Science.gov

Sample records for extreme space applications

  1. Terrestrial Applications of Extreme Environment Stirling Space Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Rodger. W.

    2012-01-01

    NASA has been developing power systems capable of long-term operation in extreme environments such as the surface of Venus. This technology can use any external heat source to efficiently provide electrical power and cooling; and it is designed to be extremely efficient and reliable for extended space missions. Terrestrial applications include: use in electric hybrid vehicles; distributed home co-generation/cooling; and quiet recreational vehicle power generation. This technology can reduce environmental emissions, petroleum consumption, and noise while eliminating maintenance and environmental damage from automotive fluids such as oil lubricants and air conditioning coolant. This report will provide an overview of this new technology and its applications.

  2. Extreme Environment Technologies for Space and Terrestrial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Cutts, James A.; Kolawa, Elizabeth A.; Peterson, Craig E.

    2008-01-01

    Over the next decades, NASA's planned solar system exploration missions are targeting planets, moons and small bodies, where spacecraft would be expected to encounter diverse extreme environmental (EE) conditions throughout their mission phases. These EE conditions are often coupled. For instance, near the surface of Venus and in the deep atmospheres of giant planets, probes would experience high temperatures and pressures. In the Jovian system low temperatures are coupled with high radiation. Other environments include thermal cycling, and corrosion. Mission operations could also introduce extreme conditions, due to atmospheric entry heat flux and deceleration. Some of these EE conditions are not unique to space missions; they can be encountered by terrestrial assets from the fields of defense,oil and gas, aerospace, and automotive industries. In this paper we outline the findings of NASA's Extreme Environments Study Team, including discussions on state of the art and emerging capabilities related to environmental protection, tolerance and operations in EEs. We will also highlight cross cutting EE mitigation technologies, for example, between high g-load tolerant impactors for Europa and instrumented projectiles on Earth; high temperature electronics sensors on Jupiter deep probes and sensors inside jet engines; and pressure vessel technologies for Venus probes and sea bottom monitors. We will argue that synergistic development programs between these fields could be highly beneficial and cost effective for the various agencies and industries. Some of these environments, however, are specific to space and thus the related technology developments should be spear headed by NASA with collaboration from industry and academia.

  3. Advanced Embedded Active Assemblies for Extreme Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelCastillo, Linda; Moussessian, Alina; Mojarradi, Mohammad; Kolawa, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This work describes the development and evaluation of advanced technologies for the integration of electronic die within membrane polymers. Specifically, investigators thinned silicon die, electrically connecting them with circuits on flexible liquid crystal polymer (LCP), using gold thermo-compression flip chip bonding, and embedding them within the material. Daisy chain LCP assemblies were thermal cycled from -135 to +85degC (Mars surface conditions for motor control electronics). The LCP assembly method was further utilized to embed an operational amplifier designed for operation within the Mars surface ambient. The embedded op-amp assembly was evaluated with respect to the influence of temperature on the operational characteristics of the device. Applications for this technology range from multifunctional, large area, flexible membrane structures to small-scale, flexible circuits that can be fit into tight spaces for flex to fit applications.

  4. Extreme wave analysis in the space-time domain: from observations to applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbariol, Francesco; Alves, Jose-Henrique; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bergamasco, Filippo; Carniel, Sandro; Chao, Yung Y.; Chawla, Arun; Ricchi, Antonio; Sclavo, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of extreme waves is one of the most dangerous marine hazards and one of the most challenging sea surface phenomena to be understood. Many severe accidents and casualties at sea are ascribed to the occurrence of abnormally high waves. Despite significant efforts to investigate their occurrence, up to now research has not yet provided exhaustive experimental and theoretical frameworks able to fully explain the development of extremely large waves (i.e. waves that are outlier from standard wave statistics). Recently, relying on the stereo-photogrammetric instrumentation known as "Wave Acquisition Stereo System", it was observed that the number of waves that can be labeled as "freak" increases significantly if the domain of observation is extended from the time (i.e. the classical point time series), to the space-time (i.e. a time sequence of sea surface snapshots covering an area). The empirical statistics of such extremely high waves gathered during a sea state over an area, outlying standard linear and nonlinear extreme value models, have been found in fair agreement with a statistical model accounting for the probability of a maximum crest height occurring in a space-time domain of given size. This model, developed by Fedele (2012) and extended to second order nonlinear waves by Benetazzo et al (2015), relies upon the Euler Characteristics approach of Adler and Taylor (2007), and upon the knowledge of kinematic and geometric properties of the sea state that can be obtained from the directional spectrum of the sea surface. Therefore, new efforts have been put on applying this approach to provide an interpretation of the occurrence of extreme crest heights in sea states, observed via stereo photography. Results have allowed the development of applications in ocean engineering and weather forecasting. In the former, the statistical model of Fedele has been used to investigate the role of metocean forcings on the space-time extremes of sea states. To

  5. X ray, extreme and far ultraviolet optical thin films for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zukic, Muamer; Torr, Douglas G.; Kim, Jongmin

    1993-01-01

    Far and extreme ultraviolet optical thin film filters find many uses in space astronomy, space astrophysics, and space aeronomy. Spacebased spectrographs are used for studying emission and absorption features of the earth, planets, sun, stars, and the interstellar medium. Most of these spectrographs use transmission or reflection filters. This requirement has prompted a search for selective filtering coatings with high throughput in the FUV and EUV spectral region. Important progress toward the development of thin film filters with improved efficiency and stability has been made in recent years. The goal for this field is the minimization of absorption to get high throughput and enhancement of wavelength selection. The Optical Aeronomy Laboratory (OAL) at the University of Alabama in Huntsville has recently developed the technology to determine optical constants of bulk and film materials for wavelengths extending from x-rays (0.1 nm) to the FUV (200 nm), and several materials have been identified that were used for designs of various optical devices which previously have been restricted to space application in the visible and near infrared. A new design concept called the Pi-multilayer was introduced and applied to the design of optical coatings for wavelengths extending from x-rays to the FUV. Section 3 of this report explains the Pi-multilayer approach and demonstrates its application for the design and fabrication of the FUV coatings. Two layer Pi-stacks have been utilized for the design of reflection filters in the EUV wavelength range from 70 - 100 nm. In order to eliminate losses due to the low reflection of the imaging optics and increase throughput and out-of-band rejection of the EUV instrumentation we introduced a self-filtering camera concept. In the FUV region, MgF2 and LiF crystals are known to be birefringent. Transmission polarizers and quarterwave retarders made of MgF2 or LiF crystals are commercially available but the performances are poor. New

  6. Extreme Space Weather on Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, O.; Drake, J. J.; Kashyap, V. L.; Glocer, A.; Garraffo, C.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2013-12-01

    The current search for exoplanets is focused on detecting Earth-like rocky planets in the habitable zone around faint, M-dwarf stars, where the definition of the habitable zone is the bounded distances from the star at which liquid water can exist on the planetary surface. However, other factors may play a role in the habitability of the planet. In particular, planets that orbit their host star in a close-in orbit, reside in an extreme space environment, where both the stellar wind and transient Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) can erode the planetary atmosphere. We present a detailed, three-dimensional modeling study of the space plasma physics of close-in exoplanets. The study includes the effect of the extreme space conditions on the planetary atmosphere, magnetospheric and upper atmosphere dynamics, extreme space weather on close-in planets, and star-planet magnetic interaction.

  7. The Extreme Universe Space Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Jim; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This talk will describe the Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) mission. EUSO is an ESA mission to explore the most powerful energy sources in the universe. The mission objectives of EUSO are to investigate EECRs, those with energies above 3x10(exp 19) eV, and very high-energy cosmic neutrinos. These objectives are directly related to extreme conditions in the physical world and possibly involve the early history of the big bang and the framework of GUTs. EUSO tackles the basic problem posed by the existence of these extreme-energy events. The solution could have a unique impact on fundamental physics, cosmology, and/or astrophysics. At these energies, magnetic deflection is thought to be so small that the EECR component would serve as the particle channel for astronomy. EUSO will make the first measurements of EAS from space by observing atmospheric fluorescence in the Earth's night sky. With measurements of the airshower track, EUSO will determine the energy and arrival direction of these extreme-energy events. EUSO will make high statistics observations of CRs beyond the predicted GZK cutoff energy and widen the channel for high-energy neutrino astronomy. The energy spectra, arrival directions, and shower profiles will be analyzed to distinguish the nature of these events and search for their sources. With EUSO data, we will have the possibility to discover a local EECR source, test Z-burst scenarios and other theories, and look for evidence of the breakdown of the relativity principle at extreme Lorentz factors.

  8. Evidence of Molecular Adaptation to Extreme Environments and Applicability to Space Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipovic, M. D.; Ognjanovic, S.; Ognjanovic, M.

    2008-06-01

    This is initial investigation of gene signatures responsible for adapting microscopic life to the extreme Earth environments. We present preliminary results on identification of the clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) common to several hyperthermophiles and exclusion of those common to a mesophile (non-hyperthermophile): Escherichia coli (E. coli K12), will yield a group of proteins possibly involved in adaptation to life under extreme temperatures. Comparative genome analyses represent a powerful tool in discovery of novel genes responsible for adaptation to specific extreme environments. Methanogens stand out as the only group of organisms that have species capable of growth at 0° C (Metarhizium frigidum (M.~frigidum) and Methanococcoides burtonii (M.~burtonii)) and 110° C (Methanopyrus kandleri (M.~kandleri)). Although not all the components of heat adaptation can be attributed to novel genes, the chaperones known as heat shock proteins stabilize the enzymes under elevated temperature. However, highly conserved chaperons found in bacteria and eukaryots are not present in hyperthermophilic Archea, rather, they have a unique chaperone TF55. Our aim was to use software which we specifically developed for extremophile genome comparative analyses in order to search for additional novel genes involved in hyperthermophile adaptation. The following hyperthermophile genomes incorporated in this software were used for these studies: Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (M.~jannaschii), M.~kandleri, Archaeoglobus fulgidus (A.~fulgidus) and three species of Pyrococcus. Common genes were annotated and grouped according to their roles in cellular processes where such information was available and proteins not previously implicated in the heat-adaptation of hyperthermophiles were identified. Additional experimental data are needed in order to learn more about these proteins. To address non-gene based components of thermal adaptation, all sequenced extremophiles were analysed for

  9. Figure and Dimension Metrology of Extremely Lightweight X-Ray Mirrors for Space Astronomy Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, William W.

    2010-01-01

    The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) is the next major space X-ray observatory, performing both imaging and spectroscopic studies of all kinds of objects in the Universe. It is a collaborative mission of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States, the European Space Agency, and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. It is to be launched into a Sun-Earth L2 orbit in 2021. One of the most challenging aspects of the mission is the construction of a flight mirror assembly capable focusing X-rays in the band of 0.1 to 40 keY with an angular resolution of better than 5 arc-seconds and with an effective collection area of more than 3 sq m. The mirror assembly will consist of approximately 15,000 parabolic and hyperbolic mirror segments, each of which is approximately 200mm by 300mm with a thickness of 0.4mm. The manufacture and qualification of these mirror segments and their integration into the giant mirror assembly have been the objectives of a vigorous technology development program at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Each of these mirror segments needs to be measured and qualified for both optical figure and mechanical dimensions. In this talk, I will describe the technology program with a particular emphasis on a measurement system we are developing to meet those requirements, including the use of coordinate measuring machines, Fizeau interferometers, and custom-designed, and -built null lens. This system is capable of measuring highly off-axis aspherical or cylindrical mirrors with repeatability, accuracy, and speed.

  10. CyanoSpace: cyanobacteria form extreme deserts to space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billi, D.; McKay, C. P.

    2011-10-01

    Extreme-tolerant cyanobacteria belonging to the genus Chroococcidiopsis are suitable model organisms for space experiments. New isolates of Chroococcidiopsis were obtained from survivors scored after exposure to simulated space and Martian conditions. These new isolates offer the challenge to investigate the interconnection between desiccation and radiation resistance; at the same time they might represent improved, stress-selected cyanobacteria for space biotechnology.

  11. Extreme space weather studies: Addressing societal needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngwira, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme space weather events can adversely impact the operations of critical modern-day technological infrastructure such as high-voltage electric power transmission grids. Understanding of coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere dynamics under extreme solar wind driving conditions is still a major challenge mainly because of a lack of data during such time intervals. This presentation will highlight some of the past and on-going investigations on extreme space weather events, and how these investigations are used to address societal needs. Particularly, I will describe how first principles physics-based 3-D global MHD models are playing a major role in advancing our knowledge on extreme geomagnetically induced currents. These MHD models represent a very important component of attempts to understand the response of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system to varying solar wind conditions.

  12. Extreme Mean and Its Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swaroop, R.; Brownlow, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    Extreme value statistics obtained from normally distributed data are considered. An extreme mean is defined as the mean of p-th probability truncated normal distribution. An unbiased estimate of this extreme mean and its large sample distribution are derived. The distribution of this estimate even for very large samples is found to be nonnormal. Further, as the sample size increases, the variance of the unbiased estimate converges to the Cramer-Rao lower bound. The computer program used to obtain the density and distribution functions of the standardized unbiased estimate, and the confidence intervals of the extreme mean for any data are included for ready application. An example is included to demonstrate the usefulness of extreme mean application.

  13. Reliability assessment of ceramic column grid array (CCGA717) interconnect packages under extreme temperatures for space applications (-185°C to +125°C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2010-02-01

    Ceramic Column Grid Array packages have been increasing in use based on their advantages such as high interconnect density, very good thermal and electrical performance, compatibility with standard surface-mount packaging assembly processes, etc. CCGA packages are used in space applications such as in logics and microprocessor functions, telecommunications, flight avionics, payload electronics, etc. As these packages tend to have less solder joint strain relief than leaded packages, the reliability of CCGA packages is very important for short and long-term space missions. CCGA interconnect electronic package printed wiring boards (PWBs) of polyimide have been assembled, inspected non-destructively and subsequently subjected to extreme temperature thermal cycling to assess the reliability for future deep space, short and long-term, extreme temperature missions. In this investigation, the employed temperature range covers from -185°C to +125°C extreme thermal environments. The test hardware consists of two CCGA717 packages with each package divided into four daisy-chained sections, for a total of eight daisy chains to be monitored. The CCGA717 package is 33 mm × 33 mm with a 27×27 array of 80%/20% Pb/Sn columns on a 1.27 mm pitch. The resistance of daisy-chained, CCGA interconnects were continuously monitored as a function of thermal cycling. Electrical resistance measurements as a function of thermal cycling are reported and the tests to date have shown significant change in daisy chain resistance as a function of thermal cycling. The change in interconnect resistance becomes more noticeable with increasing number of thermal cycles. This paper will describe the experimental test results of CCGA testing under wide extreme temperatures. Standard Weibull analysis tools were used to extract the Weibull parameters to understand the CCGA failures. Optical inspection results clearly indicate that the solder joints of columns with the board and the ceramic package have

  14. T-REX: Thomson-Radiated Extreme X-rays Moving X-Ray Science into the ''Nuclear'' Applications Space with Thompson Scattered Photons

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, C P; Hartemann, F V

    2004-09-21

    The scattering of laser photons from relativistic electrons (Thomson scattering) has been demonstrated to be a viable method for the production of ultrashort-duration pulses of tunable radiation in the 10-keV to 100-keV range. Photons in this range are capable of exciting or ionizing even the most tightly bound of atomic electrons. A wide variety of atomistic scale applications are possible. For example, Thomson x-ray sources have been constructed at LLNL (PLEIADES) and LBL as picosecond, stroboscopic probes of atomic-scale dynamics and at Vanderbilt University as element-specific tools for medical radiography and radiology. While these sources have demonstrated an attractive ability to simultaneously probe on an atomic spatial and temporal scale, they do not necessarily exploit the full potential of the Thomson scattering process to produce high-brightness, high-energy photons. In this white paper, we suggest that the peak brightness of Thomson sources can scale as fast as the 4th power of electron beam energy and that production via Thomson scattering of quasi-monochromatic, tunable radiation in the ''nuclear-range'' between 100-keV and several MeV is potentially a much more attractive application space for this process. Traditional sources in this regime are inherently ultra-broadband and decline rapidly in brightness as a function of photon energy. The output from dedicated, national-laboratory-scale, synchrotron facilities, e.g. APS, SPring8, ESRF etc., declines by more than 10 orders from 100 keV to 1 MeV. At 1 MeV, we conservatively estimate that Thomson-source, peak brightness can exceed that of APS (the best machine in the DOE complex) by more than 15 orders of magnitude. In much the same way that tunable lasers revolutionized atomic spectroscopy, this ''Peta-step'' advance in tunable, narrow-bandwidth, capability should enable entirely new fields of study and new, programmatically-interesting, applications such as: micrometer-spatial-resolution, Me

  15. NASA Measures Extreme Precipitation From Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    From Jan. 25 through Feb. 3, IMERG data estimated that the most extreme precipitation over the United States during this period was over 200mm (7.9 inches) in an area where stormy weather frequentl...

  16. Space applications of superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, D. B.; Vorreiter, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    Some potential applications of superconductivity in space are summarized, e.g., the use of high field magnets for cosmic ray analysis or energy storage and generation, space applications of digital superconducting devices, such as the Josephson switch and, in the future, a superconducting computer. Other superconducting instrumentation which could be used in space includes: low frequency superconducting sensors, microwave and infrared detectors, instruments for gravitational studies, and high-Q cavities for use as stabilizing elements in clocks and oscillators.

  17. Mars' Ionospheric Response to Extreme Space Weather Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulusen, D.; Brain, D.; Luhmann, J. G.; Mitchell, D.

    2011-12-01

    Extreme space weather events induce a variety of disturbances in the near space environment of planets. At Mars, which is not well protected due to lack of a global dipole field, these effects are expected to be more violent than at other planets. Mainly because of limited monitoring, the influence of these extreme events on the near Mars space has been investigated only in a few studies. The Electron Reflectometer (ER) onboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft was capable of indirectly detecting space weather events through background high energy particle flux measurements at the highest energy channels of the instrument. Over more than a seven year period these background measurements provide a data set of the energetic particle environment at Mars covering a broad spectrum of space weather events. We will present the results of a study correlating extreme events in MGS ER measurements with MGS Magnetometer and Radio Science experiment observations of the Martian ionosphere. Our results confirm the immediate photo-enhancement effect of the impulsive solar radiation during these extremes on the Martian ionosphere; however, show no clear evidence of an ionospheric enhancement due to energetic charged particles associated with the extreme events compared to quiet times' particle environment. Through in-depth case studies and statistical analysis of the entire data set which cover almost a complete solar cycle, we discuss implications of our findings and provide insight for the upcoming solar maximum at Mars.

  18. NOAA Environmental Satellite Measurements of Extreme Space Weather Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denig, W. F.; Wilkinson, D. C.; Redmon, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    For over 40 years the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has continuously monitored the near-earth space environment in support of space weather operations. Data from this period have covered a wide range of geophysical conditions including periods of extreme space weather such as the great geomagnetic March 1989, the 2003 Halloween storm and the more recent St Patrick's Day storm of 2015. While not specifically addressed here, these storms have stressed our technology infrastructure in unexpected and surprising ways. Space weather data from NOAA geostationary (GOES) and polar (POES) satellites along with supporting data from the Air Force are presented to compare and contrast the space environmental conditions measured during extreme events.

  19. Observations and Impact Assessments of Extreme Space Weather Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. N.

    2007-05-01

    "Space weather" refers to conditions on the Sun, in the solar wind, and in Earth`s magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere. Activity on the Sun such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections can lead to high levels of radiation in space and can cause major magnetic storms at the Earth. Space radiation can come as energetic particles or as electromagnetic emissions. Adverse conditions in the near-Earth space environment can cause disruption of satellite operations, communications, navigation, and electric power distribution grids. This can lead to a variety of socioeconomic losses. Astronauts and airline passengers exposed to high levels of radiation are also at risk. Society`s vulnerability to space weather effects is an issue of increasing concern. We are dependent on technological systems that are becoming more susceptible to space weather disturbances. We also have a permanent human presence in space with the International Space Station and the President and NASA have expressed a desire to expand our human space activities with missions to the moon and Mars. This will make space weather of even greater concern in the future. In this talk I will describe many space weather effects and will describe some of the societal and economic impacts that extreme events have had.

  20. Mediterranean space-time extremes of wind wave sea states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbariol, Francesco; Carniel, Sandro; Sclavo, Mauro; Marcello Falcieri, Francesco; Bonaldo, Davide; Bergamasco, Andrea; Benetazzo, Alvise

    2014-05-01

    Traditionally, wind wave sea states during storms have been observed, modeled, and predicted mostly in the time domain, i.e. at a fixed point. In fact, the standard statistical models used in ocean waves analysis rely on the implicit assumption of long-crested waves. Nevertheless, waves in storms are mainly short-crested. Hence, spatio-temporal features of the wave field are crucial to accurately model the sea state characteristics and to provide reliable predictions, particurly of wave extremes. Indeed, the experimental evidence provided by novel instrumentations, e.g. WASS (Wave Acquisition Stereo System), showed that the maximum sea surface elevation gathered in time over an area, i.e. the space-time extreme, is larger than that one measured in time at a point, i.e. the time extreme. Recently, stochastic models used to estimate maxima of multidimensional Gaussian random fields have been applied to ocean waves statistics. These models are based either on Piterbarg's theorem or Adler and Taylor's Euler Characteristics approach. Besides a probability of exceedance of a certain threshold, they can provide the expected space-time extreme of a sea state, as long as space-time wave features (i.e. some parameters of the directional variance density spectrum) are known. These models have been recently validated against WASS observation from fixed and moving platforms. In this context, our focus was modeling and predicting extremes of wind waves during storms. Thus, to intensively gather space-time extremes data over the Mediterranean region, we used directional spectra provided by the numerical wave model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore). Therefore, we set up a 6x6 km2 resolution grid entailing most of the Mediterranean Sea and we forced it with COSMO-I7 high resolution (7x7 km2) hourly wind fields, within 2007-2013 period. To obtain the space-time features, i.e. the spectral parameters, at each grid node and over the 6 simulated years, we developed a modified version

  1. Extreme Space Weather Impact: An Emergency Management Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAlester, Mark H.; Murtagh, William

    2014-08-01

    In 2010, the Department of Homeland Security's Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) partnered with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) to investigate the potential for extreme space weather conditions to impact National Security/Emergency Preparedness communications—those communications vital to a functioning government and to emergency and disaster response—in the United States. Given the interdependencies of modern critical infrastructure, the initial systematic review of academic research on space weather effects on communications expanded to other critical infrastructure sectors, federal agencies, and private sector organizations. While the effort is ongoing, and despite uncertainties inherent with this hazard, FEMA and the SWPC did draw some conclusions. If electric power remains available, an extreme space weather event will result in the intermittent loss of HF and similar sky wave radio systems, minimal direct impact to public safety line-of-sight radio and commercial cellular services, a relatively small loss of satellite services as a percentage of the total satellite fleet, interference or intermittent loss of satellite communications and GPS navigation and timing signals, and no first-order impact to consumer electronic devices. Vulnerability of electric power to an extreme geomagnetic storm remains the primary concern from an emergency management perspective, but actual impact is not well understood at present. A discussion of potential impacts to infrastructure from the loss of electric power from any hazard is provided using the 2011 record tornado outbreak in Alabama as an example.

  2. Nonparametric Spatial Models for Extremes: Application to Extreme Temperature Data.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Montserrat; Henry, John; Reich, Brian

    2013-03-01

    Estimating the probability of extreme temperature events is difficult because of limited records across time and the need to extrapolate the distributions of these events, as opposed to just the mean, to locations where observations are not available. Another related issue is the need to characterize the uncertainty in the estimated probability of extreme events at different locations. Although the tools for statistical modeling of univariate extremes are well-developed, extending these tools to model spatial extreme data is an active area of research. In this paper, in order to make inference about spatial extreme events, we introduce a new nonparametric model for extremes. We present a Dirichlet-based copula model that is a flexible alternative to parametric copula models such as the normal and t-copula. The proposed modelling approach is fitted using a Bayesian framework that allow us to take into account different sources of uncertainty in the data and models. We apply our methods to annual maximum temperature values in the east-south-central United States. PMID:24058280

  3. On the Probability of Occurrence of Extreme Space Weather Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Pete

    2012-01-01

    By virtue of their rarity, extreme space weather events, such as the Carrington event of 1859, are difficult to study, their rates of occurrence are difficult to estimate, and prediction of a specific future event is virtually impossible. Additionally, events may be extreme relative to one parameter but normal relative to others. In this study, we analyze several measures of the severity of space weather events (flare intensity, coronal mass ejection speeds, Dst, and greater than 30 MeV proton fluences as inferred from nitrate records) to estimate the probability of occurrence of extreme events. By showing that the frequency of occurrence scales as an inverse power of the severity of the event, and assuming that this relationship holds at higher magnitudes, we are able to estimate the probability that an event larger than some criteria will occur within a certain interval of time in the future. For example, the probability of another Carrington event (based on Dst less than - 850 nT) occurring within the next decade is approximately 12%. We also identify and address several limitations with this approach. In particular, we assume time stationarity, and thus, the effects of long-term space climate change are not considered. While this technique cannot be used to predict specific events, it may ultimately be useful for probabilistic forecasting.

  4. Electronic Components for use in Extreme Temperature Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik

    2008-01-01

    Electrical power management and control systems designed for use in planetary exploration missions and deep space probes require electronics that are capable of efficient and reliable operation under extreme temperature conditions. Space-based infra-red satellites, all-electric ships, jet engines, electromagnetic launchers, magnetic levitation transport systems, and power facilities are also typical examples where the electronics are expected to be exposed to harsh temperatures and to operate under severe thermal swings. Most commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) devices are not designed to function under such extreme conditions and, therefore, new parts must be developed or the conventional devices need to be modified. For example, spacecraft operating in the cold environment of deep space carry a large number of radioisotope heating units in order to maintain the surrounding temperature of the on-board electronics at approximately 20 C. At the other end, built-in radiators and coolers render the operation of electronics possible under hot conditions. These thermal measures lead to design complexity, affect development costs, and increase size and weight. Electronics capable of operation at extreme temperatures, thus, will not only tolerate the hostile operational environment, but also make the overall system efficient, more reliable, and less expensive. The Extreme Temperature Electronics Program at the NASA Glenn Research Center focuses on research and development of electronics suitable for applications in the aerospace environment and deep space exploration missions. Research is being conducted on devices, including COTS parts, for potential use under extreme temperatures. These components include semiconductor switching devices, passive devices, DC/DC converters, operational amplifiers, and oscillators. An overview of the program will be presented along with some experimental findings.

  5. Modeling extreme "Carrington-type" space weather events using three-dimensional global MHD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Glocer, Alex

    2014-06-01

    There is a growing concern over possible severe societal consequences related to adverse space weather impacts on man-made technological infrastructure. In the last two decades, significant progress has been made toward the first-principles modeling of space weather events, and three-dimensional (3-D) global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models have been at the forefront of this transition, thereby playing a critical role in advancing our understanding of space weather. However, the modeling of extreme space weather events is still a major challenge even for the modern global MHD models. In this study, we introduce a specially adapted University of Michigan 3-D global MHD model for simulating extreme space weather events with a Dst footprint comparable to the Carrington superstorm of September 1859 based on the estimate by Tsurutani et. al. (2003). Results are presented for a simulation run with "very extreme" constructed/idealized solar wind boundary conditions driving the magnetosphere. In particular, we describe the reaction of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system and the associated induced geoelectric field on the ground to such extreme driving conditions. The model setup is further tested using input data for an observed space weather event of Halloween storm October 2003 to verify the MHD model consistence and to draw additional guidance for future work. This extreme space weather MHD model setup is designed specifically for practical application to the modeling of extreme geomagnetically induced electric fields, which can drive large currents in ground-based conductor systems such as power transmission grids. Therefore, our ultimate goal is to explore the level of geoelectric fields that can be induced from an assumed storm of the reported magnitude, i.e., Dst˜=-1600 nT.

  6. Wireless Sensor Applications in Extreme Aeronautical Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    NASA aeronautical programs require rigorous ground and flight testing. Many of the testing environments can be extremely harsh. These environments include cryogenic temperatures and high temperatures (greater than 1500 C). Temperature, pressure, vibration, ionizing radiation, and chemical exposure may all be part of the harsh environment found in testing. This paper presents a survey of research opportunities for universities and industry to develop new wireless sensors that address anticipated structural health monitoring (SHM) and testing needs for aeronautical vehicles. Potential applications of passive wireless sensors for ground testing and high altitude aircraft operations are presented. Some of the challenges and issues of the technology are also presented.

  7. Space applications instrumentation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minzner, R. A.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    A compendium of resumes of 158 instrument systems or experiments, of particular interest to space applications, is presented. Each resume exists in a standardized format, permitting entries for 26 administrative items and 39 scientific or engineering items. The resumes are organized into forty groups determined by the forty spacecraft with which the instruments are associated. The resumes are followed by six different cross indexes, each organized alphabetically according to one of the following catagories: instrument name, acronym, name of principal investigator, name of organization employing the principal investigator, assigned experiment number, and spacecraft name. The resumes are associated with a computerized instrument resume search and retrieval system.

  8. Space Application Requirements for Organic Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Minow, Joseph; Altstatt, Richard; Wertz, George; Semmel, Charles; Edwards, David; Ashley, Paul R.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is currently evaluating polymer based components for application in launch vehicle and propulsion system avionics systems. Organic polymers offer great advantages over inorganic corollaries. Unlike inorganics with crystalline structures defining their sensing characteristics, organic polymers can be engineered to provide varying degrees of sensitivity for various parameters including electro-optic response, second harmonic generation, and piezoelectric response. While great advantages in performance can be achieved with organic polymers, survivability in the operational environment is a key aspect for their practical application. The space environment in particular offers challenges that must be considered in the application of polymer based devices. These challenges include: long term thermal stability for long duration missions, extreme thermal cycling, space radiation tolerance, vacuum operation, low power operation, high operational reliability. Requirements for application of polymer based devices in space avionics systems will be presented and discussed in light of current polymer materials.

  9. Correlation between Space and Atmospheric March 2012 Extreme Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostopoulos, Georgios C.

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have provided statistical evidence of a solar cycle correlation between space weather and meteorological phenomena. In this study we present a case study, the March 2012 events, with a strong evidence of such a correlation between space and atmospheric extreme events. March 2012 phenomena, beside a great CME (March 7) and a following superstorm, has been most known in the scientific community as well as in the public from the historic heat wave in USA. This event was not anticipated by solely atmospheric models (called a "black swan event":http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/csi/events/2012/marchheatwave/anticipation.html). Furthermore, various extreme phenomena as high temperatures, intense rainfalls and ice extent at middle and high latitudes followed the March 7, 2012 CME all over the globe (USA, Europe, Australia, Antartic), while unusual measurements of various atmospheric and ionospheric quantities were observed by a series of satellites (TIMED, MODIS, NOAA etc.) In this study we concentrate to (a) the unusual high maximum of temperature in north-east USA (highest values since 1910) and (b) intense winds, rainfalls and fluctuating (>1500 V/m) geolectric fields in South East Europe (Greece). These events were observed almost simultaneously with geomagnetic storms and unusual radiation belt electron precipitation (RBEP) events on days 6-9, 10-12 and 26-28.3.2012 (two CMEs and one CIR). The most striking result is the time coincidence of variations of several space and meteorological measurements, which, for instance, most probably suggests a direct influence of the RBEP on the intense rainfalls observed in Greece. It is also possible that the RBEP at polar latitudes was responsible for the positive North Atlantic Oscillation effect evaluated at those times, which contributed to the global middle and high latitude weather variations. Our study provides an example of possible space weather utility to the atmospheric models, and, therefore, to the

  10. Extreme learning machine for ranking: generalization analysis and applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Peng, Jiangtao; Zhou, Yicong; Li, Luoqing; Pan, Zhibin

    2014-05-01

    The extreme learning machine (ELM) has attracted increasing attention recently with its successful applications in classification and regression. In this paper, we investigate the generalization performance of ELM-based ranking. A new regularized ranking algorithm is proposed based on the combinations of activation functions in ELM. The generalization analysis is established for the ELM-based ranking (ELMRank) in terms of the covering numbers of hypothesis space. Empirical results on the benchmark datasets show the competitive performance of the ELMRank over the state-of-the-art ranking methods. PMID:24590011

  11. Practical Applications of Space Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report gives an overview of a study conducted by the Space Applications Board (SAB) on the practical applications of space systems. In this study, the SAB considered how the nation's space capability might be used to solve problems such as the shortage of food and energy; the improvement of the physical environment; inventorying and…

  12. On Adler space-time extremes during ocean storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romolo, Alessandra; Arena, Felice

    2015-04-01

    The paper concerns the statistical properties of extreme ocean waves in the space-time domain. In this regard, a solution for the exceedance probability of the maximum crest height during a sea state over a certain area is obtained. The approach is based on the Adler's solution for the extremal probability for Gaussian random processes in a multidimensional domain. The method is able to include the effects of spatial variability of three-dimensional sea waves on short-term prediction, both over an assigned area XY and in a given direction. Next, the storm-term predictions in the space-time are investigated. For this purpose, the exceedance probability of ηmaxfunc during an ocean storm over an assigned area A is derived. This solution gives a generalization to the space-time of the Borgman's time-based model for nonstationary processes. The validity of the model is assessed from wave data of two buoys of the NOOA-NDBC network located along the Pacific and the Atlantic U.S. coasts. The results show that the size of the spatial domain A remarkably influences the expected maximum crest height during a sea storm. Indeed, the exceedance probabilities of the maximum crest height during an ocean storm over a certain area significantly deviate from the classical Borgman's model in time for increasing area. Then, to account for the nonlinear contributions on crest height, the proposed model is exploited jointly with the Forristall's distribution for nonlinear crest amplitudes in a given sea state. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations of a sea storm are performed showing a very good agreement with theoretical results.

  13. Tardigrades living in extreme environments have naturally selected prerequisites useful to space conquer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidetti, Roberto; Tiziana, Altiero; Cesari, Michele; Rizzo, Angela Maria; Bertolani, Roberto; Galletta, Giuseppe; Dalessandro, Maurizio; Rebecchi, Lorena

    a complete or almost complete metabolic standstill. The ability of tardigrades to colonize terrestrial habitats is linked to their well known ability to enter anhydrobiosis when their habi-tat desiccates. Tardigrades survive dehydration by entering a highly stable state of suspended animation due to complete desiccation (¿ 95Results on tardigrades open a window on the fu-ture perspective in astrobiology and in their applications. The discovery and identification of metabolites naturally synthesized by tardigrades to perform a remarkable protection against the damages to cellular components and DNA due to desiccation, radiation, microgravity and oxidation stresses, will be used to define the countermeasures to protect sensitive organisms, including humans, not naturally able to withstand extreme stresses under space conditions, for the future long-term explorations of our solar system, including Mars.

  14. Physical demands and injuries to the upper extremity associated with the space program.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Steven F; Williams, David; Jones, Jeffrey; Strauss, Samuel; Clark, Jonathan

    2004-05-01

    Hand and upper-extremity overuse and repetitive injuries in astronauts have been and continue to be a common problem in the space program. The demands on upper-extremity use in the astronaut training program, the zero-gravity environment, the extreme temperature conditions of space, the effects of space travel on human physiology/anatomy, and the constraints and pressures of space suits and gloves all can negatively impact upper-extremity function in ways that can result in overuse/repetitive injuries. Future plans for space exploration include endeavors that will continue and even increase the demands on the hand and upper extremity.

  15. Long-Range Correlations and Extreme Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A. S.; Veeramani, T.

    2012-12-01

    An essential feature of space weather is the overlap in the physical time scales with those of its driver, viz. the turbulent solar wind. This requires the analysis of the data of both the driver and its response in order to isolate the intrinsic nature of space wether and its extremes. The extensive databases of geospace storms and substorms, consisting of geomagnetic indices and solar wind variables are used to analyze the nature of the long-range correlations. The detrended fluctuation anlasis is used to compute the scaling exponents from the auto-correlation and mutual-information functions. The scaling exponent of the auroral electrojet index show a break at 5 hrs, which separates a Brownian feature from long-range correlations. The solar wind data on the other hand yields a single scaling exponent, thus showing that of the two regimes of geomagnetic activity one is correlated with the solar wind. A new technique of fluctuation analysis that uses nonlinear dynamical predictions to remove the trends is used to analyze this feature of space weather in more detail.

  16. Liquid lubrication for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.; Khonsari, Michael M.

    1992-01-01

    Reviewed here is the state of the art of liquid lubrication for space applications. The areas discussed are types of liquid lubrication mechanisms, space environmental effects on lubrication, classification of lubricants, liquid lubricant additives, grease lubrication, mechanism materials, bearing anomalies and failures, lubricant supply techniques, and application types and lubricant needs for those applications.

  17. The real scalar field in extreme RNdS space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Guanghai; Gui, Yuanxing; Tian, Jianxiang

    2005-07-01

    The real scalar field equation between the outer black hole horizon and the cosmological horizon is solved in the extreme Reissner-Nordström de Sitter (RNdS) space. We use an accurate approximation, the polynomial approximation, to approximate the tortoise coordinate x(r) in order to get the inverse function r = r(x) and then to solve the wave equation. The case where the two horizons are very close to each other is discussed in detail. We find that the wave function is harmonic only in the very small regions near the horizons, and the amplitude decreases remarkably near the potential peak because of the effect of the potential. Furthermore, it is found that the height of the potential increases as the cosmological constant Λ decreases, and the wave amplitude will decrease more remarkably with less Λ.

  18. Simulation of the 23 July 2012 Extreme Space Weather Event: What if This Extremely Rare CME Was Earth Directed?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Mays, M. Leila; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Galvin, A. B.; Simunac, Kristin; Baker, Daniel N.; Li, Xinlin; Zheng, Yihua; Glocer, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Extreme space weather events are known to cause adverse impacts on critical modern day technological infrastructure such as high-voltage electric power transmission grids. On 23 July 2012, NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-Ahead (STEREO-A) spacecraft observed in situ an extremely fast coronal mass ejection (CME) that traveled 0.96 astronomical units (approx. 1 AU) in about 19 h. Here we use the SpaceWeather Modeling Framework (SWMF) to perform a simulation of this rare CME.We consider STEREO-A in situ observations to represent the upstream L1 solar wind boundary conditions. The goal of this study is to examine what would have happened if this Rare-type CME was Earth-bound. Global SWMF-generated ground geomagnetic field perturbations are used to compute the simulated induced geoelectric field at specific ground-based active INTERMAGNET magnetometer sites. Simulation results show that while modeled global SYM-H index, a high-resolution equivalent of the Dst index, was comparable to previously observed severe geomagnetic storms such as the Halloween 2003 storm, the 23 July CME would have produced some of the largest geomagnetically induced electric fields, making it very geoeffective. These results have important practical applications for risk management of electrical power grids.

  19. Simulation of the 23 July 2012 extreme space weather event: What if this extremely rare CME was Earth directed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Leila Mays, M.; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Galvin, A. B.; Simunac, Kristin; Baker, Daniel N.; Li, Xinlin; Zheng, Yihua; Glocer, Alex

    2013-12-01

    Extreme space weather events are known to cause adverse impacts on critical modern day technological infrastructure such as high-voltage electric power transmission grids. On 23 July 2012, NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-Ahead (STEREO-A) spacecraft observed in situ an extremely fast coronal mass ejection (CME) that traveled 0.96 astronomical units (˜1 AU) in about 19 h. Here we use the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) to perform a simulation of this rare CME. We consider STEREO-A in situ observations to represent the upstream L1 solar wind boundary conditions. The goal of this study is to examine what would have happened if this Rare-type CME was Earth-bound. Global SWMF-generated ground geomagnetic field perturbations are used to compute the simulated induced geoelectric field at specific ground-based active INTERMAGNET magnetometer sites. Simulation results show that while modeled global SYM-H index, a high-resolution equivalent of the Dst index, was comparable to previously observed severe geomagnetic storms such as the Halloween 2003 storm, the 23 July CME would have produced some of the largest geomagnetically induced electric fields, making it very geoeffective. These results have important practical applications for risk management of electrical power grids.

  20. Space processing applications bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This special bibliography lists 724 articles, papers, and reports which discuss various aspects of the use of the space environment for materials science research or for commercial enterprise. The potentialities of space processing and the improved materials processes that are made possible by the unique aspects of the space environment are emphasized. References identified in April, 1978 are cited.

  1. Electro-Mechanical Systems for Extreme Space Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Tyler, Tony R.; Abel, Phillip B.; Levanas, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Exploration beyond low earth orbit presents challenges for hardware that must operate in extreme environments. The current state of the art is to isolate and provide heating for sensitive hardware in order to survive. However, this protection results in penalties of weight and power for the spacecraft. This is particularly true for electro-mechanical based technology such as electronics, actuators and sensors. Especially when considering distributed electronics, many electro-mechanical systems need to be located in appendage type locations, making it much harder to protect from the extreme environments. The purpose of this paper to describe the advances made in the area of developing electro-mechanical technology to survive these environments with minimal protection. The Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL), the Glenn Research Center (GRC), the Langley Research Center (LaRC), and Aeroflex, Inc. over the last few years have worked to develop and test electro-mechanical hardware that will meet the stringent environmental demands of the moon, and which can also be leveraged for other challenging space exploration missions. Prototype actuators and electronics have been built and tested. Brushless DC actuators designed by Aeroflex, Inc have been tested with interface temperatures as low as 14 degrees Kelvin. Testing of the Aeroflex design has shown that a brushless DC motor with a single stage planetary gearbox can operate in low temperature environments for at least 120 million cycles (measured at motor) if long life is considered as part of the design. A motor control distributed electronics concept developed by JPL was built and operated at temperatures as low as -160 C, with many components still operational down to -245 C. Testing identified the components not capable of meeting the low temperature goal of -230 C. This distributed controller is universal in design with the ability to control different types of motors and read many different types of sensors. The controller

  2. Rotary actuator for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andión, J. A.; Burgui, C.; Migliorero, G.

    2005-07-01

    SENER is developing a rotary actuator for space applications. The activity, partially funded under ESA GSTP contract, aims at the design, development and performance testing of an innovative rotary actuator concept for space applications. An engineering model has been manufactured and has been tested to demonstrate the compliance with the requirements specification.

  3. MIDACO on MINLP space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlueter, Martin; Erb, Sven O.; Gerdts, Matthias; Kemble, Stephen; Rückmann, Jan-J.

    2013-04-01

    A numerical study on two challenging mixed-integer non-linear programming (MINLP) space applications and their optimization with MIDACO, a recently developed general purpose optimization software, is presented. These applications are the optimal control of the ascent of a multiple-stage space launch vehicle and the space mission trajectory design from Earth to Jupiter using multiple gravity assists. Additionally, an NLP aerospace application, the optimal control of an F8 aircraft manoeuvre, is discussed and solved. In order to enhance the optimization performance of MIDACO a hybridization technique, coupling MIDACO with an SQP algorithm, is presented for two of these three applications. The numerical results show, that the applications can be solved to their best known solution (or even new best solution) in a reasonable time by the considered approach. Since using the concept of MINLP is still a novelty in the field of (aero)space engineering, the demonstrated capabilities are seen as very promising.

  4. Extreme Radiation Hardness and Space Qualification of AlGaN Optoelectronic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Ke-Xun; Balakrishnan, Kathik; Hultgren, Eric; Goebel, John; Bilenko, Yuri; Yang, Jinwei; Sun, Wenhong; Shatalov, Max; Hu, Xuhong; Gaska, Remis

    2010-09-21

    Unprecedented radiation hardness and environment robustness are required in the new generation of high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments and deep space exploration. National Ignition Facility (NIF) break-even shots will have a neutron yield of 1015 or higher. The Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) mission instruments will be irradiated with a total fluence of 1012 protons/cm2 during the space journey. In addition, large temperature variations and mechanical shocks are expected in these applications under extreme conditions. Hefty radiation and thermal shields are required for Si and GaAs based electronics and optoelectronics devices. However, for direct illumination and imaging applications, shielding is not a viable option. It is an urgent task to search for new semiconductor technologies and to develop radiation hard and environmentally robust optoelectronic devices. We will report on our latest systematic experimental studies on radiation hardness and space qualifications of AlGaN optoelectronic devices: Deep UV Light Emitting Diodes (DUV LEDs) and solarblind UV Photodiodes (PDs). For custom designed AlGaN DUV LEDs with a central emission wavelength of 255 nm, we have demonstrated its extreme radiation hardness up to 2x1012 protons/cm2 with 63.9 MeV proton beams. We have demonstrated an operation lifetime of over 26,000 hours in a nitrogen rich environment, and 23,000 hours of operation in vacuum without significant power drop and spectral shift. The DUV LEDs with multiple packaging styles have passed stringent space qualifications with 14 g random vibrations, and 21 cycles of 100K temperature cycles. The driving voltage, current, emission spectra and optical power (V-I-P) operation characteristics exhibited no significant changes after the space environmental tests. The DUV LEDs will be used for photoelectric charge management in space flights. For custom designed AlGaN UV photodiodes with a central response wavelength of 255 nm, we have demonstrated

  5. Mechanisms for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.; Le Letty, R.; Barré, M.; Pasquarella, S.; Bokaie, M.; Bataille, A.; Poiet, G.

    2012-06-01

    All space instruments contain mechanisms or moving mechanical assemblies that must move (sliding, rolling, rotating, or spinning) and their successful operation is usually mission-critical. Generally, mechanisms are not redundant and therefore represent potential single point failure modes. Several space missions have suffered anomalies or failures due to problems in applying space mechanisms technology. Mechanisms require a specific qualification through a dedicated test campaign. This paper covers the design, development, testing, production, and in-flight experience of the PICARD/SODISM mechanisms. PICARD is a space mission dedicated to the study of the Sun. The PICARD Satellite was successfully launched, on June 15, 2010 on a DNEPR launcher from Dombarovskiy Cosmodrome, near Yasny (Russia). SODISM (SOlar Diameter Imager and Surface Mapper) is a 11 cm Ritchey-Chretien imaging telescope, taking solar images at five wavelengths. SODISM uses several mechanisms (a system to unlock the door at the entrance of the instrument, a system to open/closed the door using a stepper motor, two filters wheels using a stepper motor, and a mechanical shutter). For the fine pointing, SODISM uses three piezoelectric devices acting on the primary mirror of the telescope. The success of the mission depends on the robustness of the mechanisms used and their life.

  6. Probing minimal supergravity via the Extreme Universe Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anchordoqui, Luis; Goldberg, Haim; Nath, Pran

    2004-07-01

    An analysis is carried out within mSUGRA of the estimated number of events originating from upward moving ultrahigh energy neutralinos passing through Earth’s crust that could be detected by the Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO). The analysis exploits a recently proposed technique that differentiates ultrahigh energy neutralinos from ultrahigh energy neutrinos using their different absorption lengths in the Earth’s crust. It is shown that for the part of the parameter space, where the neutralino is mostly a B-ino and with squark mass ˜1 TeV, EUSO could see ultrahigh energy neutralino events within mSUGRA models with essentially no background. In the energy range 109 GeV1.1×10-6 (Eχ˜/GeV)-1.3 GeV-1 cm-2 yr-1 sr-1, at the 95% confidence limit (CL). Such a hard spectrum is characteristic of supermassive particles’ N-body hadronic decay. The case in which the flux of ultrahigh energy neutralinos is produced via decay of metastable heavy (mX=2×1012 GeV) particles with uniform distribution throughout the Universe, and primary decay mode into 5 quarks + 5 squarks, is analyzed in detail. The normalization of the ratio of the relics’ density to their lifetime has been fixed so that the baryon flux produced in the supermassive particle decays contributes to about 1/3 of the events reported by the AGASA Collaboration below 1011 GeV, and hence the associated GeV γ-ray flux is in complete agreement with EGRET data. For this particular case, EUSO will collect between 4 and 5 neutralino events (with 0.3 of background) in ≈3 yr of running. NASA’s planned mission, the Orbiting Wide-angle Light-collectors (OWL), is also briefly discussed in this context.

  7. MEMS Micro-Valve for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakraborty, I.; Tang, W. C.; Bame, D. P.; Tang, T. K.

    1998-01-01

    We report on the development of a Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) valve that is designed to meet the rigorous performance requirements for a variety of space applications, such as micropropulsion, in-situ chemical analysis of other planets, or micro-fluidics experiments in micro-gravity. These systems often require very small yet reliable silicon valves with extremely low leak rates and long shelf lives. Also, they must survive the perils of space travel, which include unstoppable radiation, monumental shock and vibration forces, as well as extreme variations in temperature. Currently, no commercial MEMS valve meets these requirements. We at JPL are developing a piezoelectric MEMS valve that attempts to address the unique problem of space. We begin with proven configurations that may seem familiar. However, we have implemented some major design innovations that should produce a superior valve. The JPL micro-valve is expected to have an extremely low leak rate, limited susceptibility to particulates, vibration or radiation, as well as a wide operational temperature range.

  8. Performance of the second MEMS space telescope for observation of extreme lightning from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Jin-A.; Lee, Hye Young; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Jik; Park, Il H.

    2016-03-01

    A small space-telescope equipped with a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) micro-mirror is applied to space missions for observing random, rare and temporal events like transient luminous events (TLEs). The measurement of TLEs with fine time resolution will show the different temporal profiles predicted by the various models for sprites, blue jets, elves and halos. The proposed space-telescope consists of three components: two sub-telescopes with different focal lengths and a spectrometer. The trigger telescope with a short focal length surveys a wide field of view. The zoom-in telescope with a long focal length looks into a small field of view area that is part of the trigger telescope's wide field of view. Upon identifying a candidate TLE, the trigger telescope determines the location of the event and provides the location to the MEMS micro-mirror. Then, the micro-mirror, which is placed as a pinhole in front of the zoom-in telescope, rotates its mirror plane by such an angle that the zoom-in telescope will watch the small field of view around the center of the event. In this manner, the zoom-in telescope achieves the zoom-in designed by its long focal length. The first such small-space telescope, the MEMS Telescope for Extreme Lightning (MTEL), was launched into space in 2009 and identified a few candidates sprites. However a power failure (over-charge of the solar battery) of the main satellite occurred, and the MTEL was not able to continue space operation to acquire sizable statistics for TLE events. We developed and constructed the second small-space telescope, called MTEL-II, to continue to observe TLE events in space. In this paper, we present the performance of MTEL-II based on ground tests.

  9. Applications of Tethers in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cron, A. C.

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings of the first workshop on applications of tethers in space are summarized. The workshop gathered personalities from industry, academic institutions and government to discuss the relatively new area of applied technology of very long tethers in space to a broad spectrum of future space missions. A large number of tethered concepts and configurations was presented covering electrodynamic interaction tethers, tethered transportation through angular momentum exchange, tethered constellations, low gravity utilization, applicable technology, and tethered test facilities. Specific recommendations were made to NASA in each area.

  10. UWB Technology and Applications on Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Gross, Julia; Dusl, John; Ni, Jianjun; Rafford, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB), also known as impulse or carrier-free radio technology, is one promising new technology. In February 2002, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approved the deployment of this technology. It is increasingly recognized that UWB technology holds great potential to provide significant benefits in many terrestrial and space applications such as precise positioning/tracking and high data rate mobile wireless communications. This talk presents an introduction to UWB technology and some applications on space exploration. UWB is characterized by several uniquely attractive features, such as low impact on other RF systems due to its extremely low power spectral densities, immunity to interference from narrow band RF systems due to its ultra-wide bandwidth, multipath immunity to fading due to ample multipath diversity, capable of precise positioning due to fine time resolution, capable of high data rate multi-channel performance. The related FCC regulations, IEEE standardization efforts and industry activities also will be addressed in this talk. For space applications, some projects currently under development at NASA Johnson Space Center will be introduced. These include the UWB integrated communication and tracking system for Lunar/Mars rover and astronauts, UWB-RFID ISS inventory tracking, and UWB-TDOA close-in high resolution tracking for potential applications on robonaut.

  11. Practical Applications of Space Systems, Supporting Paper 12: Space Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report summarizes the findings of one of fourteen panels that studied progress in space science applications and defined user needs capable of being met by space-system applications. The study was requested by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and was conducted by the Space Applications Board. The panels comprised user…

  12. Nanomaterials for Space Exploration Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moloney, Padraig G.

    2006-01-01

    Nano-engineered materials are multi-functional materials with superior mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Nanomaterials may be used for a variety of space exploration applications, including ultracapacitors, active/passive thermal management materials, and nanofiltration for water recovery. Additional applications include electrical power/energy storage systems, hybrid systems power generation, advanced proton exchange membrane fuel cells, and air revitalization. The need for nanomaterials and their growth, characterization, processing and space exploration applications is discussed. Data is presented for developing solid-supported amine adsorbents based on carbon nanotube materials and functionalization of nanomaterials is examined.

  13. Geant4 Applications in Space

    SciTech Connect

    Asai, M.; /SLAC

    2007-11-07

    Use of Geant4 is rapidly expanding in space application domain. I try to overview three major application areas of Geant4 in space, which are apparatus simulation for pre-launch design and post-launch analysis, planetary scale simulation for radiation spectra and surface and sub-surface explorations, and micro-dosimetry simulation for single event study and radiation-hardening of semiconductor devices. Recently, not only the mission dependent applications but also various multi-purpose or common tools built on top of Geant4 are also widely available. I overview some of such tools as well. The Geant4 Collaboration identifies that the space applications are now one of the major driving forces of the further developments and refinements of Geant4 toolkit. Highlights of such developments are introduced.

  14. Transform coding for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    Data compression coding requirements for aerospace applications differ somewhat from the compression requirements for entertainment systems. On the one hand, entertainment applications are bit rate driven with the goal of getting the best quality possible with a given bandwidth. Science applications are quality driven with the goal of getting the lowest bit rate for a given level of reconstruction quality. In the past, the required quality level has been nothing less than perfect allowing only the use of lossless compression methods (if that). With the advent of better, faster, cheaper missions, an opportunity has arisen for lossy data compression methods to find a use in science applications as requirements for perfect quality reconstruction runs into cost constraints. This paper presents a review of the data compression problem from the space application perspective. Transform coding techniques are described and some simple, integer transforms are presented. The application of these transforms to space-based data compression problems is discussed. Integer transforms have an advantage over conventional transforms in computational complexity. Space applications are different from broadcast or entertainment in that it is desirable to have a simple encoder (in space) and tolerate a more complicated decoder (on the ground) rather than vice versa. Energy compaction with new transforms are compared with the Walsh-Hadamard (WHT), Discrete Cosine (DCT), and Integer Cosine (ICT) transforms.

