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Sample records for extreme ultraviolet euv

  1. Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE): Emergency support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zayas, H.; Barrowman, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) will conduct a survey of the entire celestial sphere in the extreme ultraviolet (UV) spectrum, 100 to 1000 angstrom units. This survey will be accomplished using four grazing incidence telescopes mounted on a spinning spacecraft whose spin axis is along the Sun line. Data is taken only when the spacecraft is in the Earth's shadow. The EUVE will be placed in a near circular orbit by a Delta expendable launch vehicle. The design orbit is circular at an altitude of 550 km by 28.5 degrees for a period of 96 minutes. The EUVE will be flown on a standardized Explorer Platform (EP) which will be reused for followup Explorer missions. Coverage will be provided by the Deep Space Network (DSN) for EUVE emergencies that would prevent communications via the normal channels of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Emergency support will be provided by the 26-meter subnet. Data is presented in tabular form for DSN support, frequency assignments, telemetry, and command.

  2. Calibration techniques for the NASA ICON Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph (EUV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Yuzo; Sirk, Martin; Wishnow, Ed; Korpela, Eric; Edelstein, Jerry; Curtis, James; Gibson, Steven R.; McCauley, Jeremy; McPhate, Jason; Smith, Christopher

    2016-09-01

    The Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON) is a NASA Heliophysics Explorer Mission designed to study the ionosphere. ICON will examine the Earth's upper atmosphere to better understand the relationship between Earth weather and space-weather drivers. ICON will accomplish its science objectives using a suite of 4 instruments, one of which is the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph (EUV). EUV will measure daytime altitude intensity profile and spatial distribution of ionized oxygen emissions (O+ at 83.4 nm and 61.7 nm) on the limb in the thermosphere (100 to 500 km tangent altitude). EUV is a single-optic imaging spectrometer that observes in the extreme ultraviolet region of the spectrum. In this paper, we describe instrumental performance calibration measurement techniques and data analysis for EUV. Various measurements including Lyman-α scattering, instrumental and component efficiency, and field-of-view alignment verification were done in custom high-vacuum ultraviolet calibration facilities. Results from the measurements and analysis will be used to understand the instrument performance during the in-flight calibration and observations after launch.

  3. The Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Instrument for the MAVEN Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN) will explore the variability in the planet's upper atmosphere and ionosphere that is dominated by interactions with the sun, specifically the high-energy photons in the soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet wavelengths as well as interactions with the solar wind. Scientists will use MAVEN data to determine the current loss rate of volatile compounds from the Mars atmosphere, then extrapolate back in time in order to give historical estimations of state of the Mars atmosphere and climate, its ability to sustain liquid water, and the potential for the Martian habitability. The EUV instrument is critical in measuring the Space Weather driver of this atmospheric variability. It will directly observe a three EUV wavelength ranges and their variability due to solar flares (time scales of seconds to hours) as well as active region evolution (months), which will then act as proxies for a model to determine the entire 0.1-200 nm solar spectrum at all times during the MAVEN mission. These EUV measurements and models results will compliment the other instruments that will provide direct in-situ as well as remote sensing observations of the Martian atmospheric response to this solar driver. This presentation will be an introduction of this instrument and its science measurements and goals to the larger community, as well as a status report on its progress.

  4. Four-mirror extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography projection system

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Simon J; Jeong, Hwan J; Shafer, David R

    2000-01-01

    The invention is directed to a four-mirror catoptric projection system for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography to transfer a pattern from a reflective reticle to a wafer substrate. In order along the light path followed by light from the reticle to the wafer substrate, the system includes a dominantly hyperbolic convex mirror, a dominantly elliptical concave mirror, spherical convex mirror, and spherical concave mirror. The reticle and wafer substrate are positioned along the system's optical axis on opposite sides of the mirrors. The hyperbolic and elliptical mirrors are positioned on the same side of the system's optical axis as the reticle, and are relatively large in diameter as they are positioned on the high magnification side of the system. The hyperbolic and elliptical mirrors are relatively far off the optical axis and hence they have significant aspherical components in their curvatures. The convex spherical mirror is positioned on the optical axis, and has a substantially or perfectly spherical shape. The spherical concave mirror is positioned substantially on the opposite side of the optical axis from the hyperbolic and elliptical mirrors. Because it is positioned off-axis to a degree, the spherical concave mirror has some asphericity to counter aberrations. The spherical concave mirror forms a relatively large, uniform field on the wafer substrate. The mirrors can be tilted or decentered slightly to achieve further increase in the field size.

  5. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) degradation of poly(olefin sulfone)s: Towards applications as EUV photoresists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrie, Kirsten; Blakey, Idriss; Blinco, James; Gronheid, Roel; Jack, Kevin; Pollentier, Ivan; Leeson, Michael J.; Younkin, Todd R.; Whittaker, Andrew K.

    2011-02-01

    Poly(olefin sulfone)s, formed by the reaction of sulfur dioxide (SO 2) and an olefin, are known to be highly susceptible to degradation by radiation and thus have been identified as candidate materials for chain scission-based extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) resist materials. In order to investigate this further, the synthesis and characterisation of two poly(olefin sulfone)s namely poly(1-pentene sulfone) (PPS) and poly(2-methyl-1-pentene sulfone) (PMPS), was achieved and the two materials were evaluated for possible chain scission EUVL resist applications. It was found that both materials possess high sensitivities to EUV photons; however; the rates of outgassing were extremely high. The only observed degradation products were found to be SO 2 and the respective olefin suggesting that depolymerisation takes place under irradiation in a vacuum environment. In addition to depolymerisation, a concurrent conversion of SO 2 moieties to a sulfide phase was observed using XPS.

  6. Serendipitous EUV sources detected during the first year of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer right angle program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, K.; Craig, N.; Sirk, M. M.; Drake, J. J.; Fruscione, A.; Vallerga, J. V.; Malina, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    We report the detection of 114 extreme ultraviolet (EUV; 58 - 740 A) sources, of which 99 are new serendipitous sources, based on observations made with the imaging telescopes on board the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) during the Right Angle Program (RAP). These data were obtained using the survey scanners and the Deep Survey instrument during the first year of the spectroscopic guest observer phase of the mission, from January 1993 to January 1994. The data set consists of 162 discrete pointings whose exposure times are typically two orders of magnitude longer than the average exposure times during the EUVE all-sky survey. Based on these results, we can expect that EUVE will serendipitously detect approximately 100 new EUV sources per year, or about one new EUV source per 10 sq deg, during the guest observer phase of the EUVE mission. New EUVE sources of note include one B star and three extragalactic objects. The B star (HR 2875, EUVE J0729 - 38.7) is detected in both the Lexan/B (approximately 100 A) and Al/Ti/C (approximately 200 A) bandpasses, and the detection is shown not to be a result of UV leaks. We suggest that we are detecting EUV and/or soft x rays from a companion to the B star. Three sources, EUVE J2132+10.1, EUVE J2343-14.9, and EUVE J2359-30.6 are identified as the active galactic nuclei MKN 1513, MS2340.9-1511, and 1H2354-315, respectively.

  7. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) surface modification of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) for control of biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahad, Inam Ul; Butruk, Beata; Ayele, Mesfin; Budner, Bogusław; Bartnik, Andrzej; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Ciach, Tomasz; Brabazon, Dermot

    2015-12-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) surface modification of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was performed in order to enhance the degree of biocompatibility. Polymer samples were irradiated by different number of EUV shots using a laser-plasma based EUV source in the presence of nitrogen gas. The physical and chemical properties of EUV modified PTFE samples were studied using Atomic Force Microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angle (WCA) methods. Pronounced wall type micro and nano-structures appeared on the EUV treated polymer surfaces resulting in increased surface roughness and hydrophobicity. Stronger cell adhesion and good cell morphology were observed on EUV modified surfaces by in-vitro cell culture studies performed using L929 fibroblasts.

  8. Solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) flare observations and findings from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Eparvier, Francis G.; Mason, James P.

    New solar soft X-ray (SXR) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance observations from NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) provide full coverage from 0.1 to 106 nm and continuously at a cadence of 10 seconds for spectra at 0.1 nm resolution. These observations during flares can usually be decomposed into four distinct characteristics: impulsive phase, gradual phase, coronal dimming, and EUV late phase. Over 6000 flares have been observed during the SDO mission; some flares show all four phases, and some only show the gradual phase. The focus is on the newer results about the EUV late phase and coronal dimming and its relationship to coronal mass ejections (CMEs). These EVE flare measurements are based on observing the sun-as-a-star, so these results could exemplify stellar flares. Of particular interest is that new coronal dimming measurements of stars could be used to estimate mass and velocity of stellar CMEs.

  9. Structural Characterization of a Mo/Ru/Si Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Reflector by Optical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, In-Yong; Kim, Tae Geun; Lee, Seung Yoon; Ahn, Jinho; Chung, Yong-Chae

    2004-06-01

    The performance of a multilayer extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflector has a direct bearing on process throughput and the cost of new technology. Using measured data from an experimentally manufactured reflector, we intend, in this work, to show that the reflectivity of the Bragg reflector can be characterized by using structural parameters such as the d-spacing, density, thicknesses of the interdiffusion layers and oxidation layer. This quantitative analysis of the reflectivity derived from the structural parameters can be utilized to optimize the optical properties of the existing Mo/Ru/Si system and to provide fundamental insights into the science involved in a Bragg EUV reflector.

  10. EUV SpectroPhotometer (ESP) in Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE): Algorithms and Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, L.; Judge, D.; Wieman, S.; Woods, T.; Jones, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP) is one of five channels of the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The ESP channel design is based on a highly stable diffraction transmission grating and is an advanced version of the Solar Extreme ultraviolet Monitor (SEM), which has been successfully observing solar irradiance onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) since December 1995. ESP is designed to measure solar Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) irradiance in four first-order bands of the diffraction grating centered around 19 nm, 25 nm, 30 nm, and 36 nm, and in a soft X-ray band from 0.1 to 7.0 nm in the zeroth-order of the grating. Each band’s detector system converts the photo-current into a count rate (frequency). The count rates are integrated over 0.25-second increments and transmitted to the EVE Science and Operations Center for data processing. An algorithm for converting the measured count rates into solar irradiance and the ESP calibration parameters are described. The ESP pre-flight calibration was performed at the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Calibration parameters were used to calculate absolute solar irradiance from the sounding-rocket flight measurements on 14 April 2008. These irradiances for the ESP bands closely match the irradiance determined for two other EUV channels flown simultaneously: EVE’s Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph (MEGS) and SOHO’s Charge, Element and Isotope Analysis System/ Solar EUV Monitor (CELIAS/SEM).

  11. Erosion resistant nozzles for laser plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) sources

    DOEpatents

    Kubiak, Glenn D.; Bernardez, II, Luis J.

    2000-01-04

    A gas nozzle having an increased resistance to erosion from energetic plasma particles generated by laser plasma sources. By reducing the area of the plasma-facing portion of the nozzle below a critical dimension and fabricating the nozzle from a material that has a high EUV transmission as well as a low sputtering coefficient such as Be, C, or Si, it has been shown that a significant reduction in reflectance loss of nearby optical components can be achieved even after exposing the nozzle to at least 10.sup.7 Xe plasma pulses.

  12. Surface phenomena related to mirror degradation in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madey, Theodore E.; Faradzhev, Nadir S.; Yakshinskiy, Boris V.; Edwards, N. V.

    2006-12-01

    One of the most promising methods for next generation device manufacturing is extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, which uses 13.5 nm wavelength radiation generated from freestanding plasma-based sources. The short wavelength of the incident illumination allows for a considerable decrease in printed feature size, but also creates a range of technological challenges not present for traditional optical lithography. Contamination and oxidation form on multilayer reflecting optics surfaces that not only reduce system throughput because of the associated reduction in EUV reflectivity, but also introduce wavefront aberrations that compromise the ability to print uniform features. Capping layers of ruthenium, films ˜2 nm thick, are found to extend the lifetime of Mo/Si multilayer mirrors used in EUV lithography applications. However, reflectivities of even the Ru-coated mirrors degrade in time during exposure to EUV radiation. Ruthenium surfaces are chemically reactive and are very effective as heterogeneous catalysts. In the present paper we summarize the thermal and radiation-induced surface chemistry of bare Ru exposed to gases; the emphasis is on H 2O vapor, a dominant background gas in vacuum processing chambers. Our goal is to provide insights into the fundamental physical processes that affect the reflectivity of Ru-coated Mo/Si multilayer mirrors exposed to EUV radiation. Our ultimate goal is to identify and recommend practices or antidotes that may extend mirror lifetimes.

  13. AlGaN-on-Si backside illuminated photodetectors for the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, P. E.; Duboz, J.-Y.; John, J.; Sturdevant, C.; Das, J.; Derluyn, J.; Germain, M.; de Moor, P.; Minoglou, K.; Semond, F.; Frayssinet, E.; Hochedez, J.-F.; Giordanengo, B.; van Hoof, C.; Mertens, R.

    2010-04-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of solar blind Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM) based photodetectors for use in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength range. The devices were fabricated in the AlGaN-on- Si material system, with Aluminum Gallium Nitride (AlGaN) epitaxial layers grown on Si(111) by means of Molecular Beam Epitaxy. The detectors' IV characteristics and photoresponse were measured between 200 and 400 nm. Spectral responsivity was calculated for comparison with the state-of-the-art ultraviolet photodetectors. It reaches the order of 0.1 A/W at the cut-off wavelength of 360 nm, for devices with Au fingers of 3 μm width and spacing of 3 μm. The rejection ratio of visible radiation (400 nm) was more than 3 orders of magnitude. In the additional post-processing step, the Si substrate was removed locally under the active area of the MSM photodetectors using SF6-based Reactive Ion Etching (RIE). In such scheme, the backside illumination is allowed and there is no shadowing of the active layer by the metal electrodes, which is advantageous for the EUV sensitivity. Completed devices were assembled and wire-bonded in customized TO-8 packages with an opening. The sensitivity at EUV was verified at the wavelengths of 30.4 and 58.4 nm using a He-based beamline. AlGaN photodetectors are a promising alternative for highly demanding applications such as space science or modern EUV lithography. The backside illumination approach is suited in particular for large, 2D focal plane arrays.

  14. Laser plasma sources of soft x-rays and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) for application in science and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartnik, Andrzej; Wachulak, Przemysław; Jarocki, Roman; Kostecki, Jerzy; Szczurek, Mirosław; Adjei, Daniel; Ahad, Inam Ul; Ayele, Mesfin G.; Fok, Tomasz; Szczurek, Anna; Torrisi, Alfio; Wegrzyński, Łukasz; Fiedorowicz, Henryk

    2015-05-01

    Laser plasma sources of soft x-rays and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) developed in our laboratory for application in various areas of technology and science are presented. The sources are based on a laser-irradiated gas puff target approach. The targets formed by pulsed injection of gas under high-pressure are irradiated with nanosecond laser pulses from Nd:YAG lasers. We use commercial lasers generating pulses with time duration from 1ns to 10ns and energies from 0.5J to 10J at 10Hz repetition rate. The gas puff targets are produced using a double valve system equipped with a special nozzle to form a double-stream gas puff target which secures high conversion efficiency without degradation of the nozzle. The use of a gas puff target instead of a solid target makes generation of laser plasmas emitting soft x-rays and EUV possible without target debris production. The sources are equipped with various optical systems, including grazing incidence axisymmetric ellipsoidal mirrors, a "lobster eye" type grazing incidence multi-foil mirror, and an ellipsoidal mirror with Mo/Si multilayer coating, to collect soft x-ray and EUV radiation and form the radiation beams. In this paper new applications of these sources in various fields, including soft x-ray and EUV imaging in nanoscale, EUV radiography and tomography, EUV materials processing and modification of polymer surfaces, EUV photoionization of gases, radiobiology and soft x-ray contact microscopy are reviewed.

  15. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and FUV calibration facility for special sensor ultraviolet limb imager (SSULI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Craig N.; Osterman, Steven N.; Thonnard, Stefan E.; McCoy, Robert P.; Williams, J. Z.; Parker, S. E.

    1994-09-01

    A facility for calibrating far ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet instruments has recently been completed at the Naval Research Laboratory. Our vacuum calibration vessel is 2-m in length, 1.67-m in diameter, and can accommodate optical test benches up to 1.2-m wide by 1.5-m in length. A kinematically positioned frame with four axis precision pointing capability of 10 microns for linear translation and .01 degrees for rotation is presently used during vacuum optical calibration of SSULI. The chamber was fabricated from 304 stainless steel and polished internally to reduce surface outgassing. A dust-free environment is maintained at the rear of the vacuum chamber by enclosing the 2-m hinged vacuum access door in an 8 ft. by 8 ft. class 100 clean room. Every effort was made to obtain an oil-free environment within the vacuum vessel. Outgassing products are continually monitored with a 1 - 200 amu residual gas analyzer. An oil-free claw and vane pump evacuates the chamber to 10-2 torr through 4 in. diameter stainless steel roughing lines. High vacuum is achieved and maintained with a magnetically levitated 480 l/s turbo pump and a 3000 l/s He4 cryopump. Either of two vacuum monochrometers, a 1-m f/10.4 or a 0.2-m f/4.5 are coaxially aligned with the optical axis of the chamber and are used to select single UV atomic resonance lines from a windowless capillary or penning discharge UV light source. A calibrated channeltron detector is coaxially mounted with the SSULI detector during calibration. All vacuum valves, the cooling system for the cryopump compressor, and the roughing pump are controlled through optical fibers which are interfaced to a computer through a VME board. Optical fibers were chosen to ensure that complete electrical isolation is maintained between the computer and the vacuum system valves-solenoids and relays.

  16. Feasibility of using Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) reaction wheels to satisfy Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) maneuver requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightsey, W. D.

    1990-01-01

    A digital computer simulation is used to determine if the extreme ultraviolet explorer (EUVE) reaction wheels can provide sufficient torque and momentum storage capability to meet the space infrared telescope facility (SIRTF) maneuver requirements. A brief description of the pointing control system (PCS) and the sensor and actuator dynamic models used in the simulation is presented. A model to represent a disturbance such as fluid sloshing is developed. Results developed with the simulation, and a discussion of these results are presented.

  17. Profile reconstruction in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) scatterometry: modeling and uncertainty estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, H.; Rathsfeld, A.; Scholze, F.; Bär, M.

    2009-10-01

    Scatterometry as a non-imaging indirect optical method in wafer metrology is also relevant to lithography masks designed for extreme ultraviolet lithography, where light with wavelengths in the range of 13 nm is applied. The solution of the inverse problem, i.e. the determination of periodic surface structures regarding critical dimensions (CD) and other profile properties from light diffraction patterns, is incomplete without knowledge of the uncertainties associated with the reconstructed parameters. The numerical simulation of the diffraction process for periodic 2D structures can be realized by the finite element solution of the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation. The inverse problem can be formulated as a nonlinear operator equation in Euclidean space. The operator maps the sought mask parameters to the efficiencies of diffracted plane wave modes. We employ a Gauß-Newton type iterative method to solve this operator equation and end up minimizing the deviation of the measured efficiency or phase shift values from the calculated ones. We apply our reconstruction algorithm for the measurement of a typical EUV mask composed of TaN absorber lines of about 80 nm height, a period in the range of 420 nm-840 nm, and with an underlying MoSi-multilayer stack of 300 nm thickness. Clearly, the uncertainties of the reconstructed geometric parameters essentially depend on the uncertainties of the input data and can be estimated by various methods. We apply a Monte Carlo procedure and an approximative covariance method to evaluate the reconstruction algorithm. Finally, we analyze the influence of uncertainties in the widths of the multilayer stack by the Monte Carlo method.

  18. Extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray imaging with compact, table top laser plasma EUV and SXR sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachulak, P. W.; Bartnik, A.; Kostecki, J.; Wegrzynski, L.; Fok, T.; Jarocki, R.; Szczurek, M.; Fiedorowicz, H.

    2015-12-01

    We present a few examples of imaging experiments, which were possible using a compact laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray (SXR) source, based on a double stream gas puff target. This debris-free source was used in full-field EUV imaging to obtain magnified images of test samples, ZnO nanofibers and images of the membranes coated with salt crystals. The source was also employed for SXR microscopy in the "water-window" spectral range using grazing incidence Wolter type-I objective to image test samples and to perform the initial studies of biological objects. Gas puff target EUV source, spectrally tuned for 13.5 nm wavelength with multilayer mirror and thin film filters, was also used in variety of shadowgraphy experiments to study the density of newly developed modulated density gas puff targets. Finally, the source was also employed in EUV tomography experiments of low density objects with the goal to measure and optimize the density of the targets dedicated to high harmonic generation.

  19. Spectral investigations of photoionized plasmas induced in atomic and molecular gases using nanosecond extreme ultraviolet (EUV) pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Wachulak, P.

    2014-07-15

    In this paper, results of spectral investigations of low temperature photoionized plasmas, created by irradiation of gases with intense pulses of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation from a laser-produced plasma (LPP) source, are presented. The LPP source was based on a double-stream KrXe/He gas-puff target irradiated with 4 ns/0.8 J/10 Hz Nd:YAG laser pulses. The most intense emission from the source spanned a relatively narrow spectral region λ ≈ 10–12 nm; however, spectrally integrated intensity at longer wavelengths was also significant. The EUV beam was focused on a gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV pulses. Irradiation of gases resulted in formation of photoionized plasmas emitting radiation in the EUV range. Radiation spectra, measured for plasmas produced in various gases, are dominated by emission lines, originating from single charged ions. Significant differences in spectral intensities and distributions between plasmas created in neon and molecular gases were observed.

  20. Chemical Effect of Dry and Wet Cleaning of the Ru Protective Layer of the Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography Reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Belau, Leonid; Park, Jeong Y.; Liang, Ted; Seo, Hyungtak; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2009-04-10

    The authors report the chemical influence of cleaning of the Ru capping layer on the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflector surface. The cleaning of EUV reflector to remove the contamination particles has two requirements: to prevent corrosion and etching of the reflector surface and to maintain the reflectivity functionality of the reflector after the corrosive cleaning processes. Two main approaches for EUV reflector cleaning, wet chemical treatments [sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide mixture (SPM), ozonated water, and ozonated hydrogen peroxide] and dry cleaning (oxygen plasma and UV/ozone treatment), were tested. The changes in surface morphology and roughness were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, while the surface etching and change of oxidation states were probed with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Significant surface oxidation of the Ru capping layer was observed after oxygen plasma and UV/ozone treatment, while the oxidation is unnoticeable after SPM treatment. Based on these surface studies, the authors found that SPM treatment exhibits the minimal corrosive interactions with Ru capping layer. They address the molecular mechanism of corrosive gas and liquid-phase chemical interaction with the surface of Ru capping layer on the EUV reflector.

  1. Radiation hardness of AlxGa1-xN photodetectors exposed to Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) light beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Pawel E.; John, Joachim; Barkusky, Frank; Duboz, Jean Yves; Lorenz, Anne; Cheng, Kai; Derluyn, Joff; Germain, Marianne; De Moor, Piet; Minoglou, Kyriaki; Bayer, Armin; Mann, Klaus; Hochedez, Jean-Francois; Giordanengo, Boris; Borghs, Gustaaf; Mertens, Robert

    2009-05-01

    We report on the results of fabrication and optoelectrical characterization of Gallium Nitride (GaN) based Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) photodetectors. Our devices were Schottky photodiodes with a finger-shaped rectifying contact, allowing better penetration of light into the active region. GaN layers were epitaxially grown on Silicon (111) by Metal- Organic-Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD). Spectral responsivity measurements in the Near UltraViolet (NUV) wavelength range (200-400 nm) were performed to verify the solar blindness of the photodetectors. After that the devices were exposed to the EUV focused beam of 13.5 nm wavelength using table-top EUV setup. Radiation hardness was tested up to a dose of 3.3Â.1019 photons/cm2. Stability of the quantum efficiency was compared to the one measured in the same way for a commercially available silicon based photodiode. Superior behavior of GaN devices was observed at the wavelength of 13.5 nm.

  2. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS): Radiometric Calibrations and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hock, R. A.; Woods, T. N.; Crotser, D.; Eparvier, F. G.; Woodraska, D. L.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Woods, E. C.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), scheduled for launch in early 2010, incorporates a suite of instruments including the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE). EVE has multiple instruments including the Multiple Extreme ultraviolet Grating Spectrographs (MEGS) A, B, and P instruments, the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), and the Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP). The radiometric calibration of EVE, necessary to convert the instrument counts to physical units, was performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III) located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This paper presents the results and derived accuracy of this radiometric calibration for the MEGS A, B, P, and SAM instruments, while the calibration of the ESP instrument is addressed by Didkovsky et al. . In addition, solar measurements that were taken on 14 April 2008, during the NASA 36.240 sounding-rocket flight, are shown for the prototype EVE instruments.

  3. Study of alternative capping and absorber layers for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) masks for sub-16nm half-pitch nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, Abbas; House, Matthew; Tian, Ruahi; Laursen, Thomas; Antohe, Alin; Kearney, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    Multiple challenges, including the availability of a reliable high power source, defect free mask, and proper resist material, have forced extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography to be considered for sub-10 nm half-pitch nodes. Therefore, techniques such as phase shift masks (PSMs) or high numerical aperture (NA) lithography might be considered. Such techniques require thin EUV absorber materials to be optimized to reduce EUV mask shadowing effects. Despite the challenges in dry etching of Ni and finding proper chemistries with a high etch selectivity to suitable capping materials, we decided to examine the chemical stability of Ni for existing mask cleaning chemistries. Ni, after Ag, has the highest absorption in EUV light at λ = 13.5 nm, which makes it a proper candidate—in pure form or in mixing with other elements—for thin absorber film. Depending on the composition of the final material, proper integration schemes will be developed. We studied Ni stability in commonly used mask cleaning processes based on ammonium hydroxide/ hydrogen peroxide (APM) and water mixtures. Ni films deposited with an ion beam deposition technique with a thickness of 35 nm are sufficient to totally absorb EUV light at λ = 13.5 nm. Multiple cleanings of these Ni films resulted in Ni oxidation— confirmed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) analysis as NiO with thickness about 1.5 nm. Furthermore, Ni oxidation processes are self-limiting and oxide layer thickness did not increase with a further cleaning. A three minute exposure to sulfuric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture (SPM) can remove NiO and Ni totally. To protect Ni film from etching by SPM chemistry a 3 nm Si capping was used on top of Ni film. However, Si capping was removed by APM chemistry and could not protect Ni film against SPM chemistry. TiO2 may be a very good capping layer for EUV optics but it is not suitable for EUV mask blanks and will be removed by APM chemistries.

  4. High-space resolution imaging plate analysis of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light from tin laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musgrave, Christopher S. A.; Murakami, Takehiro; Ugomori, Teruyuki; Yoshida, Kensuke; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Atarashi, Hironori; Iyoda, Tomokazu; Nagai, Keiji

    2017-03-01

    With the advent of high volume manufacturing capabilities by extreme ultraviolet lithography, constant improvements in light source design and cost-efficiency are required. Currently, light intensity and conversion efficiency (CE) measurments are obtained by charged couple devices, faraday cups etc, but also phoshpor imaging plates (IPs) (BaFBr:Eu). IPs are sensitive to light and high-energy species, which is ideal for studying extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light from laser produced plasmas (LPPs). In this work, we used IPs to observe a large angular distribution (10°-90°). We ablated a tin target by high-energy lasers (1064 nm Nd:YAG, 1010 and 1011 W/cm2) to generate the EUV light. The europium ions in the IP were trapped in a higher energy state from exposure to EUV light and high-energy species. The light intensity was angular dependent; therefore excitation of the IP depends on the angle, and so highly informative about the LPP. We obtained high-space resolution (345 μm, 0.2°) angular distribution and grazing spectrometer (5-20 nm grate) data simultaneously at different target to IP distances (103 mm and 200 mm). Two laser systems and IP types (BAS-TR and BAS-SR) were also compared. The cosine fitting values from the IP data were used to calculate the CE to be 1.6% (SD ± 0.2) at 13.5 nm 2% bandwidth. Finally, a practical assessment of IPs and a damage issue are disclosed.

  5. Solar Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Flare Observations and Findings from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Mason, James; Eparvier, Francis; Jones, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    There have been more than six thousand flares observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) since it launched in February 2010. The SDO mission is ideal for studying flares with 24/7 operations from its geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and with some 7000 TeraBytes of data taken so far. These data include more than 100,000,000 images of coronal full-disk images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Dopplergrams and magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and over 15,000,000 spectra of the solar EUV irradiance from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE). This presentation will focus primarily on the EVE flare observations and a couple key flare findings involving both AIA and EVE observations. One of these findings includes the discovery of the EUV late phase that occur in about 15% of flares. The EUV late phase is the brightening of warm coronal emissions in the EUV that starts much later after the main X-ray bright phase, lasts up to several hours, and can emit more total energy than the EUV radiation during the X-ray phase. The combination of EVE and AIA observations have revealed that the cause for the EUV late phase is a second set of post-flare coronal loops that form much higher than the primary post-flare loops near the source of the flare. This second set of loops is much longer and thus has a much slower cooling rate; consequently, the radiation from these loops appears much later after the main X-ray flare phase. Another key finding is that the EVE solar EUV irradiance observations in cool coronal emissions have dimming during and following eruptive flare events, which is often associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Furthermore, the magnitude of the EVE coronal dimming is consistent with the amount of mass lost, as observed near the flaring region by AIA. This result could be important for space weather operations because EVE’s near-realtime data products of its on-disk (Earth-facing) flare observations may provide an

  6. SOLAR-B Mission Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) Instrument Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doschek, George A.

    2001-01-01

    This Monthly Progress Report covers the reporting period through June 2001, Phase C/D, Detailed Design and Development Through Launch Plus Thirty Days, for selected components and subsystems of the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument, hereafter referred to as EIS Instrument Components. This document contains the program status through the reporting period and forecasts the status for the upcoming reporting period.

  7. SOLAR-B Mission Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) Instrument Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doschek, George A.

    2001-01-01

    This Monthly Progress Report covers the reporting period July 2001 of the Detailed Design and Development through Launch plus Thirty Days, Phase C/D, for selected components and subsystems of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument, hereafter referred to as EIS Instrument Components. This document contains the program status through the reporting period and forecasts the status for the upcoming reporting period.

  8. Solar-B Mission Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) Instrument Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doschek, George A.

    2002-01-01

    This Monthly Progress Report covers the reporting period August 2002 of the Detailed Design and Development through Launch plus Thirty Days, Phase C/D, for selected components and subsystems of the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument, hereafter referred to as EIS Instrument Components. This document contains the program status through the reporting period and forecasts the status for the upcoming reporting period.

  9. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS): Radiometric Calibrations and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hock, R. A.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Woods, T. N.; Crotser, D.; Eparvier, F. G.; Woodraska, D. L.; Woods, E. C.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), scheduled for launch in early 2010, incorporates a suite of instruments including the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE). EVE has multiple instruments including the Multiple Extreme ultraviolet Grating Spectrographs (MEGS) A, B, and P instruments, the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), and the Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP). The radiometric calibration of EVE, necessary to convert the instrument counts to physical units, was performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III) located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This paper presents the results and derived accuracy of this radiometric calibration for the MEGS A, B, P, and SAM instruments, while the calibration of the ESP instrument is addressed by Didkovsky et al. ( Solar Phys., 2010, doi:10.1007/s11207-009-9485-8). In addition, solar measurements that were taken on 14 April 2008, during the NASA 36.240 sounding-rocket flight, are shown for the prototype EVE instruments.

  10. The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph Sounding Rocket Payload: Recent Modifications for Planetary Observations in the EUV/FUV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, David C.; Stern, S. Alan; Scherrer, John; Cash, Webster; Green, James C.; Wilkinson, Erik

    1995-01-01

    We report on the status of modifications to an existing extreme ultraviolet (EUV) telescope/spectrograph sounding rocket payload for planetary observations in the 800 - 1200 A wavelength band. The instrument is composed of an existing Wolter Type 2 grazing incidence telescope, a newly built 0.4-m normal incidence Rowland Circle spectrograph, and an open-structure resistive-anode microchannel plate detector. The modified payload has successfully completed three NASA sounding rocket flights within 1994-1995. Future flights are anticipated for additional studies of planetary and cometary atmospheres and interstellar absorption. A detailed description of the payload, along with the performance characteristics of the integrated instrument are presented. In addition, some preliminary flight results from the above three missions are also presented.

  11. The Effects of Oxygen Plasma on the Chemical Composition and Morphology of the Ru Capping Layer of the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Mask Blanks

    SciTech Connect

    Belau, Leonid; Park, Jeong Y.; Liang, Ted; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2008-06-07

    Contamination removal from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask surfaces is one of the most important aspects to improve reliability for the next generation of EUV lithography. We report chemical and morphological changes of the ruthenium (Ru) mask surface after oxygen plasma treatment using surface sensitive analytical methods: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Chemical analysis of the EUV masks shows an increase in the subsurface oxygen concentration, Ru oxidation and surface roughness. XPS spectra at various photoelectron takeoff angles suggest that the EUV mask surface was covered with chemisorbed oxygen after oxygen plasma treatment. It is proposed that the Kirkendall effect is the most plausible mechanism that explains the Ru surface oxidation. The etching rate of the Ru capping layer by oxygen plasma was estimated to be 1.5 {+-} 0.2 {angstrom}/min, based on TEM cross sectional analysis.

  12. Evaluation of novel processing approaches to improve extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photoresist pattern quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Cecilia; Chun, Jun Sung; Fan, Yu-Jen; Jen, Shih-Hui; Neisser, Mark; Cummings, Kevin D.; Montgomery, Warren; Saito, Takashi; Huli, Lior; Hetzer, David; Matsumoto, Hiroie; Metz, Andrew; Rastogi, Vinayak

    2015-03-01

    Recently there has been a great deal of effort focused on increasing EUV scanner source power; which is correlated to increased wafer throughput of production systems. Another way of increasing throughput would be to increase the photospeed of the photoresist used. However increasing the photospeed without improving the overall lithographic performance, such as local critical dimension uniformity (L-CDU) and process window, does not deliver the overall improvements required for a high volume manufacturing (HVM). This paper continues a discussion started in prior publications [Ref 3,4,6], which focused on using readily available process tooling (currently in use for 193 nm double patterning applications) and the existing EUV photoresists to increase photospeed (lower dose requirement) for line and space applications. Techniques to improve L-CDU for contact hole applications will also be described.

  13. Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Bright Source List

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malina, Roger F.; Marshall, Herman L.; Antia, Behram; Christian, Carol A.; Dobson, Carl A.; Finley, David S.; Fruscione, Antonella; Girouard, Forrest R.; Hawkins, Isabel; Jelinsky, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    Initial results from the analysis of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) all-sky survey (58-740 A) and deep survey (67-364 A) are presented through the EUVE Bright Source List (BSL). The BSL contains 356 confirmed extreme ultraviolet (EUV) point sources with supporting information, including positions, observed EUV count rates, and the identification of possible optical counterparts. One-hundred twenty-six sources have been detected longward of 200 A.

  14. Experience from the in-flight calibration of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) and Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) fixed head star trackers (FHSTs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Michael

    1995-05-01

    Since the original post-launch calibration of the FHSTs (Fixed Head Star Trackers) on EUVE (Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer) and UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite), the Flight Dynamics task has continued to analyze the FHST performance. The algorithm used for inflight alignment of spacecraft sensors is described and the equations for the errors in the relative alignment for the simple 2 star tracker case are shown. Simulated data and real data are used to compute the covariance of the relative alignment errors. Several methods for correcting the alignment are compared and results analyzed. The specific problems seen on orbit with UARS and EUVE are then discussed. UARS has experienced anomalous tracker performance on an FHST resulting in continuous variation in apparent tracker alignment. On EUVE, the FHST residuals from the attitude determination algorithm showed a dependence on the direction of roll during survey mode. This dependence is traced back to time tagging errors and the original post launch alignment is found to be in error due to the impact of the time tagging errors on the alignment algorithm. The methods used by the FDF (Flight Dynamics Facility) to correct for these problems is described.

  15. Protection of extreme ultraviolet lithography masks. II. Showerhead flow mitigation of nanoscale particulate contamination [Protection of EUV lithography masks II: Showerhead flow mitigation of nanoscale particulate contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Torczynski, John R.; Geller, Anthony S.; Gallis, Michael A.; Rader, Daniel J.; Chilese, Frank C.; Garcia, Rudy F.; Delgado, Gil

    2015-03-27

    An analysis is presented of a method to protect the reticle (mask) in an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask inspection tool using a showerhead plenum to provide a continuous flow of clean gas over the surface of a reticle. The reticle is suspended in an inverted fashion (face down) within a stage/holder that moves back and forth over the showerhead plenum as the reticle is inspected. It is essential that no particles of 10-nm diameter or larger be deposited on the reticle during inspection. Particles can originate from multiple sources in the system, and mask protection from each source is explicitly analyzed. The showerhead plate has an internal plenum with a solid conical wall isolating the aperture. The upper and lower surfaces of the plate are thin flat sheets of porous-metal material. These porous sheets form the top and bottom showerheads that supply the region between the showerhead plate and the reticle and the region between the conical aperture and the Optics Zone box with continuous flows of clean gas. The model studies show that the top showerhead provides robust reticle protection from particles of 10-nm diameter or larger originating from the Reticle Zone and from plenum surfaces contaminated by exposure to the Reticle Zone. Protection is achieved with negligible effect on EUV transmission. Furthermore, the bottom showerhead efficiently protects the reticle from nanoscale particles originating from the Optics Zone.

  16. Protection of extreme ultraviolet lithography masks. II. Showerhead flow mitigation of nanoscale particulate contamination [Protection of EUV lithography masks II: Showerhead flow mitigation of nanoscale particulate contamination

    DOE PAGES

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Torczynski, John R.; Geller, Anthony S.; ...

    2015-03-27

    An analysis is presented of a method to protect the reticle (mask) in an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask inspection tool using a showerhead plenum to provide a continuous flow of clean gas over the surface of a reticle. The reticle is suspended in an inverted fashion (face down) within a stage/holder that moves back and forth over the showerhead plenum as the reticle is inspected. It is essential that no particles of 10-nm diameter or larger be deposited on the reticle during inspection. Particles can originate from multiple sources in the system, and mask protection from each source is explicitlymore » analyzed. The showerhead plate has an internal plenum with a solid conical wall isolating the aperture. The upper and lower surfaces of the plate are thin flat sheets of porous-metal material. These porous sheets form the top and bottom showerheads that supply the region between the showerhead plate and the reticle and the region between the conical aperture and the Optics Zone box with continuous flows of clean gas. The model studies show that the top showerhead provides robust reticle protection from particles of 10-nm diameter or larger originating from the Reticle Zone and from plenum surfaces contaminated by exposure to the Reticle Zone. Protection is achieved with negligible effect on EUV transmission. Furthermore, the bottom showerhead efficiently protects the reticle from nanoscale particles originating from the Optics Zone.« less

  17. Wolter-Schwarzschild optics for the extreme-ultraviolet - The Berkeley stellar spectrometer and the EUV Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malina, R. F.; Bowyer, S.; Finley, D.; Cash, W.

    1979-01-01

    The design, fabrication and performance of two Wolter-Schwarzschild grazing incidence optics are described. Both telescopes have been figured by single point diamond turning and have achieved better than 15-arcsec on-axis imaging. The telescope for the stellar spectrometer is an f/10 Type II system with an effective area of 225 sq cm at 250 A and 300 cm2 at 500 A. The primary has a maximum diameter of 38 cm and was fabricated in three elements. The copper-plated aluminum substrate was diamond turned; following nickel plating, the surface was polished and coated with evaporated gold. The performance during a sounding rocket flight is discussed. The prototype telescope for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer is an f/1.24 Type I system with an effective field of view of 5.0-deg diameter. The telescope has a maximum diameter of 40 cm and was fabricated as a single element. The aluminum substrate is to be diamond turned; the nickel plated surface will be polished and electroplated with gold. The design choice and defocusing optimization aimed at maximizing the field of view and number of image pixels is examined.

  18. Method for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Felter, T. E.; Kubiak, G. D.

    2000-01-01

    A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.

  19. Method for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Felter, T. E.; Kubiak, Glenn D.

    1999-01-01

    A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.

  20. A preliminary estimate of the EUVE cumulative distribution of exposure time on the unit sphere. [Extreme Ultra-Violet Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, C. C. H.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminary study of an all-sky coverage of the EUVE mission is given. Algorithms are provided to compute the exposure of the celestial sphere under the spinning telescopes, taking into account that during part of the exposure time the telescopes are blocked by the earth. The algorithms are used to give an estimate of exposure time at different ecliptic latitudes as a function of the angle of field of view of the telescope. Sample coverage patterns are also given for a 6-month mission.

  1. Pathways to Earth-Like Atmospheres. Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV)-Powered Escape of Hydrogen-Rich Protoatmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammer, Helmut; Kislyakova, K. G.; Odert, P.; Leitzinger, M.; Schwarz, R.; Pilat-Lohinger, E.; Kulikov, Yu. N.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Güdel, M.; Hanslmeier, A.

    2011-12-01

    We discuss the evolution of the atmosphere of early Earth and of terrestrial exoplanets which may be capable of sustaining liquid water oceans and continents where life may originate. The formation age of a terrestrial planet, its mass and size, as well as the lifetime in the EUV-saturated early phase of its host star play a significant role in its atmosphere evolution. We show that planets even in orbits within the habitable zone of their host stars might not lose nebular- or catastrophically outgassed initial protoatmospheres completely and could end up as water worlds with CO2 and hydrogen- or oxygen-rich upper atmospheres. If an atmosphere of a terrestrial planet evolves to an N2-rich atmosphere too early in its lifetime, the atmosphere may be lost. We show that the initial conditions set up by the formation of a terrestrial planet and by the evolution of the host star's EUV and plasma environment are very important factors owing to which a planet may evolve to a habitable world. Finally we present a method for studying the discussed atmosphere evolution hypotheses by future UV transit observations of terrestrial exoplanets.

  2. Pathways to Earth-like atmospheres. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV)-powered escape of hydrogen-rich protoatmospheres.

    PubMed

    Lammer, Helmut; Kislyakova, K G; Odert, P; Leitzinger, M; Schwarz, R; Pilat-Lohinger, E; Kulikov, Yu N; Khodachenko, M L; Güdel, M; Hanslmeier, M

    2011-12-01

    We discuss the evolution of the atmosphere of early Earth and of terrestrial exoplanets which may be capable of sustaining liquid water oceans and continents where life may originate. The formation age of a terrestrial planet, its mass and size, as well as the lifetime in the EUV-saturated early phase of its host star play a significant role in its atmosphere evolution. We show that planets even in orbits within the habitable zone of their host stars might not lose nebular- or catastrophically outgassed initial protoatmospheres completely and could end up as water worlds with CO2 and hydrogen- or oxygen-rich upper atmospheres. If an atmosphere of a terrestrial planet evolves to an N2-rich atmosphere too early in its lifetime, the atmosphere may be lost. We show that the initial conditions set up by the formation of a terrestrial planet and by the evolution of the host star's EUV and plasma environment are very important factors owing to which a planet may evolve to a habitable world. Finally we present a method for studying the discussed atmosphere evolution hypotheses by future UV transit observations of terrestrial exoplanets.

  3. Extremely Large EUV Late Phase of Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai; Wang, Yuming; Zhang, Jie; Cheng, Xin; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong

    2015-04-01

    The second peak in the Fe XVI 33.5 nm line irradiance observed during solar flares by Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) is known as Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) late phase. Our previous paper found that the main emissions in the late phase are originated from large-scale loop arcades that are closely connected to but different from the post flare loops (PFLs), and we also proposed that a long cooling process without additional heating could explain the late phase. In this paper, we define the extremely large late phase because it not only has a bigger peak in the warm 33.5 irradiance profile, but also releases more EUV radiative energy than the main phase. Through detailedly inspecting the EUV images from three point-of-view, it is found that, besides the later phase loop arcades, the more contribution of the extremely large late phase is from a hot structure that fails to erupt. This hot structure is identified as a flux rope, which is quickly energized by the flare reconnection and later on continuously produces the thermal energy during the gradual phase. Together with the late-phase loop arcades, the fail to erupt flux rope with the additional heating creates the extremely large EUV late phase.

  4. Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Science Operation Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, G. S.; Kronberg, F. A.; Meriwether, H. D.; Wong, L. S.; Grassi, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    The EUVE Science Operations Center (ESOC) is a satellite payload operations center for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer project, located on the Berkeley campus of the University of California. The ESOC has the primary responsibility for commanding the EUVE telescopes and monitoring their telemetry. The ESOC is one of a very few university-based satellite operations facilities operating with NASA. This article describes the history, operation, and advantages of the ESOC as an on-campus operations center.

  5. Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine

    DOEpatents

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Haney, Steven J.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    2000-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10-14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

  6. Research in extreme ultraviolet and far ultraviolet astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    The Far Ultraviolet imager (FUVI) was flown on the Aries class sounding rocket 24.015, producing outstanding results. The diffuse extreme ultraviolet (EUV) background spectrometer which is under construction is described. It will be launched on the Black Brant sounding rocket flight number 27.086. Ongoing design studies of a high resolution spectrometer are discussed. This instrument incorporates a one meter normal incidence mirror and will be suitable for an advanced Spartan mission.

  7. Energy deposition in ultrathin extreme ultraviolet resist films: extreme ultraviolet photons and keV electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyser, David F.; Eib, Nicholas K.; Ritchie, Nicholas W. M.

    2016-07-01

    The absorbed energy density (eV/cm3) deposited by extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons and electron beam (EB) high-keV electrons is proposed as a metric for characterizing the sensitivity of EUV resist films. Simulations of energy deposition are used to calculate the energy density as a function of the incident aerial flux (EUV: mJ/cm2, EB: μC/cm2). Monte Carlo calculations for electron exposure are utilized, and a Lambert-Beer model for EUV absorption. The ratio of electron flux to photon flux which results in equivalent energy density is calculated for a typical organic chemically amplified resist film and a typical inorganic metal-oxide film. This ratio can be used to screen EUV resist materials with EB measurements and accelerate advances in EUV resist systems.

  8. EXTREMELY LARGE EUV LATE PHASE OF SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Kai; Wang, Yuming; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong; Zhang, Jie; Cheng, Xin

    2015-03-20

    The second peak in the Fe xvi 33.5 nm line irradiance observed during solar flares by the Extreme-Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) is known as the EUV late phase. Our previous paper in 2013 by Liu et al. found that the main emissions in the late phase are originated from large-scale loop arcades that are closely connected to but different from the post-flare loops (PFLs), and we also proposed that a long cooling process without additional heating could explain the late phase. In this paper, we define the extremely large late phase because it not only has a bigger peak in the warm 33.5 irradiance profile, but also releases more EUV radiative energy than the main phase. Through detailed inspection of the EUV images from three points of view, it was discovered that aside from the later-phase loop arcades, the main contributor of the extremely large late phase is a hot structure that fails to erupt. This hot structure is identified as a flux rope, which is quickly energized by the flare reconnection and later on continuously produces the thermal energy during the gradual phase. Together with the late-phase loop arcades, the flux rope failing to erupt with the additional heating create the extremely large EUV late phase.

  9. Extremely Large EUV Late Phase of Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai; Wang, Yuming; Zhang, Jie; Cheng, Xin; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong

    2015-03-01

    The second peak in the Fe xvi 33.5 nm line irradiance observed during solar flares by the Extreme-Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) is known as the EUV late phase. Our previous paper in 2013 by Liu et al. found that the main emissions in the late phase are originated from large-scale loop arcades that are closely connected to but different from the post-flare loops (PFLs), and we also proposed that a long cooling process without additional heating could explain the late phase. In this paper, we define the extremely large late phase because it not only has a bigger peak in the warm 33.5 irradiance profile, but also releases more EUV radiative energy than the main phase. Through detailed inspection of the EUV images from three points of view, it was discovered that aside from the later-phase loop arcades, the main contributor of the extremely large late phase is a hot structure that fails to erupt. This hot structure is identified as a flux rope, which is quickly energized by the flare reconnection and later on continuously produces the thermal energy during the gradual phase. Together with the late-phase loop arcades, the flux rope failing to erupt with the additional heating create the extremely large EUV late phase.

  10. The Stellar Extreme-Ultraviolet Radiation Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallerga, John

    1998-04-01

    The local extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation field from stellar sources has been determined by combining the EUV spectra of 54 stars, taken with the spectrometers aboard the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite. The resultant spectrum over the range 70-730 Å is estimated to be 95% complete above 400 Å and 90% complete above 200 Å. The flux contributed by two B stars and three hot white dwarfs dominate the spectrum except at the shortest wavelengths, where an assortment of EUV source types contribute. The high electron densities measured toward nearby stars can be accounted for by photoionization from this radiation field, but the spectrum is too soft to explain the overionization of helium with respect to hydrogen recently measure in the Local Cloud.

