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Sample records for extreme site quality

  1. Body Mass Index: Surgical Site Infections and Mortality After Lower Extremity Bypass from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 2005-2007

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Kristina A.; Hamdan, Allen D.; Pomposelli, Frank B.; Wyers, Mark C.; Siracuse, Jeffrey J.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Patients undergoing lower extremity bypass are at high risk for surgical site infections (SSI). We examine lower extremity bypasses by graft origin and body mass index (BMI) classification to analyze differences in postoperative mortality and SSI occurrence. Methods The 2005-2007 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), a multi-institutional risk-adjusted database, was queried to compare perioperative mortality (30-day), overall morbidity, and SSIs after lower extremity arterial bypass for peripheral arterial disease. Bypass was stratified by graft origin as aorto-iliac, femoral, or popliteal. Patient demographics, comorbidities, operative, and post-operative occurrences were analyzed. Results There were 7,595 bypasses performed (1,596 aorto-iliac, 5,483 femoral, and 516 popliteal origin). Mortality was similar regardless of bypass origin (2.8%, 2.4%, & 2.7%, P=.57). Surgical site infections occurred in 11% of overall cases (10%, 11%, & 11%, P=.47). Graft failure was significantly associated with postoperative SSI occurrence (OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.9-3.1, P<.001) as was postoperative sepsis (OR 6.5, 95%CI 5.1-8.3, P<.001). Independent predictors of mortality were age, aorto-iliac bypass origin, underweight, normal weight, or morbid obesity (compared to overweight and obese), end stage renal disease, poor preoperative functional status, preoperative sepsis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypoalbuminemia, and cardiac disease. Independent predictors of SSI were obesity, diabetes, poor preoperative functional status, a history of smoking, and female gender. Conclusions Surgical site infections occur frequently after lower extremity bypass regardless of bypass origin and are associated with early graft failure and sepsis. Obesity predicts postoperative SSI. Mortality risk was greatest in the underweight followed by morbidly obese and normal weight patients, while overweight and mild-moderate obesity were associated with the lowest mortality

  2. Factors associated with surgical site infection after lower extremity bypass in the Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI).

    PubMed

    Kalish, Jeffrey A; Farber, Alik; Homa, Karen; Trinidad, Magdiel; Beck, Adam; Davies, Mark G; Kraiss, Larry W; Cronenwett, Jack L

    2014-11-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is a major source of morbidity after infrainguinal lower extremity bypass (LEB). This study examines processes of care associated with in-hospital SSI after LEB and identifies factors that could potentially be modified to improve outcomes. The Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) registry (2003 to 2012) was queried to identify in-hospital SSI after 7908 consecutive LEB procedures performed by 365 surgeons at 91 academic and community hospitals in 45 states. Variables associated with SSI were identified using multivariable logistic regression and hierarchical clustering. Expected and observed SSI rates were calculated for each hospital. The overall in-hospital SSI rate after LEB was 4.8%. Univariate analysis showed that obesity, dialysis, tissue loss, preoperative ankle-brachial index <0.35, distal target, vein graft conduit, continuous incision for vein harvest, transfusion >2 units of packed red blood cells, procedure time >220 minutes, and estimated blood loss >100 mL were associated with higher SSI rates, whereas chlorhexidine (compared with iodine) skin preparation was protective. Multivariable analysis showed independent predictors of SSI included ankle-brachial index <0.35 (odds ratio [OR], 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-2.30, P < .04), transfusion >2 units (OR, 3.30; 95% CI, 2.17-5.02; P < .001), and procedure time >220 minutes (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.05-4.23; P < .04). Chlorhexidine was protective against SSI (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.35-0.79; P = .002). Stratified analyses based on the presence of tissue loss yielded similar results. Across VQI hospitals, observed SSI rates ranged from 0% to 30%, whereas expected SSI rates adjusted by the four independent predictors ranged from 0% to 7.2%. In-hospital SSI after LEB varies substantially across VQI hospitals. Three modifiable processes of care (transfusion rate, procedure time, and type of skin preparation) were identified and may be

  3. The importance of site quality

    Treesearch

    David L. Graney

    1989-01-01

    Yield and quality of central hardwoods depend greatly on the site. So, first off you should determine the site quality of your land for a variety of tree species. This information will allow you to compare yield and value so you can favor the species best suited for each site. Knowing site quality will help you determine what levels of management intensity and...

  4. European Extremely Large Telescope Site Characterization I: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernin, Jean; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Sarazin, Marc; Vazquez Ramió, Héctor; Varela, Antonia M.; Trinquet, Hervé; Delgado, José Miguel; Jiménez Fuensalida, Jesús; Reyes, Marcos; Benhida, Abdelmajid; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; García Lambas, Diego; Hach, Youssef; Lazrek, M.; Lombardi, Gianluca; Navarrete, Julio; Recabarren, Pablo; Renzi, Victor; Sabil, Mohammed; Vrech, Rubén

    2011-11-01

    The site for the future European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) is already known to be Armazones, near Paranal (Chile). The selection was based on a variety of considerations, with an important one being the quality of the atmosphere for the astronomy planned for the ELT. We present an overview of the characterization of the atmospheric parameters of candidate sites, making use of standard procedures and instruments as carried out within the Framework Programme VI (FP6) of the European Union. We have achieved full characterization of the selected sites for the parameters considered. Further details on adaptive optics results and climatology will be the subject of two forthcoming articles. A summary of the results of the FP6 site-testing campaigns at the different sites is provided.

  5. Air quality and thermal comfort levels under extreme hot weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanastasiou, D. K.; Melas, D.; Kambezidis, H. D.

    2015-01-01

    Meteorological (T and RH values) and air pollution data (PM10, NO2 and O3 concentrations) observed in Athens, Thessaloniki and Volos were analyzed to assess the air quality and the thermal comfort conditions and to study their synergy, when extreme hot weather prevailed in Greece during the period 2001-2010. The identification of a heat wave day was based on the suggestion made by the IPCC to define an extreme weather event. According to it, a heat wave day is detected when the daily maximum hourly temperature value exceeds its 90th percentile. This temperature criterion was applied to the data recorded at the cities center. Air quality was assessed at three sites in Athens (city center, near the city center, suburb), at two sites in Thessaloniki (city center, suburb) and at one site in Volos (city center), while thermal comfort conditions were assessed at the cities center. Mean pollution levels during the heat wave days and the non-heat wave days were calculated in order to examine the impact of the extreme hot weather on air quality. For this purpose, the distributions of the common air quality index and the exceedances of the air quality standards in force during the heat wave days and the non-heat wave days were also studied. Additionally, the variation of the daily maximum hourly value of Thom's discomfort index was studied in order to investigate the effect of extreme hot weather on people's thermal comfort. Moreover, the values of the common air quality index and Thom's discomfort index were comparatively assessed so as to investigate their synergy under extreme hot weather.

  6. Impacts of Extreme Flood Inundation on Bank Filtration Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascott, Matthew; Lapworth, Daniel; Gooddy, Daren; Sage, Robert; Karapanos, Ilias; Ward, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Bank filtration systems are a significant component of global water supply and considered to be vulnerable to climate change. Understanding the resilience and water quality recovery of these systems following severe flooding is critical for effective water resources planning and management under potential future climate change. We provide the first systematic assessment of the recovery in water quality following extreme inundation at a bank filtration site following an extreme (1 in 17 year, duration > 70 days) flood event. During the inundation event, bank filtrate water quality is dominated by rapid direct recharge and floodwater infiltration (fraction of surface water, fSW ˜ 1, high DOC > 140% steady state values (SS), > 1 log increase in micro-organic contaminants, microbial detects and turbidity, low SEC < 90% SS, low nitrate, high DO > 500% SS). A rapid recovery is observed in water quality with most floodwater impacts only observed for 2 - 3 weeks after the flooding event and a return to normal groundwater conditions within 6 weeks (fSW ˜ 0.2 - 0.5, higher nitrate and SEC, lower DOC, organic and microbial detects, DO). Recovery rates are constrained by the hydrogeological setting of the site, the abstraction regime and the water quality trends at site boundary conditions. In this case, increased abstraction rates and a high transmissivity aquifer facilitate rapid water quality recoveries, with longer term trends controlled by background river and groundwater qualities. Temporary reductions in abstraction rates appear to slow water quality recoveries. Water resources planners and managers should consider flexible operating regimes such as the one implemented at this study site if riverbank filtration systems are to be resilient to future inundation events under climate change. Development of a conceptual understanding of hydrochemical boundaries and site hydrogeology through monitoring is required to assess the suitability of a prospective bank filtration

  7. Hanford Site Ecological Quality Profile

    SciTech Connect

    Bilyard, Gordon R.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Tzemos, Spyridon

    2002-02-17

    This report reviews the ecological quality profile methodology and results for the Hanford Site. It covers critical ecological assets and terrestrial resources, those in Columbia River corridor and those threatened and engdangered, as well as hazards and risks to terrestrial resources. The features of a base habitat value profile are explained, as are hazard and ecological quality profiles.

  8. Impacts of extreme flooding on riverbank filtration water quality.

    PubMed

    Ascott, M J; Lapworth, D J; Gooddy, D C; Sage, R C; Karapanos, I

    2016-06-01

    Riverbank filtration schemes form a significant component of public water treatment processes on a global level. Understanding the resilience and water quality recovery of these systems following severe flooding is critical for effective water resources management under potential future climate change. This paper assesses the impact of floodplain inundation on the water quality of a shallow aquifer riverbank filtration system and how water quality recovers following an extreme (1 in 17 year, duration >70 days, 7 day inundation) flood event. During the inundation event, riverbank filtrate water quality is dominated by rapid direct recharge and floodwater infiltration (high fraction of surface water, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) >140% baseline values, >1 log increase in micro-organic contaminants, microbial detects and turbidity, low specific electrical conductivity (SEC) <90% baseline, high dissolved oxygen (DO) >400% baseline). A rapid recovery is observed in water quality with most floodwater impacts only observed for 2-3 weeks after the flooding event and a return to normal groundwater conditions within 6 weeks (lower fraction of surface water, higher SEC, lower DOC, organic and microbial detects, DO). Recovery rates are constrained by the hydrogeological site setting, the abstraction regime and the water quality trends at site boundary conditions. In this case, increased abstraction rates and a high transmissivity aquifer facilitate rapid water quality recoveries, with longer term trends controlled by background river and groundwater qualities. Temporary reductions in abstraction rates appear to slow water quality recoveries. Flexible operating regimes such as the one implemented at this study site are likely to be required if shallow aquifer riverbank filtration systems are to be resilient to future inundation events. Development of a conceptual understanding of hydrochemical boundaries and site hydrogeology through monitoring is required to assess the

  9. Predictors of surgical site infection after open lower extremity revascularization.

    PubMed

    Greenblatt, David Yu; Rajamanickam, Victoria; Mell, Matthew W

    2011-08-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) after open surgery for lower extremity revascularization is a serious complication that may lead to graft infection, prolonged hospitalization, and increased cost. Rates of SSI after revascularization vary widely, with most studies reported from single institutions. The objective of this study was to describe the rate and predictors of SSI after surgery for arterial occlusive disease using national data, and to identify any association between SSI and length of hospital stay, reoperation, graft loss, and mortality. Patients who underwent lower extremity arterial bypass or thromboendarterectomy from 2005-2008 were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) participant use files. Multivariate logistic regression identified predictors of SSI. Odds ratios were adjusted for patient demographics, comorbidities, preoperative laboratory values, and operative factors. The association between SSI and other 30-day outcomes such as mortality and graft failure was determined. Of 12,330 patients who underwent revascularization, 1367 (11.1%) were diagnosed with an SSI within 30 days. Multivariate predictors of SSI included female gender (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.6), obesity (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.8-2.4), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.5), dialysis (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1), preoperative hyponatremia (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.4), and length of operation >4 hours (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.6). SSI was associated with prolonged (>10 days) hospital stay (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4-2.1) and higher rates of 30-day graft loss (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.7-3.1) and reoperation (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 3.1-4.6). SSI was not associated with increased 30-day mortality. SSI is a common complication after open revascularization and is associated with a more than twofold increased risk of early graft loss and reoperation. Several patient and operation-related risk

  10. Site quality relationships for shortleaf pine

    Treesearch

    David L. Graney

    1986-01-01

    Existing information about site quality relationships for shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) in the southeastern United States is reviewed in this paper. Estimates of site quality, whether from direct tree measurements or indirect estimates based on soil and site features, are only local observations for many points on the landscape. To be of value to the land...

  11. Inorganic Nitrogen Cycling in an Extreme Acid Mine Drainage Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnejais, L. H.; Smith, R. L.; Nordstrom, D. K.; Banfield, J. F.

    2006-12-01

    Weathering of the massive sulfide ore body at Iron Mountain, northern California has generated sulfuric acid solutions with pH values ranging from 0.5 to 1, temperatures up to 50°C and high concentrations of toxic metals. Communities of microorganisms catalyze the oxidation of iron and sulfur that generates this extreme environment. The nitrogen requirements of these organisms and the nitrogen cycling within these waters are not understood. By adapting the chemiluminescence detection method of Baeseman (2004) we have constrained the stability of nitrate and nitrite species in acidic, high ferrous iron solutions and have measured a time series of the nitrate concentrations at sites within Iron Mountain. The half-life of nitrite is less than an hour due to reactions with ferrous ions, while nitrate is found at concentrations of up to 10 μM within the mine. By coupling this information with geochemical and microbial community information at each site together with culture enrichment studies using various nitrogen sources we hope to gain insight into the pathways of nitrogen utilization in this extreme environment. References Baeseman, J.L. (2004) Denitrification in acid-impacted mountain stream sediments. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Colorado, Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering.

  12. Upgrading data quality at Superfund sites

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, H.V. III; Holm-Hansen, T.

    1994-12-31

    EPA guidance stresses the importance of the data quality objectives (DQO) process in establishing sampling and analytical requirements at the cleanup of Superfund and other hazardous waste sites. This presentation focuses on the use of existing data for site characterization and methods for upgrading existing data to DQO requirements for the hazard ranking system, baseline risk assessments, and potential remedial actions. Three case studies are presented which evaluate data upgrading in site characterization.

  13. Combined effects of extreme climatic events and elevation on nutritional quality and herbivory of Alpine plants.

    PubMed

    Leingärtner, Annette; Hoiss, Bernhard; Krauss, Jochen; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2014-01-01

    Climatic extreme events can cause the shift or disruption of plant-insect interactions due to altered plant quality, e.g. leaf carbon to nitrogen ratios, and phenology. However, the response of plant-herbivore interactions to extreme events and climatic gradients has been rarely studied, although climatic extremes will increase in frequency and intensity in the future and insect herbivores represent a highly diverse and functionally important group. We set up a replicated climate change experiment along elevational gradients in the German Alps to study the responses of three plant guilds and their herbivory by insects to extreme events (extreme drought, advanced and delayed snowmelt) versus control plots under different climatic conditions on 15 grassland sites. Our results indicate that elevational shifts in CN (carbon to nitrogen) ratios and herbivory depend on plant guild and season. CN ratios increased with altitude for grasses, but decreased for legumes and other forbs. In contrast to our hypotheses, extreme climatic events did not significantly affect CN ratios and herbivory. Thus, our study indicates that nutritional quality of plants and antagonistic interactions with insect herbivores are robust against seasonal climatic extremes. Across the three functional plant guilds, herbivory increased with nitrogen concentrations. Further, increased CN ratios indicate a reduction in nutritional plant quality with advancing season. Although our results revealed no direct effects of extreme climatic events, the opposing responses of plant guilds along elevation imply that competitive interactions within plant communities might change under future climates, with unknown consequences for plant-herbivore interactions and plant community composition.

  14. Air quality in Moscow megacity: basic level and extreme cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratova, N.; Skorokhod, A.; Moiseenko, K.

    2012-04-01

    Moscow is one of the largest megacities in the world. Total annual emissions of polluting substances into the atmosphere in Moscow is likely to be about 2,0 mln. t. More than 90% of pollutants are emitted by traffic. Problem of air quality assessment is very urgent for Moscow both to alarm population and to compare with other world megacities. To study contemporary structure of atmospheric pollution over Moscow megacity data on air composition (including CO, NO, NO2, O3, CH4, CO2, SO2, NMHC, aerosol) obtained since 2002 has been analyzed. The monitoring site is located at Moscow State University meteorological observatory on South-West of Moscow. All observations are provided by A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS. Due to these continuous measurements typical (basic) level of pollution as well as extreme cases have been studied. The relationship between O3, NOx and VOCs were analyzed as well. Due to weather conditions (cyclonic regime is dominated) concentrations of pollutants usually do not reach dangerous levels but sometimes they are high. The case of abnormal hot and dry weather in the summer of 2010 was investigated. Many Russians were suffering from the record-breaking heat and the worst drought in 40 years. The heat was caused by very intensive and stable blocking anticyclone that established in Moscow since June, 18 till August, 18. Anticyclone of such strength has been never observed before. During 33 days in succession surface air temperature exceeded 30°C. During these 2 months troposphere over ETR was almost closed for western winds. Hot weather led to numerous forest and peat fires (about 29,000 cases) with total covered area about 12,000 km2. One of aftermaths was significant change of atmospheric composition. Many cities and settlements were covered by dense haze from fires. Evident presence of high amount of aerosol in the ambient air caused anxiety and application of safeguards. Meanwhile, less obvious increase of concentrations of

  15. NMF-Based Image Quality Assessment Using Extreme Learning Machine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuigen; Deng, Chenwei; Lin, Weisi; Huang, Guang-Bin; Zhao, Baojun

    2017-01-01

    Numerous state-of-the-art perceptual image quality assessment (IQA) algorithms share a common two-stage process: distortion description followed by distortion effects pooling. As for the first stage, the distortion descriptors or measurements are expected to be effective representatives of human visual variations, while the second stage should well express the relationship among quality descriptors and the perceptual visual quality. However, most of the existing quality descriptors (e.g., luminance, contrast, and gradient) do not seem to be consistent with human perception, and the effects pooling is often done in ad-hoc ways. In this paper, we propose a novel full-reference IQA metric. It applies non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) to measure image degradations by making use of the parts-based representation of NMF. On the other hand, a new machine learning technique [extreme learning machine (ELM)] is employed to address the limitations of the existing pooling techniques. Compared with neural networks and support vector regression, ELM can achieve higher learning accuracy with faster learning speed. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed metric has better performance and lower computational complexity in comparison with the relevant state-of-the-art approaches.

  16. An 'extreme' future for estuaries? Effects of extreme climatic events on estuarine water quality and ecology.

    PubMed

    Wetz, Michael S; Yoskowitz, David W

    2013-04-15

    Recent climate observations suggest that extreme climatic events (ECE; droughts, floods, tropical cyclones, heat waves) have increased in frequency and/or intensity in certain world regions, consistent with climate model projections that account for man's influence on the global climate system. A synthesis of existing literature is presented and shows that ECE affect estuarine water quality by altering: (1) the delivery and processing of nutrients and organic matter, (2) physical-chemical properties of estuaries, and (3) ecosystem structure and function. From the standpoint of estuarine scientists and resource managers, a major scientific challenge will be to project the estuarine response to ECE that will co-occur with other important environmental changes (i.e., natural climate variability, global warming, sea level rise, eutrophication), as this will affect the provisioning of important ecosystem services provided by estuaries.

  17. The sandwich estimator approach counting for inter-site dependence of extreme river flow in Sabah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahal Musakkal, N. F.; Gabda, D.

    2017-09-01

    Regional estimation method is often used for estimating parameters of a distribution when data are available at many sites in a region to capture inter-site dependence. In this paper, we fit generalized extreme value distribution independently to model data of river flows at each sites in Sabah to avoid extreme value complex modeling. Since our approach violated the condition of spatial analysis, we consider the adjusted standard error to correct the wrong assumption of our marginal approach. As a result, we have an appropriate corrected variance of the generalized extreme value parameters.

  18. Approaches and Recommendations for Simulating Extreme Precipitation Years in Multi-site Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, A.; Collins, S. L.; Dukes, J.; Loik, M. E.; Phillips, R.; Sala, O. E.; Smith, M.

    2015-12-01

    Worldwide, human activities are exposing all ecosystems to increases in atmospheric CO2, N and temperature. Precipitation also is being altered globally, but increases in precipitation variability and extremes are expected to have greater impacts on ecosystem function than changes in means. Determining how and why ecosystems differ in their sensitivity to precipitation extremes (i.e., drought) is key to forecasting future ecosystem structure and function at the global scale. Coordinated multi-site experiments can be invaluable for assessing differential sensitivity of ecosystems (deserts, grasslands, forests, etc.) to precipitation extremes. However, determining treatment levels in these experiments presents unique problems because extremes in precipitation are defined statistically, based on historical context, and thus can differ dramatically among sites. Therefore, while multi-site experiments with fixed treatment levels may be appropriate for assessing ecosystem sensitivity to CO2 or warming, they may provide less mechanistic insight for studying extremes. We propose that for multi-site experiments focused on variability and extremes, the amount of precipitation removed or added to impose precipitation extremes should be site-specific (not fixed across sites) and matched to the historical climate record. Further, because extreme wet and dry years differ from each other in other attributes (event size, number of events, consecutive dry days, etc.) treatments should incorporate realistic alterations in these precipitation attributes as well. We show that for most ecosystem types globally, experimental infrastructure that passively reduces each rainfall event can realistically simulate drought, with the addition of a few large precipitation events realistically simulating extreme wet years. Thus, while treatment levels required to impose extreme precipitation years should vary among ecosystems, alterations in precipitation attributes can be imposed uniformly.

  19. Assessing GPM products quality on extreme rainfall event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berges, Jean Claude

    2017-04-01

    Global Precipitation Mission brings major improvement to rainfall measurement system. Related precipitation products are delivered with a temporal and spatial resolution compliant with flash floods modeling. However assessing the accuracy of these products on extreme rainfall events is still an open issue. Two kinds of significant events are presented: Sahelian squall lines and orographic enhanced convective systems on Maghreb. The 2016 rainy season on Sahel has been above normal and the retrieval quality of two huge precipitation systems (14th June and 13th July) is investigated. On end of September 2016 northern Tunisia experimented severe floods produced by two series of local convective systems. Although IMERG products are globally consistent some discrepancies appear. The mean bias seem linked with orographic lifting. It is obvious in Tunisia case but should not be neglected even in Sahelian squall line. On an other side, at the high temporal resolution scale, IMERG estimation does not match perfectly with geostationary IR data. These observations raise the issue of defining a proper downscaling process from the full flow of GPM data.

  20. Common fragile sites, extremely large genes, neural development and cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, David I; Zhu, Yu; McAvoy, Sarah; Kuhn, Robert

    2006-01-28

    Common fragile sites (CFSs) are large regions of profound genomic instability found in all individuals. They are biologically significant due to their role in a number of genomic alterations that are frequently found in many different types of cancer. The first CFS to be cloned and characterized was FRA3B, the most active CFS in the human genome. Instability within this region extends for over 4.0 Mbs and contained within the center of this CFS is the FHIT gene spanning 1.5 Mbs of genomic sequence. There are frequent deletions and other alterations within this gene in multiple tumor types and the protein encoded by this gene has been demonstrated to function as a tumor suppressor in vitro and in vivo. In spite of this, FHIT is not a traditional mutational target in cancer and many tumors have large intronic deletions without any exonic alterations. There are several other very large genes found within CFS regions including Parkin (1.37 Mbs in FRA6E), GRID2 (1.47 Mbs within 4q22.3), and WWOX (1.11 Mbs within FRA16D). These genes also appear to function as tumor suppressors but are not traditional mutational targets in cancer. Each of these genes is highly conserved and the regions spanning them are CFSs in mice. We have now examined lists of the largest human genes and found forty that span over one megabase. Many of these are derived from chromosomal bands containing CFSs. BACs within these genes are being utilized as FISH probes to determine if these are also CFS genes. Thus far we have identified the following as CFS genes: CNTNAP2 (2.3 Mbs in FRA7I), DMD (2.09 Mbs in FRAXC), LRP1B (1.9 Mbs in FRA2F), CTNNA3 (1.78 Mbs in FRA10D), DAB1 (1.55 Mbs in FRA1B), and IL1RAPL1 (1.36 Mbs in FRAXC). Although, these genes are also not traditional mutational targets in cancer they do exhibit loss of expression in multiple tumor types suggesting that they may also function as tumor suppressors. Many of the large CFS genes are involved in neurological development. Parkin is

  1. [Disease burden of extreme treatment anxiety; quality of life for patients with and without extreme dental treatment anxiety].

    PubMed

    Vermaire, J H; van Houtem, C M H H; Ross, J N; Schuller, A A

    2017-09-01

    In this study, a comparison was made between disease-specific (oral health-related) quality of life (OHQoL), measured with the OHIP-14 questionnaire, and generic (general health-related) quality of life (GHQoL), measured with the EQ5D-5L questionnaire, in patients with and without extreme dental treatment anxiety. A total of 76 patients who could not be treated due to extreme dental treatment anxiety were referred to a centre for special dentistry. These patients were matched, according to age, gender and socioeconomic status, with participants in an epidemiological study on oral health (n = 1125). Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used on both groups to compare GHQoL and OHQoL. The total OHIP score was higher (representing a lower quality of life) in the patient group than in the control group. Anxiety patients scored higher on all 7 domains of the OHIP-14. With respect to general quality of life, patients with extreme treatment anxiety were found to report lower utility scores than the matched control group. With these results, a total disease burden of 74,000 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) was calculated for extreme treatment anxiety in the Netherlands. The findings of this study reveal that having extreme dental treatment anxiety results in a significant disease burden in the Netherlands.

  2. Examining Projected Changes in Weather & Air Quality Extremes Between 2000 & 2030 using Dynamical Downscaling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change may alter regional weather extremes resulting in a range of environmental impacts including changes in air quality, water quality and availability, energy demands, agriculture, and ecology. Dynamical downscaling simulations were conducted with the Weather Research...

  3. Examining Projected Changes in Weather & Air Quality Extremes Between 2000 & 2030 using Dynamical Downscaling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change may alter regional weather extremes resulting in a range of environmental impacts including changes in air quality, water quality and availability, energy demands, agriculture, and ecology. Dynamical downscaling simulations were conducted with the Weather Research...

  4. 10. Extreme western end of DL&W site with entrance to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Extreme western end of DL&W site with entrance to larger passenger building at right and Naval Park to left. View through tiled archway is to North. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Lackawanna Terminal, Main Street & Buffalo River, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  5. PERFORMING QUALITY FLOW MEASUREMENTS AT MINE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate flow measurement data is vital to research, monitoring, and remediation efforts at mining sites. This guidebook has been prepared to provide a summary of information relating to the performance of low measurements, and how this information can be applied at mining sites....

  6. PERFORMING QUALITY FLOW MEASUREMENTS AT MINE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate flow measurement data is vital to research, monitoring, and remediation efforts at mining sites. This guidebook has been prepared to provide a summary of information relating to the performance of low measurements, and how this information can be applied at mining sites....

  7. The effect of distal anastomotic site on PTFE graft patency in lower extremity bypass.

    PubMed

    McLoughlin, R; O'Leary, G; Fitzgerald, L P; O'Donnell, J A

    1989-10-01

    The site of distal anastomosis of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) lower extremity bypass grafts may significantly affect results. We examined patency in 144 cases; 45 femoro-popliteal above knee (AK), 55 femoro-popliteal below the knee (BK) and 44 femoro-distal (D) PTFE bypasses, the groups being comparable with regard to other risk factors studied. Cumulative graft patency at 3 years was 71.3% for AK, 36.7% for BK, 16.4% for D and overall 35%. The site of distal anastomosis is an important determinant, of PTFE lower extremity bypass patency. We have abandoned the use of PTFE for BK and D, but feel that AK PTFE is a suitable alternative to autogenous reversed saphenous vein.

  8. Mapping upland hardwood site quality and productivity with GIS and FIA in the Blue Ridge of North Carolina

    Treesearch

    Claudia A. Cotton; Stephen R. Prisley; Thomas R. Fox

    2009-01-01

    The forested ecosystems of the southern Appalachians are some of the most diverse in North America due to the variability in climate, soils, and geologic parent material coupled with the complex topography found throughout the region. These same characteristics cause stands of upland hardwoods to be extremely variable with regard to site quality and productivity. Site...

  9. Extreme weather events: Should drinking water quality management systems adapt to changing risk profiles?

    PubMed

    Khan, Stuart J; Deere, Daniel; Leusch, Frederic D L; Humpage, Andrew; Jenkins, Madeleine; Cunliffe, David

    2015-11-15

    Among the most widely predicted and accepted consequences of global climate change are increases in both the frequency and severity of a variety of extreme weather events. Such weather events include heavy rainfall and floods, cyclones, droughts, heatwaves, extreme cold, and wildfires, each of which can potentially impact drinking water quality by affecting water catchments, storage reservoirs, the performance of water treatment processes or the integrity of distribution systems. Drinking water guidelines, such as the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines and the World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, provide guidance for the safe management of drinking water. These documents present principles and strategies for managing risks that may be posed to drinking water quality. While these principles and strategies are applicable to all types of water quality risks, very little specific attention has been paid to the management of extreme weather events. We present a review of recent literature on water quality impacts of extreme weather events and consider practical opportunities for improved guidance for water managers. We conclude that there is a case for an enhanced focus on the management of water quality impacts from extreme weather events in future revisions of water quality guidance documents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. GSMT Education: Teaching about Adaptive Optics and Site Selection Using Extremely Large Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, R. T.; Pompea, S. M.

    2010-08-01

    Giant Segmented Mirror Telescopes (GSMT) represents the next generation of extremely large telescopes (ELT). Currently there are three active ELT projects, all established as international partnerships to build telescopes of greater than 20 meters aperture. Two of these have major participation by U.S. institutions: the Giant Magellan Telescope and the Thirty Meter Telescope. The ESO-ELT is under development by the European Southern Observatory and other European institutions. We have developed educational activities to accompany the design phase of these projects. The current activities focus on challenges faced in the design and site selection of a large telescope. The first module is on site selection. This online module is based on the successful Astronomy Village program model. Students evaluate several potential sites to decide where to build the GSMT. They must consider factors such as weather, light pollution, seeing, logistics, and geography. The second project has developed adaptive optics teaching units suitable for high school.

  11. Islands in the sea: extreme female natal site fidelity in the Australian sea lion, Neophoca cinerea.

    PubMed

    Campbell, R A; Gales, N J; Lento, G M; Baker, C S

    2008-02-23

    Pinnipeds (seals, fur seals, sea lions and walrus) form large breeding aggregations with females often remaining faithful to a natal site or area. In these cases, females are philopatric to regional areas on broad geographical scales of hundreds to thousands of kilometers. An investigation of variation in a control region sequence of mtDNA in the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) has shown a case of extreme female natal site fidelity that has resulted in almost fixed population differentiation across its range (PhiST=0.93). This high level of population subdivision over short geographical distances (approx. 60 km) is unparalleled in any social marine mammal and reflects the unique life-history traits of this rare species. The high level of population subdivision and exclusive female natal site fidelity has important ramifications for conservation management, and poses many interesting questions of both academic and applied interest.

  12. A review of the relationships between extreme obesity, quality of life, and sexual function.

    PubMed

    Sarwer, David B; Lavery, Megan; Spitzer, Jacqueline C

    2012-04-01

    Extreme obesity is associated with significant health issues as well as substantial psychosocial burden for many individuals. Numerous studies have documented the impairments in quality of life associated with extreme obesity. Sexual behavior and functioning is an important aspect of quality of life but is frequently overlooked in research studies as well as clinical care. This paper focuses on the quality of life and sexual functioning of obese individuals with specific focus on the changes in these domains following the substantial weight losses seen after bariatric surgery.

  13. European Extremely Large Telescope Site Characterization. II. High Angular Resolution Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez Ramió, Héctor; Vernin, Jean; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Sarazin, Marc; Varela, Antonia M.; Trinquet, Hervé; Delgado, José Miguel; Fuensalida, Jesús J.; Reyes, Marcos; Benhida, Abdelmajid; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; García Lambas, Diego; Hach, Youssef; Lazrek, M.; Lombardi, Gianluca; Navarrete, Julio; Recabarren, Pablo; Renzi, Victor; Sabil, Mohammed; Vrech, Rubén

    2012-08-01

    This is the second article of a series devoted to European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) site characterization. In this article we present the main properties of the parameters involved in high angular resolution observations from the data collected in the site testing campaign of the E-ELT during the design study (DS) phase. Observations were made in 2008 and 2009, in the four sites selected to shelter the future E-ELT (characterized under the ELT-DS contract): Aklim mountain in Morocco, Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM) in Spain, Macón range in Argentina, and Cerro Ventarrones in Chile. The same techniques, instruments, and acquisition procedures were taken on each site. A multiple aperture scintillation sensor (MASS) and a differential image motion monitor (DIMM) were installed at each site. Global statistics of the integrated seeing, the free atmosphere seeing, the boundary layer seeing, and the isoplanatic angle were studied for each site, and the results are presented here. In order to estimate other important parameters, such as the coherence time of the wavefront and the overall parameter “coherence étendue,” additional information of vertical profiles of the wind speed was needed. Data were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) archive. Ground wind speed was measured by automatic weather stations (AWS). More aspects of the turbulence parameters, such as their seasonal trend, their nightly evolution, and their temporal stability, were also obtained and analyzed.

  14. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality.

    PubMed

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-03-31

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology.

  15. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-01-01

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology. PMID:27029386

  16. Quality-control of an hourly rainfall dataset and climatology of extremes for the UK.

    PubMed

    Blenkinsop, Stephen; Lewis, Elizabeth; Chan, Steven C; Fowler, Hayley J

    2017-02-01

    Sub-daily rainfall extremes may be associated with flash flooding, particularly in urban areas but, compared with extremes on daily timescales, have been relatively little studied in many regions. This paper describes a new, hourly rainfall dataset for the UK based on ∼1600 rain gauges from three different data sources. This includes tipping bucket rain gauge data from the UK Environment Agency (EA), which has been collected for operational purposes, principally flood forecasting. Significant problems in the use of such data for the analysis of extreme events include the recording of accumulated totals, high frequency bucket tips, rain gauge recording errors and the non-operation of gauges. Given the prospect of an intensification of short-duration rainfall in a warming climate, the identification of such errors is essential if sub-daily datasets are to be used to better understand extreme events. We therefore first describe a series of procedures developed to quality control this new dataset. We then analyse ∼380 gauges with near-complete hourly records for 1992-2011 and map the seasonal climatology of intense rainfall based on UK hourly extremes using annual maxima, n-largest events and fixed threshold approaches. We find that the highest frequencies and intensities of hourly extreme rainfall occur during summer when the usual orographically defined pattern of extreme rainfall is replaced by a weaker, north-south pattern. A strong diurnal cycle in hourly extremes, peaking in late afternoon to early evening, is also identified in summer and, for some areas, in spring. This likely reflects the different mechanisms that generate sub-daily rainfall, with convection dominating during summer. The resulting quality-controlled hourly rainfall dataset will provide considerable value in several contexts, including the development of standard, globally applicable quality-control procedures for sub-daily data, the validation of the new generation of very high

  17. Extreme electric fields power catalysis in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase.

    PubMed

    Fried, Stephen D; Bagchi, Sayan; Boxer, Steven G

    2014-12-19

    Enzymes use protein architecture to impose specific electrostatic fields onto their bound substrates, but the magnitude and catalytic effect of these electric fields have proven difficult to quantify with standard experimental approaches. Using vibrational Stark effect spectroscopy, we found that the active site of the enzyme ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) exerts an extremely large electric field onto the C=O chemical bond that undergoes a charge rearrangement in KSI's rate-determining step. Moreover, we found that the magnitude of the electric field exerted by the active site strongly correlates with the enzyme's catalytic rate enhancement, enabling us to quantify the fraction of the catalytic effect that is electrostatic in origin. The measurements described here may help explain the role of electrostatics in many other enzymes and biomolecular systems.

  18. Dynamical downscaling of present climate extremal episodes for the BINGO research site of Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zittis, George; Hadjinicolaou, Panos; Bruggeman, Adriana; Camera, Corrado; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-04-01

    Besides global warming, climate change is expected to cause alterations in precipitation amounts and distribution than can be linked to extreme events such as floods or prolonged droughts. This will have a significant impact in strategic societal sectors that base their activities on water resources. While the global climate projections inform us about the long-term and weather forecasts can give useful information only for a few days or weeks, decision-makers and end-users also need guidance on inter-annual to decadal time scales. In this context, the BINGO (Bringing INnovation to onGOing water management - a better future under climate change) H2020 project aims both at reducing the uncertainty of near-term climate predictions and developing response strategies in order to better manage the remaining uncertainty. One of the project's main objectives is to develop improved decadal predictions, in adequate spatiotemporal scales, with a specific focus on extreme precipitation events. The projected rainfall will be eventually used to drive hydrological impact models. BINGO focuses on research sites that encompass river basins, watersheds and urban areas of six European countries including Norway, Cyprus, Germany, Portugal, The Netherlands and Spain. In this study we present the dynamical downscaling of the ERA-Interim dataset for validation purposes and for the research site of Cyprus. Five extreme rainfall periods were identified from the observed precipitation archives and were simulated in very high horizontal resolutions (4~1 km) using the WRF limited area atmospheric model. To optimize the performance of the model we have tested a combination of three cumulus and five microphysics parameterization schemes that resulted in 15 simulations for each extreme precipitation event. The model output was compared with daily or hourly (where available) representative rain gauge data. A set of statistical metrics was applied in order to objectively select the best

  19. The impact of on-site wastewater from high density cluster developments on groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrissey, P. J.; Johnston, P. M.; Gill, L. W.

    2015-11-01

    The net impact on groundwater quality from high density clusters of unsewered housing across a range of hydro(geo)logical settings has been assessed. Four separate cluster development sites were selected, each representative of different aquifer vulnerability categories. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis over a two year period for chemical and microbiological analysis from nested multi-horizon sampling boreholes upstream and downstream of the study sites. The field results showed no statistically significant difference between upstream and downstream water quality at any of the study areas, although there were higher breakthroughs in contaminants in the High and Extreme vulnerability sites linked to high intensity rainfall events; these however, could not be directly attributed to on-site effluent. Linked numerical models were then built for each site using HYDRUS 2D to simulate the attenuation of contaminants through the unsaturated zone from which the resulting hydraulic and contaminant fluxes at the water table were used as inputs into MODFLOW MT3D models to simulate the groundwater flows. The results of the simulations confirmed the field observations at each site, indicating that the existing clustered on-site wastewater discharges would only cause limited and very localised impacts on groundwater quality, with contaminant loads being quickly dispersed and diluted downstream due to the relatively high groundwater flow rates. Further simulations were then carried out using the calibrated models to assess the impact of increasing cluster densities revealing little impact at any of the study locations up to a density of 6 units/ha with the exception of the Extreme vulnerability site.

  20. The impact of on-site wastewater from high density cluster developments on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, P J; Johnston, P M; Gill, L W

    2015-11-01

    The net impact on groundwater quality from high density clusters of unsewered housing across a range of hydro(geo)logical settings has been assessed. Four separate cluster development sites were selected, each representative of different aquifer vulnerability categories. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis over a two year period for chemical and microbiological analysis from nested multi-horizon sampling boreholes upstream and downstream of the study sites. The field results showed no statistically significant difference between upstream and downstream water quality at any of the study areas, although there were higher breakthroughs in contaminants in the High and Extreme vulnerability sites linked to high intensity rainfall events; these however, could not be directly attributed to on-site effluent. Linked numerical models were then built for each site using HYDRUS 2D to simulate the attenuation of contaminants through the unsaturated zone from which the resulting hydraulic and contaminant fluxes at the water table were used as inputs into MODFLOW MT3D models to simulate the groundwater flows. The results of the simulations confirmed the field observations at each site, indicating that the existing clustered on-site wastewater discharges would only cause limited and very localised impacts on groundwater quality, with contaminant loads being quickly dispersed and diluted downstream due to the relatively high groundwater flow rates. Further simulations were then carried out using the calibrated models to assess the impact of increasing cluster densities revealing little impact at any of the study locations up to a density of 6 units/ha with the exception of the Extreme vulnerability site. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biopsy site selfies--a quality improvement pilot study to assist with correct surgical site identification.

    PubMed

    Nijhawan, Rajiv I; Lee, Erica H; Nehal, Kishwer S

    2015-04-01

    Determining the biopsy site location of a skin cancer before treatment is often challenging. To study the implementation and effectiveness of biopsy site selfies as a quality improvement measure for correct surgical site identification. In the first phase, the ability of dermatologic surgeon and patient to definitively identify the biopsy site and whether photography was needed to ensure site agreement were recorded. In the second phase, patients were requested to take biopsy site selfies, and after implementation, similar data were collected including whether a biopsy site selfie was helpful for definitive site identification. In the first phase, the physician and patient were unable to identify the biopsy site 17.6% (49/278) and 25.5% (71/278) of cases, respectively. A photograph was needed in 22.7% of cases (63/278). After implementation of biopsy site selfies, the physician and patient were unable to identify the biopsy site 17.4% (23/132) and 15.2% (20/132) of cases, respectively. Biopsy site selfies were available for 64.1% of cases for which no internal image was available and critical for site identification in 21.4% of these cases. Biopsy site selfies has proven to be helpful for correct surgical site identification by both the physician and the patient and may also provide further reassurance and confidence for patients.

  2. Weight-specific Health-related Quality of Life in Adolescents With Extreme Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Avani C.; Loux, Tara J.; Bell, Stephen K.; Harmon, Carroll M.; Inge, Thomas H.; Zeller, Meg H.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this multisite study were to: (i) examine differences by gender and race on generic and weight- specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adolescents with extreme obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2) and (ii) explore HRQOL differences based on treatment pursued (behavioral vs. bariatric surgery). Study participants included 145 obese adolescents (mean age = 15.3 years; 68% female; 46% black; mean BMI = 50.6) referred to pediatric weight management programs. Participants completed generic (PedsQL) and weight-specific (Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Kids (IWQOL-Kids)) HRQOL measures. Generic and weight-specific measures indicated global (e.g., all domains) HRQOL impairment and significant differences by race. Physical, emotional, and social scores of the PedsQL (Ps < 0.01) and the physical comfort and body esteem scores of the IWQOL-Kids (Ps < 0.001) were significantly higher for black compared to white adolescents with extreme obesity. Extremely obese adolescents pursuing bariatric surgery reported similar HRQOL to adolescents pursuing behavioral treatment (n = 30 matched pairs). HRQOL did not differ for extremely obese adolescents based on type of treatment sought, but race/ethnicity should be considered when characterizing these youth. Although racial differences in adolescent body image/esteem have been reported, it is unknown why black adolescents with extreme obesity would report less impact of weight on their physical functioning. Overall, these data suggest that HRQOL is not homogenous in adolescents with extreme obesity. PMID:18719653

  3. Construct Validity of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorley, Megan; Lannin, Natasha; Cusick, Anne; Novak, Iona; Boyd, Roslyn

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the construct validity of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: A total of 170 QUEST assessments from a convenience sample of 94 children with CP involved in clinical and research treatment programmes (54 males, 40 females; mean age 6y 10mo, SD…

  4. Construct Validity of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorley, Megan; Lannin, Natasha; Cusick, Anne; Novak, Iona; Boyd, Roslyn

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the construct validity of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: A total of 170 QUEST assessments from a convenience sample of 94 children with CP involved in clinical and research treatment programmes (54 males, 40 females; mean age 6y 10mo, SD…

  5. Extreme Ground-Motion Rockfall Deposits on the Nevada Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, J. W.; Buckingham, S. E.; Magner, J. E.; Finkel, R. C.; Brune, J. N.; von Seggern, D.; Honke, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    In order to detect the evidence of extreme ground motion in the past, we have begun to catalog geomorphic characteristics that distinguish slope deposits strongly influenced by extreme ground motion from deposits primarily influenced by climate processes. Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) of yields between 200 kilotons and 1.3 megatons were conducted under Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test site from 1962 to 1992. The primary surface effects from these tests were surface cracks, triggered earthquakes, offsets on pre-existing faults, and changes in land surface topography. Rockfall and rock spall were observed along cliffs after a few nuclear tests; however, few observations of accumulations of shattered rock were documented. A large volume of rockfall located along a 1.5-km¬-long cliff of welded ash-flow tuff resulted from extreme ground motions from two nearby UNEs. In 1968 UNE Rickey released maximum ground motions of 500 cm/s peak ground velocity (PGV) at the closest cliff face and PGV decreased to about 300 cm/s at the north end of the cliff. Large boulders with 1-3-m average diameters were shaken loose from fracture planes and cooling joints to form a stack of jumbled boulders at the base of the cliff. Very few large boulders rolled to the base of the hillslope. Subsequently, in 1976, UNE Pool induced 300-350 cm/s PGV along the same cliff. A significant volume of rock, also released along fractures and joints, was added to the coarse boulder colluvium shaken loose in 1968. Ground motion from Pool also rearranged the hillslope boulders from UNE Rickey, but did not cause many boulders to roll downslope. Extreme ground motions from these two UNEs resulted in 1.5-3.0 m of physical erosion to the cliff face. Rockfall from less welded ash-flow tuff units situated above and below the cliff produced significantly less boulder colluvium. Our observations indicate that boulder size and rockfall volume from a cliff or ridge crest due to extreme ground motion are

  6. Changes in site-scale temperature extremes over China during 2071-2100 in CMIP5 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongqin David; Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Site-scale changes in probability behaviors of temperature extremes across China during 2071-2100 are studied with general circulation models (GCMs) provided by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Future temperature extremes are compared to those of 1961-2005 estimated from observed daily temperatures at 498 stations. Temperature extremes are described by 15 indices recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices; quantile mapping (QM) is used to downscale the gridded GCMs outputs to site scale. The site-scale and grid-scale changes of temperature extremes are compared. Results indicate that during 2071-2100, increases of daily maximum and minimum temperatures are more pronounced in the Songhua River Basin, the Liao River Basin, the Hai River Basin, the north part of the Yellow River Basin, and the Northwest Rivers. The numbers of warm days are 3 times of observations, and the warm spell durations become longer. Summer days and tropical nights, which have never been observed in the Tibetan Plateau, may occur in the future. Cold spell may disappear in the Songhua River Basin and the Liao River Basin. Compared to the grid-scale changes, appearance or disappearance of extremes at the site scale is more obvious with higher confidence. The spatial patterns of the site-scale and grid-scale changes are similar, but the change rates are different to a certain extent. For extremes that are more spatially homogenous, the site-scale and grid-scale change rates are close. But for extremes that are more spatially heterogeneous, the site-scale changes are more remarkable.

  7. Quality improvement initiative: Preventative Surgical Site Infection Protocol in Vascular Surgery.

    PubMed

    Parizh, David; Ascher, Enrico; Raza Rizvi, Syed Ali; Hingorani, Anil; Amaturo, Michael; Johnson, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Objective A quality improvement initiative was employed to decrease single institution surgical site infection rate in open lower extremity revascularization procedures. In an attempt to lower patient morbidity, we developed and implemented the Preventative Surgical Site Infection Protocol in Vascular Surgery. Surgical site infections lead to prolonged hospital stays, adjunctive procedure, and additive costs. We employed targeted interventions to address the common risk factors that predispose patients to post-operative complications. Methods Retrospective review was performed between 2012 and 2016 for all surgical site infections after revascularization procedures of the lower extremity. A quality improvement protocol was initiated in January 2015. Primary outcome was the assessment of surgical site infection rate reduction in the pre-protocol vs. post-protocol era. Secondary outcomes evaluated patient demographics, closure method, perioperative antibiotic coverage, and management outcomes. Results Implementation of the protocol decreased the surgical site infection rate from 6.4% to 1.6% p = 0.0137). Patient demographics and comorbidities were assessed and failed to demonstrate a statistically significant difference among the infection and no-infection groups. Wound closure with monocryl suture vs. staple proved to be associated with decreased surgical site infection rate ( p < 0.005). Conclusions Preventative measures, in the form of a standardized protocol, to decrease surgical site infections in the vascular surgery population are effective and necessary. Our data suggest that there may be benefit in the incorporation of MRSA and Gram-negative coverage as part of the Surgical Care Improvement Project perioperative guidelines.

  8. Risk-based water resources planning: Coupling water allocation and water quality management under extreme droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi-Naeini, M.; Bussi, G.; Hall, J. W.; Whitehead, P. G.

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of water companies is to have a reliable and safe water supply system. To fulfil their duty the water companies have to consider both water quality and quantity issues and challenges. Climate change and population growth will have an impact on water resources both in terms of available water and river water quality. Traditionally, a distinct separation between water quality and abstraction has existed. However, water quality can be a bottleneck in a system since water treatment works can only treat water if it meets certain standards. For instance, high turbidity and large phytoplankton content can increase sharply the cost of treatment or even make river water unfit for human consumption purposes. It is vital for water companies to be able to characterise the quantity and quality of water under extreme weather events and to consider the occurrence of eventual periods when water abstraction has to cease due to water quality constraints. This will give them opportunity to decide on water resource planning and potential changes to reduce the system failure risk. We present a risk-based approach for incorporating extreme events, based on future climate change scenarios from a large ensemble of climate model realisations, into integrated water resources model through combined use of water allocation (WATHNET) and water quality (INCA) models. The annual frequency of imposed restrictions on demand is considered as measure of reliability. We tested our approach on Thames region, in the UK, with 100 extreme events. The results show increase in frequency of imposed restrictions when water quality constraints were considered. This indicates importance of considering water quality issues in drought management plans.

  9. Influence of quality control variables on failure of graphite/epoxy under extreme moisture conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, L. L.; Lee, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    Tension tests on graphite/epoxy composites were performed to determine the influence of various quality control variables on failure strength as a function of moisture and moderate temperatures. The extremely high and low moisture contents investigated were found to have less effect upon properties than did temperature or the quality control variables of specimen flaws and prepreg batch to batch variations. In particular, specimen flaws were found to drastically reduce the predicted strength of the composite, whereas specimens from different batches of prepreg displayed differences in strength as a function of temperature and extreme moisture exposure. The findings illustrate the need for careful specimen preparation, studies of flaw sensitivity, and careful quality control in any study of composite materials.

  10. Influence of quality control variables on failure of graphite/epoxy under extreme moisture conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, L. L.; Lee, P. R.

    1982-01-01

    Tension tests on graphite/epoxy composites were performed to determine the influence of various quality control variables on failure strength as a function of moisture and moderate temperatures. The extremely high and low moisture contents investigated were found to have less effect upon properties than did temperature or the quality control variables of specimen flaws and prepreg batch to batch variations. In particular, specimen flaws were found to drastically reduce the predicted strength of the composite, whereas specimens from different batches of prepreg displayed differences in strength as a function of temperature and extreme moisture exposure. The findings illustrate the need for careful specimen preparation, studies of flaw sensitvity, and careful quality control in any study of composite materials. Previously announced in STAR as N80-33493

  11. Public transparency Web sites for radiology practices: prevalence of price, clinical quality, and service quality information.

    PubMed

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Doshi, Ankur M

    2016-01-01

    To assess information regarding radiology practices on public transparency Web sites. Eight Web sites comparing radiology centers' price and quality were identified. Web site content was assessed. Six of eight Web sites reported examination prices. Other reported information included hours of operation (4/8), patient satisfaction (2/8), American College of Radiology (ACR) accreditation (3/8), on-site radiologists (2/8), as well as parking, accessibility, waiting area amenities, same/next-day reports, mammography follow-up rates, examination appropriateness, radiation dose, fellowship-trained radiologists, and advanced technologies (1/8 each). Transparency Web sites had a preponderance of price (and to a lesser extent service quality) information, risking fostering price-based competition at the expense of clinical quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Surgical site infections after lower extremity revascularization procedures involving groin incisions.

    PubMed

    Kuy, SreyRam; Dua, Anahita; Desai, Sapan; Dua, Arshish; Patel, Bhavin; Tondravi, Nader; Seabrook, Gary R; Brown, Kellie R; Lewis, Brian D; Lee, Cheong J; Kuy, SreyReath; Subbarayan, Rishi; Rossi, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the incidence, epidemiology, and factors associated with surgical site infections (SSIs) after lower extremity revascularization procedures involving groin incisions and determine outcomes based on SSI status. This is a single-institution, retrospective cohort study of 106 patients who underwent lower extremity revascularization procedures involving femoral artery exposure through a groin incision at a tertiary referral hospital. The primary outcome was occurrence of SSI at the groin wound. The duration of hospital stay, reoperation within 30 days, discharge disposition, and 30-day mortality were also evaluated. Independent variables included patient demographics and operative variables (i.e., procedure type, transfusion requirements, preoperative antibiotics, intraoperative vasopressors, and operative duration). Statistical analysis included chi-squared tests, t-tests, and multivariable regression analysis. Of the 106 patients who underwent a lower extremity revascularization procedure with a groin incision for femoral artery exposure, 62% were male, and the mean age was 62 years. Comorbidities included hypertension (93%), dyslipidemia (65%), statin use (63%), active smoker (50%), diabetes (24%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (23%). All patients received preoperative antibiotics, 50% required intraoperative pressors, 21% received a blood transfusion, and the mean operative time was 296 min. The overall duration of stay was 10.7 days, the 30-day reoperation rate was 18%, and the 30-day mortality rate was 12%. Overall, 22% developed a seroma or hematoma, and 31% developed a SSI. Patients who developed an SSI compared with those who did not were more likely to have a postoperative seroma or hematoma (55% vs 5%) and to receive a blood transfusion (33% vs 15%), but less likely to be treated with a statin (47% vs 69%) or carry a diagnosis of dyslipidemia (50% vs 72%), respectively, all P < 0.05. Patients with an SSI had a longer

  13. Support for site testing of the European Extremely Large Telescope: precipitable water vapor over Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, Florian; Querel, Richard R.; Hanuschik, Reinhard W.; Chacón, Arlette; Caneo, Marta; Cortes, Lissette; Cure, Michel; Illanes, Lizett; Naylor, David A.; Smette, Alain; Sarazin, Marc; Rabanus, David; Tompkins, Gregory

    2010-07-01

    In support of characterization of potential sites for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) the European Southern Observatory (ESO), the Institute for Space Imaging Science (ISIS) and the astrometeorology group of the Universidad Valparaiso have jointly established an improved understanding of atmospheric precipitable water vapour (PWV) above ESO's La Silla Paranal Observatory. In a first step, 8 years worth of high resolution near-IR spectra taken with VLT-UVES have been statistically analysed to reconstruct the PWV history above Paranal. To this end a radiative transfer model of Earth's atmosphere (BTRAM) developed by ISIS has been used. A median PWV of 2.1 mm is found for Paranal based on UVES data covering the period 2001-2008. Furthermore we conclude that Paranal can serve as a reference site for Northern Chile due to the stable atmospheric conditions in the region. The median offset between Paranal and Armazones is derived to be 0.3 mm, but local arbitrary variations of a few tenths of a mm between the sites have been found by measurement. In order to better understand the systematics involved two dedicated campaigns were conducted in August and November 2009. Several methods for determining the water column were employed, including radiosonde launches, continuous measurements by infrared radiometer, and VLT instruments operating at various wavelengths: CRIRES, UVES, VISIR and X-shooter. In a first for astronomical instruments all methods have been evaluated with respect to the radiosondes, the established standard in atmospheric research. Agreement between the radiosondes and the IR radiometer (IRMA) is excellent while all other astronomical methods covering a wavelength range from 700 - 20000 nm have also been successfully validated in a quantitative manner. All available observations were compared to satellite estimates of water vapour above the observatory in an attempt to ground-truth the satellite data. GOES can successfully be used for site

  14. Risk-Cost Estimation of On-Site Wastewater Treatment System Failures Using Extreme Value Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Laura E; Silverstein, JoAnn; Rajagopalan, Balaji

    2017-05-01

      Owner resistance to increasing regulation of on-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTS), including obligatory inspections and upgrades, moratoriums and cease-and-desist orders in communities around the U.S. demonstrate the challenges associated with managing risks of inadequate performance of owner-operated wastewater treatment systems. As a result, determining appropriate and enforceable performance measures in an industry with little history of these requirements is challenging. To better support such measures, we develop a statistical method to predict lifetime failure risks, expressed as costs, in order to identify operational factors associated with costly repairs and replacement. A binomial logistic regression is used to fit data from public records of reported OWTS failures, in Boulder County, Colorado, which has 14 300 OWTS to determine the probability that an OWTS will be in a low- or high-risk category for lifetime repair and replacement costs. High-performing or low risk OWTS with repairs and replacements below the threshold of $9000 over a 40-year life are associated with more frequent inspections and upgrades following home additions. OWTS with a high risk of exceeding the repair cost threshold of $18 000 are further analyzed in a variation of extreme value analysis (EVA), Points Over Threshold (POT) where the distribution of risk-cost exceedance values are represented by a generalized Pareto distribution. The resulting threshold cost exceedance estimates for OWTS in the high-risk category over a 40-year expected life ranged from $18 000 to $44 000.

  15. Model design for predicting extreme precipitation event impacts on water quality in a water supply reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemann, M.; Jeznach, L. C.; Park, M. H.; Tobiason, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    Extreme precipitation events such as tropical storms and hurricanes are by their nature rare, yet have disproportionate and adverse effects on surface water quality. In the context of drinking water reservoirs, common concerns of such events include increased erosion and sediment transport and influx of natural organic matter and nutrients. As part of an effort to model the effects of an extreme precipitation event on water quality at the reservoir intake of a major municipal water system, this study sought to estimate extreme-event watershed responses including streamflow and exports of nutrients and organic matter for use as inputs to a 2-D hydrodynamic and water quality reservoir model. Since extreme-event watershed exports are highly uncertain, we characterized and propagated predictive uncertainty using a quasi-Monte Carlo approach to generate reservoir model inputs. Three storm precipitation depths—corresponding to recurrence intervals of 5, 50, and 100 years—were converted to streamflow in each of 9 tributaries by volumetrically scaling 2 storm hydrographs from the historical record. Rating-curve models for concentratoin, calibrated using 10 years of data for each of 5 constituents, were then used to estimate the parameters of a multivariate lognormal probability model of constituent concentrations, conditional on each scenario's storm date and streamflow. A quasi-random Halton sequence (n = 100) was drawn from the conditional distribution for each event scenario, and used to generate input files to a calibrated CE-QUAL-W2 reservoir model. The resulting simulated concentrations at the reservoir's drinking water intake constitute a low-discrepancy sample from the estimated uncertainty space of extreme-event source water-quality. Limiting factors to the suitability of this approach include poorly constrained relationships between hydrology and constituent concentrations, a high-dimensional space from which to generate inputs, and relatively long run

  16. Predicting the Effect of Changing Precipitation Extremes and Land Cover Change on Urban Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SUN, N.; Yearsley, J. R.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    Recent research shows that precipitation extremes in many of the largest U.S. urban areas have increased over the last 60 years. These changes have important implications for stormwater runoff and water quality, which in urban areas are dominated by the most extreme precipitation events. We assess the potential implications of changes in extreme precipitation and changing land cover in urban and urbanizing watersheds at the regional scale using a combination of hydrology and water quality models. Specifically, we describe the integration of a spatially distributed hydrological model - the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM), the urban water quality model in EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), the semi-Lagrangian stream temperature model RBM10, and dynamical and statistical downscaling methods applied to global climate predictions. Key output water quality parameters include total suspended solids (TSS), toal nitrogen, total phosphorous, fecal coliform bacteria and stream temperature. We have evaluated the performance of the modeling system in the highly urbanized Mercer Creek watershed in the rapidly growing Bellevue urban area in WA, USA. The results suggest that the model is able to (1) produce reasonable streamflow predictions at fine temporal and spatial scales; (2) provide spatially distributed water temperature predictions that mostly agree with observations throughout a complex stream network, and characterize impacts of climate, landscape, near-stream vegetation change on stream temperature at local and regional scales; and (3) capture plausibly the response of water quality constituents to varying magnitude of precipitation events in urban environments. Next we will extend the scope of the study from the Mercer Creek watershed to include the entire Puget Sound Basin, WA, USA.

  17. Upper Extremity Amputations and Prosthetics

    PubMed Central

    Ovadia, Steven A.; Askari, Morad

    2015-01-01

    Upper extremity amputations are most frequently indicated by severe traumatic injuries. The location of the injury will determine the level of amputation. Preservation of extremity length is often a goal. The amputation site will have important implications on the functional status of the patient and options for prosthetic reconstruction. Advances in amputation techniques and prosthetic reconstructions promote improved quality of life. In this article, the authors review the principles of upper extremity amputation, including techniques, amputation sites, and prosthetic reconstructions. PMID:25685104

  18. Upper extremity amputations and prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Ovadia, Steven A; Askari, Morad

    2015-02-01

    Upper extremity amputations are most frequently indicated by severe traumatic injuries. The location of the injury will determine the level of amputation. Preservation of extremity length is often a goal. The amputation site will have important implications on the functional status of the patient and options for prosthetic reconstruction. Advances in amputation techniques and prosthetic reconstructions promote improved quality of life. In this article, the authors review the principles of upper extremity amputation, including techniques, amputation sites, and prosthetic reconstructions.

  19. Strategies for ensuring quality data from Indian investigational sites

    PubMed Central

    Hajos, Antal K.; Kamble, Sujal K.

    2011-01-01

    The topic of ensuring quality and compliance is and must be a top priority in the conduct of clinical trials, as warranted by regulatory guidelines as well as the inherent responsibility of the professionals conducting such research. Fast-growing emerging clinical geographies such as India demand special attention due to rapid growth and associated factors that may put study quality at risk. In this paper, we used the basic principle of PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, and Adjust) to structure the processes of a clinical trial from protocol to final analysis in order to highlight the interactive nature of involved people and processes required to ensure quality of data and site functioning. PMID:21731855

  20. Proactive modeling of water quality impacts of extreme precipitation events in a drinking water reservoir.

    PubMed

    Jeznach, Lillian C; Hagemann, Mark; Park, Mi-Hyun; Tobiason, John E

    2017-10-01

    Extreme precipitation events are of concern to managers of drinking water sources because these occurrences can affect both water supply quantity and quality. However, little is known about how these low probability events impact organic matter and nutrient loads to surface water sources and how these loads may impact raw water quality. This study describes a method for evaluating the sensitivity of a water body of interest from watershed input simulations under extreme precipitation events. An example application of the method is illustrated using the Wachusett Reservoir, an oligo-mesotrophic surface water reservoir in central Massachusetts and a major drinking water supply to metropolitan Boston. Extreme precipitation event simulations during the spring and summer resulted in total organic carbon, UV-254 (a surrogate measurement for reactive organic matter), and total algae concentrations at the drinking water intake that exceeded recorded maximums. Nutrient concentrations after storm events were less likely to exceed recorded historical maximums. For this particular reservoir, increasing inter-reservoir transfers of water with lower organic matter content after a large precipitation event has been shown in practice and in model simulations to decrease organic matter levels at the drinking water intake, therefore decreasing treatment associated oxidant demand, energy for UV disinfection, and the potential for formation of disinfection byproducts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Complex Associations Among Sleep Quality, Anxiety-Depression, and Quality of Life in Patients with Extreme Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Araghi, Marzieh Hosseini; Jagielski, Alison; Neira, Iraida; Brown, Adrian; Higgs, Suzanne; Thomas, G. Neil; Taheri, Shahrad

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep duration and quality have been associated with obesity. Sleep disturbance has been reported to be associated with stress and depression among non-obese populations, but these relationships have not been previously examined in the obese population. The objective of the current study was to examine the complex associations among sleep disturbance, quality of life, anxiety, and depression in a patient sample with severe obesity. Methods: Two hundred seventy consecutively recruited patients with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 47.0 kg/m2 were studied. The correlation coefficient, multiple linear regressions, and structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis were used to evaluate the association between the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite (IWQOL-Lite) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results: The mean (standard deviation; SD) PSQI score was 8.59 (5.11), and mean ESS score was 8.84 (5.79). After controlling for potential confounders, poor sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness were found to be significantly associated of all the components of IWQOL-Lite; physical function (β = -0.32, β = -0.27; P < 0.01), self-esteem (β = -0.23, β = -0.30; P < 0.05), sexual-life (β = -0.30, β = -0.35; P < 0.05), public distress (β = -0.39, β = -0.39; P < 0.01), and work (β = -0.26, β = -0.48; P < 0.01). We also found that the PSQI global score had a positive significant association with anxiety (β = 0.29; P = 0.01) and depression (β = 0.31; P = 0.01) components of HADS. Conclusion: Poor sleep quality was strongly associated with mood disturbance and poor quality of life among extremely obese patients. Future interventions are needed to address sleep disturbance to prevent further development of psychological co-morbidity and potentially worsening of obesity among these individuals. Citation: Araghi MH; Jagielski A; Neira I; Brown A; Higgs S; Thomas GN

  2. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Sites quality assurance project plan: Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPjP) describes the measures that shall be taken to ensure that the environmental data collected during characterization and closure activities of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Industrial Sites at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are meaningful, valid, defensible, and can be used to achieve project objectives. These activities are conducted by the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) under the Nevada Environmental Restoration (ER) Project. The Nevada ER Project consists of environmental restoration activities on the NTS, Tonopah Test Range, Nellis Air Force Range, and eight sites in five other states. The RCRA Industrial Sites subproject constitutes a component of the Nevada ER Project. Currently, this QAPjP is limited to the seven RCRA Industrial Sites identified within this document that are to be closed under an interim status and pertains to all field-investigation, analytical-laboratory, and data-review activities in support of these closures. The information presented here supplements the RCRA Industrial Sites Project Management Plan and is to be used in conjunction with the site-specific subproject sampling and analysis plans.