  15. Liquid crystal phase shifters for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woehrle, Christopher D.

    Space communication satellites have historically relied heavily on high gain gimbal dish antennas for performing communications. Reflector dish antennas lack flexibility in anti-jamming capabilities, and they tend to have a high risk associated to them given the need for mechanical mechanisms to beam steer. In recent years, a great amount of investment has been made into phased array antenna technologies. Phased arrays offer increased signal flexibility at reduced financial cost and in system risk. The problem with traditional phased arrays is the significant program cost and overall complexity added to the satellite by integrating antenna elements that require many dedicated components to properly perform adaptive beam steering. Several unique methods have been proposed to address the issues that plague traditional phase shifters slated for space applications. Proposed approaches range from complex mechanical switches (MEMS) and ferroelectric devices to more robust molecular changes. Nematic liquid crystals offer adaptive beam steering capabilities that traditional phased arrays have; however, with the added benefit of reduced system cost, complexity, and increased resilience to space environmental factors. The objective of the work presented is to investigate the feasibility of using nematic liquid crystals as a means of phase shifting individual phased array elements slated for space applications. Significant attention is paid to the survivability and performance of liquid crystal and associated materials in the space environment. Performance regarding thermal extremes and interactions with charged particles are the primary factors addressed.

  16. Space based observations for monitoring extreme weather and climate events

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P.K.

    1996-12-31

    Observations are essential for monitoring, understanding, and predicting the potential for extreme weather and climate events. These events occur on all time and spatial scales. Current NOAA operational satellites have a unique capability of providing many of the observations that are critical for monitoring these events. These observations and derived geophysical quantities can also be used for diagnostics and prediction purposes. Extreme weather conditions such as severe thunderstorms and flash floods, occur very quickly, may last for a short time, and create a considerable amount of damage. Advance warnings of the order of a few minutes are needed to alert the public so they may take adequate precautions. Some extreme weather conditions such as tropical storms (hurricanes) may last for days, and in order to predict the exact track, intensity of the storm and forecast the land fall, frequent observations are critical. Examples of satellite data that are obtained from the NOAA satellites are presented to demonstrate their ability to monitor the extreme weather phenomena. Examples of extreme climate conditions are droughts over continents and the annual depletion of ozone over the Antarctic. Data derived from NOAA satellites were used to monitor the severe drought over Texas and Southwestern U.S.A. in early 1996. Similar data are being used by other countries to monitor the drought in their regions. The development of the ozone hole over the Antarctic during the last fifteen years has been a major scientific and environmental concern. Data from NOAA operational satellites have been extensively used to show the yearly development and dissipation of the ozone hole during the Southern Hemisphere springtime.

  17. Adaptive structures. [for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, B. K.; Fanson, J. L.; Crawley, E. F.

    1990-01-01

    Current research in the field of advanced adaptive structures for space applications is reviewed. A classification of adaptive structures is proposed whereby such structures are subdivided into adaptive, sensory, controlled, active, and intelligent structures. The definition and properties of each type of adaptive structures are presented, and methods of structure control are discussed.

  18. Infrared detectors for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fick, Wolfgang; Gassmann, Kai Uwe; Haas, Luis-Dieter; Haiml, Markus; Hanna, Stefan; Hübner, Dominique; Höhnemann, Holger; Nothaft, Hans-Peter; Thöt, Richard

    2013-12-01

    The motivation and intended benefits for the use of infrared (IR) detectors for space applications are highlighted. The actual status of state-of-the-art IR detectors for space applications is presented based on some of AIM's currently ongoing focal plane detector module developments covering the spectral range from the short-wavelength IR (SWIR) to the long-wavelength IR (LWIR) and very long-wavelength IR (VLWIR), where both imaging and spectroscopy applications will be addressed. In particular, the integrated detector cooler assemblies for a mid-wavelength IR (MWIR) push-broom imaging satellite mission, for the German hyperspectral satellite mission EnMAP and the IR detectors for the Sentinel 3 SLSTR will be elaborated. Additionally, dedicated detector modules for LWIR/VLWIR sounding, providing the possibility to have two different PVs driven by one ROIC, will be addressed.

  19. Resistance to Extreme Stresses in the Tardigrada: Experiments on Earth and in Space and Astrobiological Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebecchi, L.; Altiero, T.; Guidetti, R.; Cesari, M.; Rizzo, A. M.; Bertolani, R.

    2010-04-01

    The ability of tardigrades to enter cryptobiosis al-lows them to resist to extreme stresses: very low or high temperatures, chemicals, high pressure, ionizing and UV radiations This has lead to propose tardigrades as suitable model in space research.

  20. Nuclear Propulsion for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, M. G.; Bechtel, R. D.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2013-01-01

    Basics of Nuclear Systems: Long history of use on Apollo and space science missions. 44 RTGs and hundreds of RHUs launched by U.S. during past 4 decades. Heat produced from natural alpha (a) particle decay of Plutonium (Pu-238). Used for both thermal management and electricity production. Used terrestrially for over 65 years. Fissioning 1 kg of uranium yields as much energy as burning 2,700,000 kg of coal. One US space reactor (SNAP-10A) flown (1965). Former U.S.S.R. flew 33 space reactors. Heat produced from neutron-induced splitting of a nucleus (e.g. U-235). At steady-state, 1 of the 2 to 3 neutrons released in the reaction causes a subsequent fission in a "chain reaction" process. Heat converted to electricity, or used directly to heat a propellant. Fission is highly versatile with many applications.

  1. Deterministic Ethernet for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidi, C.; Wolff, B.

    2015-09-01

    Typical spacecraft systems are distributed to be able to achieve the required reliability and availability targets of the mission. However the requirements on these systems are different for launchers, satellites, human space flight and exploration missions. Launchers require typically high reliability with very short mission times whereas satellites or space exploration missions require very high availability at very long mission times. Comparing a distributed system of launchers with satellites it shows very fast reaction times in launchers versus much slower once in satellite applications. Human space flight missions are maybe most challenging concerning reliability and availability since human lives are involved and the mission times can be very long e.g. ISS. Also the reaction times of these vehicles can get challenging during mission scenarios like landing or re-entry leading to very fast control loops. In these different applications more and more autonomous functions are required to fulfil the needs of current and future missions. This autonomously leads to new requirements with respect to increase performance, determinism, reliability and availability. On the other hand side the pressure on reducing costs of electronic components in space applications is increasing, leading to the use of more and more COTS components especially for launchers and LEO satellites. This requires a technology which is able to provide a cost competitive solution for both the high reliable and available deep-space as well as the low cost “new space” markets. Future spacecraft communication standards therefore have to be much more flexible, scalable and modular to be able to deal with these upcoming challenges. The only way to fulfill these requirements is, if they are based on open standards which are used cross industry leading to a reduction of the lifecycle costs and an increase in performance. The use of a communication network that fulfills these requirements will be

  2. Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments: An Arctic Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Carol E.; Stanford, Kerry L.; Bubenheim, David L.; Covington, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The problems of obtaining adequate pure drinking water and disposing of liquid and solid waste in the U.S. Arctic, a region where virtually all water is frozen solid for much of the year, has led to unsanitary solutions (U.S. Arctic Research Commission). These solutions are also damaging to the environment. Sanitation and a safe water supply are particularly problems in rural villages. About one-fourth of Alaska's 86.000 Native residents live in these communities. They are without running water and use plastic buckets for toilets. The outbreak of diseases is believed to be partially attributable to exposure to human waste. Villages with the most frequent outbreaks of disease are those in which running water is difficult to obtain (Office of Technology Assessment, 1994). Waste is emptied into open lagoons, rivers, or onto the sea coast. It does not degrade rapidly and in addition to affecting human health, can be harmful to the fragile ecology of the Arctic and the indigenous wildlife and fish populations. Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments (ALSEE) provides a solution to sanitation and safe water problems. The system uses an advanced integrated technology developed for Antarctic and space applications. ALSEE uses the systems approach to address more than waste and water problems. By incorporating hydroponic horticulture and aquaculture into the waste treatment system, ALSEE addresses the quality and quantity of fresh foods available to Arctic residents. A temperate climate is required for year-round plant growth. ALSEE facilities can be designed to include a climate controlled area within the structure. This type of environment is a change from the long periods of darkness and cold found in the Arctic and can help alleviate stress so often associated with these extremes. While the overall concept of ALSEE projects is advanced, system facilities can be operated by village residents with appropriate training. ALSEE provides continuing training and

  3. Rock black fungi: excellence in the extremes, from the Antarctic to space.

    PubMed

    Selbmann, Laura; Zucconi, Laura; Isola, Daniela; Onofri, Silvano

    2015-08-01

    This work focuses on rock-inhabiting fungi (RIF) of Antarctic rocky deserts, considered the closest to a possible Martian habitat, as the best example of adaptation to the extremes. The study of RIF ecophysiology, resistance and adaptation provides tools that shed light on the evolution of extremophily. These studies also help define the actual limits for life and provide insight for investigating its existence beyond our planet. The scientific results obtained from over 20 years of research on the biodiversity, phylogeny and evolution toward extremotolerance reviewed here demonstrate how these fascinating organisms can withstand conditions well beyond those in their natural environment. A final focus is given on results and perspectives arising from a recent proteomic approach, and from astrobiological experiments and their significance for future space exploration. These studies demonstrate that Antarctic RIF offer an excellent opportunity to investigate many basic, but also applicative areas of research on extremophily. PMID:25381156

  4. The 1859 space weather event revisited: limits of extreme activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliver, Edward W.; Dietrich, William F.

    2013-10-01

    The solar flare on 1 September 1859 and its associated geomagnetic storm remain the standard for an extreme solar-terrestrial event. The most recent estimates of the flare soft X-ray (SXR) peak intensity and Dst magnetic storm index for this event are: SXR class = X45 (±5) (vs. X35 (±5) for the 4 November 2003 flare) and minimum Dst = -900 (+50, -150) nT (vs. -825 to -900 nT for the great storm of May 1921). We have no direct evidence of an associated solar energetic proton (SEP) event but a correlation between >30 MeV SEP fluence (F30) and flare size based on modern data yields a best guess F30 value of ~1.1 × 1010 pr cm-2 (with the ±1σ uncertainty spanning a range from ~109-1011 pr cm-2) for a composite (multi-flare plus shock) 1859 event. This value is approximately twice that of estimates/measurements - ranging from ~5-7 × 109 pr cm-2 - for the largest SEP episodes (July 1959, November 1960, August 1972) in the modern era.

  5. Extremal spacings between eigenphases of random unitary matrices and their tensor products.

    PubMed

    Smaczyński, Marek; Tkocz, Tomasz; Kuś, Marek; Życzkowski, Karol

    2013-11-01

    Extremal spacings between eigenphases of random unitary matrices of size N pertaining to circular ensembles are investigated. Explicit probability distributions for the minimal spacing for various ensembles are derived for N=4. We study ensembles of tensor product of k random unitary matrices of size n which describe independent evolution of a composite quantum system consisting of k subsystems. In the asymptotic case, as the total dimension N=n(k) becomes large, the nearest neighbor distribution P(s) becomes Poissonian, but statistics of extreme spacings P(s(min)) and P(s(max)) reveal certain deviations from the Poissonian behavior.

  6. Extremal spacings between eigenphases of random unitary matrices and their tensor products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smaczyński, Marek; Tkocz, Tomasz; Kuś, Marek; Życzkowski, Karol

    2013-11-01

    Extremal spacings between eigenphases of random unitary matrices of size N pertaining to circular ensembles are investigated. Explicit probability distributions for the minimal spacing for various ensembles are derived for N=4. We study ensembles of tensor product of k random unitary matrices of size n which describe independent evolution of a composite quantum system consisting of k subsystems. In the asymptotic case, as the total dimension N=nk becomes large, the nearest neighbor distribution P(s) becomes Poissonian, but statistics of extreme spacings P(smin) and P(smax) reveal certain deviations from the Poissonian behavior.

  7. Helium Dilution Cryocooler for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, Pat; Hogan, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's New Millenium Program Space Technology presents the Helium Dilution Cryocooler for Space Applications. The topics include: 1) Capability; 2) Applications; and 3) Advantages. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  8. Using MCNPX for space applications

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, G. W.; Hendricks, J. S.; Waters, L. S.; Prettyman, T. H.

    2002-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Monte Carlo N-Particle, eXtended-energy radiation transport code MCNPX is rapidly becoming an international standard for a wide spectrum of high-energy radiation transport applications. One such application includes the study of gamma rays produced by cosmic-ray interactions within a planetary surface. Such studies can be used to determine surface elemental composition. This paper presents various MCNPX enhancements that make these gamma ray spectroscopy (GRS) simulations possible, gives elemental spectra results for a specific lunar material, provides a comparison between various high-energy physics models, and shows results of an elemental least squares analysis using Lunar Prospector measurements. The analysis documented here demonstrates the usefulness of MCNPX in planetary gamma ray spectroscopy. Furthermore, new MCNPX features developed over the course of this analysis will prove extremely useful for other applications as well. Comparisons of MCNPX results to lunar GRS measurements are better than expected and have lead to the identification of spectral features previously unknown. Through a library least squares analysis, these simulation spectra have resulted in detailed maps of lunar composition.

  9. Optical Amplifier for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard L.; Cole, Spencer T.; Gamble, Lisa J.; Diffey, William M.; Keys, Andrew S.

    1999-01-01

    We describe an optical amplifier designed to amplify a spatially sampled component of an optical wavefront to kilowatt average power. The goal is means for implementing a strategy of spatially segmenting a large aperture wavefront, amplifying the individual segments, maintaining the phase coherence of the segments by active means, and imaging the resultant amplified coherent field. Applications of interest are the transmission of space solar power over multi-megameter distances, as to distant spacecraft, or to remote sites with no preexisting power grid.

  10. Dilution refrigeration for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israelsson, U. E.; Petrac, D.

    1990-01-01

    Dilution refrigerators are presently used routinely in ground based applications where temperatures below 0.3 K are required. The operation of a conventional dilution refrigerator depends critically on the presence of gravity. To operate a dilution refrigerator in space many technical difficulties must be overcome. Some of the anticipated difficulties are identified in this paper and possible solutions are described. A single cycle refrigerator is described conceptually that uses forces other than gravity to function and the stringent constraints imposed on the design by requiring the refrigerator to function on the earth without using gravity are elaborated upon.

  11. Carbon Nanotubes for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyyappan, Meyya

    2000-01-01

    The potential of nanotube technology for NASA missions is significant and is properly recognized by NASA management. Ames has done much pioneering research in the last five years on carbon nanotube growth, characterization, atomic force microscopy, sensor development and computational nanotechnology. NASA Johnson Space Center has focused on laser ablation production of nanotubes and composites development. These in-house efforts, along with strategic collaboration with academia and industry, are geared towards meeting the agency's mission requirements. This viewgraph presentation (including an explanation for each slide) outlines the research focus for Ames nanotechnology, including details on carbon nanotubes' properties, applications, and synthesis.

  12. Statistics of extreme events with application to climate

    SciTech Connect

    Abarbanel, H.; Koonin, S.; Levine, H.; MacDonald, G.; Rothaus, O.

    1992-01-10

    The statistical theory of extreme events is applied to observed global average temperature records and to simplified models of climate. Both hands of records exhibit behavior in the tails of the distribution that would be expected from a random variable having a a normal distribution. A simple nonlinear model of climate due to Lorenz is used to demonstrate that the physical dimensions of the underlying attractor, determined by applicable conservation laws, limits the range of extremes. These limits are not reached in either observed series or in more complex models of climate. The effect of a shift in mean on the frequency of extremes is discussed with special reference to possible thresholds for damage to climate variability.

  13. An Ensemble Approach to Extreme Space Weather Event Probability -- A First Look

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonas, S.; Fronczyk, K.; McCarron, E.; Pratt, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    An extreme space weather event has the potential to disrupt or damage infrastructure systems and technologies that many societies rely on for economic and social wellbeing. Space weather events occur regularly, but extreme events occur less frequently with only several historical examples over the last 160 years. During the past decade, published works have (1) forensically examined the physical characteristics of the extreme historical events; and (2) discussed the probability or return rate of select extreme geomagnetic disturbances, including the 1859 Carrington event. Here we present an analysis of several of these studies. We created a unified statistical framework to visualize previous analyses, and developed a model from an ensemble using statistical methods. We look at geomagnetic disturbance probability across multiple return periods. We discuss what the most likely 100-year extreme event (a parameter of interest to policy makers and planners) and the return period for other extreme historical events. We discuss the current state of these analyses, their utility to policy makers and planners, the current limitations (in data and understanding) when compared to other hazards, and the gaps that need to be filled to enhance space weather risk assessments.

  14. The role of extreme orbits in the global organization of periodic regions in parameter space for one dimensional maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Diogo Ricardo; Hansen, Matheus; Guarise, Gustavo; Medrano-T, Rene O.; Leonel, Edson D.

    2016-04-01

    We show that extreme orbits, trajectories that connect local maximum and minimum values of one dimensional maps, play a major role in the parameter space of dissipative systems dictating the organization for the windows of periodicity, hence producing sets of shrimp-like structures. Here we solve three fundamental problems regarding the distribution of these sets and give: (i) their precise localization in the parameter space, even for sets of very high periods; (ii) their local and global distributions along cascades; and (iii) the association of these cascades to complicate sets of periodicity. The extreme orbits are proved to be a powerful indicator to investigate the organization of windows of periodicity in parameter planes. As applications of the theory, we obtain some results for the circle map and perturbed logistic map. The formalism presented here can be extended to many other different nonlinear and dissipative systems.

  15. Robust Extreme Learning Machine With its Application to Indoor Positioning.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoxuan; Zou, Han; Zhou, Hongming; Xie, Lihua; Huang, Guang-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demands of location-based services have spurred the rapid development of indoor positioning system and indoor localization system interchangeably (IPSs). However, the performance of IPSs suffers from noisy measurements. In this paper, two kinds of robust extreme learning machines (RELMs), corresponding to the close-to-mean constraint, and the small-residual constraint, have been proposed to address the issue of noisy measurements in IPSs. Based on whether the feature mapping in extreme learning machine is explicit, we respectively provide random-hidden-nodes and kernelized formulations of RELMs by second order cone programming. Furthermore, the computation of the covariance in feature space is discussed. Simulations and real-world indoor localization experiments are extensively carried out and the results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms can not only improve the accuracy and repeatability, but also reduce the deviation and worst case error of IPSs compared with other baseline algorithms. PMID:26684258

  16. Extreme Space Weather Events and Charging Hazard Assessments in Lunar Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda N.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The sunlit lunar surface charges to positive potentials with mean values of a few tens of volts where photoelectron currents dominate the charging process. In contrast, surfaces in darkness may charge to negative potentials on the order of a few hundred volts when the charging process is dominated by hot electron populations in the absence of solar photons. Recently, observations of electron beams measured by instruments on spacecraft in low lunar orbit have been interpreted as evidence for extreme lunar surface potentials exceeding a few kilovolts suggesting that lunar orbital and surface plasma environments may contain charging risks similar to geostationary orbit during extreme space weather conditions. Space system design for successful operation in a wide range of lunar environments will therefore require evaluation of charging hazards during extreme space weather conditions. We present results from a study of space weather environments conducted to obtained credible extreme charging environments for use in charging hazard assessments for lunar missions including extreme conditions encountered when the Moon is in the solar wind, the magnetosheath, and the Earth's magnetotail.

  17. Recent Applications of Space Weather Research to NASA Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Emily M.; Howard, James W., Jr.; Miller, J. Scott; Minow, Joseph I.; NeergardParker, L.; Suggs, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center s Space Environments Team is committed to applying the latest research in space weather to NASA programs. We analyze data from an extensive set of space weather satellites in order to define the space environments for some of NASA s highest profile programs. Our goal is to ensure that spacecraft are designed to be successful in all environments encountered during their missions. We also collaborate with universities, industry, and other federal agencies to provide analysis of anomalies and operational impacts to current missions. This presentation is a summary of some of our most recent applications of space weather data, including the definition of the space environments for the initial phases of the Space Launch System (SLS), acquisition of International Space Station (ISS) frame potential variations during geomagnetic storms, and Nascap-2K charging analyses.

  18. High-resolution stochastic generation of extreme rainfall intensity for urban drainage modelling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peleg, Nadav; Blumensaat, Frank; Molnar, Peter; Fatichi, Simone; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Urban drainage response is highly dependent on the spatial and temporal structure of rainfall. Therefore, measuring and simulating rainfall at a high spatial and temporal resolution is a fundamental step to fully assess urban drainage system reliability and related uncertainties. This is even more relevant when considering extreme rainfall events. However, the current space-time rainfall models have limitations in capturing extreme rainfall intensity statistics for short durations. Here, we use the STREAP (Space-Time Realizations of Areal Precipitation) model, which is a novel stochastic rainfall generator for simulating high-resolution rainfall fields that preserve the spatio-temporal structure of rainfall and its statistical characteristics. The model enables a generation of rain fields at 102 m and minute scales in a fast and computer-efficient way matching the requirements for hydrological analysis of urban drainage systems. The STREAP model was applied successfully in the past to generate high-resolution extreme rainfall intensities over a small domain. A sub-catchment in the city of Luzern (Switzerland) was chosen as a case study to: (i) evaluate the ability of STREAP to disaggregate extreme rainfall intensities for urban drainage applications; (ii) assessing the role of stochastic climate variability of rainfall in flow response and (iii) evaluate the degree of non-linearity between extreme rainfall intensity and system response (i.e. flow) for a small urban catchment. The channel flow at the catchment outlet is simulated by means of a calibrated hydrodynamic sewer model.

  19. NASA wiring for space applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman

    1995-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program and its relationship to NASA's space technology enterprise is given in viewgraph format. The mission of the space technology enterprise is to pioneer, with industry, the development and use of space technology to secure national economic competitiveness, promote industrial growth, and to support space missions. The objectives of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program is to improve the safety, performance, and reliability of wiring systems for space applications and to develop improved wiring technologies for NASA flight programs and commercial applications. Wiring system failures in space and commercial applications have shown the need for arc track resistant wiring constructions. A matrix of tests performed versus wiring constructions is presented. Preliminary data indicate the performance of the Tensolite and Filotex hybrid constructions are the best of the various candidates.

  20. Advanced Materials for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Curto, Paul A.

    2005-01-01

    Since NASA was created in 1958, over 6400 patents have been issued to the agency--nearly one in a thousand of all patents ever issued in the United States. A large number of these inventions have focused on new materials that have made space travel and exploration of the moon, Mars, and the outer planets possible. In the last few years, the materials developed by NASA Langley Research Center embody breakthroughs in performance and properties that will enable great achievements in space. The examples discussed below offer significant advantages for use in small satellites, i.e., those with payloads under a metric ton. These include patented products such as LaRC SI, LaRC RP 46, LaRC RP 50, PETI-5, TEEK, PETI-330, LaRC CP, TOR-LM and LaRC LCR (patent pending). These and other new advances in nanotechnology engineering, self-assembling nanostructures and multifunctional aerospace materials are presented and discussed below, and applications with significant technological and commercial advantages are proposed.

  1. Advanced materials for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Curto, Paul A.

    2007-12-01

    Since NASA was created in 1958, over 6400 patents have been issued to the agency—nearly one in a thousand of all patents ever issued in the United States. A large number of these inventions have focused on new materials that have made space travel and exploration of the moon, Mars, and the outer planets possible. In the last few years, the materials developed by NASA Langley Research Center embody breakthroughs in performance and properties that will enable great achievements in space. The examples discussed below offer significant advantages for use in small satellites, i.e., those with payloads under a metric ton. These include patented products such as LaRC SI, LaRC RP 46, LaRC RP 50, PETI-5, TEEK, PETI-330, LaRC CP, TOR-LM and LaRC LCR (patent pending). These and other new advances in nanotechnology engineering, self-assembling nanostructures and multifunctional aerospace materials are presented and discussed below, and applications with significant technological and commercial advantages are proposed.

  2. Space tug applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This article is the final report of the conceptual design efforts for a `space tug`. It includes preliminary efforts, mission analysis, configuration analysis, impact analysis, and conclusions. Of the several concepts evaluated, the nuclear bimodal tug was one of the top candidates, with the two options being the NEBA-1 and NEBA-3 systems. Several potential tug benefits were identified during the mission analysis. The tug enables delivery of large (>3,500 kg) payloads to the outer planets and it increases the GSO delivery capability by 20% relative to current systems. By providing end of life disposal, the tug can be used to extend the life of existing space assets. It can also be used to reboost satellites which were not delivered to their final orbit by the launch system. A specific mission model is the key to validating the tug concept. Once a mission model can be established, mission analysis can be used to determine more precise propellant quantities and burn times. In addition, the specific payloads can be evaluated for mass and volume capability with the launch systems. Results of the economic analysis will be dependent on the total years of operations and the number of missions in the mission model. The mission applications evaluated during this phase drove the need for large propellant quantities and thus did not allow the payloads to step down to smaller and less expensive launch systems.

  3. Technology and applications of space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, Gregory M.; Rosen, Robert; Bennett, Gary L.; Schnyer, A. D.

    1991-01-01

    Requirements for a number of potential NASA civil space missions are addressed, and the nuclear power technology base to meet these requirements is described. Particular attention is given to applications of space nuclear power to lunar, Mars, and science missions and the technology status of space nuclear power with emphasis on dynamic isotope and space nuclear reactor power systems.

  4. MEMS Technology for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vandenBerg, A.; Spiering, V. L.; Lammerink, T. S. J.; Elwenspoek, M.; Bergveld, P.

    1995-01-01

    Micro-technology enables the manufacturing of all kinds of components for miniature systems or micro-systems, such as sensors, pumps, valves, and channels. The integration of these components into a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) drastically decreases the total system volume and mass. These properties, combined with the increasing need for monitoring and control of small flows in (bio)chemical experiments, makes MEMS attractive for space applications. The level of integration and applied technology depends on the product demands and the market. The ultimate integration is process integration, which results in a one-chip system. An example of process integration is a dosing system of pump, flow sensor, micromixer, and hybrid feedback electronics to regulate the flow. However, for many applications, a hybrid integration of components is sufficient and offers the advantages of design flexibility and even the exchange of components in the case of a modular set up. Currently, we are working on hybrid integration of all kinds of sensors (physical and chemical) and flow system modules towards a modular system; the micro total analysis system (micro TAS). The substrate contains electrical connections as in a printed circuit board (PCB) as well as fluid channels for a circuit channel board (CCB) which, when integrated, form a mixed circuit board (MCB).

  5. Applications of tethers in space: A review of workshop recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vontiesenhausen, G. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Well-organized and structured efforts of considerable magnitude involving NASA, industry, and academia have explored and defined the engineering and technological requirements of the use of tethers in space and have discovered their broad range of operational and economic benefits. The results of these efforts have produced a family of extremely promising candidate applications. The extensive efforts now in progress are gaining momentum and a series of flight demonstrations are being planned and can be expected to take place in a few years. This report provides an analysis and a review of NASA's second major workshop on Applications of Tethers in Space held in October 15 to 17, 1985, in Venice, Italy. It provides a summary of an up-to-date assessment and recommendations by the NASA Tether Applications in Space Program Planning Group, consisting of representatives of seven NASA Centers and responsible for tether applications program planning implementation as recommended by the workshop panels.

  6. Space applicable DOE photovoltaic technology: An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Monck, J.; Stella, P.; Berman, P.

    1981-01-01

    Photovoltaic development projects applicable to space power are identified. When appropriate, the type of NASA support that would be necessary to implement these technologies for space use is indicated. It is conducted that the relatively small market and divergent operational requirements for space power are mainly responsible for the limited transfer of terrestrial technology to space applications. Information on the factors which control the cost and type of technology is provided. Terrestrial modules using semiconductor materials are investigated.

  7. Intelligent tutoring systems for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckhardt-Redfield, Carol A.

    1990-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence has been used in many space applications. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) have only recently been developed for assisting training of space operations and skills. An ITS at Southwest Research Institute is described as an example of an ITS application for space operations, specifically, training console operations at mission control. A distinction is made between critical skills and knowledge versus routine skills. Other ITSs for space are also discussed and future training requirements and potential ITS solutions are described.

  8. Development and Testing of Mechanism Technology for Space Exploration in Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyler, Tony R.; Levanas, Greg; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Abel, Phillip B.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL), Glenn Research Center (GRC), Langley Research Center (LaRC), and Aeroflex, Inc. have partnered to develop and test actuator hardware that will survive the stringent environment of the moon, and which can also be leveraged for other challenging space exploration missions. Prototype actuators have been built and tested in a unique low temperature test bed with motor interface temperatures as low as 14 degrees Kelvin. Several years of work have resulted in specialized electro-mechanical hardware to survive extreme space exploration environments, a test program that verifies and finds limitations of the designs at extreme temperatures, and a growing knowledge base that can be leveraged by future space exploration missions.

  9. Ultrasound Techniques for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rooney, James A.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrasound has proven to be a safe non-invasive technique for imaging organs and measuring cardiovascular function. It has unique advantages for application to problems with man in space including evaluation of cardiovascular function both in serial studies and during critical operations. In addition, specialized instrumentation may be capable of detecting the onset of decompression sickness during EVA activities. A spatial location and three-dimensional reconstruction system is being developed to improve the accuracy and reproducibility for serial comparative ultrasound studies of cardiovascular function. The three-dimensional method permits the acquisition of ultrasonic images from many views that can be recombined into a single reconstruction of the heart or vasculature. In addition to conventional imaging and monitoring systems, it is sometimes necessary or desirable to develop instrumentation for special purposes. One example of this type of development is the design of a pulsed-Doppler system to monitor cerebral blood flow during critical operations such as re-entry. A second example is the design of a swept-frequency ultrasound system for the detection of bubbles in the circulatory system and/or soft tissues as an early indication of the onset of decompression sickness during EVA activities. This system exploits the resonant properties of bubbles and can detect both fundamental and second harmonic emissions from the insonified region.

  10. Miniature vibration isolation system for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quenon, Dan; Boyd, Jim; Buchele, Paul; Self, Rick; Davis, Torey; Hintz, Timothy L.; Jacobs, Jack H.

    2001-06-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant interest in, and move towards using highly sensitive, precision payloads on space vehicles. In order to perform tasks such as communicating at extremely high data rates between satellites using laser cross-links, or searching for new planets in distant solar systems using sparse aperture optical elements, a satellite bus and its payload must remain relatively motionless. The ability to hold a precision payload steady is complicated by disturbances from reaction wheels, control moment gyroscopes, solar array drives, stepper motors, and other devices. Because every satellite is essentially unique in its construction, isolating or damping unwanted vibrations usually requires a robust system over a wide bandwidth. The disadvantage of these systems is that they typically are not retrofittable and not tunable to changes in payload size or inertias. Previous work, funded by AFRL, DARPA, BMDO and others, developed technology building blocks that provide new methods to control vibrations of spacecraft. The technology of smart materials enables an unprecedented level of integration of sensors, actuators, and structures; this integration provides the opportunity for new structural designs that can adaptively influence their surrounding environment. To date, several demonstrations have been conducted to mature these technologies. Making use of recent advances in smart materials, microelectronics, Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors, and Multi-Functional Structures (MFS), the Air Force Research Laboratory along with its partner DARPA, have initiated an aggressive program to develop a Miniature Vibration Isolation System (MVIS) (patent pending) for space applications. The MVIS program is a systems-level demonstration of the application of advanced smart materials and structures technology that will enable programmable and retrofittable vibration control of spacecraft precision payloads. The current effort has been awarded

  11. Implementation of Ferroelectric Memories for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpy, Stephen C.; Derbenwick, Gary F.; Kamp, David A.; Isaacson, Alan F.

    2000-01-01

    Ferroelectric random access semiconductor memories (FeRAMs) are an ideal nonvolatile solution for space applications. These memories have low power performance, high endurance and fast write times. By combining commercial ferroelectric memory technology with radiation hardened CMOS technology, nonvolatile semiconductor memories for space applications can be attained. Of the few radiation hardened semiconductor manufacturers, none have embraced the development of radiation hardened FeRAMs, due a limited commercial space market and funding limitations. Government funding may be necessary to assure the development of radiation hardened ferroelectric memories for space applications.

  12. Space applications of high temperature superconductivity technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, D. J.; Aron, P. R.; Leonard, R. F.; Wintucky, E. G.

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the present status of high temperature superconductivity (HTS) technology and related areas of potential space application. Attention is given to areas of application that include microwave communications, cryogenic systems, remote sensing, and space propulsion and power. Consideration is given to HTS phase shifters, miniaturization of microwave filters, far-IR bolometers, and magnetic refrigeration using flux compression.

  13. Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) Devices and Mixed-Signal Circuits for Extreme Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik

    2008-01-01

    Electronic systems in planetary exploration missions and in aerospace applications are expected to encounter extreme temperatures and wide thermal swings in their operational environments. Electronics designed for such applications must, therefore, be able to withstand exposure to extreme temperatures and to perform properly for the duration of the missions. Electronic parts based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology are known, based on device structure, to provide faster switching, consume less power, and offer better radiation-tolerance compared to their silicon counterparts. They also exhibit reduced current leakage and are often tailored for high temperature operation. However, little is known about their performance at low temperature. The performance of several SOI devices and mixed-signal circuits was determined under extreme temperatures, cold-restart, and thermal cycling. The investigations were carried out to establish a baseline on the functionality and to determine suitability of these devices for use in space exploration missions under extreme temperatures. The experimental results obtained on selected SOI devices are presented and discussed in this paper.

  14. Potential space applications of nanomaterials and standartization issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronina, Ekaterina; Novikov, Lev

    Nanomaterials surpass traditional materials for space applications in many aspects due to their unique properties associated with nanoscale size of their constituents. This superiority in mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties will evidently inspire a wide range of applications in the next generation spacecraft intended for the long-term (~15-20 years) operation in near-Earth orbits and the automatic and manned interplanetary missions as well as in the construction of inhabited bases on the Moon. Nanocomposites with nanoclays, carbon nanotubes and various nanoparticles as fillers are one of the most promising materials for space applications. They may be used as light-weighted and strong structural materials as well as functional and smart materials of general and specific applications, e.g. thermal stabilization, radiation shielding, electrostatic charge mitigation, protection of atomic oxygen influence and space debris impact, etc. Currently, ISO activity on developing standards concerning different issues of nanomaterials manufacturing and applications is high enough. In this presentation, a brief review of existing standards and standards under development in this field is given. Most such standards are related to nanoparticles and nanotube production and characterization, thus the next important step in this activity is the creation of standards on nanomaterial properties and their behavior in different environmental conditions, including extreme environments. The near-Earth’s space is described as an extreme environment for materials due to high vacuum, space radiation, hot and cold plasma, micrometeoroids and space debris, temperature differences, etc. Existing experimental and theoretical data demonstrate that nanomaterials response to various space environment effects may differ substantially from the one of conventional bulk spacecraft materials. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the space environment components, critical for

  15. Complexity of Sizing for Space Suit Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Benson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The `fit? of a garment is often considered to be a subjective measure of garment quality. However, some experts attest that a complaint of poor garment fit is a symptom of inadequate or excessive ease, the space between the garment and the wearer. Fit has traditionally been hard to quantify, and space suits are an extreme example, where fit is difficult to measure but crucial for safety and operability. A proper space suit fit is particularly challenging because of NASA?s need to fit an incredibly diverse population (males and females from the 1st to 99th percentile) while developing a minimum number of space suit sizes. Because so few sizes are available, the available space suits must be optimized so that each fits a large segment of the population without compromising the fit of any one wearer.

  16. SDIO robotics in space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Robotics in space supporting the Strategic Defense System (SDS) program is discussed. Ongoing initiatives which are intended to establish an initial Robotics in Space capability are addressed. This is specifically being referred to as the Satellite Servicing System (SSS). This system is based on the NASA Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) with a Robotic Manipulator(s) based on the NASA Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) and other SSS equipment required to do the satellite servicing work attached to the OMV. Specific Robotics in Space Requirements which have resulted from the completion of the Robotics Requirements Study Contract are addressed.

  17. Review of the Space Applications program, 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide the participants in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/National Academy of Engineers' Summer Study in Applications a concise overview of the NASA Applications Program as it stands in 1974. The review covers the accomplishments of the various discipline-oriented programs that make up the total Applications Program, discusses the program plan for the 1975 to 1980 period, and examines the anticipated spaceflight capabilities of the 1980's. NASA has requested the National Academy of Engineers to conduct through its Space Applications Board a comprehensive study of the future Space Applications Program encompassing the following: (1) the Applications Program in general, with particular emphasis on practical approaches, including assessment of the socio-economic benefits and (2) how the broad comprehensive program envisioned above influences, or is influenced by, the shuttle system, the principal space transport system of the 1980's.

  18. Transmission grating based extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer for time and space resolved impurity measurements.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Stutman, Dan; Tritz, Kevin; Finkenthal, Michael; Tarrio, Charles; Grantham, Steven

    2010-10-01

    A free standing transmission grating based imaging spectrometer in the extreme ultraviolet range has been developed for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The spectrometer operates in a survey mode covering the approximate spectral range from 30 to 700 Å and has a resolving capability of δλ/λ on the order of 3%. Initial results from space resolved impurity measurements from NSTX are described in this paper.

  19. The Major Solar Eruptive Event in July 2012: Defining Extreme Space Weather Scenarios (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    A key goal for the space weather community is to define extreme conditions that might plausibly afflict human technology. On 23 July 2012 solar active region 1520 (~133°W heliographic longitude) gave rise to a powerful coronal mass ejection (CME) with an initial speed that was determined to be >3000 km/s. The eruption was directed away from Earth toward 144°W longitude. STEREO-A sensors detected the CME arrival only about 18 hours later and made in situ measurements of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field. We have posed the question of what would have happened if this huge interplanetary event had been Earthward directed. Using a well-proven geomagnetic storm forecast model, we find that the 23-24 July event would certainly have produced a geomagnetic storm that was comparable to the largest events of the 20th Century (Dst ~ -500nT). Using plausible assumptions about seasonal and time-of-day orientation of the Earth's magnetic dipole, the most extreme modeled value of storm-time disturbance would have been Dst=-1182nT. This is probably considerably larger than the famous Carrington storm of 1859. This finding has far reaching implications because it demonstrates that extreme space weather conditions such as those during March of 1989 or September of 1859 can happen even during a modest solar activity cycle such as the one presently underway. We argue that this extreme event should immediately be employed by the space weather community to model severe space weather effects on technological systems such as the electric power grid.

  20. The major solar eruptive event in July 2012: Examining extreme space weather events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Daniel N.

    2016-04-01

    A key goal for space weather studies is to define severe and extreme conditions that might plausibly afflict human technology. On 23 July 2012, solar active region 1520 (~141°W heliographic longitude) gave rise to a powerful coronal mass ejection (CME) with an initial speed that was determined to be 2500 ± 500 km/s. The eruption was directed away from Earth toward 125°W longitude. STEREO-A sensors detected the CME arrival only about 19 h later and made in situ measurements of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field. In this paper, we address the question of what would have happened if this powerful interplanetary event had been Earthward directed. Using a well-proven geomagnetic storm forecast model, we find that the 23-24 July event would certainly have produced a geomagnetic storm that was comparable to the largest events of the twentieth century (Dst ~ -500 nT). Using plausible assumptions about seasonal and time-of-day orientation of the Earth's magnetic dipole, the most extreme modeled value of storm-time disturbance would have been Dst = -1182 nT. This is considerably larger than estimates for the famous Carrington storm of 1859. This finding has far reaching implications because it demonstrates that extreme space weather conditions such as those during March of 1989 or September of 1859 can happen even during a modest solar activity cycle such as the one presently underway. We argue that this extreme event should immediately be employed by the space weather community to model severe space weather effects on technological systems such as the electric power grid.

  1. Modeling Extreme Space Weather Scenarios: July 23, 2012 Rare-Type CME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngwira, C. M.; Pulkkinen, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Space weather is a major concern for modern day society because of its adverse impacts on technological infrastructure such as power grids, oil pipelines, and global navigation systems. Particularly, earth directed coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the main drivers of the most extreme geomagnetic storms in the near-Earth space environment. On 23 July 2012, NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-Ahead (STEREO-A) spacecraft observed in situ an extremely fast CME that traveled 0.96 astronomical units (~1 AU) in about 19 h. In our study, we use the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF), a 3-D MHD based code, to perform simulations of this rare CME by considering STEREO-A in situ observations to represent the upstream L1 solar wind boundary conditions. The goal of the study is to investigate what would have happened if this Rare-type CME was Earth-bound. Global SWMF-generated ground geomagnetic field perturbations are used to compute the simulated induced geoelectric field at specific ground-based active magnetometer sites. Simulation results show that the July 23 CME would have produced ground effects comparable to previously observed extreme geomagnetic storms such as the Halloween 2003 storm. In addition, we discuss how this study compares to other independent studies on this same event.

  2. Qualification Tests of Micro-camera Modules for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Shinichi; Miyasaka, Akira

    Visual capability is very important for space-based activities, for which small, low-cost space cameras are desired. Although cameras for terrestrial applications are continually being improved, little progress has been made on cameras used in space, which must be extremely robust to withstand harsh environments. This study focuses on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) CMOS digital cameras because they are very small and are based on an established mass-market technology. Radiation and ultrahigh-vacuum tests were conducted on a small COTS camera that weighs less than 100 mg (including optics). This paper presents the results of the qualification tests for COTS cameras and for a small, low-cost COTS-based space camera.

  3. Infrared detectors for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardimona, D. A.; Huang, D. H.; Cowan, V.; Morath, C.

    2011-05-01

    Two of the main requirements for space situational awareness are to locate and identify dim and/or distant objects. At the Air Force Research Laboratory's Space Vehicles Directorate, we are investigating how nanostructured metal surfaces can produce plasmon-enhanced fields to address the first function. We are also investigating quantum interference effects in semiconductor quantum dots inside photonic crystal cavities to address the amplification of weak signals. To address the second function of identification of space objects, we are investigating a wavelength-tunable detector scheme that involves a coupled double quantum well structure with a thin middle barrier between the two wells. The photocurrent from this structure will be swept out with a lateral bias. In order to eliminate the diffraction loss of incident photons by a surface grating structure for the z-polarization required in normal quantum well infrared photodetector structures, we will grow an array of self-organized quantum dots buried in one of the quantum wells of a symmetric double quantum well structure. In this paper, we will first describe the requirements for detectors in space, then we will describe our work in the above topics, and finally we will briefly mention our forays into other areas of quantum-structured detectors for use in space.

  4. Ultralight amorphous silicon alloy photovoltaic modules for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanak, J. J.; Chen, Englade; Fulton, C.; Myatt, A.; Woodyard, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    Ultralight and ultrathin, flexible, rollup monolithic PV modules have been developed consisting of multijunction, amorphous silicon alloys for either terrestrial or aerospace applications. The rate of progress in increasing conversion efficiency of stable multijunction and multigap PV cells indicates that arrays of these modules can be available for NASA's high power systems in the 1990's. Because of the extremely light module weight and the highly automated process of manufacture, the monolithic a-Si alloy arrays are expected to be strongly competitive with other systems for use in NASA's space station or in other large aerospace applications.

  5. Space telerobotic systems: Applications and concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, L.

    1987-01-01

    The definition of a variety of assembly, servicing, and maintenance missions has led to the generation of a number of space telerobot concepts. The remote operation of a space telerobot is seen as a means to increase astronaut productivity. Dexterous manipulator arms are controlled from the Space Shuttle Orbiter cabin or a Space Station module. Concepts for the telerobotic work system have been developed by the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center through contracts with the Grumman Aerospace Corporation and Marin Marietta Corporation. These studies defined a concept for a telerobot with extravehicular activity (EVA) astronaut equivalent capability that would be controlled from the Space Shuttle. An evolutionary development of the system is proposed as a means of incorporating technology advances. Early flight testing is seen as needed to address the uncertainties of robotic manipulation in space. Space robotics can be expected to spin off technology to terrestrial robots, particularly in hazardous and unstructured applications.

  6. Ethernet for Space Flight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Evan; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is adapting current data networking technologies to fly on future spaceflight missions. The benefits of using commercially based networking standards and protocols have been widely discussed and are expected to include reduction in overall mission cost, shortened integration and test (I&T) schedules, increased operations flexibility, and hardware and software upgradeability/scalability with developments ongoing in the commercial world. The networking effort is a comprehensive one encompassing missions ranging from small University Explorer (UNEX) class spacecraft to large observatories such as the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). Mission aspects such as flight hardware and software, ground station hardware and software, operations, RF communications, and security (physical and electronic) are all being addressed to ensure a complete end-to-end system solution. One of the current networking development efforts at GSFC is the SpaceLAN (Spacecraft Local Area Network) project, development of a space-qualifiable Ethernet network. To this end we have purchased an IEEE 802.3-compatible 10/100/1000 Media Access Control (MAC) layer Intellectual Property (IP) core and are designing a network node interface (NNI) and associated network components such as a switch. These systems will ultimately allow the replacement of the typical MIL-STD-1553/1773 and custom interfaces that inhabit most spacecraft. In this paper we will describe our current Ethernet NNI development along with a novel new space qualified physical layer that will be used in place of the standard interfaces. We will outline our plans for development of space qualified network components that will allow future spacecraft to operate in significant radiation environments while using a single onboard network for reliable commanding and data transfer. There will be a brief discussion of some issues surrounding system implications of a flight Ethernet. Finally, we will

  7. Can we colonize the solar system? Human biology and survival in the extreme space environment.

    PubMed

    Launius, Roger D

    2010-09-01

    Throughout the history of the space age the dominant vision for the future has been great spaceships plying the solar system, and perhaps beyond, moving living beings from one planet to another. Spacesuited astronauts would carry out exploration, colonization, and settlement as part of a relentlessly forward looking movement of humanity beyond Earth. As time has progressed this image has not changed appreciably even as the full magnitude of the challenges it represents have become more and more apparent. This essay explores the issues associated with the human movement beyond Earth and raises questions about whether humanity will ever be able to survive in the extreme environment of space and the other bodies of the solar system. This paper deals with important historical episodes as well as wider conceptual issues about life in space. Two models of expansion beyond Earth are discussed: (1) the movement of microbes and other types of life on Earth that can survive the space environment and (2) the modification of humans into cyborgs for greater capability to survive in the extreme environments encountered beyond this planet. PMID:20692704

  8. Applications notice. [application of space techniques to earth resources, environment management, and space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The discipline programs of the Space and Terrestrial (S&T) Applications Program are described and examples of research areas of current interest are given. Application of space techniques to improve conditions on earth are summarized. Discipline programs discussed include: resource observations; environmental observations; communications; materials processing in space; and applications systems/information systems. Format information on submission of unsolicited proposals for research related to the S&T Applications Program are given.

  9. Chemical sensors for space applications.

    PubMed

    Bonting, S L

    1992-01-01

    There will be a great need for a wide variety of chemical analyses, both for biomedical experimentation and for the monitoring of water and air recycling processes on Space Station Freedom and later long-term space missions. The infrequent logistics flights of the Space Shuttle will necessitate onboard analysis. Chemical sensors offer several advantages over conventional analysis onboard a spacecraft. They require less crew time, space, and power. A chemical sensor consists of a selector which selectively interacts with the analyte present in a mixture of substances, and a transducer which produces an electric signal in response to the interaction of analyte and selector. The transducer signal thus provides a quantitative and selective measurement of the analyte. Types and requirements for chemical sensors to be used in biomedical experimentation and monitoring of water recycling during long-term space missions are discussed. With chemical sensors, a wide variety of analytes can be determined selectively without separation steps. In principle, chemical sensors can provide (near) real-time monitoring of many important analytes. In some cases they can even provide continuous monitoring of such analytes. The sensors, and even the ancillary instruments, are small compared to conventional analytical instruments. Their power consumption is low. Sensor measurements do not require extensive sample treatment before analysis. In most cases a sensor can simply be inserted in, or be attached to, the organism; or be placed in the water flowing through the water recycling system. Since the sensor signal can usually be provided in digitized form, rapid transmission to the ground is possible. The use of sensors thus provides an efficient use of the scarce resources of crew time, pressurized volume, and power.

  10. The 1859 Solar-Terrestrial Disturbance And the Current Limits of Extreme Space Weather Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliver, E. W.; Svalgaard, L.

    2004-10-01

    It is generally appreciated that the September 1859 solar-terrestrial disturbance, the first recognized space weather event, was exceptionally large. How large and how exceptional? To answer these questions, we compiled rank order lists of the various measures of solar-induced disturbance for events from 1859 to the present. The parameters considered included: magnetic crochet amplitude, solar energetic proton fluence (McCracken et al., 2001a), Sun-Earth disturbance transit time, geomagnetic storm intensity, and low-latitude auroral extent. While the 1859 event has close rivals or superiors in each of the above categories of space weather activity, it is the only documented event of the last ˜150 years that appears at or near the top of all of the lists. Taken together, the top-ranking events in each of the disturbance categories comprise a set of benchmarks for extreme space weather activity.

  11. Extreme events in total ozone over Arosa - Part 1: Application of extreme value theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, H. E.; Staehelin, J.; Maeder, J. A.; Peter, T.; Ribatet, M.; Davison, A. C.; Stübi, R.; Weihs, P.; Holawe, F.

    2010-05-01

    In this study ideas from extreme value theory are for the first time applied in the field of stratospheric ozone research, because statistical analysis showed that previously used concepts assuming a Gaussian distribution (e.g. fixed deviations from mean values) of total ozone data do not adequately address the structure of the extremes. We show that statistical extreme value methods are appropriate to identify ozone extremes and to describe the tails of the Arosa (Switzerland) total ozone time series. In order to accommodate the seasonal cycle in total ozone, a daily moving threshold was determined and used, with tools from extreme value theory, to analyse the frequency of days with extreme low (termed ELOs) and high (termed EHOs) total ozone at Arosa. The analysis shows that the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) provides an appropriate model for the frequency distribution of total ozone above or below a mathematically well-defined threshold, thus providing a statistical description of ELOs and EHOs. The results show an increase in ELOs and a decrease in EHOs during the last decades. The fitted model represents the tails of the total ozone data set with high accuracy over the entire range (including absolute monthly minima and maxima), and enables a precise computation of the frequency distribution of ozone mini-holes (using constant thresholds). Analyzing the tails instead of a small fraction of days below constant thresholds provides deeper insight into the time series properties. Fingerprints of dynamical (e.g. ENSO, NAO) and chemical features (e.g. strong polar vortex ozone loss), and major volcanic eruptions, can be identified in the observed frequency of extreme events throughout the time series. Overall the new approach to analysis of extremes provides more information on time series properties and variability than previous approaches that use only monthly averages and/or mini-holes and mini-highs.

  12. Extreme events in total ozone over Arosa - Part 1: Application of extreme value theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, H. E.; Staehelin, J.; Maeder, J. A.; Peter, T.; Ribatet, M.; Davison, A. C.; Stübi, R.; Weihs, P.; Holawe, F.

    2010-10-01

    In this study ideas from extreme value theory are for the first time applied in the field of stratospheric ozone research, because statistical analysis showed that previously used concepts assuming a Gaussian distribution (e.g. fixed deviations from mean values) of total ozone data do not adequately address the structure of the extremes. We show that statistical extreme value methods are appropriate to identify ozone extremes and to describe the tails of the Arosa (Switzerland) total ozone time series. In order to accommodate the seasonal cycle in total ozone, a daily moving threshold was determined and used, with tools from extreme value theory, to analyse the frequency of days with extreme low (termed ELOs) and high (termed EHOs) total ozone at Arosa. The analysis shows that the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) provides an appropriate model for the frequency distribution of total ozone above or below a mathematically well-defined threshold, thus providing a statistical description of ELOs and EHOs. The results show an increase in ELOs and a decrease in EHOs during the last decades. The fitted model represents the tails of the total ozone data set with high accuracy over the entire range (including absolute monthly minima and maxima), and enables a precise computation of the frequency distribution of ozone mini-holes (using constant thresholds). Analyzing the tails instead of a small fraction of days below constant thresholds provides deeper insight into the time series properties. Fingerprints of dynamical (e.g. ENSO, NAO) and chemical features (e.g. strong polar vortex ozone loss), and major volcanic eruptions, can be identified in the observed frequency of extreme events throughout the time series. Overall the new approach to analysis of extremes provides more information on time series properties and variability than previous approaches that use only monthly averages and/or mini-holes and mini-highs.

  13. Applications of Tethers in Space, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cron, A. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    The tethered satellite system is described including tether fundamentals. Applications of very long tethers in space to a broad spectrum of future space missions are explored. Topics covered include: science, transportation, constellations, artificial gravity, technology and test, and electrodynamic interactions. Recommendations to NASA are included.

  14. Structural materials for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenney, Darrel R.

    1989-01-01

    The long-term performance of structural materials in the space environment is a key research activity within NASA. The primary concerns for materials in low Earth orbit (LEO) are atomic oxygen erosion and space debris impact. Atomic oxygen studies have included both laboratory exposures in atomic oxygen facilities and flight exposures using the Shuttle. Characterization of atomic oxygen interaction with materials has included surface recession rates, residual mechanical properties, optical property measurements, and surface analyses to establish chemical changes. The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is scheduled to be retrieved in 1989 and is expected to provide a wealth of data on atomic oxygen erosion in space. Hypervelocity impact studies have been conducted to establish damage mechanisms and changes in mechanical properties. Samples from LDEF will be analyzed to determine the severity of space debris impact on coatings, films, and composites. Spacecraft placed in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) will be subjected to high doses of ionizing radiation which for long term exposures will exceed the damage threshold of many polymeric materials. Radiation interaction with polymers can result in chain scission and/or cross-linking. The formation of low molecular weight products in the epoxy plasticize the matrix at elevated temperatures and embrittle the matrix at low temperatures. This affects both the matrix-dominated mechanical properties and the dimensional stability of the composite. Embrittlement of the matrix at low temperatures results in enhanced matrix microcracking during thermal cycling. Matrix microcracking changes the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of composite laminates and produces permanent length changes. Residual stress calculations were performed to estimate the conditions necessary for microcrack development in unirradiated and irradiated composites. The effects of UV and electron exposure on the optical properties of transparent

  15. Miniature Telerobots in Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venema, S. C.; Hannaford, B.

    1995-01-01

    Ground controlled telerobots can be used to reduce astronaut workload while retaining much of the human capabilities of planning, execution, and error recovery for specific tasks. Miniature robots can be used for delicate and time consuming tasks such as biological experiment servicing without incurring the significant mass and power penalties associated with larger robot systems. However, questions remain regarding the technical and economic effectiveness of such mini-telerobotic systems. This paper address some of these open issues and the details of two projects which will provide some of the needed answers. The Microtrex project is a joint University of Washington/NASA project which plans on flying a miniature robot as a Space Shuttle experiment to evaluate the effects of microgravity on ground-controlled manipulation while subject to variable time-delay communications. A related project involving the University of Washington and Boeing Defense and Space will evaluate the effectiveness f using a minirobot to service biological experiments in a space station experiment 'glove-box' rack mock-up, again while subject to realistic communications constraints.

  16. Evolvable Systems for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohn, Jason; Crawford, James; Globus, Al; Hornby, Gregory; Kraus, William; Larchev, Gregory; Pryor, Anna; Srivastava, Deepak

    2003-01-01

    This article surveys the research of the Evolvable System Group at NASA Ames Research Center. Over the past few years, our group has developed the ability to use evolutionary algorithms in a variety of NASA applications ranging from spacecraft antenna design, fault tolerance for programmable logic chips, atomic force field parameter fitting, analog circuit design, and earth observing satellite scheduling. In some of these applications, evolutionary algorithms match or improve on human performance.