  11. Photoresist composition for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Felter, T. E.; Kubiak, G. D.

    1999-01-01

    A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods. A photoresist composition for extreme ultraviolet radiation of boron carbide polymers, hydrochlorocarbons and mixtures thereof.

  12. Photoresist composition for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Felter, T.E.; Kubiak, G.D.

    1999-11-23

    A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4--0.05 {mu}m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is disclosed. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods. A photoresist composition for extreme ultraviolet radiation of boron carbide polymers, hydrochlorocarbons and mixtures thereof.

  13. The Diffuse Extreme Ultraviolet Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallerga, John; Slavin, Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    Observations of the diffuse EUV background towards 138 different directions using the spectrometers aboard the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite (EUVE) have been combined into a spectrum from 150A to 730A and represent an effective exposure of 18 million seconds. There is no significant evidence of any non-local line flux in the resultant spectrum such as that from a hot coronal plasma. These results are inconsistent with the Wisconsin C and B broad-band surveys assuming the source is a logT = 5.8 - 6.1 hot plasma in ionization equilibrium with solar abundances, confirming the previous result of Jelinksy, Vallerga and Edelstein) (hereafter Paper 1) using an observation along the ecliptic with the same instrument. To make these results consistent with the previous broad-band surveys, the plasma responsible for the emission must either be depleted in Fe by a factor of approximately 6, be behind an absorbing slab of neutral H with a column of 2 x 10(exp 19)/sq cm, or not be in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE). One such non-CIE model (Breitswerdt and Schmutzier) that explains the soft x-ray results is also inconsistent with this EUV data.

  14. Discovery of a new white dwarf in a binary system (EUVE 0720-317) in the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer survey and implications for the late stages of stellar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vennes, Stephane; Thorstensen, John R.

    1994-01-01

    A new precataclysmic binary is identified in the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) all-sky survey. The bright source EUVE 0720-317 shows a hot hydrogen-rich white dwarf optical continuum with overlying narrow Balmer-line emission. Using high signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopy in the 4100-6700 A range, we identify a late-type companion and find a 1.3d periodic modulation in the emission-line velocities and strengths. This is the signature of Feige 24-type close binary systems. We determine the components' spectral types (DAO and dM0-2), orbital velocities (K(sub DAO) = 104 +/- 12 km/s, K(sub dM) = 96 +/- 7 km/s), and systemic velocity (gamma = 15 +/- 12 km/s). A first estimate of the white dwarf gravitational redshift, gamma(sub g) = 45 +/- 20 km/s, and theoretical mass-radius relationships imply R(sub DAO) = 0.010-0.016 solar radius and M(sub DAO) = 0.55-0.90 solar mass. The orbital inclination is therefore i greater than or equal to 52 deg, consistent with the large amplitude variations found in H-alpha equivalent widths that imply i greater than or equal to 42 deg. We show that the discovery of new close WD + MS binary systems in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) sky surveys has important implications for theory of common-envelope evolution, in particular for the predicted close binary birthrate and orbital and stellar parameters.

  15. Extreme ultraviolet spectral irradiance measurements since 1946

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtke, G.

    2015-03-01

    In the physics of the upper atmosphere the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation plays a dominant role controlling most of the thermospheric/ionospheric (T/I) processes. Since this part of the solar spectrum is absorbed in the thermosphere, platforms to measure the EUV fluxes became only available with the development of rockets reaching altitude levels exceeding 80 km. With the availability of V2 rockets used in space research, recording of EUV spectra started in 1946 using photographic films. The development of pointing devices to accurately orient the spectrographs toward the sun initiated intense activities in solar-terrestrial research. The application of photoelectric recording technology enabled the scientists placing EUV spectrometers aboard satellites observing qualitatively strong variability of the solar EUV irradiance on short-, medium-, and long-term scales. However, as more measurements were performed more radiometric EUV data diverged due to the inherent degradation of the EUV instruments with time. Also, continuous recording of the EUV energy input to the T/I system was not achieved. It is only at the end of the last century that there was progress made in solving the serious problem of degradation enabling to monitore solar EUV fluxes with sufficient radiometric accuracy. The data sets available allow composing the data available to the first set of EUV data covering a period of 11 years for the first time. Based on the sophisticated instrumentation verified in space, future EUV measurements of the solar spectral irradiance (SSI) are promising accuracy levels of about 5% and less. With added low-cost equipment, real-time measurements will allow providing data needed in ionospheric modeling, e.g., for correcting propagation delays of navigation signals from space to earth. Adding EUV airglow and auroral emission monitoring by airglow cameras, the impact of space weather on the terrestrial T/I system can be studied with a spectral terrestrial

  16. Absolute, Extreme-Ultraviolet, Solar Spectral Irradiance Monitor (AESSIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Martin C. E.; Smith, Peter L.; Parkinson, W. H.; Kuehne, M.; Kock, M.

    1988-01-01

    AESSIM, the Absolute, Extreme-Ultraviolet, Solar Spectral Irradiance Monitor, is designed to measure the absolute solar spectral irradiance at extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths. The data are required for studies of the processes that occur in the earth's upper atmosphere and for predictions of atmospheric drag on space vehicles. AESSIM is comprised of sun-pointed spectrometers and newly-developed, secondary standards of spectral irradiance for the EUV. Use of the in-orbit standard sources will eliminate the uncertainties caused by changes in spectrometer efficiency that have plagued all previous measurements of the solar spectral EUV flux.

  17. Extreme ultraviolet photoionization of aldoses and ketoses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Joong-Won; Dong, Feng; Grisham, Michael E.; Rocca, Jorge J.; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2011-04-01

    Gas phase monosaccharides (2-deoxyribose, ribose, arabinose, xylose, lyxose, glucose galactose, fructose, and tagatose), generated by laser desorption of solid sample pellets, are ionized with extreme ultraviolet photons (EUV, 46.9 nm, 26.44 eV). The resulting fragment ions are analyzed using a time of flight mass spectrometer. All aldoses yield identical fragment ions regardless of size, and ketoses, while also generating same ions as aldoses, yields additional features. Extensive fragmentation of the monosaccharides is the result the EUV photons ionizing various inner valence orbitals. The observed fragmentation patterns are not dependent upon hydrogen bonding structure or OH group orientation.

  18. Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer. Long look at the next window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maran, Stephen P.

    1991-01-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) will map the entire sky to determine the existence, direction, brightness, and temperature of thousands of objects that are sources of so-called extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. The EUV spectral region is located between the x-ray and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. From the sky survey by EUVE, astronomers will determine the nature of sources of EUV light in our galaxy, and infer the distribution of interstellar gas for hundreds of light years around the solar system. It is from this gas and the accompanying dust in space that new stars and solar systems are born and to which evolving and dying stars return much of their material in an endless cosmic cycle of birth, death, and rebirth. Besides surveying the sky, astronomers will make detailed studies of selected objects with EUVE to determine their physical properties and chemical compositions. Also, they will learn about the conditions that prevail and the processes at work in stars, planets, and other sources of EUV radiation, maybe even quasars. The EUVE mission and instruments are described. The objects that EUVE will likely find are described.

  19. Absolute sensitivity calibration of extreme ultraviolet photoresists

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Juanita; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Aquila, Andrew; George, Simi; Niakoula, Dimitra

    2008-05-16

    One of the major challenges facing the commercialization of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography remains simultaneously achieving resist sensitivity, line-edge roughness, and resolution requirement. Sensitivity is of particular concern owing to its direct impact on source power requirements. Most current EUV exposure tools have been calibrated against a resist standard with the actual calibration of the standard resist dating back to EUV exposures at Sandia National Laboratories in the mid 1990s. Here they report on an independent sensitivity calibration of two baseline resists from the SEMATECH Berkeley MET tool performed at the Advanced Light Source Calibrations and Standards beamline. The results show the baseline resists to be approximately 1.9 times faster than previously thought based on calibration against the long standing resist standard.

  20. Absolute sensitivity calibration of extreme ultraviolet photoresists.

    PubMed

    Naulleau, Patrick P; Gullikson, Eric M; Aquila, Andrew; George, Simi; Niakoula, Dimitra

    2008-07-21

    One of the major challenges facing the commercialization of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography remains simultaneously achieving resist sensitivity, line-edge roughness, and resolution requirement. Sensitivity is of particular concern owing to its direct impact on source power requirements. Most current EUV exposure tools have been calibrated against a resist standard with the actual calibration of the standard resist dating back to EUV exposures at Sandia National Laboratories in the mid 1990s. Here we report on an independent sensitivity calibration of two baseline resists from the SEMATECH Berkeley MET tool performed at the Advanced Light Source Calibrations and Standards beamline. The results show the baseline resists to be approximately 1.9 times faster than previously thought based on calibration against the long standing resist standard.

  1. Plans for the extreme ultraviolet explorer data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Herman L.; Dobson, Carl A.; Malina, Roger F.; Bowyer, Stuart

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents an approach for storage and fast access to data that will be obtained by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), a satellite payload scheduled for launch in 1991. The EUVE telescopes will be operated remotely from the EUVE Science Operation Center (SOC) located at the University of California, Berkeley. The EUVE science payload consists of three scanning telescope carrying out an all-sky survey in the 80-800 A spectral region and a Deep Survey/Spectrometer telescope performing a deep survey in the 80-250 A spectral region. Guest Observers will remotely access the EUVE spectrometer database at the SOC. The EUVE database will consist of about 2 X 10 to the 10th bytes of information in a very compact form, very similar to the raw telemetry data. A history file will be built concurrently giving telescope parameters, command history, attitude summaries, engineering summaries, anomalous events, and ephemeris summaries.

  2. Thin film filter lifetesting results in the extreme ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedder, P. W.; Vallerga, J. V.; Gibson, J. L.; Stock, J.; Siegmund, O. H. W.

    1993-01-01

    We present the results of the thin film filter lifetesting program conducted as part of the NASA Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite mission. This lifetesting program is designed to monitor changes in the transmission and mechanical properties of the EUVE filters over the lifetime of the mission (fabrication, assembly, launch and operation). Witness test filters were fabricated from thin film foils identical to those used in the flight filters. The witness filters have been examined and calibrated periodically over the past seven years. The filters have been examined for evidence of pinholing, mechanical degradation, and oxidation. Absolute transmissions of the flight and witness filters have been measured in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) over six orders of magnitude at numerous wavelengths using the Berkeley EUV Calibration Facility.

  3. Telescience - Concepts and contributions to the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchant, Will; Dobson, Carl; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Malina, Roger F.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown how the contradictory goals of low-cost and fast data turnaround characterizing the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) mission can be achieved via the early use of telescience style transparent tools and simulations. The use of transparent tools reduces the parallel development of capability while ensuring that valuable prelaunch experience is not lost in the operations phase. Efforts made to upgrade the 'EUVE electronics' simulator are described.

  4. 'EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET WAVES' ARE WAVES: FIRST QUADRATURE OBSERVATIONS OF AN EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET WAVE FROM STEREO

    SciTech Connect

    Patsourakos, Spiros; Vourlidas, Angelos E-mail: vourlidas@nrl.navy.mil

    2009-08-01

    The nature of coronal mass ejection (CME)-associated low corona propagating disturbances, 'extreme ultraviolet (EUV) waves', has been controversial since their discovery by EIT on SOHO. The low-cadence, single-viewpoint EUV images and the lack of simultaneous inner corona white-light observations have hindered the resolution of the debate on whether they are true waves or just projections of the expanding CME. The operation of the twin EUV imagers and inner corona coronagraphs aboard STEREO has improved the situation dramatically. During early 2009, the STEREO Ahead (STA) and Behind (STB) spacecrafts observed the Sun in quadrature having a {approx}90 deg. angular separation. An EUV wave and CME erupted from active region 11012, on February 13, when the region was exactly at the limb for STA and hence at disk center for STB. The STEREO observations capture the development of a CME and its accompanying EUV wave not only with high cadence but also in quadrature. The resulting unprecedented data set allowed us to separate the CME structures from the EUV wave signatures and to determine without doubt the true nature of the wave. It is a fast-mode MHD wave after all.

  5. Extreme ultraviolet interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.

    1997-12-01

    EUV lithography is a promising and viable candidate for circuit fabrication with 0.1-micron critical dimension and smaller. In order to achieve diffraction-limited performance, all-reflective multilayer-coated lithographic imaging systems operating near 13-nm wavelength and 0.1 NA have system wavefront tolerances of 0.27 nm, or 0.02 waves RMS. Owing to the highly-sensitive resonant reflective properties of multilayer mirrors and extraordinarily tight tolerances set forth for their fabrication, EUV optical systems require at-wavelength EUV interferometry for final alignment and qualification. This dissertation discusses the development and successful implementation of high-accuracy EUV interferometric techniques. Proof-of-principle experiments with a prototype EUV point-diffraction interferometer for the measurement of Fresnel zoneplate lenses first demonstrated sub-wavelength EUV interferometric capability. These experiments spurred the development of the superior phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI), which has been implemented for the testing of an all-reflective lithographic-quality EUV optical system. Both systems rely on pinhole diffraction to produce spherical reference wavefronts in a common-path geometry. Extensive experiments demonstrate EUV wavefront-measuring precision beyond 0.02 waves RMS. EUV imaging experiments provide verification of the high-accuracy of the point-diffraction principle, and demonstrate the utility of the measurements in successfully predicting imaging performance. Complementary to the experimental research, several areas of theoretical investigation related to the novel PS/PDI system are presented. First-principles electromagnetic field simulations of pinhole diffraction are conducted to ascertain the upper limits of measurement accuracy and to guide selection of the pinhole diameter. Investigations of the relative merits of different PS/PDI configurations accompany a general study of the most significant sources

  6. The Extreme Ultraviolet Variability of Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punsly, Brian; Marziani, Paola; Zhang, Shaohua; Muzahid, Sowgat; O'Dea, Christopher P.

    2016-10-01

    We study the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) variability (rest frame wavelengths 500-920 Å) of high-luminosity quasars using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) (low to intermediate redshift sample) and Sloan Digital sky Survey (SDSS) (high redshift sample) archives. The combined HST and SDSS data indicates a much more pronounced variability when the sampling time between observations in the quasar rest frame is \\gt 2× {10}7 {{s}} compared to \\lt 1.5× {10}7 s. Based on an excess variance analysis, for time intervals \\lt 2× {10}7 {{s}} in the quasar rest frame, 10% of the quasars (4/40) show evidence of EUV variability. Similarly, for time intervals \\gt 2× {10}7 {{s}} in the quasar rest frame, 55% of the quasars (21/38) show evidence of EUV variability. The propensity for variability does not show any statistically significant change between 2.5× {10}7 {{s}} and 3.16× {10}7 {{s}} (1 year). The temporal behavior is one of a threshold time interval for significant variability as opposed to a gradual increase on these timescales. A threshold timescale can indicate a characteristic spatial dimension of the EUV region. We explore this concept in the context of the slim disk models of accretion. We find that for rapidly spinning black holes, the radial infall time to the plunge region of the optically thin surface layer of the slim disk that is responsible for the preponderance of the EUV flux emission (primarily within 0-7 black hole radii from the inner edge of the disk) is consistent with the empirically determined variability timescale.

  7. Coherence techniques at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chang

    2002-01-01

    The renaissance of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray (SXR) optics in recent years is mainly driven by the desire of printing and observing ever smaller features, as in lithography and microscopy. This attribute is complemented by the unique opportunity for element specific identification presented by the large number of atomic resonances, essentially for all materials in this range of photon energies. Together, these have driven the need for new short-wavelength radiation sources (e.g. third generation synchrotron radiation facilities), and novel optical components, that in turn permit new research in areas that have not yet been fully explored. This dissertation is directed towards advancing this new field by contributing to the characterization of spatial coherence properties of undulator radiation and, for the first time, introducing Fourier optical elements to this short-wavelength spectral region. The first experiment in this dissertation uses the Thompson-Wolf two-pinhole method to characterize the spatial coherence properties of the undulator radiation at Beamline 12 of the Advanced Light Source. High spatial coherence EUV radiation is demonstrated with appropriate spatial filtering. The effects of small vertical source size and beamline apertures are observed. The difference in the measured horizontal and vertical coherence profile evokes further theoretical studies on coherence propagation of an EUV undulator beamline. A numerical simulation based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle is performed.

  8. Normal incidence multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, R. A.; Haisch, B. M.; Joki, E. G.; Catura, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Sputtered multilayer coatings allow the use of normal incidence optics in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region below 500 A. Multilayer mirrors can be tailored to provide images at strong EUV lines in the sun and stars, in many cases making more efficient use of the telescope aperture than grazing incidence optics. Alternatively, the bandpass can be broadened at the expense of peak effective area, by varying the multilayer structure over the mirror surface. Such mirrors can also serve as optical elements in spectrographs for investigation of specific emission and absorption line complexes, and are self-filtering in that they reject nearby geocoronal and cosmic resonance line backgrounds. Current efforts at the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory in the design, fabrication, and testing of EUV multilayer mirrors are discussed. This program includes the design and fabrication of normal incidence EUV multilayer mirrors, and the deposition of multilayers on lacquer-coated substrates.

  9. Extreme ultraviolet narrow band emission from electron cyclotron resonance plasmas.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H Y; Zhao, H W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Wang, H; Ma, B H; Li, X X; Zhu, Y H; Sheng, L S; Zhang, G B; Tian, Y C

    2008-02-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is considered as the most promising solution at and below dynamic random access memory 32 nm half pitch among the next generation lithography, and EUV light sources with high output power and sufficient lifetime are crucial for the realization of EUVL. However, there is no EUV light source completely meeting the requirements for the commercial application in lithography yet. Therefore, ECR plasma is proposed as a novel concept EUV light source. In order to investigate the feasibility of ECR plasma as a EUV light source, the narrow band EUV power around 13.5 nm emitted by two highly charged ECR ion sources -- LECR2M and SECRAL -- was measured with a calibrated EUV power measurement tool. Since the emission lines around 13.5 nm can be attributed to the 4d-5p transitions of Xe XI or the 4d-4f unresolved transition array of Sn VIII-XIII, xenon plasma was investigated. The dependence of the EUV throughput and the corresponding conversion efficiency on the parameters of the ion source, such as the rf power and the magnetic confinement configurations, were preliminarily studied.

  10. Flat field response of the microchannel plate detectors used on the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallerga, J. V.; Gibson, J. L.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Vedder, P. W.

    1989-01-01

    The results of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) flat field calibrations of two of the flight detectors to be flown on the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite (EUVE) are presented. Images of about 40 million detected events binned 512 by 512 are sufficient to show microchannel plate fixed pattern noise such as hexagonal microchannel multifiber bundle interfaces, 'dead' spots, edge distortion, and differential nonlinearity. Differences due to photocathode material and dependencies on EUV wavelength are also described. Over large spatial scales, the detector response is flat to better than 10 percent of the mean response, but, at spatial scales less than 1 mm, the variations from the mean can be as large as 20 percent.

  11. Mask-induced best-focus shifts in deep ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Andreas; Evanschitzky, Peter; Neumann, Jens Timo; Gräupner, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The mask plays a significant role as an active optical element in lithography, for both deep ultraviolet (DUV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. Mask-induced and feature-dependent shifts of the best-focus position and other aberration-like effects were reported both for DUV immersion and for EUV lithography. We employ rigorous computation of light diffraction from lithographic masks in combination with aerial image simulation to study the root causes of these effects and their dependencies from mask and optical system parameters. Special emphasis is put on the comparison of transmission masks for DUV lithography and reflective masks for EUV lithography, respectively. Several strategies to compensate the mask-induced phase effects are discussed.

  12. MoRu/Be multilayers for extreme ultraviolet applications

    DOEpatents

    Bajt, Sasa C.; Wall, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    High reflectance, low intrinsic roughness and low stress multilayer systems for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography comprise amorphous layers MoRu and crystalline Be layers. Reflectance greater than 70% has been demonstrated for MoRu/Be multilayers with 50 bilayer pairs. Optical throughput of MoRu/Be multilayers can be 30-40% higher than that of Mo/Be multilayer coatings. The throughput can be improved using a diffusion barrier to make sharper interfaces. A capping layer on the top surface of the multilayer improves the long-term reflectance and EUV radiation stability of the multilayer by forming a very thin native oxide that is water resistant.

  13. In-line extreme ultraviolet polarizer with hybrid configuration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Minghong; Tong, Xinling; Sun, Yan; Jiang, Desheng; Zhou, Ciming; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2009-03-01

    A novel hybrid Au-multilayer-Au in-line extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical polarizer is presented in this paper. Different from all-Mo/Si multilayer EUV polarizer, this polarizer is based on the concept that Au surfaces work as reflecting elements for in-line optics routine, while polarization effect is realized by polarizing multilayer. Simulation shows that the proposed polarizer with 80 degrees-70 degrees-80 degrees angle configuration has about 30% of transmission and 12 eV of bandwidth half maximum, which enables more throughput and broader bandwidth than the all-multilayer one.

  14. Self-cleaning optic for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Stulen, Richard H.

    2003-12-16

    A multilayer reflective optic or mirror for lithographic applications, and particularly extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, having a surface or "capping" layer which in combination with incident radiation and gaseous molecular species such as O.sub.2, H.sub.2, H.sub.2 O provides for continuous cleaning of carbon deposits from the optic surface. The metal capping layer is required to be oxidation resistant and capable of transmitting at least 90% of incident EUV radiation. Materials for the capping layer include Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt and Au and combinations thereof.

  15. Characteristics of extreme ultraviolet emission from high-Z plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, H.; Higashiguchi, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Kawasaki, M.; Suzuki, C.; Tomita, K.; Nishikino, M.; Fujioka, S.; Endo, A.; Li, B.; Otsuka, T.; Dunne, P.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray sources in the 2 to 7 nm spectral region related to the beyond EUV (BEUV) question at 6.x nm and the water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs), extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on high-Z plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics.

  16. The intrinsic extreme ultraviolet fluxes of F5 V to M5 V stars

    SciTech Connect

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Fontenla, Juan; France, Kevin E-mail: jfontenla@nwra.com

    2014-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiations (10-117 nm) from host stars play important roles in the ionization, heating, and mass loss from exoplanet atmospheres. Together with the host star's Lyα and far-UV (117-170 nm) radiation, EUV radiation photodissociates important molecules, thereby changing the chemistry in exoplanet atmospheres. Since stellar EUV fluxes cannot now be measured and interstellar neutral hydrogen completely obscures stellar radiation between 40 and 91.2 nm, even for the nearest stars, we must estimate the unobservable EUV flux by indirect methods. New non-LTE semiempirical models of the solar chromosphere and corona and solar irradiance measurements show that the ratio of EUV flux in a variety of wavelength bands to the Lyα flux varies slowly with the Lyα flux and thus with the magnetic heating rate. This suggests and we confirm that solar EUV/Lyα flux ratios based on the models and observations are similar to the available 10-40 nm flux ratios observed with the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite and the 91.2-117 nm flux observed with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite for F5 V-M5 V stars. We provide formulae for predicting EUV flux ratios based on the EUVE and FUSE stellar data and on the solar models, which are essential input for modeling the atmospheres of exoplanets.

  17. The Intrinsic Extreme Ultraviolet Fluxes of F5 V TO M5 V Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Fontenla, Juan; France, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiations (10-117 nm) from host stars play important roles in the ionization, heating, and mass loss from exoplanet atmospheres. Together with the host star's Lyα and far-UV (117-170 nm) radiation, EUV radiation photodissociates important molecules, thereby changing the chemistry in exoplanet atmospheres. Since stellar EUV fluxes cannot now be measured and interstellar neutral hydrogen completely obscures stellar radiation between 40 and 91.2 nm, even for the nearest stars, we must estimate the unobservable EUV flux by indirect methods. New non-LTE semiempirical models of the solar chromosphere and corona and solar irradiance measurements show that the ratio of EUV flux in a variety of wavelength bands to the Lyα flux varies slowly with the Lyα flux and thus with the magnetic heating rate. This suggests and we confirm that solar EUV/Lyα flux ratios based on the models and observations are similar to the available 10-40 nm flux ratios observed with the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite and the 91.2-117 nm flux observed with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite for F5 V-M5 V stars. We provide formulae for predicting EUV flux ratios based on the EUVE and FUSE stellar data and on the solar models, which are essential input for modeling the atmospheres of exoplanets.

  18. NEW SOLAR EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIANCE OBSERVATIONS DURING FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Thomas N.; Hock, Rachel; Eparvier, Frank; Jones, Andrew R.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Klimchuk, James A.; Didkovsky, Leonid; Judge, Darrell; Mariska, John; Warren, Harry; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Webb, David F.; Bailey, Scott; Tobiska, W. Kent

    2011-10-01

    New solar extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance observations from the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment provide full coverage in the EUV range from 0.1 to 106 nm and continuously at a cadence of 10 s for spectra at 0.1 nm resolution and even faster, 0.25 s, for six EUV bands. These observations can be decomposed into four distinct characteristics during flares. First, the emissions that dominate during the flare's impulsive phase are the transition region emissions, such as the He II 30.4 nm. Second, the hot coronal emissions above 5 MK dominate during the gradual phase and are highly correlated with the GOES X-ray. A third flare characteristic in the EUV is coronal dimming, seen best in the cool corona, such as the Fe IX 17.1 nm. As the post-flare loops reconnect and cool, many of the EUV coronal emissions peak a few minutes after the GOES X-ray peak. One interesting variation of the post-eruptive loop reconnection is that warm coronal emissions (e.g., Fe XVI 33.5 nm) sometimes exhibit a second large peak separated from the primary flare event by many minutes to hours, with EUV emission originating not from the original flare site and its immediate vicinity, but rather from a volume of higher loops. We refer to this second peak as the EUV late phase. The characterization of many flares during the SDO mission is provided, including quantification of the spectral irradiance from the EUV late phase that cannot be inferred from GOES X-ray diagnostics.

  19. Extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy of low pressure helium microwave driven discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinho, Susana; Felizardo, Edgar; Tatarova, Elena; Alves, Luis Lemos

    2016-09-01

    Surface wave driven discharges are reliable plasma sources that can produce high levels of vacuum and extreme ultraviolet radiation (VUV and EUV). The richness of the emission spectrum makes this type of discharge a possible alternative source in EUV/VUV radiation assisted applications. However, due to challenging experimental requirements, publications concerning EUV radiation emitted by microwave plasmas are scarce and a deeper understanding of the main mechanisms governing the emission of radiation in this spectral range is required. To this end, the EUV radiation emitted by helium microwave driven plasmas operating at 2.45 GHz has been studied for low pressure conditions. Spectral lines from excited helium atoms and ions were detected via emission spectroscopy in the EUV/VUV regions. Novel data concerning the spectral lines observed in the 23 - 33 nm wavelength range and their intensity behaviour with variation of the discharge operational conditions are presented. The intensity of all the spectral emissions strongly increases with the microwave power delivered to the plasma up to 400 W. Furthermore, the intensity of all the ion spectral emissions in the EUV range decreases by nearly one order of magnitude as the pressure was raised from 0.2 to 0.5 mbar. Work funded by FCT - Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia, under Project UID/FIS/50010/2013 and grant SFRH/BD/52412/2013 (PD-F APPLAuSE).

  20. Multilayer coatings for optics in the extreme ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larruquert, Juan I.; Vidal-Dasilva, Manuela; García-Cortés, Sergio; Rodríguez-de Marcos, Luis; Fernández-Perea, Mónica; Aznárez, José A.; Méndez, José A.

    2011-02-01

    The strong absorption of materials in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) above ~50 nm has precluded the development of efficient coatings. The development of novel coatings with improved EUV performance is presented. An extensive research was performed on the search and characterization of new materials with low absorption or high reflectance. Lanthanide series was found to be a source of materials with relatively low absorption in this range, where most materials in nature present a strong absorption. Other materials, such as SiO and B, have been found to have interesting properties for applications on EUV coatings. As a result, novel multilayers based on Yb, Al, and SiO have been developed with narrowband performance in the 50-92 nm range. In some cases, the difficulty of developing narrowband coatings in the EUV can be overcome by designing multilayers that address specific purposes, such as maximizing and/or minimizing the reflectance at two or more wavelengths or bands. In this direction, we are working towards the development of coatings that combine a relatively high reflectance in a desired EUV band with a low reflectance in another band, for applications in which the presence of the latter radiation may mask a weak EUV radiation source.

  1. Low extreme-ultraviolet luminosities impinging on protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect

    Pascucci, I.; Hendler, N. P.; Ricci, L.; Gorti, U.; Hollenbach, D.; Brooks, K. J.; Contreras, Y.

    2014-11-01

    The amount of high-energy stellar radiation reaching the surface of protoplanetary disks is essential to determine their chemistry and physical evolution. Here, we use millimetric and centimetric radio data to constrain the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) luminosity impinging on 14 disks around young (∼2-10 Myr) sun-like stars. For each object we identify the long-wavelength emission in excess to the dust thermal emission, attribute that to free-free disk emission, and thereby compute an upper limit to the EUV reaching the disk. We find upper limits lower than 10{sup 42} photons s{sup –1} for all sources without jets and lower than 5 × 10{sup 40} photons s{sup –1} for the three older sources in our sample. These latter values are low for EUV-driven photoevaporation alone to clear out protoplanetary material in the timescale inferred by observations. In addition, our EUV upper limits are too low to reproduce the [Ne II] 12.81 μm luminosities from three disks with slow [Ne II]-detected winds. This indicates that the [Ne II] line in these sources primarily traces a mostly neutral wind where Ne is ionized by 1 keV X-ray photons, implying higher photoevaporative mass loss rates than those predicted by EUV-driven models alone. In summary, our results suggest that high-energy stellar photons other than EUV may dominate the dispersal of protoplanetary disks around sun-like stars.

  2. Evolution of laser-produced Sn extreme ultraviolet source diameter for high-brightness source

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Amitava E-mail: aroy@barc.gov.in; Arai, Goki; Hara, Hiroyuki; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Ohashi, Hayato; Sunahara, Atsushi; Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Miura, Taisuke; Mocek, Tomas; Endo, Akira

    2014-08-18

    We have investigated the effect of irradiation of solid Sn targets with laser pulses of sub-ns duration and sub-mJ energy on the diameter of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emitting region and source conversion efficiency. It was found that an in-band EUV source diameter as low as 18 μm was produced due to the short scale length of a plasma produced by a sub-ns laser. Most of the EUV emission occurs in a narrow region with a plasma density close to the critical density value. Such EUV sources are suitable for high brightness and high repetition rate metrology applications.

  3. The Extreme-ultraviolet Emission from Sun-grazing Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryans, Paul; Pesnell, William D.

    2012-01-01

    The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory has observed two Sun-grazing comets as they passed through the solar atmosphere. Both passages resulted in a measurable enhancement of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) radiance in several of the AIA bandpasses.We explain this EUV emission by considering the evolution of the cometary atmosphere as it interacts with the ambient solar atmosphere. Molecules in the comet rapidly sublimate as it approaches the Sun. They are then photodissociated by the solar radiation field to create atomic species. Subsequent ionization of these atoms produces a higher abundance of ions than normally present in the corona and results in EUV emission in the wavelength ranges of the AIA telescope passbands.

  4. Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Montcalm, C., LLNL

    1998-03-10

    Multilayer mirror coatings which reflect extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation are a key enabling technology for EUV lithography. Mo/Si multilayers with reflectances of 67.5% at 13.4 nm are now routinely achieved and reflectances of 70 2% at 11.4 nm were obtained with MO/Be multilayers. High reflectance is achieved with careful control of substrate quality, layer thicknesses, multilayer materials, interface quality, and surface termination. Reflectance and film stress were found to be stable relative to the requirements for application to EUV lithography. The run-to-run reproducibility of the reflectance peak position was characterized to be better than 0.2%, providing the required wavelength matching among the seven multilayer-coated mirrors used in the present lithography system design. Uniformity of coating was improved to better than 0.5% across 150 mm diameter substrates. These improvements in EUV multilayer mirror technology will enable us to meet the stringent specifications for coating the large optical substrates for our next-generation EUV lithography system.

  5. Extreme ultraviolet lithography: A few more pieces of the puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Christopher N.

    2009-05-20

    The work described in this dissertation has improved three essential components of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography: exposure tools, photoresist, and metrology. Exposure tools. A field-averaging illumination stage is presented that enables nonuniform, high-coherence sources to be used in applications where highly uniform illumination is required. In an EUV implementation, it is shown that the illuminator achieves a 6.5% peak-to-valley intensity variation across the entire design field of view. In addition, a design for a stand-alone EUV printing tool capable of delivering 15 nm half-pitch sinusoidal fringes with available sources, gratings and nano-positioning stages is presented. It is shown that the proposed design delivers a near zero line-edge-rougness (LER) aerial image, something extremely attractive for the application of resist testing. Photoresist. Two new methods of quantifying the deprotection blur of EUV photoresists are described and experimentally demonstrated. The deprotection blur, LER, and sensitivity parameters of several EUV photoresists are quantified simultaneously as base weight percent, photoacid generator (PAG) weight percent, and post-exposure bake (PEB) temperature are varied. Two surprising results are found: (1) changing base weight percent does not significantly affect the deprotection blur of EUV photoresist, and (2) increasing PAG weight percent can simultaneously reduce LER and E-size in EUV photoresist. The latter result motivates the development of an EUV exposure statistics model that includes the effects of photon shot noise, the PAG spatial distribution, and the changing of the PAG distribution during the exposure. In addition, a shot noise + deprotection blur model is used to show that as deprotection blur becomes large relative to the size of the printed feature, LER reduction from improved counting statistics becomes dominated by an increase in LER due to reduced deprotection contrast. Metrology. Finally, this

  6. Quality control of EUVE databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    John, L. M.; Drake, J.

    1992-01-01

    The publicly accessible databases for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer include: the EUVE Archive mailserver; the CEA ftp site; the EUVE Guest Observer Mailserver; and the Astronomical Data System node. The EUVE Performance Assurance team is responsible for verifying that these public EUVE databases are working properly, and that the public availability of EUVE data contained therein does not infringe any data rights which may have been assigned. In this poster, we describe the Quality Assurance (QA) procedures we have developed from the approach of QA as a service organization, thus reflecting the overall EUVE philosophy of Quality Assurance integrated into normal operating procedures, rather than imposed as an external, post facto, control mechanism.

  7. The extreme ultraviolet spectrum of the kinetically dominated quasar 3C 270.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punsly, Brian; Marziani, Paola

    2015-10-01

    Only a handful of quasars have been identified as kinetically dominated, their long-term time-averaged jet power, overline{Q}, exceeds the bolometric thermal emission, Lbol, associated with the accretion flow. This Letter presents the first extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrum of a kinetically dominated quasar, 3C 270.1. The EUV continuum flux density of 3C 270.1 is very steep, F_{ν } ˜ ν ^{-α _{EUV}}, αEUV = 2.98 ± 0.15. This value is consistent with the correlation of overline{Q}/L_{bol} and αEUV found in previous studies of the EUV continuum of quasars, the EUV deficit of radio loud quasars. Curiously, although ultraviolet broad absorption line (BAL) troughs in quasar spectra are anticorrelated with overline{Q}, 3C 270.1 has been considered a BAL quasar based on an SDSS spectrum. This claim is examined in terms of the EUV spectrum of O VI and the highest resolution C IV spectrum in the archival data and the SDSS spectrum. First, from [O III]4959,5007 (IR) observations and the UV spectral lines, it is concluded that the correct redshift for 3C 270.1 is 1.5266. It is then found that the standard measure of broad absorption, BALnicity = 0, for Mg II 2800, C IV 1549 and O VI 1032 in all epochs.

  8. Extreme ultraviolet source at 6.7 nm based on a low-density plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru; Otsuka, Takamitsu; Jiang, Weihua; Endo, Akira; Li Bowen; Kilbane, Deirdre; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2011-11-07

    We demonstrate an efficient extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source for operation at {lambda} = 6.7 nm by optimizing the optical thickness of gadolinium (Gd) plasmas. Using low initial density Gd targets and dual laser pulse irradiation, we observed a maximum EUV conversion efficiency (CE) of 0.54% for 0.6% bandwidth (BW) (1.8% for 2% BW), which is 1.6 times larger than the 0.33% (0.6% BW) CE produced from a solid density target. Enhancement of the EUV CE by use of a low-density plasma is attributed to the reduction of self-absorption effects.

  9. Multilayer mirror with enhanced spectral selectivity for the next generation extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Medvedev, V. V. Kruijs, R. W. E. van de; Yakshin, A. E.; Novikova, N. N.; Krivtsun, V. M.; Louis, E.; Bijkerk, F.; Yakunin, A. M.

    2013-11-25

    We have demonstrated a hybrid extreme ultraviolet (EUV) multilayer mirror for 6.x nm radiation that provides selective suppression for infrared (IR) radiation. The mirror consists of an IR-transparent LaN∕B multilayer stack which is used as EUV-reflective coating and antireflective (AR) coating to suppress IR. The AR coating can be optimized to suppress CO{sub 2} laser radiation at the wavelength of 10.6 μm, which is of interest for application in next-generation EUV lithography systems.

  10. Exploring the temporally resolved electron density evolution in extreme ultra-violet induced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Horst, R. M.; Beckers, J.; Nijdam, S.; Kroesen, G. M. W.

    2014-07-01

    We measured the electron density in an extreme ultra-violet (EUV) induced plasma. This is achieved in a low-pressure argon plasma by using a method called microwave cavity resonance spectroscopy. The measured electron density just after the EUV pulse is 2.6 × 1016 m-3. This is in good agreement with a theoretical prediction from photo-ionization, which yields a density of 4.5 × 1016 m-3. After the EUV pulse the density slightly increases due to electron impact ionization. The plasma (i.e. electron density) decays in tens of microseconds.

  11. Reconstruction of Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Flux 1740 - 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalgaard, Leif

    2016-11-01

    Solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation creates the conducting E-layer of the ionosphere, mainly by photo-ionization of molecular oxygen. Solar heating of the ionosphere creates thermal winds, which by dynamo action induce an electric field driving an electric current having a magnetic effect observable on the ground, as was discovered by G. Graham in 1722. The current rises and falls with the Sun, and thus causes a readily observable diurnal variation of the geomagnetic field, allowing us to deduce the conductivity and thus the EUV flux as far back as reliable magnetic data reach. High-quality data go back to the "Magnetic Crusade" of the 1830s and less reliable, but still usable, data are available for portions of the 100 years before that. J.R. Wolf and, independently, J.-A. Gautier discovered the dependence of the diurnal variation on solar activity, and today we understand and can invert that relationship to construct a reliable record of the EUV flux from the geomagnetic record. We compare that to the F_{10.7} flux and the sunspot number, and we find that the reconstructed EUV flux reproduces the F_{10.7} flux with great accuracy. On the other hand, it appears that the Relative Sunspot Number as currently defined is beginning to no longer be a faithful representation of solar magnetic activity, at least as measured by the EUV and related indices. The reconstruction suggests that the EUV flux reaches the same low (but non-zero) value at every sunspot minimum (possibly including Grand Minima), representing an invariant "solar magnetic ground state".

  12. Phase imaging results of phase defect using micro-coherent extreme ultraviolet scatterometry microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Tetsuo; Hashimoto, Hiraku; Amano, Tsuyoshi; Kinoshita, Hiroo; Watanabe, Takeo

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate defects on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) masks at the blank state of manufacturing, we developed a micro-coherent EUV scatterometry microscope (micro-CSM). The illumination source is coherent EUV light with a 140 nm focus diameter on the defect using a Fresnel zone plate. This system directly observes the reflection and diffraction signals from a phase defect. The phase and the intensity image of the defect are reconstructed with the diffraction images using ptychography, which is an algorithm of the coherent diffraction imaging. We observed programmed phase defect on a blank EUV mask. Phase distributions of these programmed defects were well reconstructed quantitatively. The micro-CSM is a very powerful tool to review an EUV phase defect.

  13. A small-scale extreme ultraviolet wave observed by SDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, R.; Jiang, Y.; Hong, J.; Yang, J.; Bi, Y.; Yang, L.; Yang, D.

    2012-06-01

    "Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) waves" are large-scale wavelike transients often associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In this Letter, we present a possible detection of a fast-mode EUV wave associated with a mini-CME observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory. On 2010 December 1, a small-scale EUV wave erupted near the disk center associated with a mini-CME, which showed all the low corona manifestations of a typical CME. The CME was triggered by the eruption of a mini-filament, with a typical length of about 30''. Although the eruption was tiny, the wave had the appearance of an almost semicircular front and propagated at a uniform velocity of 220-250km s-1 with very little angular dependence. The CME lateral expansion was asymmetric with an inclination toward north, and the southern footprints of the CME loops hardly shifted. The lateral expansion resulted in deep long-duration dimmings, showing the CME extent. Our analysis confirms that the small-scale EUV wave is a true wave, interpreted as the fast-mode wave.

  14. X Ray, Far, and Extreme Ultraviolet Coatings for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zukic, M.; Torr, D. G.

    1993-01-01

    The idea of utilizing imaging mirrors as narrow band filters constitutes the basis of the design of extreme ultraviolet imagers operating at 58.4 nm and 83.4 nm. The net throughput of both imaging-filtering systems is better than 20 percent. The superiority of the EUV self-filtering camera/telescope becomes apparent when compared to previously theoretically designed 83.4-nm filtering-imaging systems, which yielded transmissions of less than a few percent and therefore less than 0.1 percent throughput when combined with at least two imaging mirrors. Utilizing the self-filtering approach, instruments with similar performances are possible for imaging at other EUV wavelengths, such as 30.4 nm. The self-filtering concept is extended to the X-ray region where its application can result in the new generation of X-ray telescopes, which could replace current designs based on large and heavy collimators.

  15. Changes of solar extreme ultraviolet spectrum in solar cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianping; Hao, Yongqiang; Zhang, Donghe; Xiao, Zuo

    2016-07-01

    Following the extreme solar minimum during 2008-2009, solar activity keeps low in solar cycle 24 (SC24) and is making SC24 the weakest one of recent cycles. In this paper, using observations from Earth-orbiting satellites, we compare the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance between SC23 and SC24 and investigate the solar cycle change of linear dependence of EUV on the P ((F10.7 + F10.7A)/2) and Mg II core-to-wing ratio indices. The Bremen composite Mg II index is strongly correlated with P over the two solar cycles, while this is not the case for the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) composite Mg II index, so we focus on the different dependence of EUV on the P and LASP Mg II indices. As a result we find that three coronal emissions (Fe XV at 28.4 nm and 41.7 nm and Fe XVI at 33.5 nm) brighten in SC24 relative to P; i.e., the magnitude of irradiance is higher than in SC23 at the same level of P. But relative to the LASP Mg II index, these emissions show no appreciable solar cycle differences. By contrast, the H I Lyman α at 121.6 nm dims in SC24 relative to the LASP Mg II but shows identical dependence on P in the two solar cycles. This result seems to contradict a well-accepted fact that chromospheric and transition region emissions are better represented by the Mg II index and coronal lines by F10.7. For the different solar cycle variability of EUV in SC24, whether it is caused by source changes on the Sun is still unclear, but we suggest that it needs to be considered in proxy modeling of the EUV irradiance and aeronomic studies.

  16. Characterization of a vacuum-arc discharge in tin vapor using time-resolved plasma imaging and extreme ultraviolet spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kieft, E R; van der Mullen, J J A M; Kroesen, G M W; Banine, V; Koshelev, K N

    2005-02-01

    Discharge sources in tin vapor have recently been receiving increased attention as candidate extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light sources for application in semiconductor lithography, because of their favorable spectrum near 13.5 nm. In the ASML EUV laboratory, time-resolved pinhole imaging in the EUV and two-dimensional imaging in visible light have been applied for qualitative characterization of the evolution of a vacuum-arc tin vapor discharge. An EUV spectrometer has been used to find the dominant ionization stages of tin as a function of time during the plasma evolution of the discharge.

  17. Extreme ultraviolet reflectivity studies of gold on glass and metal substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jelinsky, Sharon R.; Malina, Roger F.; Jelinsky, Patrick

    1988-01-01

    The paper reports measurements of the extreme ultraviolet reflectivity of gold from 44 to 920 A at grazing incidence. Gold was deposited using vacuum evaporation and electroplating on substrates of glass and polished nickel, respectively. Measurements are also presented of the extreme ultraviolet reflectivity of electroless nickel in the same wavelength region, where one of the polished nickel substrates was used as a sample. Derived optical constants for evaporated and electroplated gold and electroless nickel are presented. Additional studies of the effects of various contaminants on the EUV reflectivity are also reported. The variations of the optical constants are discussed in terms of density variations, surface roughness and contamination effects. These results ae reported as part of studies for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite program to determine acceptance criteria for the EUV optics, contamination budgets and calibration plans.

  18. Extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy of PKS 2155-304.

    PubMed

    Fruscione, A; Bowyer, S; Konigl, A; Kahn, S M

    1994-02-20

    We present the extreme ultraviolet (75-110 angstroms) spectrum of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304, the first spectrum of an extragalactic source obtained with the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer. The spectrum shows a generally smooth continuum, which can be modeled by a single power law plus interstellar absorption, and possibly an absorption feature at approximately 80 angstroms. The best fit to the data suggests that the EUV spectrum can be interpreted as a simple extrapolation of the X-ray continuum, with an energy index alpha approximately 1.6; however, shallower or steeper power laws with indices between -0.4 and 2.7 cannot be ruled out by the existing EUV data alone. The data provide strong constraints on the interstellar neutral H and He along the line of sight. Using a column density of 1.36 x 10(20) cm-2 for the Galactic neutral hydrogen along the PKS 2155-304 line of sight, the neutral helium column density is constrained to be 9%-10% of the hydrogen amount.

  19. Research in extreme ultraviolet and far ultraviolet astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labov, S. E.

    1985-01-01

    Instruments designed to explore different aspects of far and extreme ultraviolet cosmic radiation were studied. The far ultraviolet imager (FUVI) was flown on the Aries sounding rocket. Its unique large format 75mm detector mapped out the far ultraviolet background radiation with a resolution of only a few arc minutes. Analysis of this data indicates to what extent the FUVI background is extra galactic in origin. A power spectrum of the spatial fluctuations will have direct consequences for galactic evolution.

  20. An imaging extreme ultraviolet spectrometer for astrophysical investigations in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, M. C. E.; Timothy, J. G.; Morgan, J. S.; Lemaitre, G.; Tondello, G.

    1986-01-01

    A high-efficiency, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging spectrometer has been constructed and tested. The spectrometer employs a concave toroidal grating illuminated at normal incidence in a Rowland circle mounting and has only one reflecting surface. The toroidal grating has been fabricated by a new technique employing an elastically deformable submaster grating which is replicated in a spherical form and then mechanically distorted to produce the desired aspect ratio of the toroidal surface for stigmatic imaging over the selected wavelength range. The fixed toroidal grating used in the spectrometer is then replicated from this surface. Photographic tests and initial photoelectric tests with a two-dimensional, pulse-counting detector system have verified the image quality of the toroidal grating at wavelengths near 600 A. The basic designs of two instruments employing the spectrometer for astrophysical investigations in space are described, namely, a high-resolution EUV spectroheliometer for studies of the solar chromosphere, transition region, and corona; and an EUV spectroscopic telescope for studies of nonsolar objects.

  1. Modeling and measuring the transport and scattering of energetic debris in an extreme ultraviolet plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sporre, John R.; Elg, Daniel T.; Kalathiparambil, Kishor K.; Ruzic, David N.

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical model for describing the propagation and scattering of energetic species in an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light lithography source is presented. An EUV light emitting XTREME XTS 13-35 Z-pinch plasma source is modeled with a focus on the effect of chamber pressure and buffer gas mass on energetic ion and neutral debris transport. The interactions of the energetic debris species, which is generated by the EUV light emitting plasma, with the buffer gas and chamber walls are considered as scattering events in the model, and the trajectories of the individual atomic species involved are traced using a Monte Carlo algorithm. This study aims to establish the means by which debris is transported to the intermediate focus with the intent to verify the various mitigation techniques currently employed to increase EUV lithography efficiency. The modeling is compared with an experimental investigation.

  2. Extreme Ultra-Violet Spectroscopy of the Lower Solar Atmosphere During Solar Flares (Invited Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, Ryan O.

