon Sample Receipt.

    PubMed

    Ruhanya, Vurayai; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; D'Agostino, Martin; Cook, Nigel; Hernández, Marta; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2015-12-01

    When analysing food samples for enteric viruses, a sample process control virus (SPCV) must be added at the commencement of the analytical procedure, to verify that the analysis has been performed correctly. Samples can on occasion arrive at the laboratory late in the working day or week. The analyst may consequently have insufficient time to commence and complete the complex procedure, and the samples must consequently be stored. To maintain the validity of the analytical result, it will be necessary to consider storage as part of the process, and the analytical procedure as commencing on sample receipt. The aim of this study was to verify that an SPCV can be recovered after sample storage, and thus indicate the effective recovery of enteric viruses. Two types of samples (fresh and frozen raspberries) and two types of storage (refrigerated and frozen) were studied using Mengovirus vMC0 as SPCV. SPCV recovery was not significantly different (P > 0.5) regardless of sample type or duration of storage (up to 14 days at -20 °C). Accordingly, samples can be stored without a significant effect on the performance of the analysis. The results of this study should assist the analyst by demonstrating that they can verify that viruses can be extracted from food samples even if samples have been stored.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. A process has been developed which results in high quality binder pitch suitable for use in graphite electrodes or carbon anodes. A detailed description of the protocol is given by Clendenin. Briefly, aromatic heavy oils are hydro-treated under mild conditions in order to increase their ability to dissolve coal. An example of an aromatic heavy oil is Koppers Carbon Black Base (CBB) oil. CBB oil has been found to be an effective solvent and acceptably low cost (i.e., significantly below the market price for binder pitch, or about $280 per ton at the time of this writing). It is also possible to use solvents derived from hydrotreated coal and avoid reliance on coke oven recovery products completely if so desired.

  6. X-ray Microprobe Investigation of Iron During a Simulated Silicon Feedstock Extraction Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardis, Sarah; Fakra, Sirine C.; Dal Martello, Elena; Larsen, Rune B.; Newman, Bonna K.; Fenning, David P.; Di Sabatino, Marisa; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2016-12-01

    Elemental silicon is extracted through carbothermic reduction from silicon-bearing raw feedstock materials such as quartz and quartzites. We investigate the micron-scale distribution and valence state of iron, a deleterious impurity in several iron-sensitive applications, in hydrothermal quartz samples of industrial relevance during a laboratory-scale simulated reduction process. We use X-ray diffraction to inspect the quartz structural change and synchrotron-based microprobe techniques to monitor spatial distribution and oxidation state of iron. In the untreated quartz, most of the iron is embedded in foreign minerals, both as ferric (Fe3+, e.g., in muscovite) and ferrous (Fe2+, e.g., as in biotite) iron. Upon heating the quartz to 1273 K (1000 °C) under industrial-like conditions in a CO(g) environment, iron is found in ferrous (Fe2+) particles. At this temperature, its chemical state is influenced by mineral decomposition and melting processes, whereas at higher temperatures it is influenced by the silicate melts. As the quartz grains partially transform to cristobalite 1873 K (1600 °C), iron diffuses towards liquid-solid interfaces forming ferrous clusters. Silica is liquid at 2173 K (1900 °C) and the iron migrates towards the interfaces between gas phases and the silicate liquid.

  7. An integrated strategy for the rapid extraction and screening of phosphatidylcholines and lysophosphatidylcholines using semi-automatic solid phase extraction and data processing technology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenzhu; Zhang, Yani; Yin, Jia; Li, Yubo

    2016-08-26

    This study attempts to establish a comprehensive strategy for the rapid extraction and screening of phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoPCs) in biological samples using semi-automatic solid phase extraction (SPE) and data processing technology based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). First, the Ostro sample preparation method (i.e., semi-automatic SPE) was compared with the Bligh-Dyer method in terms of substance coverage, reproducibility and sample preparation time. Meanwhile, the screening method for PCs and LysoPCs was built through mass range screening, mass defect filtering and diagnostic fragments filtering. Then, the Ostro sample preparation method and the aforementioned screening method were combined under optimal conditions to establish a rapid extraction and screening platform. Finally, this developed method was validated and applied to the preparation and data analysis of tissue samples. Through a systematic evaluation, this developed method was shown to provide reliable and high-throughput experimental results and was suitable for the preparation and analysis of tissue samples. Our method provides a novel strategy for the rapid extraction and analysis of functional phospholipids. In addition, this study will promote further study of phospholipids in disease research.

  8. Improvement of oleuropein extractability by optimising steam blanching process as pre-treatment of olive leaf extraction via response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Stamatopoulos, Konstantinos; Katsoyannos, Evangelos; Chatzilazarou, Arhontoula; Konteles, Spyros J

    2012-07-15

    Impact of steam, hot water blanching and UV-C irradiation as pre-treatments on extraction of oleuropein and related biophenols from olive leaves (OLs), was investigated. Moreover, particle size effect of olive leaves and steam blanching duration were selected as independent variables to optimise steam blanching process in terms of oleuropein content (OC) and antioxidant activity (AC) of ethanolic extracts, by using response surface methodology. Optimum conditions for OC and AC were 10 min steam blanching of 20-11 and 3-1mm olive leaf fraction, respectively. Depending on the extraction procedure, at optimum conditions of steaming the results indicate that steam blanching of OL prior to extraction can significantly increase oleuropein yield from 25 to 35 times compared to non-steam blanched sample, whereas the antioxidant activity increased from 4 to 13 times. No significant UV-C effect was observed in OC and AC, while hot water blanched samples showed significantly higher oleuropein yields and antioxidant activity compared to untreated samples.

  9. Effect of extraction process on composition, oxidative stability and rheological properties of purslane seed oil.

    PubMed

    Delfan-Hosseini, Sasan; Nayebzadeh, Kooshan; Mirmoghtadaie, Leila; Kavosi, Maryam; Hosseini, Seyede Marzieh

    2017-05-01

    Purslane seed oil could be considered as potential nutritious oil due to its desirable fatty acid composition and other biological active compounds. In this study the effect of three extraction procedure including solvent extraction, cold pressing and microwave pretreatment (MW) followed by cold pressing on oil yield, physicochemical properties, oxidative stability and rheological behaviors of oil was investigated. Solvent extracted oil had the highest extraction yield (72.31%). Pretreatment by microwave before cold press extraction resulted in an increase in extraction yield, total phenolic compound (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Cold press extracted oil had the lowest oxidative stability (4.64h). This property was greatly enhanced by microwave irradiation, so that the longest oxidative stability was found in MW-cold press extracted oil with 9.67h. Furthermore, all extracted oils demonstrated Newtonian flow behaviors. MW-cold press extracted oil had the greatest apparent viscosity and highest sensitivity to temperature changes (Ea=29.18kJ/mol(-1)).

  10. Pectin extraction from quince (Cydonia oblonga) pomace applying alternative methods: effect of process variables and preliminary optimization.

    PubMed

    Brown, Valeria Anahí; Lozano, Jorge E; Genovese, Diego Bautista

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to introduce alternative methods in the process of pectin extraction from quince pomace, to determine the effect of selected process variables (factors) on the obtained pectin, and to perform a preliminary optimization of the process. A fractional factorial experimental design was applied, where the factors considered were six: quince pomace pretreatment (washing vs blanching), drying method (hot air vs LPSSD), acid extraction conditions (pH, temperature, and time), and pectin extract concentration method (vacuum evaporation vs ultrafiltration). The effects of these factors and their interactions on pectin yield (Y: 0.2-34.2 mg/g), GalA content (44.5-76.2%), and DM (47.5-90.9%), were determined. For these three responses, extraction pH was the main effect, but it was involved in two and three factors interactions. Regarding alternative methods, LPSSD was required for maximum Y and GalA, and ultrafiltration for maximum GalA and DM. Response models were used to predict optimum process conditions (quince blanching, pomace drying by LPSSD, acid extraction at pH 2.20, 80 , 3 h, and concentration under vacuum) to simultaneously maximize Y (25.2 mg/g), GalA (66.3%), and DM (66.4%).

  11. Final Technical Report EMSP 70045 Investigation of Pore Scale Processes That Affect Soil Vapor Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Valocchi, Albert J.; Werth, Charles W.; Webb, Andrew W.

    2004-12-10

    Dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination in the vadose zone is a significant problem at Department of Energy sites. Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is commonly used to remediate DNAPLs from the vadose zone. In most cases, a period of high recovery has been followed by a sustained period of low recovery. This behavior has been attributed to multiple processes including slow interphase mass transfer, retarded vapor phase transport, and diffusion from unswept zones of low permeability. This research project used a combination of laboratory experimentation and mathematical modeling to determine how these various processes interact to limit the removal of DNAPL components in heterogeneous porous media during SVE. Our results were applied to scenarios typical of the carbon tetrachloride spill zone at the Hanford Site. Our results indicate that: (a) the initial distribution of the spilled DNAPL (i.e., the spill-zone architecture) has a major influence upon the performance of any subsequent SVE operations; (b) while the pattern of higher and lower conductivity soil zones has an important impact upon spill zone architecture, soil moisture distribution plays an even larger role when there are large quantities of co-disposed waste-water (as in the Hanford scenario); (c) depending upon soil moisture dynamics, liquid DNAPL that is trapped by surrounding water is extremely difficult to remove by SVE; (d) natural barometric pumping can remove a large amount of the initial DNAPL mass for spills occurring close to the land surface, and hence the initial spilled inventory will be over-estimated if this process is neglected.

  12. Overview of image processing tools to extract physical information from JET videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciunescu, T.; Murari, A.; Gelfusa, M.; Tiseanu, I.; Zoita, V.; EFDA Contributors, JET

    2014-11-01

    In magnetic confinement nuclear fusion devices such as JET, the last few years have witnessed a significant increase in the use of digital imagery, not only for the surveying and control of experiments, but also for the physical interpretation of results. More than 25 cameras are routinely used for imaging on JET in the infrared (IR) and visible spectral regions. These cameras can produce up to tens of Gbytes per shot and their information content can be very different, depending on the experimental conditions. However, the relevant information about the underlying physical processes is generally of much reduced dimensionality compared to the recorded data. The extraction of this information, which allows full exploitation of these diagnostics, is a challenging task. The image analysis consists, in most cases, of inverse problems which are typically ill-posed mathematically. The typology of objects to be analysed is very wide, and usually the images are affected by noise, low levels of contrast, low grey-level in-depth resolution, reshaping of moving objects, etc. Moreover, the plasma events have time constants of ms or tens of ms, which imposes tough conditions for real-time applications. On JET, in the last few years new tools and methods have been developed for physical information retrieval. The methodology of optical flow has allowed, under certain assumptions, the derivation of information about the dynamics of video objects associated with different physical phenomena, such as instabilities, pellets and filaments. The approach has been extended in order to approximate the optical flow within the MPEG compressed domain, allowing the manipulation of the large JET video databases and, in specific cases, even real-time data processing. The fast visible camera may provide new information that is potentially useful for disruption prediction. A set of methods, based on the extraction of structural information from the visual scene, have been developed for the

  13. Natural language processing to extract symptoms of severe mental illness from clinical text: the Clinical Record Interactive Search Comprehensive Data Extraction (CRIS-CODE) project

    PubMed Central

    Jayatilleke, Nishamali; Kolliakou, Anna; Ball, Michael; Gorrell, Genevieve; Roberts, Angus; Stewart, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We sought to use natural language processing to develop a suite of language models to capture key symptoms of severe mental illness (SMI) from clinical text, to facilitate the secondary use of mental healthcare data in research. Design Development and validation of information extraction applications for ascertaining symptoms of SMI in routine mental health records using the Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) data resource; description of their distribution in a corpus of discharge summaries. Setting Electronic records from a large mental healthcare provider serving a geographic catchment of 1.2 million residents in four boroughs of south London, UK. Participants The distribution of derived symptoms was described in 23 128 discharge summaries from 7962 patients who had received an SMI diagnosis, and 13 496 discharge summaries from 7575 patients who had received a non-SMI diagnosis. Outcome measures Fifty SMI symptoms were identified by a team of psychiatrists for extraction based on salience and linguistic consistency in records, broadly categorised under positive, negative, disorganisation, manic and catatonic subgroups. Text models for each symptom were generated using the TextHunter tool and the CRIS database. Results We extracted data for 46 symptoms with a median F1 score of 0.88. Four symptom models performed poorly and were excluded. From the corpus of discharge summaries, it was possible to extract symptomatology in 87% of patients with SMI and 60% of patients with non-SMI diagnosis. Conclusions This work demonstrates the possibility of automatically extracting a broad range of SMI symptoms from English text discharge summaries for patients with an SMI diagnosis. Descriptive data also indicated that most symptoms cut across diagnoses, rather than being restricted to particular groups. PMID:28096249

  14. A novel integrated approach to quantitatively evaluate the efficiency of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extraction process.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing; Harada, Hideki

    2012-12-01

    A novel integrated approach is developed to quantitatively evaluate the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extraction efficiency after taking into account EPS yield, EPS damage, and cell lysis. This approach incorporates grey relational analysis and fuzzy logic analysis, in which the evaluation procedure is established on the basis of grey relational coefficients generation, membership functions construction, and fuzzy rules description. The flocculation activity and DNA content of EPS are chosen as the two evaluation responses. To verify the feasibility and effectiveness of this integrated approach, EPS from Bacillus megaterium TF10 are extracted using five different extraction methods, and their extraction efficiencies are evaluated as one real case study. Based on the evaluation results, the maximal extraction grades and corresponding optimal extraction times of the five extraction methods are ordered as EDTA, 10 h > formaldehyde + NaOH, 60 min > heating, 120 min > ultrasonication, 30 min > H₂SO₄, 30 min > control. The proposed approach here offers an effective tool to select appropriate EPS extraction methods and determine the optimal extraction conditions.

  15. High-power ultrasonic system for the enhancement of mass transfer in supercritical CO2 extraction processes.

    PubMed

    Riera, Enrique; Blanco, Alfonso; García, José; Benedito, José; Mulet, Antonio; Gallego-Juárez, Juan A; Blasco, Miguel

    2010-02-01

    Oil is an important component of almonds and other vegetable substrates that can show an influence on human health. In this work the development and validation of an innovative, robust, stable, reliable and efficient ultrasonic system at pilot scale to assist supercritical CO(2) extraction of oils from different substrates is presented. In the extraction procedure ultrasonic energy represents an efficient way of producing deep agitation enhancing mass transfer processes because of some mechanisms (radiation pressure, streaming, agitation, high amplitude vibrations, etc.). A previous work to this research pointed out the feasibility of integrating an ultrasonic field inside a supercritical extractor without losing a significant volume fraction. This pioneer method enabled to accelerate mass transfer and then, improving supercritical extraction times. To commercially develop the new procedure fulfilling industrial requirements, a new configuration device has been designed, implemented, tested and successfully validated for supercritical fluid extraction of oil from different vegetable substrates.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-23

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. There are a number of parameters which are important for the production of acceptable cokes, including purity, structure, density, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity etc. From the standpoint of a manufacturer of graphite electrodes such as GrafTech, one of the most important parameters is coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Because GrafTech material is usually fully graphitized (i.e., heat treated at 3100 C), very high purity is automatically achieved. The degree of graphitization controls properties such as CTE, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and density. Thus it is usually possible to correlate these properties using a single parameter. CTE has proven to be a useful index for the quality of coke. Pure graphite actually has a slightly negative coefficient of thermal expansion, whereas more disordered carbon has a positive coefficient.

  17. Replication-fork stalling and processing at a single psoralen interstrand crosslink in Xenopus egg extracts.

    PubMed

    Le Breton, Cyrille; Hennion, Magali; Arimondo, Paola B; Hyrien, Olivier

    2011-04-15

    Interstrand crosslink (ICL)-inducing agents block the separation of the two DNA strands. They prevent transcription and replication and are used in clinics for the treatment of cancer and skin diseases. Here, we have introduced a single psoralen ICL at a specific site in plasmid DNA using a triplex-forming-oligonucleotide (TFO)-psoralen conjugate and studied its repair in Xenopus egg extracts that support nuclear assembly and replication of plasmid DNA. Replication forks arriving from either side stalled at the psoralen ICL. In contrast to previous observations with other ICL-inducing agents, the leading strands advanced up to the lesion without any prior pausing. Subsequently, incisions were introduced on one parental strand on both sides of the ICL. These incisions could be detected whether one or both forks reached the ICL. Using small molecule inhibitors, we found that the ATR-Chk1 pathway, but not the ATM-Chk2 pathway, stimulated both the incision step and the subsequent processing of the broken replication intermediates. Our results highlight both similarities and differences in fork stalling and repair induced by psoralen and by other ICL-forming agents.

  18. Cellulase-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Malva sylvestris: Process optimization and potential functionalities.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Hosein; Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi

    2017-03-19

    Enzyme-assisted extraction process of the water-soluble Malva sylvestris polysaccharides (MSPs) was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The highest yield (10.40%) of MSPs was achieved at 5.64% cellulase, 55.65°C temperature, 3.4h time, and 5.22 pH. Three homogeneous polysaccharide fractions (MSP-1, MSP-2, MSP-3) were purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 chromatography, which were composed of galactose, glucuronic acid, arabinose, rhamnose and mannose in different molar ratios with molecular weight range of 2.6×10(5)-8.8×10(5)Da. The fractions could significantly increase antioxidant, antitumor and antimicrobial activities in a dose-dependent pattern. MSP-2 revealed stronger antioxidant activities than MSP-1 and MSP-3, including reducing power and scavenging activity of DPPH and OH radicals. The antiproliferative activity of MSP-2 (1.0mg/mL) on the growth of A549 and HepG2 cells was 45.1% and 53.2%, respectively. The Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus PTCC 1015 and Staphylococcus aureus PTCC 1112) compared with Gram-negative ones (Escherichia coli PTCC 1763 and Salmonella typhimurium PTCC 1709) showed less sensitivity against the various MSPs (3-15mg/mL).

  19. Energy from true in situ processing of Antrim oil shale: initial in situ extraction trials

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, P.H.

    1980-04-01

    This report covers the three in situ extraction trials performed at The Dow Chemical Company's existing oil shale site near Peck, Michigan, from August 11, 1977 to May 24, 1978 and the subsequent analysis. The trials were conducted at a depth of 1200 to 1300 feet for a total operating time of 109 days. Ignition was achieved by an electric heater and by a propane burner using coal and charcoal to increase the input of energy. Gas having an energy value of 50 to 55 Btu/scf was prodcued. The energy recovered in the third and most productive trial compared to the energy used for ignition reached a ratio of 4.8. A cyclic operation, called Huff and Puff, gave a 47 to 65% improvement in energy recovery compared to a single forward combustion. No sulfur compounds were detected in the production gas. Particulate measurement was not of value in monitoring the burning process. The trials reported, and the information gathered for them, provide a basis for a trial at a new site adjacent to the existing site.

  20. Forest point processes for the automatic extraction of networks in raster data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Alena; Lafarge, Florent; Brenner, Claus; Rottensteiner, Franz; Heipke, Christian

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a new stochastic approach for the automatic detection of network structures in raster data. We represent a network as a set of trees with acyclic planar graphs. We embed this model in the probabilistic framework of spatial point processes and determine the most probable configuration of trees by stochastic sampling. That is, different configurations are constructed randomly by modifying the graph parameters and by adding or removing nodes and edges to/ from the current trees. Each configuration is evaluated based on the probabilities for these changes and an energy function describing the conformity with a predefined model. By using the Reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler, an approximation of the global optimum of the energy function is iteratively reached. Although our main target application is the extraction of rivers and tidal channels in digital terrain models, experiments with other types of networks in images show the transferability to further applications. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations demonstrate the competitiveness of our approach with respect to existing algorithms.

  1. Date seed characterisation, substrate extraction and process modelling for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate by Cupriavidus necator.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, R G; Winterburn, J B

    2016-12-01

    Poly-3-hydroxybutrate (PHB) is a biodegradable polymer synthesised via bacterial fermentation as a means of storing carbon and energy under unbalanced growth conditions. The production cost of petroleum-based plastics is currently lower than that for biopolymers, and the carbon source is the most significant contributor to biopolymer production cost. A feasibility study to assess the suitability of using a date seed derived media as an alternative for PHB production under various stress conditions was investigated. Results include fructose extraction from date seeds and a mass transfer model to describe the process, demonstrating that the high nutrient content of date seeds makes them a promising raw material for microbial growth and that a meaningful amount of PHB can be produced without supplementation. Maximum dry cell weight and PHB concentrations were 6.3g/l and 4.6g/l respectively, giving a PHB content of 73%, when an initial fructose concentration of 10.8g/l was used.

  2. Decontamination of PCBs-containing soil using subcritical water extraction process.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Park, Jeong-Hun; Shin, Moon-Su; Park, Ha-Seung

    2014-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one of the excision compounds listed at the Stockholm convention in 2001. Although their use has been heavily restricted, PCBs can be found in some specific site-contaminated soils. Either removal or destruction is required prior to disposal. The subcritical water extraction (SCWE) of organic hazardous compounds from contaminated soils is a promising technique for hazardous waste contaminated-site cleanup. In this study, the removal of PCBs by the SCWE process was investigated. The effects of temperature and treatment time on removal efficiency have been determined. In the SCWE experiments, a removal percentage of 99.7% was obtained after 1h of treatment at 250°C. The mass removal efficiency of low-chlorinated species was higher than high-chlorinated congeners at lower temperatures, but it was oppositely observed at higher temperatures because the lower chlorinated congeners are formed by dechlorination of higher chlorinated congeners. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that the PCBs underwent partial degradation. Several degradation products including mono- and di-chlorinated biphenyls, oxygen-containing aromatic compounds, and small-size hydrocarbons were identified in the effluent water, which were not initially present in the contaminated soil.

  3. Evaluation of Preclinical Assays to Investigate an Anthroposophic Pharmaceutical Process Applied to Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Flückiger, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Extracts from European mistletoe (Viscum album L.) developed in anthroposophic medicine are based on specific pharmaceutical procedures to enhance remedy efficacy. One such anthroposophic pharmaceutical process was evaluated regarding effects on cancer cell toxicity in vitro and on colchicine tumor formation in Lepidium sativum. Anthroposophically processed Viscum album extract (APVAE) was produced by mixing winter and summer mistletoe extracts in the edge of a high-speed rotating disk and was compared with manually mixed Viscum album extract (VAE). The antiproliferative effect of VAE/APVAE was determined in five cell lines (NCI-H460, DU-145, HCC1143, MV3, and PA-TU-8902) by WST-1 assay in vitro; no difference was found between VAE and APVAE in any cell line tested (P > 0.14). Incidence of colchicine tumor formation was assessed by measurement of the root/shoot-ratio of seedlings of Lepidium sativum treated with colchicine as well as VAE, APVAE, or water. Colchicine tumor formation decreased after application of VAE (−5.4% compared to water, P < 0.001) and was even stronger by APVAE (−8.8% compared to water, P < 0.001). The high-speed mistletoe extract mixing process investigated thus did not influence toxicity against cancer cells but seemed to sustain morphostasis and to enhance resistance against external noxious influences leading to phenomenological malformations. PMID:24876872

  4. Effect of the drying process on the intensification of phenolic compounds recovery from grape pomace using accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Rajha, Hiba N; Ziegler, Walter; Louka, Nicolas; Hobaika, Zeina; Vorobiev, Eugene; Boechzelt, Herbert G; Maroun, Richard G

    2014-10-15

    In light of their environmental and economic interests, food byproducts have been increasingly exploited and valorized for their richness in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are antioxidant bioactive molecules highly present in grape byproducts. Herein, the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of phenolic compounds from wet and dried grape pomace, at 45 °C, was conducted and the highest phenolic compounds yield (PCY) for wet (16.2 g GAE/100 g DM) and dry (7.28 g GAE/100 g DM) grape pomace extracts were obtained with 70% ethanol/water solvent at 140 °C. The PCY obtained from wet pomace was up to two times better compared to the dry byproduct and up to 15 times better compared to the same food matrices treated with conventional methods. With regard to Resveratrol, the corresponding dry pomace extract had a better free radical scavenging activity (49.12%) than the wet extract (39.8%). The drying pretreatment process seems to ameliorate the antiradical activity, especially when the extraction by ASE is performed at temperatures above 100 °C. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the diversity of the flavonoid and the non-flavonoid compounds found in the extracts was seriously affected by the extraction temperature and the pretreatment of the raw material. This diversity seems to play a key role in the scavenging activity demonstrated by the extracts. Our results emphasize on ASE usage as a promising method for the preparation of highly concentrated and bioactive phenolic extracts that could be used in several industrial applications.

  5. Effect of the Drying Process on the Intensification of Phenolic Compounds Recovery from Grape Pomace Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Rajha, Hiba N.; Ziegler, Walter; Louka, Nicolas; Hobaika, Zeina; Vorobiev, Eugene; Boechzelt, Herbert G.; Maroun, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    In light of their environmental and economic interests, food byproducts have been increasingly exploited and valorized for their richness in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are antioxidant bioactive molecules highly present in grape byproducts. Herein, the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of phenolic compounds from wet and dried grape pomace, at 45 °C, was conducted and the highest phenolic compounds yield (PCY) for wet (16.2 g GAE/100 g DM) and dry (7.28 g GAE/100 g DM) grape pomace extracts were obtained with 70% ethanol/water solvent at 140 °C. The PCY obtained from wet pomace was up to two times better compared to the dry byproduct and up to 15 times better compared to the same food matrices treated with conventional methods. With regard to Resveratrol, the corresponding dry pomace extract had a better free radical scavenging activity (49.12%) than the wet extract (39.8%). The drying pretreatment process seems to ameliorate the antiradical activity, especially when the extraction by ASE is performed at temperatures above 100 °C. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the diversity of the flavonoid and the non-flavonoid compounds found in the extracts was seriously affected by the extraction temperature and the pretreatment of the raw material. This diversity seems to play a key role in the scavenging activity demonstrated by the extracts. Our results emphasize on ASE usage as a promising method for the preparation of highly concentrated and bioactive phenolic extracts that could be used in several industrial applications. PMID:25322155

  6. Chemical kinetics and transport processes in supercritical fluid extraction of coal. Final report, August 10, 1990--December 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, B.J.; Smith, J.M.; Wang, M.; Zhang, C.J.

    1993-02-01

    The overall objective of this project was to study the supercritical fluid extraction of hydrocarbons from coal. Beyond the practical concern of deriving products from coal, the research has provided insights into the structure, properties, and reactivities of coal. Information on engineering fundamentals of coal thermolysis and extraction, including physical and chemical processes, is presented in this final report. To accomplish the goals of the project we developed continuous-flow experiments for fixed-bed samples of coal that allow two types of analysis of the extract: continuous spectrophotometric absorbance measurements of the lumped concentration of extract, and chromatographic determinations of molecular-weight distributions as a function of time. Thermolysis of coal yields a complex mixture of many extract products whose molecular-weight distribution (MWD) varies with time for continuous-flow, semibatch experiments. The flow reactor with a differential, fixed bed of coal particles contacted by supercritical t-butanol was employed to provide dynamic MWD data by means of HPLC gel permeation chromatography of the extract. The experimental results, time-dependent MWDs of extract molecules, were interpreted by a novel mathematical model based on continuous-mixture kinetics for thermal cleavage of chemical bonds in the coal network. The parameters for the MWDs of extractable groups in the coal and the rate constants for one- and two-fragment reaction are determined from the experimental data. The significant effect of temperature on the kinetics of the extraction was explained in terms of one- and two-fragment reactions in the coal.