  17. Evolvable Hardware for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohn, Jason; Globus, Al; Hornby, Gregory; Larchev, Gregory; Kraus, William

    2004-01-01

    This article surveys the research of the Evolvable Systems Group at NASA Ames Research Center. Over the past few years, our group has developed the ability to use evolutionary algorithms in a variety of NASA applications ranging from spacecraft antenna design, fault tolerance for programmable logic chips, atomic force field parameter fitting, analog circuit design, and earth observing satellite scheduling. In some of these applications, evolutionary algorithms match or improve on human performance.

  18. Lichens as a Model-System for Symbiotic Organisms under Simulated Extreme Space Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vera, J.; Horneck, G.; Rettberg, P.; Ott, S.

    As a consequence of the symbiotic state of lichens both the bionts are able to colonize habitats where the separate bionts would not be able to survive. The symbiosis of lichens reflects a high degree of complexity and plasticity. The combination of the different bionts enables these organisms to colonize most extreme habitats worldwide from the Arctic and Alpine zones to the Antarctic. Besides the already well investigated microorganisms lichens are good model -systems to examine adaptation strategies to most extreme environments. Because of the symbiotic nature of the lichens a 3-component -system can be used for investigations: the mycobiont (fungi), the photobiont (algae) and the lichen itself. Our investigations are based on such a system related to simulated extreme conditions. The influence of different doses of UV A, B, C (>200nm) on the vitality of fungal (mycobiont) fruiting bodys and their spores and the germination process has been investigated. The spores are cultivated on a variety of different substrates, especially on a Martian Regolith Simulant JSC - 1-A g a r- Extract for testing the influence of the UV radiation related to the dependency of different soil-substrate-extracts. The influence of vacuum conditions has been investigated. The aim of this research is to test the reaction of a symbiotic organism complex and its respective bionts to highly extreme space conditions looking forward to a possibly survival strategy of lichenized associations in space; probably supporting the theory of Panspermia. For the interpretation of results especially refering to the vitality potential of the photobionts in damaged and healthy lichens the method of modern confocal lasermicroscopy (CLSM) - a novel method in lichenology is presented.

  19. Space-time extreme wind waves: Observation and analysis of shapes and heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetazzo, Alvise; Barbariol, Francesco; Bergamasco, Filippo; Carniel, Sandro; Sclavo, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    We analyze here the temporal shape and the maximal height of extreme wind waves, which were obtained from an observational space-time sample of sea surface elevations during a mature and short-crested sea state (Benetazzo et al., 2015). Space-time wave data are processed to detect the largest waves of specific 3-D wave groups close to the apex of their development. First, maximal elevations of the groups are discussed within the framework of space-time (ST) extreme statistical models of random wave fields (Adler and Taylor, 2007; Benetazzo et al., 2015; Fedele, 2012). Results of ST models are also compared with observations and predictions of maxima based on time series of sea surface elevations. Second, the time profile of the extreme waves around the maximal crest height is analyzed and compared with the expectations of the linear (Boccotti, 1983) and second-order nonlinear extension (Arena, 2005) of the Quasi-Determinism (QD) theory. Main purpose is to verify to what extent, using the QD model results, one can estimate the shape and the crest-to-trough height of large waves in a random ST wave field. From the results presented, it emerges that, apart from the displacements around the crest apex, sea surface elevations of very high waves are greatly dispersed around a mean profile. Yet the QD model furnishes, on average, a fair prediction of the wave height of the maximal waves, especially when nonlinearities are taken into account. Moreover, the combination of ST and QD model predictions allow establishing, for a given sea condition, a framework for the representation of waves with very large crest heights. The results have also the potential to be implemented in a phase-averaged numerical wave model (see abstract EGU2016-14008 and Barbariol et al., 2015). - Adler, R.J., Taylor, J.E., 2007. Random fields and geometry. Springer, New York (USA), 448 pp. - Arena, F., 2005. On non-linear very large sea wave groups. Ocean Eng. 32, 1311-1331. - Barbariol, F., Alves, J

  20. Small Magnetic Sensors for Space Applications

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Michelena, Marina

    2009-01-01

    Small magnetic sensors are widely used integrated in vehicles, mobile phones, medical devices, etc for navigation, speed, position and angular sensing. These magnetic sensors are potential candidates for space sector applications in which mass, volume and power savings are important issues. This work covers the magnetic technologies available in the marketplace and the steps towards their implementation in space applications, the actual trend of miniaturization the front-end technologies, and the convergence of the mature and miniaturized magnetic sensor to the space sector through the small satellite concept. PMID:22574012

  1. Space science and applications: Strategic plan 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) 1991 Strategic Plan reflects a transitional year in which we respond to changes and focus on carrying out a vital space science program and strengthening our research base to reap the benefits of current and future missions. The Plan is built on interrelated, complementary strategies for the core space science program, for Mission to Planet Earth, and for Mission from Planet Earth. Each strategy has its own unique themes and mission priorities, but they share a common set of principles and a common goal - leadership through the achievement of excellence. Discussed here is the National Space Policy; an overview of OSSA activities, goals, and objectives; and the implications of the OSSA space science and applications strategy.

  2. Future superconductivity applications in space - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar; Ignatiev, Alex

    1988-01-01

    High temperature superconductor (HISC) materials and devices can provide immediate applications for many space missions. The in-space thermal environment provides an opportunity to develop, test, and apply this technology to enhance performance and reliability for many applications of crucial importance to NASA. Specifically, the technology development areas include: (1) high current power transmission, (2) microwave components, devices, and antennas, (3) microwave, optical, and infrared sensors, (4) signal processors, (5) submillimeter wave components and systems, (6) ultra stable space clocks, (7) electromagnetic launch systems, and (8) accelerometers and position sensors for flight operations. HTSC is expected to impact NASA's Lunar Bases, Mars exploration, Mission to Earth, and Planetary exploration programs providing enabling and cost-effect technology. A review of the space applications of the HTSC technology is presented. Problem areas in technology development needing special attention are identified.

  3. Real scalar field scattering in the nearly extremal Schwarzschild—de Sitter space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Guang-Hai

    2010-11-01

    Reasonable approximations are introduced to investigate the real scalar field scattering in the nearly extremal Schwarzschild—de Sitter (SdS) space. The approximations naturally lead to the invertible x(r) and the global replacement of the true potential by a Pöshl—Teller one. Meanwhile, the Schrödinger-like wave equation is transformed into a solvable form. Our numerical solutions to the wave equation show that the wave is characteristically similar to the harmonic under the tortoise coordinate x, while the wave piles up near the two horizons and the wavelength tends to its maximum as the potential approaches to the peak under the radial coordinate r.

  4. Exploring the Extreme Universe with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    Because high-energy gamma rays are produced by powerful sources, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope provides a window on extreme conditions in the Universe. Some key observations of the constantly changing gamma-ray sky include: (1) Gamma-rays from pulsars appear to come from a region well above the surface of the neutron star; (2) Multiwavelength studies of blazars show that simple models of jet emission are not always adequate to explain what is seen; (3) Gamma-ray bursts can constrain models of quantum gravity; (4) Cosmic-ray electrons at energies approaching 1 TeV suggest a local source for some of these particles.

  5. Reliability of Electronics for Cryogenic Space Applications Being Assessed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2005-01-01

    Many future NASA missions will require electronic parts and circuits that can operate reliably and efficiently in extreme temperature environments below typical device specification temperatures. These missions include the Mars Exploration Laboratory, the James Webb Space Telescope, the Europa Orbiter, surface rovers, and deep-space probes. In addition to NASA, the aerospace and commercial sectors require cryogenic electronics in applications that include advanced satellites, military hardware, medical instrumentation, magnetic levitation, superconducting energy management and distribution, particle confinement and acceleration, and arctic missions. Besides surviving hostile space environments, electronics capable of low-temperature operation would enhance circuit performance, improve system reliability, extend lifetime, and reduce development and launch costs. In addition, cryogenic electronics are expected to result in more efficient systems than those at room temperature.

  6. Electromagnetic launchers for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, J. M.; Gully, J. H.; Driga, M. D.

    1989-01-01

    An electromagnetic launcher (EML) was designed for NASA-Langley to boost large models to hypervelocity for flight evaluation. Two different concepts were developed using railgun and coilgun principles. A coilgun was designed to accelerate a 14-kg mass to 6 km/s and, by adding additional equipment, to accelerate a 10-kg mass to 11 km/s. The railgun system was designed to accelerate only 14 kg to 6 km/s. Of significance in this development is the opportunity to use the launcher for aeroballistic research of the upper atmosphere, eventually placing packages in low earth orbit using a small rocket. The authors describe the railgun and coilgun launch designs and suggest a reconfiguration for placement of 150-kg parcels into low earth orbit for aeroballistic studies and possible space lab support. Each design is detailed along with the performance adjustments which would be required for circular orbit payload placement.

  7. Chemical sensors for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1992-07-01

    The payload of the Space Station Freedom will include sensors for frequent monitoring of the water recycling process and for measuring the many biochemical parameters related to onboard experiments. This paper describes the sensor technologies and the types of transducers and selectors considered for these sensors. Particular attention is given to such aspects of monitoring of the water recycling process as the types of water use, the sources of water and their hazards, the sensor systems for monitoring, microbial monitoring, and monitoring toxic metals and organics. An approach for monitoring water recycling is suggested, which includes microbial testing with a potentiometric device (which should be in first line of tests), the use of an ion-selective electrode for inorganic ion determinations, and the use of optic fiber techniques for the determination of total organic carbon.

  8. Chemical sensors for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1992-01-01

    The payload of the Space Station Freedom will include sensors for frequent monitoring of the water recycling process and for measuring the many biochemical parameters related to onboard experiments. This paper describes the sensor technologies and the types of transducers and selectors considered for these sensors. Particular attention is given to such aspects of monitoring of the water recycling process as the types of water use, the sources of water and their hazards, the sensor systems for monitoring, microbial monitoring, and monitoring toxic metals and organics. An approach for monitoring water recycling is suggested, which includes microbial testing with a potentiometric device (which should be in first line of tests), the use of an ion-selective electrode for inorganic ion determinations, and the use of optic fiber techniques for the determination of total organic carbon.

  9. Review of Two Game Changing Technologies for Space Mission Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randazzo, Patricia

    2010-10-01

    As technology continues to move forward, many new developments and products become available and can be considered for application in NASA's space missions. Two game changing technologies are high temperature superconductors (HTSC) and ionic polymer-metallic composite (IPMC) actuators and sensors. High temperature superconductors are a metal or alloy that can be cooled to above 70 K and are able to conduct an electric flow with zero resistance. Ionic polymer-metal composites actuators and sensors are synthetic composites that display artificial muscle behavior under an applied voltage. By conducting research to review papers, attending lectures and conferences, and interviewing and meeting with developers and researchers many products and applications for specific use in space missions were found. HTSC technology is being integrated into rocket propulsion and acceleration, radiation shielding, energy storage and medical diagnostic tools. IPMC technology is being integrated into extreme environment robotics, avionics and motion detection.

  10. Advanced decision aiding techniques applicable to space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruchten, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    RADC has had an intensive program to show the feasibility of applying advanced technology to Air Force decision aiding situations. Some aspects of the program, such as Satellite Autonomy, are directly applicable to space systems. For example, RADC has shown the feasibility of decision aids that combine the advantages of laser disks and computer generated graphics; decision aids that interface object-oriented programs with expert systems; decision aids that solve path optimization problems; etc. Some of the key techniques that could be used in space applications are reviewed. Current applications are reviewed along with their advantages and disadvantages, and examples are given of possible space applications. The emphasis is to share RADC experience in decision aiding techniques.

  11. Terrestrial applications from space technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarks, H.

    1985-01-01

    NASA's Technology Utilization Program, which is concerned with transferring aerospace technologies to the public and private sectors, is described. The strategy for transferring the NASA technologies to engineering projects includes: (1) identification of the problem, (2) selection of an appropriate aerospace technology, (3) development of a partnership with the company, (4) implementation of the project, and (5) commercialization of the product. Three examples revealing the application of aerospace technologies to projects in biomedical engineering, materials, and automation and robotics are presented; the development of a programmable, implantable medication system and a programmable, mask-based optical correlator, and the improvement of heat and erosion resistance in continuous casting are examined.

  12. A Spitzer Space Telescope Survey of Extreme Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in M32

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, O.C.; McDonald, I.; Rich, R.M.; Kemper, F.; Boyer, M.L.; Zijlstra, A.A.; Bendo, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the population of cool, evolved stars in the Local Group dwarf elliptical galaxy M32, using Infrared Array Camera observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We construct deep mid-infrared colour-magnitude diagrams for the resolved stellar populations within 3.5 arcminutes of M32's centre, and identify those stars that exhibit infrared excess. Our data is dominated by a population of luminous, dustproducing stars on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and extend to approximately 3 magnitudes below the AGB tip. We detect for the first time a sizeable population of 'extreme' AGB stars, highly enshrouded by circumstellar dust and likely completely obscured at optical wavelengths. The total dust-injection rate from the extreme AGB candidates is measured to be 7.5 x 10 (sup -7) solar masses per year, corresponding to a gas mass-loss rate of 1.5 x 10 (sup -4) solar masses per year. These extreme stars may be indicative of an extended star-formation epoch between 0.2 and 5 billion years ago.

  13. Composite materials for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawal, Suraj P.; Misra, Mohan S.; Wendt, Robert G.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of the program were to: generate mechanical, thermal, and physical property test data for as-fabricated advanced materials; design and fabricate an accelerated thermal cycling chamber; and determine the effect of thermal cycling on thermomechanical properties and dimensional stability of composites. In the current program, extensive mechanical and thermophysical property tests of various organic matrix, metal matrix, glass matrix, and carbon-carbon composites were conducted, and a reliable database was constructed for spacecraft material selection. Material property results for the majority of the as-fabricated composites were consistent with the predicted values, providing a measure of consolidation integrity attained during fabrication. To determine the effect of thermal cycling on mechanical properties, microcracking, and thermal expansion behavior, approximately 500 composite specimens were exposed to 10,000 cycles between -150 and +150 F. These specimens were placed in a large (18 cu ft work space) thermal cycling chamber that was specially designed and fabricated to simulate one year low earth orbital (LEO) thermal cycling in 20 days. With this rate of thermal cycling, this is the largest thermal cycling unit in the country. Material property measurements of the thermal cycled organic matrix composite laminate specimens exhibited less than 24 percent decrease in strength, whereas, the remaining materials exhibited less than 8 percent decrease in strength. The thermal expansion response of each of the thermal cycled specimens revealed significant reduction in hysteresis and residual strain, and the average CTE values were close to the predicted values.

  14. R.F Microphotonics for NASA Space Communications Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouch, John; Nguyen, Hung; Lee, Richard; Miranda, Felix; Hossein-Zadeh, Mani; Cohen, David; Levi, A. F. J.

    2007-01-01

    An RF microphotonic receiver has-been developed at Ka-band. The receiver consists of a lithium niobate micro-disk that enables RF-optical coupling to occur. The modulated optical signal (- 200 THz) is detected by the high-speed photonic signal processing electronics. When compared with an electronic approach, the microphotonic receiver technology offers 10 times smaller volume, smaller weight, and smaller power consumption; greater sensitivity; and optical isolation for use in extreme environments. The status of the technology development will be summarized, and the potential application of the receiver to NASA space communications systems will be described.

  15. Advanced science and applications space platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J.; Runge, F. C.

    1981-01-01

    Requirements for and descriptions of the mission equipment, subsystems, configuration, utilities, and interfaces for an Advanced Science and Applications Space Platform (ASASP) are developed using large space structure technology. Structural requirements and attitude control system concepts are emphasized. To support the development of ASASP requirements, a mission was described that would satisfy the requirements of a representative set of payloads requiring large separation distances selected from the Science and Applications Space Platform data base. Platform subsystems are defined which support the payload requirements and a physical platform concept is developed. Structural system requirements which include utilities accommodation, interface requirements, and platform strength and stiffness requirements are developed. An attitude control system concept is also described. The resultant ASASP is analyzed and technological developments deemed necessary in the area of large space systems are recommended.

  16. Graphics Technology in Space Applications (GTSA 1989)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Sandy (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This document represents the proceedings of the Graphics Technology in Space Applications, which was held at NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center on April 12 to 14, 1989 in Houston, Texas. The papers included in these proceedings were published in general as received from the authors with minimum modifications and editing. Information contained in the individual papers is not to be construed as being officially endorsed by NASA.

  17. Properties of Perfluoropolyethers for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The perfluoropolyether (PFPE) class of liquid lubricants has been used for space applications for over two decades. At first, these fluids performed satisfactorily as early spacecraft placed few demands on their performance. However, as other spacecraft components have become more reliable and lifetimes have been extended, PFPE lubricant deficiencies have been exposed. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to review the PFPE properties that are important for successful long term operation in space.

  18. Integrated FDIR Analysis Tool for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piras, Annamaria; Malucchi, Giovanni; Di Tommaso, Umberto

    2013-08-01

    The crucial role of health management in space applications has been the subject of many studies carried out by NASA and ESA and is held in high regard by Thales Alenia Space. The common objective is to improve reliability and availability of space systems. This paper will briefly illustrate the evolution of IDEHAS (IntegrateD Engineering Harness Avionics and Software), an advanced tool currently used in Thales Alenia Space - Italy in several space programs and recently enhanced to fully support FDIR (Fault Detection Isolation and Recovery) analysis. The FDIR analysis logic flow will be presented, emphasizing the improvements offered to Mission Support & Operations activities. Finally the benefits provided to the Company and a list of possible future enhancements will be given.

  19. Space shuttle thermal scale modeling application study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, K. N.; Foster, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    The critical thermal control problems and verification of thermal mathematical model results for the space shuttle concept are discussed. The use of a small scale thermal model of the space shuttle is proposed. It was determined that a one-third scale model of the space shuttle would serve as a useful tool throughout the entire thermal design and verification program. The major considerations in modeling the conduction-radiation-convection fields, the level of detail for modeling various systems, preliminary test requirements, and potential applications of the thermal scale model are summarized.

  20. Overview of Energy Storage Technologies for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, Subbarao

    2006-01-01

    This presentations gives an overview of the energy storage technologies that are being used in space applications. Energy storage systems have been used in 99% of the robotic and human space missions launched since 1960. Energy storage is used in space missions to provide primary electrical power to launch vehicles, crew exploration vehicles, planetary probes, and astronaut equipment; store electrical energy in solar powered orbital and surface missions and provide electrical energy during eclipse periods; and, to meet peak power demands in nuclear powered rovers, landers, and planetary orbiters. The power source service life (discharge hours) dictates the choice of energy storage technology (capacitors, primary batteries, rechargeable batteries, fuel cells, regenerative fuel cells, flywheels). NASA is planning a number of robotic and human space exploration missions for the exploration of space. These missions will require energy storage devices with mass and volume efficiency, long life capability, an the ability to operate safely in extreme environments. Advanced energy storage technologies continue to be developed to meet future space mission needs.

  1. Terrestrial applications of NASA space telerobotics technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavery, Dave

    1994-01-01

    In 1985 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) instituted a research program in telerobotics to develop and provide the technology for applications of telerobotics to the United States space program. The activities of the program are intended to most effectively utilize limited astronaut time by facilitating tasks such as inspection, assembly, repair, and servicing, as well as providing extended capability for remotely conducting planetary surface operations. As the program matured, it also developed a strong heritage of working with government and industry to directly transfer the developed technology into industrial applications.

  2. Extreme-value dependence: An application to exchange rate markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Viviana

    2007-04-01

    Extreme value theory (EVT) focuses on modeling the tail behavior of a loss distribution using only extreme values rather than the whole data set. For a sample of 10 countries with dirty/free float regimes, we investigate whether paired currencies exhibit a pattern of asymptotic dependence. That is, whether an extremely large appreciation or depreciation in the nominal exchange rate of one country might transmit to another. In general, after controlling for volatility clustering and inertia in returns, we do not find evidence of extreme-value dependence between paired exchange rates. However, for asymptotic-independent paired returns, we find that tail dependency of exchange rates is stronger under large appreciations than under large depreciations.

  3. Terahertz (THz) Wireless Systems for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; deSilva, Kanishka B.; Jih, Cindy T.

    2013-01-01

    NASA has been leading the Terahertz (THz) technology development for the sensors and instruments in astronomy in the past 20 years. THz technologies are expanding into much broader applications in recent years. Due to the vast available multiple gigahertz (GHz) broad bandwidths, THz radios offer the possibility for wireless transmission of high data rates. Multi-Gigabits per second (MGbps) broadband wireless access based on THz waves are closer to reality. The THz signal high atmosphere attenuation could significantly decrease the communication ranges and transmittable data rates for the ground systems. Contrary to the THz applications on the ground, the space applications in the atmosphere free environment do not suffer the atmosphere attenuation. The manufacturing technologies for the THz electronic components are advancing and maturing. There is great potential for the NASA future high data wireless applications in environments with difficult cabling and size/weight constraints. In this study, the THz wireless systems for potential space applications were investigated. The applicability of THz systems for space applications was analyzed. The link analysis indicates that MGbps data rates are achievable with compact sized high gain antennas.

  4. Aerogel insulation systems for space launch applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesmire, J. E.

    2006-02-01

    New developments in materials science in the areas of solution gelation processes and nanotechnology have led to the recent commercial production of aerogels. Concurrent with these advancements has been the development of new approaches to cryogenic thermal insulation systems. For example, thermal and physical characterizations of aerogel beads under cryogenic-vacuum conditions have been performed at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of the NASA Kennedy Space Center. Aerogel-based insulation system demonstrations have also been conducted to improve performance for space launch applications. Subscale cryopumping experiments show the thermal insulating ability of these fully breathable nanoporous materials. For a properly executed thermal insulation system, these breathable aerogel systems are shown to not cryopump beyond the initial cooldown and thermal stabilization phase. New applications are being developed to augment the thermal protection systems of space launch vehicles, including the Space Shuttle External Tank. These applications include a cold-boundary temperature of 90 K with an ambient air environment in which both weather and flight aerodynamics are important considerations. Another application is a nitrogen-purged environment with a cold-boundary temperature of 20 K where both initial cooldown and launch ascent profiles must be considered. Experimental results and considerations for these flight system applications are discussed.

  5. Aerogel Insulation Systems for Space Launch Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.

    2005-01-01

    New developments in materials science in the areas of solution gelation processes and nanotechnology have led to the recent commercial production of aerogels. Concurrent with these advancements has been the development of new approaches to cryogenic thermal insulation systems. For example, thermal and physical characterizations of aerogel beads under cryogenic-vacuum conditions have been performed at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of the NASA Kennedy Space Center. Aerogel-based insulation system demonstrations have also been conducted to improve performance for space launch applications. Subscale cryopumping experiments show the thermal insulating ability of these fully breathable nanoporous materials. For a properly executed thermal insulation system, these breathable aerogel systems are shown to not cryopump beyond the initial cooldown and thermal stabilization phase. New applications are being developed to augment the thermal protection systems of space launch vehicles, including the Space Shuttle External Tank. These applications include a cold-boundary temperature of 90 K with an ambient air environment in which both weather and flight aerodynamics are important considerations. Another application is a nitrogen-purged environment with a cold-boundary temperature of 20 K where both initial cooldown and launch ascent profiles must be considered. Experimental results and considerations for these flight system applications are discussed.

  6. U.S. Participation in the Extreme Universe Space Observatory on the Japanese Experiment Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiencke, Lawrence

    This is the lead Institution proposal submitted by the University of Chicago (Angela Olinto, PI) for the U.S. Participation in the Extreme Universe Space Observatory on the Japanese Experiment Module. We propose to discover the origin of extreme energy cosmic rays, those with energies in excess of 60 EeV, produced by the most powerful cosmic accelerators in the universe. We will use the Extreme-Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) instrument, which is to be attached to the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) on the International Space Station (ISS). JEM-EUSO is being developed by an international collaboration for launch on the Japanese H2 Transfer Vehicle in 2017. This proposal is for the US contribution to the mission which consists of monitoring and calibration with a Global Light System (GLS) of lasers and xenon light sources, data acquisition and analysis software, data archiving, and science results for the first year of the mission. We also propose that NASA make a contribution to the upmass needed to launch JEM-EUSO and attachment point resources. The GLS for JEM-EUSO will be located at 12 sites around the world, supplemented with an aircraft system. The calibrated UV lasers and Xenon flash lamps will generate calibrated optical signatures in the atmosphere within the field of view of JEM-EUSO with similar characteristics to the optical signals of cosmic ray extensive air showers. Throughout its pioneering mission, JEM-EUSO will reconstruct the pointing directions of the lasers and the energy of the lasers and flash lamps to monitor the detector s triggers, and accuracy of energy and direction reconstruction. These are the critical parameters for identifying the sources of the highest energy cosmic rays and for evaluating the scientific performance of this pioneering instrument. Starting in 2014, a prototype of the JEM-EUSO instrument will be flown on a balloon to test its design. We propose to build prototypes of the GLS and use them to test and calibrate the

  7. Micro-sensors for space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, M.A.; Frye-Mason, G.C.; Osbourn, G.C.

    1999-12-08

    Important factors in the application of sensing technology to space applications are low mass, small size, and low power. All of these attributes are enabled by the application of MEMS and micro-fabrication technology to microsensors. Two types of sensors are utilized in space applications: remotes sensing from orbit around the earth or another planetary body, and point sensing in the spacecraft or external to it. Several Sandia projects that apply microfabrication technologies to the development of new sensing capabilities having the potential for space applications will be briefly described. The Micro-Navigator is a project to develop a MEMS-based device to measure acceleration and rotation in all three axes for local area navigation. The Polychromator project is a joint project with Honeywell and MIT to develop an electrically programmable diffraction grating that can be programmed to synthesize the spectra of molecules. This grating will be used as the reference cell in a gas correlation radiometer to enable remote chemical detection of most chemical species. Another area of research where microfabrication is having a large impact is the development of a lab on a chip. Sandia's efforts to develop the {mu}ChemLab{trademark} will be described including the development of microfabricated pre-concentrators, chromatographic columns, and detectors. Smart sensors that allow the spacecraft independent decision making capabilities depend on pattern recognition. Sandia's development of a new pattern recognition methodology that can be used to interpret sensor response as well as for target recognition applications will be described.

  8. Space life sciences: closed ecological systems: earth and space applications.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    This issue contains peer-reviewed papers from a workshop on Closed Ecological Systems: Earth and Space Applications at the 35th COSPAR General Assembly in Paris, France, convened in July 2004. The contributions reflected the wide range of international work in the field, especially Europe, Russia, Japan, and the United States. The papers are arranged according to four main themes: 1) Methods of evaluation and theory of closed ecological systems; 2) Reports from recent experiments in closed ecological system facilities; 3) Bioregenerative technologies to advance degree of closure and cycling; and 4) Laboratory studies of small closed ecological systems.

  9. Microwave integrated circuits for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Regis F.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1991-01-01

    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC), which incorporate all the elements of a microwave circuit on a single semiconductor substrate, offer the potential for drastic reductions in circuit weight and volume and increased reliability, all of which make many new concepts in electronic circuitry for space applications feasible, including phased array antennas. NASA has undertaken an extensive program aimed at development of MMICs for space applications. The first such circuits targeted for development were an extension of work in hybrid (discrete component) technology in support of the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS). It focused on power amplifiers, receivers, and switches at ACTS frequencies. More recent work, however, focused on frequencies appropriate for other NASA programs and emphasizes advanced materials in an effort to enhance efficiency, power handling capability, and frequency of operation or noise figure to meet the requirements of space systems.

  10. Applications of Extreme Value Theory in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Maud; Lemaitre, Magali; Wilson, Mark L.; Viboud, Cécile; Yordanov, Youri; Wackernagel, Hans; Carrat, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We present how Extreme Value Theory (EVT) can be used in public health to predict future extreme events. Methods We applied EVT to weekly rates of Pneumonia and Influenza (P&I) deaths over 1979–2011. We further explored the daily number of emergency department visits in a network of 37 hospitals over 2004–2014. Maxima of grouped consecutive observations were fitted to a generalized extreme value distribution. The distribution was used to estimate the probability of extreme values in specified time periods. Results An annual P&I death rate of 12 per 100,000 (the highest maximum observed) should be exceeded once over the next 30 years and each year, there should be a 3% risk that the P&I death rate will exceed this value. Over the past 10 years, the observed maximum increase in the daily number of visits from the same weekday between two consecutive weeks was 1133. We estimated at 0.37% the probability of exceeding a daily increase of 1000 on each month. Conclusion The EVT method can be applied to various topics in epidemiology thus contributing to public health planning for extreme events. PMID:27419853

  11. Application of RFID technology—upper extremity rehabilitation training

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chih-Chen; Chen, Yu-Luen; Chen, Shih-Ching

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Upper extremity rehabilitation after an injury is very important. This study proposes radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to improve and enhance the effectiveness of the upper extremity rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] People use their upper extremities to conduct daily activities. When recovering from injuries, many patients neglect the importance of rehabilitation, which results in degraded function. This study recorded the training process using the traditional rehabilitation hand gliding cart with a RFID reader, RFID tags in the panel, and a servo host computer. [Results] Clinical evidence, time taken to achieve a full score, counts of missing the specified spots, and Brunnstrom stage of aided recovery, the proximal part of the upper extremity show that the RFID-based upper extremity training significantly and reduce negative impacts of the disability in daily life and activities. [Conclusion] This study combined a hand-gliding cart with an RFID reader, and when patients moved the cart, the movement could be observed via the activated RFID tags. The training data was collected and quantified for a better understanding of the recovery status of the patients. Each of the participating patients made progress as expected. PMID:27065539

  12. Application of RFID technology-upper extremity rehabilitation training.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Chen; Chen, Yu-Luen; Chen, Shih-Ching

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Upper extremity rehabilitation after an injury is very important. This study proposes radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to improve and enhance the effectiveness of the upper extremity rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] People use their upper extremities to conduct daily activities. When recovering from injuries, many patients neglect the importance of rehabilitation, which results in degraded function. This study recorded the training process using the traditional rehabilitation hand gliding cart with a RFID reader, RFID tags in the panel, and a servo host computer. [Results] Clinical evidence, time taken to achieve a full score, counts of missing the specified spots, and Brunnstrom stage of aided recovery, the proximal part of the upper extremity show that the RFID-based upper extremity training significantly and reduce negative impacts of the disability in daily life and activities. [Conclusion] This study combined a hand-gliding cart with an RFID reader, and when patients moved the cart, the movement could be observed via the activated RFID tags. The training data was collected and quantified for a better understanding of the recovery status of the patients. Each of the participating patients made progress as expected. PMID:27065539

  13. Application of RFID technology-upper extremity rehabilitation training.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Chen; Chen, Yu-Luen; Chen, Shih-Ching

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Upper extremity rehabilitation after an injury is very important. This study proposes radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to improve and enhance the effectiveness of the upper extremity rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] People use their upper extremities to conduct daily activities. When recovering from injuries, many patients neglect the importance of rehabilitation, which results in degraded function. This study recorded the training process using the traditional rehabilitation hand gliding cart with a RFID reader, RFID tags in the panel, and a servo host computer. [Results] Clinical evidence, time taken to achieve a full score, counts of missing the specified spots, and Brunnstrom stage of aided recovery, the proximal part of the upper extremity show that the RFID-based upper extremity training significantly and reduce negative impacts of the disability in daily life and activities. [Conclusion] This study combined a hand-gliding cart with an RFID reader, and when patients moved the cart, the movement could be observed via the activated RFID tags. The training data was collected and quantified for a better understanding of the recovery status of the patients. Each of the participating patients made progress as expected.

  14. Supercomputer networking for space science applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, B. I.

    1992-01-01

    The initial design of a supercomputer network topology including the design of the communications nodes along with the communications interface hardware and software is covered. Several space science applications that are proposed experiments by GSFC and JPL for a supercomputer network using the NASA ACTS satellite are also reported.

  15. Software Component Technologies and Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batory, Don

    1995-01-01

    In the near future, software systems will be more reconfigurable than hardware. This will be possible through the advent of software component technologies which have been prototyped in universities and research labs. In this paper, we outline the foundations for those technologies and suggest how they might impact software for space applications.

  16. Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers

    DOEpatents

    Britton, Jr.; Charles L.; Buckner, Mark A.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Bryan, William L.

    2011-04-26

    Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes in situ polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.

  17. Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers

    DOEpatents

    Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Buckner, Mark A.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Bryan, William L.

    2011-05-03

    Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes insitu polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.

  18. Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, Mark A; Hanson, Gregory R; Bryan, William L

    2009-04-28

    Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes insitu polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.

  19. Anatomical models for space radiation applications: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwell, W.

    1994-10-01

    Extremely detailed computerized anatomical male (CAM) and female (CAF) models that have been developed for use in space radiation analyses are discussed and reviewed. Recognizing that the level of detail may currently be inadequate for certain radiological applications, one of the purposes of this paper is to elicit specific model improvements or requirements from the scientific user-community. Methods and rationale are presented which describe the approach used in the Space Shuttle program to extrapolate dosimetry measurements (skin doses) to realistic astronaut body organ doses. Several mission scenarios are presented which demonstrate the utility of the anatomical models for obtaining specific body organ exposure estimates and can be used for establishing cancer morbidity and mortality risk assessments. These exposure estimates are based on the trapped Van Allen belt and galactic cosmic radiation environment models and data from the major historical solar particle events.

  20. GPS-based navigation for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champetier, C.; Duhamel, T.; Frezet, M.

    1995-03-01

    We present in this paper a survey of the applications of the GPS (global positioning system) system for spacecraft navigation. The use of the GPS techniques for space missions is a striking example of dual-use of military technology; it can bring vast improvements in performances and, in some cases, for a reduced cost. We only deal in this paper with the functional aspects and performances of GPS uses without addressing the issues of hardware implementation where current developments are leading to an increased miniaturization of the GPS receiver hardware. We start this paper with a general overview of the GPS system and its various uses for space missions. We then focus on four areas where MATRA MARCONI Space has conducted detailed analyses of performances: autonomous navigation for geostationary spacecraft, relative navigation for space rendezvous, differential navigation for landing vehicles, absolute navigation for launchers and reentry vehicles.

  1. Technology Applications that Support Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Holderman, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Several enabling technologies have been identified that would provide significant benefits for future space exploration. In-Space demonstrations should be chosen so that these technologies will have a timely opportunity to improve efficiencies and reduce risks for future spaceflight. An early window exists to conduct ground and flight demonstrations that make use of existing assets that were developed for the Space Shuttle and the Constellation programs. The work could be mostly performed using residual program civil servants, existing facilities and current commercial launch capabilities. Partnering these abilities with the emerging commercial sector, along with other government agencies, academia and with international partners would provide an affordable and timely approach to get the launch costs down for these payloads, while increasing the derived benefits to a larger community. There is a wide scope of varied technologies that are being considered to help future space exploration. However, the cost and schedule would be prohibitive to demonstrate all these in the near term. Determining which technologies would yield the best return in meeting our future space needs is critical to building an achievable Space Architecture that allows exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit. The best mix of technologies is clearly to be based on our future needs, but also must take into account the availability of existing assets and supporting partners. Selecting those technologies that have complimentary applications will provide the most knowledge, with reasonable cost, for future use The plan is to develop those applications that not only mature the technology but actually perform a useful task or mission. These might include such functions as satellite servicing, a propulsion stage, processing lunar regolith, generating and transmitting solar power, cryogenic fluid transfer and storage and artificial gravity. Applications have been selected for assessment for future

  2. Fiber-optic Sensors for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xiaoli; Liang, liangsheng1981. Sheng; Huang, Xingli

    Fiber-optic sensors (FOSs) offer several advantages over conventional sensors, such as high sensitivity, intrinsic safety in hazardous environments, immunity to electromagnetic interference, geometric flexibility, light weight, small size and the compatibility to fiber-optic communication, capability to distributed sensing. Due to these specific advantages, FOSs have been considered as a potentially effective solution for applications in space. A historical overview of how this powerful framework has been exploited to develop aerospace instruments is presented in this paper. This paper provides a review on the concepts, principles, methodology of FOSs for space applications. Firstly, the current state of the art of FOSs is reviewed. As significant cases of developments in FOSs, the interferometric sensors, fiber Grating sensors, photo crystal fiber sensors and scattering based sensors are outlined, respectively. Furthermore, several potential applications, including oxygen and hydrogen detection, temperature measurement, structure health monitoring, are discussed. Furthermore, some important performances, such as resolution, precision and dynamic range, are analyzed for different applications. Then, some potential theoretical and technological opportunities to improve FOSs for space applications are presented and discussed.

  3. Optimal guidance for future space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradt, J. E.; Jessick, M. V.; Hardtla, J. W.

    Use of a powerful flight performance analysis technique is explored for application as a guidance algorithm for future space applications. The technique uses Hermite interpolation and collocation to implicitly integrate the equations of motion. This technique readily accepts flight path constraints such as structural loading or heating. It is an optimal, adaptive algorithm that adjusts to changing flight conditions and also has the necessary structure for performing on-board mission targeting. The capability of the algorithm is demonstrated for three potential applications: (1) a hypersonic gliding reentry to achieve maximum cross range while constraining the vehicle maximum temperature; (2) a low L/D reentry vehicle targeted to earth relative coordinates; and (3) an aerocapture of a Mars space probe targeting a minimum Delta V insertion into an elliptic orbit about the planet.

  4. Practical Applications of a Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The potential uses of a special station for civil and commercial applications is examined. Five panels of experts representing user-oriented communities, and a sixth panel which dealth with system design considerations, based their studies on the assumption that the station would be a large platform, capable of housing a wide array of diverse instruments, and could be either manned or unmanned. The Earth's Resources Panel dealt with applications of remote sensing for resource assessment. The Earth's Environment Panel dealt with the Earth's atmosphere and its impact on society. The Ocean Operations Panel looked at both science and applications. The Satellite Communications Panel assessed the potential role of a space station in the evolution of commercial telecommunication services up to the year 2000. The Materials Science and Engineering panel focused on the utility of a space station environment for materials processing.

  5. Static and Dynamic Verification of Critical Software for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, F.; Maia, R.; Costa, D.; Duro, N.; Rodríguez-Dapena, P.; Hjortnaes, K.

    Space technology is no longer used only for much specialised research activities or for sophisticated manned space missions. Modern society relies more and more on space technology and applications for every day activities. Worldwide telecommunications, Earth observation, navigation and remote sensing are only a few examples of space applications on which we rely daily. The European driven global navigation system Galileo and its associated applications, e.g. air traffic management, vessel and car navigation, will significantly expand the already stringent safety requirements for space based applications Apart from their usefulness and practical applications, every single piece of onboard software deployed into the space represents an enormous investment. With a long lifetime operation and being extremely difficult to maintain and upgrade, at least when comparing with "mainstream" software development, the importance of ensuring their correctness before deployment is immense. Verification &Validation techniques and technologies have a key role in ensuring that the onboard software is correct and error free, or at least free from errors that can potentially lead to catastrophic failures. Many RAMS techniques including both static criticality analysis and dynamic verification techniques have been used as a means to verify and validate critical software and to ensure its correctness. But, traditionally, these have been isolated applied. One of the main reasons is the immaturity of this field in what concerns to its application to the increasing software product(s) within space systems. This paper presents an innovative way of combining both static and dynamic techniques exploiting their synergy and complementarity for software fault removal. The methodology proposed is based on the combination of Software FMEA and FTA with Fault-injection techniques. The case study herein described is implemented with support from two tools: The SoftCare tool for the SFMEA and SFTA

  6. Automation of Space Processing Applications Shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosmer, W. E.; Neau, O. T.; Poe, J.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Processing Applications Program is examining the effect of weightlessness on key industrial materials processes, such as crystal growth, fine-grain casting of metals, and production of unique and ultra-pure glasses. Because of safety and in order to obtain optimum performance, some of these processes lend themselves to automation. Automation can increase the number of potential Space Shuttle flight opportunities and increase the overall productivity of the program. Five automated facility design concepts and overall payload combinations incorporating these facilities are presented.

  7. Outgassing considerations for composites in space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arsenovic, Petar; Chu, Huai-Pu

    1994-01-01

    Composites have been increasingly used in the construction of spacecraft. However, unlike metals, composites must be used with particular discretion in space applications because of their outgassing properties. For example, the outgas materials may cause serious contamination problems and affect the performance of delicate instruments. This paper presents an overview of the testing procedure and acceptance criteria for outgassing selection of spacecraft materials. Since composites can contain and absorb moisture which will outgas in space as water vapor, the test results of moisture absorption and desorption of a composite material are discussed also.

  8. Guidelines on Lithium-ion Battery Use in Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckissock, Barbara; Loyselle, Patricia; Vogel, Elisa

    2009-01-01

    This guideline discusses a standard approach for defining, determining, and addressing safety, handling, and qualification standards for lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries to help the implementation of the technology in aerospace applications. Information from a variety of other sources relating to Li-ion batteries and their aerospace uses has been collected and included in this document. The sources used are listed in the reference section at the end of this document. The Li-Ion chemistry is highly energetic due to its inherent high specific energy and its flammable electrolyte. Due to the extreme importance of appropriate design, test, and hazard control of Li-ion batteries, it is recommended that all Government and industry users and vendors of this technology for space applications, especially involving humans, use this document for appropriate guidance prior to implementing the technology.

  9. Interactive intelligent remote operations: application to space robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Erick; Gillett, G. R.; Boulanger, Pierre; Edwards, Eric; Lipsett, Michael G.

    1999-11-01

    A set of tolls addressing the problems specific to the control and monitoring of remote robotic systems from extreme distances has been developed. The tools include the capability to model and visualize the remote environment, to generate and edit complex task scripts, to execute the scripts to supervisory control mode and to monitor and diagnostic equipment from multiple remote locations. Two prototype systems are implemented for demonstration. The first demonstration, using a prototype joint design called Dexter, shows the applicability of the approach to space robotic operation in low Earth orbit. The second demonstration uses a remotely controlled excavator in an operational open-pit tar sand mine. This demonstrates that the tools developed can also be used for planetary exploration operations as well as for terrestrial mining applications.

  10. Smart facility application: exploiting space technology for smart city solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Termizi, A. A. A.; Ahmad, N.; Omar, M. F.; Wahap, N. A.; Zainal, D.; Ismail, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Facilities and amenities management is amongst the core functionalities of local government. Considering the vast area that local government has to manage, a smart solution is extremely inevitable to solve issues such as inefficient maintenance of public parks, drainage system and so forth. Therefore, this paper aims to offer a smart city solution which exploits the benefit of space technology. This proposed solution is one of the modules developed in Spatial Smart City Service Delivery Engine (SSC SDE) Project undertaken by Agensi Angkasa Negara (ANGKASA). Various levels of local government have been chosen to understand real issues faced by them. Based on this data, a Smart Facility application has been developed with the aim to enhance the service delivery by the local government hence improving citizens’ satisfaction. Since this project is still in progress, this paper will merely discussing the concept of this application.

  11. Practical Applications of Space Systems, Supporting Paper 7: Environmental Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report summarizes the findings of one of fourteen panels that studied progress in space science applications and defined user needs potentially capable of being met by space-system applications. The study was requested by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and was conducted by the Space Applications Board. The panels…

  12. Space processing applications rocket project. SPAR 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chassay, R. P. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The Space Processing Applications Rocket Project (SPAR) VIII Final Report contains the engineering report prepared at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as well as the three reports from the principal investigators. These reports also describe pertinent portions of ground-based research leading to the ultimate selection of the flight sample composition, including design, fabrication, and testing, all of which are expected to contribute immeasurably to an improved comprehension of materials processing in space. This technical memorandum is directed entirely to the payload manifest flown in the eighth of a series of SPAR flights conducted at the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) and includes the experiments entitled Glass Formation Experiment SPAR 74-42/1R, Glass Fining Experiment in Low-Gravity SPAR 77-13/1, and Dynamics of Liquid Bubbles SPAR Experiment 77-18/2.

  13. Space applications of superconductivity - High field magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fickett, F. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses developments in superconducting magnets and their applications in space technology. Superconducting magnets are characterized by high fields (to 15T and higher) and high current densities combined with low mass and small size. The superconducting materials and coil design are being improved and new high-strength composites are being used for magnet structural components. Such problems as maintaining low cooling temperatures (near 4 K) for long periods of time and degradation of existing high-field superconductors at low strain levels can be remedied by research and engineering. Some of the proposed space applications of superconducting magnets include: cosmic ray analysis with magnetic spectrometers, energy storage and conversion, energy generation by magnetohydrodynamic and thermonuclear fusion techniques, and propulsion. Several operational superconducting magnet systems are detailed.

  14. How Might the Thermosphere and Ionosphere React to an Extreme Space Weather Event?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Fedrizzi, M.; Codrescu, M.; Maruyama, N.; Raeder, J.

    2015-12-01

    If a Carrington-type CME event of 1859 hit Earth how might the thermosphere, ionosphere, and plasmasphere respond? To start with, the response would be dependent on how the magnetosphere reacts and channels the energy into the upper atmosphere. For now we can assume the magnetospheric convection and auroral precipitation inputs would look similar to a 2003 Halloween storm but stronger and more expanded to mid-latitude, much like what the Weimer empirical model predicts if the solar wind Bz and velocity were -60nT and 1500km/s respectively. For a Halloween-level geomagnetic storm event, the sequence of physical process in the thermosphere and ionosphere are thought to be well understood. The physics-based coupled models, however, have been designed and somewhat tuned to simulate the response to this level of event that have been observed in the last two solar cycles. For an extreme solar storm, it is unclear if the response would be a natural linear extrapolation of the response or if non-linear processes would begin to dominate. A numerical simulation has been performed with a coupled thermosphere ionosphere model to quantify the likely response to an extreme space weather event. The simulation predict the neutral atmosphere would experience horizontal winds of 1500m/s, vertical winds exceeding 150m/s, and the "top" of the thermosphere well above 1000km. Predicting the ionosphere response is somewhat more challenging because there is significant uncertainty in quantifying some of the other driver-response relationships such as the magnitude and shielding time-scale of the penetration electric field, the possible feedback to the magnetosphere, and the amount of nitric oxide production. Within the limits of uncertainty of the drivers, the magnitude of the response can be quantified and both linear and non-linear responses are predicted.

  15. Electronic nose for space program applications.

    PubMed

    Young, Rebecca C; Buttner, William J; Linnell, Bruce R; Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2003-08-01

    The ability to monitor air contaminants in the shuttle and the International Space Station is important to ensure the health and safety of astronauts, and equipment integrity. Three specific space applications have been identified that would benefit from a chemical monitor: (a) organic contaminants in space cabin air; (b) hypergolic propellant contaminants in the shuttle airlock; (c) pre-combustion signature vapors from electrical fires. NASA at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is assessing several commercial and developing electronic noses (E-noses) for these applications. A short series of tests identified those E-noses that exhibited sufficient sensitivity to the vapors of interest. Only two E-noses exhibited sufficient sensitivity for hypergolic fuels at the required levels, while several commercial E-noses showed sufficient sensitivity of common organic vapors. These E-noses were subjected to further tests to assess their ability to identify vapors. Development and testing of E-nose models using vendor supplied software packages correctly identified vapors with an accuracy of 70-90%. In-house software improvements increased the identification rates between 90 and 100%. Further software enhancements are under development. Details on the experimental setup, test protocols, and results on E-nose performance are presented in this paper along with special emphasis on specific software enhancements.

  16. Low energy CMOS for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panwar, Ramesh; Alkalaj, Leon

    1992-01-01

    The current focus of NASA's space flight programs reflects a new thrust towards smaller, less costly, and more frequent space missions, when compared to missions such as Galileo, Magellan, or Cassini. Recently, the concept of a microspacecraft was proposed. In this concept, a small, compact spacecraft that weighs tens of kilograms performs focused scientific objectives such as imaging. Similarly, a Mars Lander micro-rover project is under study that will allow miniature robots weighing less than seven kilograms to explore the Martian surface. To bring the microspacecraft and microrover ideas to fruition, one will have to leverage compact 3D multi-chip module-based multiprocessors (MCM) technologies. Low energy CMOS will become increasingly important because of the thermodynamic considerations in cooling compact 3D MCM implementations and also from considerations of the power budget for space applications. In this paper, we show how the operating voltage is related to the threshold voltage of the CMOS transistors for accomplishing a task in VLSI with minimal energy. We also derive expressions for the noise margins at the optimal operating point. We then look at a low voltage CMOS (LVCMOS) technology developed at Stanford University which improves the power consumption over conventional CMOS by a couple of orders of magnitude and consider the suitability of the technology for space applications by characterizing its SEU immunity.

  17. Electronic nose for space program applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Rebecca C.; Buttner, William J.; Linnell, Bruce R.; Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2003-01-01

    The ability to monitor air contaminants in the shuttle and the International Space Station is important to ensure the health and safety of astronauts, and equipment integrity. Three specific space applications have been identified that would benefit from a chemical monitor: (a) organic contaminants in space cabin air; (b) hypergolic propellant contaminants in the shuttle airlock; (c) pre-combustion signature vapors from electrical fires. NASA at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is assessing several commercial and developing electronic noses (E-noses) for these applications. A short series of tests identified those E-noses that exhibited sufficient sensitivity to the vapors of interest. Only two E-noses exhibited sufficient sensitivity for hypergolic fuels at the required levels, while several commercial E-noses showed sufficient sensitivity of common organic vapors. These E-noses were subjected to further tests to assess their ability to identify vapors. Development and testing of E-nose models using vendor supplied software packages correctly identified vapors with an accuracy of 70-90%. In-house software improvements increased the identification rates between 90 and 100%. Further software enhancements are under development. Details on the experimental setup, test protocols, and results on E-nose performance are presented in this paper along with special emphasis on specific software enhancements. c2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Advanced Interconnect Roadmap for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galbraith, Lissa

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the NASA electronic parts and packaging program for space applications. The topics include: 1) Forecasts; 2) Technology Challenges; 3) Research Directions; 4) Research Directions for Chip on Board (COB); 5) Research Directions for HDPs: Multichip Modules (MCMs); 6) Research Directions for Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS); 7) Research Directions for Photonics; and 8) Research Directions for Materials. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  19. Complementary heterojunction FET technology for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larue, George

    1993-01-01

    A 32-bit serial integer multiplier was designed to investigate the yield and performance of complementary heterojunction FET (CHFET) technology. This is the largest reported CHFET logic circuit. The maximum operating frequency was 500 MHz. Very low power dissipation of 3 mW was obtained at 5 MHz operation. Single-event upset (SEU) characteristics of CHFET devices and latches were also measured and indicates the potential for SEU hard circuits for space and military applications.

  20. Space Applications Industrial Laser System (SAILS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccay, T. D.; Bible, J. B.; Mueller, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    A program is underway to develop a YAG laser based materials processing workstation to fly in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. This workstation, called Space Applications Industrial Laser System (SAILS), will be capable of cutting and welding steel, aluminum, and Inconel alloys of the type planned for use in constructing the Space Station Freedom. As well as demonstrating the ability of a YAG laser to perform remote (fiber-optic delivered) repair and fabrication operations in space, fundamental data will be collected on these interactions for comparison with terrestrial data and models. The flight system, scheduled to fly in 1996, will be constructed as three modules using standard Get-Away-Special (GAS) canisters. The first module holds the laser head and cooling system, while the second contains a high peak power electrical supply. The third module houses the materials processing workstation and the command and data acquisition subsystems. The laser head and workstation cansisters are linked by a fiber-optic cable to transmit the laser light. The team assembled to carry out this project includes Lumonics Industrial Products (laser), Tennessee Technological University (structural analysis and fabrication), Auburn University Center for Space Power (electrical engineering), University of Waterloo (low-g laser process consulting), and CSTAR/UTSI (data acquisition, control, software, integration, experiment design). This report describes the SAILS program and highlights recent activities undertaken at CSTAR.

  1. Commercial Application of In-Space Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lymer, John; Hanson, Mark; Tadros, Al; Boccio, Joel; Hollenstein, Bruno; Emerick, Ken; Doughtery, Sean; Doggett, Bill; Dorsey, John T.; King, Bruce D.; Bowman, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    In-Space assembly (ISA) expands the opportunities for cost effective emplacement of systems in space. Currently, spacecraft are launched into space and deploy into their operational configuration through a carefully choreographed sequence of operations. The deployment operation dictates the arrangement of the primary systems on the spacecraft, limiting the ability to take full advantage of launch vehicles volume and mass capability. ISA enables vastly different spacecraft architectures and emplacement scenarios to be achieved, including optimal launch configurations ranging from single launch and assembly to on-orbit aggregation of multiple launches at different orbital locations and times. The spacecraft can be visited at different orbital locations and times to effect expansion and maintenance of an operational capability. To date, the primary application of ISA has been in large programs funded by government organizations, such as the International Space Station. Recently, Space Systems Loral (SSL) led a study funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), called Dragonfly, to investigate the commercial applicability and economic advantages of ISA. In the study, it was shown that ISA enables SSL to double the capability of a commercial satellite system by taking advantage of alternate packaging approaches for the reflectors. The study included an ultra-light-weight robotic system, derived from Mars manipulator designs, to complete assembly of portions of the antenna system using a tool derived from DARPA orbital express and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) automated structural assembly experience. The mechanical connector that enables robotic ISA takes advantage of decades of development by NASA from the 1970's to 1980's during the Space Station Freedom program, the precursor to the ISS. The mechanical connector was originally designed for rapid astronaut assembly while also providing a high quality structural connection

  2. MoRu/Be multilayers for extreme ultraviolet applications

    DOEpatents

    Bajt, Sasa C.; Wall, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    High reflectance, low intrinsic roughness and low stress multilayer systems for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography comprise amorphous layers MoRu and crystalline Be layers. Reflectance greater than 70% has been demonstrated for MoRu/Be multilayers with 50 bilayer pairs. Optical throughput of MoRu/Be multilayers can be 30-40% higher than that of Mo/Be multilayer coatings. The throughput can be improved using a diffusion barrier to make sharper interfaces. A capping layer on the top surface of the multilayer improves the long-term reflectance and EUV radiation stability of the multilayer by forming a very thin native oxide that is water resistant.