    2015-12-01

    The extreme ultra-violet (EUV) portion of the solar spectrum contains a wealth of diagnostic tools for probing the lower solar atmosphere in response to an injection of energy, particularly during the impulsive phase of solar flares. These include temperature- and density-sensitive line ratios, Doppler-shifted emission lines, nonthermal broadening, abundance measurements, differential emission measure profiles, continuum temperatures and energetics, among others. In this article I review some of the recent advances that have been made using these techniques to infer physical properties of heated plasma at footpoint and ribbon locations during the initial stages of solar flares. I primarily focus on studies that have utilised spectroscopic EUV data from Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) and Solar Dynamics Observatory/EUV Variability Experiment (SDO/EVE), and I also provide some historical background and a summary of future spectroscopic instrumentation.

  3. Colliding laser-produced plasmas as targets for laser-generated extreme ultraviolet sources

    SciTech Connect

    Cummins, T.; O'Gorman, C.; Dunne, P.; Sokell, E.; O'Sullivan, G.; Hayden, P.

    2014-07-28

    Colliding plasmas produced by neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser illumination of tin wedge targets form stagnation layers, the physical parameters of which can be controlled to optimise coupling with a carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) heating laser pulse and subsequent extreme ultraviolet (EUV) production. The conversion efficiency (CE) of total laser energy into EUV emission at 13.5 nm ± 1% was 3.6%. Neglecting both the energy required to form the stagnation layer and the EUV light produced before the CO{sub 2} laser pulse is incident results in a CE of 5.1% of the CO{sub 2} laser energy into EUV light.

  4. Design and performance of the telescope and detector covers on the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tom, James L.

    1994-01-01

    Two cover mechanisms were designed and developed for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) science payload to keep the EUVE telescope mirrors and detectors sealed from the atmospheric environment until the spacecraft was placed into orbit. There were four telescope front covers and seven motorized detector covers on the EUVE science payload. The EUVE satellite was launched into orbit in June 1992 and all the covers operated successfully after launch. This success can be attributed to high design margins and extensive testing at each level of assembly. This paper described the design of the telescope front covers and the motorized detector covers. This paper also discusses some of the many design considerations and modifications made as performance and reliability problems became apparent from each phase of testing.

  5. Miniature Extreme Ultraviolet Solar Radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullin, D. R.; Seely, J. F.; Bremer, J.; Jones, A. R.; Vest, R.; Sakdinawat, A.

    2015-12-01

    Free-standing zone plates for use in EUV solar radiometers have been fabricated using electron beam lithography and calibrated at the NIST SURF synchrotron facility. The radiometers that we are developing use zone plates (ZPs) to focus the total solar irradiance in narrow EUV spectral bands and measure it with negligible sensitivity to field angle and polarization, and with greater accuracy and greater long-term stability than radiometers that have alternative architectures. These radiometers are easy to accommodate on spacecraft due to their small size, low mass, low power requirements, low data rates, and modest pointing requirements. A proto-type instrument will be presented with performance characteristics and spacecraft resource requirements for hosting these new instruments. The compact size of the optical train make these zone plates attractive for small CubeSats. The robustness of the compact design makes these radiometers available for a large variety of applications.

  6. EUVE observations of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, G. R.; McDonald, J. S.; Boyd, W. T.

    1993-03-01

    During its all-sky survey, the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite observed the Moon several times at first and last quarters, and once near the Dec. 10, 1992 lunar eclipse. We present a preliminary reduction and analysis of this data, in the form of EUV images of the Moon and derived albedos.

  7. EDITORIAL: Extreme Ultraviolet Light Sources for Semiconductor Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attwood, David

    2004-12-01

    The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) [1] provides industry expectations for high volume computer chip fabrication a decade into the future. It provides expectations to anticipated performance and requisite specifications. While the roadmap provides a collective projection of what international industry expects to produce, it does not specify the technology that will be employed. Indeed, there are generally several competing technologies for each two or three year step forward—known as `nodes'. Recent successful technologies have been based on KrF (248 nm), and now ArF (193 nm) lasers, combined with ultraviolet transmissive refractive optics, in what are known as step and scan exposure tools. Less fortunate technologies in the recent past have included soft x-ray proximity printing and, it appears, 157 nm wavelength F2 lasers. In combination with higher numerical aperture liquid emersion optics, 193 nm is expected to be used for the manufacture of leading edge chip performance for the coming five years. Beyond that, starting in about 2009, the technology to be employed is less clear. The leading candidate for the 2009 node is extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, however this requires that several remaining challenges, including sufficient EUV source power, be overcome in a timely manner. This technology is based on multilayer coated reflective optics [2] and an EUV emitting plasma. Following Moore's Law [3] it is expected, for example, that at the 2009 `32 nm node' (printable patterns of 32 nm half-pitch), isolated lines with 18 nm width will be formed in resist (using threshold effects), and that these will be further narrowed to 13 nm in transfer to metalized electronic gates. These narrow features are expected to provide computer chips of 19 GHz clock frequency, with of the order of 1.5 billion transistors per chip [1]. This issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics contains a cluster of eight papers addressing the critical

  8. Toward defect-free fabrication of extreme ultraviolet photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhengqing John; Rankin, Jed H.; Lawliss, Mark; Badger, Karen D.; Turley, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Defect-free fabrication of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) masks relies on the appropriate detection of native defects and subsequent strategies for their elimination. Commercial unavailability of actinic mask-blank inspection systems motivates the identification of an optical inspection methodology most suitable for finding relevant EUV blank defects. Studies showed that 193-nm wavelength inspection found the greatest number of printable defects as compared with rival higher-wavelength systems, establishing deep ultraviolet inspections as the blank defectivity baseline for subsequent mitigation strategies. Next, defect avoidance via pattern shifting was explored using representative 7-nm node metal/contact layer designs and 193-nm mask-blank inspection results. It was found that a significant percentage of native defects could be avoided only when the design was limited to active patterns (i.e., layouts without dummy fill). Total pattern-defect overlap remained ≤5 when metal layer blanks were chosen from the top 35% least defective substrates, while the majority of blanks remained suitable for contacts layers due to a lower active pattern density. Finally, nanomachining was used to address remaining native/multilayer defects. Native catastrophic defects were shown to recover 40% to 70% of target critical dimension after nanomachining, demonstrating the enormous potential for compensating multilayer defects.

  9. Extreme- and far-ultraviolet environment at shuttle altitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, S.

    1987-01-01

    The astronomical data obtained by the Far Ultraviolet Space Telescope (FAUST) and the Very Wide Field Camera (VWFC) on board the Spacelab I mission have triggered questions on the natural and induced Extreme and Far Ultraviolet (EUV and FUV) environment of the space shuttle. Moreover, the recent discovery of approx. lk Rayleighs N/sub 2/ Lyman Birge Hopfield (LBH) nightglow emissions by the U.S. Air Force's S3-4 satellite, and subsequent confirmation by the Imaging Spectrometric Observatory (ISO) experiment on the Spacelab I mission have serious implications for the astronomical observations from the shuttle. Since both ISO and S3-4 experiments were conducted from shuttle altitudes, the implied EUV and FUV environment for astronomical observations can be severe. In order to address the question of the suitability of the shuttle as an astronomical platform, data from FAUST and other experiments were examined. It is concluded that the FAUST background is most likely due to the observation of tropical UV arcs, a natural airglow phenomenon. Strategies for future shuttle experiments to overcome this and other natural emissions are discussed.

  10. Multilayer coatings for the far and extreme ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larruquert, Juan I.; Vidal-Dasilva, Manuela; García-Cortés, Sergio; Rodríguez-de Marcos, Luis; Fernández-Perea, Mónica; Aznárez, José A.; Méndez, José A.

    2011-05-01

    We present the development of novel coatings for the far and extreme ultraviolet (FUV-EUV). In the EUV above ~50 nm, the strong absorption of materials has precluded the development of narrowband coatings. An extensive research has been performed on the search and characterization of new materials with low absorption; the lanthanide series has been found to be a source of materials with relatively low absorption in the range of interest. The discovery of a wealth of materials with relatively low EUV absorption is basic to develop efficient multilayers, particularly with narrowband properties. In this way, we have developed multilayers based on Yb, Al, and SiO with narrowband performance in the 50-92 nm range; these are first narrowband coatings peaked above 70 nm. Our recent research on multilayers based on Eu, Al, and SiO provide promising results, with an increase in the peak reflectance versus Yb/Al/SiO multilayers, along with a peak wavelength that can be extended up to ~100 nm. For applications where FUV-EUV narrowband coatings have not been able to be prepared, we can design multilayers that address specific purposes, such as maximizing the reflectance ratio at two wavelengths or bands. Our first goal in this direction is the development of coatings with high 102.6 nm/ 121.6 nm reflectance ratio. Calculations predict that a high reflectance at Lyman β with a good rejection at Lyman α can be obtained through multilayer coatings. We are at the beginning of experimental research for this goal.

  11. Large-scale Extreme-Ultraviolet Disturbances Associated with a Limb Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Y.; Auchère, F.; Vial, J.-C.; Tang, Y. H.; Zong, W. G.

    2010-01-01

    We present composite observations of a coronal mass ejection (CME) and the associated large-scale extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) disturbances on 2007 December 31 by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) and COR1 coronagraph on board the recent Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory mission. For this limb event, the EUV disturbances exhibit some typical characteristics of EUV Imaging Telescope waves: (1) in the 195 Å bandpass, diffuse brightenings are observed propagating oppositely away from the flare site with a velocity of ~260 km s-1, leaving dimmings behind; (2) when the brightenings encounter the boundary of a polar coronal hole, they stop there to form a stationary front. Multi-temperature analysis of the propagating EUV disturbances favors a heating process over a density enhancement in the disturbance region. Furthermore, the EUVI-COR1 composite display shows unambiguously that the propagation of the diffuse brightenings coincides with a large lateral expansion of the CME, which consequently results in a double-loop-structured CME leading edge. Based on these observational facts, we suggest that the wave-like EUV disturbances are a result of magnetic reconfiguration related to the CME liftoff rather than true waves in the corona. Reconnections between the expanding CME magnetic field lines and surrounding quiet-Sun magnetic loops account for the propagating diffuse brightenings; dimmings appear behind them as a consequence of volume expansion. X-ray and radio data provide us with complementary evidence.

  12. Astronomy and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, S

    1994-01-07

    The extreme ultraviolet wave band (100 to 912 angstroms) was thought until recently to be useless to astronomy, primarily because the opacity of the interstellar medium would prevent observations at these wavelengths. However, the interstellar medium has been found to be markedly inhomogeneous in both density and ionization state and the sun is fortunately located in a region of low extreme ultraviolet opacity. The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer, launched in June 1992, has surveyed the sky in this wave band and has detected a wide variety of astronomical sources at considerable distances, including some extragalactic objects. Studies in the extreme ultraviolet band have already begun to increase our understanding of the contents of the universe.

  13. Astronomy and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, S.

    1994-01-01

    The extreme ultraviolet wave band (100 to 912 angstroms) was thought until recently to be useless to astronomy, primarily because the opacity of the interstellar medium would prevent observations at these wavelengths. However, the interstellar medium has been found to be markedly inhomogeneous in both density and ionization state and the sun is fortunately located in a region of low extreme ultraviolet opacity. The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer, launched in June 1992, has surveyed the sky in this wave band and has detected a wide variety of astronomical sources at considerable distances, including some extragalactic objects. Studies in the extreme ultraviolet band have already begun to increase our understanding of the contents of the universe.

  14. Design, fabrication and performance of two grazing incidence telescopes for celestial extreme ultraviolet astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lampton, M.; Cash, W.; Malina, R. F.; Bowyer, S.

    1977-01-01

    The design and performance of grazing incidence telescopes for celestial extreme ultraviolet (EUV) astronomy are described. The telescopes basically consist of a star tracker, collimator, grazing incidence mirror, vacuum box lid, vacuum housing, filters, a ranicon detector, an electronics box, and an aspect camera. For the survey mirror a Wolter-Schwarzschild type II configuration was selected. Diamond-turning was used for mirror fabrication, a technique which machines surfaces to the order of 10 microns over the required dimensions. The design of the EUV spectrometer is discussed with particular reference to the optics for a primarily spectroscopic application and the fabrication of the f/10 optics.

  15. Note: Enhancement of the extreme ultraviolet emission from a potassium plasma by dual laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi Yamaguchi, Mami; Otsuka, Takamitsu; Nagata, Takeshi; Ohashi, Hayato; Li, Bowen; D’Arcy, Rebekah; Dunne, Padraig; O’Sullivan, Gerry

    2014-09-15

    Emission spectra from multiply charged potassium ions ranging from K{sup 3+} to K{sup 5+} have been obtained in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region. A strong emission feature peaking around 38 nm, corresponding to a photon energy of 32.6 eV, is the dominant spectral feature at time-averaged electron temperatures in the range of 8−12 eV. The variation of this emission with laser intensity and the effects of pre-pulses on the relative conversion efficiency (CE) have been explored experimentally and indicate that an enhancement of about 30% in EUV CE is readily attainable.

  16. Passivating overcoat bilayer for multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Montcalm, Claude; Stearns, Daniel G.; Vernon, Stephen P.

    1999-01-01

    A passivating overcoat bilayer is used for multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) or soft x-ray applications to prevent oxidation and corrosion of the multilayer coating, thereby improving the EUV optical performance. The overcoat bilayer comprises a layer of silicon or beryllium underneath at least one top layer of an elemental or a compound material that resists oxidation and corrosion. Materials for the top layer include carbon, palladium, carbides, borides, nitrides, and oxides. The thicknesses of the two layers that make up the overcoat bilayer are optimized to produce the highest reflectance at the wavelength range of operation. Protective overcoat systems comprising three or more layers are also possible.

  17. Real-time observations of extreme-ultraviolet aerial images by fluorescence microimaging

    SciTech Connect

    La Fontaine, B. ); White, D.L. ); Wood, O.R. II ); MacDowell, A.A.; Tan, Z. ); Taylor, G.N. ); Tennant, D.M. ); Hulbert, S.L. )

    1994-11-01

    A new technique, fluorescence microimaging (FMI), using single-crystal phosphors was used to look directly at aerial images produced by an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) camera operating at a wavelength of 139 A. The achieved spatial resolution was estimated to be [similar to]0.2 [mu]m. A comparison of this technique with the usual resist-exposure scanning electron microscopy inspection technique as a means of focusing a 20[times]EUV Schwarzschild camera was performed. FMI could in principle be improved to view fluorescent images with features as small as 0.07 [mu]m, in real time.

  18. Invited Article: Progress in coherent lithography using table-top extreme ultraviolet lasers.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Urbanski, L; Marconi, M C

    2015-12-01

    Compact (table top) lasers emitting at wavelengths below 50 nm had expanded the spectrum of applications in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). Among them, the high-flux, highly coherent laser sources enabled lithographic approaches with distinctive characteristics. In this review, we will describe the implementation of a compact EUV lithography system capable of printing features with sub-50 nm resolution using Talbot imaging. This compact system is capable of producing consistent defect-free samples in a reliable and effective manner. Examples of different patterns and structures fabricated with this method will be presented.

  19. Universal EUV in-band intensity detector

    DOEpatents

    Berger, Kurt W.

    2004-08-24

    Extreme ultraviolet light is detected using a universal in-band detector for detecting extreme ultraviolet radiation that includes: (a) an EUV sensitive photodiode having a diode active area that generates a current responsive to EUV radiation; (b) one or more mirrors that reflects EUV radiation having a defined wavelength(s) to the diode active area; and (c) a mask defining a pinhole that is positioned above the diode active area, wherein EUV radiation passing through the pinhole is restricted substantially to illuminating the diode active area.

  20. Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemen, J. R.; Freeland, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    Efforts concentrated on development and implementation of the SolarSoft (SSW) data analysis system. From an EIT analysis perspective, this system was designed to facilitate efficient reuse and conversion of software developed for Yohkoh/SXT and to take advantage of a large existing body of software developed by the SDAC, Yohkoh, and SOHO instrument teams. Another strong motivation for this system was to provide an EIT analysis environment which permits coordinated analysis of EIT data in conjunction with data from important supporting instruments, including Yohkoh/SXT and the other SOHO coronal instruments; CDS, SUMER, and LASCO. In addition, the SSW system will support coordinated EIT/TRACE analysis (by design) when TRACE data is available; TRACE launch is currently planned for March 1998. Working with Jeff Newmark, the Chianti software package (K.P. Dere et al) and UV /EUV data base was fully integrated into the SSW system to facilitate EIT temperature and emission analysis.

  1. Development of actual EUV mask observation method for micro coherent EUV scatterometry microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, T.; Hashimoto, H.; Watanabe, T.

    2016-10-01

    To review phase and amplitude defect on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask with EUV intensity and phase contrast, we have developed the micro coherent EUV scatterometry microscope (micro-CSM). A coherent EUV beam was focused on a defect using a Fresnel zoneplate, where the illumination size was 140 nm diameter. Diffraction from the defect was captured by an EUV CCD camera directly. The diffraction signal was depended on the zoneplate focus, where the defect signal was efficiently detected at a best focus position. To review an actual EUV mask that has no focus-alignment pattern on surface, we developed a focusing method using a speckle signal.

  2. Extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy and photometry of VV Puppis during a high accretion state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vennes, Stephane; Szkody, Paula; Sion, Edward M.; Long, Knox S.

    1995-01-01

    We determine the physical properties of the accretion region of the AM Her-type binary VV Puppis using extreme ultraviolet (EUV) medium-resolution spectroscopy and photometry obtained with the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) observatory. The EUV continuum from VV Pup was detected in the wavelength range from 75 to 135 A and was simultaneously recorded with the Deep Survey/Spectrometer (DS/S) imaging telescope, allowing for the extraction of an accurate light curve. VV Pup appeared to have entered a high-accretion state just prior to the pointed EUVE observations. We use the EUV light curve to infer the diameter of the accretion region (d = 220 km) assuming a hemispherical geometry and a radius of 9000 km for the white dwarf. We perform a model atmosphere analysis and, based on the light curve properties and assuming a distance of 145 pc, we derive an effective temperature of the accretion region in the range 270,000 is less than T(sub eff) is less than 360,000 K and a neutral hydrogen column density in the local interstellar medium of n(sub H) = 1.9 - 3.7 x 10(exp 19)/sq cm. The total EUV/soft X-ray energy radiated by the accretion region is approximately 3.5 x 10(exp 32) ergs/s. Our results provide a first verification of past suggestions that deep heating of the white dwarf surface produces the soft X-ray flux from the polars. We present a possible detection of O VI absortion features, and we suggest that extensive EUVE observations targeting high-accretion events may result in oxygen and heavier element abundance determination in the accretion region.

  3. Nanolithography using Bessel Beams of Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Daniel; Wang, Li; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-08-01

    Bessel beams are nondiffracting light beams with large depth-of-focus and self-healing properties, making them suitable as a serial beam writing tool over surfaces with arbitrary topography. This property breaks the inherent resolution vs. depth-of-focus tradeoff of photolithography. One approach for their formation is to use circularly symmetric diffraction gratings. Such a ring grating was designed and fabricated for the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength of 13.5 nm, a candidate wavelength for future industrial lithography. Exposure of the aerial images showed that a Bessel beam with an approximately 1 mm long z-invariant central core of 223 nm diameter had been achieved, in good agreement with theory. Arbitrary patterns were written using the Bessel spot, demonstrating possible future application of Bessel beams for serial beam writing. Lithographic marks of ~30 nm size were also observed using a high resolution Bessel beam.

  4. Nanolithography using Bessel Beams of Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelength

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Daniel; Wang, Li; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-01-01

    Bessel beams are nondiffracting light beams with large depth-of-focus and self-healing properties, making them suitable as a serial beam writing tool over surfaces with arbitrary topography. This property breaks the inherent resolution vs. depth-of-focus tradeoff of photolithography. One approach for their formation is to use circularly symmetric diffraction gratings. Such a ring grating was designed and fabricated for the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength of 13.5 nm, a candidate wavelength for future industrial lithography. Exposure of the aerial images showed that a Bessel beam with an approximately 1 mm long z-invariant central core of 223 nm diameter had been achieved, in good agreement with theory. Arbitrary patterns were written using the Bessel spot, demonstrating possible future application of Bessel beams for serial beam writing. Lithographic marks of ~30 nm size were also observed using a high resolution Bessel beam. PMID:27501749

  5. Optical proximity correction for extreme ultra-violet mask with pellicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Soo-Yeon; Kim, In-Seon; Oh, Hye-Keun

    2015-10-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is considered as one of the viable solutions for production of the next generation integrated devices. EUV mask defect control becomes more critical issue in order to sustain the quality of wafer fabrication process. Since pellicle is the essential component to prevent patterning deformations caused by particle defects on EUV mask[1-2], EUV OPC (optical proximity correction) that takes into account for pellicle effects on imaging quality is required for achieving better pattern fidelity and critical dimension control. In this study, image blurring effect induced by the EUV mask pellicle on mask pattern structures was investigated and it was found that the localized short-range OPC using commercial software performed as desired considering transmission intensity loss due to pellicle. For experiment, edge placement error differences of the same 2D logic patterns with 16 nm half pitch with and without pellicle were compared. Finally, a method was suggested how patterning throughput loss caused by the transmission loss can be compensated by EUV OPC, which may allow pellicle transmission even below 90%.

  6. Characterization of material ablation driven by laser generated intense extreme ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Nozomi Masuda, Masaya; Deguchi, Ryo; Murakami, Masakatsu; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Yogo, Akifumi; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Sunahara, Atsushi

    2015-09-14

    We present a comparative study on the hydrodynamic behaviour of plasmas generated by material ablation by the irradiation of nanosecond extreme ultraviolet (EUV or XUV) or infrared laser pulses on solid samples. It was clarified that the difference in the photon energy deposition and following material heating mechanism between these two lights result in the difference in the plasma parameters and plasma expansion characteristics. Silicon plate was ablated by either focused intense EUV pulse (λ = 9–25 nm, 10 ns) or laser pulse (λ = 1064 nm, 10 ns), both with an intensity of ∼10{sup 9 }W/cm{sup 2}. Both the angular distributions and energy spectra of the expanding ions revealed that the photoionized plasma generated by the EUV light differs significantly from that produced by the laser. The laser-generated plasma undergoes spherical expansion, whereas the EUV-generated plasma undergoes planar expansion in a comparatively narrow angular range. It is presumed that the EUV radiation is transmitted through the expanding plasma and directly photoionizes the samples in the solid phase, consequently forming a high-density and high-pressure plasma. Due to a steep pressure gradient along the direction of the target normal, the EUV plasma expands straightforward resulting in the narrower angular distribution observed.

  7. Analyzing EUV mask costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lercel, Michael; Kasprowicz, Bryan

    2016-10-01

    The introduction of Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUV) as a replacement for multiple patterning is based on improvements of cycle time, yield, and cost. Earlier cost studies have assumed a simple assumption that EUV masks (being more complex with the multilayer coated blank) are not more than three times as expensive as advanced ArFi (ArF immersion) masks. EUV masks are expected to be more expensive during the ramp of the technology because of the added cost of the complex mask blank, the use of EUV specific mask tools, and a ramp of yield learning relative to the more mature technologies. This study concludes that, within a range of scenarios, the hypothesis that EUV mask costs are not more than three times that of advanced ArFi masks is valid and conservative.

  8. Imaging characteristics of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer microchannel plate detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallerga, J. V.; Kaplan, G. C.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Lampton, M.; Malina, R. F.

    1989-01-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite will conduct an all-sky survey over the wavelength range from 70 A to 760 A using four grazing-incidence telescopes and seven microchannel-plate (MCP) detectors. The imaging photon-counting MCP detectors have active areas of 19.6 cm2. Photon arrival position is determined using a wedge-and-strip anode and associated pulse-encoding electronics. The imaging characteristics of the EUVE flight detectors are presented including image distortion, flat-field response, and spatial differential nonlinearity. Also included is a detailed discussion of image distortions due to the detector mechanical assembly, the wedge-and-strip anode, and the electronics. Model predictions of these distortions are compared to preflight calibration images which show distortions less than 1.3 percent rms of the detector diameter of 50 mm before correction. The plans for correcting these residual detector image distortions to less than 0.1 percent rms are also presented.

  9. Xe capillary target for laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Takahiro; Okino, Hideyasu; Nica, Petru Edward; Amano, Sho; Miyamoto, Shuji; Mochizuki, Takayasu

    2007-10-15

    A cryogenic Xe jet system with an annular nozzle has been developed in order to continuously fast supply a Xe capillary target for generating a laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The cooling power of the system was evaluated to be 54 W, and the temperature stability was {+-}0.5 K at a cooling temperature of about 180 K. We investigated experimentally the influence of pressure loss inside an annular nozzle on target formation by shortening the nozzle length. Spraying caused by cavitation was mostly suppressed by mitigating the pressure loss, and a focused jet was formed. Around a liquid-solid boundary, a solid-Xe capillary target (100/70 {mu}m {phi}) was formed with a velocity of {<=}0.01 m/s. Laser-plasma EUV generation was tested by focusing a Nd:YAG laser beam on the target. The results suggested that an even thinner-walled capillary target is required to realize the inertial confinement effect.

  10. Extreme Ultraviolet Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum Beams from High Harmonic Generation.

    PubMed

    Turpin, Alex; Rego, Laura; Picón, Antonio; San Román, Julio; Hernández-García, Carlos

    2017-03-10

    We investigate theoretically the generation of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) beams carrying fractional orbital angular momentum. To this end, we drive high-order harmonic generation with infrared conical refraction (CR) beams. We show that the high-order harmonic beams emitted in the EUV/soft x-ray regime preserve the characteristic signatures of the driving beam, namely ringlike transverse intensity profile and CR-like polarization distribution. As a result, through orbital and spin angular momentum conservation, harmonic beams are emitted with fractional orbital angular momentum, and they can be synthesized into structured attosecond helical beams -or "structured attosecond light springs"- with rotating linear polarization along the azimuth. Our proposal overcomes the state of the art limitations for the generation of light beams far from the visible domain carrying non-integer orbital angular momentum and could be applied in fields such as diffraction imaging, EUV lithography, particle trapping, and super-resolution imaging.

  11. Extreme ultraviolet proximity lithography for fast, flexible and parallel fabrication of infrared antennas.

    PubMed

    Kunkemöller, Georg; Mass, Tobias W W; Michel, Ann-Katrin U; Kim, Hyun-Su; Brose, Sascha; Danylyuk, Serhiy; Taubner, Thomas; Juschkin, Larissa

    2015-10-05

    We present a method for fabrication of large arrays of nano-antennas using extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) illumination. A discharge-produced plasma source generating EUV radiation around 10.88 nm wavelength is used for the illumination of a photoresist via a mask in a proximity printing setup. The method of metallic nanoantennas fabrication utilizes a bilayer photoresist and employs a lift-off process. The impact of Fresnel-diffraction of EUV light in the mask on a shape of the nanostructures has been investigated. It is shown how by the use of the same rectangular apertures in the transmission mask, antennas of various shapes can be fabricated. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, spectra of antennas reflectivity were measured and compared to FDTD simulations demonstrating good agreement.

  12. Aspherical surfaces design for extreme ultraviolet lithographic objective with correction of thermal aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Li, Yanqiu

    2016-09-01

    At present, few projection objectives for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography pay attention to correct thermal aberration in optical design phase, which would lead to poor image quality in a practical working environment. We present an aspherical modification method for helping the EUV lithographic objective additionally correct the thermal aberration. Based on the thermal aberration and deformation predicted by integrated optomechanical analysis, the aspherical surfaces in an objective are modified by an iterative algorithm. The modified aspherical surfaces could correct the thermal aberration and maintain the initial high image quality in a practical working environment. A six-mirror EUV lithographic objective with 0.33-numerical aperture is taken as an example to illustrate the presented method. The results show that the thermal aberration can be corrected effectively, and the image quality of the thermally deformed system is improved to the initial design level, which proves the availability of the method.

  13. Numerical evaluation of a 13.5-nm high-brightness microplasma extreme ultraviolet source

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, Hiroyuki Arai, Goki; Dinh, Thanh-Hung; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Jiang, Weihua; Miura, Taisuke; Endo, Akira; Ejima, Takeo; Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Sunahara, Atsushi

    2015-11-21

    The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission and its spatial distribution as well as plasma parameters in a microplasma high-brightness light source are characterized by the use of a two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulation. The expected EUV source size, which is determined by the expansion of the microplasma due to hydrodynamic motion, was evaluated to be 16 μm (full width) and was almost reproduced by the experimental result which showed an emission source diameter of 18–20 μm at a laser pulse duration of 150 ps [full width at half-maximum]. The numerical simulation suggests that high brightness EUV sources should be produced by use of a dot target based microplasma with a source diameter of about 20 μm.

  14. Time exposure performance of Mo-Au Gibbsian segregating alloys for extreme ultraviolet collector optics.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Huatan; Srivastava, Shailendra N; Thompson, Keith C; Neumann, Martin J; Ruzic, David N

    2008-05-01

    Successful implementation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography depends on research and progress toward minimizing collector optics degradation from intense plasma erosion and debris deposition. Thus studying the surface degradation process and implementing innovative methods, which could enhance the surface chemistry causing the mirrors to suffer less damage, is crucial for this technology development. A Mo-Au Gibbsian segregation (GS) alloy is deposited on Si using a dc dual-magnetron cosputtering system and the damage is investigated as a result of time dependent exposure in an EUV source. A thin Au segregating layer is maintained through segregation during exposure, even though overall erosion in the Mo-Au sample is taking place in the bulk. The reflective material, Mo, underneath the segregating layer is protected by this sacrificial layer, which is lost due to preferential sputtering. In addition to theoretical work, experimental results are presented on the effectiveness of the GS alloys to be used as potential EUV collector optics material.

  15. The ion microscope as a tool for quantitative measurements in the extreme ultraviolet

    PubMed Central

    Tsatrafyllis, N.; Bergues, B.; Schröder, H.; Veisz, L.; Skantzakis, E.; Gray, D.; Bodi, B.; Kuhn, S.; Tsakiris, G. D.; Charalambidis, D.; Tzallas, P.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a tool for quantitative measurements in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region measuring spatially resolved atomic ionization products at the focus of an EUV beam. The ionizing radiation is a comb of the 11th–15th harmonics of a Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser beam produced in a Xenon gas jet. The spatial ion distribution at the focus of the harmonics is recorded using an ion microscope. Spatially resolved single- and two-photon ionization products of Argon and Helium are observed. From such ion distributions single- and two-photon generalized cross sections can be extracted by a self-calibrating method. The observation of spatially resolved two-EUV-photon ionization constitutes an initial step towards future single-shot temporal characterization of attosecond pulses. PMID:26868370

  16. Extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy and atomic models of highly charged heavy ions in the Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, C.; Murakami, I.; Koike, F.; Tamura, N.; Sakaue, H. A.; Morita, S.; Goto, M.; Kato, D.; Ohashi, H.; Higashiguchi, T.; Sudo, S.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2017-01-01

    We report recent results of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopy of highly charged heavy ions in plasmas produced in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The LHD is an ideal source of experimental databases of EUV spectra because of high brightness and low opacity, combined with the availability of pellet injection systems and reliable diagnostic tools. The measured heavy elements include tungsten, tin, lanthanides and bismuth, which are motivated by ITER as well as a variety of plasma applications such as EUV lithography and biological microscopy. The observed spectral features drastically change between quasicontinuum and discrete depending on the plasma temperature, which leads to some new experimental identifications of spectral lines. We have developed collisional-radiative models for some of these ions based on the measurements. The atomic number dependence of the spectral feature is also discussed.

  17. Extreme Ultraviolet Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum Beams from High Harmonic Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turpin, Alex; Rego, Laura; Picón, Antonio; San Román, Julio; Hernández-García, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    We investigate theoretically the generation of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) beams carrying fractional orbital angular momentum. To this end, we drive high-order harmonic generation with infrared conical refraction (CR) beams. We show that the high-order harmonic beams emitted in the EUV/soft x-ray regime preserve the characteristic signatures of the driving beam, namely ringlike transverse intensity profile and CR-like polarization distribution. As a result, through orbital and spin angular momentum conservation, harmonic beams are emitted with fractional orbital angular momentum, and they can be synthesized into structured attosecond helical beams –or “structured attosecond light springs”– with rotating linear polarization along the azimuth. Our proposal overcomes the state of the art limitations for the generation of light beams far from the visible domain carrying non-integer orbital angular momentum and could be applied in fields such as diffraction imaging, EUV lithography, particle trapping, and super-resolution imaging.

  18. Methods and apparatus for use with extreme ultraviolet light having contamination protection

    DOEpatents

    Chilese, Francis C.; Torczynski, John R.; Garcia, Rudy; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Delgado, Gildardo R.; Rader, Daniel J.; Geller, Anthony S.; Gallis, Michail A.

    2016-07-12

    An apparatus for use with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light comprising A) a duct having a first end opening, a second end opening and an intermediate opening intermediate the first end opening the second end opening, B) an optical component disposed to receive EUV light from the second end opening or to send light through the second end opening, and C) a source of low pressure gas at a first pressure to flow through the duct, the gas having a high transmission of EUV light, fluidly coupled to the intermediate opening. In addition to or rather than gas flow the apparatus may have A) a low pressure gas with a heat control unit thermally coupled to at least one of the duct and the optical component and/or B) a voltage device to generate voltage between a first portion and a second portion of the duet with a grounded insulative portion therebetween.

  19. LONG-TERM (SOLAR CYCLE) VARIATION OF THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION AND 10.7CENTIMETER FLUX FROM THE SUN.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The proposal is made that the 10.7-cm flux from the sun , generally regarded as a good index of the solar extreme ultraviolet radiation (EUV), does...in some degree, since many features of the sun vary with the solar cycle. With regard to the radio waves represented by the flux and optical

  20. Absolute sensitivity calibration of vacuum and extreme ultraviolet spectrometer systems and Z{sub eff} measurement based on bremsstrahlung continuum in HL-2A tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Hangyu; Cui Zhengying; Fu Bingzhong; Sun Ping; Gao Yadong; Xu Yuan; Lu Ping; Yang Qingwei; Duan Xuru; Morita, Shigeru; Goto, Motoshi; Dong Chunfeng

    2012-10-15

    A grazing-incidence flat-field extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer has been newly developed in HL-2A tokamak. Typical spectral lines are observed from intrinsic impurities of carbon, oxygen, iron, and extrinsic impurity of helium in the wavelength range of 20 A-500 A. Bremsstrahlung continuum is measured at different electron densities of HL-2A discharges to calibrate absolute sensitivity of the EUV spectrometer system and to measure effective ionic charge, Z{sub eff}. The sensitivity of a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrometer system is also absolutely calibrated in overlapped wavelength range of 300 A-500 A by comparing the intensity between VUV and EUV line emissions.

  1. Far and extreme ultraviolet astronomy with ORFEUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraemer, G.; Barnstedt, J.; Eberhard, N.; Grewing, M.; Gringel, W.; Haas, C.; Kaelble, A.; Kappelmann, N.; Petrik, J.; Appenzeller, I.

    1990-01-01

    ORFEUS (Orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer) is a 1 m normal incidence telescope for spectroscopic investigations of cosmic sources in the far and extreme ultraviolet spectral range. The instrument will be integrated into the freeflyer platform ASTRO-SPAS. ORFEUS-SPAS is scheduled with STS ENDEAVOUR in September 1992. We describe the telescope with its two spectrometer and their capabilities i.e., spectral range, resolution and overall sensitivity. The main classes of objects to be observed with the instrument are discussed and two examples of simulated spectra for the white dwarf HZ43 and an O9-star in LMC are shown.

  2. Defect-tolerant extreme ultraviolet nanoscale printing.

    PubMed

    Urbanski, L; Isoyan, A; Stein, A; Rocca, J J; Menoni, C S; Marconi, M C

    2012-09-01

    We present a defect-free lithography method for printing periodic features with nanoscale resolution using coherent extreme ultraviolet light. This technique is based on the self-imaging effect known as the Talbot effect, which is produced when coherent light is diffracted by a periodic mask. We present a numerical simulation and an experimental verification of the method with a compact extreme ultraviolet laser. Furthermore, we explore the extent of defect tolerance by testing masks with different defect layouts. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations.

  3. Extreme ultraviolet spectra of solar flares from the extreme ultraviolet spectroheliograph SPIRIT onboard the CORONAS-F satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Shestov, S.; Kuzin, S.; Reva, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present detailed extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra of four large solar flares: M5.6, X1.3, X3.4, and X17 classes in the spectral ranges 176-207 Å and 280-330 Å. These spectra were obtained by the slitless spectroheliograph SPIRIT onboard the CORONAS-F satellite. To our knowledge, these are the first detailed EUV spectra of large flares obtained with a spectral resolution of ∼0.1 Å. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the obtained spectra and provide identification of the observed spectral lines. The identification was performed based on the calculation of synthetic spectra (the CHIANTI database was used), with simultaneous calculations of the differential emission measure (DEM) and density of the emitting plasma. More than 50 intense lines are present in the spectra that correspond to a temperature range of T = 0.5-16 MK; most of the lines belong to Fe, Ni, Ca, Mg, and Si ions. In all the considered flares, intense hot lines from Ca XVII, Ca XVIII, Fe XX, Fe XXII, and Fe XXIV are observed. The calculated DEMs have a peak at T ∼ 10 MK. The densities were determined using Fe XI-Fe XIII lines and averaged 6.5 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}. We also discuss the identification, accuracy, and major discrepancies of the spectral line intensity prediction.

  4. Emission Lines of Fe XI - XIII in the Extreme Ultraviolet Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepson, Jaan; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Liedahl, Duane; Desai, Priya; Brickhouse, Nancy; Dupree, Andrea; Kahn, Steven

    2009-05-01

    Iron is one of the most abundant heavy elements in extreme ultraviolet spectra of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, and its various ions radiate profusely in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength band. Iron emission in the EUV provides important d iagnostic tools for such properties as plasma temperature and density, and perhaps even magnetic field strength. Despite its importance to astrophysics and magnetic fusion, knowledge of the EUV spectrum of iron is incomplete. Identification of iron emis sion lines is hampered by the paucity of accurate laboratory measurements and the uncertainty of even the best atomic models. As part of a project to measure and compile emission line data in the EUV, we present here spectra and lines of Fe XI - XIII recorded on the Livermore EBIT-II electron beam ion trap in the 50 - 120 åregion. We measured line positions to 0.02 åand relative intensities with an accuracy of one part in twenty. Many new lines are identified and added to the available databa ses. Part of this work was performed under the auspices of the U S Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and was supported by NASA's Astronomy and Physics Research and Analysis Program under Con t ract NNH07AF811.

  5. Solar Extreme Ultraviolet and X-ray Irradiance Measurements for Thermosphere and Ionosphere Studies (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, T. N.; Caspi, A.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Eparvier, F. G.; Jones, A. R.; Sojka, J. J.; Solomon, S. C.; Viereck, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    The solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV: 10-120 nm) and soft X-ray (SXR: 0.1-10 nm) radiation is critical energy input for Earth's upper atmosphere above 80 km as a driver for photochemistry, ionosphere creation, temperature structure, and dynamics. Understanding the solar EUV and X-ray variations and their influences on Earth's atmosphere are important for myriad of space weather applications. The solar EUV and SXR spectral irradiances are currently being measured by NASA's Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Energetics, and Dynamics (TIMED) Solar EUV Experiment (SEE), NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE), and NOAA's GOES X-Ray Sensor (XRS) and EUV Sensor (EUVS). The solar irradiance varies on all time scales, ranging from seconds to hours from solar flare events, to days from 27-day solar rotation, and to years and longer from 11-year solar cycle. The amount of variation is strongly wavelength dependent with smaller ~50% solar cycle variations seen in the EUV for transition region emissions and larger factor of 10 and more variations seen in the SXR for coronal emissions. These solar irradiance observations are expected to be continued and to overlap with NASA's future Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) and Ionospheric Connection (ICON) missions that focus on the study of the thermosphere and ionosphere. These current measurements are only broad band in the SXR, but there are plans to have new spectral SXR measurements from CubeSat missions that may also overlap with the GOLD and ICON missions.

  6. On the nature of the extreme-ultraviolet late phase of solar flares

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Ding, M. D.; Guo, Y.; Dai, Y.

    2014-10-01

    The extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) late phase of solar flares is a second peak of warm coronal emissions (e.g., Fe XVI) for many minutes to a few hours after the GOES soft X-ray peak. It was first observed by the EUV Variability Experiment on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The late-phase emission originates from a second set of longer loops (late-phase loops) that are higher than the main flaring loops. It is suggested to be caused by either additional heating or long-lasting cooling. In this paper, we study the role of long-lasting cooling and additional heating in producing the EUV late phase using the enthalpy based thermal evolution of loops model. We find that a long cooling process in late-phase loops can well explain the presence of the EUV late-phase emission, but we cannot exclude the possibility of additional heating in the decay phase. Moreover, we provide two preliminary methods based on the UV and EUV emissions from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board SDO to determine whether or not additional heating plays a role in the late-phase emission. Using nonlinear force-free field modeling, we study the magnetic configuration of the EUV late phase. It is found that the late phase can be generated either in hot spine field lines associated with a magnetic null point or in large-scale magnetic loops of multipolar magnetic fields. In this paper, we also discuss why the EUV late phase is usually observed in warm coronal emissions and why the majority of flares do not exhibit an EUV late phase.

  7. Spatial characterization of extreme ultraviolet plasmas generated by laser excitation of xenon gas targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranzusch, Sebastian; Peth, Christian; Mann, Klaus

    2003-02-01

    At Laser-Laboratorium Göttingen laser-plasma sources were tested, which are going to be used for characterization of optical components and sensoric devices in the wavelength region from 11 to 13 nm. In all cases extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is generated by focusing a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser into a pulsed gas puff target. By the use of xenon or oxygen as target gas, broadband as well as narrowband EUV radiation is obtained, respectively. Different types of valves and nozzles were tested in order to optimize the emitted radiation with respect to maximum EUV intensities, small source diameters, and positional stability. The investigation of these crucial source parameters was performed with specially designed EUV pinhole cameras, utilizing evaluation algorithms developed for standardized laser beam characterization. In addition, a rotatable pinhole camera was developed which allows both spatially and angular resolved monitoring of the soft x-ray emission characteristics. With the help of this camera a strong angular dependence of the EUV intensity was found. The data were compared with fluorescence measurements for visualization of the target gas jet. The experimental observations can be explained by reabsorption of the generated EUV radiation in the surrounding target gas, as supported by semiempirical model calculations based on the attenuation in the three-dimensional gas density according to Lambert-Beer's law. As a consequence of the presented investigations, an optimization of the EUV source with respect to intensity, plasma shape, and angular dependence is achieved, resulting in a spherical plasma of 200 μm diameter and a 50% increase of the EUV pulse energy.

  8. Development of ellipsoidal focusing mirror for soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimura, Hidekazu; Takei, Yoshinori; Saito, Takahiro; Kume, Takehiro; Motoyama, Hiroto; Egawa, Satoru; Takeo, Yoko; Higashi, Takahiro

    2015-08-01

    Mirrors are key devices for creating various systems in optics. Focusing X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light requires mirror surfaces with an extremely high accuracy. The figure of an ellipsoidal mirror is obtained by rotating an elliptical profile, and using such a mirror, soft X-ray and EUV light can be focused to dimensions on the order of nanometers without chromatic aberration. Although the theoretical performance of ellipsoidal mirrors is extremely high, the fabrication of an ideal ellipsoidal mirror remains problematic. Based on this background, we have been working to develop a fabrication system for ellipsoidal mirrors. In this proceeding, we briefly introduce the fabrication process and the soft X-ray focusing performance of the ellipsoidal mirror fabricated using the proposed process.

  9. Multi-spectral solar telescope array IV; The soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet filters

    SciTech Connect

    Lindblom, J.F.; O'Neal, R.H.; Walker, A.B.C. Jr. ); Powell, F.R. ); Barbee, T.W. Jr. ); Hoover, R.B. ); Powell, S.F. )

    1991-08-01

    The multilayer mirrors used in the normal-incidence optical systems of the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA) are efficient reflectors for soft x-ray/extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation at wavelengths that satisfy the Bragg condition, thus allowing a narrow band of the soft x-ray/EUV spectrum to be isolated. However, these same mirrors are also excellent reflectors in the visible, ultraviolet, and far-ultraviolet (FUV) part of the spectrum, where normal incidence reflectivities can exceed 50%. Furthermore, the sun emits far more radiation in the ultraviolet and visible part of the spectrum than it does in the soft x-ray/EUV. For this reason, thin foil filters are employed to eliminate the unwanted longer wavelength solar emission. The MSSTA instrument uses various combinations of thin foil filters composed of aluminum carbon, tellurium, potassium bromide, beryllium, molybdenum, rhodium, and phthalocyanine to achieve the desired radiation rejection characteristics. In this paper, the authors discuss issues concerning the design, manufacture, and predicted performance of MSSTA filters.

  10. Three new extreme ultraviolet spectrometers on NSTX-U for impurity monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, M. E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Magee, E. W.; Scotti, F.

    2016-11-01

    Three extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometers have been mounted on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U). All three are flat-field grazing-incidence spectrometers and are dubbed X-ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (XEUS, 8-70 Å), Long-Wavelength Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (LoWEUS, 190-440 Å), and Metal Monitor and Lithium Spectrometer Assembly (MonaLisa, 50-220 Å). XEUS and LoWEUS were previously implemented on NSTX to monitor impurities from low- to high-Z sources and to study impurity transport while MonaLisa is new and provides the system increased spectral coverage. The spectrometers will also be a critical diagnostic on the planned laser blow-off system for NSTX-U, which will be used for impurity edge and core ion transport studies, edge-transport code development, and benchmarking atomic physics codes.

  11. Discharge produced plasma source for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, V.; Eltzov, A.; Ivanov, A.; Khristoforov, O.; Kirykhin, Yu.; Vinokhodov, A.; Vodchits, V.; Mishhenko, V.; Prokofiev, A.

    2007-04-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is seen as the most promising candidate for the next generation of lithography and semiconductor chip manufacturing for the 32 nm node and below. The paper describes experimental results obtained with discharge produced plasma (DPP) sources based on pinch effect in a Xe and Sn vapour as potential tool for the EUV lithography. Problems of DPP source development are discussed.

  12. EUV spectroscopy of 3 RSCVn binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, A. K.; Brickhouse, Nancy S.; Hanson, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopy of several binary stars containing cool components is used to define the high temperature plasma structure of these stars and their stellar atmospheres. Different line emission spectra are reported, along with a spectrum analysis of Capella, a nearby bright multiple star system, using data from the EUVE satellite.

  13. Studies of extreme ultraviolet emission from laser produced plasmas, as sources for next generation lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, Thomas

    The work presented in this thesis is primarily concerned with the optimisation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photoemission around 13.5 nm, from laser produced tin (Sn) plasmas. EUV lithography has been identified as the leading next generation technology to take over from the current optical lithography systems, due to its potential of printing smaller feature sizes on integrated circuits. Many of the problems hindering the implementation of EUV lithography for high volume manufacturing have been overcome during the past 20 years of development. However, the lack of source power is a major concern for realising EUV lithography and remains a major roadblock that must be overcome. Therefore in order to optimise and improve the EUV emission from Sn laser plasma sources, many parameters contributing to the make-up of an EUV source are investigated. Chapter 3 presents the results of varying several different experimental parameters on the EUV emission from Sn laser plasmas. Several of the laser parameters including the energy, gas mixture, focusing lens position and angle of incidence are changed, while their effect on the EUV emission is studied. Double laser pulse experiments are also carried out by creating plasma targets for the main laser pulse to interact with. The resulting emission is compared to that of a single laser pulse on solid Sn. Chapter 4 investigates tailoring the CO2 laser pulse duration to improve the efficiency of an EUV source set-up. In doing so a new technique for shortening the time duration of the pulse is described. The direct effects of shortening the CO2 laser pulse duration on the EUV emission from Sn are then studied and shown to improve the efficiency of the source. In Chapter 5 a new plasma target type is studied and compared to the previous dual laser experiments. Laser produced colliding plasma jet targets form a new plasma layer, with densities that can be optimised for re-heating with the main CO2 laser pulse. Chapter 6 will present

  14. Laser-assisted vacuum arc extreme ultraviolet source: a comparison of picosecond and nanosecond laser triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyene, Girum A.; Tobin, Isaac; Juschkin, Larissa; Hayden, Patrick; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Sokell, Emma; Zakharov, Vassily S.; Zakharov, Sergey V.; O'Reilly, Fergal

    2016-06-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light generation by hybrid laser-assisted vacuum arc discharge plasmas, utilizing Sn-coated rotating-disc-electrodes, was investigated. The discharge was initiated by localized ablation of the liquid tin coating of the cathode disc by a laser pulse. The laser pulse, at 1064 nm, was generated by Nd:YAG lasers with variable energy from 1 to 100 mJ per pulse. The impact of shortening the laser pulse from 7 ns to 170 ps on the EUV generation has been investigated in detail. The use of ps pulses resulted in an increase in emission of EUV radiation. With a fixed discharge energy of ~4 J, the EUV conversion efficiency tends to plateau at ~2.4  ±  0.25% for the ps laser pulses, while for the ns pulses, it saturates at ~1.7  ±  0.3%. Under similar discharge and laser energy conditions, operating the EUV source with the ps-triggering resulted also in narrower spectral profiles of the emission in comparison to ns-triggering. The results indicate an advantage in using ps-triggering in laser-assisted discharges to produce brighter plasmas required for applications such as metrology.