  7. Adaboost face detector based on Joint Integral Histogram and Genetic Algorithms for feature extraction process.

    PubMed

    Jammoussi, Ameni Yangui; Ghribi, Sameh Fakhfakh; Masmoudi, Dorra Sellami

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many classes of objects can be efficiently detected by the way of machine learning techniques. In practice, boosting techniques are among the most widely used machine learning for various reasons. This is mainly due to low false positive rate of the cascade structure offering the possibility to be trained by different classes of object. However, it is especially used for face detection since it is the most popular sub-problem within object detection. The challenges of Adaboost based face detector include the selection of the most relevant features from a large feature set which are considered as weak classifiers. In many scenarios, however, selection of features based on lowering classification errors leads to computation complexity and excess of memory use. In this work, we propose a new method to train an effective detector by discarding redundant weak classifiers while achieving the pre-determined learning objective. To achieve this, on the one hand, we modify AdaBoost training so that the feature selection process is not based any more on the weak learner's training error. This is by incorporating the Genetic Algorithm (GA) on the training process. On the other hand, we make use of the Joint Integral Histogram in order to extract more powerful features. Experimental performance on human faces show that our proposed method requires smaller number of weak classifiers than the conventional learning algorithm, resulting in higher learning and faster classification rates. So, our method outperforms significantly state-of-the-art cascade methods in terms of detection rate and false positive rate and especially in reducing the number of weak classifiers per stage.

  8. Taggiasca extra virgin olive oil colonization by yeasts during the extraction process.

    PubMed

    Ciafardini, G; Cioccia, G; Zullo, B A

    2017-04-01

    The opalescent appearance of the newly produced olive oil is due to the presence of solid particles and microdrops of vegetation water in which the microorganisms from the olives' carposphere are trapped. Present research has demonstrated that the microbiota of the fresh extracted olive oil, produced in the mills, is mainly composed of yeasts and to a lesser extent of molds. The close link between the composition of the microbiota of the olives' carposphere undergoing to processing, and that of the microbiota of the newly produced olive oil, concerns only the yeasts and molds, given that the bacterial component is by and large destroyed mainly in the kneaded paste during the malaxation process. Six physiologically homogenous yeast groups were highlighted in the wash water, kneaded paste and newly produced olive oil from the Taggiasca variety which had been collected in mills located in the Liguria region. The more predominant yeasts of each group belonged to a single species called respectively: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Candida oleophila, Candida diddensiae, Candida norvegica, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Debaryomyces hansenii. Apart from K. marxianus, which was found only in the wash water, all the other species were found in the wash water and in the kneaded paste as well as in the newly produced olive oil, while in the six-month stored olive oil, was found only one physiologically homogeneous group of yeast represented by the W. anomalus specie. These findings in according to our previous studies carried out on other types of mono varietal olive oils, confirms that the habitat of the Taggiascas' extra virgin olive oil, had a strong selective pressure on the yeast biota, allowing only to a few member of yeast species, contaminating the fresh product, to survive and reproduce in it during storage.

  9. Rapid-extraction oxidation process to recover and reuse copper chromium and arsenic from industrial wood preservative sludge.

    PubMed

    Kazi, F K M; Cooper, P A

    2002-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative can form insoluble sludges when the hexavalent chromium component is reduced by wood extractives, wood particles and preservative additives in the solution. This sludge accumulates in treating solution work tanks, sumps and in-line filters and must be disposed of as hazardous wastes by waste disposal companies at high costs. A number of commercial sludges were investigated and found to contain 18-94% copper, chromium and arsenic as oxides combined with sand, oil, wood particles, additives and wood extractives. We have developed a multi-stage recycling process whereby approximately 97% of the CCA components are recovered from the sludge. It involves extraction with sodium hypochlorite to remove and oxidize chromium (more than 90%) and extract most of the arsenic (approx. 80%) followed by extraction of the copper and remaining arsenic and chromium with phosphoric acid. The phosphoric acid extract contains some trivalent chromium, which is subsequently oxidized by sodium hypochlorite. The combined oxidized extract containing CrVI, CuII and AsV was compatible with CCA treating solutions and could be re-used commercially for treating wood without having a significant effect on the preservative fixation rate or the leach resistance of the treated wood. A cost analysis showed that the economic savings from recovery of CCA chemicals and reduced landfill costs exceeded the variable costs for materials and energy for the process by as much as Can $966 per tonne of sludge if sodium sulfite can be acquired in bulk quantities for the process.

  10. Extraction of polyphenols from processed black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) residues.

    PubMed

    Kapasakalidis, Petros G; Rastall, Robert A; Gordon, Michael H

    2006-05-31

    The total phenol and anthocyanin contents of black currant pomace and black currant press residue (BPR) extracts, extracted with formic acid in methanol or with methanol/water/acetic acid, were studied. Anthocyanins and other phenols were identified by means of reversed phase HPLC, and differences between the two plant materials were monitored. In all BPR extracts, phenol levels, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, were 8-9 times higher than in the pomace extracts. Acid hydrolysis liberated a much higher concentration of phenols from the pomace than from the black currant press residue. HPLC analysis revealed that delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside were the major anthocyanins and constituted the main phenol class ( approximately 90%) in both types of black currant tissues tested. However, anthocyanins were present in considerably lower amounts in the pomace than in the BPR. In accordance with the total phenol content, the antioxidant activity determined by scavenging of 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation, the ABTS(*)(+) assay, showed that BPR extracts prepared by solvent extraction exhibited significantly higher (7-10 times) radical scavenging activity than the pomace extracts, and BPR anthocyanins contributed significantly (74 and 77%) to the observed high radical scavenging capacity of the corresponding extracts.

  11. Use of liquid/supercritical CO2 extraction process for butanol recovery from fermentation broth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order for butanol fermentation to be a viable option, it is essential to recover it from fermentation broth using economical alternate in-situ product recovery techniques such as liquid/supercritical CO2 extraction as compared to distillation. This technique (liquid CO2 extraction & supercritical...

  12. Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed proteins: sequential extraction processing and fraction characterization.

    PubMed

    Rezig, Leila; Chibani, Farhat; Chouaibi, Moncef; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Hessini, Kamel; Guéguen, Jacques; Hamdi, Salem

    2013-08-14

    Seed proteins extracted from Tunisian pumpkin seeds ( Cucurbita maxima ) were investigated for their solubility properties and sequentially extracted according to the Osborne procedure. The solubility of pumpkin proteins from seed flour was greatly influenced by pH changes and ionic strength, with higher values in the alkaline pH regions. It also depends on the seed defatting solvent. Protein solubility was decreased by using chloroform/methanol (CM) for lipid extraction instead of pentane (P). On the basis of differential solubility fractionation and depending on the defatting method, the alkali extract (AE) was the major fraction (42.1 (P), 22.3% (CM)) compared to the salt extract (8.6 (P), 7.5% (CM)). In salt, alkali, and isopropanol extracts, all essential amino acids with the exceptions of threonine and lysine met the minimum requirements for preschool children (FAO/WHO/UNU). The denaturation temperatures were 96.6 and 93.4 °C for salt and alkali extracts, respectively. Pumpkin protein extracts with unique protein profiles and higher denaturation temperatures could impart novel characteristics when used as food ingredients.

  13. Influence of lipid extraction process on the rheological characteristics, swelling power, and granule size of rice starches in excess water.

    PubMed

    Kar, Aditi; Jacquier, Jean-Christophe; Morgan, Desmond J; Lyng, James G; McKenna, Brian M

    2005-10-19

    The influence of the lipid extraction process on both macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of nonwaxy rice starch gelatinization in excess water was examined. Surface lipids extraction did not change the thermodynamics of starch gelatinization but lead to a significant reduction (33%) in the enthalpy of starch-lipid complex melting at high temperature, resulting in less viscous dispersions. Internal lipid extraction using hot aqueous alcoholic solutions resulted in an irreversible increase in starch granule diameter (50% increase in D[4,3]) and a dramatic change in cooking characteristics of the starch. Instead of the bimodal swelling observed for native nonwaxy rice starch, only one broad transition in swelling, solubility, granule size, and viscosity was observed in the case of the totally defatted starch. While the total removal of lipids resulted in a slight increase in starch swelling at intermediate temperatures, the harshness of the process caused irreparable changes leading to notably lower swelling at high temperatures.

  14. Starch extraction process coupled to protein recovery from leguminous tuberous roots (Pachyrhizus ahipa).

    PubMed

    Díaz, Andrea; Dini, Cecilia; Viña, Sonia Z; García, María A

    2016-11-05

    The objective of this work was to fit together the starch extraction from Pachyrhizus ahipa roots and the recovery of the proteins present in these storage organs, making an improved use of this novel raw material. The replacement of water by buffer PO4(-3)/NaCl as solvent in the first extraction steps improved protein extraction without lowering the starch yield. The starches obtained from the traditional and the proposed methods exhibited some differences in appearance and technological and thermal properties, which were endorsed to the adjustment in the methodology of extraction rather than to the use of buffer as solvent. Thus, P. ahipa starch obtaining procedure could be coupled to protein extraction with a minimum change in the methodology. This innovation did not significantly shift the characteristics of the starch obtained and allowed to obtain a protein yield of 135.7mg BSA equivalent protein/100g of fresh roots.

  15. Phytochemical analysis and effects of Pteris vittata extract on visual processes.

    PubMed

    Wahid, Fazli; Khan, Taous; Shehzad, Omer; Shehzad, Adeeb; Kim, You Young

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore the possible effects of Pteris vittata on visual sensitivity, ERG waves, and other components of the visual system. Electrophysiological techniques including electroretinography (ERG) were used in the present study. The phytochemical composition of the extract was investigated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques. The results indicated that the extract significantly augmented dark- and light-adapted ERG b-wave amplitude. Furthermore, these findings showed that P. vittata extract does not have Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor antagonistic activity but may function as a retinal neural antagonist in bullfrog retina. P. vittata extract improved the visual sensitivity by 0.8 log unit of light intensity, and reduced the regeneration time for rhodopsin. The six main peaks obtained through LC-MS were identified as flavonoids. Based on these results, it was concluded that P. vittata extract or its constituents may be used to treat eye diseases.

  16. Conversion of Extracted Oil Cake Fibers into Bioethanol Including DDGS, Canola, Sunflower, Seasame, Soy, and Peanut for Integrated Biodiesel Processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have come up with a novel integrated approach where biodiesel processing can be potentially done in-house by producing ethanol from edible oilseeds after hexane extraction to remove residual oil. In addition, we have demonstrated how ethanol could be manufactured from widely available oil cakes ...

  17. A solvent extraction approach to recover acetic acid from mixed waste acids produced during semiconductor wafer process.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Ju-Yup; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Mohapatra, Debasish; Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Gwan; Bae, Wookeun

    2009-03-15

    Recovery of acetic acid (HAc) from the waste etching solution discharged from silicon wafer manufacturing process has been attempted by using solvent extraction process. For this purpose 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (EHA) was used as organic solvent. In the pre-treatment stage >99% silicon and hydrofluoric acid was removed from the solution by precipitation. The synthesized product, Na(2)SiF(6) having 98.2% purity was considered of commercial grade having good market value. The waste solution containing 279 g/L acetic acid, 513 g/L nitric acid, 0.9 g/L hydrofluoric acid and 0.030 g/L silicon was used for solvent extraction study. From the batch test results equilibrium conditions for HAc recovery were optimized and found to be 4 stages of extraction at an organic:aqueous (O:A) ratio of 3, 4 stages of scrubbing and 4 stages of stripping at an O:A ratio of 1. Deionized water (DW) was used as stripping agent to elute HAc from organic phase. In the whole batch process 96.3% acetic acid recovery was achieved. Continuous operations were successfully conducted for 100 h using a mixer-settler to examine the feasibility of the extraction system for its possible commercial application. Finally, a complete process flowsheet with material balance for the separation and recovery of HAc has been proposed.

  18. Advances in Development of the Fission Product Extraction Process for the Separation of Cesium and Strontium from Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    JAck D. Law

    2007-09-01

    The Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) Process is being developed as part of the United States Department of Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative for the simultaneous separation of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel. Separation of the Cs and Sr will reduce the short-term heat load in a geological repository, and when combined with the separation of americium (Am) and curium (Cm), could increase the capacity of the geological repository by a factor of approximately 100. The FPEX process is based on two highly specific extractants: 4,4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6). The DtBuCH18C6 extractant is selective for strontium and the BOBCalixC6 extractant is selective for cesium. Results of flowsheet testing of the FPEX process with a simulated feed solution in 3.3-cm centrifugal contactors are detailed. Removal efficiencies, distribution coefficient data, coextraction of metals, and process hydrodynamic performance are discussed along with recommendations for future flowsheet testing with actual spent nuclear fuel.

  19. Recovery and stability of oleuropein and other phenolic compounds during extraction and processing of olive leaves (Olea europaeaL.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenols in olive leaves, especially oleuropein, are of great interest to researchers, household consumers and commercial entities due to many health benefits of these compounds. Various processing and extraction methods were investigated to evaluate stability and recovery of oleuropein and othe...

  20. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Ampelopsis grossedentata Stems: Process Optimization and Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuefei; Ying, Le; Sun, Da; Zhang, Shikang; Zhu, Yuejin; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of bioactive compounds including flavonoids and phenolics from Ampelopsis grossedentata stems was carried out. Extraction parameters such as pressure, temperature, dynamic time and modifier, were optimized using an orthogonal array design of L9 (34), and antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) assay. The best conditions obtained for SC-CO2 extraction of flavonoids was 250 bar, 40 °C, 50 min, and with a modifier of methanol/ethanol (1:3, v/v), and that for phenolics extraction was 250 bar, 40 °C, 50 min, and with a modifier of methanol/ethanol (1:1, v/v). Meantime, flavonoids and phenolics were found to be mainly responsible for the DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts, but not for the chelating activity on ferrous ion according to Pearson correlation analysis. Furthermore, several unreported flavonoids such as apigenin, vitexin, luteolin, etc., have been detected in the extracts from A. grossedentata stems. PMID:22072923

  1. How does roasting process influence the retention of coffee aroma compounds by lyophilized coffee extract?

    PubMed

    López-Galilea, I; Andriot, I; de Peña, M P; Cid, C; Guichard, E

    2008-04-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to study the effect of lyophilized coffee extract on the retention of aroma compounds and (2) to study if aroma compounds selected are differently affected by the lyophilized coffee extracts obtained from conventional and Torrefacto coffee brews prepared by filter coffeemaker and by espresso coffee machine. Variable amounts of lyophilized coffee extracts, relative to coffee powder, containing different percentages of high molecular weight compounds, mainly melanoidins (value given in parentheses), were obtained: 20.9% (14.8) and 24.9% (23.3), respectively, for conventional and Torrefacto coffee brew prepared by filter coffeemaker and 18.1% (18.8) and 20.7% (57.5), respectively, for conventional and Torrefacto coffee brew prepared by espresso coffee machine. The retention of aroma compounds increased by increasing the lyophilized coffee extract concentration and was found to be dependent on the aroma compounds. The retention of aroma compounds was found to be slightly different depending on the brewing procedure employed, showing lyophilized coffee extracts obtained with espresso coffee machine had higher retention values that those extracted by filter coffeemaker. Retention capacity of lyophilized coffee extracts obtained from the conventional and the Torrefacto roasted coffee did not show differences except in the case of ethyl nonanoate.

  2. Low-energy process to extract anhydrous ethanol from fermentation beers. Alcohol-Fuels Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, L.D.; Allen, M.B.; Cekala, C.

    1982-11-01

    The feasibility of an energy efficient technique was demonstrated utilizing patented POROPLASTIC ultramicroporous membranes for the separation of ethanol from fermentation beers. Initial research focused on the selection of the best solvent for extracting ethanol from aqueous ethanol feed streams. The most promising solvents were selected on the basis of physical properties, distribution coefficients, water rejection capabilities and cost. Several of the best strip solvents were then employed in actual membrane extractions. A single-membrane extraction module was constructed, in which a strip solvent stream and an aqueous ethanol stream encountered a Poroplastic membrane. The membrane established the interface where ethanol transfer occurred. Membrane extraction systems with good ethanol extraction characteristics were successfully designed. A 33% ethanol solution was reduced to 26% in a long-term extraction experiment with a net transport rate of 476 ..mu..g/cm/sup 2//min. Even though the rates of ethanol recovery appeared very promising the rates of water transfer were also significant. The co-extraction of water and ethanol prevented the production of an anhydrous ethanol product stream.

  3. Identification, quantification, and sensory characterization of steviol glycosides from differently processed Stevia rebaudiana commercial extracts.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, María Inés; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Sanders, Mark; Castro, Cristian; Stieger, Markus; Agosin, Eduardo

    2014-12-10

    Stevia rebaudiana is known for its sweet-tasting ent-kaurene diterpenoid glycosides. Several manufacturing strategies are currently employed to obtain Stevia sweeteners with the lowest possible off-flavors. The chemical composition of four commercial S. rebaudiana extracts, obtained by different technologies, was characterized using UHPLC-ESI-MS(n). The composition of one of the ethanol-crystallized extracts (EC2) was entirely rebaudioside A, whereas the enzymatically modified (EM) extract contained the lowest concentration of this compound (2.7 mg/100 mg). The membrane-purified (MP) extract had the highest content of minor natural steviol glycosides (23.7 mg/100 mg total extract) versus an average of 2.4 mg/100 mg total extract for the EC samples. Thirteen trained panelists evaluated sweetness, bitterness, licorice, and metallic attributes of all four extracts. The highest licorice intensity (p ≤ 0.05) was found for MP. Both samples EC1 and EC2, despite their different chemical compositions, showed no significant differences in sensory perception.

  4. Influence of process variables on extraction of Cefalexin in a novel biocompatible ionic liquid based-aqueous two phase system.

    PubMed

    Abdolrahimi, Shiva; Nasernejad, Bahram; Pazuki, Gholamreza

    2015-01-07

    Despite the fact that ionic liquid-based aqueous two phase systems (ATPSs) have been widely studied for extraction purposes, the adequacy of biodegradable organic salts as salting out agents has been left unexploited. In this study, we investigated the ability of sodium-based organic salts in the formation of ATPS in the presence of a common ionic liquid, [C4mim]BF4. In the pioneering aspect of this work, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on three-variable central composite design (CCD) was employed for determination of the effect of pH and the initial concentration of phase components on the partition coefficient of Cefalexin. Consequently, regression model equations and contour plots were applied to evaluate the effect of system's parameters on biomolecule's extraction. The tie-line (TL) data were determined for each experimental run and their reliability was confirmed by Othmer-Tobias and Bancroft correlations. In order to investigate the salting-out ability the effective excluded volume (EEV) was determined from the binodal data. Furthermore, FTIR spectra confirmed no chemical interactions between Cefalexin and [C4mim]BF4 in the extraction process. The microscopic structure of the top phase was analyzed by DLS, conductivity and TEM in order to investigate the mechanism of extraction. Hydrophobic interaction, the salting-out effect and the aggregation phenomena played the dominant role in the study of the extraction process.

  5. Process for producing fuel grade alcohol by solvent extraction and carrier gas stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Tedder, D.W.

    1985-04-09

    Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol; extracting said aqueous fermentation liquor with an organic solvent containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate; contacting said alcohol-organic solvent phase with a carrier gas thereby separating said alcohol from said alcohol-organic solvent phase and forming an alcohol laden solvent vapor; and separating alcohol substantially free of water from said carrier gas.

  6. Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation

    DOEpatents

    Tedder, Daniel W.

    1985-05-14

    Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

  7. Liquid CO2 extraction of Jasminum grandiflorum and comparison with conventional processes.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Sahoo, Deeptanjali; Rout, Prasant Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The concrete (0.35%) of Jasminum grandiflorum L. flowers was prepared by extraction in n-pentane, and the absolute (0.27%) by fractionation of the n-pentane extract (concrete) with cold methanol. Direct extraction of flowers with liquid CO2 gave a relatively fat-free product in 0.26% yield. The liquid CO2 extract was enriched with terpenoids and benzenoids, thus providing the organoleptically accepted product. The major compounds, such as benzyl acetate, (E,E)-alpha-farnesene and (Z)-3-hexenyl benzoate, along with compounds like indole, methyl anthranilate, (Z)-jasmone, (Z)-methyl jasmonoate and (Z)-methyl epi-jasmonoate, are responsible for the high diffusivity of the jasmine fragrance. These compounds have been obtained with improved recoveries in the liquid CO2 extract. On the other hand, the yield of the essential oil was poor (0.05%), and some polar compounds (oxygenated terpenoids) were recovered in less amounts in comparison with either the n-pentane or liquid CO2 extract.

  8. Processing of mono-, di- and tricistronic transfer RNAs precursors in a spinach or pea chloroplast soluble extract.

    PubMed

    Marion-Poll, A; Hibbert, C S; Radebaugh, C A; Hallick, R B

    1988-01-01

    Monomeric, dimeric and trimeric chloroplast tRNA precursors from Euglena gracilis were synthesized by Sp6, T7 or T3 RNA polymerases using an in vitro transcription system. The length of the 3' and 5' ends of these precursors was varied to facilitate the identification of processing intermediates, and to study the effect of the structure of the tRNA precursors on the processing reactions. All the tRNA precursors studied, independent of their structure, are processed to mature tRNAs in both spinach and pea chloroplast soluble extracts. 5'-and 3' endonucleases are involved in the cleavage of 5' and 3' ends of the pre-tRNAs. These two reactions are not ordered in vitro. Other enzymatic activities can be detected in the chloroplast soluble extract including exonucleases, and CCA-adding enzyme.

  9. A novel liquid/liquid extraction process composed of surfactant and acetonitrile for purification of polygalacturonase enzyme from Durio zibethinus.

    PubMed

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Yazid; Azmira, Farhana; Hussin, Muhaini; Sarker, Zaidul Islam

    2015-07-01

    Polygalacturonase is one of the important enzymes used in various industries such as food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, pulp and paper. A novel liquid/liquid extraction process composed of surfactant and acetonitrile was employed for the first time to purify polygalacturonase from Durio zibethinus. The influences of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, concentrations of acetonitrile and composition of surfactant/acetonitrile on partitioning behavior and recovery of polygalacturonase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of pH of system and crude load on purification fold and yield of purified polygalacturonase were studied. The results of the experiment indicated the polygalacturonase was partitioned into surfactant top rich phase with impurities being partitioned into acetonitrile bottom rich phase in the novel method of liquid/liquid process composed of 23% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 19% (w/w) acetonitrile, at 55.6% of TLL (tie line length) crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 6.0. Recovery and recycling of components also was measured in each successive step of liquid/liquid extraction process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the method with a high purification factor of 14.3 and yield of 97.3% while phase components were also recovered and recycled above 95%. This study demonstrated that the novel method of liquid/liquid extraction process can be used as an efficient and economical extraction method rather than the traditional methods of extraction for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme.

  10. In vitro studies on the relationship between the anti-inflammatory activity of Physalis peruviana extracts and the phagocytic process.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Willington; Ospina, Luis Fernando; Granados, Diana; Delgado, Gabriela

    2010-03-01

    The study of plants used in traditional medicine has drawn the attention of researchers as an alternative in the development of new therapeutics agents, such as the American Solanaceae Physalis peruviana, which has significant anti-inflammatory activity. The Physalis peruviana anti-inflammatory effect of ethanol or ether calyces extracts on the phagocytic process was assessed by using an in vitro phagocytosis model (Leishmania panamensis infection to murine macrophages). The Physalis peruviana extracts do not inhibit microorganism internalization and have no parasiticide effect. Most ET and EP extracts negatively affected the parasite's invasion of macrophages (Infected cells increased.). This observation might result from a down-regulation of the macrophage's microbicide ability associated with a selective reduction of proinflammatory cytokines levels. Physalis peruviana's anti-inflammatory activity described in this model is related to an immunomodulatory effect exerted on macrophages infected, which directly or indirectly "blocks" their ability to secrete soluble proinflammatory mediators.

  11. Engineering liposomes of leaf extract of seabuckthorn (SBT) by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2)-mediated process.

    PubMed

    Ghatnur, Shashidhar M; Sonale, R Swapna; Balaraman, Manohar; Kadimi, Udaya Sankar

    2012-09-01

    Seabuckthorn (SBT; Hipphophae rhamnoides) leaf extract obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO(2)) using ethanol as an entrainer, containing mainly flavanoids as bioactive principles with antioxidant and antibacterial properties, was used for the preparation of liposomes. Liposomes are promising drug carriers with sustained release because they can enhance the membrane penetration of drugs, deliver the entrapped drugs across cell membranes, and improve extract stability and bioavailability. The aim of the present study was to compare the two different methods of liposome production: the Bangham thin-film method and SCCO(2) gas antisolvent method (SCCO(2) GAS) for the incorporation of SBT leaf extract in terms of particle size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, antioxidant activity, and thermal stability. Liposomes obtained with the thin-film method were multilamellar vesicles with average particle size (3,740 nm), encapsulation efficiency (14.60%), and particle-size range (1.57-6.0 µm), respectively. On the other hand, liposomes by the SCCO(2) GAS method were nanosized (930 nm) with an improved encapsulation efficiency (28.42%) and narrow range of size distribution (0.48-1.07 µm), respectively. Further, the antioxidant activity of leaf extract of SBT was determined by the 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method and expressed as Trolox equivalents as well as of the intercalated extract in liposomes. The oxidative stability of SBT encapsulated in liposomes was again estimated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thermal-oxidative decomposition of the samples (i.e., pure liposomes and encapsulated extracts) and the modification of the main transition temperature for the lipid mixture and the splitting of the calorimetric peak in the presence of the antioxidants were also studied by DSC. After encapsulation in liposomes, antioxidant activity proved to be higher than those of the same extracts in pure form.

  12. THE LIBERATION OF ARSENOSUGARS FROM MATRIX COMPONENTS IN DIFFICULT TO EXTRACT SEAFOOD SAMPLES UTILIZING TMAOH/ACETIC ACID SEQUENTIALLY IN A TWO-STAGE EXTRACTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sample extraction is one of the most important steps in arsenic speciation analysis of solid dietary samples. One of the problem areas in this analysis is the partial extraction of arsenicals from seafood samples. The partial extraction allows the toxicity of the extracted arse...

  13. Process development for recovery of vanadium and nickel from an industrial solid waste by a leaching-solvent extraction technique.

    PubMed

    Barik, S P; Park, K H; Nam, C W

    2014-12-15

    A process for recovering V(V) and Ni(II) from an industrial solid waste using sulfuric acid leaching, solvent extraction, precipitation and crystallization has been developed. The leaching parameters investigated were time, temperature and H2SO4 concentration. To quantify the linear and interaction coefficients a 2(3) full factorial experimental design was used. Regression equations for the extraction of V(V) and Ni(II) were determined and the adequacy of these equations was tested by Student's t-Test. More than 98% of both V(V) and Ni(II) were extracted in 90 min using 1.35 M H2SO4 at 40 °C. In addition, solvent extraction of V(V) with LIX 84-I in kerosene from the acidic leach liquor bearing 10.922 g/L V(V) and 18.871 g/L of Ni(II) was investigated. V(V) was extracted selectively using 40% LIX 84-I followed by stripping with NH4OH solution. McCabe-Thiele plots at O:A = 2:3 with 40% LIX 84-I and O:A = 3:1 with 15% (v/v) NH4OH showed two and three theoretical stages are needed for quantitative extraction and stripping of V(V), respectively. Ni(II) was selectively recovered from the V(V) free raffinate by adding ammonium oxalate at 60 °C. The purity of different products such as ammonium vanadate, nickel oxalate and nickel oxide obtained during the processes were analyzed and confirmed from the XRD studies.

  14. Influence of plant matrix on microwave-assisted extraction process. The case of diosgenin extracted from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.).

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Béatrice; Rudaz, Serge; Cherkaoui, Samir; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Christen, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    A focused microwave-assisted extraction method was developed for the extraction of diosgenin from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds, air-dried and fresh leaves and air-dried roots. Several experimental parameters were studied, including extraction time, microwave power applied and percentage of 2-propanol in the extraction mixture as well as their interactions, in order to optimize the extraction efficiency. The two latter parameters were found to be the most important. Response surface modelling was used to predict the extraction yield of diosgenin in selected matrices. The analysis of diosgenin in crude extracts was carried out by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

  15. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2006-07-11

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  16. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2002-01-01

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  17. Discovery of plant extracts that greatly delay yeast chronological aging and have different effects on longevity-defining cellular processes

    PubMed Central

    Samson, Eugenie; Arlia-Ciommo, Anthony; Dakik, Pamela; Cortes, Berly; Feldman, Rachel; Mohtashami, Sadaf; McAuley, Mélissa; Chancharoen, Marisa; Rukundo, Belise; Simard, Éric; Titorenko, Vladimir I.