  3. Objective classification of air quality monitoring sites over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joly, Mathieu; Peuch, Vincent-Henri

    2012-02-01

    The observation sites that make up air quality monitoring networks can have very different characteristics (topography, climatology, distance to emission sources, etc), which are partially described in the meta-information provided with data sets. At the scale of Europe, the description of the sites depends on the institute(s) in charge of the air quality monitoring in each country, and is based on specific criteria that can be sometimes rather subjective. The purpose of this study is to build an objective, homogeneous, and pollutant-specific classification of European air quality monitoring sites, primarily for the purpose of model verification and chemical data assimilation. Most studies that tackled this issue so far were based on limited data sets, and often took into account additional external data such as population density, emission estimates, or land cover maps. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of a classification only based on the past time series of measured pollutants. The underlying idea is that the true fingerprint of a given monitoring site lies within its past observation values. On each site to be categorized, eight indicators are defined to characterize each pollutant time series (O 3, NO 2, NO, SO 2, or PM 10) of the European AirBase and the French BDQA (Base de Données de Qualité de l'Air) reference sets of validated data over the period 2002-2009. A Linear Discriminant Analysis is used to best discriminate the rural and urban sites. After projection on the Fisher axis, ten classes are finally determined on the basis of fixed thresholds, for each molecule. The method is validated by cross-validation and by direct comparison with the existing meta-data. The link between the classes obtained and the meta-data is strongest with NO, NO 2, and PM 10. Across Europe, the classification exhibits interesting large-scale features: some contrasts between different regions depend on the pollutant considered. Comparing the classes obtained

  4. Using the conceptual site model approach to characterize groundwater quality

    SciTech Connect

    Shephard, E.; Glucksberg, N.; Walter, N.

    2007-07-01

    To understand groundwater quality, the first step is to develop a conceptual site model (CSM) that describes the site history, describes the geology and the hydrogeology of the site, identifies potential release areas or sources, and evaluates the fate and transport of site related compounds. After the physical site setting is understood and potential release areas are identified, appropriate and representative groundwater monitoring wells may be used to evaluate groundwater quality at a site and provide a network to assess impacts from potential future releases. To develop the CSM, the first step to understand the different requirements from each of the regulatory stakeholders. Each regulatory agency may have different approaches to site characterization and closure (i.e., different groundwater and soil remediation criteria). For example, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state governments have published guidance documents that proscribe the required steps and information needed to develop a CSM. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has a proscriptive model for the Historical Site Assessment under the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM), and contains requirements for developing a conceptual site model in NUREG 1757. Federal and state agencies may also have different closure criteria for potential contaminants of concern. Understanding these differences before starting a groundwater monitoring program is important because the minimum detectable activity (MDA), lowest limit detection (LLD), and sample quantitation limit (SQL) must be low enough so that data may be evaluated under each of the programs. After a Historical Site Assessment is completed a work plan is developed and executed to not only collect physical data that describes the geology and hydrogeology, but to also characterize the soil, groundwater, sediments, and surface water quality of each potentially impacted areas. Although the primary

  5. Hazardous waste sites and neighborhood quality: Implications for environmental education

    SciTech Connect

    Graber, D.R.; Jones, R.M.

    1997-08-01

    Abandoned hazardous waste sites (Superfund sites) are often assumed to be strongly opposed by neighboring community members. However, such opposition may vary widely based on the unique characteristics of each neighborhood. As hazardous waste sites are disproportionately located near low-income neighborhoods, it is important to identify the primary concerns of these communities` residents. Several studies have demonstrated that individuals may feel that neighborhood and life quality are not as negatively impacted by hazardous waste problems, as by other problems. Local governments and community individuals may have varying, but not dissimilar views on the pressing needs of low-income neighborhoods. This study analyzed community concerns in several neighborhoods situated adjacent to Superfund sites. An unique educational model for eliciting community input and assessing community needs was developed and is described. This approach also involves an evaluation by educators of the linkages and causal connections between environmental factors and social/economic concerns in specific neighborhoods. Through these efforts, community members and environmental professionals will better understand each other`s positions and develop more effective relationships.

  6. Extreme 3D reconstruction of the final ROSETTA/PHILAE landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capanna, Claire; Jorda, Laurent; Lamy, Philippe; Gesquiere, Gilles; Delmas, Cédric; Durand, Joelle; Garmier, Romain; Gaudon, Philippe; Jurado, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The Philae lander aboard the Rosetta spacecraft successfully landed at the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (hereafter 67P/C-G) after two rebounds on November 12, 2014. The final landing site, now known as « Abydos », has been identified on images acquired by the OSIRIS imaging system onboard the Rosetta orbiter[1]. The available images of Abydos are very limited in number and reveal a very extreme topography containing cliffs and overhangs. Furthermore, the surface is only observed under very high incidence angles of 60° on average, which implies that the images also exhibit lots of cast shadows. This makes it very difficult to reconstruct the 3D topography with standard methods such as photogrammetry or standard clinometry. We apply a new method called ''Multiresolution PhotoClinometry by Deformation'' (MPCD, [2]) to retrieve the 3D topography of the area around Abydos. The method works in two main steps: (i) a DTM of this region is extracted from a low resolution MPCD global shape model of comet 67P/C-G, and (ii) the resulting triangular mesh is progressively deformed at increasing spatial sampling down to 0.25 m in order to match a set of 14 images of Abydos with projected pixel scales between 1 and 8 m. The method used to perform the image matching is a quasi-Newton non-linear optimization method called L-BFGS-b[3] especially suited to large-scale problems. Finally, we also checked the compatibility of the final MPCD digital terrain model with a set of five panoramic images obtained by the CIVA-P instrument aboard Philae[4]. [1] Lamy et al., 2016, submitted. [2] Capanna et al., Three dimensional reconstruction using multiresoluton photoclinometry by deformation, The visual Computer, v. 29(6-8) pp. 825-835, 2013. [3] Morales et al., Remark on "Algorithm 778: L-BFGS-B: Fortran subroutines for large-scale bound constrained optimization", v.38(1) pp.1-4, ACM Trans. Math. Softw., 2011 [4] Bibring et al., 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko surface properties as

  7. Definition of a quality factor for single site location estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coetzee, Petrus J.; du Plessis, Warren P.

    2016-06-01

    A technique to estimate the performance of single site location (SSL) based on high-frequency direction finding for reigning ionospheric propagation conditions is described. This technique is based on classic propagation information (maximum useable frequency, frequency for optimum traffic, optimum working frequency, highest possible frequency, lowest possible frequency, etc.) which can be deduced by ray tracing through an ionospheric model such as the International Reference Ionosphere. The correlation between the elevation angle measured by an interferometric direction finder and the angles corresponding to the propagation conditions is used to assign a quality factor to the calculated SSL ground range result.

  8. The Association between Adiposity, Mental Well-Being, and Quality of Life in Extreme Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jagielski, Alison C.; Brown, Adrian; Hosseini-Araghi, Marzieh; Thomas, G. Neil; Taheri, Shahrad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore the cross-sectional association between adiposity, mental well-being, and quality of life in extreme obese individuals entering a UK specialist weight management service prior to treatment commencement. Methods The sample comprised 263 extreme obese individuals who were referred to the service as a result of having a body mass index (BMI) ≥40 kg/m2 or ≥35 kg/m2 with a co-morbid health condition. In a retrospective analysis, routinely collected baseline clinical examination data and self-report questionnaires (Impact of Weight on Quality of Life: IWQOL-Lite, EQ5D-3L, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: HADS) were analysed to examine the cross-sectional association between adiposity and quality of life. Results The sample was predominantly female (74.8%) with mean BMI 47.0±7.9 kg/m2. Increasing adiposity was significantly negatively associated with quality of life, with an increase of 1 BMI unit associated with decreases of 1.93 in physical function (95% CI −2.86 − −1.00, p<0.001), 1.62 in self-esteem (95% CI −2.67 − −0.57, p<0.05), 2.69 in public distress (95% CI −3.75 − −1.62, p<0.001), 1.33 in work (95% CI −2.63 − −0.02, p<0.05), and 1.79 in total IWQOL-Lite scores (95% CI −2.65 − −0.93, p<0.001). Adiposity was associated with significantly increased risk of problems in mobility (OR = 3.44, 95% CI 1.47−8.05), and performing usual activities (OR = 2.45, 95% CI 1.10−5.46) in highest relative to lowest BMI tertile. The prevalence of experience of symptoms of anxiety (70.3%) and depression (66.2%) as measured by HADS was consistently high. Conclusions We identified a high prevalence of psychological co-morbidity, including widespread experience of symptoms of anxiety and depressive disorders and reduced quality of life among these extreme obese individuals seeking weight management treatment. Clinical implications include the need for the incorporation of strategies to improve mental well

  9. Two simple leg net devices designed to protect lower-extremity skin grafts and donor sites and prevent decubitus ulcer.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Travis L; Chapman, Ted T; Dewey, William S; Quick, Charles D; Wolf, Steven E; Holcomb, John B

    2007-01-01

    Burn therapists routinely are tasked to position the lower extremities of burn patients for pressure ulcer prevention, skin graft protection, donor site ventilation, and edema reduction. We developed two durable and low-maintenance devices that allow effective positioning of the lower extremities. The high-profile and low-profile leg net devices were simple to fabricate and maintain. The frame was assembled using a three-quarter-inch diameter copper pipe and copper fittings (45 degrees, 90 degrees, and tees). A double layer of elasticized tubular netting was pulled over the frame and doubled back for leg support to complete the devices. The devices can be placed on any bed surface. The netting can be exchanged when soiled and the frame can be disinfected between patients using standard techniques. Both devices were used on approximately 250 patients for a total of 1200 treatment days. No incidence of pressure ulcer was observed, and graft take was not adversely affected. The devices have not required repairs or replacement. Medical providers reported they are easy to apply and effectively maintain proper positioning throughout application. Neither device interfered with the application of other positioning devices. Both devices were found to be an effective method of positioning lower extremities to prevent pressure ulcer, minimize graft loss and donor site morbidity, and reduce edema. The devices allowed for proper wound ventilation and protected grafted lower extremities on any bed surface. The devices are simple to fabricate and maintain. Both devices can be effectively used simultaneously with other positioning devices.

  10. Siting analyses for water quality sampling in a catchment.

    PubMed

    Kao, Jehng-Jung; Li, Pei-Hao; Lin, Chin-Lien; Hu, Wen-Hsin

    2008-04-01

    Pollution loads discharged from upstream development or human activities significantly degrade the water quality of a reservoir. The design of an appropriate water quality sampling network is therefore important for detecting potential pollution events and monitoring pollution trends. However, under a limited budgetary constraint, how to site an appropriate number of sampling stations is a challenging task. A previous study proposed a method applying the simulated annealing algorithm to design the sampling network based on three cost factors including the number of reaches, bank length, and subcatchment area. However, these factors are not directly related to the distribution of possible pollution. Thus, this study modified the method by considering three additional factors, i.e. total phosphorus, nitrogen, and sediment loads. The larger the possible load, the higher the probability of a pollution event may occur. The study area was the Derchi reservoir catchment in Taiwan. Pollution loads were derived from the AGNPS model with rainfall intensity estimated using the Thiessen method. Analyses for a network with various numbers of sampling sites were implemented. The results obtained based on varied cost factors were compared and discussed. With the three additional factors, the chosen sampling network is expected to properly detect pollution events and monitor pollution distribution and temporal trends.

  11. Two Simple Leg Net Devices Designed to Protect Lower-Extremity Skin Grafts and Donor Sites and Prevent Decubitus Ulcer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    Two Simple Leg Net Devices Designed to Protect Lower-Extremity Skin Grafts and Donor Sites and Prevent Decubitus Ulcer Travis L. Hedman, MPT, OCS... decubitus . Pressure ulcer is a serious health prob- lem and can cause pain, suffering, disability, and even death.1,2 The cost of treatment for a...single pressure decubitus has been estimated to be as high as $70,000.3 Therefore, prevention is paramount. The prevention of pressure ulcers is far less

  12. Horses, Cows, and Water Quality: Prioritizing Stream Restoration Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, R. A.; Ambers, R. K.

    2002-05-01

    In order to prioritize sites for a stream restoration project, water quality testing is being done in two small, partly forested watersheds on the Sweet Briar College campus east of the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia. The 1.3 km2 watershed of Dairy Creek contains a former dairy operation (now hayfields) and athletic fields. The 0.7 km2 watershed of Fern Creek contains an actively used horse pasture, riding, and stable area. The goals of this study are: (1) to determine which stream would benefit more from establishing or improving a forested riparian buffer zone and (2) to collect baseline water quality data which can be used in future years to monitor the effectiveness of the restoration project and other land management practices. Ten sites along the main stems and tributary streams in the two watersheds were chosen for water quality measurements. When water samples are collected, discharge is also determined at each site by dilution gauging using a conductivity logger. Water samples are tested in the lab for pH, turbidity, nitrate-nitrogen, orthophosphate, total phosphate, and fecal and total coloform bacteria. Total and orthophosphate and pH show no systematic downstream variation or difference between the two watersheds. In contrast, nitrate increases downstream and is positively correlated with conductivity and the upstream area of non-forested land. Nitrate concentrations in the Dairy Creek watershed are significantly higher than in the Fern Creek watershed. Fecal and total coloform counts also tend to be higher in Dairy than in Fern Creek, but the numbers vary widely. Although discharge increases downstream in a predictable way, it does not correlate well with any of the measured constituents. Despite the fact that the riding center is functioning but the dairy operation is not, these preliminary data suggest that water quality in the Dairy Creek system is poorer than in Fern Creek. Further investigation is needed to identify non-point sources of nutrient

  13. Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations.

    PubMed

    Barsam, Tayebeh; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Ghotbi, Mohammad Reza; Dehghan, Somayeh Farhang

    2012-11-30

    This study aims to investigate the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations (132, 230 and 400 KV) in Kerman city and the suburbs. For this purpose, the electric field intensity and magnetic flux density were measured in different parts of substations, and then the occupational exposure was estimated by averaging electric field intensity and magnetic flux density in a shift work. The cases comprised 67 workers who had been exposed to electromagnetic fields in age range of 24-57 and the controls were 110 persons the age ranged 24-50 years. Sleep quality of both groups was evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire (PSQI). Finally, these data were subjected to statistical analysis. The results indicated that 90.5% of cases and 85.3% of controls had the poor quality sleep according to PSQI (P-value=0.615). Total sleep quality score mean for the case and control groups were 10.22 ± 3.4 and 9.74 ± 3.62 (P-value=0.415) ,respectively. Meantime to fall asleep for cases(35.68 ± 26.25 min) was significantly higher than for controls (28.89 ± 20.18 min) (P-value=0.002). Cases had average sleep duration of 5.49 ± 1.31 hours, which was lower ascompared with control subjects (5.90 ± 1.67hours). Although there was a higher percentage for the case group with poor sleep quality than the control group, but no statistically significant difference was observed.

  14. Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations (132, 230 and 400 KV) in Kerman city and the suburbs. For this purpose, the electric field intensity and magnetic flux density were measured in different parts of substations, and then the occupational exposure was estimated by averaging electric field intensity and magnetic flux density in a shift work. The cases comprised 67 workers who had been exposed to electromagnetic fields in age range of 24–57 and the controls were 110 persons the age ranged 24–50 years. Sleep quality of both groups was evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire (PSQI). Finally, these data were subjected to statistical analysis. The results indicated that 90.5% of cases and 85.3% of controls had the poor quality sleep according to PSQI (P-value=0.615). Total sleep quality score mean for the case and control groups were 10.22 ± 3.4 and 9.74 ± 3.62 (P-value=0.415) ,respectively. Meantime to fall asleep for cases(35.68 ± 26.25 min) was significantly higher than for controls (28.89 ± 20.18 min) (P-value=0.002). Cases had average sleep duration of 5.49 ± 1.31 hours, which was lower ascompared with control subjects (5.90 ± 1.67hours). Although there was a higher percentage for the case group with poor sleep quality than the control group, but no statistically significant difference was observed. PMID:23369281

  15. Quality of vascular surgery Web sites on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Perbinder; Williams, Bryn; Alagaratnam, Swethan; Neffendorf, James; Soobrah, Ritish

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluated the readability, accessibility, usability, and reliability of vascular surgery information on the Internet in the English language. The Google, Yahoo, and MSN/Bing search engines were searched for "carotid endarterectomy," "EVAR or endovascular aneurysm repair," and "varicose veins or varicose veins surgery." The first 50 Web sites from each search engine for each topic were analyzed. The Flesch Reading Ease Score and Gunning Fog Index were calculated to assess readability. The LIDA tool (Minervation Ltd, Oxford, UK) was used to assess accessibility, usability, and reliability. The Web sites were difficult to read and comprehend. The mean Flesch Reading Ease scores were 53.53 for carotid endarterectomy, 50.53 for endovascular aneurysm repair, and 58.59 for varicose veins. The mean Gunning Fog Index scores were 12.3 for carotid endarterectomy, 12.12 for endovascular aneurysm repair, and 10.69 for varicose veins. The LIDA values for accessibility were good, but the results for usability and reliability were poor. Internet information on vascular surgical conditions and procedures is poorly written and unreliable. We suggest that health professionals should recommend Web sites that are easy to read and contain high-quality surgical information. Medical information on the Internet must be readable, accessible, usable, and reliable. Copyright © 2012 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Site quality in Appalachian hardwoods: the biological and economic response under selection silviculture

    Treesearch

    Orris D. McCauley; George R., Jr. Trimble

    1975-01-01

    The relative or percentage value response after 12 years of selective cutting practices on low- and high-quality sites in Appalachian hardwoods amounted to a 119-percent increase on the low-quality site and 145 percent on the high-quality site. The absolute value or actual dollar response, on the other hand, showed that the low-quality site increased in value only $76/...

  17. A Low-Cost, Post Hoc Method to Rate Overall Site Quality in a Multi-Site Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    Demonstration programs and social experiments are often subject to sophisticated, controlled evaluations. An important factor that is not subject to control, and sometimes even goes unobserved, is overall program site quality. Site quality can be observed in process evaluations, but these tend to be expensive. This paper describes an alternative…

  18. Bottom-up perspectives of extreme event and climate change threats to water quality: Drinking water utilities in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekstrom, J.; Klasic, M.; Fencl, A.; Lubell, M.; Bedsworth, L. W.; Baker, E.

    2016-12-01

    Extreme events impact water quality, which pose serious challenges for drinking water systems. Such extreme events, including wildfire, storm surge, and other weather-related extremes, are projected to increase under a changing climate. It remains unclear what climate change information can support water managers in preparing for more extreme events. Exploring this topic requires understanding the larger question: What is the role of scientific information in adapting to climate change? We present two parts of a three-year study geared to understand whether, where, why and in what way climate information (or the lack of) is used or needed to support long term water quality planning for extreme events. In 2015 we surveyed California drinking water utilities and found a wide range of extreme event/water quality issues, perspectives on the severity of climate change threats, drought impacts and trusted information sources relating to water quality concerns. Approximately 70% of 259 respondents had recently experienced extreme weather-related events that worsen or trigger water quality. Survey results informed development of a case study analysis to gain a more in-depth understanding of what type of - or when - extreme events information could support climate adaptation. Projections of extreme events are often not in a form that is useable for water quality planning. Relative to supply-related projections, water quality has received much less scientific attention, leaving it an assumed scientific information gap and need for management. The question remains whether filling this gap would help adaptation, whom it would help, and in what way. Based on interviews with water systems in Summer 2016, our case study analyses reinforce that extreme events threaten water quality in many ways; largely as secondary impacts of climate change. Secondary impacts involve disinfection byproducts, increasing salinity in the Delta, and the use of lower quality sources. The most common

  19. Assessment of groundwater quality near the landfill site using the modified water quality index.

    PubMed

    Talalaj, Izabela A

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the groundwater quality near a landfill site using the modified water quality index. A total of 128 groundwater samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total organic carbon (TOC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, and Hg. The analytical results have showed a decreasing trend in concentration for TOC, Cd, Pb, Hg, and Cu and an increasing one for pH, EC, and PAH. The modified water quality index, which was called landfill water pollution index (LWPI), was calculated to quantify the overall water quality near the landfill site. The analysis reveals that groundwater in piezometers close to the landfill is under a strong landfill impact. The LWPI in piezometers ranged from 0.52 to 98.25 with a mean value of 7.99. The LWPI in groundwater from the nearest house wells varied from 0.59 to 0.92. A LWPI value below 1 proves that analyzed water is not affected by the landfill. Results have shown that LWPI is an efficient method for assessing and communicating the information on the groundwater quality near the landfill.

  20. Drivers of water quality in a large water storage reservoir during a period of extreme drawdown.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Darren S; Gigney, Helen; Wilson, Jessica S; Watson, Garth; Boulding, Amy N

    2008-12-01

    This study examined the drivers of water quality in a large water storage reservoir (Lake Hume) during a period of extreme drawdown (to less than 3% of capacity). During the period of extreme drawdown, the reservoir can be thought of as consisting of three separate but inter-related parcels of water. The warm surface mixed layer was about 6m deep. Cold water inflows from the Mitta Mitta River undershot the surface mixed layer in the Mitta Mitta arm of the reservoir and flowed along the bottom of the reservoir to the Dam Wall without substantial interaction with the surface mixed layer. When inflows from the Murray River occurred, the temperature of these inflows was similar to that of the surface mixed layer within the dam and the flows appeared to move within the surface mixed layer towards the Dam Wall. These Murray River inflows were insufficient to promote total mixing of the surface and bottom waters. The Murray River arm of the reservoir became a 'hot spot' for nutrient production. Stratification and subsequent anoxic conditions promoted the release of nutrients - ammonium, organic N and total P - from the sediments into the overlying hypolimnion. Because the depth of the lake was relatively shallow due to the extreme drawdown, wind driven events lead to a substantial deepening (turnover) of the thermocline allowing periodic pulses of nutrients into the warm surface layer. These nutrient pulses appeared to stimulate cyanobacterial growth. Warm inflows from the Murray River then served to push the blooms formed in the Murray arm into the main body of the lake.

  1. Quantifying site quality in a heterogeneous landscape: recruitment of a reef fish.

    PubMed

    Shima, Jeffrey S; Osenberg, Craig W; St Mary, Colette M

    2008-01-01

    Heterogeneity in site quality can play an important role in patterns of abundance and population dynamics. Yet, estimating site quality in natural systems can be problematic because site quality can (1) vary through ontogeny for a focal organism, leading to shifts in site quality with age, (2) be confounded with (or masked by) variation in traits of individuals populating the sites, and (3) be correlated with local density. For example, if high-quality sites attract more individuals but vital rates are density dependent, then observed vital rates will be relatively homogeneous in space despite strong heterogeneity in site quality. Here, we operationally define site quality for a reef fish as the mean survival time of juveniles transplanted to sites at a common density and size structure, with random assignment of individuals to sites to remove potential confounding effects of local variation in individual quality and density. Our assays using juvenile age classes of the six-bar wrasse (Thalassoma hardwicke) showed that site quality varied in space (i.e., among patch reefs) but was constant through time. Site quality increased with availability of the branching coral Pocillopora (which is used as a refuge), but decreased with density of a predator, the arc-eye hawkfish, Paracirrhites arcatus (which also uses Pocillopora). We experimentally added colonies of Pocillopora to reefs and (1) increased site quality, (2) enhanced natural settlement rates of six-bar wrasse, but (3) attracted more hawkfish predators, and (4) did not increase survival of juvenile fish under ambient densities. Our results suggest that Pocillopora increases site quality, but attracts greater densities of settlers and predators, resulting in increased density dependence and predation, which mask the underlying effects of Pocillopora on site quality (supporting the hypothesis of "cryptic density dependence"). Variation in site quality and the possible confounding effects of density and individual

  2. Resampling and extreme-value statistics in air-quality-model performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, S.T.; Sistla, G.; Pagnotti, V.; Petersen, W.B.; Irwin, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    Specific data-analysis techniques that will reveal the performance of air-quality models in simulating the measured concentrations' cumulative distribution are discussed. The paper presents two types of analysis to compare model predictions with the measurements. In one analysis, extreme-value statistics and the fitting of tail exponential distributions to both measured and predicted values are used in various ways to see if the measured and predicted values fit such distributions and to what degree the higher values of the cumulative frequency distributions coincide. In the second analysis, a resampling (bootstrap technique is used to develop non-parametric confidence intervals for the entire cumulative distribution of the measured concentrations, and to derive empirical distributions for central tendency statistics and for differences between measured and predicted mean and median values. The analysis is focused so as to show (1) why the resampling is necessary and the degree to which mistaken judgments can be made with and without the technique, and (2) comparisons between the discriminating capabilities of 'tail fit' type model evaluation and one using the resampling technique. It is shown that both the bootstrap and extreme value statistics are needed to quantify the uncertainty associated with the model predictions.

  3. Influence of Lower Extremity Muscle Size and Quality on Stair-Climb Performance in Career Firefighters.

    PubMed

    Kleinberg, Craig R; Ryan, Eric D; Tweedell, Andrew J; Barnette, Timothy J; Wagoner, Chad W

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of lower extremity muscular size and quality on stair-climb performance (SCP) in career firefighters. Forty-six male career firefighters (age = 37.0 ± 7.2 years; stature = 180.2 ± 6.9 cm; body mass = 108.0 ± 19.8 kg) volunteered for this study. Panoramic ultrasound images of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were obtained to determine cross-sectional area (CSA) and echo intensity (EI) of each muscle. The CSA of each muscle was then summed together and normalized to body mass (CSA/BM [QCSA]). Additionally, EI was averaged across both muscles (QEI). Participants then performed a timed and weighted SCP assessment where they ascended and descended 26 stairs 4 times as quickly as possible while wearing a weighted vest (22.73 kg) to simulate the weight of their self-contained breathing apparatus and turnout gear. Bivariate correlations and stepwise regression analyses were used to examine the relationships among variables and the relative contributions of QCSA and QEI to SCP. Partial correlations were used to examine the relationship between QCSA and SCP and QEI and SCP while controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). The results indicated that QCSA and QEI were significantly related to SCP before (r = -0.492, p = 0.001; r = 0.363, p = 0.013, respectively) and after accounting for age and BMI (r = -0.324, p = 0.032; r = 0.413, p = 0.005, respectively). Both QCSA and QEI contributed significantly to the prediction of SCP (r = 0.560, p < 0.001). These findings indicate that lower extremity muscle size and quality are important contributors to critical firefighting tasks, which have been shown to be improved with resistance training.

  4. High yielding and extremely site-selective covalent functionalization of graphene.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Juan Jesús; Calleja, Fabián; Miranda, Rodolfo; Pérez, Emilio M; Vázquez de Parga, Amadeo L

    2017-09-07

    We describe a method to functionalize graphene covalently with 92% yield and 98% site-selectivity and strict spatial periodicity on the nanometer scale. This method could be extended to other functional molecules.

  5. Influence of site on the therapeutic ratio of adjuvant radiotherapy in soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremity

    SciTech Connect

    Alektiar, Kaled M. . E-mail: alektiak@mskcc.org; Brennan, Murray F.; Singer, Samuel

    2005-09-01

    Purpose: The ultimate goal of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremity is to improve the therapeutic ratio by increasing local control while minimizing morbidity. Most efforts in trying to improve this ratio have focused on the sequencing of RT and surgery, with little attention to the potential influence of the tumor site. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of tumor site on local control and complications in a group of patients with primary high-grade soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremity treated at a single institution with postoperative RT. Methods and Materials: Between July 1982 and December 2000, 369 adult patients with primary high-grade soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremity were treated with limb-sparing surgery and postoperative RT. Patients who underwent surgery or RT outside our institution were excluded. The tumor site was the upper extremity (UE) in 103 (28%) and the lower extremity (LE) in 266 (72%). The tumor was {<=}5 cm in 98 patients (27%), and the microscopic margins were positive in 44 (12%). Of the 369 patients, 104 (28%) underwent postoperative external beam RT (EBRT), 233 (63%) postoperative brachytherapy (BRT), and 32 underwent a combination (9%); 325 (88%) received a 'conventional' radiation dose, defined as 60-70 Gy for EBRT, 45 Gy for BRT, and 45-50 Gy plus 15-20 Gy for EBRT plus BRT. Complications were assessed in terms of wound complications requiring repeat surgery, fracture, joint stiffness, edema, and Grade 3 or worse peripheral nerve damage. Results: The UE and LE groups were balanced with regard to age, depth, margin status, and type of RT (EBRT vs. BRT {+-} EBRT). However, more patients in the UE group had tumors {<=}5 cm and more received a conventional radiation dose (p = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively). With a median follow-up of 50 months, the 5-year actuarial rate of local control, distant relapse-free survival, and overall survival for the whole population was 82% (95

  6. Use of plant indicators as an index to site quality

    Treesearch

    Marinus Westveld

    1954-01-01

    In any discussion of site evaluation we need to know first what the forester means by the term "site", and the function site serves in the field of forestry. The term may mean different things to different people.

  7. Influence of Turbulence, Orientation, and Site Configuration on the Response of Buildings to Extreme Wind

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence results from the vertical movement of air, together with flow disturbances around surface obstacles which make low- and moderate-level winds extremely irregular. Recent advancements in wind engineering have led to the construction of new facilities for testing residential homes at relatively high Reynolds numbers. However, the generation of a fully developed turbulence in these facilities is challenging. The author proposed techniques for the testing of residential buildings and architectural features in flows that lack fully developed turbulence. While these methods are effective for small structures, the extension of the approach for large and flexible structures is not possible yet. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of turbulence in the response of tall buildings to extreme winds. In addition, the paper presents a detailed analysis to investigate the influence of upstream terrain conditions, wind direction angle (orientation), and the interference effect from the surrounding on the response of high-rise buildings. The methodology presented can be followed to help decision makers to choose among innovative solutions like aerodynamic mitigation, structural member size adjustment, and/or damping enhancement, with an objective to improve the resiliency and the serviceability of buildings. PMID:24701140

  8. Influence of turbulence, orientation, and site configuration on the response of buildings to extreme wind.

    PubMed

    Aly, Aly Mousaad

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence results from the vertical movement of air, together with flow disturbances around surface obstacles which make low- and moderate-level winds extremely irregular. Recent advancements in wind engineering have led to the construction of new facilities for testing residential homes at relatively high Reynolds numbers. However, the generation of a fully developed turbulence in these facilities is challenging. The author proposed techniques for the testing of residential buildings and architectural features in flows that lack fully developed turbulence. While these methods are effective for small structures, the extension of the approach for large and flexible structures is not possible yet. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of turbulence in the response of tall buildings to extreme winds. In addition, the paper presents a detailed analysis to investigate the influence of upstream terrain conditions, wind direction angle (orientation), and the interference effect from the surrounding on the response of high-rise buildings. The methodology presented can be followed to help decision makers to choose among innovative solutions like aerodynamic mitigation, structural member size adjustment, and/or damping enhancement, with an objective to improve the resiliency and the serviceability of buildings.

  9. Threading polyintercalators with extremely slow dissociation rates and extended DNA binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Amy Rhoden; Iverson, Brent L.

    2013-01-01

    The development of small molecules that bind DNA sequence specifically has the potential to modulate gene expression in a general way. One mode of DNA binding is intercalation, or the insertion of molecules between DNA base pairs. We have developed a modular polyintercalation system in which intercalating naphthalene diimide (NDI) units are connected by flexible linkers that alternate between the minor and major grooves of DNA when bound. We recently reported a threading tetraintercalator with a dissociation half-life of 16 days, the longest reported to date, from its preferred 14 bp binding site. Herein, three new tetraintercalator derivatives were synthesized with one, two, and three additional methylene units in the central major groove-binding linker. These molecules displayed dissociation half-lives of 57, 27, and 18 days, respectively, from the 14 bp site. The optimal major groove-binding linker was used in the design of an NDI hexaintercalator that was analyzed by gel-shift assays, DNase I footprinting, and UV-visible spectroscopy. The hexaintercalator bound its entire 22 bp binding site, the longest reported specific binding site for a synthetic, non-nucleic acid based DNA binding molecule, but with a significantly faster dissociation rate compared to the tetraintercalators. PMID:23919778

  10. Fixed-site high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for treatment of chronic low back and lower extremity pain

    PubMed Central

    Gozani, Shai N

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine if fixed-site high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (FS-TENS) is effective in treating chronic low back and lower extremity pain. Background Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is widely used for treatment of chronic pain. General-purpose transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation devices are designed for stimulation anywhere on the body and often cannot be used while the user is active or sleeping. FS-TENS devices are designed for placement at a pre-determined location, which enables development of a wearable device for use over extended time periods. Methods Study participants with chronic low back and/or lower extremity pain self-administered an FS-TENS device for 60 days. Baseline, 30-, and 60-day follow-up data were obtained through an online questionnaire. The primary outcome measure was the patient global impression of change. Pain intensity and interference were assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory. Changes in use of concomitant pain medications were evaluated with a single-item global self-rating. Results One hundred and thirty participants were enrolled, with 88 completing the 60-day follow-up questionnaire. Most participants (73.9%) were 50 years of age or older. At baseline, low back pain was identified by 85.3%, lower extremity pain by 71.6%, and upper extremity pain by 62.5%. Participants reported widespread pain, at baseline, with a mean of 3.4 (standard deviation 1.1) pain sites. At the 60-day follow-up, 80.7% of participants reported that their chronic pain had improved and they were classified as responders. Baseline characteristics did not differentiate non-responders from responders. There were numerical trends toward reduced pain interference with walking ability and sleep, and greater pain relief in responders. There was a large difference in use of concomitant pain medications, with 80.3% of responders reporting a reduction compared to 11.8% of non

  11. BIOPHYSICS. Comment on "Extreme electric fields power catalysis in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase".

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Aditya; Yabukarski, Filip; Lamba, Vandana; Schwans, Jason P; Sunden, Fanny; Herschlag, Daniel

    2015-08-28

    Fried et al. (Reports, 19 December 2014, p. 1510) demonstrated a strong correlation between reaction rate and the carbonyl stretching frequency of a product analog bound to ketosteroid isomerase oxyanion hole mutants and concluded that the active-site electric field provides 70% of catalysis. Alternative comparisons suggest a smaller contribution, relative to the corresponding solution reaction, and highlight the importance of atomic-level descriptions.

  12. Quality Assurance/Quality Control in Waste Site Characterization and Remedial Action.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Als 539 QUALITY ASSIJRANCE/-OWAITY CONTROL IN MASTE SITE vi1 71 CIARACTERIZATION AND REMEDIAL ACTIGN(U) OAK RIDGE ED NATIONAL LAB IN N P MASKAAINEC...and Remedial Action D T Final Report .L Co:i., M. P . Maskarinec NOV 2 3 1987 i’ ~S. K. Holladay P Supported by U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials...National Laboratory USATHAMA &6 ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 7b ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) P . 0. Box X AMXTH-TE-A Oak Ridge, TN 37831

  13. Support for site testing of the European Extremely Large Telescope: precipitable water vapor over La Silla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querel, Richard R.; Kerber, Florian; Lo Curto, Gaspare; Thomas-Osip, Joanna E.; Prieto, Gabriel; Chacón, Arlette; Cuevas, Omar; Pozo, Diana; Marín, Julio; Naylor, David A.; Curé, Michel; Sarazin, Marc S.; Guirao, Carlos; Avila, Gerardo

    2010-07-01

    The European Southern Observatory (ESO), the Institute for Space Imaging Science (ISIS) and the AstroMeteorology group at the Universidad de Valparaiso collaborated on a project to understand the precipitable water vapour (PWV) over the La Silla Paranal Observatory. Both La Silla and Paranal were studied with the goal of using them as reference sites to evaluate potential E-ELT sites. As ground-based infrared astronomy matures, our understanding of the atmospheric conditions over the observatories becomes paramount, specifically water vapour since it is the principle source of atmospheric opacity at infrared wavelengths. Several years of archival optical spectra (FEROS) have been analysed to reconstruct the PWV history above La Silla using an atmospheric radiative transfer model (BTRAM) developed by ISIS. In order to better understand the systematics involved, a dedicated atmospheric water vapour measurement campaign was conducted in May 2009 in close collaboration with Las Campanas observatory and the GMT site testing team. Several methods of determining the water column were employed, including radiosonde launches, continuous measurements by infrared radiometers (IRMA), a compact echelle spectrograph (BACHES) and several high-resolution optical echelle spectrographs (FEROS, HARPS and MIKE). All available observations were compared to concurrent satellite estimates of water vapour in an attempt to ground-truth the satellite data. We present a comparison of the methods used, and results from the archival study and measurement campaign. A mean PWV of 3.4 ± 2.4 mm is found for La Silla using FEROS data covering the period 2005-2009. Important lessons on the strengths and limitations of satellite data are presented. The value of a stand-alone high time resolution PWV monitor has been demonstrated in the context of parallel observations from Las Campanas and La Silla.

  14. Reliability of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test for Children with Cerebral Palsy Aged 2 to 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorley, Megan; Lannin, Natasha; Cusick, Anne; Novak, Iona; Boyd, Roslyn

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate reliability of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST) scores for children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 2-12 years. Method: Thirty-one QUESTs from 24 children with CP were rated once by two raters and twice by one rater. Internal consistency of total scores, inter- and intra-rater reliability findings for total,…

  15. End-user perspectives on e-commerce and health care web site quality.

    PubMed

    Le Rouge, Cynthia; De Leo, Gianluca

    2008-11-06

    We explore and compare the importance of various quality dimensions for health care and e-commerce web sites. The results show that the importance of various quality attributes for all except four of ten quality dimensions studied differ between health care and e-commerce web sites. These results can help health care managers to improve and/or to guide the design of their web sites.

  16. QUALITY MANAGEMENT DURING SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGIES; EXAMPLE SITE MARCH AIR FORCE BASE, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the remedial approach, organizational structure and key elements facilitating effective and efficient remediation of contaminated sites at March Air Force Base (AFB), California. The U.S. implementation and quality assurance approach to site remediation for a...

  17. QUALITY MANAGEMENT DURING SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGIES EXAMPLE SITE MARCH AIR FORCE BASE, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the remedial approach, organizational structure and key elements facilitating effective and efficient remediation of contaminated sites at March Air Force Base (AFB), California. The U.S. implementation and quality assurance approach to site remediation for ...

  18. QUALITY MANAGEMENT DURING SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGIES; EXAMPLE SITE MARCH AIR FORCE BASE, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the remedial approach, organizational structure and key elements facilitating effective and efficient remediation of contaminated sites at March Air Force Base (AFB), California. The U.S. implementation and quality assurance approach to site remediation for a...

  19. QUALITY MANAGEMENT DURING SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGIES EXAMPLE SITE MARCH AIR FORCE BASE, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the remedial approach, organizational structure and key elements facilitating effective and efficient remediation of contaminated sites at March Air Force Base (AFB), California. The U.S. implementation and quality assurance approach to site remediation for ...

  20. Report on the audit of the Savannah River Site`s quality control program for groundwater sampling

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-20

    The Savannah River Site`s groundwater remediation program was managed by the Department of Energy`s (Department) management and operating contractor for the site, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (Westinghouse). One component of the remediation program was the quality control program. The goal of the groundwater quality control program was to ensure that the results of laboratory analyses of groundwater samples were accurate and precise so that they could be relied upon for making remediation decisions. The objective of this audit was to determine whether Westinghouse acquired the minimal number of laboratory analyses required to ensure that groundwater sampling results met this criteria.

  1. The development of a site-specific water-quality standard for copper

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    This dissertation proposes to determine, for one toxic chemical, copper, if the Federal water quality standard and the state interpretation of that standard are appropriate for the Duck River, some 50 miles south of Nashville, Tennessee. This involved conducting toxicity tests in Duck River water, and the use of the computer metal speciation program MINTEQA1 to predict instream impact. The speciation model chosen for the determination of chemical equilibria in this study was MINTEQA1. To test the validity of the MINTEQA1 speciation model, water chemistry from the Duck River was entered into the model. At the typical site pH of 7.8, 55.7% of the copper is bound as Cu(OH){sub 2}, 29.8% is bound as copper humate, and 12.7% is found as CuCO{sub 3}. Of extreme importance to the toxicity of copper in the site water is the complete absence of the most toxic species, ionic copper. The test species were the brook silversides minnow (Labidesthes sicculus), mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), caddisfly larvae (Cheumatopsyche sp.), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), geniculate river snail (Lithasia geniculata), sunfish (Lepomis sp.), and the amphipod (Hyalella azeca). The test concentrations were confirmed by atomic absorption spectroscopy on selected concentrations. The caddisfly larvae was the single most tolerant species observed during this study, while the amphipod and snail were the two most sensitive species tested.

  2. Water quality at basic fixed sites in the upper Colorado River basin National Water-Quality Assessment study unit, October 1995-September 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spahr, Norman E.; Boulger, Robert W.; Szmajter, Richard J.

    2000-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin study unit of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program consists of the Colorado River watershed upstream from near the Colorado-Utah State line. The basin is about equally divided between the Southern Rocky Mountains and the Colorado Plateau physiographic provinces. Data were collected at pairs of indicator sites for mining, increasing urban development, and agricultural land use. Reference basic fixed sites were established in each physiographic province to provide baseline or background information in areas where anthropogenic influences are minimal. Water-quality data collection began at three of the sites in water year 1995. Full implementation of data collection at the 14-site network began in October 1996 and continued through September 1998. Six hundred and sixty water-quality samples were collected at the network sites. Snowmelt runoff dominates the hydrology in most of the basin, but water management for irrigation, storage, and transmountain diversions substantially changes annual runoff characteristics in some areas. Streamflow during water years 1995 and 1997 was generally greater than long-term average conditions. During water year 1996, streamflow also was above average at many sites but not to the extent as seen during 1995 or 1997. Water year 1998 streamflows typically were near or slightly below the long-term average. Extreme low-flow conditions generally did not occur at the sites during the data-collection period. Dissolved nitrate and total phosphorus concentrations at the background site within the Southern Rocky Mountain physiographic province typically were low (hundreths of milligrams per liter). Concentrations in areas of urban development and areas in the lower parts of the basin generally were in the tenths of milligrams per liter and in some agricultural areas were in the milligram per liter range. Median dissolved-solids concentrations at sites in the Southern Rocky Mountains

  3. Extreme anthropogenic erosion: Topsoil Selling in the Mekong Delta and consequences for soil quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, Susanne; Sebesvari, Zita; Vien, Duong Minh; Kruse, Jens; Guong, Vo Thi; Amelung, Wulf

    2017-04-01

    Increasing urbanization and industrialization leads to increasing demands for construction material, especially in low income countries. For this purpose topsoil is sometimes removed and used as construction material. Topsoil Selling is practiced around the world from America, Europe and Africa to Asia. In the Mekong Delta, Vietnam farmers physically remove the upper 10-40 cm of their paddy fields and sell it to contractors (= Topsoil Selling, TSS). The excavated material is used for road construction or brick production and therefore the most fertile part of the paddy soil is irrecoverably lost. The temporal effects of topsoil removal on soil quality are not yet fully understood. We hypothesized that after soil removal, soil quality and yield potential are significantly lower compared to the original topsoil. To test this hypothesis, we sampled two chronosequences in two different provinces of the Mekong Delta. The provinces are Sóc Trăng (Control, 1, 2, 3, 8 years after TSS) and Trà Vinh (Control, 3, 5, 8 years after TSS). The sampling areas differ in texture and cultivation practice: clayey-loamy vs. sandy-loamy and double vs. triple rice cropping. For each year of the chronosequence, 4 field sites were investigated. We sampled the Ap, Bg1, and Bg2 horizon up to 40 cm depth as composite samples from 6 to 8 cores per field. Soil organic carbon (Corg) stocks at TSS sites were up to 20 t/ha lower than at Control sites (Control: 50 t/ha) in Sóc Trăng and up to 15 t/ha lower in Tra Vinh (Control: 30 t/ha). Especially the Bg horizons revealed a continuous decline in Corg with time after soil removal. Analysis of available nutrients (Na, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu) determined by the Mehlich3-Method are still ongoing. Preliminary results, however, suggest that there is not sustainable loss of these elements after selling, but that initial risk of losses are reverted under prolonged management. Phosphorus fractionation according to the Hedley method indicate

  4. Near-complete 1-m topographic models of the MSL candidate landing sites: Site safety and quality evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, R. L.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Galuszka, D.; Redding, B.; Antonsen, J.; Coker, K.; Foster, E.; Hopkins, M.; Licht, A.; Fennema, A.; Calef, F., III; Nuti, S.; Parker, T. J.; Golombek, M. P.

    2011-10-01

    To support landing site selection for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) we have produced digital topographic models (DTMs) of the candidate sites with 1-m grid spacing from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (MRO HiRISE) stereo image pairs. The delivered DTMs cover 75-95% of each landing uncertainty ellipse plus key traverse areas outside the ellipse containing science targets that the MSL rover would be likely to visit. Rover-scale slopes derived from these DTMs are in the range of 1-2 times those at the roughest past landing site, but meet the criteria for MSL landing safety at all sites. The extensive overlaps between neighboring stereo DTMs in the MSL sites provide a unique opportunity to assess the quality (accuracy, precision, resolution) of our stereo DTM. The results of such assessment agree closely with theoretical estimates of quality based on the image resolution and geometry.

  5. Free anterolateral thigh flap for extremity reconstruction: clinical experience and functional assessment of donor site.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Y R; Jeng, S F; Kuo, M H; Huang, M N; Liu, Y T; Chiang, Y C; Yeh, M C; Wei, F C

    2001-06-01

    From August of 1995 through July of 1998, 38 free anterolateral thigh flaps were transferred to reconstruct soft-tissue defects. The overall success rate was 97 percent. Among 38 anterolateral thigh flaps, four were elevated as cutaneous flaps based on the septocutaneous perforators. The other 34 were harvested as myocutaneous flaps including a cuff of vastus lateralis muscle (15 to 40 cm3), either because of bulk requirements (33 cases) or because of the absence of a septocutaneous perforator (one case). However, vastus lateralis muscle is the largest compartment of the quadriceps, which is the prime extensor of the knee. Losing a portion of the vastus lateralis muscle may affect knee stability. Objective functional assessments of the donor sites were performed at least 6 months postoperatively in 20 patients who had a cuff of vastus lateralis muscle incorporated as part of the myocutaneous flap; assessments were made using a kinetic communicator machine. The isometric power test of the ratios of quadriceps muscle at 30 and 60 degrees of flexion between donor and normal thighs revealed no significant difference (p > 0.05). The isokinetic peak torque ratio of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles, including concentric and eccentric contraction tests, showed no significant difference (p > 0.05), except the concentric contraction test of the quadriceps muscle, which revealed mild weakness of the donor thigh (p < 0.05). In summary, the functional impairment of the donor thighs was minimal after free anterolateral thigh myocutaneous flap transfer.

  6. Phylogeny of Microorganisms Populating a Thick, Subaerial, Predominantly Lithotrophic Biofilm at an Extreme Acid Mine Drainage Site

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Philip L.; Smriga, Steven P.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2000-01-01

    An unusually thick (∼1 cm) slime developed on a slump of finely disseminated pyrite ore within an extreme acid mine drainage site at Iron Mountain, near Redding, Calif. The slime was studied over the period of 1 year. The subaerial form of the slime distinguished it from more typical submerged streamers. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed a diversity of sequences that were mostly novel. Nearest relatives to the majority of sequences came from iron-oxidizing acidophiles, and it appears that iron oxidation is the predominant metabolic characteristic of the organisms in the slime. The most abundant of the 16S rRNA genes detected were from organisms related to Leptospirillum species. The dominant sequence (71% of clones) may represent a new genus. Sequences within the Archaea of the Thermoplasmales lineage were detected. Most of these were only distantly related to known microorganisms. Also, sequences affiliating with Acidimicrobium were detected. Some of these were closely related to “Ferromicrobium acidophilus,” and others were affiliated with a lineage only represented by environmental clones. Unexpectedly, sequences that affiliated within the delta subdivision of the Proteobacteria were detected. The predominant metabolic feature of bacteria of this subdivision is anaerobic sulfate or metal reduction. Thus, microenvironments of low redox potential possibly exist in the predominantly oxidizing environments of the slime. These results expand our knowledge of the biodiversity of acid mine drainage environments and extend our understanding of the ecology of extremely acidic systems. PMID:10966399

  7. Phylogeny of microorganisms populating a thick, subaerial, predominantly lithotrophic biofilm at an extreme acid mine drainage site.

    PubMed

    Bond, P L; Smriga, S P; Banfield, J F

    2000-09-01

    An unusually thick ( approximately 1 cm) slime developed on a slump of finely disseminated pyrite ore within an extreme acid mine drainage site at Iron Mountain, near Redding, Calif. The slime was studied over the period of 1 year. The subaerial form of the slime distinguished it from more typical submerged streamers. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed a diversity of sequences that were mostly novel. Nearest relatives to the majority of sequences came from iron-oxidizing acidophiles, and it appears that iron oxidation is the predominant metabolic characteristic of the organisms in the slime. The most abundant of the 16S rRNA genes detected were from organisms related to Leptospirillum species. The dominant sequence (71% of clones) may represent a new genus. Sequences within the Archaea of the Thermoplasmales lineage were detected. Most of these were only distantly related to known microorganisms. Also, sequences affiliating with Acidimicrobium were detected. Some of these were closely related to "Ferromicrobium acidophilus," and others were affiliated with a lineage only represented by environmental clones. Unexpectedly, sequences that affiliated within the delta subdivision of the Proteobacteria were detected. The predominant metabolic feature of bacteria of this subdivision is anaerobic sulfate or metal reduction. Thus, microenvironments of low redox potential possibly exist in the predominantly oxidizing environments of the slime. These results expand our knowledge of the biodiversity of acid mine drainage environments and extend our understanding of the ecology of extremely acidic systems.

  8. Partitioning sources of uncertainty in projecting the impact of future climate extremes on site to regional ecosystem carbon cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simkins, J.; Desai, A. R.; Cowdery, E.; Dietze, M.; Rollinson, C.

    2016-12-01

    The terrestrial biosphere assimilates nearly one fourth of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, providing a significant ecosystem service. Anthropogenic climate changes that influence the distribution and frequency of weather extremes and can have a momentous impact on this useful function that ecosystems provide. However, most analyses of the impact of extreme events on ecosystem carbon uptake do not integrate across the wide range of structural, parametric, and driver uncertainty that needs to be taken into account to estimate probability of changes to ecosystem function under shifts in climate patterns. In order to improve ecosystem model forecasts, we integrated and estimated these sources of uncertainty using an open-sourced informatics workflow, the Predictive ECosystem Analyzer (PEcAn, http://pecanproject.org). PEcAn allows any researcher to parameterize and run multiple ecosystem models and automate extraction of meteorological forcing and estimation of its uncertainty. Trait databases and a uniform protocol for parameterizing and driving models were used to test parametric and structural uncertainty. In order to sample the uncertainty in future projected meteorological drivers, we developed automated extraction routines to acquire site-level three-hourly Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) forcing data from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory general circulation models (CM3, ESM2M, and ESM2G) across the r1i1p1, r3i1p1 and r5i1p1 ensembles and AR5 emission scenarios. We also implemented a site-level high temporal resolution downscaling technique for these forcings calibrated against half-hourly eddy covariance flux tower observations. Our hypothesis claims that parametric and driver uncertainty dominate over the model structural uncertainty. In order to test this, we partition the uncertainty budget on the ChEAS regional network of towers in Northern Wisconsin, USA where each tower is located in forest and wetland ecosystems.

  9. Using Biomass to Improve Site Quality and Carbon Sequestration

    Treesearch

    Marilyn A. Buford; Bryce J. Stokes; Felipe G. Sanchez; Emily A. Carter

    1998-01-01

    The future demands on forest lands are a concern because of reduced productivity, especially on inherently poor sites, sites with long-depleted soils, or those soils that bear repeated, intensive short rotations. Forests are also an important carbon sink and, when well managed, can make even more significant contributions to sequestration and to reduction of greenhouse...

  10. A method of site quality evaluation for red alder.

    Treesearch

    Constance A. Harrington

    1986-01-01

    A field guide to predict site index for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) was developed for use in western Washington and Oregon. The guide requires the user to evaluate 14 soil-site properties that are grouped into three general factors: (1) geographic and topographic position, (2) soil moisture and aeration during the growing season, and (3) soil fertility and physical...

  11. On the Co-occurrence of Air Quality Extremes and Heat Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, J.; Prather, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the relationship between observed maximum extremes of ozone, PM2.5, temperature over eastern North America during 15 extended summer seasons (April-September, 1999-2013). We use an objective mapping algorithm to calculate a 1° x 1° grid-cell averaged product of (1) the maximum daily 8-hour average of surface ozone abundance and (2) the daily average PM2.5 abundance from surface monitoring networks in the US and Canada. In addition, we use ECMWF reanalysis data to generate a 1° x 1° grid-cell averaged product of (3) the maximum temperature at 2-meter height. The extreme maxima for these 3 data sets are defined at each grid cell as the 50 days with the highest value in three 5-year windows (~94.5 percentile of all Apr-Sep days). These extremes for ozone, particles and temperature are denoted OX, PX, and TX, respectively. Extreme ozone and PM2.5 most often occur together (35% of OX and PX events in a cell occur simultaneously), followed by PM2.5 and temperature (29%), ozone and temperature (27%), and all three (15%). In all cases, the greatest co-occurrence is found in the northeast US (>50% for two co-occurring events). We find that the day after any extreme is also likely to be an extreme of any kind (p > 75%) and that the most likely follow-on extreme is of the same type (p = 20-40%). The northeast US is an exception where OX are more likely to be followed by PX. Extreme episodes (defined as multi-day, spatially connected events) typically originate as an OX event, followed by PX and then TX. This ordering is also evident in the generalized spatial structure of episodes: OX occur at the center and the eastern leading edge, PX are found to the immediate northwest, and TX surround the OX and PX events. The largest OX and PX episodes are similar in size, but TX episodes are usually larger and longer lasting. In general, extremes are more likely to co-occur for larger episodes. The intensity of OX, PX, and TX events is measured as the % above the 5

  12. Health related quality of life and return to work after minor extremity injuries: A longitudinal study comparing upper versus lower extremity injuries.

    PubMed

    Sluys, Kerstin Prignitz; Shults, Justine; Richmond, Therese S

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the impact on health related quality of life (HRQL) during the first year after minor extremity injury and to determine whether there is a difference in recovery patterns and return to work between upper extremity injuries (UEI) and lower extremity injuries (LEI). A total of 181 adults' age 18 years or older randomly selected from patients admitted to an emergency department with minor injuries were studied. HRQL was measured using the Functional Status Questionnaire (FSQ) at 1-2 weeks, 3, 6, and 12-months post-injury. Pre-injury FSQ scores were measured retrospectively at admission. A quasi-least square (QLS) model was constructed to examine differences of FSQ scores at each measuring point for UEI and LEI. Fractures of the knee/lower leg (25%) were the most frequently injured body area. Slips or falls (57%) and traffic-related events (22%) were the most common injury causes. The mean ISS was 4.2 (SD 0.86). Both groups had significant declines in the FSQ scores physical and social functioning at 1-2 weeks after injury. Patients with UEI made larger improvements in the first 3 months post-injury versus patients with LEI whose improvements extended over the first 6 months. None of the groups reached the pre-injury FSQ scores during the first post-injury year except in the subscale work performance where UEI exceeded the pre-injury scores. At 12 months post-injury, significant lower FSQ scores remained in the LEI group compared to the UEI group in intermediate activities of daily living (p=0.036, d 0.4) and work performance (p=0.004, d 0.7). The return to work at 3 months and 12 months were 76% and 88% for UEI and 58% and 77% for LEI. No significant differences were found between groups in the FSQ scale mental health and social interaction. LEI had the highest impact on HRQL and return to work during the first year which exceeded the consequences of UEI. These findings contribute to the information about the consequences of injury in order to give

  13. 78 FR 12067 - Extreme Weather Effects on Medical Device Safety and Quality

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... Drug Administration (FDA) is studying the potential effects of extreme weather and natural disasters on... (EW) events and natural disasters can interfere with the manufacturing, shipping, storage, or use of...

  14. Technical summary of groundwater quality protection program at the Savannah River Site, 1952--1986. Volume 1, Site geohydrology and waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, J.D.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides information regarding the status of and groundwater quality at the waste sites at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). Specific information provided for each waste site at SRS includes its location, size, inventory (when known), and history. Many waste sites at SRS are considered to be of little environmental concern because they contain nontoxic or inert material such as construction rubble and debris. Other waste sites, however, either are known to have had an effect on groundwater quality or are suspected of having the potential to affect groundwater. Monitoring wells have been installed at most of these sites; monitoring wells are scheduled for installation at the remaining sites. Results of the groundwater analyses from these monitoring wells, presented in the appendices, are used in the report to help identify potential contaminants of concern, if any, at each waste site. The list of actions proposed for each waste site in Christensen and Gordon`s 1983 report are summarized, and an update is provided for each site. Planned actions for the future are also outlined.

  15. Prospective analysis of the quality of Spanish health information web sites after 3 years.

    PubMed

    Conesa-Fuentes, Maria C; Hernandez-Morante, Juan J

    2016-12-01

    Although the Internet has become an essential source of health information, our study conducted 3 years ago provided evidence of the low quality of Spanish health web sites. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the quality of Spanish health information web sites now, and to compare these results with those obtained 3 years ago. For the original study, the most visited health information web sites were selected through the PageRank® (Google®) system. The present study evaluated the quality of the same web sites from February to May 2013, using the method developed by Bermúdez-Tamayo et al. and HONCode® criteria. The mean quality of the selected web sites was low and has deteriorated since the previous evaluation, especially in regional health services and institutions' web sites. The quality of private web sites remained broadly similar. Compliance with privacy and update criteria also improved in the intervening period. The results indicate that, even in the case of health web sites, design or appearance is more relevant to developers than quality of information. It is recommended that responsible institutions should increase their efforts to eliminate low-quality health information that may further contribute to health problems.

  16. Optimizing image quality and dose for digital radiography of distal pediatric extremities using the contrast-to-noise ratio.

    PubMed

    Hess, R; Neitzel, U

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the influence of X-ray tube voltage and filtration on image quality in terms of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and dose for digital radiography of distal pediatric extremities and to determine conditions that give the best balance of CNR and patient dose. In a phantom study simulating the absorption properties of distal extremities, the CNR and the related patient dose were determined as a function of tube voltage in the range 40 - 66 kV, both with and without additional filtration of 0.1 mm Cu/1 mm Al. The measured CNR was used as an indicator of image quality, while the mean absorbed dose (MAD) - determined by a combination of measurement and simulation - was used as an indicator of the patient dose. The most favorable relation of CNR and dose was found for the lowest tube voltage investigated (40 kV) without additional filtration. Compared to a situation with 50 kV or 60 kV, the mean absorbed dose could be lowered by 24 % and 50 %, respectively, while keeping the image quality (CNR) at the same level. For digital radiography of distal pediatric extremities, further CNR and dose optimization appears to be possible using lower tube voltages. Further clinical investigation of the suggested parameters is necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Factors affecting the thermal environment of Agassiz’s Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) cover sites in the Central Mojave Desert during periods of temperature extremes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Jeremy S.; Berry, Kristin H.; Miller, David; Carlson, Andrea S.

    2015-01-01

    Agassiz's Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) spend >95% of their lives underground in cover sites that serve as thermal buffers from temperatures, which can fluctuate >40°C on a daily and seasonal basis. We monitored temperatures at 30 active tortoise cover sites within the Soda Mountains, San Bernardino County, California, from February 2004 to September 2006. Cover sites varied in type and structural characteristics, including opening height and width, soil cover depth over the opening, aspect, tunnel length, and surficial geology. We focused our analyses on periods of extreme temperature: in summer, between July 1 and September 1, and winter, between November 1 and February 15. With the use of multivariate regression tree analyses, we found cover-site temperatures were influenced largely by tunnel length and subsequently opening width and soil cover. Linear regression models further showed that increasing tunnel length increased temperature stability and dampened seasonal temperature extremes. Climate change models predict increased warming for southwestern North America. Cover sites that buffer temperature extremes and fluctuations will become increasingly important for survival of tortoises. In planning future translocation projects and conservation efforts, decision makers should consider habitats with terrain and underlying substrate that sustain cover sites with long tunnels and expanded openings for tortoises living under temperature extremes similar to those described here or as projected in the future.

  18. User preference as quality markers of paediatric web sites.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Borges, Angel A; Macías-Cervi, Pablo; Gaspar-Guardado, Asunción; Torres-Alvarez De Arcaya, María Luisa; Ruíz-Rabaza, Ana; Jiménez-Sosa, Alejandro

    2003-09-01

    Little is known about the ability of internet users to distinguish the best medical resources online, and how their preferences, measured by usage and popularity indexes, correlate with established quality criteria. Our objective was to analyse whether the number of inbound links and/or daily visits to a sample of paediatric web pages are reliable quality markers of the pages. Two-year follow-up study of 363 web pages with paediatric information. The number of inbound links and the average number of daily visits to the pages were calculated on a yearly basis. In addition, their rates of compliance with the codes of conduct, guidelines and/or principles of three international organizations were evaluated. The quality code most widely met by the sample web pages was the Health on the Net Foundation Code of Conduct (overall rate, 60.2%). Sample pages showed a low degree of compliance with principles related to privacy, confidentiality and electronic commerce (overall rate less than 45%). Most importantly, we observed a moderate, significant correlation between compliance with quality criteria and the number of inbound links (p < 0.001). However, no correlation was found between the number of daily visits to a page and its degree of compliance with the principles. Some indexes derived from the analysis of webmasters' hyperlinks could be reliable quality markers of medical web resources.

  19. Using Web sites on quality health care for teaching consumers in public libraries.

    PubMed

    Oermann, Marilyn H; Lesley, Marsha L; VanderWal, Jillon S

    2005-01-01

    More and more consumers are searching the Internet for health information. Health Web sites vary in quality, though, and not all consumers are aware of the need to evaluate the information they find on the Web. Nurses and other health providers involved in patient education can evaluate Web sites and suggest quality sites for patients to use. This article describes a project we implemented in 2 public libraries to educate consumers about quality health care and patient safety using Web sites that we had evaluated earlier. Participants (n = 103) completed resources on health care quality, questions patients should ask about their diagnoses and treatment options, changes in Medicare and Medicare options or ways to make their health benefits work for them, and tips to help prevent medical errors. Most consumers were highly satisfied with the Web sites and the information they learned on quality care from these resources. Many participants did not have Internet access at home or work and instead used the library to search the Web. Information about the Web sites used in this project and other sites on quality care can be made available in libraries and community settings and as part of patient education resources in hospitals. The Web provides easy access for consumers to information about patient safety initiatives and health care quality in general.

  20. Development of an internal dynamic web site to promote quality assurance in a clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Pernet, Pascal; Mario, Nathalie; Vaubourdolle, Michel

    2004-01-01

    In clinical laboratories, one challenging quality assurance objective is to maintain standardized practices. Meeting this objective entails ensuring information flow, which is necessary to smooth running of the laboratory. To facilitate information flow, we developed an internal quality Web site on our local network. The dynamic generated pages of the site were constructed with EasyPHP v.1.6, a complete freeware package providing PHP dynamic language and databases. The site comprises various sections: general news, specific laboratory units news, documents (quality manual, guidelines, emergency processes), schedules, National Quality Control results, forum, etc. Five to 10 pages are updated each week. This work was facilitated by the use of PHP-written pages and data tables, which enable us to record in real time the operation of our assurance quality project and to improve traceability. This approach could be extended to other aspects of quality management and could help meet the future IS015189 standard requirements.

  1. Postinsertion central line site care: quality improvement in a medical cardiac ICU.

    PubMed

    Hickox, Benjamin C

    2015-01-01

    Using the Six Sigma quality improvement framework of Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control, nurses in the medical cardiac intensive care unit at a large academic medical center in the Midwest identified a gap in the quality of central line site care, evaluated the current state of site care, implemented an intervention to create an improvement in nursing performance of site care, quantified this improvement, and created a model for sustained quality control. Reasons for nonocclusive dressings were revealed and addressed. An unexpected benefit was found in a unifying sense of pride in improving patient care.