  15. Diagnosis of energy transport in iron buried layer targets using an extreme ultraviolet laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzad, M.; Culfa, O.; Rossall, A. K.; Wilson, L. A.; Guilbaud, O.; Kazamias, S.; Delmas, O.; Demailly, J.; Maitrallain, A.; Pittman, M.; Baynard, E.; Farjardo, M.; Tallents, G. J.

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate the use of extreme ultra-violet (EUV) laboratory lasers in probing energy transport in laser irradiated solid targets. EUV transmission through targets containing a thin layer of iron (50 nm) encased in plastic (CH) after irradiation by a short pulse (35 fs) laser focussed to irradiances 3 × 1016 Wcm-2 is measured. Heating of the iron layer gives rise to a rapid decrease in EUV opacity and an increase in the transmission of the 13.9 nm laser radiation as the iron ionizes to Fe5+ and above where the ion ionisation energy is greater than the EUV probe photon energy (89 eV). A one dimensional hydrodynamic fluid code HYADES has been used to simulate the temporal variation in EUV transmission (wavelength 13.9 nm) using IMP opacity values for the iron layer and the simulated transmissions are compared to measured transmission values. When a deliberate pre-pulse is used to preform an expanding plastic plasma, it is found that radiation is important in the heating of the iron layer while for pre-pulse free irradiation, radiation transport is not significant.

  16. Diagnosis of energy transport in iron buried layer targets using an extreme ultraviolet laser

    SciTech Connect

    Shahzad, M.; Culfa, O.; Rossall, A. K.; Tallents, G. J.; Wilson, L. A.; Guilbaud, O.; Kazamias, S.; Delmas, O.; Demailly, J.; Maitrallain, A.; Pittman, M.; Baynard, E.; Farjardo, M.

    2015-02-15

    We demonstrate the use of extreme ultra-violet (EUV) laboratory lasers in probing energy transport in laser irradiated solid targets. EUV transmission through targets containing a thin layer of iron (50 nm) encased in plastic (CH) after irradiation by a short pulse (35 fs) laser focussed to irradiances 3 × 10{sup 16} Wcm{sup −2} is measured. Heating of the iron layer gives rise to a rapid decrease in EUV opacity and an increase in the transmission of the 13.9 nm laser radiation as the iron ionizes to Fe{sup 5+} and above where the ion ionisation energy is greater than the EUV probe photon energy (89 eV). A one dimensional hydrodynamic fluid code HYADES has been used to simulate the temporal variation in EUV transmission (wavelength 13.9 nm) using IMP opacity values for the iron layer and the simulated transmissions are compared to measured transmission values. When a deliberate pre-pulse is used to preform an expanding plastic plasma, it is found that radiation is important in the heating of the iron layer while for pre-pulse free irradiation, radiation transport is not significant.

  17. Scanning coherent diffractive imaging methods for actinic extreme ultraviolet mask metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfenstein, Patrick; Mohacsi, Istvan; Rajeev, Rajendran; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-07-01

    For the successful implementation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography in the upcoming technology nodes, a major challenge to overcome is the stable and reliable detection and characterization of mask defects. We have recently presented a reflective mode EUV mask scanning lensless imaging tool (RESCAN) which was installed at the XIL-II beamline of the swiss light source and showed reconstructed aerial images of test patterns on EUV masks. RESCAN uses scanning coherent diffractive imaging (SCDI) methods to obtain actinic aerial images of EUV photomasks and was designed for 80 nm onmask resolution. Our SCDI algorithm reconstructs the measured sample by iteratively solving the phase problem using overdetermined diffraction data gathered by scanning across the specimen with a finite illumination. It provides the phase and amplitude aerial images of EUV photomasks with high resolution without the need to use high numerical aperture (NA) lenses. Contrary to scanning microscopy and full-field microscopy, where the resolution is limited by the spot size or NA of the lens, the achievable resolution with our method depends on the detector noise and NA of the detector. To increase the resolution of our tool, we upgraded RESCAN with a detector and algorithms. Here, we present the results obtained with the tool that is capable of up to 40-nm onmask resolution. We believe that the realization of our prototype marks a significant step toward overcoming the limitations imposed by methods relying on imaging optics and shows a viable solution for actinic mask metrology.

  18. Effects of the dynamics of droplet-based laser-produced plasma on angular extreme ultraviolet emission profile

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannini, Andrea Z.; Abhari, Reza S.

    2014-05-12

    The emission distribution of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation from droplet targets is dependent on the dynamics of the laser-produced plasma. The EUV emission is measured on a 2% bandwidth centered at 13.5 nm (in-band). The targets of the laser are small (sub-50 μm) tin droplets, and the in-band emission distribution is measured for different laser irradiances and droplet sizes at various angular positions. Larger droplets lead to a faster decay of EUV emission at larger angles with respect to the laser axis. A decrease in laser irradiance has the opposite effect. The measurements are used together with an analytical model to estimate plume dynamics. Additionally, the model is used to estimate EUV emission distribution for a desired droplet diameter and laser irradiance.

  19. Compact extreme ultraviolet reflectometer for the characterization of grazing incidence optics based on a gas discharge light source

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, Klaus; Rosier, Oliver; Metzmacher, Christof

    2005-04-01

    A grazing incidence reflectometer operating in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range around 13.5 nm is presented which is making use of a compact xenon pinch plasma light source. The apparatus allows for measuring the absolute reflectivity of a sample for grazing incidence angle in the range from typically 5 deg. to 35 deg. by comparing the EUV diode signal for the reflected light and a reference diode with an accuracy of better than 2%. Design criteria for proper matching of diode apertures and distances with respect to the spatially extended plasma source are presented. The absolute accuracy has been checked by investigating a ruthenium sample with low roughness, which has a reflectivity in the EUV close to the theoretical limit. Comparison to measurements at the EUV-reflectometer of the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt in Berlin at a synchrotron source confirm the absolute accuracy of better than 2% for the reflectivity for the angle interval of interest.

  20. A solar type II radio burst from coronal mass ejection-coronal ray interaction: Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yao; Du, Guohui; Feng, Shiwei; Kong, Xiangliang; Wang, Bing; Feng, Li; Guo, Fan; Li, Gang

    2014-05-20

    Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/white-light imaging data are examined for a solar type II radio burst occurring on 2010 March 18 to deduce its source location. Using a bow-shock model, we reconstruct the three-dimensional EUV wave front (presumably the type-II-emitting shock) based on the imaging data of the two Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory spacecraft. It is then combined with the Nançay radio imaging data to infer the three-dimensional position of the type II source. It is found that the type II source coincides with the interface between the coronal mass ejection (CME) EUV wave front and a nearby coronal ray structure, providing evidence that the type II emission is physically related to the CME-ray interaction. This result, consistent with those of previous studies, is based on simultaneous radio and EUV imaging data for the first time.

  1. Influence of electrode separation and gas curtain on extreme ultraviolet emission of a gas jet z-pinch source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, S. R.; Sakamoto, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Izuka, N.; Kishi, N.; Song, I.; Watanabe, M.; Kawamura, T.; Okino, A.; Horioka, K.; Hotta, E.

    2006-07-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission from a gas jet z-pinch source has been examined by employing a photodiode and pinhole camera. Visible images of the pinched plasma have been also recorded. A current pulse of 10kA is used to heat the gas jet, which emits radiation around 13.5nm. Experimental parameters such as electrode separation and gas flow rate are varied to optimize EUV emission. The maximum EUV energy is obtained for 12mm electrode separation and 20Torr xenon pressure and it is estimated to 10.95mJ/sr per 2% bandwidth per pulse. The presence of gas curtain improves EUV emission by 30%.

  2. The extreme ultraviolet spectra of low-redshift radio-loud quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punsly, Brian; Reynolds, Cormac; Marziani, Paola; O'Dea, Christopher P.

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports on the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrum of three low-redshift (z ˜ 0.6) radio-loud quasars, 3C 95, 3C 57 and PKS 0405-123. The spectra were obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph of the Hubble Space Telescope. The bolometric thermal emission, Lbol, associated with the accretion flow is a large fraction of the Eddington limit for all of these sources. We estimate the long-term time-averaged jet power, overline{Q}, for the three sources. overline{Q}/L_{bol}, is shown to lie along the correlation of overline{Q}/L_{bol}, and αEUV found in previous studies of the EUV continuum of intermediate and high-redshift quasars, where the EUV continuum flux density between 1100 and 700 Å is defined by F_{ν } ˜ ν ^{-α _{EUV}}. The high Eddington ratios of the three quasars extend the analysis into a wider parameter space. Selecting quasars with high Eddington ratios has accentuated the statistical significance of the partial correlation analysis of the data. Namely, the correlation of overline{Q}/L_{bol} and αEUV is fundamental, and the correlation of overline{Q} and αEUV is spurious at a very high statistical significance level (99.8 per cent). This supports the regulating role of ram pressure of the accretion flow in magnetically arrested accretion models of jet production. In the process of this study, we use multifrequency and multiresolution Very Large Array radio observations to determine that one of the bipolar jets in 3C 57 is likely frustrated by galactic gas that keeps the jet from propagating outside the host galaxy.

  3. Progress in coherent lithography using table-top extreme ultraviolet lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei

    Nanotechnology has drawn a wide variety of attention as interesting phenomena occurs when the dimension of the structures is in the nanometer scale. The particular characteristics of nanoscale structures had enabled new applications in different fields in science and technology. Our capability to fabricate these nanostructures routinely for sure will impact the advancement of nanoscience. Apart from the high volume manufacturing in semiconductor industry, a small-scale but reliable nanofabrication tool can dramatically help the research in the field of nanotechnology. This dissertation describes alternative extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography techniques which combine table-top EUV laser and various cost-effective imaging strategies. For each technique, numerical simulations, system design, experiment result and its analysis will be presented. In chapter II, a brief review of the main characteristics of table-top EUV lasers will be addressed concentrating on its high power and large coherence radius that enable the lithography application described herein. The development of a Talbot EUV lithography system which is capable of printing 50nm half pitch nanopatterns will be illustrated in chapter III. A detailed discussion of its resolution limit will be presented followed by the development of X-Y-Z positioning stage, the fabrication protocol for diffractive EUV mask, and the pattern transfer using self- developed ion beam etching, and the dose control unit. In addition, this dissertation demonstrated the capability to fabricate functional periodic nanostructures using Talbot EUV lithography. After that, resolution enhancement techniques like multiple exposure, displacement Talbot EUV lithography, fractional Talbot EUV lithography, and Talbot lithography using 18.9nm amplified spontaneous emission laser will be demonstrated. Chapter IV will describe a hybrid EUV lithography which combines the Talbot imaging and interference lithography rendering a high resolution

  4. EUVE Observations of SS Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauche, C. W.; Raymond, J. C.; Mattei, J. A.

    1994-05-01

    Target-of-opportunity observations of the dwarf nova SS Cyg were made by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite on 1993 August 17--23. The observations cover the rise and plateau phases of a rare symmetric outburst which began on August ~ 15.5 and which reached maximum at V ~ 8.3 on August ~ 20. During the observations, the EUV brightness of the source as measured by the EUVE Deep Survey instrument (40--190 Angstroms ) rose from ~ 0.02 counts s(-1) to ~ 5 counts s(-1) . The EUV light curve rose more steeply than the optical light curve, manifesting a delay of ~ 1 day on August 17, but only ~ 0.5 day on August 19. The EUV spectrum recorded during this interval extends from the short-wavelength cutoff of the EUVE spectrometer at ~ 70 Angstroms \\ down to ~ 130 Angstroms . The spectrum is extremely rich in emission and absorption features due to high-ionization species of Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe superposed on a weak `blue' continuum. We present the optical and EUV light curves and short-wavelength EUV spectrum of this outburst of SS Cyg. Simple models are used to constrain the physical conditions of the EUV-radiating plasma as well as the column density of neutral material to the source due to the ISM and possibly the wind of this dwarf nova.

  5. EUV Resists: Illuminating the challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Naulleau, Patrick; Anderson, Christopher; George, Simi

    2011-06-01

    As extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography enters the commercialization phase with potential introduction at the 3x nm half-pitch node in 2013, the attention of advanced EUV resist research has turned to addressing patterning at 16-nm half pitch and below. Whereas line-edge roughness is the primary concern at 2x half pitch and larger, research at the 16-nm half pitch level is uncovering broader.

  6. Extreme Ultraviolet Emission Lines of Iron Fe XI-XIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepson, Jaan; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Liedahl, D. A.; Brickhouse, N. S.; Dupree, A. K.

    2013-04-01

    The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region (ca. 20--300 Å) is rich in emission lines from low- to mid-Z ions, particularly from the middle charge states of iron. Many of these emission lines are important diagnostics for astrophysical plasmas, providing information on properties such as elemental abundance, temperature, density, and even magnetic field strength. In recent years, strides have been made to understand the complexity of the atomic levels of the ions that emit the lines that contribute to the richness of the EUV region. Laboratory measurements have been made to verify and benchmark the lines. Here, we present laboratory measurements of Fe XI, Fe XII, and Fe XIII between 40-140 Å. The measurements were made at the Lawrence Livermore electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, which has been optimized for laboratory astrophysics, and which allows us to select specific charge states of iron to help line identification. We also present new calculations by the Hebrew University - Lawrence Livermore Atomic Code (HULLAC), which we also utilized for line identification. We found that HULLAC does a creditable job of reproducing the forest of lines we observed in the EBIT spectra, although line positions are in need of adjustment, and line intensities often differed from those observed. We identify or confirm a number of new lines for these charge states. This work was supported by the NASA Solar and Heliospheric Program under Contract NNH10AN31I and the DOE General Plasma Science program. Work was performed in part under the auspices of the Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DEAC52-07NA27344.

  7. Four wave mixing experiments with extreme ultraviolet transient gratings

    PubMed Central

    Bencivenga, F.; Cucini, R.; Capotondi, F.; Battistoni, A.; Mincigrucci, R.; Giangrisostomi, E.; Gessini, A.; Manfredda, M.; Nikolov, I. P.; Pedersoli, E.; Principi, E.; Svetina, C.; Parisse, P.; Casolari, F.; Danailov, M. B.; Kiskinova, M.; Masciovecchio, C.

    2015-01-01

    Four wave mixing (FWM) processes, based on third-order non-linear light-matter interactions, can combine ultrafast time resolution with energy and wavevector selectivity, and enables to explore dynamics inaccessible by linear methods.1-7 The coherent and multi-wave nature of FWM approach has been crucial in the development of cutting edge technologies, such as silicon photonics,8 sub-wavelength imaging9 and quantum communications.10 All these technologies operate with optical wavelengths, which limit the spatial resolution and do not allow probing excitations with energy in the eV range. The extension to shorter wavelengths, that is the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft-x-ray (SXR) range, will allow to improve the spatial resolution and to expand the excitation energy range, as well as to achieve elemental selectivity by exploiting core resonances.5-7,11-14 So far FWM applications at these wavelengths have been prevented by the absence of coherent sources of sufficient brightness and suitable experimental setups. Our results show how transient gratings, generated by the interference of coherent EUV pulses delivered by the FERMI free electron laser (FEL),15 can be used to stimulate FWM processes at sub-optical wavelengths. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the possibility to read the time evolution of the FWM signal, which embodies the dynamics of coherent excitations as molecular vibrations. This result opens the perspective for FWM with nanometer spatial resolution and elemental selectivity, which, for example, would enable the investigation of charge-transfer dynamics.5-7 The theoretical possibility to realize these applications have already stimulated dedicated and ongoing FEL developments;16-20 today our results show that FWM at sub-optical wavelengths is feasible and would be the spark to the further advancements of the present and new sources. PMID:25855456

  8. Solar extreme ultraviolet sensor and advanced langmuir probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voronka, N. R.; Block, B. P.; Carignan, G. R.

    1992-01-01

    For more than two decades, the staff of the Space Physics Research Laboratory (SPRL) has collaborated with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in the design and implementation of Langmuir probes (LP). This program of probe development under the direction of Larry Brace of GSFC has evolved methodically with innovations to: improve measurement precision, increase the speed of measurement, and reduce the weight, size, power consumption and data rate of the instrument. Under contract NAG5-419 these improvements were implemented and are what characterize the Advanced Langmuir Probe (ALP). Using data from the Langmuir Probe on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter, Brace and Walter Hoegy of GSFC demonstrated a novel method of monitoring the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) flux. This led to the idea of developing a sensor similar to a Langmuir probe specifically designed to measure solar EUV (SEUV) that uses a similar electronics package. Under this contract, a combined instrument package of the ALP and SEUV sensor was to be designed, constructed, and laboratory tested. Finally the instrument was to be flight tested as part of sounding rocket experiment to acquire the necessary data to validate this method for possible use in future earth and planetary aeronomy missions. The primary purpose of this contract was to develop the electronics hardware and software for this instrument, since the actual sensors were suppied by GSFC. Due to budget constraints, only a flight model was constructed. These electronics were tested and calibrated in the laboratory, and then the instrument was integrated into the rocket payload at Wallops Flight Facility where it underwent environmental testing. After instrument recalibration at SPRL, the payload was reintegrated and launched from the Poker Flat Research Range near Fairbanks Alaska. The payload was successfully recovered and after refurbishment underwent further testing and developing to improve its performance for future use.

  9. Extreme ultraviolet lithography mask etch study and overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Banqiu; Kumar, Ajay; Chandrachood, Madhavi; Sabharwal, Amitabh

    2013-04-01

    An overview of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) mask etch is presented and a EUVL mask etch study was carried out. Today, EUVL implementation has three critical challenges that hinder its adoption: extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source power, resist resolution-line width roughness-sensitivity, and a qualified EUVL mask. The EUVL mask defect challenges result from defects generated during blank preparation, absorber and multilayer deposition processes, as well as patterning, etching and wet clean processes. Stringent control on several performance criteria including critical dimension (CD) uniformity, etch bias, micro-loading, profile control, defect control, and high etch selectivity requirement to capping layer is required during the resist pattern duplication on the underlying absorber layer. EUVL mask absorbers comprise of mainly tantalum-based materials rather than chrome- or MoSi-based materials used in standard optical masks. Compared to the conventional chrome-based absorbers and phase shift materials, tantalum-based absorbers need high ion energy to obtain moderate etch rates. However, high ion energy may lower resist selectivity, and could introduce defects. Current EUVL mask consists of an anti-reflective layer on top of the bulk absorber. Recent studies indicate that a native oxide layer would suffice as an anti-reflective coating layer during the electron beam inspection. The absorber thickness and the material properties are optimized based on optical density targets for the mask as well as electromagnetic field effects and optics requirements of the patterning tools. EUVL mask etch processes are modified according to the structure of the absorber, its material, and thickness. However, etch product volatility is the fundamental requirement. Overlapping lithographic exposure near chip border may require etching through the multilayer, resulting in challenges in profile control and etch selectivity. Optical proximity correction is applied to further

  10. Detection of rotational modulation in the coronal extreme-ultraviolet emission from V711 Tauri?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy J.; Brown, Alex; Patterer, Robert J.; Vedder, Peter W.; Bowyer, Stuart; Guinan, Edward F.

    1994-01-01

    The RS CVn binary V711 Tauri was observed by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite (EUVE) twice during the latter half of 1992, for periods lasting several days. Light curves for the waveband 60-180 A derived from the all-sky survey scanning in August and from a pointed calibration observation made in October both exhibit a modulation of about 40%. The modulation in both data sets is very similar, with minimum flux occurring near orbital phase phi = 0.5. Analysis using a two-temperature optically thin plasma emission model reveals that most of the detected extreme ultraviolet (EUV) flux emanates from hot (approximately 10(exp 7) K) coronal plasma. The modulation is probably mostly due to either flare-like activity or to rotational occultation of a long-lived, compact, and especially bright coronal structure on the more active star of the system. The phased data support the latter hypothesis. This coronal structure is then likely to be associated with the presistent spot patterns seen on V711 Tau when using Doppler and photometric surface imaging techniques. Comparison with contemporaneous Stroemgren b-band photometry indicates that the optical minimum light leads the EUV maximum light by 90 deg in phase.

  11. Detection of rotational modulation in the coronal extreme-ultraviolet emission from V711 Tauri?

    PubMed

    Drake, J J; Brown, A; Patterer, R J; Vedder, P W; Bowyer, S; Guinan, E F

    1994-01-20

    The RS CVn binary V711 Tauri was observed by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite (EUVE) twice during the latter half of 1992, for periods lasting several days. Light curves for the waveband 60-180 angstroms derived from the all-sky survey scanning in August and from a pointed calibration observation made in October both exhibit a modulation of about 40%. The modulation in both data sets is very similar, with minimum flux occurring near orbital phase phi=0.5. Analysis using a two-temperature optically thin plasma emission model reveals that most of the detected extreme ultraviolet (EUV) flux emanates from hot (approximately 10(7) K) coronal plasma. The modulation is probably mostly due to either flare-like activity or to rotational occultation of a long-lived, compact, and especially bright coronal structure on the more active star of the system. The phased data support the latter hypothesis. This coronal structure is then likely to be associated with the persistent spot patterns seen on V711 Tau when using Doppler and photometric surface imaging techniques. Comparison with contemporaneous Stromgren b-band photometry indicates that the optical minimum light leads the EUV maximum light by 90 degrees in phase.

  12. Instrumentation development for the EUVE. [Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, D.

    1980-01-01

    The prototype mirror was successfully replated with a thick layer of nickel and diamond turned again. Optimization of the sensitivity of the instruments was studied with emphasis on the filter material, and on the available telemetry. The JHU Preliminary Project Definition Document was critically analyzed. Further studies of the electron cloud distribution produced by a channel plate were performed, and a wedge and strip anode with 17 quartets per inch was shown to image with better than 0.5% linearity. Half the microchannel plates being used in the lifetest completed initial processing and are in the lifetest vacuum chamber.

  13. Overlying extreme-ultraviolet arcades preventing eruption of a filament observed by AIA/SDO

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Huadong; Ma, Suli; Zhang, Jun

    2013-11-20

    Using the multi-wavelength data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly/Solar Dynamic Observatory (AIA/SDO) and the Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation/Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (SECCHI/STEREO), we report a failed filament eruption in NOAA AR 11339 on 2011 November 3. The eruption was associated with an X1.9 flare, but without any coronal mass ejection (CME), coronal dimming, or extreme ultraviolet (EUV) waves. Some magnetic arcades above the filament were observed distinctly in EUV channels, especially in the AIA 94 Å and 131 Å wavebands, before and during the filament eruption process. Our results show that the overlying arcades expanded along with the ascent of the filament at first until they reached a projected height of about 49 Mm above the Sun's surface, where they stopped. The following filament material was observed to be confined by the stopped EUV arcades and not to escape from the Sun. After the flare, a new filament formed at the low corona where part of the former filament remained before its eruption. These results support that the overlying arcades play an important role in preventing the filament from successfully erupting outward. We also discuss in this paper the EUV emission of the overlying arcades during the flare. It is rare for a failed filament eruption to be associated with an X1.9 class flare, but not with a CME or EUV waves. Therefore, this study also provides valuable insight into the triggering mechanism of the initiation of CMEs and EUV waves.

  14. A chain of winking (oscillating) filaments triggered by an invisible extreme-ultraviolet wave

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yuandeng; Tian, Zhanjun; Zhao, Ruijuan; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Ishii, Takako T.; Shibata, Kazunari

    2014-05-10

    Winking (oscillating) filaments have been observed for many years. However, observations of successive winking filaments in one event have not yet been reported. In this paper, we present the observations of a chain of winking filaments and a subsequent jet that are observed right after the X2.1 flare in AR11283. The event also produced an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave that has two components: an upward dome-like wave (850 km s{sup –1}) and a lateral surface wave (554 km s{sup –1}) that was very weak (or invisible) in imaging observations. By analyzing the temporal and spatial relationships between the oscillating filaments and the EUV waves, we propose that all the winking filaments and the jet were triggered by the weak (or invisible) lateral surface EUV wave. The oscillation of the filaments last for two or three cycles, and their periods, Doppler velocity amplitudes, and damping times are 11-22 minutes, 6-14 km s{sup –1}, and 25-60 minutes, respectively. We further estimate the radial component magnetic field and the maximum kinetic energy of the filaments, and they are 5-10 G and ∼10{sup 19} J, respectively. The estimated maximum kinetic energy is comparable to the minimum energy of ordinary EUV waves, suggesting that EUV waves can efficiently launch filament oscillations on their path. Based on our analysis results, we conclude that the EUV wave is a good agent for triggering and connecting successive but separated solar activities in the solar atmosphere, and it is also important for producing solar sympathetic eruptions.

  15. Challenges in constructing EUV metrology tools to qualify the EUV masks for HVM implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, David C.; Dong, Feng; Perera, Chami N.; Perera, Rupert C. C.

    2015-09-01

    Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography is still viewed as the most promising approach for maintaining the pace of Moore's Law. Recent real achievements in EUV Lithography (EUVL) have encouraged semiconductor manufacturers to reconsider their road maps. One of the principal challenges in the ongoing EUVL implementation for high volume manufacturing (HVM) is the availability of necessary clean at wavelength metrology tools. EUV Tech is the world's leading manufacturer of at-wavelength EUV metrology equipment. Founded in 1997, EUV Tech has pioneered the development of several stand-alone inspection, metrology, and calibration tools for EUV lithographic applications that can be operated in a clean room environment on the floor of a fab. In this paper, EUV Tech's R&D program to minimize particle adders in our EUV Reflectometer along with the ongoing effort to enhance the reflectivity and wavelength, precision and accuracy required to qualify the EUV masks for HVM. In addition to preliminary results from our stand alone EUV Scatterometer developed to characterize the phase roughness of a EUV mask and the introduction of EUV Tech's Pellicle test suite for testing EUV pellicles.

  16. EUV Lithography: New Metrology Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Obert

    2007-09-26

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography is one of the most promising printing techniques for high volume semiconductor manufacturing at the 22 nm half-pitch device node and beyond. Because its imaging wavelength is approximately twenty times shorter than those currently in use (13.5 nm versus 193-248 nm) and because EUV optics and masks must be provided with highly-precise reflective multilayer coatings, EUV lithography presents a number of new and difficult metrology challenges. In this paper, the current status of the metrology tools being used to characterize the figure and finish of EUV mirror surfaces, the defectivity and flatness of EUV mask blanks and the outgassing rates of EUV resist materials are discussed.

  17. Organometallic carboxylate resists for extreme ultraviolet with high sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passarelli, James; Murphy, Michael; Re, Ryan Del; Sortland, Miriam; Hotalen, Jodi; Dousharm, Levi; Fallica, Roberto; Ekinci, Yasin; Neisser, Mark; Freedman, Daniel A.; Brainard, Robert L.

    2015-10-01

    We have developed organometallic carboxylate compounds [RnM)] capable of acting as negative-tone extreme ultraviolet (EUV) resists. The most sensitive of these resists contain antimony, three R-groups and two carboxylate groups, and carboxylate groups with polymerizable olefins (e.g., acrylate, methacrylate, or styrenecarboxylate). Evidence suggests that high sensitivity is achieved through the polymerization of olefins in the exposed region. We have performed a systematic sensitivity study of the molecules of the type RnM) where we have studied seven R groups, four main group metals (M), and three polymerizable carboxylate groups (O2CR‧). The sensitivity of these resists was evaluated using Emax or dose to maximum resist thickness after exposure and development. We found that the greatest predictor of sensitivity of the RnSb) resists is their level of polymerizable olefins. We mathematically define the polymerizable olefin loading (POL) as the ratio of the number of olefins versus the number of nonhydrogen atoms. Linear and log plots of Emax versus POL for a variety of molecules of the type R3Sb) lend insight into the behavior of these resists.

  18. Extreme and far ultraviolet astronomy from Voyagers 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holberg, J. B.

    1990-01-01

    The instrumental characteristics, observational capabilities and scientific results of the Voyager 1 and 2 ultraviolet spectrometers are reviewed. These instruments provide current and ongoing access to low resolution spectra for a wide variety of astronomical sources in the 500 to 1700 A band. Observations of the brightest OB stars and hot subluminous stars as faint as V = 15 mag, are possible. In the EUV, at wavelengths shortward of 900 A, several new sources have been detected and a host of potential sources ruled out. In the far UV, particularly at wavelengths between 900 and 1200 A, Voyager is capable of observing a wide range of stellar and non-stellar sources. Such observations can often provide a valuable complement to IUE and other data sets at longer wavelengths. The Voyager spectrometers have proved remarkably stable photon counting instruments, capable of extremely long integration times. The long integration times, relatively large field of view, and location in the outer solar system also provide an ideal platform for observations of sources of faint diffuse emission, such as nebulae and the general sky background.

  19. Technique for rapid at-wavelength inspection of extreme ultraviolet mask blanks

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, S. J.; White, D. L.; Tennant, D. M.; Ocola, L. E.; Novembre, A. E.; Peabody, M. L.; Wood, O. R. II

    1999-11-01

    We have developed two new methods for at-wavelength inspection of mask blanks for extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. In one method an EUV photoresist is applied directly to a mask blank which is then flood exposed with EUV light and partially developed. In the second method, the photoresist is applied to an EUV transparent membrane that is placed in close proximity to the mask and then exposed and developed. Both reflectivity defects and phase defects alter the exposure of the resist, resulting in mounds of resist at defect sites that can then be located by visual inspection. In the direct application method, a higher contrast resist was shown to increase the height of the mounds, thereby improving the sensitivity of the technique. In the membrane method, a holographic technique was used to reconstruct an image of the mask, revealing the presence of very small defects, approximately 0.2 {mu}m in size. The demonstrated clean transfer of phase and amplitude defects to resist features on a membrane will be important when flagging defects in an automatic inspection tool. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society.

  20. STUDY OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE ASSOCIATIONS WITH CORONAL EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jinhye; Moon, Y.-J.; Innes, D. E.; Bucik, R.; Kahler, S. W.

    2015-07-20

    We study the relationship between large gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events and associated extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave properties in 16 events that occurred between 2010 August and 2013 May and were observed by SDO, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and/or STEREO. We determine onset times, peak times, and peak fluxes of the SEP events in the SOHO/ERNE and STEREO/LET proton channels (6–10 MeV). The EUV wave arrival times and their speeds from the source sites to the spacecraft footpoints in the photosphere, which are magnetically connected to the spacecraft by Parker spiral and potential fields, are determined by spacetime plots from the full-Sun heliographic images created by combining STEREO-A and STEREO-B 195 Å and SDO 193 Å images. The SEP peak fluxes increase with the EUV wave speeds, and the SEP spectral indices become harder with the speeds. This shows that higher energetic particle fluxes are associated with faster EUV waves, which are considered as the lateral expansions of coronal-mass-ejection-driven shocks in the low corona.

  1. Study of Solar Energetic Particle Associations with Coronal Extreme-ultraviolet Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jinhye; Innes, D. E.; Bucik, R.; Moon, Y.-J.; Kahler, S. W.

    2015-07-01

    We study the relationship between large gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events and associated extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave properties in 16 events that occurred between 2010 August and 2013 May and were observed by SDO, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and/or STEREO. We determine onset times, peak times, and peak fluxes of the SEP events in the SOHO/ERNE and STEREO/LET proton channels (6-10 MeV). The EUV wave arrival times and their speeds from the source sites to the spacecraft footpoints in the photosphere, which are magnetically connected to the spacecraft by Parker spiral and potential fields, are determined by spacetime plots from the full-Sun heliographic images created by combining STEREO-A and STEREO-B 195 Å and SDO 193 Å images. The SEP peak fluxes increase with the EUV wave speeds, and the SEP spectral indices become harder with the speeds. This shows that higher energetic particle fluxes are associated with faster EUV waves, which are considered as the lateral expansions of coronal-mass-ejection-driven shocks in the low corona.

  2. Considerations for a free-electron laser-based extreme-ultraviolet lithography program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosler, Erik R.; Wood, Obert R.; Barletta, William A.; Mangat, Pawitter J. S.; Preil, Moshe E.

    2015-03-01

    Recent years have seen great strides in the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) laser-produced plasma sources. Field deployed EUV exposure tools are now capable of facilitating advanced technology node development. Nevertheless, as the required manufacturing exposure dose scales, EUV sources must follow suit and provide 500- 1000 W to maintain production throughputs. A free-electron laser (FEL) offers a cost effective, single-source alternative for powering an entire EUV lithography program. FEL integration into semiconductor fab architecture will require both unique facility considerations as well as a paradigm shift in lithography operations. Critical accelerator configurations relating to energy recovery, multi-turn acceleration, and operational mode are discussed from engineering/scientific, cost-minimization, and safety perspectives. Furthermore, the individual components of a FEL (electron injector, RF systems, undulator, etc.) are examined with respect to both design and cost, considering existing technology as well as prospective innovations. Finally, FEL development and deployment roadmaps are presented, focusing on manufacturer deployment for the 5 nm or 3 nm technology nodes.[1-3

  3. Extreme-ultraviolet polarimeter utilizing laser-generated high-order harmonics.

    PubMed

    Brimhall, Nicole; Turner, Matthew; Herrick, Nicholas; Allred, David D; Turley, R Steven; Ware, Michael; Peatross, Justin

    2008-10-01

    We describe an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) polarimeter that employs laser-generated high-order harmonics as the light source. The polarimeter is designed to characterize materials and thin films for use with EUV light. Laser high harmonics are highly directional with easily rotatable linear polarization, not typically available with other EUV sources. The harmonics have good wavelength coverage, potentially spanning the entire EUV from a few to a hundred nanometers. Our instrument is configured to measure reflectances from 14 to 30 nm and has approximately 180 spectral resolution (lambda/Delta lambda). The reflection from a sample surface can be measured over a continuous range of incident angles (5 degrees-75 degrees). A secondary 14 cm gas cell attenuates the harmonics in a controlled way to keep signals within the linear dynamic range of the detector, comprised of a microchannel plate coupled to a phosphorous screen and charge coupled device camera. The harmonics are produced using approximately 10 mJ, approximately 35 fs, and approximately 800 nm laser pulses with a repetition rate of 10 Hz. Per-shot energy monitoring of the laser discriminates against fluctuations. The polarimeter reflectance data agree well with data obtained at the Advanced Light Source Synchrotron (Beamline 6.3.2).

  4. At-wavelength characterization of the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand Set-2 optic

    SciTech Connect

    Naulleau, Patrick; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Anderson, Erik H.; Batson, Phillip; Denham, Paul E.; Jackson, Keith H.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Rekawa, Senajith; Bokor, Jeffrey

    2001-06-10

    At-wavelength interferometric characterization of a new 4x-reduction lithographic-quality extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical system is described. This state-of-the-art projection optic was fabricated for installation in the EUV lithography Engineering Test Stand (ETS) and is referred to as the ETS Set-2 optic. EUV characterization of the Set-2 optic is performed using the EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) installed on an undulator beamline at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source. This is the same interferometer previously used for the at-wavelength characterization and alignment of the ETS Set-1 optic. In addition to the PS/PDI-based full-field wavefront characterization, we also present wavefront measurements performed with lateral shearing interferometry, the chromatic dependence of the wavefront error, and the system-level pupil-dependent spectral-bandpass characteristics of the optic; the latter two properties are only measurable using at-wavelength interferometry.

  5. Viability of pattern shift for defect-free extreme ultraviolet lithography photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhengqing John; Rankin, Jed; Narita, Eisuke; Kagawa, Masayuki

    2016-04-01

    Several challenges hinder extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) photomask fabrication and its readiness for high-volume manufacturing (HVM). The lack in availability of pristine defect-free blanks as well as the absence of a robust mask repair technique mandates defect mitigation through pattern shift for the production of defect-free photomasks. By using known defect locations on a blank, the mask design can be intentionally shifted to avoid patterning directly over a defect. The work presented here provides a comprehensive look at pattern shift implementation to intersect EUV HVM for the 7-nm technology node (N7). An empirical error budget to compensate for various measurement errors, based on the latest HVM inspection and write tool capabilities, is first established and then verified postpatterning. The validated error budget is applied to 20 representative EUV blanks and pattern shift is performed using fully functional N7 chip designs that were recently used to fabricate working silicon-germanium devices. Probability of defect-free masks are explored for various N7 photomask levels, including metal, contact, and gate cut layers. From these results, an assessment is made on the current viability of defect-free EUV masks and what is required to construct a complete defect-free EUV mask set.

  6. Thermalization of electrons in decaying extreme ultraviolet photons induced low pressure argon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, J.; van der Horst, R. M.; Osorio, E. A.; Kroesen, G. M. W.; Banine, V. Y.

    2016-06-01

    We monitored—in the pressure range: 0.5-15 Pa—the electron temperature in decaying plasmas induced in argon gas by pulsed irradiation with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons with wavelengths closely around 13.5 nm. For this purpose, temporal measurements of the space-averaged and electric field weighted electron density after pulsed EUV irradiation are combined with an ambipolar diffusion model of the plasma. Results demonstrate that electrons are thermalized to room temperature before the plasma has fully expanded to the chamber walls for pressures of 3 Pa and higher. At pressures below 3 Pa, the electron temperature was found to be up to 0.1 eV above room temperature which is explained by the fact that plasma expansion is too quick for the electrons to fully thermalize. The comparison between plasma expansion duration towards a surface, plasma decay at a surface and time needed for thermalization and cooling of electrons is essential for designers of EUV lithography tools and EUV sources since the temperature of electrons dictates many fundamental physical processes.

  7. Electron-Impact-Induced Emission Cross Sections of Neon in the Extreme Ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanik, I.; Ajello, J. M.; James, G. K.

    1996-01-01

    We have measured the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrum of neon produced by electron excitation. The measurements were obtained under optically thin conditions, and at a spectral resolution of 0.5 nm full width at half maximum (FWHM). The most prominent features of the EUV spectrum between 45-80 nm are the resonance lines of Ne I at 73.6 and 74.4 nm and a multiplet of Ne II at 46.14 nm (the average value for the line center of the two closely spaced ion lines at 46.07 and 46.22 nm). Absolute emission cross sections of these lines at 300 eV were measured and compared to other previous measurements.

  8. Interplay of electron heating and saturable absorption in ultrafast extreme ultraviolet transmission of condensed matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Cicco, Andrea; Hatada, Keisuke; Giangrisostomi, Erika; Gunnella, Roberto; Bencivenga, Filippo; Principi, Emiliano; Masciovecchio, Claudio; Filipponi, Adriano

    2014-12-01

    High intensity pulses obtained by modern extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and x-ray photon sources allows the observation of peculiar phenomena in condensed matter. Experiments performed at the Fermi@Elettra FEL-1 free-electron-laser source at 23.7, 33.5, and 37.5 eV on Al thin films, for an intermediate-fluence range up to about 20 J /cm2, show evidence for a nonmonotonic EUV transmission trend. A decreasing transmission up to about 5 -10 J /cm2 is followed by an increase at higher fluence, associated with saturable absorption effects. The present findings are interpreted within a simplified three-channel model, showing that an account of the interplay between ultrafast electron heating and saturation effects is required to explain the observed transmission trend.

  9. Acid generation mechanism in anion-bound chemically amplified resists used for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komuro, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Ohomori, Katsumi; Kozawa, Takahiro

    2015-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is the most promising candidate for the high-volume production of semiconductor devices with half-pitches of sub 10nm. An anion-bound polymer(ABP), in which at the anion part of onium salts is polymerized, has attracted much attention from the viewpoint of the control of acid diffusion. In this study, the acid generation mechanism in ABP films was investigated using γ and EUV radiolysis. On the basis of experimental results, the acid generation mechanism in anion-bound chemically amplified resists was proposed. The protons of acids are considered to be mainly generated through the reaction of phenyl radicals with diphenylsulfide radical cations that are produced through the hole transfer to the decomposition products of onium salts.

  10. Acid generation mechanism in anion-bound chemically amplified resists used for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komuro, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Utsumi, Yoshiyuki; Ohomori, Katsumi; Kozawa, Takahiro

    2014-11-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is the most promising candidate for the high-volume production of semiconductor devices with half-pitches of sub-10 nm. An anion-bound polymer (ABP), in which the anion part of onium salts is polymerized, has attracted much attention from the viewpoint of the control of acid diffusion. In this study, the acid generation mechanism in ABP films was investigated using electron (pulse), γ, and EUV radiolyses. On the basis of experimental results, the acid generation mechanism in anion-bound chemically amplified resists was proposed. The major path for proton generation in the absence of effective proton sources is considered to be the reaction of phenyl radicals with diphenylsulfide radical cations that are produced through hole transfer to the decomposition products of onium salts.

  11. Note: Thermally stable thin-film filters for high-power extreme-ultraviolet applications.

    PubMed

    Tarrio, C; Berg, R F; Lucatorto, T B; Lairson, B; Lopez, H; Ayers, T

    2015-11-01

    We investigated several types of thin-film filters for high intensity work in the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range. In our application, with a peak EUV intensity of 2.7 W cm(-2), Ni-mesh-backed Zr filters have a typical lifetime of 20 h, at which point they suffer from pinholes and a 50% loss of transmission. Initial trials with Si filters on Ni meshes resulted in rupture of the filters in less than an hour. A simple thermal calculation showed that the temperature rise in those filters to be about 634 K. A similar calculation indicated that using a finer mesh with thicker wires and made of Cu reduces the temperature increase to about 60 K. We have exposed a Si filter backed by such a mesh for more than 60 h with little loss of transmission and no leaks.

  12. Thermally stable thin-film filters for high-power extreme-ultraviolet applications

    PubMed Central

    Tarrio, C.; Berg, R. F.; Lucatorto, T. B.; Lairson, B.; Lopez, H.; Ayers, T.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated several types of thin-film filters for high intensity work in the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range. In our application, with a peak EUV intensity of 2.7 W cm−2, Ni-mesh-backed Zr filters have a typical lifetime of 20 hours, at which point they suffer from pinholes and a 50 % loss of transmission. Initial trials with Si filters on Ni meshes resulted in rupture of the filters in less than an hour. A simple thermal calculation showed that the temperature rise in those filters to be about 634 K. A similar calculation indicated that using a finer mesh with thicker wires and made of Cu reduces the temperature increase to about 60 K. We have exposed a Si filter backed by such a mesh for more than 60 hours with little loss of transmission and no leaks. PMID:26628184

  13. Minimization of the shadow patterns produced by periodic mesh grids in extreme ultraviolet telescopes.

    PubMed

    Auchère, Frédéric; Rizzi, Julien; Philippon, Anne; Rochus, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Thin metallic films are used as passband filters in space telescopes operating in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). Because of their thinness, typically 100 to 200 nm, they are very sensitive to static pressure differentials and to mechanic and acoustic vibrations. Therefore, they are difficult to manage in all phases of a space program, from manufacturing to vacuum testing to launch. A common solution to this problem is to reinforce them with fine mesh grids with pitches ranging from a few hundred micrometers to a few millimeters. Depending on their location in the optical path, the main effect of these periodic grids is either to diffract light or to cast penumbral shadows on the focal plane. In this paper, we analyze the formation of the shadow modulation patterns and derive design rules to minimize their amplitude. The minimization principle is illustrated by an application to a solar EUV telescope.

  14. A desktop extreme ultraviolet microscope based on a compact laser-plasma light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachulak, P. W.; Torrisi, A.; Bartnik, A.; Węgrzyński, Ł.; Fok, T.; Fiedorowicz, H.

    2017-01-01

    A compact, desktop size microscope, based on laser-plasma source and equipped with reflective condenser and diffractive Fresnel zone plate objective, operating in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region at the wavelength of 13.8 nm, was developed. The microscope is capable of capturing magnified images of objects with 95-nm full-pitch spatial resolution (48 nm 25-75% KE) and exposure time as low as a few seconds, combining reasonable acquisition conditions with stand-alone desktop footprint. Such EUV microscope can be regarded as a complementary imaging tool to already existing, well-established ones. Details about the microscope, characterization, resolution estimation and real sample images are presented and discussed.

  15. Large-solid-angle illuminators for extreme ultraviolet lithography with laser plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiak, G.D.; Tichenor, D.A.; Sweatt, W.C.; Chow, W.W.

    1995-06-01

    Laser Plasma Sources (LPSS) of extreme ultraviolet radiation are an attractive alternative to synchrotron radiation sources for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) due to their modularity, brightness, and modest size and cost. To fully exploit the extreme ultraviolet power emitted by such sources, it is necessary to capture the largest possible fraction of the source emission half-sphere while simultaneously optimizing the illumination stationarity and uniformity on the object mask. In this LDRD project, laser plasma source illumination systems for EUVL have been designed and then theoretically and experimentally characterized. Ellipsoidal condensers have been found to be simple yet extremely efficient condensers for small-field EUVL imaging systems. The effects of aberrations in such condensers on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging have been studied with physical optics modeling. Lastly, the design of an efficient large-solid-angle condenser has been completed. It collects 50% of the available laser plasma source power at 14 nm and delivers it properly to the object mask in a wide-arc-field camera.

  16. Extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-induced plasma relevance to neutral gas environment simulation in LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, Masahito; Kimoto, Yugo; Yokota, Kumiko; Ohira, Junki; Watanabe, Daiki; Nishimura, Hiroaki

    The reaction mechanism of atomic oxygen (AO) in low Earth orbit (LEO) with spacecraft materials has been studied by ground-based experiments using laser-detonation hyperthermal beam source, which enables to accelerate the electrically neutral AO up to 8 km/s. However, the beam conditions in the laser-detonation sources could not fully duplicate the AO environment in space. The difference in beam condition including side products leads to the different material responses. The light emission from the laser-induced oxygen plasma may affect the erosion of ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive materials. However, the light emission could also be used as a diagnostic tool to understand the molecular processes in plasma. In this presentation, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission from the laser-induced plasma during AO test was evaluated by the flat field EUV spectrometer. Many emission lines between 25-40 nm originated from OII and OIII were observed from the laser-induced oxygen plasma. This result suggested multiple-charged O ions are generated in the laser-induced plasma. Promotion of oxygen dissociation effect by adding Ar in the target gas was explained by the energy transfer processes from Ar to O2 in the plasma. From the viewpoint of reducing the side products in the AO exposure tests, a method to reduce the EUV emission will also be investigated. These results could be used for establishing more accurate ground-based natural gas simulations on the space environmental effect of materials.

  17. MAGNETIC RECONNECTION: FROM 'OPEN' EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET LOOPS TO CLOSED POST-FLARE ONES OBSERVED BY SDO

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun; Yang, Shuhong; Li, Ting; Zhang, Yuzong; Li, Leping; Jiang, Chaowei E-mail: shuhongyang@nao.cas.cn E-mail: yuzong@nao.cas.cn E-mail: cwjiang@spaceweather.ac.cn

    2013-10-10

    We employ Solar Dynamics Observatory observations and select three well-observed events including two flares and one extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) brightening. During the three events, the EUV loops clearly changed. One event was related to a major solar flare that took place on 2012 July 12 in active region NOAA AR 11520. 'Open' EUV loops rooted in a facula of the AR deflected to the post-flare loops and then merged with them while the flare ribbon approached the facula. Meanwhile, 'open' EUV loops rooted in a pore disappeared from top to bottom as the flare ribbon swept over the pore. The loop evolution was similar in the low-temperature channels (e.g., 171 Å) and the high-temperature channels (e.g., 94 Å). The coronal magnetic fields extrapolated from the photospheric vector magnetograms also show that the fields apparently 'open' prior to the flare become closed after it. The other two events were associated with a B1.1 flare on 2010 May 24 and an EUV brightening on 2013 January 03, respectively. During both of these two events, some 'open' loops either disappeared or darkened before the formation of new closed loops. We suggest that the observations reproduce the picture predicted by the standard magnetic reconnection model: 'open' magnetic fields become closed due to reconnection, manifesting as a transformation from 'open' EUV loops to closed post-flare ones.

  18. Surface evaluation of the grazing incidence mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James; Finley, David S.; Bowyer, Stuart; Malina, Roger F.