  3. Applications of telemedicine in the United States space program.

    PubMed

    Doarn, C R; Nicogossian, A E; Merrell, R C

    1998-01-01

    Since the beginning of human space flight, NASA has been placing humans in extreme and remote environments. There are many challenges in maintaining humans in outer space, including the provision of life-support systems, radiation shielding, and countermeasures for minimizing the effect of microgravity. Because astronauts are selected for their health, among other factors, disease and illness are minimized. However, it is still of great importance to have appropriate medical care systems in place to address illness and injury should they occur. With the exception of the Apollo program, exploration of space has been limited to missions that are within several hundred miles of the surface of the Earth. At the drawn of the 21st century and the new millennium, human exploration will be focused on operation of the International Space Station (ISS) and preparation for human missions to Mars. These missions will present inherent risks to human health, and, therefore, appropriate plans must be established to address these challenges and risks. Crews of long-duration missions must become more independent from ground controllers. New systems, protocols, and procedures are currently being perfected. Application of emerging technologies in information systems and telecommunications will be critical to inflight medical care. Application of these technologies through telemedicine will provide crew members access to information, noninvasive procedures for assessing health status, and guidance through the integration of sensors, holography, decision-support systems, and virtual environments. These technologies will also serve as a basis to enhance training and medical education. The design of medical care for space flight should lead to a redesign of the practice of medicine on Earth. PMID:9599070

  4. Applications of telemedicine in the United States space program.

    PubMed

    Doarn, C R; Nicogossian, A E; Merrell, R C

    1998-01-01

    Since the beginning of human space flight, NASA has been placing humans in extreme and remote environments. There are many challenges in maintaining humans in outer space, including the provision of life-support systems, radiation shielding, and countermeasures for minimizing the effect of microgravity. Because astronauts are selected for their health, among other factors, disease and illness are minimized. However, it is still of great importance to have appropriate medical care systems in place to address illness and injury should they occur. With the exception of the Apollo program, exploration of space has been limited to missions that are within several hundred miles of the surface of the Earth. At the drawn of the 21st century and the new millennium, human exploration will be focused on operation of the International Space Station (ISS) and preparation for human missions to Mars. These missions will present inherent risks to human health, and, therefore, appropriate plans must be established to address these challenges and risks. Crews of long-duration missions must become more independent from ground controllers. New systems, protocols, and procedures are currently being perfected. Application of emerging technologies in information systems and telecommunications will be critical to inflight medical care. Application of these technologies through telemedicine will provide crew members access to information, noninvasive procedures for assessing health status, and guidance through the integration of sensors, holography, decision-support systems, and virtual environments. These technologies will also serve as a basis to enhance training and medical education. The design of medical care for space flight should lead to a redesign of the practice of medicine on Earth.

  5. Applications of telemedicine in the United States space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doarn, C. R.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Merrell, R. C.

    1998-01-01

    Since the beginning of human space flight, NASA has been placing humans in extreme and remote environments. There are many challenges in maintaining humans in outer space, including the provision of life-support systems, radiation shielding, and countermeasures for minimizing the effect of microgravity. Because astronauts are selected for their health, among other factors, disease and illness are minimized. However, it is still of great importance to have appropriate medical care systems in place to address illness and injury should they occur. With the exception of the Apollo program, exploration of space has been limited to missions that are within several hundred miles of the surface of the Earth. At the drawn of the 21st century and the new millennium, human exploration will be focused on operation of the International Space Station (ISS) and preparation for human missions to Mars. These missions will present inherent risks to human health, and, therefore, appropriate plans must be established to address these challenges and risks. Crews of long-duration missions must become more independent from ground controllers. New systems, protocols, and procedures are currently being perfected. Application of emerging technologies in information systems and telecommunications will be critical to inflight medical care. Application of these technologies through telemedicine will provide crew members access to information, noninvasive procedures for assessing health status, and guidance through the integration of sensors, holography, decision-support systems, and virtual environments. These technologies will also serve as a basis to enhance training and medical education. The design of medical care for space flight should lead to a redesign of the practice of medicine on Earth.

  6. Halophilic archaea on Earth and in space: growth and survival under extreme conditions.

    PubMed

    Oren, Aharon

    2014-12-13

    Salts are abundant on Mars, and any liquid water that is present or may have been present on the planet is expected to be hypersaline. Halophilic archaea (family Halobacteriaceae) are the microorganisms best adapted to life at extremes of salinity on Earth. This paper reviews the properties of the Halobacteriaceae that may make the group good candidates for life also on Mars. Many species resist high UV and gamma radiation levels; one species has survived exposure to vacuum and radiation during a space flight; and there is at least one psychrotolerant species. Halophilic archaea may survive for millions of years within brine inclusions in salt crystals. Many species have different modes of anaerobic metabolism, and some can use light as an energy source using the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin. They are also highly tolerant to perchlorate, recently shown to be present in Martian soils, and some species can even use perchlorate as an electron acceptor to support anaerobic growth. The presence of characteristic carotenoid pigments (α-bacterioruberin and derivatives) makes the Halobacteriaceae easy to identify by Raman spectroscopy. Thus, if present on Mars, such organisms may be detected by Raman instrumentation planned to explore Mars during the upcoming ExoMars mission.

  7. How NOAA/DSCOVR Will Perform during Extreme Space Weather and Why Lead Time Exceeds Expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biesecker, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The NOAA/DSCOVR satellite is expected to launch in January, 2015 and replace the NASA/ACE satellite as the L1 Sentinel in early Summer, 2015. Having relied on ACE to provide critical warnings of geomagnetic storms since 1998, it is important for the space weather community to understand how DSCOVR will perform relative to ACE in real-time operations. The WIND/SWE instrument is sufficiently similar to the DSCOVR Faraday Cup that it can be used as a proxy for DSCOVR, with some caveats. We compare the ACE/SWEPAM and WIND/SWE observations for all geomagnetic storm events meeting the criteria of severe or extreme. We also examine time periods where ACE data were compromised by solar energetic particles. We find that DSCOVR will provide a more robust data stream than was provided by ACE during solar cycle 23. We will briefly address the magnetometer, supra-thermal particle measurements, and relativistic proton measurements provided by ACE, of which only the magnetometer is retained on DSCOVR. We also demonstrate that lead time for geomagnetic storm notifications to customers far exceeds the L1 to Earth delay time.

  8. Halophilic archaea on Earth and in space: growth and survival under extreme conditions.

    PubMed

    Oren, Aharon

    2014-12-13

    Salts are abundant on Mars, and any liquid water that is present or may have been present on the planet is expected to be hypersaline. Halophilic archaea (family Halobacteriaceae) are the microorganisms best adapted to life at extremes of salinity on Earth. This paper reviews the properties of the Halobacteriaceae that may make the group good candidates for life also on Mars. Many species resist high UV and gamma radiation levels; one species has survived exposure to vacuum and radiation during a space flight; and there is at least one psychrotolerant species. Halophilic archaea may survive for millions of years within brine inclusions in salt crystals. Many species have different modes of anaerobic metabolism, and some can use light as an energy source using the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin. They are also highly tolerant to perchlorate, recently shown to be present in Martian soils, and some species can even use perchlorate as an electron acceptor to support anaerobic growth. The presence of characteristic carotenoid pigments (α-bacterioruberin and derivatives) makes the Halobacteriaceae easy to identify by Raman spectroscopy. Thus, if present on Mars, such organisms may be detected by Raman instrumentation planned to explore Mars during the upcoming ExoMars mission. PMID:25368347

  9. Variability of space climate and its extremes with successive solar cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Sandra; Hush, Phillip; Tindale, Elisabeth; Dunlop, Malcolm; Watkins, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Auroral geomagnetic indices coupled with in situ solar wind monitors provide a comprehensive data set, spanning several solar cycles. Space climate can be considered as the distribution of space weather. We can then characterize these observations in terms of changing space climate by quantifying how the statistical properties of ensembles of these observed variables vary between different phases of the solar cycle. We first consider the AE index burst distribution. Bursts are constructed by thresholding the AE time series; the size of a burst is the sum of the excess in the time series for each time interval over which the threshold is exceeded. The distribution of burst sizes is two component with a crossover in behaviour at thresholds ≈ 1000 nT. Above this threshold, we find[1] a range over which the mean burst size is almost constant with threshold for both solar maxima and minima. The burst size distribution of the largest events has a functional form which is exponential. The relative likelihood of these large events varies from one solar maximum and minimum to the next. If the relative overall activity of a solar maximum/minimum can be estimated, these results then constrain the likelihood of extreme events of a given size for that solar maximum/minimum. We next develop and apply a methodology to quantify how the full distribution of geomagnetic indices and upstream solar wind observables are changing between and across different solar cycles. This methodology[2] estimates how different quantiles of the distribution, or equivalently, how the return times of events of a given size, are changing. [1] Hush, P., S. C. Chapman, M. W. Dunlop, and N. W. Watkins (2015), Robust statistical properties of the size of large burst events in AE, Geophys. Res. Lett.,42 doi:10.1002/2015GL066277 [2] Chapman, S. C., D. A. Stainforth, N. W. Watkins, (2013) On estimating long term local climate trends , Phil. Trans. Royal Soc., A,371 20120287 DOI:10.1098/rsta.2012.0287

  10. Third Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denton, Judith S. (Compiler); Freeman, Michael S. (Compiler); Vereen, Mary (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    Topics relative to the application of artificial intelligence to space operations are discussed. New technologies for space station automation, design data capture, computer vision, neural nets, automatic programming, and real time applications are discussed.

  11. Extreme waves seasonality analysis: An application in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartini, L.; Cassola, F.; Besio, G.

    2015-09-01

    A nonstationary model based on a time-dependent version of the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD)-Poisson point process model has been implemented and applied to model extreme wave heights in the Mediterranean basin. Thirty-two years of wave hindcast data have been provided by a forecast/hindcast numerical chain model operational at the University of Genoa (www.dicca.unige.it/meteocean" http://www.dicca.unige.it/meteocean"www.dicca.unige.it/meteocean). The nonstationary behavior of wave height maxima prompted the modeling of GEV parameters with harmonic functions. Harmonics have been introduced to model seasonal cycles within a year, also taking into account long-term trend and covariates effects. The model has been applied on eight locations corresponding to buoys belonging to the RON (Rete Ondametrica Nazionale), chosen in order to represent best the main features and variability of waves along the Italian coast. The best performing model is chosen among a large set of possible candidates identified by different combinations of wave heights maxima and model parameters. Direct comparison with stationary results has been performed; furthermore, the model has demonstrated a good performance in gathering different seasonal behaviors related to the main meteorological forcing standing on the Mediterranean Sea. Trends related to extreme significant wave heights have also been evaluated in order to offer some insight into decadal-scale wave climate. Results achieved show how the use of a nonstationary statistical model together with the analysis of the main meteorological forcings characterizing the area could prove useful in understanding wave climate related to atmospheric dynamics.

  12. Piezomechatronic-based systems in aircraft, space, and defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillard, T.; Claeyssen, F.; LeLetty, R.; Sosnicki, O.; Pages, A.; Vazquez Carazo, A.

    2009-05-01

    In Space & Defense fields, there is a trend for miniaturisation in active optics, fine instruments, robotic missions, microsatellites, UAVs, MAVs which directly impact on the design of actuators. A new generation of small and smart actuators such like piezoelectric (piezo) actuators, are responding to this trend, thanks to their capacity to offer high energy density and to support both extreme and various requirements. In Space vehicles, UAVs, missiles, military vehicles, etc., onboard place and available electric power can be very limited. For instance, a micro satellite often must operate all its instruments with less than 100W of power. As a result, allocated electric power per actuator is typically between 0.1 to 10W. This is also the case in small UAVs and in MAVs. Because of the high cost of embedded mass, space & military actuators need also to offer high output energy to mass ratio. One of the main difficulties is often the ability to withstand launching vibrations and shocks. Space environments add other constrains. A clear example is the vacuum conditions, which can induce difficulties to release the heat out off the actuator or for out gassing near optics. Other critical spacerelated environmental conditions include the thermal operation range required as well as the radiation-resistant requirements. In other situations, actuator strength to humidity is often an issue, especially for piezoelectric ceramics. Thus, the success of the application relies not only on design issues but also on material reliability. Specific actions at this level are needed to be undertaken to secure space projects. To cope with these issues and to illustrate the trend, the piezo actuators and mechanisms from Cedrat are presented. They have been initially developed and qualified to meet space requirements but logically found also applications in defense and micro aerial vehicle fields, for various micromechatronic functions. The paper presents typical applications and piezo

  13. Sodium sulfur batteries for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degruson, James A.

    1992-01-01

    In 1986, Eagle-Picher Industries was selected by the Air Force to develop sodium sulfur cells for satellite applications. Specifically, the development program was geared toward low earth orbit goals requiring high charge and/or discharge rates. A number of improvements have been made on the cell level and a transition to a complete space battery was initiated at Eagle-Picher. The results of six months of testing a 250 watt/hour sodium sulfur space battery look very promising. With over 1000 LEO cycles conducted on this first battery, the next generation battery is being designed. This next design will focus on achieving greater energy densities associated with the sodium sulfur chemistry.

  14. Evaluation of Magnetoresistive RAM for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidecker, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM) is a non-volatile memory that exploits electronic spin, rather than charge, to store data. Instead of moving charge on and off a floating gate to alter the threshold voltage of a CMOS transistor (creating different bit states), MRAM uses magnetic fields to flip the polarization of a ferromagnetic material thus switching its resistance and bit state. These polarized states are immune to radiation-induced upset, thus making MRAM very attractive for space application. These magnetic memory elements also have infinite data retention and erase/program endurance. Presented here are results of reliability testing of two space-qualified MRAM products from Aeroflex and Honeywell.

  15. Thermoacoustic power systems for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backhaus, Scott; Tward, Emanuel; Petach, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Future NASA deep-space missions will require radioisotope-powered electric generators that are just as reliable as current RTGs, but more efficient and of higher specific power (W/kg). Thermoacoustic engines can convert high-temperature heat into acoustic, or PV, power without moving parts at 30% efficiency. Consisting of only tubes and a few heat exchangers, these engines are low mass and promise to be highly reliable. Coupling a thermoacoustic engine to a low-mass, highly reliable and efficient linear alternator will create a heat-driven electric generator suitable for deep-space applications. Data will be presented on the first tests of a demonstration thermoacoustic engine designed for the 100-Watt power range. .

  16. PTTI applications to deep space navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curkendall, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Radio metric deep space navigation relies nearly exclusively upon coherent, two way, Doppler and ranging for all precise applications. These data types and the navigational accuracies they can produce are reviewed. The deployment of hydrogen maser frequency standards and the development of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) systems within the Deep Space Network are used in the development of non-coherent, one way data forms that promise much greater inherent navigational accuracy. The underlying structure between each data class and clock performance is charted. VLBI observations of the natural radio sources are the planned instrument for the synchronization task. This method and a navigational scheme using differential measurements between the spacecraft and nearby quasars are described.

  17. Cylindrical Asymmetrical Capacitor Devices for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Jonathan W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An asymmetrical capacitor system is provided which creates a thrust force. The system is adapted for use in space applications and includes a capacitor device provided with a first conductive element and a second conductive element axially spaced from the first conductive element and of smaller axial extent. A shroud supplied with gas surrounds the capacitor device. The second conductive element can be a wire ring or mesh mounted on dielectric support posts affixed to a dielectric member which separates the conductive elements or a wire or mesh annulus surrounding a barrel-shaped dielectric member on which the h t element is also mounted. A high voltage source is connected across the conductive elements and applies a high voltage to the conductive elements of sufficient value to create a thrust force on the system inducing movement thereof.

  18. Foam inflated rigidized structures for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, D. M.; Warner, M. J.; Blair, M.

    1993-11-01

    Large lightweight stowable structures that can be deployed in space without astronaut extra vehicular activity are vital to expanding space exploration and utilization. To meet this challenge Foam Inflated Rigidized (FIR) structures have been developed by Thiokol Corporation on the Air Forces's Gossamer Baggie Torus program. In this paper the development, proof of concept demonstration of an eight foot diameter octagonal torus, and design application of this technology for structural elements to stabilize the solar collector of a solar thermal rocket are discussed. A FIR structure uses foam to inflate and pre-stress a resin impregnated fabric skin. The predeployed foam used was a solvent swelled polymer that foams immediately when exposed to vacuum due to rapid solvent loss. This property allows a very simple deployment mechanism to be used in erecting these structures. Once inflated, the skin resin is cured using the available ultraviolet radiation. By using high strength and stiffness fiber materials a stiff, strong lightweight structure was produced.

  19. Nuclear Cross Sections for Space Radiation Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werneth, C. M.; Maung, K. M.; Ford, W. P.; Norbury, J. W.; Vera, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    The eikonal, partial wave (PW) Lippmann-Schwinger, and three-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger (LS3D) methods are compared for nuclear reactions that are relevant for space radiation applications. Numerical convergence of the eikonal method is readily achieved when exact formulas of the optical potential are used for light nuclei (A = 16) and the momentum-space optical potential is used for heavier nuclei. The PW solution method is known to be numerically unstable for systems that require a large number of partial waves, and, as a result, the LS3D method is employed. The effect of relativistic kinematics is studied with the PW and LS3D methods and is compared to eikonal results. It is recommended that the LS3D method be used for high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions and nucleus-nucleus reactions at all energies because of its rapid numerical convergence and stability for both non-relativistic and relativistic kinematics.

  20. Evaluation of Capacitors at Cryogenic Temperatures for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Gerber, Scott S.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced electronic systems designed for use in planetary exploration missions must operate efficiently and reliably under the extreme cold temperatures of deep space environment. In addition, spacecraft power electronics capable of cold temperature operation will greatly simplify the thermal management system by eliminating the need for heating units and associated equipment and thereby reduce the size and weight of the overall power system. In this study, film, mica, solid tantalum and electric double layer capacitors were evaluated as a function of temperature from room to liquid nitrogen in terms of their dielectric properties. These properties included capacitance stability and dielectric loss in the frequency range of 50 Hz to 100 kHz. DC leakage current measurements were also performed on the capacitors. The results obtained are discussed and conclusions are made concerning the suitability of the capacitors investigated for low temperature applications.

  1. Space Processing Applications Rocket project, SPAR 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Experiment objectives, design/operational concepts, and final results are summarized for six materials science experiments conducted during the second space processing applications rocket mission flown by NASA. The individual experiments discussed are: (1) solidification of Pb-Sb eutectic; (2) feasibility of producing closed-cell metal foams; (3) direct observation of dendrite remelting and macrosegregation in castings; (4) agglomeration in immiscible liquids; (5) casting dispersion - strengthened composites at zero gravity; and (6) solidification behavior of Al-In alloys under zero gravity conditions.

  2. Space Processing Applications Rocket project, SPAR 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, F. (Compiler); Chassay, R. (Compiler)

    1976-01-01

    The experiment objectives, design/operational concepts, and final results of each of nine scientific experiments conducted during the first Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) flight are summarized. The nine individual SPAR experiments, covering a wide and varied range of scientific materials processing objectives, were entitled: solidification of Pb-Sb eutectic, feasibility of producing closed-cell metal foams, characterization of rocket vibration environment by measurement of mixing of two liquids, uniform dispersions of crystallization processing, direct observation of solidification as a function of gravity levels, casting thoria dispersion-strengthened interfaces, contained polycrystalline solidification, and preparation of a special alloy for manufacturing of magnetic hard superconductor under zero-g environment.

  3. Laser diode initiated detonators for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewick, David W.; Graham, J. A.; Hawley, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    Ensign Bickford Aerospace Company (EBAC) has over ten years of experience in the design and development of laser ordnance systems. Recent efforts have focused on the development of laser diode ordnance systems for space applications. Because the laser initiated detonators contain only insensitive secondary explosives, a high degree of system safety is achieved. Typical performance characteristics of a laser diode initiated detonator are described in this paper, including all-fire level, function time, and output. A finite difference model used at EBAC to predict detonator performance, is described and calculated results are compared to experimental data. Finally, the use of statistically designed experiments to evaluate performance of laser initiated detonators is discussed.

  4. Nonvolatile Memory Technology for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldham, Timothy R.; Irom, Farokh; Friendlich, Mark; Nguyen, Duc; Kim, Hak; Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several forms of nonvolatile memory for use in space applications. The intent is to: (1) Determine inherent radiation tolerance and sensitivities, (2) Identify challenges for future radiation hardening efforts, (3) Investigate new failure modes and effects, and technology modeling programs. Testing includes total dose, single event (proton, laser, heavy ion), and proton damage (where appropriate). Test vehicles are expected to be a variety of non-volatile memory devices as available including Flash (NAND and NOR), Charge Trap, Nanocrystal Flash, Magnetic Memory (MRAM), Phase Change--Chalcogenide, (CRAM), Ferroelectric (FRAM), CNT, and Resistive RAM.

  5. Space Processing Applications Rocket project SPAR III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, F.

    1978-01-01

    This document presented the engineering report and science payload III test report and summarized the experiment objectives, design/operational concepts, and final results of each of five scientific experiments conducted during the third Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) flight flown by NASA in December 1976. The five individual SPAR experiments, covering a wide and varied range of scientific materials processing objectives, were entitled: Liquid Mixing, Interaction of Bubbles with Solidification Interfaces, Epitaxial Growth of Single Crystal Film, Containerless Processing of Beryllium, and Contact and Coalescence of Viscous Bodies.

  6. MDS-Multifunctional Dynamometer for Application in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamcik, G.; Barta, N.; Talla, R.; Angeli, T.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Grigoriev, A. I.; Tschan, H.; Bachl, N.

    2008-06-01

    The project MDS (Multifunctional Dynamometer for Application in Space) is an international collaboration of the University of Vienna (Faculty of Sport Science, Department of Sport and Exercise Physiology), the Russian Academy of Sciences (Institute of Biomedical Problems) and the Technical University of Vienna (Institute for Engineering Design and Logistics Engineering) with the aim to develop a training and diagnostic device that counteracts the muscle and bone loss during long term space flights. Due to the scientific results of the last years research in space medicine, it is well known, that the muscles and bones of the lower extremities and the trunk are most affected by the atrophy. Based on this knowledge a various number of resistance exercises can be done in order to train the muscles of these parts of the body and to increase the efficiency of the training by intra- and intermuscular coordination. The resisting power for the training is provided by an electric motor, thereby force, position and speed of the training can be well-regulated for different training modes.

  7. Passive and active optical fibers for space and terrestrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Mansoor; Abramczyk, Jaroslaw; Farroni, Julia; Manyam, Upendra; Guertin, Douglas

    2006-08-01

    Being the new frontier of science and technology, as the near earth space begins to attract attention, low cost and rapidly deployable earth observation satellites are becoming more important. Among other things these satellites are expected to carry out missions in the general areas of science and technology, remote sensing, national defense and telecommunications. Except for critical missions, constraints of time and money practically mandate the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components as the only viable option. The near earth space environment (~50-50000 miles) is relatively hostile and among other things components/devices/systems are exposed to ionizing radiation. Photonic devices/systems are and will continue to be an integral part of satellites and their payloads. The ability of such devices/systems to withstand ionizing radiation is of extreme importance. Qualification of such devices/systems is time consuming and very expensive. As a result, manufacturers of satellites and their payloads have started to ask for radiation performance data on components from the individual vendors. As an independent manufacturer of both passive and active specialty silica optical fibers, Nufern is beginning to address this issue. Over the years, Nufern has developed fiber designs, compositions and processes to make radiation hard fibers. Radiation performance data (both gamma and proton) of a variety of singlemode (SM), multimode (MM), polarization maintaining (PM) and rare-earth doped (RED) fibers that find applications in space environment are presented.

  8. Thermal Barrier/Seal for Extreme Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Phelps, Jack; Bauer, Paul; Bond, Bruce; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Large solid rocket motors, as found on the Space Shuttle, are fabricated in segments for manufacturing considerations, bolted together, and sealed using conventional Viton O-ring seals. Similarly the nine large solid rocket motor nozzles are assembled from several different segments, bolted together, and sealed at six joint locations using conventional O-ring seals. The 5500 F combustion gases are generally kept a safe distance away from the seals by thick layers of phenolic or rubber insulation. Joint-fill compounds, including RTV (room temperature vulcanized compound) and polysulfide filler, are used to fill the joints in the insulation to prevent a direct flow-path to the O-rings. Normally these two stages of protection are enough to prevent a direct flow-path of the 900-psi hot gases from reaching the temperature-sensitive O-ring seals. However, in the current design 1 out of 15 Space Shuttle solid rocket motors experience hot gas effects on the Joint 6 wiper (sacrificial) O-rings. Also worrisome is the fact that joints have experienced heat effects on materials between the RTV and the O-rings, and in two cases O-rings have experienced heat effects. These conditions lead to extensive reviews of the post-flight conditions as part of the effort to monitor flight safety. We have developed a braided carbon fiber thermal barrier to replace the joint fill compounds in the Space Shuttle solid rocket motor nozzles to reduce the incoming 5500 F combustion gas temperature and permit only cool (approximately 100 F) gas to reach the temperature-sensitive O-ring seals. Implementation of this thermal barrier provides more robust, consistent operation with shorter turn around times between Shuttle launches.

  9. Predictors of Behavior and Performance in Extreme Environments: The Antarctic Space Analogue Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Gunderson, E K. Eric; Holland, A. W.; Miller, Christopher; Johnson, Jeffrey C.

    2000-01-01

    To determine which, if any, characteristics should be incorporated into a select-in approach to screening personnel for long-duration spaceflight, we examined the influence of crewmember social/ demographic characteristics, personality traits, interpersonal needs, and characteristics of station physical environments on performance measures in 657 American men who spent an austral winter in Antarctica between 1963 and 1974. During screening, subjects completed a Personal History Questionnaire which obtained information on social and demographic characteristics, the Deep Freeze Opinion Survey which assessed 5 different personality traits, and the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior (FIRO-B) Scale which measured 6 dimensions of interpersonal needs. Station environment included measures of crew size and severity of physical environment. Performance was assessed on the basis of combined peer-supervisor evaluations of overall performance, peer nominations of fellow crewmembers who made ideal winter-over candidates, and self-reported depressive symptoms. Social/demographic characteristics, personality traits, interpersonal needs, and characteristics of station environments collectively accounted for 9-17% of the variance in performance measures. The following characteristics were significant independent predictors of more than one performance measure: military service, low levels of neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness, and a low desire for affection from others. These results represent an important first step in the development of select-in criteria for personnel on long-duration missions in space and other extreme environments. These criteria must take into consideration the characteristics of the environment and the limitations they place on meeting needs for interpersonal relations and task performance, as well as the characteristics of the individuals and groups who live and work in these environments.

  10. Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teofilo, V. L.; Choong, P.; Chen, W.; Chang, J.; Tseng, Y.-L.

    2006-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion cells have made steady and over the years considerable progress since first evaluated by Lockheed Martin for direct conversion using nuclear power sources in the mid 1980s. The design trades and evaluations for application to the early defensive missile satellites of the Strategic Defense Initiative found the cell technology to be immature with unacceptably low cell efficiencies comparable to thermoelectric of <10%. Rapid advances in the epitaxial growth technology for ternary compound semiconductors, novel double hetero-structure junctions, innovative monolithic integrated cell architecture, and bandpass tandem filter have, in concert, significantly improved cell efficiencies to 25% with the promise of 35% using solar cell like multi-junction approach in the near future. Recent NASA sponsored design and feasibility testing programs have demonstrated the potential for 19% system efficiency for 100 We radioisotopic power sources at an integrated specific power of ~14 We/kg. Current state of TPV cell technology however limits the operating temperature of the converter cells to < 400K due to radiator mass consideration. This limitation imposes no system mass penalty for the low power application for use with radioisotopes power sources because of the high specific power of the TPV cell converters. However, the application of TPV energy conversion for high power sources has been perceived as having a major impediment above 1 kWe due to the relative low waste heat rejection temperature. We explore this limitation and compare the integrated specific power of TPV converters with current and projected TPV cells with other advanced space power conversion technologies. We find that when the redundancy needed required for extended space exploration missions is considered, the TPV converters have a much higher range of applicability then previously understood. Furthermore, we believe that with a relatively modest modifications of the

  11. Verification of Autonomous Systems for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brat, G.; Denney, E.; Giannakopoulou, D.; Frank, J.; Jonsson, A.

    2006-01-01

    Autonomous software, especially if it is based on model, can play an important role in future space applications. For example, it can help streamline ground operations, or, assist in autonomous rendezvous and docking operations, or even, help recover from problems (e.g., planners can be used to explore the space of recovery actions for a power subsystem and implement a solution without (or with minimal) human intervention). In general, the exploration capabilities of model-based systems give them great flexibility. Unfortunately, it also makes them unpredictable to our human eyes, both in terms of their execution and their verification. The traditional verification techniques are inadequate for these systems since they are mostly based on testing, which implies a very limited exploration of their behavioral space. In our work, we explore how advanced V&V techniques, such as static analysis, model checking, and compositional verification, can be used to gain trust in model-based systems. We also describe how synthesis can be used in the context of system reconfiguration and in the context of verification.

  12. In situ biodosimetric experiment for space applications.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Gergely; Kovaliczky, Eva; Szabó, József; Rontó, Györgyi; Bérces, Attila

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the principles and application of DNA based biological UV dosimeters, as developed by Research Group for Biophysics (RGB). These dosimeters are used for assessing the biological hazard of living systems on the Earth's surface and in different waters (rivers, lakes, seas, etc.). The UV dosimetry system has also been used in the space. In dosimeters a bacterial virus, bacteriophage T7 and polycrystalline uracil thin layers have been used as biological detectors. On the Earth's surface the UV radiation induces dimer formation in phage T7 and in the uracil detector, which was evaluated by loss of viability of the phage particles and by the decrease of the characteristic optical density (OD) of uracil thin layers. Recently the development of human space activities has also increased the need to measure the biological effect of extraterrestrial solar radiation, too. The evaluation of the space samples occurred on ground, thus only the starting and the final state were taken into account. A new improved, automated method is presented below which makes data collection more efficient and also makes the dynamics of the process observable.

  13. The effect of limb crossing and limb congruency on multisensory integration in peripersonal space for the upper and lower extremities.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Michiel; Forget, Joachim; Blanke, Olaf

    2013-06-01

    The present study investigated how multisensory integration in peripersonal space is modulated by limb posture (i.e. whether the limbs are crossed or uncrossed) and limb congruency (i.e. whether the observed body part matches the actual position of one's limb). This was done separately for the upper limbs (Experiment 1) and the lower limbs (Experiment 2). The crossmodal congruency task was used to measure peripersonal space integration for the hands and the feet. It was found that the peripersonal space representation for the hands but not for the feet is dynamically updated based on both limb posture and limb congruency. Together these findings show how dynamic cues from vision, proprioception, and touch are integrated in peripersonal limb space and highlight fundamental differences in the way in which peripersonal space is represented for the upper and lower extremity. PMID:23579198

  14. Application of a Coupled WRF-Hydro Model for Extreme Flood Events in the Mediterranean Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredj, Erick; Givati, Amir

    2015-04-01

    More accurate simulation of precipitation and streamflow is a challenge that can be addressed by using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) in conjunction with the hydrological model coupling extension package (WRF-Hydro).This is demonstrated for the country of Israel and surrounding regions. Simulations from the coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro system were verified against measurements from rain gauges and hydrometric stations in the domain for the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 winters (wet seasons). These periods were characterized by many punctuated hydrometeorological and hydroclimatic events, including both severe drought and extreme floods events. The WRF model simulations were initialized with 0.5 degree NOAA/NCEP GFS model data. The model domain was set up with 3 domains, up to 3km grid spacing resolution. The model configuration used here constitutes a fully distributed, 3-dimensional, variably-saturated surface and subsurface flow model. Application of terrain routing and, subsequently, channel and reservoir routing functions, to the uni-dimensional NOAA land surface model was motivated by the need to account for increased complexity in land surface states and fluxes and to provide a more physically-realistic conceptualization of terrestrial hydrologic processes. The simulation results indicated a good agreement with actual peak discharges for extreme flood events and for full hydrographs. Specifically the coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro model as configured in this study shows improvement in simulated precipitation over one way WRF precipitation simulations. The correlation between the observed and the simulated precipitation using the fully coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro system was higher than the standalone WRF model, especially for convective precipitation events that affect arid regions in the domain. The results suggest that the coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro system has potential for flood forecasting and flood warning purposes at 0-72 hour lead times for large cool season storm

  15. Enzymes from Extreme Environments and Their Industrial Applications

    PubMed Central

    Littlechild, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    This article will discuss the importance of specific extremophilic enzymes for applications in industrial biotechnology. It will specifically address those enzymes that have applications in the area of biocatalysis. Such enzymes now play an important role in catalyzing a variety of chemical conversions that were previously carried out by traditional chemistry. The biocatalytic process is carried out under mild conditions and with greater specificity. The enzyme process does not result in the toxic waste that is usually produced in a chemical process that would require careful disposal. In this sense, the biocatalytic process is referred to as carrying out “green chemistry” which is considered to be environmentally friendly. Some of the extremophilic enzymes to be discussed have already been developed for industrial processes such as an l-aminoacylase and a γ-lactamase. The industrial applications of other extremophilic enzymes, including transaminases, carbonic anhydrases, dehalogenases, specific esterases, and epoxide hydrolases, are currently being assessed. Specific examples of these industrially important enzymes that have been studied in the authors group will be presented in this review. PMID:26528475

  16. Enzymes from Extreme Environments and Their Industrial Applications.

    PubMed

    Littlechild, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    This article will discuss the importance of specific extremophilic enzymes for applications in industrial biotechnology. It will specifically address those enzymes that have applications in the area of biocatalysis. Such enzymes now play an important role in catalyzing a variety of chemical conversions that were previously carried out by traditional chemistry. The biocatalytic process is carried out under mild conditions and with greater specificity. The enzyme process does not result in the toxic waste that is usually produced in a chemical process that would require careful disposal. In this sense, the biocatalytic process is referred to as carrying out "green chemistry" which is considered to be environmentally friendly. Some of the extremophilic enzymes to be discussed have already been developed for industrial processes such as an l-aminoacylase and a γ-lactamase. The industrial applications of other extremophilic enzymes, including transaminases, carbonic anhydrases, dehalogenases, specific esterases, and epoxide hydrolases, are currently being assessed. Specific examples of these industrially important enzymes that have been studied in the authors group will be presented in this review.

  17. Sofradir SWIR hyperspectral detectors for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowicki-Bringuier, Yoanna-Reine; Chorier, Philippe

    2009-09-01

    The field of SWIR detectors for space applications is strongly growing those last years, mainly because of the increasing need for environmental missions in the SWIR detection range. For now more than 10 years, Sofradir is involved in that field, developing and improving its SWIR detectors technology, leading to a mature technology that enable to address most of missions needs in term of performances, but also with respect to hard environmental constraints. SWIR detection range at Sofradir has been qualified for space applications thanks to various programs already run (APEX or Bepi-Colombo programs) or currently running (Sentinel 2, PRISMA mission). For Sentinel 2, a 1280x3 with a 15μm pitch in the SWIR range (CTIA) has been developed and is currently being validated. 1000x256 or 500x256 arrays 30 μm pitch (called Saturn or Neptune detectors) have already been validated in terms of irradiation behavior, thermal cycling, and ageing. Specific package designs have been validated in terms of high levels of shocks and vibrations. In particular, for both Sentinel 2 and PRISMA programs, Sofradir has developed reliable packaging compatible with passive cooling. Recently, for PRISMA mission, Sofradir is extending its VISible to Short wave Infra-Red technology, called VISIR, to 1000x256 hyperspectral arrays. This technology has the huge advantage to enable detection in both visible and short wave detection range (0.4μm up to 2.5μm), thus limiting the number of needed channels for hyperspectral applications but also outshining the classical limitation of Silicon Visible detectors, for which the sensitivity is dramatically dropping above 0.9 μm. In this paper, we will focus on hyperspectral detectors available at Sofradir. Main general performances will be first described, with emphasize on the VISIR technology that has been recently developed and which enable to cover simultaneously the Visible and SWIR ranges [0.4-2.5μm] with a single detector. Then some complete

  18. Potential markets for application of space medicine achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, Oleg; Belakovskiy, Mark; Kussmaul, Anna

    2014-11-01

    The Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) is the lead institution of the Russian Federation in the area of space biology and medicine. It has successfully implemented a set of innovation-based activities and projects to develop and introduce promising space products and technologies into the practices of Earth health care. To this end, various investigative methods developed for the medical selection of cosmonauts have been successfully applied in ophthalmology, gastroenterology, and cardiology. Axial loading “Regent” suits and soil simulators of bearing load have proved their efficiency in rehabilitating patients with motor disorders. Developmental prototypes of versatile training devices and technologies of their application are used for rehabilitation and purposeful development of physical status in people of various age groups. The application of telemedicine technologies allows one to diagnose and treat diseases in people who are in remote locations from medical centers or happen to be in extreme conditions. In cooperation with leading national medical institutions, other developments by the Institute have been also introduced into clinical practice: for example, the method of assessing the human functional state on the basis of computerized analysis of cardiac rhythm indices; methods of diagnosing, treating and preventing osteoporosis and metabolic osteopathias; methods of treating cardiorespiratory diseases using warmed-up heliox mixtures; methods of prophylactic examination and assessing the physical health status of the population; methods of monitoring the functional state and enhancing the physical capacity of athletes; developmental models of devices for simulating the effects of artificial gravity for refining methods of treatment and rehabilitation of patients; and systems of IV anesthesia with an option of a remote control. The effective management of innovation-based activities and the issues of commercialization of promising developments and

  19. Comprehensive report of aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, and space science applications of the Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The research activities of the Lewis Research Center for 1988 are summarized. The projects included are within basic and applied technical disciplines essential to aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, and space science/applications. These disciplines are materials science and technology, structural mechanics, life prediction, internal computational fluid mechanics, heat transfer, instruments and controls, and space electronics.

  20. Health Management Applications for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, Richard; Duncavage, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Traditional mission and vehicle management involves teams of highly trained specialists monitoring vehicle status and crew activities, responding rapidly to any anomalies encountered during operations. These teams work from the Mission Control Center and have access to engineering support teams with specialized expertise in International Space Station (ISS) subsystems. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) applications can significantly augment these capabilities by providing enhanced monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic tools for critical decision support and mission management. The Intelligent Systems Division of NASA Ames Research Center is developing many prototype applications using model-based reasoning, data mining and simulation, working with Mission Control through the ISHM Testbed and Prototypes Project. This paper will briefly describe information technology that supports current mission management practice, and will extend this to a vision for future mission control workflow incorporating new ISHM applications. It will describe ISHM applications currently under development at NASA and will define technical approaches for implementing our vision of future human exploration mission management incorporating artificial intelligence and distributed web service architectures using specific examples. Several prototypes are under development, each highlighting a different computational approach. The ISStrider application allows in-depth analysis of Caution and Warning (C&W) events by correlating real-time telemetry with the logical fault trees used to define off-nominal events. The application uses live telemetry data and the Livingstone diagnostic inference engine to display the specific parameters and fault trees that generated the C&W event, allowing a flight controller to identify the root cause of the event from thousands of possibilities by simply navigating animated fault tree models on their workstation. SimStation models the functional power flow

  1. Green Applications for Space Power Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Joel (Principal Investigator)

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft propulsion and power for many decades has relied on Hydrazine monopropellant technology for auxiliary power units (APU), orbital circularization, orbit raising/lowering and attitude control. However, Hydrazine is toxic and therefore requires special ground handling procedures to ensure launch crew safety. The Swedish Company ECAPS has developed a technology based upon the propellant Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN) that offers higher performance, higher density and reduced ground handling support than Hydrazine. This blended propellant is called LMP-103S. Currently, the United States Air Force (USAF) is pursuing a technology based on Hydroxyl Ammonium Nitrate (HAN, otherwise known as AF-M315E) with industry partners Aerojet and Moog. Based on the advantages offered by these propellants, MSFC should explore powering APU's with these propellants. Due to the availability of space hardware, the principal investigator has found a collection of USAF hardware, that will act as a surrogate, which operates on a Hydrazine derivative. The F-16 fighter jet uses H-70 or 30% diluted Hydrazine for an Emergency Power Unit (EPU) which supplies power to the plane. The PI has acquired two EPU's from planes slated for destruction at the Davis Monthan AFB. This CIF will include a partnership with 2 other NASA Centers who are individually seeking seed funds from their respective organizations: Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC). KSC is preparing for future flights from their launch pads that will utilize green propellants and desire a low-cost testbed in which to test and calibrate new leak detection sensors. DFRC has access to F-16's which can be used by MSFC & KSC to perform a ground test that demonstrates emergency power supplied to the jet. Neither of the green propellant alternatives have been considered nor evaluated for an APU application. Work has already been accomplished to characterize and obtain the properties of these 2 propellants

  2. SpaceNav - A high accuracy navigation system for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evers, H.-H.

    The technology of the SpaceNav-system is based on research performed by the Institute of Flight Guidance and Control at the Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany. In 1989 this institute gave the worlds first public demonstration of a fully automatic landing of an aircraft, using inertial and satellite informations exclusively. The SpaceNav device components are: Acceleration-/Gyro Sensor Package; Global Positioning System (GPS) Receiver/optional more than one; Time Reference Unit; CPU; Telemetry (optional); and Differential GPS (DGPS) Receiver (optional). The coupling of GPS receivers with inertial sensors provides an extremely accurate navigation data set in real time applications even in phases with high dynamic conditions. The update rate of this navigation information is up to 100 Hz with the same accuracy in 3D-position, velocity, acceleration, attitude and time. SpaceNav is an integrated navigation system, which operates according to the principle of combining the longterm stability and accuracy of GPS, and the high level of dynamic precision of conventional inertial navigation system (INS) strapdown systems. The system's design allows other aiding sensors e.g. GLONASS satellite navigation system, distance measuring equipment (DME), altimeter (radar and/or barometric), flux valve etc. to be connected, in order to increase the redundancy of the system. The advantage of such an upgraded system is the availability of more sensor information than necessary for a navigation solution. The resulting redundancy in range measurement allows real-time detection and identification of sensor signals that are incompatible with the other information. As a result you get Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) as described in 'A Multi-Sensor Approach to Assuring GPS Integrity', presented by Alison Brown in the March/April 1990 issue of 'GPS World'. In this paper the author presents information about the principles of the Satellite Navigation System GPS, and

  3. Formal methods demonstration project for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divito, Ben L.

    1995-01-01

    The Space Shuttle program is cooperating in a pilot project to apply formal methods to live requirements analysis activities. As one of the larger ongoing shuttle Change Requests (CR's), the Global Positioning System (GPS) CR involves a significant upgrade to the Shuttle's navigation capability. Shuttles are to be outfitted with GPS receivers and the primary avionics software will be enhanced to accept GPS-provided positions and integrate them into navigation calculations. Prior to implementing the CR, requirements analysts at Loral Space Information Systems, the Shuttle software contractor, must scrutinize the CR to identify and resolve any requirements issues. We describe an ongoing task of the Formal Methods Demonstration Project for Space Applications whose goal is to find an effective way to use formal methods in the GPS CR requirements analysis phase. This phase is currently under way and a small team from NASA Langley, ViGYAN Inc. and Loral is now engaged in this task. Background on the GPS CR is provided and an overview of the hardware/software architecture is presented. We outline the approach being taken to formalize the requirements, only a subset of which is being attempted. The approach features the use of the PVS specification language to model 'principal functions', which are major units of Shuttle software. Conventional state machine techniques form the basis of our approach. Given this background, we present interim results based on a snapshot of work in progress. Samples of requirements specifications rendered in PVS are offered to illustration. We walk through a specification sketch for the principal function known as GPS Receiver State processing. Results to date are summarized and feedback from Loral requirements analysts is highlighted. Preliminary data is shown comparing issues detected by the formal methods team versus those detected using existing requirements analysis methods. We conclude by discussing our plan to complete the remaining

  4. Model-based vision for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaconas, Karen; Nashman, Marilyn; Lumia, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a method for tracking moving image features by combining spatial and temporal edge information with model based feature information. The algorithm updates the two-dimensional position of object features by correlating predicted model features with current image data. The results of the correlation process are used to compute an updated model. The algorithm makes use of a high temporal sampling rate with respect to spatial changes of the image features and operates in a real-time multiprocessing environment. Preliminary results demonstrate successful tracking for image feature velocities between 1.1 and 4.5 pixels every image frame. This work has applications for docking, assembly, retrieval of floating objects and a host of other space-related tasks.

  5. Hybrid cryogenic cooler for space flight applications.

    PubMed

    Annable, R V

    1978-09-01

    The hybrid cryogenic cooler is an intermittent Joule-Thomson refrigerator with a precooler in the form of a passive radiator. The properties of the J-T expansion and the gas storage vessel are used to select fluids on the basis of available refrigeration per unit mass. Surface forces and container geometry are used to confine and control the liquid cryogen in a zero-gravity environment. The precooler and vaporized liquid are used to reduce parasitic thermal inputs to the point where most of the heat of vaporization is available for useful purposes. Modifications can be made to increase the efficiency or extend the temperature range. Ambient storage combined with efficient operation make the hybrid cooler attractive for space flight applications. PMID:20203860

  6. Can Space Applications Benefit from Intelligent Agents?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Blesson; McKee, Gerard

    The work reported in this paper proposes a Swarm-Array computing approach based on 'Intelligent Agents' to apply autonomic computing concepts to parallel computing systems and build reliable systems for space applications. Swarm-array computing is a swarm robotics inspired, novel computing approach considered as a path to achieve autonomy in parallel computing systems. In the intelligent agent approach, a task to be executed on parallel computing cores is considered as a swarm of autonomous agents. A task is carried to a computing core by carrier agents and can be seamlessly transferred between cores in the event of a predicted failure, thereby achieving self-* objectives of autonomic computing. The approach is validated on a multi-agent simulator.

  7. Temperature compensated silicon resonators for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rais-Zadeh, Mina; Thakar, Vikram A.; Wu, Zhengzheng; Peczalski, Adam

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents piezoelectric transduction and frequency trimming of silicon-based resonators with a center frequency in the low megahertz regime. The temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) of the resonators is reduced using both passive and active compensation schemes. Specifically, a novel technique utilizing oxide-refilled trenches is implemented to achieve efficient temperature compensation while maintaining compatibility with wet release processes. Using this method, we demonstrate high-Q resonators having a first-order TCF as low as 3 ppm/°C and a turnover temperature of around 90 °C, ideally suited for use in ovenized platforms. Using active tuning, the temperature sensitivity of the resonator is further compensated around the turnover temperature, demonstrating frequency instability of less than 400 ppb. Such devices are ideally suited as timing units in space applications where size, power consumption, and temperature stability are of critical importance.

  8. Wireless Power Transfer for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramos, Gabriel Vazquez; Yuan, Jiann-Shiun

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces an implementation for magnetic resonance wireless power transfer for space applications. The analysis includes an equivalent impedance study, loop material characterization, source/load resonance coupling technique, and system response behavior due to loads variability. System characterization is accomplished by executing circuit design from analytical equations and simulations using Matlab and SPICE. The theory was validated by a combination of different experiments that includes loop material consideration, resonance coupling circuits considerations, electric loads considerations and a small scale proof-of-concept prototype. Experiment results shows successful wireless power transfer for all the cases studied. The prototype provided about 4.5 W of power to the load at a separation of -5 cm from the source using a power amplifier rated for 7 W.

  9. 47 CFR 25.114 - Applications for space station authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applications for space station authorizations....114 Applications for space station authorizations. (a) A comprehensive proposal shall be submitted for each proposed space station on FCC Form 312, Main Form and Schedule S, together with attached...

  10. 47 CFR 25.114 - Applications for space station authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications for space station authorizations....114 Applications for space station authorizations. (a) A comprehensive proposal shall be submitted for each proposed space station on FCC Form 312, Main Form and Schedule S, together with attached...

  11. The 1993 Goddard Conference on Space Applications of Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hostetter, Carl F. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This publication comprises the papers presented at the 1993 Goddard Conference on Space Applications of Artificial Intelligence held at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD on May 10-13, 1993. The purpose of this annual conference is to provide a forum in which current research and development directed at space applications of artificial intelligence can be presented and discussed.

  12. 47 CFR 25.114 - Applications for space station authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... each proposed GSO space station or NGSO satellite constellation on FCC Form 312, Main Form and Schedule... blanket authority for an NGSO satellite constellation comprised of space stations that are not all... type of space station in the constellation. (b) Each application for a new or modified space...

  13. Expert systems applications for space shuttle payload integration automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Expert systems technologies have been and are continuing to be applied to NASA's Space Shuttle orbiter payload integration problems to provide a level of automation previously unrealizable. NASA's Space Shuttle orbiter was designed to be extremely flexible in its ability to accommodate many different types and combinations of satellites and experiments (payloads) within its payload bay. This flexibility results in differnet and unique engineering resource requirements for each of its payloads, creating recurring payload and cargo integration problems. Expert systems provide a successful solution for these recurring problems. The Orbiter Payload Bay Cabling Expert (EXCABL) was the first expert system, developed to solve the electrical services provisioning problem. A second expert system, EXMATCH, was developed to generate a list of the reusable installation drawings available for each EXCABL solution. These successes have proved the applicability of expert systems technologies to payload integration problems and consequently a third expert system is currently in work. These three expert systems, the manner in which they resolve payload problems and how they will be integrated are described.

  14. Advancing differential atom interferometry for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiow, Sheng-Wey; Williams, Jason; Yu, Nan

    2016-05-01

    Atom interferometer (AI) based sensors exhibit precision and accuracy unattainable with classical sensors, thanks to the inherent stability of atomic properties. Dual atomic sensors operating in a differential mode further extend AI applicability beyond environmental disturbances. Extraction of the phase difference between dual AIs, however, typically introduces uncertainty and systematic in excess of that warranted by each AI's intrinsic noise characteristics, especially in practical applications and real time measurements. In this presentation, we report our efforts in developing practical schemes for reducing noises and enhancing sensitivities in the differential AI measurement implementations. We will describe an active phase extraction method that eliminates the noise overhead and demonstrates a performance boost of a gravity gradiometer by a factor of 3. We will also describe a new long-baseline approach for differential AI measurements in a laser ranging assisted AI configuration. The approach uses well-developed AIs for local measurements but leverage the mature schemes of space laser interferometry for LISA and GRACE. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a Contract with NASA.

  15. Space Transportation Systems, Aeronautics and Space Technology, Space and Terrestrial Applications, and Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This report is prepared on an annual basis for the purposes of highlighting the fiscal year research and technology (R&T) activities. Its intent is to better inform the R&T Program Managers of significant accomplishments that promise practical and beneficial program application. The report is not inclusive of all R&T activities. The document is organized into two distinct sections: (1) a general summary of the major R&T activities in each program area, and (2) a description of significant individual completed activities and their results. This document will be updated November 1 of each year.

  16. Advanced energy storage for space applications: A follow-up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

    1994-01-01

    Viewgraphs on advanced energy storage for space applications are presented. Topics covered include: categories of space missions using batteries; battery challenges; properties of SOA and advanced primary batteries; lithium primary cell applications; advanced rechargeable battery applications; present limitations of advanced battery technologies; and status of Li-TiS2, Ni-MH, and Na-NiCl2 cell technologies.

  17. Space-Based Range Safety and Future Space Range Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, Donald E.; Valencia, Lisa M.; Simpson, James C.

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety (STARS) study is a multiphase project to demonstrate the performance, flexibility and cost savings that can be realized by using space-based assets for the Range Safety [global positioning system (GPS) metric tracking data, flight termination command and range safety data relay] and Range User (telemetry) functions during vehicle launches and landings. Phase 1 included flight testing S-band Range Safety and Range User hardware in 2003 onboard a high-dynamic aircraft platform at Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California, USA) using the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) as the communications link. The current effort, Phase 2, includes hardware and packaging upgrades to the S-band Range Safety system and development of a high data rate Ku-band Range User system. The enhanced Phase 2 Range Safety Unit (RSU) provided real-time video for three days during the historic Global Flyer (Scaled Composites, Mojave, California, USA) flight in March, 2005. Additional Phase 2 testing will include a sounding rocket test of the Range Safety system and aircraft flight testing of both systems. Future testing will include a flight test on a launch vehicle platform. This paper discusses both Range Safety and Range User developments and testing with emphasis on the Range Safety system. The operational concept of a future space-based range is also discussed.

  18. Space-Based Range Safety and Future Space Range Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, Donald E.; Valencia, Lisa M.; Simpson, James C.

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety study is a multiphase project to demonstrate the performance, flexibility and cost savings that can be realized by using space-based assets for the Range Safety (global positioning system metric tracking data, flight termination command and range safety data relay) and Range User (telemetry) functions during vehicle launches and landings. Phase 1 included flight testing S-band Range Safety and Range User hardware in 2003 onboard a high-dynamic aircraft platform at Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) using the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System as the communications link. The current effort, Phase 2, includes hardware and packaging upgrades to the S-band Range Safety system and development of a high data rate Ku-band Range User system. The enhanced Phase 2 Range Safety Unit provided real-time video for three days during the historic GlobalFlyer (Scaled Composites, Mojave, California) flight in March, 2005. Additional Phase 2 testing will include a sounding rocket test of the Range Safety system and aircraft flight testing of both systems. Future testing will include a flight test on a launch vehicle platform. This report discusses both Range Safety and Range User developments and testing with emphasis on the Range Safety system. The operational concept of a future space-based range is also discussed.

  19. New Generation Power System for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Loren; Carr, Greg; Deligiannis, Frank; Lam, Barbara; Nelson, Ron; Pantaleon, Jose; Ruiz, Ian; Treicler, John; Wester, Gene; Sauers, Jim; Giampoli, Paul; Haskell, Russ; Mulvey, Jim; Repp, John

    2004-01-01

    The Deep Space Avionics (DSA) Project is developing a new generation of power system building blocks. Using application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and power switching modules a scalable power system can be constructed for use on multiple deep space missions including future missions to Mars, comets, Jupiter and its moons. The key developments of the DSA power system effort are five power ASICs and a mod ule for power switching. These components enable a modular and scalab le design approach, which can result in a wide variety of power syste m architectures to meet diverse mission requirements and environments . Each component is radiation hardened to one megarad) total dose. The power switching module can be used for power distribution to regular spacecraft loads, to propulsion valves and actuation of pyrotechnic devices. The number of switching elements per load, pyrotechnic firin gs and valve drivers can be scaled depending on mission needs. Teleme try data is available from the switch module via an I2C data bus. The DSA power system components enable power management and distribution for a variety of power buses and power system architectures employing different types of energy storage and power sources. This paper will describe each power ASIC#s key performance characteristics as well a s recent prototype test results. The power switching module test results will be discussed and will demonstrate its versatility as a multip urpose switch. Finally, the combination of these components will illu strate some of the possible power system architectures achievable fro m small single string systems to large fully redundant systems.

  20. Application of Dusty Plasmas for Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhavasar, Hemang; Ahuja, Smariti

    plasmas, dust particles are actually grown in the discharge from the reactive gases used to form the plasmas. Perhaps the most intriguing aspect of dusty plasmas is that the particles can be directly imaged and their dynamic behavior recorded as digital images. This is accomplished by laser light scattering from the particles. Since the particle mass is relatively high, their dynamical timescales are much longer than that of the ions or electrons. Dusty plasmas has a broad range of applications including interplanetary space dust, comets, planetary rings, dusty surfaces in space, and aerosols in the atmosphere.