  2. Legacy Management CERCLA Sites. Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Riddle, Donna L.

    2007-05-03

    S.M. Stoller Corporation is the contractor for the Technical Assistance Contract (TAC) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) operations. Stoller employs a management system that applies to all programs, projects, and business management systems funded through DOE-LM task orders. The management system incorporates the philosophy, policies, and requirements of health and safety, environmental compliance, and quality assurance (QA) in all aspects of project planning and implementation. Health and safety requirements are documented in the Health and Safety Manual (STO 2), the Radiological Control Manual (STO 3), the Integrated Safety Management System Description (STO 10), and the Drilling Health and Safety Requirements (STO 14). Environmental compliance policy and requirements are documented in the Environmental Management Program Implementation Manual (STO 11). The QA Program is documented in the Quality Assurance Manual (STO 1). The QA Manual (STO 1) implements the specific requirements and philosophy of DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance. This manual also includes the requirements of other standards that are regularly imposed by customers, regulators, or other DOE orders. Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 830, “Quality Assurance Requirements,” ANSI/ASQC E4-2004, “Quality Systems for Environmental Data and Technology Programs – Requirements with Guidance for Use,” and ISO 14001-2004, “Environmental Management Systems,” have been included. These standards are similar in content. The intent of the QA Manual (STO 1) is to provide a QA management system that incorporates the requirements and philosophy of DOE and other customers within the QA Manual. Criterion 1, “Quality Assurance Program,” identifies the fundamental requirements for establishing and implementing the QA management system; QA Instruction (QAI) 1.1, “QA Program Implementation,” identifies the TAC organizations that have responsibility for

  3. Decision-making in honeybee swarms based on quality and distance information of candidate nest sites.

    PubMed

    Laomettachit, Teeraphan; Termsaithong, Teerasit; Sae-Tang, Anuwat; Duangphakdee, Orawan

    2015-01-07

    In the nest-site selection process of honeybee swarms, an individual bee performs a waggle dance to communicate information about direction, quality, and distance of a discovered site to other bees at the swarm. Initially, different groups of bees dance to represent different potential sites, but eventually the swarm usually reaches an agreement for only one site. Here, we model the nest-site selection process in honeybee swarms of Apis mellifera and show how the swarms make adaptive decisions based on a trade-off between the quality and distance to candidate nest sites. We use bifurcation analysis and stochastic simulations to reveal that the swarm's site distance preference is moderate>near>far when the swarms choose between low quality sites. However, the distance preference becomes near>moderate>far when the swarms choose between high quality sites. Our simulations also indicate that swarms with large population size prefer nearer sites and, in addition, are more adaptive at making decisions based on available information compared to swarms with smaller population size. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The quality of internet sites providing information relating to oral cancer.

    PubMed

    López-Jornet, Pia; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio

    2009-09-01

    To determine the quality of the information available on the internet in relation to oral cancer. Sites were identified using two search engines (Google and Yahoo), and the search term "oral cancer". The first 100 consecutive sites in each search were visited and classified. The websites were evaluated for quality of content by using the validated DISCERN rating instrument and the JAMA benchmarks; the existence of the Health on the Net (HON) seal was also registered. The Google search yielded 25,70,000 sites for oral cancer, while Yahoo yielded 6,99,00,000. We reviewed 29 Google websites and 22 Yahoo websites. Based on the JAMA benchmarks, only two sites (6.9%) met the four criteria in the Google search, versus a single site (4.5%) in the Yahoo search. As regards the DISCERN instrument, no site obtained the maximum score. Moreover, in the Google search, 72.5% of the sites had serious deficiencies, versus 68.2% of the Yahoo sites. Lastly, eight of the Google sites (27.6%) and four of the Yahoo sites (18.2%) presented the HON seal. The quality of the healthcare information related to oral cancer on the internet is poor. There is a need to be vigilant about the quality of information found on the internet.

  5. On-Site Construction Productivity Improvement Through Total Quality Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    abnormality if 3 out of 7 or 4 out of 10 points lie within zones drawn as follows: (1) Zone next to the central line when a line is drawn between both the... Joeseph M., Juran on Plannnina for Oualitv. New York: The Free Press, 1988. Oglesby, Clarkson H., Parker, Henry W., and Howell, Gregory A... 10 Figure 1-3 Juran’s Triple Role Concept for On-Site Construction Activity Process ........................ 16

  6. Extreme learning machines: a new approach for modeling dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration with and without water quality variables as predictors.

    PubMed

    Heddam, Salim; Kisi, Ozgur

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, several extreme learning machine (ELM) models, including standard extreme learning machine with sigmoid activation function (S-ELM), extreme learning machine with radial basis activation function (R-ELM), online sequential extreme learning machine (OS-ELM), and optimally pruned extreme learning machine (OP-ELM), are newly applied for predicting dissolved oxygen concentration with and without water quality variables as predictors. Firstly, using data from eight United States Geological Survey (USGS) stations located in different rivers basins, USA, the S-ELM, R-ELM, OS-ELM, and OP-ELM were compared against the measured dissolved oxygen (DO) using four water quality variables, water temperature, specific conductance, turbidity, and pH, as predictors. For each station, we used data measured at an hourly time step for a period of 4 years. The dataset was divided into a training set (70%) and a validation set (30%). We selected several combinations of the water quality variables as inputs for each ELM model and six different scenarios were compared. Secondly, an attempt was made to predict DO concentration without water quality variables. To achieve this goal, we used the year numbers, 2008, 2009, etc., month numbers from (1) to (12), day numbers from (1) to (31) and hour numbers from (00:00) to (24:00) as predictors. Thirdly, the best ELM models were trained using validation dataset and tested with the training dataset. The performances of the four ELM models were evaluated using four statistical indices: the coefficient of correlation (R), the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), the root mean squared error (RMSE), and the mean absolute error (MAE). Results obtained from the eight stations indicated that: (i) the best results were obtained by the S-ELM, R-ELM, OS-ELM, and OP-ELM models having four water quality variables as predictors; (ii) out of eight stations, the OP-ELM performed better than the other three ELM models at seven stations while the R

  7. Hypothetical scenario exercises to improve planning and readiness for drinking water quality management during extreme weather events.

    PubMed

    Deere, Daniel; Leusch, Frederic D L; Humpage, Andrew; Cunliffe, David; Khan, Stuart J

    2017-03-15

    Two hypothetical scenario exercises were designed and conducted to reflect the increasingly extreme weather-related challenges faced by water utilities as the global climate changes. The first event was based on an extreme flood scenario. The second scenario involved a combination of weather events, including a wild forest fire ('bushfire') followed by runoff due to significant rainfall. For each scenario, a panel of diverse personnel from water utilities and relevant agencies (e.g. health departments) formed a hypothetical water utility and associated regulatory body to manage water quality following the simulated extreme weather event. A larger audience participated by asking questions and contributing key insights. Participants were confronted with unanticipated developments as the simulated scenarios unfolded, introduced by a facilitator. Participants were presented with information that may have challenged their conventional experiences regarding operational procedures in order to identify limitations in current procedures, assumptions, and readily available information. The process worked toward the identification of a list of specific key lessons for each event. At the conclusion of each simulation a facilitated discussion was used to establish key lessons of value to water utilities in preparing them for similar future extreme events.

  8. [Assessing the quality of French language web sites pertaining to alcohol dependency].

    PubMed

    Coquard, Olivier; Fernandez, Sebastien; Khazaal, Yasser

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this article is to systematically assess the quality of web-based information in French language on the alcohol dependence. The authors analysed, using a standardised pro forma, the 20 most highly ranked pages identified by 3 common internet search engines using 2 keywords. Results show that a total of 45 sites were analysed. The authors conclude that the overall quality of the sites was relatively poor, especially for the description of possible treatments, however with a wide variability. Content quality was not correlated with other aspects of quality such as interactivity, aesthetic or accountability.

  9. Study plan for urban stream indicator sites of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, T.J.; Price, C.V.

    1997-01-01

    Urban Indicator Sites are one component of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water- Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The objectives of monitoring at the Urban Indicator Sites are to: (1) characterize stream quality from drainage basins with predominantly residential and commercial land use, and (2) determine which selected natural and human factors most strongly affect stream quality. Urban Indicator Sites will be distributed across the United States in settings with statistically different climate and in metropolitan areas that have a population of 250,000 or more. Multiple sites in the same climatic setting will have a range in population density. Ideally, Urban Indicator Sites will monitor drainage basins that have only residential and commercial land use, are 50 square kilometers or larger, are in the same physiographic setting as other Indicator Sites, have sustained flow, and overlap other NAWQA study components. Ideal drainage basins will not have industrial or agricultural land use and will not have point-source-contamination discharges. Stream quality will be characterized by collecting and analyzing samples of streamflow, bed sediment, and tissue of aquatic organisms for selected constituents. Factors affecting stream quality will be determined by statistical analysis of ancillary data associated with Urban Indicator Sites and stream-quality samples.

  10. Surface Water Quality Monitoring Site Optimization for Poyang Lake, the Largest Freshwater Lake in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Wu, Mengan; Deng, Yanqing; Tang, Chunyan; Yang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a coupled method to optimize the surface water quality monitoring sites for a huge freshwater lake based on field investigations, mathematical analysis, and numerical simulation tests. Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, was selected as the research area. Based on the field investigated water quality data in the 5 years from 2008 to 2012, the water quality inter-annual variation coefficients at all the present sites and the water quality correlation coefficients between adjacent sites were calculated and analyzed to present an optimization scheme. A 2-D unsteady water quality model was established to get the corresponding water quality data at the optimized monitoring sites, which were needed for the rationality test on the optimized monitoring network. We found that: (1) the water quality of Piaoshan (No. 10) fluctuated most distinguishably and the inter-annual variation coefficient of NH3-N and TP could reach 99.77% and 73.92%, respectively. The four studied indexes were all closely related at Piaoshan (No. 10) and Tangyin (No. 11), and the correlation coefficients of COD and NH3-N could reach 0.91 and 0.94 separately. (2) It was suggested that the present site No. 10 be removed to avoid repeatability, and it was suggested that the three sites of Changling, Huzhong, and Nanjiang be added to improve the representativeness of the monitoring sites. (3) According to the rationality analysis, the 21 optimized water quality monitoring sites could scientifically replace the primary network, and the new monitoring network could better reflect the water quality of the whole lake. PMID:25407419

  11. Site Study Plan for meteorology/air quality, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Meteorological/Air Quality Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of continuous measurements of surface (10-meter) wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, dew point, pressure, and sensible heat flux (vertical). Air quality measurements will be limited to suspended particulate matter. After the first year of measurements, a 60-meter tower will be added to incorporate measurements needed for later modeling and dose calculations; these will include upper level winds, vertical temperature structure, and vertical wind speed. All of these measurements will be made at a site located within the 9-mi/sup 2/ site area but remote from the ESF. A second site, located near and downwind from the ESF, will monitor only particulate matter. The SSP describes the need for each study; its design and design rationale; analysis, management, and use of data, schedule of field activities, organization of field personnel and sample management, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document. 38 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Wavelets-based clustering of air quality monitoring sites.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Sónia; Scotto, Manuel G; Monteiro, Alexandra; Alonso, Andres M

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims at providing a variance/covariance profile of a set of 36 monitoring stations measuring ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) hourly concentrations, collected over the period 2005-2013, in Portugal mainland. The resulting individual profiles are embedded in a wavelet decomposition-based clustering algorithm in order to identify groups of stations exhibiting similar profiles. The results of the cluster analysis identify three groups of stations, namely urban, suburban/urban/rural, and a third group containing all but one rural stations. The results clearly indicate a geographical pattern among urban stations, distinguishing those located in Lisbon area from those located in Oporto/North. Furthermore, for urban stations, intra-diurnal and daily time scales exhibit the highest variance. This is due to the more relevant chemical activity occurring in high NO2 emissions areas which are responsible for high variability on daily profiles. These chemical processes also explain the reason for NO2 and O3 being highly negatively cross-correlated in suburban and urban sites as compared with rural stations. Finally, the clustering analysis also identifies sites which need revision concerning classification according to environment/influence type.

  13. Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1990-06-01

    This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

  14. [On-site quality control of acupuncture randomized controlled trial: design of content and checklist of quality control based on PICOST].

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Jiao; He, Li-Yun; Liu, Zhi-Shun; Sun, Ya-Nan; Yan, Shi-Yan; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Ye; Liu, Bao-Yan

    2014-02-01

    To effectively guarantee quality of randomized controlld trial (RCT) of acupuncture and develop reasonable content and checklist of on-site quality control, influencing factors on quality of acupuncture RCT are analyzed and scientificity of quality control content and feasibility of on-site manipulation are put into overall consideration. Based on content and checklist of on-site quality control in National 11th Five-Year Plan Project Optimization of Comprehensive Treatment Plan for TCM in Prevention and Treatment of Serious Disease and Clinical Assessment on Generic Technology and Quality Control Research, it is proposed that on-site quality control of acupuncture RCT should be conducted with PICOST (patient, intervention, comparison, out come, site and time) as core, especially on quality control of interveners' skills and outcome assessment of blinding, and checklist of on-site quality control is developed to provide references for undertaking groups of the project.

  15. A preliminary test of estimating forest site quality using species composition in a southern Appalachian watershed

    Treesearch

    W. Henry McNab; David L. Loftis

    2013-01-01

    Characteristic arborescent communities of mesophytic or xerophytic species have long been recognized as indicative of forest site quality in the Southern Appalachians, where soil moisture availability is the primary environmental variable affecting productivity. But, a workable quantitative system of site classification based on species composition is not available. We...

  16. SOIL PRODUCTIVITY AT TWO NORTH DAKOTA SITES DIFFERING IN TOPSOIL QUALITY AND PROFILE STRUCTURE

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil and land productivity depends on the interaction of topsoil quality, profile structure, and landform character. Crop sequence experiments were performed under no-tillage at two sites by growing crops in strips one year, and in perpendicular strips the following year. The two sites (hereafter re...

  17. Groundwater quality protection at biosolids land application sites.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Michael J; Kumarsamy, Karthik; Brobst, Robert B; Hais, Alan; Schmitz, Mark D

    2012-11-15

    Using the United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Multimedia, Multi-pathway, Multi-receptor Exposure and Risk Assessment (3MRA) technology, a computer-based biosolids groundwater risk characterization screening tool (RCST) was developed. The RCST, which generates a non-carcinogenic human health risk estimate (i.e., hazard quotient or HQ value), has the ability to conduct screening-level risk-based characterization of potential human risks associated with pollutants released from biosolids land application sites. The HQ is a human health indicator that is equal to the ratio of the pollutant dose (mass of pollutant per unit body weight per time) to the specific pollutant reference dose (R(f)d) which, in turn, is a human health benchmark defined by the EPA as a scientific estimate of the daily exposure level. A HQ value equal to or greater than one (1) suggests that the resulting conditions pose an unacceptable risk to human health. The focus of the current study was to evaluate whether the present regulatory limits established for biosolids pollutants (e.g., heavy metals) were sufficiently protective of human health associated with potential groundwater consumption using a new EPA risk assessment tool. Application of the RCST to two biosolids land application sites located near Columbus, Georgia predicted that, when the depth to groundwater was maintained at a distance of at least 2 m, regulated pollutant concentrations as large as ten (10) times the current regulatory limit (i.e., Title 40 of the US Code of Federal Regulations Part 503 - Ceiling Concentration Limit) could be safely land applied at rates as high as ninety (90) Megagrams per hectare (Mg ha(-1)) with no apparent non-carcinogenic human health effects associated with groundwater consumption. At these pollutant concentrations, the HQ ranged from 1.79 × 10(-9) for cadmium to 3.03 × 10(-3) for selenium. Only under unrealistically high biosolids application rates were the public

  18. Can Quality Improvement System Improve Childcare Site Performance in School Readiness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Lu, Xuejin; Brandi, Karen; Goodman, Jeff; Watson, Grace

    2013-01-01

    The authors evaluated the effectiveness of the Quality Improvement System (QIS) developed and implemented by Children's Services Council of Palm Beach County (Florida) as a voluntary initiative to improve the quality of childcare and education. They adopted a growth model approach to investigate whether childcare sites that participated in QIS…

  19. Wildlife as an Indicator of Site Quality and Site Trafficability during Army Training.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    the erodibility (relative grass cover) and trafficability (soil texture) of various shortgrass prairie sites. UNLSSFE UNURTYCLASSITOFD AG( o De ntrd 11...Riggins, and W. D. Goran, 3 ff cts o ] Tracked V ehicle Activity on Terrestrial Mammals, i ___ Birds. and Vegetation at Fort Knox, KY. Special Report 0o...and slightly lower averages to the south and east. Slightly more than 80 percent of the total " O annual precipitation is received from April through

  20. Underground Test Area Quality Assurance Project Plan Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Irene Farnham

    2011-05-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) provides the overall quality assurance (QA) program requirements and general quality practices to be applied to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) Sub-Project (hereafter the Sub-Project) activities. The requirements in this QAPP are consistent with DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance (DOE, 2005); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Quality Assurance Project Plans for Modeling (EPA, 2002); and EPA Guidance on the Development, Evaluation, and Application of Environmental Models (EPA, 2009). The QAPP Revision 0 supersedes DOE--341, Underground Test Area Quality Assurance Project Plan, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 4.

  1. Probing the Site for r-Process Nucleosynthesis with Abundances of Barium and Magnesium in Extremely Metal-poor Stars.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto; Shigeyama; Yoshii

    2000-03-01

    We suggest that if the astrophysical site for r-process nucleosynthesis in the early Galaxy is confined to a narrow mass range of Type II supernova (SN II) progenitors, with a lower mass limit of Mms=20 M middle dot in circle, a unique feature in the observed distribution of [Ba/Mg] versus [Mg/H] for extremely metal-poor stars can be adequately reproduced. We associate this feature, a bifurcation of the observed elemental ratios into two branches in the Mg abundance interval -3.7

  2. Wildlife reintroduction: considerations of habitat quality at the release site

    PubMed Central

    Cheyne, Susan M

    2006-01-01

    Background Assessing the suitability of a habitat prior to the release of animals is vital. Proper assessment of the flora will allow reintroduction programmes to determine whether the area will be capable of supporting the released animals in the long-term. Here data are presented from an island in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia which has been used as a release site for agile gibbons (Hylobates agilis albibarbis) since January 2003. Results Methods and results regarding fruit abundance, fruit productivity, tree density and diversity are presented. This information is then analysed in the context of the island's suitability to sustain released gibbons and without impact on the resident fauna. Based on the above ecological characteristics, the final carrying capacity of the island is estimated to be between 3 and 19 gibbons. Conclusion These data highlight the need to survey areas being considered for release of gibbon prior to the release taking place. For reintroductions to be successful, long-term habitat assessment is vital, both pre- and post-release. PMID:16611369

  3. Using a quality road map for DOE site organizational effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Mallak, L.; Kleiner, B.M. )

    1992-01-01

    Human factors engineering has had broad applications in the nuclear industry, defense industry, and various manufacturing domains. It is instructional to understand the design not only of control rooms but the design of management tools from a human factors engineering perspective. Human factors principles have been applied to the improvement of management processes as well. Total quality management (TQM), or continuous performance improvement, focuses on the process with the assumption that good processes will yield good products and services. Culture management and TQM complement each other in changing values and traditions corresponding to culture: (1) Both are value-driven processes, relying on internalization of values for success; (2) both are continuous processes requiring daily monitoring and evaluation; (3) while a new mission can be communicated through a top-down approach, daily successes resulting from TQM successively approximate the culture change through a bottom-up approach; and (4) both culture management and TQM require strong, effective leadership and commitment from all employees.

  4. Using hospital standardised mortality ratios to assess quality of care--proceed with extreme caution.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ian A; Brand, Caroline A; Phelps, Grant E; Barker, Anna L; Cameron, Peter A

    2011-06-20

    Australian Health Ministers have endorsed the hospital standardised mortality ratio (HSMR) as a key indicator of quality and safety, and efforts are currently underway towards its national implementation. In the United Kingdom, Canada, the Netherlands and the United States, the HSMR has been used for several years within organisations to monitor performance and response to various quality and safety programs. In the UK and Canada, the HSMR is also publicly reported and used to compare performance between hospitals. The validity and reliability of the HSMR as a screening tool for distinguishing low-quality from high-quality hospitals remain in doubt, and it has not yet been proven that HSMR reporting necessarily leads to worthwhile improvement in quality of care and patient outcomes. Institutions may respond to an unfavourable HSMR by "gaming" administrative data and risk-adjustment models or implementing inappropriate changes to care. Despite its apparent low cost and ease of measurement, the HSMR is currently not "fit for purpose" as a screening tool for detecting low-quality hospitals and should not be used in making interhospital comparisons. It may be better suited to monitoring changes in outcomes over time within individual institutions.

  5. Quality assurance of nursing web sites: development and implications of the ALEU method.

    PubMed

    Cambil-Martín, Jacobo; Flynn, Maria; Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Carmen

    2011-09-01

    This article presents a study that evaluated the physical accessibility, readability, and usability of Spanish nursing Web sites and discusses the quality assurance issues raised, which are relevant to the wider nursing community. The Internet is recognized as an important source of health information for both nurses and the general public. Although it makes health-related information universally available, the wide variation in the overall quality of health Web sites is problematic. This raises many questions for the nursing profession: about what constitutes a good-quality Web site, about the nature of the information that nurses are finding and using to support their professional education, research, and clinical practice, and about the impact that Internet information ultimately has on health interactions and nursing care. The process of completing this small study showed that it is possible to usefully assess dimensions of Web site quality and suggested that it may be feasible to develop tools to help nurses evaluate national and international nursing Web sites. More research is needed to understand how nurses use the Internet to support their everyday professional practices, but the development and application of international Web site quality assurance tools may be important for maintaining professional nursing standards in the Internet age.

  6. Health-related quality of life and depressive symptoms in adolescents with extreme obesity presenting for bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Meg H; Roehrig, Helmut R; Modi, Avani C; Daniels, Stephen R; Inge, Thomas H

    2006-04-01

    We sought to document health-related quality of life (HRQoL) impairment and depressive symptomatology in adolescents with extreme obesity considering surgical weight loss. A retrospective review of clinical data was conducted for 33 consecutive extremely obese adolescents presenting for evaluation at a bariatric surgery program for adolescents. Adolescents completed the PedsQL and the Beck Depression Inventory. Mothers completed the parent-proxy PedsQL and the Child Behavior Checklist. HRQoL scores from both informants were markedly impaired relative to published norms on healthy youth. Moderate agreement was found for self-reported and parent-proxy HRQoL. Approximately 30% of youth met criteria for clinically significant depressive symptoms when based on self-report and 45% of youth when based on mother report. Only 21% of youth were currently engaged in some form of psychological treatment (eg, medication or therapy). The day-to-day life of adolescents with extreme obesity seeking bariatric surgery is globally and severely impaired. However, only some of these adolescents demonstrate clinically significant levels of depressive symptomatology. These data will be critical to the development of more informed patient selection criteria and more efficacious treatment paradigms for this vulnerable pediatric subgroup.

  7. Creating climate quality global datasets for studying trends, variability and extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, K.; Thorne, P.

    2010-09-01

    Historical instrumental records are essential for climate monitoring and climate research, yet the data are riddled with issues of quality and inhomogeneity. This leaves uncertainty surrounding any conclusions drawn from the data. It is essential that data are quality controlled and homogenised. Furthermore, this must be done in an objective, reproducible and globally consistent manner that enables quantification of uncertainty. The Met Office Hadley Centre is pursuing the quality control and homogenisation of 6000+ stations sub-daily synoptic near-surface temperature data. The data focus mainly on temperature and dewpoint temperature but also include sea level pressure, wind speed and cloud cover. Quality control efforts address many known issues with observational data in an automated manner including outliers and spikes (individual and clusters), repeated values, wet-bulb reservoir drying/freezing and frequently occurring values to name a few. Homogenisation is still work in progress but makes use of ‘pseudo-data' to validate breakpoint detection and adjustment methods. An bootstrap approach will be used on application of homogenisation covering a wide spread of decision parameters with which to estimate uncertainties. This paper details an automated quality control system and presents efforts to date to homogenise these data.

  8. Sleep quality and general health status of employees exposed to extremely low frequency magnetic fields in a petrochemical complex

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in science and technology of electrical equipment, despite increasing human welfare in everyday life, have increased the number of people exposed to Electro-Magnetic Fields (EMFs). Because of possible adverse effects on the health of exposed individuals, the EMFs have being the center of attention. This study was performed to determine possible correlation between Extremely Low Frequency Electro-Magnetic Fields (ELF EMFs) and sleep quality and public health of those working in substation units of a petrochemical complex in southern Iran. Materials and method To begin with, magnetic flux density was measured at different parts of a Control Building and two substations in accordance with IEEE std 644–1994. Subsequently, the questionnaires “Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index” (PSQI) and “General Health Quality (GHQ)” were used to investigate relationship between ELF exposure level and sleep quality and public health, respectively. Both questionnaires were placed at disposal of a total number of 40 workers at the complex. The filled out questionnaires were analyzed by T-test, Duncan and the Chi-square tests. Results The obtained results revealed that 28% of those in case group suffered from poor health status and 61% were diagnosed with a sleep disorder. However, all members in control group were in good health condition and only 4.5% of them had undesirable sleep quality. Conclusion In spite of a significant difference between the case and control groups in terms of sleep quality and general health, no significant relationship was found between the exposure level and sleep quality and general health. It is worth noting that the measured EMF values were lower than the standard limits recommended by American Conference of Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). However, given the uncertainties about the pathogenic effects caused by exposure to ELF EMFs, further epidemiological studies and periodic testing of personnel working in high voltage substations

  9. Sleep quality and general health status of employees exposed to extremely low frequency magnetic fields in a petrochemical complex.

    PubMed

    Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Monireh; Matin, Laleh Farhang; Aghaei, Habib Allah; Khosroabadi, Hossein; Hesami, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Advances in science and technology of electrical equipment, despite increasing human welfare in everyday life, have increased the number of people exposed to Electro-Magnetic Fields (EMFs). Because of possible adverse effects on the health of exposed individuals, the EMFs have being the center of attention. This study was performed to determine possible correlation between Extremely Low Frequency Electro-Magnetic Fields (ELF EMFs) and sleep quality and public health of those working in substation units of a petrochemical complex in southern Iran. To begin with, magnetic flux density was measured at different parts of a Control Building and two substations in accordance with IEEE std 644-1994. Subsequently, the questionnaires "Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index" (PSQI) and "General Health Quality (GHQ)" were used to investigate relationship between ELF exposure level and sleep quality and public health, respectively. Both questionnaires were placed at disposal of a total number of 40 workers at the complex. The filled out questionnaires were analyzed by T-test, Duncan and the Chi-square tests. The obtained results revealed that 28% of those in case group suffered from poor health status and 61% were diagnosed with a sleep disorder. However, all members in control group were in good health condition and only 4.5% of them had undesirable sleep quality. In spite of a significant difference between the case and control groups in terms of sleep quality and general health, no significant relationship was found between the exposure level and sleep quality and general health. It is worth noting that the measured EMF values were lower than the standard limits recommended by American Conference of Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). However, given the uncertainties about the pathogenic effects caused by exposure to ELF EMFs, further epidemiological studies and periodic testing of personnel working in high voltage substations are of utmost importance.

  10. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the PNNL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Ted M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2010-05-25

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006) as well as several other published DQOs. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of developing a radiological air monitoring program for the PNNL Site that is distinct from that of the nearby Hanford Site. Radiological emissions at the PNNL Site result from Physical Sciences Facility (PSF) major emissions units. A team was established to determine how the PNNL Site would meet federal regulations and address guidelines developed to monitor and estimate offsite air emissions of radioactive materials. The result is a program that monitors the impact to the public from the PNNL Site.

  11. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report Supporting Radiological Air Surveillance Monitoring for the INL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Haney, Thomas Jay

    2015-05-01

    This report documents the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) developed for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site ambient air surveillance program. The development of the DQOs was based on the seven-step process recommended “for systematic planning to generate performance and acceptance criteria for collecting environmental data” (EPA 2006). The process helped to determine the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to meet current regulatory requirements and to follow U.S. Department of Energy guidance for environmental surveillance air monitoring design. It also considered the current air monitoring program that has existed at INL Site since the 1950s. The development of the DQOs involved the application of the atmospheric dispersion model CALPUFF to identify likely contamination dispersion patterns at and around the INL Site using site-specific meteorological data. Model simulations were used to quantitatively assess the probable frequency of detection of airborne radionuclides released by INL Site facilities using existing and proposed air monitors.

  12. Nighttime Chemistry at a High Elevation Site above Hong Kong: Implications for Regional Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dube, W. P.; Brown, S. S.; Parrish, D. D.; Tham, Y. J.; Wang, T.; Zha, Q.; Xu, Z.; Xue, L.; Poon, S.; Wang, Z.; Wang, X.; Tsui, W.

    2014-12-01

    Nighttime chemical processes of nitrogen oxides, including reactions of the nitrate radical (NO3) and dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5), are important to numerous tropospheric chemical cycles, including the removal of NO­x, the oxidation of biogenic hydrocarbons, and the heterogeneous activation of halogen species. These cycles influence regional ozone and aerosol pollution but remain uncertain. Although nitrogen oxide levels are highest in urban areas, nighttime chemistry is notoriously difficult to study in these regions due to surface level buildup of NO and consequent titration of O3, which suppress nighttime chemical reactions. Tai Mo Shan (TMS) is a high elevation site (950 m) situated between the cities of Hong Kong and Shenzhen, each of which has a population of approximately 7 million. Both lie within the Pearl River Delta, a regional megacity of population 45 million. TMS is ideally suited for the study of nighttime chemistry within a megacity because it is situated within the residual boundary layer at night and is influenced by regional pollution in the absence of strong local effects. During the fall season, the Pearl River Delta region and Hong Kong experience peak ozone due to meteorological pattern that brings polluted continental outflow over the coastal region of southern China. During November and December 2013, a small-scale field study was conducted at the TMS summit to investigate nighttime chemistry. Chemical instrumentation included cavity ring-down and mass spectrometric instruments for NO3, N2O5 and ClNO2, as well as instrumentation for measurement of NOx, NOy, O3, VOCs, aerosols, other trace gases and meteorological data. Regular late afternoon and evening outflow events from mainland China were observed at this site, including one event with extreme (12 ppbv) levels of N2O5. This presentation will give an overview of the campaign, the atmospheric chemical data and its relationship to meteorological regimes. It will also examine budgets for

  13. Evaluation of water-effect ratio methodology for establishing site-specific water quality criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, P.G.; Lipton, J.; Chapman, G.A.

    2000-06-01

    One approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for derivation of site-specific water quality criteria for metals in natural surface waters involves the development of water-effect ratios (WERs). This approach entails multiplying national water quality criteria by an experimentally derived WER, where the WER is defined as the ratio of the toxicity of the metal in the site water to the toxicity of the same metal in standard laboratory water. The authors discuss technical issues associated with test methods described in the US EPA WER guidance documents that may lead to inappropriate WERs. Critical issues include accounting for differences in calcium and magnesium concentrations (Ca:Mg ratios), alkalinity, and pH between site and laboratory waters; ensuring appropriate fish acclimation; and accounting for interspecies variability, multiple metals interactions, end-point variability, and temporal and spatial variability in the derivation of the WER. Failure to address these issues may have the unintended effect of deriving site-specific water quality criteria that are underprotective of aquatic life. The authors recommend that WER testing and future regulatory guidance for derivation of site-specific water quality criteria incorporate consideration of these potential confounding variables so that site-specific criteria can be established with greater confidence.

  14. LLNL Site Specific ASCI Software Quality Engineering Recommended Practices Overview Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, T; Sparkman, D; Storch, N

    2002-02-01

    ''The LLNL Site-Specific Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI) Software Quality Engineering Recommended Practices VI.I'' document describes a set of recommended software quality engineering (SQE) practices for ASCI code projects at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In this context, SQE is defined as the process of building quality into software products by applying the appropriate guiding principles and management practices. Continual code improvement and ongoing process improvement are expected benefits. Certain practices are recommended, although projects may select the specific activities they wish to improve, and the appropriate time lines for such actions. Additionally, projects can rely on the guidance of this document when generating ASCI Verification and Validation (VSrV) deliverables. ASCI program managers will gather information about their software engineering practices and improvement. This information can be shared to leverage the best SQE practices among development organizations. It will further be used to ensure the currency and vitality of the recommended practices. This Overview is intended to provide basic information to the LLNL ASCI software management and development staff from the ''LLNL Site-Specific ASCI Software Quality Engineering Recommended Practices VI.I'' document. Additionally the Overview provides steps to using the ''LLNL Site-Specific ASCI Software Quality Engineering Recommended Practices VI.I'' document. For definitions of terminology and acronyms, refer to the Glossary and Acronyms sections in the ''LLNL Site-Specific ASCI Software Quality Engineering Recommended Practices VI.I''.

  15. Hopping Microbot Access to Subsurface (Cave) and Rugged Terrain on Mars and Hazardous Extreme Earth Astrobiology Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boston, P. J.; Dubowsky, S.

    2005-12-01

    Subsurface microbial communities, biosignatures, and geochemistries as revealed in natural caves and lavatubes on Earth are of relevance to the question of extant and former Martian ecologies (Boston et al., 2001, 2005). Such communities have been postulated for the near and mid-subsurface of Mars (Boston et al., 1992; Fisk & Giavannoni, 1999). Recent NASA and ESA missions are providing imaging evidence of numerous lavatube structures (Boston, 2003). In addition, recent evidence of subsurface water ice layers coupled with MER evidence of extensive evaporates (Boynton et al., 2002; Gellert et al., 2004) lends additional plausibility to possible development of solutional cavities possibly by unique extraterrestrial mechanisms (Boston et al., 2005). Successful robotic access to subsurface and rugged, unpredictable surface terrain must be accomplished to allow exploration of such sites on Mars and even for some extreme Earth sites of astrobiological interest (Dubowsky et al., 2004). We have developed the concept of high energy-density polymer "muscle" actuated hopping spherical microbots that can self-deploy as subsurface networks for sensing, telemetering, and recon. Potential instrumentation suitable for life detection and other analyses have been identified as the project moves into a Phase II stage. Boston, P.J. 2003. Extraterrestrial Caves. Encyclopedia of Cave and Karst Science. Fitzroy-Dearborn Publishers, Ltd., London, UK. Boston, P.J., Ivanov, M.V., and McKay, C.P. 1992. On the possibility of chemosynthetic ecosystems in subsurface habitats on Mars. Icarus 95:300-308. Boston, P.J., Spilde, M.N., Northup, D.E., Melim, L.A., Soroka, D.S., Kleina, L.G., Lavoie, K.H., Hose, L.D., Mallory, L.M., Dahm, C.N., Crossey, L.J., and Schelble, R.T. 2001. Cave biosignature suites: Microbes, minerals and Mars. Astrobiology Journal 1(1):25-55. Boston, P.J., Hose, L.D., Northup, D.E., & Spilde, M.N. 2005. The microbial communities of sulfur caves: A newly appreciated

  16. Interaction Between Orexin-A and Sleep Quality in Females in Extreme Weight Conditions.

    PubMed

    Sauchelli, Sarah; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-García, Jose C; Garrido-Sánchez, Lourdes; Tinahones, Francisco J; Casanueva, Felipe F; Baños, Rosa M; Botella, Cristina; Crujeiras, Ana B; de la Torre, Rafael; Fernández-Real, Jose M; Frühbeck, Gema; Granero, Roser; Ortega, Francisco J; Rodríguez, Amaia; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E; Menchón, Jose M; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    The current study examined the relationship between plasma orexin-A and sleep in obesity. Concentrations of orexin-A and sleep were evaluated in 26 obese, 40 morbid obese and 32 healthy-weight participants. The sleep monitor Actiwatch AW7 and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were used to evaluate sleep. The Symptom Checklist-90-Revised was administered to assess symptoms of psychopathology. A higher weight status was associated with elevated orexin-A levels (p = .050), greater depression, anxiety and somatization symptoms (all: p < .001), and impoverished self-reported sleep quality (p < .001). A quadratic trend was found in objective sleep time, being longest in the obese group (p = .031). Structural equation modelling showed plasma orexin-A to be related to poor total sleep quality, which in turn was associated with elevated body mass index. Our data confirm an interaction between elevated plasma orexin-A concentrations and poor sleep that contributes to fluctuations in body mass index. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  17. Microbiological indicators for assessing ecosystem soil quality and changes in it at degraded sites treated with compost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancona, Valeria; Barra Caracciolo, Anna; Grenni, Paola; Di Lenola, Martina; Calabrese, Angelantonio; Campanale, Claudia; Felice Uricchio, Vito

    2014-05-01

    Soil quality is defined as the capacity of a soil to function as a vital system, within natural or managed ecosystem boundaries, sustain plant and animal health and productivity, maintain or enhance air and water environment quality and support human health and habitation. Soil organisms are extremely diverse and contribute to a wide range of ecosystem services that are essential to the sustainable functioning of natural and managed ecosystems. In particular, microbial communities provide several ecosystem services, which ensure soil quality and fertility. In fact, they adapt promptly to environmental changes by varying their activity and by increasing the reproduction of populations that have favourable skills. The structure (e.g. cell abundance) and functioning (e.g. viability and activity) of natural microbial communities and changes in them under different environmental conditions can be considered useful indicators of soil quality state. In this work we studied the quality state of three different soils, located in Taranto Province (Southern Italy), affected by land degradation processes, such as organic matter depletion, desertification and contamination (PCB and metals). Moreover, compost, produced from selected organic waste, was added to the soils studied in order to improve their quality state. Soil samples were collected before and after compost addition and both microbial and chemical analyses were performed in order to evaluate the soil quality state at each site at different times. For this purpose, the microbiological indicators evaluated were bacterial abundance (DAPI counts), cell viability (Live/Dead method), dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and soil respiration. At the same time, the main physico-chemical soil characteristics (organic carbon, available phosphorous, total nitrogen, carbonate and water content, texture and pH) were also measured. Moreover, in the contaminated soil samples PCB and inorganic (e.g. Pb, Se, Sn, Zn) contaminants were

  18. Abrupt state change of river water quality (turbidity): Effect of extreme rainfalls and typhoons.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Sheng; Lee, Yi-Chao; Chiang, Hui-Min

    2016-07-01

    River turbidity is of dynamic nature, and its stable state is significantly changed during the period of heavy rainfall events. The frequent occurrence of typhoons in Taiwan has caused serious problems in drinking water treatment due to extremely high turbidity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate impact of typhoons on river turbidity. The statistical methods used included analyses of paired annual mean and standard deviation, frequency distribution, and moving standard deviation, skewness, and autocorrelation; all clearly indicating significant state changes of river turbidity. Typhoon Morakot of 2009 (recorded high rainfall over 2000mm in three days, responsible for significant disaster in southern Taiwan) is assumed as a major initiated event leading to critical state change. In addition, increasing rate of turbidity in rainfall events is highly and positively correlated with rainfall intensity both for pre- and post-Morakot periods. Daily turbidity is also well correlated with daily flow rate for all the eleven events evaluated. That implies potential prediction of river turbidity by river flow rate during rainfall and typhoon events. Based on analysis of stable state changes, more effective regulations for better basin management including soil-water conservation in watershed are necessary. Furthermore, municipal and industrial water treatment plants need to prepare and ensure the adequate operation of water treatment with high raw water turbidity (e.g., >2000NTU). Finally, methodology used in the present of this study can be applied to other environmental problems with abrupt state changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fracture analysis and rock quality designation estimation for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.; Hardy, M.P.; Bauer, S.J.

    1993-02-01

    Within the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, the design of drifts and ramps and evaluation of the impacts of thermomechanical loading of the host rock requires definition of the rock mass mechanical properties. Ramps and exploratory drifts will intersect both welded and nonwelded tuffs with varying abundance of fractures. The rock mass mechanical properties are dependent on the intact rock properties and the fracture joint characteristics. An understanding of the effects of fractures on the mechanical properties of the rock mass begins with a detailed description of the fracture spatial location and abundance, and includes a description of their physical characteristics. This report presents a description of the abundance, orientation, and physical characteristics of fractures and the Rock Quality Designation in the thermomechanical stratigraphic units at the Yucca Mountain site. Data was reviewed from existing sources and used to develop descriptions for each unit. The product of this report is a data set of the best available information on the fracture characteristics.

  20. Water quality changes at three reclaimed mine sites related to the injection of coal combustion residues

    SciTech Connect

    Ackman, T.E.; Jones, J.R.; Kim, A.G.

    1996-12-31

    Surface and groundwater pollution is a common problem associated with post-surface mining operations. The US Bureau of Mines (BOM) participated in the testing of subsurface injections of coal combustion residues (CCR) at three reclaimed surface mine sites. The addition of alkaline CCR to the subsurface environment can raise the pH, limit propagation of pyrite oxidizing bacteria and reduce the rate of acid generation. Many CCR`s can also form cement-like grout, which when injected into buried spoil may decrease its permeability and porosity, diverting water away from the pyritic material. The objective of this work was to develop an effective, economical and permanent method to abate or reduce post-mining water pollution. The effectiveness of CCR injection as an acid mine drainage abatement technique was evaluated by the BOM by monitoring water quality at three sites in: Upshur County, WV, Clinton County, PA and Greene County, PA. Geophysical techniques were used at all sites to locate monitoring and injection wells that were subsequently drilled into the spoil. Grout injection work was completed between 1990 and 1994 at the three sites. Baseline water quality data were collected at all three sites for a minimum of one year. Post-grouting water quality at the discharge of the three sites showed a slight, long-term improvement and no apparent degradation in water quality resulting from the injection of the coal combustion residues. Notable and long-term improvements in water quality at various monitoring wells (on all sites) were also observed.

  1. Fuel quality/processing study. Volume 4: On site processing studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. E., Jr.; Cutrone, M.; Doering, H.; Hickey, J.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel treated at the turbine and the turbine exhaust gas processed at the turbine site are studied. Fuel treatments protect the turbine from contaminants or impurities either in the upgrading fuel as produced or picked up by the fuel during normal transportation. Exhaust gas treatments provide for the reduction of NOx and SOx to environmentally acceptable levels. The impact of fuel quality upon turbine maintenance and deterioration is considered. On site costs include not only the fuel treatment costs as such, but also incremental costs incurred by the turbine operator if a turbine fuel of low quality is not acceptably upgraded.

  2. Site location optimization of regional air quality monitoring network in China: methodology and case study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Junyu; Feng, Xiaoqiong; Liu, Panwei; Zhong, Liuju; Lai, Senchao

    2011-11-01

    Regional air quality monitoring networks (RAQMN) are urgently needed in China due to increasing regional air pollution in city clusters, arising from rapid economic development in recent decades. This paper proposes a methodological framework for site location optimization in designing a RAQMN adapting to air quality management practice in China. The framework utilizes synthetic assessment concentrations developed from simulated data from a regional air quality model in order to simplify the optimal process and to reduce costs. On the basis of analyzing various constraints such as cost and budget, terrain conditions, administrative district, population density and spatial coverage, the framework takes the maximum approximate degree as an optimization objective to achieve site location optimization of a RAQMN. An expert judgment approach was incorporated into the framework to help adjust initial optimization results in order to make the network more practical and representative. A case study was used to demonstrate the application of the framework, indicating that it is feasible to conduct site optimization for a RAQMN design in China. The effects of different combinations of primary and secondary pollutants on site location optimization were investigated. It is suggested that the network design considering both primary and secondary pollutants could better represent regional pollution characteristics and more extensively reflect temporal and spatial variations of regional air quality. The work shown in this study can be used as a reference to guide site location optimization of a RAQMN design in China or other regions of the world.

  3. Location and site characteristics of the ambient ground-water-quality-monitoring network in West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozar, M.D.; Brown, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    Ground-water-quality-monitoring sites have been established in compliance with the 1991 West Virginia "Groundwater Protection Act." One of the provisions of the "Groundwater Protection Act" is to conduct ground-water sampling, data collection, analyses, and evaluation with sufficient frequency so as to ascertain the characteristics and quality of ground water and the sufficiency of the ground- water protection programs established pursuant to the act (Chapter 20 of the code of West Virginia, 1991, Article 5-M). Information for 26 monitoring sites (wells and springs) which comprise the Statewide ambient ground-water-quality-monitoring network is presented. Areas in which monitoring sites were needed were determined by the West Virginia Division of Environmental Protection, Office of Water Resources in consultation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Initial sites were chosen on the basis of recent hydrogeologic investigations conducted by the USGS and from data stored in the USGS Ground Water Site Inventory database. Land use, aquifer setting, and areal coverage of the State are three of the more important criteria used in site selection. A field reconnaissance was conducted to locate and evaluate the adequacy of selected wells and springs. Descriptive information consisting of site, geologic, well construction, and aquifer-test data has been compiled. The 26 sites will be sampled periodically for iron, manganese, most common ions (for example, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, sulfate, chloride, bicarbonate), volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (for example, pesticides and industrial solvents), and fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus bacteria. Background information explaining ground-water systems and water quality within the State has been included.

  4. Water-quality data from an earthen dam site in southern Westchester County, New York, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chu, Anthony; Noll, Michael L.

    2017-10-11

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New York City Department of Environmental Protection, sampled 37 sites in the reservoir area for nutrients, major ions, metals, pesticides and their degradates, volatile organic compounds, temperature, pH, and specific conductance during fall 2015. Data collection was done to characterize the local groundwater-flow system and identify potential sources of seeps from the southern embankment at the Hillview Reservoir. Water-quality samples were collected in accordance with standard U.S. Geological Survey methods at 37 sites in and adjacent to Hillview Reservoir. These 37 sites were sampled to determine (1) baseline water-quality conditions of the saturated, low-permeability sediments that compose the earthen embankment that surrounds the reservoir, (2) water-quality conditions in the southwestern part of the study area in relation to the seeps on the embankment, and (3) temporal variation of water-quality conditions between 2006 and 2015 (not included in this report). The physical parameters and the results of the water-quality analysis from the 37 sites are included in this report and can be downloaded from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System website.

  5. Identifying the Drivers and Occurrence of Historical and Future Extreme Air-quality Events in the United States Using Advanced Statistical Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, W. C.; Heald, C. L.; Cooley, D. S.; Russell, B. T.

    2013-12-01

    Episodes of air-quality extremes are known to be heavily influenced by meteorological conditions, but traditional statistical analysis techniques focused on means and standard deviations may not capture important relationships at the tails of these two respective distributions. Using quantile regression (QR) and extreme value theory (EVT), methodologies specifically developed to examine the behavior of heavy-tailed phenomena, we analyze extremes in the multi-decadal record of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the United States. We investigate observations from the Air Quality System (AQS) and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) networks for connections to meteorological drivers, as provided by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) product. Through regional characterization by quantile behavior and EVT modeling of the meteorological covariates most responsible for extreme levels of O3 and PM2.5, we estimate pollutant exceedance frequencies and uncertainties in the United States under current and projected future climates, highlighting those meteorological covariates and interactions whose influence on air-quality extremes differs most significantly from the behavior of the bulk of the distribution. As current policy may be influenced by air-quality projections, we then compare these estimated frequencies to those produced by NCAR's Community Earth System Model (CESM) identifying regions, covariates, and species whose extreme behavior may not be adequately captured by current models.

  6. Health-related quality of life and emotional and behavioral difficulties after extreme preterm birth: developmental trajectories.

    PubMed

    Vederhus, Bente Johanne; Eide, Geir Egil; Natvig, Gerd Karin; Markestad, Trond; Graue, Marit; Halvorsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of long-term health related outcomes in contemporary populations born extremely preterm (EP) is scarce. We aimed to explore developmental trajectories of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and behavior from mid-childhood to early adulthood in extremely preterm and term-born individuals. Methods. Subjects born at gestational age ≤28 weeks or with birth weight ≤1,000 g within a region of Norway in 1991-92 and matched term-born control subjects were assessed at 10 and 18 years. HRQoL was measured with the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) and behavior with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), using parent assessment at both ages and self-assessment at 18 years. Results. All eligible EP (n = 35) and control children participated at 10 years, and 31 (89%) and 29 (83%) at 18 years. At 10 years, the EP born boys were given significantly poorer scores by their parents than term-born controls on most CHQ and CBCL scales, but the differences were minor at 18 years; i.e., significant improvements had occurred in several CHQ (self-esteem, general health and parental impact-time) and CBCL (total problem, internalizing and anxious/depressed) scales. For the girls, the differences were smaller at 10 years and remained unchanged by 18 years. Emotional/behavioral difficulties at 10 years similarly predicted poorer improvement on CHQ-scales for both EP and term-born subjects at 18 years. Self-assessment of HRQoL and behavior at 18 years was similar in the EP and term-born groups on most scales. Conclusions. HRQoL and behavior improved towards adulthood for EP born boys, while the girls remained relatively similar, and early emotional and behavioral difficulties predicted poorer development in HRQoL through adolescence. These data indicate that gender and a longitudinal perspective should be considered when addressing health and wellbeing after extremely preterm birth.

  7. Health-related quality of life and emotional and behavioral difficulties after extreme preterm birth: developmental trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Eide, Geir Egil; Natvig, Gerd Karin; Markestad, Trond; Graue, Marit; Halvorsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of long-term health related outcomes in contemporary populations born extremely preterm (EP) is scarce. We aimed to explore developmental trajectories of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and behavior from mid-childhood to early adulthood in extremely preterm and term-born individuals. Methods. Subjects born at gestational age ≤28 weeks or with birth weight ≤1,000 g within a region of Norway in 1991–92 and matched term-born control subjects were assessed at 10 and 18 years. HRQoL was measured with the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) and behavior with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), using parent assessment at both ages and self-assessment at 18 years. Results. All eligible EP (n = 35) and control children participated at 10 years, and 31 (89%) and 29 (83%) at 18 years. At 10 years, the EP born boys were given significantly poorer scores by their parents than term-born controls on most CHQ and CBCL scales, but the differences were minor at 18 years; i.e., significant improvements had occurred in several CHQ (self-esteem, general health and parental impact-time) and CBCL (total problem, internalizing and anxious/depressed) scales. For the girls, the differences were smaller at 10 years and remained unchanged by 18 years. Emotional/behavioral difficulties at 10 years similarly predicted poorer improvement on CHQ-scales for both EP and term-born subjects at 18 years. Self-assessment of HRQoL and behavior at 18 years was similar in the EP and term-born groups on most scales. Conclusions. HRQoL and behavior improved towards adulthood for EP born boys, while the girls remained relatively similar, and early emotional and behavioral difficulties predicted poorer development in HRQoL through adolescence. These data indicate that gender and a longitudinal perspective should be considered when addressing health and wellbeing after extremely preterm birth. PMID:25653912

  8. Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project 1994 quality program status report

    SciTech Connect

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1996-03-01

    This status report is for calendar year 1994. It summarizes the annual activities and accomplishments of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP or Project) quality assurance program. By identifying the accomplishments of the quality program, a baseline is established that will assist in decision making, improve administrative controls and predictability, and allow us to annually identify adverse trends and to evaluate improvements. This is the fourth annual status report.

  9. Site-specific water quality guidelines: 1. Derivation approaches based on physicochemical, ecotoxicological and ecological data.

    PubMed

    van Dam, R A; Humphrey, C L; Harford, A J; Sinclair, A; Jones, D R; Davies, S; Storey, A W

    2014-01-01

    Generic water quality guidelines (WQGs) are developed by countries/regions as broad scale tools to assist with the protection of aquatic ecosystems from the impacts of toxicants. However, since generic WQGs cannot adequately account for the many environmental factors that may affect toxicity at a particular site, site-specific WQGs are often needed, especially for high environmental value ecosystems. The Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality provide comprehensive guidance on methods for refining or deriving WQGs for site-specific purposes. This paper describes three such methods for deriving site-specific WQGs, namely: (1) using local reference water quality data, (2) using biological effects data from laboratory-based toxicity testing, and (3) using biological effects data from field surveys. Two case studies related to the assessment of impacts arising from mining operations in northern Australia are used to illustrate the application of these methods. Finally, the potential of several emerging methods designed to assess thresholds of ecological change from field data for deriving site-specific WQGs is discussed. Ideally, multiple lines of evidence approaches, integrating both laboratory and field data, are recommended for deriving site-specific WQGs.

  10. Development and implementation of an analytical quality assurance plan at the Hanford site

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl-Klinger, K.J.; Taylor, C.D.; Kawabata, K.K.

    1995-08-01

    The Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan (HASQAP) provides a uniform standard for onsite and offsite laboratories performing analytical work in support of Hanford Site environmental cleanup initiatives. The Hanford Site is a nuclear site that originated during World War 11 and has a legacy of environmental clean up issues. In early 1993, the need for and feasibility of developing a quality assurance plan to direct all analytical activities performed to support environmental cleanup initiatives set forth in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order were discussed. Several group discussions were held and from them came the HASQAP. This document will become the quality assurance guidance document in a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. This paper presents the mechanics involved in developing a quality assurance plan for this scope of activity, including the approach taken to resolve the variability of quality control requirements driven by numerous regulations. It further describes the consensus building process and how the goal of uniting onsite and offsite laboratories as well as inorganic, organic, and radioanalytic disciplines under a common understanding of basic quality control concepts was achieved.

  11. Changes in biodiversity of the extremely polluted Golden Horn Estuary following the improvements in water quality.

    PubMed

    Yüksek, Ahsen; Okuş, Erdoğan; Yilmaz, I Noyan; Aslan-Yilmaz, Asli; Taş, Seyfettin

    2006-10-01

    Long-term biological data supported by physicochemical parameters were evaluated to investigate the biodiversity of the Golden Horn Estuary from the past to the present. Limited observations dating back to 60 years ago indicated the existence of a diverse community in this small estuary. Unfortunately, in parallel with the increase in unplanned settlements and industry around the Golden Horn, pollution stress increased since the 1960s. Preliminary studies in the 1990s indicated survival of only a couple of pollution-resistant species, in the relatively cleaner lower estuary. Following the intensification of rehabilitation studies in 1998 and particularly after the opening of the floating bridge at the mid estuary; a remarkable day-by-day recovery in marine life has begun with the improving water quality. Nutrient concentrations decreased markedly; while water clarity significantly increased. Fecal coliform values decreased 10(3) fold. Phytoplankton composition changed and dense blooms of eukaryotic phytoplankters frequently occurred. Hydrogen sulfide almost completely disappeared even during the warmest periods of the year and dissolved oxygen concentrations increased. All results clearly depicted that the Golden Horn ecosystem shifted to eutrophic conditions from an anoxic environment. SCUBA dives in 2002, documented the level of diversification of life in the Golden Horn. All appropriate substratums were intensely covered by macrobenthic forms until the Halic Bridge and filter feeders dominated the plankton-rich ecosystem. Achieving the diversity of 1940s is not possible since the Black and Marmara seas, influencing water quality of the Golden Horn, are also suffering from anthropogenic impacts and are far less diverse than their rich diversity in 1940s. However, the Golden Horn is a good example that even the most polluted ecosystems can recover when appropriate measures are taken.

  12. Influence of the extreme conditions on the water quality and material exchange flux in the Strait of Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altıok, Hüsne; Aslan, Aslı; Övez, Süleyman; Demirel, Nazlı; Yüksek, Ahsen; Kıratlı, Nur; Taş, Seyfettin; Müftüoğlu, Ahmet Edip; Sur, Halil Ibrahim; Okuş, Erdoğan

    2014-11-01

    This study focuses on the influence of extreme hydrological events on the water quality of the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus), a stratified waterway, polluted by sewage outfalls and non-point sources. Monthly collected water quality parameters (nitrate + nitrite, ortho-phosphate, silicate, dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, chlorophyll-a and fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliform and enterococci)) were evaluated together with the hydrological data (salinity, temperature and current flow) for 1 year. Two blockage events, identified as extreme conditions, were detected during the study: a lower layer blockage in February 2003 and an upper layer blockage in October 2003. During the lower layer blockage, the volume fluxes of the upper layer significantly increased to 28,140 m3 s- 1 and the lower layer almost stopped flowing (19 m3 s- 1). The dissolved oxidative nitrogen, ortho-phosphate and silicate inputs outflowing from the Black Sea were 117, 17.6, and 309 tons which were 3, 2, and 4 times the average daily fluxes respectively, in addition to enhancement of fecal indicator bacteria contamination in the sea surface flow. During the upper layer blockage, the volume flux of the upper layer was 3837 m3 s- 1 and the counter flow reached 24,985 m3 s- 1 at the northern exit of the Strait of Istanbul resulting in 2.7 fold increase in the mean bottom flow. The daily exports of nutrients, total suspended solid and dissolved oxygen by the lower layer flow increased by at least 2 fold compared to the mass fluxes estimated from the seasonal/annual means of volume flux and concentrations. On the other hand, fecal indicator bacteria flux by the lower layer inflow to the Black Sea decreased by at least 2 fold compared to the mean daily flux. These results show that the material exchange between the Marmara and the Black seas becomes more important during blockage events.

  13. Quality of life and self-reported lower extremity function in adults with HIV-related distal sensory polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Galantino, Mary Lou A; Kietrys, David M; Parrott, James Scott; Stevens, Maureen E; Stevens, Anne Marie; Condoluci, David V

    2014-10-01

    Distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) is a common complication of HIV disease. Its effects on quality of life (QOL) and function have not been well described. The study objectives were: (1) to compare QOL and lower extremity function in people with HIV-related DSP and people with HIV disease who do not have DSP, (2) to determine the extent to which function predicts QOL, (3) to evaluate the agreement of 2 function scales, and (4) to describe the use of pain management resources. This was a cross-sectional survey study with predictive modeling and measurement tool concordant validation. A demographic questionnaire, the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey, the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS), the Lower Limb Functional Index (LLFI), and a review of medical records were used. General linear modeling was used to assess group differences in QOL and the relationship between function and QOL. Bland-Altman procedures were used to assess the agreement of the LEFS and the LLFI. Usable data for analyses were available for 82 of the 94 participants enrolled. The 67% of participants who reported DSP symptoms tended to be older, had HIV disease longer, and were more likely to receive disability benefits. Participants without DSP had better LLFI, LEFS, and physical health summary scores. In multivariate models, lower limb function predicted physical and mental health summary scores. The LLFI identified participants with a lower level of function more often than the LEFS. Participants with DSP were more likely to use medical treatment, physical therapy, and complementary or alternative treatments. A sample of convenience was used; the sample size resulted in a low power for the mental health summary score of the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey. Quality of life and function were more impaired in participants with HIV disease and DSP. The LLFI was more likely to capture limitations in function than the LEFS. Participants with DSP reported more frequent use of pain

  14. Ground-water quality beneath solid-waste disposal sites at anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zenone, Chester; Donaldson, D.E.; Grunwaldt, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    Studies at three solid-waste disposal sites in the Anchorage area suggest that differences in local geohydrologic conditions influence ground-water quality. A leachate was detected in ground water within and beneath two sites where the water table is very near land surface and refuse is deposited either at or below the water table in some parts of the filled areas. No leachate was detected in ground water beneath a third site where waste disposal is well above the local water table.

  15. Information system of forest growth and productivity by site quality type and elements of forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlyustov, V.

    2012-04-01

    Information system of forest growth and productivity by site quality type and elements of forest V.K. Khlustov Head of the Forestry Department of Russian State Agrarian University named after K.A.Timiryazev doctor of agricultural sciences, professor The efficiency of forest management can be improved substantially by development and introduction of principally new models of forest growth and productivity dynamics based on regionalized site specific parameters. Therefore an innovative information system was developed. It describes the current state and gives a forecast for forest stand parameters: growth, structure, commercial and biological productivity depend on type of site quality. In contrast to existing yield tables, the new system has environmental basis: site quality type. The information system contains set of multivariate statistical models and can work at the level of individual trees or at the stand level. The system provides a graphical visualization, as well as export of the emulation results. The System is able to calculate detailed description of any forest stand based on five initial indicators: site quality type, site index, stocking, composition, and tree age by elements of the forest. The results of the model run are following parameters: average diameter and height, top height, number of trees, basal area, growing stock (total, commercial with distribution by size, firewood and residuals), live biomass (stem, bark, branches, foliage). The system also provides the distribution of mentioned above forest stand parameters by tree diameter classes. To predict the future forest stand dynamics the system require in addition the time slot only. Full set of forest parameters mention above will be provided by the System. The most conservative initial parameters (site quality type and site index) can be kept in the form of geo referenced polygons. In this case the system would need only 3 dynamic initial parameters (stocking, composition and age) to

  16. Comparative study of the microbial quality of greywater treated by three on-site treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Friedler, E; Kovalio, R; Ben-Zvi, A

    2006-06-01

    This paper analyses the performance of a pilot scale treatment plant, treating light domestic greywater. The treatment included three parallel treatment units: stand-alone sand filtration (SFEB), RBC followed by sand filtration (SFRBC), and an MBR equipped with UF membranes (MBR). The performance of the SFEB unit was rather poor. The RBC and MBR units produced effluent of excellent quality, with COD of 42 and 40 mg l(-1), BOD of 1.8 and 1.1 mg l(-1), and turbidity of 0.6 and 0.2 NTU respectively. The SFEB failed to remove heterotrophic microorganisms (HPC), while the SFRBC and the MBR exhibited 2.1 and 3.6 logs removal, leading to effluent concentrations of 1.1 x 10(3) and 8.8 x 10(3) cfu ml(-1) respectively. Faecal coliforms (FC) counts were 3.4 x 10(5) 1.4 x 10(5) 1.1 x 10(3) and 3.5 x 10(2) cfu 100 ml(-1) in raw greywater, and in the SFEB, SFRBC and MBR effluents respectively. Further, in 60% of the samples no FC were detected in the MBR effluent. In order to simulate residence times in full scale systems, effluents were disinfected and stored for 0.5 h, 3 h, 6 h (normal operation), and one week (extreme event). The average chlorine demand was 8.1, 3.8 and 2.9 mg l(-1) for SFEB, SFRBC and MBR effluents respectively. Low residual chlorine (0.15-0.22 mg l(-1)) remained in all effluents even after a week-long storage. Disinfection reduced HPC by 5, 2 and 2 orders of magnitude in the SFEB, SFRBC and MBR effluents respectively, with no regrowth in short contact times (up to 6 hours). Some regrowth was observed after a week-long storage leading to 10(6), 10(4) and 10(3) cfu ml(-1) (SFEB SFRBC and MBR respectively). Disinfection reduced FC counts in all three types of effluent to 0 cfu 100 ml(-1), whilst no FC regrowth was observed after week-long storage. The results show that both RBC and MBR treatment units are viable options for on-site greywater reuse. The disinfection experiments strongly indicate that the health risk associated with the reuse of these effluents

  17. Water Quality Sampling Locations Along the Shoreline of the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Robert E.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2009-12-14

    As environmental monitoring evolved on the Hanford Site, several different conventions were used to name or describe location information for various sampling sites along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These methods range from handwritten descriptions in field notebooks to the use of modern electronic surveying equipment, such as Global Positioning System receivers. These diverse methods resulted in inconsistent archiving of analytical results in various electronic databases and published reports because of multiple names being used for the same site and inaccurate position data. This document provides listings of sampling sites that are associated with groundwater and river water sampling. The report identifies names and locations for sites associated with sampling: (a) near-river groundwater using aquifer sampling tubes; (b) riverbank springs and springs areas; (c) pore water collected from riverbed sediment; and (d) Columbia River water. Included in the listings are historical names used for a particular site and the best available geographic coordinates for the site, as of 2009. In an effort to create more consistency in the descriptive names used for water quality sampling sites, a naming convention is proposed in this document. The convention assumes that a unique identifier is assigned to each site that is monitored and that this identifier serves electronic database management requirements. The descriptive name is assigned for the convenience of the subsequent data user. As the historical database is used more intensively, this document may be revised as a consequence of discovering potential errors and also because of a need to gain consensus on the proposed naming convention for some water quality monitoring sites.

  18. Hydrochemical Assessment of Surfacewater and Groundwater Quality at Bank Infiltration Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsuddin, M. K. N.; Suratman, S.; Ramli, M. F.; Sulaiman, W. N. A.; Sefie, A.

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater and surface water quantity and quality are an important factor that contribute for drinking water demand and agriculture use. The water quality analysis was assessed using multivariate statistical analyses based on analytical quantitative data that include Discriminant Analysis (DA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), based on 36 water quality parameters from the rivers, lakes, and groundwater sites at Jenderam Hilir, which were collected from 2013 to 2014 (56 observations). The DA identified six significant parameters (pH, NO2-, NO3-, F, Fe2+, and Mn2+) from 36 variables to distinguish between the river, lake, and groundwater groups (classification accuracy = 98%). The PCA had confirmed 10 possible causes of variation in the groundwater quality with an eigenvalue greater than 1, which explained 82.931% of the total variance in the water quality data set.