    1987-01-01

    The EUV scattering from the Wolter-Schwarzschild type I short wavelength scanner mirror aboard the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer is measured, and the results are used to evaluate the surface microroughness of the mirror. It is found that the most likely values for the mirror surface are sigma = 20 A, and rho = 40 microns. These results are consistent with previous estimates, but with a higher degree of certainty. The full-scale simulation presented here allows over 99 percent of the light distribution to be reasonably modeled.

  19. Grazing incidence metal optics for the Berkeley Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite - A progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, D.; Malina, R. F.; Bowyer, S.

    1985-01-01

    The four flight Wolter-Schwarzschild mirrors currently under fabrication for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite are described. The principal figuring operation of these grazing incidence metal mirrors (gold over nickel on an aluminum substrate) is carried out by diamond turning at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. Turning has been accomplished and optical testing results analyzed for three of the mirrors. As-turned values of 1.7 arc sec full width at half maximum (FWHM) and half energy width (HEW) of 5 arc seconds in the visible have been achieved. These results illustrate the great potential of precision fabrication technology for the production of large grazing incidence optics.

  20. Novel high sensitivity EUV photoresist for sub-7nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Tomoki; Nakagawa, Hisashi; Naruoka, Takehiko; Tagawa, Seiichi; Oshima, Akihiro; Nagahara, Seiji; Shiraishi, Gosuke; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Terashita, Yuichi; Minekawa, Yukie; Buitrago, Elizabeth; Ekinci, Yasin; Yildirim, Oktay; Meeuwissen, Marieke; Hoefnagels, Rik; Rispens, Gijsbert; Verspaget, Coen; Maas, Raymond

    2016-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) has been recognized as the most promising candidate for the manufacture of semiconductor devices for the 7 nm node and beyond. A key point in the successful introduction of EUV lithography in high volume manufacture (HVM) is the effective EUV dose utilization while simultaneously realizing ultra-high resolution and low line edge roughness (LER). Here we show EUV resist sensitivity improvement with the use of a photosensitized chemically amplified resist PSCARTM system. The evaluation of this new chemically amplified resist (CAR) as performed using EUV interference lithography (EUV-IL) is described and the fundamentals are discussed.

  1. EUV and infra-red lines of Fe 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, P. R.; Mason, Helen E.; Thomas, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    New level population calculations for Fe-XIII are presented, and line intensities predicted. The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lines are compared with the recent observations of the solar extreme ultraviolet rocket telescope and spectrograph (SERTS), and density estimates for the active region are given. Uses of the Fe-XIII lines are suggested, both for the sun and other stars, and the possibility of coordinating SOHO studies of EUV lines with ground based observations of Fe-XIII infrared lines is discussed.

  2. Effect of xenon bombardment on ruthenium-coated grazing incidence collector mirror lifetime for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, Martin; Allain, Jean-Paul; Titov, Vladimir; Hendricks, Matthew R.; Hassanein, Ahmed; Rokusek, Daniel; Chrobak, Christopher; Tarrio, Charles; Barad, Yaniv; Grantham, Steven; Lucatorto, Thomas B.; Rice, Brian

    2006-09-01

    The effect of energetic xenon ion bombardment on the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflectivity performance of mirrors is of vital importance for the performance of discharge- and laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet lithography sources. To study these effects, we measured absolute and relative reflectivities at the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the Interaction of Materials with Particles and Components Testing facility to quantify the effects of singly ionized Xe ion bombardment on the reflectivity of Ru EUV collector mirrors. Results show that unity sputtering is reached at Xe{sup +} energies near 400-500 eV. The Xe{sup +}-induced sputter yield decreases an order of magnitude with only a 60% decrease in energy. Incident angle-dependent data of Xe{sup +} bombardment show that the sputter yield is weakly dependent on angle at energies near 1 keV. Dynamic measurements of in situ EUV reflectivity during Xe{sup +} irradiation show that the oxygen state of the reflecting mirror has a significant effect on reflectivity performance. For example, 13.5 nm light reflecting from an oxygen-rich mirror results in over a 40% loss in reflectivity. These studies also found that the surface roughness increased only at the atomic scale (subnanometer scale) when exposed to energetic Xe{sup +} and thus did not contribute to EUV reflectivity losses except for cases of very high fluences (>10{sup 16} cm{sup -2})

  3. Extreme Ultraviolet Solar Spectroscopy with CHIPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurwitz, Mark V.; Sasseen, T. P.; Sirk, M.; Marchant, W.; McDonald, J.; Thorsness, J.; Lewis, M.; Woods, T.

    2006-12-01

    The Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS) can be utilized to collect extreme ultraviolet spectra of the full solar disk. CHIPS has been collecting solar spectra since late 2005, although the observation geometry was not standardized until April 2006. Since that time, CHIPS has been accumulating spectra on nearly a daily basis. As for the diffuse emission that CHIPS was designed to observe, the bandpass is about 90 to 260 Å, with a peak resolution (λ/Δλ) of about 100. The instrumental efficiency as a function of wavelength is expected to be stable, but is subject to an overall scale factor that is less certain. We explain how CHIPS can collect these spectra, and present representative results.

  4. Femtosecond transparency in the extreme ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarana, Michal; Greene, Chris H.

    2012-06-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency-like behavior in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) is studied theoretically, including the effect of intense 800nm laser dressing of He 2s2p(^1P^o) and 2p^2(^2S^e) autoionizing states. We present an ab initio solution of the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation in an LS-coupling configuration interaction basis set. The method enables a rigorous treatment of optical field ionization of these coupled autoionizing states into the N = 2 continuum in addition to N = 1. Our calculated transient absorption spectra show the formation of the Autler-Townes doublet in the presence of the dressing laser field. The presented results are in encouraging agreement with experiment [1]. [4pt] [1] Z.H. Loh, C.H. Greene, and S. R. Leone, Chem. Phys. 350, 7 (2008)

  5. EUNIS: Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Davila, J. M.

    2001-05-01

    GSFC is in the process of assembling an Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer called EUNIS, to be flown as a sounding rocket payload. This instrument builds on the many technical innovations pioneered by our highly successful SERTS experiment, which has now flown a total of ten times, most recently last summer. The new design will have somewhat improved spatial and spectral resolutions, as well as two orders of magnitude greater sensitivity, permitting high signal/noise EUV spectroscopy with a temporal resolution near 1~second for the first time ever. In order to achieve such high time cadence, a novel detector system is being developed, based on Active-Pixel-Sensor electronics, a key component of our design. The high sensitivity of EUNIS will allow entirely new studies of transient coronal phenomena, such as the rapid loop dynamics seen by TRACE, and searches for non-thermal motions indicative of magnetic reconnection or wave heating. Another observing mode will be to raster a two dimensional region on the disk, giving data on much larger solar areas than could be covered with SERTS. The increased sensitivity will also permit useful EUV spectra at heights of 2--3~Rsun above the limb, where the transition between the static corona and the solar wind might occur. In addition, the new design features two independent optical systems, which more than double the spectral bandwidth covered on each flight. Its 300--370Å bandpass includes He~II 304Å and strong lines from Fe~XI--XVI, extending the current SERTS range of 300--355Å to further improve our ongoing series of calibration under-flights for SOHO/CDS and EIT. The second bandpass of 170--230Å has a sequence of very strong Fe~IX--XIV lines, and will allow under-flight support for two more channels on SOHO/EIT, two channels on TRACE, one on Solar-B/EIS, and all four channels on the STEREO/EUVI instrument. First flight of the new EUNIS payload is scheduled for 2002 October from White Sands Missile Range

  6. Imaging polarimeters for solar extreme ultraviolet astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Fineschi, Silvano; Fontenla, Juan M.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Accounts are given of EUV/FUV polarimetric instrument concepts for solar research which observe linear polarization in the spectral lines which originate in the outer solar atmosphere. The coronagraph/polarimeter instruments discussed employ all-reflective optical systems using ultrasmooth, low-scatter normal incidence mirrors and reflective polarization analyzers. The reflecting polarization analyzers operate at the Brewster angle.

  7. Advanced materials for multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet solar astronomy.

    PubMed

    Bogachev, S A; Chkhalo, N I; Kuzin, S V; Pariev, D E; Polkovnikov, V N; Salashchenko, N N; Shestov, S V; Zuev, S Y

    2016-03-20

    We provide an analysis of contemporary multilayer optics for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) solar astronomy in the wavelength ranges: λ=12.9-13.3  nm, λ=17-21  nm, λ=28-33  nm, and λ=58.4  nm. We found new material pairs, which will make new spaceborne experiments possible due to the high reflection efficiencies, spectral resolution, and long-term stabilities of the proposed multilayer coatings. In the spectral range λ=13  nm, Mo/Be multilayer mirrors were shown to demonstrate a better ratio of reflection efficiency and spectral resolution compared with the commonly used Mo/Si. In the spectral range λ=17-21  nm, a new multilayer structure Al/Si was proposed, which had higher spectral resolution along with comparable reflection efficiency compared with the commonly used Al/Zr multilayer structures. In the spectral range λ=30  nm, the Si/B4C/Mg/Cr multilayer structure turned out to best obey reflection efficiency and long-term stability. The B4C and Cr layers prevented mutual diffusion of the Si and Mg layers. For the spectral range λ=58  nm, a new multilayer Mo/Mg-based structure was developed; its reflection efficiency and long-term stability have been analyzed. We also investigated intrinsic stresses inherent for most of the multilayer structures and proposed possibilities for stress elimination.

  8. Solar extreme ultraviolet variability of the quiet Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeri, F.; Teriaca, L.; Solanki, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    The last solar minimum has been unusually quiet compared to the previous minima (since space-based radiometric measurements are available). The Sun's magnetic flux was substantially lower during this minimum. Some studies also show that the total solar irradiance during the minimum after cycle 23 may have dropped below the values known from the two minima prior to that. For chromospheric and coronal radiation, the situation is less clear-cut. The Sun's 10.7 cm flux shows a decrease of ~4% during the solar minimum in 2008 compared to the previous minimum, but Ca ii K does not. Here we consider additional wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV), specifically transitions of He i at 584.3 Å and O v at 629.7 Å, of which the CDS spectrometer aboard SOHO has been taking regular scans along the solar central meridian since 1996. We analysed this unique dataset to verify if and how the radiance distribution undergoes measurable variations between cycle minima. To achieve this aim we determined the radiance distribution of quiet areas around the Sun centre. Concentrating on the last two solar minima, we found out that there is very little variation in the radiance distribution of the chromospheric spectral line He i between these minima. The same analysis shows a modest, although significant, 4% variation in the radiance distribution of the TR spectral line O v. These results are comparable to those obtained by earlier studies employing other spectral features, and they confirm that chromospheric indices display a small variation, whereas in the transition region a more significant reduction of the brighter features is visible.

  9. Sources for beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography and water window imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Gerry; Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; Hayden, Paddy; Kilbane, Deirdre; Lokasani, Ragava; Long, Elaine; Ohashi, Hayato; O'Reilly, Fergal; Sheil, John; Sheridan, Paul; Sokell, Emma; Suzuki, Chihiro; White, Elgiva; Higashiguchi, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    Lithography tools are being built and shipped to semiconductor manufacturers for high volume manufacturing using extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) at a wavelength of 13.5 nm. This wavelength is based on the availability of Mo/Si multilayer mirrors (MLMs) with a reflectivity of ˜70% at this wavelength. Moreover, the primary lithography tool manufacturer, ASML, has identified 6.x nm, where x˜7, as the wavelength of choice for so-called Beyond EUVL, based on the availability of La/B4C MLMs, with theoretical reflectance approaching 80% at this wavelength. The optimum sources have been identified as laser produced plasmas of Gd and Tb, as n = 4-n = 4 transitions in their ions emit strongly near this wavelength. However, to date, the highest conversion efficiency obtained, for laser to EUV energy emitted within the 0.6% wavelength bandwidth of the mirror is only 0.8%, pointing to the need to identify other potential sources or consider the selection of other wavelengths. At the same time, sources for other applications are being developed. Conventional sources for soft x-ray microscopy use H-like line emission from liquid nitrogen or carbon containing liquid jets which can be focused using zone plates. Recently the possibility of using MLMs with n = 4-n = 4 emission from a highly charged Bi plasma was proposed and subsequently the possibility of using Δn = 1 transitions in 3rd row transition elements was identified. All of these studies seek to identify spectral features that coincide with the reflectance characteristics of available MLMs, determine the conditions under which they are optimized and establish the maximum conversion efficiencies obtainable. Thus, there is a need for systematic studies of laser produced plasmas of a wide range of elements as some of the challenges are similar for all of these sources and some recent results will be presented.

  10. Sensitivity enhancement of chemically amplified resists and performance study using extreme ultraviolet interference lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buitrago, Elizabeth; Nagahara, Seiji; Yildirim, Oktay; Nakagawa, Hisashi; Tagawa, Seiichi; Meeuwissen, Marieke; Nagai, Tomoki; Naruoka, Takehiko; Verspaget, Coen; Hoefnagels, Rik; Rispens, Gijsbert; Shiraishi, Gosuke; Terashita, Yuichi; Minekawa, Yukie; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Oshima, Akihiro; Vockenhuber, Michaela; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-07-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL, λ=13.5 nm) is the most promising candidate to manufacture electronic devices for future technology nodes in the semiconductor industry. Nonetheless, EUVL still faces many technological challenges as it moves toward high-volume manufacturing (HVM). A key bottleneck from the tool design and performance point of view has been the development of an efficient, high-power EUV light source for high throughput production. Consequently, there has been extensive research on different methodologies to enhance EUV resist sensitivity. Resist performance is measured in terms of its ultimate printing resolution, line width roughness (LWR), sensitivity [S or best energy (BE)], and exposure latitude (EL). However, there are well-known fundamental trade-off relationships (line width roughness, resolution and sensitivity trade-off) among these parameters for chemically amplified resists (CARs). We present early proof-of-principle results for a multiexposure lithography process that has the potential for high sensitivity enhancement without compromising other important performance characteristics by the use of a "Photosensitized Chemically Amplified Resist™" (PSCAR™). With this method, we seek to increase the sensitivity by combining a first EUV pattern exposure with a second UV-flood exposure (λ=365 nm) and the use of a PSCAR. In addition, we have evaluated over 50 different state-of-the-art EUV CARs. Among these, we have identified several promising candidates that simultaneously meet sensitivity, LWR, and EL high-performance requirements with the aim of resolving line space (L/S) features for the 7- and 5-nm logic node [16- and 13-nm half-pitch (HP), respectively] for HVM. Several CARs were additionally found to be well resolved down to 12- and 11-nm HP with minimal pattern collapse and bridging, a remarkable feat for CARs. Finally, the performance of two negative tone state-of-the-art alternative resist platforms previously investigated

  11. EUVE photometric observations of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, G. R.; McDonald, J. S.; Boyd, W. T.; Bowyer, S.

    1994-03-01

    During its all-sky survey, the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite observed the Moon several times at first and last quarters, and once immediately following the Dec. 10 1992 lunar eclipse. We present here a portion of this data, in the form of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images of the Moon and derived geometric albedos. From the EUVE photometer data we obtain average geometric albedos of 0.15% (+/- 0.03%), 3.1% (+/- 0.3%), and 3.5% (+/- 0.3%), over wavelength intervals of 150-240 A, 400-580 A, and 550-650 A, respectively. An upper limit geometric albedo of 0.13% is obtained for the wavelength interval 75-180 A. Also, using previously published ROSAT data, we estimate a lunar geometric albedo of 0.014% (+/- 0.002%) over the wavelength interval 50-80 A. These EUV albedos (and previously published far-ultraviolet albedos) are well fit by the scaled reflectivities of SiO2 and Al2O3. Over the wavelength ranges of the EUVE photometers, the observed brightness of the Moon seems to be largely consistent with reflected sunlight rather than X-ray fluorescence. Since the L- and M-shell fluorescence signal is expected to be carried by only small number of emission lines, however, it will require EUV observations of higher spectral resolution (approximately less than 5 A) to determine their exact contribution, if any, to the lunar EUV spectrum.

  12. Research in extreme ultraviolet and far ultraviolet astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, C. S.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis and interpretation continued on data generated by the flight of 27.086 in April of 1986 and by the successful UVX mission. Optical and mechanical design of the 1 meter EUV telescope, planned for launch with the large SPARTAN type carrier, ASTRO-SPAS, was also continued. The major effort centered on the preparation of flight 27.106, scheduled to launch in September, 1986. Work which was performed included: design of the skins and bulkheads; completion of the optical, mechanical, and electrical design; purchase of the major components of the instruments; assemblage of the electrical components; and performance of theoretical work, to support the data interpretation.

  13. Changes of solar extreme ultraviolet spectrum in solar cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yongqiang; Zhang, Donghe; Xiao, Zuo; Huang, Jianping

    2016-07-01

    Following the extreme solar minimum during 2008 - 2009, solar activity keeps low in solar cycle 24 (SC24) and is making SC24 the weakest one of recent cycles. In this paper, we compare the solar EUV spectral irradiance between SC23 and SC24, using the measurements by the Solar EUV Experiment (SEE) on the Thermospheric Ionospheric Mesospheric Energy and Dynamics (TIMED) spacecraft. The EUV spectrum varies with solar activity, and is in general a linear function of a proxy index P= (F10.7 + F10.7A)/2. However, we find the slope of this function, i.e., the change rate of irradiance at each wavelength with P, differs between SC23 and SC24. Consequently, at a given P level, the irradiance in SC24 is higher at wavelength of 30 - 50 nm, but lower at 60 - 120 nm and longward of 140 nm; the inter-cycle variation of EUV irradiance at some wavelengths can be 30 - 40% in absolute flux. We further examine 38 most intense emission lines and find that, taking P as a reference, most of the bright coronal lines get stronger in SC24 and, by contrast, those from the chromosphere and transition region have less variability in SC24. We therefore suggest that, the empirical relation between solar EUV and P, which is derived from observations in previous solar cycles, may not adapt to SC24. The changes in EUV spectrum need to be considered in the models for aeronomic study, especially those using F10.7 index as an input parameter.

  14. Extreme ultraviolet light sources for use in semiconductor lithography—state of the art and future development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, Uwe

    2004-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the development status and plans of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light sources at XTREME technologies, a joint venture of Lambda Physik AG, Göttingen and JENOPTIK LOS GmbH, Jena, Germany. Results for gas discharge-produced plasma (GDPP) and laser-produced plasma (LPP), the two major technologies in EUV sources, are presented. The GDPP EUV sources use the Z-pinch principle with efficient sliding-discharge pre-ionization. First prototypes of commercial gas discharge sources with an EUV power of 35 W in 2π sr have already been integrated into EUV microsteppers. These sources are equipped with a debris-filter which supports an optics lifetime exceeding 100 million pulses at 1 kHz repetition rate. The same lifetime was achieved for the components of the discharge system itself. The progress in the development of high-power discharge sources based on xenon resulted in an EUV power of 200 W into a 2π sr solid angle, in continuous operation, at 4.5 kHz repetition rate, by implementation of porous-metal cooling technology. The available intermediate focus (IF) power is 22 W taking into account experimentally verified losses in a 1.8 sr source collector module. The usable IF power depends on the etendue of the optical system of the EUV scanner. For the current size of the EUV emitting plasma the etendue acceptance factor may be below 0.5. The currently usable IF power with 1.8 sr collector mirror may therefore be about 10 W. Z-pinch discharge sources with Sn as the emitter have been developed as a more efficient alternative to xenon fuelled sources. Tin sources showed a conversion efficiency (CE) that was double that of xenon. EUV power of 400 W in 2π sr has been generated at only 4.5 kHz repetition rate. The available IF power is 44 W. Estimates evaluating the tin source performance reveal the potential for achieving high-volume manufacturing (HVM) power specification by using existing technology. Because of their small plasma size and the

  15. Simulation of particle velocity in a laser-produced tin plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    SciTech Connect

    Masnavi, Majid; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko; Araghy, Homaira Parchamy; Endo, Akira

    2011-06-15

    In connection with fast heating in a laser produced plasma (LPP) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source, the superheating behavior of bulk tin (Sn) at high heating rates is investigated. A constant temperature and pressure molecular dynamics simulation using modified Lennard-Jones and Coulomb potentials suitable for studying the liquid structure of Sn is employed in order to derive the caloric curves of the solid and liquid phases. The results have shown transient effects on the phase transitions. Superheating is observed during the melting and vaporizing processes. The velocity distribution of Sn particles against typical laser fluence in a LPP EUV light source has been numerically investigated using a simplified method including a one-dimensional, two-temperature, molecular dynamics, and steady-state ionization model. In the framework of our model, it was found that ejected Sn particles have a maximum velocity on the order of 10 to 40 km/s in plasma created using a nanosecond pre-pulse neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG, 1.06 {mu}m) laser in EUV lithography experiments.

  16. Emulation of anamorphic imaging on the SHARP extreme ultraviolet mask microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benk, Markus P.; Wojdyla, Antoine; Chao, Weilun; Salmassi, Farhad; Oh, Sharon; Wang, Yow-Gwo; Miyakawa, Ryan H.; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.

    2016-07-01

    The SHARP high-numerical aperture actinic reticle review project is a synchrotron-based, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) microscope dedicated to photomask research. SHARP emulates the illumination and imaging conditions of current EUV lithography scanners and those several generations into the future. An anamorphic imaging optic with increased mask-side numerical aperture (NA) in the horizontal and increased demagnification in the vertical direction has been proposed to overcome limitations of current multilayer coatings and extend EUV lithography beyond 0.33 NA. Zoneplate lenses with an anamorphic 4×/8× NA of 0.55 are fabricated and installed in the SHARP microscope to emulate anamorphic imaging. SHARP's Fourier synthesis illuminator with a range of angles exceeding the collected solid angle of the newly designed elliptical zoneplates can produce arbitrary angular source spectra matched to anamorphic imaging. A target with anamorphic dense features down to 50-nm critical dimension is fabricated using 40 nm of nickel as the absorber. In a demonstration experiment, anamorphic imaging at 0.55 4×/8× NA and 6 deg central ray angle (CRA) is compared with conventional imaging at 0.5 4× NA and 8 deg CRA. A significant contrast loss in horizontal features is observed in the conventional images. The anamorphic images show the same image quality in the horizontal and vertical directions.

  17. Extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy and modeling of Cu on the SSPX Spheromak and laser plasma 'Sparky'

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, M. E.; Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Safronova, U. I.; Petkov, E. E.; Wilcox, P. G.; Osborne, G. C.; Clementson, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2012-10-15

    Impurities play a critical role in magnetic fusion research. In large quantities, impurities can cool and dilute plasma creating problems for achieving ignition and burn; however in smaller amounts the impurities could provide valuable information about several plasma parameters through the use of spectroscopy. Many impurity ions radiate within the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) range. Here, we report on spectra from the silver flat field spectrometer, which was implemented at the Sustained Spheromak Physics experiment (SSPX) to monitor ion impurity emissions. The chamber within the SSPX was made of Cu, which makes M-shell Cu a prominent impurity signature. The Spect3D spectral analysis code was utilized to identify spectral features in the range of 115-315 A and to more fully understand the plasma conditions. A second set of experiments was carried out on the compact laser-plasma x-ray/EUV facility 'Sparky' at UNR, with Cu flat targets used. The EUV spectra were recorded between 40-300 A and compared with results from SSPX.

  18. Imaging extreme ultraviolet spectrometer employing a single toroidal diffraction grating: the initial evaluation.

    PubMed

    Huber, M C; Timothy, J G; Morgan, J S; Lemaitre, G; Tondello, G; Jannitti, E; Scarin, P

    1988-08-15

    A high-efficiency extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging spectrometer has been constructed and tested. The spectrometer employs a concave toroidal grating illuminated at normal incidence in a Rowland circle mounting and has only one reflecting surface. The toroidal grating has been fabricated by a new technique employing an elastically deformable submaster grating which is replicated in a spherical form and then mechanically distorted to produce the desired aspect ratio of the toroidal surface for stigmatic imaging over the selected wavelength range. The fixed toroidal grating used in the spectrometer is then replicated from this surface. Photographic tests and initial photoelectric tests with a 2-D pulse-counting detector system have verified the image quality of the toroidal grating at wavelengths near 600 A. The results of these initial tests are described in detail, and the basic designs of two instruments which could employ the imaging spectrometer for astrophysical investigations in space are briefly described, namely, a high-resolution EUV spectroheliometer for studies of the solar chromosphere, transition region, and corona and an EUV spectroscopic telescope for studies of nonsolar objects.

  19. Extreme ultraviolet detection using AlGaN-on-Si inverted Schottky photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Pawel E.; Duboz, Jean-Yves; De Moor, Piet; Minoglou, Kyriaki; John, Joachim; Horcajo, Sara Martin; Semond, Fabrice; Frayssinet, Eric; Verhoeve, Peter; Esposito, Marco; Giordanengo, Boris; BenMoussa, Ali; Mertens, Robert; Van Hoof, Chris

    2011-04-01

    We report on the fabrication of aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) Schottky diodes for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) detection. AlGaN layers were grown on silicon wafers by molecular beam epitaxy with the conventional and inverted Schottky structure, where the undoped, active layer was grown before or after the n-doped layer, respectively. Different current mechanisms were observed in the two structures. The inverted Schottky diode was designed for the optimized backside sensitivity in the hybrid imagers. A cut-off wavelength of 280 nm was observed with three orders of magnitude intrinsic rejection ratio of the visible radiation. Furthermore, the inverted structure was characterized using a EUV source based on helium discharge and an open electrode design was used to improve the sensitivity. The characteristic He I and He II emission lines were observed at the wavelengths of 58.4 nm and 30.4 nm, respectively, proving the feasibility of using the inverted layer stack for EUV detection.

  20. Wafer and reticle positioning system for the Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Engineering Test Stand

    SciTech Connect

    WRONOSKY,JOHN B.; SMITH,TONY G.; CRAIG,MARCUS J.; STURGIS,BEVERLY R.; DARNOLD,JOEL R.; WERLING,DAVID K.; KINCY,MARK A.; TICHENOR,DANIEL A.; WILLIAMS,MARK E.; BISCHOFF,PAUL

    2000-01-27

    This paper is an overview of the wafer and reticle positioning system of the Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) Engineering Test Stand (ETS). EUVL represents one of the most promising technologies for supporting the integrated circuit (IC) industry's lithography needs for critical features below 100nm. EUVL research and development includes development of capabilities for demonstrating key EUV technologies. The ETS is under development at the EUV Virtual National Laboratory, to demonstrate EUV full-field imaging and provide data that supports production-tool development. The stages and their associated metrology operated in a vacuum environment and must meet stringent outgassing specifications. A tight tolerance is placed on the stage tracking performance to minimize image distortion and provide high position repeatability. The wafer must track the reticle with less than {+-}3nm of position error and jitter must not exceed 10nm rms. To meet these performance requirements, magnetically levitated positioning stages utilizing a system of sophisticated control electronics will be used. System modeling and experimentation have contributed to the development of the positioning system and results indicate that desired ETS performance is achievable.

  1. Simulation of particle velocity in a laser-produced tin plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masnavi, Majid; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko; Araghy, Homaira Parchamy; Endo, Akira

    2011-06-01

    In connection with fast heating in a laser produced plasma (LPP) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source, the superheating behavior of bulk tin (Sn) at high heating rates is investigated. A constant temperature and pressure molecular dynamics simulation using modified Lennard-Jones and Coulomb potentials suitable for studying the liquid structure of Sn is employed in order to derive the caloric curves of the solid and liquid phases. The results have shown transient effects on the phase transitions. Superheating is observed during the melting and vaporizing processes. The velocity distribution of Sn particles against typical laser fluence in a LPP EUV light source has been numerically investigated using a simplified method including a one-dimensional, two-temperature, molecular dynamics, and steady-state ionization model. In the framework of our model, it was found that ejected Sn particles have a maximum velocity on the order of 10 to 40 km/s in plasma created using a nanosecond pre-pulse neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG, 1.06 μm) laser in EUV lithography experiments.

  2. Resist Materials for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography: Toward Low-Cost Single-Digit-Nanometer Patterning.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Paul D; Olynick, Deirdre L; Ogletree, D Frank; Naulleau, Patrick P

    2015-10-14

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is the leading technology for enabling miniaturization of computational components over the next decade. Next-generation resists will need to meet demanding performance criteria of 10 nm critical dimension, 1.2 nm line-edge roughness, and 20 mJ cm(-2) exposure dose. Here, the current state of the development of EUV resist materials is reviewed. First, pattern formation in resist materials is described and the Hansen solubility sphere (HSS) is used as a framework for understanding the pattern-development process. Then, recent progress in EUVL resist chemistry and characterization is discussed. Incremental advances are obtained by transferring chemically amplified resist materials developed for 193 nm lithography to EUV wavelengths. Significant advances will result from synthesizing high-absorbance resist materials using heavier atoms. In the framework of the HSS model, these materials have significant room for improvement and thus offer great promise as high-performance EUV resists for patterning of sub-10 nm features.

  3. TEMPERATURE AND EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET INTENSITY IN A CORONAL PROMINENCE CAVITY AND STREAMER

    SciTech Connect

    Kucera, T. A.; Tripathi, D.

    2012-09-20

    We analyze the temperature and EUV line emission of a coronal cavity and surrounding streamer in terms of a morphological forward model. We use a series of iron line ratios observed with the Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on 2007 August 9 to constrain temperature as a function of altitude in a morphological forward model of the streamer and cavity. We also compare model predictions to the EIS EUV line intensities and polarized brightness (pB) data from the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) Mark 4 K-coronameter. This work builds on earlier analysis using the same model to determine geometry of and density in the same cavity and streamer. The fit to the data with altitude-dependent temperature profiles indicates that both the streamer and cavity have temperatures in the range 1.4-1.7 MK. However, the cavity exhibits substantial substructure such that the altitude-dependent temperature profile is not sufficient to completely model conditions in the cavity. Coronal prominence cavities are structured by magnetism so clues to this structure are to be found in their plasma properties. These temperature substructures are likely related to structures in the cavity magnetic field. Furthermore, we find that the model overestimates the EUV line intensities by a factor of 4-10, without overestimating pB. We discuss this difference in terms of filling factors and uncertainties in density diagnostics and elemental abundances.

  4. Extreme Ultraviolet Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum Beams from High Harmonic Generation

    PubMed Central

    Turpin, Alex; Rego, Laura; Picón, Antonio; San Román, Julio; Hernández-García, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the generation of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) beams carrying fractional orbital angular momentum. To this end, we drive high-order harmonic generation with infrared conical refraction (CR) beams. We show that the high-order harmonic beams emitted in the EUV/soft x-ray regime preserve the characteristic signatures of the driving beam, namely ringlike transverse intensity profile and CR-like polarization distribution. As a result, through orbital and spin angular momentum conservation, harmonic beams are emitted with fractional orbital angular momentum, and they can be synthesized into structured attosecond helical beams –or “structured attosecond light springs”– with rotating linear polarization along the azimuth. Our proposal overcomes the state of the art limitations for the generation of light beams far from the visible domain carrying non-integer orbital angular momentum and could be applied in fields such as diffraction imaging, EUV lithography, particle trapping, and super-resolution imaging. PMID:28281655

  5. Reflective masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Khanh Bao

    1994-05-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithographic masks are made by patterning multilayer reflective coatings with high normal incidence reflectivity. Masks can be patterned by depositing a patterned absorber layer above the coating or by etching the pattern directly into the coating itself. Electromagnetic simulations showed that absorber-overlayer masks have superior imaging characteristics over etched masks (less sensitive to incident angles and pattern profiles). In an EUVL absorber overlayer mask, defects can occur in the mask substrate, reflective coating, and absorber pattern. Electromagnetic simulations showed that substrate defects cause the most severe image degradation. A printability study of substrate defects for absorber overlayer masks showed that printability of 25 nm high substrate defects are comparable to defects in optical lithography. Simulations also indicated that the manner in which the defects are covered by multilayer reflective coatings can affect printability. Coverage profiles that result in large lateral spreading of defect geometries amplify the printability of the defects by increasing their effective sizes. Coverage profiles of Mo/Si coatings deposited above defects were studied by atomic force microscopy and TEM. Results showed that lateral spread of defect geometry is proportional to height. Undercut at defect also increases the lateral spread. Reductions in defect heights were observed for 0.15 μm wide defect lines. A long-term study of Mo/Si coating reflectivity revealed that Mo/Si coatings with Mo as the top layer suffer significant reductions in reflectivity over time due to oxidation.

  6. The Berkeley extreme ultraviolet calibration facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welsh, Barry Y.; Jelinsky, Patrick; Malina, Roger F.

    1988-01-01

    The vacuum calibration facilities of the Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley are designed for the calibration and testing of EUV and FUV spaceborne instrumentation (spectral range 44-2500 A). The facility includes one large cylindrical vacuum chamber (3 x 5 m) containing two EUV collimators, and it is equipped with a 4-axis manipulator of angular-control resolution 1 arcsec for payloads weighing up to 500 kg. In addition, two smaller cylindrical chambers, each 0.9 x 1.2 m, are available for vacuum and thermal testing of UV detectors, filters, and space electronics hardware. All three chambers open into class-10,000 clean rooms, and all calibrations are referred to NBS secondary standards.

  7. SLOW PATCHY EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET PROPAGATING FRONTS ASSOCIATED WITH FAST CORONAL MAGNETO-ACOUSTIC WAVES IN SOLAR ERUPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.; Ding, M. D.; Chen, P. F.

    2015-08-15

    Using the high spatiotemporal resolution extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we conduct a statistical study of the observational properties of the coronal EUV propagating fronts. We find that it might be a universal phenomenon for two types of fronts to coexist in a large solar eruptive event. It is consistent with the hybrid model of EUV propagating fronts, which predicts that coronal EUV propagating fronts consist of both a fast magneto-acoustic wave and a nonwave component. We find that the morphologies, propagation behaviors, and kinematic features of the two EUV propagating fronts are completely different from each other. The fast magneto-acoustic wave fronts are almost isotropic. They travel continuously from the flaring region across multiple magnetic polarities to global distances. On the other hand, the slow nonwave fronts appear as anisotropic and sequential patches of EUV brightening. Each patch propagates locally in the magnetic domains where the magnetic field lines connect to the bottom boundary and stops at the magnetic domain boundaries. Within each magnetic domain, the velocities of the slow patchy nonwave component are an order of magnitude lower than that of the fast-wave component. However, the patches of the slow EUV propagating front can jump from one magnetic domain to a remote one. The velocities of such a transit between different magnetic domains are about one-third to one-half of those of the fast-wave component. The results show that the velocities of the nonwave component, both within one magnetic domain and between different magnetic domains, are highly nonuniform due to the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field in the lower atmosphere.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION ON THE STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE OF EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, J. H.; Ben-Jaffel, Lotfi E-mail: bjaffel@iap.fr

    2016-02-20

    By varying the profiles of stellar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral energy distributions (SEDs), we tested the influences of stellar EUV SEDs on the physical and chemical properties of an escaping atmosphere. We apply our model to study four exoplanets: HD 189733b, HD 209458b, GJ 436b, and Kepler-11b. We find that the total mass loss rates of an exoplanet, which are determined mainly by the integrated fluxes, are moderately affected by the profiles of the EUV SED, but the composition and species distributions in the atmosphere can be dramatically modified by the different profiles of the EUV SED. For exoplanets with a high hydrodynamic escape parameter (λ), the amount of atomic hydrogen produced by photoionization at different altitudes can vary by one to two orders of magnitude with the variation of stellar EUV SEDs. The effect of photoionization of H is prominent when the EUV SED is dominated by the low-energy spectral region (400–900 Å), which pushes the transition of H/H{sup +} to low altitudes. In contrast, the transition of H/H{sup +} moves to higher altitudes when most photons are concentrated in the high-energy spectral region (50–400 Å). For exoplanets with a low λ, the lower temperatures of the atmosphere make many chemical reactions so important that photoionization alone can no longer determine the composition of the escaping atmosphere. For HD 189733b, it is possible to explain the time variability of Lyα between 2010 and 2011 by a change in the EUV SED of the host K-type star, yet invoking only thermal H i in the atmosphere.

  9. Slow Patchy Extreme-ultraviolet Propagating Fronts Associated with Fast Coronal Magneto-acoustic Waves in Solar Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Y.; Ding, M. D.; Chen, P. F.

    2015-08-01

    Using the high spatiotemporal resolution extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we conduct a statistical study of the observational properties of the coronal EUV propagating fronts. We find that it might be a universal phenomenon for two types of fronts to coexist in a large solar eruptive event. It is consistent with the hybrid model of EUV propagating fronts, which predicts that coronal EUV propagating fronts consist of both a fast magneto-acoustic wave and a nonwave component. We find that the morphologies, propagation behaviors, and kinematic features of the two EUV propagating fronts are completely different from each other. The fast magneto-acoustic wave fronts are almost isotropic. They travel continuously from the flaring region across multiple magnetic polarities to global distances. On the other hand, the slow nonwave fronts appear as anisotropic and sequential patches of EUV brightening. Each patch propagates locally in the magnetic domains where the magnetic field lines connect to the bottom boundary and stops at the magnetic domain boundaries. Within each magnetic domain, the velocities of the slow patchy nonwave component are an order of magnitude lower than that of the fast-wave component. However, the patches of the slow EUV propagating front can jump from one magnetic domain to a remote one. The velocities of such a transit between different magnetic domains are about one-third to one-half of those of the fast-wave component. The results show that the velocities of the nonwave component, both within one magnetic domain and between different magnetic domains, are highly nonuniform due to the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field in the lower atmosphere.

  10. The EXCEED mission - the Earth-orbiting EUV spectrometer -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, I.

    2012-12-01

    An earth-orbiting Extreme Ultraviolet spectroscopic mission, EXtreme ultraviolet spectrosCope for ExosphEric Dynamics explore (EXCEED) that will be launched in 2012 is now under development. The EXCEED mission will carry out out-of-atmosphere observations of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV: 60-145 nm) emissions from tenuous plasmas around the planets (Mercury, Mars, Venus, and Jupiter). In this paper, we will introduce the general mission overview and current status of the mission.

  11. Evidence for the Wave Nature of an Extreme Ultraviolet Wave Observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on Board the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yuandeng; Liu, Yu

    2012-07-01

    Extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) waves have been found for about 15 years. However, significant controversy remains over their physical natures and origins. In this paper, we report an EUV wave that was accompanied by an X1.9 flare and a partial halo coronal mass ejection (CME). Using high temporal and spatial resolution observations taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory, we are able to investigate the detailed kinematics of the EUV wave. We find several arguments that support the fast-mode wave scenario. (1) The speed of the EUV wave (570 km s-1) is higher than the sound speed of the quiet-Sun corona. (2) Significant deceleration of the EUV wave (-130 m s-2) is found during its propagation. (3) The EUV wave resulted in the oscillations of a loop and a filament along its propagation path, and a reflected wave from the polar coronal hole is also detected. (4) Refraction or reflection effect is observed when the EUV wave was passing through two coronal bright points. (5) The dimming region behind the wavefront stopped to expand when the wavefront started to become diffuse. (6) The profiles of the wavefront exhibited a dispersive nature, and the magnetosonic Mach number of the EUV wave derived from the highest intensity jump is about 1.4. In addition, triangulation indicates that the EUV wave propagated within a height range of about 60-100 Mm above the photosphere. We propose that the EUV wave observed should be a nonlinear fast-mode magnetosonic wave that propagated freely in the corona after it was driven by the CME expanding flanks during the initial period.

  12. EVIDENCE FOR THE WAVE NATURE OF AN EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET WAVE OBSERVED BY THE ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY ON BOARD THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Yuandeng; Liu Yu

    2012-07-20

    Extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) waves have been found for about 15 years. However, significant controversy remains over their physical natures and origins. In this paper, we report an EUV wave that was accompanied by an X1.9 flare and a partial halo coronal mass ejection (CME). Using high temporal and spatial resolution observations taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory, we are able to investigate the detailed kinematics of the EUV wave. We find several arguments that support the fast-mode wave scenario. (1) The speed of the EUV wave (570 km s{sup -1}) is higher than the sound speed of the quiet-Sun corona. (2) Significant deceleration of the EUV wave (-130 m s{sup -2}) is found during its propagation. (3) The EUV wave resulted in the oscillations of a loop and a filament along its propagation path, and a reflected wave from the polar coronal hole is also detected. (4) Refraction or reflection effect is observed when the EUV wave was passing through two coronal bright points. (5) The dimming region behind the wavefront stopped to expand when the wavefront started to become diffuse. (6) The profiles of the wavefront exhibited a dispersive nature, and the magnetosonic Mach number of the EUV wave derived from the highest intensity jump is about 1.4. In addition, triangulation indicates that the EUV wave propagated within a height range of about 60-100 Mm above the photosphere. We propose that the EUV wave observed should be a nonlinear fast-mode magnetosonic wave that propagated freely in the corona after it was driven by the CME expanding flanks during the initial period.

  13. Surface modification of polymers for biocompatibility via exposure to extreme ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Inam Ul Ahad; Bartnik, Andrzej; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Kostecki, Jerzy; Korczyc, Barbara; Ciach, Tomasz; Brabazon, Dermot

    2014-09-01

    Polymeric biomaterials are being widely used for the treatment of various traumata, diseases and defects in human beings due to ease in their synthesis. As biomaterials have direct interaction with the extracellular environment in the biological world, biocompatibility is a topic of great significance. The introduction or enhancement of biocompatibility in certain polymers is still a challenge to overcome. Polymer biocompatibility can be controlled by surface modification. Various physical and chemical methods (e.g., chemical and plasma treatment, ion implantation, and ultraviolet irradiation etc.) are in use or being developed for the modification of polymer surfaces. However an important limitation in their employment is the alteration of bulk material. Different surface and bulk properties of biomaterials are often desirable for biomedical applications. Because extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation penetration is quite limited even in low density mediums, it could be possible to use it for surface modification without influencing the bulk material. This article reviews the degree of biocompatibility of different polymeric biomaterials being currently employed in various biomedical applications, the surface properties required to be modified for biocompatibility control, plasma and laser ablation based surface modification techniques, and research studies indicating possible use of EUV for enhancing biocompatibility.

  14. Spectral observations of the extreme ultraviolet background.

    PubMed

    Labov, S E; Bowyer, S

    1991-04-20

    A grazing incidence spectrometer was designed to measure the diffuse extreme ultraviolet background. It was flown on a sounding rocket, and data were obtained on the diffuse background between 80 and 650 angstroms. These are the first spectral measurements of this background below 520 angstroms. Several emission features were detected, including interplanetary He I 584 angstroms emission and geocoronal He II 304 angstroms emission. Other features observed may originate in a hot ionized interstellar gas, but if this interpretation is correct, gas at several different temperatures is present. The strongest of these features is consistent with O V emission at 630 angstroms. This emission, when combined with upper limits for other lines, restricts the temperature of this component to 5.5 < log T < 5.7, in agreement with temperatures derived from O VI absorption studies. A power-law distribution of temperatures is consistent with this feature only if the power-law coefficient is negative, as is predicted for saturated evaporation of clouds in a hot medium. In this case, the O VI absorption data confine the filling factor of the emission of f < or = 4% and the pressure to more than 3.7 x 10(4) cm-3 K, substantially above ambient interstellar pressure. Such a pressure enhancement has been predicted for clouds undergoing saturated evaporation. Alternatively, if the O V emission covers a considerable fraction of the sky, it would be a major source of ionization. A feature centered at about 99 angstroms is well fitted by a cluster of Fe XVIII and Fe XIX lines from gas at log T = 6.6-6.8. These results are consistent with previous soft X-ray observations with low-resolution detectors. A feature found near 178 angstroms is consistent with Fe X and Fe XI emission from gas at log T = 6; this result is consistent with results from experiments employing broad-band soft X-ray detectors.

  15. Extending the path for efficient extreme ultraviolet sources for advanced nanolithography

    SciTech Connect

    Sizyuk, Tatyana; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2015-09-15

    Developing efficient light sources for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is one of the most important problems of high volume manufacturing (HVM) of the next generation computer chips. Critical components of this technology are continued to face challenges in the demanding performance for HVM. Current investigations of EUV and beyond EUV (BEUV) community are focused on the dual-pulse laser produced plasma (LPP) using droplets of mass-limited targets. Two main objectives as well as challenges in the optimization of these light sources are related to enhancement of the conversion efficiency (CE) of the source and increase components lifetime of the collector optical system. These require significant experimental and computer simulation efforts. These requirements call for fine detail analysis of various plasma physics processes involved in laser target interactions and their effects on source optimization. We continued to enhance our comprehensive HEIGHTS simulation package and upgrade our CMUXE laboratories to study and optimize the efficiency of LPP sources. Integrated modeling and experimental research were done to both benchmark simulation results and to make projections and realistic predictions of the development path for powerful EUVL devices for HVM requirements. We continued the detail analysis of dual-pulse laser systems using various laser wavelengths and delay times between the two pulses. We showed that the efficiency of EUV sources can be improved utilizing the higher harmonics of Nd:YAG laser for the prepulse and the first harmonics for the main pulse, while still having lower efficiency than the combination involving CO{sub 2} laser in the range of parameters studied in this case. The differences in optimization process as well as in the source characteristics for two combinations of laser wavelengths were analyzed based on details of atomic and hydrodynamics processes during the evolving plasma plumes.

  16. Extending the path for efficient extreme ultraviolet sources for advanced nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizyuk, Tatyana; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2015-09-01

    Developing efficient light sources for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is one of the most important problems of high volume manufacturing (HVM) of the next generation computer chips. Critical components of this technology are continued to face challenges in the demanding performance for HVM. Current investigations of EUV and beyond EUV (BEUV) community are focused on the dual-pulse laser produced plasma (LPP) using droplets of mass-limited targets. Two main objectives as well as challenges in the optimization of these light sources are related to enhancement of the conversion efficiency (CE) of the source and increase components lifetime of the collector optical system. These require significant experimental and computer simulation efforts. These requirements call for fine detail analysis of various plasma physics processes involved in laser target interactions and their effects on source optimization. We continued to enhance our comprehensive HEIGHTS simulation package and upgrade our CMUXE laboratories to study and optimize the efficiency of LPP sources. Integrated modeling and experimental research were done to both benchmark simulation results and to make projections and realistic predictions of the development path for powerful EUVL devices for HVM requirements. We continued the detail analysis of dual-pulse laser systems using various laser wavelengths and delay times between the two pulses. We showed that the efficiency of EUV sources can be improved utilizing the higher harmonics of Nd:YAG laser for the prepulse and the first harmonics for the main pulse, while still having lower efficiency than the combination involving CO2 laser in the range of parameters studied in this case. The differences in optimization process as well as in the source characteristics for two combinations of laser wavelengths were analyzed based on details of atomic and hydrodynamics processes during the evolving plasma plumes.

  17. Mask characterization for critical dimension uniformity budget breakdown in advanced extreme ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolsky, Peter; Strolenberg, Chris; Nielsen, Rasmus; Nooitgedacht, Tjitte; Davydova, Natalia; Yang, Greg; Lee, Shawn; Park, Chang-Min; Kim, Insung; Yeo, Jeong-Ho

    2013-04-01

    As the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors critical dimension uniformity (CDU) specification shrinks, semiconductor companies need to maintain a high yield of good wafers per day and high performance (and hence market value) of finished products. This cannot be achieved without continuous analysis and improvement of on-product CDU as one of the main drivers for process control and optimization with better understanding of main contributors from the litho cluster: mask, process, metrology and scanner. We will demonstrate a study of mask CDU characterization and its impact on CDU Budget Breakdown (CDU BB) performed for advanced extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography with 1D (dense lines) and 2D (dense contacts) feature cases. We will show that this CDU contributor is one of the main differentiators between well-known ArFi and new EUV CDU budgeting principles. We found that reticle contribution to intrafield CDU should be characterized in a specific way: mask absorber thickness fingerprints play a role comparable with reticle CDU in the total reticle part of the CDU budget. Wafer CD fingerprints, introduced by this contributor, may or may not compensate variations of mask CDs and hence influence on total mask impact on intrafield CDU at the wafer level. This will be shown on 1D and 2D feature examples. Mask stack reflectivity variations should also be taken into account: these fingerprints have visible impact on intrafield CDs at the wafer level and should be considered as another contributor to the reticle part of EUV CDU budget. We also observed mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) through field fingerprints in the studied EUV cases. Variations of MEEF may play a role towards the total intrafield CDU and may need to be taken into account for EUV lithography. We characterized MEEF-through-field for the reviewed features, with results herein, but further analysis of this phenomenon is required. This comprehensive approach to quantifying the mask part of

  18. Extreme Ultraviolet Late-Phase Flares: Before and During the Solar Dynamics Observatory Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.