    2016-01-01

    We discovered six plant extracts that increase yeast chronological lifespan to a significantly greater extent than any of the presently known longevity-extending chemical compounds. One of these extracts is the most potent longevity-extending pharmacological intervention yet described. We show that each of the six plant extracts is a geroprotector which delays the onset and decreases the rate of yeast chronological aging by eliciting a hormetic stress response. We also show that each of these extracts has different effects on cellular processes that define longevity in organisms across phyla. These effects include the following: 1) increased mitochondrial respiration and membrane potential; 2) augmented or reduced concentrations of reactive oxygen species; 3) decreased oxidative damage to cellular proteins, membrane lipids, and mitochondrial and nuclear genomes; 4) enhanced cell resistance to oxidative and thermal stresses; and 5) accelerated degradation of neutral lipids deposited in lipid droplets. Our findings provide new insights into mechanisms through which chemicals extracted from certain plants can slow biological aging. PMID:26918729

  18. Low phase noise microwave extraction from femtosecond laser by frequency conversion pair and IF-domain processing.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yitang; Cen, Qizhuang; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Yue; Yin, Feifei; Dai, Jian; Li, Jianqiang; Xu, Kun

    2015-12-14

    Extraction of a microwave component from a low-time-jitter femtosecond pulse train has been attractive for current generation of spectrally pure microwave. In order to avoid the transfer from the optical amplitude noise to microwave phase noise (AM-PM), we propose to down-convert the target component to intermediate frequency (IF) before the opto-electronic conversion. Due to the much lower carrier frequency, the AM-PM is greatly suppressed. The target is then recovered by up-conversion with the same microwave local oscillation (LO). As long as the time delay of the second LO matches that of the IF carrier, the phase noise of the LO shows no impact on the extraction process. The residual noise of the proposed extraction is analyzed in theory, which is also experimentally demonstrated as averagely around -155 dBc/Hz under offset frequency larger than 1 kHz when 10-GHz tone is extracted from a home-made femtosecond fiber laser. Large tunable extraction from 1 GHz to 10 GHz is also reported.

  19. Using bacterial extract along with differential gene expression in Acropora millepora larvae to decouple the processes of attachment and metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Siboni, Nachshon; Abrego, David; Seneca, Francois; Motti, Cherie A; Andreakis, Nikos; Tebben, Jan; Blackall, Linda L; Harder, Tilmann

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms of the bacterium Pseudoalteromonas induce metamorphosis of acroporid coral larvae. The bacterial metabolite tetrabromopyrrole (TBP), isolated from an extract of Pseudoalteromonas sp. associated with the crustose coralline alga (CCA) Neogoniolithon fosliei, induced coral larval metamorphosis (100%) with little or no attachment (0-2%). To better understand the molecular events and mechanisms underpinning the induction of Acropora millepora larval metamorphosis, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, migration, adhesion and biomineralisation, two novel coral gene expression assays were implemented. These involved the use of reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and employed 47 genes of interest (GOI), selected based on putative roles in the processes of settlement and metamorphosis. Substantial differences in transcriptomic responses of GOI were detected following incubation of A. millepora larvae with a threshold concentration and 10-fold elevated concentration of TBP-containing extracts of Pseudoalteromonas sp. The notable and relatively abrupt changes of the larval body structure during metamorphosis correlated, at the molecular level, with significant differences (p<0.05) in gene expression profiles of 24 GOI, 12 hours post exposure. Fourteen of those GOI also presented differences in expression (p<0.05) following exposure to the threshold concentration of bacterial TBP-containing extract. The specificity of the bacterial TBP-containing extract to induce the metamorphic stage in A. millepora larvae without attachment, using a robust, low cost, accurate, ecologically relevant and highly reproducible RT-qPCR assay, allowed partially decoupling of the transcriptomic processes of attachment and metamorphosis. The bacterial TBP-containing extract provided a unique opportunity to monitor the regulation of genes exclusively involved in the process of metamorphosis, contrasting previous gene expression studies that utilized cues

  20. Using Bacterial Extract along with Differential Gene Expression in Acropora millepora Larvae to Decouple the Processes of Attachment and Metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Siboni, Nachshon; Abrego, David; Seneca, Francois; Motti, Cherie A.; Andreakis, Nikos; Tebben, Jan; Blackall, Linda L.; Harder, Tilmann

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms of the bacterium Pseudoalteromonas induce metamorphosis of acroporid coral larvae. The bacterial metabolite tetrabromopyrrole (TBP), isolated from an extract of Pseudoalteromonas sp. associated with the crustose coralline alga (CCA) Neogoniolithon fosliei, induced coral larval metamorphosis (100%) with little or no attachment (0–2%). To better understand the molecular events and mechanisms underpinning the induction of Acropora millepora larval metamorphosis, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, migration, adhesion and biomineralisation, two novel coral gene expression assays were implemented. These involved the use of reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and employed 47 genes of interest (GOI), selected based on putative roles in the processes of settlement and metamorphosis. Substantial differences in transcriptomic responses of GOI were detected following incubation of A. millepora larvae with a threshold concentration and 10-fold elevated concentration of TBP-containing extracts of Pseudoalteromonas sp. The notable and relatively abrupt changes of the larval body structure during metamorphosis correlated, at the molecular level, with significant differences (p<0.05) in gene expression profiles of 24 GOI, 12 hours post exposure. Fourteen of those GOI also presented differences in expression (p<0.05) following exposure to the threshold concentration of bacterial TBP-containing extract. The specificity of the bacterial TBP-containing extract to induce the metamorphic stage in A. millepora larvae without attachment, using a robust, low cost, accurate, ecologically relevant and highly reproducible RT-qPCR assay, allowed partially decoupling of the transcriptomic processes of attachment and metamorphosis. The bacterial TBP-containing extract provided a unique opportunity to monitor the regulation of genes exclusively involved in the process of metamorphosis, contrasting previous gene expression studies that utilized cues

  1. Factors Controlling Redox Speciation of Plutonium and Neptunium in Extraction Separation Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Paulenova, Alena; Vandegrift, III, George F.

    2013-09-24

    The objective of the project was to examine the factors controlling redox speciation of plutonium and neptunium in UREX+ extraction in terms of redox potentials, redox mechanism, kinetics and thermodynamics. Researchers employed redox-speciation extractions schemes in parallel to the spectroscopic experiments. The resulting distribution of redox species w studied uring spectroscopic, electrochemical, and spectro-electrochemical methods. This work reulted in collection of data on redox stability and distribution of redox couples in the nitric acid/nitrate electrolyte and the development of redox buffers to stabilize the desired oxidation state of separated radionuclides. The effects of temperature and concentrations on the redox behavior of neptunium were evaluated.

  2. Solvent extraction of uranium from leach solutions obtained in processing of Polish low-grade ores.

    PubMed

    Kiegiel, Katarzyna; Abramowska, Anna; Biełuszka, Paweł; Zakrzewska-Kołtuniewicz, Grażyna; Wołkowicz, Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    Solvent extraction of uranium from acidic and alkaline post-leaching liquors that were obtained by leaching of Polish ores is reported in this paper. The stripping of uranium from organic to aqueous phase was also studied. The synergistic mixture of 2-diethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and tri-n-butylphosphate (0.2 M:0.2 M) was found as a good extracting agent for uranium. Recovery of uranium was reached even 98 %. The effect of such parameters like uranium concentration and concentration of reagents used in the experiments was evaluated in advance by using a model uranium solutions.

  3. RESULTS OF THE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING USING AN IMPROVED SOLVENT FORMULATION AND SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY SIMULATED WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-09

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent - also known as the next generation solvent (NGS) - for deployment at the Savannah River Site to remove cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is a collaborative effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). As part of the program, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed a number of Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests. These batch contact tests serve as first indicators of the cesium mass transfer solvent performance with actual or simulated waste. The test detailed in this report used simulated Tank 49H material, with the addition of extra potassium. The potassium was added at 1677 mg/L, the maximum projected (i.e., a worst case feed scenario) value for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The results of the test gave favorable results given that the potassium concentration was elevated (1677 mg/L compared to the current 513 mg/L). The cesium distribution value, DCs, for extraction was 57.1. As a comparison, a typical D{sub Cs} in an ESS test, using the baseline solvent formulation and the typical waste feed, is {approx}15. The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) uses the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process to remove cesium (Cs) from alkaline waste. This process involves the use of an organic extractant, BoBCalixC6, in an organic matrix to selectively remove cesium from the caustic waste. The organic solvent mixture flows counter-current to the caustic aqueous waste stream within centrifugal contactors. After extracting the cesium, the loaded solvent is stripped of cesium by contact with dilute nitric acid and the cesium concentrate is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), while the organic solvent is cleaned and recycled for further use. The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), under

  4. Analysis of fingerprints features of infrared spectra of various processed products of Rhizoma Coptidis and their different extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Beilei; Zhang, Guijun; Xu, Changhua; Sun, Suqin

    2015-09-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) associated with second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR) are employed to analyze various processed products and different extracts of Rhizoma Coptidis. There is a shift of the peak of 1641 cm-1 of raw Rhizoma Coptidis after processed, which drifts to lower wave number. Peaks at 1508, 1387, 1363, 1332, 1274 and 1234 cm-1 barely change in most samples, except an obvious enhancement of these peaks after processed, suggesting that processed Rhizoma Coptidis may have higher content of berberine than raw material, which is corresponding to the results of correlation coefficients analysis. There are some differences in the absorption peaks in the range of 1800-1000 cm-1 in the SD-IR spectra, which have better resolution, of different processed products. 2D-IR spectra, which elevate the resolution further, can present more differences among the products in the range of 1300-800 cm-1 and 1800-1300 cm-1. Analysis of aqueous, ethanol and petroleum ether extracts of various processed products proves that there are distinctive differences of all auto-peaks in shapes and intensities in all of them. With the advantages of high resolution, high speed and convenience, FT-IR combined with 2D-IR can quickly and precisely distinguish various processed products of Rhizoma Coptidis and can be applied to predict the tendency of transformation of the complicated chemical mixture systems under heat perturbation.

  5. PRELIMINARY COMPARATIVE STUDY OF METHODS TO EXTRACT VIRUS FROM RAW AND PROCESSED SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two simple virus extraction techniques were compared to an EPA standard method for detection of human enteric viruses in raw sewage sludge and class A biosolids. The techniques were used to detect both indigenous and seeded virus from a plant that distributes class A material pr...

  6. Value Added Processing of Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal: Aflatoxin Sequestration During Protein Extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of a bentonite clay, Astra-Ben 20A (AB20A), to sequester aflatoxin from contaminated (~110 ppb) peanut meal during protein extraction was studied. Aqueous peanut meal dispersions (10% w/w) were prepared varying pH, temperature, enzymatic hydrolysis conditions, and concentrations of AB2...

  7. The development of a "Green" aqueous enzymatic process to extract corn oil from corn germ

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 2.4 million tons of commercial corn oil were produced worldwide in 2012, compared to 2012 world production of palm oil (53.3 MT) and soybean oil (43.1 MT) according to FAS, USDA. Most commercial corn oil (~90%) is produced from corn germ that is expeller pressed and/or hexane extracte...

  8. Technological process for cell disruption, extraction and encapsulation of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Machado, Francisco R S; Trevisol, Thalles C; Boschetto, Daiane L; Burkert, Janaína F M; Ferreira, Sandra R S; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Burkert, Carlos André V

    2016-01-20

    In this work, the effectiveness of different enzymatic techniques for cell wall disruption of Haematococcus pluvialis for the extraction of carotenoids and subsequent encapsulation of extracts in the co-polymer poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) using the Solution Enhanced Dispersion by Supercritical fluids (SEDS) technique was investigated. Glucanex(®) performed best compared with Lyticase(®) and Driselase(®). The conditions for enzymatic lysis using this enzyme preparation were established as a pH of 4.5, a temperature of 55 °C, an initial activity of β-1,3-glucanase of 0.6 U mL(-1) and a reaction time of 30 min. Enzymatic lysis assisted by ultrasound without biomass freezing was shown to be a promising and simple one-step technique for cell wall disruption, reaching 83.90% extractability. In the co-precipitation experiments, the highest encapsulation efficiency (51.21%) was obtained when using a higher biomass to dichloromethane ratio (10 mg mL(-1)) at the carotenoid extraction step and a lower pressure of precipitation (80 bar). In these conditions, spherical particles in the micrometer range (0.228 μm) were obtained.

  9. Downstream processing of antibodies: single-stage versus multi-stage aqueous two-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Rosa, P A J; Azevedo, A M; Ferreira, I F; Sommerfeld, S; Bäcker, W; Aires-Barros, M R

    2009-12-11

    Single-stage and multi-stage strategies have been evaluated and compared for the purification of human antibodies using liquid-liquid extraction in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) composed of polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG 3350), dextran, and triethylene glycol diglutaric acid (TEG-COOH). The performance of single-stage extraction systems was firstly investigated by studying the effect of pH, TEG-COOH concentration and volume ratio on the partitioning of the different components of a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells supernatant. It was observed that lower pH values and high TEG-COOH concentrations favoured the selective extraction of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) to the PEG-rich phase. Higher recovery yields, purities and percentage of contaminants removal were always achieved in the presence of the ligand, TEG-COOH. The extraction of IgG could be enhanced using higher volume ratios, however with a significant decrease in both purity and percentage of contaminants removal. The best single-stage extraction conditions were achieved for an ATPS containing 1.3% (w/w) TEG-COOH with a volume ratio of 2.2, which allowed the recovery of 96% of IgG in the PEG-rich phase with a final IgG concentration of 0.21mg/mL, a protein purity of 87% and a total purity of 43%. In order to enhance simultaneously both recovery yield and purity, a four stage cross-current operation was simulated and the corresponding liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data determined. A predicted optimised scheme of a counter-current multi-stage aqueous two-phase extraction was hence described. IgG can be purified in the PEG-rich top phase with a final recovery yield of 95%, a final concentration of 1.04mg/mL and a protein purity of 93%, if a PEG/dextran ATPS containing 1.3% (w/w) TEG-COOH, 5 stages and volume ratio of 0.4 are used. Moreover, according to the LLE data of all CHO cells supernatant components, it was possible to observe that most of the cells supernatant contaminants can be removed during this

  10. Massively Parallel Signal Processing using the Graphics Processing Unit for Real-Time Brain-Computer Interface Feature Extraction.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J Adam; Williams, Justin C

    2009-01-01

    The clock speeds of modern computer processors have nearly plateaued in the past 5 years. Consequently, neural prosthetic systems that rely on processing large quantities of data in a short period of time face a bottleneck, in that it may not be possible to process all of the data recorded from an electrode array with high channel counts and bandwidth, such as electrocorticographic grids or other implantable systems. Therefore, in this study a method of using the processing capabilities of a graphics card [graphics processing unit (GPU)] was developed for real-time neural signal processing of a brain-computer interface (BCI). The NVIDIA CUDA system was used to offload processing to the GPU, which is capable of running many operations in parallel, potentially greatly increasing the speed of existing algorithms. The BCI system records many channels of data, which are processed and translated into a control signal, such as the movement of a computer cursor. This signal processing chain involves computing a matrix-matrix multiplication (i.e., a spatial filter), followed by calculating the power spectral density on every channel using an auto-regressive method, and finally classifying appropriate features for control. In this study, the first two computationally intensive steps were implemented on the GPU, and the speed was compared to both the current implementation and a central processing unit-based implementation that uses multi-threading. Significant performance gains were obtained with GPU processing: the current implementation processed 1000 channels of 250 ms in 933 ms, while the new GPU method took only 27 ms, an improvement of nearly 35 times.

  11. Prooxidative Potential of Photo-Irradiated Aqueous Extracts of Grape Pomace, a Recyclable Resource from Winemaking Process.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Mana; Nakashima, Takuji; Kamachi, Toshiaki; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that aqueous extract of grape pomace obtained from a winemaking process could exert bactericidal action upon photo-irradiation via reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. In the present study, we focused on chemical composition and prooxidative profile of the extract. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis showed that polyphenolic compounds including catechin monomers, dimers, trimers, and polyphenolic glucosides were contained. The polyphenol rich fraction used for the LC-ESI-MS analysis generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) upon photo-irradiation possibly initiated by photo-oxidation of phenolic hydroxyl group. That is, reduction of dissolved oxygen by proton-coupled electron transferred from the photo-oxidized phenolic hydroxyl group would form H2O2. The resultant H2O2 was then photolyzed to generate hydroxyl radical (•OH). The prooxidative profile of the extract in terms of •OH generation pattern upon photo-irradiation was similar to that of grape seed extract (GSE) as an authentic polyphenol product and (+)-catechin as a pure polyphenolic compound, and in all the three samples •OH generation could be retained during photo-irradiation for at least a couple of hours. The prooxidant activity of the photo-irradiated extract indicated by •OH yield was more potent than that of the photo-irradiated GSE and (+)-catechin, and this was well reflected in their bactericidal activity in which the photo-irradiated extract could kill the bacteria more efficiently than did the photo-irradiated GSE and (+)-catechin.

  12. Prooxidative Potential of Photo-Irradiated Aqueous Extracts of Grape Pomace, a Recyclable Resource from Winemaking Process

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Takuji; Kamachi, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that aqueous extract of grape pomace obtained from a winemaking process could exert bactericidal action upon photo-irradiation via reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. In the present study, we focused on chemical composition and prooxidative profile of the extract. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis showed that polyphenolic compounds including catechin monomers, dimers, trimers, and polyphenolic glucosides were contained. The polyphenol rich fraction used for the LC-ESI-MS analysis generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) upon photo-irradiation possibly initiated by photo-oxidation of phenolic hydroxyl group. That is, reduction of dissolved oxygen by proton-coupled electron transferred from the photo-oxidized phenolic hydroxyl group would form H2O2. The resultant H2O2 was then photolyzed to generate hydroxyl radical (•OH). The prooxidative profile of the extract in terms of •OH generation pattern upon photo-irradiation was similar to that of grape seed extract (GSE) as an authentic polyphenol product and (+)-catechin as a pure polyphenolic compound, and in all the three samples •OH generation could be retained during photo-irradiation for at least a couple of hours. The prooxidant activity of the photo-irradiated extract indicated by •OH yield was more potent than that of the photo-irradiated GSE and (+)-catechin, and this was well reflected in their bactericidal activity in which the photo-irradiated extract could kill the bacteria more efficiently than did the photo-irradiated GSE and (+)-catechin. PMID:27341398

  13. Expression pattern of sonic hedgehog signaling and calcitonin gene-related peptide in the socket healing process after tooth extraction.

    PubMed

    Pang, Pai; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Takada, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Kenichi; Yoshioka, Norie; Ibaragi, Soichiro; Sasaki, Akira

    2015-11-06

    Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), a neural development inducer, plays a significant role in the bone healing process. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a neuropeptide marker of sensory nerves, has been demonstrated to affect bone formation. The roles of SHH signaling and CGRP-positive sensory nerves in the alveolar bone formation process have been unknown. Here we examined the expression patterns of SHH signaling and CGRP in mouse socket by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analysis. We found that the expression level of SHH peaked at day 3 and was then decreased at 5 days after tooth extraction. CGRP, PTCH1 and GLI2 were each expressed in a similar pattern with their highest expression levels at day 5 and day 7 after tooth extraction. CGRP and GLI2 were co-expressed in some inflammatory cells and bone forming cells. In some areas, CGRP-positive neurons expressed GLI2. In conclusion, SHH may affect alveolar bone healing by interacting with CGRP-positive sensory neurons and thus regulate the socket's healing process after tooth extraction.

  14. Thermal stability study of a new guanidine suppressor for the next-generation caustic-side solvent extraction process

    DOE PAGES

    Hill, Talon G.; Ensor, Dale D.; Delmau, Lætitia Helene; ...

    2016-02-06

    Cesium stripping performance of thermally stressed solvent degrades slowly over time in batch tests of the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NGS) process. NGS is currently used at pilot scale at the Savannah River Site for the selective removal of cesium from high-level salt waste. Recently a new guanidine, N,N',N" -tris(3,7-dimethyloctyl)guanidine (TiDG), was chosen for use as the suppressor, a lipophilic organic base needed for stripping, and the present study was undertaken to address the question of its stability. The NGS process solvent was evaluated for a period of three months under a variety of temperature and storage conditions. Themore » performance of the solvent was tested at 30-day increments using a standard extraction, scrub, strip, and extraction (ES2S3E) sequence. Lastly, the results provide insight on the effects of storage and process conditions, the stripping behavior of TiDG, and the stability of the new solvent composition.« less

  15. Thermal stability study of a new guanidine suppressor for the next-generation caustic-side solvent extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Talon G.; Ensor, Dale D.; Delmau, Lætitia Helene; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2016-02-06

    Cesium stripping performance of thermally stressed solvent degrades slowly over time in batch tests of the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NGS) process. NGS is currently used at pilot scale at the Savannah River Site for the selective removal of cesium from high-level salt waste. Recently a new guanidine, N,N',N" -tris(3,7-dimethyloctyl)guanidine (TiDG), was chosen for use as the suppressor, a lipophilic organic base needed for stripping, and the present study was undertaken to address the question of its stability. The NGS process solvent was evaluated for a period of three months under a variety of temperature and storage conditions. The performance of the solvent was tested at 30-day increments using a standard extraction, scrub, strip, and extraction (ES2S3E) sequence. Lastly, the results provide insight on the effects of storage and process conditions, the stripping behavior of TiDG, and the stability of the new solvent composition.

  16. [Effect of air humidity on traditional Chinese medicine extract of spray drying process and prediction of its powder stability].

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Xie, Yin; Zheng, Long-jin; Liu, Wei; Rao, Xiao-yong; Luo, Xiao-jian

    2015-02-01

    In order to solve the adhesion and the softening problems of traditional Chinese medicine extract during spray drying, a new method of adding dehumidified air into spray drying process was proposed, and the storage stability conditions of extract powder could be predicted. Kouyanqing extract was taken as model drug to investigate on the wet air (RH = 70%) and dry air conditions of spray drying. Under the dry air condition, the influence of the spray drying result with different air compression ratio and the spray-dried powder properties (extract powder recovery rate, adhesion percentage, water content, angle of repose, compression ratio, particle size and distribution) with 100, 110, 120, 130, 140 °C inlet temperature were studied. The hygroscopic investigation and Tg value with different moisture content of ideal powder were determined. The water activity-equilibrium moisture content (aw-EMC) and the equilibrium moisture content-Tg (EMC-Tg) relationships were fitted by GAB equation and Gordon-Taylor model respectively, and the state diagram of kouyanqing powder was obtained to guide the rational storage conditions. The study found that in the condition of dry air, the extract powder water content decreased with the increase of air compression ratio and the spray drying effect with air compression ratio of 100% was the best performance; in the condition of wet air, the extract powder with high water content and low yield, and the value were 4.26% and 16.73 °C, while, in the dry air condition the values were 2.43% and 24.86 °C with the same other instru- ment parameters. From the analysis of kouyanqing powder state diagram, in order to keep the stability, the critical water content of 3.42% and the critical water content of 0.188. As the water decreased Tg value of extract powder is the major problem of causing adhesion and softening during spray drying, it is meaningful to aid dehumidified air during the process.

  17. Simultaneous application of chemical oxidation and extraction processes is effective at remediating soil Co-contaminated with petroleum and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jong-Chan; Lee, Chadol; Lee, Jeung-Sun; Baek, Kitae

    2017-01-15

    Chemical extraction and oxidation processes to clean up heavy metals and hydrocarbon from soil have a higher remediation efficiency and take less time than other remediation processes. In batch extraction/oxidation process, 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) could remove approximately 70% of the petroleum and 60% of the Cu and Pb in the soil, respectively. In particular, petroleum was effectively oxidized by H2O2 without addition of any catalysts through dissolution of Fe oxides in natural soils. Furthermore, heavy metals bound to Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides could be extracted by metal-EDTA as well as Fe-EDTA complexation due to the high affinity of EDTA for metals. However, the strong binding of Fe-EDTA inhibited the oxidation of petroleum in the extraction-oxidation sequential process because Fe was removed during the extraction process with EDTA. The oxidation-extraction sequential process did not significantly enhance the extraction of heavy metals from soil, because a small portion of heavy metals remained bound to organic matter. Overall, simultaneous application of oxidation and extraction processes resulted in highly efficient removal of both contaminants; this approach can be used to remove co-contaminants from soil in a short amount of time at a reasonable cost.

  18. Engineering natural language processing solutions for structured information from clinical text: extracting sentinel events from palliative care consult letters.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Neil; Weber-Jahnke, Jens H; Thai, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Despite a trend to formalize and codify medical information, natural language communications still play a prominent role in health care workflows, in particular when it comes to hand-overs between providers. Natural language processing (NLP) attempts to bridge the gap between informal, natural language information and coded, machine-interpretable data. This paper reports on a study that applies an advanced NLP method for the extraction of sentinel events in palliative care consult letters. Sentinel events are of interest to predict survival and trajectory for patients with acute palliative conditions. Our NLP method combines several novel characteristics, e.g., the consideration of topological knowledge structures sourced from an ontological terminology system (SNOMED CT). The method has been applied to the extraction of different types of sentinel events, including simple facts, temporal conditions, quantities, and degrees. A random selection of 215 anonymized consult letters was used for the study. The results of the NLP extraction were evaluated by comparison with coded sentinel event data captured independently by clinicians. The average accuracy of the automated extraction was 73.6%.

  19. Modular continuous wavelet processing of biosignals: extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video signal

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A novel method of extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video-based biosignal is described. The method comprises a novel modular continuous wavelet transform approach which includes: performing the transform, undertaking running wavelet archetyping to enhance the pulse information, extraction of the pulse ridge time–frequency information [and thus a heart rate (HRvid) signal], creation of a wavelet ratio surface, projection of the pulse ridge onto the ratio surface to determine the ratio of ratios from which a saturation trending signal is derived, and calibrating this signal to provide an absolute saturation signal (SvidO2). The method is illustrated through its application to a video photoplethysmogram acquired during a porcine model of acute desaturation. The modular continuous wavelet transform-based approach is advocated by the author as a powerful methodology to deal with noisy, non-stationary biosignals in general. PMID:27382479

  20. Modular continuous wavelet processing of biosignals: extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video signal.

    PubMed

    Addison, Paul S

    2016-06-01

    A novel method of extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video-based biosignal is described. The method comprises a novel modular continuous wavelet transform approach which includes: performing the transform, undertaking running wavelet archetyping to enhance the pulse information, extraction of the pulse ridge time-frequency information [and thus a heart rate (HRvid) signal], creation of a wavelet ratio surface, projection of the pulse ridge onto the ratio surface to determine the ratio of ratios from which a saturation trending signal is derived, and calibrating this signal to provide an absolute saturation signal (SvidO2). The method is illustrated through its application to a video photoplethysmogram acquired during a porcine model of acute desaturation. The modular continuous wavelet transform-based approach is advocated by the author as a powerful methodology to deal with noisy, non-stationary biosignals in general.

  1. Comparative assessment of genomic DNA extraction processes for Plasmodium: Identifying the appropriate method.

    PubMed

    Mann, Riti; Sharma, Supriya; Mishra, Neelima; Valecha, Neena; Anvikar, Anupkumar R

    2015-12-01

    Plasmodium DNA, in addition to being used for molecular diagnosis of malaria, find utility in monitoring patient responses to antimalarial drugs, drug resistance studies, genotyping and sequencing purposes. Over the years, numerous protocols have been proposed for extracting Plasmodium DNA from a variety of sources. Given that DNA isolation is fundamental to successful molecular studies, here we review the most commonly used methods for Plasmodium genomic DNA isolation, emphasizing their pros and cons. A comparison of these existing methods has been made, to evaluate their appropriateness for use in different applications and identify the method suitable for a particular laboratory based study. Selection of a suitable and accessible DNA extraction method for Plasmodium requires consideration of many factors, the most important being sensitivity, cost-effectiveness and, purity and stability of isolated DNA. Need of the hour is to accentuate on the development of a method that upholds well on all these parameters.