  19. Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project 1995 quality program status report

    SciTech Connect

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1996-07-01

    This status report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project`s (YMP`s) quality assurance program for January 1 to September 30, 1995. The report includes major sections on program activities and trend analysis.

  20. The regeneration of central hardwoods with emphasis on the effects of site quality and harvesting practice

    Treesearch

    G. R., Jr. Trimble

    1973-01-01

    This report is an attempt to integrate and summarize research results from studies made mostly in West Virginia and to show the relationship of site quality and cutting practices to hardwood reproduction, with special emphasis on species composition. Reproduction has been found satisfactory in numbers and distribution after both clearcutting and selection cutting, but...

  1. NEKTON HABITAT QUALITY AT SHALLOW-WATER SITES IN TWO RHODE ISLAND COASTAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated nekton habitat quality at five shallow-water sites in two Rhode Island systems by comparing nekton densities and biomass, number of species, prey availability and feeding, and abundance of winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus. Nekton density and biomass wer...

  2. Toward Web-Site Quantitative Evaluation: Defining Quality Characteristics and Attributes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsina, L; Rossi, G.

    This paper identifies World Wide Web site characteristics and attributes and groups them in a hierarchy. The primary goal is to classify the elements that might be part of a quantitative evaluation and comparison process. In order to effectively select quality characteristics, different users' needs and behaviors are considered. Following an…

  3. Social media and rating sites as tools to understanding quality of care: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Lise M; Van de Belt, Tom H; Engelen, Lucien J L P G; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Kool, Rudolf B

    2014-02-20

    Insight into the quality of health care is important for any stakeholder including patients, professionals, and governments. In light of a patient-centered approach, it is essential to assess the quality of health care from a patient's perspective, which is commonly done with surveys or focus groups. Unfortunately, these "traditional" methods have significant limitations that include social desirability bias, a time lag between experience and measurement, and difficulty reaching large groups of people. Information on social media could be of value to overcoming these limitations, since these new media are easy to use and are used by the majority of the population. Furthermore, an increasing number of people share health care experiences online or rate the quality of their health care provider on physician rating sites. The question is whether this information is relevant to determining or predicting the quality of health care. The goal of our research was to systematically analyze the relation between information shared on social media and quality of care. We performed a scoping review with the following goals: (1) to map the literature on the association between social media and quality of care, (2) to identify different mechanisms of this relationship, and (3) to determine a more detailed agenda for this relatively new research area. A recognized scoping review methodology was used. We developed a search strategy based on four themes: social media, patient experience, quality, and health care. Four online scientific databases were searched, articles were screened, and data extracted. Results related to the research question were described and categorized according to type of social media. Furthermore, national and international stakeholders were consulted throughout the study, to discuss and interpret results. Twenty-nine articles were included, of which 21 were concerned with health care rating sites. Several studies indicate a relationship between information

  4. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.

    2012-12-27

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006), as well as several other published DQOs. The intent of this report is to determine the necessary steps required to ensure that radioactive emissions to the air from the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) headquartered at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Sequim Marine Research Operations (Sequim Site) on Washington State’s Olympic Peninsula are managed in accordance with regulatory requirements and best practices. The Sequim Site was transitioned in October 2012 from private operation under Battelle Memorial Institute to an exclusive use contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Pacific Northwest Site Office.

  5. Use of the landfill water pollution index (LWPI) for groundwater quality assessment near the landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Talalaj, Izabela A; Biedka, Pawel

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the groundwater quality near the landfill sites using landfill water pollution index (LWPI). In order to investigate the scale of groundwater contamination, three landfills (E, H and S) in different stages of their operation were taken into analysis. Samples of groundwater in the vicinity of studied landfills were collected four times each year in the period from 2004 to 2014. A total of over 300 groundwater samples were analysed for pH, EC, PAH, TOC, Cr, Hg, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, as required by the UE legal acts for landfill monitoring system. The calculated values of the LWPI allowed the quantification of the overall water quality near the landfill sites. The obtained results indicated that the most negative impact on groundwater quality is observed near the old Landfill H. Improper location of piezometer at the Landfill S favoured infiltration of run-off from road pavement into the soil-water environment. Deep deposition of the groundwater level at Landfill S area reduced the landfill impact on the water quality. Conducted analyses revealed that the LWPI can be used for evaluation of water pollution near a landfill, for assessment of the variability of water pollution with time and for comparison of water quality from different piezometers, landfills or time periods. The applied WQI (Water Quality Index) can also be an important information tool for landfill policy makers and the public about the groundwater pollution threat from landfill.

  6. Environmental Restoration Program quality system requirements for the Hanford Site. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Cote, R.F.

    1993-11-01

    This document defines the quality system requirements for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Program at the Hanford Site. The Quality System Requirements (OSR) for the Hanford Site integrates quality assurance requirements from the US Department of Energy Orders, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), and applicable industry standards into a single source document for the development of quality systems applicable to the Environmental Restoration Program activities. This document, based on fifteen criteria and divided intro three parts, provides user organizations with the flexibility to incorporate only those criteria and parts applicable to their specific scopes of work. The requirements of this document shall be applied to activities that affect quality based on a graded approach that takes into consideration the risk inherent in, as well as the importance of, specific items, services, and activities in terms of meeting ER Program objectives and customer expectations. The individual quality systems developed in accordance with this document are intended to provide an integrated management control system that assures the conduct of ER Program activities in a manner that protects human health and the environment.

  7. Terrorism, Radicalisation, Extremism, Authoritarianism and Fundamentalism: A Systematic Review of the Quality and Psychometric Properties of Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Scarcella, Akimi; Page, Ruairi; Furtado, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Background Currently, terrorism and suicide bombing are global psychosocial processes that attracts a growing number of psychological and psychiatric contributions to enhance practical counter-terrorism measures. The present study is a systematic review that explores the methodological quality reporting and the psychometric soundness of the instruments developed to identify risk factors of terrorism, extremism, radicalisation, authoritarianism and fundamentalism. Method A systematic search strategy was established to identify instruments and studies developed to screen individuals at risk of committing extremist or terrorist offences using 20 different databases across the fields of law, medicine, psychology, sociology and politics. Information extracted was consolidated into two different tables and a 26-item checklist, reporting respectively background information, the psychometric properties of each tool, and the methodological quality markers of these tools. 37 articles met our criteria, which included a total of 4 instruments to be used operationally by professionals, 17 tools developed as research measures, and 9 inventories that have not been generated from a study. Results Just over half of the methodological quality markers required for a transparent methodological description of the instruments were reported. The amount of reported psychological properties was even fewer, with only a third of them available across the different studies. The category presenting the least satisfactory results was that containing the 4 instruments to be used operationally by professionals, which can be explained by the fact that half of them refrained from publishing the major part of their findings and relevant guidelines. Conclusions A great number of flaws have been identified through this systematic review. The authors encourage future researchers to be more thorough, comprehensive and transparent in their methodology. They also recommend the creation of a multi

  8. Terrorism, Radicalisation, Extremism, Authoritarianism and Fundamentalism: A Systematic Review of the Quality and Psychometric Properties of Assessments.

    PubMed

    Scarcella, Akimi; Page, Ruairi; Furtado, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Currently, terrorism and suicide bombing are global psychosocial processes that attracts a growing number of psychological and psychiatric contributions to enhance practical counter-terrorism measures. The present study is a systematic review that explores the methodological quality reporting and the psychometric soundness of the instruments developed to identify risk factors of terrorism, extremism, radicalisation, authoritarianism and fundamentalism. A systematic search strategy was established to identify instruments and studies developed to screen individuals at risk of committing extremist or terrorist offences using 20 different databases across the fields of law, medicine, psychology, sociology and politics. Information extracted was consolidated into two different tables and a 26-item checklist, reporting respectively background information, the psychometric properties of each tool, and the methodological quality markers of these tools. 37 articles met our criteria, which included a total of 4 instruments to be used operationally by professionals, 17 tools developed as research measures, and 9 inventories that have not been generated from a study. Just over half of the methodological quality markers required for a transparent methodological description of the instruments were reported. The amount of reported psychological properties was even fewer, with only a third of them available across the different studies. The category presenting the least satisfactory results was that containing the 4 instruments to be used operationally by professionals, which can be explained by the fact that half of them refrained from publishing the major part of their findings and relevant guidelines. A great number of flaws have been identified through this systematic review. The authors encourage future researchers to be more thorough, comprehensive and transparent in their methodology. They also recommend the creation of a multi-disciplinary joint working group in order to

  9. Influence of stocking, site quality, stand age, low-severity canopy disturbance, and forest composition on sub-boreal aspen mixedwood carbon stocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinikainen, Michael; D’Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Fraver, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Low-severity canopy disturbance presumably influences forest carbon dynamics during the course of stand development, yet the topic has received relatively little attention. This is surprising because of the frequent occurrence of such events and the potential for both the severity and frequency of disturbances to increase as a result of climate change. We investigated the impacts of low-severity canopy disturbance and average insect defoliation on forest carbon stocks and rates of carbon sequestration in mature aspen mixedwood forests of varying stand age (ranging from 61 to 85 years), overstory composition, stocking level, and site quality. Stocking level and site quality positively affected the average annual aboveground tree carbon increment (CAAI), while stocking level, site quality, and stand age positively affected tree carbon stocks (CTREE) and total ecosystem carbon stocks (CTOTAL). Cumulative canopy disturbance (DIST) was reconstructed using dendroecological methods over a 29-year period. DIST was negatively and significantly related to soil carbon (CSOIL), and it was negatively, albeit marginally, related to CTOTAL. Minima in the annual aboveground carbon increment of trees (CAI) occurred at sites during defoliation of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) by forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria Hubner), and minima were more extreme at sites dominated by trembling aspen than sites mixed with conifers. At sites defoliated by forest tent caterpillar in the early 2000s, increased sequestration by the softwood component (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. and Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) compensated for overall decreases in CAI by 17% on average. These results underscore the importance of accounting for low-severity canopy disturbance events when developing regional forest carbon models and argue for the restoration and maintenance of historically important conifer species within aspen mixedwoods to enhance stand-level resilience to disturbance agents and maintain

  10. Runoff-water quality and hydrology at coal-refuse disposal sites in southern Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Prodan, P.F.; Mele, L.M.; Schubert, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Data on water quality and other hydrologic parameters were gathered from runoff at three abandoned, unreclaimed, coal-refuse disposal sites in southern Illinois. Two of the sites were subsequently recontoured, limed, covered with 30 cm of glacial till and loess, fertilized, and seeded. Data collected one to four years after reconstruction of these sites indicated that (1) runoff rates were increased because the soil cover was less permeable than the coal refuse and (2) acidity, sulfate, and metal concentrations in surface runoff waters were greatly reduced following renovation. However, gradual increases in acidity, sulfate, and metal concentrations in runoff water at one of these sites were seen two years after reconstruction, and these concentrations may continue to rise in the future. This indicates that the pyrite and iron sulfate salts in the coal refuse will make reclamation a gradual and long-term process, rather than one that can be carried out quickly by grading, liming, and covering with soil. 2 tables.

  11. Significant mean and extreme climate sensitivity of Norway spruce and silver fir at mid-elevation mesic sites in the Alps.

    PubMed

    Carrer, Marco; Motta, Renzo; Nola, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Climate forcing is the major abiotic driver for forest ecosystem functioning and thus significantly affects the role of forests within the global carbon cycle and related ecosystem services. Annual radial increments of trees are probably the most valuable source of information to link tree growth and climate at long-term time scales, and have been used in a wide variety of investigations worldwide. However, especially in mountainous areas, tree-ring studies have focused on extreme environments where the climate sensitivity is perhaps greatest but are necessarily a biased representation of the forests within a region. We used tree-ring analyses to study two of the most important tree species growing in the Alps: Norway spruce (Picea abies) and silver fir (Abies alba). We developed tree-ring chronologies from 13 mesic mid-elevation sites (203 trees) and then compared them to monthly temperature and precipitation data for the period 1846-1995. Correlation functions, principal component analysis and fuzzy C-means clustering were applied to 1) assess the climate/growth relationships and their stationarity and consistency over time, and 2) extract common modes of variability in the species responses to mean and extreme climate variability. Our results highlight a clear, time-stable, and species-specific response to mean climate conditions. However, during the previous-year's growing season, which shows the strongest correlations, the primary difference between species is in their response to extreme events, not mean conditions. Mesic sites at mid-altitude are commonly underrepresented in tree-ring research; we showed that strong climatic controls of growth may exist even in those areas. Extreme climatic events may play a key role in defining the species-specific responses on climatic sensitivity and, with a global change perspective, specific divergent responses are likely to occur even where current conditions are less limited.

  12. An evaluation of the quality of Turkish community pharmacy web sites concerning HON principles.

    PubMed

    Yegenoglu, Selen; Sozen, Bilge; Aslan, Dilek; Calgan, Zeynep; Cagirci, Simge

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this study was to find all the existing Web sites of Turkish community pharmacies and evaluate their "quality" in terms of Health on the Net (HON) Code of conduct principles. Multiple Internet search engines were used (google.com, yahoo.com, altavista.com, msn.com). While searching on the Internet, "eczane (pharmacy)" and "eczanesi (pharmacy of)" key words were used. The Internet search lasted for 2 months starting from March 1, 2007 until May 1, 2007. SPSS ver. 11.5 statistical program (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL) was used for data entry and analysis. At the end of the Internet search via all the indicated search engines, a total of 203 (all different from each other) community pharmacy Web sites were determined; of these, 14 were under construction and 6 were not accessible. As a result, 183 community pharmacy Web sites were included in the study. All of the Web sites could be accessed (100%). However, the availability of some characteristics of the pharmacies were quite poor. None of the pharmacies met all of the HON principles. Only 11 Web sites were appropriate in terms of complementarity (6.0%). Confidentiality criteria was met by only 14 pharmacies (7.7%). Nine pharmacies (4.9%) completed the "attribution" criteria. Among 183 pharmacy Web sites, the most met HON principle was the "transparency of authorship" (69 pharmacy Web sites; 37.7%). Because of the results of our study, the Turkish Pharmacists Association can take a pioneer role to apply some principles such as HON code of conduct in order to increase the quality of Turkish community pharmacists' Web sites.

  13. Measures of range of motion and strength among healthy women with differing quality of lower extremity movement during the lateral step-down test.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Alon; Kozol, Zvi

    2010-12-01

    Cross-sectional. To determine the association between hip and ankle range-of-motion measures, as well as measures of hip muscle strength, with measures of quality of lower extremity movement, as assessed visually during the lateral step-down test in healthy women. Altered lower extremity movement pattern consisting of excessive femoral adduction and internal rotation, leading to excessive knee valgus alignment, is associated with increased risk of knee ligament injury, as well as patellofemoral pain syndrome. Previous investigations of lower extremity kinematics, using 3-dimensional motion analysis systems, document an inconsistent association between hip muscle strength and lower extremity movement pattern. Currently, it is unknown whether differences in hip muscle strength or other physical measures exist among women with differing quality of lower extremity movement as assessed by visual observation. Two physical therapists assessed the quality of movement during the lateral step-down among 29 healthy women (mean ± SD age, 24.3 ± 3.2 years). Subjects were instructed on the optimal movement pattern prior to performing the test. The quality of movement was categorized as "good" or "moderate," based on a previously established 6-point scale. Several measures of hip strength (handheld dynamometer) and hip and ankle range of motion (fluid-filled inclinometer and universal goniometer) were also assessed. Differences in strength and range-of-motion measures between women with good and women with moderate quality of movement were assessed with a Mann-Whitney U test. Both examiners found decreased ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, as measured with the knee bent (P<.05 and P<.01 for examiner 1 and 2, respectively) and in weight bearing (P<.001 and P<.01 for examiner 1 and 2, respectively) among women with a moderate quality of movement compared to women with a good quality of movement on the lateral step-down test. Following receipt of instructions on optimal lower

  14. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the PNNL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.; Antonio, Ernest J.

    2012-11-12

    considerations. This DQO report also updates the discussion of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for the PNNL Site air samples and how existing Hanford Site monitoring program results could be used. This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006) as well as several other published DQOs.

  15. Effectiveness of on-site education for quality assurance of screening ultrasonography for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Choi, Joon-Il; Jung, Seung Eun; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Lall, Chandana; Kim, Yeol; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of on-site education for clinical imaging evaluation using quality assurance (QA) testing of surveillance ultrasonography (US) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thirty-eight medical institutes underwent on-site education in 2012 for QA testing of clinical imaging evaluation of surveillance US for HCC. Failure rates and mean scores of clinical imaging evaluation for surveillance US of the 2011 survey, the 2012 survey after on-site education and the 2013 survey were compared. Failure rates and mean scores of the 2011 survey, the 2012 survey after education and the 2013 survey were 81.6%, 18.4%, 21.1% and 61.7, 82.7 and 74.6, respectively. Pair-wise analyses demonstrated that the failure rate of the 2011 survey was significantly larger compared to that observed in the other surveys. Mean score of the 2013 survey was worse than that of the 2012 survey after on-site education. On-site education positively impacts the failure rate and scores of clinical imaging evaluation of screening US for HCC. However, the impact may be reduced over time, and repeated, annual education might be necessary to maintain US quality.

  16. Water quality in the vicinity of Fenton Hill, 1987 and 1988. [Fenton Hill site

    SciTech Connect

    Purtymun, W.D.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Maes, M.N.; Williams, M.C.

    1991-03-01

    Water-quality data have been collected since 1974 from established surface- and ground-water stations at, and in the vicinity of, Fenton Hill (site of the Laboratory's Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Project). The site is located on the southwest edge of the Valles Caldera in the Jemez Mountains. To determine the chemical quality of water, data were collected in 1987 and 1988 from 13 surface-water stations and 19 ground-water stations. The classification of the water quality is made on the basis of predominated ions and total dissolved solids. There are four classifications of surface water (sodium and chloride, calcium and bicarbonate, calcium and sulfate, and sodium and bicarbonate) and three classifications of ground water (sodium and chloride, calcium and bicarbonate, and sodium and bicarbonate). Variations in the chemical quality of the surface and ground water in 1987 and 1988 are apparent when data are compared with each other and with previous analyses. These variations are not considered significant, as they are in the range of normal seasonal changes. Cumulative production since 1976 from the supply well at Fenton Hill has been about 63 {times} 10{sup 6} gal, with a decline in the water level of the well of about 14 ft, or about 1.4 ft/yr. The aquifer penetrated by the well is still capable of reliable supply to the site for a number of years, based on past production. The quality of water from the well has deteriorated slightly; however, the water quality is in compliance with drinking water standards. The effects of discharge from the storage ponds into an adjacent canyon have been monitored by trace metal analyses of vegetation and soil. The study indicates minimal effects, which will be undetectable in a few years if there are no further releases of effluents into the canyon. 19 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Cadmium, Chromium, and Copper Concentration plus Semen-Quality in Environmental Pollution Site, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Gao, Qiaoyan; Li, Mingcai; Li, Mengyang; Gao, Xueming

    2014-01-01

    The environmental pollution is one of the factors contributing to the decrease of sperm quality for human beings. The aim of this study was to assess cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and copper (Cu) concentration of man in environmental pollution site, and explore relationships between men exposure to Cd, Cr, and Cu and semen-quality parameters in environmental pollution site. Ninety five men were recruited through pollution area and controls in 2011. We measured semen quality using Computer-aided Semen Quality Analysis, and Cd, Cr, and Cu levels in seminal plasma using Graphite Gurnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between Cd, Cr and Cu concentration in seminal plasma and semen quality. The mean of seminal plasma Cd, Cr, and Cu values in pollution area was higher than the controls. Seminal plasma Cr values displayed a significant negative correlation with total motility and normomorph sperm rate. Seminal plasma Cu values also displayed a negative correlation with normomorph sperm rate. Male reproductive health may be threatened by environmental pollution, and it may be influence local population diathesis.

  18. Cadmium, Chromium, and Copper Concentration plus Semen-Quality in Environmental Pollution Site, China

    PubMed Central

    LI, Yan; GAO, Qiaoyan; LI, Mingcai; LI, Mengyang; GAO, Xueming

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The environmental pollution is one of the factors contributing to the decrease of sperm quality for human beings. The aim of this study was to assess cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and copper (Cu) concentration of man in environmental pollution site, and explore relationships between men exposure to Cd, Cr, and Cu and semen-quality parameters in environmental pollution site. Methods Ninety five men were recruited through pollution area and controls in 2011. We measured semen quality using Computer-aided Semen Quality Analysis, and Cd, Cr, and Cu levels in seminal plasma using Graphite Gurnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between Cd, Cr and Cu concentration in seminal plasma and semen quality. Results The mean of seminal plasma Cd, Cr, and Cu values in pollution area was higher than the controls. Seminal plasma Cr values displayed a significant negative correlation with total motility and normomorph sperm rate. Seminal plasma Cu values also displayed a negative correlation with normomorph sperm rate. Conclusions Male reproductive health may be threatened by environmental pollution, and it may be influence local population diathesis. PMID:26060677

  19. Data Quality Objectives Supporting the Environmental Soil Monitoring Program for the Idaho National Laboratory Site

    SciTech Connect

    Haney, Thomas Jay

    2016-02-01

    This document describes the process used to develop data quality objectives for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Environmental Soil Monitoring Program in accordance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidance. This document also develops and presents the logic that was used to determine the specific number of soil monitoring locations at the INL Site, at locations bordering the INL Site, and at locations in the surrounding regional area. The monitoring location logic follows the guidance from the U.S. Department of Energy for environmental surveillance of its facilities.

  20. Challenges in forest reclamation of marginal lands: a balance between site conditions and seedling quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landhäusser, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Forest loss and degradation is occurring worldwide, but at the same time efforts in forest restoration are ever increasing. While approaches to restoration often follow specific stakeholder objectives, regional climates and the degree of site degradation also play an important role in the prioritization of restoration efforts. Often the restoration of degraded lands can satisfy only few measurable objectives; however, to design and restore resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to changing conditions, there is a need for new and adaptive management approaches. Mining and other resource extraction industries are affecting more and more forested areas worldwide. A priority in the reclamation and certification of forest lands disturbed by industrial activity is their expeditious redevelopment to functioning forests. To rehabilitate these heavily disturbed areas back to forest ecosystems, planting of trees remains one of the most effective strategies for the redevelopment of a continuous tree canopy on a site. It is well understood that access to good quality seedling stock is essential to achieve establishment success and early growth of seedlings. However, most reclamation areas have challenging initial site conditions and these conditions are often not a single factor but a combination of factors that can be additive or synergistic. Therefore successful forest restoration on degraded lands needs to consider multiple objectives and approaches to minimize trade-offs in achieving these objectives. To meet these demands, new methods for the production and evaluation of seedling stock types are needed to ensure that that seedlings are fit to grow on a wide range of site conditions or are particularly designed to grow in very specific conditions. Generally, defining seedling quality is difficult as it is species specific and results have been mixed; likely influenced by site conditions, further reiterating the need to carefully evaluate sites allowing

  1. Quality, Range, and Legibility in Web Sites Related to Orofacial Functions

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Camila de Castro; Ferrari, Deborah Viviane; Berretin-Felix, Giédre

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Plenty of information about health is available on the Internet; however, quality and legibility are not always evaluated. Knowledge regarding orofacial functions can be considered important for the population because it allows proper stimulus, early diagnosis, and prevention of the oral myofunctional alterations during early infancy. Objective The aim was evaluate the quality, legibility, and range of Web sites available in Brazilian Portuguese regarding the orofacial functions. Methods Selected Web sites with information directed to parents/caregivers of babies regarding breast-feeding, feeding after 6 months, deleterious oral habits, and breathing and speech were studied. The Web sites were evaluated through the application of Flesch Reading Ease Test and aspects of the Health on the Net (HON) modified code (HONCode); the range of the subjects addressed was compared with other aspects of infant development. Results From the access of 350 pages of the Internet, 35 Web sites were selected and 315 excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. In relation to legibility, Web sites scored an average of 61.23% in the Flesch Test, and the application of the modified HONCode showed an average of 6.43 points; an average of 2.49 subjects were found per Web site evaluated, with information on breast-feeding being more frequent and subjects such as breathing and speech less frequent. Conclusions Web sites that deal with orofacial functions presented standard legibility classification. Only half of the ethical principles were considered by the modified HONCode in their majority, and most addressed subjects after “breast-feeding” were presented with restricted range. PMID:25992036

  2. ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program: Measurements of ELF Electromagnetic Fields for Site Selection and Characterization-1984.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    ELF EM field measurements at a total of four test and control sites for the slime mold ( Physarum polycephalum ) study. A cumulative total of seven test...mitosis of the slime mold, Physarum polycephalum . The electric and magnetic fields in the earth are considered important EM factors influencing soil

  3. PROBABILISTIC HAZARD ASSESSMENT FOR TORNADOES, STRAIGHT-LINE WIND, AND EXTREME PRECIPITATION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Werth, D.; , A.; Shine, G.

    2013-12-04

    distribution, and extrapolating the values for any return period from the tail of that function. For the DOE mandated return periods, we expect straight winds of 123 mph every 2500 years, and 132mph every 6250 years at any point within the SRS. These values are similar to those from the W98 report (which also used the Gumbel distribution for wind speeds) which gave wind speeds of 115mph and 122 mph for return periods of 2500 years and 6250 years, respectively. For extreme precipitation accumulation periods, we compared the fits of three different theoretical extreme-value distributions, and in the end decided to maintain the use of the Gumbel distribution for each period. The DOE mandated 6-hr accumulated rainfall for return periods of 2500 years and 6250 years was estimated as 7.8 inches and 8.4 inches, respectively. For the 24- hr rainfall return periods of 10,000 years and 25,000 years, total rainfall estimates were 10.4 inches and 11.1 inches, respectively. These values are substantially lower than comparable values provided in the W98 report. This is largely a consequence of the W98 use of a different extreme value distribution with its corresponding higher extreme probabilities.

  4. A technique to minimize uncertainties in load duration curves (LDCs) for water quality-impaired ungauged sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    For many water quality-impaired stream segments, streamflow and water quality monitoring sites are not available. Lack of available streamflow data at impaired ungauged sites leads to uncertainties in total maximum daily load (TMDL) estimation. We developed a technique to minimiz...

  5. 77 FR 63873 - Johnson Controls, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers of Valley Staffing and AZ Quality Hudson...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... certification to include workers leased from AZ Quality working on-site at the Hudson, Wisconsin location of... Employment and Training Administration Johnson Controls, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers of Valley Staffing and AZ Quality Hudson, Wisconsin; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for...

  6. Unique Nature of the Quality of Life in the Context of Extreme Climatic, Geographical and Specific Socio-Cultural Living Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, Anastasia; Neyaskina, Yuliya; Frizen, Marina; Shiryaeva, Olga; Surikova, Yana

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a detailed empirical research, aimed at studying the quality of life in the context of extreme climatic, geographical and specific sociocultural living conditions. Our research is based on the methodological approach including social, economical, ecological and psychological characteristics and reflecting…

  7. Analysis and Prediction of Myristoylation Sites Using the mRMR Method, the IFS Method and an Extreme Learning Machine Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wang, ShaoPeng; Zhang, Yu-Hang; Huang, GuoHua; Chen, Lei; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Myristoylation is an important hydrophobic post-translational modification that is covalently bound to the amino group of Gly residues on the N-terminus of proteins. The many diverse functions of myristoylation on proteins, such as membrane targeting, signal pathway regulation and apoptosis, are largely due to the lipid modification, whereas abnormal or irregular myristoylation on proteins can lead to several pathological changes in the cell. To better understand the function of myristoylated sites and to correctly identify them in protein sequences, this study conducted a novel computational investigation on identifying myristoylation sites in protein sequences. A training dataset with 196 positive and 84 negative peptide segments were obtained. Four types of features derived from the peptide segments following the myristoylation sites were used to specify myristoylatedand non-myristoylated sites. Then, feature selection methods including maximum relevance and minimum redundancy (mRMR), incremental feature selection (IFS), and a machine learning algorithm (extreme learning machine method) were adopted to extract optimal features for the algorithm to identify myristoylation sites in protein sequences, thereby building an optimal prediction model. As a result, 41 key features were extracted and used to build an optimal prediction model. The effectiveness of the optimal prediction model was further validated by its performance on a test dataset. Furthermore, detailed analyses were also performed on the extracted 41 features to gain insight into the mechanism of myristoylation modification. This study provided a new computational method for identifying myristoylation sites in protein sequences. We believe that it can be a useful tool to predict myristoylation sites from protein sequences. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Sediment quality criteria: A review with recommendations for developing criteria for the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-05-01

    Criteria for determining the quality of liver sediment are necessary to ensure that concentrations of contaminants in aquatic systems are within acceptable limits for the protection of aquatic and human life. Such criteria should facilitate decision-making about remediation, handling, and disposal of contaminants. Several approaches to the development of sediment quality criteria (SQC) have been described and include both descriptive and numerical methods. However, no single method measures all impacts at all times to all organisms (U.S. EPA 1992b). The U.S. EPA`s interest is primarily in establishing chemically based, numerical SQC that are applicable nation-wide (Shea 1988). Of the approaches proposed for SQC development, only three are being considered for numerical SQC on a national level. These approaches include an Equilibrium Partitioning Approach, a site-specific method using bioassays (the Apparent Effects Threshold Approach), and an approach similar to EPA`s water quality criteria (Pavlou and Weston 1984). Although national (or even regional) criteria address a number of political, litigative, and engineering needs, some researchers feel that protection of benthic communities require site-specific, biologically based criteria (Baudo et al. 1990). This is particularly true for areas where complex mixtures of contaminants are present in sediments. Other scientifically valid and accepted procedures for freshwater SQC include a background concentration approach, methods using field or spiked bioassays, a screening level concentration approach, the Apparent Effects Threshold Approach, the Sediment Quality Triad, the International Joint Commission Sediment Assessment Strategy, and the National Status and Trends Program Approach. The various sediment assessment approaches are evaluated for application to the Hanford Reach and recommendations for Hanford Site sediment quality criteria are discussed.

  9. Natural Phenomena Hazards Modeling Project. Extreme wind/tornado hazard models for Department of Energy sites. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Coats, D.W.; Murray, R.C.

    1985-08-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed seismic and wind hazard models for the Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS), Department of Energy (DOE). The work is part of a three-phase effort aimed at establishing uniform building design criteria for seismic and wind hazards at DOE sites throughout the United States. This report summarizes the final wind/tornado hazard models recommended for each site and the methodology used to develop these models. Final seismic hazard models have been published separately by TERA Corporation. In the final phase, it is anticipated that the DOE will use the hazard models to establish uniform criteria for the design and evaluation of critical facilities. 19 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Water-quality assessment of the Sacramento River basin, California : water quality of fixed sites, 1996-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Dileanis, Peter D.

    2000-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected from 12 sites in the Sacramento River Basin, Cali-fornia, from February 1996 through April 1998. Field measurements (dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, and water tem-perature) were completed on all samples, and laboratory analyses were done for suspended sediments, nutrients, dissolved and particulate organic carbon, major ions, trace elements, and mercury species. Samples were collected at four types of locations on the Sacramento River?large tributaries to the Sacramento River, agricul-tural drainage canals, an urban stream, and a flood control channel. The samples were collected across a range of flow conditions representative of those sites during the timeframe of the study. The water samples from the Sacramento River indi-cate that specific conductance increases slightly downstream but that the water quality is indicative of dilute water. Water temperature of the Sacramento River increases below Shasta Lake during the spring and summer irrigation season owing to diversion of water out of the river and subsequent lower flow. All 12 sites had generally low concentrations of nutrients, but chlorophyll concentrations were not measured; therefore, the actual consequences of nutrient loading could not be adequately assessed. Concentrations of dis-solved organic carbon in samples from the Sacramento River and the major tributaries were generally low; the formation of trihalomethanes probably does not currently pose a problem when water from the Sacramento River and its major tributaries is chlorinated for drinking-water purposes. However, dissolved organic carbon concentrations were higher in the urban stream and in agricultural drainage canals, but were diluted upon mixing with the Sacramento River. The only trace element that currently poses a water-quality problem in the Sacramento River is mercury. A federal criterion for the protection of aquatic life was exceeded during this study, and floodwater

  11. Assessment of water quality at selected sites in the White River Basin, Indiana, 1993 and 1995 using biological indices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frey, Jeffrey W.; Baker, N.T.; Lydy, M.J.; Stone, W.W.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, fish communities were sampled at 11 sites in the White River Basin, Indiana, in 1993 and 1995 to help determine water-quality conditions. Ninety-one species of fish with representatives from 18 families were collected in the basin. Total numbers of fish collected at every site increased between collection years. The Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) and Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index (QHEI) were calculated for all 11 sites in 1995. The QHEI scores indicated six sites had excellent habitat to support fish communities. Only three sites were rated in the “good” to “excellent” IBI water-quality categories, indicating some type of nonhabitat environmental degradation to the fish communities. Eight of the sites were rated in the “fair,” “poor,” or “very poor” IBI water-quality categories.

  12. ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program: Measurements of ELF Electromagnetic Fields for Site Selection and Characterization - 1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    the slime mold ( Physarum polycephalum ) study. A cumulative total of six test and control sites has been identified for the slime mold study since the...electromagnetic field exposure effects on the respiration and mitosis of the slime mold, Physarum polycephalum . The electric and magnetic fields in the...the field and information presented in the University of Wisconsin-Parkside report on the effects of exposing the slime mold Physarum polycephalum to

  13. Underground Test Area Activity Quality Assurance Plan Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Farnham, Irene; Krenzien, Susan

    2012-10-01

    This Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) provides the overall quality assurance (QA) requirements and general quality practices to be applied to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) activities. The requirements in this QAP are consistent with DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance (DOE, 2005); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Quality Assurance Project Plans for Modeling (EPA, 2002); and EPA Guidance on the Development, Evaluation, and Application of Environmental Models (EPA, 2009). NNSA/NSO, or designee, must review this QAP every two years. Changes that do not affect the overall scope or requirements will not require an immediate QAP revision but will be incorporated into the next revision cycle after identification. Section 1.0 describes UGTA objectives, participant responsibilities, and administrative and management quality requirements (i.e., training, records, procurement). Section 1.0 also details data management and computer software requirements. Section 2.0 establishes the requirements to ensure newly collected data are valid, existing data uses are appropriate, and environmental-modeling methods are reliable. Section 3.0 provides feedback loops through assessments and reports to management. Section 4.0 provides the framework for corrective actions. Section 5.0 provides references for this document.

  14. Quality of surface water at selected sites in the Suwannee River basin, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coffin, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of water-quality samples collected from 14 surface-water sites in the Suwannee River basin in Florida from January through December 1980. The analyses of samples collected routinely included: nutrients, total organic carbon, and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, bimonthly; and trace metals, annually. The array of constituents sampled was expanded in October 1978 at three of the original nine stations to provide quality-of-water information for streams draining an industrial area: Rocky Creek near Belmont, Hunter Creek near Belmont, and Swift Creek at Facil. Data collected at these three sites now include: major chemical constituents, six times per year: radium-226, two times per year; and trace metals, one time per year. These constituents are determined in addition to nutrients, total organic carbon, and bio-chemical oxygen demand which continue to be analyzed six times per year. All results of analyses of the water-quality samples collected from January through December 1980 remained within, or near, previously measured ranges and water-quality fluctuations were similar to those noted from data collected since 1971. (USGS)

  15. Effects of habitat quality and ambient hyporheic flows on salmon spawning site selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjankar, Rohan; Tonina, Daniele; Marzadri, Alessandra; McKean, Jim; Isaak, Daniel J.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the role of stream hydrologic and morphologic variables on the selection of spawning sites by salmonid fishes at high resolution across broad scales is needed for effective habitat restoration and protection. Here we used remotely sensed meter-scale channel bathymetry for a 13.5 km reach of Chinook salmon spawning stream in central Idaho to describe habitat quality and set boundary conditions for a two-dimensional surface water model coupled with a three-dimensional hyporheic flux model. Metrics describing ambient hyporheic flow intensity and habitat quality, which is quantified as a function of stream hydraulics and morphology, were compared to the locations of nests built by female salmon. Nest locations were predicted most accurately by habitat quality followed by channel morphology (i.e., riffles location). As a lesser degree than habitat quality, water surface curvature was also a good indicator of spawning location because its intensity can identify riffle morphology. The ambient hyporheic flow predicted at meter-scale resolution was not a strong predictor of redd site selection. Furthermore, the study suggests direct morphological measurements obtained from easily measured channel bathymetry data could enable effective and rapid assessments of salmon spawning channels across broad areas.

  16. Computerized stratified random site-selection approaches for design of a ground-water-quality sampling network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Computer software was written to randomly select sites for a ground-water-quality sampling network. The software uses digital cartographic techniques and subroutines from a proprietary geographic information system. The report presents the approaches, computer software, and sample applications. It is often desirable to collect ground-water-quality samples from various areas in a study region that have different values of a spatial characteristic, such as land-use or hydrogeologic setting. A stratified network can be used for testing hypotheses about relations between spatial characteristics and water quality, or for calculating statistical descriptions of water-quality data that account for variations that correspond to the spatial characteristic. In the software described, a study region is subdivided into areal subsets that have a common spatial characteristic to stratify the population into several categories from which sampling sites are selected. Different numbers of sites may be selected from each category of areal subsets. A population of potential sampling sites may be defined by either specifying a fixed population of existing sites, or by preparing an equally spaced population of potential sites. In either case, each site is identified with a single category, depending on the value of the spatial characteristic of the areal subset in which the site is located. Sites are selected from one category at a time. One of two approaches may be used to select sites. Sites may be selected randomly, or the areal subsets in the category can be grouped into cells and sites selected randomly from each cell.

  17. Application of the biotic ligand model for regulatory purposes to selected rivers in Argentina with extreme water-quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Natale, Oscar E; Gómez, Carlos E; Leis, María V

    2007-10-01

    The biotic ligand model (BLM) was used to assess copper (Cu) bioavailability, toxicity, water-effect ratios (WER), and Cu site-specific water-quality criteria (SSWQC) in the Matanza River and Pilcomayo River, Argentina, where anthropogenic inputs and natural phenomena have led to high concentrations of chemical species capable of reducing metal toxicity: Sodium, total hardness, alkalinity, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended particulate matter (SPM), as well as other metals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of developing Cu-SSWQC from a modified scenario of the BLM-Monte-Carlo method model. The response of the BLM model in these rivers, with water quality near its application boundary conditions, was evaluated during the 2003 to 2004 hydrological cycle. Cu toxicity tests were conducted with Daphnia magna as the test organism. The BLM (Version ap08) toxicity estimates for D. magna were within a factor of 2 of the line of perfect agreement with toxicity test results, although highly variable relevant water-quality parameters showed that mean estimates were more than 2 times the mean 50% effective concentration (EC50) derived from the corresponding toxicity tests. Suspended particulate matter was an important sink for Cu added to unfiltered water of the Pilcomayo River, but it also exerted some toxic effect. Minimums WER, estimated with a modified scenario of the BLM-MONTE, ranged from 1.5 (Pilcomayo River, at Misión La Paz) up to 11 (Matanza River, at Route 3). The corresponding Cu-SSWQC values were 30 and 105 microg/L, respectively.

  18. Trends of mean and extreme temperature indices since 1874 at low-elevation sites in the southern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugnara, Yuri; Auchmann, Renate; Brönnimann, Stefan; Bozzo, Alessio; Berro, Daniele Cat; Mercalli, Luca

    2016-04-01

    We describe the recovery of three daily meteorological records for the southern Alps (Domodossola, Riva del Garda, and Rovereto), all starting in the second half of the nineteenth century. We use these new data, along with additional records, to study regional changes in the mean temperature and extreme indices of heat waves and cold spells frequency and duration over the period 1874-2015. The records are homogenized using subdaily cloud cover observations as a constraint for the statistical model, an approach that has never been applied before in the literature. A case study based on a record of parallel observations between a traditional meteorological window and a modern screen shows that the use of cloud cover can reduce the root-mean-square error of the homogenization by up to 30% in comparison to an unaided statistical correction. We find that mean temperature in the southern Alps has increased by 1.4°C per century over the analyzed period, with larger increases in daily minimum temperatures than maximum temperatures. The number of hot days in summer has more than tripled, and a similar increase is observed in duration of heat waves. Cold days in winter have dropped at a similar rate. These trends are mainly caused by climate change over the last few decades.

  19. Social Media and Rating Sites as Tools to Understanding Quality of Care: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Van de Belt, Tom H; Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Kool, Rudolf B

    2014-01-01

    Background Insight into the quality of health care is important for any stakeholder including patients, professionals, and governments. In light of a patient-centered approach, it is essential to assess the quality of health care from a patient’s perspective, which is commonly done with surveys or focus groups. Unfortunately, these “traditional” methods have significant limitations that include social desirability bias, a time lag between experience and measurement, and difficulty reaching large groups of people. Information on social media could be of value to overcoming these limitations, since these new media are easy to use and are used by the majority of the population. Furthermore, an increasing number of people share health care experiences online or rate the quality of their health care provider on physician rating sites. The question is whether this information is relevant to determining or predicting the quality of health care. Objective The goal of our research was to systematically analyze the relation between information shared on social media and quality of care. Methods We performed a scoping review with the following goals: (1) to map the literature on the association between social media and quality of care, (2) to identify different mechanisms of this relationship, and (3) to determine a more detailed agenda for this relatively new research area. A recognized scoping review methodology was used. We developed a search strategy based on four themes: social media, patient experience, quality, and health care. Four online scientific databases were searched, articles were screened, and data extracted. Results related to the research question were described and categorized according to type of social media. Furthermore, national and international stakeholders were consulted throughout the study, to discuss and interpret results. Results Twenty-nine articles were included, of which 21 were concerned with health care rating sites. Several studies

  20. Exchange of active site residues alters substrate specificity in extremely thermostable β-glycosidase from Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1.

    PubMed

    Hwa, Kuo Yuan; Subramani, Boopathi; Shen, San-Tai; Lee, Yu-May

    2015-09-01

    β-Glycosidase from Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1 is a hyperthermophilic enzyme with β-glucosidase, β-mannosidase, β-fucosidase and β-galactosidase activities. Sequence alignment with other β-glycosidases from hyperthermophilic archaea showed two unique active site residues, Gln77 and Asp206. These residues were represented by Arg and Asp in all other hyperthermophilic β-glycosidases. The two active site residues were mutated to Q77R, D206N and D206Q, to study the role of these unique active site residues in catalytic activity and to alter the substrate specificity to enhance its β-glucosidase activity. The secondary structure analysis of all the mutants showed no change in their structure and exhibited in similar conformation like wild-type as they all existed in dimer form in an SDS-PAGE under non-reducing conditions. Q77R and D206Q affected the catalytic activity of the enzyme whereas the D206N altered the catalytic turn-over rate for glucosidase and mannosidase activities with fucosidase activity remain unchanged. Gln77 is reported to interact with catalytic nucleophile and Asp206 with axial C2-hydroxyl group of substrates. Q77R might have made some changes in three dimensional structure due to its electrostatic effect and lost its catalytic activity. The extended side chains of D206Q is predicted to affect the substrate binding during catalysis. The high-catalytic turn-over rate by D206N for β-glucosidase activity makes it a useful enzyme in cellulose degradation at high temperatures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. How extreme are extremes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchi, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    High temperatures have an impact on the energy balance of any living organism and on the operational capabilities of critical infrastructures. Heat-wave indicators have been mainly developed with the aim of capturing the potential impacts on specific sectors (agriculture, health, wildfires, transport, power generation and distribution). However, the ability to capture the occurrence of extreme temperature events is an essential property of a multi-hazard extreme climate indicator. Aim of this study is to develop a standardized heat-wave indicator, that can be combined with other indices in order to describe multiple hazards in a single indicator. The proposed approach can be used in order to have a quantified indicator of the strenght of a certain extreme. As a matter of fact, extremes are usually distributed in exponential or exponential-exponential functions and it is difficult to quickly asses how strong was an extreme events considering only its magnitude. The proposed approach simplify the quantitative and qualitative communication of extreme magnitude

  2. The effect of extremely narrow MLC leaf width on the plan quality of VMAT for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Min; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jin Ho; Carlson, Joel; Kim, Jung-In

    2016-06-23

    To investigate the effect of multi-leaf collimators (MLCs) with leaf width of 1.25 mm on the plan quality of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for prostate cancer. A total of 20 patients with prostate cancer were retrospectively selected. Using a high definition MLC (HD MLC), primary and boost VMAT plans with two full arcs were generated for each patient (original plan). After that, by shifting the isocenter position of the 2nd arc by 1.25 mm in the cranio-caudal direction, we simulated fluences made with MLCs with leaf width of 1.25 mm. After shifting, primary and boost plans were generated for each patient (shifted plan). A sum plan was generated by summation of the primary and boost plan for each patient. Dose-volumetric parameters were calculated and compared. Both the homogeneity index (HI) and conformity index (CI) of the shifted plans were better than those of the original plans in primary plans (HI = 0.065 vs. 0.059 with p < 0.001 and CI = 1.056 vs. 1.044 with p = 0.006). Similarly, the shifted plans for the boost target volume showed better homogeneity and conformity than did the original plans (HI = 0.060 vs. 0.053 with p < 0.001 and CI = 1.015 vs. 1.009 with p < 0.001). The target mean dose of the original plans was closer to the prescription dose than that of the shifted plans in the case of sum plans (81.45 Gy vs. 81.12 Gy with p = 0.001). Use of extremely narrow MLCs could increase dose homogeneity and conformity of the target volume for prostate VMAT.

  3. Capacity of semi-parametric regression models to predict extreme-event water quality in the Northeastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemann, Mark; Park, Mi-Hyun

    2017-04-01

    This study assessed the capacity of semi-parametric regression models to predict riverine solute concentrations during extreme high-flow hydrologic events, when such events are absent from the models' calibration data. Using a large dataset from 459 monitoring stations across the US Northeast, the models showed a tendency to overpredict extreme-event concentrations, with increasing bias and variance for increasingly extreme hydrologic conditions. The validation framework in this study effectively compared model performance across disparate hydrologic regimes and constituents, yet can be used to estimate individual model performance under an unobserved extreme-flow condition, regardless of whether any extreme-flow data are available for that model. The validation procedure can further be generalized to explore model performance in an arbitrarily defined extreme condition for a broad range of model types. Despite an overall increase in uncertainty for extreme-event concentration estimates, estimates under extreme hydrologic conditions could be improved by taking into account the observed bias in the aggregated regional database.

  4. BIOPHYSICS. Response to Comments on "Extreme electric fields power catalysis in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase".

    PubMed

    Fried, Stephen D; Boxer, Steven G

    2015-08-28

    Natarajan et al. and Chen and Savidge comment that comparing the electric field in ketosteroid isomerase's (KSI's) active site to zero overestimates the catalytic effect of KSI's electric field because the reference reaction occurs in water, which itself exerts a sizable electrostatic field. To compensate, Natarajan et al. argue that additional catalytic weight arises from positioning of the general base, whereas Chen and Savidge propose a separate contribution from desolvation of the general base. We note that the former claim is not well supported by published results, and the latter claim is intriguing but lacks experimental basis. We also take the opportunity to clarify some of the more conceptually subtle aspects of electrostatic catalysis.

  5. CA3-02: Tools for Quality Multi-site Work with Less Funding

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Donald; Bauck, Alan; Bardsley, Jeanette; Chen, Ping; Dixon, Art; Luke, Sabrina; Ofstead, Julie; Riedlinger, Karen; Saylor, Gwyn; Staab, Jenny; Pardee, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Since all of the VDW data has been checked, the data must be consistent and perfect. Unfortunately, this isn’t always true. This presentation is designed to introduce project teams and QA work groups to some of the available tools that can be used to efficiently create useful reports to improve and ensure quality. Methods This presentation will discuss some of the tips and tools that are readily available that help project teams and VDW work groups including the following: A standard reporting mechanism to create traffic light (pass/warning/ fail) reports across content areas that sites can review and correct before returning to the coordinating center or lead site (or why data check outcome files are cool). Designing a system where multi-site reports can be efficiently created, updated and reviewed. How CESR QA Macros can help projects Describe the VDW Format Library Program that creates a report that documents the files in your local data warehouse (including the local variables). Results There are many efficient and available tools that improve quality. This presentation gave an update on recent tools the CESR DCC has been working on. Other tools have also been developed by other groups within the HMORN to facilitate HMORN work. Discussion In a tightening funding environment we are all going to need to work more efficiently. These tools give us the opportunity to work better, faster and cheaper.

  6. Remote Borehole Strainmeter Sites: Power system optimization improves data quality and increases equipment uptime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyatt, C.; Van Boskirk, E.; Gallaher, W.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Henderson, D. B.; Gottlieb, M. H.; Johnson, W.; Fox, O.; Mencin, D.; Mattioli, G.

    2012-12-01

    have been installed as a secondary power source. The fuel cells provide an alternative power source during the lower light winter conditions. The power system modifications have had an immediate and positive impact in data quality and instrument uptime. Inspection of strainmeter data in the frequency domain shows considerable improvement in noise levels. Most solar sites remained online throughout the winter months, ensuring a continuous data stream.

  7. Ground-water quality in the vicinity of landfill sites, southern Franklin County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Roche, J.T.; Razem, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    The hydrogeology and ground-water quality in the vicinity of five landfills in southern Franklin County, Ohio, were investigated by use of data obtained from 46 existing wells, 1 seep, 1 surface-water site, and 1 leachate-collection site. Interpretation was based on data from the wells, a potentiometric-surface map, and chemical analyses. Four of the five landfills are in abandoned sand and gravel pits. Pumping of water from a quarry near the landfills has modified the local ground-water flow pattern, increased the hydraulic gradient, and lowered the water table. Ground water unaffected by the landfills is a hard, calcium bicarbonate type with concentrations of dissolved iron and dissolved sulfate as great as 3.0 milligrams per liter and 200 milligrams per liter, respectively. Water sampled from wells downgradient from two landfills shows an increase in sodium, chloride, and other constituents. The change in water quality cannot be traced directly to the landfills, however, because of well location and the presence of other potential sources of contamination. Chemical analysis of leachate from a collection unit at one landfill shows significant amounts of zinc, chromium, copper, and nickel, in addition to high total organic carbon, biochemical oxygen demand, and organic nitrogen. Concentrations of chloride, iron, lead, manganese and phenolic compounds exceed Ohio Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Standards for drinking water. Water from unaffected wells within the study area have relatively small amounts of these constituents. (USGS)

  8. Microvascular PO2 during extreme hemodilution with hemoglobin site specifically PEGylated at Cys-93(beta) in hamster window chamber.

    PubMed

    Cabrales, Pedro; Kanika, Nirmala Devi; Manjula, Belur N; Tsai, Amy G; Acharya, Seetharama A; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2004-10-01

    The oxygen transport capacity of nonhypertensive polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated hemoglobin solutions were investigated in the hamster chamber window model. Microvascular measurements were made to determine oxygen delivery in conditions of extreme hemodilution [hematocrit (Hct) 11%]. Two isovolemic hemodilution steps were performed with a 6% Dextran 70 (70-kDa molecular mass) plasma expander until Hct was 35% of control. Isovolemic blood volume exchange was continued using two surface-modified PEGylated hemoglobins (P5K2, P(50) = 8.6, and P10K2, P(50) = 8.3; P(50) is the hemoglobin Po(2) corresponding to its 50% oxygen saturation) until Hct was 11%. P5K2 and P10K2 are PEG-conjugated hemoglobins that maintain most of the hemoglobin allosteric properties and have a cooperativity index of n = 2.2. The effects of these molecular solutions were compared with those obtained in a previous study using MP4, a PEG-modified hemoglobin whose P(50) was 5.4 and cooperativity was 1.2 (Tsai et al., Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 285: H1411-H1419, 2003). Tissue oxygen levels were higher after P5K2 (7.0 +/- 2.5 mmHg) and P10K2 (6.3 +/- 2.3 mmHg) versus MP4 (1.7 +/- 0.5 mmHg) or the nonoxygen carrier Dextran 70 (1.3 +/- 1.2 mmHg). Microvascular oxygen delivery was higher after P5K2 and P10K2 (2.22 and 2.34 ml O(2)/dl blood) compared with MP4 (1.41 ml O(2)/dl blood) or Dextran 70 (0.90 ml O(2)/dl blood); however, all these values were lower than control (7.42 ml O(2)/dl blood). The total hemoglobin in blood was similar in all cases; therefore, the improvement in tissue Po(2) and oxygen delivery appears to be due to the increased cooperativity of the new molecules.

  9. Preliminary geohydrologic site characterization and proposed water quality well locations for WAG 4, WAG 5, WAG 3, and SWSA 1

    SciTech Connect

    Baughn, D.C.

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to assess general site conditions and to recommend water quality well locations at Waste Area Groupings (WAGs) 4, 5 and 3 and Solid Waste Storage Area 1 (SWSA 1) within the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) complex. The subject sites are identified on the general site location map. For reference, the relationship of the subject sites to other WAGs are shown. WAGs are regions prescribed by Martin Marietta throughout the ORNL complex that require environmental assessment which will include design and installation of ground water monitoring systems. WAGs contain solid waste management units such as SWSAs, as well as pipelines, spill sites, buildings, ponds and experimental test sites. These solid waste management units are considered to be potential sources of contamination requiring further evaluation. This report recommends locations for water quality wells which will be installed at WAG boundaries in order to gather water quality data.

  10. Self-esteem and quality of life in adolescents with extreme obesity in Saudi Arabia: the effect of weight loss after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Aldaqal, Saleh M; Sehlo, Mohammad G

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the self-esteem and quality of life in adolescents with extreme obesity before and one year after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy as obesity is a major challenging medical problem, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia. In a prospective cohort study, 32 adolescents (aged 13-17 years) with extreme obesity (Group 1) presenting for laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) were compared with 32 matched, healthy, nonobese adolescents (aged 14-17 years) (Group 2) with regards to self-esteem and quality of life. Assessment was done using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory version 4.0 (self- and parent report), respectively. Body mass index (BMI) Z scores were calculated for both groups. We found significantly poor self-esteem and impairment in all domains of quality of life (self- and parent report) in Group 1 compared with Group 2 (P<.001). Self esteem and quality of life (self- and parent reports) significantly improved 1 year after LSG (P<.001), and the weight loss induced by LSG, reflected by a decrease in BMI Z scores, was a significant predictor for the improvement in self-esteem (R2=0.28 and P=.003) and quality of life (R(2)=0.67 and P<.001). LSG was found to be a safe and effective operation in adolescents with extreme obesity: LSG leads to weight loss, with subsequent improvement in self-esteem and quality of life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Oak Forest Composition, Site Quality, and Dynamics in Relation to Site Factors in the Southeastern Missouri Ozarks

    Treesearch

    John M. Kabrick; Stephen R. Shifley; Randy G. Jensen; David R. Larsen; Jennifer K. Grabner

    2004-01-01

    Physical site factors are known to affect forest species composition but the pattern and variation across forest landscapes has not been well quantified. We discuss relationships between site factors including soil parent materials, depth to dolomite bedrock, aspect, and landform position and the distribution of vegetation, site index, and short-term succession in oak...

  12. Effects of Site Preparation for Pine Forest/Switchgrass Intercropping on Water Quality.

    PubMed

    Muwamba, A; Amatya, D M; Ssegane, H; Chescheir, G M; Appelboom, T; Tollner, E W; Nettles, J E; Youssef, M A; Birgand, F; Skaggs, R W; Tian, S

    2015-07-01

    A study was initiated to investigate the sustainability effects of intercropping switchgrass ( L.) in a loblolly pine ( L.) plantation. This forest-based biofuel system could possibly provide biomass from the perennial energy grass while maintaining the economics and environmental benefits of a forest managed for sawtimber. Operations necessary for successful switchgrass establishment and growth, such as site preparation, planting, fertilizing, mowing and baling, may affect hydrology and nutrient runoff. The objectives of this study were (i) to characterize the temporal effects of management on nutrient concentrations and loadings and (ii) to use pretreatment data to predict those treatment effects. The study watersheds (∼25 ha each) in the North Carolina Atlantic Coastal Plain were a pine/switchgrass intercropped site (D1), a midrotation thinned pine site with natural understory (D2), and a switchgrass-only site (D3). Rainfall, drainage, water table elevation, nitrogen (total Kjedahl N, NH-N, and NO-N), and phosphate were monitored for the 2007-2008 pretreatment and the 2009-2012 treatment periods. From 2010 to 2011 in site D1, the average NO-N concentration effects decreased from 0.18 to -0.09 mg L, and loads effects decreased from 0.86 to 0.49 kg ha. During the same period in site D3, the average NO-N concentration effects increased from 0.03 to 0.09 mg L, and loads effects increased from -0.26 to 1.24 kg ha. This study shows the importance of considering water quality effects associated with intensive management operations required for switchgrass establishment or other novel forest-based biofuel systems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. Underground test area quality assurance project plan, Nevada test site, Nevada. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) is one of the planning documents used for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Subproject at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which falls under the oversight of the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project (NV ERP). The Nevada ERP consists of environmental restoration activities on the NTS, Tonopah Test Range, Nellis Air Force Range, and eight sites in five other states. The UGTA Subproject constitutes a component of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project. The purposes of the UGTA Subproject are to define boundaries around each Corrective Action Unit (CAU), as defined by the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO), that establish areas containing water that may be unsafe for domestic or municipal use and to establish monitoring programs for each CAU that will verify modeling upon which the boundaries are based.

  14. Contaminants, water quality, and wildlife mortality on oil production sites in western South Dakota. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, C.J.; Ruelle, R.

    1993-04-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate oil pits and other hazards at oil production sites to (1) document the magnitude of wildlife mortality due to exposure to oil and other chemicals, (2) determine the physical and toxic effects of oil pit contents on wildlife, and (3) identify methods to prevent sublethal and lethal impacts to wildlife. Pits at oil production sites in Fall River and Harding Counties of western South Dakota were surveyed for wildlife carcasses by searching the shorelines and raking underwater around the pit edges in April, July, and October 1992. In July, composite water and sediment samples were collected from 26 pits, and analyzed for oil and grease. Bioassays were conducted with two life stages of Hyalella azteca and Daphnia magna to determine pit water toxicity. Seed germination tests were conducted using radish seeds exposed to pit water. Oil and poor water quality appeared to be the primary causes of pit liquid toxicity.

  15. Sediment quality assessment and Toxicity Identification Evaluation studies in Lavaca Bay, Texas -- An estuarine Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, R.S.; Biedenbach, J.; Hooten, R.; May, L.; Teas, T.

    1995-12-31

    A sediment quality assessment survey was conducted in the Lavaca Bay system which has been designated a Superfund site because of elevated concentrations of mercury and other contaminants (e.g., PAHs) in the sediments. Twenty-four stations were sampled in the initial survey. Sediment pore water was extracted pneumatically and the toxicity of the pore water determined using the sea urchin fertilization and embryological development assays. Based on the results of the toxicity tests, aliquots of the toxic sediments were analyzed for metals, PAHs, and pesticides. Based on these results, several of the most toxic sites were resampled and a preliminary Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) was performed with the pore water using the sea urchin fertilization test. Preliminary results indicated that the toxic components were removed by adsorption on a C-18 column but were not affected by EDTA additions and, therefore, the primary toxicants are hydrophobic in nature.

  16. Data Quality Objectives Supporting the Environmental Direct Radiation Monitoring Program for the INL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Lundell, J. F.; Magnuson, S. O.; Scherbinske, P.; Case, M. J.

    2015-07-01

    This document presents the development of the data quality objectives (DQOs) for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Environmental Direct Radiation Monitoring Program and follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) DQO process (EPA 2006). This document also develops and presents the logic to determine the specific number of direct radiation monitoring locations around INL facilities on the desert west of Idaho Falls and in Idaho Falls, at locations bordering the INL Site, and in the surrounding regional area. The selection logic follows the guidance from the Department of Energy (DOE) (2015) for environmental surveillance of DOE facilities.

  17. Does the site of anastomosis for esophagectomy affect long-term quality of life?

    PubMed

    Wormald, J C R; Bennett, J; van Leuven, M; Lewis, M P N

    2016-01-01

    Long-term survival after esophagectomy is improving, and hence, quality of life (QOL) of these patients has become a priority. There has been extensive debate regarding the optimal site of surgical anastomosis (cervical or intrathoracic). We aimed to evaluate the impact of anastomotic site on long-term QOL postesophagectomy. Quality of life questionnaires (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC] C-30 and OG-25) were sent to patients surviving over 3 years following esophagectomy. The data were analyzed by site of esophagogastric anastomosis: intrathoracic or cervical. EORTC C-30 data were compared against the reference population data. Of the patients, 62 responded (82%) with a median time postsurgery of 6.1 years (range 3-12 years). Patient demographics were comparable. There was no significant difference between cervical or intrathoracic anastomosis groups for functional or symptom scores, focusing on dysphagia (cervical = 8.8 vs. intrathoracic = 17.6, P = 0.24), odynophagia (cervical = 13.4 vs. intrathoracic = 16.1, P = 0.68) and swallowing problems (cervical = 8.1 vs. intrathoracic = 13.4, P = 0.32). There was no difference in overall health score between groups (cervical = 70.5 vs. intrathoracic = 71.6, P = 0.46). Overall general health score was comparable with the reference population (esophagectomy group P = 70.9 ± 22.1 vs. reference population = 71.2 ± 22.4, P = 0.93). There is no difference in long-term QOL after esophagectomy between patients with a cervical or intrathoracic anastomosis. Scores compare favorably with EORTC reference data. Survival after esophagectomy is associated with recovery of QOL in the long term, regardless of site of anastomosis and despite worse gastrointestinal-related symptoms.

  18. Air Quality at a Ranch Site in the Western Part of the Eagle Ford shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roest, G. S.; Schade, G. W.; Brooks, S. D.; Zenker, J.

    2015-12-01

    The booming unconventional oil and gas industry in the Eagle Ford shale in southern Texas continues to grow. Modeling studies of the air quality impacts of the Eagle Ford rely on emission inventories that may underestimate emissions from such operations, and air quality monitoring in the area remains limited. We conducted an air quality study on a ranch in Dimmit County, Texas, which was ranked 6th in Texas for natural gas production and 10th in Texas for oil production as of April 2015. An automated GC-FID was used to measure the concentration of hydrocarbons (C3 - C14), with concurrent measurements of CO, CO2, H2O, O3, NO/NOx. In addition, the concentration and sizing of aerosols ranging from 0.6 to 20 µm aerodynamic diameter were measured with a GRIMM aerosol spectrometer (GRIMM 1.108), and meteorological variables including wind speed, direction, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and insolation were recorded. We report on local air quality and changes during the process as observed during the measurement campaign. Local drilling on the ranch began in May 2015 and production started in June 2015, at a site approximately 5 km southeast of the air quality trailer. Local air quality showed typically low, near background abundances of CO and NOx early during the campaign, and more frequent local NOx plumes during the drilling and production phases. Aerosol mass measurements were also relatively low and well within attainment of NAAQS particulate matter standards. We assess OH radical reactivity of individual and/or groups of VOCs using observed concentrations and their reaction rate coefficient with OH, the dominant VOC sink in the troposphere.

  19. Optimal Site Characterization and Selection Criteria for Oyster Restoration using Multicolinear Factorial Water Quality Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, J.

    2015-12-01

    Elevated levels of nutrient loadings have enriched the Chesapeake Bay estuaries and coastal waters via point and nonpoint sources and the atmosphere. Restoring oyster beds is considered a Best Management Practice (BMP) to improve the water quality as well as provide physical aquatic habitat and a healthier estuarine system. Efforts include declaring sanctuaries for brood-stocks, supplementing hard substrate on the bottom and aiding natural populations with the addition of hatchery-reared and disease-resistant stocks. An economic assessment suggests that restoring the ecological functions will improve water quality, stabilize shorelines, and establish a habitat for breeding grounds that outweighs the value of harvestable oyster production. Parametric factorial models were developed to investigate multicolinearities among in situ water quality and oyster restoration activities to evaluate posterior success rates upon multiple substrates, and physical, chemical, hydrological and biological site characteristics to systematically identify significant factors. Findings were then further utilized to identify the optimal sites for successful oyster restoration augmentable with Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) and BMPs. Factorial models evaluate the relationship among the dependent variable, oyster biomass, and treatments of temperature, salinity, total suspended solids, E. coli/Enterococci counts, depth, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, nitrogen and phosphorus, and blocks consist of alternative substrates (oyster shells versus riprap, granite, cement, cinder blocks, limestone marl or combinations). Factorial model results were then compared to identify which combination of variables produces the highest posterior biomass of oysters. Developed Factorial model can facilitate maximizing the likelihood of successful oyster reef restoration in an effort to establish a healthier ecosystem and to improve overall estuarine water quality in the Chesapeake Bay estuaries.