    2014-09-01

    The solar extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) have revealed interesting characteristics of warm coronal emissions, such as Fe xvi 335 Å emission, which peak soon after the hot coronal X-ray emissions peak during a flare and then sometimes peak for a second time hours after the X-ray flare peak. This flare type, with two warm coronal emission peaks but only one X-ray peak, has been named the EUV late phase (Woods et al., Astrophys. J. 739, 59, 2011). These flares have the distinct properties of i) having a complex magnetic-field structure with two initial sets of coronal loops, with one upper set overlaying a lower set, ii) having an eruptive flare initiated in the lower set and disturbing both loop sets, iii) having the hot coronal emissions emitted only from the lower set in conjunction with the X-ray peak, and iv) having the first peak of the warm coronal emissions associated with the lower set and its second peak emitted from the upper set many minutes to hours after the first peak and without a second X-ray enhancement. The disturbance of the coronal loops by the eruption is at about the same time, but the relaxation and cooling down of the heated coronal loops during the post-flare reconnections have different time scales with the longer, upper loops being significantly delayed from the lower loops. The difference in these cooling time scales is related to the difference between the two peak times of the warm coronal emission and is also apparent in the decay profile of the X-ray emissions having two distinct decays, with the first decay slope being steeper (faster) and the delayed decay slope being smaller (slower) during the time of the warm-coronal-emission second peak. The frequency and relationship of the EUV late-phase decay times between the Fe xvi 335 Å two flare peaks and X-ray decay slopes are examined using three years of SDO/ EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) data, and the X-ray dual-decay character is

  19. Carbon contamination topography analysis of EUV masks

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Y.-J.; Yankulin, L.; Thomas, P.; Mbanaso, C.; Antohe, A.; Garg, R.; Wang, Y.; Murray, T.; Wuest, A.; Goodwin, F.; Huh, S.; Cordes, A.; Naulleau, P.; Goldberg, K. A.; Mochi, I.; Gullikson, E.; Denbeaux, G.

    2010-03-12

    The impact of carbon contamination on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) masks is significant due to throughput loss and potential effects on imaging performance. Current carbon contamination research primarily focuses on the lifetime of the multilayer surfaces, determined by reflectivity loss and reduced throughput in EUV exposure tools. However, contamination on patterned EUV masks can cause additional effects on absorbing features and the printed images, as well as impacting the efficiency of cleaning process. In this work, several different techniques were used to determine possible contamination topography. Lithographic simulations were also performed and the results compared with the experimental data.

  20. A study of extreme-ultraviolet emission from cataclysmic variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polidan, Ronald S.; Mauche, Christopher W.; Wade, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Voyager far- and extreme UV spectrophotometric observations of five cataclysmic variables (the dwarf novae SS Cyg and VW Hyi and the novalike variables V3885 Sgr, RW Sex, and IX Vel) are combined with neutral hydrogen column densities derived from the curve-of-growth analysis of interstellar absorption lines in high-resolution IUE spectra to place upper limits on the emitted flux in the 600-700 A EUV band. The Voyager observations of VW Hyi were obtained during both normal and superoutbursts. Detailed accretion disk model calculations show that most of the 600-700 A flux in these systems should originate in the inner accretion disk rather than in the boundary layer. For VW Hyi, the low neutral hydrogen column and excellent Voyager superoutburst data place the observed upper limit to the 600-700 A flux well below the expected EUV flux from the model calculations.

  1. Efficient 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet emission from Sn plasma irradiated by a long CO{sub 2} laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Y.; Tillack, M. S.; Sequoia, K. L.; Burdt, R. A.; Yuspeh, S.; Najmabadi, F.

    2008-06-23

    The effect of pulse duration on in-band (2% bandwidth) conversion efficiency (CE) from a CO{sub 2} laser to 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light was investigated for Sn plasma. It was found that high in-band CE, 2.6%, is consistently obtained using a CO{sub 2} laser with pulse durations from 25 to 110 ns. Employing a long pulse, for example, 110 ns, in a CO{sub 2} laser system used in an EUV lithography source could make the system significantly more efficient, simpler, and cheaper as compared to that using a short pulse of 25 ns or shorter.

  2. Extreme-Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Nearby B-Stars: Testing Models of Cosmic Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, James

    This is a four-year sounding rocket investigation focusing on the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV; 500 – 1150 Å) spectrophotometry of nearby B-stars. Our observations will not only provide powerful constraints on stellar atmosphere models, but also provide key insights towards understanding the reionization of the early universe. The critical region from 700 – 900 Å, where the ionization cross section for neutral hydrogen is at its greatest, has never been observed for any B stars , nor is there any planned instrumentation to cover this waveband. Therefore, a sub-orbital mission is the ideal program to accomplish this science. We will develop a sounding rocket payload called DEUCE – the Dual-channel Extreme Ultraviolet Continuum Experiment. The proposed program addresses NASA’s strategic goals by: A) making unique observations relevant to the physics of re-ionization; B)demonstrating the space worthiness of a new class of ultraviolet detectors, and C)training the next generation of NASA space-mission scientists and PIs

  3. DIFFRACTION, REFRACTION, AND REFLECTION OF AN EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET WAVE OBSERVED DURING ITS INTERACTIONS WITH REMOTE ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Yuandeng; Liu Yu; Zhao Ruijuan; Tian Zhanjun; Su Jiangtao; Li Hui; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Shibata, Kazunari

    2013-08-20

    We present observations of the diffraction, refraction, and reflection of a global extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave propagating in the solar corona. These intriguing phenomena are observed when the wave interacts with two remote active regions, and together they exhibit properties of an EUV wave. When the wave approached AR11465, it became weaker and finally disappeared in the active region, but a few minutes later a new wavefront appeared behind the active region, and it was not concentric with the incoming wave. In addition, a reflected wave was also simultaneously observed on the wave incoming side. When the wave approached AR11459, it transmitted through the active region directly and without reflection. The formation of the new wavefront and the transmission could be explained with diffraction and refraction effects, respectively. We propose that the different behaviors observed during the interactions may be caused by different speed gradients at the boundaries of the two active regions. We find that the EUV wave formed ahead of a group of expanding loops a few minutes after the start of the loops' expansion, which represents the initiation of the associated coronal mass ejection (CME). Based on these results, we conclude that the EUV wave should be a nonlinear magnetosonic wave or shock driven by the associated CME, which propagated faster than the ambient fast mode speed and gradually slowed down to an ordinary linear wave. Our observations support the hybrid model that includes both fast wave and slow non-wave components.

  4. Electron-induced interaction of selected hydrocarbons with TiO2 surfaces: the relevance to extreme ultraviolet lithography.

    PubMed

    Yakshinskiy, B V; Zalkind, S; Bartynski, R A; Caudillo, R

    2010-03-03

    The aim of this work is to characterize desorption induced by electronic transition processes that affect the reflectivity of TiO2-capped multilayer mirrors used in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. A low energy electron beam is employed to mimic excitations initiated by EUV radiation. Temperature programmed desorption, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and low energy ion scattering are used to analyze the surface reactions. Carbon film growth on the TiO2(011) crystalline surface is measured during 10-100 eV electron bombardment in benzene or methyl methacrylate vapor over a wide range of pressures and temperatures near 300 K. Low energy secondary electrons excited by EUV photons contribute substantially to the carbon accumulation on clean TiO2 cap layers. For benzene on clean TiO2, secondary electron effects dominate in the initial stages of carbon accumulation, whereas for C-covered TiO2, direct excitations appear to dominate. We report on the adsorption energy, the steady-state coverage of the molecules on the surface and the cross sections for electron-stimulated dissociation: all key parameters for understanding and modeling the processes relating to the EUV lithography mirrors.

  5. High-intensity source of extreme ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paresce, E.; Kumar, S.; Bowyer, S.

    1972-01-01

    High intensity ultraviolet radiation source was developed which is suitable for emission below 500 A. Source, useful for 100 to 1000 A range, is simple and inexpensive to construct, easy to operate, and very stable. Because of sufficiently intense output spectrum, source can be used with monochromator at wavelengths as low as 160 A.

  6. Optimization of the size ratio of Sn sphere and laser focal spot for an extreme ultraviolet light source

    SciTech Connect

    Yuspeh, S.; Sequoia, K. L.; Tao, Y.; Tillack, M. S.; Burdt, R.; Najmabadi, F.

    2008-12-01

    The effect of the ratio of Sn sphere diameter to laser focal spot size (SD/FSS) on conversion efficiency (CE) from laser to in-band (2%) 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light was investigated by fixing the laser spot size and irradiating variable diameter spheres. It was found that a minimum SD/FSS, i.e., 2.5, is necessary to produce high in-band CE, which is 15% higher than planar targets. Two-dimensional plasma density profile maps showed that the density of the dominant in-band EUV emission region and the size of the surrounding absorbing plasma can be manipulated by geometric effects of the SD/FSS ratio.

  7. Efficient extreme ultraviolet plasma source generated by a CO{sub 2} laser and a liquid xenon microjet target

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, Yoshifumi; Ariga, Tatsuya; Soumagne, George; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Kubodera, Shoichi; Pogorelsky, Igor; Pavlishin, Igor; Stolyarov, Daniil; Babzien, Marcus; Kusche, Karl; Yakimenko, Vitaly

    2007-05-07

    We demonstrated efficacy of a CO{sub 2}-laser-produced xenon plasma in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region at 13.5 nm at variable laser pulse widths between 200 ps and 25 ns. The plasma target was a 30 {mu}m liquid xenon microjet. To ensure the optimum coupling of CO{sub 2} laser energy with the plasma, they applied a prepulse yttrium aluminum garnet laser. The authors measured the conversion efficiency (CE) of the 13.5 nm EUV emission for different pulse widths of the CO{sub 2} laser. A maximum CE of 0.6% was obtained for a CO{sub 2} laser pulse width of 25 ns at an intensity of 5x10{sup 10} W/cm{sup 2}.

  8. Correlation method for the measure of mask-induced line-edge roughness in extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Naulleau, Patrick

    2009-05-25

    As critical dimensions for leading-edge semiconductor devices shrink, line-edge roughness (LER) requirements are pushing well into the single digit nanometer regime. At these scales many new sources of LER must be considered. In the case of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, modeling has shown the lithographic mask to be a source of significant concern. Here we present a correlation-based methodology for experimentally measuring the magnitude of mask contributors to printed LER. The method is applied to recent printing results from a 0.3 numerical aperture EUV microfield exposure tool. The measurements demonstrate that such effects are indeed present and of significant magnitude. The method is also used to explore the effects of illumination coherence and defocus and has been used to verify model-based predictions of mask-induced LER.

  9. True covariance simulation of the EUVE (extreme ultra violet explorer) update filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Itzhack, I. Y.; Harman, R. R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a covariance analysis of the performance and sensitivity of the attitude determination Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) used by the onboard computer (OBC) of the Extreme Ultra Violet Explorer (EUVE) spacecraft. The linearized dynamics and measurement equations of the error states are used in formulating the 'truth model' describing the order of the systems involved. The 'design model' used by the OBC EKF is then obtained by reducing the order of the truth model. The covariance matrix of the EKF which uses the reduced order model is not the correct covariance of the EKF estimation error. A 'true covariance analysis' has to be carried out in order to evaluate the correct accuracy of the OBC generated estimates. The results of such analysis are presented which indicate both the performance and the sensitivity of the OBC EKF.

  10. Cluster beam targets for laser plasma extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray sources

    DOEpatents

    Kublak, G.D.; Richardson, M.C.

    1996-11-19

    Method and apparatus for producing extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray radiation from an ultra-low debris plasma source are disclosed. Targets are produced by the free jet expansion of various gases through a temperature controlled nozzle to form molecular clusters. These target clusters are subsequently irradiated with commercially available lasers of moderate intensity (10{sup 11}--10{sup 12} watts/cm{sup 2}) to produce a plasma radiating in the region of 0.5 to 100 nanometers. By appropriate adjustment of the experimental conditions the laser focus can be moved 10--30 mm from the nozzle thereby eliminating debris produced by plasma erosion of the nozzle. 5 figs.

  11. Stochastic effects in 11 nm imaging of extreme ultraviolet lithography with chemically amplified resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Santillan, Julius Joseph; Itani, Toshiro

    2014-03-01

    The resolution of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography with chemically amplified resist processes has reached 16 nm (half-pitch). The development of chemically amplified resists is ongoing toward the 11 nm node. However, the stochastic effects are increasingly becoming a significant concern with the continuing shrinkage of features. In this study, the fluctuation of protected unit distribution caused by the stochastic effects during image formation was investigated assuming line-and-space patterns with 11 nm half-pitch. Contrary to expectations, the standard deviation of the number of protected units connected to a polymer after postexposure baking (PEB) did not differ from that for 16 nm half-pitch. The standard deviation after PEB increased with the effective reaction radius for deprotection and the initial standard deviation before PEB. Because of the severe requirements for resist processes, the stochastic effects in chemical reactions should be taken into account in the design of next-generation resists.

  12. Latest results from the SEMATECH Berkeley extreme ultraviolet microfield exposure tool

    SciTech Connect

    Naulleau, Patrick; Anderson, Christopher N.; Chiu, Jerrin; Dean, Kim; Denham, Paul; George, Simi; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Hoef, Brian; Jones, Gideon; Koh, Chawon; La Fontaine, Bruno; Ma, Andy; Montgomery, Warren; Niakoula, Dimitra; Park, Joo-On; Wallow, Tom; Wurm, Stefan

    2008-09-02

    Microfield exposure tools (METs) continue to play a dominant role in the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) resists. One of these tools is the 0.3 numerical aperture SEMATECH Berkeley MET operating as a resist and mask test center. Here they present an update on the tool summarizing some of the latest test and characterization results. they provide an update on the long-term aberration stability of the tool and present line-space imaging in chemically amplified photoresist down to the 20-nm half-pitch level. Although resist development has shown substantial progress in the area of resolution, line-edge-roughness (LER) remains a significant concern. Here we present a summary of recent LER performance results and consider the effect of mask contributors to the LER observed from the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield tool.

  13. Contamination control program results from three years of ground operations on the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, David C.; Jelinsky, Sharon; Welsh, Barry Y.; Malina, Roger F.

    1990-01-01

    A stringent contamination-control plan has been developed for the optical components of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer instruments, whose performance in the 80-900 A wavelength range is highly sensitive to particulate and molecular contamination. The contamination-control program has been implemented over the last three years during assembly, test and calibration phases of the instrument. These phases have now been completed and the optics cavities of the instruments have been sealed until deployment in space. Various approaches are discussed which have been used during ground operations to meet optics' contamination goals within the project schedule and budget. The measured optical properties of EUV witness mirrors are also presented which remained with the flight mirrors during ground operations. These were used to track optical degradation due to contamination from the cleanroom and high-vacuum test-chamber environments.

  14. The extreme ultraviolet imager of solar orbiter: optical design and alignment scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halain, J.-P.; Mazzoli, A.; Meining, S.; Rochus, P.; Renotte, E.; Auchère, F.; Schühle, U.; Delmotte, F.; Dumesnil, C.; Philippon, A.; Mercier, R.; Hermans, A.

    2015-09-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI) is one of the remote sensing instruments on-board the Solar Orbiter mission. It will provide dual-band full-Sun images of the solar corona in the extreme ultraviolet (17.1 nm and 30.4 nm), and high resolution images of the solar disk in both extreme ultraviolet (17.1 nm) and vacuum ultraviolet (Lyman-alpha 121.6 nm). The EUI optical design takes heritage of previous similar instruments. The Full Sun Imager (FSI) channel is a single mirror Herschel design telescope. The two High Resolution Imager (HRI) channels are based on a two-mirror optical refractive scheme, one Ritchey-Chretien and one Gregory optical design for the EUV and the Lyman-alpha channels, respectively. The spectral performances of the EUI channels are obtained thanks to dedicated mirror multilayer coatings and specific band-pass filters. The FSI channel uses a dual-band mirror coating combined with aluminum and zirconium band-pass filters. The HRI channels use optimized band-pass selection mirror coatings combined with aluminum band-pass filters and narrow band interference filters for Lyman-alpha. The optical performances result from accurate mirror manufacturing tolerances and from a two-step alignment procedure. The primary mirrors are first co-aligned. The HRI secondary mirrors and focal planes positions are then adjusted to have an optimum interferometric cavity in each of these two channels. For that purpose a dedicated alignment test setup has been prepared, composed of a dummy focal plane assembly representing the detector position. Before the alignment on the flight optical bench, the overall alignment method has been validated on the Structural and Thermal Model, on a dummy bench using flight spare optics, then on the Qualification Model to be used for the system verification test and qualifications.

  15. FIBRILLAR CHROMOSPHERIC SPICULE-LIKE COUNTERPARTS TO AN EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET AND SOFT X-RAY BLOWOUT CORONAL JET

    SciTech Connect

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Harra, Louise K. E-mail: ron.moore@nasa.go

    2010-10-20

    We observe an erupting jet feature in a solar polar coronal hole, using data from Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS), and X-Ray Telescope (XRT), with supplemental data from STEREO/EUVI. From extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray (SXR) images we identify the erupting feature as a blowout coronal jet: in SXRs it is a jet with a bright base, and in EUV it appears as an eruption of relatively cool ({approx}50,000 K) material of horizontal size scale {approx}30'' originating from the base of the SXR jet. In SOT Ca II H images, the most pronounced analog is a pair of thin ({approx}1'') ejections at the locations of either of the two legs of the erupting EUV jet. These Ca II features eventually rise beyond 45'', leaving the SOT field of view, and have an appearance similar to standard spicules except that they are much taller. They have velocities similar to that of 'type II' spicules, {approx}100 km s{sup -1}, and they appear to have spicule-like substructures splitting off from them with horizontal velocity {approx}50 km s{sup -1}, similar to the velocities of splitting spicules measured by Sterling et al. Motions of splitting features and of other substructures suggest that the macroscopic EUV jet is spinning or unwinding as it is ejected. This and earlier work suggest that a subpopulation of Ca II type II spicules are the Ca II manifestation of portions of larger scale erupting magnetic jets. A different subpopulation of type II spicules could be blowout jets occurring on a much smaller horizontal size scale than the event we observe here.

  16. Low-cost method for producing extreme ultraviolet lithography optics

    DOEpatents

    Folta, James A.; Montcalm, Claude; Taylor, John S.; Spiller, Eberhard A.

    2003-11-21

    Spherical and non-spherical optical elements produced by standard optical figuring and polishing techniques are extremely expensive. Such surfaces can be cheaply produced by diamond turning; however, the roughness in the diamond turned surface prevent their use for EUV lithography. These ripples are smoothed with a coating of polyimide before applying a 60 period Mo/Si multilayer to reflect a wavelength of 134 .ANG. and have obtained peak reflectivities close to 63%. The savings in cost are about a factor of 100.

  17. PRODUCTION OF THE EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET LATE PHASE OF AN X CLASS FLARE IN A THREE-STAGE MAGNETIC RECONNECTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Y.; Ding, M. D.; Guo, Y.

    2013-08-20

    We report on observations of an X class flare on 2011 September 6 by the instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The flare occurs in a complex active region with multiple polarities. The Extreme-Ultraviolet (EUV) Variability Experiment observations in the warm coronal emission reveal three enhancements, the third of which corresponds to an EUV late phase. The three enhancements have a one-to-one correspondence to the three stages in flare evolution identified by the spatially resolved Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations, which are characterized by a flux rope eruption, a moderate filament ejection, and the appearance of EUV late phase loops, respectively. The EUV late phase loops are spatially and morphologically distinct from the main flare loops. Multi-channel analysis suggests the presence of a continuous but fragmented energy injection during the EUV late phase resulting in the warm corona nature of the late phase loops. Based on these observational facts, we propose a three-stage magnetic reconnection scenario to explain the flare evolution. Reconnections in different stages involve different magnetic fields but show a casual relationship between them. The EUV late phase loops are mainly produced by the least energetic magnetic reconnection in the last stage.

  18. Extreme ultraviolet photodissociative excitation of molecular oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Photodissociation processes in molecular oxygen occurring in the wavelength range from 500 to 900 A, investigated through observations of the resulting atomic fluorescence radiation, are reported. The dispersed radiation from a continuous light source was used to excite the gas, and the resulting fluorescence radiation was observed in the ultraviolet and infrared. The results obtained are compared with the dissociation cross sections derived by Matsunaga and Watanabe (1967).

  19. Modification of magnetic properties of Pt/Co/Pt trilayers driven by nanosecond pulses of extreme ultraviolet irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sveklo, I.; Kurant, Z.; Bartnik, A.; Klinger, D.; Sobierajski, R.; Wawro, A.; Kisielewski, J.; Tekielak, M.; Maziewski, A.

    2017-01-01

    An irreversible rotation of magnetization from in-plane to an out-of-plane direction was induced in Pt/Co/Pt epitaxial trilayers by single and multiple pulses of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiations. The radial dependence of remanence, coercivity and saturation fields across the irradiated spots was studied with the help of magneto-optical techniques for the samples with various Co and Pt buffer layer thicknesses. The sample surface and magnetic ordering were investigated using atomic force and magnetic force microscopies. Based on magnetic and morphological changes, the residual stress after thermoplastic deformation in the spot area is discussed as a reason for the observed transformation.

  20. Reflectance enhancement in the extreme ultraviolet and soft x rays by means of multilayers with more than two materials.

    PubMed

    Larruquert, Juan I

    2002-02-01

    Sub-quarterwave multilayer coatings with more than two different materials are shown to provide a reflectance enhancement compared with the standard two-material multilayer coatings when reflectance is limited by material absorption. A remarkable reflectance enhancement is obtained when the materials in the multilayer are moderately absorbing. A simple rule based on the material optical constants is provided to select the most suitable materials for the multilayer and to arrange the materials in the correct sequence in order to obtain the highest possible reflectance. It is shown that sub-quarterwave multilayers generalize the concept of multilayers, of which the standard two-material multilayers are a particular case. Various examples illustrate the benefit of sub-quarter-wave multilayer coatings for highest reflectance in the extreme ultraviolet. Applications for sub-quarterwave multilayer coatings are envisaged for astronomy in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x rays and also for future EUY lithography.

  1. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO): Overview of Science Objectives, Instrument Design, Data Products, and Model Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. N.; Eparvier, F. G.; Hock, R.; Jones, A. R.; Woodraska, D.; Judge, D.; Didkovsky, L.; Lean, J.; Mariska, J.; Warren, H.; McMullin, D.; Chamberlin, P.; Berthiaume, G.; Bailey, S.; Fuller-Rowell, T.; Sojka, J.; Tobiska, W. K.; Viereck, R.

    2010-01-01

    The highly variable solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is the major energy input to the Earth's upper atmosphere, strongly impacting the geospace environment, affecting satellite operations, communications, and navigation. The Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) will measure the solar EUV irradiance from 0.1 to 105 nm with unprecedented spectral resolution (0.1 nm), temporal cadence (ten seconds), and accuracy (20%). EVE includes several irradiance instruments: The Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS)-A is a grazingincidence spectrograph that measures the solar EUV irradiance in the 5 to 37 nm range with 0.1-nm resolution, and the MEGS-B is a normal-incidence, dual-pass spectrograph that measures the solar EUV irradiance in the 35 to 105 nm range with 0.1-nm resolution. To provide MEGS in-flight calibration, the EUV SpectroPhotometer (ESP) measures the solar EUV irradiance in broadbands between 0.1 and 39 nm, and a MEGS-Photometer measures the Sun s bright hydrogen emission at 121.6 nm. The EVE data products include a near real-time space-weather product (Level 0C), which provides the solar EUV irradiance in specific bands and also spectra in 0.1-nm intervals with a cadence of one minute and with a time delay of less than 15 minutes. The EVE higher-level products are Level 2 with the solar EUV irradiance at higher time cadence (0.25 seconds for photometers and ten seconds for spectrographs) and Level 3 with averages of the solar irradiance over a day and over each one-hour period. The EVE team also plans to advance existing models of solar EUV irradiance and to operationally use the EVE measurements in models of Earth s ionosphere and thermosphere. Improved understanding of the evolution of solar flares and extending the various models to incorporate solar flare events are high priorities for the EVE team.

  2. Extreme Ultraviolet (XUV) Coronal Spectroheliograph - Experiment S082A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This chart describes Skylab's Extreme Ultraviolet (XUV) Coronal Spectroheliograph, one of the eight Apollo Telescope Mount facilities. It was designed to sequentially photograph the solar chromosphere and corona in selected ultraviolet wavelengths . The instrument also obtained information about composition, temperature, energy conversion and transfer, and plasma processes of the chromosphere and lower corona. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  3. Extreme Ultraviolet (XUV) Coronal Spectroheliograph - Experiment S082A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This photograph shows Skylab's Extreme Ultraviolet (XUV) Spectroheliograph during an acceptance test and checkout procedures in April 1971. The unit was an Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) instrument designed to sequentially photograph the solar chromosphere and corona in selected ultraviolet wavelengths. The instrument also obtained information about composition, temperature, energy conversion and transfer, and plasma processes of the chromosphere and lower corona. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  4. A study of the mechanical vibrations of a table-top extreme ultraviolet interference nanolithography tool.

    PubMed

    Prezioso, S; De Marco, P; Zuppella, P; Santucci, S; Ottaviano, L

    2010-04-01

    A prototype low cost table-top extreme ultraviolet (EUV) laser source (1.5 ns pulse duration, lambda=46.9 nm) was successfully employed as a laboratory scale interference nanolithography (INL) tool. Interference patterns were obtained with a simple Lloyd's mirror setup. Periodic structures on Polymethylmethacrylate/Si substrates were produced on large areas (8 mm(2)) with resolutions from 400 to 22.5 nm half pitch (the smallest resolution achieved so far with table-top EUV laser sources). The mechanical vibrations affecting both the laser source and Lloyd's setup were studied to determine if and how they affect the lateral resolution of the lithographic system. The vibration dynamics was described by a statistical model based on the assumption that the instantaneous position of the vibrating mechanical parts follows a normal distribution. An algorithm was developed to simulate the process of sample irradiation under different vibrations. The comparison between simulations and experiments allowed to estimate the characteristic amplitude of vibrations that was deduced to be lower than 50 nm. The same algorithm was used to reproduce the expected pattern profiles in the lambda/4 half pitch physical resolution limit. In that limit, a nonzero pattern modulation amplitude was obtained from the simulations, comparable to the peak-to-valley height (2-3 nm) measured for the 45 nm spaced fringes, indicating that the mechanical vibrations affecting the INL tool do not represent a limit in scaling down the resolution.

  5. Characterization of an expanded-field Schwarzschild objective for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiak, G.D.; Tichenor, D.A.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A.K.

    1994-08-01

    The performance of a new 10x-reduction Schwarzschild system for projection imaging at 13.4 nm wavelength is reported. The optical design is optimized to achieve 0.1 {mu}m resolution over a 0.4 mm image field of view, an increase in area of a factor of 100 over previous designs. An off-set aperture, located on the convex primary, defines an unobscured 0.08 numerical aperture. The system is illuminated using extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation emitted from a laser plasma source and collected by an ellipsoidal condenser. A 450 turning mirror is used to relay the collected EUV radiation onto a near-normal reflecting mask. Multiple sets of primary and secondary elements were fabricated, matched and clocked to minimize the effects of small figure errors on imaging performance. Optical metrology indicates that the wave-front error within the subaperture used is within a factor of two of the design value. Images recorded in PMMA and ZEP 520 resists reveal good imaging fidelity over much of the 0.4 mm field with equal line/space gratings being resolved to 0.1 {mu}m.

  6. Stable droplet generator for a high brightness laser produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinokhodov, A.; Krivokorytov, M.; Sidelnikov, Yu.; Krivtsun, V.; Medvedev, V.; Bushuev, V.; Koshelev, K.; Glushkov, D.; Ellwi, S.

    2016-10-01

    We present the results of the low-melting liquid metal droplets generation based on excited Rayleigh jet breakup. We discuss on the operation of the industrial and in-house designed and manufactured dispensing devices for the droplets generation. Droplet diameter can be varied in the range of 30-90 μm. The working frequency of the droplets, velocity, and the operating temperature were in the ranges of 20-150 kHz, 4-15 m/s, and up to 250 °C, respectively. The standard deviations for the droplet center of mass position both their diameter σ < 1 μm at the distance of 45 mm from the nozzle. Stable operation in the long-term (over 1.5 h) was demonstrated for a wide range of the droplet parameters: diameters, frequencies, and velocities. Physical factors affecting the stability of the generator operation have been identified. The technique for droplet synchronization, allowing using the droplet as a target for laser produced plasma, has been created; in particular, the generator has been successfully used in a high brightness extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light source. The operation with frequency up to 8 kHz was demonstrated as a result of the experimental simulation, which can provide an average brightness of the EUV source up to ˜1.2 kW/mm2 sr.

  7. On the Importance of the Flare's Late Phase for the Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Eparvier, Frank; Jones, Andrew R.; Hock, Rachel; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Klimchuk, James A.; Didkovsky, Leonid; Judge, Darrell; Mariska, John; Bailey, Scott; Tobiska, W. Kent; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Webb, David F.; Warren, Harry

    2011-01-01

    The new solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance observations from NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) have revealed a new class of solar flares that are referred to as late phase flares. These flares are characterized by the hot 2-5 MK coronal emissions (e.g., Fe XVI 33.5 nm) showing large secondary peaks that appear many minutes to hours after an eruptive flare event. In contrast, the cool 0.7-1.5 MK coronal emissions (e.g., Fe IX 17.1 nm) usually dim immediately after the flare onset and do not recover until after the delayed second peak of the hot coronal emissions. We refer to this period of 1-5 hours after the fl amrea sin phase as the late phase, and this late phase is uniquely different than long duration flares associated with 2-ribbon flares or large filament eruptions. Our analysis of the late phase flare events indicates that the late phase involves hot coronal loops near the flaring region, not directly related to the original flaring loop system but rather with the higher post-eruption fields. Another finding is that space weather applications concerning Earth s ionosphere and thermosphere need to consider these late phase flares because they can enhance the total EUV irradiance flare variation by a factor of 2 when the late phase contribution is included.

  8. Droplet-based, high-brightness extreme ultraviolet laser plasma source for metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinokhodov, A. Yu.; Krivokorytov, M. S.; Sidelnikov, Yu. V.; Krivtsun, V. M.; Medvedev, V. V.; Koshelev, K. N.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the development of a high brightness source of extreme ultraviolet radiation (EUV) with a working wavelength of 13.5 nm. The source is based on a laser-produced plasma driven by pulsed radiation of a Nd:YAG laser system. Liquid droplets of Sn-In eutectic alloy were used as the source fuel. The droplets were created by a droplet generator operating in the jet break-up regime. The EUV emission properties of the plasma, including the emission spectrum, time profile, and conversion efficiency of laser radiation into useful 13.5 nm photons, have been characterized. Using the shadowgraphy technique, we demonstrated the production of corpuscular debris by the plasma source and the influence of the plasma on the neighboring droplet targets. The high-frequency laser operation was simulated by usage of the dual pulse regime. Based on the experimental results, we discuss the physical phenomena that could affect the source operation at high repetition rates. Finally, we estimate that an average source brightness of 1.2 kW/mm2 sr is feasible at a high repetition rate.

  9. Dynamic absorption coefficients of chemically amplified resists and nonchemically amplified resists at extreme ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallica, Roberto; Stowers, Jason K.; Grenville, Andrew; Frommhold, Andreas; Robinson, Alex P. G.; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-07-01

    The dynamic absorption coefficients of several chemically amplified resists (CAR) and non-CAR extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photoresists are measured experimentally using a specifically developed setup in transmission mode at the x-ray interference lithography beamline of the Swiss Light Source. The absorption coefficient α and the Dill parameters ABC were measured with unprecedented accuracy. In general, the α of resists match very closely with the theoretical value calculated from elemental densities and absorption coefficients, whereas exceptions are observed. In addition, through the direct measurements of the absorption coefficients and dose-to-clear values, we introduce a new figure of merit called chemical sensitivity to account for all the postabsorption chemical reaction ongoing in the resist, which also predicts a quantitative clearing volume and clearing radius, due to the photon absorption in the resist. These parameters may help provide deeper insight into the underlying mechanisms of the EUV concepts of clearing volume and clearing radius, which are then defined and quantitatively calculated.

  10. Spectroscopic study of debris mitigation with minimum-mass Sn laser plasma for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Namba, S.; Fujioka, S.; Nishimura, H.; Yasuda, Y.; Nagai, K.; Miyanaga, N.; Izawa, Y.; Mima, K.; Takiyama, K.

    2006-04-24

    An experimental study was made of a target consisting of the minimum mass of pure tin (Sn) necessary for the highest conversion to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light while minimizing the generation of plasma debris. The minimum-mass target comprised a thin Sn layer coated on a plastic shell and was irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser pulse. The expansion behavior of neutral atoms and singly charged ions emanating from the Sn plasma were investigated by spatially resolved visible spectroscopy. A remarkable reduction of debris emission in the backward direction with respect to the incident laser beam was demonstrated with a decrease in the thickness of the Sn layer. The optimal thickness of the Sn layer for a laser pulse of 9 ns at 7x10{sup 10} W/cm{sup 2} was found to be 40 nm, at which low-debris emission in the backward direction and a high conversion to 13.5 nm EUV radiation were simultaneously attained.

  11. Extreme ultraviolet emission and confinement of tin plasmas in the presence of a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Amitava E-mail: aroy@barc.gov.in; Murtaza Hassan, Syed; Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Hassanein, Ahmed; Endo, Akira; Mocek, Tomas

    2014-05-15

    We investigated the role of a guiding magnetic field on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and ion emission from a laser produced Sn plasma for various laser pulse duration and intensity. For producing plasmas, planar slabs of pure Sn were irradiated with 1064 nm, Nd:YAG laser pulses with varying pulse duration (5–15 ns) and intensity. A magnetic trap was fabricated with the use of two neodymium permanent magnets which provided a magnetic field strength ∼0.5 T along the plume expansion direction. Our results indicate that the EUV conversion efficiency do not depend significantly on applied axial magnetic field. Faraday Cup ion analysis of Sn plasma show that the ion flux reduces by a factor of ∼5 with the application of an axial magnetic field. It was found that the plasma plume expand in the lateral direction with peak velocity measured to be ∼1.2 cm/μs and reduced to ∼0.75 cm/μs with the application of an axial magnetic field. The plume expansion features recorded using fast photography in the presence and absence of 0.5 T axial magnetic field are simulated using particle-in-cell code. Our simulation results qualitatively predict the plasma behavior.

  12. Lifetime studies of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedowski, Marco; Bajt, Sasa; Folta, James A.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Kleineberg, Ulf; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Malinowski, Michael E.; Clift, W. Miles

    1999-11-01

    Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) is a candidate for future application by the semiconductor industry in the production of sub-100 nm feature sizes in integrated circuits. Using multilayer reflective coatings optimized at wavelengths ranging from 11 to 14 nm, EUVL represents a potential successor to currently existing optical lithography techniques. In order to assess lifetimes of the multilayer coatings under realistic conditions, a series of radiation stability tests has been performed. In each run a dose of EUV radiation equivalent to several months of lithographic operation was applied to Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer coatings within a few days. Depending on the residual gas concentration in the vacuum environment, surface deposition of carbon during the exposure lead to losses in the multilayer reflectivity. However, in none of the experimental runs was structural damage within the bulk of the multilayers observed. Mo/Si multilayer coatings recovered their full original reflectivity after removal of the carbon layer by an ozone cleaning method. Auger depth profiling on Mo/Be multilayers indicate that carbon penetrated into the Be top layer during illumination with high doses of EUV radiation. Subsequent ozone cleaning fully removed the carbon, but revealed enhanced oxidation of the area illuminated, which led to an irreversible loss in reflectance on the order of 1%.

  13. Characterization of an expanded-field Schwarzschild objective for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiak, G.D.; Tichenor, D.A.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A.K.; Malinowski, M.E.; Stulen, R.H.; Haney, S.J.; Berger, K.W.; Nissen, R.P.; Wilkerson, G.A.; Paul, P.H. ); Bjorkholm, J.E.; Fetter, L.A.; Freeman, R.R.; Himel, M.D.; MacDowell, A.A.; Tennant, D.M.; Wood, O.R. II ); Waskiewicz, W.K.; White, D.L.; Windt, D.L. ); Jewell, T.E. )

    1994-11-01

    The performance of a new 10[times]-reduction Schwarzschild system for projection imaging at 13.4 nm wavelength is reported. The optical design is optimized to achieve 0.1 [mu]m resolution over a 0.4 mm image field of view, an increase in area of a factor of 100 over previous designs. An offset aperture, located on the convex primary, defines an unobscured 0.08 numerical aperture. The system is illuminated using extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation emitted from a laser plasma source and collected by an ellipsoidal condenser. A 45[degree] turning mirror is used to relay the collected EUV radiation onto a near-normal reflecting mask. Multiple sets of primary and secondary elements were fabricated, matched, and clocked to minimize the effects of small figure errors on imaging performance. Optical metrology indicates that the wave-front error within the subaperture used is within a factor of 2 of the design value. Images recorded in poly(methyl methacrylate) and ZEP 520 (Nippon Zeon) resists reveal good imaging fidelity over much of the 0.4 mm field with equal line/space gratings being resolved to 0.1 [mu]m.

  14. Infrared-laser-assisted photoionization of helium by coherent extreme ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Tong Xiaomin; Toshima, Nobuyuki

    2010-04-15

    We investigate the infrared (IR)-laser-assisted photoionization of He by a coherent extreme ultraviolet (euv) light solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. A combined field of the 13th and 15th harmonics created from the same IR laser source is used to ionize He atoms coherently. We show that the ionization probabilities oscillate as a function of the time delay between the IR and the euv pulses. On the other hand, the oscillation amplitude increases as the IR intensity increases, reaches a maximum when the IR intensity is around 6x10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}, and then decreases as the IR intensity increases further. Decomposing the ionization probabilities by the 13th and 15th harmonics, we illustrate that the oscillation amplitude is small for a lower IR laser intensity due to the fact that the transition strength by the 13th harmonic is much smaller than the one by the 15th harmonic. When the IR intensity increases further above 6x10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}, the transition strength by the 13th harmonic becomes larger than the one by the 15th harmonic and the oscillation amplitude is reduced again. By tuning the relative field strengths of the 13th and 15th harmonics or the IR intensity, we can control the oscillation amplitude.

  15. Mode Conversion of a Solar Extreme-ultraviolet Wave over a Coronal Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Weiguo; Dai, Yu

    2017-01-01

    We report on observations of an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave event in the Sun on 2011 January 13 by Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory and Solar Dynamics Observatory in quadrature. Both the trailing edge and the leading edge of the EUV wave front in the north direction are reliably traced, revealing generally compatible propagation velocities in both perspectives and a velocity ratio of about 1/3. When the wave front encounters a coronal cavity near the northern polar coronal hole, the trailing edge of the front stops while its leading edge just shows a small gap and extends over the cavity, meanwhile getting significantly decelerated but intensified. We propose that the trailing edge and the leading edge of the northward propagating wave front correspond to a non-wave coronal mass ejection component and a fast-mode magnetohydrodynamic wave component, respectively. The interaction of the fast-mode wave and the coronal cavity may involve a mode conversion process, through which part of the fast-mode wave is converted to a slow-mode wave that is trapped along the magnetic field lines. This scenario can reasonably account for the unusual behavior of the wave front over the coronal cavity.

  16. Multilayer coated optics for an alpha-class extreme ultraviolet lithography system

    SciTech Connect

    Folta, J A; Grabner, R F; Hudyma, R M; Montcalm, C; Schmidt, M A; Spiller, E; Walton, C C; Wedowski, M

    1999-08-25

    We present the results of coating the first set of optical elements for an alpha-class extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography system, the Engineering Test Stand (ETS). The optics were coated with Mo/Si multilayer mirrors using an upgraded DC-magnetron sputtering system. Characterization of the near-normal incidence EUV reflectance was performed using synchrotron radiation from the Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Stringent requirements were met for these multilayer coatings in terms of reflectance, wavelength matching among the different optics, and thickness control across the diameter of each individual optic. Reflectances above 65% were achieved at 13.35 nm at near-normal angles of incidence. The run-to-run reproducibility of the reflectance peak wavelength was maintained to within 0.4%, providing the required wavelength matching among the seven multilayer-coated optics. The thickness uniformity (or gradient) was controlled to within {+-}0.25% peak-to-valley (P-V) for the condenser optics and {+-}0.1% P-V for the four projection optics, exceeding the prescribed specification for the optics of the ETS.

  17. A volume-limited ROSAT survey of extreme ultraviolet emission from all nondegenerate stars within 10 parsecs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Brian E.; Brown, Alexander; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Kellett, Barry J.; Bromage, Gordon E.; Hodgkin, Simon T.; Pye, John P.

    1994-07-01

    We report the results of a volume-limited ROSAT Wide Field Camera (WFC) survey of all nondegenerate stars within 10 pc. Of the 220 known star systems within 10 pc, we find that 41 are positive detections in at least one of the two WFC filter bandpasses (S1 and S2), while we consider another 14 to be marginal detections. We compute X-ray luminosities for the WFC detections using Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) data, and these IPC luminosities are discussed along with the WFC luminosities throughout the paper for purposes of comparison. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) luminosity functions are computed for single stars of different spectral types using both S1 and S2 luminosities, and these luminosity functions are compared with X-ray luminosity functions derived by previous authors using IPC data. We also analyze the S1 and S2 luminosity functions of the binary stars within 10 pc. We find that most stars in binary systems do not emit EUV radiation at levels different from those of single stars, but there may be a few EUV-luminous multiple-star systems which emit excess EUV radiation due to some effect of binarity. In general, the ratio of X-ray luminosity to EUV luminosity increases with increasing coronal emission, suggesting that coronally active stars have higher coronal temperatures. We find that our S1, S2, and IPC luminosities are well correlated with rotational velocity, and we compare activity-rotation relations determined using these different luminosities. Late M stars are found to be significantly less luminous in the EUV than other late-type stars. The most natural explanation for this results is the concept of coronal saturation -- the idea that late-type stars can emit only a limited fraction of their total luminosity in X-ray and EUV radiation, which means stars with very low bolometric luminosities must have relatively low X-ray and EUV luminosities as well. The maximum level of coronal emission from stars with earlier spectral types is studied

  18. A volume-limited ROSAT survey of extreme ultraviolet emission from all nondegenerate stars within 10 parsecs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Brian E.; Brown, Alexander; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Kellett, Barry J.; Bromage, Gordon E.; Hodgkin, Simon T.; Pye, John P.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of a volume-limited ROSAT Wide Field Camera (WFC) survey of all nondegenerate stars within 10 pc. Of the 220 known star systems within 10 pc, we find that 41 are positive detections in at least one of the two WFC filter bandpasses (S1 and S2), while we consider another 14 to be marginal detections. We compute X-ray luminosities for the WFC detections using Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) data, and these IPC luminosities are discussed along with the WFC luminosities throughout the paper for purposes of comparison. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) luminosity functions are computed for single stars of different spectral types using both S1 and S2 luminosities, and these luminosity functions are compared with X-ray luminosity functions derived by previous authors using IPC data. We also analyze the S1 and S2 luminosity functions of the binary stars within 10 pc. We find that most stars in binary systems do not emit EUV radiation at levels different from those of single stars, but there may be a few EUV-luminous multiple-star systems which emit excess EUV radiation due to some effect of binarity. In general, the ratio of X-ray luminosity to EUV luminosity increases with increasing coronal emission, suggesting that coronally active stars have higher coronal temperatures. We find that our S1, S2, and IPC luminosities are well correlated with rotational velocity, and we compare activity-rotation relations determined using these different luminosities. Late M stars are found to be significantly less luminous in the EUV than other late-type stars. The most natural explanation for this results is the concept of coronal saturation -- the idea that late-type stars can emit only a limited fraction of their total luminosity in X-ray and EUV radiation, which means stars with very low bolometric luminosities must have relatively low X-ray and EUV luminosities as well. The maximum level of coronal emission from stars with earlier spectral types is studied

  19. Towards High Accuracy Reflectometry for Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography.

    PubMed

    Tarrio, Charles; Grantham, Steven; Squires, Matthew B; Vest, Robert E; Lucatorto, Thomas B

    2003-01-01

    Currently the most demanding application of extreme ultraviolet optics is connected with the development of extreme ultraviolet lithography. Not only does each of the Mo/Si multilayer extreme-ultraviolet stepper mirrors require the highest attainable reflectivity at 13 nm (nearly 70 %), but the central wavelength of the reflectivity of these mirrors must be measured with a wavelength repeatability of 0.001 nm and the peak reflectivity of the reflective masks with a repeatability of 0.12 %. We report on two upgrades of our NIST/DARPA Reflectometry Facility that have given us the ability to achieve 0.1 % repeatability and 0.3 % absolute uncertainty in our reflectivity measurements. A third upgrade, a monochromator with thermal and mechanical stability for improved wavelength repeatability, is currently in the design phase.

  20. Atmosphere and water loss from early Mars under extreme solar wind and extreme ultraviolet conditions.

    PubMed

    Terada, Naoki; Kulikov, Yuri N; Lammer, Helmut; Lichtenegger, Herbert I M; Tanaka, Takashi; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki; Zhang, Tielong

    2009-01-01

    The upper limits of the ion pickup and cold ion outflow loss rates from the early martian atmosphere shortly after the Sun arrived at the Zero-Age-Main-Sequence (ZAMS) were investigated. We applied a comprehensive 3-D multi-species magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model to an early martian CO(2)-rich atmosphere, which was assumed to have been exposed to a solar XUV [X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV)] flux that was 100 times higher than today and a solar wind that was about 300 times denser. We also assumed the late onset of a planetary magnetic dynamo, so that Mars had no strong intrinsic magnetic field at that early period. We found that, due to such extreme solar wind-atmosphere interaction, a strong magnetic field of about approximately 4000 nT was induced in the entire dayside ionosphere, which could efficiently protect the upper atmosphere from sputtering loss. A planetary obstacle ( approximately ionopause) was formed at an altitude of about 1000 km above the surface due to the drag force and the mass loading by newly created ions in the highly extended upper atmosphere. We obtained an O(+) loss rate by the ion pickup process, which takes place above the ionopause, of about 1.5 x 10(28) ions/s during the first < or =150 million years, which is about 10(4) times greater than today and corresponds to a water loss equivalent to a global martian ocean with a depth of approximately 8 m. Consequently, even if the magnetic protection due to the expected early martian magnetic dynamo is neglected, ion pickup and sputtering were most likely not the dominant loss processes for the planet's initial atmosphere and water inventory. However, it appears that the cold ion outflow into the martian tail, due to the transfer of momentum from the solar wind to the ionospheric plasma, could have removed a global ocean with a depth of 10-70 m during the first < or =150 million years after the Sun arrived at the ZAMS.

  1. Sub-diffraction-limited multilayer coatings for the 0.3 numerical aperture micro-exposure tool for extreme ultraviolet lithography.

    PubMed

    Soufli, Regina; Hudyma, Russell M; Spiller, Eberhard; Gullikson, Eric M; Schmidt, Mark A; Robinson, Jeff C; Baker, Sherry L; Walton, Christopher C; Taylor, John S

    2007-06-20

    Multilayer coating results are discussed for the primary and secondary mirrors of the micro-exposure tool (MET): a 0.30 NA lithographic imaging system with a 200 microm x 600 microm field of view at the wafer plane, operating in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region at an illumination wavelength around 13.4 nm. Mo/Si multilayers were deposited by DC-magnetron sputtering on large-area, curved MET camera substrates. A velocity modulation technique was implemented to consistently achieve multilayer thickness profiles with added figure errors below 0.1 nm rms demonstrating sub-diffraction-limited performance, as defined by the classical diffraction limit of Rayleigh (0.25 waves peak to valley) or Marechal (0.07 waves rms). This work is an experimental demonstration of sub-diffraction- limited multilayer coatings for high-NA EUV imaging systems, which resulted in the highest resolution microfield EUV images to date.

  2. Instrumentation on the RAIDS experiment 2: Extreme ultraviolet spectrometer, photometer, and near IR spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, A. B.; Kayser, D. C.; Pranke, J. B.; Chakrabarti, Supriya; McCoy, R. P.