  1. Carbon Nanotubes for Space Photovoltaic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Efstathiadis, Harry; Haldar, Pradeep; Landi, Brian J.; Denno, Patrick L.; DiLeo, Roberta A.; VanDerveer, William; Raffaelle, Ryne P.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be envisioned as an individual graphene sheet rolled into a seamless cylinder (single-walled, SWNT), or concentric sheets as in the case of a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) (1). The role-up vector will determine the hexagonal arrangement and "chirality" of the graphene sheet, which will establish the nanotube to be metallic or semiconducting. The optoelectronic properties will depend directly on this chiral angle and the diameter of the SWNT, with semiconductor types exhibiting a band gap energy (2). Characteristic of MWNTs are the concentric graphene layers spaced 0.34 nm apart, with diameters from 10-200 nm and lengths up to hundreds of microns (2). In the case of SWNTs, the diameters range from 0.4 - 2 nm and lengths have been reported up to 1.5 cm (3). SWNTs have the distinguishable property of "bundling" together due to van der Waal's attractions to form "ropes." A comparison of these different structural types is shown in Figure 1. The use of SWNTS in space photovoltaic (PV) applications is attractive for a variety of reasons. Carbon nanotubes as a class of materials exhibit unprecedented optical, electrical, mechanical properties, with the added benefit of being nanoscale in size which fosters ideal interaction in nanomaterial-based devices like polymeric solar cells. The optical bandgap of semiconducting SWNTs can be varied from approx. 0.4 - 1.5 eV, with this property being inversely proportional to the nanotube diameter. Recent work at GE Global Research has shown where a single nanotube device can behave as an "ideal" pn diode (5). The SWNT was bridged over a SiO2 channel between Mo contacts and exhibited an ideality factor of 1, based on a fit of the current-voltage data using the diode equation. The measured PV efficiency under a 0.8 eV monochromatic illumination showed a power conversion efficiency of 0.2 %. However, the projected efficiency of these junctions is estimated to be > 5 %, especially when one considers the

  2. Investigating the Effects of Simulated Space conditions on Novel Extremely Halophilic Archaea: Halovarius Luteus gen. nov., sp. nov.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feshangsaz, Niloofar; Van Loon, ing.. Jack J. W. A.; Nazmi, Kamran; Semsarha, Farid

    2016-07-01

    Studying halophiles from different environments of Earth provide new insights into our search for life in the universe. Haloarchaea show some unique characteristics and physiological adaptations like acidic proteins against harsh environments such as natural brine with salt concentration approaching saturation (5 M) and regions with low active water. These properties make haloarchaea interesting candidate for astrobiological studies. Halovarius luteus gen. nov., sp. nov. a novel extremely halophilic archaeon from Urmia salt lake, in Iran has been chosen to explore its resistance against a series of extreme conditions. The aim of this study is to assess the resistance of strain DA50T under the effects of simulated space conditions like simulated microgravity, hypergravity, and desiccation. In this paper we will discuss the results of these studies where we specifically focus on changes in carotenoid pigments production and whole cell proteome. This is the first report of very novel Iranian archaea in response to extreme space conditions. The pigments were extracted by acetone and methanol. Pigments were analyzed by scanning the absorbance spectrum in the UV-VIS spectrophotometer. And they were separated by TLC. Whole protein from cell lysate supernatant was extracted after lysis with Bacterial Protein Extraction Reagent and fractionated by RP-HPLC using C18 column. Proteome analyzed by electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and MALDI-TOF. Carotenoid pigments are formed under different extreme conditions such as dry environment and gravitational changes. Also the protein composition exhibits alterations after exposure to the same conditions. Our conclusion is that pigments and proteins formation depend on the growth circumstances. Halophiles use this as an adaptation to survive under different environmental conditions.

  3. Exploring the extremes of sequence/structure space with ensemble fold recognition in the program Phyre.

    PubMed

    Bennett-Lovsey, Riccardo M; Herbert, Alex D; Sternberg, Michael J E; Kelley, Lawrence A

    2008-02-15

    Structural and functional annotation of the large and growing database of genomic sequences is a major problem in modern biology. Protein structure prediction by detecting remote homology to known structures is a well-established and successful annotation technique. However, the broad spectrum of evolutionary change that accompanies the divergence of close homologues to become remote homologues cannot easily be captured with a single algorithm. Recent advances to tackle this problem have involved the use of multiple predictive algorithms available on the Internet. Here we demonstrate how such ensembles of predictors can be designed in-house under controlled conditions and permit significant improvements in recognition by using a concept taken from protein loop energetics and applying it to the general problem of 3D clustering. We have developed a stringent test that simulates the situation where a protein sequence of interest is submitted to multiple different algorithms and not one of these algorithms can make a confident (95%) correct assignment. A method of meta-server prediction (Phyre) that exploits the benefits of a controlled environment for the component methods was implemented. At 95% precision or higher, Phyre identified 64.0% of all correct homologous query-template relationships, and 84.0% of the individual test query proteins could be accurately annotated. In comparison to the improvement that the single best fold recognition algorithm (according to training) has over PSI-Blast, this represents a 29.6% increase in the number of correct homologous query-template relationships, and a 46.2% increase in the number of accurately annotated queries. It has been well recognised in fold prediction, other bioinformatics applications, and in many other areas, that ensemble predictions generally are superior in accuracy to any of the component individual methods. However there is a paucity of information as to why the ensemble methods are superior and indeed this

  4. Medical Applications of Space Light-Emitting Diode Technology--Space Station and Beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, H.T.; Houle, J.M.; Donohoe, D.L.; Bajic, D.M.; Schmidt, M.H.; Reichert, K.W.; Weyenberg, G.T.; Larson, D.L.; Meyer, G.A.; Caviness, J.A.

    1999-06-01

    Space light-emitting diode (LED) technology has provided medicine with a new tool capable of delivering light deep into tissues of the body, at wavelengths which are biologically optimal for cancer treatment and wound healing. This LED technology has already flown on Space Shuttle missions, and shows promise for wound healing applications of benefit to Space Station astronauts.

  5. Advanced Mating System Development for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James L.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of space flight sealing and the work required for the further development of a dynamic interface seal for the use on space mating systems to support a fully androgynous mating interface. This effort has resulted in the advocacy of developing a standard multipurpose interface for use with all modern modular space architecture. This fully androgynous design means a seal-on-seal (SOS) system.

  6. Bivariate extreme value distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshamy, M.

    1992-01-01

    In certain engineering applications, such as those occurring in the analyses of ascent structural loads for the Space Transportation System (STS), some of the load variables have a lower bound of zero. Thus, the need for practical models of bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions with lower limits was identified. We discuss the Gumbel models and present practical forms of bivariate extreme probability distributions of Weibull and Frechet types with two parameters. Bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions can be expressed in terms of the marginal extremel distributions and a 'dependence' function subject to certain analytical conditions. Properties of such bivariate extreme distributions, sums and differences of paired extremals, as well as the corresponding forms of conditional distributions, are discussed. Practical estimation techniques are also given.

  7. Successfully Transitioning Science Research to Space Weather Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James

    2012-01-01

    The awareness of potentially significant impacts of space weather on spaceand ground ]based technological systems has generated a strong desire in many sectors of government and industry to effectively transform knowledge and understanding of the variable space environment into useful tools and applications for use by those entities responsible for systems that may be vulnerable to space weather impacts. Essentially, effectively transitioning science knowledge to useful applications relevant to space weather has become important. This talk will present proven methodologies that have been demonstrated to be effective, and how in the current environment those can be applied to space weather transition efforts.

  8. Second Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollman, Thomas (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    The proceedings of the conference are presented. This second conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications brings together a diversity of scientific and engineering work and is intended to provide an opportunity for those who employ AI methods in space applications to identify common goals and to discuss issues of general interest in the AI community.

  9. The 1994 Goddard Conference on Space Applications of Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hostetter, Carl F. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This publication comprises the papers presented at the 1994 Goddard Conference on Space Applications of Artificial Intelligence held at the NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, on 10-12 May 1994. The purpose of this annual conference is to provide a forum in which current research and development directed at space applications of artificial intelligence can be presented and discussed.

  10. Applications review for a Space Program Imaging Radar (SPIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonett, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    The needs, applications, user support, research, and theoretical studies of imaging radar are reviewed. The applications of radar in water resources, minerals and petroleum exploration, vegetation resources, ocean radar imaging, and cartography are discussed. The advantages of space imaging radar are presented, and it is recommended that imaging radar be placed on the space shuttle.

  11. Applications of Tethers in Space, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cron, A. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed include tethered satellites, tether deployment, satellite systems, science applications, electrodynamic interactions, transportation applications, artificial gravity, constellations, and technology and testing.

  12. The application of the statistical theory of extreme values to gust-load problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Press, Harry

    1950-01-01

    An analysis is presented which indicates that the statistical theory of extreme values is applicable to the problems of predicting the frequency of encountering the larger gust loads and gust velocities for both specific test conditions as well as commercial transport operations. The extreme-value theory provides an analytic form for the distributions of maximum values of gust load and velocity. Methods of fitting the distribution are given along with a method of estimating the reliability of the predictions. The theory of extreme values is applied to available load data from commercial transport operations. The results indicate that the estimates of the frequency of encountering the larger loads are more consistent with the data and more reliable than those obtained in previous analyses. (author)

  13. Third NASA Workshop on Wiring for Space Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hammoud, A.; Stavnes, M.

    1995-11-01

    This workshop addressed key technology issues in the field of electrical power wiring for space applications, and transferred information and technology related to space wiring for use in government and commercial applications. Speakers from space agencies, U.S. Federal labs, industry, and academia presented program overviews and discussed topics on arc tracking phenomena, advancements in insulation materials and constructions, and new wiring system topologies. A separate abstract has been prepared for one article from this workshop.

  14. Fifth Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odell, Steve L. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Fifth Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications brings together diverse technical and scientific work in order to help those who employ AI methods in space applications to identify common goals and to address issues of general interest in the AI community. Topics include the following: automation for Space Station; intelligent control, testing, and fault diagnosis; robotics and vision; planning and scheduling; simulation, modeling, and tutoring; development tools and automatic programming; knowledge representation and acquisition; and knowledge base/data base integration.

  15. Third NASA Workshop on Wiring for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammoud, Ahmad (Compiler); Stavnes, Mark (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This workshop addressed key technology issues in the field of electrical power wiring for space applications, and transferred information and technology related to space wiring for use in government and commercial applications. Speakers from space agencies, U.S. Federal labs, industry, and academia presented program overviews and discussed topics on arc tracking phenomena, advancements in insulation materials and constructions, and new wiring system topologies.

  16. Application of space benefits to education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dannenberg, K. K.; Ordway, F. I., III

    1972-01-01

    Information on the conducting of a teacher workshop is presented. This educational pilot project updated instruction material, used improved teaching techniques, and increased student motivation. The NASA/MSFC industrial facilities, and the displays at the Alabama Space and Rocket Center (ASRC) were key elements of the program, including a permanent exhibit, at the latter, on selected benefits accruing from the space program.

  17. A comparison of propulsion systems for potential space mission applications

    SciTech Connect

    Harvego, E.A.; Sulmeisters, T.K.

    1987-01-01

    A derivative of the NERVA nuclear rocket engine was compared with a chemical propulsion system and a nuclear electric propulsion system to assess the relative capabilities of the different propulsion system options for three potential space missions. The missions considered were (1) orbital transfer from low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), (2) LEO to a lunar base, and (3) LEO to Mars. The results of this comparison indicate that the direct-thrust NERVA-derivative nuclear rocket engine has the best performance characteristics for the missions considered. The combined high thrust and high specific impulse achievable with a direct-thrust nuclear stage permits short operating times (transfer times) comparable to chemical propulsion systems, but with considerably less required propellant. While nuclear-electric propulsion systems are more fuel efficient than either direct-nuclear or chemical propulsion, they are not stand-alone systems, since their relatively low thrust levels require the use of high-thrust ferry or lander stages in high gravity applications such as surface-to-orbit propulsion. The extremely long transfer times and inefficient trajectories associated with electric propulsion systems were also found to be a significant drawback.

  18. Artificial intelligence applications in space and SDI: A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiala, Harvey E.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to survey existing and planned Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications to show that they are sufficiently advanced for 32 percent of all space applications and SDI (Space Defense Initiative) software to be AI-based software. To best define the needs that AI can fill in space and SDI programs, this paper enumerates primary areas of research and lists generic application areas. Current and planned NASA and military space projects in AI will be reviewed. This review will be largely in the selected area of expert systems. Finally, direct applications of AI to SDI will be treated. The conclusion covers the importance of AI to space and SDI applications, and conversely, their importance to AI.

  19. Electrodynamic Dust Shield for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Paul J.; Johansen, Michael R.; Olsen, Robert C.; Raines, Matthew G.; Phillips, James R., III; Cox, Rachel E.; Hogue, Michael D.; Pollard, Jacob R. S.; Calle, Carlos I.

    2016-01-01

    Dust mitigation technology has been highlighted by NASA and the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) as a Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) critical technology need in order to reduce life cycle cost and risk, and increase the probability of mission success. The Electrostatics and Surface Physics Lab in Swamp Works at the Kennedy Space Center has developed an Electrodynamic Dust Shield (EDS) to remove dust from multiple surfaces, including glass shields and thermal radiators. Further development is underway to improve the operation and reliability of the EDS as well as to perform material and component testing outside of the International Space Station (ISS) on the Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE). This experiment is designed to verify that the EDS can withstand the harsh environment of space and will look to closely replicate the solar environment experienced on the Moon.

  20. Application of data on climate extremes for the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redmond, K. T.; Fleishman, E.; Cayan, D. R.; Daudert, B.; Gershunov, A.

    2015-12-01

    We are improving the scientific capacity to evaluate responses of natural resources to climate extremes. We also are enhancing a platform for derivation of and access to customized climate information for the full extent or any subset of the southwestern United States. Extreme climate can have substantial effects on species, ecological and evolutionary processes, and the health of visitors to public lands. We are working with federal and state managers and with researchers who collaborate with decision-makers to use data on climate extremes to inform resource management. Current applications include sudden oak death, estuarine management, and fine-resolution manipulation of montane vegetation. To facilitate practical use of data on climate extremes, we are screening global climate models on the basis of their realism in representing natural regional patterns and extremes of temperature and precipitation, including those driven by El Niño and La Niña. We are assessing how well each model represents different climate elements. We also are delivering point and gridded observations and downscaled model projections, all at daily and 6 km resolution, on past and future climate extremes. Additionally, we are using the downscaled outputs to drive a hydrologic model and derive multiple probabilistic measures of water availability, flood, and drought. Moreover, we are extending the capacity of the Southwest Climate and Environmental Information Collaborative (SCENIC; wrcc.dri.edu/csc/scenic), a product developed by the Western Regional Climate Center, to provide access to diverse observed and simulated data on regional weather and climate, particularly on extremes.

  1. Planetary mission applications for space storable propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, R. L.; Cork, M. J.; Young, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study to compare space-storable with earth-storable spacecraft propulsion systems, space-storable with solid kick stages, and several space-storable development options on the basis of benefits received for cost expenditures required. The results show that, for a launch vehicle with performance less than that of Shuttle/Centaur, space-storable spacecraft propulsion offers an incremental benefit/cost ratio between 1.0 and 5.5 when compared to earth-storable systems for three of the four missions considered. In the case of VOIR 83, positive benefits were apparent only for a specific launch vehicle-spacecraft propulsion combination. A space-storable propulsion system operating at thrust of 600 lbf, 355 units of specific impulse, and with blowdown pressurization, represents the best choice for the JO 81 mission on a Titan/Centaur if only spacecraft propulsion modifications are considered. For still higher performance, a new solid-propellant kick stage with space-storable spacecraft propulsion is preferred over a system which uses space-storable propellants for both the kick stage and the spacecraft system.

  2. Review and evaluation of space processing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Materials research in space which offers advantages in studying phenomena and preparing materials under conditions which cannot be realized in the gravity field of the Earth is discussed. Many techniques were developed to improve processing systems and reduce the effect of gravitationally induced restrictions. The space-based devices take advantage of a wide range of low-gravity facilities including drop towers and tubes, aircraft and sounding rocket parabolic trajectories, simple materials experiment accommodations in the Space Shuttle, and more complex capabilities in Spacelab. All these systems are used to produce novel materials and to study material processing under unique conditions.

  3. Space Operations Learning Center Facebook Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, Ben; Milner, Barbara; Binebrink, Dan; Kuok, Heng

    2012-01-01

    The proposed Space Operations Learning Center (SOLC) Facebook module, initially code-named Spaceville, is intended to be an educational online game utilizing the latest social networking technology to reach a broad audience base and inspire young audiences to be interested in math, science, and engineering. Spaceville will be a Facebook application/ game with the goal of combining learning with a fun game and social environment. The mission of the game is to build a scientific outpost on the Moon or Mars and expand the colony. Game activities include collecting resources, trading resources, completing simple science experiments, and building architectures such as laboratories, habitats, greenhouses, machine shops, etc. The player is awarded with points and achievement levels. The player s ability increases as his/her points and levels increase. A player can interact with other players using multiplayer Facebook functionality. As a result, a player can discover unexpected treasures through scientific missions, engineering, and working with others. The player creates his/her own avatar with his/her selection of its unique appearance, and names the character. The player controls the avatar to perform activities such as collecting oxygen molecules or building a habitat. From observations of other successful social online games such as Farmville and Restaurant City, a common element of these games is having eye-catching and cartoonish characters, and interesting animations for all activities. This will create a fun, educational, and rewarding environment. The player needs to accumulate points in order to be awarded special items needed for advancing to higher levels. Trophies will be awarded to the player when certain goals are reached or tasks are completed. In order to acquire some special items needed for advancement in the game, the player will need to visit his/her neighboring towns to discover the items. This is the social aspect of the game that requires the

  4. Application of ultrasonics to space shuttle tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.M.; Hogenson, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    Two types of discrete sized ceramic tiles bonded to the outer skin of space vehicles are used for the thermal protection of the Space Shuttle during reentry. Failure of any one of the more than 30,000 tiles on the Space Shuttle could have significant effects. Ultrasonic testing to establish the soundness of the Space Shuttle tiles was evaluated and found to be a viable and valuable method. The method is simple, quick, and has a statistical basis. The testing method involves comparing the measured velocities of finished tiles to velocity-tensile strength relationships obtained for coupons. Acceptance criteria can be developed for the computerized data collection and the status of the tile determined automatically. The method was instituted after many tiles were in existence. It is planned that the method be used to determine tile material quality before any machining or finishing is done in an effort to make the system more efficient. (LCL)

  5. Vision requirements for Space Station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouse, K. R.

    1985-01-01

    Problems which will be encountered by computer vision systems in Space Station operations are discussed, along with solutions be examined at Johnson Space Station. Lighting cannot be controlled in space, nor can the random presence of reflective surfaces. Task-oriented capabilities are to include docking to moving objects, identification of unexpected objects during autonomous flights to different orbits, and diagnoses of damage and repair requirements for autonomous Space Station inspection robots. The approaches being examined to provide these and other capabilities are television IR sensors, advanced pattern recognition programs feeding on data from laser probes, laser radar for robot eyesight and arrays of SMART sensors for automated location and tracking of target objects. Attention is also being given to liquid crystal light valves for optical processing of images for comparisons with on-board electronic libraries of images.

  6. Thin film coatings for space electrical power system applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, Daniel A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines some of the ways in which thin film coatings can play a role in aerospace applications. Space systems discussed include photovoltaic and solar dynamic electric power generation systems, including applications in environmental protection, thermal energy storage, and radiator emittance enhancement. Potential applications of diamondlike films to both atmospheric and space based systems are examined. Also, potential uses of thin films of the recently discovered high-temperature superconductive materials are discussed.

  7. Thin film coatings for space electrical power system applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, Daniel A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines some of the ways in which thin film coatings can play a role in aerospace applications. Space systems discussed include photovoltaic and solar dynamic electric power generation systems, including applications in environmental protection, thermal energy storage, and radiator emittance enhancement. Potential applications of diamondlike films to both atmospheric and space based systems are examined. Also, potential uses of thin films of the recently discovered high-temperature superconductive materials are discussed.

  8. The potential of the lichen symbiosis to cope with the extreme conditions of outer space II: germination capacity of lichen ascospores in response to simulated space conditions.

    PubMed

    de Vera, J-P; Horneck, G; Rettberg, P; Ott, S

    2004-01-01

    Complementary to the already well-studied microorganisms, lichens, symbiotic organisms of the mycobiont (fungi) and the photobiont (algae), were used as "model systems" in which to examine the ecological potential to resist to extreme environments of outer space. Ascospores (sexual propagules of the mycobiont) of the lichens Fulgensia bracteata, Xanthoria elegans and Xanthoria parietina were exposed to selected space-simulating conditions (up to 16 h of space vacuum at 10(-3) Pa and UV radiation at 160 nm < or = lambda < or = 400 nm), while embedded in the lichen fruiting bodies. After exposure, the ascospores were discharged and their viability was tested as germination capacity on different culture media including those containing Mars regolith simulant. It was found that (i) the germination rate on media containing Mars regolith simulant was as high as on other mineral-containing media, (ii) if enclosed in the ascocarps, the ascospores survived the vacuum exposure, the UV-irradiation as well as the combined treatment of vacuum and UV to a high degree. In general, 50 % or more viable spores were recovered, with ascospores of X. elegans showing the highest survival. It is suggested that ascospores inside the ascocarps are well protected by the anatomical structure, the gelatinous layer and the pigments (parietin and carotene) against the space parameters tested.

  9. The Solution of Dirac Equation in Quasi-Extreme REISSNER-NORDSTRÖM de Sitter Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Yan; Cui, Song; Liu, Ling

    The radial parts of Dirac equation between the outer black hole horizon and the cosmological horizon in quasi-extreme Reissner-Nordström de Sitter (RNdS) geometry is solved numerically. We use an accurate polynomial approximation to mimic the modified tortoise coordinate hat r*(r), for obtaining the inverse function r=r(hat r*) and V=V(hat r*). We then use a quantum mechanical method to solve the wave equation and give the reflection and transmission coefficients. We concentrate on two limiting cases. The first case is when the two horizons are close to each other, and the second case is when the horizons are far apart.

  10. New HSL and HSV color spaces and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcu, Gabriel G.; Abe, Satoshi

    1997-02-01

    The color classification applied for large documents requires simple color transformations that enables the implementation of high speed algorithms with reasonable performance. The use of HSV and HSL color spaces in such applications is limited due to their perceptual non- linearity, even if these spaces are attractive due to the simplicity of their definition and transformation. This paper proposes new relationships of the HSL and HSV color spaces based on the replacement of the lightness and brightness definitions, with new relationships based on more perceptual lightness and brightness. The new HSL and HSV color spaces are visualized in three dimensions and the shapes are compared with the old regulate spaces. These spaces remain device dependent as the conventional HSV and HSL spaces, but the distribution of color is more suitable for some application like color clusterization. The new defined color spaces are asymmetric. It is shown how the new HSV and HSL color spaces simplify and improve the accuracy of a clusterization process. The results of clusterization process are compared in the processed image area as well as in the 3D histogram diagram. The color spaces are used for clusterization of colormaps, with application to automatic color classification in large documents (maps, blueprint documents, etc.). Results of clusterization process for blueprint documents are provided for the new introduced HSL and HSV color spaces.

  11. A high energy Space Station (HESS) array for studying extremely energetic cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormes, J. F.; Streitmatter, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The scientific aims and design concept of a High-Energy Space Station (HESS) cosmic-ray detector array are discussed. The current state of knowledge on cosmic-ray acceleration and high-energy interactions is briefly reviewed, and the need for observations yielding elemental composition and spectra in the 10-10,000-TeV/nucleon range is demonstrated. It is predicted that 2 yr of observations with a space-borne detector of geometry factor 30 sq m sr would provide adequate data to determine the acceleration mechanism (by comparing the energy level at which the spectra of He nuclei and protons break). A modular HESS array comprising W/scintillator/PM-tube calorimeter modules and Cerenkov charge-sensitive detector modules and weighing about 30 tonnes is described. The array could be assembled on orbit after transport in the Space Shuttle cargo bay, and data could be taken as soon as one or two layers of modules had been attached to the mounting-frame/support-electronics unit.

  12. TOPICAL REVIEW: Intermediate and extreme mass-ratio inspirals—astrophysics, science applications and detection using LISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Gair, Jonathan R.; Freitag, Marc; Miller, M. Coleman; Mandel, Ilya; Cutler, Curt J.; Babak, Stanislav

    2007-09-01

    Black hole binaries with extreme (gtrsim104:1) or intermediate (~102 104:1) mass ratios are among the most interesting gravitational wave sources that are expected to be detected by the proposed laser interferometer space antenna (LISA). These sources have the potential to tell us much about astrophysics, but are also of unique importance for testing aspects of the general theory of relativity in the strong field regime. Here we discuss these sources from the perspectives of astrophysics, data analysis and applications to testing general relativity, providing both a description of the current state of knowledge and an outline of some of the outstanding questions that still need to be addressed. This review grew out of discussions at a workshop in September 2006 hosted by the Albert Einstein Institute in Golm, Germany.

  13. Ground Robotic Hand Applications for the Space Program study (GRASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grissom, William A.; Rafla, Nader I. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This document reports on a NASA-STDP effort to address research interests of the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) through a study entitled, Ground Robotic-Hand Applications for the Space Program (GRASP). The primary objective of the GRASP study was to identify beneficial applications of specialized end-effectors and robotic hand devices for automating any ground operations which are performed at the Kennedy Space Center. Thus, operations for expendable vehicles, the Space Shuttle and its components, and all payloads were included in the study. Typical benefits of automating operations, or augmenting human operators performing physical tasks, include: reduced costs; enhanced safety and reliability; and reduced processing turnaround time.

  14. A new global dataset with extreme sea levels and its application for assessing flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muis, Sanne; Verlaan, Martin; Winsemius, Hessel; Aerts, Jeroen; Ward, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Extreme sea levels, caused by storm surges and high tides, can have devastating societal impacts. The global coastal population is faced with an increasing trend in flood risk, induced by socio-economic development and climate change. Without action, the increasing trends in flood hazard and exposure will be associated with catastrophic flood losses in the future. The adequate allocation of global investments in adaptation requires an accurate understanding of the current and future coastal flood risk on a global-scale. Here we present the first global reanalysis of storm surges and extreme sea levels (GTSR dataset) based on dynamical modelling. GTSR covers the entire world's coastline and consists of time series of tides and surges and estimates of extreme values for various return periods. The dataset is based on two different hydrodynamic models: FES2012 for modelling tides, and GSTM for modelling storm surges. GSTM is forced by meteorological fields from ERA-Interim to simulate storm surges for the period 1979-2014. Validation showed that there is very good agreement between modelled and observed sea levels. Only in regions prone to tropical cyclones, extreme sea levels are severely underestimated due to the limited resolution of the meteorological forcing. This will be resolved for future updates of GTSR. As a first application of GSTR, we estimate that 99 million people are exposed to a 1 in 100 year flood. This is almost 40% lower than estimates based the DIVA dataset, another global dataset of extreme sea level. We foresee other applications in assessing impacts of climate change and risk management, such as assessing changes in storminess, estimating the impacts of sea level, and providing warning levels to operational models.

  15. Fuel Cells for Space Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cell technology has been receiving more attention recently as a possible alternative to the internal combustion engine for our automobile. Improvements in fuel cell designs as well as improvements in lightweight high-pressure gas storage tank technology make fuel cell technology worth a look to see if fuel cells can play a more expanded role in space missions. This study looks at the specific weight density and specific volume density of potential fuel cell systems as an alternative to primary and secondary batteries that have traditionally been used for space missions. This preliminary study indicates that fuel cell systems have the potential for energy densities of greater than 500 W-hr/kg, greater than 500W/kg and greater than 400 W-hr/liter, greater than 200 W/liter. This level of performance makes fuel cells attractive as high-power density, high-energy density sources for space science probes, planetary rovers and other payloads. The power requirements for these space missions are, in general, much lower than the power levels where fuel cells have been used in the past. Adaptation of fuel cells for space science missions will require down-sizing the fuel cell stack and making the fuel cell operate without significant amounts of ancillary equipment.

  16. The International Safety Framework for nuclear power source applications in outer space-Useful and substantial guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerer, L.; Wilcox, R. E.; Bechtel, R.; Harbison, S.

    2015-06-01

    In 2009, the International Safety Framework for Nuclear Power Source Applications in Outer Space was adopted, following a multi-year process that involved all major space faring nations under the auspices of a partnership between the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The Safety Framework reflects an international consensus on best practices to achieve safety. Following the 1992 UN Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space, it is the second attempt by the international community to draft guidance promoting the safety of applications of nuclear power sources in space missions. NPS applications in space have unique safety considerations compared with terrestrial applications. Mission launch and outer space operational requirements impose size, mass and other space environment limitations not present for many terrestrial nuclear facilities. Potential accident conditions could expose nuclear power sources to extreme physical conditions. The Safety Framework is structured to provide guidance for both the programmatic and technical aspects of safety. In addition to sections containing specific guidance for governments and for management, it contains technical guidance pertinent to the design, development and all mission phases of space NPS applications. All sections of the Safety Framework contain elements directly relevant to engineers and space mission designers for missions involving space nuclear power sources. The challenge for organisations and engineers involved in the design and development processes of space nuclear power sources and applications is to implement the guidance provided in the Safety Framework by integrating it into the existing standard space mission infrastructure of design, development and operational requirements, practices and processes. This adds complexity to the standard space mission and launch approval processes. The Safety Framework is deliberately

  17. Solar concentrators for space processing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermit, J. H.; Ruff, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    A study on the technological feasibility of using solar concentrators for crystal growth and zone refining in space has been performed. Previous studies related to the many aspects of the problem are reviewed. It was concluded from this effort that the technology for fabricating, orbiting, and deploying large solar concentrators has been developed. It was also concluded that the technological feasibility of space processing materials in the focal region of a solar concentrator depends primarily on two factors: (1) the ability of a solar concentrator to provide sufficient thermal energy for the process and (2) the ability of a solar concentrator to provide a thermal environment that is conducive to the processes of interest. The study indicates that solar concentrators of reasonable dimensions can satisfactorily provide both of these factors. This study also indicates that solar concentrators are attractive for space processing from the viewpoint of system specific power and system flexibility.

  18. Electronics for Deep Space Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, R. L.; Hammond, A.; Dickman, J. E.; Gerber, S. S.; Elbuluk, M. E.; Overton, E.

    2002-01-01

    Deep space probes and planetary exploration missions require electrical power management and control systems that are capable of efficient and reliable operation in very cold temperature environments. Typically, in deep space probes, heating elements are used to keep the spacecraft electronics near room temperature. The utilization of power electronics designed for and operated at low temperature will contribute to increasing efficiency and improving reliability of space power systems. At NASA Glenn Research Center, commercial-off-the-shelf devices as well as developed components are being investigated for potential use at low temperatures. These devices include semiconductor switching devices, magnetics, and capacitors. Integrated circuits such as digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters, DC/DC converters, operational amplifiers, and oscillators are also being evaluated. In this paper, results will be presented for selected analog-to-digital converters, oscillators, DC/DC converters, and pulse width modulation (PWM) controllers.

  19. Fourth Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odell, Stephen L. (Compiler); Denton, Judith S. (Compiler); Vereen, Mary (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    Proceedings of a conference held in Huntsville, Alabama, on November 15-16, 1988. The Fourth Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications brings together diverse technical and scientific work in order to help those who employ AI methods in space applications to identify common goals and to address issues of general interest in the AI community. Topics include the following: space applications of expert systems in fault diagnostics, in telemetry monitoring and data collection, in design and systems integration; and in planning and scheduling; knowledge representation, capture, verification, and management; robotics and vision; adaptive learning; and automatic programming.

  20. Applications Of Graphite Fluoride Fibers In Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheng; Long, Martin; Dever, Therese

    1993-01-01

    Report characterizes graphite fluoride fibers made from commercially available graphitized carbon fibers and discusses some potential applications of graphite fluoride fibers in outer space. Applications include heat-sinking printed-circuit boards, solar concentrators, and absorption of radar waves. Other applications based on exploitation of increased resistance to degradation by atomic oxygen, present in low orbits around Earth.

  1. Applications of Tethers in Space: Workshop Proceedings, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baracat, W. A. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The complete documentation of the workshop including all addresses, panel reports, charts, and summaries are presented. This volume presents all the reports on the fundamentals of applications of tethers in space. These applications include electrodynamic interactions, transportation, gravity utilization, constellations, technology and test, and science applications.

  2. Space Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Chapter 31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, John H.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Limero, Thomas; Arkin, C. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometers have been involved in essentially all aspects of space exploration. This chapter outlines some of these many uses. Mass spectrometers have not only helped to expand our knowledge and understanding of the world and solar system around us, they have helped to put man safely in space and expand our frontier. Mass spectrometry continues to prove to be a very reliable, robust, and flexible analytical instrument, ensuring that its use will continue to help aid our investigation of the universe and this small planet that we call home.

  3. Application of advanced technology to space automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schappell, R. T.; Polhemus, J. T.; Lowrie, J. W.; Hughes, C. A.; Stephens, J. R.; Chang, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    Automated operations in space provide the key to optimized mission design and data acquisition at minimum cost for the future. The results of this study strongly accentuate this statement and should provide further incentive for immediate development of specific automtion technology as defined herein. Essential automation technology requirements were identified for future programs. The study was undertaken to address the future role of automation in the space program, the potential benefits to be derived, and the technology efforts that should be directed toward obtaining these benefits.

  4. Selected tether applications in space: Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorsen, M. H.; Lippy, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    System characteristics and design requirements are assessed for tether deployment. Criteria are established for comparing alternate concepts for: (1) deployment of 220 klb space shuttle from the space station; (2) tether assisted launch of a 20,000 lb payload to geosynchronous orbit; (3) placement of the 20,000 lb AXAF into 320 nmi orbit via orbiter; (4) retrieval of 20,000 lb AXAF from 205 nmi circular orbit for maintenance and reboost to 320 nmi; and (5) tethered OMV rendezvous and retrieval of OTV returning from a geosynchronous mission. Tether deployment systems and technical issues are discussed.

  5. High-efficiency collector design for extreme-ultraviolet and x-ray applications.

    PubMed

    Zocchi, Fabio E

    2006-12-10

    A design of a two-reflection mirror for nested grazing-incidence optics is proposed in which maximum overall reflectivity is achieved by making the two grazing-incidence angles equal for each ray. The design is proposed mainly for application to nonimaging collector optics for extreme-ultraviolet microlithography where the radiation emitted from a hot plasma source needs to be collected and focused on the illuminator optics. For completeness, the design of a double- reflection mirror with equal reflection angles is also briefly outlined for the case of an object at infinity for possible use in x-ray applications.

  6. High-efficiency collector design for extreme-ultraviolet and x-ray applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zocchi, Fabio E

    2006-12-10

    A design of a two-reflection mirror for nested grazing-incidence optics is proposed in which maximum overall reflectivity is achieved by making the two grazing-incidence angles equal for each ray. The design is proposed mainly for application to nonimaging collector optics for extreme-ultraviolet microlithography where the radiation emitted from a hot plasma source needs to be collected and focused on the illuminator optics. For completeness, the design of a double-reflection mirror with equal reflection angles is also briefly outlined for the case of an object at infinity for possible use in x-ray applications.

  7. High-efficiency collector design for extreme-ultraviolet and x-ray applications.

    PubMed

    Zocchi, Fabio E

    2006-12-10

    A design of a two-reflection mirror for nested grazing-incidence optics is proposed in which maximum overall reflectivity is achieved by making the two grazing-incidence angles equal for each ray. The design is proposed mainly for application to nonimaging collector optics for extreme-ultraviolet microlithography where the radiation emitted from a hot plasma source needs to be collected and focused on the illuminator optics. For completeness, the design of a double- reflection mirror with equal reflection angles is also briefly outlined for the case of an object at infinity for possible use in x-ray applications. PMID:17119587

  8. Space Biotechnology and Commercial Applications University of Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Winfred; Evanich, Peggy L.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Biotechnology and Commercial Applications grant was funded by NASA's Kennedy Space Center in FY 2002 to provide dedicated biotechnology and agricultural research focused on the regeneration of space flight environments with direct parallels in Earth-based applications for solving problems in the environment, advances in agricultural science, and other human support issues amenable to targeted biotechnology solutions. This grant had three project areas, each with multiple tasks. They are: 1) Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and Education, 2) Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications, and 3) Commercial Applications. The Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and Education (SABRE) Center emphasized the fundamental biology of organisms involved in space flight applications, including those involved in advanced life support environments because of their critical role in the long-term exploration of space. The SABRE Center supports research at the University of Florida and at the Space Life Sciences Laboratory (SLSL) at the Kennedy Space Center. The Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications component focused on developing and applying sensor technologies to space environments and agricultural systems. The research activities in nanosensors were coordinated with the SABRE portions of this grant and with the research sponsored by the NASA Environmental Systems Commercial Space Technology Center located in the Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences. Initial sensor efforts have focused on air and water quality monitoring essential to humans for living and working permanently in space, an important goal identified in NASA's strategic plan. The closed environment of a spacecraft or planetary base accentuates cause and effect relationships and environmental impacts. The limited available air and water resources emphasize the need for reuse, recycling, and system monitoring. It is essential to

  9. Exploring the Extreme Universe with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David J.; Digel, Seth W.; Racusin, Judith L.

    2012-01-01

    In ways similar to experiments in nuclear and particle physics, high-energy astrophysics usesgamma rays and energetic charged particles toprobe processes that involve large energy transfers.Since its launch in 2008, the international Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has been exploringnatural particle accelerators and the interactionsof high-energy particles in the universe. Withsources ranging from thunderstorms on Earth to galaxies and exploding stars in distant parts of the cosmos, the telescopes subjects of study are almostas diverse as were those of the scientist whose name it bears.

  10. Trigger and Reconstruction Algorithms for the Japanese Experiment Module- Extreme Universe Space Observatory (JEM-EUSO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Andreev, Valeri; Christl, M. J.; Cline, David B.; Crawford, Hank; Judd, E. G.; Pennypacker, Carl; Watts, J. W.

    2007-01-01

    The JEM-EUSO collaboration intends to study high energy cosmic ray showers using a large downward looking telescope mounted on the Japanese Experiment Module of the International Space Station. The telescope focal plane is instrumented with approx.300k pixels operating as a digital camera, taking snapshots at approx. 1MHz rate. We report an investigation of the trigger and reconstruction efficiency of various algorithms based on time and spatial analysis of the pixel images. Our goal is to develop trigger and reconstruction algorithms that will allow the instrument to detect energies low enough to connect smoothly to ground-based observations.

  11. Advanced transponders for deep space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Kayalar, Selahattin; Yeh, Hen-Geul; Kyriacou, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Three architectures for advanced deep space transponders are proposed. The architectures possess various digital techniques such as fast Fourier transform (FFT), digital phase-locked loop (PLL), and digital sideband aided carrier detection with analog or digital turn-around ranging. Preliminary results on the design and conceptual implementation are presented. Modifications to the command detector unit (CDU) are also presented.

  12. Telerobotic technology for nuclear and space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, J.N.; Hamel, W.R.

    1987-03-01

    Telerobotic development efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are extensive and relatively diverse. Current efforts include development of a prototype space telerobot system for the NASA Langley Research Center and development and large-scale demonstration of nuclear fuel cycle teleoperators in the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. This paper presents an overview of the efforts in these major programs. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  13. MEMS Reliability Assurance Guidelines for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, Brian (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This guide is a reference for understanding the various aspects of microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS, with an emphasis on device reliability. Material properties, failure mechanisms, processing techniques, device structures, and packaging techniques common to MEMS are addressed in detail. Design and qualification methodologies provide the reader with the means to develop suitable qualification plans for the insertion of MEMS into the space environment.

  14. An overview of photovoltaic applications in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasel, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    An overview is given of the uses of photovoltaic (PV) power in space. The contribution of PV systems on unmanned, low Earth orbit and inner planetary missions is noted. The development of PV technology along the two paths of high efficiency and high power is discussed. The importance of increasing the service life of PV systems is covered.

  15. Space Applications of Industrial Laser Systems (SAILS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert E.; McCay, T. Dwayne; McCay, Mary Helen; Bible, Brice

    1995-01-01

    A program is under way to develop a YAG laser based materials processing workstation to fly in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The system will be capable of cutting and welding steel, aluminum, and Inconel alloys of the type planned for use on Space Station Freedom. As well as demonstrating the ability of a YAG laser to perform remote (fiber-optic delivered) repair and fabrication operations in space, fundamental data will be collected on these interactions for comparison with terrestrial data and models. The flight system, scheduled to fly in 1995, will be constructed as two modules to fit into the standard Get Away Special (GAS) canisters. The first can holds the laser and its power supply, to be constructed by our industrial partner, Lumonics Industrial Processing Division. The second canister has the materials processing workstation and the command and data acquisition subsystems. These components will be provided by groups at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the University of Waterloo. The cans are linked by a fiber-optic cable which transmits the beam from the laser head to the workstation.

  16. Super-dense teleportation for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitler, Chris; Graham, Trent M.; Chapman, Joseph; Bernstein, Herbert; Kwiat, Paul G.

    2016-03-01

    Establishing a quantum communication network would provide advantages in areas such as security and information processing. Such a network would require the implementation of quantum teleportation between remote parties. However, for photonic "qudits" of dimension greater than two, this teleportation always fails due to the inability to carry out the required quantum Bell-state measurement. A quantum communication protocol called Superdense Teleportation (SDT) can allow the reconstruction of a state without the usual 2-photon Bell-state measurements, enabling the protocol to succeed deterministically even for high dimensional qudits. This technique restricts the class of states transferred to equimodular states, a type of superposition state where each term can differ from the others in phase but not in amplitude; this restricted space of transmitted states allows the transfer to occur deterministically. We report on our implementation of SDT using photon pairs that are entangled in both polarization and temporal mode. After encoding the phases of the desired equimodular state on the signal photon, we perform a complete tomography on the idler photon to verify that we properly prepared the chosen state. Beyond our tabletop demonstration, we are working towards an implementation between a space platform in low earth orbit and a ground telescope, to demonstrate the feasibility of space-based quantum communication. We will discuss the various challenges presented by moving the experiment out of the laboratory, and our proposed solutions to make Superdense Teleportation realizable in the space setting.

  17. Complex System for Ground-Based and Accelerated Simulation of Six Extremal Space Factors (KIFK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraimov, V. V.; Kolybaev, L. K.; Verkhovtseva, E. T.; Nekludov, I. M.; Rybalko, V. F.; Borts, B. V.

    This work was aimed at 1. Development and construction of a complex SF simulator for simultaneous and accelerated simulation of six SF (unparalleled in the GUS and ESA countries): artificial Sun radiation (200..2500 nm) + VUV radiation (5..200 nm) + proton (p+) and electron (e-) radiation (50..200 keV) + vacuum (10-6 Torr) + thermocycling (4.2..400 K). 2.Development of new physical techniques of accelerated laboratory simulation of the basic space factors adequate to natural factors influencing materials, components, units and scale models of spacecraft. In our opinion, this work solves a number of topical problems of ground-based simulation of space factors. 1.Simultaneous impact of six SF on spacecraft materials and models. 2.Simulation of the complete electromagnetic solar radiation (including VUV) spectrum in the wavelength range 5..2500 nm. 3.Accelerated simulation of the electron and proton flows of the Earth's radiation belts (the energy 50..200 keV, intensity 1012 particle/cm2s), i.e. with the acceleration coefficient 500..1000. 4.Accelerated simulation of the VUV component of the Sun's spectrum with the maximum intensity 3000 erg/cm2s) (i.e., the acceleration coefficient 300) 5.Simultaneous thermocycling of test objects in a wide range of temperatures 4.2..400 K in the vacuum of 10-6 Torr.

  18. Structures technology applications for the National AeroSpace Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, T. E.

    1992-01-01

    The National AeroSpace Plane (NASP) presents a unique set of very complex structural problems that challenge our computational capabilities. Complex analyses are required in the conceptual design phase to achieve sufficient accuracy to address the extreme load conditions and to adequately evaluate vehicle weight. The computational capability must be available to perform these analyses in a rapid manner to accommodate the design process.

  19. Technology, Limitations and Applications of space technology in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canales-Romero, J.; Stamminger, P.; Pauly, K.

    A number of developing countries are undertaking projects pertaining to design and development of space technology either using their own resources or in collaboration with foreign countries on regional or international basis. This paper reviews a cooperation in different areas of space technology applications in South America. It gives a brief overview of the overarching goals and vision and the general institutional framework of south-american space researches cooperation. A few examples of previous and current activities in space technology applications and some opportunities for expanding the usage of these technology in the region are described. The major challenges to full-blown regional cooperation in space technology are also examined. The main aims of these efforts are to give a fillip to the country's R&D efforts in space technology and develop human resources in this field through hands-on experience in building and operation of satellites, and acquisition of new skills in project definition, funding and implementation

  20. Space applications of Automation, Robotics and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS). Volume 2: Space projects overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Minsky, M. L.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1982-01-01

    Applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities, and their related ground support functions are studied so that informed decisions can be made on which aspects of ARAMIS to develop. The space project breakdowns, which are used to identify tasks ('functional elements'), are described. The study method concentrates on the production of a matrix relating space project tasks to pieces of ARAMIS.

  1. Electrodynamic Dust Shield for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Paul J.; Johansen, Michael R.; Olsen, Robert C.; Raines, Matthew G.; Phillips, James R., III; Cox, Rachel E.; Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos I.; Pollard, Jacob R. S.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) has chosen dust mitigation technology as a Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) critical technology need in order to reduce life cycle cost and risk, and increase the probability of mission success. NASA has also included Particulate Contamination Prevention and Mitigation as a cross-cutting technology to be developed for contamination prevention, cleaning and protection. This technology has been highlighted due to the detrimental effect of dust on both human and robotic missions. During manned Apollo missions, dust caused issues with both equipment and crew. Contamination of equipment caused many issues including incorrect instrument readings and increased temperatures due to masking of thermal radiators. The astronauts were directly affected by dust that covered space suits, obscured face shields and later propagated to the cabin and into the crew's eyes and lungs. Robotic missions on Mars were affected when solar panels were obscured by dust thereby reducing the effectiveness of the solar panels. The Electrostatics and Surface Physics Lab in Swamp Works at the Kennedy Space Center has been developing an Electrodynamic Dust Shield (EDS) to remove dust from multiple surfaces, including glass shields and thermal radiators. This technology has been tested in lab environments and has evolved over several years. Tests of the technology include reduced gravity flights (6g) in which Apollo Lunar dust samples were successfully removed from glass shields while under vacuum (1 millipascal). Further development of the technology is underway to reduce the size of the EDS as well as to perform material and component testing outside of the International Space Station (ISS) on the Materials on International Space Station Experiment X (MISSE-X). This experiment is designed to verify that the EDS can withstand the harsh environment of space and will look to closely replicate the solar environment experienced on the moon

  2. Third Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denton, Judith S. (Compiler); Freeman, Michael S. (Compiler); Vereen, Mary (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The application of artificial intelligence to spacecraft and aerospace systems is discussed. Expert systems, robotics, space station automation, fault diagnostics, parallel processing, knowledge representation, scheduling, man-machine interfaces and neural nets are among the topics discussed.

  3. Workshop on Fuzzy Control Systems and Space Station Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aisawa, E. K. (Compiler); Faltisco, R. M. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Workshop on Fuzzy Control Systems and Space Station Applications was held on 14-15 Nov. 1990. The workshop was co-sponsored by McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company and NASA Ames Research Center. Proceedings of the workshop are presented.

  4. A Comparative Study of Ranging Techniques in Deep Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Bo; Mao, Nanping; Tao, Xiaohong

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, main ranging techniques in deep space applications are elaborated and analyzed. Their ranging accuracy, acquisition time and complexity are compared. It is shown that the code-tone ranging method has obvious advantage over others in deep space tracking. Start your abstract here...

  5. Consortium for the Application of Space Data to Education - CASDE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zygielbaum, A.; Rundquist, D.; Stork, E. J.

    1995-01-01

    From Background section: The Conortium for the Application of Space Data to Education (CASDE) was formed to make space data holdings more easily accessible to educators and students. CASDE will take an even greater step and work with educators to develop specific sets of data and information, and concomitant software to apply these holdings to specific curricula in a diverse set of subjects.

  6. Descriptions of Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The experiments for all the Space Processing Applications Rocket experiments, including those flown on previous Space Processing flights as well as those under development for future flights are described. The experiment objective, rationale, approach, and results or anticipated results are summarized.

  7. Automatic mathematical modeling for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Caroline K.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology for automatic mathematical modeling is described. The major objective is to create a very friendly environment for engineers to design, maintain and verify their model and also automatically convert the mathematical model into FORTRAN code for conventional computation. A demonstration program was designed for modeling the Space Shuttle Main Engine simulation mathematical model called Propulsion System Automatic Modeling (PSAM). PSAM provides a very friendly and well organized environment for engineers to build a knowledge base for base equations and general information. PSAM contains an initial set of component process elements for the Space Shuttle Main Engine simulation and a questionnaire that allows the engineer to answer a set of questions to specify a particular model. PSAM is then able to automatically generate the model and the FORTRAN code. A future goal is to download the FORTRAN code to the VAX/VMS system for conventional computation.

  8. Space Weather applications with CDPP/AMDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Génot, V.; Jacquey, C.; Bouchemit, M.; Gangloff, M.; Fedorov, A.; Lavraud, B.; André, N.; Broussillou, L.; Harvey, C.; Pallier, E.; Penou, E.; Budnik, E.; Hitier, R.; Cecconi, B.; Dériot, F.; Heulet, D.; Pinçon, J.-L.

    2010-05-01

    AMDA (Automated Multi-Dataset Analysis), a new data analysis service, recently opened at the French Plasma Physics Data Center (CDPP). AMDA is developed according to the Virtual Observatory paradigm: it is a web-based facility for on-line analyses of space physics. Data may come from its own local database as well as remote ones. This tool allows the user to perform classical manipulations such as data visualization, parameter computation and data extraction. AMDA also offers innovative functionalities such as event searches on the content of the data in either visual or automated ways, generation, use and management of time tables (event lists). The general functionalities of AMDA are presented in the context of Space Weather with example scientific use cases.

  9. Gram staining apparatus for space station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, T. C.; Brown, H. D.; Irbe, R. M.; Pierson, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    A self-contained, portable Gram staining apparatus (GSA) has been developed for use in the microgravity environment on board the Space Station Freedom. Accuracy and reproducibility of this apparatus compared with the conventional Gram staining method were evaluated by using gram-negative and gram-positive controls and different species of bacteria grown in pure cultures. A subsequent study was designed to assess the performance of the GSA with actual specimens. A set of 60 human and environmental specimens was evaluated with the GSA and the conventional Gram staining procedure. Data obtained from these studies indicated that the GSA will provide the Gram staining capability needed for the microgravity environment of space.

  10. Cartridge Bearing System for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsbury, Edward P.; Hanson, Robert A.; Jones, William R.; Mohr, Terry W.

    1999-01-01

    Conventional spin axis ball bearings have been unreliable in spacecraft, often failing by two heretofore uncontrolled processes: ball retainer instability and lubricant breakdown. The Space Cartridge Bearing System (SCBS) addresses each of these mechanisms directly, leading to a bearing system with absolute freedom from retainer instability and negligible lubricant degradation rate. The result is a reliable plug-in bearing cartridge with a definite design life.

  11. Space Applications of Industrial Laser Systems (SAILS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert E.; McCay, T. Dwayne; McCay, Mary Helen; Bible, Brice

    1992-01-01

    A program is under way to develop a YAG laser based materials processing workstation to fly in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The system will be capable of cutting and welding steel, aluminum and Inconel alloys of the type planned for use on the Space Station Freedom. As well as demonstrating the ability of a YAG laser to perform remote (fiber-optic delivered) repair and fabrication operations in space, fundamental data will be collected on these interactions for comparison with terrestrial data and models. The flight system, scheduled to fly in 1995, will be constructed as two modules to fit into standard Get Away Special (GAS) canisters. The first can holds the laser and its power supply, to be constructed by our industrial partner, Lumonics Industrial Processing Division. The second canister has the materials processing workstation and the command and data acquisition subsystems. These components will be provided by groups at UTSI and the University of Waterloo. The cans are linked by a fiber-optic cable which transmits the beam from the laser head to the workstation.

  12. Electrodynamic Dust Shield for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, P. J.; Johansen, M. R.; Olsen, R. C.; Raines, M. G.; Phillips, J. R., III; Pollard, J. R. S.; Calle, C. I.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) has chosen dust mitigation technology as a Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) critical technology need in order to reduce life cycle cost and risk, and increase the probability of mission success. NASA has also included Particulate Contamination Prevention and Mitigation as a cross-cutting technology to be developed for contamination prevention, cleaning and protection. This technology has been highlighted due to the detrimental effect of dust on both human and robotic missions. During manned Apollo missions, dust caused issues with both equipment and crew. Contamination of equipment caused many issues including incorrect instrument readings and increased temperatures due to masking of thermal radiators. The astronauts were directly affected by dust that covered space suits, obscured face shields and later propagated to the cabin and into the crew's eyes and lungs. Robotic missions on Mars were affected when solar panels were obscured by dust thereby reducing the effectiveness of the solar panels. The Electrostatics and Surface Physics Lab in Swamp Works at the Kennedy Space Center has been developing an Electrodynamic Dust Shield (EDS) to remove dust from multiple surfaces, including glass shields and thermal radiators. This technology has been tested in lab environments and has evolved over several years. Tests of the technology include reduced gravity flights (one-sixth g) in which Apollo Lunar dust samples were successfully removed from glass shields while under vacuum (10(exp -6) kPa).

  13. MOSES: a modular sensor electronics system for space science and commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelis, Harald; Behnke, Thomas; Tschentscher, Matthias; Mottola, Stefano; Neukum, Gerhard

    1999-10-01

    The camera group of the DLR--Institute of Space Sensor Technology and Planetary Exploration is developing imaging instruments for scientific and space applications. One example is the ROLIS imaging system of the ESA scientific space mission `Rosetta', which consists of a descent/downlooking and a close-up imager. Both are parts of the Rosetta-Lander payload and will operate in the extreme environment of a cometary nucleus. The Rosetta Lander Imaging System (ROLIS) will introduce a new concept for the sensor electronics, which is referred to as MOSES (Modula Sensor Electronics System). MOSES is a 3D miniaturized CCD- sensor-electronics which is based on single modules. Each of the modules has some flexibility and enables a simple adaptation to specific application requirements. MOSES is mainly designed for space applications where high performance and high reliability are required. This concept, however, can also be used in other science or commercial applications. This paper describes the concept of MOSES, its characteristics, performance and applications.

  14. The 1990 Goddard Conference on Space Applications of Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James L. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The papers presented at the 1990 Goddard Conference on Space Applications of Artificial Intelligence are given. The purpose of this annual conference is to provide a forum in which current research and development directed at space applications of artificial intelligence can be presented and discussed. The proceedings fall into the following areas: Planning and Scheduling, Fault Monitoring/Diagnosis, Image Processing and Machine Vision, Robotics/Intelligent Control, Development Methodologies, Information Management, and Knowledge Acquisition.

  15. Space applications of superconductivity - Microwave and infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    This is the fifth of a seven part series on the potential applications of superconductivity in space. The potential of superconducting microwave and infrared detectors for space applications is reviewed. The devices considered include bolometers, super-Schottky diodes and Josephson junctions operating as oscillators, mixers, and parametric amplifiers. In each case the description includes the physical mechanism, theoretical limits and the current state of the art for the superconducting device as well as its nonsuperconducting competitors.