  2. FACILITY UPGRADES FOR RECEIPT FROM ACTINIDE REMOVAL AND MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, T; Stephen Phillips, S; Benjamin Culbertson, B; Beverly02 Davis, B; Aaron Staub, A

    2007-02-13

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently on an aggressive program to empty its High Level Waste (HLW) tanks and immobilize its radioactive waste into a durable borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). As a part of that program, two new processes will be brought on-line to assist in emptying the HLW tanks. These processes are in addition to the current sludge removal process and are called the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (MCU) Process. In order to accept and process the streams generated from these two new processes, several facility modifications are required and are broken down into several projects. These projects are handling the facility modifications required for the Tank Farm (241-96H), and DWPF vitrification facility (221-S), and DWPF ancillary facilities (511-S, and 512-S). Additional modifications to the 221-S building were required to address the flammability concern from the solvent carryover from the MCU process. This paper will describe a summary of the modifications impacting the 511-S, 512-S, and the 221-S facilities in order to receive the new streams from the ARP and MCU processes at the DWPF.

  3. Automated sample preparation by pressurized liquid extraction-solid-phase extraction for the liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric investigation of polyphenols in the brewing process.

    PubMed

    Papagiannopoulos, Menelaos; Mellenthin, Annett

    2002-11-08

    The analysis of polyphenols from solid plant or food samples usually requires laborious sample preparation. The liquid extraction of these compounds from the sample is compromised by apolar matrix interferences, an excess of which has to be eliminated prior to subsequent purification and separation. Applying pressurized liquid extraction to the extraction of polyphenols from hops, the use of different solvents sequentially can partly overcome these problems. Initial extraction with pentane eliminates hydrophobic compounds like hop resins and oils and enables the straightforward automated on-line solid-phase extraction as part of an optimized LC-MS analysis.

  4. Process development for the direct solvent extraction of nickel and cobalt from nitrate solution: aluminum, cobalt, and nickel separation using Cyanex 272

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichlas, Zela T.; Ibana, Don C.

    2017-01-01

    A direct solvent extraction (DSX) process for purifying nickel and cobalt from the nitric acid leach solution of nickel laterite ores was conceived and experimentally probed. The proposed process consists of two solvent extraction (SX) steps but with only one extractant — bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid (Cyanex® 272) — used in both steps. The first extraction step involved the removal of aluminum and zinc, whereas the second extraction step involved the separation of cobalt along with manganese from nickel. The experimental results showed essentially quantitative removal of aluminum (>97%) and zinc (>99%) in a single extraction stage using 20vol% Cyanex 272 at pH 2.1. Some cobalt (32%) and manganese (55%) were co-extracted but were easily scrubbed out completely from the loaded organic phase using dilute sulfuric acid at pH ≤ 1.38. Cobalt and manganese in the first extraction raffinate were extracted completely in four extraction stages at staggered pH values of 4.0, 4.4, 4.5, and 4.0 in the first, second, third, and fourth stages, respectively, using also 20vol% Cyanex 272. A small amount of nickel (up to 6.6%) was co-extracted but was easily scrubbed out completely with dilute sulfuric acid at pH 2.0. A flow diagram showing the input and output conditions and the metals separated under the deduced optimum conditions is presented.

  5. [Research on quality parameters of scutellariae radix (formula particles) using on-line NIR in pilot with different extraction process].

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Pan, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Qiao; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-10-01

    The on-line monitor for the changes in the content of baicalin in Scutellariae Radix formula particles during the extraction process was conducted by using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference method. Kennard-Stone (KS) was used to divide sample sets, so as to compare different pretreatment methods. The synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS) was used to screen out modeling wave band to establish partial least-squares models. The relative error method was applied to predict forecast set samples of Scutellariae Radix in three extraction phases. The results showed that the model established by Savitzky-Golay smoothing with 11 points (SG11 points) was the best, with the root mean square with cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of correction (RMSEC) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of baicalin of 0.092 7, 0.134 4 and 0.114 8, respectively, the determination coefficient R2 of greater than 0.99, and the relative error of baicalin content of less than 5%. This indicates that the on-line near infrared reflectance spectroscopy could be applied in on-line monitor and quality control of the extraction process of Scutellariae Radix formula particles.

  6. Multivariate detection limits of on-line NIR model for extraction process of chlorogenic acid from Lonicera japonica.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhisheng; Sui, Chenglin; Xu, Bing; Ai, Lu; Ma, Qun; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2013-04-15

    A methodology is proposed to estimate the multivariate detection limits (MDL) of on-line near-infrared (NIR) model in Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHM) system. In this paper, Lonicera japonica was used as an example, and its extraction process was monitored by on-line NIR spectroscopy. Spectra of on-line NIR could be collected by two fiber optic probes designed to transmit NIR radiation by a 2mm-flange. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference method to determine the content of chlorogenic acid in the extract solution. Multivariate calibration models were carried out including partial least squares regression (PLS) and interval partial least-squares (iPLS). The result showed improvement of model performance: compared with PLS model, the root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of iPLS model decreased from 0.111mg to 0.068mg, and the R(2) parameter increased from 0.9434 to 0.9801. Furthermore, MDL values were determined by a multivariate method using the type of errors and concentration ranges. The MDL of iPLS model was about 14ppm, which confirmed that on-line NIR spectroscopy had the ability to detect trace amounts of chlorogenic acid in L. japonica. As a result, the application of on-line NIR spectroscopy for monitoring extraction process in CHM could be very encouraging and reliable.

  7. Processing of rayon waste effluent for the recovery of zinc and separation of calcium using thiophosphinic extractant.

    PubMed

    Jha, M K; Kumar, V; Bagchi, D; Singh, R J; Lee, Jae-chun

    2007-06-25

    Zinc is used in various metallurgical, chemical and textile industries. In textile industries, waste effluent containing zinc is generated during the manufacture of rayon yarn. Due to the strict environmental regulations and the presence of toxic metallic and other constituents, the discharge of effluents in sewage is restricted. In view of above a process has been developed for the recovery of zinc from rayon waste effluent following solvent extraction technique using thiophosphinic extractants Cyanex 272 and 302. Before recycling of zinc sulphate solution in spinning bath, solution must be free from calcium, which is deleterious to the process as gypsum precipitates and forms scale. The extractant Cyanex 302 has been found selective for the recovery of 99.99% of zinc in the form of [R(2)Zn](org) from the effluent above equilibrium pH 3.4 maintaining the O/A ratio of 1/30 leaving all the calcium in the raffinate. The zinc from the loaded Cyanex 302 can be stripped with 10% sulphuric acid at even O/A ratio of 10. The stripped solution thus obtained could be recycled in the spinning bath of the rayon plant and raffinate could be disposed safely without affecting environment.

  8. Simultaneous determination of 15 phenolic compounds and caffeine in teas and mate using RP-HPLC/UV detection: method development and optimization of extraction process.

    PubMed

    Bae, In Kyung; Ham, Hyeon Mi; Jeong, Min Hee; Kim, Dong Ho; Kim, Ho Jin

    2015-04-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic coupled to ultraviolet detection (RP-HPLC/UV) method was developed for simultaneous determination of 15 phenolic compounds and caffeine in TEAS (green tea, oolong tea, black tea and mate). Furthermore, the extraction process of total phenolic contents (TPC) from TEAS were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design (CCD) and then applied to extraction of TEAS. The best conditions obtained using the model were as follow: green tea--extraction time of 123 min, extraction temperature of 70 °C and ethanol concentration of 75%, oolong tea--extraction time of 98 min, extraction temperature of 70 °C and ethanol concentration of 69%, black tea--extraction time of 105 min, extraction temperature of 71 °C and ethanol concentration of 63%, and mate--extraction time of 103 min, extraction temperature of 71 °C and ethanol concentration of 61%. Among the extraction methods used in this study, heat-reflux extraction was found to result in the highest values of TPC. The chromatographic peaks of the 16 studied compounds were successfully identified by comparing their retention time and UV spectra with the reference standards. Method validation was performed by means of linearity, sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy and precision. The developed method was found to be simple, specific and reliable and is suited for routine analysis of phenolic compounds and caffeine in TEAS.

  9. Room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong H.; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Williams, Spencer T.; Jen, Alex K.-Y.

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we describe a room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer (EEL) for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PHJ PVSCs). This EEL is composed of a bilayered fulleropyrrolidinium iodide (FPI)-polyethyleneimine (PEIE) and PC61BM, which yields a promising power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.7% with insignificant hysteresis. We reveal that PC61BM can serve as a surface modifier of FPI-PEIE to simultaneously facilitate the crystallization of perovskite and the charge extraction at FPI-PEIE/CH3NH3PbI3 interface. Furthermore, the FPI-PEIE can also tune the work function of ITO and dope PC61BM to promote the efficient electron transport between ITO and PC61BM. Based on the advantages of room-temperature processability and decent electrical property of FPI-PEIE/PC61BM EEL, a high-performance flexible PVSC with a PCE ~10% is eventually demonstrated. This study shows the potential of low-temperature processed organic EEL to replace transition metal oxide-based interlayers for highly printing compatible PVSCs with high-performance.In this work, we describe a room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer (EEL) for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PHJ PVSCs). This EEL is composed of a bilayered fulleropyrrolidinium iodide (FPI)-polyethyleneimine (PEIE) and PC61BM, which yields a promising power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.7% with insignificant hysteresis. We reveal that PC61BM can serve as a surface modifier of FPI-PEIE to simultaneously facilitate the crystallization of perovskite and the charge extraction at FPI-PEIE/CH3NH3PbI3 interface. Furthermore, the FPI-PEIE can also tune the work function of ITO and dope PC61BM to promote the efficient electron transport between ITO and PC61BM. Based on the advantages of room-temperature processability and decent electrical property of FPI-PEIE/PC61BM EEL, a high-performance flexible PVSC with a PCE ~10% is

  10. Single sample extraction and HPLC processing for quantification of NAD and NADH levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Sporty, J; Kabir, M M; Turteltaub, K; Ognibene, T; Lin, S; Bench, G

    2008-01-10

    A robust redox extraction protocol for quantitative and reproducible metabolite isolation and recovery has been developed for simultaneous measurement of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its reduced form, NADH, from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Following culture in liquid media, approximately 10{sup 8} yeast cells were harvested by centrifugation and then lysed under non-oxidizing conditions by bead blasting in ice-cold, nitrogen-saturated 50-mM ammonium acetate. To enable protein denaturation, ice cold nitrogen-saturated CH{sub 3}CN + 50-mM ammonium acetate (3:1; v:v) was added to the cell lysates. After sample centrifugation to pellet precipitated proteins, organic solvent removal was performed on supernatants by chloroform extraction. The remaining aqueous phase was dried and resuspended in 50-mM ammonium acetate. NAD and NADH were separated by HPLC and quantified using UV-VIS absorbance detection. Applicability of this procedure for quantifying NAD and NADH levels was evaluated by culturing yeast under normal (2% glucose) and calorie restricted (0.5% glucose) conditions. NAD and NADH contents are similar to previously reported levels in yeast obtained using enzymatic assays performed separately on acid (for NAD) and alkali (for NADH) extracts. Results demonstrate that it is possible to perform a single preparation to reliably and robustly quantitate both NAD and NADH contents in the same sample. Robustness of the protocol suggests it will be (1) applicable to quantification of these metabolites in mammalian and bacterial cell cultures; and (2) amenable to isotope labeling strategies to determine the relative contribution of specific metabolic pathways to total NAD and NADH levels in cell cultures.

  11. Steam distillation extraction of ginger essential oil: Study of the effect of steam flow rate and time process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitriady, Muhammad Arifuddin; Sulaswatty, Anny; Agustian, Egi; Salahuddin, Aditama, Deska Prayoga Fauzi

    2017-01-01

    In Indonesia ginger was usually used as a seasoning for dishes, an ingredient for beverage and a source of herbal medicines. Beside raw usage, ginger can be processed to obtain the essential oil which has many advantages such as proven to be an active antimicrobial and having an antioxidant ability. There are a lot of methods to extract essential oil from ginger, one of which is steam distillation. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of variation of time process and steam flow rate in the yield on ginger essential oil steam distillation extraction process. It was found that the best operation condition was 0.35 ml/s as the steam flow rate which yields 2.43% oil. The optimum time process was predicted at 7.5 hours. The composition of the oil was varied depend on the flow rate and every flow rate has its own major component contained in the oil. Curcumene composition in the oil was increased as increased steam flow rate applied, but the composition of camphene was decreased along with the increasing steam flow rate.

  12. Recent Advances in the Development and Application of Power Plate Transducers in Dense Gas Extraction and Aerosol Agglomeration Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riera, E.; Cardoni, A.; Gallego-Juárez, J. A.; Acosta, V. M.; Blanco, A.; Rodríguez, G.; Blasco, M.; Herranz, L. E.

    Power ultrasound (PU) is an emerging, innovative, energy saving and environmental friendly technology that is generating a great interest in sectors such as food and pharmaceutical industries, green chemistry, environmental pollution, and other processes, where sustainable and energy efficient methods are required to improve and/or produce specific effects. Two typical effects of PU are the enhancement of mass transfer in gases and liquids, and the induction of particle agglomeration in aerosols. These effects are activated by a variety of mechanisms associated to the nonlinear propagation of high amplitude ultrasonic waves such as diffusion, agitation, entrainment, turbulence, etc. During the last years a great effort has been jointly made by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) and the company Pusonics towards introducing novel processes into the market based on airborne ultrasonic plate transducers. This technology was specifically developed for the treatment of gas and multiphasic media characterized by low specific acoustic impedance and high acoustic absorption. Different strategies have been developed to mitigate the effects of the nonlinear dynamic behavior of such ultrasonic piezoelectric transducers in order to enhance and stabilize their response at operational power conditions. This work deals with the latter advances in the mitigation of nonlinear problems found in power transducers; besides it describes two applications assisted by ultrasound developed at semi-industrial and laboratory scales and consisting in extraction via dense gases and particle agglomeration. Dense Gas Extraction (DGE) assisted by PU is a new process with a potential to enhance the extraction kinetics with supercritical CO2. Acoustic agglomeration of fine aerosol particles has a great potential for the treatment of air pollution problems generated by particulate materials. Experimental and numerical results in both processes will be shown and discussed.

  13. Aqueous enzymatic process assisted by microwave extraction of oil from yellow horn (Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge.) seed kernels and its quality evaluation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Luo, Meng; Gu, Cheng-Bo; Zhao, Chun-Jian; Efferth, Thomas; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2013-06-15

    In this study, aqueous enzymatic process (AEP) assisted by microwave extraction (ME) of oil from yellow horn (Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge.) seed kernel was investigated. Central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to optimise an enzyme cocktail (cellulase, hemicellulase, pectinase) for AEP. The main factors of ME were also studied. A maximal oil extraction yield of 55.8% was achieved under optimal conditions. Moreover, scanning electron microscope (SEM) was applied to characterise the extraction process. Analysing chemical composition of the extracted oil by GC-MS showed that the content of unsaturated fatty acids by this emerging method (91.18%) was similar to that by conventional organic solvent extraction (88.76%). In addition, the main physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of yellow horn oil were measured to evaluate its quality. The present research supported necessary data for the green extraction method of edible oil in food industry.

  14. A Solution Processed Flexible Nanocomposite Electrode with Efficient Light Extraction for Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lu; Liang, Jiajie; Chou, Shu-Yu; Zhu, Xiaodan; Niu, Xiaofan; Zhibinyu; Pei, Qibing

    2014-03-01

    Highly efficient organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on multiple layers of vapor evaporated small molecules, indium tin oxide transparent electrode, and glass substrate have been extensively investigated and are being commercialized. The light extraction from the exciton radiative decay is limited to less than 30% due to plasmonic quenching on the metallic cathode and the waveguide in the multi-layer sandwich structure. Here we report a flexible nanocomposite electrode comprising single-walled carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires stacked and embedded in the surface of a polymer substrate. Nanoparticles of barium strontium titanate are dispersed within the substrate to enhance light extraction efficiency. Green polymer OLED (PLEDs) fabricated on the nanocomposite electrode exhibit a maximum current efficiency of 118 cd/A at 10,000 cd/m2 with the calculated external quantum efficiency being 38.9%. The efficiencies of white PLEDs are 46.7 cd/A and 30.5%, respectively. The devices can be bent to 3 mm radius repeatedly without significant loss of electroluminescent performance. The nanocomposite electrode could pave the way to high-efficiency flexible OLEDs with simplified device structure and low fabrication cost.

  15. A Solution Processed Flexible Nanocomposite Electrode with Efficient Light Extraction for Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lu; Liang, Jiajie; Chou, Shu-Yu; Zhu, Xiaodan; Niu, Xiaofan; ZhibinYu; Pei, Qibing

    2014-01-01

    Highly efficient organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on multiple layers of vapor evaporated small molecules, indium tin oxide transparent electrode, and glass substrate have been extensively investigated and are being commercialized. The light extraction from the exciton radiative decay is limited to less than 30% due to plasmonic quenching on the metallic cathode and the waveguide in the multi-layer sandwich structure. Here we report a flexible nanocomposite electrode comprising single-walled carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires stacked and embedded in the surface of a polymer substrate. Nanoparticles of barium strontium titanate are dispersed within the substrate to enhance light extraction efficiency. Green polymer OLED (PLEDs) fabricated on the nanocomposite electrode exhibit a maximum current efficiency of 118 cd/A at 10,000 cd/m2 with the calculated external quantum efficiency being 38.9%. The efficiencies of white PLEDs are 46.7 cd/A and 30.5%, respectively. The devices can be bent to 3 mm radius repeatedly without significant loss of electroluminescent performance. The nanocomposite electrode could pave the way to high-efficiency flexible OLEDs with simplified device structure and low fabrication cost. PMID:24632742

  16. Influence of polysaccharides and storage during processing on the properties of mango seed kernel extract (microencapsulation).

    PubMed

    Maisuthisakul, Pitchaon; Gordon, Michael H

    2012-10-01

    Extracts from mango (Mangifera indica Linn.) cultivar Chok-Anan seed kernels were studied as active substances, since they are known as a good source of phenolic antioxidants with metal chelating and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of a combination of polysaccharides selected from gum arabic, maltodextrin and alginate on droplet size distribution, encapsulation efficiency (EE), stability and viscosity of W/O/W emulsions. In addition, the effects of stored emulsion on the properties of the encapsulated powder were studied. The results showed that there were interactions between polysaccharides which affected droplet size distribution, stability, viscosity and EE of multiple emulsions. The RSM showed a good fit to the proposed model with R(2)>0.83, 0.79 and 0.69 for viscosity, stability and EE, respectively, with significant correlations (p<0.05). The formulation which gave an optimal coating material was also a suitable coating mixture for preparation of encapsulated mango seed kernel extract powder. Moreover, if the polysaccharide combination is not appropriate for coating, the storage after emulsion preparation will have a greater effect on the properties of the encapsulated emulsion and powder.

  17. Exploring the effects of pulsed electric field processing parameters on polyacetylene extraction from carrot slices.

    PubMed

    Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Abreu, Corina; Hossain, Mohammad B; Altisent, Rosa; Brunton, Nigel; Viñas, Inmaculada; Rai, Dilip K

    2015-03-02

    The effects of various pulsed electric field (PEF) parameters on the extraction of polyacetylenes from carrot slices were investigated. Optimised conditions with regard to electric field strength (1-4 kV/cm), number of pulses (100-1500), pulse frequency (10-200 Hz) and pulse width (10-30 μs) were identified using response surface methodology (RSM) to maximise the extraction of falcarinol (FaOH), falcarindiol (FaDOH) and falcarindiol-3-acetate (FaDOAc) from carrot slices. Data obtained from RSM and experiments fitted significantly (p < 0.0001) the proposed second-order response functions with high regression coefficients (R2) ranging from 0.82 to 0.75. Maximal FaOH (188%), FaDOH (164.9%) and FaDOAc (166.8%) levels relative to untreated samples were obtained from carrot slices after applying PEF treatments at 4 kV/cm with 100 number of pulses of 10 μs at 10 Hz. The predicted values from the developed quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the actual experimental values with low average mean deviations (E%) ranging from 0.68% to 3.58%.

  18. Extraction process optimization of polyphenols from Indian Citrus sinensis – as novel antiglycative agents in the management of diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by increased blood glucose level. It has become an epidemic disease in the 21st century where, India leads the world with largest number of diabetic subjects. Non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) is severe form of diabetes, occurs between reducing sugar and proteins which results in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that leads to the other complicated secondary disorders. In this context, Mangifera indica (Mango), Syzygium cumini (Jambul), Vitis vinifera (Grapes), Citrus sinensis (Orange), Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit), Manilkara zapota (Sapodilla) seeds were evaluated for their antiglyation activity. Attempts were made to isolate the polyphenols in the seeds that have recorded the maximum activity. Methods Different extraction methods (shake flask, centrifugation and pressurized hot water) using various extractants (organic solvents, hot water and pressurized hot water) were adopted to investigate the in vitro antiglycation activity. Central composite (CCD) design based Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was espoused to optimize the extraction process of polyphenols from the fruit seeds that have recorded poor antiglycation activity. The PTLC analysis was performed to isolate the polyphenols (Flavonoids and phenolic acids) and LC-PDA-MS analysis was done for structure prediction. Results Pressurized hot water extraction of Artocarpus heterophyllus (87.52%) and Citrus sinensis seeds (74.79%) was found to possess high and low antiglycation activity, respectively. The RSM mediated optimization process adopted for the Citrus sinensis seeds have revealed that 1:15 solvent ratio (hexane to heptane), 6 minutes and 1:20 solid to liquid ratio as the optimal conditions for the extraction of polyphenols with a maximum antiglycation activity (89.79%). The LC-PDA-MS analysis of preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC) eluates of Artocarpus heterophyllus seed has

  19. Chemical and biological processes for multi-metal extraction from waste printed circuit boards of computers and mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Shah, Monal B; Tipre, Devayani R; Dave, Shailesh R

    2014-11-01

    E-waste printed circuit boards (PCB) of computers, mobile-phones, televisions, LX (LongXiang) PCB in LED lights and bulbs, and tube-lights were crushed to ≥250 µm particle size and 16 different metals were analysed. A comparative study has been carried out to evaluate the extraction of Cu-Zn-Ni from computer printed circuit boards (c-PCB) and mobile-phone printed circuit boards (m-PCB) by chemical and biological methods. Chemical process showed the extraction of Cu-Zn-Ni by ferric sulphate was best among the studied chemical lixiviants. Bioleaching experiments were carried out with the iron oxidising consortium, which showed that when E-waste and inoculum were added simultaneously in the medium (one-step process); 60.33% and 87.50% Cu, 75.67% and 85.67% Zn and 71.09% and 81.87% Ni were extracted from 10 g L(-1) of c-PCB and m-PCB, respectively, within 10-15 days of reaction time. Whereas, E-waste added after the complete oxidation of Fe(2+) to Fe(3+) iron containing medium (two-step process) showed 85.26% and 99.99% Cu, 96.75% and 99.49% Zn and 93.23% and 84.21% Ni extraction from c-PCB and m-PCB, respectively, only in 6-8 days. Influence of varying biogenerated Fe(3+) and c-PCB concentrations showed that 16.5 g L(-1) of Fe(3+) iron was optimum up to 100 g L(-1) of c-PCB. Changes in pH, acid consumed and redox potential during the process were also studied. The present study shows the ability of an eco-friendly process for the recovery of multi-metals from E-waste even at 100 g L(-1) printed circuit boards concentration.

  20. Processing technologies for extracting cobalt from domestic resources. Information Circular/1988

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    A summary of the cobalt processing technologies for the major domestic resources is presented. The processing technologies for the Blackbird, Madison Mine, Duluth Gabbro, iron ore pyrite, laterites, and manganese sea nodules are nearly complete, but the economics are not favorable. Research on these resources should be limited to approaches that promise to cut the total processing costs by at least 50 pct. The most-promising sources of cobalt are the spent-copper leach solutions and siegenite from the Missouri lead ores. Research on cobalt processing from these two sources needs to be completed.

  1. Single step aqueous two-phase extraction for downstream processing of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Chethana, S; Nayak, Chetan A; Madhusudhan, M C; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2015-04-01

    C-phycocyanin, a natural food colorant, is gaining importance worldwide due to its several medical and pharmaceutical applications. In the present study, aqueous two-phase extraction was shown to be an attractive alternative for the downstream processing of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis. By employing differential partitioning, C-phycocyanin selectively partitioned to the polymer rich (top) phase in concentrated form and contaminant proteins to the salt rich (bottom) phase. This resulted in an increase in the product purity (without losing much of the yield) in a single step without the need of multiple processing steps. Effect of process parameters such as molecular weight, tie line length, phase volume ratio, concentration of phase components on the partitioning behavior of C-phycocyanin was studied. The results were explained based on relative free volume of the phase systems. C-phycocyanin with a purity of 4.32 and yield of about 79 % was obtained at the standardized conditions.

  2. Efficient inclusion body processing using chemical extraction and high gradient magnetic fishing.

    PubMed

    Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Choe, Woo-Seok; Middelberg, Anton P J; Thomas, Owen R T

    2003-01-01

    In this study we introduce a radical new approach for the recovery of proteins expressed in the form of inclusion bodies, involving (i) chemical extraction from the host cells, (ii) adsorptive capture of the target protein onto small magnetic adsorbents, and (iii) subsequent rapid collection of the product-loaded supports with the aid of high gradient magnetic fields. The manufacture and testing of two types of micron-sized nonporous superparamagnetic metal chelator particles derivatized with iminodiacetic acid is described. In small-scale adsorption studies conducted with a hexahistidine tagged form of the L1 coat protein of human papillomavirus type 16 dissolved in 8 M urea-phosphate buffer, the best binding performance (Q(max) = 58 mg g(-1) and K(d) approximately 0.08 microM) was exhibited by Cu(2+)-charged type II support materials. Equilibrium adsorption of L1 to these nonporous supports was achieved very rapidly (<300 s), and approximately 90% of the tightly bound L1 could be desorbed in just one elution step by including >100 mM imidazole in the equilibration buffer. The influence of feedstock complexity on L1 adsorption to the Cu(2+)-charged type II magnetic chelators was studied using various dilutions of four crude chemical E. coli cell extracts containing denatured L1 protein. Undiminished L1 adsorption to these adsorbents (relative to the 8 M urea-phosphate buffer case) was observed with the least complex of these feed materials, i.e., a partially clarified (12 g dry weight L(-1)) and spermine-treated chemical cell extract (feedstock B). Efficient recovery of L1 from feed B was demonstrated at a 60-fold increased scale using the high gradient magnetic fishing (HGMF) system to collect loaded Cu(2+)-chelator particles following batch adsorption of L1. Over 70% of the initial L1 present was recovered within the HGMF rig in a highly clarified form in two batch elution cycles with an overall purification factor of approximately 10.

  3. Influence of processing procedure on the quality of Radix Scrophulariae: a quantitative evaluation of the main compounds obtained by accelerated solvent extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gang; Wu, Xin; Li, Qinglin; Cai, Hao; Cai, Baochang; Zhu, Xuemei

    2015-02-01

    An improved high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection combined with accelerated solvent extraction method was used to simultaneously determine six compounds in crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae samples. Accelerated solvent extraction parameters such as extraction solvent, temperature, number of cycles, and analysis procedure were systematically optimized. The results indicated that compared with crude Radix Scrophulariae samples, the processed samples had lower contents of harpagide and harpagoside but higher contents of catalpol, acteoside, angoroside C, and cinnamic acid. The established method was sufficiently rapid and reliable for the global quality evaluation of crude and processed herbal medicines.