    1994-02-01

    The RAIDS experiment consists of eight instruments spanning the wavelength range from the extreme ultraviolet (55 nm) to the near infrared (800 nm) oriented to view the Earth's limb from the NOAA-J spacecraft to be launched into a circular orbit in 1993. Through measurements of the natural optical emissions and scattered sunlight originating in the upper atmosphere including the mesosphere and thermosphere, state variables such as temperature, composition, density and ion concentration of this region will be inferred. This report describes the subset of instruments fabricated or otherwise provided by the Space and Environment Technology Center (formerly Space Sciences Laboratory) at The Aerospace Corp. The companion to this report describes the instruments from the Naval Research Laboratory. The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph (EUVS), the three fixed filter photometers OI (630), OI (777), and Na (589), and the near infrared spectrometer (NIR) will be described. These are all mounted on a mechanical scan platform that scans the limb from approximately 75 to 750 km in the orbital plane of the satellite every 90 seconds.

  3. [Design of optical system for solar extreme-ultraviolet imaging spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhuang; Gong, Yan

    2012-03-01

    Hyper-spectral imaging observation of the sun in the EUV region is an important method of research for solar's upper transition region, corona and plasma's physical property. Based on the application objective of solar extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer (SEUIS), combined with the current states of domestic and foreign extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer, a few of parameters for SEUIS design were drew up in the present paper. The advantages and disadvantages of all kinds of optical configurations were discussed,and the configuration of combination of telescope and spectrometer was chosen. The available main components were also described, off-axis parabolic mirror was chosen for telescope, and a high density uniform-line-space toroidal grating for dispersion device. The optical system which satisfies the performance parameters was designed. The design process, detailed parameters and results were presented in the end. The working wavelength of the optics system is 17.0-21.0 nm, the field of view is 1 228" x 1 024", the spatial resolution is 0.8 arc sec x pixel(-1), the spectral resolution is about 0.00198 nm x pixel(-1), and the total length of system is about 2.8 m.

  4. Study of CD variation caused by the black border effect and out-of-band radiation in extreme ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Weimin; Niroomand, Ardavan; Lorusso, Gian F.; Boone, Robert; Lucas, Kevin; Demmerle, Wolfgang

    2014-04-01

    Although extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) remains a promising candidate for semiconductor device manufacturing of the 1× nm half pitch node and beyond, many technological burdens have to be overcome. The "field edge effect" in EUVL is one of them. The image border region of an EUV mask, also known as the "black border" (BB), reflects a few percent of the incident EUV light, resulting in a leakage of light into neighboring exposure fields, especially at the corner of the field where three adjacent exposures take place. This effect significantly impacts on critical dimension (CD) uniformity (CDU) across the exposure field. To avoid this phenomenon, a light-shielding border is introduced by etching away the entire absorber and multilayer at the image border region of the EUV mask. We present a method of modeling the field edge effect (also called the BB effect) by using rigorous lithography simulation with a calibrated resist model. An additional "flare level" at the field edge is introduced on top of the exposure tool flare map to account for the BB effect. The parameters in this model include the reflectivity and the width of the BB, which are mainly determining the leakage of EUV light and its influence range, respectively. Another parameter is the transition width which represents the half shadow effect of the reticle masking blades. By setting the corresponding parameters, the simulation results match well the experimental results obtained at the IMEC's NXE:3100 EUV exposure tool. Moreover, these results indicate that the out-of-band (OoB) radiation also contributes to the CDU. Using simulation, we can also determine the OoB effect rigorously using the methodology of an "effective mask blank." The study demonstrates that the impact of BB and OoB effects on CDU can be well predicted by simulations.

  5. Development of extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray multilayer optics for scientific studies with femtosecond/attosecond sources

    SciTech Connect

    Aquila, Andrew Lee

    2009-05-21

    The development of multilayer optics for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation has led to advancements in many areas of science and technology, including materials studies, EUV lithography, water window microscopy, plasma imaging, and orbiting solar physics imaging. Recent developments in femtosecond and attosecond EUV pulse generation from sources such as high harmonic generation lasers, combined with the elemental and chemical specificity provided by EUV radiation, are opening new opportunities to study fundamental dynamic processes in materials. Critical to these efforts is the design and fabrication of multilayer optics to transport, focus, shape and image these ultra-fast pulses This thesis describes the design, fabrication, characterization, and application of multilayer optics for EUV femtosecond and attosecond scientific studies. Multilayer mirrors for bandwidth control, pulse shaping and compression, tri-material multilayers, and multilayers for polarization control are described. Characterization of multilayer optics, including measurement of material optical constants, reflectivity of multilayer mirrors, and metrology of reflected phases of the multilayer, which is critical to maintaining pulse size and shape, were performed. Two applications of these multilayer mirrors are detailed in the thesis. In the first application, broad bandwidth multilayers were used to characterize and measure sub-100 attosecond pulses from a high harmonic generation source and was performed in collaboration with the Max-Planck institute for Quantum Optics and Ludwig- Maximilians University in Garching, Germany, with Professors Krausz and Kleineberg. In the second application, multilayer mirrors with polarization control are useful to study femtosecond spin dynamics in an ongoing collaboration with the T-REX group of Professor Parmigiani at Elettra in Trieste, Italy. As new ultrafast x-ray sources become available, for example free electron lasers, the multilayer designs

  6. Method for generating extreme ultraviolet with mather-type plasma accelerators for use in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hassanein, Ahmed; Konkashbaev, Isak

    2006-10-03

    A device and method for generating extremely short-wave ultraviolet electromagnetic wave uses two intersecting plasma beams generated by two plasma accelerators. The intersection of the two plasma beams emits electromagnetic radiation and in particular radiation in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength. In the preferred orientation two axially aligned counter streaming plasmas collide to produce an intense source of electromagnetic radiation at the 13.5 nm wavelength. The Mather type plasma accelerators can utilize tin, or lithium covered electrodes. Tin, lithium or xenon can be used as the photon emitting gas source.

  7. Earth-orbiting extreme ultraviolet spectroscopic mission: SPRINT-A/EXCEED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, I.; Tsuchiya, F.; Yamazaki, A.; Yoshioka, K.; Uemizu, K.; Murakami, G.; Kimura, T.; Kagitani, M.; Terada, N.; Kasaba, Y.; Sakanoi, T.; Ishii, H.; Uji, K.

    2012-09-01

    The EXCEED (Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscope for Exospheric Dynamics) mission is an Earth-orbiting extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopic mission and the first in the SPRINT series being developed by ISAS/JAXA. It will be launched in the summer of 2013. EUV spectroscopy is suitable for observing tenuous gases and plasmas around planets in the solar system (e.g., Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn). Advantage of remote sensing observation is to take a direct picture of the plasma dynamics and distinguish between spatial and temporal variability explicitly. One of the primary observation targets is an inner magnetosphere of Jupiter, whose plasma dynamics is dominated by planetary rotation. Previous observations have shown a few percents of the hot electron population in the inner magnetosphere whose temperature is 100 times higher than the background thermal electrons. Though the hot electrons have a significant impact on the energy balance in the inner magnetosphere, their generation process has not yet been elucidated. In the EUV range, a number of emission lines originate from plasmas distributed in Jupiter's inner magnetosphere. The EXCEED spectrograph is designed to have a wavelength range of 55-145 nm with minimum spectral resolution of 0.4 nm, enabling the electron temperature and ion composition in the inner magnetosphere to be determined. Another primary objective is to investigate an unresolved problem concerning the escape of the atmosphere to space. Although there have been some in-situ observations by orbiters, our knowledge is still limited. The EXCEED mission plans to make imaging observations of plasmas around Venus and Mars to determine the amounts of escaping atmosphere. The instrument's field of view (FOV) is so wide that we can get an image from the interaction region between the solar wind and planetary plasmas down to the tail region at one time. This will provide us with information about outward-flowing plasmas, e.g., their composition

  8. EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Kevin; Wurm, Stefan

    2006-10-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) technology and infrastructure development has made excellent progress over the past several years, and tool suppliers are delivering alpha tools to customers. However, requirements in source, mask, optics, and resist are very challenging, and significant development efforts are still needed to support beta and production-level performance. Some of the important advances in the past few years include increased source output power, tool and optics system development and integration, and mask blank defect reduction. For example, source power has increased to levels approaching specification, but reliable source operation at these power levels has yet to be fully demonstrated. Significant efforts are also needed to achieve the resolution, line width roughness, and photospeed requirements for EUV photoresists. Cost of ownership and extendibility to future nodes are key factors in determining the outlook for the manufacturing insertion of EUVL. Since wafer throughput is a critical cost factor, source power, resist sensitivity, and system design all need to be carefully considered. However, if the technical and business challenges can be met, then EUVL will be the likely technology of choice for semiconductor manufacturing at the 32, 22, 16 and 11 nm half-pitch nodes. To cite this article: K. Kemp, S. Wurm, C. R. Physique 7 (2006).

  9. X ray, extreme and far ultraviolet optical thin films for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zukic, Muamer; Torr, Douglas G.; Kim, Jongmin

    1993-01-01

    Far and extreme ultraviolet optical thin film filters find many uses in space astronomy, space astrophysics, and space aeronomy. Spacebased spectrographs are used for studying emission and absorption features of the earth, planets, sun, stars, and the interstellar medium. Most of these spectrographs use transmission or reflection filters. This requirement has prompted a search for selective filtering coatings with high throughput in the FUV and EUV spectral region. Important progress toward the development of thin film filters with improved efficiency and stability has been made in recent years. The goal for this field is the minimization of absorption to get high throughput and enhancement of wavelength selection. The Optical Aeronomy Laboratory (OAL) at the University of Alabama in Huntsville has recently developed the technology to determine optical constants of bulk and film materials for wavelengths extending from x-rays (0.1 nm) to the FUV (200 nm), and several materials have been identified that were used for designs of various optical devices which previously have been restricted to space application in the visible and near infrared. A new design concept called the Pi-multilayer was introduced and applied to the design of optical coatings for wavelengths extending from x-rays to the FUV. Section 3 of this report explains the Pi-multilayer approach and demonstrates its application for the design and fabrication of the FUV coatings. Two layer Pi-stacks have been utilized for the design of reflection filters in the EUV wavelength range from 70 - 100 nm. In order to eliminate losses due to the low reflection of the imaging optics and increase throughput and out-of-band rejection of the EUV instrumentation we introduced a self-filtering camera concept. In the FUV region, MgF2 and LiF crystals are known to be birefringent. Transmission polarizers and quarterwave retarders made of MgF2 or LiF crystals are commercially available but the performances are poor. New

  10. TWO TYPES OF EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET BRIGHTENINGS IN AR 10926 OBSERVED BY HINODE/EIS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.-S.; Moon, Y.-J.; Choe, G. S.; Kim, Sujin; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Imada, S.

    2011-07-20

    We have investigated seven extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) brightenings in the active region AR 10926 on 2006 December 2 observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on board the Hinode spacecraft. We have determined their Doppler velocities and non-thermal velocities from 15 EUV spectral lines (log T = 4.7 - 6.4) by fitting each line profile to a Gaussian function. The Doppler velocity maps for different temperatures are presented to show the height dependence of the Doppler shifts. It is found that the active region brightenings show two distinct Doppler shift patterns. The type 1 brightening shows a systematic increase of Doppler velocity from -68 km s{sup -1} (strong blueshift) at log T = 4.7 to -2 km s{sup -1} (weak blueshift) at log T = 6.4, while the type 2 brightenings have Doppler velocities in the range from -20 km s{sup -1} to 20 km s{sup -1}. The type 1 brightening point is considered to sit in an upward reconnection outflow whose speed decreases with height. In both types of brightenings, the non-thermal velocity is found to be significantly enhanced at log T = 5.8 compared to the background region. We have also determined electron densities from line ratios and derived temperatures from emission measure loci using the CHIANTI atomic database. The electron densities of all brightenings are comparable to typical values in active regions (log N{sub e} = 9.9-10.4). The emission measure loci plots indicate that these brightenings should be multi-thermal whereas the background is isothermal. The differential emission measure as a function of temperature shows multiple peaks in the EUV brightening regions, while it has only a single peak (log T = 6.0) in the background region. Using Michelson Doppler Imager magnetograms, we have found that the type 1 brightening is associated with a canceling magnetic feature with a flux canceling rate of 2.4 x 10{sup 18} Mx hr{sup -1}. We also found the canceling magnetic feature and chromospheric brightenings in the type 1

  11. Compensation methods using a new model for buried defects in extreme ultraviolet lithography masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, Chris H.; Chan, Tina T.; Neureuther, Andrew R.; Li, Ying; Peng, Danping; Pang, Linyong

    2010-09-01

    A new method for predicting the reflection from an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) multilayer is described which when implemented into the new Defect Printability Simulator (DPS) can calculate the image produced by an EUV mask with a buried defect several orders of magnitude faster than the finite difference time domain (FDTD). A new buried defect compensation method is also demonstrated to correct the in focus image of a line space pattern containing a buried defect. The new multilayer model accounts for the disruption of the magnitude and phase of the reflected field from an EUV multilayer defect. It does this by sampling the multilayer on a non-uniform grid and calculating the analytic complex local reflection coefficient at each point. After this step, the effect of the optical path difference due to the surface defect profile is added to the total reflected field to accurately predict the reflected magnitude and phase at all points on the multilayer surface. The accuracy of the new multilayer model and the full DPS simulator is verified by comparisons to FDTD simulations. The largest difference between the two methods was 0.8nm for predicting the CD change due to a buried defect through focus. This small difference is within the margin of error for FDTD simulations of EUV multilayers. The runtime of DPS is compared to extrapolated FDTD runtimes for many simulation domain sizes and DPS is 4-5 orders of magnitude faster for all cases. For example, DPS can calculate the reflected image from a 1μm x 1μm mask area in less than 30 seconds on a single processor. FDTD would take a month on four processors. The new compensation strategy demonstrated in this work is able to remove all CD error in the simulated image due to a buried defect in a 22nm dense line space pattern. The method is iterative and a full DPS simulation is run for every iteration. After each simulation, the absorber pattern is adjusted based on the difference of the thresholded target image and

  12. Comparison of solar radio and extreme ultraviolet synoptic limb charts during the present solar maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira e Silva, A. J.; Selhorst, C. L.; Simões, P. J. A.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.

    2016-08-01

    Aims: The present solar cycle is particular in many aspects: it had a delayed rising phase, it is the weakest of the last 100 yrs, and it presents two peaks separated by more than one year. To understand the impact of these characteristics on the solar chromosphere and coronal dynamics, images from a wide wavelength range are needed. In this work we use the 17 GHz radio continuum, which is formed in the upper chromosphere and the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lines 304 and 171 Å, that come from the transition region (He ii, T ~ 6-8 × 104 K) and the corona (Fe IX, X, T ~ 106 K), respectively.We extend upon a previous similar analysis, and compare the mean equatorial and polar brightening behavior at radio and EUV wavelengths during the maximum of the present solar cycle, covering the period between 2010 and 2015. Methods: We analyze daily images at 304 and 171 Å obtained by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The 17 GHz maps were obtained by the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH). To construct synoptic limb charts, we calculated the mean emission of delimited limb areas with 100'' wide and angular separation of 5°. Results: At the equatorial region, the results show a hemispheric asymmetry of the solar activity. The northern hemisphere dominance is coincident with the first sunspot number peak, whereas the second peak occurs concurrently with the increase in the activity at the south. The polar emission reflects the presence of coronal holes at both EUV wavelengths, moreover, the 17 GHz polar brightenings can be associated with the coronal holes. Until 2013, both EUV coronal holes and radio polar brightenings were more predominant at the south pole.Since then they have not been apparent in the north, but thus appear in the beginning of 2015 in the south as observed in the synoptic charts. Conclusions: This work strengthens the association between coronal holes and the 17 GHz polar brightenings as it is evident in the

  13. Dynamic range considerations for EUV MAMA detectors. [Extreme UV Multianode Microchannel Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Illing, Rainer M. E.; Bybee, Richard L.; Timothy, J. G.

    1990-01-01

    The multianode microchannel array (MAMA) has been chosen as the detector for two instruments on the ESA/NASA Solar Heliospheric Observatory. The response of the MAMA to the two extreme types of solar spectra, disk and corona, have been modeled with a view toward evaluating dynamic range effects present. The method of MAMA operation is discussed, with emphasis given to modeling the effect of electron cloud charge spreading to several detector anodes and amplifiers (n-fold events). Representative synthetic EUV spectra have been created. The detector response to these spectra is modeled by dissecting the input photon radiation field across the detector array into contributions to the various amplifier channels. The results of this dissection are shown for spectral regions across the entire wavelength region of interest. These results are used to identify regions in which total array photon counting rate or individual amplifier rate may exceed the design limits. This allows the design or operational modes to be tailored to eliminate the problem areas.

  14. An EUVE Spectrum of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, G. R.; McDonald, J. S.; Boyd, W. T.; Bowyer, S.

    1993-05-01

    During its all-sky survey, the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite observed the Moon several times at first and last quarters, and once near the December 10, 1992, lunar eclipse. We present here results for the EUV albedo of the Moon, and examine for the first time an EUVE spectrum of the Moon. Extreme ultraviolet observations of the Moon are of considerable interest, since it has been speculated that lunar EUV emissions are primarily due to L- and M-shell X-ray fluorescence and may provide a useful diagnostic of surface elemental abundances. Using the EUVE photometer observations, we have determined average lunar geometric albedos of 0.15% (+/- 0.02%), 3.1% (+/- 0.2%), and 3.5% (+/- 0.2%), over wavelength intervals of 150--240\\ang, 400--580\\ang, and 550--650\\ang, respectively. An upper limit geometric albedo of 0.13% is obtained for the wavelength interval 75--180\\ang. Also, using previously published ROSAT data we estimate a lunar geometric albedo of 0.0097% (+/- 0.0012%) over the wavelength interval 50--80\\ang. These EUV albedos, and previously published far-ultraviolet albedos from Apollo 17 and Mariner 10, are well fit by the scaled reflectivities of SiO_2 and Al_2O_3. Over the wavelength ranges of the EUVE photometers, the observed brightness of the Moon seems to be largely consistent with reflected sunlight rather than X-ray fluorescence. Since the L- and M-shell fluorescence signal is expected to be carried by only a few emission lines, however, EUV observations with higher spectral resolution are required to determine their exact contribution, if any, to the lunar EUV spectrum. Using a 1/2 hour spectrum obtained by the EUVE spectrometers on December 10, 1992, we will determine the level of the X-ray fluorescence contribution to the lunar EUV spectrum. This work has been supported by NASA contract NAS5-30180.

  15. Science With The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer For Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, P. R.; EUS Science Working Group

    2007-01-01

    The CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) is leading a consortium that proposes to build an ultraviolet spectrometer for Solar Orbiter provisionally called the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (EUS). The selection of wavelength bands for EUS has been re-assessed by the EUS Science Working Group in recent months and the final decision calls for three wavelength bands covering 700-800 Å, 970-1040 Å, and 1163-1265 Å. The key features of these bands are summarised here, and particular science topics that can be addressed by EUS are discussed.

  16. Boron and silicon - Filters for the extreme ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labov, S.; Bowyer, S.; Steele, G.

    1985-01-01

    Thin films of boron and silicon have been developed using electron beam deposition. The transmissions of these filters were measured from soft X-ray wavelengths to the far ultraviolet and at optical wavelengths. The boron filter transmission peaks near 66 A and the silicon filter peaks near 136 A as expected on theoretical grounds, but the extreme ultraviolet bandpass is narrower than expected. The peak transmission of these filters does not change with time, but the width of the silicon filter bandpass is reduced slightly as the filter ages.

  17. Direct photo-etching of poly(methyl methacrylate) using focused extreme ultraviolet radiation from a table-top laser-induced plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Barkusky, Frank; Peth, Christian; Bayer, Armin; Mann, Klaus

    2007-06-15

    In order to perform material interaction studies with intense extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation, a Schwarzschild mirror objective coated with Mo/Si multilayers was adapted to a compact laser-based EUV plasma source (pulse energy 3 mJ at {lambda}=13.5 nm, plasma diameter {approx}300 {mu}m). By 10x demagnified imaging of the plasma a pulse energy density of {approx}75 mJ/cm{sup 2} at a pulse length of 6 ns can be achieved in the image plane of the objective. As demonstrated for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), photoetching of polymer surfaces is possible at this EUV fluence level. This paper presents first results, including a systematic determination of PMMA etching rates under EUV irradiation. Furthermore, the contribution of out-of-band radiation to the surface etching of PMMA was investigated by conducting a diffraction experiment for spectral discrimination from higher wavelength radiation. Imaging of a pinhole positioned behind the plasma accomplished the generation of an EUV spot of 1 {mu}m diameter, which was employed for direct writing of surface structures in PMMA.

  18. Effects of low-molecular weight resist components on dissolution behavior of chemically amplified resists for extreme ultraviolet lithography studied by quartz crystal microbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuyasu, Masaki; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Kozawa, Takahiro

    2015-03-01

    It is challenging to implement extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography for mass production because the demands for the EUV resist materials are very strict. Under such circumstances, it is important in EUV resist design to clarify the dissolution behavior of the resist film into alkaline developer. In particular, the dissolution in exposed area of resist films is one of the most critical processes. However, the details in dissolution process of EUV resist have not been investigated thus far. In this study, the dissolution of poly(4-hydroxystyrene) (PHS) polymer and PHS partially-protected with t-butoxycarbonyl group (t-BOC-PHS) with and without additives such as acid generator and amines was studied by using the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method. The dissolution behavior of thin films was investigated by varying the exposure dose and the acid generator concentration from the standpoint of a systematic understanding of the effects of each resist component on dissolution kinetics. The dissolution speed became slower with increase of TPS-tf concentration in PHS and t-BOC-PHS. It is important for the EUV resist design to take into account the concentration of undecomposed PAG.

  19. Alternate charging profiles for the onboard nickel cadmium batteries of the Explorer Platform/Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Prettyman-Lukoschek, Jill S.

    1995-01-01

    The Explorer Platform/Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EP/EUVE) spacecraft power is provided by the Modular Power Subsystems (MPS) which contains three 50 ampere-hour Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) batteries. The batteries were fabricated by McDonnell Douglas Electronics Systems Company, with the cells fabricated by Gates Aerospace Batteries (GAB), Gainesville, Florida. Shortly following launch, the battery performance characteristics showed similar signatures as the anomalous performance observed on both the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) and the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). This prompted the development and implementation of alternate charging profiles to optimize the spacecraft battery performance. The Flight Operations Team (FOT), under the direction of Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) EP/EUVE Project and Space Power Applications Branch have monitored and managed battery performance through control of the battery Charge to Discharge (C/D) ratio and implementation of a Solar Array (SA) offset. This paper provides a brief overview of the EP/EUVE mission, the MPS, the FOT's battery management for achieving the alternate charging profile, and the observed spacecraft battery performance.

  20. Design of anamorphic magnification high-numerical aperture objective for extreme ultraviolet lithography by curvatures combination method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Li, Yanqiu; Cao, Zhen

    2016-06-20

    An anamorphic magnification extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithographic objective could increase the size of the exposure field at a wafer in the orthogonal scanning direction to improve the throughput of the lithographic system. In this paper, we present a curvatures combination method for an anamorphic magnification EUV lithographic objective with high numerical aperture (NA). This method achieves an anamorphic magnification initial structure by use of the double-curvature surfaces, which are formed by combining the curvatures of the corresponding surfaces into two coaxial spherical systems. A series of control measures is taken to design the two coaxial spherical systems for ensuring the rationalities of the initial structure and the surfaces after combining. The image quality of the anamorphic initial structure is optimized by a gradual optimization process. Finally, as an example, we design an Mx1/4 and My1/8 anamorphic magnification EUV lithographic objective with the presented design method. This objective achieves 0.5 NA and a 26  mm×16.5  mm exposure field at the wafer. The wavefront error RMS reaches 0.06λ (λ=13.5  nm), and the distortion is less than 2.8 nm. The design result proves the availability of the curvatures combination method.

  1. An Upper Limit on the Ratio Between the Extreme Ultraviolet and the Bolometric Luminosities of Stars Hosting Habitable Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Sujan

    2016-06-01

    A large number of terrestrial planets in the classical habitable zone of stars of different spectral types have already been discovered and many are expected to be discovered in the near future. However, owing to the lack of knowledge on the atmospheric properties, the ambient environment of such planets are unknown. It is known that sufficient amount of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) radiation from the star can drive hydrodynamic outflow of hydrogen that may drag heavier species from the atmosphere of the planet. If the rate of mass loss is sufficiently high, then substantial amount of volatiles would escape causing the planet to become uninhabitable. Considering energy-limited hydrodynamical mass loss with an escape rate that causes oxygen to escape alongwith hydrogen, an upper limit for the ratio between the EUV and the bolometric luminosities of stars which constrains the habitability of planets around them is presented here. Application of the limit to planet-hosting stars with known EUV luminosities implies that many M-type of stars should not have habitable planets around them.

  2. Exploring EUV Spicules Using 304 Angstrom He II Data from SDO AIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Ian R.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ron L.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from a statistical study of He II 304 Angstrom Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) spicules at the limb of the Sun. We also measured properties of one macrospicule; macrospicules are longer than most spicules, and much broader in width than spicules. We use high-cadence (12 second) and high-resolution (0.6 arcseconds pixels) resolution data from the Atmospheric Imaging Array (AIA) instrument on the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO). All of the observed events occurred near the solar north pole, where quiet Sun or coronal hole environments ensued. We examined the maximum lengths, maximum rise velocities, and lifetimes of 33 Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) spicules and the macrospicule. For the bulk of the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) spicules these quantities are, respectively, approximately 10,000-40,000 kilometers, 20-100 kilometers per second, and approximately 100- approximately 1000 seconds. For the macrospicule the corresponding quantities were respectively approximately 60,000 kilometers, approximately 130 kilometers per second, approximately 1800 seconds, which is typical of macrospicules measured by other workers. Therefore macrospicules are taller, longer-lived, and faster than most Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) spicules. The rise profiles of both the spicules and the macrospicules match well a second-order ("parabolic" ) trajectory, although the acceleration was often weaker than that of solar gravity in the profiles fitted to the trajectories. Our macrospicule also had an obvious brightening at its base at birth, while such brightening was not apparent for the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) spicules. Most of the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) spicules remained visible during their descent back to the solar surface, although a small percentage of the spicules and the macrospicule faded out before falling back to the surface. Our sample of macrospicules is not yet large enough to determine whether their initiation mechanism is identical to that of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV

  3. Progress on EUV-source development, tool integration and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebert, Rainer; Jagle, Bernhard; Wies, Christian; Stamm, Uwe; Kleinschmidt, Juergen; Gaebel, Kai; Schriever, Guido; Pankert, Joseph; Bergmann, Klaus; Neff, Willi; Egbert, Andre

    2005-06-01

    In EUV lithography, extreme ultraviolet radiation of 13.5 nm wavelength is used to print feature with resolutions consis-tent with the requirements of the 45 nm technology node or below. EUV is produced by heating xenon, tin, or other ele-ments to a plasma state, using either magnetic compression or laser irradiation. The key concerns-identified at the third EUV-Symposium-are the ability to supply defect-free masks and to increase source component lifetimes to meet the wafer throughput requirements for high volume manufacturing. Source availability and performance, however, made steady progress within the last years on two lines of actions: High power sources for high volume production and medium and low power sources for allowing in-house metrology and performance studies on EUV-mask-blanks, EUV-Masks, photoresists and optical elements. For "volume production sources" 50 W of collected EUV powers are already available by various suppliers. Compact discharge sources of medium power in the range of 10-100 mW / sr / 2% bandwidth and low power EUV-tubes of low-est cost of ownership and superior stability are ideal for peripheral metrology on components for EUV-Lithography. These low power sources supplement beamlines at storage rings by transferring EUV-applications to individual R&D labs. Proceeding integration of those EUV sources into tools for technology development like open frame and micro-exposers, and in tools for actinic metrology is the best proof of the progress. As of today, the first EUV sources and measurement equipment are available to be used for EUV system, mask, optics and component as well as lithography process development. With the commercial availability of EUV-plasma sources other applications using short wave-length, XUV-radiation will be feasible in a laboratory environment. Some examples of XUV applications are discussed.

  4. Irradiation stability of silicon photodiodes for extreme-ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholze, Frank; Klein, Roman; Bock, Thomas

    2003-10-01

    Photodiodes are used as easy-to-operate detectors in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral range. At the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt photodiodes are calibrated with an uncertainty of spectral responsivity of 0.3% or less. Stable photodiodes are a prerequisite for the dissemination of these high-accuracy calibrations to customers. Silicon photodiodes with different top layers were exposed to intense extreme-ultraviolet irradiation. Diodes coated with diamondlike carbon or TiSiN proved to be stable within a few percent up to a radiant exposure of 100 kJ/cm2. The changes in responsivity could be explained as being due to carbon contamination and to changes in the internal charge collection efficiency. In ultrahigh vacuum, no indication of oxidation was found.

  5. Improvement of EUV mix-match overlay for production implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sarohan; Lee, ByoungHoon; Lee, Byong-Seog; Lee, Inwhan; Lim, Chang-Moon

    2016-03-01

    The improvement of overlay control in extreme ultra-violet (EUV) lithography is one of critical issues for successful mass production by using it. Especially it is important to improve the mix and match overlay or matched machine overlay (MMO) between EUV and ArF immersion tool, because EUV process will be applied to specific layers that have more competitive cost edge against ArF immersion multiple patterning with the early mass productivity of EUVL. Therefore it is necessary to consider the EUV overlay target with comparing the overlay specification of double patterning technology (DPT) and spacer patterning technology (SPT). This paper will discuss about required overlay controllability and current performance of EUV, and challenges for future improvement.

  6. Determining the critical size of EUV mask substrate defects

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Han, Hakseung; Cho, Wonil; Jeon, Chan-Uk; Wurm, Stefan

    2008-05-26

    Determining the printability of substrate defects beneath the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflecting multilayer stack is an important issue in EUVL lithography. Several simulation studies have been performed in the past to determine the tolerable defect size on EUV mask blank substrates but the industry still has no exact specification based on real printability tests. Therefore, it is imperative to experimentally determine the printability of small defects on a mask blanks that are caused by substrate defects using direct printing of programmed substrate defect in an EUV exposure tools. SEMATECH fabricated bump type program defect masks using standard electron beam lithography and performed printing tests with the masks using an EUV exposure tool. Defect images were also captured using SEMATECH's Berkeley Actinic Imaging Tool in order to compare aerial defect images with secondary electron microscope images from exposed wafers. In this paper, a comprehensive understanding of substrate defect printability will be presented and printability specifications of EUV mask substrate defects will be discussed.

  7. Determining the Critcial Size of EUV Mask Substrate Defects

    SciTech Connect

    Mccall, Monnikue M; Han, Hakseung; Cho, Wonil; Goldberg, Kenneth; Gullikson, Eric; Jeon, Chan-Uk; Wurm, Stefan

    2008-02-28

    Determining the printability of substrate defects beneath the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflecting multilayer stack is an important issue in EUVL lithography. Several simulation studies have been performed in the past to determine the tolerable defect size on EUV mask blank substrates but the industry still has no exact specification based on real printability tests. Therefore, it is imperative to experimentally determine the printability of small defects on a mask blanks that are caused by substrate defects using direct printing of programmed substrate defect in an EUV exposure tool. SEMATECH fabricated bump type program defect masks using standard electron beam lithography and performed printing tests with the masks using an EUV exposure tool. Defect images were also captured using SEMATECH's Berkeley Actinic Imaging Tool in order to compare aerial defect images with secondary electron microscope images from exposed wafers. In this paper, a comprehensive understanding of substrate defect printability will be presented and printability specifications of EUV mask substrate defects will be discussed.

  8. EUVE GO Survey: High Levels of User Satisfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroozas, B. A.

    2000-12-01

    This paper describes the results of a detailed customer survey of Guest Observers (GOs) for NASA's Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) astronomy satellite observatory. The purpose of the research survey was to (1) measure the levels of GO customer satisfaction with respect to EUVE observing services, and (2) compare the observing experiences of EUVE GOs with their experiences using other satellite observatories. This survey was conducted as a business research project -- part of the author's graduate work as an MBA candidate. A total sample of 38 respondents, from a working population of 101 "active" EUVE GOs, participated in this survey. The results, which provided a profile of the "typical" EUVE GO, showed in a statistically significant fashion that these GOs were more than satisfied with the available EUVE observing services. In fact, the sample GOs generally rated their EUVE observing experiences to be better than average as compared to their experiences as GOs on other missions. These relatively high satisfaction results are particularly pleasing to the EUVE Project which, given its significantly reduced staffing environment at U.C. Berkeley, has continued to do more with less. This paper outlines the overall survey process: the relevant background and previous research, the survey design and methodology, and the final results and their interpretation. The paper also points out some general limitations and weaknesses of the study, along with some recommended actions for the EUVE Project and for NASA in general. This work was funded by NASA/UCB Cooperative Agreement NCC5-138.

  9. Ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy of the solar corona at the Naval Research Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Moses, J D; Ko, Y-K; Laming, J M; Provornikova, E A; Strachan, L; Beltran, S Tun

    2015-11-01

    We review the history of ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy with a specific focus on such activities at the Naval Research Laboratory and on studies of the extended solar corona and solar-wind source regions. We describe the problem of forecasting solar energetic particle events and discuss an observational technique designed to solve this problem by detecting supra-thermal seed particles as extended wings on spectral lines. Such seed particles are believed to be a necessary prerequisite for particle acceleration by heliospheric shock waves driven by a coronal mass ejection.

  10. Cleaning process for EUV optical substrates

    DOEpatents

    Weber, Frank J.; Spiller, Eberhard A.

    1999-01-01

    A cleaning process for surfaces with very demanding cleanliness requirements, such as extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) optical substrates. Proper cleaning of optical substrates prior to applying reflective coatings thereon is very critical in the fabrication of the reflective optics used in EUV lithographic systems, for example. The cleaning process involves ultrasonic cleaning in acetone, methanol, and a pH neutral soap, such as FL-70, followed by rinsing in de-ionized water and drying with dry filtered nitrogen in conjunction with a spin-rinse.

  11. Cleaning process for EUV optical substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, F.J.; Spiller, E.A.

    1999-09-28

    A cleaning process is disclosed for surfaces with very demanding cleanliness requirements, such as extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) optical substrates. Proper cleaning of optical substrates prior to applying reflective coatings thereon is very critical in the fabrication of the reflective optics used in EUV lithographic systems, for example. The cleaning process involves ultrasonic cleaning in acetone, methanol, and a pH neutral soap, such as FL-70, followed by rinsing in de-ionized water and drying with dry filtered nitrogen in conjunction with a spin-rinse.

  12. Structure and extreme ultraviolet performance of Si/C multilayers deposited under different working pressures.

    PubMed

    Yi, Qiang; Huang, Qiushi; Wang, Xiangmei; Yang, Yang; Yang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhong; Wang, Zhanshan; Xu, Rongkun; Peng, Taiping; Zhou, Hongjun; Huo, Tonglin

    2017-02-01

    Narrow bandwidth Si/C multilayer mirrors are fabricated and characterized for the Z-pinch plasma diagnostic at a wavelength of 16.5 nm. To reduce the large stress of the multilayer and maintain a practical reflectivity, different working pressures, from 0.13 Pa to 0.52 Pa, are optimized during the deposition. The grazing incidence x-ray reflectometry (GIXR) measurement and the fitting results indicate that an interlayer was formed at the interfaces, while both the interlayer thickness and interface widths increase with larger working pressure. The surface roughness of the multilayers also increases from 0.13 nm at 0.13 Pa to 0.29 nm at 0.52 Pa, as revealed by the atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements. The multilayer stress decreases from -682 MPa to -384  MPa as the working pressure increases from 0.13 Pa to 0.52 Pa, respectively. The experimental extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflectivity of the samples with 20 bilayers gradually decreased from 26.3% to 18.9% with increased working pressure. The bandwidth of the reflection peak remains similar for the different samples with a full width half-maximum (FWHM) value of around 0.87 nm. A maximum EUV reflectivity of 33.2% and a bandwidth of 0.64 nm were achieved by the sample with 50 bilayers fabricated under a working pressure of 0.13 Pa.

  13. THE FIRST STRAY LIGHT CORRECTED EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGES OF SOLAR CORONAL HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, Paul; Gilbert, Anna C.; Frazin, Richard A.; Hero III, Alfred O. E-mail: annacg@umich.edu E-mail: hero@umich.edu

    2012-04-10

    Coronal holes are the source regions of the fast solar wind, which fills most of the solar system volume near the cycle minimum. Removing stray light from extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images of the Sun's corona is of high astrophysical importance, as it is required to make meaningful determinations of temperatures and densities of coronal holes. EUV images tend to be dominated by the component of the stray light due to the long-range scatter caused by the microroughness of telescope mirror surfaces, and this component has proven very difficult to measure in pre-flight characterization. In-flight characterization heretofore has proven elusive due to the fact that the detected image is simultaneously nonlinear in two unknown functions: the stray light pattern and the true image that would be seen by an ideal telescope. Using a constrained blind deconvolution technique that takes advantage of known zeros in the true image provided by a fortuitous lunar transit, we have removed the stray light from solar images seen by the EUVI instrument on STEREO-B in all four filter bands (171, 195, 284, and 304 A). Uncertainty measures of the stray light corrected images, which include the systematic error due to misestimation of the scatter, are provided. It is shown that in EUVI, stray light contributes up to 70% of the emission in coronal holes seen on the solar disk, which has dramatic consequences for diagnostics of temperature and density and therefore estimates of key plasma parameters such as the plasma {beta} and ion-electron collision rates.

  14. Analysis of Cassini UVIS Extreme and Far Ultraviolet Observations of Saturn’s Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, Christopher D.; Koskinen, Tommi; Gronoff, Guillaume; Yung, Yuk L.; Esposito, Larry

    2015-11-01

    The atmosphere of Saturn is mainly composed of H2 and neutral atomic helium. The study of He 584 Å and H Lyman-α brightnesses is interesting as the EUV and FUV (Extreme and Far Ultraviolet) planetary airglow have the potential to yield useful information about mixing and other important parameters in its thermosphere. Time variation, asymmetries, and polar enhancement of the airglow are also possible and analysis already performed using the public archived Cassini mission data sets have shown we can solve some of the outstanding problems associated with these phenomena for Saturn.Specifically, we have (1) examined epochal eddy mixing disparities in the Saturnian upper atmosphere and quantify temporal mixing variations that may have occurred in the upper atmosphere of Saturn, as may be evidenced in Cassini mission data, (2) quantified any enhanced mixing in the auroral regions of Saturn, and (3) performed a robust study of Saturnian H Lyman-α brightness with the view to discover any longitudinal H Lyman-α planetary asymmetry or “bulge” across the disc such as was discovered by Voyager at Jupiter, indicative of the distribution of atomic H and accounting for the observed flux and any variations from the normal temperature profile.We have analyzed Cassini UVIS EUV and FUV airglow data from Saturn using sophisticated photochemical and radiative transfer models to investigate unexplained differences in the dynamical processes operating within its upper atmosphere. Powerful analysis techniques allow us to extract information on atmospheric mixing, temperatures, and temporal changes due to the solar and seasonal cycles from the variations in distribution and intensity of airglow emissions that result. We report on results of these efforts to date.

  15. Low density of neutral hydrogen and helium in the local interstellar medium: Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer photometry of the Lyman continuum of the hot white dwarfs MCT 0501-2858, MCT 0455-2812, HZ 43, and GD 153.

    PubMed

    Vennes, S; Dupuis, J; Bowyer, S; Fontaine, G; Wiercigroch, A; Jelinsky, P; Wesemael, F; Malina, R

    1994-01-20

    The first comprehensive sky survey of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range performed by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) has uncovered a handful of very bright sources at wavelengths longer than the He I 504 angstroms photoionization edge. Among these objects are four white dwarfs with exceptionally low interstellar medium (ISM) column densities along the line of sight. Analysis of EUV photometry of the He-rich DO white dwarf MCT 0501-2858 and the H-rich DA white dwarf MCT 0455-2812 along one line of sight and of the DA white dwarfs HZ 43 and GD 153 near the north Galactic pole indicates that the overall minimum column density of the neutral material centered on the Sun is N(H I)= 0.5-1.0 x 10(18) cm-2. In the case of MCT 0501-2858, EUV photometric measurements provide a clear constraint to the effective temperature (60,000-70,000 K). Given these neutral hydrogen columns, the actual contribution to the density of neutral species from the immediate solar environment (the "local fluff") would only cover a distance of approximately 2-3 pc (assuming an average density n(H I) = 0.1 cm-3) leaving these lines of sight almost entirely within the hot phase of the ISM. A preliminary examination of the complete EUVE long-wavelength survey indicates that these lines of sight are exceptional and set a minimum column density in the solar environment.

  16. Concept Study Report: Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer Solar-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doschek, George, A.; Brown, Charles M.; Davila, Joseph M.; Dere, Kenneth P.; Korendyke, Clarence M.; Mariska, John T.; Seely, John F.

    1999-01-01

    We propose a next generation Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) that for the first time combines high spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution in a single solar spectroscopic instrument. The instrument consists of a multilayer-coated off-axis telescope mirror and a multilayer-coated grating spectrometer. The telescope mirror forms solar images on the spectrometer entrance slit assembly. The spectrometer forms stigmatic spectra of the solar region located at the slit. This region is selected by the articulated telescope mirror. Monochromatic images are obtained either by rastering the solar region across a narrow entrance slit, or by using a very wide slit (called a slot) in place of the slit. Monochromatic images of the region centered on the slot are obtained in a single exposure. Half of each optic is coated to maximize reflectance at 195 Angstroms; the other half to maximize reflectance at 270 Angstroms. The two Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength bands have been selected to maximize spectral and dynamical and plasma diagnostic capabilities. Spectral lines are observed that are formed over a temperature range from about 0.1 MK to about 20 MK. The main EIS instrument characteristics are: wavelength bands - 180 to 204 Angstroms; 250 to 290 Angstroms; spectral resolution - 0.0223 Angstroms/pixel (34.3km/s at 195 Angstroms and 23.6 km/s at 284 Angstroms); slit dimensions - 4 slits, two currently specified dimensions are 1" x 1024" and 50" x 1024" (the slot); largest spatial field of view in a single exposure - 50" x 1024"; highest time resolution for active region velocity studies - 4.4 s.

  17. The solar extreme ultra-violet corona: Resolved loops and the unresolved active region corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirtain, Jonathan Wesley

    In this work, physical characteristics of the solar corona as observed in the Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) regime are investigated. The focus will be the regions of intense EUV radiation generally found near the locations of sunspots. These regions are commonly called active regions. Multiple space- based observing platforms have been deployed in the last decade; it is possible to use several of these observatories in combination to develop a more complete picture of the solar corona. Joint Observing Program 146 was created to collect spectroscopic intensities using the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer on Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and EUV images using NASA's Transition Region and Coronal Explorer. The emission line intensities are analyzed to develop an understanding of the temperature and density of the active region coronal plasma. However, the performance of the CDS instrument in the spatial and temporal domains is limited and to compensate for these limitations, data collected by the TRACE instrument provide a high spatial and temporal resolution set of observations. One of the most exciting unsolved problems in solar astrophysics is to understand why the corona maintains a temperature roughly two orders of magnitude higher than the underlying material. A detailed investigation of the coronal emission has provided constraints on models of the heating mechanism, since the temperature, density and evolution of emission rates for multiple ionic species are indicative of the mechanism(s) working to heat the corona. The corona appears to consist of multiple unresolved structures as well as resolved active region structures, called coronal loops. The purpose of the present work is to determine the characteristics of the unresolved background corona. Using the characterizations of the coronal unresolved background, results for loops after background subtraction are also presented. This work demonstrates the magnitude of the unresolved coronal emission with

  18. Status of EUV reticle handling solution in meeting 32 nm HP EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Long; Wurm, Stefan; Seidel, Phil; Orvek, Kevin; Betancourt, Ernie; Underwood, Jon

    2008-03-01

    Significant progress has been made over the past several years in developing extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask infrastructure, especially in EUV reticle handling and protection. Today, the industry has converged to standardize the dual pod reticle carrier approach in developing EUV reticle handling solutions. SEMATECH has already established reticle handling infrastructure compliant with industry's draft standard, including carrier, robotic carrier handling, automated carrier cleaning, vacuum protection, and state-of-the-art particulate contamination testing capabilities. It proves to be one of the key enablers in developing EUV reticle protection solutions, through broad collaboration with industry stakeholders and suppliers. In this paper, we discuss our in-house reticle handling infrastructure and provide insights on how to apply it in EUV lithography pilot line development and future production line. We present particulate contamination free baseline results of state-of-the-art EUV reticle carriers, i.e., sPod, throughout lifecycle uses. We will also compare the results against requirements for 32 nm half-pitch (HP) EUV lithography, to identify the remaining challenges ahead of the industry.

  19. Condenser for ring-field deep-ultraviolet and extreme-ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Henry N.; Nugent, Keith A.

    2001-01-01

    A condenser for use with a ring-field deep ultraviolet or extreme ultraviolet lithography system. A condenser includes a ripple-plate mirror which is illuminated by a collimated beam at grazing incidence. The ripple plate comprises a plate mirror into which is formed a series of channels along an axis of the mirror to produce a series of concave surfaces in an undulating pattern. Light incident along the channels of the mirror is reflected onto a series of cones. The distribution of slopes on the ripple plate leads to a distribution of angles of reflection of the incident beam. This distribution has the form of an arc, with the extremes of the arc given by the greatest slope in the ripple plate. An imaging mirror focuses this distribution to a ring-field arc at the mask plane.

  20. Condenser for ring-field deep ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Henry N.; Nugent, Keith A.

    2002-01-01

    A condenser for use with a ring-field deep ultraviolet or extreme ultraviolet lithography system. A condenser includes a ripple-plate mirror which is illuminated by a collimated or converging beam at grazing incidence. The ripple plate comprises a flat or curved plate mirror into which is formed a series of channels along an axis of the mirror to produce a series of concave surfaces in an undulating pattern. Light incident along the channels of the mirror is reflected onto a series of cones. The distribution of slopes on the ripple plate leads to a distribution of angles of reflection of the incident beam. This distribution has the form of an arc, with the extremes of the arc given by the greatest slope in the ripple plate. An imaging mirror focuses this distribution to a ring-field arc at the mask plane.

  1. Berkeley extreme-ultraviolet airglow rocket spectrometer - BEARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotton, D. M.; Chakrabarti, S.

    1992-01-01

    The Berkeley EUV airglow rocket spectrometer (BEARS) instrument is described. The instrument was designed in particular to measure the dominant lines of atomic oxygen in the FUV and EUV dayglow at 1356, 1304, 1027, and 989 A, which is the ultimate source of airglow emissions. The optical and mechanical design of the instrument, the detector, electronics, calibration, flight operations, and results are examined.

  2. Optical Identification of Quasar 0917+7122 in the Direction of an Extreme-Ultraviolet Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maoz, D.; Ofek, E. O.; Shemi, A.; Barth, A. J.; Filippenko, A. V.; Brotherton, M. S.; Wills, B. J.; Lockman, F. J.

    1996-01-01

    We report the optical identification of an R = 18.3 mag, z = 2.432 quasar at the position of a 6 cm radio source and a faint ROSAT PSPC X-ray source. The quasar lies within the error circles of unidentified extreme-UV (EUV) detections by the EUVE and ROSAT WFC all-sky surveys at approximately 400 A and approximately 150 A, respectively. A 21 cm H I emission measurement in the direction of the quasar with a 21'-diameter beam yields a total H I column density of N(sub H) = 3.3 x 10(exp 20) /sq cm, two orders of magnitude higher than the maximum allowed for transparency through the Galaxy in the EUV The source of the EUV flux is therefore probably nearby (approximately < 100 pc), and unrelated to the quasar.

  3. RE J1255+266: Detection of an extremely bright EUV transient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahlem, M.; Kreysing, H.-C.; White, S. M.; Engels, D.; Condon, J. J.; Harmon, B. A.; Zhang, S. N.; Kouveliotou, C.; Paciesas, W. S.; Voges, W.

    1995-01-01

    During a pointed ROSAT observation in the direction of the Coma cluster of galaxies an exceptionally bright EUV source, RE J1255+266, was detected serendipitously. The source is located close to the Galactic North Pole, at b(sub II) is approximately or equal to 89 deg. Its observed EUV flux (62 - 110 eV) at the time of the detection was of order 7 x 10(exp -9) ergs/sq cm, making RE J1255+266 temporarily one of the brightest EUV sources on the sky. The EUV flare of RE J1255+266 has a light curve with a decay time of about 0.86 days. With respect to earlier non-detections, the source brightened by a factor of approximately 7000. Such a behavior has not been observed before. Thus, it is unclear what type of source RE J1255+266 might be. Up to now no positive identification with any known source could be obtained. Emission at the position of the source was previously only detected in the 1987 Green Bank radio continuum survey. Simultaneous observations with Compton Gamma Ray Observatory/Burst and Transient Source Experiment (CGRO/BATSE) resulted in non-detections of the source in the 8 - 50 keV energy range.