  20. Geohydrology and ground-water quality at selected sites in Meade County, Kentucky, 1987-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mull, D.S.; Alexander, A.G.; Schultz, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    Meade County in north-central Kentucky is about 305 sq mi in size, and is underlain by thick beds of limestone and dolomite which are the principal sources of drinking water for about 8 ,500 residents. About half the area contains mature, karst terrain with abundant sinkholes, springs, and caves. Because of this karst terrain, groundwater is susceptible to rapid changes in water quality and contamination from human sources. Thirty-seven wells and 12 springs were selected as sampling points to characterize groundwater quality in the area. Water was analyzed for major anions and cations, nitrates, trace elements, and organic compounds. Water from selected sites was also analyzed for fecal species of coliform streptococci bacteria and total coliform content. Except for fluoride and lead, the water quality was within the range expected for carbonate aquifers.The fluoride content was significantly higher in water from wells than in water from springs. Concentrations of detectable lead ranged from 10 to 50 micrograms/L and had a median value of 7.5 microg/L. Dissolved solids ranged from 100 to 2,200 mg/L and the median value was 512 mg/L. Hardness ranged from 20 to 1,100 mg/L and the median value was 290 mg/L. Organic compounds detected by the gas chromatographic/flame ionization detection scans, did not indicate evidence of concentrations in excess of the current Federal drinking water standards. Analysis for specific organic compounds indicated that the presence of these compounds was associated with agricultural chemicals, usually pesticides. Total coliform content exceeded drinking water standards in water from all 12 springs and in 18 wells. Statistical analysis of the groundwater quality data indicates that the variance of the concentrations of fluoride and chloride may be attributed to the site type. There was strong correlation between hardness and dissolved solids, hardness and sulfate, and sulfate and dissolved solids. No apparent relations were detected

  1. Idaho's surface-water-quality monitoring program: results from five sites sampled during water years 1990-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality, implemented a statewide water-quality monitoring program in response to Idaho's antidegradation policy as required by the Clean Water Act. The program objective is to provide water-quality managers with a coordinated statewide network to detect trends in surface-water quality. The monitoring program includes the collection and analysis of samples from 56 sites on the Bear, Clearwater, Kootenai, Pend Oreille, Salmon, Snake, and Spokane Rivers and their tributaries (fig. 1). Samples are collected every year at 5 sites (annual sites) in drainage basins where long-term water-quality management is practiced, every other year at 19 sites (biennial sites) in basins where land and water uses change slowly, and every third year at 32 sites (triennial sites) where future development may affect water quality. Each year, 25 of the 56 sites are sampled. This report discusses results of sampling at five annual sites. During water years 1990-93 (October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1993), samples were collected six times per year at the five annual sites (fig. 1). Onsite analyses were made for discharge, specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, bacteria (fecal coliform and fecal streptococci), and alkalinity. Laboratory analyses were made for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, and suspended sediment. Suspended sediment, nitrate, fecal coliform, trace elements, and specific conductance were used to characterize surface-water quality. Because concentrations of all trace elements except zinc were near detection limits, only zinc is discussed.

  2. Effects of cast-mediated immobilization on bone mineral mass at various sites in adolescents with lower-extremity fracture.

    PubMed

    Ceroni, Dimitri; Martin, Xavier; Delhumeau, Cécile; Rizzoli, René; Kaelin, André; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie

    2012-02-01

    Leg or ankle fractures occur commonly in the pediatric population and are primarily treated with closed reduction and cast immobilization. The most predictable consequences of immobilization and subsequent weight-bearing restriction are loss of bone mineral mass, substantial muscle atrophy, and functional limitations. The purposes of this study were to determine if lower-limb fractures in adolescents are associated with abnormal bone mineral density or content at the time of fracture, and to quantify bone mineral loss at various sites due to cast-mediated immobilization and limited weight-bearing. We recruited fifty adolescents aged ten to sixteen years who had undergone cast immobilization for a leg or ankle fracture. Dual x-ray absorptiometry scans of the total body, lumbar spine, hip, leg, and calcaneus were performed at the time of fracture and at cast removal. Patients with a fracture were paired with healthy controls according to sex and age. Values at baseline and at cast removal, or at equivalent time intervals in the control group, were compared between groups and between the injured and uninjured legs of the adolescents with the fracture. At the time of fracture, there were no observed differences in the bone mineral density or bone mineral content Z-scores of the total body or the lumbar spine, or in the bone mineral density Z-scores of the calcaneus, between the injured and healthy subjects. At cast removal, bone mineral parameters on the injured side were significantly lower than those on the uninjured side in the injured group. Differences ranged from -5.8% to -31.7% for bone mineral density and from -5.2% to -19.4% for bone mineral content. During the cast period, the injured adolescents had a significant decrease of bone mineral density at the hip, greater trochanter, calcaneus, and total lower limb as compared with the healthy controls. Lower-limb fractures are not related to osteopenia in adolescents at the time of fracture. However, osteopenia

  3. Estimates of peak flood discharge for 21 sites in the Front Range in Colorado in response to extreme rainfall in September 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, John A.

    2016-03-21

    Extreme rainfall in September 2013 caused destructive floods in part of the Front Range in Boulder County, Colorado. Erosion from these floods cut roads and isolated mountain communities for several weeks, and large volumes of eroded sediment were deposited downstream, which caused further damage of property and infrastructures. Estimates of peak discharge for these floods and the associated rainfall characteristics will aid land and emergency managers in the future. Several methods (an ensemble) were used to estimate peak discharge at 21 measurement sites, and the ensemble average and standard deviation provided a final estimate of peak discharge and its uncertainty. Because of the substantial erosion and deposition of sediment, an additional estimate of peak discharge was made based on the flow resistance caused by sediment transport effects.Although the synoptic-scale rainfall was extreme (annual exceedance probability greater than 1,000 years, about 450 millimeters in 7 days) for these mountains, the resulting peak discharges were not. Ensemble average peak discharges per unit drainage area (unit peak discharge, [Qu]) for the floods were 1–2 orders of magnitude less than those for the maximum worldwide floods with similar drainage areas and had a wide range of values (0.21–16.2 cubic meters per second per square kilometer [m3 s-1 km-2]). One possible explanation for these differences was that the band of high-accumulation, high-intensity rainfall was narrow (about 50 kilometers wide), oriented nearly perpendicular to the predominant drainage pattern of the mountains, and therefore entire drainage areas were not subjected to the same range of extreme rainfall. A linear relation (coefficient of determination [R2]=0.69) between Qu and the rainfall intensity (ITc, computed for a time interval equal to the time-of-concentration for the drainage area upstream from each site), had the form: Qu=0.26(ITc-8.6), where the coefficient 0.26 can be considered to be an

  4. Development of a site-specific marine water quality standard for cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Arredondo, L.A.; Brix, K.V.; Cardwell, R.D.; Marsden, A.

    1995-12-31

    A study was conducted to develop a site-specific marine standard for cyanide. The generic cyanide standard of 1 {micro}g/L is ``driven`` by toxicity data for eastern rock crab (Cancer irroratus) zoeae. The reported LC50 for C. irroratus is 4.9 {micro}g/L cyanide and is six times more sensitive that any other marine species tested. In order to develop a site-specific standard for Washington state, cyanide toxicity tests were conducted using the first stage zoeae of Cancer magister and Cancer oregonensis, two Cancer resident to Puget Sound, in accordance with standard ASTM test methods. Testing with C. magister and C. oregonensis resulted in Species Mean Acute Values (SMAVS) of 68 and 131 {micro}g/L cyanide based on measured test concentrations. This is considerably higher than that reported for C. irroratus, is more consistent with cyanide toxicity values for other species tested, and results in a water quality criterion of 9.85 {micro}g/L cyanide with inclusion of these values in the data set. This paper presents the test methods used and the potential effects the test results may have on the marine water quality criterion for cyanide.

  5. Reconnaissance of water quality at a US Department of Energy site, Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Mario

    1985-01-01

    Sanitary and industrial wastes at the Pinellas Plant of the U.S. Department of Energy, prior to December 1982, were combined, treated, and disposed of by ponding and spray irrigation on a 10-acre tract within the plant site. Prior to 1972, the treated wastes were released to surface drainage features. An electromagnetic survey for ground conductivity was made to identify changes in the ground conductivity that may be due to the spray irrigation disposal operations. Water samples from four test wells drilled into the surficial aquifer and the two disposal ponds and bottom material from the ponds were analyzed for priority and nonpriority pollutants, total organic carbon, volatile organic carbon, herbicides, insecticides, trace metals, nutrients, and major constituents. Overall, concentrations of constituents in the water samples were (1) less than the detection limits, (2) within U.S. Environmental Protection Agency quality criteria for water, or (3) within the range of results for a designated background water-quality site. Concentrations of 12 priority pollutants were found to be considerably above detection limits. Concentrations of these compounds, mostly coal-tar derivatives, ranged from 220 to 5,500 micrograms per kilogram; the detection limit for these compounds is 10 micrograms per kilogram. Included in these compounds were anthracene, pyrenes, and chrysene. (USGS)

  6. Initiation of Quality Control during Poly(A) Translation Requires Site-Specific Ribosome Ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Juszkiewicz, Szymon; Hegde, Ramanujan S

    2017-02-16

    Diverse cellular stressors have been observed to trigger site-specific ubiquitination on several ribosomal proteins. However, the ubiquitin ligases, biochemical consequences, and physiologic pathways linked to these modifications are not known. Here, we show in mammalian cells that the ubiquitin ligase ZNF598 is required for ribosomes to terminally stall during translation of poly(A) sequences. ZNF598-mediated stalling initiated the ribosome-associated quality control (RQC) pathway for degradation of nascent truncated proteins. Biochemical ubiquitination reactions identified two sites of mono-ubiquitination on the 40S protein eS10 as the primary ribosomal target of ZNF598. Cells lacking ZNF598 activity or containing ubiquitination-resistant eS10 ribosomes failed to stall efficiently on poly(A) sequences. In the absence of stalling, read-through of poly(A) produces a poly-lysine tag, which might alter the localization and solubility of the associated protein. Thus, ribosome ubiquitination can modulate translation elongation and impacts co-translational quality control to minimize production of aberrant proteins.

  7. Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project 1992 quality program status report

    SciTech Connect

    Bolivar, S.L.; Burningham, A.; Chavez, P.

    1994-03-01

    This status report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the Los Alamos Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project`s quality assurance program for calendar year 1992. The report includes major sections on Program Activities and Trend Analysis. Program Activities are discussed periodically at quality meetings. The most significant issue addressed in 1992 has been the timely revision of quality administrative procedures. The procedure revision process was streamlined from 55 steps to 7. The number of forms in procedures was reduced by 38%, and the text reduced by 29%. This allowed revision in 1992 of almost half of all implementing procedures. The time necessary to complete the revision process (for a procedure) was reduced from 11 months to 3 months. Other accomplishments include the relaxation of unnecessarily strict training requirements, requiring quality assurance reviews only from affected organizations, and in general simplifying work processes. All members of the YMP received training to the new Orientation class Eleven other training classed were held. Investigators submitted 971 records to the Project and only 37 were rejected. The software program has 115 programs approved for quality-affecting work. The Project Office conducted 3 audits and 1 survey of Los Alamos activities. We conducted 14 audits and 4 surveys. Eight corrective action reports were closed, leaving only one open. Internally, 22 deficiencies were recognized. This is a decrease from 65 in 1991. Since each deficiency requires about 2 man weeks to resolve, the savings are significant. Problems with writing acceptable deficiency reports have essentially disappeared. Trend reports for 1992 were examined and are summarized herein. Three adverse trends have been closed; one remaining adverse trend will be closed when the affected procedures are revised. The number of deficiencies issued to Los Alamos compared to other participants is minimal.

  8. A Novel Quality Measure and Correction Procedure for the Annotation of Microbial Translation Initiation Sites

    PubMed Central

    Overmars, Lex; Siezen, Roland J.; Francke, Christof

    2015-01-01

    The identification of translation initiation sites (TISs) constitutes an important aspect of sequence-based genome analysis. An erroneous TIS annotation can impair the identification of regulatory elements and N-terminal signal peptides, and also may flaw the determination of descent, for any particular gene. We have formulated a reference-free method to score the TIS annotation quality. The method is based on a comparison of the observed and expected distribution of all TISs in a particular genome given prior gene-calling. We have assessed the TIS annotations for all available NCBI RefSeq microbial genomes and found that approximately 87% is of appropriate quality, whereas 13% needs substantial improvement. We have analyzed a number of factors that could affect TIS annotation quality such as GC-content, taxonomy, the fraction of genes with a Shine-Dalgarno sequence and the year of publication. The analysis showed that only the first factor has a clear effect. We have then formulated a straightforward Principle Component Analysis-based TIS identification strategy to self-organize and score potential TISs. The strategy is independent of reference data and a priori calculations. A representative set of 277 genomes was subjected to the analysis and we found a clear increase in TIS annotation quality for the genomes with a low quality score. The PCA-based annotation was also compared with annotation with the current tool of reference, Prodigal. The comparison for the model genome of Escherichia coli K12 showed that both methods supplement each other and that prediction agreement can be used as an indicator of a correct TIS annotation. Importantly, the data suggest that the addition of a PCA-based strategy to a Prodigal prediction can be used to ‘flag’ TIS annotations for re-evaluation and in addition can be used to evaluate a given annotation in case a Prodigal annotation is lacking. PMID:26204119

  9. Generalized extreme gust wind speeds distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, E.; Yeung, C.

    2002-01-01

    Since summer 1996, the US wind engineers are using the extreme gust (or 3-s gust) as the basic wind speed to quantify the destruction of extreme winds. In order to better understand these destructive wind forces, it is important to know the appropriate representations of these extreme gust wind speeds. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the most suitable extreme value distributions for the annual extreme gust wind speeds recorded in large selected areas. To achieve this objective, we are using the generalized Pareto distribution as the diagnostic tool for determining the types of extreme gust wind speed distributions. The three-parameter generalized extreme value distribution function is, thus, reduced to either Type I Gumbel, Type II Frechet or Type III reverse Weibull distribution function for the annual extreme gust wind speeds recorded at a specific site.With the considerations of the quality and homogeneity of gust wind data collected at more than 750 weather stations throughout the United States, annual extreme gust wind speeds at selected 143 stations in the contiguous United States were used in the study. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Three-dimensional resistivity tomography in extreme coastal terrain amidst dense cultural signals: application to cliff stability assessment at the historic D-Day site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udphuay, Suwimon; Günther, Thomas; Everett, Mark E.; Warden, Robert R.; Briaud, Jean-Louis

    2011-04-01

    Pointe du Hoc overlooking the English Channel in Normandy, France was host to one of the most important military engagements of World War II but is vulnerable to cliff collapses that threaten important German fortifications including the forward observation post (OP) and Rudder's command post. The objective of this study is to apply advanced 3-D resistivity tomography towards a detailed site stability assessment with special attention to the two at-risk buildings. 3-D resistivity tomography data sets at Pointe du Hoc in the presence of extreme topography and dense cultural clutter have been successfully acquired, inverted and interpreted. A cliff stability hazard assessment scheme has been designed in which regions of high resistivity are interpreted as zones of open, dry fractures with a moderate mass movement potential. Regions of low resistivity are zones of wet, clay-filled fractures with a high mass movement potential. The OP tomography results indicate that the highest mass movement hazard appears to be associated with the marine caverns at the base of the cliff that are positioned at the point of strongest wave attack. These caverns likely occupy the future site of development of a sea arch that will threaten the OP building. The mass movement potential at the Rudder's command post area is low to moderate. The greatest risk there is associated with soil wedge failures at the top of the cliffs.

  11. Site-specific quantification of bone quality using highly nonlinear solitary waves.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinkyu; Sangiorgio, Sophia N; Borkowski, Sean L; Silvestro, Claudio; De Nardo, Luigi; Daraio, Chiara; Ebramzadeh, Edward

    2012-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a well recognized problem affecting millions of individuals worldwide. The ability to diagnose problems in an effective, efficient, and affordable manner and identify individuals at risk is essential. Site-specific assessment of bone mechanical properties is necessary, not only in the process of fracture risk assessment, but may also be desirable for other applications, such as making intraoperative decisions during spine and joint replacement surgeries. The present study evaluates the use of a one-dimensional granular crystal sensor to measure the elastic properties of bone at selected locations via direct mechanical contact. The granular crystal is composed of a tightly packed chain of particles that interact according to the Hertzian contact law. Such chains represent one of the simplest systems to generate and propagate highly nonlinear acoustic signals in the form of compact solitary waves. First, we investigated the sensitivity of the sensor to known variations in bone density using a synthetic cancellous bone substitute, representing clinical bone quality ranging from healthy to osteoporotic. Once the relationship between the signal response and known bone properties was established, the sensor was used to assess the bone quality of ten human cadaveric specimens. The efficacy and accuracy of the sensor was then investigated by comparing the sensor measurements with the bone mineral density (BMD) obtained using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The results indicate that the proposed technique is capable of detecting differences in bone quality. The ability to measure site-specific properties without exposure to radiation has the potential to be further developed for clinical applications.

  12. Risk-based site-specific water quality criteria for treated mine-tailings effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, L.G.; Fendick, E.; LaKind, J.; Stern, B.; Strand, J.A.; Tardiff, R.G.

    1995-12-31

    A mine development project proposes to discharge a combined effluent into marine waters in southeast Alaska. The discharge will consist of sewage, storm water, and tailings pond effluent. With the exception of arsenic, the discharge and its subsequent dispersion will comply with state and federal water quality criteria. The proposed discharge will comply with acute and chronic arsenic standards for the protection of marine life, but will not comply with the arsenic standard for the protection of human health via consumption of seafood. The arsenic standard for the protection of human health is based on a risk management objective that the likelihood of skin cancer be no more than 1 excess case per 100,000 people (10{sup {minus}5}) who ingest arsenic in seafood. Based on USEPA methodology for developing ambient water quality criteria, the seawater concentration that corresponds to this risk management objective is 1.4,{micro}g/L, which is less than the naturally-occurring arsenic concentration in seawater. Consequently, a site-specific risk-based evaluation was conducted to identify more realistic and achievable goals for arsenic in seawater that are consistent with the risk management objective of 10{sup {minus}5}. Parameters evaluated were discharge transport, chemical speciation and fate of arsenic, fish exposure, bioaccumulation and metabolism, patterns of fish catch and consumption, and toxic potency of arsenic. Results of the evaluation showed numerous, substantial differences between the assumptions inherent in the risk assessment model used by USEPA to estimate water quality criteria, and site-specific values that could be applied to the proposed discharge. Overall, the collective weight of evidence indicates that the concentration of arsenic in seawater that corresponds to the 10{sup {minus}5} risk management objective may be substantially (i.e., 10 to 1,000 times) higher than the 1.4 {micro}g/L criterion.

  13. Construction quality assurance for Pit 6 landfill closure, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-30

    Golder Construction Services, Inc. (GCS), under contract to the Regents of the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), provided the construction quality assurance (CQA) observation and testing during the construction of the Site 300, Pit 6 landfill closure cover. The cap construction was performed as a CERCLA non-time-critical removal action from June 2 to August 29, 1997. the project site is located 18 miles east of Livermore on Tesla Road and approximately 10 miles southwest of Tracy on Corral Hollow Road in San Joaquin County, California. This report certifies that the LLNL, Site 300, Pit 6, Landfill Closure was constructed in accordance with the construction specifications and design drawings. This report documents construction activities and CQA monitoring and testing for construction of the Pit 6 Landfill Closure. Golder Associates, Inc. of Oakland, California was the design engineering firm responsible for preparation of the drawings and specifications. CQA services were provided by GCS, of Roseville, California, under supervision of a California registered civil Engineer.

  14. Review: A Position Paper on Selenium in Ecotoxicology: A Procedure for Deriving Site-Specific Water Quality Criteria

    Treesearch

    A. Dennis Lemly

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a method for deriving site-specific water quality criteria for selenium using a two-step process: (1) gather information on selenium residues and biological effects at the site and in down-gradient systems and (2) examine criteria based on the degree of bioaccumulation, the relationship between mea-sured residues and threshold concentrations for...

  15. Meteorological and air quality data quarterly report. WIPP site: Eddy County, New Mexico. Summer quarter, June 1977-August 1977

    SciTech Connect

    Pocalujka, L.P.; Babij, E.; Catizone, P.A.; Church, H.W.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of the WIPP meteorological, air quality, and radiological measurements program was to support the environmental effort for the evaluation of the site suitability. This data report is the latest in a series of seasonal quarterly data summaries to be issued for the southeastern New Mexico site.

  16. Water-quality data for 35 sites, September 1984, near the Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pulliam, Pamela J.

    1985-01-01

    Water quality data were collected at 35 sites in the vicinity of the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on September 16 and 17, 1984. Concentrations of dissolved major and trace constituents were determined; field determinations of specific conductance, pH, temperature, alkalinity, and dissolved oxygen were made. Gross alpha and beta activity were determined for seven of the sites sampled. 

  17. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 58 - Probe and Monitoring Path Siting Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... necessary to ensure the uniform collection of compatible and comparable air quality data. (b) The probe and... help to avoid later questions about the validity of the resulting monitoring data. Conditions under... should not be allowed to inappropriately impact the air quality data collected at a site....

  18. Water quality parameters and total aerobic bacterial and vibrionaceae loads in eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from oyster gardening sites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oyster gardening is a practice designed to restore habitat for marine life and to improve water quality. This study determined physical and chemical water quality parameters at two oyster gardening sites in the Delaware Inland Bays and compared them with total aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae conc...

  19. Implementation of surgical quality improvement: auditing tool for surgical site infection prevention practices.

    PubMed

    Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M; Hobson, Deborah B; Bennett, Jennifer L; Wick, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    Surgical site infections are a potentially preventable patient harm. Emerging evidence suggests that the implementation of evidence-based process measures for infection reduction is highly variable. The purpose of this work was to develop an auditing tool to assess compliance with infection-related process measures and establish a system for identifying and addressing defects in measure implementation. This was a retrospective cohort study using electronic medical records. We used the auditing tool to assess compliance with 10 process measures in a sample of colorectal surgery patients with and without postoperative infections at an academic medical center (January 2012 to March 2013). We investigated 59 patients with surgical site infections and 49 patients without surgical site infections. First, overall compliance rates for the 10 process measures were compared between patients with infection vs patients without infection to assess if compliance was lower among patients with surgical site infections. Then, because of the burden of data collection, the tool was used exclusively to evaluate quarterly compliance rates among patients with infection. The results were reviewed, and the key factors contributing to noncompliance were identified and addressed. Ninety percent of process measures had lower compliance rates among patients with infection. Detailed review of infection cases identified many defects that improved following the implementation of system-level changes: correct cefotetan redosing (education of anesthesia personnel), temperature at surgical incision >36.0°C (flags used to identify patients for preoperative warming), and the use of preoperative mechanical bowel preparation with oral antibiotics (laxative solutions and antibiotics distributed in clinic before surgery). Quarterly compliance improved for 80% of process measures by the end of the study period. This study was conducted on a small surgical cohort within a select subspecialty. The

  20. Dynamic quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program to maximize the use of on-site measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, L.A.; Roberts, J.B.; Swanson, A.L.; Canavan, H.E.

    1996-03-01

    The use of on-site mobile laboratories at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has increased within the last year to accommodate the diverse analytical requirements of demands for the Environmental Restoration Project (ERP). The purpose of the mobile laboratory is to provide sample results with the appropriate QC components within a near real time (i.e. < 8 hours) to aid in a real time decision process such as determining the extent of contamination and/or where to focus the sampling efforts. To meet the data quality objectives (DQOS) of ERP, a flexible QA/QC program needs to exist. By developing a QA/QC program containing the capability to measure extraction efficiency and instrument sensitivity and by participating in the DQO process, the appropriate QC can easily be tailored to provide quick and inexpensive analytical data while still meeting the project requirements. An QA/QC program, consisting of both static and dynamic elements, can be tailored to meet the ERP objectives.

  1. Quality of life after acute myocardial infarction among patients treated at sites with and without on-site availability of angiography.

    PubMed

    Pilote, Louise; Lauzon, Claude; Huynh, Thao; Dion, Danielle; Roux, René; Racine, Normand; Carignan, Suzanne; Diodati, Jean G; Lévesque, Claude; Charbonneau, François; Pouliot, Joël; Joseph, Lawrence; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2002-03-11

    Previous studies have compared the treatment and outcome of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) admitted at sites with and without availability of angiography. Although mortality rates do not differ, it is unknown if quality of life (QOL) and functional status differ. We measured QOL and functional status in patients with AMI treated within Québec at 5 sites with (n = 253) and 5 sites without (n = 334) angiography. At admission, clinical characteristics, complication rates, and baseline measures of QOL and functional status were similar at sites with and without angiography. During hospitalization, patients treated at sites with angiography were more likely to undergo an invasive cardiac procedure than patients admitted at sites without angiography (angiography, 63% vs 26%; percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, 33% vs 13%; and coronary artery bypass graft, 12% vs 5%). At 30 days and 6 months after AMI, QOL was slightly superior at sites with angiography, but by 1 year, most measures of QOL were back to baseline at both types of sites and were similar between the 2 groups. At 6 months, most standard health-related QOL components were similar; only physical and emotional role limitations were higher at sites with angiography. Return to work occurred earlier (at 30 days, 23% vs 12%), and a lower proportion of patients was readmitted for angina (within 1 year after AMI, 12% vs 18%) at sites with angiography. In the early post-AMI period, the QOL of patients admitted at sites with angiography was higher than that of patients admitted at sites without angiography. However, by 1 year, the QOL and functional status of patients was similar in both groups. Differences in QOL were greatest when differences in treatment were greatest, lending support to a positive albeit small association between an early invasive approach to post-AMI care and improved QOL.

  2. Quality control of CarboEurope flux data - Part I: Footprint analyses to evaluate sites in forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göckede, M.; Foken, T.; Aubinet, M.; Aurela, M.; Banza, J.; Bernhofer, C.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Brunet, Y.; Carrara, A.; Clement, R.; Dellwik, E.; Elbers, J.; Eugster, W.; Fuhrer, J.; Granier, A.; Grünwald, T.; Heinesch, B.; Janssens, I. A.; Knohl, A.; Koeble, R.; Laurila, T.; Longdoz, B.; Manca, G.; Marek, M.; Markkanen, T.; Mateus, J.; Matteucci, G.; Mauder, M.; Migliavacca, M.; Minerbi, S.; Moncrieff, J.; Montagnani, L.; Moors, E.; Ourcival, J.-M.; Papale, D.; Pereira, J.; Pilegaard, K.; Pita, G.; Rambal, S.; Rebmann, C.; Rodrigues, A.; Rotenberg, E.; Sanz, M. J.; Sedlak, P.; Seufert, G.; Siebicke, L.; Soussana, J. F.; Valentini, R.; Vesala, T.; Verbeeck, H.; Yakir, D.

    2007-11-01

    We applied a site evaluation approach combining Lagrangian Stochastic footprint modelling with a quality assessment approach for eddy-covariance data to 25 forested sites of the CarboEurope-IP network. The analysis addresses the spatial representativeness of the flux measurements, instrumental effects on data quality, spatial patterns in the data quality, and the performance of the coordinate rotation method. Our findings demonstrate that application of a footprint filter could strengthen the CarboEurope-IP flux database, since only one third of the sites is situated in truly homogeneous terrain. Almost half of the sites experience a significant reduction in eddy-covariance data quality under certain conditions, though these effects are mostly constricted to a small portion of the dataset. Reductions in data quality of the sensible heat flux are mostly induced by characteristics of the surrounding terrain, while the latent heat flux is subject to instrumentation-related problems. The Planar-Fit coordinate rotation proved to be a reliable tool for the majority of the sites using only a single set of rotation angles. Overall, we found a high average data quality for the CarboEurope-IP network, with good representativeness of the measurement data for the specified target land cover types.

  3. Drinking Water Quality Criterion - Based site Selection of Aquifer Storage and Recovery Scheme in Chou-Shui River Alluvial Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. E.; Liang, C. P.; Jang, C. S.; Chen, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Land subsidence due to groundwater exploitation is an urgent environmental problem in Choushui river alluvial fan in Taiwan. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), where excess surface water is injected into subsurface aquifers for later recovery, is one promising strategy for managing surplus water and may overcome water shortages. The performance of an ASR scheme is generally evaluated in terms of recovery efficiency, which is defined as percentage of water injected in to a system in an ASR site that fulfills the targeted water quality criterion. Site selection of an ASR scheme typically faces great challenges, due to the spatial variability of groundwater quality and hydrogeological condition. This study proposes a novel method for the ASR site selection based on drinking quality criterion. Simplified groundwater flow and contaminant transport model spatial distributions of the recovery efficiency with the help of the groundwater quality, hydrological condition, ASR operation. The results of this study may provide government administrator for establishing reliable ASR scheme.

  4. Multi-Site Quality Assurance Project Plan for Wisconsin Public Service Corporation, Peoples Gas Light and Coke Company, and North Shore Gas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Multi-Site QAPP presents the organization, data quality objectives (DQOs), a set of anticipated activities, sample analysis, data handling and specific Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) procedures associated with Studies done in EPA Region 5

  5. SOFTWARE QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE CONSEQUENCE ASSESSMENT MODELS AT DOE'S SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C

    2007-12-17

    The Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Atmospheric Technologies Group develops, maintains, and operates computer-based software applications for use in emergency response consequence assessment at DOE's Savannah River Site. These applications range from straightforward, stand-alone Gaussian dispersion models run with simple meteorological input to complex computational software systems with supporting scripts that simulate highly dynamic atmospheric processes. A software quality assurance program has been developed to ensure appropriate lifecycle management of these software applications. This program was designed to meet fully the overall structure and intent of SRNL's institutional software QA programs, yet remain sufficiently practical to achieve the necessary level of control in a cost-effective manner. A general overview of this program is described.

  6. Quality analysis applied on eddy covariance measurements at complex forest sites using footprint modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebmann, C.; Göckede, M.; Foken, T.; Aubinet, M.; Aurela, M.; Berbigier, P.; Bernhofer, C.; Buchmann, N.; Carrara, A.; Cescatti, A.; Ceulemans, R.; Clement, R.; Elbers, J. A.; Granier, A.; Grünwald, T.; Guyon, D.; Havránková, K.; Heinesch, B.; Knohl, A.; Laurila, T.; Longdoz, B.; Marcolla, B.; Markkanen, T.; Miglietta, F.; Moncrieff, J.; Montagnani, L.; Moors, E.; Nardino, M.; Ourcival, J.-M.; Rambal, S.; Rannik, Ü.; Rotenberg, E.; Sedlak, P.; Unterhuber, G.; Vesala, T.; Yakir, D.

    2005-04-01

    Measuring turbulent fluxes with the eddy covariance method has become a widely accepted and powerful tool for the determination of long term data sets for the exchange of momentum, sensible and latent heat, and trace gases such as CO2 between the atmosphere and the underlying surface. Several flux networks developed continuous measurements above complex terrain, e.g. AmeriFlux and EUROFLUX, with a strong focus on the net exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and the underlying surface. Under many conditions basic assumptions for the eddy covariance method in its simplified form, such as stationarity of the flow, homogeneity of the surface and fully developed turbulence of the flow field, are not fulfilled. To deal with non-ideal conditions which are common at many FLUXNET sites, quality tests have been developed to check if these basic theoretical assumptions are valid.

  7. Effects of selected sources of contamination on ground-water quality at seven sites in Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handman, Elinor H.; Bingham, James W.

    1980-01-01

    The introduction of contaminants has altered the quality of ground water at several places in Connecticut. This investigation of the hydrogeologic environment and the quality of water in stratified-drift aquifers underlying seven probable contaminant sources in Connecticut shows some effects at each site. Water from test wells downgradient from septage-disposal facilities in Old Saybrook and Clinton contains elevated concentrations of sodium, chloride, manganese, iron, detergent (as MBAS), dissolved organic carbon, and some trace metals. The effects are most pronounced at shallow depths close to the septage lagoons, where concentrations of some constituents exceed Connecticut Department of Health drinking water standards. Fly-ash disposal at Wallingford has contributed chromium, manganese, and dissolved organic carbon to water in the underlying aquifer, but the low hydraulic conductivity of the fine-grained surficial materials have kept effects to a minimum. Road salt leached from a storage area in the Tylerville section of Haddam has increased the sodium and chloride concentrations in ground water to the extent that it is unsuitable for drinking water. The effect diminishes in wells 1000 feet downgradient from the storage site. Water from some wells adjacent to landfills in Bristol and Southington has elevated sodium, chloride, manganese, and dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and samples from two wells near industrial-sludge disposal pits in the Bristol landfill contain cyanide and phenols. Gasoline odor is present in water samples from a test well 175 feet from a ruptured buried tank in Fairfield. The gasoline odor from this well was also detectable during well construction and sampling.

  8. Upper extremity injury history, current pain rating, and health-related quality of life in female softball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Sauers, Eric L; Dykstra, Danelle L; Bay, R Curtis; Bliven, Kellie Huxel; Snyder, Alison R

    2011-02-01

    Throwing-related arm injuries are common in softball pitchers and may lead to diminished health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Arm symptoms such as pain have been reported to be more common in healthy overhead athletes than nonoverhead athletes. Furthermore, more frequent shoulder symptoms and lower shoulder function have been demonstrated in athletes with self-reported history of shoulder injury. To evaluate the relationship between arm injury history, current pain rating, and HRQOL assessed via 2 region-specific patient self-report scales in high school and college softball pitchers. Cross-sectional. High school and college athletic training facilities. 25 female softball pitchers (10 high school, 15 college; 18 ± 2 y, 169 ± 7.6 cm, 67.5 ± 10.3 kg). Self-reported arm injury history and rating of current pain and HRQOL were collected during the late season. A self-report questionnaire of arm injury history and current pain rating was used, and HRQOL was assessed via 2 region-specific scales: the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) and the Functional Arm Scale for Throwers© (FAST©). Correlational analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between arm injury history, current pain rating, and the DASH total score and sport module and the FAST total score, pitching module, and subscales. A history of arm injury from throwing was reported by 64% of participants, 31% of whom had to cease activity for more than 10 d. The most common site of arm time-loss injury was the shoulder (81%). Mild to severe shoulder pain during the competitive season was reported by 60% of respondents. The DASH and the FAST total scores were significantly correlated (r = .79, P < .001). Respondent rating of shoulder pain correlated significantly with the DASH total (r = .69) and sports module (r = .69) and the FAST total (r = .71), pitching module (r = .65), and pain (r = .73), impairment (r = .76), functional-limitation (r = .79), disability (r = .52), and societal

  9. Improving the Quality of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision through Use of the Continuous Quality Improvement Approach: A Pilot in 30 PEPFAR-Supported Sites in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Opio, Alex; Calnan, Jacqueline; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Background Uganda adopted voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) (also called Safe Male Circumcision in Uganda), as part of its HIV prevention strategy in 2010. Since then, the Ministry of Health (MOH) has implemented VMMC mostly with support from the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) through its partners. In 2012, two PEPFAR-led external quality assessments evaluated compliance of service delivery sites with minimum quality standards. Quality gaps were identified, including lack of standardized forms or registers, lack of documentation of client consent, poor preparedness for emergencies and use of untrained service providers. In response, PEPFAR, through a USAID-supported technical assistance project, provided support in quality improvement to the MOH and implementing partners to improve quality and safety in VMMC services and build capacity of MOH staff to continuously improve VMMC service quality. Methods and Findings Sites were supported to identify barriers in achieving national standards, identify possible solutions to overcome the barriers and carry out improvement plans to test these changes, while collecting performance data to objectively measure whether they had bridged gaps. A 53-indicator quality assessment tool was used by teams as a management tool to measure progress; teams also measured client-level indicators through self-assessment of client records. At baseline (February-March 2013), less than 20 percent of sites scored in the “good” range (>80%) for supplies and equipment, patient counseling and surgical procedure; by November 2013, the proportion of sites scoring “good” rose to 67 percent, 93 percent and 90 percent, respectively. Significant improvement was noted in post-operative follow-up at 48 hours, sexually transmitted infection assessment, informed consent and use of local anesthesia but not rate of adverse events. Conclusion Public sector providers can be engaged to address the quality of

  10. Effects of extreme climate events on tea (Camellia sinensis) functional quality validate indigenous farmer knowledge and sensory preferences in tropical China.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Selena; Stepp, John Richard; Orians, Colin; Griffin, Timothy; Matyas, Corene; Robbat, Albert; Cash, Sean; Xue, Dayuan; Long, Chunlin; Unachukwu, Uchenna; Buckley, Sarabeth; Small, David; Kennelly, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is impacting agro-ecosystems, crops, and farmer livelihoods in communities worldwide. While it is well understood that more frequent and intense climate events in many areas are resulting in a decline in crop yields, the impact on crop quality is less acknowledged, yet it is critical for food systems that benefit both farmers and consumers through high-quality products. This study examines tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae), the world's most widely consumed beverage after water, as a study system to measure effects of seasonal precipitation variability on crop functional quality and associated farmer knowledge, preferences, and livelihoods. Sampling was conducted in a major tea producing area of China during an extreme drought through the onset of the East Asian Monsoon in order to capture effects of extreme climate events that are likely to become more frequent with climate change. Compared to the spring drought, tea growth during the monsoon period was up to 50% higher. Concurrently, concentrations of catechin and methylxanthine secondary metabolites, major compounds that determine tea functional quality, were up to 50% lower during the monsoon while total phenolic concentrations and antioxidant activity increased. The inverse relationship between tea growth and concentrations of individual secondary metabolites suggests a dilution effect of precipitation on tea quality. The decrease in concentrations of tea secondary metabolites was accompanied by reduced farmer preference on the basis of sensory characteristics as well as a decline of up to 50% in household income from tea sales. Farmer surveys indicate a high degree of agreement regarding climate patterns and the effects of precipitation on tea yields and quality. Extrapolating findings from this seasonal study to long-term climate scenario projections suggests that farmers and consumers face variable implications with forecasted precipitation scenarios and calls for research on management

  11. Effects of Extreme Climate Events on Tea (Camellia sinensis) Functional Quality Validate Indigenous Farmer Knowledge and Sensory Preferences in Tropical China

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Selena; Stepp, John Richard; Orians, Colin; Griffin, Timothy; Matyas, Corene; Robbat, Albert; Cash, Sean; Xue, Dayuan; Long, Chunlin; Unachukwu, Uchenna; Buckley, Sarabeth; Small, David; Kennelly, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is impacting agro-ecosystems, crops, and farmer livelihoods in communities worldwide. While it is well understood that more frequent and intense climate events in many areas are resulting in a decline in crop yields, the impact on crop quality is less acknowledged, yet it is critical for food systems that benefit both farmers and consumers through high-quality products. This study examines tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae), the world's most widely consumed beverage after water, as a study system to measure effects of seasonal precipitation variability on crop functional quality and associated farmer knowledge, preferences, and livelihoods. Sampling was conducted in a major tea producing area of China during an extreme drought through the onset of the East Asian Monsoon in order to capture effects of extreme climate events that are likely to become more frequent with climate change. Compared to the spring drought, tea growth during the monsoon period was up to 50% higher. Concurrently, concentrations of catechin and methylxanthine secondary metabolites, major compounds that determine tea functional quality, were up to 50% lower during the monsoon while total phenolic concentrations and antioxidant activity increased. The inverse relationship between tea growth and concentrations of individual secondary metabolites suggests a dilution effect of precipitation on tea quality. The decrease in concentrations of tea secondary metabolites was accompanied by reduced farmer preference on the basis of sensory characteristics as well as a decline of up to 50% in household income from tea sales. Farmer surveys indicate a high degree of agreement regarding climate patterns and the effects of precipitation on tea yields and quality. Extrapolating findings from this seasonal study to long-term climate scenario projections suggests that farmers and consumers face variable implications with forecasted precipitation scenarios and calls for research on management

  12. The SSC cycle: a PDCA approach to address site-specific characteristics in a continuous shallow water quality monitoring project.

    PubMed

    Miles, Eduardo J

    2008-05-01

    In any water quality-monitoring project there are several critical success factors that must be adequately addressed in order to ensure the implementation and realization of the monitoring objectives. Site selection is one of these critical success factors. The monitoring sites must be selected to comply with the monitoring and data quality objectives. In the real world, ideal monitoring setting conditions are difficult to achieve, and compromises must be made in order to locate the monitoring stations that best represent the environment to be monitored. Site-specific characteristics are all the environmental, logistical and management factors particular to the monitoring site, that could influence the fulfilment of the monitoring and data quality objectives. Therefore, during the site selection process, it is essential to properly consider and evaluate these site-specific characteristics. The SSC cycle was developed with this goal in mind, to assist the monitoring team to systematically address site-specific characteristics. The cycle is a methodology to organize the site-specific characteristics in different categories, and to ensure a comprehensive overview of these characteristics throughout the project life cycle.

  13. Evaluation of Quality, Content, and Use of the Web Site Prepared for Family Members Giving Care to Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Demir, Yasemin; Gozum, Sebahat

    2015-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the quality, content, usability, and efficacy of a Web site prepared for the purpose of improving the caregiving capability of family members who provide care for stroke survivors at home. The DISCERN score for the Web site was found to be 4.35 over 5. The first section that assesses reliability of the Web site was 4.38 over 5; mean score of the second section that measures the quality of the provided information on treatment/care options was 4.30, and mean score of the third section that gives a general evaluation of the material was 4.1. The Web site content achieved an average score of 3.47 over 4 after evaluation by experts. The Web site system usability score was found to be 79.4 over 100. The Web site was utilized mostly for exercises in bed (76.3%; n = 29), use of medications, and patient safety (68.4%; n = 26). It was determined that those who were younger and employed and had no previous experience of nursing any patient utilized relatively more from the section of patient nutrition and oral care and married family caregivers from the body hygiene section. The Web site quality and content were judged to be good and reliable to use. The Web site was efficiently used by caregivers.

  14. Water quality evaluation and geochemical assessment of iron, manganese, and arsenic in a landfill site

    SciTech Connect

    Pisigan, R.A. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Several monitoring wells at a landfill site were sampled for water quality parameters to determine the nature of groundwater contamination. The landfill, located beneath a limestone and dolomitic bedrock, has been used for about 20 years for trash and garbage disposal. The monitoring parameters include major cations and anions, as well as iron, manganese, arsenic, and other parameters measured in the field to characterize the subsurface conditions. Groundwater samples collected near the landfill and downgradient locations had higher levels of iron, manganese, arsenic, alkalinity, hardness than those samples from an upgradient well. The downgradient and on-site samples were also more acidic and turbid, The dissolved oxygen data tend to suggest reducing conditions in the leachate environment. The elevated groundwater concentrations of the three metals, especially iron, were most probably caused by the acidity generated by carbon dioxide and organic acids released from microbial degradation of organic compounds dumped into the landfill. The acidic pH led to the dissolution of iron, manganese, and arsenic bearing mineral phases. The buffering reactions of limestone and dolomite to neutralize the acidic degradation products increased the hardness cations, Ca{sup +2} and Mg{sup +2}. Inorganic speciation modeling indicates that iron, manganese, and arsenic predominantly exist as Fe {sup +2}, Mn{sup +2}, and H{sub 3}AsO{sub 3}. The possible presence of organic complexes of iron was discussed, but could be modeled due to lack of appropriate equilibrium constant data.

  15. A green roof experimental site in the Mediterranean climate: the storm water quality issue.

    PubMed

    Gnecco, Ilaria; Palla, Anna; Lanza, Luca G; La Barbera, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Since 2007, the University of Genoa has been carrying out a monitoring programme to investigate the hydrologic response of green roofs in the Mediterranean climate by installing a green roof experimental site. In order to assess the influence of green roofs on the storm water runoff quality, water chemistry data have been included in the monitoring programme since 2010, providing rainfall and outflow data. For atmospheric source, the bulk deposition is collected to evaluate the role of the overall atmospheric deposition in storm water runoff quality. For subsurface outflow, a maximum of 24 composite samples are taken on an event basis, thus aiming at a full characterization of the outflow hydrograph. Water chemistry data reveal that the pollutant loads associated with green roof outflow is low; in particular, solids and metal concentrations are lower than values generally observed in storm water runoff from traditional rooftops. The concentration values of chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, Fe, Ca and K measured in the subsurface outflow are significantly higher than those observed in the bulk deposition (p < 0.05). With respect to the atmospheric deposition, the green roof behaviour as a sink/source of pollutants is investigated based on both concentration and mass.

  16. Water-quality data from a landfill-leachate treatment and disposal site, Pinellas County, Florida, January 1979-August 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, G.L.; Fernandez, Mario

    1981-01-01

    Water-quality data collected between January 1979 and August 1980 at the landfill leachate treatment site in Pinellas County, Fla., are presented. Data include field and laboratory measurements of physical properties, major chemical constituents , nitrogen and phosphorus species, chemical oxygen demand, trace metals, coliform bacteria, taxonomy of macroinvertebrates and phytoplankton, and chlorophyll analyses. Data were collected as part of a study to determine water-quality changes resulting from aeration and ponding of leachate pumped from landfill burial trenches and for use in determining the rate of movement and quality changes as the leachate migrates through the surficial aquifer. Samples were collected from 81 surficial-aquifer water-quality monitoring wells constructed in January 1975, February 1979, and March 1979, and 8 surface-water quality monitoring sites established in January 1975, February 1978, and November 1978. (USGS)

  17. An extremely rare splice site mutation in the gene encoding complement factor I in a patient with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ipe, Tina S; Lim, Jooeun; Reyes, Meredith Anne; Ero, Mike; Leveque, Christopher; Lewis, Bradley; Kain, Jamey

    2017-04-28

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare disease characterized by thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and acute kidney failure. The disease is difficult to diagnose due to its similarity with other hematologic disorders, such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). However, genetic mutations are found in 50-70% of patients with aHUS and can be useful in its diagnosis. A 40-year-old male presented to our hospital with acute kidney injury, evidenced by high creatinine levels (8.3 mg/dL) and kidney biopsy results. The patient was preliminarily diagnosed with TTP and therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) was initiated. After four treatments, TPE was discontinued due to lack of ADAMTS13 activity and inhibitor assay results that were not consistent with TTP, improved hematologic laboratory results, and aHUS genetic testing results. Next-generation sequencing showed a rare mutation at a splice site in the gene encoding complement factor I (CFI). Implication of this mutation in aHUS has not been previously described. Treatment with eculizumab reduced creatinine levels below 4.0 mg/dL, and the patient remained on maintenance dosage of eculizumab (1200 mg/14 days) to prevent aHUS recurrence. An extremely rare, heterozygous mutation in the gene encoding CFI likely affecting splicing was associated for the first time with aHUS. Sequencing was critical for rapid diagnosis and subsequent timely treatment with eculizumab, which resulted in improved renal function. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Preliminary geohydrologic site characterization and proposed water quality well locations for WAG 7, WAG 8 and WAG 9

    SciTech Connect

    Baughn, D.C.

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to assess general site conditions and to recommend water quality well locations at three Waste Area Groupings (WAGS) within the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) complex. The subject sites are WAGs 7, 8 and 9 each of which is identified on the general site location map. For reference, the relationship of the subject sites to other WAGs are shown. WAGs are regions prescribed by Martin Marietta throughout the ORNL complex that require environmental assessment. WAGs contain solid waste management units such as Solid Waste Storage Areas (SWSAs), as well as pipelines, spill sites, buildings, ponds and experimental test sites. These solid waste management units are considered to be potential sources of contamination. The WAG boundaries describe the areal limits of specific waste management operations as well as currently known areas of waste constituent migration. Because solid waste management units within WAGs 7, 8 and 9 may continue to release waste constituents to the environment, the existing groundwater monitoring systems is being upgraded. This report recommends locations for water quality wells which will be installed at these three WAG boundaries in order to gather water quality data. The proposed well locations are shown. Water quality well design coordinates (ORNL grid) and estimated completion depths are given.

  19. Surface-Water Quality Conditions and Long-Term Trends at Selected Sites within the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network in Missouri, Water Years 1993-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.; Davis, Jerri V.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, collects data pertaining to the surface-water resources of Missouri. These data are collected as part of the Missouri Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network and constitute a valuable source of reliable, impartial, and timely information for developing an improved understanding of water resources in the State. Six sites from the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network, with data available from the 1993 through 2008 water years, were chosen to compare water-quality conditions and long-term trends of dissolved oxygen, selected physical properties, total suspended solids, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorous, fecal indicator bacteria, and selected trace elements. The six sites used in the study were classified in groups corresponding to the physiography, main land use, and drainage basin size, and represent most stream types in Missouri. Long-term trends in this study were analyzed using flow-adjusted and non-flow adjusted models. Highly censored datasets (greater than 5 percent but less than 50 percent censored values) were not flow-adjusted. Trends that were detected can possibly be related to changes in agriculture or urban development within the drainage basins. Trends in nutrients were the most prevalent. Upward flow-adjusted trends in dissolved nitrate plus nitrite (as nitrogen) concentrations were identified at the Elk River site, and in total phosphorus concentrations at the South Fabius and Grand River sites. A downward flow-adjusted trend was identified in total phosphorus concentrations from Wilson Creek, the only urban site in the study. The downward trend in phosphorus possibly was related to a phosphorus reduction system that began operation in 2001 at a wastewater treatment plant upstream from the sampling site. Total suspended solids concentrations indicated an upward non-flow adjusted trend at the two northern sites (South Fabius

  20. Water Quality, Habitat, and Biological Conditions at Selected Sites in the Highly Urbanized Santa Ana River Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, C. A.; Brown, L. R.

    2001-12-01

    The Santa Ana River Basin of southern California is highly urbanized and is affected by habitat loss, habitat alteration, and changes in water quality of the river and tributary streams. Nineteen sites, selected to represent the range in water source (mountain runoff, ground-water discharge, urban runoff, treated waste water), were sampled during summer 2000, to assess macroinvertebrate community structure and various measures of water quality. Sites were characterized on the basis of water source because much of the water in Santa Ana Basin is imported and does not typically originate within the watershed boundaries. Artificial substrates were employed for biological samples to minimize the effect of channel environments--natural, channelized but unlined, and concrete-lined-- as a confounding variable. The number of benthic macroinvertebrate genera ranged from five to 20 taxa per site. Pesticides were detected at 16 of 19 sites; the number of detections per site ranged from two to nine. Diazinon was the most commonly detected pesticide and was found at 13 of the 16 sites. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected at 9 of 10 sites; the number of detections ranged from 1 to 10 per site. Chloroform and bromodichloromethane, the most commonly detected VOCs, were found at six sites each. Results from a Microtox toxicity test using extracts from semi-permeable membrane devices installed at 14 sites indicated potential toxicity at 10 of the sites. Results suggest that water source and channel modifications associated with urbanization have altered water quality and associated ecological communities in the streams of the Santa Ana Basin.

  1. Water-Quality Characteristics for Selected Sites Within the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District Planning Area, Wisconsin, February 2004-September 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Judith C.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Bruce, Jennifer L.; Graczyk, David J.; Richards, Kevin D.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Scudder, Barbara C.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Bell, Amanda H.

    2007-01-01

    The Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) Corridor Study is a three-phase project designed to improve the understanding of water resources in the MMSD planning area to assist managers and policy makers in their decisions. Phase I of the Study involved the compilation of existing data from multiple agencies into a single database. These data were analyzed to identify spatial, temporal, and technological gaps in the planning area, and were used to develop Phase II of the Study. Phase II, the subject of this report, involved an intensive data-collection effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with MMSD (from February, 2004, through September, 2005). This phase addressed the data gaps identified in Phase I and completed a baseline assessment of water quality for selected stream and harbor sites in the MMSD planning area. This baseline assessment included evaluations of surface-water chemistry and microbial concentrations in the streams and harbor sites; additionally, stream sites were evaluated for discharge, sediment chemistry, fish-tissue chemistry, habitat, and the quality of biological communities (including fish, macroinvertebrates, and algae). In all, data were collected at 15 stream and 6 harbor sites within the MMSD planning area, including manual sampling and analysis for more than 220 water-quality properties and constituents at all 21 sites, stream-discharge data for 14 stream sites, and automated water-quality sampling at 4 stream sites. A bioassessment during autumn 2004 included collection of biologic-community data and stream-habitat data at wadeable streams. Quartiles of Phase II aggregate bioassessment rankings were used to divide the 14 wadeable stream sites into four groups to investigate relations between bioassessment data and site characteristic and water-quality data. Quartile numbers reflect relative water quality: quartile 1 contained sites where the bioassessment data indicated the least-degraded water quality

  2. Data Quality Assessment Report for the Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-08-10

    This report summarizes the results of the data quality assessment that was performed on the analytical data generated in connection with the 2008/2009 surface water, sediment, and soil data collection; groundwater upwelling investigation sample collection; and fish tissue sample collection.

  3. Data Quality Assessment Report for the Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-09-21

    This report summarizes the results of the data quality assessment that was performed on the analytical data generated in connection with the 2008/2009 surface water, sediment, and soil data collection; groundwater upwelling investigation sample collection; and fish tissue sample collection.

  4. Prospective multicenter study of quality of life before and after lower extremity vein bypass in 1404 patients with critical limb ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Louis L.; Moneta, Gregory L.; Conte, Michael S.; Bandyk, Dennis F.; Clowes, Alexander W.; Seely, B. Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) have multiple comorbidities and limited life spans. The ability of infrainguinal vein bypass to improve quality of life (QoL) in patients with CLI has therefore been questioned. Prospective preoperative and postoperative QoL data for patients undergoing lower extremity vein bypass for CLI are presented. Methods A validated, disease-specific QoL questionnaire (VascuQoL) with activity, symptom, pain, emotional, and social domains and responses scored 1 (lowest QoL) to 7 (best QoL) was administered before surgery and at 3 and 12 months after lower extremity vein bypass for CLI. Changes in QoL at 3 and 12 months after lower extremity vein bypass and multiple predetermined variables potentially influencing QoL after lower extremity vein bypass were analyzed to determine the effect of lower extremity vein bypass on QoL in CLI patients. Results A total of 1404 patients had lower extremity vein bypass for CLI at 83 centers in the United States and Canada as part of the PREVENT III clinical trial. Surveys were completed in 1296 patients at baseline, 862 patients at 3 months, and 732 patients at 12 months. The global QoL score (mean ± SD) was 2.8 ± 1.1 at baseline and was 4.7 ± 1.4 and 5.1 ± 1.4 at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Mean changes from baseline at 3 and 12 months were statistically significant (P < .0001). Improved QoL scores extended across all domains. Diabetes and the development of graft-related events were associated with decreased improvement in QoL scores, though the mean relative change from baseline remained positive. Conclusions Patients with CLI have a low QoL at baseline that is improved at 3 and 12 months after lower extremity vein bypass. QoL improvements are lower in diabetic patients and those who develop graft-related events. Successful revascularization can be expected to improve QoL in patients with CLI, with benefits that are sustained to at least 1 year. PMID:17098529

  5. Probability-based estimates of site-specific copper water quality criteria for the Chesapeake Bay, USA.

    PubMed

    Arnold, W Ray; Warren-Hicks, William J

    2007-01-01

    The object of this study was to estimate site- and region-specific dissolved copper criteria for a large embayment, the Chesapeake Bay, USA. The intent is to show the utility of 2 copper saltwater quality site-specific criteria estimation models and associated region-specific criteria selection methods. The criteria estimation models and selection methods are simple, efficient, and cost-effective tools for resource managers. The methods are proposed as potential substitutes for the US Environmental Protection Agency's water effect ratio methods. Dissolved organic carbon data and the copper criteria models were used to produce probability-based estimates of site-specific copper saltwater quality criteria. Site- and date-specific criteria estimations were made for 88 sites (n = 5,296) in the Chesapeake Bay. The average and range of estimated site-specific chronic dissolved copper criteria for the Chesapeake Bay were 7.5 and 5.3 to 16.9 microg Cu/L. The average and range of estimated site-specific acute dissolved copper criteria for the Chesapeake Bay were 11.7 and 8.3 to 26.4 microg Cu/L. The results suggest that applicable national and state copper criteria can increase in much of the Chesapeake Bay and remain protective. Virginia Department of Environmental Quality copper criteria near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, however, need to decrease to protect species of equal or greater sensitivity to that of the marine mussel, Mytilus sp.

  6. Image quality and radiation dose of lower extremity CT angiography at 70 kVp on an integrated circuit detector dual-source computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Qi, Li; Zhao, Yan'E; Zhou, Chang Sheng; Spearman, James V; Renker, Matthias; Schoepf, U Joseph; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming

    2015-06-01

    Despite the well-established requirement for radiation dose reduction there are few studies examining the potential for lower extremity CT angiography (CTA) at 70 kVp. To compare the image quality and radiation dose of lower extremity CTA at 70 kVp using a dual-source CT system with an integrated circuit detector to similar studies at 120 kVp. A total of 62 patients underwent lower extremity CTA. Thirty-one patients were examined at 70 kVp using a second generation dual-source CT with an integrated circuit detector (70 kVp group) and 31 patients were evaluated at 120 kVp using a first generation dual-source CT (120 kVp group). The attenuation and image noise were measured and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Two radiologists assessed image quality. Radiation dose was compared. The mean attenuation of the 70 kVp group was higher than the 120 kVp group (575 ± 149 Hounsfield units [HU] vs. 258 ± 38 HU, respectively, P < 0.001) as was SNR (44.0 ± 22.0 vs 32.7 ± 13.3, respectively, P = 0.017), CNR (39.7 ± 20.6 vs 26.6 ± 11.7, respectively, P = 0.003) and the mean image quality score (3.7 ± 0.1 vs. 3.2 ± 0.3, respectively, P < 0.001). The inter-observer agreement was good for the 70 kVp group and moderate for the 120 kVp group. The dose-length product was lower in the 70 kVp group (264.5 ± 63.1 mGy × cm vs. 412.4 ± 81.5 mGy × cm, P < 0.001). Lower extremity CTA at 70 kVp allows for lower radiation dose with higher SNR, CNR, and image quality when compared with standard 120 kVp. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Super-narrow, extremely high quality collective plasmon resonances at telecom wavelengths and their application in a hybrid graphene-plasmonic modulator.

    PubMed

    Thackray, Benjamin D; Thomas, Philip A; Auton, Gregory H; Rodriguez, Francisco J; Marshall, Owen P; Kravets, Vasyl G; Grigorenko, Alexander N

    2015-05-13

    We present extremely narrow collective plasmon resonances observed in gold nanostripe arrays fabricated on a thin gold film, with the spectral line full width at half-maximum (fwhm) as low as 5 nm and quality factors Q reaching 300, at important fiber-optic telecommunication wavelengths around 1.5 μm. Using these resonances, we demonstrate a hybrid graphene-plasmonic modulator with the modulation depth of 20% in reflection operated by gating of a single layer graphene, the largest measured so far.

  8. PS2-45: Conducting Multi-site Quality Assurance on Laboratory Results Data Incorporated into the Virtual Data Warehouse

    PubMed Central

    Saylor, Gwyn; Bredfeldt, Christine; Butler, Melissa; Folck, Bruce; Hitz, Paul; Krajenta, Richard; Ogarek, Jessica; Ovans, Lucas; Pardee, Roy; Riedlinger, Karen; Schmidt, Mark; Sterrett, Andrew; Raebel, Marsha

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Assuring that complete and correct laboratory test results are brought into the VDW and associated with the correct Test_Type is an ongoing task. Many problems can occur. For example, a particular version of a test can incorrectly be left out when the data are extracted. Results can be duplicated, or results can be associated incorrectly with a Test_Type. Creating quality assurance checks to locate problems or validate data requires evaluating the same data record from several different angles. Methods We conducted quality assurance on numerous laboratory test results that had been incorporated into VDW format across as many as 11 HMORN sites. Quality assurance programs were written to provide counts of test results across sites and over time. These programs also detailed result values, result units, patient location, result location, and other specific metrics. Descriptive statistics and graphical displays were used to facilitate assessment of across-site data variability and identify potential data quality issues. Sites were provided their site-specific results and results for all participating sites. Results Masking site information, we will show examples of quality assurance checks and depict what type of problem each is designed to point out. Examples may include incorrectly mapped tests (e.g., “hemoglobin” test results where the result unit was in percent and was determined to actually be glycosylated hemoglobin results) and tests that require investigation by the site because the result unit is possible, but unusual (e.g., total cholesterol units of g/dl require verification of g/dl unit and conversion to mg/dl before use or verification that g/dl was entered or read incorrectly). Other examples can include the volume of test results now contained within the VDW (e.g., total cholesterol total n is over 26.6 million results). Conclusions Laboratory result quality assurance requires assessment of problems as well as verifying expectations

  9. Preliminary examination of the impacts of repository site characterization activities and facility construction and operation activities on Hanford air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, C.S.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1986-04-01

    Air quality impacts that would result from site characterization activities and from the construction and operation of a high-level nuclear wste repository at Hanford are estimated using two simple atmospheric dispersion models, HANCHI and CHISHORT. Model results indicate that pollutant concentrations would not exceed ambient air quality standards at any point outside the Hanford fenceline or at any publicly accessible location within the Hanford Site. The increase in pollutant concentrations in nearby communities due to site activities would be minimal. HANCHI and CHISHORT are documented in the appendices of this document. Further study of the repository's impact on air quality will be conducted when more detailed project plans and work schedules are available.

  10. Surface- and ground-water quality data at selected landfill sites in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, 1979-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey initiated an urban water-quality study in 1979 in cooperation with the City of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. As part of this study, a water-quality monitoring network was established at selected landfill sites in Mecklenburg County. Water-quality samples were collected at 27 surface-water sites and 97 ground-water sites at 5 landfills from 1979-92. Samples were analyzed for selected physical and biological characteristics, major inorganic ions, nutrients, trace elements, organic compounds, and suspended sediment. Analyses for constituents of concern are presented in tables and as graphical time series plots. Results from all analyses are compiled in tabular form in appendixes.

  11. Long-term measurements of NO(3) radical at a semiarid urban site: 1. Extreme concentration events and their oxidation capacity.