  4. Room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong H; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Williams, Spencer T; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2015-11-07

    In this work, we describe a room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer (EEL) for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PHJ PVSCs). This EEL is composed of a bilayered fulleropyrrolidinium iodide (FPI)-polyethyleneimine (PEIE) and PC61BM, which yields a promising power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.7% with insignificant hysteresis. We reveal that PC61BM can serve as a surface modifier of FPI-PEIE to simultaneously facilitate the crystallization of perovskite and the charge extraction at FPI-PEIE/CH3NH3PbI3 interface. Furthermore, the FPI-PEIE can also tune the work function of ITO and dope PC61BM to promote the efficient electron transport between ITO and PC61BM. Based on the advantages of room-temperature processability and decent electrical property of FPI-PEIE/PC61BM EEL, a high-performance flexible PVSC with a PCE ∼10% is eventually demonstrated. This study shows the potential of low-temperature processed organic EEL to replace transition metal oxide-based interlayers for highly printing compatible PVSCs with high-performance.

  5. Room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jong H.; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Williams, Spencer T.; Jen, Alex K. -Y.

    2015-09-24

    Here in this work, we describe a room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer (EEL) for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PHJ PVSCs). This EEL is composed of a bilayered fulleropyrrolidinium iodide (FPI)-polyethyleneimine (PEIE) and PC61BM, which yields a promising power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.7% with insignificant hysteresis. We reveal that PC61BM can serve as a surface modifier of FPI-PEIE to simultaneously facilitate the crystallization of perovskite and the charge extraction at FPI-PEIE/CH3NH3PbI3 interface. Furthermore, the FPI-PEIE can also tune the work function of ITO and dope PC61BM to promote the efficient electron transport between ITO and PC61BM. Based on the advantages of room-temperature processability and decent electrical property of FPI-PEIE/PC61BM EEL, a high-performance flexible PVSC with a PCE ~10% is eventually demonstrated. Lastly, this study shows the potential of low-temperature processed organic EEL to replace transition metal oxide-based interlayers for highly printing compatible PVSCs with high-performance.

  6. Room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Jong H.; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Williams, Spencer T.; ...

    2015-09-24

    Here in this work, we describe a room-temperature, solution-processable organic electron extraction layer (EEL) for high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PHJ PVSCs). This EEL is composed of a bilayered fulleropyrrolidinium iodide (FPI)-polyethyleneimine (PEIE) and PC61BM, which yields a promising power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.7% with insignificant hysteresis. We reveal that PC61BM can serve as a surface modifier of FPI-PEIE to simultaneously facilitate the crystallization of perovskite and the charge extraction at FPI-PEIE/CH3NH3PbI3 interface. Furthermore, the FPI-PEIE can also tune the work function of ITO and dope PC61BM to promote the efficient electron transport between ITO and PC61BM. Basedmore » on the advantages of room-temperature processability and decent electrical property of FPI-PEIE/PC61BM EEL, a high-performance flexible PVSC with a PCE ~10% is eventually demonstrated. Lastly, this study shows the potential of low-temperature processed organic EEL to replace transition metal oxide-based interlayers for highly printing compatible PVSCs with high-performance.« less

  7. A Software Tool for Processing the Displacement Time Series Extracted from Raw Radar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, Francesco; Gentile, Carmelo; Paolo Ricci, Pier

    2010-05-01

    The application of high-resolution radar waveform and interferometric principles recently led to the development of a microwave interferometer, suitable to simultaneously measuring the (static or dynamic) deflection of several points on a large structure. From the technical standpoint, the sensor is a Stepped Frequency Continuous Wave (SF-CW), coherent radar, operating in the Ku frequency band. In the paper, the main procedures adopted to extract the deflection time series from raw radar data and to assess the quality of data are addressed, and the MATLAB toolbox developed is described. Subsequently, other functions implemented in the software tool (e.g. evaluation of the spectral matrix of the deflection time-histories, identification of natural frequencies and operational mode shapes evaluation) are described and the application to data recorded on full-scale bridges is exemplified.

  8. A PROCESS FOR SEPARATING AZEOTROPIC MIXTURES BY EXTRACTIVE AND CONVECTIVE DISTILLATION

    DOEpatents

    Frazer, J.W.

    1961-12-19

    A method is described for separating an azeotrope of carbon tetrachloride and 1,1,2,2-tetrafluorodinitroethane boiling at 60 deg C. The ndethod comnprises, specifically, feeding azeotrope vapors admixed with a non- reactive gas into an extractive distillation column heated to a temperature preferably somewhat above the boiling point of the constant boiling mixture. A solvent, di-n-butylphthalate, is metered into the column above the gas inlet and permitted to flow downward, earrying with it the higher bomling fraction, while the constituent having the lower boiling point passes out of the top of the column with the non-reactive gas and is collected in a nitrogen cold trap. Other solvents which alter the vapor pressure relationship may be substituted. The method is generally applicable to azeotropic mixtures. A number of specific mixtures whicb may be separated are disclosed. (AEC)

  9. Energy efficient facile extraction process of cellulose nanofibres and their dimensional characterization using light scattering techniques.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Chandravati; Saini, Arun; Maji, Pradip K

    2017-06-01

    A chemi-mechanical approach was used to extract cellulose nanofibres (CNFs) from waste mango wood scraps using a mild chemical treatment ensuring no acid hydrolysis. The dimensional analysis for CNFs has been done by taking into account both the microscopic and light scattering techniques. The FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy) analysis revealed the diameter of obtained CNFs in the range of 5-40nm with an average diameter of approximately 12nm. The AFM (atomic force microscopy) analysis gave a more precise average diameter value of 5nm for the obtained CNFs. The aspect ratio as determined by applying mathematical calculations on the data revealed through dynamic and static light scattering techniques (DLS, SLS) was approximately 200. The characteristic shape determined by fractal dimension investigation from SLS measurement revealed the rod/thread like shape of CNFs at lower concentrations.

  10. A Temporal Abstraction-based Extract, Transform and Load Process for Creating Registry Databases for Research.

    PubMed

    Post, Andrew; Kurc, Tahsin; Overcash, Marc; Cantrell, Dedra; Morris, Tim; Eckerson, Kristi; Tsui, Circe; Willey, Terry; Quyyumi, Arshed; Eapen, Danny; Umpierrez, Guillermo; Ziemer, David; Saltz, Joel

    2011-01-01

    In the CTSA era there is great interest in aggregating and comparing populations across institutions. These sites likely represent data differently in their clinical data warehouses and other databases. Clinical data warehouses frequently are structured in a generalized way that supports many constituencies. For research, there is a need to transform these heterogeneous data into a shared representation, and to perform categorization and interpretation to optimize the data representation for investigators. We are addressing this need by extending an existing temporal abstraction-based clinical database query system, PROTEMPA. The extended system allows specifying data types of interest in federated databases, extracting the data into a shared representation, transforming it through categorization and interpretation, and loading it into a registry database that can be refreshed. Such a registry's access control, data representation and query tools can be tailored to the needs of research while keeping local databases as the source of truth.

  11. Acid Extraction - Ion Exchange Recovery of Cinchona Alkaloids Process and Plant Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-06-08

    Between Percent of Alkaloids Extracted in a Given Time (t) and the Length of the Bark Chips ( L ) 43 FIG. 15 Agitation by Means of a Directed Stream 45...alkaloids is 1 to 2k; thus it can be seen that the theoretical alkaloid capacity of a U.»5~ liter (820 meq/ l ) column could be dissolved in 5»2...MMIOO 1 « 9 •oi * 1 •!1 o I • •ft « ? Mi »(3 • ^ •. ^ ■ 1 i Pl«li ’otl S fj • flO • 21 l nn uoui|i»j|3 § § s § s 1 ••JM ««ll U0!WKM

  12. Effects of pyrite and sphalerite on population compositions, dynamics and copper extraction efficiency in chalcopyrite bioleaching process.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yunhua; Liu, Xueduan; Dong, Weiling; Liang, Yili; Niu, Jiaojiao; Gu, Yabing; Ma, Liyuan; Hao, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xian; Xu, Zhen; Yin, Huaqun

    2017-03-04

    This study used an artificial microbial community with four known moderately thermophilic acidophiles (three bacteria including Acidithiobacillus caldus S1, Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans ST and Leptospirillum ferriphilum YSK, and one archaea, Ferroplasma thermophilum L1) to explore the variation of microbial community structure, composition, dynamics and function (e.g., copper extraction efficiency) in chalcopyrite bioleaching (C) systems with additions of pyrite (CP) or sphalerite (CS). The community compositions and dynamics in the solution and on the ore surface were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The results showed that the addition of pyrite or sphalerite changed the microbial community composition and dynamics dramatically during the chalcopyrite bioleaching process. For example, A. caldus (above 60%) was the dominant species at the initial stage in three groups, and at the middle stage, still dominated C group (above 70%), but it was replaced by L. ferriphilum (above 60%) in CP and CS groups; at the final stage, L. ferriphilum dominated C group, while F. thermophilum dominated CP group on the ore surface. Furthermore, the additions of pyrite or sphalerite both made the increase of redox potential (ORP) and the concentrations of Fe(3+) and H(+), which would affect the microbial community compositions and copper extraction efficiency. Additionally, pyrite could enhance copper extraction efficiency (e.g., improving around 13.2% on day 6) during chalcopyrite bioleaching; on the contrary, sphalerite restrained it.

  13. Maple leaf (Acer sp.) extract mediated green process for the functionalization of ZnO powders with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Vivekanandhan, Singaravelu; Schreiber, Makoto; Mason, Cynthia; Mohanty, Amar Kumar; Misra, Manjusri

    2014-01-01

    The functionalization of ZnO powders with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) through a novel maple leaf extract mediated biological process was demonstrated. Maple leaf extract was found to be a very effective bioreduction agent for the reduction of silver ions. The reduction rate of Ag(+) into Ag(0) was found to be much faster than other previously reported bioreduction rates and was comparable to the reduction rates obtained through chemical means. The functionalization of ZnO particles with silver nanoparticles through maple leaf extract mediated bioreduction of silver was investigated through UV-visible spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found that the ZnO particles were coated with silver nanoparticles 5-20 nm in diameter. The photocatalytic ability of the ZnO particles functionalized with silver nanoparticles was found to be significantly improved compared to the photocatalytic ability of the neat ZnO particles. The silver functionalized ZnO particles reached 90% degradation of the dye an hour before the neat ZnO particles.

  14. Molten salt extraction process for the recovery of valued transition metals from land-based and deep-sea minerals

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, V.A.; von Winbush, S.

    1987-05-01

    A process for extracting transition metals and particularly cobalt and manganese together with iron, copper and nickel from low grade ores (including ocean-floor nodules) by converting the metal oxides or other compositions to chlorides in a molten salt, and subsequently using a combination of selective distillation at temperatures below about 500/degree/C, electrolysis at a voltage not more negative that about /minus/1.5 volt versus Ag/AgCl, and precipitation to separate the desired manganese and cobalt salts from other metals and provide cobalt and manganese in metallic forms or compositions from which these metals may be more easily recovered.

  15. Molten salt extraction process for the recovery of valued transition metals from land-based and deep-sea minerals

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, Victor A.; von Winbush, Samuel

    1988-01-01

    A process for extracting transition metals and particularly cobalt and manganese together with iron, copper and nickel from low grade ores (including ocean-floor nodules) by converting the metal oxides or other compositions to chlorides in a molten salt, and subsequently using a combination of selective distillation at temperatures below about 500.degree. C., electrolysis at a voltage not more negative than about -1.5 volt versus Ag/AgCl, and precipitation to separate the desired manganese and cobalt salts from other metals and provide cobalt and manganese in metallic forms or compositions from which these metals may be more easily recovered.

  16. Optimum extraction process of polyphenols from the bark of Phyllanthus emblica L. based on the response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Jiang, Jian-Guo; Li, Wei-Feng; Chen, Jian; Wang, Ding-Yong; Zhu, Liang

    2009-05-01

    Phyllanthus emblica L. is an economic plant used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of various diseases. The bark of P. emblica is rich in polyphenols and its extractions have shown strong antioxidative and radical scavenging activity. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to assess the optimal extraction of polyphenols from P. emblica bark. Various extraction parameters including ethanol concentration, extraction time, temperature, solid-liquid ratio, and extraction times were chosen to identify their effects on polyphenols extraction. Among these parameters, extraction times and solvent concentration were found to have significant effect on polyphenols extraction. RSM was applied to obtain the optimal combination of solvent concentration, extraction time, temperature, and extraction time for maximum rate of extraction. The most suitable condition for the extraction of polyphenols was at ethanol concentration 75%, extraction time 25 min, extraction temperature 45 degrees C, and extraction times 3. At these optimal extraction parameters, the maximum extraction of polyphenols obtained experimentally was found to be very close to its predicted value. The extraction rate of polyphenols was 19.78% at the optimum conditions. The mathematical model developed was found to fit with the experimental data of polyphenols extraction.

  17. Extraction of process zones and low-dimensional attractive subspaces in stochastic fracture mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Kerfriden, P.; Schmidt, K.M.; Rabczuk, T.; Bordas, S.P.A.

    2013-01-01

    We propose to identify process zones in heterogeneous materials by tailored statistical tools. The process zone is redefined as the part of the structure where the random process cannot be correctly approximated in a low-dimensional deterministic space. Such a low-dimensional space is obtained by a spectral analysis performed on pre-computed solution samples. A greedy algorithm is proposed to identify both process zone and low-dimensional representative subspace for the solution in the complementary region. In addition to the novelty of the tools proposed in this paper for the analysis of localised phenomena, we show that the reduced space generated by the method is a valid basis for the construction of a reduced order model. PMID:27069423

  18. Extraction of process zones and low-dimensional attractive subspaces in stochastic fracture mechanics.

    PubMed

    Kerfriden, P; Schmidt, K M; Rabczuk, T; Bordas, S P A

    We propose to identify process zones in heterogeneous materials by tailored statistical tools. The process zone is redefined as the part of the structure where the random process cannot be correctly approximated in a low-dimensional deterministic space. Such a low-dimensional space is obtained by a spectral analysis performed on pre-computed solution samples. A greedy algorithm is proposed to identify both process zone and low-dimensional representative subspace for the solution in the complementary region. In addition to the novelty of the tools proposed in this paper for the analysis of localised phenomena, we show that the reduced space generated by the method is a valid basis for the construction of a reduced order model.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Mark Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; James Mayberry; Alfred Stiller; Joseph Stoffa; Christopher Yurchick; John Zondlo

    2009-12-31

    This NETL sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous technologies for the production of carbon products, which may be thought of as the heavier products currently produced from refining of crude petroleum and coal tars obtained from metallurgical grade coke ovens. This effort took binder grade pitch, produced from liquefaction of West Virginia bituminous grade coal, all the way to commercial demonstration in a state of the art arc furnace. Other products, such as crude oil, anode grade coke and metallurgical grade coke were demonstrated successfully at the bench scale. The technology developed herein diverged from the previous state of the art in direct liquefaction (also referred to as the Bergius process), in two major respects. First, direct liquefaction was accomplished with less than a percent of hydrogen per unit mass of product, or about 3 pound per barrel or less. By contrast, other variants of the Bergius process require the use of 15 pounds or more of hydrogen per barrel, resulting in an inherent materials cost. Second, the conventional Bergius process requires high pressure, in the range of 1500 psig to 3000 psig. The WVU process variant has been carried out at pressures below 400 psig, a significant difference. Thanks mainly to DOE sponsorship, the WVU process has been licensed to a Canadian Company, Quantex Energy Inc, with a commercial demonstration unit plant scheduled to be erected in 2011.

  20. Carbon Disulfide (CS2) Interference in Glucose Metabolism from Unconventional Oil and Gas Extraction and Processing Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Alisa L.; Patel, Jay T.; Al-Angari, Samiah S.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2) has been historically associated with the manufacturing of rayon, cellophane, and carbon tetrachloride production. This study is one of the first to identify elevated atmospheric levels of CS2 above national background levels and its mechanisms to dysregulate normal glucose metabolism. Interference in glucose metabolism can indirectly cause other complications (diabetes, neurodegenerative disease, and retinopathy), which may be preventable if proper precautions are taken. Rich et al found CS2 and 12 associated sulfide compounds present in the atmosphere in residential areas where unconventional shale oil and gas extraction and processing operations were occurring. Ambient atmospheric concentrations of CS2 ranged from 0.7 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) to 103 ppbv over a continuous 24-hour monitoring period. One-hour ambient atmospheric concentrations ranged from 3.4 ppbv to 504.6 ppbv. Using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Urban Air Toxic Monitoring Program study as a baseline comparison for atmospheric CS2 concentrations found in this study, it was determined that CS2 atmospheric levels were consistently elevated in areas where unconventional oil and gas extraction and processing occurred. The mechanisms by which CS2 interferes in normal glucose metabolism by dysregulation of the tryptophan metabolism pathway are presented in this study. The literature review found an increased potential for alteration of normal glucose metabolism in viscose rayon occupational workers exposed to CS2. Occupational workers in the energy extraction industry exposed to CS2 and other sulfide compounds may have an increased potential for glucose metabolism interference, which has been an indicator for diabetogenic effect and other related health impacts. The recommendation of this study is for implementation of regular monitoring of blood glucose levels in CS2-exposed populations as a preventative health measure. PMID:27042092

  1. Negative ion production and beam extraction processes in a large ion source (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Tsumori, K. Nakano, H.; Goto, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Ikeda, K.; Kisaki, M.; Geng, S.; Wada, M.; Sasaki, K.; Nishiyama, S.; Serianni, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Sartori, E.; Brombin, M.; Veltri, P.; Wimmer, C.

    2016-02-15

    Recent research results on negative-ion-rich plasmas in a large negative ion source have been reviewed. Spatial density and flow distributions of negative hydrogen ions (H{sup −}) and positive hydrogen ions together with those of electrons are investigated with a 4-pin probe and a photodetachment (PD) signal of a Langmuir probe. The PD signal is converted to local H{sup −} density from signal calibration to a scanning cavity ring down PD measurement. Introduction of Cs changes the slope of plasma potential local distribution depending upon the plasma grid bias. A higher electron density H{sub 2} plasma locally shields the bias potential and behaves like a metallic free electron gas. On the other hand, the bias and extraction electric fields penetrate in a Cs-seeded electronegative plasma even when the electron density is similar. Electrons are transported by the penetrated electric fields from the driver region along and across the filter and electron deflection magnetic fields. Plasma ions exhibited a completely different response against the penetration of electric fields.

  2. A Distinguishing Arterial Pulse Waves Approach by Using Image Processing and Feature Extraction Technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsing-Chung; Kuo, Shyi-Shiun; Sun, Shen-Ching; Chang, Chia-Hui

    2016-10-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is based on five main types of diagnoses methods consisting of inspection, auscultation, olfaction, inquiry, and palpation. The most important one is palpation also called pulse diagnosis which is to measure wrist artery pulse by doctor's fingers for detecting patient's health state. In this paper, it is carried out by using a specialized pulse measuring instrument to classify one's pulse type. The measured pulse waves (MPWs) were segmented into the arterial pulse wave curve (APWC) by image proposing method. The slopes and periods among four specific points on the APWC were taken to be the pulse features. Three algorithms are proposed in this paper, which could extract these features from the APWCs and compared their differences between each of them to the average feature matrix, individually. These results show that the method proposed in this study is superior and more accurate than the previous studies. The proposed method could significantly save doctors a large amount of time, increase accuracy and decrease data volume.

  3. Energy from true in situ processing of Antrim Shale: extraction trials in an explosively fractured site

    SciTech Connect

    VanDerPloeg, M.L.; Peil, C.A.; Kinkel, C.G.; Pihlaja, R.K.; Murdick, D.A.; Frost, J.R.; Lund, M.M.

    1980-08-01

    Three in situ energy extraction trials were conducted at The Dow Chemical Company's oil shale site, in Michigan's Sanilac County, near the town of Peck. Here the Antrim shale layer occurs between 1200 and 1400 feet underground. The trials began on October 14, 1979, and ended on April 1, 1980. The three trials, lasting 7, 60 and 17 days respectively, were conducted in a formation prepared by explosive fracturing. Ignition energy was generated with a methane burner. Some energy in the form of a dilute fuel gas (5 to 50 btu/scf) was recovered in each trial but upon ignition drastic decreases in flow communication occurred between injection and production wells. That problem prevented the planned exploration of techniques which would raise the energy value of the production gas. Upon cool down of the formation after each trial, air permeability tests showed inter-well communication levels returning to near preburn levels. Thermal expansion is the most likely cause of the reduced permeability experienced under retorting conditions.

  4. Phyto-crystallization of palladium through reduction process using Cinnamom zeylanicum bark extract.

    PubMed

    Sathishkumar, M; Sneha, K; Kwak, In Seob; Mao, Juan; Tripathy, S J; Yun, Y-S

    2009-11-15

    In this paper we studied the potential of nanocrystalline palladium particle production using Cinnamom zeylanicum bark extract (CBE) as the biomaterial for the first time. We studied the effects of biomaterial dosage, pH and temperature on nanoparticle formation; none of these factors had a major effect on the size and shape of the nanoparticles formed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations confirmed the synthesis of nano-sized palladium particles. More or less uniformly sized palladium nanoparticles were synthesized with an average size ranging from 15 to 20 nm. It was found that the zeta potential of these formed palladium nanoparticles was negative, and that it increased with an increase in pH. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis results confirmed the significant presence of palladium. Of the palladium ions, 60% were reduced to a zero valent form by CBE. Terpenoids are believed to play an important role in palladium nanoparticle biosynthesis through the reduction of palladium ions. Currently, however, the exact mechanism for the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles is unclear. Our protocol for the phyto-synthesis of palladium nanoparticles under moderate pH and room temperature offers a new means to develop environmentally benign nanoparticles.

  5. Abarema cochliacarpos extract decreases the inflammatory process and skeletal muscle injury induced by Bothrops leucurus venom.

    PubMed

    Saturnino-Oliveira, Jeison; Santos, Daiana Do Carmo; Guimarães, Adriana Gibara; Santos Dias, Antônio; Tomaz, Marcelo Amorim; Monteiro-Machado, Marcos; Estevam, Charles Santos; De Lucca Júnior, Waldecy; Maria, Durvanei Augusto; Melo, Paulo A; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana; Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Meneses; Pereira de Oliveira, Aldeidia; Quintans Júnior, Lucindo José

    2014-01-01

    Snakebites are a public health problem, especially in tropical countries. However, treatment with antivenom has limited effectiveness against venoms' local effects. Here, we investigated the ability of Abarema cochliacarpos hydroethanolic extract (EAc) to protect mice against injection of Bothrops leucurus venom. Swiss mice received perimuscular venom injection and were subsequently treated orally with EAc in different doses. Treatment with EAc 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg reduced the edema induced by B. leucurus in 1%, 13%, and 39%, respectively. Although lower doses showed no antihypernociceptive effect in the Von Frey test, the higher dose significantly reduced hyperalgesia induced by the venom. Antimyotoxic activity of EAc was also observed by microscopy assessment, with treated muscles presenting preserved structures, decreased edema, and inflammatory infiltrate as compared to untreated ones. Finally, on the rotarod test, the treated mice showed better motor function, once muscle fibers were preserved and there were less edema and pain. Treated mice could stand four times more time on the rotating rod than untreated ones. Our results have shown that EAc presented relevant activities against injection of B. leucurus venom in mice, suggesting that it can be considered as an adjuvant in the treatment of envenomation.

  6. Laser Noise Stabilization, Processing, And Extraction Simulations For The Lisa Mission At The University Of Florida.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yinan; Mitryk, S.; Sweeney, D.; Spector, A.; Eichholz, J.; Donelan, D.; Preston, A.; Munoz, J. S.; Azer, S.; Tanner, D.; Mueller, G.

    2011-05-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Mission will strive to measure gravitational radiation in the frequency range from 1 Hz to 0.1 mHz from black hole mergers and other compact objects. Three spacecraft (SC) in a nearly equilateral triangular formation with an arm-length of 5.0 ± 0.025 Gm form the space-based interferometer. Differential length changes between free-floating proof-masses will be measured to an accuracy of 40 pm/√Hz using one-way laser phase measurements between lasers on adjacent SC. Accurately reconstructing the differential arm-length and extracting the gravitational wave signals from the photo-detector beatnotes depends on the performance of the laser pre-stabilization system, the ability of time-delay interferometry (TDI) to cancel the additional laser phase noise, the accuracy of the distance-ranging measurement between the SC, the sensitivity of the laser beatnote phase measurement, and the quality of the inter-SC clock transfers. The University of Florida Laser Interferometry Simulator (UFLIS) emulates the LISA interferometry using LISA-like laser noise sources, electronic replications of inter-SC laser phase delays, and µcycle/√Hz phase measurements of MHz-frequency laser beat-notes to test LISA interferometry. This work is supported by NASA Grant #NNX08AG75G.

  7. Abarema cochliacarpos Extract Decreases the Inflammatory Process and Skeletal Muscle Injury Induced by Bothrops leucurus Venom

    PubMed Central

    Saturnino-Oliveira, Jeison; Santos, Daiana Do Carmo; Guimarães, Adriana Gibara; Santos Dias, Antônio; Tomaz, Marcelo Amorim; Monteiro-Machado, Marcos; Estevam, Charles Santos; Lucca Júnior, Waldecy De; Maria, Durvanei Augusto; Melo, Paulo A.; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana; Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Meneses; Pereira de Oliveira, Aldeidia; Quintans Júnior, Lucindo José

    2014-01-01

    Snakebites are a public health problem, especially in tropical countries. However, treatment with antivenom has limited effectiveness against venoms' local effects. Here, we investigated the ability of Abarema cochliacarpos hydroethanolic extract (EAc) to protect mice against injection of Bothrops leucurus venom. Swiss mice received perimuscular venom injection and were subsequently treated orally with EAc in different doses. Treatment with EAc 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg reduced the edema induced by B. leucurus in 1%, 13%, and 39%, respectively. Although lower doses showed no antihypernociceptive effect in the Von Frey test, the higher dose significantly reduced hyperalgesia induced by the venom. Antimyotoxic activity of EAc was also observed by microscopy assessment, with treated muscles presenting preserved structures, decreased edema, and inflammatory infiltrate as compared to untreated ones. Finally, on the rotarod test, the treated mice showed better motor function, once muscle fibers were preserved and there were less edema and pain. Treated mice could stand four times more time on the rotating rod than untreated ones. Our results have shown that EAc presented relevant activities against injection of B. leucurus venom in mice, suggesting that it can be considered as an adjuvant in the treatment of envenomation. PMID:25136627

  8. Biofunction-assisted aptasensors based on ligand-dependent 3' processing of a suppressor tRNA in a wheat germ extract.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Atsushi; Tabuchi, Junichiro

    2015-06-28

    We have developed a novel type of biofunction-assisted aptasensor that harnesses ligand-dependent 3' processing of a premature amber suppressor tRNA and the subsequent amber suppression of a reporter gene in a wheat germ extract.

  9. Correction: Biofunction-assisted aptasensors based on ligand-dependent 3' processing of a suppressor tRNA in a wheat germ extract.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Atsushi; Tabuchi, Junichiro

    2015-08-14

    Correction for 'Biofunction-assisted aptasensors based on ligand-dependent 3' processing of a suppressor tRNA in a wheat germ extract' by Atsushi Ogawa et al., Org. Biomol. Chem., 2015, 13, 6681-6685.

  10. Impact of postharvest dehydration process of winegrapes on mechanical and acoustic properties of the seeds and their relationship with flavanol extraction during simulated maceration.