  16. Challenges for Transitioning Science Research to Space Weather Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James

    2013-01-01

    Effectively transitioning science knowledge to useful applications relevant to space weather has become important. The effort to transition scientific knowledge to a useful application is not a research nor is it operations, but an activity that connects two. Successful transitioning must be an intentional effort with a clear goal and measureable outcome. This talk will present proven methodologies that have been demonstrated to be effective, and how in the current environment those can be applied to space weather transition efforts.

  17. High Power Photodetectors for Space Communications Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mysoor, Narayan R.

    1995-01-01

    High power photodetectors in coplanar waveguide and distributed traveling-wave structures have been under development for communications applications. The distributed photodetectors demonstrated 70percent efficiency with a linear response up to 25 mW of optical power input.

  18. NASA GSFC Space Weather Center - Innovative Space Weather Dissemination: Web-Interfaces, Mobile Applications, and More

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddox, Marlo; Zheng, Yihua; Rastaetter, Lutz; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Kuznetsova, M.; Lee, Hyesook; Chulaki, Anna; Hesse, Michael; Mullinix, Richard; Berrios, David

    2012-01-01

    The NASA GSFC Space Weather Center (http://swc.gsfc.nasa.gov) is committed to providing forecasts, alerts, research, and educational support to address NASA's space weather needs - in addition to the needs of the general space weather community. We provide a host of services including spacecraft anomaly resolution, historical impact analysis, real-time monitoring and forecasting, custom space weather alerts and products, weekly summaries and reports, and most recently - video casts. There are many challenges in providing accurate descriptions of past, present, and expected space weather events - and the Space Weather Center at NASA GSFC employs several innovative solutions to provide access to a comprehensive collection of both observational data, as well as space weather model/simulation data. We'll describe the challenges we've faced with managing hundreds of data streams, running models in real-time, data storage, and data dissemination. We'll also highlight several systems and tools that are utilized by the Space Weather Center in our daily operations, all of which are available to the general community as well. These systems and services include a web-based application called the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov), two mobile space weather applications for both IOS and Android devices, an external API for web-service style access to data, google earth compatible data products, and a downloadable client-based visualization tool.

  19. Modelling Dust Processing and Evolution in Extreme Environments as seen by Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocchio, Marco

    2014-09-01

    The main goal of my PhD study is to understand the dust processing that occurs during the mixing between the galactic interstellar medium and the intracluster medium. This process is of particular interest in violent phenomena such as galaxy-galaxy interactions or the ``Ram Pressure Stripping'' due to the infalling of a galaxy towards the cluster centre.Initially, I focus my attention to the problem of dust destruction and heating processes, re-visiting the available models in literature. I particularly stress on the cases of extreme environments such as a hot coronal-type gas (e.g., IGM, ICM, HIM) and supernova-generated interstellar shocks. Under these conditions small grains are destroyed on short timescales and large grains are heated by the collisions with fast electrons making the dust spectral energy distribution very different from what observed in the diffuse ISM.In order to test our models I apply them to the case of an interacting galaxy, NGC 4438. Herschel data of this galaxy indicates the presence of dust with a higher-than-expected temperature.With a multi-wavelength analysis on a pixel-by-pixel basis we show that this hot dust seems to be embedded in a hot ionised gas therefore undergoing both collisional heating and small grain destruction.Furthermore, I focus on the long-standing conundrum about the dust destruction and dust formation timescales in the Milky Way. Based on the destruction efficiency in interstellar shocks, previous estimates led to a dust lifetime shorter than the typical timescale for dust formation in AGB stars. Using a recent dust model and an updated dust processing model we re-evaluate the dust lifetime in our Galaxy. Finally, I turn my attention to the phenomenon of ``Ram Pressure Stripping''. The galaxy ESO 137-001 represents one of the best cases to study this effect. Its long H2 tail embedded in a hot and ionised tail raises questions about its possible stripping from the galaxy or formation downstream in the tail. Based on

  20. Space-Data Routers: Advanced data routing protocols for enhancing data exploitation for space weather applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Balasis, George; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Tsaoussidis, Vassilios; Diamantopoulos, Sotirios

    2014-05-01

    Data sharing and access are major issues in space sciences, as they influence the degree of data exploitation. The availability of multi-spacecraft distributed observation methods and adaptive mission architectures require computationally intensive analysis methods. Moreover, accurate space weather forecasting and future space exploration far from Earth will be in need of real-time data distribution and assimilation technologies. The FP7-Space collaborative research project "Space-Data Routers" (SDR) relies on space internetworking and in particular on Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN), which marks the new era in space communications. SDR unifies space and earth communication infrastructures and delivers a set of tools and protocols for space-data exploitation. The main goal is to allow space agencies, academic institutes and research centers to share space-data generated by single or multiple missions, in an efficient, secure and automated manner. Here we are presenting the architecture and basic functionality of a DTN-based application specifically designed in the framework of the SDR project, for data query, retrieval and administration that will enable addressing outstanding science questions related to space weather, through the provision of simultaneous real-time data sampling at multiple points in space. The work leading to this paper has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2010-1) under grant agreement no. 263330 for the SDR (Space-Data Routers for Exploiting Space Data) collaborative research project. This paper reflects only the authors' views and the Union is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

  1. Evolution of telemedicine in the space program and earth applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Pober, D. F.; Roy, S. A.

    2001-01-01

    Remote monitoring of crew, spacecraft, and environmental health has always been an integral part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) operations. Crew safety and mission success face a number of challenges in outerspace, including physiological adaptations to microgravity, radiation exposure, extreme temperatures and vacuum, and psychosocial reactions to space flight. The NASA effort to monitor and maintain crew health, system performance, and environmental integrity in space flight is a sophisticated and coordinated program of telemedicine combining cutting-edge engineering with medical expertise. As missions have increased in complexity, NASA telemedicine capabilities have grown apace, underlying its role in the field. At the same time, the terrestrial validation of telemedicine technologies to bring healthcare to remote locations provides feedback, improvement, and enhancement of the space program. As NASA progresses in its space exploration program, astronauts will join missions lasting months, even years, that take them millions of miles from home. These long-duration missions necessitate further technological breakthroughs in tele-operations and autonomous technology. Earth-based monitoring will no longer be real-time, requiring telemedicine capabilities to advance with future explorers as they travel deeper into space. The International Space Station will serve as a testbed for the telemedicine technologies to enable future missions as well as improve the quality of healthcare delivery on Earth.

  2. Evolution of telemedicine in the space program and earth applications.

    PubMed

    Nicogossian, A E; Pober, D F; Roy, S A

    2001-01-01

    Remote monitoring of crew, spacecraft, and environmental health has always been an integral part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) operations. Crew safety and mission success face a number of challenges in outerspace, including physiological adaptations to microgravity, radiation exposure, extreme temperatures and vacuum, and psychosocial reactions to space flight. The NASA effort to monitor and maintain crew health, system performance, and environmental integrity in space flight is a sophisticated and coordinated program of telemedicine combining cutting-edge engineering with medical expertise. As missions have increased in complexity, NASA telemedicine capabilities have grown apace, underlying its role in the field. At the same time, the terrestrial validation of telemedicine technologies to bring healthcare to remote locations provides feedback, improvement, and enhancement of the space program. As NASA progresses in its space exploration program, astronauts will join missions lasting months, even years, that take them millions of miles from home. These long-duration missions necessitate further technological breakthroughs in tele-operations and autonomous technology. Earth-based monitoring will no longer be real-time, requiring telemedicine capabilities to advance with future explorers as they travel deeper into space. The International Space Station will serve as a testbed for the telemedicine technologies to enable future missions as well as improve the quality of healthcare delivery on Earth.

  3. Evolution of telemedicine in the space program and earth applications.

    PubMed

    Nicogossian, A E; Pober, D F; Roy, S A

    2001-01-01

    Remote monitoring of crew, spacecraft, and environmental health has always been an integral part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) operations. Crew safety and mission success face a number of challenges in outerspace, including physiological adaptations to microgravity, radiation exposure, extreme temperatures and vacuum, and psychosocial reactions to space flight. The NASA effort to monitor and maintain crew health, system performance, and environmental integrity in space flight is a sophisticated and coordinated program of telemedicine combining cutting-edge engineering with medical expertise. As missions have increased in complexity, NASA telemedicine capabilities have grown apace, underlying its role in the field. At the same time, the terrestrial validation of telemedicine technologies to bring healthcare to remote locations provides feedback, improvement, and enhancement of the space program. As NASA progresses in its space exploration program, astronauts will join missions lasting months, even years, that take them millions of miles from home. These long-duration missions necessitate further technological breakthroughs in tele-operations and autonomous technology. Earth-based monitoring will no longer be real-time, requiring telemedicine capabilities to advance with future explorers as they travel deeper into space. The International Space Station will serve as a testbed for the telemedicine technologies to enable future missions as well as improve the quality of healthcare delivery on Earth. PMID:11321704

  4. Exploration Challenges: Transferring Ground Repair Techniques to Space Flight Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLemore, Carole A.; Kennedy, James P.; Rose, Frederick A.; Evans, Brian W.

    2007-01-01

    Fulfilling NASA's Vision for Space Exploration will demand an extended presence in space at distances from our home planet that exceed our current experience in space logistics and maintenance. The ability to perform repairs in lieu of the customary Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) process where a faulty part is replaced will be elevated from contingency to routine to sustain operations. The use and cost effectiveness of field repairs for ground based operations in industry and the military have advanced with the development of technology in new materials, new repair techniques and new equipment. The unique environments, accessibility constraints and Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) issues of space operations will require extensive assessment and evolution of these technologies to provide an equivalent and expected level of assurance to mission success. Challenges include the necessity of changes in design philosophy and policy, extremes in thermal cycling, disruptive forces (such as static charge and wind entrainment) on developed methods for control of materials, dramatically increased volatility of chemicals for cleaning and other compounds due to extremely low pressures, the limits imposed on dexterity and maneuverability by current EVA equipment and practices, and the necessity of unique verification methodology. This paper describes these challenges in and discusses the effects on the established ground techniques for repair. The paper also describes the leading repair methodology candidates and their beneficial attributes for resolving these issues with the evolution of technology.

  5. Thulium heat sources for space power application

    SciTech Connect

    Alderman, C.J. )

    1993-01-15

    Reliable electrical power supplies for use in transportation and remote systems will be an important part of space exploration activities on planet surfaces. A potential power source is available through the use of thulium, a rare earth metal. Heat sources can be produced by neutron activation of naturally occurring thulium (Tm-169) targets in the base station nuclear power reactor. The resulting Tm-170 heat sources can be used in thermoelectric generators to power instrumentation and telecommunications systems located at remote sites. Combined with a dynamic Sterling or Brayton cycle conversion system, the heat source can power a lightweight electrical source for rovers or other surface transportation systems.

  6. A survey of advanced battery systems for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, Alan I.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a survey on advanced secondary battery systems for space applications are presented. Fifty-five battery experts from government, industry and universities participated in the survey by providing their opinions on the use of several battery types for six space missions, and their predictions of likely technological advances that would impact the development of these batteries. The results of the survey predict that only four battery types are likely to exceed a specific energy of 150 Wh/kg and meet the safety and reliability requirements for space applications within the next 15 years.

  7. The 1988 Goddard Conference on Space Applications of Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James (Editor); Hughes, Peter (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This publication comprises the papers presented at the 1988 Goddard Conference on Space Applications of Artificial Intelligence held at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland on May 24, 1988. The purpose of this annual conference is to provide a forum in which current research and development directed at space applications of artificial intelligence can be presented and discussed. The papers in these proceedings fall into the following areas: mission operations support, planning and scheduling; fault isolation/diagnosis; image processing and machine vision; data management; modeling and simulation; and development tools/methodologies.

  8. Family of deployable/retractable structures for space application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unda, J.; Weisz, J.; Rivacoba, J.; Uríen, I. Ruiz; Capitanio, R. S.

    New trends in the frame of space applications lead to the necessity of using deployable/retractable structures, working either as beams (with payloads all along their length) or masts (loaded at their tip). SENER—under ESA/ESTEC and Spanish Space Program contracts—are developing a family of structures with deployment and retraction capabilities (LTS, SENERMAST, CTM) so as to cover all ranges of potential necessities in the space community (antennas, experiment support, solar arrays, heat rejection systems …). This paper consists of a summary of the performances and range of applications of LTS, SENERMAST and CTM, and pays special attention to the large truss structure (LTS) development and verification.

  9. Thermopile Detector Arrays for Space Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foote, M. C.; Kenyon, M.; Krueger, T. R.; McCann, T. A.; Chacon, R.; Jones, E. W.; Dickie, M. R.; Schofield, J. T.; McCleese, D. J.; Gaalema, S.

    2004-01-01

    Thermopile detectors are widely used in uncooled applications where small numbers of detectors are required, particularly in low-cost commercial applications or applications requiring accurate radiometry. Arrays of thermopile detectors, however, have not been developed to the extent of uncooled bolometer and pyroelectric/ferroelectric arrays. Efforts at JPL seek to remedy this deficiency by developing high performance thin-film thermopile detectors in both linear and two-dimensional formats. The linear thermopile arrays are produced by bulk micromachining and wire bonded to separate CMOS readout electronic chips. Such arrays are currently being fabricated for the Mars Climate Sounder instrument, scheduled for launch in 2005. Progress is also described towards realizing a two-dimensional thermopile array built over CMOS readout circuitry in the substrate.

  10. NASA. Johnson Space Center primary battery applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Bob J.

    1991-01-01

    The role of the Power Branch/EP5 of JSC in primary battery applications is to support those JSC organizations having direct application responsibility with trade studies, battery selection recommendations, and with development, qualification, and provisioning of primary batteries. Battery subsystem management is provided. Payload hazard report preparation is supported, as is the review and comment of such reports for the JSC Payload Safety Panel, who approves the flight safety for all Orbiter payloads. JSC battery users are provided with safety analysis and test support to achieve safety approval. Finally, it is the responsibility of the Power Branch to define and maintain battery safety requirement documentation for JSC.

  11. Space application research of EMCCDs for bioluminescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao

    The detection of bioluminescense is widely used on the ground, while the detection of bioluminescence in space is still at the stage of detecting bright bioluminescense. With the rapid development of research in Space Life Sciences, it will be necessary to develop a detection technology to detect weak bioluminescense. Compared to other low-light detection techniques for ground, there are more advantages of EMCCDs for space application. Build a space bioluminescence imaging detection system, analysis the feasibility and capability of its will be significant. Co-Author:Xie Zongbao,Zheng Weibo

  12. Fabrication of microshutter arrays for space application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mary J.; Aslam, I. S.; Ewin, Audrey J.; Fettig, Rainer K.; Franz, David E.; Kotecki, Carl A.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.; Monroy, Carlos J.; Mott, David B.; Zheng, Yun

    2001-04-01

    Two-dimensional microshutter arrays are being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) for use in the near-infrared region. Functioning as object selection devices, the microshutter arrays are designed for the transmission of light with high efficiency and high contrast. The NGST environment requires cryogenic operation at 45K. Arrays are close-packed silicon nitride membranes with a pixel size of 100 X 100 micrometers . Individual shutters are patterned with a torsion flexure permitting shutters to open 90 degrees with a minimized mechanical stress concentration. The mechanical shutter arrays are fabricated with MEMS technologies. The processing includes a RIE front-etch to form shutters out of the nitride membrane, an anisotropic back-etch for wafer thinning, and a deep RIE (DRIE) back-etch down to the nitride shutter membrane to form frames and to relieve shutters from the silicon substrate. Two approaches for shutter actuation have been developed. Shutters are actuated using either a combined mechanical and electrostatic force or a combined magnetic and electrostatic force. A CMOS circuit embedded in the frame between shutters allows programmable shutter selection for the first approach. A control of row and column electrodes fulfills shutter selection for the second approach.

  13. Potted High Voltage Modules For Space Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herty, Frank

    2011-10-01

    The European Space Mission GOCE, the Mercury mis- sion BepiColombo and the new High Efficiency Multistage Plasma (HEMP) thruster for the SGEO telecom mission have triggered the development of high voltage power supplies at Astrium Satellites covering different classes of output power (20W up to 1.4kW) and voltages (1kV up to 10kV). These supplies are equipped with encapsulated high voltage modules which have been designed as core functional blocks. The potting material - based on epoxy resin - was developed by Astrium Satellites. It is space-qualified for more than 30 years. Many types of high voltage modules have been manufactured since then, starting from transformer modules for the ERS mission to the modules used for electric propulsion. Technical trends, improvements and future goals of this technology are presented and discussed. New and re- fined processes are presented like the encapsulation of high-power toroidal transformers and the void-free electrical shielding by means of thin copper sheets which are laminated onto the surface of the potting material.

  14. Solid state neutron dosimeter for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Entine, Gerald; Nagargar, Vivek; Sharif, Daud

    1990-01-01

    Personnel engaged in space flight are exposed to significant flux of high energy neutrons arising from both primary and secondary sources of ionizing radiation. Presently, there exist no compact neutron sensor capable of being integrated in a flight instrument to provide real time measurement of this radiation flux. A proposal was made to construct such an instrument using special PIN silicon diode which has the property of being insensitive to the other forms of ionizing radiation. Studies were performed to determine the design and construction of a better reading system to allow the PIN diode to be read with high precision. The physics of the device was studied, especially with respect to those factors which affect the sensitivity and reproducibility of the neutron response. This information was then used to develop methods to achieve high sensitivity at low neutron doses. The feasibility was shown of enhancing the PIN diode sensitivity to make possible the measurement of the low doses of neutrons encountered in space flights. The new PIN diode will make possible the development of a very compact, accurate, personal neutron dosimeter.

  15. Study of robotics systems applications to the space station program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of robotics systems to potential uses of the Space Station as an assembly facility, and secondarily as a servicing facility, are considered. A typical robotics system mission is described along with the pertinent application guidelines and Space Station environmental assumptions utilized in developing the robotic task scenarios. A functional description of a supervised dual-robot space structure construction system is given, and four key areas of robotic technology are defined, described, and assessed. Alternate technologies for implementing the more routine space technology support subsystems that will be required to support the Space Station robotic systems in assembly and servicing tasks are briefly discussed. The environmental conditions impacting on the robotic configuration design and operation are reviewed.

  16. Application of electrohydrodynamic phenomena to space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.

    1975-01-01

    The capabilities of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) unit separation, liquid handling/control, and mixing are introduced to industrial chemists and metallurgists, working on specific zero-gravity processes. Previously proposed zero-gravity applications of EHD are presented along with the prominent electrohydrodynamical force effects.

  17. Potential high efficiency solar cells: Applications from space photovoltaic research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    NASA involvement in photovoltaic energy conversion research development and applications spans over two decades of continuous progress. Solar cell research and development programs conducted by the Lewis Research Center's Photovoltaic Branch have produced a sound technology base not only for the space program, but for terrestrial applications as well. The fundamental goals which have guided the NASA photovoltaic program are to improve the efficiency and lifetime, and to reduce the mass and cost of photovoltaic energy conversion devices and arrays for use in space. The major efforts in the current Lewis program are on high efficiency, single crystal GaAs planar and concentrator cells, radiation hard InP cells, and superlattice solar cells. A brief historical perspective of accomplishments in high efficiency space solar cells will be given, and current work in all of the above categories will be described. The applicability of space cell research and technology to terrestrial photovoltaics will be discussed.

  18. 47 CFR 25.114 - Applications for space station authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... period, (iv) The apogee, (v) The perigee, (vi) The argument(s) of perigee, (vii) Active service arc(s... chapter.); (9) Applications to license multiple space station systems in the non-voice, non-geostationary... are proposed, as specified in paragraph (c)(11) of this section, satellite applications in the...

  19. 47 CFR 25.114 - Applications for space station authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... period, (iv) The apogee, (v) The perigee, (vi) The argument(s) of perigee, (vii) Active service arc(s... chapter.); (9) Applications to license multiple space station systems in the non-voice, non-geostationary... are proposed, as specified in paragraph (c)(11) of this section, satellite applications in the...

  20. The 1992 Goddard Conference on Space Applications of Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James L. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this conference is to provide a forum in which current research and development directed at space applications of artificial intelligence can be presented and discussed. The papers fall into the following areas: planning and scheduling, control, fault monitoring/diagnosis and recovery, information management, tools, neural networks, and miscellaneous applications.

  1. The application of intelligent process control to space based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakefield, G. Steve

    1990-01-01

    The application of Artificial Intelligence to electronic and process control can help attain the autonomy and safety requirements of manned space systems. An overview of documented applications within various industries is presented. The development process is discussed along with associated issues for implementing an intelligence process control system.

  2. A linguistic geometry for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilman, Boris

    1994-01-01

    We develop a formal theory, the so-called Linguistic Geometry, in order to discover the inner properties of human expert heuristics, which were successful in a certain class of complex control systems, and apply them to different systems. This research relies on the formalization of search heuristics of high-skilled human experts which allow for the decomposition of complex system into the hierarchy of subsystems, and thus solve intractable problems reducing the search. The hierarchy of subsystems is represented as a hierarchy of formal attribute languages. This paper includes a formal survey of the Linguistic Geometry, and new example of a solution of optimization problem for the space robotic vehicles. This example includes actual generation of the hierarchy of languages, some details of trajectory generation and demonstrates the drastic reduction of search in comparison with conventional search algorithms.

  3. Application of neural networks in space construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thilenius, Stephen C.; Barnes, Frank

    1990-01-01

    When trying to decide what task should be done by robots and what tasks should be done by humans with respect to space construction, there has been one decisive barrier which ultimately divides the tasks: can a computer do the job? Von Neumann type computers have great difficulty with problems that the human brain seems to do instantaneously and with little effort. Some of these problems are pattern recognition, speech recognition, content addressable memories, and command interpretation. In an attempt to simulate these talents of the human brain, much research was currently done into the operations and construction of artificial neural networks. The efficiency of the interface between man and machine, robots in particular, can therefore be greatly improved with the use of neural networks. For example, wouldn't it be easier to command a robot to 'fetch an object' rather then having to remotely control the entire operation with remote control?

  4. Solid state neutron dosimeter for space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nagarkar, V.; Entine, G.; Stoppel, P.; Cirignano, L. ); Swinehart, P. )

    1992-08-01

    One of the most important contributions to the radiation exposure of astronauts engaged in space flight is the significant flux of high energy neutrons arising from both primary and secondary sources of ionizing radiation. Under NASA sponsorship, the authors are developing a solid state neutron sensor capable of being incorporated into a very compact, flight instrument to provide high quality real time measurement of this important radiation flux. The dosimeter uses a special, high neutron sensitivity, PIN diode that is insensitive t the other forms of ionizing radiation. The dosimeter will have the ability to measure and record neutron dose over a range of 50 microgray to tens of milligrays (5 millirads to several rads) over a flight of up to 30 days. the performance characteristics of the PIN diode with a detailed description of the overall dosimeter is presented. in this paper.

  5. Acoustic levitation and manipulation for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.

    1979-01-01

    A wide spectrum of experiments to be performed in space in a microgravity environment require levitation and manipulation of liquid or molten samples. A novel acoustic method has been developed at JPL for controlling liquid samples without physical contacts. This method utilizes the static pressure generated by three orthogonal acoustic standing waves excited within an enclosure. Furthermore, this method will allow the sample to be rotated and/or oscillated by modifying the phase angles and/or the amplitude of the acoustic field. This technique has been proven both in our laboratory and in a microgravity environment provided by KC-135 flights. Samples placed within our chamber driven at (1,0,0), (0,1,0), and (0,0,1), modes were indeed levitated, rotated, and oscillated.

  6. Modular radar hardware for deep space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. J.; Foerster, K. P.; Oudot, O.; Perrot, J. L.; Hartner, P.

    The authors describe work carried out under contract to the European Space Agency to investigate modular design approaches for a range of scientific missions. In order to provide meaningful design and performance requirements at the start of the study, three proposed planetary research missions featuring radar sensors were selected. The missions are CASSINI, Comet Nucleus Sample Return, and Mars-98. Under the first phase of the work, common instrument systems and subsystems have been proposed. Under a second phase of the work, a digital subsystem for signal processing and control has been developed which can fulfill the requirements of the various instruments but which is fully reconfigurable through software. The DSP (digital signal processor) architecture based on programmable signal processing cores has been demonstrated through development of breadboard hardware. Tracking and control in the breadboard is achieved through a programmable microprocessor with purpose-developed interfaces.

  7. Solar Stirling for Deep Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    1999-01-01

    A study was performed to quantify the performance of solar thermal power systems for deep space planetary missions. The study incorporated projected advances in solar concentrator and energy conversion technologies. These technologies included inflatable structures, lightweight primary concentrators, high efficiency secondary concentrators, and high efficiency Stirling convertors. Analyses were performed to determine the mass and deployed area of multi-hundred watt solar thermal power systems for missions out to 40 astronomical units. Emphasis was given to system optimization, parametric sensitivity analyses, and concentrator configuration comparisons. The results indicated that solar thermal power systems are a competitive alternative to radioisotope systems out to 10 astronomical units without the cost or safety implications associated with nuclear sources.

  8. Acoustic emission technology for space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Friesel, M.A.; Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Hutton, P.H.

    1989-05-01

    Clearly the structural and functional integrity of space station components is a primary requirement. The combinations of advanced materials, new designs, and an unusual environment increase the need for inservice monitoring to help assure component integrity. Continuous monitoring of the components using acoustic emission (AE) methods can provide early indication of structural or functional distress, thus allowing time to plan remedial action. The term ''AE'' refers to energy impulses propagated from a growing crack in a solid material or from a leak in a pressurized pipe or tube. In addition to detecting a crack or leak, AE methods can provide information on the location of the defect and an estimate of crack growth rate and leak rate. 8 figs.

  9. Testing of tactile sensors for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Lisa; Weadon, Timothy L.; Evans, Thomas; DeVallance, David B.; Sabolsky, Edward M.

    2015-03-01

    There is a need to integrate tactile sensing into robotic manipulators performing tasks in space environments, including those used to repair satellites. Integration can be achieved by embedding specialized tactile sensors. Reliable and consistent signal interpretation can be obtained by ensuring that sensors with a suitable sensing mechanism are selected based on operational demands, and that materials used within the sensors do not change structurally under vacuum and expected applied pressures, and between temperatures of -80°C to +120°C. The sensors must be able to withstand space environmental conditions and remain adequately sensitive throughout their operating life. Additionally, it is necessary to integrate the sensors into the target system with minimum disturbance while remaining responsive to applied loads. Previous work has been completed to characterize sensors within the selected temperature and pressure ranges. The current work builds on this investigation by embedding these sensors in different geometries and testing the response measured among varying configurations. Embedding material selection was aided by using a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) to determine stress/strain behavior for adhesives and compliant layers used to keep the sensors in place and distribute stresses evenly. Electromechanical characterization of the embedded sensor packages was conducted by using the DMA in tandem with an inductance-capacitance-resistance (LCR) meter. Methods for embedding the sensor packages were developed with the aid of finite element analysis and physical testing to account for specific geometrical constraints. Embedded sensor prototypes were tested within representative models of potential embedding locations to compare final embedded sensor performance.

  10. High dimensional spatial modeling of extremes with applications to United States Rainfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jie

    2007-12-01

    data sets with extreme value distributions involved. One of the main outcomes of this model is for producing N-year return values and return years for a given value for precipitation at a single location given climate model projections based on a grid. This is very important, because in many applications, detailed precipitation information on pointwise locations is more important that predictions averaged over grids. The second model can be applied to those large data sets and is based on transformed Gaussian processes. These processes are thresholded due to the emphasis on rainfall extremes. Keywords. Block Circulant Matrix; Extreme value theory; Fast Fourier Transform; Generalized Linear Mixed Model; Kriging; Markov Chain Monte Carlo; Spectral Representation; Spatial statistics

  11. The application of micromachined sensors to manned space systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordano, Aldo; Havey, Gary; Wald, Jerry; Nasr, Hatem

    1993-06-01

    Micromachined sensors promise significant system advantages to manned space vehicles. Vehicle Health Monitoring (VHM) is a critical need for most future space systems. Micromachined sensors play a significant role in advancing the application of VHM in future space vehicles. This paper addresses the requirements that future VHM systems place on micromachined sensors such as: system integration, performance, size, weight, power, redundancy, reliability and fault tolerance. Current uses of micromachined sensors in commercial, military and space systems are used to document advantages that are gained and lessons learned. Based on these successes, the future use of micromachined sensors in space programs is discussed in terms of future directions and issues that need to be addressed such as how commercial and military sensors can meet future space system requirements.

  12. Response of the extremely halophilic Halococcus dombrowskii strain H4 to UV radiation and space conditions in the EXPOSE -ADAPT project on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendrihan, Sergiu; Grosbacher, Michael; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    2010-05-01

    The international project ADAPT focuses on the response of different microorganisms to outer space conditions. In 2007, the European Space Agency (ESA) has installed the Columbus laboratory and the exposure facility EXPOSE-E on the International Space Station (ISS). One of the microorganisms that were exposed for 18 months on the ISS is Halococcus dombrowskii strain H4, an extremely halophilic archaeon which was isolated from about 250 million years old alpine salt deposits (1). Ground experiments with Hcc. dombrowskii included irradiation with different wavelengths and doses of UV, using a Hg low pressure lamp, a solar simulator SOL2 (both at the DLR, Cologne) and a Mars UV simulation lamp (2). Cells were embedded in halite crystals which were formed on quartz discs by evaporation of high salt buffers. Methods for analyzing the effects of exposure on Hcc. dombrowskii include the estimation of colony forming units (CFUs), staining for viability with the BacLight LIVE/DEAD kit (2), establishing long term liquid cultures and determination of the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) with specific antibodies (3). Counting of viable (green) and dead (red) cells showed an apparent preservation of viability following exposure to about 21 kJ/m2 in ground experiments, but the calculated D37 (dose of 37 % survival) for Hcc. dombrowskii was about 400 kJ/m2 in salt crystals (2). CPDs were detected in about 6-8% of cells of Hcc. dombrowskii following exposure to a dose of 3000 kJ/m2 (200-400 nm). Preliminary results with the samples of Hcc. dombrowskii from the ISS suggested preservation of cellular morphology and stainability with the fluorescent dyes of the LIVE/DEAD kit, as well as formation of CPDs in about 2-3 % of the cells. The determination of the survival of cells by measuring proliferation requires months of incubation; data can be expected in May or June 2010. (1) Stan-Lotter H, Pfaffenhuemer M, Legat A, Busse H-J, Radax C, Gruber C (2002) Halococcus

  13. Space Nuclear Propulsion Systems and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenk, F. C.

    1972-01-01

    The basic principles of the operation of a nuclear rocket engine are reviewed along with a summary of the early history. In addition, the technology status in the nuclear rocket program for development of the flight-rated NERVA engine is described, and applications for this 75,000-pound thrust engine and the results of nuclear stage studies are presented. Advanced research and supporting technology activities in the nuclear rocket program are also summarized.

  14. Thin-Film Photovoltaics: Status and Applications to Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    1991-01-01

    The potential applications of thin film polycrystalline and amorphous cells for space are discussed. There have been great advances in thin film solar cells for terrestrial applications; transfer of this technology to space applications could result in ultra low weight solar arrays with potentially large gains in specific power. Recent advances in thin film solar cells are reviewed, including polycrystalline copper iridium selenide and related I-III-VI2 compounds, polycrystalline cadmium telluride and related II-VI compounds, and amorphous silicon alloys. The possibility of thin film multi bandgap cascade solar cells is discussed.

  15. Applications of thin-film photovoltaics for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss the potential applications of thin-film polycrystalline and amorphous cells for space. There have been great advances in thin-film solar cells for terrestrial applications. Transfer of this technology to space applications could result in ultra low-weight solar arrays with potentially large gains in specific power. Recent advances in thin-film solar cells are reviewed, including polycrystalline copper indium selenide and related I-III-VI2 compounds, polycrystalline cadmium telluride and related II-VI compounds, and amorphous silicon arrays. The possibility of using thin-film multi-bandgap cascade solar cells is discussed.

  16. Detecting Silent Data Corruption for Extreme-Scale Applications through Data Mining

    SciTech Connect

    Bautista-Gomez, Leonardo; Cappello, Franck

    2014-01-16

    Supercomputers allow scientists to study natural phenomena by means of computer simulations. Next-generation machines are expected to have more components and, at the same time, consume several times less energy per operation. These trends are pushing supercomputer construction to the limits of miniaturization and energy-saving strategies. Consequently, the number of soft errors is expected to increase dramatically in the coming years. While mechanisms are in place to correct or at least detect some soft errors, a significant percentage of those errors pass unnoticed by the hardware. Such silent errors are extremely damaging because they can make applications silently produce wrong results. In this work we propose a technique that leverages certain properties of high-performance computing applications in order to detect silent errors at the application level. Our technique detects corruption solely based on the behavior of the application datasets and is completely application-agnostic. We propose multiple corruption detectors, and we couple them to work together in a fashion transparent to the user. We demonstrate that this strategy can detect the majority of the corruptions, while incurring negligible overhead. We show that with the help of these detectors, applications can have up to 80% of coverage against data corruption.

  17. Space shuttle orbiter heat pipe applications. Volume 1: Synopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alario, J. P.; Prager, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was made to formulate and evaluate heat pipe applications for the space shuttle orbiter. Of the twenty-seven specific applications which were identified, a joint evaluation resulted in the selection of five of the most promising ones for prototype development. The formulation process is described, along with the applications which evolved. The bulk of the discussion deals with the top five applications: (1) heat pipe augmented cold rail; (2) avionics heat pipe circuit; (3) heat pipe/phase change material modular sink; (4) air-to-heat-pipe heat exchanger; and (5) heat pipe radiator for compartment temperature control. The philosophy, physical design details, and performance data are presented for each concept along with a comparison to the baseline design where applicable. A sixth application, heat pipe space radiator for waste heat rejection, was also recommended for prototype development.

  18. Similarity networks as a knowledge representation for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David; Thompson, Donna; Feinstein, Jerald

    1987-01-01

    Similarity networks are a powerful form of knowledge representation that are useful for many artificial intelligence applications. Similarity networks are used in applications ranging from information analysis and case based reasoning to machine learning and linking symbolic to neural processing. Strengths of similarity networks include simple construction, intuitive object storage, and flexible retrieval techniques that facilitate inferencing. Therefore, similarity networks provide great potential for space applications.

  19. Application of NASTRAN to large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balderes, T.; Zalesak, J.; Dyreyes, V.; Lee, E.

    1976-01-01

    The application of NASTRAN to design studies of two very large-area lightweight structures is described. The first is the Satellite Solar Power Station, while the second is a deployable three hundred meter diameter antenna. A brief discussion of the operation of the SSPS is given, followed by a description of the structure. The use of the NASTRAN program for static, vibration and thermal analysis is illustrated and some results are given. Next, the deployable antenna is discussed and the use of NASTRAN for static analysis, buckling analysis and vibration analysis is detailed.

  20. Overview of Photonic Materials for Application in Space Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, E. W.; Osinski, M.; Svimonishvili, Tengiz; Watson, M.; Bunton, P.; Pearson, S. D.; Bilbro, J.

    1999-01-01

    Future space systems will he based on components evolving from the development and refinement of new and existing photonic materials. Optically based sensors, inertial guidance, tracking systems, communications, diagnostics, imaging and high speed optical processing are but a few of the applications expected to widely utilize photonic materials. The response of these materials to space environment effects (SEE) such as spacecraft charging, orbital debris, atomic oxygen, ultraviolet irradiation, temperature and ionizing radiation will be paramount to ensuring successful space applications. The intent of this paper is to, address the latter two environments via a succinct comparison of the known sensitivities of selected photonic materials to the temperature and ionizing radiation conditions found in space and enhanced space environments Delineation of the known temperature and radiation induced responses in LiNbO3, AlGaN, AlGsAs,TeO2, Si:Ge, and several organic polymers are presented. Photonic materials are realizing rapid transition into applications for many proposed space components and systems including: optical interconnects, optical gyros, waveguide and spatial light modulators, light emitting diodes, lasers, optical fibers and fiber optic amplifiers. Changes to material parameters such as electrooptic coefficients, absorption coefficients, polarization, conductivity, coupling coefficients, diffraction efficiencies, and other pertinent material properties examined for thermo-optic and radiation induced effect. Conclusions and recommendations provide the reader with an understanding of the limitations or attributes of material choices for specific applications.

  1. Composites Materials and Manufacturing Technologies for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, J. H.; Tate, L. C.; Gaddis, S. W.; Neal, R. E.

    2016-01-01

    Composite materials offer significant advantages in space applications. Weight reduction is imperative for deep space systems. However, the pathway to deployment of composites alternatives is problematic. Improvements in the materials and processes are needed, and extensive testing is required to validate the performance, qualify the materials and processes, and certify components. Addressing these challenges could lead to the confident adoption of composites in space applications and provide spin-off technical capabilities for the aerospace and other industries. To address the issues associated with composites applications in space systems, NASA sponsored a Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) entitled, "Composites Materials and Manufacturing Technologies for Space Applications," the proceedings of which are summarized in this Conference Publication. The NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate and the Game Changing Program chartered the meeting. The meeting was hosted by the National Center for Advanced Manufacturing (NCAM)-a public/private partnership between NASA, the State of Louisiana, Louisiana State University, industry, and academia, in association with the American Composites Manufacturers Association. The Louisiana Center for Manufacturing Sciences served as the coordinator for the TIM.

  2. Development of a Deterministic Ethernet Building blocks for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidi, C.; Jakovljevic, Mirko

    2015-09-01

    The benefits of using commercially based networking standards and protocols have been widely discussed and are expected to include reduction in overall mission cost, shortened integration and test (I&T) schedules, increased operations flexibility, and hardware and software upgradeability/scalability with developments ongoing in the commercial world. The deterministic Ethernet technology TTEthernet [1] diploid on the NASA Orion spacecraft has demonstrated the use of the TTEthernet technology for a safety critical human space flight application during the Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1). The TTEthernet technology used within the NASA Orion program has been matured for the use within this mission but did not lead to a broader use in space applications or an international space standard. Therefore TTTech has developed a new version which allows to scale the technology for different applications not only the high end missions allowing to decrease the size of the building blocks leading to a reduction of size weight and power enabling the use in smaller applications. TTTech is currently developing a full space products offering for its TTEthernet technology to allow the use in different space applications not restricted to launchers and human spaceflight. A broad space market assessment and the current ESA TRP7594 lead to the development of a space grade TTEthernet controller ASIC based on the ESA qualified Atmel AT1C8RHA95 process [2]. In this paper we will describe our current TTEthernet controller development towards a space qualified network component allowing future spacecrafts to operate in significant radiation environments while using a single onboard network for reliable commanding and data transfer.

  3. Appendices for the Space Applications program, 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    To achieve truly low cost system design with direct evolution for inorbit shuttle resupply, a modular building block approach has been adopted. The heart of the modular building block concept lies in the ability to use a common set of nonoptimized subsystems in such a way that a wide variety of missions can be flown with no detrimental impact on performance. By standardizing the mechanical configurations and electrical interfaces of the subsystem modules, and by designing each of them to be structurally and thermally independent entities, it is possible to cluster these building blocks or modules about an instrument system so as to adequately perform the mission without the need for subsystem redevelopments for each mission. This system concept offers the following capabilities: (1) the ability to launch and orbit the observatory by either the Delta, the Titan, or the space shuttle. (2) the ability to completely reconfigure the spacecraft subsystems for different launch vehicles, and (3) the ability to perform in-orbit resupply and/or emergency retrieval of the observatory.

  4. Electromagnetic coilgun launcher for space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Turman, B.N.; Lipinski, R.J.

    1995-10-01

    A ground-based electrically-powered launcher could significantly reduce the complexity and cost of space launches for moderate-weight payloads. The EM launch complex could greatly reduce the amount of fuels handling, reduce the turnaround time between launches, allow more concurrence in launch preparation, reduce the manpower requirements for launch vehicle preparation and increase the reliability of launch by using more standardized vehicle preparations. The launch requires high acceleration, so the satellite package must be hardened. This paper presents results of a study to estimate the required launcher parameters, and estimate the cost of such a launch facility. This study is based on electromagnetic gun technology which is constrained to a coaxial geometry to take advantage of the efficiency of closely-coupled coils. The launcher energy and power requirements fall in the range of 40 {minus} 260 GJ and 20 {minus} 400 GW electric. Parametric evaluations have been conducted with a launcher length of 1-2 km, exit velocity of 1-6 kn/s, and payloads to low earth orbit of 100 1000 kg.

  5. Radio Frequency Plasma Applications for Space Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Baity, F.W., Jr.; Barber, G.C.; Carter, M.D.; Chang-Diaz, F.R.; Goulding, R.H.; Ilin, A.V.; Jaeger, E.F.; Sparks, D.O.; Squire, J.P.

    1999-09-13

    Recent developments in solid-state radio frequency (RF) power technologies allow for the practical consideration of RF heated plasmas for space propulsion. These technologies permit the use of any electrical power source, de-couple the power and propellant sources, and allow for the effcient use of both the propellant mass and power. Effcient use of the propellant is obtained by expelling the rocket exhaust at the highest possible velocity, which can be orders of magnitude higher than those achieved in chemical rockets. Handling the hot plasma exhaust requires the use of magnetic nozzles, and the basic physics of ion detachment from the magnetic eld is discussed. The plasma can be generated by RF using helicon waves to heat electrons. Further direct heating of the ions helps to reduce the line radiation losses, and the magnetic geometry is tailored to allow ion cyclotron resonance heating. RF eld and ion trajectory calculations are presented to give a reasonably self-consistent picture of the ion acceleration process.

  6. Transparent, Weakly Conductive Films for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, John; Morgan, Ashraf; Hambourger, Paul D.

    2004-01-01

    Electrically insulating spacecraft surfaces are vulnerable to nonuniform charge buildup due to particles emitted by the sun. On Mars, insulating surfaces of exploration vehicles and structures will be affected by dust coatings possibly held in place by triboelectric surface charge. Application of a conductive film may be a solution to the charging problem, but the coating must be highly transparent if used on solar panels, lenses, etc. Sheet resistivity requirements depend on the application and are in the range 10(exp 2) - 10(exp 8) ohms/square. Co-deposited indium tin oxide (ITO) and MgF2 is promising, with high transparency, tailorable electrical properties, and durability to atomic oxygen. Due to ITO's relatively narrow bandgap (approximately 3.5 eV), the film might absorb enough ultraviolet to protect polymeric substrates. Recent work on dual-magnetron-sputtered ITO-MgF2 showed that a variety of polymeric substrates can be coated at room temperature. However, the sheet resistivity is very sensitive to composition, suggestive of a percolation transition. This could be a serious problem for large-scale coating production. We will report on attempts to control film composition by plasma emission monitoring of the ITO and MgF2 guns.

  7. Complex extreme learning machine applications in terahertz pulsed signals feature sets.

    PubMed

    Yin, X-X; Hadjiloucas, S; Zhang, Y

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to the automatic classification of very large data sets composed of terahertz pulse transient signals, highlighting their potential use in biochemical, biomedical, pharmaceutical and security applications. Two different types of THz spectra are considered in the classification process. Firstly a binary classification study of poly-A and poly-C ribonucleic acid samples is performed. This is then contrasted with a difficult multi-class classification problem of spectra from six different powder samples that although have fairly indistinguishable features in the optical spectrum, they also possess a few discernable spectral features in the terahertz part of the spectrum. Classification is performed using a complex-valued extreme learning machine algorithm that takes into account features in both the amplitude as well as the phase of the recorded spectra. Classification speed and accuracy are contrasted with that achieved using a support vector machine classifier. The study systematically compares the classifier performance achieved after adopting different Gaussian kernels when separating amplitude and phase signatures. The two signatures are presented as feature vectors for both training and testing purposes. The study confirms the utility of complex-valued extreme learning machine algorithms for classification of the very large data sets generated with current terahertz imaging spectrometers. The classifier can take into consideration heterogeneous layers within an object as would be required within a tomographic setting and is sufficiently robust to detect patterns hidden inside noisy terahertz data sets. The proposed study opens up the opportunity for the establishment of complex-valued extreme learning machine algorithms as new chemometric tools that will assist the wider proliferation of terahertz sensing technology for chemical sensing, quality control, security screening and clinic diagnosis. Furthermore, the proposed

  8. Complex extreme learning machine applications in terahertz pulsed signals feature sets.

    PubMed

    Yin, X-X; Hadjiloucas, S; Zhang, Y

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to the automatic classification of very large data sets composed of terahertz pulse transient signals, highlighting their potential use in biochemical, biomedical, pharmaceutical and security applications. Two different types of THz spectra are considered in the classification process. Firstly a binary classification study of poly-A and poly-C ribonucleic acid samples is performed. This is then contrasted with a difficult multi-class classification problem of spectra from six different powder samples that although have fairly indistinguishable features in the optical spectrum, they also possess a few discernable spectral features in the terahertz part of the spectrum. Classification is performed using a complex-valued extreme learning machine algorithm that takes into account features in both the amplitude as well as the phase of the recorded spectra. Classification speed and accuracy are contrasted with that achieved using a support vector machine classifier. The study systematically compares the classifier performance achieved after adopting different Gaussian kernels when separating amplitude and phase signatures. The two signatures are presented as feature vectors for both training and testing purposes. The study confirms the utility of complex-valued extreme learning machine algorithms for classification of the very large data sets generated with current terahertz imaging spectrometers. The classifier can take into consideration heterogeneous layers within an object as would be required within a tomographic setting and is sufficiently robust to detect patterns hidden inside noisy terahertz data sets. The proposed study opens up the opportunity for the establishment of complex-valued extreme learning machine algorithms as new chemometric tools that will assist the wider proliferation of terahertz sensing technology for chemical sensing, quality control, security screening and clinic diagnosis. Furthermore, the proposed

  9. Space Reflector Materials for Prometheus Application

    SciTech Connect

    J. Nash; V. Munne; LL Stimely

    2006-01-31

    The two materials studied in depth which appear to have the most promise in a Prometheus reflector application are beryllium (Be) and beryllium oxide (BeO). Three additional materials, magnesium oxide (MgO), alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) were also recently identified to be of potential interest, and may have promise in a Prometheus application as well, but are expected to be somewhat higher mass than either a Be or BeO based reflector. Literature review and analysis indicates that material properties for Be are largely known, but there are gaps in the properties of Be0 relative to the operating conditions for a Prometheus application. A detailed preconceptual design information document was issued providing material properties for both materials (Reference (a)). Beryllium oxide specimens were planned to be irradiated in the JOY0 Japanese test reactor to partially fill the material property gaps, but more testing in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) test reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was expected to be needed. A key issue identified for BeO was obtaining material for irradiation testing with an average grain size of {approx}5 micrometers, reminiscent of material for which prior irradiation test results were promising. Current commercially available material has an average grain size of {approx}10 micrometers. The literature indicated that improved irradiation performance could be expected (e.g., reduced irradiation-induced swelling) with the finer grain size material. Confirmation of these results would allow the use of historic irradiated materials test results from the literature, reducing the extent of required testing and therefore the cost of using this material. Environmental, safety and health (ES&H) concerns associated with manufacturing are significant but manageable for Be and BeO. Although particulate-generating operations (e.g., machining, grinding, etc.) involving Be

  10. Extreme tunability in aluminum doped Zinc Oxide plasmonic materials for near-infrared applications

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, A. K.; Mundle, R. M.; Santiago, Kevin; Skuza, J. R.; Xiao, Bo; Song, K. D.; Bahoura, M.; Cheaito, Ramez; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic materials (PMs), featuring large static or dynamic tunability, have significant impact on the optical properties due to their potential for applications in transformation optics, telecommunications, energy, and biomedical areas. Among PMs, the carrier concentration and mobility are two tunable parameters, which control the plasma frequency of a metal. Here, we report on large static and dynamic tunability in wavelengths up to 640 nm in Al-doped ZnO based transparent conducting degenerate semiconductors by controlling both thickness and applied voltages. This extreme tunability is ascribed to an increase in carrier concentration with increasing thickness as well as voltage-induced thermal effects that eventually diminish the carrier concentration and mobility due to complex chemical transformations in the multilayer growth process. These observations could pave the way for optical manipulation of this class of materials for potential transformative applications. PMID:25231513

  11. A New Apparatus to Evaluate Lubricants for Space Applications: The Spiral Orbit Tribometer (SOT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Jansen, Mark J.; Nguyen, QuynhGiao N.; Kingsbury, Edward P.; Loewenthal, Stuart H.; Predmore, Roamer E.

    2000-01-01

    Lubricants used in space mechanisms must be thoroughly tested prior to their selection for critical applications. Traditionally, two types of tests have been used: accelerated and full-scale. Accelerated tests are rapid, economical, and provide useful information for gross screening of candidate lubricants. Although full-scale tests are more believable, because they mimic actual spacecraft conditions, they are expensive and time consuming. The spiral orbit tribometer compromises between the two extremes. It rapidly determines the rate of tribochemically induced lubricant consumption, which leads to finite test times, under realistic rolling/pivoting conditions that occur in angular contact bearings.

  12. Milliwatt thermoelectric generator for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Daniel T.; Bass, John C.; Elsner, Norbert B.; Ghamaty, Saeid; Morris, Charles C.

    2000-01-01

    A small thermoelectric generator is being developed for general use in space, and in particular for any of several proposed Mars atmospheric probes and surface landers that may be launched in the 2003 to 2006 time period. The design is based on using an existing 1 watt radioisotope heater unit as the generator heat source. That is the Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (RHU) which has already been used to provide heating alone on numerous spacecraft, including the 1997 Pathfinder/Sojourner Mars lander. Important technical issues that need to be addressed in the detailed design are the mechanical integrity of the overall power supply in consideration of the impact of landing on Mars and the subsequent performance of the thermal insulation around the heat source, which is critical to delivering the output power. The power supply is intended to meet a 20-year operational lifetime. Hi-Z is developing milliwatt modules that make use of micro fabrication techniques. For this generator modules are being fabricated that produce approximately 40 milliwatts at a T-hot of 250 °C and a T-cold of 25 °C. The module is composed of an 18×18 array of 0.38 mm (0.015'') square×22.9 mm(0.900'') long N and P elements. The modules use bismuth-telluride based alloys that are fine grain metallurgy prepared materials that can endure the demanding fabrication techniques. The paper describes the design status to date, and it presents the analytical approach, the testing program plan and a manufacturing schedule that is needed to meet the launch dates being considered. Electrical performance and life test data for the modules is also presented. .

  13. SP-100 nuclear space power systems with application to space commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, John M.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to familiarize the Space Commercialization Community with the status and characteristics of the SP-100 space nuclear power system. The program is a joint undertaking by the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy and NASA. The goal of the program is to develop, validate, and demonstrate the technology for space nuclear power systems in the range of 10 to 1000 kWe electric for use in the future civilian and military space missions. Also discussed are mission applications which are enhanced and/or enabled by SP-100 technology and how this technology compares to that of more familiar solar power systems. The mission applications include earth orbiting platforms and lunar/Mars surface power.

  14. An overview of photovoltaics for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Monck, J.

    1978-01-01

    Significant progress in both silicon and GaAs technology for photovoltaic applications has been made. As a result 50 micron silicon cells, incorporating all the recent processing advancements, have been produced which deliver over 19 mW/sq cm initial power. These cells also display impressive performance after exposure to 1 MeV electrons, delivering 15 mW/sq cm after a fluence of 1 x 10 to the 15th e/sq cm. GaAlAs cells are now being made which have conversion efficiencies and radiation resistance superior to the best silicon solar cells. A discussion of the work that led to this situation, as well as an attempt to project further progress in both silicon and GaAs technology is given.

  15. Evaluation of Wiring Constructions for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammoud, Ahmad N.; Stavnes, Mark W.; Dickman, John E.; Burkhardt, Linda A.; Woodford, Lynn M.; Ide, James R.; Muegge, ED

    1994-01-01

    A NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OS&MA) program to develop lightweight, reliable, and safe wiring insulations for aerospace applications is being performed by the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). As part of this effort, a new wiring construction utilizing high strength PTFE (poly tetrafluoroethylene) as the insulation has been tested and compared with the existing military standard polyimide-based MIL-W-81381 wire construction. Electrical properties which were investigated included ac corona inception and extinction voltages (sea level and 60,000 feet), time/current to smoke, and wire fusing time. The two constructions were also characterized in terms of their mechanical properties of flexural strength, abrasion resistance (23 C and 150 C), and dynamic cut-through (23 C and 200 C). The results obtained in this testing effort are presented and discussed in this paper.

  16. Miniaturised Space Payloads for Outdoor Environmental Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    The need for portable, robust and acurate sensors has increased in recent years resulting from industrial and environmental needs. This paper describes a number of applications of engineering copies of those Moessbauer spectrometers (MIMOS II) used by Mars Exploration Rovers, and the use of portable XRF spectrometers in the analysis of heavy metals in sediments. MIMOS II has been applied in the characterisation of Fe-bearing phases in airborne particles in industrialised urban centres, The results have allowed an identification of sources or air pollution in near-real-time. The results help to combine production parameters with pollution impact in the urban area. MIMOS II became a powerful tool because its constructive requirements to flight has produced a robust, power efficient, miniaturised, and light. On the limitation side, the technique takes sometime to produce a good result and the instrument requires a radioactive source to operate. MIMOS II Team has reported a new generation of this instrument incorporating a XRF spectrometer using the radioactive source to generate fluorescence emissions from sample. The author, and its research group, adapted a portable XRF spectrometer to an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) and conducted heavy metals survey in sediments across the Derwent Estuary in Tasmania, Australia. The AUV lands on suitable locations underwater, makes the chemical analysis and decide based on the result to move to a closer location, should high concentration of chemicals of interest be found, or to another distant location otherwise. Beyond environmental applications, these instruments were applied in archaeology and in industrial process control.oessbauer spectra recorded on airborne particles (Total Suspended Particles) collected at Ilha do Boi, VItoria, ES, Brazil. SIRO's Autonomous Underwater Vehicle carring a miniaturised XRF spectrometer for underwater chemistry. Students involved in this Project: Mr Jeremy Breen and Mr Andrew Davie

  17. AMOBA - ARINC 653 Simulator for Modular Based Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoal, E.; Rufino, J.; Schoofs, T.; Windsor, J.

    2008-08-01

    The ARINC 653 standard has taken a leading role within the aeronautical industry in the development of safety-critical systems based upon the Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) concept. The related cost savings in reduced integration, verification and validation effort has raised interest in the European space industry for developing a spacecraft IMA approach and for the definition of an ARINC 653-for-space software framework. As part of this process, it is necessary to establish an effective way to test and develop space applications without having access to the final IMA target platform. This paper describes the design and the architecture of a multi-platform and modular ARINC 653 simulator that emulates an execution environment for ARINC 653 space applications.