    PubMed

    Asaf, David; Pedersen, Daniel; Matveev, Valeri; Peleg, Mordechai; Kern, Christoph; Zingler, Jutta; Platt, Ulrich; Luria, Menachem

    2009-12-15

    Nitrate radical (NO(3)), an important nighttime tropospheric oxidant, was measured continuously for two years (July 2005 to September 2007) in Jerusalem, a semiarid urban site, by long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS). From this period, 21 days with the highest concentrations of nitrate radical (above 220 pptv) were selected for analysis. Joint measurements with the University of Heidelberg's LP-DOAS showed good agreement (r = 0.94). For all daytime measurements, NO(3) remained below the detection limit (8.5 pptv). The highest value recorded was more than 800 pptv (July 27, 2007), twice the maximum level reported previously. For this subset of measurements, mean maximum values for the extreme events were 345 pptv (SD = 135 pptv). Concentrations rose above detection limits at sunset, peaked between midnight and early morning, and returned to zero at sunrise. These elevated concentrations of NO(3) were a consequence of several factors, including an increase in ozone concentrations parallel to a substantial decrease in relative humidity during the night; Mean nighttime NO(2) levels above 10 ppbv, which prevented a deficiency in NO(3) precursors; Negligible NO levels during the night; and a substantial decrease in the loss processes, which led to a lower degradation frequency and allowed NO(3) lifetimes to build up to a maximum mean of 25 min. The results indicate that the major sink pathway for NO(3) was direct homogeneous gas phase reactions with VOC, and a smaller indirect pathway via hydrolysis of N(2)O(5). The Jerusalem measurements were used to estimate the oxidation potential of extreme NO(3) levels at an urban location. The 24 h average potential of NO(3), OH, and O(3) to oxidize hydrocarbons was evaluated for 30 separate VOCs. NO(3) was found to be responsible for approximately 70% of the oxidation of total VOCs and nearly 75% of the olefinic VOCs; which was more than twice the VOC oxidation potential of the OH radical. These results

  12. Pre-monsoon air quality over Lumbini, a world heritage site along the Himalayan foothills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupakheti, Dipesh; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Siva Praveen, Puppala; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Kang, Shichang; Singh Mahata, Khadak; Naja, Manish; Zhang, Qianggong; Panday, Arnico Kumar; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2017-09-01

    Lumbini, in southern Nepal, is a UNESCO world heritage site of universal value as the birthplace of Buddha. Poor air quality in Lumbini and surrounding regions is a great concern for public health as well as for preservation, protection and promotion of Buddhist heritage and culture. We present here results from measurements of ambient concentrations of key air pollutants (PM, BC, CO, O3) in Lumbini, first of its kind for Lumbini, conducted during an intensive measurement period of 3 months (April-June 2013) in the pre-monsoon season. The measurements were carried out as a part of the international air pollution measurement campaign; SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley - Atmospheric Brown Clouds). The main objective of this work is to understand and document the level of air pollution, diurnal characteristics and influence of open burning on air quality in Lumbini. The hourly average concentrations during the entire measurement campaign ranged as follows: BC was 0.3-30.0 µg m-3, PM1 was 3.6-197.6 µg m-3, PM2. 5 was 6.1-272.2 µg m-3, PM10 was 10.5-604.0 µg m-3, O3 was 1.0-118.1 ppbv and CO was 125.0-1430.0 ppbv. These levels are comparable to other very heavily polluted sites in South Asia. Higher fraction of coarse-mode PM was found as compared to other nearby sites in the Indo-Gangetic Plain region. The ΔBC / ΔCO ratio obtained in Lumbini indicated considerable contributions of emissions from both residential and transportation sectors. The 24 h average PM2. 5 and PM10 concentrations exceeded the WHO guideline very frequently (94 and 85 % of the sampled period, respectively), which implies significant health risks for the residents and visitors in the region. These air pollutants exhibited clear diurnal cycles with high values in the morning and evening. During the study period, the worst air pollution episodes were mainly due to agro-residue burning and regional forest fires combined with meteorological conditions conducive of

  13. Reinterpretation of gizzard sizes of red knots world-wide emphasises overriding importance of prey quality at migratory stopover sites

    PubMed Central

    van Gils, Jan A; Battley, Phil F; Piersma, Theunis; Drent, Rudi

    2005-01-01

    The size of digestive organs can be rapidly and reversibly adjusted to ecological circumstances, but such phenotypic flexibility comes at a cost. Here, we test how the gizzard mass of a long-distance migrant, the red knot (Calidris canutus), is adjusted to (i) local climate, (ii) prey quality and (iii) migratory fuelling demands. For eight sites around the world (both wintering and stopover sites), we assembled data on gizzard masses of free-living red knots, the quality of their prey and the local climate. Using an energetic cost–benefit approach, we predicted the gizzard size required for fastest fuelling (net rate-maximization, i.e. expected during migration) and the gizzard size required to balance daily energy budgets (satisficing, expected in wintering birds) at each site. The measured gizzards matched the net rate-maximizing predictions at stopover sites and the satisficing predictions at wintering sites. To our surprise, owing to the fact that red knots selected stopover sites with prey of particularly high quality, gizzard sizes at stopovers and at wintering sites were nevertheless similar. To quantify the benefit of minimizing size changes in the gizzard, we constructed a model incorporating the size-dependent energy costs of maintaining and carrying a gizzard. The model showed that by selecting stopovers containing high-quality prey, metabolic rates are kept at a minimum, potentially reducing the spring migratory period by a full week. By inference, red knots appear to time their stopovers so that they hit local peaks in prey quality, which occur during the reproductive seasons of the intertidal benthic invertebrates. PMID:16321783

  14. Role of soil macrofauna in soil formation in post mining sites along climatic and litter quality gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouz, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Soil macrofauna can play important role in soil formation. Here we used thin soil sections to study this process in two environmental gradients, climatic gradient, and liter quality gradient. Climatic gradient consist from four chronosequences of post mining sites in the USA, covering hardwood forest (TN, IN), tallgrass prairie (IL), or shortgrass prairie (WY). Earthworms and other saprophages were absent in such shortgrass sites but were present in the wetter, eastern sites. Absence of saprophagous groups, and especially earthworms, resulted in the absence of bioturbation in shortgrass prairie sites while worm casts and other biogenic structures formed an important part of the soil profile in other chronosequences, in short grass prairie in turn physical processes, such as erosion may play important role in soil mixing. Litter quality gradient consists from set of 28 sites planted with six kind of tree stand (pine, larch, spruce, oak, lime and alder) and unreclaimed sites (covered by willow, birch, aspen dominated forest) on one large heap in Czech Republic. Earthworm density on these sites negatively correlate with CN ratio, the same relationships was shown for proportion of earthworm cast in soil volume. In sites with high earthworm density Oe layer was absent and A layer formed by worm casts was well developed, in the contrary when earthworm were absent Oe layer was thick and A layer absent. Development of A layer correlate with soil carbon storage.

  15. Decomposition of birch leaves in heavily polluted industrial barrens: relative importance of leaf quality and site of exposure.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Mikhail V; Zvereva, Elena L

    2015-07-01

    The decrease in litter decomposition rate in polluted habitats is well documented, but the factors that explain the observed variation in the magnitude of this pollution effect on litter decomposition remain poorly understood. We explored effects of environmental conditions and leaf quality on decomposition rate of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) leaves in a heavily polluted industrial barren near the nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk. Litter bags filled with leaves collected from two heavily polluted barren sites and from two control forest sites were buried at 2.5-cm depth and exposed for 2 and 4 years at each of these four sites. The relative mass loss of native leaves in the industrial barren during 2 years of exposure was reduced to 49% of the loss observed in the unpolluted forest. We found a similar reduction in mass loss when leaves from control sites were exposed to polluted sites and when leaves from polluted sites were exposed to control sites. We conclude that the reduction in leaf litter decomposition in an industrial barren is caused by pollution-induced changes in both environmental conditions and leaf quality. This reduction is much smaller than expected, given the four-fold decrease in soil microbial activity and nearly complete extinction of saprophagous invertebrates in the polluted soil. We suggest that a longer snowless period and higher spring and summer temperatures at the barren sites have partially counterbalanced the adverse effects caused by the toxicity of metal pollutants.

  16. Comparative analysis of effluent water quality from a municipal treatment plant and two on-site wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Santos N; Clubbs, Rebekah L; Stanley, Jacob K; Scheffe, Brian; Yelderman, Joe C; Brooks, Bryan W

    2013-06-01

    Though decentralized on-site technologies are extensively employed for wastewater treatment around the globe, an understanding of effluent water quality impairments associated with these systems remain less understood than effluent discharges from centralized municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Using a unique experimental facility, a novel comparative analysis of effluent water quality was performed from model decentralized aerobic (ATS) and septic (STS) on-site wastewater treatment systems and a centralized municipal wastewater treatment plant (MTP). The ATS and STS units did not benefit from further soil treatment. Each system received common influent wastewater from the Waco, Texas, USA Metropolitan Area Regional Sewerage System. We tested the hypothesis that MTP effluent would exhibit higher water quality than on-site effluents, based on parameters selected for study. A tiered testing approach was employed to assess the three effluent discharges: select routine water quality parameters (Tier I), whole effluent toxicity (Tier II), and select endocrine-active compounds (Tier III). Contrary to our hypothesis, ATS effluent was not statistically different from MTP effluents, based on Tier I and III parameters, but reproductive responses of Daphnia magna were slightly more sensitive to ATS than MTP effluents. STS effluent water quality was identified as most degraded of the three wastewater treatment systems. Parameters used to assess centralized wastewater treatment plant effluent water quality such as whole effluent toxicity and endocrine active substances appear useful for water quality assessments of decentralized discharges. Aerobic on-site wastewater treatment systems may represent more robust options than traditional septic systems for on-site wastewater treatment in watersheds with appreciable groundwater - surface water exchange.

  17. Adjustment of regional regression equations for urban storm-runoff quality using at-site data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barks, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    Regional regression equations have been developed to estimate urban storm-runoff loads and mean concentrations using a national data base. Four statistical methods using at-site data to adjust the regional equation predictions were developed to provide better local estimates. The four adjustment procedures are a single-factor adjustment, a regression of the observed data against the predicted values, a regression of the observed values against the predicted values and additional local independent variables, and a weighted combination of a local regression with the regional prediction. Data collected at five representative storm-runoff sites during 22 storms in Little Rock, Arkansas, were used to verify, and, when appropriate, adjust the regional regression equation predictions. Comparison of observed values of stormrunoff loads and mean concentrations to the predicted values from the regional regression equations for nine constituents (chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, total nitrogen as N, total ammonia plus organic nitrogen as N, total phosphorus as P, dissolved phosphorus as P, total recoverable copper, total recoverable lead, and total recoverable zinc) showed large prediction errors ranging from 63 percent to more than several thousand percent. Prediction errors for 6 of the 18 regional regression equations were less than 100 percent and could be considered reasonable for water-quality prediction equations. The regression adjustment procedure was used to adjust five of the regional equation predictions to improve the predictive accuracy. For seven of the regional equations the observed and the predicted values are not significantly correlated. Thus neither the unadjusted regional equations nor any of the adjustments were appropriate. The mean of the observed values was used as a simple estimator when the regional equation predictions and adjusted predictions were not appropriate.

  18. Quality improvement for patients with hip fracture: experience from a multi-site audit

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, C; Todd, C; Camilleri-Ferrant..., C; Laxton, C; Murrell, P; Palmer, C; Parker, M; Payne, B; Rushton, N

    2002-01-01

    

Problem: The first East Anglian audit of hip fracture was conducted in eight hospitals during 1992. There were significant differences between hospitals in 90-day mortality, development of pressure sores, median lengths of hospital stay, and in most other process measures. Only about half the survivors recovered their pre-fracture physical function. A marked decrease in physical function (for 31%) was associated with postoperative complications. Design: A re-audit was conducted in 1997 as part of a process of continuing quality improvement. This was an interview and record based prospective audit of process and outcome of care with 3 month follow up. Seven hospitals with trauma orthopaedic departments took part in both audits. Results from the 1992 audit and indicator standards for re-audit were circulated to all orthopaedic consultants, care of the elderly consultants, and lead audit facilitators at each hospital. Key measures for improvement: Processes likely to reduce postoperative complications and improve patient outcomes at 90 days. Strategy for change: As this was a multi-site audit, the project group had no direct power to bring about changes within individual NHS hospital trusts. Results: Significant increases were seen in pharmaceutical thromboembolic prophylaxis (from 45% to 81%) and early mobilisation (from 56% to 70%) between 1992 and 1997. There were reduced levels of pneumonia, wound infection, pressure sores, and fatal pulmonary embolism, but no change was recorded in 3 month functional outcomes or mortality. Lessons learnt: While some hospitals had made improvements in care by 1997, others were failing to maintain their level of good practice. This highlights the need for continuous quality improvement by repeating the audit cycle in order to reach and then improve standards. Rehabilitation and long term support to improve functional outcomes are key areas for future audit and research. PMID:12486988

  19. Assessment of water chemistry, habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrates at selected stream-quality monitoring sites in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reif, Andrew G.

    2004-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and habitat data have been collected from a network of sites in Chester County, Pa., from 1970 to 2003 to assess stream quality. Forty sites in 6 major stream basins were sampled between 1998 and 2000. Biological data were used to determine levels of impairment in the benthic-macroinvertebrate community in Chester County streams and relate the impairment, in conjunction with chemical and habitat data, to overall stream quality. Biological data consisted of benthic-macroinvertebrate samples that were collected annually in the fall. Water-chemistry samples were collected and instream habitat was assessed in support of the biological sampling. Most sites in the network were designated as nonimpacted or slightly impacted by human activities or extreme climatic conditions on the basis of biological-metric analysis of benthic-macroinvertebrate data. Impacted sites were affected by factors, such as nutrient enrichment, erosion and sedimentation, point discharges, and droughts and floods. Streams in the Schuylkill River, Delaware River, and East Branch Brandywine Creek Basins in Chester County generally had low nutrient concentrations, except in areas affected by wastewater- treatment discharges, and stream habitat that was affected by erosion. Streams in the West Branch Brandywine, Christina, Big Elk, and Octoraro Creek Basins in Chester County generally had elevated nutrient concentrations and streambottom habitat that was affected by sediment deposition. Macroinvertebrate communities identified in samples from French Creek, Pigeon Creek (Schuylkill River Basin), and East Branch Brandywine Creek at Glenmoore consistently indicate good stream conditions and were the best conditions measured in the network. Macroinvertebrate communities identified in samples from Trout Creek (site 61), West Branch Red Clay Creek (site 55) (Christina River Basin), and Valley Creek near Atglen (site 34) (Octoraro Creek Basin) indicated fair to poor stream conditions and

  20. Geology, hydrology, and water quality in the vicinity of a brownfield redevelopment site in Canton, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, Robert T.; Cornue, David B.; Ursic, James R.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Environmental Operations, Inc., assisted in the characterization of the geology, hydrology, and water quality at a Brownfield redevelopment site in Canton, Illinois. The investigation was designed to determine if metals and organic compounds historically used in industrial operations at the site resulted in a threat to the water resources in the area. The hydraulic units of concern in the study area are the upper semiconfining unit, the sand aquifer, and the lower semiconfining unit. The upper semiconfining unit ranges from about 1 to 19 feet in thickness and is composed of silt-and clay deposits with a geometric mean vertical hydraulic conductivity of 7.1 ? 10-3 feet per day. The sand aquifer is composed of a 1 to 5.5 foot thick sand deposit and is considered the primary pathway for ground-water flow and contaminant migration from beneath the study area. The geometric mean of the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the sand aquifer was calculated to be 1.8 feet per day. The direction of flow in the sand aquifer is to the east, south, and west, away from a ground-water ridge that underlies the center of the site. Ground-water velocity through the sand aquifer ranges from 7.3 ? 10-2 to 2.7 ? 10-1 feet per day. The lower semiconfining unit is composed of sandy silt-and-clay deposits with a geometric mean vertical hydraulic conductivity of 1.1 ? 10-3 feet per day. Volatile organic compounds were detected in ground water beneath the study area. Pesticide compounds were detected in ground water in the western part of the study area. Partial or complete degradation of some of the volatile organic and pesticide compounds is occurring in the soils and ground water beneath the study area. Concentrations of most of the metals and major cations in the ground water show some variation within the study area and may be affected by the presence of a source area, pH, oxidation

  1. Feasibility and outcomes of a classical Pilates program on lower extremity strength, posture, balance, gait, and quality of life in someone with impairments due to a stroke.

    PubMed

    Shea, Sarah; Moriello, Gabriele

    2014-07-01

    Pilates is a method that can potentially be used for stroke rehabilitation to address impairments in gait, balance, strength, and posture. The purpose of this case report was to document the feasibility of using Pilates and to describe outcomes of a 9-month program on lower extremity strength, balance, posture, gait, and quality of life in an individual with stroke. The participant was taught Pilates exercises up to two times per week for nine months in addition to traditional rehabilitation in the United States. Outcomes were assessed using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Stroke Impact Scale (SIS), GAITRite System(®), 5 repetition sit-to-stand test (STST), and flexicurve. Improvements were found in balance, lower extremity strength, and quality of life. Posture and gait speed remained the same. While these changes cannot be specifically attributed to the intervention, Pilates may have added to his overall rehabilitation program and with some modifications was feasible to use in someone with a stroke. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Methods to ensure the quality of excavated soil material from geogenically metalliferous sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebhard, Peter; Sager, Manfred

    2017-04-01

    Soils at geogenically metalliferous sites might exceed heavy metal threshold levels with respect to agricultural use, apart from anthropogenic contamination sources. As a fundamental substrate for green plants and green plant production, soil is not easily renewable, its formation needs long time (e.g. 500 years for 20 mm). In Austria, about 10ha of soil get sealed every day, resulting in complete loss of its biological functions. Excavated soil material has been classified as waste from a legal point of view, which made 33 mill. tons resp. 48% of total waste in Austria in 2010. Recycling of excavated soil material for agricultural use will be an important task to reduce future waste and to enlarge agricultural substrate volumes, but methods to ensure proper qualities are needed to improve regulations. Within this investigation, the transfer of various metals from geogenically metalliferous soils to various crop plants will be investigated, and correlated with various simple soil test methods. Four excavated soil materials from the metalliferous schist zone within the Austrian province of Styria (Kraubath/Mur, Übelbach) and a low-metal reference sample have been taken as substrates to grow raygrass (lolium multiflorum) as a green cover, salad (Lactuca sativa) as a vegetable food item, oats (Avena sativa), maize (Zea mais) and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) as a hyperaccumulating species. Results and recommendations will be presented.

  3. Quality control of transcription start site selection by nonsense-mediated-mRNA decay

    PubMed Central

    Malabat, Christophe; Feuerbach, Frank; Ma, Laurence; Saveanu, Cosmin; Jacquier, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a translation-dependent RNA quality-control pathway targeting transcripts such as messenger RNAs harboring premature stop-codons or short upstream open reading frame (uORFs). Our transcription start sites (TSSs) analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells deficient for RNA degradation pathways revealed that about half of the pervasive transcripts are degraded by NMD, which provides a fail-safe mechanism to remove spurious transcripts that escaped degradation in the nucleus. Moreover, we found that the low specificity of RNA polymerase II TSSs selection generates, for 47% of the expressed genes, NMD-sensitive transcript isoforms carrying uORFs or starting downstream of the ATG START codon. Despite the low abundance of this last category of isoforms, their presence seems to constrain genomic sequences, as suggested by the significant bias against in-frame ATGs specifically found at the beginning of the corresponding genes and reflected by a depletion of methionines in the N-terminus of the encoded proteins. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06722.001 PMID:25905671

  4. Microscale modelling simulations for the site characterization of air quality stations in an urban environment.

    PubMed

    Tinarelli, G; Piersanti, A; Radice, P; Clemente, M; De Maria, R

    2009-12-01

    The presence of natural or artificial barriers placed near the air quality measuring stations located in an urban environment poses some problems in the assessment of their siting and significance. The atmospheric flow distortion induced by these structures can create situations that affect the concentration levels of measured pollutants. A modelling study at microscale of the pollutant dispersion in an urban environment has been performed to quantify these possible effects on measurements. The target domain is located in a central section of the city of Turin (northern Italy) around via della Consolata, near the location of an existing station of the regional monitoring network. The study involved the use of the modelling system Micro-Swift-Spray, which takes into account the presence of complex topographical barriers, including street canyons and squares surrounded by buildings. Two entire days have been simulated, to characterise both a critical and a more standard condition, with reconstruction of average flow, turbulence and hourly ground-level pollutant concentrations. Contributions from both traffic and building-heating sources have been considered and a comparison with measured concentrations has been performed to verify the representativeness of the measuring station with respect to both average conditions and spatial variability inside the considered region, otherwise very difficult to asses through a single and isolated measuring point.

  5. Indoor air quality at five site museums of Yangtze River civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Tafeng; Jia, Wenting; Cao, Junji; Huang, Rujin; Li, Hua; Liu, Suixin; Ma, Tao; Zhu, Yuqing

    2015-12-01

    The Yangtze River civilization, dating back to more than 7 thousand years ago, is one of the most historic culture aggregates in China. For long-term conservation of archaeological artifacts and historical ruins along the Yangtze River, indoor air quality at five site museums were investigated during summer and winter. Unstable microclimate conditions were observed at all five museums. The maximal seasonal variations in temperature and relative humidity were 25.7 °C and 40.0%, respectively. The mass concentration of PM2.5 inside the museums remained at high levels, ranging from 33.9 to 79.6 μg/m3 in winter and from 52.8 to 113.0 μg/m3 in summer. Organic matter (OM) constituted a major fraction (39.3%-53.9% in summer, 22.1%-27.8% in winter) of total PM2.5. The results showed that besides short-term fluctuation and seasonal variation in microclimate conditions, infiltration of gaseous and particulate air pollutants should be of increasing concern at museums in Southern China.

  6. Cornell University remote sensing program. [application to waste disposal site selection, study of drainage patterns, and water quality management.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, T.; Mcnair, A. J.; Philipson, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite remote sensing technology were applied in the following areas: (1) evaluation of proposed fly ash disposal sites; (2) development of priorities for drainage improvements; (3) state park analysis for rehabilitation and development; (4) watershed study for water quality planning; and (5) assistance project-landfill site selection. Results are briefly summarized. Other projects conducted include: (1) assessment of vineyard-related problems; (2) LANDSAT analysis for pheasant range management; (3) photo-historic evaluation of Revolutionary War sites; and (4) thermal analysis of building insulation. The objectives, expected benefits and actions, and status of these projects are described.

  7. Setting site-specific water-quality standards by using tissue residue criteria and bioaccumulation data. Part 1. Methodology.

    PubMed

    Toll, John E; Tear, Lucinda M; DeForest, David K; Brix, Kevin V; Adams, William J

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a method for determining site-specific water-quality standards (SSWQSs) for substances regulated based on tissue residues. The method uses a multisite regression model to solve for the conditional prior probability density function (PDF) on water concentration, given that tissue concentration equals a tissue residue threshold. The method then uses site-specific water and tissue concentration data to update the probabilities on a Monte Carlo sample of the prior PDF by using Bayesian Monte Carlo analysis. The resultant posterior PDF identifies the water concentration that, if met at the site, would provide a desired level of confidence of meeting the tissue residue threshold contingent on model assumptions. This allows for derivation of a SSWQS. The method is fully reproducible, statistically rigorous, and easily implemented. A useful property of the method is that the model is sensitive to the amount of site-specific data available, that is, a more conservative or protective number (water concentration) is derived when the data set is small or the variance is large. Likewise, as the site water concentration increases above the water-quality standard, more site-specific information is needed to demonstrate a safe concentration at the site. A companion paper demonstrates the method by using selenium as an example.

  8. The importance of environmental quality and catch potential to fishing site selection by freshwater anglers in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schramm, H.L.; Gerard, P.D.; Gill, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    We measured the importance of 24 fishing site attributes to Mississippi freshwater anglers. Factor analysis identified four multiattribute factors as important in the selection of fishing location: CLEAN ENVIRONMENT CATCH, COST AND HARVEST and AMENITIES AND SAFETY. In general, the importance of site selection factors differed little among anglers grouped by preferred type of fish, preferred fishing location (lakes and reservoirs, rivers and streams, ponds, or reservoir tailwaters), usual manner of fishing (engine-powered boat, nonpowered boat, or shore), or change in fishing frequency. COST AND HARVEST was more important to anglers with high harvest orientations. We found low correlations between site selection factor importance scores and angler age, fishing frequency, fishing expenditures, or fishing motivation factors. We suggest that the general lack of differences in site selection factors among angler groups indicates that management strategies to improve fishing site attributes should benefit all angler groups. Clean fishing environments and awareness of the availability of desired sport fishes were "very" or "extremely" important to fishing site selection by more than 70% of Mississippi freshwater anglers and should be priority management objectives.

  9. Groundwater quality in an abandoned metal extraction site: the case study of Campello Monti (NW Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Neha; Lasagna, Manuela; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; De Luca, Domenico Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Extractive activities present threat to natural water systems and their effects are observed even after the cessation of activities. The harmful effects of extractive activities such as deterioration of water sources by low quality waters or by allowing leaching of metals into groundwater makes it necessary to carry out careful, scientific and comprehensive studies on this subject. Consequently, the same problem statement was chosen as part of a PhD research Project. The PhD research is part of REMEDIATE project (A Marie Sklodowska-Curie Action Initial Training Network for Improved decision making in contaminated land site investigation and risk assessment, Grant Agreement No. 643087). The current work thus points out on the contamination of groundwater sources due to past mining activities in the area. Contaminated groundwater may act as possible contamination source to surface water also. The impacts on water systems connected to mining activities depend on the ore type, metal being extracted, exploitation method, ore processing, pollution control efforts, geochemical and hydrogeochemical conditions of water and surroundings. To evaluate the effects posed by past metal extracting activities the study was carried out at an abandoned site used for extracting nickel in Campello Monti (Valstrona municipality, Piedmont region, Italy). Campello Monti is located in basement of Southern Italian Alps in the Ivrea Verbano Zone. The area is composed of mafic rocks intruded by mantle periodite. The mafic formation consists of peridotites, pyroxenites, gabbros, anorthosites, gabbro-norite, gabbro-diorite and diorite. Mines were used for nickel exploitation from 9th Century and continued until 1940s. The long history of nickel extraction has left the waste contaminated with Ni and Co in the mountains alongwith tunnels used for carrying out metal extracting activities. The area around the site is used for housing, shows the presence of domestic animals and has Strona creek

  10. Site specific fertilization affects yield, fruit size, quality, and shelf-life of ‘Kent' mango

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Site specific fertilization (SSF) defines the type and rate of fertilizer needed for individual orchards. This study presents preliminary results (2010-2011) of a medium term project to quantify the effects of SSF on yield, fruit size, quality, and shelf-life of ‘Kent’ mango. Two orchards are used f...

  11. Health effects and water quality at marine sites: Results from the National Epidemiologic and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 2003, we have conducted a series of epidemiological studies at beach sites impacted by treated sewage discharge. The goal was to evaluate the association between swimming-associated illness and novel and faster methods of measuring water quality. In 2005 and 2007, we expand...

  12. Negotiating the COAPRT Learning Outcomes Transition Using Quality Management Tools: A Case Study of the COAPRT Beta Test Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a case study. It tells the story of the process that the Council on Accreditation for Parks, Recreation, Tourism and Related Professions beta test site created its learning outcomes assessment program. A planning process was used that has evolved from quality management philosophy and practice: DMADV. Use of DMADV required precise…

  13. Health effects and water quality at marine sites: Results from the National Epidemiologic and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 2003, we have conducted a series of epidemiological studies at beach sites impacted by treated sewage discharge. The goal was to evaluate the association between swimming-associated illness and novel and faster methods of measuring water quality. In 2005 and 2007, we expand...

  14. Quality of the Information on Educational and Therapy Interventions Provided on the Web Sites of National Autism Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Jennifer; Carter, Mark; Kemp, Coral

    2012-01-01

    Parents and teachers of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are often presented with a confusing array of intervention options that vary considerably in their level of research support. Logical sources of information and guidance are the web sites of national autism associations. This research examined the quality of the information that…

  15. Negotiating the COAPRT Learning Outcomes Transition Using Quality Management Tools: A Case Study of the COAPRT Beta Test Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a case study. It tells the story of the process that the Council on Accreditation for Parks, Recreation, Tourism and Related Professions beta test site created its learning outcomes assessment program. A planning process was used that has evolved from quality management philosophy and practice: DMADV. Use of DMADV required precise…

  16. Quality of the Information on Educational and Therapy Interventions Provided on the Web Sites of National Autism Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Jennifer; Carter, Mark; Kemp, Coral

    2012-01-01

    Parents and teachers of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are often presented with a confusing array of intervention options that vary considerably in their level of research support. Logical sources of information and guidance are the web sites of national autism associations. This research examined the quality of the information that…

  17. Fluconazole prophylaxis in extremely low birth weight infants and neurodevelopmental outcomes and quality of life at 8 to 10 years of age.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, David A; Cuff, Amy L; Wamstad, Julia B; Boyle, Robert; Gurka, Matthew J; Grossman, Leigh B; Patrick, Peter

    2011-05-01

    To examine the long-term effects of fluconazole prophylaxis in extremely low birth weight infants. Neurodevelopmental status and quality of life of survivors from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of fluconazole prophylaxis were evaluated at 8 to 10 years of life using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS-II) and the Child Health Questionnaire Parent-Completed Form 28 (CHQ-PF28), respectively. VABS-II Domain Scores for the fluconazole-treated (n = 21; 9.1 ± 0.7 years) compared with the placebo group (n = 17; 9.3 ± 0.8 years) were similar for communication [94.6 (±14.8) versus 92.6 (±12.6), P = .65], daily living skills [87.9 (±10.6) versus 87.4 (±9.3), P = .89], socialization [97.2 (±9.2) versus 94.4 (±7.9), P = .31], and motor skills [92.1 (±17.8) versus 95.1 (±14.6), P = .57]. Internalizing and externalizing behaviors and maladaptive behavior index were also similar. The CHQ-PF28 revealed no differences between the two groups regarding quality of life. Survivors were also happy or satisfied with school (90% versus 100%, P = .49), friendships (90% versus 88%, P = 1.00), and life (95% versus 100%, P = 1.00). Self esteem scores were 87.3 ± 15.7 versus 89.7 ± 10.4 (P = .59). There were also no differences between groups regarding emotional difficulties or behavior problems. Fluconazole prophylaxis for the prevention of invasive Candida infections is safe in extremely low birth weight infants and does not appear to be associated with any long-term adverse effects on neurodevelopment and quality of life at 8 to 10 years of life. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Biotic ligand model, a flexible tool for developing site-specific water quality guidelines for metals.

    PubMed

    Niyogi, Soumya; Wood, Chris M

    2004-12-01

    The biotic ligand model (BLM) is a mechanistic approach that greatly improves our ability to generate site-specific ambient water quality criteria (AWQC)for metals in the natural environment relative to conventional relationships based only on hardness. The model is flexible; all aspects of water chemistry that affect toxicity can be included, so the BLM integrates the concept of bioavailability into AWQC--in essence the computational equivalent of water effect ratio (WER) testing. The theory of the BLM evolved from the gill surface interaction model (GSIM) and the free ion activity model (FIAM). Using an equilibrium geochemical modeling framework, the BLM incorporates the competition of the free metal ion with other naturally occurring cations (e.g., Ca2+, Na+, Mg2-, H+), togetherwith complexation by abiotic ligands [e.g., DOM (dissolved organic matter), chloride, carbonates, sulfide] for binding with the biotic ligand, the site of toxic action on the organism. On the basis of fish gill research, the biotic ligands appear to be active ion uptake pathways (e.g., Na+ transporters for copper and silver, Ca2+ transporters for zinc, cadmium, lead, and cobalt), whose geochemical characteristics (affinity = log K, capacity = Bmax) can be quantified in short-term (3-24 h) in vivo gill binding tests. In general, the greater the toxicity of a particular metal, the higher the log K. The BLM quantitatively relates short-term binding to acute toxicity, with the LA50 (lethal accumulation) being predictive of the LC50 (generally 96 h for fish, 48 h for daphnids). We critically evaluate currently available BLMs for copper, silver, zinc, and nickel and gill binding approaches for cadmium, lead, and cobalt on which BLMs could be based. Most BLMs originate from tests with fish and have been recalibrated for more sensitive daphnids by adjustment of LA50 so as to fit the results of toxicity testing. Issues of concern include the arbitrary nature of LA50 adjustments; possible

  19. Assessment of the Hydrogeochemistry and Groundwater Quality of the Tarim River Basin in an Extreme Arid Region, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jun; Jin, Zhangdong; Wang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of the major and trace elements in the groundwater of the Tarim River Basin (TRB), the largest inland river basin of China, were analyzed before and during rainy seasons to determine the hydrogeochemistry and to assess the groundwater quality for irrigation and drinking purposes. The groundwater within the TRB was slightly alkaline and characterized by high ionic concentrations. The groundwater in the northern sub-basin was fresh water with a Ca2+-HCO3 - water type, whereas the groundwater in the southern and central sub-basins was brackish with a Na+-Cl- water type. Evaporite dissolution and carbonate weathering were the primary and secondary sources of solutes in the groundwater within the basin, whereas silicate weathering played a minor role. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), water quality index (WQI), and sodium percentage (%Na) indicated that the groundwater in the northern sub-basin was suitable for irrigation and drinking, but that in the southern and central sub-basins was not suitable. The groundwater quality was slightly better in the wet season than in the dry season. The groundwater could be used for drinking after treatment for B3+, F-, and SO4 2- and for irrigation after control of the sodium and salinity hazards. Considering the high corrosivity ratio of the groundwater in this area, noncorrosive pipes should be used for the groundwater supply. For sustainable development, integrated management of the surface water and the groundwater is needed in the future.

  20. Water-quality data from continuously monitored sites in the Pamlico and Neuse River estuaries, North Carolina, 1989-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrett, Ronald G.; Bales, Jerad

    1991-01-01

    Beginning in April 1989, water quality measurements were made at six sites in or near Pamlico River estuary and at five sites in or near the Neuse River estuary. Measurements taken at 15-minute intervals included near-surface and near-bottom specific conductance; near-surface water temperature; and near-surface, mid-depth, and near-bottom dissolved-oxygen concentrations. Water-quality data obtained from continuously-monitored sites in the Pamlico River estuary and the Neuse River estuary are presented for the period April 1989 through September 1990. Instantaneous values for selected periods are summarized in a series of box plots. Instantaneous maximum and minimum values are also tabulated. Daily mean values of salinity, water temperature, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations for the entire period are presented in tables and graphs.

  1. Water-Quality Data for Selected Stream Sites in Bridgeport Valley, Mono County, California, April 2000 to June 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, Gerald L.; Honeywell, Paul D.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Lahonton Region, carried out a water-quality data collection program of selected streams in and near Bridgeport Valley, California, during April 2000 to June 2003. These data were collected to provide information used by the California Regional Water Quality Control Board to develop total maximum daily load standards. Field measurements of streamflow, barometric pressure, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, and water temperature were made at 15 sites located on 6 streams. Water samples were analyzed for nutrients, major ions, turbidity, fecal coliform, fecal streptococci, and suspended sediment. Field data, turbidity, nutrient, major ion, and sediment concentrations and fecal coliform and fecal streptococci densities are given in tables for each site. Field blank data are also presented in a table.

  2. Quality assurance manual for the environmental survey and site assessment program, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    SciTech Connect

    2000-03-21

    The purpose of this manual is to provide Program policy and oversight for the maintenance of Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) within the Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP) of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education. This manual describes administrative systems, as well as specific quality control procedures, which apply to all functional groups in ESSAP. The sites surveyed under this program are primarily those where residual contamination from previous operations may pose a potential risk to the environment or to the health and safety of those in the immediate vicinity. Other major activities include environmental assessments, training related to decommissioning survey activities, effluent sampling and monitoring, special laboratory analyses, program appraisals and document reviews, consulting on environment-related topics, and technical assistance for guideline development. The methodology for performance of particular field and laboratory activities is presented in the ESSAP Survey Procedures Manual and the Laboratory Procedures Manual.

  3. Long-term functional outcomes and quality of life in adult survivors of childhood extremity sarcomas: a report from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Pineda, Israel; Hudson, M M; Pappo, A S; Bishop, M W; Klosky, J L; Brinkman, T M; Srivastava, D K; Neel, M D; Rao, B N; Davidoff, A M; Krull, K R; Mulrooney, D A; Robison, L L; Ness, K K

    2017-02-01

    This study compared measured physical performance, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and social role attainment between extremity sarcoma survivors and controls, and evaluated associations between disease and treatment exposures, health conditions, and performance measures. Survivors of extremity sarcoma from the St. Jude Lifetime cohort and controls frequency matched by age-, sex-, and race completed physical performance testing and questionnaires. Survivors with Z-scores on outcome measures ≤ -2.0 SD (compared to controls) were categorized with severe impairment/limitation. Among 206 survivors (52.4 % male median age 36 years (range 19-65)), 37 % had low relative lean mass, 9.7 % had an ejection fraction <50 %, 51.5 % had diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide <75 %, 27.7 % had sensory and 25.2 % motor neuropathy, and 78.2 % had musculoskeletal complications. Severe impairments/limitations were present among ≥25 % of survivors on fitness, balance, and physical HRQOL measures, and among ≥15 % on strength and activity of daily living measures. Lower extremity tumor location (OR 8.23, 95 % CI 2.54-26.67, P value 0.0004) and amputation (OR 8.07, 95 % CI 3.06-21.27, P value <0.0001) were associated with poor fitness. Poor fitness was associated with increased odds of scoring <40 on the SF-36 physical component summary (OR 4.83, 95 % CI 1.95-11.99, P value 0.001) and role-physical subscale (OR 3.34, 95 % CI 1.33-8.43, P value 0.01). Survivors and controls had similar rates of marriage, independent living, employment, and college attendance. Extremity sarcoma survivors experience high rates of physical impairment and report lower than expected physical HRQOL. However, they are as likely as peers to be married, live independently, be employed, and attend college. Follow-up for extremity sarcoma survivors should include assessment of need for further orthopedic care and rehabilitation to address cardiopulmonary and musculoskeletal health.

  4. Maintaining Quality of Library Web Sites Using Cluster and Path Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matylonek, John

    2002-01-01

    Provides methods for the systematic redesign of a library Web site through comparing baseline data changes in use brought about by design changes. Shows how complementary information, based on Web users' log statistics and direct observations of users, can enhance a library Web site. Relates this information to practical Web site decisions that…

  5. The Patient Experience: An Analysis of Orthopedic Surgeon Quality on Physician-Rating Sites.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Prem N; Navarro, Sergio M; Chughtai, Morad; La, Ton; Fisch, Evan; Mont, Michael A

    2017-09-01

    With the advent of the Consensus Core of Orthopedic Measures, arthroplasty surgeons are increasingly subjected to public performance reviews on physician-rating sites. Therefore, we evaluated (1) web site details of physician-rating sites, (2) differences between sites and the Consensus Core, (3) published patient experiences, (4) search rank among sites, and (5) differences between academic vs nonacademic and arthroplasty vs nonarthroplasty surgeons. The 5 busiest physician-rating sites were analyzed. To compare physician-rating sites to the Consensus Core, 3 reviewers analyzed the web site details. To evaluate patient ratings and reviews, orthopedists from the top 5 academic and nonacademic hospitals (2016 US News & World Report) were analyzed. Institution-produced rating sites were also analyzed. Findings were stratified between academic vs nonacademic and arthroplasty vs nonarthroplasty surgeons. Five hundred and six staff surgeons across 10 academic and nonacademic affiliated hospitals yielded 27,792 patient-generated ratings and reviews for 1404 accounts. Features on all sites were practice location, languages spoken, and patient experience. Two sites autogenerated profiles of surgeons without consent. No physician-rating site contained all Consensus Core domains. The composite orthopedic surgeon rating was 4.1 of 5. No significant differences were found between academic and nonacademic affiliated surgeons. Arthroplasty surgeons had a greater number of reviews and ratings on 2 sites. Reliability of physician-rating sites is questionable, as none contained all Consensus Core domains. Autogeneration of surgeon profiles is occurring, and no differences between academic vs nonacademic or arthroplasty vs nonarthroplasty surgeons were found. Institution-produced sites may serve to better promote and market surgeons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Quality assurance FY 1995 site support program plan WBS 6.7.2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Dell, L.D.

    1994-09-01

    This report is a summary of the quality assurance plan and program for the Westinghouse Hanford Company. The quality assurance plan verifies that the appropriate quality assurance programs and controls are applied to activities that affect quality related to work in: waste management; environmental activities (restoration, remediation, and monitoring); implementation of environmental, state, local, and federal regulations; tri-party agreement activities; facility operation and deactivation/transition to shutdown; new facility construction and operation.

  7. Water-Quality Assessment of the Yellowstone River Basin, Montana and Wyoming-Water Quality of Fixed Sites, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Kirk A.; Clark, Melanie L.; Wright, Peter R.

    2005-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey initiated an assessment in 1997 of the quality of water resources in the Yellowstone River Basin. Water-quality samples regularly were collected during 1999-2001 at 10 fixed sites on streams representing the major environmental settings of the basin. Integrator sites, which are heterogeneous in land use and geology, were established on the mainstem of the Yellowstone River (4 sites) and on three major tributaries?Clarks Fork Yellowstone River (1 site), the Bighorn River (1 site), and the Powder River (1 site). Indicator sites, which are more homogeneous in land use and geology than the integrator sites, were located on minor tributaries with important environmental settings?Soda Butte Creek in a mineral resource area (1 site), the Tongue River in a forested area (1 site), and the Little Powder River in a rangeland area (1 site). Water-quality sampling frequency generally was at least monthly and included field measurements and laboratory analyses of fecal-indicator bacteria, major ions, dissolved solids, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, and suspended sediment. Median concentrations of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli were largest for basins that were predominantly rangeland and smallest for basins that were predominantly forested. Concentrations of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli significantly varied by season (p-value <0.001); the smallest median concentrations were during January?March and the largest median concentrations were during April?June. Fecal-coliform concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended limit for a single sample of 400 colonies per 100 milliliters in 2.6 percent of all samples. Escherichia coli concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended limit for a single sample of 298 colonies per 100 milliliters for moderate use, full-body contact recreation in 7.6 percent of all samples. Variations in

  8. Systematic Review of Quality of Life and Patient Reported Outcomes in Patients with Oncologic Related Lower Extremity Lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Cemal, Yeliz; Jewell, Sarah; Albornoz, Claudia R.; Pusic, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Lower limb lymphedema (LLL) is a common complication of cancer treatment. The disease is chronic and progressive with no cure. Although a common and significant source of morbidity, the impact of this condition on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has only recently been addressed. In effort to identify valid treatment strategies for LLL, we performed a systematic review, identifying studies describing HRQOL outcomes in patients with LLL secondary to cancer. Methods and Results Seven medical databases were searched to identify reports using validated Patient Reported Outcome (PRO) instruments on patients with cancer-related LLL. Studies were classified by levels of evidence set by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and evaluated using the Efficace criteria. 25 studies were identified, 6 met inclusion criteria. Levels of evidence included: no level I studies, level II (n=3), level III (n=1), and level 4 (n=2). 50% of studies were compliant with the Efficace criteria. 5 PRO HRQOL instruments were used, but only 1 was specific to cancer-related lymphedema. Treatment strategies assessed included complete decongestive physiotherapy (CDP), exercise, and compression bandaging. CDP yielded significant enhancements in HRQOL. Conclusions There is a deficit in high quality studies for HRQOL in patients with LLL secondary to cancer. Furthermore, of the studies present, most did not conform to guidelines set for assessment of HRQOL, nor did they use lymphedema condition specific PRO instruments. New measures specific to assessing LLL are necessary to gain more accurate evaluation of how this debilitating disorder affects HRQOL. PMID:23531180

  9. Correlational selection on lay date and life-history traits: experimental manipulations of territory and nest site quality.

    PubMed

    Calsbeek, Ryan; Sinervo, Barry

    2007-05-01

    Abundant evidence suggests that females may engage in mate choice to gain nongenetic (material) benefits from high-quality territories; however, the selective consequences that influence those choices are not well understood. We studied the fitness effects of territory quality and incubation temperature on juvenile lizards in nature. We manipulated territory quality by redistributing rocks between pairs of neighboring home ranges. Rock manipulations set up adjacent plots that were either experimentally improved or reduced in quality. We incubated eggs from field-caught gravid females in each of three temperature treatments in the laboratory (low, medium, and high temperature). Progeny were released in either experimentally improved or reduced-quality plots upon hatching, and the following spring we measured survival as a function of egg size and laying date. We conducted concurrent studies of the thermal environment on experimental territories. Improved territories provided significantly more hours for lizards to behaviorally thermoregulate at their preferred body temperature and also provided nest sites with incubation conditions that were closer to optimal compared with reduced-quality plots. Reduced-quality plots were significantly more variable in quality. Finally, we measured significant correlational selection between egg mass and laying date on manipulated plots in two separate years. Results indicate the influence of environmental variation on correlational selection on life-history traits.

  10. Chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment and its impact on quality of life: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Feddern, Marie-Louise; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Laurberg, Søren

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment and its impact on quality of life (QoL). This is a population-based cross-sectional study of chronic pain and QoL in patients treated for rectal cancer from 2001 to 2007. A modified version of the Brief Descriptive Danish Pain Questionnaire and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 questionnaire were mailed to 1713 Danish patients. Informative answers were obtained from 1369 patients (80%). A total of 426 patients (31%) reported chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities, 173 (41%) of whom had daily pain. Pain in other parts of the body was associated with the presence of pain in the pelvic region (odds ratio [OR] 4.81 [3.63-6.38], P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed an association with chronic pain in female patients (OR 1.91 [1.51-2.43], P < 0.001) and in those who received radio(chemo)therapy (OR 1.31 [1.01-1.7], P = 0.041) or underwent abdominoperineal excision (OR 1.71 [1.19-2.44], P = 0.003), total mesorectal excision (OR 1.39 [1.01-1.90], P = 0.041), and Hartmann procedure (OR 1.72 [1.04-2.84], P = 0.33) compared with partial mesorectal excision. Ordinal regression analysis showed a strong association between all QoL subgroups and pelvic pain. Chronic pain in the pelvic region or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment is a common but largely neglected problem that is associated with female gender, type of surgery, radio(chemo)therapy, and young age, all of which impact the patient's QoL.

  11. Upper-extremity Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Physical Health Related Quality of Life Among Women Employed in Poultry Processing and Other Low-Wage Jobs in Northeastern North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    McPhee, CS; Lipscomb, HJ

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between upper-extremity musculoskeletal symptoms (MS) and diminished physical health related quality of life (PHRQoL) in a population of women, mostly African-American working in poultry processing and other low-wage jobs in rural northeastern North Carolina. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was performed on baseline data of self-reported PHRQoL and musculoskeletal symptoms for 291 poultry processing workers and 299 community comparison women. Logarithmic binomial regression was performed to assess the relationship between moderate to severe MS on low PHRQoL. Results Prevalence of poor PHRQoL was 35.5% among poultry processing workers, and 14.7% among community comparison group. Moderate to severe upper-extremity musculoskeletal symptoms were present in 34.4% of the poultry workers and 10.7% of the comparison group. After adjusting for age and other chronic conditions, moderate to severe musculoskeletal symptoms were associated with low PHRQoL in both groups. Although the observed effect was stronger among the comparison group (Adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence interval): poultry workers= 1.89 (1.36,2.64), community comparison= 4.26 (2.51,7.24), the population attributable risk percent was similar (poultry workers=28.9, community comparison=31.3%) due to the higher prevalence of moderate to severe symptoms in the poultry workers. Conclusions Significant upper extremity musculoskeletal symptoms were associated with poor PHRQoL among both groups of women employed in low-wage jobs. Nationwide, poultry work is over-represented by minorities and immigrants. Though challenging, we need to search for ways to improve the conditions of these women as a matter of social justice. PMID:19180559

  12. Upper-extremity musculoskeletal symptoms and physical health related quality of life among women employed in poultry processing and other low-wage jobs in northeastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    McPhee, C S; Lipscomb, H J

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between upper-extremity musculoskeletal symptoms (MS) and diminished physical health related quality of life (PHRQoL) in a population of women, mostly African-American working in poultry processing and other low-wage jobs in rural northeastern North Carolina. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on baseline data of self-reported PHRQoL and musculoskeletal symptoms for 291 poultry processing workers and 299 community comparison women. Logarithmic binomial regression was performed to assess the relationship between moderate to severe MS on low PHRQoL. Prevalence of poor PHRQoL was 35.5% among poultry processing workers, and 14.7% among community comparison group. Moderate to severe upper-extremity musculoskeletal symptoms were present in 34.4% of the poultry workers and 10.7% of the comparison group. After adjusting for age and other chronic conditions, moderate to severe musculoskeletal symptoms were associated with low PHRQoL in both groups. Although the observed effect was stronger among the comparison group (adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence interval): poultry workers = 1.89 (1.36, 2.64), community comparison = 4.26 (2.51, 7.24), the population attributable risk percent was similar (poultry workers = 28.9, community comparison = 31.3%)) due to the higher prevalence of moderate to severe symptoms in the poultry workers. Significant upper-extremity musculoskeletal symptoms were associated with poor PHRQoL among both groups of women employed in low-wage jobs. Nationwide, poultry work is over-represented by minorities and immigrants. Though challenging, we need to search for ways to improve the conditions of these women as a matter of social justice.

  13. Surface-Water Hydrology and Quality at the Pike Hill Superfund Site, Corinth, Vermont, October 2004 to December 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiah, Richard G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.; Coles, James F.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.

    2007-01-01

    The hydrology and quality of surface water in and around the Pike Hill Brook watershed, in Corinth, Vermont, was studied from October 2004 to December 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Pike Hill was mined intermittently for copper from 1847 to 1919 and the site is known to be contributing trace elements and acidity to Pike Hill Brook and an unnamed tributary to Cookville Brook. The site has been listed as a Superfund site since 2004. Streamflow, specific conductance, pH, and water temperature were measured continuously and monthly at three sites on Pike Hill Brook to determine the variation in these parameters over an annual cycle. Synoptic water-quality sampling was done at 10 stream sites in October 2004, April 2005, and June 2005 and at 13 stream sites in August 2005 to characterize the quality of surface water in the watershed on a seasonal and spatial basis, as well as to assess the effects of wetlands on water quality. Samples for analysis of benthic macroinvertebrate populations were collected at 11 stream sites in August 2005. Water samples were analyzed for 5 major ions and 32 trace elements. Concentrations of trace elements at sites in the Pike Hill Brook watershed exceeded USEPA National Recommended Water Quality Criteria acute and chronic toxicity standards for aluminum, iron, cadmium, copper, and zinc. Concentrations of copper exceeded the chronic criteria in an unnamed tributary to Cookville Brook in one sample. Concentrations of sulfate, calcium, aluminum, iron, cadmium, copper, and zinc decreased with distance from a site directly downstream from the mine (site 1), as a result of dilution and through sorption and precipitation of the trace elements. Maximum concentrations of aluminum, iron, cadmium, copper, and zinc were observed during spring snowmelt. Concentrations of sulfate, calcium, cadmium, copper, and zinc, and instantaneous loads of calcium and aluminum were

  14. Surface- and ground-water quality data at selected landfill sites in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, 1980-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddins, W.H.; Cardinell, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey initiated an urban water quality study in 1979 in cooperation with the City of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, to study, among other things, the effects of solid waste disposal on the water quality in Mecklenburg County. Water quality samples (747 inorganic and 168 organic) were collected at 20 surface water sites and 53 monitoring wells at four selected landfills from 1980 to 1986. Samples were analyzed for 142 selected physical and biological parameters, major ions, nutrients, trace metals, and (or) organic compounds. Results from all analyses are presented in tabular form in the appendices. Each appendix is divided into a surface water and a groundwater section. Within each water quality table the data is presented in the following order: field measurements, physical properties, biological constituents (if analyzed), major cations, major anions, dissolved and total solids, nutrients, trace inorganic constituents, and organic constituents.

  15. An air quality modeling study comparing two possible sites for the new international airport for Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Jazcilevich, Aron D; García, Agustín R; Ruiz-Suárez, L Gerardo; Cruz-Nuñez, Xóchitl; Delgado, Javier C; Tellez, Carlos; Chias, Luis B

    2003-03-01

    Using an air quality model, two future urban scenarios induced by the construction of the new international airport for Mexico City are compared at a regional level. The air quality model couples the meteorology model MM5 and state-of-the-art photochemistry. The air quality comparison is made using metrics for the criterion gases selected for the study. From the two urban scenarios compared, the option for Tizayuca is moderately better than the option for Texcoco, because relative reductions in O3 and other photochemical pollutants are achieved over highly populated areas. Regardless of the site, the air quality for the central region of Mexico in the future will deteriorate. In the region of central Mexico, SO2 and NO2 will become important pollutants.

  16. Methods to characterize environmental settings of stream and groundwater sampling sites for National Water-Quality Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Hitt, Kerie J.; Price, Curtis V.; Falcone, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of natural and anthropogenic features that define the environmental settings of sampling sites for streams and groundwater, including drainage basins and groundwater study areas, is an essential component of water-quality and ecological investigations being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. Quantitative characterization of environmental settings, combined with physical, chemical, and biological data collected at sampling sites, contributes to understanding the status of, and influences on, water-quality and ecological conditions. To support studies for the National Water-Quality Assessment program, a geographic information system (GIS) was used to develop a standard set of methods to consistently characterize the sites, drainage basins, and groundwater study areas across the nation. This report describes three methods used for characterization-simple overlay, area-weighted areal interpolation, and land-cover-weighted areal interpolation-and their appropriate applications to geographic analyses that have different objectives and data constraints. In addition, this document records the GIS thematic datasets that are used for the Program's national design and data analyses.

  17. Workflow in Clinical Trial Sites & Its Association with Near Miss Events for Data Quality: Ethnographic, Workflow & Systems Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Araujo de Carvalho, Elias Cesar; Batilana, Adelia Portero; Claudino, Wederson; Lima Reis, Luiz Fernando; Schmerling, Rafael A.; Shah, Jatin; Pietrobon, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Background With the exponential expansion of clinical trials conducted in (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) and VISTA (Vietnam, Indonesia, South Africa, Turkey, and Argentina) countries, corresponding gains in cost and enrolment efficiency quickly outpace the consonant metrics in traditional countries in North America and European Union. However, questions still remain regarding the quality of data being collected in these countries. We used ethnographic, mapping and computer simulation studies to identify/address areas of threat to near miss events for data quality in two cancer trial sites in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings Two sites in Sao Paolo and Rio Janeiro were evaluated using ethnographic observations of workflow during subject enrolment and data collection. Emerging themes related to threats to near miss events for data quality were derived from observations. They were then transformed into workflows using UML-AD and modeled using System Dynamics. 139 tasks were observed and mapped through the ethnographic study. The UML-AD detected four major activities in the workflow evaluation of potential research subjects prior to signature of informed consent, visit to obtain subject́s informed consent, regular data collection sessions following study protocol and closure of study protocol for a given project. Field observations pointed to three major emerging themes: (a) lack of standardized process for data registration at source document, (b) multiplicity of data repositories and (c) scarcity of decision support systems at the point of research intervention. Simulation with policy model demonstrates a reduction of the rework problem. Conclusions/Significance Patterns of threats to data quality at the two sites were similar to the threats reported in the literature for American sites. The clinical trial site managers need to reorganize staff workflow by using information technology more efficiently, establish new standard procedures and manage

  18. Characterizing Microbial Water Quality of Extreme Tide Floodwaters Discharged from an Urbanized Subtropical Beach: Case Study of Miami Beach with Implications for Sea Level Rise and Public Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gidley, M. L.

    2016-02-01

    With the advent of rising sea levels and increasing incidents of extreme tidal flooding events and stormwater flooding events, there is increasing probability of mobilization of land-based sources of pollution (LBSP) from highly urbanized beach environments and potential transport of these contaminants to coastal waters where they may have negative impacts on ecosystems and public health. A case in point is the situation facing the City of Miami Beach, where urban tidal flooding has become routine for extreme tidal events such as King Tide. To deal with the increasing problem of tidal flooding and other potential sources of coastal inundation, the City of Miami Beach has installed a system of floodwater/stormwater pumping stations to collect and discharge such floodwaters. This system appears to control the extent and duration of coastal inundation, however, the floodwater is discharged directly into Biscayne Bay without any treatment , which may potentially carry a variety of pollutants acquired during inundation of this urbanized coast. We report a case study examining the microbial water quality of floodwaters discharged by this pumping system back into Biscayne Bay following the inundation by King Tide floodwaters from September 2014 and 2015. The presence and abundance of both general and host-specific fecal indicating bacteria (FIB), including enterococci and human-host Bacteriodales were measured by traditional culture methods and by molecular microbial source tracking (MST) qPCR methods. While the results from different locations did vary substantially, several discharge samples demonstrated high elevations of fecal indicator bacteria and high levels of human fecal marker by MST. This study suggests that while such flood control measures may improve resiliency of urbanized coastal communities to tidal flooding and/or stormwater, the water quality of such floodwater discharges need to be monitored and potentially treated to mediate the transport of LBSP

  19. Maintaining Levels of Lower Extremity Amputations.

    PubMed

    Bibbo, Christopher; Ehrlich, David; Levin, L Scott; Kovach, Stephen J

    Patients who have undergone a lower extremity amputation may develop an unstable soft tissue envelope of the amputation stump. This envelope may result in pain that prohibits prosthetic use or may become chronically infected. Providing stable soft tissue coverage at the amputation site may provide relief from pain and cure of infection. Additionally, a stable amputation soft tissue envelope may assist with the ability of that patient to maintain his or her existing level of ambulation, overall sense of wellness, and ability to maintain social integration. Salvage of a lower extremity amputation level may significantly improve a patient's overall quality of life. Attempts to salvage an amputation level that is plagued by unstable wounds, pain, or infection are warranted in those patients who have the physiologic reserves to undergo salvage of their amputation level. This article presents an approach to the salvage of lower extremity amputations utilizing both local tissue rearrangements and free tissue transfer techniques.

  20. Assessment of diffusion tensor image quality across sites and vendors using the American College of Radiology head phantom.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiyue J; Seo, Youngseob; Babcock, Evelyn; Huang, Hao; Bluml, Stefan; Wisnowski, Jessica; Holshouser, Barbara; Panigrahy, Ashok; Shaw, Dennis W W; Altman, Nolan; McColl, Roderick W; Rollins, Nancy K

    2016-05-08

    The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of assessing quality of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) from multiple sites and vendors using American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom. Participating sites (Siemens (n = 2), GE (n= 2), and Philips (n = 4)) reached consensus on parameters for DTI and used the widely available ACR phantom. Tensor data were processed at one site. B0 and eddy current distortions were assessed using grid line displacement on phantom Slice 5; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was measured at the center and periphery of the b = 0 image; fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were assessed using phantom Slice 7. Variations of acquisition parameters and deviations from specified sequence parameters were recorded. Nonlinear grid line distortion was higher with linear shimming and could be corrected using the 2nd order shimming. Following image registration, eddy current distortion was consistently smaller than acquisi-tion voxel size. SNR was consistently higher in the image periphery than center by a factor of 1.3-2.0. ROI-based FA ranged from 0.007 to 0.024. ROI-based MD ranged from 1.90 × 10-3 to 2.33 × 10-3 mm2/s (median = 2.04 × 10-3 mm2/s). Two sites had image void artifacts. The ACR phantom can be used to compare key qual-ity measures of diffusion images acquired from multiple vendors at multiple sites.

  1. Extreme Heat

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hurricanes Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Pandemic Power Outages Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme Cold Space Weather Thunderstorms & Lightning Tornadoes ...

  2. Dynamics of a recovering Arctic bird population: the importance of climate, density dependence, and site quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruggeman, Jason E.; Swem, Ted; Andersen, David E.; Kennedy, Patricia L.; Nigro, Debora A.

    2015-01-01

    indicative of higher-quality habitat), are a priority for continued protection from potential nearby development and disturbance to minimize population-level impacts. Climate change may affect Arctic peregrines in multiple ways, including through access to more snow-free nest sites and a lengthened breeding season that may increase likelihood of nest success. Our work provides insight into factors affecting a population during and after recovery, and demonstrates how the Dail-Madsen model can be used for any unmarked population with multiple years of abundance data collected through repeated surveys.

  3. Dynamics of a recovering Arctic bird population: the importance of climate, density dependence, and site quality.

    PubMed

    Bruggeman, Jason E; Swem, Ted; Andersen, David E; Kennedy, Patricia L; Nigro, Debora

    2015-10-01

    indicative of higher-quality habitat), are a priority for continued protection from potential nearby development and disturbance to minimize population-level impacts. Climate change. may affect Arctic peregrines in multiple ways, including through access to more snow-free nest sites and a lengthened breeding season that may increase likelihood of nest success. Our work provides insight into factors affecting a population during and after recovery, and demonstrates how the Dail-Madsen model can be used for any unmarked population with multiple years of abundance data collected through repeated surveys.

  4. Understanding water extremes with caution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehlík, Milan; Stehlíková, Silvia; Torres, Sebastián

    2016-06-01

    We discuss a sensitive topic, how to scientifically estimate extremes in water quality managements. Such extremes are incorporating establishment of thresholds or levels of certain chemicals in the drinking water. In particular, we address the water fluoridation and quality of drinking water in Chile. Statistical approaches demonstrating the necessary background of water manager will be given in a survey exposition to establish link between statistics of extremes and practice.

  5. Image quality of cone beam computed tomography for evaluation of extremity fractures in the presence of metal hardware: visual grading characteristics analysis.

    PubMed

    Osgood, Greg M; Thawait, Gaurav K; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Shakoor, Delaram; Shaner, Adam; Yorkston, John; Zbijewski, Wojciech B; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H; Demehri, Shadpour

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate image quality and interobserver reliability of a novel cone-beam CT (CBCT) scanner in comparison with plain radiography for assessment of fracture healing in the presence of metal hardware. In this prospective institutional review board-approved Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996-complaint study, written informed consent was obtained from 27 patients (10 females and 17 males; mean age 44 years, age range 21-83 years) with either upper or lower extremity fractures, and with metal hardware, who underwent CBCT scans and had a clinical radiograph of the affected part. Images were assessed by two independent observers for quality and interobserver reliability for seven visualization tasks. Visual grading characteristic (VGC) curve analysis determined the differences in image quality between CBCT and plain radiography. Interobserver agreement was calculated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. VGC results displayed preference of CBCT images to plain radiographs in terms of visualizing (1) cortical and (2) trabecular bones; (3) fracture line; (4) callus formation; (5) bridging ossification; and (6) screw thread-bone interface and its inferiority to plain radiograph in the visualization of (7) large metallic side plate contour with strong interobserver correlation (p-value < 0.05), except for visualizing large metallic side plate contour. For evaluation of fracture healing in the presence of metal hardware, CBCT image quality is preferable to plain radiograph for all visualization tasks, except for large metallic side plate contours. Advances in knowledge: CBCT has the potential to be a good diagnostic alternative to plain radiographs in evaluation of fracture healing in the presence of metal hardware.

  6. Guidance on the application of quality assurance for characterizing a low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Pittiglio, C.L. Jr.; Starmer, R.J.; Hedges, D.

    1990-10-01

    This document provides the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's staff guidance to an applicant on meeting the quality control (QC) requirements of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61, Section 61.12 (10 CFR 61.12), for a low-level waste disposal facility. The QC requirements combined with the requirements for managerial controls and audits are the basis for developing a quality assurance (QA) program and for the guidance provided herein. QA guidance is specified for site characterization activities necessary to meet the performance objectives of 10 CFR Part 61 and to limit exposure to or the release of radioactivity. 1 tab.

  7. [Socio-cultural aspects regarding the perception of quality of life amongst people engaging in extreme (high-risk) sports].

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Giuliano Gomes de Assis

    2008-01-01

    Considering the search for adventure activities as a form of improving life quality, the present paper aimed at analyzing the perception of some dimensions of that category among hang-gliding apprentices. A questionnaire was applied to 30 brasilians hang-gliding and paragliding apprentices in order to identify aspects such as, physical activity, preventive behavior, nutrition, stress control and social relationships. Comparing results with the ones found in other adventure sports, it was observed that flyers adopt a competitive and risky behavior, not showing good results in relation to affectionate relationships and physical exercises. On the other hand, all of them are considered as wealthy and more used to dealing with stress. Even not possessing good physical conditioning, individuals practice flight just due to their technical knowledge and the dominium of technology Thus, apprentices use those sport tensions as a form of training the stress control in risky situations. Regarding mental health, activities of active leisure are highly recommended as an escape valve to stress. The group studied showed that besides increasing the tolerance to stress, generated by risky situations, individuals went beyond, once it was observed that the risks of such sport have turned the individuals into more and more insensitive to the professional life pressure.

  8. Exploring quality standards for New River Gorge climbing sites: establishing a baseline for the future

    Treesearch

    Roy Ramthun; Andy Blake

    2003-01-01

    The New River Gorge National River has become a major destination for sport climbers in the eastern U.S. A new climbing management plan is being developed for the site. This study examined the satisfaction levels of climbers with some of the easily managed facilities at climbing sites and looked at attributes of the social setting preferred by climbers. Climbers at the...

  9. SITEQUAL v2.0—a Fortran program to determine bottomland hardwood site quality

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg

    2017-01-01

    SITEQUAL is a computerized expert system that uses a number of easily determined soil conditions associated with physical structure, available moisture, available nutrients, and aeration to estimate site index for 14 southern hardwood species. The original program was written in the Basic language by Harrington and Casson (1986) based on the field methods for site...

  10. Water-quality and hydrogeologic data for three phosphate industry waste-disposal sites in central Florida, 1979-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Ronald L.; Sutcliffe, Horace

    1982-01-01

    This report is a complilation of geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data and information on test holes collected in the vicinity of gypsum stack complexes at two phosphate chemical plants and one phosphatic clayey waste disposal pond at a phosphate mine and beneficiation plant in central Florida. The data were collected from September 1979 to October 1980 at thee AMAX Phosphate, Inc., chemical plant, Piney Point; the USS AgriChemicals chemical plant, Bartow; and the International Minerals and Chemical Corporation Clear Springs mine, Bartow. Approximmmtely 5,400 field and laboratory water-quality determinations on water samples were collected from about 78 test holes and 31 surface-water, rainfall, and other sampling sites at phosphate industry beneficiation and chemical plant waste-disposal operations. Maps show locations of sampling sites. (USGS)

  11. Effects of three phosphate industrial sites on ground-water quality in central Florida, 1979 to 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.L.; Sutcliffe, Horace

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, hydrologic, and water quality data and information on test holes collected in the vicinity of gypsum stack complexes at two phosphate chemical plants and one phosphatic clayey waste disposal pond at a phosphate mine and beneficiation plant in central Florida are presented. The data were collected from September 1979 to October 1980 at the AMAX Phosphate, Inc. chemical plant, Piney Point; the USS Agri-Chemicals chemical plant, Bartow; and the International Minerals and Chemical Corporation Clear Springs mine, Bartow. Approximately 5,400 field and laboratory water quality determinations on water samples collected from about 100 test holes and 28 surface-water , 5 rainfall, and other sampling sites at phosphate industry beneficiation and chemical plant waste disposal operations are tabulated. Maps are included to show sampling sites. (USGS)

  12. Potato root-associated bacteria: site/cultivar differences and associations with tuber yield and quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potatoes are the fourth most important food crop in the world with consumption increasing worldwide, especially in developing nations. Breeding programs focus on potato quality for disease resistance and culinary quality; in addition, some programs are beginning to focus on anti-cancer activity of ...