    PubMed

    Río Segade, Susana; Torchio, Fabrizio; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Giacosa, Simone; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa; Rolle, Luca

    2016-05-15

    This study represents the first time that the extraction of phenolic compounds from the seeds is assessed from instrumental texture properties for dehydrated grapes. Nebbiolo winegrapes were postharvest dehydrated at 20°C and 41% relative humidity. During the dehydration process, sampling was performed at 15%, 30%, 45% and 60% weight loss. The extractable fraction and extractability of phenolic compounds from the seeds were determined after simulated maceration. The evolution of mechanical and acoustic attributes of intact seeds was also determined during grape dehydration to evaluate how these changes affected the extraction of phenolic compounds. The extractable content and extractability of monomeric flavanols and proanthocyanidins, as well as the galloylation percentage of flavanols, might be predicted easily and quickly from the mechanical and acoustic properties of intact seeds. This would help in decision-making on the optimal dehydration level of winegrapes and the best management of winemaking of dehydrated grapes.

  11. A Two-Step Nanofiltration Process for the Production of Phenolic-Rich Fractions from Artichoke Aqueous Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Cassano, Alfredo; Conidi, Carmela; Ruby Figueroa, René; Castro Muñoz, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Commercial nanofiltration (NF) membranes in spiral-wound configuration (NP030 from Microdyn Nadir and Desal DK from GE Water & Process Technologies) were used in a sequential design in order to produce a separated fraction of phenolic and sugar compounds from an aqueous artichoke extract. For both membranes, the effect of transmembrane pressure (TMP) on the permeation flux was evaluated. In optimized conditions of TMP, the NP030 membrane exhibited high rejections of apigenin, cynarin and chlorogenic acid (higher than 85%); on the other hand, very low rejections of fructose, glucose and sucrose (lower than 4%) were measured. Starting from an extract with a total antioxidant activity (TAA) of 5.28 mM trolox a retentate fraction with a TAA of 47.75 mM trolox was obtained. The NF permeate from the NP030 membrane was processed with the Desal DK membrane in optimized conditions of TMP producing a permeate stream free of phenolic and sugar compounds. Accordingly, as most part of phenolic compounds was removed in the first NF step, the concentration of sugar compounds in the NF retentate had much higher results than that of phenolic compounds. PMID:25913377

  12. A two-step nanofiltration process for the production of phenolic-rich fractions from artichoke aqueous extracts.

    PubMed

    Cassano, Alfredo; Conidi, Carmela; Figueroa, René Ruby; Muñoz, Roberto Castro

    2015-04-22

    Commercial nanofiltration (NF) membranes in spiral-wound configuration (NP030 from Microdyn Nadir and Desal DK from GE Water & Process Technologies) were used in a sequential design in order to produce a separated fraction of phenolic and sugar compounds from an aqueous artichoke extract. For both membranes, the effect of transmembrane pressure (TMP) on the permeation flux was evaluated. In optimized conditions of TMP, the NP030 membrane exhibited high rejections of apigenin, cynarin and chlorogenic acid (higher than 85%); on the other hand, very low rejections of fructose, glucose and sucrose (lower than 4%) were measured. Starting from an extract with a total antioxidant activity (TAA) of 5.28 mM trolox a retentate fraction with a TAA of 47.75 mM trolox was obtained. The NF permeate from the NP030 membrane was processed with the Desal DK membrane in optimized conditions of TMP producing a permeate stream free of phenolic and sugar compounds. Accordingly, as most part of phenolic compounds was removed in the first NF step, the concentration of sugar compounds in the NF retentate had much higher results than that of phenolic compounds.

  13. Processing of copper converter slag for metal reclamation. Part I: Extraction and recovery of copper and cobalt.

    PubMed

    Deng, Tong; Ling, Yunhan

    2007-10-01

    Clean processing of copper converter slag to reclaim cobalt and copper could be a challenge. An innovative and environmentally sound approach for recovering valuable metals from such a slag has been developed in the present study. Curing the slag with strong sulphuric acid, without re-smelting or roasting as practiced currently in the industry, render it accessible to leaching, and more than 95% of cobalt and up to 90% of copper was extracted together with iron by water leaching, leaving silica behind in a residue. The copper in the leach liquor was recovered by cementation with iron and the dissolved iron crystallized as ferrous sulphate monohydrate. The cobalt in the mother-liquor rich in iron was recovered by either cementation or sulphide precipitation. Operation variables in the new process were also investigated and optimized.

  14. Processing of Egyptian boiler-ash for extraction of vanadium and nickel.

    PubMed

    Amer, A M

    2002-01-01

    Proposed technique in this investigation is given for vanadium and nickel enrichment in the Egyptian boiler ash. Among the various concepts for recovery of vanadium and nickel from boiler ash, the pyro-metallurgical approach is technically feasible, but is not cost-effective from an operational economy standpoint. Another technically viable process which, however, needs further development and presented in this investigation, is the hydrometallurgical processing that involves acid leaching under oxygen pressure of ground ash, followed by electrolytic separation of nickel from sulphate solution and vanadium is then neutralized and precipitated by adjustment the pH value and calcined to produce V2O5.

  15. Extraction and processing of circulating DNA from large sample volumes using methylation on beads for the detection of rare epigenetic events.

    PubMed

    Keeley, Brian; Stark, Alejandro; Pisanic, Thomas R; Kwak, Ruby; Zhang, Yi; Wrangle, John; Baylin, Stephen; Herman, James; Ahuja, Nita; Brock, Malcolm V; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2013-10-21

    The use of methylated tumor-specific circulating DNA has shown great promise as a potential cancer biomarker. Nonetheless, the relative scarcity of tumor-specific circulating DNA presents a challenge for traditional DNA extraction and processing techniques. Here we demonstrate a single tube extraction and processing technique dubbed "methylation on beads" that allows for DNA extraction and bisulfite conversion for up to 2 ml of plasma or serum. In comparison to traditional techniques including phenol chloroform and alcohol extraction, methylation on beads yields a 1.5- to 5-fold improvement in extraction efficiency. The technique results in far less carryover of PCR inhibitors yielding analytical sensitivity improvements of over 25-fold. The combination of improved recovery and sensitivity make possible the detection of rare epigenetic events and the development of high sensitivity epigenetic diagnostic assays.

  16. Principles of Stagewise Separation Process Calculations: A Simple Algebraic Approach Using Solvent Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crittenden, Barry D.

    1991-01-01

    A simple liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) system involving a constant partition coefficient based on solute ratios is used to develop an algebraic understanding of multistage contacting in a first-year separation processes course. This algebraic approach to the LLE system is shown to be operable for the introduction of graphical techniques…

  17. Influence of postharvest storage, processing, and extraction methods on the analysis of phenolic phytochemicals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter provides an overview of the challenges associated with accurate analysis of phenolic compounds from foods, dietary supplements, and other matrices. It discusses the significance of sample preparation, post-harvest processing, and storage conditions on the assay of phenolic phytochemica...

  18. Extraction and recovery of pectic fragments from citrus processing waste for co-production with ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steam treatment of citrus processing waste (CPW) at 160°C followed by a rapid decompression (steam explosion) at either pH 2.8 or 4.5 provides an efficient and rapid fragmentation of protopectin in CPW and renders a large fraction of fragmented pectins, arabinans, galactans and arabinogalactans solu...

  19. High-purity biodiesel production from microalgae and added-value lipid extraction: a new process.

    PubMed

    Veillette, M; Giroir-Fendler, A; Faucheux, N; Heitz, M

    2015-01-01

    A new process was tested in order to produce and purify biodiesel from microalgae lipids and to recover unsaponifiable (added-value) lipids. This process is a two-step biodiesel production including a saponification reaction step followed by an esterification reaction step. The process includes a recovery of the unsaponified lipids between both reaction steps. Among the conditions tested, the following conditions were found to be the best: temperature for both steps (90 °C), saponification time (30 min), esterification time (30 min), sulfuric acid/potassium hydroxide (1.21, w/w), and methanol-lipid ratio (13.3 mL/g). Under these conditions, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield and the biodiesel purity were, respectively, 32% (g FAME/g lipid) and 77% (g FAME/g biodiesel). This study also showed that the two-step biodiesel process allows a FAME mass composition rich in palmitate (27.9-29.4 wt%), palmitoleate (24.9-26.0 wt%), elaidate (14.8-15.2 wt%), and myristate (12.1-13.0 wt%).

  20. AstroImageJ: Image Processing and Photometric Extraction for Ultra-precise Astronomical Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Karen A.; Kielkopf, John F.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Hessman, Frederic V.

    2017-02-01

    ImageJ is a graphical user interface (GUI) driven, public domain, Java-based, software package for general image processing traditionally used mainly in life sciences fields. The image processing capabilities of ImageJ are useful and extendable to other scientific fields. Here we present AstroImageJ (AIJ), which provides an astronomy specific image display environment and tools for astronomy specific image calibration and data reduction. Although AIJ maintains the general purpose image processing capabilities of ImageJ, AIJ is streamlined for time-series differential photometry, light curve detrending and fitting, and light curve plotting, especially for applications requiring ultra-precise light curves (e.g., exoplanet transits). AIJ reads and writes standard Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) files, as well as other common image formats, provides FITS header viewing and editing, and is World Coordinate System aware, including an automated interface to the astrometry.net web portal for plate solving images. AIJ provides research grade image calibration and analysis tools with a GUI driven approach, and easily installed cross-platform compatibility. It enables new users, even at the level of undergraduate student, high school student, or amateur astronomer, to quickly start processing, modeling, and plotting astronomical image data with one tightly integrated software package.

  1. Computer-aided feature extraction, classification, and acceptance processing of digital NDE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildreth, Joseph H.

    1996-11-01

    As part of the advanced Launch System technology development effort begun in 1989, the Air Force initiated a program to automate, to the extent possible, the processing of NDE data from the inspection of slid rocket motors during fabrication. The computerized system, called the Automated NDE Data Evaluation System or ANDES, was developed under contract to Martin Marietta, now Lockheed Martin. The ANDES system is generic in structure and is highly tailorable. The system can be configured to process digital or digitized data from any source, to process data from a single or from multiple acquisition systems, and to function as a single stand-alone system or in a multiple workstation distributed network. The system can maintain multiple configurations from which the user can select. In large measure, a configuration is defined through the system's user interface and is stored in the system's data base to be recalled by the user at any time. Three operational systems are currently in use. These systems ar located at Hill AFB in Ogden, Utah, Kelly AFB in San Antonio, TX, and the Phillips Laboratory at Edwards AFB in California. Each of these systems is configured to process x-ray computed tomography, CT, images. The Hill AFB installation supports the aging surveillance effort on Minuteman third stage rocket motors. The Kelly AFB system supports the acceptance inspection of airframe and engine components and torpedo housing components. The installation at Edwards AFB provides technical support to the other two locations.

  2. Systematic review of the association between oil and natural gas extraction processes and human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Balise, Victoria D; Meng, Chun-Xia; Cornelius-Green, Jennifer N; Kassotis, Christopher D; Kennedy, Rana; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-09-15

    This systematic review identified 45 original published research articles related to oil and gas extraction activities and human reproductive endpoints. Reproductive outcomes were categorized as [1] birth outcomes associated with maternal exposure, [2] semen quality, fertility, and birth outcomes associated with adult paternal exposure, [3] reproductive cancers, and [4] disruption of human sex steroid hormone receptors. The results indicate there is moderate evidence for an increased risk of preterm birth, miscarriage, birth defects, decreased semen quality, and prostate cancer. The quality of the evidence is low and/or inadequate for stillbirth, sex ratio, and birth outcomes associated with paternal exposure, and testicular cancer, female reproductive tract cancers, and breast cancer, and the evidence is inconsistent for an increased risk of low birth weight; therefore, no conclusions can be drawn for these health effects. There is ample evidence for disruption of the estrogen, androgen, and progesterone receptors by oil and gas chemicals, which provides a mechanistic rationale for how exposure to oil and gas activities may increase the health risks we have outlined. The results from this systematic review suggest there is a negative impact on human reproduction from exposure to oil and gas activities. Many of the 45 studies reviewed identified potential human health effects. Most of these studies focused on conventional oil and gas activities. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate the impact of unconventional oil and gas operations on human health. The impact of unconventional oil and gas activities may be greater than that of conventional activity, given that unconventional activities employ many of the same approaches and use dozens of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals in hydraulic fracturing.

  3. Extraction of DBP and MBP from actinides: application to the recovery of actinides from TBP-sodium carbonate scrub solutions. [Aralex process

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Mason, G.W.; Bloomquist, C.A.A.; Leonard, R.A.; Bernstein, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    A flowsheet for the recovery of actinides from TBP-Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ scrub waste solutions has been developed, based on batch extraction data, and tested, using laboratory scale counter-current extraction techniques. The process, called the ARALEX process, utilizes 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2-EHOH) to extract the TBP degradation products (HDBP and H/sub 2/MBP) from acidified Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ scrub waste leaving the actinides in the aqueous phase. Dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acids are attached to the 2-EHOH molecules through hydrogen bonds. These hydrogen bonds also diminish the ability of the HDBP and H/sub 2/MBP to complex actinides and thus all actinides remain in the aqueous raffinate. Dilute sodium hydroxide solutions can be used to back-extract the dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acid esters as their sodium salts. The 2-EHOH can then be recycled. After extraction of the acidified carbonate waste with 2-EHOH, the actinides may be readily extracted from the raffinate with DHDECMP or, in the case of tetra- and hexavalent actinides, with TBP. The ARALEX process is relatively simple and involves inexpensive and readily available chamicals. The ARALEX process can also be applied to other actinide waste streams which contain appreciable concentrations of polar organic compounds that interfere with conventional actinide ion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction procedures. One such application is the removal of detergents from laundry or clean-up solutions contaminated with actinides.

  4. Antimicrobial efficacy of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii L. Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, and Psidium guajava on primary plaque colonizers: An in vitro comparison between hot and cold extraction process

    PubMed Central

    Shekar, Chandra; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Singh, Rupal; Thakur, Rupesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The potential drawbacks of the existing antiplaque agents call for innovative strategies that are safe, effective, and easily available. Objective: The objective was to assess and compare antimicrobial efficacy of four plant extracts derived using hot and cold extraction methods against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, and Streptococcus salivarius. Materials and Methods: The leaves of Acacia nilotica, P. guajava, Eucalyptus hybrid, and Murraya konigii L. Sprengel were collected from the surrounding areas, identified and authenticated by a taxonomist. The leaves were washed, shade-dried, and hand crushed to obtain coarse powder. This was subsequently ground into a fine powder and extracted using ethanol by cold infusion and hot extraction process. The antimicrobial efficacy testing was done on American Type Culture Collection strains of S. mutans, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius using agar well diffusion method. 0.2% chlorhexidine and dimethyl sulfoxide were used as positive and negative controls. The mean inhibition zone using 10% concentration of these extracts was compared using independent sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance. Results: All the four plant extracts inhibited the growth of S. mutans, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius irrespective of the method of extraction. The extracts of A. nilotica, P. guajava, and E. hybrid derived from both the methods of extraction exhibited a significantly higher inhibition zone against S. mutans in comparison with Murraya koenigii L. Sprengel and chlorhexidine. The cold extracts of A. nilotica and E. hybrid exhibited higher zone of inhibition against S. sanguis while the hot extracts of M. koenigii L. Sprengel exhibited a higher zone of inhibition against S. mutans. Conclusion: All the four plant extracts derived using either hot or cold extraction were effective against these bacteria and have the potential to be used as antiplaque agents. PMID:26015668

  5. Extracting information on pneumonia in infants using natural language processing of radiology reports.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Eneida A; Haas, Janet; Shagina, Lyudmila; Larson, Elaine; Friedman, Carol

    2005-08-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) is critical for improvement of the healthcare process because it can encode clinical data in patient documents. Many clinical applications such as decision support require coded data to function appropriately. However, in order to be applicable for healthcare, performance must be adequate. A valuable automated application is the detection of infectious diseases, such as surveillance of pneumonia in newborns (e.g., neonates) because the disease produces significant rates of morbidity and mortality, and manual surveillance is challenging. Studies have demonstrated that automated surveillance using NLP is a useful adjunct to manual surveillance and an effective tool for infection control practitioners. This paper presents a study evaluating the feasibility of an NLP-based monitoring system to screen for healthcare-associated pneumonia in neonates. We estimated sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value by comparing results with clinicians' judgments. Sensitivity was 71% and specificity was 99%. Our results demonstrated that the automated method was feasible.

  6. Wavelet analysis of molecular dynamics: efficient extraction of time-frequency information in ultrafast optical processes.

    PubMed

    Prior, Javier; Castro, Enrique; Chin, Alex W; Almeida, Javier; Huelga, Susana F; Plenio, Martin B

    2013-12-14

    New experimental techniques based on nonlinear ultrafast spectroscopies have been developed over the last few years, and have been demonstrated to provide powerful probes of quantum dynamics in different types of molecular aggregates, including both natural and artificial light harvesting complexes. Fourier transform-based spectroscopies have been particularly successful, yet "complete" spectral information normally necessitates the loss of all information on the temporal sequence of events in a signal. This information though is particularly important in transient or multi-stage processes, in which the spectral decomposition of the data evolves in time. By going through several examples of ultrafast quantum dynamics, we demonstrate that the use of wavelets provide an efficient and accurate way to simultaneously acquire both temporal and frequency information about a signal, and argue that this greatly aids the elucidation and interpretation of physical process responsible for non-stationary spectroscopic features, such as those encountered in coherent excitonic energy transport.

  7. Wavelet analysis of molecular dynamics: Efficient extraction of time-frequency information in ultrafast optical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Prior, Javier; Castro, Enrique; Chin, Alex W.; Almeida, Javier; Huelga, Susana F.; Plenio, Martin B.

    2013-12-14

    New experimental techniques based on nonlinear ultrafast spectroscopies have been developed over the last few years, and have been demonstrated to provide powerful probes of quantum dynamics in different types of molecular aggregates, including both natural and artificial light harvesting complexes. Fourier transform-based spectroscopies have been particularly successful, yet “complete” spectral information normally necessitates the loss of all information on the temporal sequence of events in a signal. This information though is particularly important in transient or multi-stage processes, in which the spectral decomposition of the data evolves in time. By going through several examples of ultrafast quantum dynamics, we demonstrate that the use of wavelets provide an efficient and accurate way to simultaneously acquire both temporal and frequency information about a signal, and argue that this greatly aids the elucidation and interpretation of physical process responsible for non-stationary spectroscopic features, such as those encountered in coherent excitonic energy transport.

  8. Investigation of the ROPE copyright (Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction) process performance on Sunnyside tar sand

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, C.Y.; Johnson, L.A. Jr.; Guffey, F.D.

    1990-07-01

    The main objectives of this research were to determine the optimum pyrolysis temperature for Sunnyside tar sand and to verify the operability and efficiency of the ROPE process at steady-state conditions for production of feedstock materials. The experiments were conducted in the 2-inch screw pyrolysis reactor (SPR). Four 24-hour tests and one 105-hour test were performed in the 2-inch SPR using Sunnyside tar sand. The 24-hour tests were designed to predict the optimum pyrolysis temperature for oil yield. The 105-hour test was conducted to confirm the optimum pyrolysis temperature with sufficient operating time to reach steady-state conditions with respect to product compositions. The following conclusions can be drawn from the Sunnyside tar sand 2-inch SPR tests: (1) Sunnyside tar sand can be processed without any major operational difficulty by the ROPE process. (2) Oil yields greater than Fischer assay were obtained during the 2-inch SPR tests. Oil yield greater than 80 wt % of the bitumen was obtained from the 105-hr test. (3) The ratio of heavy oil to light product oil is strongly dependent upon the pyrolysis temperature and increases with a decrease in the reaction temperature. The gas yield increases with the increase in pyrolysis temperature but the residual carbon in the spent sand decreases with the increase in pyrolysis temperature, reaches the minimum at 675{degrees}F, and then increases with further increase in the pyrolysis temperature. ROPE process product oils from Sunnyside tar sand have market application as blending stocks for the production of diesel fuels, but they are not suited for the production of unleaded gasoline or high-density aviation turbine fuels. 3 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs.

  9. Cinnamon extract improves the body composition and attenuates lipogenic processes in the liver and adipose tissue of rats.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Bruna P; Gaique, Thaiane G; Souza, Luana L; Paula, Gabriela S M; Kluck, George E G; Atella, Georgia C; Gomes, Anne Caroline C; Simas, Naomi K; Kuster, Ricardo M; Ortiga-Carvalho, Tania M; Pazos-Moura, Carmen C; Oliveira, Karen J

    2015-10-01

    In models of metabolic disorders, cinnamon improves glucose and lipid metabolism. This study explores the effect of chronic supplementation with aqueous cinnamon extract (CE) on the lipid metabolism of rats. Male adult Wistar rats were separated into a control group (CTR) receiving water and a CE Group receiving aqueous cinnamon extract (400 mg of cinnamon per kg body mass per day) by gavage for 25 consecutive days. Cinnamon supplementation did not change the food intake or the serum lipid profile but promoted the following changes: lower body mass gain (P = 0.008), lower relative mass of white adipose tissue (WAT) compartments (P = 0.045) and higher protein content (percentage of the carcass) (P = 0.049). The CE group showed lower leptin mRNA expression in the WAT (P = 0.0017) and an important tendency for reduced serum leptin levels (P = 0.059). Cinnamon supplementation induced lower mRNA expression of SREBP1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c) in the WAT (P = 0.001) and liver (P = 0.013) and lower mRNA expression of SREBP2 (P = 0.002), HMGCoA reductase (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase) (P = 0.0003), ACAT1 (acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1) (P = 0.032) and DGAT2 (diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2) (P = 0.03) in the liver. These changes could be associated with the reduced esterified cholesterol and triacylglycerol content detected in this tissue. Our results suggest that chronic ingestion of aqueous cinnamon extract attenuates lipogenic processes, regulating the expression of key enzymes and transcriptional factors and their target genes, which are directly involved in lipogenesis. These molecular changes possibly promote adaptations that would prevent an increase in circulating cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels and prevent lipid accumulation in tissues, such as liver and WAT. Therefore, we speculate that cinnamon may also be useful for preventing or retarding the development of lipid disorders.

  10. Stability of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Process Solvent: Effect of High Nitrite on Solvent Nitration

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnesen, P.V.

    2002-06-26

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether nitrated organic compounds could be formed during operation of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process, and whether such compounds would present a safety concern. The CSSX process was developed to remove cesium from alkaline high-level salt waste stored at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). The solvent is composed of the cesium extractant calix[4]arene-bis-(4-tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6), a fluorinated alcohol phase modifier, tri-n-octylamine (TOA), and an isoparaffinic diluent (Iospar{reg_sign}). During the CSSX process, the solvent is expected to be exposed to high concentrations of nitrate and nitrite dissolved in the alkaline waste feed. The solvent will also be exposed to dilute (50 mM) nitric acid solutions containing low concentrations of nitrite during scrubbing, followed by stripping with 1 mM nitric acid. The solvent is expected to last for one year of plant operation, and the temperatures the solvent may experience during the process could range from as low as 15 C to as high as 35 C. Excursions from standard process conditions could result in the solvent experiencing higher temperatures, as well as concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, and most importantly nitric acid, that exceed normal operating conditions. Accordingly, conditions may exist where nitration reactions involving the solvent components, possibly leading to other chemical reactions stemming from nitration reactions, could occur. To model such nitration reactions, the solvent was exposed to the types of nitrate- and nitrite-containing solutions that might be expected to be encountered during the process (even under off-normal conditions), as a function of time, temperature, and concentration of nitrate, nitrite, and nitric acid. The experiments conducted as part of this report were designed to examine the more specific effect that high nitrite concentrations could have on forming nitrated

  11. Algebraic processing technique for extracting frequency-dependent shear-wave splitting parameters in an anisotropic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kai-Feng; Zeng, Xin-Wu

    2011-06-01

    Based on the dual source cumulative rotation technique in the time-domain proposed by Zeng and MacBeth (1993), a new algebraic processing technique for extracting shear-wave splitting parameters from multi-component VSP data in frequency-dependent medium has been developed. By using this dual source cumulative rotation technique in the frequency-domain (DCTF), anisotropic parameters, including polarization direction of the shear-waves and timedelay between the fast and slow shear-waves, can be estimated for each frequency component in the frequency domain. It avoids the possible error which comes from using a narrow-band filter in the current commonly used method. By using synthetic seismograms, the feasibility and validity of the technique was tested and a comparison with the currently used method was also given. The results demonstrate that the shear-wave splitting parameters frequency dependence can be extracted directly from four-component seismic data using the DCTF. In the presence of larger scale fractures, substantial frequency dependence would be found in the seismic frequency range, which implies that dispersion would occur at seismic frequencies. Our study shows that shear-wave anisotropy decreases as frequency increases.

  12. Hydroethanolic Pistacia atlantica hulls extract improved wound healing process; evidence for mast cells infiltration, angiogenesis and RNA stability.

    PubMed

    Farahpour, Mohammad Reza; Mirzakhani, Navideh; Doostmohammadi, Jamal; Ebrahimzadeh, Mahmood

    2015-05-01

    In Iranian traditional therapy folk, the Pistacia is used for treatment of wound inflammation. Here in the present study, the In vivo effect of Pistacia atlantica hulls ointment (PAO) on the wound healing process was assessed. Excision and incision wounds were induced in rats. Three different doses of PAO were administrated. Following 3, 7, 14 and 21 days, the tissue samples were obtained and skin irritation ratio, hydroxyproline content, as well as immune cells, fibroblasts, fibrocytes distribution and collagen density were analyzed. Moreover, the cellular RNA damage examined using epi-fluorescent microscope. Hydroethanolic extract of PAO significantly (P < 0.05) increased wound contraction percentage and up-regulated hydroxyproline content. The animals in medium and high dose PAO-treated groups exhibited remarkably (P < 0.05) higher fibroblast distribution and significantly (P < 0.05) lower immune cells infiltration. PAO up-regulated mast cells distribution on day 7 and elevated neovascularization in a dose dependent manner. Significantly lower RNA damage was revealed in PAO-treated animals. Our data showed that, PAO shortened the inflammation phase by provoking the fibroblast proliferation. Moreover, PAO enhanced mast cells distribution and infiltration, which in turn promoted the neovascularization. Ultimately, promoted angiogenesis increased RNA stability in different cell types. Thus, Hydroethanolic extract of PAO can be considered as an appropriate compound for wound healing medicine.

  13. Recovery of acetic acid from pre-hydrolysis liquor of hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp production process by reactive extraction with triisooctylamine.

    PubMed

    Yang, G; Jahan, M Sarwar; Ahsan, Laboni; Zheng, Linqiang; Ni, Yonghao

    2013-06-01

    Acetic acid was one of the main compositions of the pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL), which was recovered by reactive extraction with triisooctylamine (TIOA) diluted with decanol. Dilution of TIOA played an important role in extracting acetic acid from the PHL. The recovery of acetic acid from the PHL by TIOA was increased from 10.34% to 66.60% with the dilution of TIOA to 20% by decanol at the HAc to TIOA molar ratio of 1, consequently, the equilibrium distribution coefficient KD increased. The effects of time, temperature and pH on the extraction process were also studied. The extraction process was very fast. The acetic acid extraction decreased from 65.13% to 57.34% with the rise of temperature to 50°C from 20°C. A higher pH increased the dissociation of acetic acid, as a result, decreased acetic acid extraction. The hemicelluloses in the PHL were unaffected on the extraction process of acetic acid.

  14. Method for improving dissolution efficiency in gas-absorption and liquid extraction processes

    DOEpatents

    Kanak, Brant E.; Stephenson, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    This invention is a method for improving dissolution efficiency in processes in which a feed fluid is introduced to a zone where it is contacted with a liquid solvent for preferentially removing a component of the feed and where part of the solvent so contacted undergoes transfer into the feed fluid to saturate the same. It has been found that such transfer significantly impairs dissolution efficiency. In accordance with the invention, an amount of the above-mentioned solvent is added to the feed fluid being introduced to the contact zone, the solvent being added in an amount sufficient to effect reduction or elimination of the above-mentioned transfer. Preferably, the solvent is added to the feed fluid in an amount saturating or supersaturating the feed fluid under the conditions prevailing in the contact zone.