  18. Challenges estimating the return period of extreme floods for reinsurance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raven, Emma; Busby, Kathryn; Liu, Ye

    2013-04-01

    Mapping and modelling extreme natural events is fundamental within the insurance and reinsurance industry for assessing risk. For example, insurers might use a 1 in 100-year flood hazard map to set the annual premium of a property, whilst a reinsurer might assess the national scale loss associated with the 1 in 200-year return period for capital and regulatory requirements. Using examples from a range of international flood projects, we focus on exploring how to define what the n-year flood looks like for predictive uses in re/insurance applications, whilst considering challenges posed by short historical flow records and the spatial and temporal complexities of flood. First, we shall explore the use of extreme value theory (EVT) statistics for extrapolating data beyond the range of observations in a marginal analysis. In particular, we discuss how to estimate the return period of historical flood events and explore the impact that a range of statistical decisions have on these estimates. Decisions include: (1) selecting which distribution type to apply (e.g. generalised Pareto distribution (GPD) vs. generalised extreme value distribution (GEV)); (2) if former, the choice of the threshold above which the GPD is fitted to the data; and (3) the necessity to perform a cluster analysis to group flow peaks to temporally represent individual flood events. Second, we summarise a specialised multivariate extreme value model, which combines the marginal analysis above with dependence modelling to generate industry standard event sets containing thousands of simulated, equi-probable floods across a region/country. These events represent the typical range of anticipated flooding across a region and can be used to estimate the largest or most widespread events that are expected to occur. Finally, we summarise how a reinsurance catastrophe model combines the event set with detailed flood hazard maps to estimate the financial cost of floods; both the full event set and also

  19. Evaluation of solar cells for potential space satellite power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The evaluation focused on the following subjects: (1) the relative merits of alternative solar cell materials, based on performance and availability, (2) the best manufacturing methods for various solar cell options and the effects of extremely large production volumes on their ultimate costs and operational characteristics, (3) the areas of uncertainty in achieving large solar cell production volumes, (4) the effects of concentration ratios on solar array mass and system performance, (5) the factors influencing solar cell life in the radiation environment during transport to and in geosynchronous orbit, and (6) the merits of conducting solar cell manufacturing operations in space.

  20. Space Shielding Materials for Prometheus Application

    SciTech Connect

    R. Lewis

    2006-01-20

    H development for a project with an aggressive schedule like JIMO, some background or advanced development effort for LiH should be considered for future space reactor projects.

  1. Antiproton Trapping for Advanced Space Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Gerald A.

    1998-01-01

    The Summary of Research parallels the Statement of Work (Appendix I) submitted with the proposal, and funded effective Feb. 1, 1997 for one year. A proposal was submitted to CERN in October, 1996 to carry out an experiment on the synthesis and study of fundamental properties of atomic antihydrogen. Since confined atomic antihydrogen is potentially the most powerful and elegant source of propulsion energy known, its confinement and properties are of great interest to the space propulsion community. Appendix II includes an article published in the technical magazine Compressed Air, June 1997, which describes CERN antiproton facilities, and ATHENA. During the period of this grant, Prof. Michael Holzscheiter served as spokesman for ATHENA and, in collaboration with Prof. Gerald Smith, worked on the development of the antiproton confinement trap, which is an important part of the ATHENA experiment. Appendix III includes a progress report submitted to CERN on March 12, 1997 concerning development of the ATHENA detector. Section 4.1 reviews technical responsibilities within the ATHENA collaboration, including the Antiproton System, headed by Prof. Holzscheiter. The collaboration was advised (see Appendix IV) on June 13, 1997 that the CERN Research Board had approved ATHENA for operation at the new Antiproton Decelerator (AD), presently under construction. First antiproton beams are expected to be delivered to experiments in about one year. Progress toward assembly of the ATHENA detector and initial testing expected in 1999 has been excellent. Appendix V includes a copy of the minutes of the most recently documented collaboration meeting held at CERN of October 24, 1997, which provides more information on development of systems, including the antiproton trapping apparatus. On February 10, 1998 Prof. Smith gave a 3 hour lecture on the Physics of Antimatter, as part of the Physics for the Third Millennium Lecture Series held at MSFC. Included in Appendix VI are notes and

  2. High-power converters for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. N.; Cooper, Randy

    1991-01-01

    Phase 1 was a concept definition effort to extend space-type dc/dc converter technology to the megawatt level with a weight of less than 0.1 kg/kW (220 lb./MW). Two system designs were evaluated in Phase 1. Each design operates from a 5 kV stacked fuel cell source and provides a voltage step-up to 100 kV at 10 A for charging capacitors (100 pps at a duty cycle of 17 min on, 17 min off). Both designs use an MCT-based, full-bridge inverter, gaseous hydrogen cooling, and crowbar fault protection. The GE-CRD system uses an advanced high-voltage transformer/rectifier filter is series with a resonant tank circuit, driven by an inverter operating at 20 to 50 kHz. Output voltage is controlled through frequency and phase shift control. Fast transient response and stability is ensured via optimal control. Super-resonant operation employing MCTs provides the advantages of lossless snubbing, no turn-on switching loss, use of medium-speed diodes, and intrinsic current limiting under load-fault conditions. Estimated weight of the GE-CRD system is 88 kg (1.5 cu ft.). Efficiency of 94.4 percent and total system loss is 55.711 kW operating at 1 MW load power. The Maxwell system is based on a resonance transformer approach using a cascade of five LC resonant sections at 100 kHz. The 5 kV bus is converted to a square wave, stepped-up to a 100 kV sine wave by the LC sections, rectified, and filtered. Output voltage is controlled with a special series regulator circuit. Estimated weight of the Maxwell system is 83.8 kg (4.0 cu ft.). Efficiency is 87.2 percent and total system loss is 146.411 kW operating at 1 MW load power.

  3. High-power converters for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. N.; Cooper, Randy

    1991-06-01

    Phase 1 was a concept definition effort to extend space-type dc/dc converter technology to the megawatt level with a weight of less than 0.1 kg/kW (220 lb./MW). Two system designs were evaluated in Phase 1. Each design operates from a 5 kV stacked fuel cell source and provides a voltage step-up to 100 kV at 10 A for charging capacitors (100 pps at a duty cycle of 17 min on, 17 min off). Both designs use an MCT-based, full-bridge inverter, gaseous hydrogen cooling, and crowbar fault protection. The GE-CRD system uses an advanced high-voltage transformer/rectifier filter is series with a resonant tank circuit, driven by an inverter operating at 20 to 50 kHz. Output voltage is controlled through frequency and phase shift control. Fast transient response and stability is ensured via optimal control. Super-resonant operation employing MCTs provides the advantages of lossless snubbing, no turn-on switching loss, use of medium-speed diodes, and intrinsic current limiting under load-fault conditions. Estimated weight of the GE-CRD system is 88 kg (1.5 cu ft.). Efficiency of 94.4 percent and total system loss is 55.711 kW operating at 1 MW load power. The Maxwell system is based on a resonance transformer approach using a cascade of five LC resonant sections at 100 kHz. The 5 kV bus is converted to a square wave, stepped-up to a 100 kV sine wave by the LC sections, rectified, and filtered. Output voltage is controlled with a special series regulator circuit. Estimated weight of the Maxwell system is 83.8 kg (4.0 cu ft.). Efficiency is 87.2 percent and total system loss is 146.411 kW operating at 1 MW load power.

  4. Strawman payload data for science and applications space platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The need for a free flying science and applications space platform to host compatible long duration experiment groupings in Earth orbit is discussed. Experiment level information on strawman payload models is presented which serves to identify and quantify the requirements for the space platform system. A description data base on the strawman payload model is presented along with experiment level and group level summaries. Payloads identified in the strawman model include the disciplines of resources observations and environmental observations.

  5. Robotic vision technology and algorithms for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar

    1988-01-01

    The vision data requirements for various automation and robotics applications for the Space Station are discussed. The advanced systems technology involved with robotic sensing for perception is reviewed, noting the unique requirements of vision systems in space. Three areas of algorithm development are discussed: shape extraction based on illumination, shape extraction by sensor fusion, and generalized image point correspondence. Possibilities for future developments in robotic vision technology are considered.

  6. An Isotope-Powered Thermal Storage unit for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisano, Michael E.; Rose, M. F.

    An Isotope-Powered Thermal Storage Unit (ITSU), that would store and utilize heat energy in a 'pulsed' fashion in space operations, is described. Properties of various radioisotopes are considered in conjunction with characteristics of thermal energy storage materials, to evaluate possible implementation of such a device. The utility of the unit is discussed in light of various space applications, including rocket propulsion, power generation, and spacecraft thermal management.

  7. An isotope-powered thermal storage unit for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisano, Michael E.; Rose, M. Frank

    1991-01-01

    An Isotope-Powered Thermal Storage Unite (ITSU), that would store and utilize heat energy in a ``pulsed'' fashion in space operations, is described. Properties of various radioisotopes are considered in conjunction with characteristics of thermal energy storage materials, to evaluate possible implementation of such a device. The utility of the unit is dicussed in light of various space applications, including rocket propulsion, power generation, and spacecraft thermal magnagement.

  8. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Karla

    2004-01-01

    This presentation will provide a summary of the PEM fuel cell development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Johnson Space Center (NASA, JSC) in support of future space applications. Fuel cells have been used for space power generation due to their high energy storage density for multi-day missions. The Shuttle currently utilizes the alkaline fuel cell technology, which has highly safe and reliable performance. However, the alkaline technology has a limited life due to the corrosion inherent to the alkaline technology. PEM fuel cells are under development by industry for transportation, residential and commercial stationary power applications. NASA is trying to incorporate some of this stack technology development in the PEM fuel cells for space. NASA has some unique design and performance parameters which make developing a PEM fuel cell system more challenging. Space fuel cell applications utilize oxygen, rather than air, which yields better performance but increases the hazard level. To reduce the quantity of reactants that need to be flown in space, NASA also utilizes water separation and reactant recirculation. Due to the hazards of utilizing active components for recirculation and water separation, NASA is trying to develop passive recirculation and water separation methods. However, the ability to develop recirculation components and water separators that are gravity-independent and successfully operate over the full range of power levels is one of the greatest challenges to developing a safe and reliable PEM fuel cell system. PEM stack, accessory component, and system tests that have been performed for space power applications will be discussed.

  9. A brief overview of space applications for ultrasonics.

    PubMed

    Harkness, Patrick; Lucas, Margaret

    2012-12-01

    Sonics and space are two topics which are not commonly considered together. However, sonic and ultrasonic models, devices and systems have space applications in both science and engineering, as well as showing promise in fields such as cleaning, healthcare and construction. This short paper describes some of these activities and appears as results start to come in from the Curiosity rover, which landed on Mars on the 6th of August, 2012, with over 20 piezoelectric and mechanically-resonant components on board.

  10. The properties of perfluoropolyethers used for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The perfluoropolyether (PFPE) class of liquid lubricants has been used for space applications for over two decades. At first, these fluids performed satisfactorily as early spacecraft placed few demands on their performance. However, as other spacecraft components have become more reliable and lifetimes have been extended, PFPE lubricant deficiencies have been exposed. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to review the PFPE properties that are important for successful long term operation in space.

  11. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Application Repository Design and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handler, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Application Repository Design and Analysis document describes the STRS application repository for software-defined radio (SDR) applications intended to be compliant to the STRS Architecture Standard. The document provides information about the submission of artifacts to the STRS application repository, to provide information to the potential users of that information, and for the systems engineer to understand the requirements, concepts, and approach to the STRS application repository. The STRS application repository is intended to capture knowledge, documents, and other artifacts for each waveform application or other application outside of its project so that when the project ends, the knowledge is retained. The document describes the transmission of technology from mission to mission capturing lessons learned that are used for continuous improvement across projects and supporting NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs) for performing software engineering projects and NASAs release process.

  12. An Evaluation of Electronic Nose for Space Program Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Rebecca C.; Linnell, Bruce R.; Buttner, William J.; Mersqhelte, Barry

    2003-01-01

    The ability to monitor air contaminants in the Shuttle and the International Space Station is important to ensure the health and safety of astronauts. Three specific space applications have been identified that would benefit from a chemical monitor: organic contaminants in crew cabins, propellant contaminants in the airlock, and pre-combustion fire detection. NASA has assessed several commercial and developing electronic noses (e-noses) for these applications. A preliminary series of tests identified those e-noses that exhibited sufficient sensitivity to the vapors of interest. These e-noses were further tested to assess their ability to identify vapors, and in-house software has been developed to enhance identification. This paper describes the tests, the classification ability of selected e-noses, and the software improvements made to meet the requirements for these space program applications.

  13. Application of Mobile-ip to Space and Aeronautical Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, Kent; Shell, Dan; Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David H.; Bell, Terry L.; Kachmar, Brian A.

    2001-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is interested in applying mobile Internet protocol (mobile-ip) technologies to its space and aeronautics programs. In particular, mobile-ip will play a major role in the Advanced Aeronautic Transportation Technology (AAT-F), the Weather Information Communication (WINCOMM), and the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) aeronautics programs. This paper describes mobile-ip and mobile routers--in particular, the features, capabilities, and initial performance of the mobile router are presented. The application of mobile-router technology to NASA's space and aeronautics programs is also discussed.

  14. Classical-physics applications for Finsler b space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Joshua; Lehnert, Ralf

    2015-06-01

    The classical propagation of certain Lorentz-violating fermions is known to be governed by geodesics of a four-dimensional pseudo-Finsler b space parametrized by a prescribed background covector field. This work identifies systems in classical physics that are governed by the three-dimensional version of Finsler b space and constructs a geodesic for a sample non-constant choice for the background covector. The existence of these classical analogues demonstrates that Finsler b spaces possess applications in conventional physics, which may yield insight into the propagation of SME fermions on curved manifolds.

  15. Resolving Extreme Rainfall from Space: A New Class of Algorithms for Precipitation Retrieval and Data Fusion/Assimilation with Emphasis on Extremes over Complex Terrain and Coastal Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Ebtehaj, A.

    2015-12-01

    The increasing availability of precipitation observations from the Global Precipitation Measuring (GPM) Mission, has fueled renewed interest in developing frameworks for accurate estimation of precipitation extremes especially over ungauged mountainous terrains and coastal regions to improve hydro-geological hazard prediction and control. Our recent research has shown that treating precipitation retrieval and data fusion/assimilation as inverse problems and using a regularized variational approach with the regularization term(s) selected to impose desired smoothness in the solution, leads to improved representation of extremes. Here we present some new theoretical and computational developments which extend the ideas to a model-agnostic framework of retrieval via a regularized search within properly constructed data bases. We test the framework in several tropical storms over the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta region and over the Himalayas and compare the results with the standard retrieval algorithms currently used for operational purposes.

  16. Applications of free-space microwave power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, S. W.; Brown, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    Some applications and properties of free-space power transmission are examined. Among the properties discussed are: no mass, either in the form of wire conductors or ferrying vehicles, is needed between the source of energy and the point of consumption; energy can be transferred at the velocity of light; no loss of energy in transferring energy throught the vacuum of space; and the energy transfer is insensitive to a difference in the gravitational potential of the transmitter and receiver locations. Applications discussed include the Solar Power Satellite, high altitude platforms for communications and remote sensing. Also discussed are rectennas and retrodirective arrays. Finally, an expression yielding minimum cost is presented.

  17. Second NASA Workshop on Wiring for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the Second NASA Workshop on Wiring for Space Applications held at NASA LeRC in Cleveland, OH, 6-7 Oct. 1993. The workshop was sponsored by NASA Headquarters Code QW Office of Safety and Mission Quality, Technical Standards Division and hosted by NASA LeRC, Power Technology Division, Electrical Components and Systems Branch. The workshop addressed key technology issues in the field of electrical power wiring for space applications. Speakers from government, industry, and academia presented and discussed topics on arc tracking phenomena, wiring system design, insulation constructions, and system protection. Presentation materials provided by the various speakers are included in this document.

  18. An analytic regularisation scheme on curved space-times with applications to cosmological space-times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Géré, Antoine; Hack, Thomas-Paul; Pinamonti, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    We develop a renormalisation scheme for time-ordered products in interacting field theories on curved space-times that consists of an analytic regularisation of Feynman amplitudes and a minimal subtraction of the resulting pole parts. This scheme is directly applicable to space-times with Lorentzian signature, manifestly generally covariant, invariant under any space-time isometries present, and constructed to all orders in perturbation theory. Moreover, the scheme correctly captures the nongeometric state-dependent contribution of Feynman amplitudes, and it is well suited for practical computations. To illustrate this last point, we compute explicit examples on a generic curved space-time and demonstrate how momentum space computations in cosmological space-times can be performed in our scheme. In this work, we discuss only scalar fields in four space-time dimensions, but we argue that the renormalisation scheme can be directly generalised to other space-time dimensions and field theories with higher spin as well as to theories with local gauge invariance.

  19. Possible links between extreme levels of space weather changes and human health state in middle latitudes: direct and indirect indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safaraly-Oghlu Babayev, Elchin

    geomagnetic storms of the solar cycle 23 on the mentioned systems in middle-latitude location. In these studies, direct and indirect indicators of space weather influence are used: 1) Indirect indicators are essentially epidemiological data showing the temporal and spatial distribution of defined events or health disturbances involving considerable numbers of test subjects over several years. The indirect indicators used in this paper are: temporal distribution of emergency calls and hospital admissions (sudden cardiac deaths, acute myocardial infarction mortality and morbidity, so on), dynamics of traffic accidents, epidemics, etc.; 2) Direct indicators. They are physiological parameters, which can be objectively verified and which are acquired either in vivo, directly on the subject (heart rate and its variability, blood pressure, human brain's functional state, human psycho-emotional state, so on), or in vitro by laboratory diagnostics or tissue investigations. The potential co-factors, e.g. terrestrial (tropospheric) weather, seasons, demographic factor, working environment, etc., were also considered in the interpretation of the indicators. Spectral analyses have revealed certain chronobiological periodicities in the considered data. There are also provided results of daily medical-physiological experiments (acupunctural studies of conductivity of the biologically active points of human body in days with different geomagnetic activity levels) conducted in the Laboratory of Heliobiology, Baku, Azerbaijan, as a part of collaborative studies with Russian institutions such as IZMIRAN and Space Research Institute. They show on the latitudinal and longitudinal dependence of space weather influence. Our complex studies enabled to conclude that not only extremely high, but also very low levels of geomagnetic activity may have signifi- cant influence on human health state, especially, in the cardio-vascular health state and human brain's bioelectrical activity.

  20. Extreme Environments and Extreme Science: Reliability and Risk Assessment for Autonomous Systems with Application to Polar Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trembanis, A.; Griffiths, G.

    2006-12-01

    Assessment of reliability and consequent risk to autonomous systems is an increasingly common and critical concern given the number of challenging new extreme environment research programs calling for the utilization of autonomous systems (e.g. AUVs, gliders, floats, etc.). The interest in using autonomous systems amongst the scientific community is particularly strong amongst polar research programs where so much vital area lies beyond the reach of traditional approaches. Therefore, the potential for scientific discovery is significantly increased, because of the very ability of autonomous systems to get to and gather information in the critical zones. The scientific merits and rewards of polar research are great but so too are the risks. There are risks both to mission success (i.e. science delivery) and risks to asset survival and recovery (i.e. retrieval). In polar settings the greatest increased risks are the complexities of operation (e.g. launch/recovery and retrieval) associated with sea ice and shelf ice. Even in open water settings the temporal and spatial dynamics of environmental conditions complicate the operation of autonomous systems. Very little systematic study and quantitative analysis has been conducted to evaluate the reliability and risk to autonomous systems in any operational setting let alone the demanding and increasingly sought after polar environments. Here we present some assessments of AUV reliability for polar and also non-polar settings drawing largely on datasets from both a large autonomous vehicle program (Autosub) and a small autonomous vehicle program (DOERRI) in order to illustrate key and common elements of reliability and risk that may provide insights to scientific end-users (PIs), program managers, and the developers and operators of other similar autonomous systems working in polar settings. An approach to risk management is laid out. Key risk mitigation elements are presented in categories of system stability and

  1. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aeronautics and Space Applications III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L. Y.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Sawayda, M. S.; Jin, Z.; Hammond, J.; Makel, D.; Liu, M.; Rauch, W. A.; Hall, G.

    1999-01-01

    Aeronautic and space applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. Areas of interest include launch vehicle safety monitoring, emission monitoring, and fire detection. This paper discusses the needs of aeronautic and space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Sensor development for each application involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. The number of dual-use commercial applications of this microfabricated gas sensor technology make this area of sensor development a field of significant interest.

  2. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aeronautic and Space Applications 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Chen, L. Y.; Neudeck, P. G.; Knight, D.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Zhou, H. J.; Makel, D.; Liu, M.; Rauch, W. A.

    1998-01-01

    Aeronautic and Space applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. Areas of most interest include launch vehicle safety monitoring emission monitoring and fire detection. This paper discusses the needs of aeronautic and space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. The development of these sensor is based on progress two types of technology: 1) Micro-machining and micro-fabrication technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Sensor development for each application involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. The number of dual-use commercial applications of this micro-fabricated gas sensor technology make this area of sensor development a field of significant interest.

  3. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aeronautic and Space Applications 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Chen, Liong-Yu; Neudeck, Phil G.; Knight, Dale; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Zhou, H. J.; Makel, Darby; Liu, M.; Rauch, W. A.

    1998-01-01

    Aeronautic and space applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. Areas of interest include launch vehicle safety monitoring, emission monitoring, and fire detection. This paper discusses the needs of aeronautic and space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Sensor development for each application involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. The number of dual-use commercial applications of this microfabricated gas sensor technology make this area of sensor development a field of significant interest.

  4. Technology status of tantalum alloys for space nuclear power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, E. E.

    1985-01-01

    Tantalum alloys have a variety of properties which make them attractive candidates for application in nuclear power systems required to operate in space at elevated temperatures (1200 to 1600 K) for extended time periods. Most of the technology development on this class of alloys which is pertinent to space system application occurred during the 1960 to 1972 time period under NASA sponsorship. The most extensive data bases resulting from this earlier work were obtained on the alloys T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf) and ASTAR 811C (Ta-8W-1Re-0.7Hf-0.025C). Emphasis in this paper is directed at the following technical factors: producibility, creep strength, weldability and compatibility. These factors are considered to be the most important elements in the selection of alloys for this application. Review of the available information indicates that alloys of this type are appropriate for application in many systems, particularly those utilizing alkali metals as the working fluid.

  5. Superior radiation-resistant nanoengineered austenitic 304L stainless steel for applications in extreme radiation environments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sun, C.; Zheng, S.; Wei, C. C.; Wu, Y.; Shao, L.; Yang, Y.; Hartwig, K. T.; Maloy, S. A.; Zinkle, S. J.; Allen, T. R.; et al

    2015-01-15

    Nuclear energy provides more than 10% of electrical power internationally, and the increasing engagement of nuclear energy is essential to meet the rapid worldwide increase in energy demand. A paramount challenge in the development of advanced nuclear reactors is the discovery of advanced structural materials that can endure extreme environments, such as severe neutron irradiation damage at high temperatures. It has been known for decades that high dose radiation can introduce significant void swelling accompanied by precipitation in austenitic stainless steel (SS). Here we report, however, that through nanoengineering, ultra-fine grained (UFG) 304L SS with an average grain size ofmore » ~100 nm, can withstand Fe ion irradiation at 500°C to 80 displacements-per-atom (dpa) with moderate grain coarsening. Compared to coarse grained (CG) counterparts, swelling resistance of UFG SS is improved by nearly an order of magnitude and swelling rate is reduced by a factor of 5. M₂₃C₆ precipitates, abundant in irradiated CG SS, are largely absent in UFG SS. This study provides a nanoengineering approach to design and discover radiation tolerant metallic materials for applications in extreme radiation environments.« less

  6. Application of Data Cubes for Improving Detection of Water Cycle Extreme Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albayrak, Arif; Teng, William

    2015-01-01

    As part of an ongoing NASA-funded project to remove a longstanding barrier to accessing NASA data (i.e., accessing archived time-step array data as point-time series), for the hydrology and other point-time series-oriented communities, "data cubes" are created from which time series files (aka "data rods") are generated on-the-fly and made available as Web services from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). Data cubes are data as archived rearranged into spatio-temporal matrices, which allow for easy access to the data, both spatially and temporally. A data cube is a specific case of the general optimal strategy of reorganizing data to match the desired means of access. The gain from such reorganization is greater the larger the data set. As a use case of our project, we are leveraging existing software to explore the application of the data cubes concept to machine learning, for the purpose of detecting water cycle extreme events, a specific case of anomaly detection, requiring time series data. We investigate the use of support vector machines (SVM) for anomaly classification. We show an example of detection of water cycle extreme events, using data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM).

  7. Superior radiation-resistant nanoengineered austenitic 304L stainless steel for applications in extreme radiation environments

    PubMed Central

    Sun, C.; Zheng, S.; Wei, C. C.; Wu, Y.; Shao, L.; Yang, Y.; Hartwig, K. T.; Maloy, S. A.; Zinkle, S. J.; Allen, T. R.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear energy provides more than 10% of electrical power internationally, and the increasing engagement of nuclear energy is essential to meet the rapid worldwide increase in energy demand. A paramount challenge in the development of advanced nuclear reactors is the discovery of advanced structural materials that can endure extreme environments, such as severe neutron irradiation damage at high temperatures. It has been known for decades that high dose radiation can introduce significant void swelling accompanied by precipitation in austenitic stainless steel (SS). Here we report, however, that through nanoengineering, ultra-fine grained (UFG) 304L SS with an average grain size of ~100 nm, can withstand Fe ion irradiation at 500°C to 80 displacements-per-atom (dpa) with moderate grain coarsening. Compared to coarse grained (CG) counterparts, swelling resistance of UFG SS is improved by nearly an order of magnitude and swelling rate is reduced by a factor of 5. M23C6 precipitates, abundant in irradiated CG SS, are largely absent in UFG SS. This study provides a nanoengineering approach to design and discover radiation tolerant metallic materials for applications in extreme radiation environments. PMID:25588326

  8. Superior radiation-resistant nanoengineered austenitic 304L stainless steel for applications in extreme radiation environments

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, C.; Zheng, S.; Wei, C. C.; Wu, Y.; Shao, L.; Yang, Y.; Hartwig, K. T.; Maloy, S. A.; Zinkle, S. J.; Allen, T. R.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2015-01-15

    Nuclear energy provides more than 10% of electrical power internationally, and the increasing engagement of nuclear energy is essential to meet the rapid worldwide increase in energy demand. A paramount challenge in the development of advanced nuclear reactors is the discovery of advanced structural materials that can endure extreme environments, such as severe neutron irradiation damage at high temperatures. It has been known for decades that high dose radiation can introduce significant void swelling accompanied by precipitation in austenitic stainless steel (SS). Here we report, however, that through nanoengineering, ultra-fine grained (UFG) 304L SS with an average grain size of ~100 nm, can withstand Fe ion irradiation at 500°C to 80 displacements-per-atom (dpa) with moderate grain coarsening. Compared to coarse grained (CG) counterparts, swelling resistance of UFG SS is improved by nearly an order of magnitude and swelling rate is reduced by a factor of 5. M₂₃C₆ precipitates, abundant in irradiated CG SS, are largely absent in UFG SS. This study provides a nanoengineering approach to design and discover radiation tolerant metallic materials for applications in extreme radiation environments.

  9. Superior radiation-resistant nanoengineered austenitic 304L stainless steel for applications in extreme radiation environments.

    PubMed

    Sun, C; Zheng, S; Wei, C C; Wu, Y; Shao, L; Yang, Y; Hartwig, K T; Maloy, S A; Zinkle, S J; Allen, T R; Wang, H; Zhang, X

    2015-01-15

    Nuclear energy provides more than 10% of electrical power internationally, and the increasing engagement of nuclear energy is essential to meet the rapid worldwide increase in energy demand. A paramount challenge in the development of advanced nuclear reactors is the discovery of advanced structural materials that can endure extreme environments, such as severe neutron irradiation damage at high temperatures. It has been known for decades that high dose radiation can introduce significant void swelling accompanied by precipitation in austenitic stainless steel (SS). Here we report, however, that through nanoengineering, ultra-fine grained (UFG) 304 L SS with an average grain size of ~100 nm, can withstand Fe ion irradiation at 500 °C to 80 displacements-per-atom (dpa) with moderate grain coarsening. Compared to coarse grained (CG) counterparts, swelling resistance of UFG SS is improved by nearly an order of magnitude and swelling rate is reduced by a factor of 5. M(23)C(6) precipitates, abundant in irradiated CG SS, are largely absent in UFG SS. This study provides a nanoengineering approach to design and discover radiation tolerant metallic materials for applications in extreme radiation environments.

  10. A New Approach to Extreme Value Estimation Applicable to a Wide Variety of Random Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Frederic A., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Designing reliable structures requires an estimate of the maximum and minimum values (i.e., strength and load) that may be encountered in service. Yet designs based on very extreme values (to insure safety) can result in extra material usage and hence, uneconomic systems. In aerospace applications, severe over-design cannot be tolerated making it almost mandatory to design closer to the assumed limits of the design random variables. The issue then is predicting extreme values that are practical, i.e. neither too conservative or non-conservative. Obtaining design values by employing safety factors is well known to often result in overly conservative designs and. Safety factor values have historically been selected rather arbitrarily, often lacking a sound rational basis. To answer the question of how safe a design needs to be has lead design theorists to probabilistic and statistical methods. The so-called three-sigma approach is one such method and has been described as the first step in utilizing information about the data dispersion. However, this method is based on the assumption that the random variable is dispersed symmetrically about the mean and is essentially limited to normally distributed random variables. Use of this method can therefore result in unsafe or overly conservative design allowables if the common assumption of normality is incorrect.

  11. Applications of living systems theory to life in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James Grier

    1992-01-01

    The conceptual system and methodology of living systems theory appear to be of value to research on life in isolated environments. A space station, which must provide suitable conditions for human life in a stressful environment that meets none of the basic needs of life, is an extreme example of such isolation. A space station would include living systems at levels of individual human beings, groups of people engaged in a variety of activities, and the entire space crew as an organization. It could also carry living systems of other species, such as other animals and plants. Using the subsystem analysis of living systems theory, planners of a station, either in space or on a celestial body, would make sure that all the requirements for survival at all these levels had been considered. Attention would be given not only to the necessary matter and energy, but also the essential information flows that integrate and control living systems. Many variables for each subsystem could be monitored and kept in steady states. Use of living systems process analysis of the five flows of matter energy and information would assure that all members of the crew received what they needed.

  12. Space applications for high temperature superconductivity - Brief review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar

    1990-01-01

    An overview is presented of materials and devices based on high-temperature superconductivity (HTS) that could have useful space-oriented applications. Of specific interest are applications of HTS technologies to mm and microwave systems, spaceborne and planet-surface sensors, and to magnetic subsystems for robotic, rescue, and docking maneuvers. HTS technologies can be used in optoelectronics, magnetic-field detectors, antennae, transmission/delay lines, and launch/payload coils.

  13. NASA space applications of high-temperature superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinen, Vernon O.; Sokoloski, Martin M.; Aron, Paul R.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    1992-01-01

    The application of superconducting technology in space has been limited by the requirement of cooling to near liquid helium temperatures. The only means of attaining these temperatures has been with cryogenic fluids which severely limits mission lifetime. The development of materials with superconducting transition temperatures (T sub c) above 77 K has made superconducting technology more attractive and feasible for employment in aerospace systems. Potential applications of high-temperature superconducting technology in cryocoolers and remote sensing, communications, and power systems are discussed.

  14. NASA Space applications of high-temperature superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinen, Vernon O.; Sokoloski, Martin M.; Aron, Paul R.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Connolly, Denis J.

    1992-01-01

    The application of superconducting technology in space has been limited by the requirement of cooling to near liquid helium temperatures. The only means of obtaining these temperatures has been with cryogenic fluids which severely limit mission lifetime. The development of materials with superconducting transition temperatures above 77 K has made superconducting technology more attractive and feasible for employment in aerospace systems. Here, potential applications of high temperature superconducting technology in cryocoolers, remote sensing, communications, and power systems are discussed.

  15. The 1991 Goddard Conference on Space Applications of Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James L. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this annual conference is to provide a forum in which current research and development directed at space applications of artificial intelligence can be presented and discussed. The papers in this proceeding fall into the following areas: Planning and scheduling, fault monitoring/diagnosis/recovery, machine vision, robotics, system development, information management, knowledge acquisition and representation, distributed systems, tools, neural networks, and miscellaneous applications.

  16. A Study of Defense Applications of Space Solar Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Space solar power (SSP) is generally considered to be the collection in space of energy from the sun and its wireless transmission from space for use on earth. It has been observed that the implementation of such a system could offer energy security, environmental, and technological advantages to those who would undertake its development. A study conducted by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) sought to determine if unique, cost effective, and efficient approaches exist for supplying significant power on demand for Navy, Marine Corps, or other Department of Defense applications by employing a space-based solar power system. The study was initiated by and prepared for top NRL management in part as a result of the publication of the National Security Space Office's (NSSO) report "Space-Based Solar Power as an Opportunity for Strategic Security." The NSSO report's recommendations included statements calling for the U.S. Government to conduct analyses, retire technical risk, and become an early demonstrator for SBSP. It should be noted that the principal objective of the NRL study differed significantly from that of the multitude of previous studies performed in reference to SBSP in that it focused on defense rather than utility grid applications.

  17. Technology, limitations and applications of space technology in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canales Romero, Juan Martín

    2004-01-01

    A number of developing countries are undertaking projects pertaining to the design and development of space technology, either using their own resources or in collaboration with foreign countries, on a regional or international basis. This paper reviews cooperation in different areas of space technology applications in South America. It gives a brief overview of the overarching goals and vision and the general institutional framework of South-American space research and cooperation. A few examples of previous and current activities in space technology applications and some opportunities for expanding the usage of this technology in the region are described. The major challenges to full-blown regional cooperation in space technology are also examined. The main aims of these efforts are to give a fillip to the region's Research and Development (R&D) efforts in space technology and development of human resources in this field, through hands-on experience in building and operation of satellites, and acquisition of new skills in project definition, funding and implementation.

  18. Note: Thermally stable thin-film filters for high-power extreme-ultraviolet applications.

    PubMed

    Tarrio, C; Berg, R F; Lucatorto, T B; Lairson, B; Lopez, H; Ayers, T

    2015-11-01

    We investigated several types of thin-film filters for high intensity work in the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range. In our application, with a peak EUV intensity of 2.7 W cm(-2), Ni-mesh-backed Zr filters have a typical lifetime of 20 h, at which point they suffer from pinholes and a 50% loss of transmission. Initial trials with Si filters on Ni meshes resulted in rupture of the filters in less than an hour. A simple thermal calculation showed that the temperature rise in those filters to be about 634 K. A similar calculation indicated that using a finer mesh with thicker wires and made of Cu reduces the temperature increase to about 60 K. We have exposed a Si filter backed by such a mesh for more than 60 h with little loss of transmission and no leaks. PMID:26628184

  19. Fabrication of Extremely Short Length Fiber Bragg Gratings for Sensor Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Meng-Chou; Rogowski, Robert S.; Tedjojuwono, Ken K.

    2002-01-01

    A new technique and a physical model for writing extremely short length Bragg gratings in optical fibers have been developed. The model describes the effects of diffraction on the spatial spectra and therefore, the wavelength spectra of the Bragg gratings. Using an interferometric technique and a variable aperture, short gratings of various lengths and center wavelengths were written in optical fibers. By selecting the related parameters, the Bragg gratings with typical length of several hundred microns and bandwidth of several nanometers can be obtained. These short gratings can be apodized with selected diffraction patterns and hence their broadband spectra have a well-defined bell shape. They are suitable for use as miniaturized distributed strain sensors, which have broad applications to aerospace research and industry as well.

  20. SP-100 nuclear space power systems with application to space commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The technology of the SP-100 space nuclear power system program is compared to that of more familiar solar-power systems. The SP-100 program develops, validates, and demonstrates the technology for space nuclear power systems in the range of 10 to 1000 kilowatts electric for use in future military and civilian space missions. Mission applications, including earth orbiting platforms and lunar/Mars surface power, are enhanced or made possible by SP-100 technology. Attention is given to the SP-100 reference flight system design, the SP-100 nuclear reactor and nuclear-reactor shield, the platform-mounted, tethered, and free-flying reactors, and installation, operation, and disposal options, as well as lunar-Mars surface applications. The SP-100 is presented as one of the nuclear energy sources needed for long-life, compact, lightweight, continuous high power independent of solar orientation, specific orbits, or missions.

  1. Beamed microwave power transmission and its application to space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, William C.; Eves, E. E.

    1992-01-01

    The general principles and special components of beamed microwave power transmission systems are outlined and their application to the space program are discussed. The beamed system is defined as starting with a dc source of power at the transmitting end, converting it to a microwave beam for transmission through space, and ending with the dc power output at the receiving end. An experimentally measured and certified dc-to-dc efficiency of 54 percent has been achieved, using this definition. The application discussed is that of a LEO to GEO transportation system that depends upon vehicles propelled by electric thrusters whose power is supplied by a microwave beam originating at the earth's surface. The advantages of the all-electronic system over a chemically propelled system are enumerated. The principles of space propulsion, particularly as they relate to electric propulsion, are outlined. Key components of the system and environmental considerations are discussed.

  2. ExM:System Support for Extreme-Scale, Many-Task Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Daniel S

    2011-05-31

    The ever-increasing power of supercomputer systems is both driving and enabling the emergence of new problem-solving methods that require the effi cient execution of many concurrent and interacting tasks. Methodologies such as rational design (e.g., in materials science), uncertainty quanti fication (e.g., in engineering), parameter estimation (e.g., for chemical and nuclear potential functions, and in economic energy systems modeling), massive dynamic graph pruning (e.g., in phylogenetic searches), Monte-Carlo- based iterative fi xing (e.g., in protein structure prediction), and inverse modeling (e.g., in reservoir simulation) all have these requirements. These many-task applications frequently have aggregate computing needs that demand the fastest computers. For example, proposed next-generation climate model ensemble studies will involve 1,000 or more runs, each requiring 10,000 cores for a week, to characterize model sensitivity to initial condition and parameter uncertainty. The goal of the ExM project is to achieve the technical advances required to execute such many-task applications efficiently, reliably, and easily on petascale and exascale computers. In this way, we will open up extreme-scale computing to new problem solving methods and application classes. In this document, we report on combined technical progress of the collaborative ExM project, and the institutional financial status of the portion of the project at University of Chicago, over the rst 8 months (through April 30, 2011)

  3. Distributed expert systems for ground and space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Brian; Wheatcraft, Louis

    1992-01-01

    Presented here is the Spacecraft Command Language (SCL) concept of the unification of ground and space operations using a distributed approach. SCL is a hybrid software environment borrowing from expert system technology, fifth generation language development, and multitasking operating system environments. Examples of potential uses for the system and current distributed applications of SCL are given.

  4. Six degree of freedom active vibration damping for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Leonard S.

    1993-01-01

    Work performed during the period 1 Jan. - 31 Mar. 1993 on six degree of freedom active vibration damping for space application is presented. A performance and cost report is included. Topics covered include: actuator testing; mechanical amplifier design; and neural network control system development and experimental evaluation.

  5. Environmental considerations for application of high Tc superconductors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlberg, I. A.; Kelliher, W. C.; Wise, S. A.; Hooker, M. W.; Buckley, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    The impact of the environmental factors on the performance of the superconductive devices during spaceflight missions is reviewed. Specific factors typical of spaceflight are addressed to evaluate superconductive devices for space-based applications including preflight storage, radiation, vibration, and thermal cycling.

  6. Area Array Technology Evaluations for Space and Military Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    1996-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is currently assessing the use of Area Array Packaging (AAP) for National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) spaceflight applications. this work is being funded through NASA Headquarters, Code Q. The paper discusses background of AAP, objectives, and uses of AAP.

  7. High temperature superconductive microwave technology for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, R. F.; Connolly, D. J.; Bhasin, K. B.; Warner, J. D.; Alterovitz, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    Progress being made on space application technology research on film fabrication, passive microwave circuits, and semiconductor devices for cryogenic circuits is reviewed. Achievements in YBCO and TCBCO films are addressed along with circuit evaluations of microstrip resonators, phase shifters, microstrip filters, dielectric resonator filters, and superconducting antennas.

  8. Overview of NASA Power Technologies for Space and Aero Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Raymond F.

    2014-01-01

    To achieve the ambitious goals that NASA has outlined for the next decades considerable development of power technology will be necessary. This presentation outlines the development objectives for both the space and aero applications. It further looks at the various power technologies that support these objectives and examines drivers that will be a driving force for future development.

  9. Towards a Radiation Hardened Fluxgate Magnetometer for Space Physics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, David M.

    Space-based measurements of the Earth's magnetic field are required to understand the plasma processes of the solar-terrestrial connection which energize the Van Allen radiation belts and cause space weather. This thesis describes a fluxgate magnetometer payload developed for the proposed Canadian Space Agencys Outer Radiation Belt Injection, Transport, Acceleration and Loss Satellite (ORBITALS) mission. The instrument can resolve 8 pT on a 65,000 nT field at 900 samples per second with a magnetic noise of less than 10 pT per square-root Hertz at 1 Hertz. The design can be manufactured from radiation tolerant (100 krad) space grade parts. A novel combination of analog temperature compensation and digital feedback simplifies and miniaturises the instrument while improving the measurement bandwidth and resolution. The prototype instrument was successfully validated at the Natural Resources Canada Geomagnetics Laboratory, and is being considered for future ground, satellite and sounding rocket applications.

  10. Neural-network-based satellite tracking for deep space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoozegar, Farid; Ruggier, Charles

    2003-09-01

    NASA has been considering the use of Ka-band for deep space missions primarily for downlink telemetry applications. At such high frequencies, although the link will be expected to improve by a factor of four, the current Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas and transmitters would become less efficient due to higher equipment noise figures and antenna surface errors. Furthermore, the weather effect at Ka-band frequencies will dominate the degradations in link performance and tracking accuracy. At the lower frequencies, such as X-band, conventional CONSCAN or Monopulse tracking techniques can be used without much complexity, however, when utilizing Ka-band frequencies, the tracking of a spacecraft in deep space presents additional challenges. The objective of this paper is to provide a survey of neural network trends as applied to the tracking of spacecrafts in deep space at Ka-band under various weather conditions, and examine the trade-off between tracking accuracy and communication link performance.

  11. China national space remote sensing infrastructure and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming

    2016-07-01

    Space Infrastructure is a space system that provides communication, navigation and remote sensing service for broad users. China National Space Remote Sensing Infrastructure includes remote sensing satellites, ground system and related systems. According to the principle of multiple-function on one satellite, multiple satellites in one constellation and collaboration between constellations, series of land observation, ocean observation and atmosphere observation satellites have been suggested to have high, middle and low resolution and fly on different orbits and with different means of payloads to achieve a high ability for global synthetically observation. With such an infrastructure, we can carry out the research on climate change, geophysics global surveying and mapping, water resources management, safety and emergency management, and so on. I This paper gives a detailed introduction about the planning of this infrastructure and its application in different area, especially the international cooperation potential in the so called One Belt and One Road space information corridor.

  12. Applications of Meteorological Tower Data at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altino, Karen M.; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Members of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) design and operation communities rely on meteorological information collected at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), located near Cape Canaveral, Florida, to correctly apply the ambient environment to various tasks. The Natural Environments Branch/EV44, located at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for providing its NASA customers with meteorological data using various climatological data sources including balloons, surface stations, aircraft, hindcast models, and meteorological towers. Of the many resources available within the KSC region, meteorological towers are preferred for near-surface applications because they record data at regular, frequent intervals over an extensive period of record at a single location. This paper discusses the uses of data measured at several different meteorological towers for a common period of record and how the data can be applied to various engineering decisions for the new Constellation Program Ares and Orion space vehicles.

  13. Autogenic Feedback Training Applications for Man in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Finding an effective treatment for the motion sickness-like symptoms that occur in space has become a high priority for NASA. This paper reviews the back-round research and procedures of an experiment designed to prevent space motion sickness in shuttle crewmembers. The preventive method used, Autogenic - Feedback Training (AFT) involves training subjects to control voluntarily several of their own physiological responses to environmental stressors. AFT has been used reliably to increase tolerance to motion sickness during around based tests in over 300 men and women under a variety of conditions that induce motion sickness, and preliminary evidence from space suggests that AFT may be an effective treatment for space motion sickness as well. Other applications of AFT described include; (1) a potential treatment for post flight orthostatic intolerance, a serious biomedical problem resulting from long duration exposure to micro-g and (2) improving pilot performance during emergency flying conditions.

  14. Automated shock detection and analysis algorithm for space weather application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorotnikov, Vasiliy S.; Smith, Charles W.; Hu, Qiang; Szabo, Adam; Skoug, Ruth M.; Cohen, Christina M. S.

    2008-03-01

    Space weather applications have grown steadily as real-time data have become increasingly available. Numerous industrial applications have arisen with safeguarding of the power distribution grids being a particular interest. NASA uses short-term and long-term space weather predictions in its launch facilities. Researchers studying ionospheric, auroral, and magnetospheric disturbances use real-time space weather services to determine launch times. Commercial airlines, communication companies, and the military use space weather measurements to manage their resources and activities. As the effects of solar transients upon the Earth's environment and society grow with the increasing complexity of technology, better tools are needed to monitor and evaluate the characteristics of the incoming disturbances. A need is for automated shock detection and analysis methods that are applicable to in situ measurements upstream of the Earth. Such tools can provide advance warning of approaching disturbances that have significant space weather impacts. Knowledge of the shock strength and speed can also provide insight into the nature of the approaching solar transient prior to arrival at the magnetopause. We report on efforts to develop a tool that can find and analyze shocks in interplanetary plasma data without operator intervention. This method will run with sufficient speed to be a practical space weather tool providing useful shock information within 1 min of having the necessary data to ground. The ability to run without human intervention frees space weather operators to perform other vital services. We describe ways of handling upstream data that minimize the frequency of false positive alerts while providing the most complete description of approaching disturbances that is reasonably possible.

  15. Reliability of Sn/Pb and Lead-Free (SnAgCu) Solders of Surface Mounted Miniaturized Passive Components for Extreme Temperature (-185 C to +125 C) Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2011-01-01

    Surface mount electronic package test boards have been assembled using tin/lead (Sn/Pb) and lead-free (Pb-free or SnAgCu or SAC305) solders. The soldered surface mount packages include ball grid arrays (BGA), flat packs, various sizes of passive chip components, etc. They have been optically inspected after assembly and subsequently subjected to extreme temperature thermal cycling to assess their reliability or future deep space, long-term, extreme temperature environmental missions. In this study, the employed temperature range (-185oC to +125oC) covers military specifications (-55oC to +100oC), extreme old Martian (-120oC to +115oC), asteroid Nereus (-180oC to +25oC) and JUNO (-150oC to +120oC) environments. The boards were inspected at room temperature and at various intervals as a function of extreme temperature thermal cycling and bake duration. Electrical resistance measurements made at room temperature are reported and the tests to date have shown some change in resistance as a function of extreme temperature thermal cycling and some showed increase in resistance. However, the change in interconnect resistance becomes more noticeable with increasing number of thermal cycles. Further research work will be carried out to understand the reliability of packages under extreme temperature applications (-185oC to +125oC) via continuously monitoring the daisy chain resistance for BGA, Flat-packs, lead less chip packages, etc. This paper will describe the experimental reliability results of miniaturized passive components (01005, 0201, 0402, 0603, 0805, and 1206) assembled using surface mounting processes with tin-lead and lead-free solder alloys under extreme temperature environments.

  16. Reliability of Sn/Pb and lead-free (SnAgCu) solders of surface mounted miniaturized passive components for extreme temperature (-185°C to +125°C) space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2011-02-01

    Surface mount electronic package test boards have been assembled using tin/lead (Sn/Pb) and lead-free (Pb-free or SnAgCu or SAC305) solders. The soldered surface mount packages include ball grid arrays (BGA), flat packs, various sizes of passive chip components, etc. They have been optically inspected after assembly and subsequently subjected to extreme temperature thermal cycling to assess their reliability for future deep space, long-term, extreme temperature environmental missions. In this study, the employed temperature range (-185°C to +125°C) covers military specifications (-55°C to +100°C), extreme cold Martian (-120°C to +115°C), asteroid Nereus (-180°C to +25°C) and JUNO (-150°C to +120°C) environments. The boards were inspected at room temperature and at various intervals as a function of extreme temperature thermal cycling and bake duration. Electrical resistance measurements made at room temperature are reported and the tests to date have shown some change in resistance as a function of extreme temperature thermal cycling and some showed increase in resistance. However, the change in interconnect resistance becomes more noticeable with increasing number of thermal cycles. Further research work will be carried out to understand the reliability of packages under extreme temperature applications (-185°C to +125°C) via continuously monitoring the daisy chain resistance for BGA, Flat-packs, lead less chip packages, etc. This paper will describe the experimental reliability results of miniaturized passive components (01005, 0201, 0402, 0603, 0805, and 1206) assembled using surface mounting processes with tin-lead and lead-free solder alloys under extreme temperature environments.

  17. Laser diode-to-singlemode fiber butt-coupling and extremely-short-external-cavity laser diodes: Analysis, realization and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, Yakov Sergeevich

    1998-11-01

    The butt-coupling of a Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser diode and a singlemode optical fiber was realized and characterized in the near field. A novel butt-coupling model was developed and found very effective in describing all physical phenomena that occur when the butt-coupling parameters are varied over a wide range. The strong external optical feedback to the laser diode cavity that is present at extremely-short separations between the laser diode and the fiber is advantageously used to realize an extremely-short external cavity laser diode. By varying the length of the external cavity, the operational characteristics of this external cavity laser diode are controlled in a predictable and repeatable manner; a wavelength tunable laser diode source based on this effect was developed and analyzed. Another realization of an extremely short external cavity tunable laser diode, based on a closely spaced external filter with variable characteristics, was demonstrated. A potential application of the butt-coupling technique for light collection in an optical recording head is discussed. The work presented here is a research tool that can be used to facilitate the design of extremely- short external cavity laser diodes, which in many ways are technologically novel.

  18. Plastics and elastomers: Space applications. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning thermoplastic and thermosetting resins used for space environments. Among the properties examined for selected polymers are ultraviolet light sensitivity, radiation resistivity, sensitivity to extreme temperatures, adhesion qualities, strength, and insulation value. Fiber reinforced plastics, nylon, vinyl, cellular plastics, epoxy resin, PTFE, and elastomers are described. The citations also reference manufacturers, tradenames, marketing trends, performance results, and specific applications. (Contains a minimum of 80 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aeronautic and Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Knight, Dak; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Wu, Quing-Hai; Zhou, Huan-Jun

    1997-01-01

    Aeronautic and space applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. Two areas of particular interest are safety monitoring and emission monitoring. In safety monitoring, detection of low concentrations of hydrogen at potentially low temperatures is important while for emission monitoring the detection of nitrogen oxides, hydrogen, hydrocarbons and oxygen is of interest. This paper discusses the needs of aeronautic and space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: (1) Micromachining and microfabrication technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. (2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. The detection of each type of gas involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. The number of dual-use commercial applications of this microfabricated gas sensor technology make this general area of sensor development a field of significant interest.

  20. First NASA Workshop on Wiring for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Ahmad (Compiler); Stavnes, Mark W. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the First NASA Workshop on Wiring for Space Applications held at NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, OH, July 23-24, 1991. The workshop was sponsored by NASA Headquarters Code QE Office of Safety and Mission Quality, Technical Standards Division and hosted by the NASA Lewis Research Center, Power Technology Division, Electrical Components and Systems Branch. The workshop addressed key technology issues in the field of electrical power wiring for space applications. Speakers from government, industry and academia presented and discussed topics on arc tracking phenomena, wiring applications and requirements, and new candidate insulation materials and constructions. Presentation materials provided by the various speakers are included in this document.

  1. BOLERO: on board software library for space flight dynamics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontet, B.; Laurichesse, D.

    2002-07-01

    The BOLERO library ("Bibliothèque d'Objets Logiciels Embarqués pour la Restitution d'Orbite" or "on board object software library for orbit determination") gathers CNES skills in space flight dynamics for orbit determination applications. This library offers a set of objects and services that can be used to make applications as on board real time navigator that can be integrated in various targets such as an ERC32 calculator. The aim of this paper is to describe this library: its development process and the principles of its use. The space flight dynamics detailed aspects are out of the scope of this paper. First, the library content and the architecture are specified. Then the library is developed and tested on a target computer for qualification. An application (DIONE) is developed in order to test BOLERO performances. Then a "customised supply" is generated: it contains a subset of BOLERO services with the associated documentation.

  2. A high-efficiency thermoelectric converter for space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1990-12-31

    This paper presents a concept for using high-temperature superconducting materials in thermoelectric generators (SCTE) to produce electricity at conversion efficiencies approaching 50% of the Carrot efficiency. The SCTE generator is applicable to systems operating in temperature ranges of high-temperature superconducting materials and thus would be a low-grade converter. Operating in cryogenic temperature ranges provides the advantage of inherently increasing the limits of the Carrot efficiency. Potential applications are for systems operating in space where the ambient temperatures are in the cryogenic temperature range. The advantage of using high-temperature superconducting material in a thermoelectric converter is that it would significantly reduce or eliminate the Joule heating losses in a thermoelectric element. This paper investigates the system aspects and the material requirements of the SCTE converter concept, and presents a conceptual design and an application for a space power system.

  3. Heritage of ZERODUR® glass ceramic for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döhring, Thorsten; Hartmann, Peter; Lentes, Frank-Thomas; Jedamzik, Ralf; Davis, Mark J.

    2009-08-01

    The zero-expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR® from SCHOTT is widely used for ground-based astronomical mirrors and in industrial applications. This paper points out that it is also well suited for satellite applications, especially with respect to the space radiation environment. Recent developments show that highly lightweighted components can be manufactured and that such structures are strong enough to survive launch vibrations. A series of thirty reference applications, where ZERODUR® has been or is currently used (including METEOSAT, SPOT, ROSAT, CHANDRA, and HST), demonstrate the high and long lasting performance of ZERODUR® components in orbit. The ongoing successful missions and upcoming new satellites continue to enlarge the space heritage of this unique material.

  4. Response of the low-latitude D region ionosphere to extreme space weather event of 14-16 December 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sushil; Kumar, Abhikesh; Menk, Frederick; Maurya, Ajeet K.; Singh, Rajesh; Veenadhari, B.

    2015-01-01

    response of the D region low-latitude ionosphere has been examined for extreme space weather event of 14-16 December 2006 associated with a X1.5 solar flare and an intense geomagnetic storm (Dst = -146 nT) using VLF signals from Northwest Cape, Australia (NWC) (19.8 kHz) and Lualualei, Hawaii (callsign NPM) (21.4 kHz) transmitters monitored at Suva (Geographic Coordinates, 18.10°S, 178.40°E), Fiji. Modeling of flare associated amplitude and phase enhancements of NWC (3.6 dB, 223°) and NPM (5 dB, 153°) using Long-Wave Propagation Capability code shows reduction in the D region reflection height (H') by 11.1 km and 9.4 km, and enhancement in ionization gradients described by increases in the exponential sharpness factor (β) by 0.122 and 0.126 km-1, for the NWC and NPM paths, respectively. During the storm the daytime signal strengths of the NWC and NPM signals were reduced by 3.2 dB on 15 and 16 December (for about 46 h) and recovered by 17 December. Modeling for the NWC path shows that storm time values of H' and β were reduced by 1.2 km and 0.06 km-1, respectively. Morlet wavelet analysis of signal amplitudes shows no clearly strong signatures of gravity wave propagation to low latitudes during the main and recovery phases. The reduction in VLF signal strength is due to increased signal attenuation and absorption by the Earth-ionosphere waveguide due to storm-induced D region ionization changes and hence changes in D region parameters. The long duration of the storm effect results from the slow diffusion of changed composition/ionization at D region altitudes compared with higher altitudes in the ionosphere.