  13. Understanding Teachers' Perceptions of Academic Coaching Quality in an On-Site Professional Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Phillip R.

    2013-01-01

    Quality teacher training and continued learning is essential to providing the high quality education that yields adequate levels of student success. Though called by many different names, academic coaches appear to be the answer to the continuing problem of creating a positive learning environment that meets the challenges of educating students…

  14. Environmental control technology survey of selected US strip mining sites. Volume 2B. Alabama. Water quality impacts and overburden chemistry of Alabama study site

    SciTech Connect

    Henricks, J D; Bogner, J E; Olsen, R D; Schubert, J P; Sobek, A A; Johnson, D O

    1980-05-01

    As part of a program to examine the ability of existing control technologies to meet federal guidelines for the quality of aqueous effluents from coal mines, an intensive study of water, coal, and overburden chemistry was conducted at a surface coal mine in Alabama from May 1976 through July 1977. Sampling sites included the pit sump, a stream downgrade from the mine, the discharge from the water treatment facility, and a small stream outside the mine drainage. Water samples were collected every two weeks by Argonne subcontractors at the Alabama Geological Survey and analysed for the following parameters: specific conductance, pH, temperature, acidity, bicarbonate, carbonate, chloride, total dissolved solids, suspended solids, sulfate, and 20 metals. Analysis of the coal and overburden shows that no potential acid problem exists at this mine. Water quality is good in both streams sampled, and high levels of dissolved elements are found only in water collected from the pit sump. The mine effluent is in compliance with Office of Surface Mining water quality standards.

  15. Quality of ground water at selected sites in the upper Mahoning Creek Basin, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langland, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    The ground-water quality of the upper Mahoning Creek Basin is largely unknown. Human activities in the basin have altered much of the landscape. The presence of coal mining, oil and gas exploration, agriculture, on-lot septic systems, and commercial development within the basin can introduce contaminants altering the natural chemistry of the ground water. Data collected to document current ground-water quality also can serve as a baseline for comparison of any future water-quality changes by continuing human activities. This report presents the results of a synoptic ground-water-quality sampling in the upper Mahoning Creek Basin. Present ground-water quality in the basin is characterized in relation to published standards, local land-use activities, and other areas with similar natural characteristics.

  16. Thinning, Age, and Site Quality Influence Live Tree Carbon Stocks in Upland Hardwood Forests of the Southern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    Tara L. Keyser; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of thinning, age, and site quality on aboveground live tree carbon (ATC) (Mg/ha) stocks in upland hardwood forests of mixed-species composition in the southern Appalachian Mountains. In 1974, 80 plots ranging in size from 0.06 to 0.1 ha were established in even-aged, mixed-hardwood forests throughout the southern Appalachians. All trees...

  17. Digital mammography--DQE versus optimized image quality in clinical environment: an on site study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberhofer, Nadia; Fracchetti, Alessandro; Springeth, Margareth; Moroder, Ehrenfried

    2010-04-01

    The intrinsic quality of the detection system of 7 different digital mammography units (5 direct radiography DR; 2 computed radiography CR), expressed by DQE, has been compared with their image quality/dose performances in clinical use. DQE measurements followed IEC 62220-1-2 using a tungsten test object for MTF determination. For image quality assessment two different methods have been applied: 1) measurement of contrast to noise ratio (CNR) according to the European guidelines and 2) contrast-detail (CD) evaluation. The latter was carried out with the phantom CDMAM ver. 3.4 and the commercial software CDMAM Analyser ver. 1.1 (both Artinis) for automated image analysis. The overall image quality index IQFinv proposed by the software has been validated. Correspondence between the two methods has been shown figuring out a linear correlation between CNR and IQFinv. All systems were optimized with respect to image quality and average glandular dose (AGD) within the constraints of automatic exposure control (AEC). For each equipment, a good image quality level was defined by means of CD analysis, and the corresponding CNR value considered as target value. The goal was to achieve for different PMMA-phantom thicknesses constant image quality, that means the CNR target value, at minimum dose. All DR systems exhibited higher DQE and significantly better image quality compared to CR systems. Generally switching, where available, to a target/filter combination with an x-ray spectrum of higher mean energy permitted dose savings at equal image quality. However, several systems did not allow to modify the AEC in order to apply optimal radiographic technique in clinical use. The best ratio image quality/dose was achieved by a unit with a-Se detector and W anode only recently available on the market.

  18. An examination of water quality indicators in swim sites located in the upper Los Angeles River Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. M.; Morris, K.; Fingland, N. K.; Johnstone, K.; Pendleton, L.; Ponce, A.; Tang, C.; Griffith, J. F.; Steele, N. L.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple sites in the upper Los Angeles River watershed were sampled during summer 2012 and measured for Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Clostridium perfringens (vegetative cells and spores) using culture-based analyses and preserved for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis. The objective of this work includes the characterization of how well indicators correlated with each other, with respect to background levels and to 'spikes' from background, possibly indicative of a pollution input, environmental/physicochemical parameters, as well as in the context of recreational water quality standards. The 2nd objective of this work was to evaluate the economic impact of implementing qPCR at our study sites for rapid water quality monitoring. None of the species of indicators correlated well with each other (R2 < 0.1) across sites and dates when the sample set was examined in its entirety, though C. perfringens vegetative cells and spores were moderately correlated (R2 = 0.31, p = 0.07). The observation of concentration 'spikes' against background levels, suggesting a potential input of contamination, were observed on holiday sampling days and will be examined further. In general, the number of swimmers present was not linked with indicator concentrations; however, incidence of water quality exceedances (for E. coli 235 CFU or MPN/100 mL sample) were more likely to occur on the weekend or holidays (for E. coli, , suggesting that the presence/absence of swimmers may be an important variable at our sites. Clostridium perfringens may be a useful indicator at our study sites, as a comparison of vegetative to endospore forms of this organism may be used to understand how recently a contamination event or input occurred.

  19. Visible and infrared spectroscopy to evaluate soil quality in degraded sites: an applicative study in southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancona, Valeria; Matarrese, Raffaella; Salvatori, Rosamaria; Salzano, Roberto; Regano, Simona; Calabrese, Angelantonio; Campanale, Claudia; Felice Uricchio, Vito

    2014-05-01

    Land degradation processes like organic matter impoverishment and contamination are growing increasingly all over the world due to a non-rational and often sustainable spread of human activities on the territory. Consequently the need to characterize and monitor degraded sites is becoming very important, with the aim to hinder such main threats, which could compromise drastically, soil quality. Visible and infrared spectroscopy is a well-known technique/tool to study soil properties. Vis-NIR spectral reflectance, in fact, can be used to characterize spatial and temporal variation in soil constituents (Brown et al., 2006; Viscarra Rossel et al., 2006), and potentially its surface structure (Chappell et al., 2006, 2007). It is a rapid, non-destructive, reproducible and cost-effective analytical method to analyse soil properties and therefore, it can be a useful method to study land degradation phenomena. In this work, we present the results of proximal sensing investigations of three degraded sites (one affected by organic and inorganic contamination and two affected by soil organic matter decline) situated southern Italy close to Taranto city (in Apulia Region). A portable spectroradiometer (ASD-FieldSpec) was used to measure the reflectance properties in the spectral range between 350-2500 nm of the soil, in the selected sites, before and after a recovery treatment by using compost (organic fertilizer). For each measurement point the soil was sampled in order to perform chemical analyses to evaluate soil quality status. Three in-situ campaigns have been carried out (September 2012, June 2013, and September 2013), collecting about 20 soil samples for each site and for each campaign. Chemical and spectral analyses have been focused on investigating soil organic carbon, carbonate content, texture and, in the case of polluted site, heavy metals and organic toxic compounds. Statistical analyses have been carried out to test a prediction model of different soil quality

  20. PM2.5 Indoor Air Quality at Two Sites in London Ontario - A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mates, A. V.; Xu, X.; Gilliland, J.; Maltby, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    Studies have shown an association between ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and health impacts, particularly for the elderly and children. As part of a larger study, PM2.5 concentrations were measured using the DustTrak (Model 8520, TSI, St. Paul, MN, USA) at two schools within the city of London, Ontario (Canada). Site A was in a suburban environment while site B was in an urban setting. Monitoring took place for 3 weeks during winter (Feb. 16 - Mar. 8) and 3 weeks during spring (May 05 - 25) of 2010. The winter campaign monitored indoor PM2.5 only, while the spring campaign added outdoor monitors (PM2.5 and CO2) after the first week. Ten min. concentrations were used for analysis. Indoor measurements were split into weekday and weekend. For the same time interval, the outdoor concentrations showed mean values of 18 and 21 μg/m3 for sites A & B, respectively, both under the Canada Wide Standard of 30 μg/m3. Measurements at the two sites showed good associations (R^2 = 0.44), during the spring campaign. This indicates that the outdoor PM2.5 had similar sources. For indoor concentrations, Site B showed a significantly different mean concentration 5 times higher compared to site A during the winter ( 8.1 vs. 1.5 μg/m3 ) and 3 times higher (11.9 vs. 3.7 μg/m3) during the spring campaign. Since the outdoor concentrations were similar the large difference in indoor concentrations could be attributed to the following factors: site B being an older building, and the different physical characteristics between the two sites. The spring measurements showed an increase of 50% from weekday to weekend for site A and 22% for site B. The higher level of PM2.5 during weekends is possibly due to the infiltration of outdoor air while the ventilation/filtration system is shut off. During the winter campaign, Site A showed a 14% higher concentration during weekdays compared to weekends while site B weekend concentrations were 17% higher compared to weekday, which will be

  1. CHARACTERIZING POPULATIONS OF THE ESTUARINE FISH FUNDULUS HETEROCLITUS INDIGENOUS TO SITES WITH DIFFERING ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Populations of the non-migratory estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus were collected from New Bedford Harbor and distant clean sites to investigate whether indigenous populations have adapted genetically to the harbor's contamination. New Bedford Harbor, a major port in southe...

  2. Streamwater quality at selected sites in the Fraser River basin, Grand County, Colorado, water years 1991-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bails, Jeffrey B.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the effect of population growth on streamwater quality in the Fraser River Basin, the U.S. Geological Survey did a study in cooperation with the Grand County Commissioners and the East Grand County Water Quality Board. During water years 1991 through 2000, the study determined that concentrations of un-ionized ammonia and nitrite plus nitrate in the streamwater of the basin are within Colorado State streamwater?quality standards. The study also found that concentrations of chloride are largest at the headwaters and decrease downstream; however, chloride loading in the stream has the opposite relation. Most nutrient loading to the Fraser River happens January through May. Concentrations of ammonia at Fraser River downstream from Vasquez Creek at Winter Park had a downward trend through the period of the study. Nitrite plus nitrate had upward and downward trends at different sites and over different time spans. Orthophosphorus concentrations had upward trends at two sites. In general, the streamwater quality in the Fraser River Basin is good and is not out of compliance with State standards.

  3. Quality of surface water at selected sites in the Suwannee River basin, Florida, April 1978 to December 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coffin, John E.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of water-quality samples collected from 13 surface-water sites in the Suwannee River basin in Florida from April 1978 to December 1979. Samples collected routinely included: nutrients, total organic carbon, and 5-day biological oxygen demand, bimonthly; trace metals, annually. The array of constituents sampled was expanded in October 1978 at three of the original nine stations to provide quality-of-water information for streams draining an industrial area: Rocky Creek near Belmont, Hunter Creek near Belmont, and Swift Creek at Facil. Data collected at these three sites now include: major chemical constituents, six times per year; radium-226, two times per year; and trace metals, one time per year. These constituents are determined in addition to nutrients , total organic carbon, and biological oxygen demand which continue to be collected six times per year. All results of analyses of the water-quality samples collected from April 1978 to December 1979 remained within, or near, previously measured ranges and water-quality fluctuations were similar to those noted from data collected since 1970. (USGS)

  4. Groundwater quality assessment plan for single-shell waste management area B-BX-BY at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    SM Narbutovskih

    2000-03-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a first determination groundwater quality assessment at the Hanford Site. This work was performed for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, in accordance with the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement during the time period 1996--1998. The purpose of the assessment was to determine if waste from the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Area (WMA) B-BX-BY had entered the groundwater at levels above the drinking water standards (DWS). The resulting assessment report documented evidence demonstrating that waste from the WMA has, most likely, impacted groundwater quality. Based on 40 CFR 265.93 [d] paragraph (7), the owner-operator must continue to make the minimum required determinations of contaminant level and of rate/extent of migrations on a quarterly basis until final facility closure. These continued determinations are required because the groundwater quality assessment was implemented prior to final closure of the facility.

  5. Guidelines and standard procedures for continuous water-quality monitors : site selection, field operation, calibration, record computation, and reporting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Richard J.; Mattraw, H.C.; Ritz, G.F.; Smith, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey uses continuous water-quality monitors to assess variations in the quality of the Nation's surface water. A common system configuration for data collection is the four-parameter water-quality monitoring system, which collects temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and pH data, although systems can be configured to measure other properties such as turbidity or chlorophyll. The sensors that are used to measure these water properties require careful field observation, cleaning, and calibration procedures, as well as thorough procedures for the computation and publication of final records. Data from sensors can be used in conjunction with collected samples and chemical analyses to estimate chemical loads. This report provides guidelines for site-selection considerations, sensor test methods, field procedures, error correction, data computation, and review and publication processes. These procedures have evolved over the past three decades, and the process continues to evolve with newer technologies.

  6. Guidelines and standard procedures for continuous water-quality monitors: Site selection, field operation, calibration, record computation, and reporting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Richard J.; Mattraw, Harold C.; Ritz, George F.; Smith, Brett A.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey uses continuous water-quality monitors to assess variations in the quality of the Nation's surface water. A common system configuration for data collection is the four-parameter water-quality monitoring system, which collects temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and pH data, although systems can be configured to measure other properties such as turbidity or chlorophyll. The sensors that are used to measure these water properties require careful field observation, cleaning, and calibration procedures, as well as thorough procedures for the computation and publication of final records. Data from sensors can be used in conjunction with collected samples and chemical analyses to estimate chemical loads. This report provides guidelines for site-selection considerations, sensor test methods, field procedures, error correction, data computation, and review and publication processes. These procedures have evolved over the past three decades, and the process continues to evolve with newer technologies.

  7. Underground Test Area Activity Quality Assurance Plan Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Krenzien, Susan; Farnham, Irene

    2015-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) provides the overall quality assurance (QA) requirements and general quality practices to be applied to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) activities. The requirements in this QAP are consistent with DOE Order 414.1D, Change 1, Quality Assurance (DOE, 2013a); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Quality Assurance Project Plans for Modeling (EPA, 2002); and EPA Guidance on the Development, Evaluation, and Application of Environmental Models (EPA, 2009). If a participant’s requirement document differs from this QAP, the stricter requirement will take precedence. NNSA/NFO, or designee, must review this QAP every two years. Changes that do not affect the overall scope or requirements will not require an immediate QAP revision but will be incorporated into the next revision cycle after identification. Section 1.0 describes UGTA objectives, participant responsibilities, and administrative and management quality requirements (i.e., training, records, procurement). Section 1.0 also details data management and computer software requirements. Section 2.0 establishes the requirements to ensure newly collected data are valid, existing data uses are appropriate, and environmental-modeling methods are reliable. Section 3.0 provides feedback loops through assessments and reports to management. Section 4.0 provides the framework for corrective actions. Section 5.0 provides references for this document.

  8. Dual-Energy Computed Tomography Angiography of the Lower Extremity Runoff: Impact of Noise-Optimized Virtual Monochromatic Imaging on Image Quality and Diagnostic Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Julian L; Gillott, Matthew R; De Cecco, Carlo N; Mangold, Stefanie; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Yamada, Ricardo; Otani, Katharina; Canstein, Christian; Fuller, Stephen R; Vogl, Thomas J; Todoran, Thomas M; Schoepf, U Joseph

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a noise-optimized virtual monochromatic imaging algorithm (VMI+) on image quality and diagnostic accuracy at dual-energy computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the lower extremity runoff. This retrospective Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study was approved by the local institutional review board. We evaluated dual-energy CTA studies of the lower extremity runoff in 48 patients (16 women; mean age, 63.3 ± 13.8 years) performed on a third-generation dual-source CT system. Images were reconstructed with standard linear blending (F_0.5), VMI+, and traditional monochromatic (VMI) algorithms at 40 to 120 keV in 10-keV intervals. Vascular attenuation and image noise in 18 artery segments were measured; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Five-point scales were used to subjectively evaluate vascular attenuation and image noise. In a subgroup of 21 patients who underwent additional invasive catheter angiography, diagnostic accuracy for the detection of significant stenosis (≥50% lumen restriction) of F_0.5, 50-keV VMI+, and 60-keV VMI data sets were assessed. Objective image quality metrics were highest in the 40- and 50-keV VMI+ series (SNR: 20.2 ± 10.7 and 19.0 ± 9.5, respectively; CNR: 18.5 ± 10.3 and 16.8 ± 9.1, respectively) and were significantly (all P < 0.001) higher than in the corresponding VMI data sets (SNR: 8.7 ± 4.1 and 10.8 ± 5.0; CNR: 8.0 ± 4.0 and 9.6 ± 4.9) and F_0.5 series (SNR: 10.7 ± 4.4; CNR: 8.3 ± 4.1). Subjective assessment of attenuation was highest in the 40- and 50-keV VMI and VMI+ image series (range, 4.84-4.91), superior to F_0.5 (4.07; P < 0.001). Corresponding subjective noise assessment was superior for 50-keV VMI+ (4.71; all P < 0.001) compared with VMI (2.60) and F_0.5 (4.11). Sensitivity and specificity for detection of 50% or greater stenoses were highest in VMI+ reconstructions (92% and 95

  9. Development of site-specific sediment quality guidelines for North and South Atlantic littoral zones: comparison against national and international sediment quality benchmarks.

    PubMed

    Choueri, R B; Cesar, A; Abessa, D M S; Torres, R J; Morais, R D; Riba, I; Pereira, C D S; Nascimento, M R L; Mozeto, A A; DelValls, T A

    2009-10-15

    We aimed to develop site-specific sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) for two estuarine and port zones in Southeastern Brazil (Santos Estuarine System and Paranaguá Estuarine System) and three in Southern Spain (Ría of Huelva, Bay of Cádiz, and Bay of Algeciras), and compare these values against national and traditionally used international benchmark values. Site-specific SQGs were derived based on sediment physical-chemical, toxicological, and benthic community data integrated through multivariate analysis. This technique allowed the identification of chemicals of concern and the establishment of effects range correlatively to individual concentrations of contaminants for each site of study. The results revealed that sediments from Santos channel, as well as inner portions of the SES, are considered highly polluted (exceeding SQGs-high) by metals, PAHs and PCBs. High pollution by PAHs and some metals was found in São Vicente channel. In PES, sediments from inner portions (proximities of the Ponta do Félix port's terminal and the Port of Paranaguá) are highly polluted by metals and PAHs, including one zone inside the limits of an environmental protection area. In Gulf of Cádiz, SQGs exceedences were found in Ria of Huelva (all analysed metals and PAHs), in the surroundings of the Port of Cádiz (Bay of Cádiz) (metals), and in Bay of Algeciras (Ni and PAHs). The site-specific SQGs derived in this study are more restricted than national SQGs applied in Brazil and Spain, as well as international guidelines. This finding confirms the importance of the development of site-specific SQGs to support the characterisation of sediments and dredged material. The use of the same methodology to derive SQGs in Brazilian and Spanish port zones confirmed the applicability of this technique with an international scope and provided a harmonised methodology for site-specific SQGs derivation.

  10. Instrumentation for comparing night sky quality and atmospheric conditions of CTA site candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruck, C.; Gaug, M.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Mandát, D.; Schweizer, T.; Häfner, D.; Bulik, T.; Cieslar, M.; Costantini, H.; Dominik, M.; Ebr, J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Lorentz, E.; Pareschi, G.; Pech, M.; Puerto-Giménez, I.; Teshima, M.

    2015-04-01

    Many atmospheric and climatic criteria have to be taken into account for the selection of a suitable site for the next generation of imaging air-shower Cherenkov telescopes, the ``Cherenkov Telescope Array'' CTA. Such data are not available with sufficient precision, thus a comparison of the proposed sites and final decision based on a comprehensive characterization is impossible. Identical cross-calibrated instruments have been developed which allow for precise comparison between sites, the cross-validation of existing data, and the ground-validation of satellite data. The site characterization work package of the CTA consortium opted to construct and deploy 9 copies of an autonomous multi-purpose weather sensor, incorporating an infrared cloud sensor, a newly developed sensor for measuring the light of the night sky, and an All-Sky-Camera, the whole referred to as Autonomous Tool for Measuring Observatory Site COnditions PrEcisely (ATMOSCOPE). We present here the hardware that was combined into the ATMOSCOPE and characterize its performance.

  11. Continuous and discrete water-quality data collected at five sites on Lake Houston near Houston, Texas, 2006-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beussink, Amy M.; Burnich, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Lake Houston, a reservoir impounded in 1954 by the City of Houston, Texas, is a primary source of drinking water for Houston and surrounding areas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Houston, developed a continuous water-quality monitoring network to track daily changes in water quality in the southwestern quadrant of Lake Houston beginning in 2006. Continuous water-quality data (the physiochemical properties water temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, and turbidity) were collected from Lake Houston to characterize the in-lake processes that affect water quality. Continuous data were collected hourly from mobile, multi-depth monitoring stations developed and constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Multi-depth monitoring stations were installed at five sites in three general locations in the southwestern quadrant of the lake. Discrete water-quality data (samples) were collected routinely (once or twice each month) at all sites to characterize the chemical and biological (phytoplankton and bacteria) response to changes in the continuous water-quality properties. Physiochemical properties (the five continuously monitored plus transparency) were measured in the field when samples were collected. In addition to the routine samples, discrete water-quality samples were collected synoptically (one or two times during the study period) at all sites to determine the presence and levels of selected constituents not analyzed in routine samples. Routine samples were measured or analyzed for acid neutralizing capacity; selected major ions and trace elements (calcium, silica, and manganese); nutrients (filtered and total ammonia nitrogen, filtered nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen, total nitrate nitrogen, filtered and total nitrite nitrogen, filtered and total orthophosphate phosphorus, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total organic carbon); fecal indicator bacteria (total coliform and Escherichia coli); sediment

  12. Evaluating a complex, multi-site, community-based program to improve healthcare quality: the summative research design for the Aligning Forces for Quality initiative.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Dennis P; Wolf, Laura J; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Christianson, Jon B; Greene, Jessica; Jean-Jacques, Muriel; McHugh, Megan; Shi, Yunfeng; Leitzell, Brigitt; Vanderbrink, Jocelyn M

    2016-08-01

    The Aligning Forces for Quality (AF4Q) initiative was the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's (RWJF's) signature effort to increase the overall quality of healthcare in targeted communities throughout the country. In addition to sponsoring this 16-site complex program, RWJF funded an independent scientific evaluation to support objective research on the initiative's effectiveness and contributions to basic knowledge in 5 core programmatic areas. The research design, data, and challenges faced during the summative evaluation phase of this near decade-long program are discussed. A descriptive overview of the summative research design and its development for a multi-site, community-based, healthcare quality improvement initiative is provided. The summative research design employed by the evaluation team is discussed. The evaluation team's summative research design involved a data-driven assessment of the effectiveness of the AF4Q program at large, assessments of the impact of AF4Q in the specific programmatic areas, and an assessment of how the AF4Q alliances were positioned for the future at the end of the program. The AF4Q initiative was the largest privately funded community-based healthcare improvement initiative in the United States to date and was implemented at a time of rapid change in national healthcare policy. The implementation of large-scale, multi-site initiatives is becoming an increasingly common approach for addressing problems in healthcare. The summative evaluation research design for the AF4Q initiative, and the lessons learned from its approach, may be valuable to others tasked with evaluating similarly complex community-based initiatives.

  13. SU-E-T-166: Characterization of Efficiency and Plan Quality for the FFF Beams On Various Anatomical Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Rassiah-Szegedi, P; Szegedi, M; Sarkar, V; Zhao, H; Huang, Y; Huang, L; Salter, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To characterize efficiency and plan quality for the FFF beams for various sites. Methods: 5 brain, Head and Neck, prostate, lung and liver cancer patients IMRT plans (25 total) were generated on either Prowess 4.6 or Eclipse 13.5 using the same dose constraints for each treatment site. Step and shoot with static gantry IMRT was used for treatment delivery. PTV coverage, critical structure doses, MUs, number of segments and beam on times were compared. Results: The average PTV size was 29.0, 34.9, 89.2, 257.6, 289.2 cm3 for liver, lung, prostate, head and neck and brain respectively.All plans were normalized such that 95% of the PTV volume would receive at least 95% of prescribed dose. All doses to the critical structures for both the FFF and flat beam met the targeted dose constraints.For plans with field sizes < 10 cm, the number of segments and MUs required to achieve the same plan quality were similar. For these small field sizes with large dose per fraction, an increase in efficiency up to 58.8% is seen.Plans with field sizes > 10 cm, required 10% – 20% more segments and MUs for the FFF beam to achieve the same plan quality as the flat beam. Despite this, for fraction sizes less than 2.5 Gy the FFF beam is still approximately 13.9% more efficient in terms of delivery time. Conclusion: For the various treatment sites studied here, plans generated with the FFF beam were dosimetrically similar to those generated with a flattened beam. Despite the greater number of MUs and segments required to achieve the same plan quality as the flat beam for some plans, the FFF beam is still more efficient compared to the flat beam.

  14. Groundwater quality assessment plan for the 1324-N/NA Site: Phase 1 (first determination)

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, M.J.

    1998-05-01

    The 1324-N Surface Impoundment and 1324-NA Percolation Pond (1324-N/NA Site) are treatment/storage/disposal sites regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). They are located in the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site, and were used to treat and dispose of corrosive waste from a water treatment plant. Groundwater monitoring under an interim-status detection program compared indicator parameters from downgradient wells to background values established from an upgradient well. One of the indicator parameters, total organic carbon (TOC), exceeded its background value in one downgradient well, triggering an upgrade from a detection program to an assessment program. This plan presents the first phase of the assessment program.

  15. Near-coastal water quality at reference sites following storm events.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Kenneth; Brown, Jeff; Trump, Steen; Hardin, Dane

    2016-02-15

    Stormwater is a challenging source of coastal pollution to abate because stormwater also involves complex natural processes, and differentiating these processes from anthropogenic excesses is difficult. The goal of this study was to identify the natural concentrations of stormwater constituents along the 1377 km coastline of California, USA. Twenty-eight ocean reference sites, a priori defined by lack of human disturbance in its adjacent watershed, were collected following 78 site-events and measured for 57 constituents and toxicity. Results indicated a complete lack of toxicity and undetectable levels of anthropogenic constituents (i.e., pesticides). The range of concentrations in ocean receiving waters for naturally-occurring constituents (i.e., total suspended solids, nutrients, trace metals) typically ranged three orders of magnitude. Regional differences and storm characteristics did not explain much of the variations in concentration. The reference site information is now being used to establish targets for marine protected areas subject to runoff from developed watersheds.

  16. Assessment of groundwater quality at a MSW landfill site using standard and AHP based water quality index: a case study from Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Shubhrasekhar; Kumar, R Naresh

    2016-06-01

    Landfill leachate generated from open MSW dumpsite can cause groundwater contamination. The impact of open dumping of MSW on the groundwater of adjacent area was studied. To assess the spatial and temporal variations in groundwater quality, samples were collected around an open MSW dumping site in Ranchi city, Jharkhand, India. Groundwater samples were analysed for various physicochemical and bacteriological parameters for 1 year. Results indicated that the groundwater is getting contaminated due to vertical and horizontal migration of landfill leachate. Extent of contamination was higher in areas closer to the landfill as indicated by high alkalinity, total dissolved solids and ammonia concentration. Metals such as lead, iron, and manganese were present at concentrations of 0.097, 0.97 and 0.36 mg/L, respectively exceeding the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) 10,500 for drinking water. Enterobacteriaceae were also detected in several groundwater samples and highest coliform count of 2.1×10(4) CFU/mL was recorded from a dug well. In order to determine the overall groundwater quality, water quality index (WQI) was calculated using weighted arithmetic index method and this index was further modified by coupling with the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to get specific information. WQI values indicated that the overall groundwater quality of the region came under "poor" category while zone wise classification indicated the extent of impact of landfill leachate on groundwater.

  17. Nationwide regression models for predicting urban runoff water quality at unmonitored sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tasker, Gary D.; Driver, N.E.

    1988-01-01

    Regression models are presented that can be used to estimate mean loads for chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, dissolved solids, total nitrogen, total ammonia plus nitrogen, total phosphorous, dissolved phosphorous, total copper, total lead, and total zinc at unmonitored sites in urban areas. Explanatory variables include drainage area, imperviousness of drainage basin to infiltration, mean annual rainfall, a land-use indicator variable, and mean minimum January temperature. Model parameters are estimated by a generalized-least-squares regression method that accounts for cross correlation and differences in reliability of sample estimates between sites. The regression models account for 20 to 65 percent of the total variation in observed loads.

  18. Assessment of water quality parameters of the Harike wetland in India, a Ramsar site, using IRS LISS IV satellite data.

    PubMed

    Mabwoga, Samson Okongo; Chawla, Amit; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar

    2010-11-01

    This study aims at the classification and water quality assessment of Harike wetland (Ramsar site) in India using satellite images from the Indian Remote Sensing satellite, Resourcesat (IRS P6). The Harike wetland is a converging zone of two rivers, Beas and Sutlej. The satellite images of IRS Linear Imaging Self Scanner (LISS) IV multispectral sensor with three bands (green, red, and near infrared (NIR)) and a spatial resolution of 5.8 m were classified using supervised image classification techniques. Field points for image classification and water sampling were recorded using a Garmin eTrex Global Positioning System. The water quality parameters assessed were dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, turbidity, total and suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand, and Secchi disk transparency (SDT). Correlations were established between turbidity and SS, SS and SDT, and total solids and turbidity. Using reflectance values from the green, red, and NIR bands, we then plotted the water quality parameters with the mean digital number values from the satellite imagery. The NIR band correlated significantly with the water quality parameters, whereas, using SDT values, it was observed that the green and the red reflectance bands were able to distinguish the waters from the two rivers, which have different water qualities.

  19. Assessment of diffusion tensor image quality across sites and vendors using the American College of Radiology head phantom.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiyue J; Seo, Youngseob; Babcock, Evelyn; Huang, Hao; Bluml, Stefan; Wisnowski, Jessica; Holshouser, Barbara; Panigrahy, Ashok; Shaw, Dennis W W; Altman, Nolan; McColl, Roderick W; Rollins, Nancy K

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of assessing quality of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) from multiple sites and vendors using American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom. Participating sites (Siemens (n=2), GE (n=2), and Philips (n=4)) reached consensus on parameters for DTI and used the widely available ACR phantom. Tensor data were processed at one site. B0 and eddy current distortions were assessed using grid line displacement on phantom Slice 5; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was measured at the center and periphery of the b=0 image; fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were assessed using phantom Slice 7. Variations of acquisition parameters and deviations from specified sequence parameters were recorded. Nonlinear grid line distortion was higher with linear shimming and could be corrected using the 2nd order shimming. Following image registration, eddy current distortion was consistently smaller than acquisition voxel size. SNR was consistently higher in the image periphery than center by a factor of 1.3-2.0. ROI-based FA ranged from 0.007 to 0.024. ROI-based MD ranged from 1.90×10-3 to 2.33×10-3mm2/s(median=2.04×10-3mm2/s). Two sites had image void artifacts. The ACR phantom can be used to compare key quality measures of diffusion images acquired from multiple vendors at multiple sites. PACS number(s): 87.57.-s, 87.19.lf.

  20. Ecosystem responses to extreme natural events: impacts of three sequential hurricanes in fall 1999 on sediment quality and condition of benthic fauna in the Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Balthis, W Leonard; Hyland, Jeffrey L; Bearden, Daniel W

    2006-08-01

    A study was conducted in November 1999 to assess sediment quality and condition of benthic fauna in the Neuse River Estuary (NRE), North Carolina, USA, following the passage of three Atlantic hurricanes during the two months prior. Samples for analysis of macroinfauna (>0.5 mm sieve size), chemical contamination of sediments, and other abiotic environmental variables (salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, depth, sediment granulometry) were collected at 20 sites from the mouth of the Neuse River at Pamlico Sound to approximately 90 km upstream. Results were compared to those obtained from the same area in July 1998 using similar protocols. Depressed salinity, caused by extreme rainfall and associated high freshwater flow, persisted throughout much of the estuary, which had experienced periods of water-column stratification and hypoxia of underlying waters. Fifteen of the 20 sites, representing 299 km2 (76% of the survey area), also showed signs of benthic stress based on a multi-metric benthic index of biotic integrity (B-IBI). Benthic impacts included reductions in the abundance, diversity, and numbers of species and shifts in taxonomic composition, with a notable increase in dominance of the opportunistic polychaete Mediomastus ambiseta as other former dominant species declined. There was no significant increase in the extent of chemical contamination compared to pre-hurricane conditions. Storm-related reductions in dissolved oxygen and salinity were the more likely causes of the observed benthic impacts, though it was not possible, based on these results, to separate storm effects from seasonal changes in the benthos and annual episodes of summer anoxia and hypoxia.

  1. Physicochemical and bacteriological quality of bottled drinking water in three sites of Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Biadglegne, Fantahun; Tessema, Belay; Kibret, Mulugeta; Abera, Bayeh; Huruy, Kahsay; Anagaw, Belay; Mulu, Andargachew

    2009-10-01

    The consumption of bottled drinking water is becoming increasing in Ethiopia. As a result there has been a growing concern about the chemical, physical and bacteriological quality of this product. Studies on the chemical, physical and bacteriological quality of bottled water is quite scarce in Ethiopia. This study was therefore aimed to assess the physicochemical and bacteriological qualities of three factories of bottled drinking water products produced in Amhara region. A Laboratory based comparative study was conducted to evaluate the physicochemical and bacteriological quality of three factories of bottled drinking water produced in Amhara region. Analysis on the quality of bottled drinking water from the sources, wholesalers and retailers were made with World Health Organization and Quality and Standards Authority of Ethiopia recommendations. Triplicate samples from three types of bottled drinking water were randomly collected and analyzed from June, 2006 to December, 2006. A total of 108 commercial bottled drinking water samples were analyzed. The result showed that except pH of factory A all the physicochemical parameters analyzed were with in the recommended limits. The pH value of factory A tested from sources is 5.3 and from wholesalers and retailers is 5.5 and 5.3, respectively, which is below the normal value set by World Health Organization (6.5-8.0) and Quality and Standards Authority of Ethiopia (6.0-8.5). Our analyses also demonstrated that 2 (16.7%) of the samples tested from sources and 1 (8.3%) from wholesalers of factory B were contaminated with total coliforms, where as 2 (16.7%) samples from retailers were also contaminated with total coliforms. On the other hand, 1 (8.3%) of the samples tested from wholesalers and 2 (16.7%) of the samples tested from retailers of factory A were also contaminated with total coliforms. Total coliforms were not detected from all samples of factory C, fecal coliforms were not also isolated from all samples

  2. Effects of habitat quality and ambient hyporheic flows on salmon spawning site selection

    Treesearch

    Rohan Benjankar; Daniele Tonina; Alessandra Marzadri; Jim McKean; Daniel J. Isaak

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the role of stream hydrologic and morphologic variables on the selection of spawning sites by salmonid fishes at high resolution across broad scales is needed for effective habitat restoration and protection. Here we used remotely sensed meter-scale channel bathymetry for a 13.5 km reach of Chinook salmon spawning stream in central Idaho to...

  3. Prediction of wood Quality in Small-Diameter Douglas-Fir using site and Stand Characteristics

    Treesearch

    C.D. Morrow; T.M. Gorman; J.W. Evans; D.E. Kretschmann; C.A. Hatfield

    2013-01-01

    Standing stress wave measurements were taken on 274 small-diameter Douglas-fir trees in western Montana. Stand, site, and soil measurements collected in the field and remotely through geographical information system (GIS) data layers were used to model dynamic modulus of elasticity (DMOE) in those trees. The best fit linear model developed resulted in an adjusted

  4. Sweetgum Response to Nitrogen Fertilization on Sites of Different Quality and Land Use History

    Treesearch

    D. Andrew Scott; Donald J. Kaczmarek; James A. Burger; Michael B. Kane

    2002-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilizer management in young hardwood plantations is difficult due to our lack of understanding of the site-specific mechanisms that control tree response. Differences in landuse history and soil characteristics can alter the plant response to added N considerably. Foliage biomass, N content, N concentration, resorption, and soil N supply characteristics...

  5. Water quality at fixed sites in the Great Salt Lake basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, water years 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerner, Steven J.

    2003-01-01

    The Great Salt Lake Basins (GRSL) study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment program encompasses the Bear River, Weber River, and Utah Lake/Jordan River systems, all of which discharge to Great Salt Lake in Utah. Data were collected during each month at 10 sites in the GRSL study unit from October 1998 to September 2000 to define spatial and temporal distribution and variability in concentration of nutrients, major ions, trace elements, suspended sediments, and organic compounds.Water samples collected from rangeland and forest sites in the GRSL study unit generally contained low concentrations of dissolved solids. Median dissolved-solids concentration in water samples was highest at sites with mixed land uses. Dissolved-solids concentration in some parts of the Bear River during low flow exceeded Utah State standards for agricultural use.Total-nitrogen concentration in water samples from GRSL sites ranged from 0.06 to 11 milligrams per liter. Water samples from predominantly forest and rangeland sites generally had a low total-nitrogen concentration. Many samples from sites with a higher percentage of agricultural and urban land cover had higher concentrations of total nitrogen. Fifty percent of the samples collected at GRSL sites had total phosphorus concentrations that exceeded 0.1 milligram per liter, the recommended limit for the prevention of nuisance aquatic-plant growth in streams not discharging directly into lakes or impoundments.Concentration of most trace elements in water samples from the fixed sites generally was low; however, arsenic concentrations, as high as 284 micrograms per liter, sometimes exceeded aquatic-life guidelines. Forty-three pesticides and 35 volatile organic compounds were detected in water samples from three GRSL sites; however, the concentration of most was low, less than 1 microgram per liter. The herbicides atrazine and prometon and the insecticides carbaryl and diazinon were the most frequently detected pesticides

  6. Hydrogeologic and water-quality data for the explosive experimental area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site, Dahlgren, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammond, E.C.; Bell, C.F.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrogeologic and water-quality data were collected at the Explosive Experimental Area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site at Dahlgren, Virginia, as part of a hydrogeologic assessment of the shallow aquifer system begun in 1993. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted this study to provide the U.S. Navy with hydrogeologic data to aid in the evaluation of the effects from remediation of contaminated sites and to protect against additional contamination. This report describes the ground-water observation- well network, hydrogeologic, and water-quality data collected between October 1993 and April 1995. The report includes a description of the locations and construction of 28 observation wells on the Explosive Experimental Area. Hydrogeologic data include lithologic logs, geophysical logs, and vertical hydraulic conductivity measurements of selected core intervals. Hydrologic data include synoptic and hourly measurements of ground-water levels, and observation-well slug tests to determine horizontal hydraulic conductivity. Water-quality data include analyses of major dissolved constituents in ground water and surface water.

  7. Quality evaluation of portal sites in health system, as a tool for education and learning

    PubMed Central

    Hejazi, Sayed Mehdi; Sarmadi, Sima

    2013-01-01

    Background: The main objective of creating a portal is to make information service available for users who need them for performance of duties and responsibilities regardless of the sources. This article is attempted to consider the parameters that can evaluate these sites since these criteria can be effective in designing and implementing such portals. On the other hand, portal sites in health systems of every country make it possible for leaders, policy makers, and directors to system education as a tool for new learning technologies. One of the main decisions each manager has to make is precise selection of appropriate portal sites. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive and qualitative study. The research sample was 53 computer professional working in the area of computer programming and design. In the first part of the study a questionnaire was send to the participants and in the second part of the study based on their response to the questionnaire the participant was interviewed and the main themes of the studies were formulated. The validity and the reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed. Results: The study results were summarized in 10 themes and 50 sub-categories. The main themes included were portal requirements, security, management, and efficiency, user friendliness, built-in applications, portal flexibility, interoperability, and support systems. Conclusion: Portal sites in any education systems make it possible for health system leaders and policy makers to manage their organization information system efficiently and effectively. One of the major decisions each manager has to make is precise selection of an appropriate portal sites design and development. The themes and sub-categories of this study could help health system managers and policy makers and information technology professionals to make appropriate decisions regarding portal design and development. PMID:24520554

  8. A method of evaluating forest site quality from soil, forest cover, and indicator plants

    Treesearch

    Marinus Westveld

    1952-01-01

    Foresters have overlooked too long the importance of soil as a factor in successful timber production. Greatest production in amount and quality of wood at the smallest cost can be attained by growing the tree species that are best suited to the climate and the soil of the locality in question.

  9. Nutrition Program Quality Assurance through a Formalized Process of On-Site Program Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Joan Doyle; Dollahite, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    A protocol for a systematic onsite review of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education was developed to support quality programming and ensure compliance with state guidelines and federal regulations. Onsite review of local nutrition program operations is one strategy to meet this…

  10. Nutrition Program Quality Assurance through a Formalized Process of On-Site Program Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Joan Doyle; Dollahite, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    A protocol for a systematic onsite review of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education was developed to support quality programming and ensure compliance with state guidelines and federal regulations. Onsite review of local nutrition program operations is one strategy to meet this…

  11. WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENTS DURING RIVERBANK FILTRATION AT THREE SITES IN THE MIDWESTERN US

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 3-year project is underway to evaluate riverbank filtration systems along three major US rivers. A principal aspects of the study involved monitoring a suite or organic, inorganic, and microbiological water quality parameters, with emphasis on disinfection byproduct formation p...

  12. INFORMATION MANAGEMENT AND RELATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR A LARGE SCALE, MULTI-SITE RESEARCH PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the summer of 2000, as part of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency study designed to improve microbial water quality monitoring protocols at public beaches, over 11,000 water samples were collected at five selected beaches across the country. At each beach, samples wer...

  13. WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENTS DURING RIVERBANK FILTRATION AT THREE SITES IN THE MIDWESTERN US

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 3-year project is underway to evaluate riverbank filtration systems along three major US rivers. A principal aspects of the study involved monitoring a suite or organic, inorganic, and microbiological water quality parameters, with emphasis on disinfection byproduct formation p...

  14. INFORMATION MANAGEMENT AND RELATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR A LARGE SCALE, MULTI-SITE RESEARCH PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the summer of 2000, as part of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency study designed to improve microbial water quality monitoring protocols at public beaches, over 11,000 water samples were collected at five selected beaches across the country. At each beach, samples wer...

  15. Comparison of soil quality and productivity at two sites differing in profile structure and topsoil properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study sought to assess soil quality (SQ) of two soils with similar taxonomy but dissimilar soil profile attributes, and compare SQ outcomes with aboveground biomass productivity of three crops: dry pea (Pisum sativum L.), spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and maize (Zea mays L.). Soils evalu...

  16. Water-quality, biological, and physical-habitat conditions at fixed sites in the Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, National Water-Quality Assessment Study Unit, October 1998-September 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Whitman, Matthew S.

    2004-01-01

    The Cook Inlet Basin study unit of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program comprises 39,325 square miles in south-central Alaska. Data were collected at eight fixed sites to provide baseline information in areas where no development has taken place, urbanization or logging have occurred, or the effects of recreation are increasing. Collection of water-quality, biology, and physical-habitat data began in October 1998 and ended in September 2001 (water years 1999-2001). The climate for the water years in the study may be categorized as slightly cool-wet (1999), slightly warm-wet (2000), and significantly warm-dry (2001). Total precipitation was near normal during the study period, and air temperatures ranged from modestly cool in water year 1999 to near normal in 2000, and to notably warm in 2001. Snowmelt runoff dominates the hydrology of streams in the Cook Inlet Basin. Average annual flows at the fixed sites were approximately the same as the long-term average annual flows, with the exception of those in glacier-fed basins, which had above-average flow in water year 2001. Water temperature of all streams studied in the Cook Inlet Basin remained at 0 oC for about 6 months per year, and average annual water temperatures ranged from 3.3 to 6.2 degrees Celsius. Of the water-quality constituents sampled, all concentrations were less than drinking-water standards and only one constituent, the pesticide carbaryl, exceeded aquatic-life standards. Most of the stream waters of the Cook Inlet Basin were classified as calcium bicarbonate, which reflects the underlying geology. Streams in the Cook Inlet Basin draining areas with glaciers, rough mountainous terrain, and poorly developed soils have low concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and dissolved organic carbon compared with concentrations of these same constituents in streams in lowland or urbanized areas. In streams draining relatively low-lying areas, most of the suspended sediment

  17. A novel hybrid model for air quality index forecasting based on two-phase decomposition technique and modified extreme learning machine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Deyun; Wei, Shuai; Luo, Hongyuan; Yue, Chenqiang; Grunder, Olivier

    2017-02-15

    The randomness, non-stationarity and irregularity of air quality index (AQI) series bring the difficulty of AQI forecasting. To enhance forecast accuracy, a novel hybrid forecasting model combining two-phase decomposition technique and extreme learning machine (ELM) optimized by differential evolution (DE) algorithm is developed for AQI forecasting in this paper. In phase I, the complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition (CEEMD) is utilized to decompose the AQI series into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) with different frequencies; in phase II, in order to further handle the high frequency IMFs which will increase the forecast difficulty, variational mode decomposition (VMD) is employed to decompose the high frequency IMFs into a number of variational modes (VMs). Then, the ELM model optimized by DE algorithm is applied to forecast all the IMFs and VMs. Finally, the forecast value of each high frequency IMF is obtained through adding up the forecast results of all corresponding VMs, and the forecast series of AQI is obtained by aggregating the forecast results of all IMFs. To verify and validate the proposed model, two daily AQI series from July 1, 2014 to June 30, 2016 collected from Beijing and Shanghai located in China are taken as the test cases to conduct the empirical study. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid model based on two-phase decomposition technique is remarkably superior to all other considered models for its higher forecast accuracy.

  18. Streamflow and water-quality characteristics at selected sites of the St. Johns River in central Florida, 1933 to 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kroening, Sharon E.

    2004-01-01

    To meet water-supply needs in central Florida for 2020, the St. Johns River is being considered as a source of water supply to augment ground water from the Floridan aquifer system. Current (2004) information on streamflow and water-quality characteristics of the St. Johns River in east-central Florida is needed by water resources planners to assess the feasibility of using the river as an alternate source of water supply and to design water treatment facilities. To address this need, streamflow and water quality of the 90-mile-long middle reach of the St. Johns River, Florida, from downstream of Lake Poinsett to near DeLand, were characterized by using retrospective (1991-99) and recently collected data (2000-02). Streamflow characteristics were determined by using data from water years 1933-2000. Water-quality characteristics were described using data from 1991-99 at 15 sites on the St. Johns River and 1 site each near the mouths of the Econlockhatchee and Wekiva Rivers. Data were augmented with biweekly water-quality data and continuous physical properties data at four St. Johns River sites and quarterly data from sites on the Wekiva River, Blackwater Creek, and downstream of Blue Springs from 2000-02. Water-quality constituents described were limited to information on physical properties, major ions and other inorganic constituents, nutrients, organic carbon, suspended solids, and phytoplankton chlorophyll-a. The occurrence of antibiotics, human prescription and nonprescription drugs, pesticides, and a suite of organic constituents, which may indicate domestic or industrial waste, were described at two St. Johns River sites using limited data collected in water years 2002-03. The occurrence of these same constituents in water from a pilot water treatment facility on Lake Monroe also was described using data from one sampling event conducted in March 2003. Dissolved oxygen concentration and water pH values in the St. Johns River were significantly lower during

  19. Forest Clearcutting and Site Preparation on a Saline Soil in East Texas: Impacts on Water Quality

    Treesearch

    Matthew McBroom; Mingteh Chang; Alexander K. Sayok

    2002-01-01

    Three 0.02 hectare plot-watersheds were installed on a saline soil in the Davy Crockett National Forest near Apple Springs, Texas. Each plot was installed with an H-flume, FW-1 automatic water level recorder, Coshocton N-1 runoff sampler, and two storage tanks. One watershed was undisturbed forested and served a control, one was clearcut without any site-preparation,...

  20. Site quality changes in response to slash retention and prescribed fire in thinned ponderosa pine forests

    Treesearch

    Matt Busse

    2010-01-01

    The ecological effects of post-thinning slash retention on vegetation, wildlife browse, and soil were evaluated in sixty-year-old stands of second-growth pine in central Oregon. Three slash-retention treatments were compared: whole-tree removal, bole-only removal, and thin no removal (boles and slash scattered on site). The study intent was to create a wide gradient of...

  1. Empirical assessment of incorporating sediment quality triad data into a single index to distinguish dominant stressors between sites.

    PubMed

    Hartwell, S Ian; Hameedi, M J; Pait, A S

    2011-03-01

    Benthic infaunal community structure, sediment contamination, and sediment toxicity data (Sediment Quality Triad) were condensed into a single index based on the area of tri-axial plots, which were examined in relation to various habitat parameters. The purpose was to assess its utility for evaluating the relative impact of contaminants versus other stressors on benthic communities. The regression relationship between the areal index and the Effects Range-Median quotient (ERMq) was used to separate contaminant-impacted sites from sites impacted by hypoxia in Chesapeake Bay. Regression using the areal index and bottom oxygen confirm the utility of the approach. Data from Delaware, Galveston, and Biscayne Bays were also examined to determine if the approach may be effective in other estuaries.

  2. On-Site Disposition of Concrete During Decommissioning and Decontamination: A Data Quality Objective-Based Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Salpas, P.A.; Skinner, K.M.; Stephens, G.M.; Dunning, D.E.

    2008-07-01

    On-site disposition of concrete derived during decommissioning and demolition (D and D) of buildings at industrial sites is a cost-effective, waste minimization alternative to off-site disposal. Because the concrete is to be left on-site it becomes part of the solid matrix of the site and is subject to the compositional constraints governing site soils. In addition, the concrete and its contained-in materials may be subject to physical constraints such as size and shape which do not apply to soils. When considering on-site disposition of concrete, the data quality objective (DQO) process should be used to determine the compositional and physical constraints on the concrete and for developing the characterization approach to determine whether those constraints have been met. The information inputs to the compositional and physical constraints on the concrete constitute the concrete acceptance criteria (CAC) which become the basis for developing decision rules - the yes/no statements that unequivocally state the compositional and physical conditions under which concrete may be left on site. An important DQO boundary concept is concrete classification. The cost of concrete characterization can be minimized with a thorough data gap assessment by focusing resources on the concrete most in need of characterization. Concrete for which a yes/no decision can be made with reasonable certainty based on a comparison of existing data to the CAC receives a lesser amount of characterization scrutiny than does concrete for which existing data is non-existent or ambiguous relative to the CAC. In conclusion: Developing acceptance criteria for the on-site disposition of concrete through the DQO process provides a systematic methodology for determining and documenting what decisions will be made and what information is necessary to support those decisions. At each step in the process, input from all individuals or organizations that have a role in making the ultimate decision must be

  3. Tradeoffs between homing and habitat quality for spawning site selection by hatchery-origin Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cram, Jeremy M.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Klett, Ryan S.; Pess, George R.; May, Darran; Pearsons, Todd N.; Dittman, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    Spawning site selection by female salmon is based on complex and poorly understood tradeoffs between the homing instinct and the availability of appropriate habitat for successful reproduction. Previous studies have shown that hatchery-origin Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) released from different acclimation sites return with varying degrees of fidelity to these areas. To investigate the possibility that homing fidelity is associated with aquatic habitat conditions, we quantified physical habitat throughout 165 km in the upper Yakima River basin (Washington, USA) and mapped redd and carcass locations from 2004 to 2008. Principal components analysis identified differences in substrate, cover, stream width, and gradient among reaches surrounding acclimation sites, and canonical correspondence analysis revealed that these differences in habitat characteristics were associated with spatial patterns of spawning (p < 0.01). These analyses indicated that female salmon may forego spawning near their acclimation area if the surrounding habitat is unsuitable. Evaluating the spatial context of acclimation areas in relation to surrounding habitat may provide essential information for effectively managing supplementation programs and prioritizing restoration actions.

  4. Transferability of a Three-Dimensional Air Quality Model between Two Different Sites in Complex Terrain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Rolf

    1989-07-01

    The three-dimensional, diagnostic, particle-in-cell transport and diffusion model MATHEW/ADPIC is used to test its transferability from one site in complex terrain to another with different characteristics, under stable nighttime drainage flow conditions. The two sites were subject to extensive drainage flow tracer experiments under the multilaboratory Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program: the first being a valley in the Geysers geothermal region of northern California, and the second a canyon in western Colorado. The domain in each case is approximately 10 × 10 km. The 1980 Geysers model evaluation is only quoted. The 1984 Brush Creek model evaluation is described in detail.Results from comparing computed with measured concentrations from a variety of tracer releases indicate that 52% of the 4531 samples from five experiments in Brush Creek and 50% of the 831 samples from four experiments in the Geysers agreed within a factor of 5. When an angular 10° uncertainty, consistent with anemometer reliability limits in complex terrain, was allowed to be applied to the model results, model performance improved such that 78% of samples compared within a factor of 5 for Brush Creek and 77% for the Geysers. Looking at the range of other factors of concentration ratios, results indicate that the model is satisfactorily transferable without tuning it to a specific site.

  5. The use of lidar as optical remote sensors in the assessment of air quality near oil refineries and petrochemical sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffens, Juliana; Landulfo, Eduardo; Guardani, Roberto; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudio A.; Moreira, Andréia

    2008-10-01

    Petrochemical and oil refining facilities play an increasingly important role in the industrial context. The corresponding need for monitoring emissions from these facilities as well as in their neighborhood has raised in importance, leading to the present tendency of creating real time data acquisition and analysis systems. The use of LIDAR-based techniques, both for air quality and emissions monitoring purposes is currently being developed for the area of Cubatao, Sao Paulo, one of the largest petrochemical and industrial sites in Brazil. In a partnership with the University of SÃ#o Paulo (USP) the Brazilian oil company PETROBRAS has implemented an Environmental Research Center - CEPEMA - located in the industrial site, in which the development of fieldwork will be carried out. The current joint R&D project focuses on the development of a real time acquisition system, together with automated multicomponent chemical analysis. Additionally, fugitive emissions from oil processing and storage sites will be measured, together with the main greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4), and aerosols. Our first effort is to assess the potential chemical species coming out of an oil refinery site and to verify which LIDAR technique, DIAL, Raman, fluorescence would be most efficient in detecting and quantifying the specific atmospheric emissions.

  6. Effects of soil quality and depth on seed germination and seedling survival at the Nevada test site

    SciTech Connect

    Blomquist, K.W.; Lyon, G.E.

    1993-12-31

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended in 1987, directs the US Department of Energy (DOE) to study Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, as a potential site for long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. DOE policy mandates the restoration of all lands disturbed by site characterization activities and DOE has developed an environmental program that is to be implemented during site characterization activities at Yucca.Mountain. DOE is currently conducting reclamation feasibility trials as part of this environmental program. No topsoil was saved on disturbances during early site investigation and minimal soil remains at existing disturbances on Yucca Mountain. A study was developed to test the effects of soil quality and depth on seedling emergence and survival. A series of plots was established and two treatments were tested. The first treatment compared native topsoil to subsoil imported from a borrow pit. The second treatment compared four different depth ranges of both soil types. All plots received identical seeding treatments. Seedling density was measured after emergence. Overall seedling densities were low, averaging 10.3 {plus_minus} 8.8 (SD) plants/m{sup 2}. Statistical analysis revealed a significant interaction between the two treatment factors. The subsoil had increasing densities from the deep soil depths to the shallow depths while the topsoil had increasing densities from the shallow soil depths to the deep depths. The cause of this interaction may have resulted from the bedrock being close to the soil surface of the shallow plots.

  7. An assessment of African test sites in the context of a global network of quality-assured reference standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Xiong, X.; Angal, A.; Choi, T.

    2009-01-01

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Infrared and Visible Optical Sensors (IVOS) subgroup members established a set of CEOS-endorsed globally distributed reference standard test sites for the postlaunch calibration of space-based optical imaging sensors. This paper discusses the top five African pseudo-invariant sites (Libya 4, Mauritania 1/2, Algeria 3, Libya 1, and Algeria 5) that were identified by the IVOS subgroup. This paper focuses on monitoring the long-term radiometric stability of the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors using near-simultaneous and cloud-free image pairs acquired from launch to December 2008 over the five African desert sites. Residual errors and coefficients of determination were also generated to support the quality assessment of the calibration differences between the two sensors. An effort was also made to evaluate the relative stability of these sites for long-term monitoring of the optical sensors. ??2009 IEEE.

  8. Quality assurance for radioactive wastes disposed of in the Morsleben Site -- Planning, procedures and experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Martens, B.R.; Giller, H.; Brennecke, P.

    1995-12-31

    In Germany between 1978 and 1991, a repository for the disposal of radioactive waste was only accessible for waste producers in the former German Democratic Republic, GDR, namely, the former Morsleben salt mine. Since 1978 short-lived low and intermediate level radioactive wastes have been disposed of in this mine. The emplacement operations were stopped after the reunification of Germany by court order early in 1991. After reversal of this order in June 1992 extensive safety assessments were performed resulting in the formulation of new waste acceptance requirements and quality assurance procedures to be followed in order to demonstrate the fulfillment of these requirements. The emplacement operations were resumed in January 1994, and the repository is now accessible for all German waste producers. In the following quality assurance measures performed for radioactive waste packages prior to disposal are explained and experiences gained in the course of the performance of these measures discussed.

  9. Floristic Quality Index: An assessment tool for restoration projects and monitoring sites in coastal Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cretini, K.F.; Steyer, G.D.

    2011-01-01

    The Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) program was established to assess the effectiveness of individual coastal restoration projects and the cumulative effects of multiple projects at regional and coastwide scales. In order to make these assessments, analytical teams have been assembled for each of the primary data types sampled under the CRMS program, including vegetation, hydrology, landscape, and soils. These teams consist of scientists and support staff from the U.S. Geological Survey and other Federal agencies, the Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration, and university academics. Each team is responsible for developing or identifying parameters, indices, or tools that can be used to assess coastal wetlands at various scales. The CRMS Vegetation Analytical Team has developed a Floristic Quality Index for coastal Louisiana to determine the quality of a wetland based on its plant species composition and abundance.

  10. Image Quality of the Evryscope: Method for On-Site Optical Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulfken, Philip J.; Law, Nicholas M.; Ratzloff, Jeffrey; Fors, Octavi

    2015-01-01

    Previous wide field surveys have been conducted by taking many images each night to cover thousands of square degrees. The Evryscope is a new type of system designed to search for transiting exoplanets around nearby bright stars, M-dwarfs, white dwarfs, and other transients. The Evryscope is an array of 70 mm telescopes that will continuously image 10200 square degrees of the night sky at once. One of the image quality requirements is for the PSFs to be well-sampled at two pixels across and it was found that tilt caused by slight misalignment between the optics and the CCD increased the size of the FWHM towards the edges and corners of the image. Here we describe the image quality of the Evryscope cameras and the alignment procedure to achieve the required 2 pixel FWHM.

  11. Ground-water quality near a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill near Denver, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.

    1977-01-01

    The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District and the city and county of Denver operate a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill in an area about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of Denver. The assessment of the effects of these facilities on the ground-water system indicated that five wells perforated in alluvium were found to have markedly degradedd water quality. One well is located in the landfill and water that was analyzed was obtained from near the base of the buried refuse, two others are located downgradient and near sewage-sludge burial areas, and the remaining two are located near stagnant surface ponds. Concentrations of nitrate in wells downgradient from fields where sludge is plowed into the soil were higher than background concentrations due to the effects of the sludge disposal. No evidence of water-quality degradation was detected in deeper wells perforated in the bedrock formations. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. A Quality Improvement Approach to Reducing the Caesarean section Surgical Site Infection Rate in a Regional Hospital.

    PubMed

    O'Hanlon, M; McKenna, C; Carton, E; Diviney, D; Costello, M R; O'Sullivan, L; Fitzsimons, J; Toland, L; Dornikova, G; Curran, R; McCann, C; O'Sullivan, L; Doherty, T; Crowley, C; O'Coigligh, S

    2016-09-09

    Surgical site infection (SSI) rates are used extensively by hospitals as a basis for quality improvement. A 30-day post-discharge SSI programme for Caesarean section operations has been implemented in Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital since 2011. It has been shown that skin antisepsis and antibiotic prophylaxis are key factors in the prevention of SSI. Using quality improvement methodology, an infection prevention bundle was introduced to address these two factors. Skin antisepsis was changed from povidone-iodine to chlorhexidine-alcohol. Compliance with choice of antibiotic prophylaxis increased from 89.6% in 2014 to 98.5% in 2015. Compliance with timing also improved. The SSI rate of 7.5% was the lowest recorded to date, with the majority of SSIs (64%) diagnosed after hospital discharge. The level of variation was also reduced. However, the continued presence of variation and possibility of lower infection rates from the literature imply that further improvements are required.

  13. Underground Test Area Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Quality Assurance Report Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Farnham, Irene; Marutzky, Sam

    2013-01-01

    This report is mandated by the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and identifies the UGTA quality assurance (QA) activities for fiscal year (FY) 2012. All UGTA organizations—U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO); Desert Research Institute (DRI); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I); National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec); and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)—conducted QA activities in FY 2012. The activities included conducting assessments, identifying findings and completing corrective actions, evaluating laboratory performance, revising the QAPP, and publishing documents. In addition, processes and procedures were developed to address deficiencies identified in the FY 2011 QAPP gap analysis.

  14. A simple method for assessing available weather data quality for site specific nutrient management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuka, D. R.; Collick, A.; Kleinman, P. J. A.; Sommerlot, A.; Easton, Z. M.

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorous (P) Indices are an assessment tool used to identifying agricultural fields most vulnerable to P losses. In the two decades since its introduction, the P Indexing concept has evolved, and there are now P Indices that serve as Best Management Practice (BMP) selection and targeting. While the use of observed P loss data under various management scenarios is the ideal way to assess the accuracy of the P Indices, water quality data, particularly at the field scale, are not widely available and can require years of costly field research to generate. In place of in-situ water quality measurements, the use of locally relevant and corroborated water quality models is a more expedient option to conduct index assessments in the short time required for new standards. The input forcing data required by these models include precipitation and temperature. Unfortunately obtaining representative meteorological data for watershed-scale hydrological modelling can be difficult and time consuming. Land-based weather stations do not always adequately represent the weather occurring over a watershed because they can be far from the watershed of interest and can have gaps in their data series, or recent data are not available. Fuka et al. (2013) has shown that readily available short term forecasting data can match the accuracy of using traditional weather gauging stations, especially when the closest stations are more than 10km from the watershed. In this study we demonstrate a methodology to ascertain the most representative openly accessible weather forcing data for running water quality models in any location in the US. For this P-Index assessment, nine representative project watersheds from the three regional consortiums--Heartland, Chesapeake Bay, and Southern Regions--are used to demonstrate this method of determining what is the most representative weather forcing data for any location within the regions.

  15. Nutrition program quality assurance through a formalized process of on-site program review.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Joan Doyle; Dollahite, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    A protocol for a systematic onsite review of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education was developed to support quality programming and ensure compliance with state guidelines and federal regulations. Onsite review of local nutrition program operations is one strategy to meet this goal. Observation and interaction with staff allow a comprehensive understanding of strengths, weaknesses, and emerging issues. This information provides managers with timely feedback to strengthen and improve all aspects of nutrition programming.

  16. Water-quality data from continuously monitored sites in the Pamlico and Neuse River estuaries, North Carolina, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrett, Ronald G.

    1992-01-01

    Water quality measurements were made at six sites in or near North Carolina's Pamlico River estuary and at five sites in or near the Neuse River estuary. Measurements taken at 15-minute intervals included near-surface and near-bottom specific conductance; near-surface water temperature; and near-surface, mid-depth, and near-bottom dissolved-oxygen concentrations. In the Pamlico River estuary, salinities generally ranged from near zero to about 20 parts per thousand during the period April 1989 through September 1991; however, unnaturally high salinities (up to about 51 parts per thousand) were observed at one site on July 11, 1990. Recorded water temperatures in the Pamlico River were between 0 and 33 degrees Celsius during the measurement period. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations ranged from less than 1 to 20 milligrams per liter. In the Neuse River estuary, salinities ranged from less than 0.1 to nearly 33 parts per thousand between May 1989 and September 1991. During the same period, recorded water temperatures in this estuary were between 0 and 33 degrees Celsius. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations ranged from less than 1 to 21 milligrams per liter. Instantaneous values for selected periods are summarized in a series of box plots. Daily mean values of salinity, water temperature, dissolved-oxygen concentrations, and dissolved oxygen, percent saturation, are presented in tables and graphs, as are 5-day mean values for day and night conditions. This is the second in a series of reports summarizing water quality data obtained from these continuously monitored sites.