  15. Method for improving dissolution efficiency in gas-absorption and liquid extraction processes. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Kanak, B.E.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1980-01-11

    A method is described for improving dissolution efficiency in processes in which a feed fluid is introduced to a zone where it is contacted with a liquid solvent for preferentially removing a component of the feed and where part of the solvent so contacted undergoes transfer into the feed fluid to saturate the same. It has been found that such transfer significantly impairs dissolution efficiency. In accordance with the invention, an amount of the above-mentioned solvent is added to the feed fluid being introduced to the contact zone, the solvent being added in an amount sufficient to effect reduction or elimination of the above-mentioned transfer. Preferably, the solvent is added to the feed fluid in an amount saturating or supersaturating the feed fluid under the conditions prevailing in the contact zone.

  16. Custom FPGA processing for real-time fetal ECG extraction and identification.

    PubMed

    Torti, E; Koliopoulos, D; Matraxia, M; Danese, G; Leporati, F

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring the fetal cardiac activity during pregnancy is of crucial importance for evaluating fetus health. However, there is a lack of automatic and reliable methods for Fetal ECG (FECG) monitoring that can perform this elaboration in real-time. In this paper, we present a hardware architecture, implemented on the Altera Stratix V FPGA, capable of separating the FECG from the maternal ECG and to correctly identify it. We evaluated our system using both synthetic and real tracks acquired from patients beyond the 20th pregnancy week. This work is part of a project aiming at developing a portable system for FECG continuous real-time monitoring. Its characteristics of reduced power consumption, real-time processing capability and reduced size make it suitable to be embedded in the overall system, that is the first proposed exploiting Blind Source Separation with this technology, to the best of our knowledge.

  17. Surface functionalization of nanofibrillated cellulose extracted from wheat straw: Effect of process parameters.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mandeep; Kaushik, Anupama; Ahuja, Dheeraj

    2016-10-05

    Aggregates of microfibrillated cellulose isolated from wheat straw fibers were subjected to propionylation under different processing conditions of time, temperature and concentration. The treated fibers were then homogenized to obtain surface modified nanofibrillated cellulose. For varying parameters, progress of propionylation and its effects on various characteristics was investigated by FTIR, degree of substitution, elemental analysis, SEM, EDX, TEM, X-ray diffraction, static and dynamic contact angle measurements. Thermal stability of the nanofibrils was also investigated using thermogravimetric technique. FTIR analysis confirmed the propionylation of the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose fibers. The variations in reaction conditions such as time and temperature had shown considerable effect on degree of substitution (DS) and surface contact angle (CA). These characterization results represent the optimizing conditions under which cellulose nanofibrils with hydrophobic characteristics up to contact angle of 120° can be obtained.

  18. Process Optimization for Solid Extraction, Flavor Improvement and Fat Removal in the Production of Soymilk From Full Fat Soy Flakes

    SciTech Connect

    Prawiradjaja, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally soymilk has been made with whole soybeans; however, there are other alternative raw ingredients for making soymilk, such as soy flour or full-fat soy flakes. US markets prefer soymilk with little or no beany flavor. modifying the process or using lipoxygenase-free soybeans can be used to achieve this. Unlike the dairy industry, fat reduction in soymilk has been done through formula modification instead of by conventional fat removal (skimming). This project reports the process optimization for solids and protein extraction, flavor improvement and fat removal in the production of 5, 8 and 12 °Brix soymilk from full fat soy flakes and whole soybeans using the Takai soymilk machine. Proximate analyses, and color measurement were conducted in 5, 8 and 12 °Brix soymilk. Descriptive analyses with trained panelists (n = 9) were conducted using 8 and 12 °Brix lipoxygenase-free and high protein blend soy flake soymilks. Rehydration of soy flakes is necessary to prevent agglomeration during processing and increase extractability. As the rehydration temperature increases from 15 to 50 to 85 C, the hexanal concentration was reduced. Enzyme inactivation in soy flakes milk production (measured by hexanal levels) is similar to previous reports with whole soybeans milk production; however, shorter rehydration times can be achieved with soy flakes (5 to 10 minutes) compared to whole beans (8 to 12 hours). Optimum rehydration conditions for a 5, 8 and 12 °Brix soymilk are 50 C for 5 minutes, 85 C for 5 minutes and 85 C for 10 minutes, respectively. In the flavor improvement study of soymilk, the hexanal date showed differences between undeodorized HPSF in contrast to triple null soymilk and no differences between deodorized HPSF in contrast to deodorized triple null. The panelists could not differentiate between the beany, cereal, and painty flavors. However, the panelists responded that the overall aroma of deodorized 8 °Brix triple null and HPSF soymilk are

  19. Laboratory-Scale Bismuth Phosphate Extraction Process Simulation To Track Fate of Fission Products

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R. JEFFREY; Lindberg, Michael J.; Jones, Thomas E.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2007-02-28

    Recent field investigation that collected and characterized vadose zone sediments from beneath inactive liquid disposal facilities at the Hanford 200 Areas show lower than expected concentrations of a long-term risk driver, Tc-99. Therefore laboratory studies were performed to re-create one of the three processes that were used to separate the plutonium from spent fuel and that created most of the wastes disposed or currently stored in tanks at Hanford. The laboratory simulations were used to compare with current estimates based mainly on flow sheet estimates and spotty historical data. Three simulations of the bismuth phosphate precipitation process show that less that 1% of the Tc-99, Cs-135/137, Sr-90, I-129 carry down with the Pu product and thus these isotopes should have remained within the metals waste streams that after neutralization were sent to single shell tanks. Conversely, these isotopes should not be expected to be found in the first and subsequent cycle waste streams that went to cribs. Measurable quantities (~20 to 30%) of the lanthanides, yttrium, and trivalent actinides (Am and Cm) do precipitate with the Pu product, which is higher than the 10% estimate made for current inventory projections. Surprisingly, Se (added as selenate form) also shows about 10% association with the Pu/bismuth phosphate solids. We speculate that the incorporation of some Se into the bismuth phosphate precipitate is caused by selenate substitution into crystal lattice sites for the phosphate. The bulk of the U daughter product Th-234 and Np-237 daughter product Pa-233 also associate with the solids. We suspect that the Pa daughter products of U (Pa-234 and Pa-231) would also co-precipitate with the bismuth phosphate induced solids. No more than 1 % of the Sr-90 and Sb-125 should carry down with the Pu product that ultimately was purified. Thus the current scheme used to estimate where fission products end up being disposed overestimates by one order of magnitude the

  20. Linking attentional processes and conceptual problem solving: visual cues facilitate the automaticity of extracting relevant information from diagrams.

    PubMed

    Rouinfar, Amy; Agra, Elise; Larson, Adam M; Rebello, N Sanjay; Loschky, Lester C

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated links between visual attention processes and conceptual problem solving. This was done by overlaying visual cues on conceptual physics problem diagrams to direct participants' attention to relevant areas to facilitate problem solving. Participants (N = 80) individually worked through four problem sets, each containing a diagram, while their eye movements were recorded. Each diagram contained regions that were relevant to solving the problem correctly and separate regions related to common incorrect responses. Problem sets contained an initial problem, six isomorphic training problems, and a transfer problem. The cued condition saw visual cues overlaid on the training problems. Participants' verbal responses were used to determine their accuracy. This study produced two major findings. First, short duration visual cues which draw attention to solution-relevant information and aid in the organizing and integrating of it, facilitate both immediate problem solving and generalization of that ability to new problems. Thus, visual cues can facilitate re-representing a problem and overcoming impasse, enabling a correct solution. Importantly, these cueing effects on problem solving did not involve the solvers' attention necessarily embodying the solution to the problem, but were instead caused by solvers attending to and integrating relevant information in the problems into a solution path. Second, this study demonstrates that when such cues are used across multiple problems, solvers can automatize the extraction of problem-relevant information extraction. These results suggest that low-level attentional selection processes provide a necessary gateway for relevant information to be used in problem solving, but are generally not sufficient for correct problem solving. Instead, factors that lead a solver to an impasse and to organize and integrate problem information also greatly facilitate arriving at correct solutions.

  1. Historic Frontier Processes active in Future Space-Based Mineral Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, D. M.

    2000-01-01

    The forces that shaped historic mining frontiers are in many cases not bound by geographic or temporal limits. The forces that helped define historic frontiers are active in today's physical and virtual frontiers, and will be present in future space-based frontiers. While frontiers derived from position and technology are primarily economic in nature, non-economic conditions affect the success or failure of individual frontier endeavors, local "mining camps" and even entire frontiers. Frontiers can be defined as the line of activity that divides the established markets and infrastructure of civilization from the unclaimed resources and potential wealth of a wilderness. At the frontier line, ownership of resources is established. The resource can then be developed using capital, energy and information. In a mining setting, the resource is concentrated for economic shipment to the markets of civilization. Profits from the sale of the resource are then used to fund further development of the resource and/or pay investors. Both positional and technical frontiers develop as a series of generations. The profits from each generation of development provides the capital and/or investment incentive for the next round of development. Without profit, the self-replicating process of frontiers stops.

  2. Microbiological quality of honey from the Pampas Region (Argentina) throughout the extraction process.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Leticia A; Ghilardi, Carolina; Hoffmann, Betiana; Busso, Carlos; Gallez, Liliana M

    2016-12-16

    The microbiological quality of honey obtained from different processing points and the environmental quality within honey houses were assessed in the Pampas Region (Argentina). Mold and yeast (MY), culturable heterotrophic mesophilic bacteria (CHMB), the number of spore-forming bacteria as well as the presence of Shigella spp., Salmonella spp. and fecal coliforms were evaluated in 163 samples. These samples were taken from eight honey houses. Results showed that 89 samples had ≤10CFU of MY/g honey, 69 ranged from 10 to 50CFU/g and two reached 65.5CFU/g. Eighty one percent of the samples showed ≤30CFU of CHMB/g honey and only seven samples had between 50 and 54.25CFU/g. Thirty six honey samples were obtained from drums: in 25 samples (69.4%) CHMB counts were less than ≤30CFU/g of honey; in 20 samples (55.5%) the values of MY were between 10 and 50CFU/g honey and total coliforms were only detected in 20 samples. Fecal coliforms, spores of clostridia as well as Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp were not detected and less than 50 spores of Bacillus spp. per g were observed in the honey from drums. Therefore, the microbiological honey quality within the honey houses did not show any sanitary risks. Our results were reported to honey house owners to help them understand the need to reinforce proper honey handling and sanitation practices.

  3. A comparison of DNA collection and retrieval from two swab types (cotton and nylon flocked swab) when processed using three QIAGEN extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Brownlow, Robert J; Dagnall, Kathryn E; Ames, Carole E

    2012-05-01

    The Metropolitan Police Service currently uses cotton swabs to retrieve DNA for forensic profiling. Recently, a new nylon flocked swab type has become available from Copan (MicroRheologics, Brescia, Italy) that it is claimed, offers increased sample recovery and release yields. If true, the flocked swab may have important applications in DNA evidence retrieval. This study examines the DNA retrieval capability of cotton and nylon flocked swabs when extracted using three common extraction platforms (QIAcube, BioRobot EZ1 and manually processed QIAamp DNA investigator kit). Results indicate that both swab types are capable of recovering high percentages of DNA (>50%); however, the extraction platform selected was shown to have a significant effect upon DNA retrieval. Across all experiments, the cotton swab combined with the spin-column extractions was shown to be most effective, with the nylon swab and BioRobot EZ1 combination being the least effective. These findings illustrate the importance of extraction method selection.

  4. ADM1-based modeling of methane production from acidified sweet sorghum extract in a two stage process.

    PubMed

    Antonopoulou, Georgia; Gavala, Hariklia N; Skiadas, Ioannis V; Lyberatos, Gerasimos

    2012-02-01

    The present study focused on the application of the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 on the methane production from acidified sorghum extract generated from a hydrogen producing bioreactor in a two-stage anaerobic process. The kinetic parameters for hydrogen and volatile fatty acids consumption were estimated through fitting of the model equations to the data obtained from batch experiments. The simulation of the continuous reactor performance at all HRTs tested (20, 15, and 10d) was very satisfactory. Specifically, the largest deviation of the theoretical predictions against the experimental data was 12% for the methane production rate at the HRT of 20d while the deviation values for the 15 and 10d HRT were 1.9% and 1.1%, respectively. The model predictions regarding pH, methane percentage in the gas phase and COD removal were in very good agreement with the experimental data with a deviation less than 5% for all steady states. Therefore, the ADM1 is a valuable tool for process design in the case of a two-stage anaerobic process as well.

  5. Extraction and purification of high added value compounds from by-products of the winemaking chain using alternative/non-conventional processes/technologies.

    PubMed

    Yammine, Sami; Brianceau, Sylène; Manteau, Sébastien; Turk, Mohammad; Ghidossi, Rémy; Vorobiev, Eugène; Mietton-Peuchot, Martine

    2016-12-21

    Grape byproducts are today considered as a cheap source of valuable compounds since existent technologies allow the recovery of target compounds and their recycling. The goal of the current article is to explore the different recovery stages used by both conventional and alternative techniques and processes. Alternative pre-treatments techniques reviewed are: ultrasounds, pulsed electric fields and high voltage discharges. Additionally, non-conventional solvent extraction under high pressure, specifically, supercritical fluid extraction and subcritical water extraction are discussed. Finally alternative purification technologies, for example membrane processing were also examined. The intent is to describe the mechanisms involved by these alternative technologies and to summarize the work done on the improvement of the extraction process of phenolic compounds from winery by-products. With a focus on the developmental stage of each technology, highlighting the research need and challenges to be overcome for an industrial implementation of these unitary operations in the overall extraction process. A critical comparison of conventional and alternative techniques will be reviewed for ethe pre-treatment of raw material, the diffusion of polyphenols and the purification of these high added value compounds. This review intends to give the reader some key answers (costs, advantages, drawbacks) to help in the choice of alternative technologies for extraction purposes.

  6. Fundamental studies of the plasma extraction and ion beam formation processes in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Hongsen

    1995-02-10

    The fundamental and practical aspects are described for extracting ions from atmospheric pressure plasma sources into an analytical mass spectrometer. Methodologies and basic concepts of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are emphasized in the discussion, including ion source, sampling interface, supersonic expansion, slumming process, ion optics and beam focusing, and vacuum considerations. Some new developments and innovative designs are introduced. The plasma extraction process in ICP-MS was investigated by Langmuir measurements in the region between the skimmer and first ion lens. Electron temperature (Te) is in the range 2000--11000 K and changes with probe position inside an aerosol gas flow. Electron density (ne) is in the range 108--1010 -cm at the skimmer tip and drops abruptly to 106--108 cm-3 near the skimmer tip and drops abruptly to 106--108 cm-3 downstream further behind the skimmer. Electron density in the beam leaving the skimmer also depends on water loading and on the presence and mass of matrix elements. Axially resolved distributions of electron number-density and electron temperature were obtained to characterize the ion beam at a variety of plasma operating conditions. The electron density dropped by a factor of 101 along the centerline between the sampler and skimmer cones in the first stage and continued to drop by factors of 104--105 downstream of skimmer to the entrance of ion lens. The electron density in the beam expansion behind sampler cone exhibited a 1/z2 intensity fall-off (z is the axial position). An second beam expansion originated from the skimmer entrance, and the beam flow underwent with another 1/z2 fall-off behind the skimmer. Skimmer interactions play an important role in plasma extraction in the ICP-MS instrument.

  7. Value-Added Processing of Peanut Skins: Antioxidant Capacity,Total Phenolics,and Procyanidin Content of Spray Dried Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore a potential use for peanut skins as a functional food ingredient, milled skins were extracted with 70% ethanol, separated into a soluble extract and insoluble material by filtration, and spray dried with or without the addition of maltodextrin. Peanut skin extracts had high levels of proc...

  8. Value-Added Processing of Peanut Skins: Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolics, and Procyanidin Content of Spray Dried Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore a potential use for peanut skins as a functional food ingredient, milled skins were extracted with 70% ethanol, separated into a soluble extract and insoluble material by filtration, and spray dried with or without the addition of maltodextrin. Peanut skin extracts had high levels of proc...

  9. A process for the aqueous enzymatic extraction of corn oil from dry-milled corn germ and enzymatic wet milled corn germ (E-Germ)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we reported an aqueous enzymatic oil extraction process that achieved oil yields of 80-90% using corn germ from a commercial corn wet mill. Three commercial cellulases were reported to result in similar oil yields when wet milles corn germ was used as a feedstock in this process. When ...

  10. An approach for extraction of kernel oil from Pinus pumila using homogenate-circulating ultrasound in combination with an aqueous enzymatic process and evaluation of its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengli; Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Huiyan; Yang, Lei

    2016-11-04

    In this study, a novel approach involving homogenate-circulating ultrasound in combination with aqueous enzymatic extraction (H-CUAEE) was developed for extraction of kernel oil from Pinus pumila. Following comparison of enzyme types and concentrations, an enzyme mixture consisting of cellulase, pectinase and hemicellulase (1:1:1, w/w/w) at a concentration of 2.5% was selected and applied for effective oil extraction and release. Several variables potentially influencing extraction yields, namely, homogenization time, incubation temperature, incubation time, mark-space ratio of ultrasound irradiation, ultrasound irradiation power, liquid-solid ratio, pH and stirring rate, were optimized by Plackett-Burman design. Among the eight variables, incubation temperature, incubation time and liquid-solid ratio were statistically significant and were further optimized by Box-Behnken design to predict optimum extraction conditions and ascertain operability ranges for maximum extraction yield. Under optimum operating conditions, extraction yields of P. pumila kernel oil were 31.89±1.12% with a Δ5-unsaturated polymethylene interrupted fatty acid content of 20.07% and an unsaturated fatty acid content of 93.47%. Our study results indicate that the proposed H-CUAEE process has enormous potential for efficient and environmentally friendly extraction of edible oils.

  11. Using human sweat to extract chromium from chromite ore processing residue: applications to setting health-based cleanup levels.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, S B; Finley, B L

    1993-12-01

    Chromite ore processing residue (COPR) containing measurable levels of hexavalent and trivalent chromium. [Cr(VI) and Cr(III), respectively] has been used to fill in low-lying areas in Hudson County, N.J. While it has been demonstrated that direct dermal contact with solutions containing Cr(VI) may elicit allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in previously sensitized individuals, it is unknown to what degree skin moisture may solubilize Cr(VI) from COPR adhering to skin. An accurate estimate of this extraction potential is necessary to establish COPR concentrations of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) that are protective of eliciting ACD in sensitized individuals. The purpose of this study was to measure the extractable fraction of Cr(VI) and total chromium [Cr(III) and Cr(VI)] in soils impacted by COPR using human sweat as the extractant. Human sweat was collected from seven male volunteers. Samples of COPR material containing the following Cr(VI) and total chromium concentrations were collected: Cr(VI), 16, 136, and 1240 ppm; total chromium, 932 and 6660 ppm. The samples were sieved to obtain a uniform particle size < 500 microns. The samples were then mixed with human sweat at 30 degrees C for 12 h, after which the sweat was filtered and analyzed to determine the dissolved concentration of Cr(VI) and total chromium. The data from these analyses show that no detectable levels (limit of detection = 0.010 ppm) of Cr(VI) were leached from COPR containing 16 ppm Cr(VI). At Cr(VI) concentrations of 136 and 1240 ppm, less than 0.1% of the Cr(VI) present in the COPR sample was extracted into sweat, and sweat concentrations were 0.133 ppm Cr(VI) or less. Similarly, the amount of Crtotal extracted was 0.3% or less at COPR concentrations as high as 6600 ppm Crtotal, and sweat concentrations were 2.3 ppm Crtotal or less. If a minimum concentration of 10 ppm (Bagdon and Hazen, 1991) to 54 ppm (Paustenbach et al., 1992) Cr(VI) in sweat is required to elicit an ACD response in chromium

  12. Downstream processing of virus-like particles: single-stage and multi-stage aqueous two-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Ladd Effio, Christopher; Wenger, Lukas; Ötes, Ozan; Oelmeier, Stefan A; Kneusel, Richard; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2015-02-27

    The demand for vaccines against untreated diseases has enforced the research and development of virus-like particle (VLP) based vaccine candidates in recent years. Significant progress has been made in increasing VLP titres during upstream processing in bacteria, yeast and insect cells. Considering downstream processing, the separation of host cell impurities is predominantly achieved by time-intensive ultracentrifugation processes or numerous chromatography and filtration steps. In this work, we evaluate the potential of an alternative separation technology for VLPs: aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE). The benefits of ATPE have been demonstrated for various biomolecules, but capacity and separation efficiency were observed to be low for large biomolecules such as VLPs or viruses. Both performance parameters were examined in detail in a case study on human B19 parvovirus-like particles derived from Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cells. A solubility-guided approach enabled the design of polyethylene (PEG) salt aqueous two-phase systems with a high capacity of up to 4.1mg/mL VLPs. Unique separation efficiencies were obtained by varying the molecular weight of PEG, the pH value and by using neutral salt additives. Further improvement of the separation of host cell impurities was achieved by multi-stage ATPE on a centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) device in 500mL scale. While single-stage ATPE enabled a DNA clearance of 99.6%, multi-stage ATPE improved the separation of host cell proteins (HCPs). The HPLC purity ranged from 16.8% (100% VLP recovery) for the single-stage ATPE to 69.1% (40.1% VLP recovery) for the multi-stage ATPE. An alternative two-step downstream process is presented removing the ATPS forming polymer, cell debris and 99.77% DNA with a HPLC purity of 90.6% and a VLP recovery of 63.9%.

  13. Intramembranous bone healing process subsequent to tooth extraction in mice: micro-computed tomography, histomorphometric and molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Andreia Espindola; Repeke, Carlos Eduardo; Ferreira Junior, Samuel de Barros; Colavite, Priscila Maria; Biguetti, Claudia Cristina; Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; Assis, Gerson Francisco; Taga, Rumio; Trombone, Ana Paula Favaro; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue has a significant potential for healing, which involves a significant the interplay between bone and immune cells. While fracture healing represents a useful model to investigate endochondral bone healing, intramembranous bone healing models are yet to be developed and characterized. In this study, a micro-computed tomography, histomorphometric and molecular (RealTimePCRarray) characterization of post tooth-extraction alveolar bone healing was performed on C57Bl/6 WT mice. After the initial clot dominance (0 h), the development of a provisional immature granulation tissue is evident (7 d), characterized by marked cell proliferation, angiogenesis and inflammatory cells infiltration; associated with peaks of growth factors (BMP-2-4-7,TGFβ1,VEGFa), cytokines (TNFα, IL-10), chemokines & receptors (CXCL12, CCL25, CCR5, CXCR4), matrix (Col1a1-2, ITGA4, VTN, MMP1a) and MSCs (CD105, CD106, OCT4, NANOG, CD34, CD146) markers expression. Granulation tissue is sequentially replaced by more mature connective tissue (14 d), characterized by inflammatory infiltrate reduction along the increased bone formation, marked expression of matrix remodeling enzymes (MMP-2-9), bone formation/maturation (RUNX2, ALP, DMP1, PHEX, SOST) markers, and chemokines & receptors associated with healing (CCL2, CCL17, CCR2). No evidences of cartilage cells or tissue were observed, strengthening the intramembranous nature of bone healing. Bone microarchitecture analysis supports the evolving healing, with total tissue and bone volumes as trabecular number and thickness showing a progressive increase over time. The extraction socket healing process is considered complete (21 d) when the dental socket is filled by trabeculae bone with well-defined medullary canals; it being the expression of mature bone markers prevalent at this period. Our data confirms the intramembranous bone healing nature of the model used, revealing parallels between the gene expression profile and the

  14. Intramembranous Bone Healing Process Subsequent to Tooth Extraction in Mice: Micro-Computed Tomography, Histomorphometric and Molecular Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Andreia Espindola; Repeke, Carlos Eduardo; Ferreira Junior, Samuel de Barros; Colavite, Priscila Maria; Biguetti, Claudia Cristina; Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; Assis, Gerson Francisco; Taga, Rumio; Trombone, Ana Paula Favaro; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue has a significant potential for healing, which involves a significant the interplay between bone and immune cells. While fracture healing represents a useful model to investigate endochondral bone healing, intramembranous bone healing models are yet to be developed and characterized. In this study, a micro-computed tomography, histomorphometric and molecular (RealTimePCRarray) characterization of post tooth-extraction alveolar bone healing was performed on C57Bl/6 WT mice. After the initial clot dominance (0h), the development of a provisional immature granulation tissue is evident (7d), characterized by marked cell proliferation, angiogenesis and inflammatory cells infiltration; associated with peaks of growth factors (BMP-2-4-7,TGFβ1,VEGFa), cytokines (TNFα, IL-10), chemokines & receptors (CXCL12, CCL25, CCR5, CXCR4), matrix (Col1a1-2, ITGA4, VTN, MMP1a) and MSCs (CD105, CD106, OCT4, NANOG, CD34, CD146) markers expression. Granulation tissue is sequentially replaced by more mature connective tissue (14d), characterized by inflammatory infiltrate reduction along the increased bone formation, marked expression of matrix remodeling enzymes (MMP-2-9), bone formation/maturation (RUNX2, ALP, DMP1, PHEX, SOST) markers, and chemokines & receptors associated with healing (CCL2, CCL17, CCR2). No evidences of cartilage cells or tissue were observed, strengthening the intramembranous nature of bone healing. Bone microarchitecture analysis supports the evolving healing, with total tissue and bone volumes as trabecular number and thickness showing a progressive increase over time. The extraction socket healing process is considered complete (21d) when the dental socket is filled by trabeculae bone with well-defined medullary canals; it being the expression of mature bone markers prevalent at this period. Our data confirms the intramembranous bone healing nature of the model used, revealing parallels between the gene expression profile and the histomorphometric

  15. The Powdering Process with a Set of Ceramic Mills for Green Tea Promoted Catechin Extraction and the ROS Inhibition Effect.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Kouki; Iwamoto, Takeo; Shima, Hidekazu; Tomaru, Keiko; Saito, Hideki; Ohtsuka, Masaki; Yoshidome, Akihiro; Kawamura, Yuri; Manome, Yoshinobu

    2016-04-11

    For serving green tea, there are two prominent methods: steeping the leaf or the powdered leaf (matcha style) in hot water. The purpose of the present study was to reveal chemical and functional differences before and after the powdering process of green tea leaf, since powdered green tea may contribute to expanding the functionality because of the different ingesting style. In this study, we revealed that the powdering process with a ceramic mill and stirring in hot water increased the average extracted concentration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) by more than three times compared with that in leaf tea using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses. Moreover, powdered green tea has a higher inhibition effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in vitro compared with the same amount of leaf tea. Our data suggest that powdered green tea might have a different function from leaf tea due to the higher catechin contents and particles.

  16. Characterization and Application of Superlig 620 Solid Phase Extraction Resin for Automated Process Monitoring of 90Sr

    SciTech Connect

    Devol, Timothy A.; Clements, John P.; Farawila, Anne F.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Egorov, Oleg; Grate, Jay W.

    2009-11-30

    Characterization of SuperLig® 620 solid phase extraction resin was performed in order to develop an automated on-line process monitor for 90Sr. The main focus was on strontium separation from barium, with the goal of developing an automated separation process for 90Sr in high-level wastes. High-level waste contains significant 137Cs activity, of which 137mBa is of great concern as an interference to the quantification of strontium. In addition barium, yttrium and plutonium were studied as potential interferences to strontium uptake and detection. A number of complexants were studied in a series of batch Kd experiments, as SuperLig® 620 was not previously known to elute strontium in typical mineral acids. The optimal separation was found using a 2M nitric acid load solution with a strontium elution step of ~0.49M ammonium citrate and a barium elution step of ~1.8M ammonium citrate. 90Sr quantification of Hanford high-level tank waste was performed on a sequential injection analysis microfluidics system coupled to a flow-cell detector. The results of the on-line procedure are compared to standard radiochemical techniques in this paper.