  5. Hubble space telescope observations of the afterglow, supernova, and host galaxy associated with the extremely bright GRB 130427A

    SciTech Connect

    Levan, A. J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Wiersema, K.; Fruchter, A. S.; Hounsell, R. A.; Graham, J.; Hjorth, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Pian, E.; Mazzali, P.; Perley, D. A.; Cano, Z.; Cenko, S. B.; Kouveliotou, C.; Misra, K.

    2014-09-10

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the exceptionally bright and luminous Swift gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 130427A. At z = 0.34, this burst affords an excellent opportunity to study the supernova (SN) and host galaxy associated with an intrinsically extremely luminous burst (E {sub iso} > 10{sup 54} erg): more luminous than any previous GRB with a spectroscopically associated SN. We use the combination of the image quality, UV capability, and invariant point-spread function of HST to provide the best possible separation of the afterglow, host, and SN contributions to the observed light ∼17 rest-frame days after the burst, utilizing a host subtraction spectrum obtained one year later. Advanced Camera for Surveys grism observations show that the associated SN, SN 2013cq, has an overall spectral shape and luminosity similar to SN 1998bw (with a photospheric velocity, v {sub ph} ∼ 15, 000 km s{sup –1}). The positions of the bluer features are better matched by the higher velocity SN 2010bh (v {sub ph} ∼ 30, 000 km s{sup –1}), but this SN is significantly fainter and fails to reproduce the overall spectral shape, perhaps indicative of velocity structure in the ejecta. We find that the burst originated ∼4 kpc from the nucleus of a moderately star forming (1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}), possibly interacting disk galaxy. The absolute magnitude, physical size, and morphology of this galaxy, as well as the location of the GRB within it, are also strikingly similar to those of GRB 980425/SN 1998bw. The similarity of the SNe and environment from both the most luminous and least luminous GRBs suggests that broadly similar progenitor stars can create GRBs across six orders of magnitude in isotropic energy.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Afterglow, Supernova and Host Galaxy Associated with the Extremely Bright GRB 130427A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levan, A.J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Fruchter, A. S.; Hjorth, J.; Pian, E.; Mazzali, P.; Hounsell, R. A.; Perley, D. A.; Cano, Z.; Graham, J.; Cenko, S. B.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Kouveliotou, C.; Pe'er, A.; Misra, K.; Wiersema, K.

    2014-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the exceptionally bright and luminous Swift gamma-ray burst, GRB 130427A. At z=0.34 this burst affords an excellent opportunity to study the supernova and host galaxy associated with an intrinsically extremely luminous burst (E(sub iso) greater than 10(exp 54) erg): more luminous than any previous GRB with a spectroscopically associated supernova. We use the combination of the image quality, UV capability and and invariant PSF of HST to provide the best possible separation of the afterglow, host and supernova contributions to the observed light approximately 17 rest-frame days after the burst utilising a host subtraction spectrum obtained 1 year later. Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) grism observations show that the associated supernova, SN 2013cq, has an overall spectral shape and luminosity similar to SN 1998bw (with a photospheric velocity, vph approximately 15,000 kilometers per second). The positions of the bluer features are better matched by the higher velocity SN 2010bh (vph approximately 30,000 kilometers per second), but SN 2010bh (vph approximately 30,000 kilometers per second but this SN is significantly fainter, and fails to reproduce the overall spectral shape, perhaps indicative of velocity structure in the ejecta. We find that the burst originated approximately 4 kpc from the nucleus of a moderately star forming (1 Solar Mass yr(exp-1)), possibly interacting disc galaxy. The absolute magnitude, physical size and morphology of this galaxy, as well as the location of the GRB within it are also strikingly similar to those of GRB980425SN 1998bw. The similarity of supernovae and environment from both the most luminous and least luminous GRBs suggests broadly similar progenitor stars can create GRBs across six orders of magnitude in isotropic energy.

  7. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Afterglow, Supernova, and Host Galaxy Associated with the Extremely Bright GRB 130427A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levan, A. J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Fruchter, A. S.; Hjorth, J.; Pian, E.; Mazzali, P.; Hounsell, R. A.; Perley, D. A.; Cano, Z.; Graham, J.; Cenko, S. B.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Kouveliotou, C.; Pe'er, A.; Misra, K.; Wiersema, K.

    2014-09-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the exceptionally bright and luminous Swift gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 130427A. At z = 0.34, this burst affords an excellent opportunity to study the supernova (SN) and host galaxy associated with an intrinsically extremely luminous burst (E iso > 1054 erg): more luminous than any previous GRB with a spectroscopically associated SN. We use the combination of the image quality, UV capability, and invariant point-spread function of HST to provide the best possible separation of the afterglow, host, and SN contributions to the observed light ~17 rest-frame days after the burst, utilizing a host subtraction spectrum obtained one year later. Advanced Camera for Surveys grism observations show that the associated SN, SN 2013cq, has an overall spectral shape and luminosity similar to SN 1998bw (with a photospheric velocity, v ph ~ 15, 000 km s-1). The positions of the bluer features are better matched by the higher velocity SN 2010bh (v ph ~ 30, 000 km s-1), but this SN is significantly fainter and fails to reproduce the overall spectral shape, perhaps indicative of velocity structure in the ejecta. We find that the burst originated ~4 kpc from the nucleus of a moderately star forming (1 M ⊙ yr-1), possibly interacting disk galaxy. The absolute magnitude, physical size, and morphology of this galaxy, as well as the location of the GRB within it, are also strikingly similar to those of GRB 980425/SN 1998bw. The similarity of the SNe and environment from both the most luminous and least luminous GRBs suggests that broadly similar progenitor stars can create GRBs across six orders of magnitude in isotropic energy.

  8. Molecularly Oriented Polymeric Thin Films for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, Catharine C.; Stoakley, Diane M.; St.Clair, Anne K.

    1997-01-01

    The increased commitment from NASA and private industry to the exploration of outer space and the use of orbital instrumentation to monitor the earth has focused attention on organic polymeric materials for a variety of applications in space. Some polymeric materials have exhibited short-term (3-5 yr) space environmental durability; however, future spacecraft are being designed with lifetimes projected to be 10-30 years. This gives rise to concern that material property change brought about during operation may result in unpredicted spacecraft performance. Because of their inherent toughness and flexibility, low density, thermal stability, radiation resistance and mechanical strength, aromatic polyimides have excellent potential use as advanced materials on large space structures. Also, there exists a need for high temperature (200-300 C) stable, flexible polymeric films that have high optical transparency in the 300-600nm range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Polymers suitable for these space applications were fabricated and characterized. Additionally, these polymers were molecularly oriented to further enhance their dimensional stability, stiffness, elongation and strength. Both unoriented and oriented polymeric thin films were also cryogenically treated to temperatures below -184 C to show their stability in cold environments and determine any changes in material properties.

  9. 3D Network Analysis for Indoor Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiliakou, E.; Dimopoulou, E.

    2016-10-01

    Indoor space differs from outdoor environments, since it is characterized by a higher level of structural complexity, geometry, as well as topological relations. Indoor space can be considered as the most important component in a building's conceptual modelling, on which applications such as indoor navigation, routing or analysis are performed. Therefore, the conceptual meaning of sub spaces or the activities taking place in physical building boundaries (e.g. walls), require the comprehension of the building's indoor hierarchical structure. The scope of this paper is to perform 3D network analysis in a building's interior and is structured as follows: In Section 1 the definition of indoor space is provided and indoor navigation requirements are analysed. Section 2 describes the processes of indoor space modeling, as well as routing applications. In Section 3, a case study is examined involving a 3D building model generated in CityEngine (exterior shell) and ArcScene (interior parts), in which the use of commercially available software tools (ArcGIS, ESRI), in terms of indoor routing and 3D network analysis, are explored. The fundamentals of performing 3D analysis with the ArcGIS Network Analyst extension were tested. Finally a geoprocessing model was presented, which was specifically designed to be used to interactively find the best route in ArcScene. The paper ends with discussion and concluding remarks on Section 4.

  10. Application of Advanced Materials Protecting from Influence of Free Space Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotsenko, Oleg; Shovkoplyas, Yuriy

    2016-07-01

    High cost and low availability of the components certified for use in the space environment forces satellite designers to using industrial and even commercial items. Risks associated with insufficient knowledge about behavior of these components in radiation environment are parried, mainly, by careful radiating designing of a satellite where application of special protective materials with improved space radiation shielding characteristics is one of the most widely used practices. Another advantage of protective materials application appears when a satellite designer needs using equipment in more severe space environment conditions then it has been provided at the equipment development. In such cases only expensive repeated qualification of the equipment hardness can be alternative to protective materials application. But mostly this way is unacceptable for satellite developers, being within strong financial and temporal restrictions. To apply protective materials effectively, the developer should have possibility to answer the question: "Where inside a satellite shall I place these materials and what shall be their shape to meet the requirements on space radiation hardness with minimal mass and volume expenses?" At that, the minimum set of requirements on space radiation hardness include: ionizing dose, nonionizing dose, single events, and internal charging. The standard calculative models and experimental techniques, now in use for space radiation hardness assurance of a satellite are unsuitable for the problem solving in such formulation. The sector analysis methodology, widely used in satellite radiating designing, is applicable only for aluminium shielding and doesn't allow taking into account advantages of protective materials. The programs simulating transport of space radiations through a substance with the use of Monte-Carlo technique, such as GEANT4, FLUKA, HZETRN and others, are fully applicable in view of their capabilities; but time required for

  11. Women and couples in isolated extreme environments: applications for long-duration missions.

    PubMed

    Leon, Gloria R; Sandal, Gro M

    2003-01-01

    Expedition teams provide a number of analogs relevant to crew selection for long-duration space missions. Three groups were studied that varied in team composition. Group 1 was a two woman international dyad that traversed the Antarctic continent in 97 days. Similarities in problem solving approach, respect for each other's opinions, and a collaborative process of decision making were evident. Group 2 was composed of four women, all from different countries, engaged in a six week trek across Greenland. The most important factors in overcoming interpersonal difficulties and contributing to the successful completion of the expedition were mutual respect and motivation to maintain positive and supportive relationships. Group 3 consisted of three married couples from different countries icelocked on a boat in the High Arctic for a 9 month period. The emotional support of and ability to confide in their partner were extremely important in alleviating interpersonal tensions, and contributed to the generally effective functioning of the group. Women add an element of emotional support and help to other team members that is not as evident in all-male groups. Selection of couples with strong bonds to each other is another paradigm for crew selection for extended missions.

  12. Women and couples in isolated extreme environments: applications for long-duration missions.

    PubMed

    Leon, Gloria R; Sandal, Gro M

    2003-01-01

    Expedition teams provide a number of analogs relevant to crew selection for long-duration space missions. Three groups were studied that varied in team composition. Group 1 was a two woman international dyad that traversed the Antarctic continent in 97 days. Similarities in problem solving approach, respect for each other's opinions, and a collaborative process of decision making were evident. Group 2 was composed of four women, all from different countries, engaged in a six week trek across Greenland. The most important factors in overcoming interpersonal difficulties and contributing to the successful completion of the expedition were mutual respect and motivation to maintain positive and supportive relationships. Group 3 consisted of three married couples from different countries icelocked on a boat in the High Arctic for a 9 month period. The emotional support of and ability to confide in their partner were extremely important in alleviating interpersonal tensions, and contributed to the generally effective functioning of the group. Women add an element of emotional support and help to other team members that is not as evident in all-male groups. Selection of couples with strong bonds to each other is another paradigm for crew selection for extended missions. PMID:14649255

  13. Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) project: SPAR 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poorman, R. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The Space Processing Applications Rocket Project (SPAR) X Final Report contains the compilation of the post-flight reports from each of the Principal Investigators (PIs) on the four selected science payloads, in addition to the engineering report as documented by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This combined effort also describes pertinent portions of ground-based research leading to the ultimate selection of the flight sample composition, including design, fabrication and testing, all of which are expected to contribute to an improved comprehension of materials processing in space. The SPAR project was coordinated and managed by MSFC as part of the Microgravity Science and Applications (MSA) program of the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) of NASA Headquarters. This technical memorandum is directed entirely to the payload manifest flown in the tenth of a series of SPAR flights conducted at the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) and includes the experiments entitled, Containerless Processing Technology, SPAR Experiment 76-20/3; Directional Solidification of Magnetic Composites, SPAR Experiment 76-22/3; Comparative Alloy Solidification, SPAR Experiment 76-36/3; and Foam Copper, SPAR Experiment 77-9/1R.

  14. Emerging applications of high temperature superconductors for space communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinen, Vernon O.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Long, Kenwyn J.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed space missions require longevity of communications system components, high input power levels, and high speed digital logic devices. The complexity of these missions calls for a high data bandwidth capacity. Incorporation of high temperature superconducting (HTS) thin films into some of these communications system components may provide a means of meeting these requirements. Space applications of superconducting technology has previously been limited by the requirement of cooling to near liquid helium temperatures. Development of HTS materials with transition temperatures above 77 K along with the natural cooling ability of space suggest that space applications may lead the way in the applications of high temperature superconductivity. In order for HTS materials to be incorporated into microwave and millimeter wave devices, the material properties such as electrical conductivity, current density, surface resistivity and others as a function of temperature and frequency must be well characterized and understood. The millimeter wave conductivity and surface resistivity were well characterized, and at 77 K are better than copper. Basic microwave circuits such as ring resonators were used to determine transmission line losses. Higher Q values than those of gold resonator circuits were observed below the transition temperature. Several key HTS circuits including filters, oscillators, phase shifters and phased array antenna feeds are feasible in the near future. For technology to improve further, good quality, large area films must be reproducibly grown on low dielectric constant, low loss microwave substrates.

  15. Research-grade CMOS image sensors for demanding space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Pé, Olivier; Tulet, Michel; Davancens, Robert; Larnaudie, Franck; Magnan, Pierre; Corbière, Franck; Martin-Gonthier, Philippe; Belliot, Pierre

    2004-06-01

    Imaging detectors are key elements for optical instruments and sensors on board space missions dedicated to Earth observation (high resolution imaging, atmosphere spectroscopy...), Solar System exploration (micro cameras, guidance for autonomous vehicle...) and Universe observation (space telescope focal planes, guiding sensors...). This market has been dominated by CCD technology for long. Since the mid-90s, CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) have been competing with CCDs for more and more consumer domains (webcams, cell phones, digital cameras...). Featuring significant advantages over CCD sensors for space applications (lower power consumption, smaller system size, better radiations behaviour...), CMOS technology is also expanding in this field, justifying specific R&D and development programs funded by national and European space agencies (mainly CNES, DGA, and ESA). All along the 90s and thanks to their increasingly improving performances, CIS have started to be successfully used for more and more demanding applications, from vision and control functions requiring low-level performances to guidance applications requiring medium-level performances. Recent technology improvements have made possible the manufacturing of research-grade CIS that are able to compete with CCDs in the high-performances arena. After an introduction outlining the growing interest of optical instruments designers for CMOS image sensors, this talk will present the existing and foreseen ways to reach high-level electro-optics performances for CIS. The developments of CIS prototypes built using an imaging CMOS process and of devices based on improved designs will be presented.

  16. Extreme robustness of scaling in sample space reducing processes explains Zipf’s law in diffusion on directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    It has been shown recently that a specific class of path-dependent stochastic processes, which reduce their sample space as they unfold, lead to exact scaling laws in frequency and rank distributions. Such sample space reducing processes offer an alternative new mechanism to understand the emergence of scaling in countless processes. The corresponding power law exponents were shown to be related to noise levels in the process. Here we show that the emergence of scaling is not limited to the simplest SSRPs, but holds for a huge domain of stochastic processes that are characterised by non-uniform prior distributions. We demonstrate mathematically that in the absence of noise the scaling exponents converge to ‑1 (Zipf’s law) for almost all prior distributions. As a consequence it becomes possible to fully understand targeted diffusion on weighted directed networks and its associated scaling laws in node visit distributions. The presence of cycles can be properly interpreted as playing the same role as noise in SSRPs and, accordingly, determine the scaling exponents. The result that Zipf’s law emerges as a generic feature of diffusion on networks, regardless of its details, and that the exponent of visiting times is related to the amount of cycles in a network could be relevant for a series of applications in traffic-, transport- and supply chain management.

  17. Extreme robustness of scaling in sample space reducing processes explains Zipf’s law in diffusion on directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    It has been shown recently that a specific class of path-dependent stochastic processes, which reduce their sample space as they unfold, lead to exact scaling laws in frequency and rank distributions. Such sample space reducing processes offer an alternative new mechanism to understand the emergence of scaling in countless processes. The corresponding power law exponents were shown to be related to noise levels in the process. Here we show that the emergence of scaling is not limited to the simplest SSRPs, but holds for a huge domain of stochastic processes that are characterised by non-uniform prior distributions. We demonstrate mathematically that in the absence of noise the scaling exponents converge to -1 (Zipf’s law) for almost all prior distributions. As a consequence it becomes possible to fully understand targeted diffusion on weighted directed networks and its associated scaling laws in node visit distributions. The presence of cycles can be properly interpreted as playing the same role as noise in SSRPs and, accordingly, determine the scaling exponents. The result that Zipf’s law emerges as a generic feature of diffusion on networks, regardless of its details, and that the exponent of visiting times is related to the amount of cycles in a network could be relevant for a series of applications in traffic-, transport- and supply chain management.

  18. Assessment of nuclear reactor concepts for low power space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Andrew C.; Gedeon, Stephen R.; Morey, Dennis C.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a preliminary small reactor concepts feasibility and safety evaluation designed to provide a first order validation of the nuclear feasibility and safety of six small reactor concepts are given. These small reactor concepts have potential space applications for missions in the 1 to 20 kWe power output range. It was concluded that low power concepts are available from the U.S. nuclear industry that have the potential for meeting both the operational and launch safety space mission requirements. However, each design has its uncertainties, and further work is required. The reactor concepts must be mated to a power conversion technology that can offer safe and reliable operation.

  19. Nuclear alkali metal Rankine power systems for space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Moyers, J.C.; Holcomb, R.S.

    1986-08-01

    Nucler power systems utilizing alkali metal Rankine power conversion cycles offer the potential for high efficiency, lightweight space power plants. Conceptual design studies are being carried out for both direct and indirect cycle systems for steady state space power applications. A computational model has been developed for calculating the performance, size, and weight of these systems over a wide range of design parameters. The model is described briefly and results from parametric design studies, with descriptions of typical point designs, are presented in this paper.

  20. Benefits from space applications in the 80's.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Braun, W.

    1971-01-01

    A summary of our nation's space capability as we enter the decade of the 1980's is given. The environment in which man lives; the demands he places on this environment; and the natural and man-made problems that beset him are examined. The application of our space capability to help man solve some of his problems, and the attendant benefits that would be derived, are postulated. Particular emphasis is given to man's more pressing problems: the resources of the earth, the weather, and communications needs. The benefits are viewed as accruing to all peoples of the world, which could be ultimately attained through cooperative efforts on an international basis.

  1. A brief overview of space applications for ultrasonics.

    PubMed

    Harkness, Patrick; Lucas, Margaret

    2012-12-01

    Sonics and space are two topics which are not commonly considered together. However, sonic and ultrasonic models, devices and systems have space applications in both science and engineering, as well as showing promise in fields such as cleaning, healthcare and construction. This short paper describes some of these activities and appears as results start to come in from the Curiosity rover, which landed on Mars on the 6th of August, 2012, with over 20 piezoelectric and mechanically-resonant components on board. PMID:23010145

  2. The space-developed dynamic vertical cutoff rigidity model and its applicability to aircraft radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Smart, D F; Shea, M A

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a dynamic geomagnetic vertical cutoff rigidity model that predicts the energetic charged particle transmission through the magnetosphere. Initially developed for space applications, we demonstrate the applicability of this library of cutoff rigidity models for computing aircraft radiation dose. The world grids of vertical cutoff rigidities were obtained by particle trajectory tracing in a magnetospheric model. This reference set of world grids of vertical cutoff rigidities calculated for satellite altitudes covers all magnetic activity levels from super quiet to extremely disturbed (i.e., Kp indices ranging from 0 to 9+) for every three hours in universal time. We utilize the McIlwain "L" parameter as the basis of the interpolation technique to reduce these initial satellite altitude vertical cutoff rigidities to cutoff rigidity values at aircraft altitudes.

  3. Space and Medical Applications of the Geant4 Simulation Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perl, Joseph

    2008-10-01

    Geant4 is a toolkit to simulate the passage of particles through matter. While Geant4 was developed for High Energy Physics (HEP), applications now include Nuclear, Medical and Space Physics. Medical applications have been increasing rapidly due to the overall growth of Monte Carlo in Medical Physics and the unique qualities of Geant4 as an all-particle code able to handle complex geometry, motion and fields with the flexibility of modern programming and an open free source code. Work has included characterizing beams and sources, treatment planning and imaging. The all-particle nature of Geant4 has made it popular for the newest modes of radiation treatment: Proton and Particle therapy. Geant4 has been used by ESA, NASA and JAXA to study radiation effects to spacecraft and personnel. The flexibility of Geant4 has enabled teams to incorporate it into their own applications (SPENVIS MULASSIS space environment from QinetiQ and ESA, RADSAFE simulation from Vanderbilt University and NASA). We provide an overview of applications and discuss how Geant4 has responded to specific challenges of moving from HEP to Medical and Space Physics, including recent work to extend Geant4's energy range to low dose radiobiology.

  4. Marshall Space Flight Center's Virtual Reality Applications Program 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Joseph P., II

    1993-01-01

    A Virtual Reality (VR) applications program has been under development at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) since 1989. Other NASA Centers, most notably Ames Research Center (ARC), have contributed to the development of the VR enabling technologies and VR systems. This VR technology development has now reached a level of maturity where specific applications of VR as a tool can be considered. The objectives of the MSFC VR Applications Program are to develop, validate, and utilize VR as a Human Factors design and operations analysis tool and to assess and evaluate VR as a tool in other applications (e.g., training, operations development, mission support, teleoperations planning, etc.). The long-term goals of this technology program is to enable specialized Human Factors analyses earlier in the hardware and operations development process and develop more effective training and mission support systems. The capability to perform specialized Human Factors analyses earlier in the hardware and operations development process is required to better refine and validate requirements during the requirements definition phase. This leads to a more efficient design process where perturbations caused by late-occurring requirements changes are minimized. A validated set of VR analytical tools must be developed to enable a more efficient process for the design and development of space systems and operations. Similarly, training and mission support systems must exploit state-of-the-art computer-based technologies to maximize training effectiveness and enhance mission support. The approach of the VR Applications Program is to develop and validate appropriate virtual environments and associated object kinematic and behavior attributes for specific classes of applications. These application-specific environments and associated simulations will be validated, where possible, through empirical comparisons with existing, accepted tools and methodologies. These validated VR analytical

  5. Capturing the Value: Earth Applications of Space Human Factors Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, Mary M.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper details how the Space Human Factors/Life Sciences program at Ames Research Center (ARC) has provided, and continues to provide, a variety of Earth-based benefits. These benefits will be considered under five categories: aeronautics, space-like environments, general applications, human/automation interaction, and methodology. The human factors work at ARC includes a range of activities whose products serve the aerospace community. Some areas of research focus specifically on aeronautical requirements; others are driven by space needs. However, the symbiosis between these two domains allows a sharing of resources, and the insights and experimental results gathered in one domain can often be applied in the other. Aeronautics is an industry whose survival is generally viewed as critical to American competitiveness, and where benefits can result in a very high payoff. The ability to apply space-initiated research to aeronautical requirements represents one example of bringing space benefits down to Earth. The second-order value of space human factors research goes well beyond the aerospace community. Spaceflight shares with a number of other activities certain environmental characteristics that drive human factors engineering design and procedural specification. Spaceflight is an isolated activity, conducted under severely confined conditions, with a high level of risk, and where provisions are restricted and opportunities for outside help are limited. A number of Earth-based activities including submarines and other naval vessels, oil rigs, remote weather stations, and scientific and polar expeditions, share many of these characteristics. These activities serve as testbeds for space-related research and, in turn, space-related research provides beneficial insight to the conduct of these activities.

  6. Practical Applications of Space Systems, Supporting Paper 1: Weather and Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report summarizes the findings of one of fourteen panels that studied progress in space science applications and defined user needs potentially capable of being met by space-system applications. The study was requested by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and was conducted by the Space Applications Board. The panels…

  7. Practical Applications of Space Systems, Supporting Paper 13: Information Services and Information Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report summarizes the findings of one of fourteen panels that studied progress in space science applications and defined user needs potentially capable of being met by space-system applications. The study was requested by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and was conducted by the Space Applications Board. The panels…

  8. Practical Applications of Space Systems, Supporting Paper 4: Agriculture, Forest, and Range.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report summarizes the findings of one of fourteen panels that studied the progress of space science applications and defined user needs potentially capable of being met by space-system applications. The study was requested by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and was conducted by the Space Applications Board. The panels…

  9. Practical Applications of Space Systems, Supporting Paper 5: Inland Water Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report summarizes the findings of one of fourteen panels that studied progress in space science applications and defined user needs potentially capable of being met by space-system applications. The study was requested by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and was conducted by the Space Applications Board. The panels…

  10. High performance flight computer developed for deep space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunker, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    The development of an advanced space flight computer for real time embedded deep space applications which embodies the lessons learned on Galileo and modern computer technology is described. The requirements are listed and the design implementation that meets those requirements is described. The development of SPACE-16 (Spaceborne Advanced Computing Engine) (where 16 designates the databus width) was initiated to support the MM2 (Marine Mark 2) project. The computer is based on a radiation hardened emulation of a modern 32 bit microprocessor and its family of support devices including a high performance floating point accelerator. Additional custom devices which include a coprocessor to improve input/output capabilities, a memory interface chip, and an additional support chip that provide management of all fault tolerant features, are described. Detailed supporting analyses and rationale which justifies specific design and architectural decisions are provided. The six chip types were designed and fabricated. Testing and evaluation of a brass/board was initiated.

  11. The results of application studies for space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isenberg, L.; Mcgraw, K.; Mankins, J.; Mondt, J.; Olivieri, J.

    1987-01-01

    The results are summarized of the studies over the last several years to identify and characterize potential applications for the SP-100 space nuclear reactor power system in powering spacecraft. SP-100 is a space power system based on a fast spectrum nuclear reactor with thermoelectric power conversion and liquid metal and heat pipe thermal transport. SP-100 reactor systems are designed to provide electric power with user designated characteristics at levels in the range from 10 to 1000 kWe. The use of nuclear reactors such as SP-100 as a power source provides a potential means of providing uninterrupted electrical power as required for many of todays space missions within acceptable cost and safety constraints.

  12. Characterization of an LSO scintillator for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elftmann, R.; Tammen, J.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Martin, C.; Böttcher, S.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.

    2015-08-01

    Currently BGO (Bi4Ge3O12) is widely used for the detection of high-energy particles in space applications because of its high stopping power, the non-hygroscopic characteristics and its ruggedness with respect to mechanical stress. The new Cerium doped LSO (Lu2SiO5) offers the same benefits with higher light output capabilities and a significantly shorter decay time. We investigated key characteristics of an LSO scintillator in view of its use in space missions. We characterized the intrinsic spectrum which originates from the decay of 176Lu and showed that it consists of three different parts arising from different effects: the native intrinsic spectrum, chance coincidence effects and energy deposition in the readout photodiode. Furthermore we investigated the light-quenching of LSO for heavy ions with measurements performed at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), Japan. We found that LSO is a promising candidate for future space missions.

  13. Refractory alloy technology for space nuclear power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.H. Jr.; Hoffman, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this symposium is twofold: (1) to review and document the status of refractory alloy technology for structural and fuel-cladding applications in space nuclear power systems, and (2) to identify and document the refractory alloy research and development needs for the SP-100 Program in both the short and the long term. In this symposium, an effort was made to recapture the space reactor refractory alloy technology that was cut off in midstream around 1973 when the national space nuclear reactor program began in the early 1960s, was terminated. The six technical areas covered in the program are compatibility, processing and production, welding and component fabrication, mechanical and physical properties, effects of irradiation, and machinability. The refractory alloys considered are niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, and tungsten. Thirteen of the 14 pages have been abstracted separately. The remaining paper summarizes key needs for further R and D on refractory alloys. (DLC)

  14. Development of an advanced photovoltaic concentrator system for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.; O'Neill, Mark J.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that significant increases in system performance (increased efficiency and reduced system mass) are possible for high power space based systems by incorporating technological developments with photovoltaic power systems. The Advanced Photovoltaic Concentrator Program is an effort to take advantage of recent advancements in refractive optical elements. By using a domed Fresnel lens concentrator and a prismatic cell cover, to eliminate metallization losses, dramatic reductions in the required area and mass over current space photovoltaic systems are possible. The advanced concentrator concept also has significant advantages when compared to solar dynamic Organic Rankine Cycle power systems in Low Earth Orbit applications where energy storage is required. The program is currently involved in the selection of a material for the optical element that will survive the space environment and a demonstration of the system performance of the panel design.

  15. Science and applications on the space station: A strategic vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The central themes relating to science and applications on the Space Station for fiscal year 1989 are discussed. Materials science research is proposed in a wide variety of subfields including protein crystal growth, metallurgy, and properties of fluids. Also proposed are the U.S. Polar Platform, an Extended Duration Crew Operations Project, and a long-range Space Biology Research Project to investigate plant and animal physiology, gravitational biology, life support systems, and exobiology. The exterior of the Space Station will provide attachment points for payloads to study subjects such as the earth and its environment, the sun, other bodies in the solar system, and cosmic objects. Examples of such attached payloads are given. They include a plasma interaction monitoring system, observation of solar features and properties, studies of particle radiation from the sun, cosmic dust collection and analysis, surveys of various cosmic and solar rays, measurements of rainfall and wind and the study of global changes on earth.

  16. Investigation of Supercritical Water Phenomena for Space and Extraterrestrial Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Michael C.; Hegde, Uday G.; Fisher, John W.

    2012-01-01

    The cost of carrying or resupplying life support resources for long duration manned space exploration missions such as a mission to Mars is prohibitive and requires the development of suitable recycling technologies. Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) has been identified as an attractive candidate for these extended missions because (i) pre-drying of wet waste streams is not required, (ii) product streams are relatively benign, microbially inert, and easily reclaimed, (iii) waste conversion is complete and relatively fast, and (iv) with proper design and operation, reactions can be self-sustaining. Initial work in this area at NASA was carried out at the Ames Research Center in the 1990 s with a focus on understanding the linkages between feed stock preparation (i.e., particle size and distribution) of cellulosic based waste streams and destruction rates under a range of operating temperatures and pressures. More recently, work in SCWO research for space and extra-terrestrial application has been performed at NASA s Glenn Research Center where various investigations, with a particular focus in the gravitational effects on the thermo-physical processes occurring in the bulk medium, have been pursued. In 2010 a collaborative NASA/CNES (the French Space Agency) experiment on the critical transition of pure water was conducted in the long duration microgravity environment on the International Space Station (ISS). A follow-on experiment, to study the precipitation of salt in sub-critical, trans-critical and supercritical water is scheduled to be conducted on the ISS in 2013. This paper provides a brief history of NASA s earlier work in SCWO, discusses the potential for application of SCWO technology in extended space and extraterrestrial missions, describes related research conducted on the ISS, and provides a list of future research activities to advance this technology in both terrestrial and extra-terrestrial applications.

  17. Lightweight High Efficiency Electric Motors for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.; Tyler, Tony R.; Piper, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Lightweight high efficiency electric motors are needed across a wide range of space applications from - thrust vector actuator control for launch and flight applications to - general vehicle, base camp habitat and experiment control for various mechanisms to - robotics for various stationary and mobile space exploration missions. QM Power?s Parallel Path Magnetic Technology Motors have slowly proven themselves to be a leading motor technology in this area; winning a NASA Phase II for "Lightweight High Efficiency Electric Motors and Actuators for Low Temperature Mobility and Robotics Applications" a US Army Phase II SBIR for "Improved Robot Actuator Motors for Medical Applications", an NSF Phase II SBIR for "Novel Low-Cost Electric Motors for Variable Speed Applications" and a DOE SBIR Phase I for "High Efficiency Commercial Refrigeration Motors" Parallel Path Magnetic Technology obtains the benefits of using permanent magnets while minimizing the historical trade-offs/limitations found in conventional permanent magnet designs. The resulting devices are smaller, lower weight, lower cost and have higher efficiency than competitive permanent magnet and non-permanent magnet designs. QM Power?s motors have been extensively tested and successfully validated by multiple commercial and aerospace customers and partners as Boeing Research and Technology. Prototypes have been made between 0.1 and 10 HP. They are also in the process of scaling motors to over 100kW with their development partners. In this paper, Parallel Path Magnetic Technology Motors will be discussed; specifically addressing their higher efficiency, higher power density, lighter weight, smaller physical size, higher low end torque, wider power zone, cooler temperatures, and greater reliability with lower cost and significant environment benefit for the same peak output power compared to typically motors. A further discussion on the inherent redundancy of these motors for space applications will be provided.

  18. Space applications of superconductivity - Low frequency superconducting sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    Although this paper deals with several low-frequency instruments and devices, most of the discussion relates to SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) magnetometers and gradiometers, since these are perceived as the instruments with the greatest potential for space applications. The discussion covers SQUID for magnetic field measurements; present state of the art of SQUID technology; ultimate potential performance; applications to magnetic measurements in space; SQUID galvanometers, voltage and current sensors, and wide-band amplifiers; magnetic shielding, and superconducting dc transformer. SQUIDS are superior to all other magnetic sensors in sensitivity, frequency response, range, and linearity. It is suggested that SQUID instruments, both magnetometers and gradiometers, would be valuable in studies of the dynamics of interplanetary and planetary fields. SQUID gradiometers are useful for detection and mapping of magnetic anomalies at short to moderate ranges.

  19. Laser-powered MHD generators for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalufka, N. W.

    1986-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion systems of the pulsed laser-supported detonation (LSD) wave, plasma MHD, and liquid-metal MHD (LMMHD) types are assessed for their potential as space-based laser-to-electrical power converters. These systems offer several advantages as energy converters relative to the present chemical, nuclear, and solar devices, including high conversion efficiency, simple design, high-temperature operation, high power density, and high reliability. Of these systems, the Brayton cycle liquid-metal MHD system appears to be the most attractive. The LMMHD technology base is well established for terrestrial applications, particularly with regard to the generator, mixer, and other system components. However, further research is required to extend this technology base to space applications and to establish the technology required to couple the laser energy into the system most efficiently. Continued research on each of the three system types is recommended.

  20. A Unique Photon Bombardment System for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, E. J.

    1993-01-01

    The innovative Electromagnetic Radiation Collection and Concentration System (EMRCCS) described is the foundation for the development of a multiplicity of space and terrestrial system formats. The system capability allows its use in the visual, infrared, and ultraviolet ranges of the spectrum for EM collection, concentration, source/receptor tracking, and targeting. The nonimaging modular optical system uses a physically static position aperture for EM radiation collection. Folded optics provide the concentration of the radiation and source autotracking. The collected and concentrated electromagnetic radiation is utilized in many applications, e.g., solar spectrum in thermal and associative photon bombardment applications for hazardous waste management, water purification, metal hardening, hydrogen generation, photovoltaics, etc., in both space and terrestrial segment utilization. Additionally, at the high end of the concentration capability range, i.e., 60,000+, a solar-pulsed laser system is possible.

  1. OMAC4S- Open Modular Avionics for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herpel, H.-J.; Willich, G.; Vogel, T.; Schuettauf, A.; Pletner, S.; Schoen, F.; Fidi, C.; Loetzke, M.; Dittrich, L.; Schuelke, P.; Wolf, T.

    2013-08-01

    Today's spacecraft avionics architecture is characterised by a broad variety of processing modules, operating systems and interfaces for exchanging data between different processing modules. The software that implements most of the satellite functionality has to deal with this fact and is one of the reasons why software has become one of the major cost drivers in satellite projects. Similar problems have triggered developments in other industrial domains like AUTOSAR in the automotive area or Integrated Modular Architecture (IMA) in the aerospace industry [8]. All these initiatives are based on the definition of standards for computing platforms and the interfaces between these platforms. The goals of the Open Modular Avionics Architecture for Space Applications (OMAC4S) initiative started by Astrium, Fraunhofer FOKUS, STI, SYSGO and TTTech are to outline a solution that helps to reduce complexity and costs for space avionics significantly. This initiative is partly funded by the German national space agency (DLR) through the project On-Board Computer System Architecture (OBC-SA). In this paper we describe how standardization and the usage of already proven technologies from other industrial domains will help to limit the effect of the software development on schedule and costs of satellite projects. In addition we will demonstrate a migration path to make these technologies available for space applications.

  2. Adhesive Bonding for Optical Metrology Systems in Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohlke, Martin; Schuldt, Thilo; Döringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim; Johann, Ulrich; Weise, Dennis; Braxmaier, Claus

    2015-05-01

    Laser based metrology systems become more and more attractive for space applications and are the core elements of planned missions such as LISA (NGO, eLISA) or NGGM where laser interferometry is used for distance measurements between satellites. The GRACE-FO mission will for the first time demonstrate a Laser Ranging Instrument (LRI) in space, starting 2017. Laser based metrology also includes optical clocks/references, either as ultra-stable light source for high sensitivity interferometry or as scientific payload e.g. proposed in fundamental physics missions such as mSTAR (mini SpaceTime Asymmetry Research), a mission dedicated to perform a Kennedy-Thorndike experiment on a satellite in a low-Earth orbit. To enable the use of existing optical laboratory setups, optimization with respect to power consumption, weight and dimensions is necessary. At the same time the thermal and structural stability must be increased. Over the last few years we investigated adhesive bonding of optical components to thermally highly stable glass ceramics as an easy-to-handle assembly integration technology. Several setups were implemented and tested for potential later use in space applications. We realized a heterodyne LISA related interferometer with demonstrated noise levels in the pm-range for translation measurement and nano-radiant-range for tilt measurements and two iodine frequency references on Elegant Breadboard (EBB) and Engineering Model (EM) level with frequency stabilities in the 10-15 range for longer integration times. The EM setup was thermally cycled and vibration tested.

  3. Proposed advanced satellite applications utilizing space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Patrick G.; Isenberg, Lon

    1990-01-01

    A review of the status of space nuclear reactor systems and their possible applications is presented. Such systems have been developed over the past twenty years and are capable of use in various military and civilian applications in the 5-1000-kWe power range. The capabilities and limitations of the currently proposed nuclear reactor systems are summarized. Statements of need are presented from DoD, DOE, and NASA. Safety issues are identified, and if they are properly addressed they should not pose a hindrance. Applications are summarized for the DoD, DOE, NASA, and the civilian community. These applications include both low- and high-altitude satellite surveillance missions, communications satellites, planetary probes, low- and high-power lunar and planetary base power systems, broadband global telecommunications, air traffic control, and high-definition television.

  4. A review of European applications of artificial intelligence to space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark (Editor); Stewart, Helen (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose is to describe the applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to the European Space program that are being developed or have been developed. The results of a study sponsored by the Artificial Intelligence Research and Development program of NASA's Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) are described. The report is divided into two sections. The first consists of site reports, which are descriptions of the AI applications seen at each place visited. The second section consists of two summaries which synthesize the information in the site reports by organizing this information in two different ways. The first organizes the material in terms of the type of application, e.g., data analysis, planning and scheduling, and procedure management. The second organizes the material in terms of the component technologies of Artificial Intelligence which the applications used, e.g., knowledge based systems, model based reasoning, procedural reasoning, etc.

  5. NASA wiring for space applications program test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stavnes, Mark; Hammoud, Ahmad

    1995-01-01

    The electrical power wiring tests results from the NASA Wiring for Space Applications program are presented. The goal of the program was to develop a base for the building of a lightweight, arc track-resistant electrical wiring system for aerospace applications. This new wiring system would be applied to such structures as pressurized modules, trans-atmospheric vehicles, LEO/GEO environments, and lunar and Martian environments. Technological developments from this program include the fabrication of new insulating materials, the production of new wiring constructions, an improved system design, and an advanced circuit protection design.

  6. A Modular Robotic System with Applications to Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancher, Matthew D.; Hornby, Gregory S.

    2006-01-01

    Modular robotic systems offer potential advantages as versatile, fault-tolerant, cost-effective platforms for space exploration, but a sufficiently mature system is not yet available. We describe the possible applications of such a system, and present prototype hardware intended as a step in the right direction. We also present elements of an automated design and optimization framework aimed at making modular robots easier to design and use, and discuss the results of applying the system to a gait optimization problem. Finally, we discuss the potential near-term applications of modular robotics to terrestrial robotics research.

  7. Nanostructure arrays in free-space: optical properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Collin, Stéphane

    2014-12-01

    Dielectric and metallic gratings have been studied for more than a century. Nevertheless, novel optical phenomena and fabrication techniques have emerged recently and have opened new perspectives for applications in the visible and infrared domains. Here, we review the design rules and the resonant mechanisms that can lead to very efficient light-matter interactions in sub-wavelength nanostructure arrays. We emphasize the role of symmetries and free-space coupling of resonant structures. We present the different scenarios for perfect optical absorption, transmission or reflection of plane waves in resonant nanostructures. We discuss the fabrication issues, experimental achievements and emerging applications of resonant nanostructure arrays.

  8. Ultralight linerless composite tanks for the In-Space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallick, Kaushik; Tupper, Michael L.; Grimes-Ledesma, Lorie; Lewis, Joseph C.; Welsh, Jeffry

    2004-01-01

    A program has been proposed to NASA to develop a technology that will provide helium containment a the high strain levels required to create low mass tanks for in-space propulsion applications. The specific goal of the program is to develop linerless composite tanks that will successfully contain small molecule gases, such as, He, at 10,000 psia for a target mission life or 15 years.

  9. NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program test results

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, J.A.

    1995-11-01

    The objectives of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications program were to investigate the effects of atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and AO with UV synergistic effects on wire insulation materials. The AO exposure was on the order of 10(exp 21) atoms/sq cm and the vacuum UV radiation was on the order of 10,000 ESH. The results of these tests are presented in this document.

  10. Wear-resistant ball bearings for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boving, H.; Hintermann, H. E.; Hanni, W.; Bondivenne, E.; Boeto, M.; Conde, E.

    1977-01-01

    Ball bearings consisting of steel parts of which the rings are coated with hard, wear resistant, chemical vapor deposited TiC are described. Experiments conducted in ultrahigh vacuum, using cages of various materials with self-lubricating properties, show that such bearings are suitable for space applications. The results of laboratory tests on the ESA Meteosat Radiometer Focalizing mechanism, which contains six coated bearings, are summarized.

  11. Solid-state Terahertz Sources for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiwald, Frank; Pearson, John C.; Ward, John S.; Schlecht, Erich; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Gill, John J.; Ferber, R.; Tsang, Raymond; Lin, Robert H.; Peralta, Alejandro; Finamore, B.; Chun, William W.; Baker, John J.; Dengler, Robert J.; Javadi, Hamid H.; Siegel, Peter H.; Mehdi, Imran

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the construction of solid-state frequency multiplier chains utilized far teraherz receiver applications such as the Herschel Space Observatory . Emphasis will he placed on the specific requirements to be met and challenges that were encountered. The availability of high power amplifiers at 100 GHz makes it possible to cascade frequency doublers and triplers with sufficient RF power to pump heterodyne receivers at THz frequencies. The environmental and mechanical constraints will be addressed as well as reliability issues.

  12. Sodium Borohydride/Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cells For Space Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, T. I.; Deelo, M. E.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation examines Sodium Borohydride and Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cells as they are applied to space applications. The topics include: 1) Motivation; 2) The Sodium Borohydride Fuel Cell; 3) Sodium Borohydride Fuel Cell Test Stands; 4) Fuel Cell Comparisons; 5) MEA Performance; 6) Anode Polarization; and 7) Electrode Analysis. The benefits of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant and benefits of sodium borohydride as a fuel are also addressed.

  13. Effects of Exposures on Superalloys for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Tim; Garg, Anita; Gayda, John

    2007-01-01

    The industry is demanding longer term service at high temperatures for nickel-base superalloys in gas turbine engine as well as potential space applications. However, longer term service can severely tax alloy phase stability, to the potential detriment of mechanical properties. Cast Mar-M247LC and wrought Haynes 230 superalloys were exposed and creep tested for extended times at elevated temperature. Microstructure and phase evaluations were then undertaken for comparisons.

  14. Legal Provisions Applicable to the Definition of Outer Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorin, T.

    2002-01-01

    Whether it be the adjective "spatial" or the definition "space", these two terms have, in many respects, a non-identifiable dimension, which serves as a reference point for all players in this field, without being concerned with the exact area of application. This is evident from the vast diversity of corporate names, acronyms, logos and other designations that we often use. Among some of the most worldwide common include: NASA, ISS, ESA, and so on. Without of course forgetting , a field which concerns all legal experts and should not be overlooked is "space law". Thus, it is apparent that although the "space" community (i.e. influential and space- minded governments and relevant international authorities) has been involved in this field over the last few decades, no specific and universally-accepted definition has been adopted to date. Apart from certain demands made or unilateral positions taken by a given state particularly concerned by the matter, it is important to underline that the international community has refrained from making legislation in this area, apart from some rather limited or symbolic provisions introduced. This vagueness, in legal terms, should clearly be taken as the assertion of nationalistic demands, but also shows divergence or even antagonism between states fuelled by hypothetical profits, as was the case when attempts were made to establish maritime boundaries. We can thus by now summarise this issue by asking the following question: "Where does outer space begin?" We shall begin by looking at the sketchy legal references that we have at our disposal, which as lawyers we must use to attempt to find a solution to practical commercial or scientific contingencies which we are increasingly confronted with. Such references include the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies of 10th October 1967, constituting the fundamental space charter

  15. Demonstration of pattern transfer into sub-100 nm polysilicon line/space features patterned with extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Cardinale, G. F.; Henderson, C. C.; Goldsmith, J. E. M.; Mangat, P. J. S.; Cobb, J.; Hector, S. D.

    1999-11-01

    In two separate experiments, we have successfully demonstrated the transfer of dense- and loose-pitch line/space (L/S) photoresist features, patterned with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, into an underlying hard mask material. In both experiments, a deep-UV photoresist ({approx}90 nm thick) was spin cast in bilayer format onto a hard mask (50-90 nm thick) and was subsequently exposed to EUV radiation using a 10x reduction EUV exposure system. The EUV reticle was fabricated at Motorola (Tempe, AZ) using a subtractive process with Ta-based absorbers on Mo/Si multilayer mask blanks. In the first set of experiments, following the EUV exposures, the L/S patterns were transferred first into a SiO{sub 2} hard mask (60 nm thick) using a reactive ion etch (RIE), and then into polysilicon (350 nm thick) using a triode-coupled plasma RIE etcher at the University of California, Berkeley, microfabrication facilities. The latter etch process, which produced steep (>85 degree sign ) sidewalls, employed a HBr/Cl chemistry with a large (>10:1) etch selectivity of polysilicon to silicon dioxide. In the second set of experiments, hard mask films of SiON (50 nm thick) and SiO{sub 2} (87 nm thick) were used. A RIE was performed at Motorola using a halogen gas chemistry that resulted in a hard mask-to-photoresist etch selectivity >3:1 and sidewall profile angles {>=}85 degree sign . Line edge roughness (LER) and linewidth critical dimension (CD) measurements were performed using Sandia's GORA(c) CD digital image analysis software. Low LER values (6-9 nm, 3{sigma}, one side) and good CD linearity (better than 10%) were demonstrated for the final pattern-transferred dense polysilicon L/S features from 80 to 175 nm. In addition, pattern transfer (into polysilicon) of loose-pitch (1:2) L/S features with CDs{>=}60 nm was demonstrated. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society.

  16. Evaluating Russian space nuclear reactor technology for United States applications

    SciTech Connect

    Polansky, G.F.; Schmidt, G.L.; Voss, S.S.; Reynolds, E.L.

    1994-08-01

    Space nuclear power and nuclear electric propulsion are considered important technologies for planetary exploration, as well as selected earth orbit applications. The Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) was intended to provide an early flight demonstration of these technologies at relatively low cost through extensive use of existing Russian technology. The key element of Russian technology employed in the program was the Topaz II reactor. Refocusing of the activities of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO), combined with budgetary pressures, forced the cancellation of the NEPSTP at the end of the 1993 fiscal year. The NEPSTP was faced with many unique flight qualification issues. In general, the launch of a spacecraft employing a nuclear reactor power system complicates many spacecraft qualification activities. However, the NEPSTP activities were further complicated because the reactor power system was a Russian design. Therefore, this program considered not only the unique flight qualification issues associated with space nuclear power, but also with differences between Russian and United States flight qualification procedures. This paper presents an overview of the NEPSTP. The program goals, the proposed mission, the spacecraft, and the Topaz II space nuclear power system are described. The subject of flight qualification is examined and the inherent difficulties of qualifying a space reactor are described. The differences between United States and Russian flight qualification procedures are explored. A plan is then described that was developed to determine an appropriate flight qualification program for the Topaz II reactor to support a possible NEPSTP launch.

  17. Compact atomic clocks and stabilised laser for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mileti, Gaetano; Affolderbach, Christoph; Matthey-de-l'Endroit, Renaud

    2016-07-01

    We present our developments towards next generation compact vapour-cell based atomic frequency standards using a tunable laser diode instead of a traditional discharge lamp. The realisation of two types of Rubidium clocks addressing specific applications is in progress: high performance frequency standards for demanding applications such as satellite navigation, and chip-scale atomic clocks, allowing further miniaturisation of the system. The stabilised laser source constitutes the main technological novelty of these new standards, allowing a more efficient preparation and interrogation of the atoms and hence an improvement of the clock performances. However, before this key component may be employed in a commercial and ultimately in a space-qualified instrument, further studies are necessary to demonstrate their suitability, in particular concerning their reliability and long-term operation. The talk will present our preliminary investigations on this subject. The stabilised laser diode technology developed for our atomic clocks has several other applications on ground and in space. We will conclude our talk by illustrating this for the example of a recently completed ESA project on a 1.6 microns wavelength reference for a future space-borne Lidar. This source is based on a Rubidium vapour cell providing the necessary stability and accuracy, while a second harmonic generator and a compact optical comb generated from an electro-optic modulator allow to transfer these properties from the Rubidium wavelength (780nm) to the desired spectral range.

  18. High Temperature mechanically pumped fluid loop for space applications - working fluid selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Anthony D.; Birur, Gajanana C.

    2004-01-01

    Mechanically pumped single-phase fluid loops are increasingly being used for heat rejection purposes in space applications. Examples of Earth orbiting missions using this technology include NSTS Shuttles (water and Freon-based loops) and the International Space Station (water and ammonia-based loops). For deep space missions, both the Mars Pathfinder (1996) and Mars Exploration Rover (2003) missions used mechanically pumped Freon-I 1 loops for their primary Heat Rejection Systems (HRS.) Mechanically pumped loops are particularly well suited for rejecting large amounts of waste heat from spacecraft and future missions incorporating components with extremely high thermal energy dissipation (e.g. radar instruments, Radioisotope-based power sources) are ideal candidates for their use. However, previous implementations of mechanically pumped loops were designed for moderate temperatures (below 6OOC) and, thus, would require relatively large radiators to reject high heat loads to space. Loops designed for a higher operating temperature would allow large amounts of heat to be rejected within the constraints of a mass efficient thermal control system.

  19. FOREWORD: Tackling inverse problems in a Banach space environment: from theory to applications Tackling inverse problems in a Banach space environment: from theory to applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Thomas; Hofmann, Bernd; Kaltenbacher, Barbara

    2012-10-01

    Inverse problems can usually be modelled as operator equations in infinite-dimensional spaces with a forward operator acting between Hilbert or Banach spaces—a formulation which quite often also serves as the basis for defining and analyzing solution methods. The additional amount of structure and geometric interpretability provided by the concept of an inner product has rendered these methods amenable to a convergence analysis, a fact which has led to a rigorous and comprehensive study of regularization methods in Hilbert spaces over the last three decades. However, for numerous problems such as x-ray diffractometry, certain inverse scattering problems and a number of parameter identification problems in PDEs, the reasons for using a Hilbert space setting seem to be based on conventions rather than an appropriate and realistic model choice, so often a Banach space setting would be closer to reality. Furthermore, non-Hilbertian regularization and data fidelity terms incorporating a priori information on solution and noise, such as general Lp-norms, TV-type norms, or the Kullback-Leibler divergence, have recently become very popular. These facts have motivated intensive investigations on regularization methods in Banach spaces, a topic which has emerged as a highly active research field within the area of inverse problems. Meanwhile some of the most well-known regularization approaches, such as Tikhonov-type methods requiring the solution of extremal problems, and iterative ones like the Landweber method, the Gauss-Newton method, as well as the approximate inverse method, have been investigated for linear and nonlinear operator equations in Banach spaces. Convergence with rates has been proven and conditions on the solution smoothness and on the structure of nonlinearity have been formulated. Still, beyond the existing results a large number of challenging open questions have arisen, due to the more involved handling of general Banach spaces and the larger variety

  20. General background and approach to multibody dynamics for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, Paolo; Gasbarri, Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Multibody dynamics for space applications is dictated by space environment such as space-varying gravity forces, orbital and attitude perturbations, control forces if any. Several methods and formulations devoted to the modeling of flexible bodies undergoing large overall motions were developed in recent years. Most of these different formulations were aimed to face one of the main problems concerning the analysis of spacecraft dynamics namely the reduction of computer simulation time. By virtue of this, the use of symbolic manipulation, recursive formulation and parallel processing algorithms were proposed. All these approaches fall into two categories, the one based on Newton/Euler methods and the one based on Lagrangian methods; both of them have their advantages and disadvantages although in general, Newtonian approaches lend to a better understanding of the physics of problems and in particular of the magnitude of the reactions and of the corresponding structural stresses. Another important issue which must be addressed carefully in multibody space dynamics is relevant to a correct choice of kinematics variables. In fact, when dealing with flexible multibody system the resulting equations include two different types of state variables, the ones associated with large (rigid) displacements and the ones associated with elastic deformations. These two sets of variables have generally two different time scales if we think of the attitude motion of a satellite whose period of oscillation, due to the gravity gradient effects, is of the same order of magnitude as the orbital period, which is much bigger than the one associated with the structural vibration of the satellite itself. Therefore, the numerical integration of the equations of the system represents a challenging problem. This was the abstract and some of the arguments that Professor Paolo Santini intended to present for the Breakwell Lecture; unfortunately a deadly disease attacked him and shortly took him