  17. Dissolved carbon and nitrogen quantity and quality at natural, drained and re-wetted bog sites in Lower Saxony (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Stefan; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Freibauer, Annette

    2013-04-01

    . Total nitrogen decreased in same order as DOC and was mainly composed of DON. NH4+ dominates the inorganic nitrogen fraction. The comparison of peat C/N to DOC/DON ratios indicates that the more degraded upper layer is the main source of carbon and nitrogen in the soil solution. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was mainly measured as dissolved CO2-C (13.6 mg/L), followed by CH4-C (1.7 mg/L). While CH4-C was present over the whole profile at the re-wetted and the natural site, it was missing in the upper 40 cm of the grassland sites. Instead, dissolved N2O-N was found (19.8 µg/L). Especially in natural bogs with low DOC concentrations, DIC may be a relevant part of the carbon budget. Our results show that the groundwater level in combination with land use has a huge impact on C- and N-quality and quantity between sites and within the peat profile, and that re-wetting may result in a return to "natural" DOC concentration levels and properties.

  18. Electromagnetic inversion for environmental site characterization: Data quality versus image resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Alumbaugh, D.L.; Newman, G.A.

    1997-10-01

    Non-linear electromagnetic inversion schemes have been developed to produce 2D and 3D images of subsurface conductivity structure from electromagnetic geophysical data. The solutions are obtained by successive linearized model updates where full forward modeling is employed at each iteration to compute model sensitivities and predicted data. Regularization is applied to the problem to provide stability. The use of the inversion is demonstrated on a data set collected with the Apex Parametrics MaxMin I-8S over a section of conductive waste at the Idaho National Laboratory`s Cold Test Pit. The out-of -phase data are of very good quality while the in-phase are rather noisy due to slight mispositioning errors. A resolution study on synthetic data indicates that the error present in the in-phase data causes images of far lower resolution with more artifacts than if the in-phase and out-of-phase components are of similar quality. Better resolution images result if the data are weighted proportional to frequency; this gives each frequency equal importance. The loss of resolution due to poor quality in-phase data is demonstrated in a 3D inversion of the MaxMin data which shows both artifacts forming outside of the area known to contain the buried waste, as well as an inability to resolve depths.

  19. The quality of web-based oncology guidelines and protocols: how do international sites stack up?

    PubMed

    Langton, J M; Drew, A K; Mellish, L; Olivier, J; Ward, R L; Pearson, S-A

    2011-10-11

    The Internet is a popular medium for disseminating information relevant to oncology practitioners. Despite the widespread use of web-based guidelines and protocols, the quality of these resources has not been evaluated. This study addresses this gap. The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE-II) instrument was used to assess the quality of breast and sarcoma guidelines and protocols according to six independent domains. The oncology resources were selected from eight websites developed for healthcare settings in North America, the United Kingdom, Europe, and Australia. Mean quality scores across domains were highly variable for both guidelines (29-73%) and protocols (31-71%). Guidelines scored highly in terms of articulating their Scope and Purpose (72.6 ± 11.2%) but poorly with respect to Applicability in clinical practice (29.0 ± 17.3%). Protocols scored highly on Clarity of Presentation (70.6 ± 17.6%) but poorly in terms of the processes used to synthesise underlying evidence, develop, and update recommendations (30.8 ± 20.0%). Our evaluation provides a quick reference tool for clinicians about the strengths and limitations of oncology resources across several major websites. Further, it supports resource developers in terms of where to direct efforts to enhance guideline and protocol development processes or the communication of these processes to end-users.

  20. Bacterial diversity of extremely alkaline bauxite residue site of alumina industrial plant using culturable bacteria and residue 16S rRNA gene clones.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Pankaj; Babu, A Giridhar; Reddy, M Sudhakara

    2014-07-01

    Bauxite residue (red mud), generated during the extraction of alumina from bauxite ore is characterized by high pH, high concentrations of soluble ions with low or virtually no organic matter. These extreme conditions along with numerous nutrient deficiencies, limit the microbial growth and vegetation establishment. In the present study, diversity of both cultivable and non-cultivable bacteria present in the red mud was investigated by 16S rDNA sequence analyses. The cultivable bacteria were identified as Agromyces indicus, Bacillus litoralis, B. anthracis, Chungangia koreensis, Kokuria flava, K. polaris, Microbacterium hominis, Planococcus plakortidis, Pseudomonas alcaliphila and Salinococcus roseus based on their 16S rDNA sequence analysis. These isolates were alkali tolerant, positive for one or more of the enzyme activities tested, able to produce organic acids and oxidize wide range of carbon substrates. For non-cultivable diversity of bacteria, DNA was extracted from the bauxite residue samples and 16S rDNA clone library was constructed. The 16S rDNA clones of this study showed affiliation to three major phyla predominant being betaproteobacteria (41.1%) followed by gammaproteobacteria (37.5%) and bacteroidetes (21.4%). We are reporting for the first time about the bacterial diversity of this unique and extreme environment.

  1. Impact of seawater-quality and water treatment procedures on the active bacterial assemblages at two desalination sites.

    PubMed

    Manes, C-L de O; Barbe, C; West, N J; Rapenne, S; Lebaron, P

    2011-07-15

    Inorganic and organic compounds, particles and microorganisms in intake waters are mainly responsible for fouling of reverse osmosis membranes, which reduces the efficiency of the desalination process. The characterization of seawater quality to better predict its fouling potential remains a challenge for the desalination field and little is known about the seasonal variability of water quality parameters in the coastal waters used to supply desalination plants. In this study, standard water quality methods were combined with flow cytometry and molecular methods (16S rRNA sequencing and fingerprinting) to assess in parallel, the physicochemical properties, the microbial abundance and the active microbial community composition of the intake waters and their associated pretreated waters at two desalination sites from July 2007 to July 2008. The overall assessment of quality parameters revealed that microfiltration followed by slow sand filtration were the most efficient in removing microorganisms than the conventional dual media filtration routinely used in full-scale desalination plants, and that all treatments were inefficient for organic matter reduction. Temporal variation of the environmental parameters such as temperature, turbidity and silt density index only moderately affected the bacterial community structure in raw waters, but that interestingly, water treatment compartments changed the composition and diversity of the metabolically active bacterial populations and thus create distinct ecological post-treatment niches.

  2. The influence of extreme river discharge conditions on the quality of suspended particulate matter in Rivers Meuse and Rhine (The Netherlands).

    PubMed

    Hamers, Timo; Kamstra, Jorke H; van Gils, Jos; Kotte, Marcel C; van Hattum, Albertus G M

    2015-11-01

    As a consequence of climate change, increased precipitation in winter and longer periods of decreased precipitation in summer are expected to cause more frequent episodes of very high or very low river discharge in the Netherlands. To study the impact of such extreme river discharge conditions on water quality, toxicity profiles and pollutant profiles were determined of suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected from Rivers Meuse and Rhine. Archived (1993-2003) and fresh (2009-2011) SPM samples were selected from the Dutch annual monitoring program of the national water bodies (MWTL), representing episodes with river discharge conditions ranging from very low to regular to very high. SPM extracts were tested in a battery of in vitro bioassays for their potency to interact with the androgen receptor (AR), the estrogen receptor (ER), the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and the thyroid hormone transporter protein transthyretin (TTR). SPM extracts were further tested for their mutagenic potency (Ames assay) and their potency to inhibit bacterial respiration (Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence assay). Target-analyzed pollutant concentrations of the SPM samples and additional sample information were retrieved from a public database of MWTL results. In vitro toxicity profiles and pollutant profiles were analyzed in relation to discharge conditions and in relation to each other using correlation analysis and multivariate statistics. Compared to regular discharge conditions, composition of SPM during very high River Meuse and Rhine discharges shifted to more coarse, sandy, organic carbon (OC) poor particles. On the contrary, very low discharge led to a shift to more fine, OC rich material, probably dominated by algae. This shift was most evident in River Meuse, which is characterized by almost stagnant water conditions during episodes of drought. During such episodes, SPM extracts from River Meuse demonstrated increased potencies to inhibit bacterial respiration and to

  3. Denitrification by extremely halophilic bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.; Tomlinson, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    Extremely halophilic bacteria were isolated from widely separated sites by anaerobic enrichment in the presence of nitrate. The anaerobic growth of several of these isolates was accompanied by the production of nitrite, nitrous oxide, and dinitrogen. These results are a direct confirmation of the existence of extremely halophilic denitrifying bacteria, and suggest that such bacteria may be common inhabitants of hypersaline environments.

  4. Denitrification by extremely halophilic bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.; Tomlinson, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    Extremely halophilic bacteria were isolated from widely separated sites by anaerobic enrichment in the presence of nitrate. The anaerobic growth of several of these isolates was accompanied by the production of nitrite, nitrous oxide, and dinitrogen. These results are a direct confirmation of the existence of extremely halophilic denitrifying bacteria, and suggest that such bacteria may be common inhabitants of hypersaline environments.

  5. Development and implementation of soil quality and cleanup criteria for contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    A critical but vexing problem with contaminated land has always been assessing the significance of contamination and the degree of cleanup required for contaminated soils and sediments. Various approaches have evolved to address this difficult issue and debate continues over which is the most appropriate. With the growing number of contaminated sites, the majority of which are non-catastrophic, interest in criteria-based approaches has grown. While there are difficulties associated with the development and implementation of generic criteria, they serve a definite purpose in an overall program for contaminated land management their usage is gaining favor in a growing number of jurisdictions around the world. 29 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Water quality improvement after shifting of idol immersion site: a case study of Upper Lake, Bhopal, India.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Anju; Bajpai, Avinash; Verma, Neelam

    2008-10-01

    Most of freshwater bodies all over the world are becoming polluted, thus decreasing the portability of the water. In India religious practices have deep relationship with water bodies. They also patronized religious practices and constructed numerous relatively small water bodies along with temples throughout the country. Today, with the rapid pace of urban development, most of these water bodies have become sinks for waste discharge, resulting in deterioration of their water quality. Upper Lake of Bhopal, constructed in the eleventh century, is typical example of urban water bodies and a major source of potable water for the people of Bhopal. Till the middle of the last century, the water of Upper Lake did not require any treatment before supply for drinking purposes. Idol worship is common in India. Idols are usually made up of wood, bamboo, straw, jute ropes, clay, and plaster of Paris and are painted with bright synthetic colors, which often contain heavy metals. Other materials, such as straw, jute ropes, flowers, leaves and germinated grains cause short-term deterioration of water quality on their decay, while heavy metals in the paints pose health hazards in the long-run. Religious issues are extremely sensitive and hence it was felt necessary to use the regard that the citizens had for the lake to build a consensus in support of change. The Bhoj Wetland Project was implemented with the aid of Japanese Bank of International Cooperation (JBIC) to take action for preserving the Upper Lake of Bhopal (called Bhoj Wetlands). Our study is highlighted to water quality parameters like turbidity, total hardness, DO (Dissolved oxygen), BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and heavy metals in the year 1999 and 2005 i.e. before implementation of project and completion of project.

  7. Site-specific sediment clean-up objectives developed by the sediment quality triad

    SciTech Connect

    Redman, S.; Janisch, T.

    1995-12-31

    Sediment chemistry, sediment toxicity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community data were collected and evaluated in concert (1) to characterize adverse effects of hydrocarbon and metal contaminants in the sediments of a small inlet of Superior Bay, Lake Superior and a tributary creek and (2) to derive numeric objectives for the clean up of this system. Sediments from reference locations and eight study sites were analyzed for a range of contaminants, including hydrocarbons (measured both as diesel range organics (DRO) and oil and grease), lead, chromium, and ammonia. A range of sediment toxicity was observed across the eight study sites using a variety of tests and endpoints: Hyalella azteca (10 day survival and growth), Chironomus tentans (10 day survival and growth), Ceriodaphnia dubia (48 hour survival), and Daphnia magna (48 hour survival and 10 day survival and reproduction). A range of alterations of the benthic macroinvertebrate community compared with communities from reference locations were observed. Benthic community alterations were summarized quantitatively by taxa richness and Shannon-Weiner mean diversity. Lowest effect levels determined through this study included 150 {micro}g/g dry sediment for DRO (as measured in this study) and 40 {micro}g/g dry sediment for lead. Effects thresholds determined through this study included 1,500 {micro}g/g dry sediment for DRO and 90 {micro}g/g dry sediment for lead. These levels and concentrations measured in relevant reference locations are being used to define objectives for sediment clean up in the inlet and creek.

  8. Development of a site-specific water quality criterion for hexavalent chromium

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, D.O.; Sticko, J.P.; Reash, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    The effluent of treated fly ash from a coal-fired power plant located on the Ohio River periodically exceeds its NPDES acute permit limit for hexavalent chromium of 15 {micro}g/L. The increased levels of hexavalent chromium in the effluent are a recent occurrence which are likely due to changes in coal blends burned in the generating units. Ohio EPA determined the use designation of the receiving stream (Limited Resource Water) was being attained and a one-year biomonitoring program of the effluent detected no acute toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia or Daphnia magna. The water-effect ratio (WER) procedure was selected to develop a site-specific criterion maximum concentration for hexavalent chromium for the effluent`s receiving stream. WER procedures followed those described in EPA`s ``Interim Guidance on Determination and Use of Water-Effect Ratios for Metals`` (1994). Site water used in the WER determinations was undiluted effluent since the receiving stream originates at the discharge point of the outfall. 48-hour acute D. magna and 96-hour acute fathead minnow toxicity tests were selected as the primary and secondary tests, respectively for use in three seasonal WER determinations. The results of the three WER determinations and the status of the regulatory process will be presented.

  9. Quality Assurance Plan for site electrical replacements at substation line item subproject: 69 KV Substation

    SciTech Connect

    Ohler, C.K.

    1991-05-21

    The 69 KV Substation Project is based on the recognized need to provide a continuous, reliable source of power and to improve the firm capacity of the electrical service to all production facilities at Mound. The project consists of the following major element: 69 KV Substation: (1) Install a 69 KV Substation and associated equipment with two parallel 18 MVA transformers. (2) Install duct bank as required and provide 15 KV feeder cable from new substation to existing Substation 95 for connection to Mound`s existing primary distribution system. (3) Install duct bank for underground routing of the 15 KV feeder cable from Manhole 5C to the existing power house cable pit. (4) Reconfigure existing Dayton Power and Light Co. 15 KV switchgear in P Building. The purpose of this Quality Assurance Plan (QA Plan) is to assure that the objectives of the United States Department of Energy (D.O.E.) and EG&G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, Ohio (Mound) are met for this non-weapons project relative to health and safety, protection of the environment, reliability and continuity of operations, and documentation of quality efforts. This QA Plan identifies the activities and responsibilities which are necessary in the design, procurement, fabrication, installation, and start up of this project in order to meet these objectives.

  10. Optimization models for siting water quality monitoring stations in a catchment.

    PubMed

    Kao, Jehng-Jung; Li, Pei-Hao; Hu, Wen-Shin

    2012-01-01

    A water quality monitoring network (WQMN) must be designed so as to adequately protect the water quality in a catchment. Although a simulated annealing (SA) method was previously applied to design a WQMN, the SA method cannot ensure the solution it obtained is the global optimum. Therefore, two new linear optimization models are proposed in this study to minimize the deviation of the cost values expected to identify the possible pollution sources based on uniform cost (UC) and coverage elimination uniform cost (CEUC) schemes. The UC model determines the expected cost values by considering each sub-catchment being covered by which station, while the CEUC model determines the coverage of each station by eliminating the area covered by any upstream station. The proposed models are applied to the Derchi reservoir catchment in Taiwan. Results show that the global optimal WQMN can be effectively determined by using the UC or CEUC model, for which both results are better than those from the SA method, especially when the number of stations becomes large.

  11. Blending group and practice site scores to increase the reliability of physician quality information.

    PubMed

    Rogers, William H; Thornton, Kristy; von Glahn, Ted

    2014-02-01

    To use an empirical Bayesian approach, blending practice, and group quality data with physician results to increase the accuracy of quality of care measures. Performance data on diabetes glycemic screening for 8,357 physicians collected from multiple payers as part of a statewide physician performance reporting initiative. A variance components analysis assessed the strength of group, practice, and physician effects compared with random error. We derived formulas to describe reliability and measurement error variances and calculated the optimal blend of physician, practice, and group data. We constructed a simulation to show what various methods can achieve. The value of blending strategies was assessed by simulating a common pay-for-performance criterion-performance in the top 25 percent. We estimated the proportion of physicians whose true percentage would place them in the top 20 percent but who would not receive payment based on the observed success rate. Blending reduced the error rate from 29.7 to 22.7 percent. Simpler empirical Bayes estimates using shrinkage alone produced no gains over simple doctor percentages. When good structural data about physician groups and practices exist, gains from blending can be substantial. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  12. Demonstration and Validation of a Regenerated-Cellulose Dialysis Membrane Diffusion Sampler for Monitoring Ground Water Quality and Remediation Progress at DoD Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    not equilibrate within 28 days. Equilibration times for selected explosive compounds through dialysis membranes were determined by LeBlanc... MEMBRANE DIFFUSION SAMPLER FOR MONITORING GROUND WATER QUALITY AND REMEDIATION PROGRESS AT DoD SITES (ER-0313) by Thomas E. Imbrigiotta... MEMBRANE DIFFUSION SAMPLER FOR MONITORING GROUND WATER QUALITY AND REMEDIATION PROGRESS AT DOD SITES (ER-0313) 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  13. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality at a land reclamation site, Neshaminy State Park, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blickwedel, Ray S.; Linn, Jeff H.

    1987-01-01

    Analyses of ground-water samples collected after the first two sludge applications (120 tons per acre and 450 tons per acre), indicate that no significant change occurred in the chemistry of the samples from the Trenton gravel, whereas organic nitrogen increased temporarily in ground water from the dredge spoil 6 months after the larger of the two sludge applications, but quickly returned to background levels. The lack of chemical change with time in the ground water implies either that little of the more than 100 inches of precipitation that fell from April 1983 through March 1985 reached the water table or, more likely, that a mechanism exists beneath the soil- factory site that retards or prevents the downard migration of contaminants.

  14. LANDSAT-4 image data quality analysis for energy related applications. [nuclear power plant sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wukelic, G. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    No useable LANDSAT 4 TM data were obtained for the Hanford site in the Columbia Plateau region, but TM simulator data for a Virginia Electric Company nuclear power plant was used to test image processing algorithms. Principal component analyses of this data set clearly indicated that thermal plumes in surface waters used for reactor cooling would be discrenible. Image processing and analysis programs were successfully testing using the 7 band Arkansas test scene and preliminary analysis of TM data for the Savanah River Plant shows that current interactive, image enhancement, analysis and integration techniques can be effectively used for LANDSAT 4 data. Thermal band data appear adequate for gross estimates of thermal changes occurring near operating nuclear facilities especially in surface water bodies being used for reactor cooling purposes. Additional image processing software was written and tested which provides for more rapid and effective analysis of the 7 band TM data.

  15. Geology, hydrology, and ground-water quality at the Byron Superfund site near Byron, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, Robert T.; Yeskis, Douglas J.; Bolen, William J.; Rauman, James R.; Prinos, Scott T.

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to define the geohydrology and contaminant distribution at a Superfund site near Byron, Illinois. Geologic units of interest beneath the site are the St. Peter Sandstone; the shale, dolomite and sandstone of the Glenwood Formation; the dolomite of the Platteville and Galena Groups; and sands, gravels, tills and loess of Quaternary age. The hydrologic units of interest are the unconsolidated aquifer, Galena-Platteville aquifer, Harmony Hill Shale semiconfining unit, and the St. Peter aquifer. Ground-water flow generally is from the upland areas northwest and southwest toward the Rock River. Water levels indicate the potential for downward ground-water flow in most of the area except near the Rock River. The Galena-Platteville aquifer can be subdivided into four zones characterized by differing water-table altitudes, hydraulic gradients, and vertical and horizontal permeabilities. Geophysical, hydraulic, and aquifer-test data indicate that lithology, stratigraphy, and tectonic structures affect the distribution of primary and secondary porosity of dolomite in the Galena and Platteville Groups, which affects the permeability distribution in the Galena-Platteville aquifer. The distribution of cyanide, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, and aromatic hydrocarbons in ground water indicates that these contaminants are derived from multiple sources in the study area. Contaminants in the northern part of this area migrate northwest to the Rock River. Contaminants in the central and southern parts of this area appear to migrate to the southwest in the general direction of the Rock River.

  16. Foraging Habitat Quality Constrains Effectiveness of Artificial Nest-Site Provisioning in Reversing Population Declines in a Colonial Cavity Nester

    PubMed Central

    Catry, Inês; Franco, Aldina M. A.; Rocha, Pedro; Alcazar, Rita; Reis, Susana; Cordeiro, Ana; Ventim, Rita; Teodósio, Joaquim; Moreira, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Among birds, breeding numbers are mainly limited by two resources of major importance: food supply and nest-site availability. Here, we investigated how differences in land-use and nest-site availability affected the foraging behaviour, breeding success and population trends of the colonial cavity-dependent lesser kestrel Falco naumanni inhabiting two protected areas. Both areas were provided with artificial nests to increase nest-site availability. The first area is a pseudo-steppe characterized by traditional extensive cereal cultivation, whereas the second area is a previous agricultural zone now abandoned or replaced by forested areas. In both areas, lesser kestrels selected extensive agricultural habitats, such as fallows and cereal fields, and avoided scrubland and forests. In the second area, tracked birds from one colony travelled significantly farther distances (6.2 km ±1.7 vs. 1.8 km ±0.4 and 1.9 km ±0.6) and had significant larger foraging-ranges (144 km2 vs. 18.8 and 14.8 km2) when compared to the birds of two colonies in the extensive agricultural area. Longer foraging trips were reflected in lower chick feeding rates, lower fledging success and reduced chick fitness. Availability and occupation of artificial nests was high in both areas but population followed opposite trends, with a positive increment recorded exclusively in the first area with a large proportion of agricultural areas. Progressive habitat loss around the studied colony in the second area (suitable habitat decreased from 32% in 1990 to only 7% in 2002) is likely the main driver of the recorded population decline and suggests that the effectiveness of bird species conservation based on nest-site provisioning is highly constrained by habitat quality in the surrounding areas. Therefore, the conservation of cavity-dependent species may be enhanced firstly by finding the best areas of remaining habitat and secondly by increasing the carrying capacity of high-quality habitat areas

  17. Foraging habitat quality constrains effectiveness of artificial nest-site provisioning in reversing population declines in a colonial cavity nester.

    PubMed

    Catry, Inês; Franco, Aldina M A; Rocha, Pedro; Alcazar, Rita; Reis, Susana; Cordeiro, Ana; Ventim, Rita; Teodósio, Joaquim; Moreira, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Among birds, breeding numbers are mainly limited by two resources of major importance: food supply and nest-site availability. Here, we investigated how differences in land-use and nest-site availability affected the foraging behaviour, breeding success and population trends of the colonial cavity-dependent lesser kestrel Falco naumanni inhabiting two protected areas. Both areas were provided with artificial nests to increase nest-site availability. The first area is a pseudo-steppe characterized by traditional extensive cereal cultivation, whereas the second area is a previous agricultural zone now abandoned or replaced by forested areas. In both areas, lesser kestrels selected extensive agricultural habitats, such as fallows and cereal fields, and avoided scrubland and forests. In the second area, tracked birds from one colony travelled significantly farther distances (6.2 km ± 1.7 vs. 1.8 km ± 0.4 and 1.9 km ± 0.6) and had significant larger foraging-ranges (144 km(2) vs. 18.8 and 14.8 km(2)) when compared to the birds of two colonies in the extensive agricultural area. Longer foraging trips were reflected in lower chick feeding rates, lower fledging success and reduced chick fitness. Availability and occupation of artificial nests was high in both areas but population followed opposite trends, with a positive increment recorded exclusively in the first area with a large proportion of agricultural areas. Progressive habitat loss around the studied colony in the second area (suitable habitat decreased from 32% in 1990 to only 7% in 2002) is likely the main driver of the recorded population decline and suggests that the effectiveness of bird species conservation based on nest-site provisioning is highly constrained by habitat quality in the surrounding areas. Therefore, the conservation of cavity-dependent species may be enhanced firstly by finding the best areas of remaining habitat and secondly by increasing the carrying capacity of high-quality habitat areas

  18. Lengthening Temporalis Myoplasty: Objective Outcomes and Site-Specific Quality-of-Life Assessment.

    PubMed

    Panciera, Davide Thomas; Sampieri, Claudio; Deganello, Alberto; Danesi, Giovanni

    2017-06-01

    Objective Evaluate outcomes of the lengthening temporalis myoplasty in facial reanimations. Study Design Case series with planned data collection. Setting Ospedali Riuniti, Bergamo, and AOUC Careggi, Florence, Italy. Subjects and Methods From 2011 to 2016, 11 patients underwent lengthening temporalis myoplasty; demographic data were collected for each. Pre- and postoperative photographs and videos were recorded and used to measure the smile angle and the excursion of the oral commissure, according to the SMILE system (Scaled Measurements of Improvement in Lip Excursion). All patients were tested with the Facial Disability Index, and they also completed a questionnaire about the adherence to physiotherapy indications. Results All patients demonstrated a significant improvement in functional parameters and in quality of life. On the reanimated side, the mean z-line and a-value, measured when smiling, significantly improved in all patients: from 22.6 mm (95% CI, 20.23-25.05) before surgery to 30.9 mm (95% CI, 27.82-33.99) after surgery ( P < .001) and from 100.5° (95% CI, 93.96°-107.13°) to 111.6° (95% CI, 105.63°-117.64°; P < .001), respectively. The mean postoperative dynamic gain, passing from rest to a full smile at the reanimated side, was 3.1 mm (95% CI, 1.30-4.88) for the z-line and 3.3° (95% CI, 1.26°-5.29°) for the a-value. The Facial Disability Index score increased from a preoperative mean of 33.4 points (95% CI, 28.25-38.66) to 49.9 points (95% CI, 47.21-52.60) postoperatively ( P < .001). Conclusions The lengthening temporalis myoplasty can be successfully used for smile reanimation, with satisfying functional and quality-of-life outcomes.

  19. Site-specific water quality criteria for aquatic ecosystems: A case study of pentachlorophenol for Tai Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Yu, Shuangying; Tang, Song; Li, Yabing; Liu, Hongling; Zhang, Xiaohui; Su, Guanyong; Li, Bing; Yu, Hongxia; Giesy, John P

    2016-01-15

    Given the widely varying types of aquatic ecosystems and bioavailability of chemicals, it is important to develop site-specific water quality criteria (WQC) to ensure criteria are neither over- nor under-protective. In the study, using pentachlorophenol (PCP) as an example, several approaches to derive site-specific WQC were investigated, including the conventional species sensitivity distribution (SSD), weighted SSD based on the proportion of each trophic level, and water effect ratio (WER) method. When corrected to a pH of 7.8, the conventional SSD approach resulted in criteria maximum concentration (CMC) and criteria continuous concentration (CCC) of 18.11 and 1.74 μg/L, respectively. If SSD was weighted according to the current species composition in Tai Lake, the CMC and CCC were 32.81 and 4.48 μg/L, respectively. However, available data suggest that many sensitive species inhabiting Tai Lake during 1980s were disappeared. Considering the species composition of the healthier ecosystem in 1980s, the CMC and CCC were 10.99 and 0.38 μg/L, respectively, which provide more protective water quality standards. Water effect ratio (WER) was further used to correct for co-occurrence of other toxicants and factors affecting bioavailability of PCP. A final WER of 4.72 was applied to adjust the criteria derived by using the weighted SSD for the 1980s aquatic community, and the final CMC and CCC obtained were 51.87 and 1.79 μg/L, respectively, at a pH of 7.8. Water quality criteria derived using the 1980s species composition and adjusted with WER were deemed the most appropriate WQC for water management and aquatic life protection. Merits of the various approaches for developing WQC for protection of aquatic species were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Field study of the composition of greywater and comparison of microbiological indicators of water quality in on-site systems.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Margaret; Gilpin, Brent; Robson, Beth; Wall, Katrina

    2016-08-01

    Thirty on-site greywater systems were sampled to determine greywater characteristics and practices in the field. Kitchen greywater was present at eight sites and urine was included at seven sites. These non-traditional sources resulted in significantly higher concentrations of enterococci and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) in greywater. Even with the removal of these sources, the concentrations of microbial indicators indicated high levels of contamination could occur across all greywater sources, including "light" greywater. Using multiple microbial indicators showed that all samples had the potential for faecal contamination. Bacteroidales markers were confirmed in treated greywater and in each greywater source, highlighting the potential for human faecal contamination. Although Escherichia coli was absent in treated greywater recycled to the house, other microbial indicators were present; hence, caution is required in using E. coli concentrations as the sole indicator of microbiological water quality. High BOD5 or total suspended solid concentrations exceeded the levels recommended for effective disinfection. Subsurface irrigation, which is assumed to provide a five-log reduction in exposure, is a suitable reuse option for non-disinfected greywater. Only half the occupants had a good understanding of their greywater systems and 25 % of systems were poorly maintained. Elevated microbial indicator contamination of greywater sludge is a potential hazard during maintenance.

  1. Water-quality data from continuously monitored sites in the Pamlico and Neuse River estuaries, North Carolina, 1991-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrett, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    Water-quality measurements were made at six sites in or near North Carolina?s Pamlico River estuary and at five sites in or near the Neuse River estuary. Measurements taken at 15-minute intervals included near-surface and near-bottom specific conductance; near-surface water temperature; and near-surface, mid-depth, and near-bottom dissolved-oxygen concentrations. In the Pamlico River estuary, salinities generally ranged from less than 0.1 to 20 parts per thousand during the period October 1991 through September 1992. Recorded water temperatures in the Pamlico River were between 3.5 and 33 degrees Celsius during the measurement period. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations ranged from less than 1 to 23 milligrams per liter. In the Neuse River estuary, salinities ranged from 0.3 to 27 parts per thousand between October 1991 and September 1992. During the same period, recorded water temperatures in this estuary were between 4 and 34 degrees Celsius. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations ranged from less than 1 to greater than 22 milligrams per liter. Daily mean values of salinity; water temperature; dissolved-oxygen concentrations; and dissolved oxygen, percent saturation, are presented in tables and graphs. Five-day mean values of water temperature and dissolved-oxygen concentrations for day and night conditions also are presented in tables. Data are presented illustrating the vertical distribution of selected constituents at each site for selected dates.

  2. Nutrient and suspended-sediment trends, loads, and yields and development of an indicator of streamwater quality at nontidal sites in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, 1985-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langland, Michael; Blomquist, Joel; Moyer, Douglas; Hyer, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) updates information on loads of, and trends in, nutrients and sediment annually to help the Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) investigators assess progress toward improving water-quality conditions in the Chesapeake Bay and its watershed. CBP scientists and managers have worked since 1983 to improve water quality in the bay. In 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) established a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for the Chesapeake Bay. The TMDL specifies nutrient and sediment load allocations that need to be achieved in the watershed to improve dissolved oxygen, water-clarity, and chlorophyll conditions in the bay. The USEPA, USGS, and state and local jurisdictions in the watershed operate a CBP nontidal water-quality monitoring network and associated database that are used to update load and trend information to help assess progress toward reducing nutrient and sediment inputs to the bay. Data collected from the CBP nontidal network were used to estimate loads and trends for two time periods: a long-term period (1985-2010) at 31 "primary" sites (with storm sampling) and a 10-year period (2001-10) at 33 primary sites and 16 "secondary" sites (without storm sampling). In addition, loads at 64 primary sites were estimated for the period 2006 to 2010. Results indicate improving flow-adjusted trends for nitrogen and phosphorus for 1985 to 2010 at most of the sites in the network. For nitrogen, 21 of the 31 sites showed downward (improving) trends, whereas 2 sites showed upward (degrading) trends, and 8 sites showed no trends. The results for phosphorus were similar: 22 sites showed improving trends, 4 sites showed degrading trends, and 5 sites indicated no trends. For sediment, no trend was found at 40 percent of the sites, with 10 sites showing improving trends and 8 sites showing degrading trends. The USGS, working with CBP partners, developed a new water-quality indicator that combines the results of the 10-year trend

  3. Rapid extraction of three instantaneous attributes in the application of high-density on-site seismic acquisition data quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Tong, S.; Wang, L.; Li, L.

    2015-12-01

    It is very important to evaluate the quality of the acquired high-density seismic data on-site acquisition. Fast、quantitative data analysis method can help on-site quality control personnel to monitor the quality of data conveniently. It can also estimate the distribution characteristics of abnormal data. We can adjust the construction parameters in time and guide the on-site acquisition work based on the results of the analysis.Mass data have been acquired by high-density seismic acquisition. Work-load of on-site data analysis and process is increasing because of mass data. We need to analyze the quality of the data quickly and improve the accuracy of the result. In normal seismic data on-site acquisition, on-site quality control personnel usually use qualitative method to analyze seismic data so the analyzing result is affected by the experience of quality control personnel. On-site seismic data analysis method gradually develops from qualitative to quantitative. Now we estimate the quality of seismic data by statistical characters instead of experience. The result of estimate is more reliable.On-site processing software has some analysis method like amplitude analysis, frequency analysis, autocorrelation analysis, F-K analysis and so on. We can estimate the quality of seismic data based on the quantitative process. We can also use a simple method to get the three instantaneous attributes if we transform seismic data to complex domain. On-site seismic data can be analyzed and estimated by applicable attributes (e.g. instantaneous amplitude can be used to find out abnormal trace; quality control personnel can analyze the propagation of the wave field by instantaneous phase because both strong and weak signal can be displayed on the instantaneous phase diagram; Instantaneous frequency could reflect the frequency values of every moment, it can estimate the distribution of on-site seismic data's frequency characteristics quantitative). Transforming seismic data to

  4. Uterine prolapse and its impact on quality of life in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site, Bhaktapur, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Binjwala; Onta, Sharad; Choulagai, Bishnu; Paudel, Rajan; Petzold, Max; Krettek, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Uterine prolapse (UP) is a reproductive health problem and public health issue in low-income countries including Nepal. We aimed to identify the contributing factors and stages of UP and its impact on quality of life in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site of Bhaktapur, Nepal. Our three-phase study used descriptive cross-sectional analysis to assess quality of life and stages of UP and case-control analysis to identify contributing factors. First, a household survey explored the prevalence of self-reported UP (Phase 1). Second, we used a standardized tool in a 5-day screening camp to determine quality of life among UP-affected women (Phase 2). Finally, a 1-month community survey traced self-reported cases from Phase 1 (Phase 3). To validate UP diagnoses, we reviewed participants' clinical records, and we used screening camp records to trace women without UP. Among 48 affected women in Phase 1, 32 had Stage II UP and 16 had either Stage I or Stage III UP. Compared with Stage I women (4.62%), almost all women with Stage III UP reported reduced quality of life. Decreased quality of life correlated significantly with Stages I-III. Self-reported UP prevalence (8.7%) included all treated and non-treated cases. In Phase 3, 277 of 402 respondents reported being affected by UP and 125 were unaffected. The odds of having UP were threefold higher among illiterate women compared with literate women (OR=3.02, 95% CI 1.76-5.17), 50% lower among women from nuclear families compared with extended families (OR=0.56, 95% CI 0.35-0.90) and lower among women with 1-2 parity compared to >5 parity (OR=0.33, 95% CI 0.14-0.75). The stages of UP correlated with quality of life resulting from varied perceptions regarding physical health, emotional stress, and social limitation. Parity, education, age, and family type associated with UP. Our results suggest the importance of developing policies and programs that are focused on early health care for UP. Through family

  5. Uterine prolapse and its impact on quality of life in the Jhaukhel–Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site, Bhaktapur, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Binjwala; Onta, Sharad; Choulagai, Bishnu; Paudel, Rajan; Petzold, Max; Krettek, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Background Uterine prolapse (UP) is a reproductive health problem and public health issue in low-income countries including Nepal. Objective We aimed to identify the contributing factors and stages of UP and its impact on quality of life in the Jhaukhel–Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site of Bhaktapur, Nepal. Design Our three-phase study used descriptive cross-sectional analysis to assess quality of life and stages of UP and case–control analysis to identify contributing factors. First, a household survey explored the prevalence of self-reported UP (Phase 1). Second, we used a standardized tool in a 5-day screening camp to determine quality of life among UP-affected women (Phase 2). Finally, a 1-month community survey traced self-reported cases from Phase 1 (Phase 3). To validate UP diagnoses, we reviewed participants’ clinical records, and we used screening camp records to trace women without UP. Results Among 48 affected women in Phase 1, 32 had Stage II UP and 16 had either Stage I or Stage III UP. Compared with Stage I women (4.62%), almost all women with Stage III UP reported reduced quality of life. Decreased quality of life correlated significantly with Stages I–III. Self-reported UP prevalence (8.7%) included all treated and non-treated cases. In Phase 3, 277 of 402 respondents reported being affected by UP and 125 were unaffected. The odds of having UP were threefold higher among illiterate women compared with literate women (OR=3.02, 95% CI 1.76–5.17), 50% lower among women from nuclear families compared with extended families (OR=0.56, 95% CI 0.35–0.90) and lower among women with 1–2 parity compared to >5 parity (OR=0.33, 95% CI 0.14–0.75). Conclusions The stages of UP correlated with quality of life resulting from varied perceptions regarding physical health, emotional stress, and social limitation. Parity, education, age, and family type associated with UP. Our results suggest the importance of developing policies and programs

  6. Effect of flood-induced chemical load on filtrate quality at bank filtration sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ray, C.; Soong, T.W.; Lian, Y.Q.; Roadcap, G.S.

    2002-01-01

    Riparian municipal wells, that are located on riverbanks, are specifically designed to capture a portion of the river water through induced infiltration. Runoff from agricultural watersheds is found to carry enormous amounts of pesticides and nitrate. While the risk of contamination for a vast majority of sites with small-capacity vertical wells is low, potential exists for medium to large capacity collector wells to capture a fraction of the surface water contaminants during flood. Prior monitoring and current modeling results indicate that a small-capacity (peak pumpage 0.0315 m3/s) vertical bank filtration well may not be affected by river water nitrate and atrazine even during flood periods. For a medium capacity (0.0875-0.175 m3/s) hypothetical collector well at the same site, potential exists for a portion of the river water nitrate and atrazine to enter the well during flood periods. Various combinations of hydraulic conductivity of the riverbed or bank material were used. For nitrate, it was assumed either no denitrification occurred during the period of simulation or a half-life of 2 years. Equilibrium controlled sorption (organic carbon partition coefficient of 52 ml/g) and a half-life of between 7.5 and 15 weeks were considered for atrazine. Combinations of these parameters were used in various simulations. Peak concentrations of atrazine or nitrate in pumped water could vary from less than 1% to as high as 90% of that in the river. It was found that a combination of river stage, pumping rates, hydraulic properties of the riverbed and bank, and soil/pesticide properties could affect contaminant entry from river water to any of these wells. If the hydraulic conductivity of the bed and bank material were low, atrazine would not reach the pumping well with or without sorption and degradation. However, for moderately low permeable bank and bed materials, some atrazine from river water could enter a hypothetical collector well while pumping at 0.0875 m3/s. It

  7. Assessing Quality in Digital Reference Services Site Visit Reports: State Library of Florida, Bureau of Library and Network Services and Tampa-Hillsborough County Public Library System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Melissa; McClure, Charles R.

    The Assessing Quality on Digital Reference team conducted two site visits at Florida Libraries in August 2001. The objectives of these visits were to: document how digital reference services are currently being planned for, delivered, and evaluated in libraries; understand how "quality" in digital reference is defined in these…

  8. An assessment of data quality in a multi-site electronic medical record system in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Puttkammer, N; Baseman, J G; Devine, E B; Valles, J S; Hyppolite, N; Garilus, F; Honoré, J G; Matheson, A I; Zeliadt, S; Yuhas, K; Sherr, K; Cadet, J R; Zamor, G; Pierre, E; Barnhart, S

    2016-02-01

    Strong data quality (DQ) is a precursor to strong data use. In resource limited settings, routine DQ assessment (DQA) within electronic medical record (EMR) systems can be resource-intensive using manual methods such as audit and chart review; automated queries offer an efficient alternative. This DQA focused on Haiti's national EMR - iSanté - and included longitudinal data for over 100,000 persons living with HIV (PLHIV) enrolled in HIV care and treatment services at 95 health care facilities (HCF). This mixed-methods evaluation used a qualitative Delphi process to identify DQ priorities among local stakeholders, followed by a quantitative DQA on these priority areas. The quantitative DQA examined 13 indicators of completeness, accuracy, and timeliness of retrospective data collected from 2005 to 2013. We described levels of DQ for each indicator over time, and examined the consistency of within-HCF performance and associations between DQ and HCF and EMR system characteristics. Over all iSanté data, age was incomplete in <1% of cases, while height, pregnancy status, TB status, and ART eligibility were more incomplete (approximately 20-40%). Suspicious data flags were present for <3% of cases of male sex, ART dispenses, CD4 values, and visit dates, but for 26% of cases of age. Discontinuation forms were available for about half of all patients without visits for 180 or more days, and >60% of encounter forms were entered late. For most indicators, DQ tended to improve over time. DQ was highly variable across HCF, and within HCFs DQ was variable across indicators. In adjusted analyses, HCF and system factors with generally favorable and statistically significant associations with DQ were University hospital category, private sector governance, presence of local iSante server, greater HCF experience with the EMR, greater maturity of the EMR itself, and having more system users but fewer new users. In qualitative feedback, local stakeholders emphasized lack of stable

  9. Assessment of stream quality using biological indices at selected sites in the Brandywine Creek basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1981-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reif, Andrew G.

    2002-01-01

    In 1970, the Chester County Water Resources Authority (Pennsylvania) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established a longterm water-quality network with the goal of assessing the quality of streams in the county and understanding stream changes in response to urbanization using benthic-macroinvertebrate data (Lium, 1977). This database represents one of the longest continuous water-quality data sets in the country. Benthic macroinvertebrates are aquatic insects, such as mayflies, caddisflies, riffle beetles, and midges, and other invertebrates that live on the stream bottom. Benthic macroinvertebrates are useful in evaluating stream quality because their habitat preferences and low motility cause them to be affected directly by substances that enter the aquatic system. By evaluating the diversity and community structure of benthic-macroinvertebrate populations, a determination of stream quality can be made. Between 1981 and 1997, the water-quality network consisted of 43 sites in 5 major basins in Chester County—Delaware, Schuylkill, Brandywine, Big Elk and Octoraro, and Red and White Clay. Benthicmacroinvertebrate, water-chemistry, and habitat data were collected each year in October or November during base-flow conditions (Reif, 1999; 2000). Using these data, Reif (2002) evaluated the overall water-quality condition of Chester County streams. This Fact Sheet summarizes the key findings from Reif (2002) for streams in the Brandywine Creek Basin. These streams include West Branch Brandywine Creek (sites 37 and 38), Buck Run (site 46), Doe Run (site 45), East Branch Brandywine Creek (sites 48, 42, 36, and 39), Indian Run (site 47), West Valley Creek (site 44), and Main Stem Brandywine Creek (site 40) (fig. 1). This summary includes an analysis of stream conditions based on benthic-macroinvertebrate samples and an analysis of trends in stream conditions for the 17-year study period.

  10. Chemical and bacteriological quality of water at selected sites in the San Antonio area, Texas, August 1968-January 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, R.D.; Blakey, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    Urban development on or adjacent to the recharge zone of the Edwards aquifer is causing concern about the possible pollution of ground water in the aquifer, which is the principal source of water supply for the San Antonio area. Water-quality data for many wells and springs and for selected sites on streams that cross the recharge zone of the aquifer are being collected to provide background information and to detect any current pollution of ground water in the area. Water from the Edwards aquifer is very hard and of the calcium bicarbonate type. The concentrations of dissolved solids in samples from wells and springs ranged from about 200 to 470 mg/1 (milligrams per liter); the chloride and sulfate concentrations ranged from 6.5 to 62 mg/1 and from 0.0 to 65 mg/1, respectively. The nitrate and phosphate contents of the ground water ranged from 0.0 to 15 mg/1 and from 0.00 to 0. 37 mg/1. The concentrations of these and other constituents show that the chemical quality of water in the Edwards aquifer has not been degraded significantly by domestic, industrial, or agricultural effluents. However, variations in the number of coliforms, the concentrations of nitrate and phosphate, and the presence of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci in samples from some wells show that fecal pollution is reaching the aquifer. Most of these wells, which are located in or just downdip from the recharge zone, are poorly sealed or inadequately cased. The areal variation in the locations of these wells indicates that pollution of ground water in the aquifer is very localized. Prllution results principally from runoff from the land surface and from effluent from septic tanks which enters the aquifer through fractures in the recharge zone or which infiltrates through the thin soil into poorly sealed or inadequately cased wells in or adjacent to the recharge zone. Trace amounts of several pesticides have been detected in samples from two wells in the San Antonio area. Field

  11. Drinking water quality in Nepal's Kathmandu Valley: a survey and assessment of selected controlling site characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Nathaniel R.; Levy, Jonathan; Harpp, Karen; Farruggia, Frank

    2008-03-01

    Water was sampled from over 100 sources in Nepal’s Kathmandu Valley, including municipal taps, dug wells, shallow-aquifer tube wells, deep-aquifer tube wells, and dhunge dharas (or stone spouts, public water sources that capture groundwater or surface water). Information was gathered on user preference and site and well characteristics, and water was examined for indicators of contamination from sewage, agriculture, or industry. Most problematic were total coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria, which were present in 94 and 72% of all the water samples, respectively. Contamination by nitrate, ammonia and heavy metals was more limited; nitrate and ammonia exceeded Nepali guidelines in 11 and 45% of the samples, respectively. Arsenic and mercury exceeded WHO guidelines in 7 and 10% of the samples, respectively, but arsenic never exceeded the less strict Nepali guideline. Significant differences existed in contamination levels between types of sources; dug wells and dhunge dharas, being the shallowest, were the most contaminated by bacteria and nitrate; deep-aquifer tube wells were the most contaminated by arsenic. Whereas E. coli concentrations decreased with depth, iron and ammonia concentrations increased with depth. These relationships account for people choosing to drink water with higher levels of bacterial contamination based on its superior (non-metallic) taste and appearance.

  12. Sediment quality assessment survey and toxicity identification evaluation studies in Lavaca Bay, Texas, a marine Superfund site.

    PubMed

    Carr, R S; Biedenbach, J M; Hooten, R L

    2001-01-01

    A sediment quality assessment survey was conducted in Lavaca Bay, Texas, in proximity to a marine Superfund National Priority List (NPL) site. Previous studies at this site had focused primarily on the degree and extent of mercury contamination. The purpose of this survey was to determine the potential ecotoxicological impacts of contaminants, using sensitive sediment toxicity tests in conjunction with a comprehensive chemical analysis of the sediments. In addition, phase I toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies were conducted at several of the more toxic sites. Sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development tests with sediment pore water were employed to assess the toxicity of the sediments. Elevated levels of mercury were found in a number of samples as much as 10-20 times that of background. Six stations had total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration above the probable effect level (PEL) guideline value, and some stations had concentrations as much as 1000 times above background levels. Eighteen of the 24 stations exhibited toxicity in one of the toxicity tests, while 14 stations were toxic in both tests. A number of stations within the fish closure area exceeded 8-16 of the PEl guidelines. Both aeration and the C18 column treatments were effective in reducing toxicity from the pore water of the two stations included in the TIE. This information, in conjunction with the fact that two of the four stations with the highest mercury concentrations were not toxic, suggests that the toxicity observed in this study is primarily due to organics, probably PAHs, and not mercury. We recommend that these other contaminants of concern be considered in any remedial actions that are planned for this NPL site and that impacts on the ecosystem, as well as human health issues, also be considered.

  13. Hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned mining sites in Serbia and their impact on surface water quality.

    PubMed

    Atanacković, Nebojša; Dragišić, Veselin; Stojković, Jana; Papić, Petar; Zivanović, Vladimir

    2013-11-01

    Upon completion of exploration and extraction of mineral resources, many mining sites have been abandoned without previously putting environmental protection measures in place. As a consequence, mine waters originating from such sites are discharged freely into surface water. Regional scale analyses were conducted to determine the hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned sites featuring metal (Cu, Pb-Zn, Au, Fe, Sb, Mo, Bi, Hg) deposits, non-metallic minerals (coal, Mg, F, B) and uranium. The study included 80 mine water samples from 59 abandoned mining sites. Their cation composition was dominated by Ca2+, while the most common anions were found to be SO4(2-) and HCO3-. Strong correlations were established between the pH level and metal (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) concentrations in the mine waters. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to parameters generally indicative of pollution, such as pH, TDS, SO4(2-), Fe total, and As total. Following this approach, mine water samples were grouped into three main clusters and six subclusters, depending on their potential environmental impact. Principal component analysis was used to group together variables that share the same variance. The extracted principal components indicated that sulfide oxidation and weathering of silicate and carbonate rocks were the primary processes, while pH buffering, adsorption and ion exchange were secondary drivers of the chemical composition of the analyzed mine waters. Surface waters, which received the mine waters, were examined. Analysis showed increases of sulfate and metal concentrations and general degradation of surface water quality.

  14. Quantity and quality of stormwater collected from selected stormwater outfalls at industrial sites, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagle, Doug D.; Guimaraes, Wladmir B.

    2012-01-01

    An assessment of the quantity and quality of stormwater runoff associated with industrial activities at Fort Gordon was conducted from January through December 2011. The assessment was provided to satisfy the requirements from a general permit that authorizes the discharge of stormwater under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System from a site associated with industrial activities. The stormwater quantity refers to the runoff discharge at the point and time of the runoff sampling. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon. The initial scope of this study was to sample stormwater runoff from five stations at four industrial sites (two landfills and two heating and cooling sites). As a consequence of inadequate hydrologic conditions during 2011, no samples were collected at the two landfills; however, three samples were collected from the heating and cooling sites. The assessment included the collection of physical properties, such as water temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and pH; the detection of suspended materials (total suspended solids, total fixed solids, total volatile solids), nutrients and organic compounds, and major and trace inorganic compounds (metals); and the detection of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. Nutrients and organic compounds, major and trace inorganic compounds, and volatile and semivolatile organic compounds were detected above the laboratory reporting levels in all samples collected from the three stations. The detection of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds included anthracene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, cis,1, 2-dichloroethene, dimethyl phthalate, fluoranthene, naphthalene, pyrene, acenaphthylene (station SWR11-3), and di-n-butyl phthalate (station SWR11-4).

  15. Ancient DNA analyses of early archaeological sites in New Zealand reveal extreme exploitation of moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) at all life stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskam, Charlotte L.; Allentoft, Morten E.; Walter, Richard; Scofield, R. Paul; Haile, James; Holdaway, Richard N.; Bunce, Michael; Jacomb, Chris

    2012-10-01

    The human colonisation of New Zealand in the late thirteenth century AD led to catastrophic impacts on the local biota and is among the most compelling examples of human over-exploitation of native fauna, including megafauna. Nearly half of the species in New Zealand' s pre-human avifauna are now extinct, including all nine species of large, flightless moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes). The abundance of moa in early archaeological sites demonstrates the significance of these megaherbivores in the diet of the first New Zealanders. Combining moa assemblage data, based on DNA identification of eggshell and bone, with morphological identification of bone (literature and museum catalogued specimens), we present the most comprehensive audit of moa to date from several significant 13th-15th century AD archaeological deposits across the east coast of the South Island. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was amplified from 251 of 323 (78%) eggshell fragments and 22 of 27 (88%) bone samples, and the analyses revealed the presence of four moa species: Anomalopteryx didiformis; Dinornis robustus; Emeus crassus and Euryapteryx curtus. The mtDNA, along with polymorphic microsatellite markers, enabled an estimate of the minimum number of individual eggs consumed at each site. Remarkably, in one deposit over 50 individual eggs were identified - a number that likely represents a considerable proportion of the total reproductive output of moa in the area and emphasises that human predation of all life stages of moa was intense. Molecular sexing was conducted on bones (n = 11). Contrary to previous ancient DNA studies from natural sites that consistently report an excess of female moa, we observed an excess of males (2.7:1), suggestive that males were preferential targets. This could be related to different behaviour between the two highly size-dimorphic sexes in moa. Lastly, we investigated the moa species from recovered skeletal and eggshell remains from seven Wairau Bar burials, and identified

  16. Local site variation in stopover physiology of migrating songbirds near the south shore of Lake Ontario is linked to fruit availability and quality

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Susan B.; Miller, Allyson C.; Merchant, Charmaine R.; Sankoh, Amie F.

    2015-01-01

    Birds that migrate long distances between breeding and wintering grounds are challenged to find adequate stopover sites that can provide a high-quality source of nutrition in order to refuel quickly and continue on their migratory journeys. Wild fruits are a well-documented component in the diets of many passerines during autumn migration. Thus, fruit availability and the proliferation of shrubs that bear low-quality fruits at important stopover sites may dictate the quality of food resources available for refuelling birds and present a conservation concern. We profiled plasma metabolites of two migratory passerine species at two different stopover sites near the south shore of Lake Ontario during the peak of autumn migration. We also measured diversity, availability and nutritional quality of fruits present at these sites. Site explained most of the variation in plasma triglyceride for both bird species, but was less important than other confounding variables for explaining concentrations of plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and plasma uric acid concentrations. Site differences in fat deposition, as indicated by plasma triglyceride, may in part be explained by the large differences in diversity and availability of high-quality fruits between the two sites. Our results suggest that abundant, lipid-rich native fruits with high-energy density are associated with increased fat deposition during autumn stopovers for some species, although other factors, such as proximity to the Lake Ontario shoreline and the opportunities to refuel in the surrounding landscape, are likely to play a role in stopover site use by birds. It is possible that local site characteristics that influence growing conditions may impact the quality of fruits produced by a plant species, altering the availability of critical nutrients for avian consumers. PMID:27293721

  17. Safety and efficacy of botox injection in alleviating post-operative pain and improving quality of life in lower extremity limb lengthening and deformity correction

    PubMed Central

    Hamdy, Reggie C; Montpetit, Kathleen; Ruck-Gibis, Joanne; Thorstad, Kelly; Raney, Ellen; Aiona, Michael; Platt, Robert; Finley, Allen; Mackenzie, William; McCarthy, James; Narayanan, Unni

    2007-01-01

    Background Distraction osteogenesis is the standard treatment for the management of lower limb length discrepancy of more than 3 cm and bone loss secondary to congenital anomalies, trauma or infection. This technique consists of an osteotomy of the bone to be lengthened, application of an external fixator, followed by gradual and controlled distraction of the bone ends. Although limb lengthening using the Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis principle yields excellent results in most cases, the technique has numerous problems and is not well tolerated by many children. The objective of the current study is to determine if Botulinum Toxin A (BTX-A), which is known to possess both analgesic and paralytic actions, can be used to alleviate post-operative pain and improve the functional outcome of children undergoing distraction osteogenesis. Methods/Design The study design consists of a multi centre, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Patients between ages 5–21 years requiring limb lengthening or deformity correction using distraction will be recruited from 6 different sites (Shriners Hospital for Children in Montreal, Honolulu, Philadelphia and Portland as well as DuPont Hospital for Children in Wilmington, Delaware and Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ont). Approximately 150 subjects will be recruited over 2 years and will be randomized to either receive 10 units per Kg of BTX-A or normal saline (control group) intraoperatively following the surgery. Functional outcome effects will be assessed using pain scores, medication dosages, range of motion, flexibility, strength, mobility function and quality of life of the patient. IRB approval was obtained from all sites and adverse reactions will be monitored vigorously and reported to IRB, FDA and Health Canada. Discussion BTX-A injection has been widely used world wide with no major side effects reported. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time BTX-A is being used under the

  18. Safety and efficacy of botox injection in alleviating post-operative pain and improving quality of life in lower extremity limb lengthening and deformity correction.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Reggie C; Montpetit, Kathleen; Ruck-Gibis, Joanne; Thorstad, Kelly; Raney, Ellen; Aiona, Michael; Platt, Robert; Finley, Allen; Mackenzie, William; McCarthy, James; Narayanan, Unni

    2007-09-28

    Distraction osteogenesis is the standard treatment for the management of lower limb length discrepancy of more than 3 cm and bone loss secondary to congenital anomalies, trauma or infection. This technique consists of an osteotomy of the bone to be lengthened, application of an external fixator, followed by gradual and controlled distraction of the bone ends. Although limb lengthening using the Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis principle yields excellent results in most cases, the technique has numerous problems and is not well tolerated by many children. The objective of the current study is to determine if Botulinum Toxin A (BTX-A), which is known to possess both analgesic and paralytic actions, can be used to alleviate post-operative pain and improve the functional outcome of children undergoing distraction osteogenesis. The study design consists of a multi centre, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Patients between ages 5-21 years requiring limb lengthening or deformity correction using distraction will be recruited from 6 different sites (Shriners Hospital for Children in Montreal, Honolulu, Philadelphia and Portland as well as DuPont Hospital for Children in Wilmington, Delaware and Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ont). Approximately 150 subjects will be recruited over 2 years and will be randomized to either receive 10 units per Kg of BTX-A or normal saline (control group) intraoperatively following the surgery. Functional outcome effects will be assessed using pain scores, medication dosages, range of motion, flexibility, strength, mobility function and quality of life of the patient. IRB approval was obtained from all sites and adverse reactions will be monitored vigorously and reported to IRB, FDA and Health Canada. BTX-A injection has been widely used world wide with no major side effects reported. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time BTX-A is being used under the context of limb lengthening and

  19. High-quality Thermodynamic Data on the Stability Changes of Proteins Upon Single-site Mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Pucci, Fabrizio Bourgeas, Raphaël Rooman, Marianne

    2016-06-15

    We have set up and manually curated a dataset containing experimental information on the impact of amino acid substitutions in a protein on its thermal stability. It consists of a repository of experimentally measured melting temperatures (T{sub m}) and their changes upon point mutations (ΔT{sub m}) for proteins having a well-resolved x-ray structure. This high-quality dataset is designed for being used for the training or benchmarking of in silico thermal stability prediction methods. It also reports other experimentally measured thermodynamic quantities when available, i.e., the folding enthalpy (ΔH) and heat capacity (ΔC{sub P}) of the wild type proteins and their changes upon mutations (ΔΔH and ΔΔC{sub P}), as well as the change in folding free energy (ΔΔG) at a reference temperature. These data are analyzed in view of improving our insights into the correlation between thermal and thermodynamic stabilities, the asymmetry between the number of stabilizing and destabilizing mutations, and the difference in stabilization potential of thermostable versus mesostable proteins.

  20. Candidate sites of action for microdosimetry associated with exposure to extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields, electric fields and contact currents.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Antonio; Kavet, Robert

    2002-09-01

    Recent advances enable one to apply numerical techniques to anatomically-correct human models to compute current densities and electric fields in tissue due to exposure to electric fields, magnetic fields, or contact currents. These methods have proved to be informative in estimating exceedance of basic restrictions prescribed by exposure guideline organizations. To date, the analyses have been conducted with a resolution on the order of millimeters. However, these techniques have future roles to play at higher levels of resolution at those sites in target tissues suspected of transducing local electric fields into biological responses. Two specific cases in which high resolution "microdosimetry" would yield value involve (a) residential settings and childhood leukemia and (b) worker exposure and cardiovascular disease. Recent research suggests that residential contact currents on the order of microamperes can produce biologically significant dose (expressed as the local electric field) to the bone marrow of a child. Microdosimetry would focus on pluripotent progenitor cells resident in the marrow compartment, as well as anatomic features that distinguish a child's from an adult's marrow. Laboratory and epidemiologic research has suggested that magnetic field exposure may affect heart rate variability, a measure reflective of autonomic nervous system control of cardiac activity. Given the physical attributes of the central nervous system and the sites that could serve as substrates for field interactions, future microdosimetry addressing heart rate variability effects may be well-advised to focus on the electrically excitable dendritic arborizations of neurons. In both cases, microdosimetry will help shed light on primary interactions in tissue.

  1. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  2. Water-quality assessment of South-Central Texas : descriptions and comparisons of nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds at three intensive fixed sites, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ging, Patricia B.

    1999-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected during April 1996-April 1998 at three intensive fixed sites in the San Antonio region of the South-Central Texas study unit as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The sampling strategy for the intensive fixed-site assessment is centered on obtaining information about the occurrence and seasonal patterns of selected constituents including nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. The three sites selected to determine the effects of agriculture and urbanization on surface-water quality in the study unit are Medina River at LaCoste (agriculture indicator site), Salado Creek (lower station) at San Antonio (urban indicator site), and San Antonio River near Elmendorf (integrator site).Concentrations of two nutrients, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen and total phosphorus, were largest at the integrator site, which is downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plants. Nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen concentrations at this site often exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) for drinking water. All total phosphorus concentrations at the site exceeded the EPA recommended maximum concentration for streams not discharging directly into reservoirs. Nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen concentrations at the integrator site tended to be smaller, and total phosphorus concentrations at the urban site tended to be larger in samples collected during stormflow than during base flow. The most detections and largest concentrations of three pesticides (atrazine, diazinon, and prometon) were in samples collected at the urban site. Some pesticide concentrations at the agriculture site showed a seasonal pattern of increasing concentrations during spring, the peak application season. Four pesticides (atrazine, deethylatrazine, diazinon, and prometon) were detected in at least 38 percent of samples collected at all three sites. The concentrations of all

  3. Water-quality data from continuously monitored sites in the Albemarle Sound estuarine system, North Carolina, 1989-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrett, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    Water-quality measurements were made at 11 sites in or near North Carolina?s Albemarle Sound. Measurements taken at 15-minute intervals included near-surface and near-bottom specific conductance; near-surface water temperature; and near-surface, mid-depth, and near-bottom dissolved-oxygen concentrations. Salinities generally ranged from less than 0.1 to about 32 parts per thousand during the period October 1989 through September 1991. Recorded water temperatures were between zero and 35 degrees Celsius during the measurement period. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations ranged from less than 1 milligram per liter to 19 milligrams per liter. Daily mean values of specific conductance; salinity; water temperature; dissolved-oxygen concentrations; and dissolved oxygen, percent saturation, are presented in tables and graphs. Five-day mean values of water temperature and dissolved-oxygen concentrations for day and night conditions are also presented in tables.

  4. Quality Control of the Large-area GEM detectors at Production Sites for the CMS Muon Endcap Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Mehdi; CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    GEM (Gas Electron Multipliers) detectors will be installed in the high-eta region of the CMS muon system by the year 2019. With precise tracking and fast trigger information, these detectors will significantly improve the CMS muon triggering after the second long shutdown of the LHC. There are six sites, external to CERN, where at total of 160 1-meter long GEM detectors will be produced. We present the detector construction and discuss the critical quality control (QC) procedures implemented for chamber commissioning. Some of the most important QCs discussed are: current leakage tests, gas leak tests, gain measurements, high voltage test and response uniformity test. We discuss the criteria that are used to accept or reject a GEM detector based on the QC results. The production and QC status will be presented as well.

  5. Impact of waste dump on surface water quality and aquatic insect diversity of Deepor Beel (Ramsar site), Assam, North-east India.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Dharitri; Gupta, Susmita

    2017-10-06

    Water and aquatic insects were collected seasonally from site 1, the low-lying area of the dump near Deepor Beel, and from sites 2 and 3 of the main wetland and analysed. While dissolved oxygen (DO) increased from site 1 to site 3 in each season, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solid (TDS), total alkalinity (TA) and free CO2 (F-CO2) decreased. Pb and Cd were found to exceed the limits set for drinking water in all the sites and seasons. Species richness (SpR) was found highest (23) at site 2 and lowest (14) at site 1. Sensitive species was absent. The Shannon (H') values at site 1 were < 1 while at sites 2 and 3 were > 1 in most of the seasons. Biological monitoring scores (Biological Monitoring Working Party and Stream Invertebrate Grade Number-Average Level) in different sites and seasons inferred severely poor to moderate water quality. At site 1, significant negative correlations were seen for Pb and Cr with SpR while Ni and Cu with insect density (ID). At site 2, TA had highly significant positive correlations with SpR and ID while Cu showed negative correlation with SpR. At site 3, ID had significant negative relationships with air temperature, water temperature, depth, TA, F-CO2, PO4(3-) and Cr. Canonical correspondence analysis triplot has clearly separated site 1 associated with tolerant species and highly influenced by TA, TDS, EC, F-CO2, Cr, Ni, Cd and Zn confirming high anthropogenic activities on that site. Tolerant and semitolerant species were present at site 2 (influenced by depth and transparency) and site 3 (influenced by Pb and WT) both. R