  17. Fractionation of yeast extract by nanofiltration process to assess key compounds involved in CHO cell culture improvement.

    PubMed

    Mosser, Mathilde; Kapel, Romain; Chevalot, Isabelle; Olmos, Eric; Marc, Ivan; Marc, Annie; Oriol, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Yeast extract (YE) is known to greatly enhance mammalian cell culture performances, but its undefined composition decreases process reliability. Accordingly, in the present study, the nature of YE compounds involved in the improvement of recombinant CHO cell growth and IgG production was investigated. First, the benefits of YE were verified, revealing that it increased maximal concentrations of viable cells and IgG up to 73 and 60%, respectively compared to a reference culture. Then, the analyses of YE composition highlighted the presence of molecules such as amino acids, vitamins, salts, nucleobase, and glucose that were contained in reference medium, while others including peptides, trehalose, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids were not. Consequently, YE was fractionated by a nanofiltration process to deeper evaluate its effects on CHO cell cultures. The YE molecules already contained in reference medium were mainly isolated in the permeate fraction together with trehalose and short peptides, while other molecules were concentrated in the retentate. Permeate, which was free of macromolecules, exhibited a similar positive effect than raw YE on maximal concentrations. Additional studies on cell energetic metabolism underlined that dipeptides and tripeptides in permeate were used as an efficient source of nitrogenous substrates.

  18. Processing Effects on the Antioxidant Activities of Beverage Blends Developed from Cyperus esculentus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Moringa oleifera Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Badejo, Adebanjo A.; Damilare, Akintoroye; Ojuade, Temitope D.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of bioactive compounds in foods has changed the dietary lifestyle of many people. Cyperus esculentus (tigernut) is highly underutilized in Africa, yet tigernut extract is highly profitable in Europe. This study aims to add value to tigernut extract by revealing its health benefits and food value. In this study, tigernut tubers were germinated or roasted and the extracts were combined with Moringa oleifera extract (MOE) or Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) and spiced with ginger to produce functional drinks. The drinks were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics, sensory parameters, and antioxidant potentials. The total phenolic content of each beverage was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the antioxidant activity of each beverage was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assays. The beverages from the germinated tigernut extracts had the highest titratable acidity and the lowest pH, while beverages containing the roasted tigernut extract had the highest ∘Brix. Germination and roasting significantly enhanced the total phenolic content of the drinks. The beverage containing HSE and germinated tigernut extract had a total phenolic content of 45.67 mg/100 mL gallic acid equivalents, which was significantly higher than the total phenolic content of all other samples. The DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with germinated tigernut extracts was significantly higher than the DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with fresh tigernut extract. The taste and overall acceptability of drinks containing the roasted tigernut extract were preferred, while the color and appearance of drinks with the germinated samples were preferred. Roasting or germinating tigernuts before extraction and addition of MOE or HSE extracts is another way to add value and enhance the utilization of tigernuts. PMID:25320721

  19. "Solvent-free" ultrasound-assisted extraction of lipids from fresh microalgae cells: a green, clean and scalable process.

    PubMed

    Adam, Fanny; Abert-Vian, Maryline; Peltier, Gilles; Chemat, Farid

    2012-06-01

    In order to comply with criteria of green chemistry concepts and sustainability, a new procedure has been performed for solvent-free ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) to extract lipids from fresh Nannochloropsis oculata biomass. Through response surface methodology (RSM) parameters affecting the oil recovery were optimized. Optimum conditions for oil extraction were estimated as follows: (i) 1000 W ultrasonic power, (ii) 30 min extraction time and (iii) biomass dry weight content at 5%. Yields were calculated by the total fatty acids methyl esters amounts analyzed by GC-FID-MS. The maximum oil recovery was around 0.21%. This value was compared with the one obtained with the conventional extraction method (Bligh and Dyer). Furthermore, effect of temperature on the yield was also investigated. The overall results show an innovative and effective extraction method adapted for microalgae oil recovery, without using solvent and with an enable scaling up.

  20. Influence of pH on hydrothermal treatment of swine manure: Impact on extraction of nitrogen and phosphorus in process water.

    PubMed

    Ekpo, U; Ross, A B; Camargo-Valero, M A; Fletcher, L A

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the influence of pH on extraction of nitrogen and phosphorus from swine manure following hydrothermal treatment. Conditions include thermal hydrolysis (TH) at 120°C and 170°C, and hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) at 200°C and 250°C in either water alone or in the presence of 0.1M NaOH, H2SO4, CH3COOH or HCOOH. Phosphorus extraction is pH and temperature dependent and is enhanced under acidic conditions. The highest level of phosphorus is extracted using H2SO4 reaching 94% at 170°C. The phosphorus is largely retained in the residue for all other conditions. The extraction of nitrogen is not as significantly influenced by pH, although the maximum N extraction is achieved using H2SO4. A significant level of organic-N is extracted into the process waters following hydrothermal treatment. The results indicate that operating hydrothermal treatment in the presence of acidic additives has benefits in terms of improving the extraction of phosphorus and nitrogen.

  1. Antioxidant and type 2 diabetes related functional properties of phytic acid extract from Kenyan local food ingredients: effects of traditional processing methods.

    PubMed

    Kunyanga, Catherine N; Imungi, Jasper K; Okoth, Michael W; Biesalski, Hans K; Vadivel, Vellingiri

    2011-01-01

    Emerging scientific evidences reveal that phytic acid has several positive effects on human health. The antioxidant and type 2 diabetes related enzyme inhibition properties of phytic acid extract prepared from raw and traditionally processed local grains and vegetables collected from Kenya were evaluated. Phytic acid content of raw grains and vegetables ranged between 2.81-3.01 and 0.29-3.23 g/100 g DM, respectively. The phytic acid extract from raw samples revealed 59%-89% of DPPH radical scavenging capacity, 27-3,526 mmol Fe(II)/g extract of reducing power, 20%-72% of α-amylase inhibition activity and 8%-91% of α-glucosidase inhibition activity. Cooking and roasting improved the antioxidant and health relevant functionality of phytic acid extracts obtained from Kenyan local vegetables and grains, respectively.

  2. Characterization of Key Aroma Compounds in Raw and Thermally Processed Prawns and Thermally Processed Lobsters by Application of Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mall, Veronika; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-08-24

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to an aroma distillate of blanched prawn meat (Litopenaeus vannamei) (BPM) revealed 40 odorants in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to 1024. The highest FD factors were assigned to 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. To understand the influence of different processing conditions on odorant formation, fried prawn meat was investigated by means of AEDA in the same way, revealing 31 odorants with FD factors between 4 and 2048. Also, the highest FD factors were determined for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, followed by 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. As a source of the typical marine, sea breeze-like odor attribute of the seafood, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole was identified in raw prawn meat as one of the contributors. Additionally, the aroma of blanched prawn meat was compared to that of blanched Norway and American lobster meat, respectively (Nephrops norvegicus and Homarus americanus). Identification experiments revealed the same set of odorants, however, with differing FD factors. In particular, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone was found as the key aroma compound in blanched Norway lobster, whereas American lobster contained 3-methylindole with a high FD factor.

  3. Extraction of convective cloud parameters from Doppler Weather Radar MAX(Z) product using Image Processing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, M. S.; Puli, Anil; Anuradha, B.

    2016-07-01

    In the present work continuous extraction of convective cloud optical information and reflectivity (MAX(Z) in dBZ) using online retrieval technique for time series data production from Doppler Weather Radar (DWR) located at Indian Meteorological Department, Chennai has been developed in MATLAB. Reflectivity measurements for different locations within the DWR range of 250 Km radii of circular disc area can be retrieved using this technique. It gives both time series reflectivity of point location and also Range Time Intensity (RTI) maps of reflectivity for the corresponding location. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) developed for the cloud reflectivity is user friendly; it also provides the convective cloud optical information such as cloud base height (CBH), cloud top height (CTH) and cloud optical depth (COD). This technique is also applicable for retrieving other DWR products such as Plan Position Indicator (Z, in dBZ), Plan Position Indicator (Z, in dBZ)-Close Range, Volume Velocity Processing (V, in knots), Plan Position Indicator (V, in m/s), Surface Rainfall Intensity (SRI, mm/hr), Precipitation Accumulation (PAC) 24 hrs at 0300UTC. Keywords: Reflectivity, cloud top height, cloud base, cloud optical depth

  4. Hydrometallurgical Extraction of Vanadium from Mechanically Milled Oil-Fired Fly Ash: Analytical Process Optimization by Using Taguchi Design Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvizi, Reza; Khaki, Jalil Vahdati; Moayed, Mohammad Hadi; Ardani, Mohammad Rezaei

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the Taguchi design method was employed to determine the optimum experimental parameters in extraction of vanadium by NaOH leaching of oil-fired fly. Prior to designed experiments, the raw precipitates were mechanicallly milled using a high-energy planetary ball mill. Experimental parameters were investigated as follows: mechanical milling (MM) times (2 and 5 hours), NaOH (1 and 2 molar concentration) as reaction solution (RS), powder to solution ( P/ S) ratios (100/400 and 100/600 mg/mL), temperature ( T) of reaction system (303 K and 333 K [30 °C and 60 °C]), stirring times (ST) of reaction media (4 and 12 hours), stirring speed (SS) being adjusted to 400 and 600 rpm, and rinsing times (RT) of remained filtrates (1 and 3 hours). Statistical analysis of signal-to-noise ratio followed by analysis of variance was performed in order to estimate the optimum levels and their relative contributions. Data analysis is carried out using L8 orthogonal array consisting of seven parameters each with two levels. The optimum conditions were MM1 (3 hours), RS2 (2 molar NaOH), P/ S2 (100/600 mg/mL), T2 (333 K [60 °C]), ST2 (12 hours), SS1 (400 rpm), and RT1 (1 hour). Finally, from environmental and economical points of view, the process is faster and better organized by employing this analytical design method.

  5. Removing tannins from medicinal plant extracts using an alkaline ethanol precipitation process: a case study of Danshen injection.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xingchu; Li, Yao; Qu, Haibin

    2014-11-14

    The alkaline ethanol precipitation process is investigated as an example of a technique for the removal of tannins extracted from Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma for the manufacture of Danshen injection. More than 90% of the tannins can be removed. However, the recoveries of danshensu, rosmarinic acid, and salvianolic acid B were less than 60%. Total tannin removal increased as the refrigeration temperature decreased or the amount of NaOH solution added increased. Phenolic compound recoveries increased as refrigeration temperature increased or the amount of NaOH solution added decreased. When operated at a low refrigeration temperature, a relative high separation selectivity can be realized. Phenolic compound losses and tannin removal were mainly caused by precipitation. The formation of phenol salts, whose solubility is small in the mixture of ethanol and water used, is probably the reason for the precipitation. A model considering dissociation equilibrium and dissolution equilibrium was established. Satisfactory correlation results were obtained for phenolic compound recoveries and total tannin removal. Two important parameters in the model, which are the water content and pH value of alkaline supernatant, are suggested to be monitored and controlled to obtain high batch-to-batch consistency.

  6. High shunt resistance in polymer solar cells comprising a MoO3 hole extraction layer processed from nanoparticle suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubhan, Tobias; Ameri, Tayebeh; Salinas, Michael; Krantz, Johannes; Machui, Florian; Halik, Marcus; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2011-06-01

    In this report, we present solution processed molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) layers incorporated as hole extraction layer (HEL) in polymer solar cells (PSCs) and demonstrate the replacement of the commonly employed poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):(polystyrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS). MoO3 is known to have excellent electronic properties and to yield more stable devices compared to PEDOT:PSS. We demonstrate fully functional solar cells with up to 65 nm thick MoO3 HEL deposited from a nanoparticle suspension at low temperatures. The PSCs with an active layer comprising a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester and a MoO3 HEL show comparable performance to reference devices with a PEDOT:PSS HEL. The best cells with MoO3 reach a fill factor of 66.7% and power conversion efficiency of 2.92%. Moreover, MoO3 containing solar cells exhibit an excellent shunt behavior with a parallel resistance of above 100 kΩ cm2.

  7. PEACE: pulsar evaluation algorithm for candidate extraction - a software package for post-analysis processing of pulsar survey candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. J.; Stovall, K.; Jenet, F. A.; Martinez, J.; Dartez, L. P.; Mata, A.; Lunsford, G.; Cohen, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Rohr, M.; Flanigan, J.; Walker, A.; Banaszak, S.; Allen, B.; Barr, E. D.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bogdanov, S.; Brazier, A.; Camilo, F.; Champion, D. J.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J.; Desvignes, G.; Ferdman, R. D.; Freire, P.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kaspi, V. M.; Knispel, B.; Kramer, M.; Lazarus, P.; Lynch, R.; Lyne, A.; McLaughlin, M.; Ransom, S.; Scholz, P.; Siemens, X.; Spitler, L.; Stairs, I.; Tan, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; Zhu, W. W.

    2013-07-01

    Modern radio pulsar surveys produce a large volume of prospective candidates, the majority of which are polluted by human-created radio frequency interference or other forms of noise. Typically, large numbers of candidates need to be visually inspected in order to determine if they are real pulsars. This process can be labour intensive. In this paper, we introduce an algorithm called Pulsar Evaluation Algorithm for Candidate Extraction (PEACE) which improves the efficiency of identifying pulsar signals. The algorithm ranks the candidates based on a score function. Unlike popular machine-learning-based algorithms, no prior training data sets are required. This algorithm has been applied to data from several large-scale radio pulsar surveys. Using the human-based ranking results generated by students in the Arecibo Remote Command Center programme, the statistical performance of PEACE was evaluated. It was found that PEACE ranked 68 per cent of the student-identified pulsars within the top 0.17 per cent of sorted candidates, 95 per cent within the top 0.34 per cent and 100 per cent within the top 3.7 per cent. This clearly demonstrates that PEACE significantly increases the pulsar identification rate by a factor of about 50 to 1000. To date, PEACE has been directly responsible for the discovery of 47 new pulsars, 5 of which are millisecond pulsars that may be useful for pulsar timing based gravitational-wave detection projects.

  8. Effect of heat shock on browning-related enzymes in minimally processed iceberg lettuce and crude extracts.

    PubMed

    Martin-Diana, Ana Belen; Rico, Daniel; Barry-Ryan, Catherine; Mulcahy, Jemina; Frias, Jesus; Henehan, Gary T M

    2005-09-01

    The effects of heat shock on PPO and POD activity in minimally processed Iceberg lettuce was examined during storage (10 days). The results were compared with the effect of temperature on crude extracts of these enzymes (in vitro analysis). Fresh-cut lettuce washed at 50 degrees C showed significantly lower PPO and POD activity throughout storage than lettuce washed at 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C. These results were consistent with a sensory analysis in which the panellists found the lowest browning scores in those samples treated at 50 degrees C. When PPO and POD were analysed in vitro, the samples treated at 50 degrees C showed a rapid loss of POD activity and a similar but slower loss of PPO activity in all tissues, while incubation at 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C showed no significant loss of activity. While heat shock did not lead to significant loss of activity it did repress the synthesis of PPO and POD during storage.

  9. Isolation and estimation of the 'aromatic' naphthenic acid content of an oil sands process-affected water extract.

    PubMed

    Jones, David; West, Charles E; Scarlett, Alan G; Frank, Richard A; Rowland, Steven J

    2012-07-20

    The naphthenic acids of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) are said to be important toxicants. The major acids are stated to have alicyclic structures and recently, numerous of these have been identified, but some evidence suggests 'aromatic' acids are also present. The proportions of such acids have not been reported because they exist in so-called supercomplex mixtures with the alicyclic species. Their contribution to the toxicity of OSPW, if any, is therefore unknown. Here we report the use of multidimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS) with polar first dimension and non-polar second dimension GC columns and argentation solid phase extraction, to separate methyl esters of the acids of an OSPW supercomplex, into distinct fractions. A major fraction (ca 70%) was shown to contain acids (methyl esters) previously identified as alicyclic species. Authentic adamantane acid methyl esters were shown to chromatograph in this fraction. This fraction was isolated by argentation solid phase extraction (SPE) by elution with hexane. GC-MS and GC×GC-MS confirmed this to be the major fraction in the original supercomplex containing alicyclic acids (methyl esters). A second fraction shown to contain monoaromatic acids (methyl esters) by GC×GC-MS was unexpectedly abundant (ca 30% relative to the acyclic acids). The naphtheno-aromatic dehydroabietic acid was confirmed by co-injection with an authentic compound and several acids previously tentatively identified as naphtheno-monoaromatics were present. This fraction was isolated by argentation SPE by elution with more polar 5% diethyl ether in hexane. GC-MS and GC×GC-MS confirmed that the fraction represented a significant proportion of the original supercomplex. A further fraction, eluting from the argentation SPE column with more 5% diethyl ether in hexane in the same retention volume as authentic methyl naphthoate, contained, in addition to some of the second fraction, a third, much

  10. Extracting principal diagnosis, co-morbidity and smoking status for asthma research: evaluation of a natural language processing system

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qing T; Goryachev, Sergey; Weiss, Scott; Sordo, Margarita; Murphy, Shawn N; Lazarus, Ross

    2006-01-01

    Background The text descriptions in electronic medical records are a rich source of information. We have developed a Health Information Text Extraction (HITEx) tool and used it to extract key findings for a research study on airways disease. Methods The principal diagnosis, co-morbidity and smoking status extracted by HITEx from a set of 150 discharge summaries were compared to an expert-generated gold standard. Results The accuracy of HITEx was 82% for principal diagnosis, 87% for co-morbidity, and 90% for smoking status extraction, when cases labeled "Insufficient Data" by the gold standard were excluded. Conclusion We consider the results promising, given the complexity of the discharge summaries and the extraction tasks. PMID:16872495

  11. Investigation of end processing and degradation of premature tRNAs and their application to stabilization of in vitro transcripts in wheat germ extract.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Atsushi; Doi, Yasunori

    2015-01-28

    We investigated the end processing and degradation of premature tRNAs in wheat germ extract (WGE), which led to the discovery of end protectors useful for stabilizing an in vitro transcript against various ribonucleases and thereby enhancing its apparent activity in WGE.

  12. Design of the extraction process for terpenes and other volatiles from allspice by solid-phase microextraction and hydrodistillation.

    PubMed

    Bajer, Tomáš; Ligor, Magdalena; Ligor, Tomasz; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2016-02-01

    Methods for the separation and determination of terpenes (mono- and sesqui-) and phenylpropanoids such as eugenol and methyleugenol from samples of allspice berries have been developed. Chromatographic analyses of isolated groups of compounds were carried out by means of gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. A comparison of various types of solid-phase microextraction fibers was performed. The highest yields of terpenes were extracted by polydimethylsiloxane and divinylbenzene/Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fibers (almost the same for these two fibers), approximately twice as much as by Carbowax/divinylbenzene fiber. The highest amounts of monoterpenes were extracted by divinylbenzene/Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber, and the highest amounts of sesquiterpenes were extracted by polydimethylsiloxane fiber. Moreover, the effect of water addition on extraction yields as well as time and temperature of extraction were tested. Aroma profiles of extracts obtained by solid-phase microextraction and essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of allspice berries were compared. The aroma profile of the divinylbenzene/Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber extract was similar to the aroma profile of essential oil. Particular characteristics of volatile allspice matters were presented. The linear retention indices for each compound were calculated.

  13. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  14. Modeling Tidal Stream Energy Extraction and its Effects on Transport Processes in a Tidal Channel and Bay System Using a Three-dimensional Coastal Ocean Model

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-02-28

    This paper presents a numerical modeling study for simulating in-stream tidal energy extraction and assessing its effects on the hydrodynamics and transport processes in a tidal channel and bay system connecting to coastal ocean. A marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) module was implemented in a three-dimensional (3-D) coastal ocean model using the momentum sink approach. The MHK model was validated with the analytical solutions for tidal channels under one-dimensional (1-D) conditions. Model simulations were further carried out to compare the momentum sink approach with the quadratic bottom friction approach. The effects of 3-D simulations on the vertical velocity profile, maximum extractable energy, and volume flux reduction across the channel were investigated through a series of numerical experiments. 3-D model results indicate that the volume flux reduction at the maximum extractable power predicted by the 1-D analytical model or two-dimensional (2-D) depth-averaged numerical model may be overestimated. Maximum extractable energy strongly depends on the turbine hub height in the water column, and which reaches a maximum when turbine hub height is located at mid-water depth. Far-field effects of tidal turbines on the flushing time of the tidal bay were also investigated. Model results demonstrate that tidal energy extraction has a greater effect on the flushing time than volume flux reduction, which could negatively affect the biogeochemical processes in estuarine and coastal waters that support primary productivity and higher forms of marine life.

  15. Transuranic decontamination of nitric acid solutions by the TRUEX solvent extraction process: preliminary development studies. [Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Leonard, R.A.; Steindler, M.J.; Horwitz, E.P.; Basile, L.J.; Diamond, H.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.

    1984-07-01

    This report summarizes the work that has been performed to date at Argonne National Laboratory on the development of the TRUEX process, a solvent extraction process employing a bifunctional organophosphorous reagent in a PUREX process solvent (tributyl phosphate-normal paraffinic hydrocarbons). The purpose of this extraction process is to separate and concentrate transuranic (TRU) elements from nuclear waste. Assessments were made of the use of two TRUEX solvents: one incorporating the well-studied dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate (DHDECMP) and a second incorporating an extractant with superior properties for a 1M HNO/sub 3/ acid feed, octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (O/sub phi/D(IB)CMPO). In this report, conceptual flowsheets for the removal of soluble TRUs from high-level nuclear wastes using these two TRUEX proces solvents are presented, and flowsheet features are discussed in detail. The conceptual flowsheet for TRU-element removal from a PUREX waste by the O/sub phi/D(IB)CMPO-TRUEX process solvent was tested in a bench-scale countercurrent experiment, and results of that experiment are presented and discussed. The conclusion of this study is that the TRUEX process is able to separate TRUs from high-level wastes so that the major portion of the solid waste (approx. 99%) can be classified as non-TRU. Areas where more experimentation is needed are listed at the end of the report. 45 references, 17 figures, 56 tables.

  16. Chemical composition and molecular structure of polysaccharide-protein biopolymer from Durio zibethinus seed: extraction and purification process

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The biological functions of natural biopolymers from plant sources depend on their chemical composition and molecular structure. In addition, the extraction and further processing conditions significantly influence the chemical and molecular structure of the plant biopolymer. The main objective of the present study was to characterize the chemical and molecular structure of a natural biopolymer from Durio zibethinus seed. A size-exclusion chromatography coupled to multi angle laser light-scattering (SEC-MALS) was applied to analyze the molecular weight (Mw), number average molecular weight (Mn), and polydispersity index (Mw/Mn). Results The most abundant monosaccharide in the carbohydrate composition of durian seed gum were galactose (48.6-59.9%), glucose (37.1-45.1%), arabinose (0.58-3.41%), and xylose (0.3-3.21%). The predominant fatty acid of the lipid fraction from the durian seed gum were palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and linolenic acid (C18:2). The most abundant amino acids of durian seed gum were: leucine (30.9-37.3%), lysine (6.04-8.36%), aspartic acid (6.10-7.19%), glycine (6.07-7.42%), alanine (5.24-6.14%), glutamic acid (5.57-7.09%), valine (4.5-5.50%), proline (3.87-4.81%), serine (4.39-5.18%), threonine (3.44-6.50%), isoleucine (3.30-4.07%), and phenylalanine (3.11-9.04%). Conclusion The presence of essential amino acids in the chemical structure of durian seed gum reinforces its nutritional value. PMID:23062269

  17. THE CHEMICAL AND RADIATION RESISTANCE OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIIDE AS ENCOUNTERED IN THE MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.; Herman, D.; Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-30

    Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) is a semicrystalline polymer with excellent engineering plastic properties and suitable processing temperatures. PPS can also be made containing branches (using a trifunctional monomer) and with crosslinked microstructure (when curing the monomer at high temperature in the presence of oxygen). PPS is made from the condensation reaction between para-dichlorobenzene and sodium sulfide with the assistance of a catalyst (to lower the activation barrier). The synthesis conditions for making PPS has evolved since its invention in the 1960's to the optimal conditions developed by the Philips Corporation in the 1970's. The resulting polymer consists of chemically stable molecular moieties such as benzene rings and ether like sulfur linkages between the aromatic rings. Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) is extremely resistant to gamma irradiation, caustic solution, and dilute nitric acid. PPS is the material of construction for the coalescers used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). After applying the equivalent of 3.3 E8 rad (330 Mrad), or the equivalent of 11 years of gamma irradiation (assuming a stripping solution concentration of 7.5 Ci/gal), and several months of exposures to 3M caustic solution and caustic salt simulant, no dimensional changes nor chemical changes were detected in PPS whether the PPS was in fiber form or in a composite with E-glass fibers. However, PPS acts as a media for heterogeneous nucleation. In particular, PPS appears to favor aluminosilicate formation in saturated solutions of aluminum and silicon in caustic environments. Parallel testing, in progress, is examining the stability of PPS when exposed to the new solvent formulation under development for MCU. Preliminary data, after two months of exposure, demonstrates PPS is stable to the new solvent.

  18. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of the Oak Silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) Pupal Oil: process optimization and composition determination.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wen-Juan; Liao, Ai-Mei; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Dong, Zeng; Wei, Zhao-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction of oil from oak silkworm pupae was performed in the present research. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the parameters of SC-CO(2) extraction, including extraction pressure, temperature, time and CO(2) flow rate on the yield of oak silkworm pupal oil (OSPO). The optimal extraction condition for oil yield within the experimental range of the variables researched was at 28.03 MPa, 1.83 h, 35.31 °C and 20.26 L/h as flow rate of CO(2). Under this condition, the oil yield was predicted to be 26.18%. The oak silkworm pupal oil contains eight fatty acids, and is rich in unsaturated fatty acids and α-linolenic acid (ALA), accounting for 77.29% and 34.27% in the total oil respectively.

  19. [Study on process and principle of lactose grinding modification to decrease hygroscopic of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ding-Kun; Zhang, Fang; Lin, Jun-Zhi; Han, Li; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Yang, Ying-Guang; Yang, Ming

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract,with high hygroscopic,was selected as research model, while lactose was selected as modifiers to study the effect of the grinding modification method on the hygroscopic. Subsequently, particle size distribution, scannin electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were adopted for a phase analysis. The results showed that the modified extract, prepared by Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract grinding 5 min with the same amount of lactose UP2, which hygroscopic initial velocity, acceleration, and critical relative humidity moisture were less than that of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract and the mixture dramatically. In addition, compared with the mixture, the size distribution of modified extract was much less, the microstructure was also difference, while the infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were similar with that of lactose. It is the main principle that lactose particle adhered to the surface of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract after grinding mofication to decress the moisture obviously.

  20. PEG-salt aqueous two-phase systems: an attractive and versatile liquid-liquid extraction technology for the downstream processing of proteins and enzymes.

    PubMed

    Glyk, Anna; Scheper, Thomas; Beutel, Sascha

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, there is an increasing demand to establish new feasible, efficient downstream processing (DSP) techniques in biotechnology and related fields. Although several conventional DSP technologies have been widely employed, they are usually expensive and time-consuming and often provide only low recovery yields. Hence, the DSP is one major bottleneck for the commercialization of biological products. In this context, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-salt aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) represent a promising, efficient liquid-liquid extraction technology for the DSP of various biomolecules, such as proteins and enzymes. Furthermore, ATPS can overcome the limitations of traditional DSP techniques and have gained importance for applications in several fields of biotechnology due to versatile advantages over conventional DSP methods, such as biocompatibility, technical simplicity, and easy scale-up potential. In the present review, various practical applications of PEG-salt ATPS are presented to highlight their feasibility to operate as an attractive and versatile liquid-liquid extraction technology for the DSP of proteins and enzymes, thus facilitating the approach of new researchers to this technique. Thereby, single- and multi-stage extraction, several process integration methods, as well as large-scale extraction and purification of proteins regarding technical aspects, scale-up, recycling of process chemicals, and economic aspects are discussed.