  4. Far ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet rocket instrumentation for measuring the solar spectral irradiance and terrestrial airglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Bailey, Scott M.; Solomon, Stanley C.; Rottman, Gary J.

    1992-01-01

    A sounding-rocket experiment is being developed for the study of EUV spectral irradiance and its effects on the upper atmosphere, using three solar EUV instruments devised by the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics. These include a 25-cm Rowland circle EUV spectrograph, an array of Si X-UV photodiodes, and an X-UV imager with 20 arcsec resolution of the sun.

  5. Simultaneous Extreme-Ultraviolet Explorer and Optical Observations of Ad Leonis: Evidence for Large Coronal Loops and the Neupert Effect in Stellar Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawley, Suzanne L.; Fisher, George H.; Simon, Theodore; Cully, Scott L.; Deustua, Susana E.; Jablonski, Marek; Johns-Krull, Christopher; Pettersen, Bjorn R.; Smith, Verne; Spiesman, William J.; Valenti, Jeffrey

    1995-01-01

    We report on the first simultaneous Extreme-Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) and optical observations of flares on the dMe flare star AD Leonis. The data show the following features: (1) Two flares (one large and one of moderate size) of several hours duration were observed in the EUV wavelength range; (2) Flare emission observed in the optical precedes the emission seen with EUVE; and (3) Several diminutions (DIMs) in the optical continuum were observed during the period of optical flare activity. To interpret these data, we develop a technique for deriving the coronal loop length from the observed rise and decay behavior of the EUV flare. The technique is generally applicable to existing and future coronal observations of stellar flares. We also determine the pressure, column depth, emission measure, loop cross-sectional area, and peak thermal energy during the two EUV flares, and the temperature, area coverage, and energy of the optical continuum emission. When the optical and coronal data are combined, we find convincing evidence of a stellar 'Neupert effect' which is a strong signature of chromospheric evaporation models. We then argue that the known spatial correlation of white-light emission with hard X-ray emission in solar flares, and the identification of the hard X-ray emission with nonthermal bremsstrahlung produced by accelerated electrons, provides evidence that flare heating on dMe stars is produced by the same electron precipitation mechanism that is inferred to occur on the Sun. We provide a thorough picture of the physical processes that are operative during the largest EUV flare, compare and contrast this picture with the canonical solar flare model, and conclude that the coronal loop length may be the most important factor in determining the flare rise time and energetics.

  6. Study of extreme-ultraviolet emission and properties of a coronal streamer from PROBA2/SWAP, HINODE/EIS and Mauna Loa Mk4 observations

    SciTech Connect

    Goryaev, F.; Slemzin, V.; Vainshtein, L.; Williams, David R.

    2014-02-01

    Wide-field extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) telescopes imaging in spectral bands sensitive to 1 MK plasma on the Sun often observe extended, ray-like coronal structures stretching radially from active regions to distances of 1.5-2 R {sub ☉}, which represent the EUV counterparts of white-light streamers. To explain this phenomenon, we investigated the properties of a streamer observed on 2010 October 20 and 21, by the PROBA2/SWAP EUV telescope together with the Hinode/EIS (HOP 165) and the Mauna Loa Mk4 white-light coronagraph. In the SWAP 174 Å band comprising the Fe IX-Fe XI lines, the streamer was detected to a distance of 2 R {sub ☉}. We assume that the EUV emission is dominated by collisional excitation and resonant scattering of monochromatic radiation coming from the underlying corona. Below 1.2 R {sub ☉}, the plasma density and temperature were derived from the Hinode/EIS data by a line-ratio method. Plasma conditions in the streamer and in the background corona above 1.2 R {sub ☉} from the disk center were determined by forward-modeling the emission that best fit the observational data in both EUV and white light. It was found that the plasma in the streamer above 1.2 R {sub ☉} is nearly isothermal, with a temperature of T = 1.43 ± 0.08 MK. The hydrostatic scale-height temperature determined from the evaluated density distribution was significantly higher (1.72 ± 0.08 MK), which suggests the existence of outward plasma flow along the streamer. We conclude that, inside the streamer, collisional excitation provided more than 90% of the observed EUV emission, whereas, in the background corona, the contribution of resonance scattering became comparable with that of collisions at R ≳ 2 R {sub ☉}.

  7. Nanoplasmonic generation of ultrashort EUV pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Joonhee; Lee, Dong-Hyub; Han, Seunghwoi; Park, In-Yong; Kim, Seungchul; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2012-10-01

    Ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) light pulses are an important tool for time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy to investigate the ultrafast dynamics of electrons in atoms and molecules. Among several methods available to generate ultrashort EUV light pulses, the nonlinear frequency upconversion process of high-harmonic generation (HHG) draws attention as it is capable of producing coherent EUV pulses with precise control of burst timing with respect to the driving near-infrared (NIR) femtosecond laser. In this report, we present and discuss our recent experimental data obtained by the plasmon-driven HHG method that generate EUV radiation by means of plasmonic nano-focusing of NIR femtosecond pulses. For experiment, metallic waveguides having a tapered hole of funnel shape inside were fabricated by adopting the focused-ion-beam process on a micro-cantilever substrate. The plasmonic field formed within the funnelwaveguides being coupled with the incident femtosecond pulse permitted intensity enhancement by a factor of ~350, which creates a hot spot of sub-wavelength size with intensities strong enough for HHG. Experimental results showed that with injection of noble gases into the funnel-waveguides, EUV radiation is generated up to wavelengths of 32 nm and 29.6 nm from Ar and Ne gas atoms, respectively. Further, it was observed that lower-order EUV harmonics are cut off in the HHG spectra by the tiny exit aperture of the funnel-waveguide.

  8. Continued Analysis of EUVE Solar System Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladstone, G. Randall

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report for this project. We proposed to continue our work on extracting important results from the EUVE (Extreme UltraViolet Explorer) archive of lunar and jovian system observations. In particular, we planned to: (1) produce several monochromatic images of the Moon at the wavelengths of the brightest solar EUV emission lines; (2) search for evidence of soft X-ray emissions from the Moon and/or X-ray fluorescence at specific EUV wavelengths; (3) search for localized EUV and soft X-ray emissions associated with each of the Galilean satellites; (4) search for correlations between localized Io Plasma Torus (IPT) brightness and volcanic activity on Io; (5) search for soft X-ray emissions from Jupiter; and (6) determine the long term variability of He 58.4 nm emissions from Jupiter, and relate these to solar variability. However, the ADP review panel suggested that the work concentrate on the Jupiter/IPT observations, and provided half the requested funding. Thus we have performed no work on the first two tasks, and instead concentrated on the last three. In addition we used funds from this project to support reduction and analysis of EUVE observations of Venus. While this was not part of the original statement of work, it is entirely in keeping with extracting important results from EUVE solar system observations.

  9. Pattern collapse mitigation strategies for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfarb, Dario L.; Bruce, Robert L.; Bucchignano, James J.; Klaus, David P.; Guillorn, Michael A.; Wu, Chunghsi J.

    2012-03-01

    In this study, a comprehensive approach towards assessing pattern collapse challenges and solutions for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUV) resists beyond the 14nm node is undertaken. The fundamental forces that drive pattern deformation are reassessed in order to propose a generalized design criterion for EUV photoresists and aqueous surfactanated rinses. Furthermore, ultimate pattern collapse solutions such as solvent drying utilizing pressurized fluids (supercritical CO2) are exemplified for sub-60nm pitch EUV patterning. In parallel, alternative EUV integration schemes that use a metal-based hardmask (MHM) are studied using a specifically tailored self-assembled monolayer (SAM) to prevent delamination-driven pattern collapse due to resist-hardmask interfacial adhesion failure. Finally, the marginal image transfer of 40nm pitched L/S of ultrathin EUV resist into a SiARC-underlayer stack appears to be gated by the EUV resist resolution limit and the reduced film thickness budget. An alternative method for achieving improved postetch line width roughness (LWR) with an ultrathin MHM-based integration scheme is herein demonstrated.

  10. High numerical aperture projection system for extreme ultraviolet projection lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hudyma, Russell M.

    2000-01-01

    An optical system is described that is compatible with extreme ultraviolet radiation and comprises five reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The five optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as concave, convex, concave, convex, and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for ring field, step and scan lithography methods. The invention uses aspheric mirrors to minimize static distortion and balance the static distortion across the ring field width which effectively minimizes dynamic distortion. The present invention allows for higher device density because the optical system has improved resolution that results from the high numerical aperture, which is at least 0.14.

  11. Extreme ultraviolet spectrometer based on a transmission electron microscopy grid

    DOE PAGES

    Sistrunk, Emily; Gühr, Markus

    2014-12-12

    Here, we performed extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy using an 80 lines/mm transmission electron microscope mesh as the dispersive element. We also present the usefulness of this instrument for dispersing a high harmonic spectrum from the 13th to the 29th harmonic of a Ti:sapph laser, corresponding to a wavelength range from 60 to 27 nm. The resolution of the instrument is limited by the image size of the high harmonic generation region on the detector. Finally, the resolution in first order diffraction is under 2 nm over the entire spectral range with a resolving power around 30.

  12. Rabi oscillations in extreme ultraviolet ionization of atomic argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flögel, Martin; Durá, Judith; Schütte, Bernd; Ivanov, Misha; Rouzée, Arnaud; Vrakking, Marc J. J.

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate Rabi oscillations in nonlinear ionization of argon by an intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) laser field produced by high-harmonic generation. We monitor the formation of A r2 + as a function of the time delay between the XUV pulse and an additional near-infrared (NIR) femtosecond laser pulse, and show that the population of an A r+* intermediate resonance exhibits strong modulations both due to an NIR laser-induced Stark shift and XUV-induced Rabi cycling between the ground state of A r+ and the A r+* excited state. Our experiment represents a direct experimental observation of a Rabi-cycling process in the XUV regime.

  13. A rocket measurement of the extreme ultraviolet dayglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, A. B.

    1976-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet spectra of the mid-latitude dayglow in the wavelength range of 550 to 1250A have been obtained with a rocket borne grating spectrometer at a resolution of 20A. Spectra were obtained in the altitude range of 140 to 280 km. The spectra are dominated by emissions from atomic multiplets and no molecular bands have been identified with certainty. The strongest emissions other than H Lyman-alpha are OI (989) and OII (834). Other prominent emissions include He I(584), N II(916) and N II(1085). An unexpected feature near 612A has an intensity comparable to He I(584).

  14. Extreme ultraviolet diagnostic upgrades for kink mode control on the HBT-EP tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, J. P.; Brooks, J. W.; Desanto, S.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.; Page, J. W.; Hansen, C. J.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.

    2016-10-01

    Optical diagnostics can provide non-invasive measurements of tokamak equilibria and the internal characteristics of MHD mode activity. We present research plans and ongoing progress on upgrading extreme ultraviolet (EUV) diagnostics in the HBT-EP tokamak. Four sets of 16 poloidal views will allow tomographic reconstruction of plasma emissivity and internal kink mode structure. Emission characteristics of naturally-occurring m/n = 2/1, 3/2, and 3/1 tearing and kink modes will be compared with expectations from a synthetic diagnostic. Coupling between internal and external modes leading up to disruptions is studied. The internal plasma response to external magnetic perturbations is investigated, and compared with magnetic response measurements. Correlation between internal emissivity and external magnetic measurements provides a global picture of long-wavelength MHD instabilities. Measurements are input to HBT-EP's GPU-based feedback system, allowing active feedback for kink modes using only optical sensors and both magnetic and edge current actuators. A separate two-color, 16-chord tangential system will be installed next year to allow reconstruction of temperature profiles and their fluctuations versus time. Supported by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-86ER53222.

  15. Incident angle change caused by different off-axis illumination in extreme ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eun-Jin; You, Jee-Hye; Kim, Seong-Sue; Cho, Han-Ku; An, Ilsin; Oh, Hye-Keun

    2009-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is believed to be possible patterning technology which can make 22 nm and below. EUV uses a reflective mask so that the mask is shined with the oblique incident light. Thus, the study of incident angle effect is very important. Currently, 6 degree oblique incidence is main stream, but 5 degree incident angle is also studied for 0.25 NA. Incident angles larger than 6 degree are also considered for larger NA. This incident angle will affect many things, eventually to the line width. Shadow effect also strongly depends on the incident angle. This shadow effect in the EUVL mask is an important factor that decreases the contrast of the aerial image and causes a directional problem, thus it will make line width variation. The off-axis illumination (OAI) will be used with conventional on-axis illumination to make much smaller patterns. This OAI will split the main beam and change the incident angle. We found that if the incident angle increased with higher degree of coherence, the aerial image went worse. The CD difference between the horizontal and the vertical pattern is also dependent on the degree of coherence even though it is small.

  16. Low-line edge roughness extreme ultraviolet photoresists of organotin carboxylates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Re, Ryan; Passarelli, James; Sortland, Miriam; Cardineau, Brian; Ekinci, Yasin; Buitrago, Elizabeth; Neisser, Mark; Freedman, Daniel A.; Brainard, Robert L.

    2015-10-01

    Pure thin films of organotin compounds have been lithographically evaluated using extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL, 13.5 nm). Twenty compounds of the type R2Sn) were spin-coated from solutions in toluene, exposed to EUV light, and developed in organic solvents. Exposures produced negative-tone contrast curves and dense-line patterns using interference lithography. Contrast-curve studies indicated that the photosensitivity is linearly related to the molecular weight of the carboxylate group bound to tin. Additionally, photosensitivity was found to be linearly related to free radical stability of the hydrocarbon group bound directly to tin (R=phenyl, butyl, and benzyl). Dense-line patterning capabilities varied, but two resists in particular show exceptionally good line edge roughness (LER). A resist composed of an amorphous film of )SnCC)2 (1) achieved 1.4 nm LER at 22-nm half-pitch patterning and a resist composed of )Sn) (2) achieved 1.1 nm LER at 35-nm half-pitch at high exposure doses (600 mJ/cm2). Two photoresists that use olefin-based carboxylates, )SnCCH (3) and )SnCC (4), demonstrated better photospeeds (5 mJ/cm2 and 27 mJ/cm2) but worse LER.

  17. A Molecular- and Nano-Electronics Test (MONET) platform fabricated using extreme ultraviolet lithography.

    SciTech Connect

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Cardinale, Gregory F.; Hunter, Luke L.; Talin, Albert Alec

    2003-12-01

    We describe the fabrication and characterization of an electrode array test structure, designed for electrical probing of molecules and nanocrystals. We use Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) to define the electrical test platform features. As fabricated, the platform includes nominal electrode gaps of 0 nm, 40 nm, 60 nm, and 80 nm. Additional variation in electrode gap is achieved by controlling the exposure conditions, such as dose and focus. To enable EUVL based nanofabrication, we develop a novel bi-level photoresist process. The bi-level photoresist consists of a combination of a commercially available polydimethylglutarimide (PMGI) bottom layer and an experimental EUVL photoresist top (imaging) layer. We measure the sensitivity of PMGI to EUV exposure dose as a function of photoresist pre-bake temperature, and using this data, optimize a metal lift-off process. Reliable fabrication of 700 Angstrom thick Au structures with sub-1000 Angstrom critical dimensions is achieved, even without the use of a Au adhesion layer, such as Ti. Several test platforms are used to characterize electrical properties of organic molecules deposited as self assembled monolayers.

  18. A solar EUV flux model

    SciTech Connect

    Tobiska, W.K.; Barth, C.A. )

    1990-06-01

    A model of the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance variability has been developed for aeronomical use and has been named SERF2 by the Solar Electromagnetic Radiation Flux Study. The model is valid between 1981 and 1989 and is based on the Atmosphere Explorer E (AE-E) satellite EUV data set which is correlated with independent solar emissions measured during and after the AE-E mission. Additionally, spectral modifications are made to the model based on 18 separate rocket flights for all levels of solar activity. Two daily measured solar emissions, the H Lyman {alpha} line at 121.6 nm observed by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer satellite and the Ottawa 10.7-cm radio flux observed at the ground, are used in the model as indices for full-disk solar EUV chromospheric irradiance variations and transition region-coronal irradiance variations, respectively. The model wavelength equation coefficients are presented in tabular form for 39 wavelength groups or discrete lines from 1.9 to 105.0 nm along with spectral weighting function coefficients which modify the irradiance magnitudes based upon model wavelength fits to rocket-observed spectra. The model satisfies the general constraint of duplicating rocket-observed EUV irradiance for a wise variety of solar activity conditions. The model development is discussed, an example calculation is given, and the comparisons with constraining rocket data sets are shown.

  19. Generation of circularly polarized radiation from a compact plasma-based extreme ultraviolet light source for tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Daniel; Rudolf, Denis Juschkin, Larissa; Weier, Christian; Adam, Roman; Schneider, Claus M.; Winkler, Gerrit; Frömter, Robert; Danylyuk, Serhiy; Bergmann, Klaus; Grützmacher, Detlev

    2014-10-15

    Generation of circularly polarized light in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region (about 25 eV–250 eV) is highly desirable for applications in spectroscopy and microscopy but very challenging to achieve in a small-scale laboratory. We present a compact apparatus for generation of linearly and circularly polarized EUV radiation from a gas-discharge plasma light source between 50 eV and 70 eV photon energy. In this spectral range, the 3p absorption edges of Fe (54 eV), Co (60 eV), and Ni (67 eV) offer a high magnetic contrast often employed for magneto-optical and electron spectroscopy as well as for magnetic imaging. We simulated and designed an instrument for generation of linearly and circularly polarized EUV radiation and performed polarimetric measurements of the degree of linear and circular polarization. Furthermore, we demonstrate first measurements of the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the Co 3p absorption edge with a plasma-based EUV light source. Our approach opens the door for laboratory-based, element-selective spectroscopy of magnetic materials and spectro-microscopy of ferromagnetic domains.

  20. Relationships between quencher diffusion constant and exposure dose dependences of line width, line edge roughness, and stochastic defect generation in extreme ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Control of the acid catalytic chain reaction is essential in the pattern formation of chemically amplified resists used for the high-volume production of semiconductor devices. In this study, the relationships between the quencher diffusion constant and the exposure dose dependences of the line width, line edge roughness (LER), and stochastic defect generation were investigated assuming extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The dependence of the latent images of line-and-space patterns with 16 nm half-pitch on the quencher diffusion constant was calculated on the basis of sensitization and reaction mechanisms of chemically amplified EUV resists. The exposure latitude of the line width increased with the quencher diffusion constant. The dependences of LER and stochastic defect (bridges and pinching) generation on the deviation of the exposure dose became weak by increasing the quencher diffusion constant, similarly to the case for the dependence of the line width.

  1. Feasibility study of sub-10-nm-half-pitch fabrication by chemically amplified resist processes of extreme ultraviolet lithography: II. Stochastic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Santillan, Julius Joseph; Itani, Toshiro

    2015-03-01

    Line edge roughness (LER) rapidly increases in the sub-10-nm-half-pitch region of resist processes used for the fabrication of semiconductor devices. Sub-10-nm fabrication with high throughput is a challenging task. In this study, the stochastic effects (LER and stochastic defect generation) of chemically amplified resist processes in the sub-10-nm-half-pitch node were investigated, assuming the use of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The latent images were calculated by a Monte Carlo method on the basis of the sensitization and reaction mechanisms of chemically amplified EUV resists. 7-nm-half-pitch fabrication by chemically amplified resist processes is considered to be feasible. However, significant improvement in the efficiencies of the conversion processes from optical images to resist images is required.

  2. EUVE survey observations of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, J. S.; Gladstone, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary survey images of the moon obtained by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer and results of data analysis are presented. The preliminary results indicate that the brightness of the moon varies little from observation to observation. Early results also show that the lunar albedo closely matches the relative reflectivity of mineral found on the moon's surface. Further studies are conducted during the spectroscopy phase of the EUVE mission to confirm current results regarding the presence of X-ray fluorescence in the data.

  3. THE HIGH-RESOLUTION EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRUM OF N{sub 2} BY ELECTRON IMPACT

    SciTech Connect

    Heays, A. N.; Ajello, J. M.; Aguilar, A.; Lewis, B. R.; Gibson, S. T.

    2014-04-01

    We have analyzed high-resolution (FWHM = 0.2 Å) extreme-ultraviolet (EUV, 800-1350 Å) laboratory emission spectra of molecular nitrogen excited by an electron impact at 20 and 100 eV under (mostly) optically thin, single-scattering experimental conditions. A total of 491 emission features were observed from N{sub 2} electronic-vibrational transitions and atomic N I and N II multiplets and their emission cross sections were measured. Molecular emission was observed at vibrationally excited ground-state levels as high as v'' = 17, from the a {sup 1}Π {sub g} , b {sup 1}Π {sub u} , and b'{sup 1}Σ {sub u} {sup +} excited valence states and the Rydberg series c'{sub n} {sub +1} {sup 1}Σ {sub u} {sup +}, c{sub n} {sup 1}Π {sub u} , and o{sub n} {sup 1}Π {sub u} for n between 3 and 9. The frequently blended molecular emission bands were disentangled with the aid of a sophisticated and predictive quantum-mechanical model of excited states that includes the strong coupling between valence and Rydberg electronic states and the effects of predissociation. Improved model parameters describing electronic transition moments were obtained from the experiment and allowed for a reliable prediction of the vibrationally summed electronic emission cross section, including an extrapolation to unobserved emission bands and those that are optically thick in the experimental spectra. Vibrationally dependent electronic excitation functions were inferred from a comparison of emission features following 20 and 100 eV electron-impact collisional excitation. The electron-impact-induced fluorescence measurements are compared with Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph observations of emissions from Titan's upper atmosphere.

  4. A fast-time-response extreme ultraviolet spectrometer for measurement of impurity line emissions in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ling; Xu, Zong; Wu, Zhenwei; Zhang, Pengfei; Wu, Chengrui; Gao, Wei; Shen, Junsong; Chen, Yingjie; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Yumin; Gong, Xianzu; Hu, Liqun; Chen, Junlin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wan, Baonian; Li, Jiangang; Morita, Shigeru; Ohishi, Tetsutarou; Goto, Motoshi; Dong, Chunfeng; and others

    2015-12-15

    A flat-field extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer working in the 20-500 Å wavelength range with fast time response has been newly developed to measure line emissions from highly ionized tungsten in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with a tungsten divertor, while the monitoring of light and medium impurities is also an aim in the present development. A flat-field focal plane for spectral image detection is made by a laminar-type varied-line-spacing concave holographic grating with an angle of incidence of 87°. A back-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD) with a total size of 26.6 × 6.6 mm{sup 2} and pixel numbers of 1024 × 255 (26 × 26 μm{sup 2}/pixel) is used for recording the focal image of spectral lines. An excellent spectral resolution of Δλ{sub 0} = 3-4 pixels, where Δλ{sub 0} is defined as full width at the foot position of a spectral line, is obtained at the 80-400 Å wavelength range after careful adjustment of the grating and CCD positions. The high signal readout rate of the CCD can improve the temporal resolution of time-resolved spectra when the CCD is operated in the full vertical binning mode. It is usually operated at 5 ms per frame. If the vertical size of the CCD is reduced with a narrow slit, the time response becomes faster. The high-time response in the spectral measurement therefore makes possible a variety of spectroscopic studies, e.g., impurity behavior in long pulse discharges with edge-localized mode bursts. An absolute intensity calibration of the EUV spectrometer is also carried out with a technique using the EUV bremsstrahlung continuum at 20-150 Å for quantitative data analysis. Thus, the high-time resolution tungsten spectra have been successfully observed with good spectral resolution using the present EUV spectrometer system. Typical tungsten spectra in the EUV wavelength range observed from EAST discharges are presented with absolute intensity and spectral identification.

  5. A fast-time-response extreme ultraviolet spectrometer for measurement of impurity line emissions in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Morita, Shigeru; Xu, Zong; Wu, Zhenwei; Zhang, Pengfei; Wu, Chengrui; Gao, Wei; Ohishi, Tetsutarou; Goto, Motoshi; Shen, Junsong; Chen, Yingjie; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Yumin; Dong, Chunfeng; Zhang, Hongmin; Huang, Xianli; Gong, Xianzu; Hu, Liqun; Chen, Junlin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wan, Baonian; Li, Jiangang

    2015-12-01

    A flat-field extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer working in the 20-500 Å wavelength range with fast time response has been newly developed to measure line emissions from highly ionized tungsten in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with a tungsten divertor, while the monitoring of light and medium impurities is also an aim in the present development. A flat-field focal plane for spectral image detection is made by a laminar-type varied-line-spacing concave holographic grating with an angle of incidence of 87°. A back-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD) with a total size of 26.6 × 6.6 mm(2) and pixel numbers of 1024 × 255 (26 × 26 μm(2)/pixel) is used for recording the focal image of spectral lines. An excellent spectral resolution of Δλ0 = 3-4 pixels, where Δλ0 is defined as full width at the foot position of a spectral line, is obtained at the 80-400 Å wavelength range after careful adjustment of the grating and CCD positions. The high signal readout rate of the CCD can improve the temporal resolution of time-resolved spectra when the CCD is operated in the full vertical binning mode. It is usually operated at 5 ms per frame. If the vertical size of the CCD is reduced with a narrow slit, the time response becomes faster. The high-time response in the spectral measurement therefore makes possible a variety of spectroscopic studies, e.g., impurity behavior in long pulse discharges with edge-localized mode bursts. An absolute intensity calibration of the EUV spectrometer is also carried out with a technique using the EUV bremsstrahlung continuum at 20-150 Å for quantitative data analysis. Thus, the high-time resolution tungsten spectra have been successfully observed with good spectral resolution using the present EUV spectrometer system. Typical tungsten spectra in the EUV wavelength range observed from EAST discharges are presented with absolute intensity and spectral identification.

  6. Extending resolution limits of EUV resist materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysak, Marie; Leeson, Michael; Han, Eungnak; Blackwell, James; Harlson, Shane

    2015-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) technology continues to progress and remains a viable candidate for next generation lithography1, which drives the need for EUV resists capable of high resolution with high sensitivity and low LWR. While chemically amplified resists (CARs) have demonstrated the ability to pattern 12nm half-pitch features2, pattern collapse continues to limit their ultimate resolution. We have taken multiple approaches to extend resist capabilities past these limits. Recent results in pattern collapse mitigation using a resist encapsulation and etch back strategy will be discussed. We continue to investigate EUV patterning of semi-inorganic resists to simultaneously increase EUV photon absorption and extend mechanical strength beyond CAR capabilities. The limitations of metal oxide-based nanoparticle photoresists have been investigated, and have provided key insights to further understanding the mechanism of this class of materials.

  7. High intensity vacuum ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet production by noncollinear mixing in laser vaporized media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todt, Michael A.; Albert, Daniel R.; Davis, H. Floyd

    2016-06-01

    A method is described for generating intense pulsed vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) laser radiation by resonance enhanced four-wave mixing of commercial pulsed nanosecond lasers in laser vaporized mercury under windowless conditions. By employing noncollinear mixing of the input beams, the need of dispersive elements such as gratings for separating the VUV/XUV from the residual UV and visible beams is eliminated. A number of schemes are described, facilitating access to the 9.9-14.6 eV range. A simple and convenient scheme for generating wavelengths of 125 nm, 112 nm, and 104 nm (10 eV, 11 eV, and 12 eV) using two dye lasers without the need for dye changes is described.

  8. High intensity vacuum ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet production by noncollinear mixing in laser vaporized media.

    PubMed

    Todt, Michael A; Albert, Daniel R; Davis, H Floyd

    2016-06-01

    A method is described for generating intense pulsed vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) laser radiation by resonance enhanced four-wave mixing of commercial pulsed nanosecond lasers in laser vaporized mercury under windowless conditions. By employing noncollinear mixing of the input beams, the need of dispersive elements such as gratings for separating the VUV/XUV from the residual UV and visible beams is eliminated. A number of schemes are described, facilitating access to the 9.9-14.6 eV range. A simple and convenient scheme for generating wavelengths of 125 nm, 112 nm, and 104 nm (10 eV, 11 eV, and 12 eV) using two dye lasers without the need for dye changes is described.

  9. Estimation of the helium ion density distribution in the plasmasphere based on a single IMAGE/EUV image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, S.; Fok, M.-C.; Brandt, P. C.; Higuchi, T.

    2014-05-01

    We have developed a technique by which to estimate the spatial distribution of plasmaspheric helium ions based on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) data obtained from the IMAGE satellite. The estimation is performed using a linear inversion method based on the Bayesian approach. The global imaging data from the IMAGE satellite enable us to estimate a global two-dimensional distribution of the helium ions in the plasmasphere. We applied this technique to a synthetic EUV image generated from a numerical model. This technique was confirmed to successfully reproduce the helium ion density that generated the synthetic EUV data. We also demonstrate how the proposed technique works for real data using two real EUV images.

  10. Quantum efficiency of opaque CsI photocathodes with channel electron multiplier arrays in the extreme and far ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, C.; Bowyer, S.

    1982-01-01

    The arrays are overcoated with a CsI photocathode in the VUV. The measurements are part of the development program for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer. Monochromatic light from a hollow cathode discharge source passing through a McPherson grazing incidence monochromator is used to illuminate the CsI photocathode. The beam diameter is kept small (approximately 2 mm) to confine it within the individual thickness strips. A bias grid is used to produce a 50-V/mm electric field to guarantee collection of all photoelectrons emitted by the CEMA (channel electron multiplier array) webbing. The CEMAs are operated with a gain of 2-3 x 10 to the 6th and are moderately saturated. A channeltron secondary transfer standard is used to determine the absolute QE in the EUV, whereas an NBS calibrated windowed photodiode is used to measure the FUV absolute QE. It is noted that the CsI gives a factor of 3 increase in the QE in the EUV and a factor of 50-5000 in the FUV.

  11. Application of natural linear polysaccharide to green resist polymers for electron beam and extreme-ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Satoshi; Oshima, Akihiro; Oyama, Tomoko G.; Ito, Kenta; Sugahara, Kigen; Kashiwakura, Miki; Kozawa, Takahiro; Tagawa, Seiichi; Hanabata, Makoto

    2014-11-01

    The application of natural linear polysaccharide to green resist polymers was demonstrated for electron beam (EB) and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography using organic-solvent-free water spin-coating and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH)-free water-developable techniques. The water spin-coating and water-developable processes in a green resist material were carried out on wafers because of the water solubility of natural polysaccharides for an environmentally friendly manufacturing process for next-generation electronic devices. The developed green resist material with a weight-average molecular weight of 83,000 and 70 mol % hydroxyl groups as a water-developable feature was found to have acceptable properties such as spin-coat ability on 200 mm wafers, prediction sensitivity to EUV at the wavelengths of 6.7 and 13.5 nm, a high contrast of the water dissolution rate before and after EB irradiation, pillar patterns of 100-400 nm with a high EB sensitivity of 10 µC/cm2, and etch selectivity with a silicon-based middle layer in CF4 plasma treatment.

  12. Soft X-ray irradiance measured by the Solar Aspect Monitor on the Solar Dynamic Observatory Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. Y.; Bailey, S. M.; Jones, A.; Woodraska, D.; Caspi, A.; Woods, T. N.; Eparvier, F. G.; Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.

    2016-04-01

    The Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM) is a pinhole camera on the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. SAM projects the solar disk onto the CCD through a metallic filter designed to allow only solar photons shortward of 7 nm to pass. Contamination from energetic particles and out-of-band irradiance is, however, significant in the SAM observations. We present a technique for isolating the 0.01-7 nm integrated irradiance from the SAM signal to produce the first results of broadband irradiance for the time period from May 2010 to May 2014. The results of this analysis agree with a similar data product from EVE's EUV SpectroPhotometer to within 25%. We compare our results with measurements from the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer Solar X-ray Photometer and the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics Solar EUV Experiment at similar levels of solar activity. We show that the full-disk SAM broadband results compared well to the other measurements of the 0.01-7 nm irradiance. We also explore SAM's capability toward resolving spatial contribution from regions of solar disk in irradiance and demonstrate this feature with a case study of several strong flares that erupted from active regions on 11 March 2011.

  13. Investigation of the interaction of a laser pulse with a preformed Gaussian Sn plume for an extreme ultraviolet lithography source

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Y.; Tillack, M. S.; Harilal, S. S.; Sequoia, K. L.; Najmabadi, F.

    2007-01-15

    The interaction of a laser pulse with a Sn preplasma formed by a low energy prepulse was investigated for an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography light source. A much lower ion kinetic energy and nearly the same conversion efficiency from laser to in-band (2% bandwidth) 13.5 nm EUV light were simultaneously observed as compared with those from the direct interaction with a solid surface. The reason comes from the interaction of the laser pulse with a smooth preplume induced by the prepulse. The density profile of the preplume was measured with time-resolved shadowgraphy and could be fitted with a Gaussian function. The energy of the ions located at the flux peak E{sub p} scales with the length of the preplume l{sub s} as E{sub p}{proportional_to}1/l{sub s}. Laser absorption in the low-density preplume and ion acceleration during plasma expansion are discussed. This result provides a general way to control particle energy from a laser plasma interaction.

  14. Quantitative analysis of electron energy loss spectra and modelling of optical properties of multilayer systems for extreme ultraviolet radiation regime

    SciTech Connect

    Gusenleitner, S.; Hauschild, D.; Reinert, F.; Handick, E.

    2014-03-28

    Ruthenium capped multilayer coatings for use in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation regime have manifold applications in science and industry. Although the Ru cap shall protect the reflecting multilayers, the surface of the heterostructures suffers from contamination issues and surface degradation. In order to get a better understanding of the effects of these impurities on the optical parameters, reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) measurements of contaminated and H cleaned Ru multilayer coatings were taken at various primary electron beam energies. Experiments conducted at low primary beam energies between 100 eV and 1000 eV are very surface sensitive due to the short inelastic mean free path of the electrons in this energy range. Therefore, influences of the surface condition on the above mentioned characteristics can be appraised. In this paper, it can be shown that carbon and oxide impurities on the mirror surface decrease the transmission of the Ru cap by about 0.75% and the overall reflectance of the device is impaired as the main share of the non-transmitted EUV light is absorbed in the contamination layer.

  15. Theoretical study of relationships among resolution, line width roughness, and sensitivity of chemically amplified extreme ultraviolet resists with photodecomposable quenchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Santillan, Julius Joseph; Itani, Toshiro

    2016-11-01

    The resolution of chemically amplified extreme ultraviolet (EUV) resists has reached 13-15 nm. However, the line width roughness (LWR) and sensitivity are still inadequate for their application to the high-volume production of semiconductor devices. In this study, the performance of chemically amplified resists with photodecomposable quenchers were investigated by simulation based on the sensitization and reaction mechanisms of chemically amplified EUV resists. The relationships among resolution, LWR, and sensitivity were evaluated in the half-pitch ranges of 12-16 nm. The requirements for 20 mJ cm-2 and 10% critical dimension (CD) LWR are considered to be within the physical limits in the half-pitch range of 12-16 nm when an optical image with a contrast of 1 (normalized image log slope of π) is given. Depending on the given image quality and the required sensitivity, the optimization of sensitizer concentration and the increase in resist absorption coefficient and/or effective reaction radius for deprotection are required to achieve 10% CD LWR.

  16. Soft x-ray microscopy and extreme ultraviolet lithography: Imaging in the 20-50 nm regime (abstract) (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attwood, David

    2002-03-01

    Advances in short wavelength optics, covering the range from 1 to 14 nm, are providing new results and new opportunities. Zone plate lenses [E. Anderson et al., J. Vac. Sci. Techno. B 18, 2970 (2000)] for soft x-ray microscopy [G. Denbeaux, Rev. Sci. Instrum. (these proceedings); W. Chao, Proc. SPIE 4146, 171 (2000)] are now made to high accuracy with outer zone widths of 25 nm, and demonstrated resolution of 23 nm with proper illumination and stability. These permit important advances in the study of protein specific transport and structure in the life sciences [C. Larabell (private communication); W. Meyer-Ilse et al., J. Microsc. 201, 395 (2001)] and the study of magnetic materials [P. Fischer et al., J. Synchrotron. Radiat. 8, 325 (2001)] with elemental sensitivity at the resolution of individual domains. Major corporations (members of the EUV Limited Liability Company are Intel, Motorola, AMD, Micron, Infineon, and IBM) are now preparing the path for the fabrication of future computer chips, in the years 2007 and beyond, using multilayer coated reflective optics, which achieve reflectivities of 70% in the 11-14 nm region [T. Barbee et al., Appl. Opt. 24, 883 (1985); C. Montcalm et al., Proc. SPIE 3676, 710 (1999)]. These coated optics are to be incorporated in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) print cameras, known as "steppers." Electronic patterns with features in the range of 50-70 nm have been printed. The first alpha tool stepper recently demonstrated all critical technologies [D. Tichenor et al., Proc. SPIE 4343, 19 (2001)] needed for EUV lithography. Preproduction beta tools are targeted for delivery by leading suppliers [ASML, the Netherlands, at the SPIE Microlithography Conference, Santa Clara, CA, March 2001] in 2004, with high volume production tools available in late 2006 for manufacturing in 2007. New results in these two areas will be discussed in the context of the synergy of science and technology.

  17. Deposition and characterization of B4C/CeO2 multilayers at 6.x nm extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sertsu, M. G.; Giglia, A.; Brose, S.; Park, D.; Wang, Z. S.; Mayer, J.; Juschkin, L.; Nicolosi, P.

    2016-03-01

    New multilayers of boron carbide/cerium dioxide (B4C/CeO2) combination on silicon (Si) substrate are manufactured to represent reflective-optics candidates for future lithography at 6.x nm wavelength. This is one of only a few attempts to make multilayers of this kind. Combination of several innovative experiments enables detailed study of optical properties, structural properties, and interface profiles of the multilayers in order to open up a room for further optimization of the manufacturing process. The interface profile is visualized by high-angle annular dark-field imaging which provides highly sensitive contrast to atomic number. Synchrotron based at-wavelength extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflectance measurements near the boron (B) absorption edge allow derivation of optical parameters with high sensitivity to local atom interactions. X-ray reflectivity measurements at Cu-Kalpha (8 keV ) determine the period of multilayers with high in-depth resolution. By combining these measurements and choosing robust nonlinear curve fitting algorithms, accuracy of the results has been significantly improved. It also enables a comprehensive characterization of multilayers. Interface diffusion is determined to be a major cause for the low reflectivity performance. Optical constants of B4C and CeO2 layers are derived in EUV wavelengths. Besides, optical properties and asymmetric thicknesses of inter-diffusion layers (interlayers) in EUV wavelengths near the boron edge are determined. Finally, ideal reflectivity of the B4C/CeO2 combination is calculated by using optical constants derived from the proposed measurements in order to evaluate the potentiality of the design.

  18. Optical to extreme ultraviolet reddening curves for normal AGN dust and for dust associated with high-velocity outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Japneet; Gaskell, Martin; Gill, Jake

    2017-01-01

    We use mid-IR (WIRE), optical (SDSS), and ultraviolet (GALEX) photometry of over 80,000 AGNs to derive mean attenuation curves from the optical to the rest frame extreme ultraviolet (EUV) for (i) “normal” AGN dust dominating the optical reddening of AGNs and (ii) “BAL dust” - the dust causing the additional extinction in AGNs observed to have broad absorption lines (BALs). Our method confirms that the attenuation curve of “normal” AGN dust is flat in the ultraviolet, as found by Gaskell et al. (2004). In striking contrast to this, the attenuation curve for BAL dust is well fit by a steeply-rising, SMC-like curve. We confirm the shape of the theoretical Weingartner & Draine (2001) SMC curve out to 700 Angstroms but the drop in attenuation to still shorter wavelengths (400 Angstroms) seems to be less than predicted. We find identical attenuation curves for high-ionization and low-ionization BALQSOs. We suggest that attenuation curves appearing to be steeper than the SMC are due to differences in underlying spectra and partial covering by BAL dust. This work was This work was performed under the auspices of the Science Internship Program (SIP) of the University of California at Santa Cruz performed under the auspices of the Science Internship Program (SIP) of the University of California at Santa Cruz.

  19. Ultrafast Extreme Ultraviolet Absorption Spectroscopy of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkamp, Max A.; Lin, Ming-Fu; Ryland, Elizabeth S.; Vura-Weis, Josh

    2016-06-01

    Methylammonium lead iodide (perovskite) is a leading candidate for use in next-generation solar cell devices. However, the photophysics responsible for its strong photovoltaic qualities are not fully understood. Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet (XUV) absorption was used to investigate electron and hole dynamics in perovskite by observing transitions from a common inner-shell level (I 4d) to the valence and conduction bands. Ultrashort (30 fs) pulses of XUV radiation with a broad spectrum (40-70 eV) were generated via high-harmonic generation using a tabletop instrument. Transient absorption measurements with visible pump and XUV probe directly observed the relaxation of charge carriers in perovskite after above-band excitation in the femtosecond and picosecond time ranges.

  20. Method for the protection of extreme ultraviolet lithography optics

    DOEpatents

    Grunow, Philip A.; Clift, Wayne M.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2010-06-22

    A coating for the protection of optical surfaces exposed to a high energy erosive plasma. A gas that can be decomposed by the high energy plasma, such as the xenon plasma used for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), is injected into the EUVL machine. The decomposition products coat the optical surfaces with a protective coating maintained at less than about 100 .ANG. thick by periodic injections of the gas. Gases that can be used include hydrocarbon gases, particularly methane, PH.sub.3 and H.sub.2S. The use of PH.sub.3 and H.sub.2S is particularly advantageous since films of the plasma-induced decomposition products S and P cannot grow to greater than 10 .ANG. thick in a vacuum atmosphere such as found in an EUVL machine.

  1. Ultrafast Extreme Ultraviolet Induced Isomerization of Acetylene Cations

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Y. H.; Kurka, M.; Kuehnel, K. U.; Schroeter, C. D.; Moshammer, R.; Rudenko, A.; Foucar, L.; Herrwerth, O.; Lezius, M.; Kling, M. F.; Tilborg, J. van; Belkacem, A.; Ueda, K.; Duesterer, S.; Treusch, R.; Ullrich, J.

    2010-12-31

    Ultrafast isomerization of acetylene cations ([HC=CH]{sup +}) in the low-lying excited A{sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +} state, populated by the absorption of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photons (38 eV), has been observed at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg, (FLASH). Recording coincident fragments C{sup +}+CH{sub 2}{sup +} as a function of time between XUV-pump and -probe pulses, generated by a split-mirror device, we find an isomerization time of 52{+-}15 fs in a kinetic energy release (KER) window of 5.8

  2. Upgrade of absolute extreme ultraviolet diagnostic on J-TEXT.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X L; Cheng, Z F; Hou, S Y; Zhuang, G; Luo, J

    2014-11-01

    The absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diagnostic system is used for radiation observation on J-TEXT tokamak [J. Zhang, G. Zhuang, Z. J. Wang, Y. H. Ding, X. Q. Zhang, and Y. J. Tang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073509 (2010)]. The upgrade of the AXUV system is aimed to improve the spatial resolution and provide a three-dimensional image on J-TEXT. The new system consists of 12 AXUV arrays (4 AXUV16ELG arrays, 8 AXUV20ELG arrays). The spatial resolution in the cross-section is 21 mm for the AXUV16ELG arrays and 17 mm for the AXUV20ELG arrays. The pre-amplifier is also upgraded for a higher signal to noise ratio. By upgrading the AXUV imaging system, a more accurate observation on the radiation information is obtained.

  3. A Penning discharge source for extreme ultraviolet calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, David S.; Jelinsky, Patrick; Bowyer, Stuart; Malina, Roger F.

    1986-01-01

    A Penning discharge lamp for use in the calibration of instruments and components for the extreme ultraviolet has been developed. This source is sufficiently light and compact to make it suitable for mounting on the movable slit assembly of a grazing incidence Rowland circle monochromator. Because this is a continuous discharge source, it is suitable for use with photon counting detectors. Line radiation is provided both by the gas and by atoms sputtered off the interchangeable metal cathodes. Usable lines are produced by species as highly ionized as Ne IV and Al V. The wavelength coverage provided is such that a good density of emission lines is available down to wavelengths as short as 100A. This source fills the gap between 100 and 300A, which is inadequately covered by the other available compact continuous radiation sources.

  4. Extreme ultraviolet mask substrate surface roughness effects on lithography patterning

    SciTech Connect

    George, Simi; Naulleau, Patrick; Salmassi, Farhad; Mochi, Iacopo; Gullikson, Eric; Goldberg, Kenneth; Anderson, Erik

    2010-06-21

    In extreme ultraviolet lithography exposure systems, mask substrate roughness induced scatter contributes to LER at the image plane. In this paper, the impact of mask substrate roughness on image plane speckle is explicitly evaluated. A programmed roughness mask was used to study the correlation between mask roughness metrics and wafer plane aerial image inspection. We find that the roughness measurements by top surface topography profile do not provide complete information on the scatter related speckle that leads to LER at the image plane. We suggest at wavelength characterization by imaging and/or scatter measurements into different frequencies as an alternative for a more comprehensive metrology of the mask substrate/multilayer roughness effects.

  5. Upgrade of absolute extreme ultraviolet diagnostic on J-TEXT

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. L.; Cheng, Z. F. Hou, S. Y.; Zhuang, G.; Luo, J.

    2014-11-15

    The absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diagnostic system is used for radiation observation on J-TEXT tokamak [J. Zhang, G. Zhuang, Z. J. Wang, Y. H. Ding, X. Q. Zhang, and Y. J. Tang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073509 (2010)]. The upgrade of the AXUV system is aimed to improve the spatial resolution and provide a three-dimensional image on J-TEXT. The new system consists of 12 AXUV arrays (4 AXUV16ELG arrays, 8 AXUV20ELG arrays). The spatial resolution in the cross-section is 21 mm for the AXUV16ELG arrays and 17 mm for the AXUV20ELG arrays. The pre-amplifier is also upgraded for a higher signal to noise ratio. By upgrading the AXUV imaging system, a more accurate observation on the radiation information is obtained.

  6. Absolute measurement of undulator radiation in the extreme ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maezawa, H.; Mitani, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Kanamori, H.; Tamamushi, S.; Mikuni, A.; Kitamura, H.; Sasaki, T.

    1983-04-01

    The spectral brightness of undulator radiation emitted by the model PMU-1 incorporated in the SOR-RING, the dedicated synchrotron radiation source in Tokyo, has been studied in the extreme ultraviolet region from 21.6 to 72.9 eV as a function of the electron energy γ, the field parameter K, and the angle of observation ϴ in the absolute scale. A series of measurements covering the first and the second harmonic component of undulator radiation was compared with the fundamental formula λ n= {λ 0}/{2nγ 2}( {1+K 2}/{2}+γϴ 2 and the effects of finite emittance were studied. The brightness at the first peak was smaller than the theoretical value, while an enhanced second harmonic component was observed.

  7. Source development for extreme ultraviolet lithography and water window imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, G.; Dunne, P.; Kilbane, D.; Liu, L.; Lokasani, R.; Long, E.; Li, B. W.; McCormack, T.; O'Reilly, F.; Shiel, J.; Sokell, E.; Suzuki, C.; Wu, T.; Higashiguchi, T.

    2017-03-01

    Sources based on laser produced plasmas of tin (Sn) are currently being developed for extreme ultraviolet lithography for semiconductor fabrication. Since they operate at short wavelength (13.5 nm) they are capable of producing features with critical dimensions in the 10 nm range. Already next generation lithography sources operating at an even lower wavelength of around 6.7-6.8 nm have been proposed and research is ongoing on their feasibility for both large scale manufacturing and `at wavelength' metrology. The high resolution afforded by such short wavelengths is also of use for applications such as surface patterning and microscopy and the results of recent experiments to identify sources for operation in the `water window' (2.34-4.2 nm), where carbon absorbs strongly but water does not are summarized.

  8. Extreme ultraviolet spectra of highly ionized oxygen and fluorine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegg, D. J.; Griffin, P. M.; Haselton, H. H.; Laubert, R.; Mowat, J. R.; Thoe, R. S.; Peterson, R. S.; Sellin, I. A.

    1974-01-01

    The foil-excitation method has been used to study the extreme ultraviolet spectra of highly ionized oxygen and fluorine. Several previously unreported lines in heliumlike fluorine are reported and other newly reported lines in heliumlike oxygen have been measured to higher accuracy. Included in the measurements are certain heliumlike oxygen transitions of significance in interpretation of solar-flare spectral observations. The wavelength determinations are usually in good agreement with calculated results which includes relativistic corrections, but discrepancies arise when nonrelativistic calculations are used. A comparison of the present results and those recently obtained by theta-pinch and laser-induced plasma sources is made for both heliumlike and lithiumlike ions; a few discrepancies occur, with results in most cases in better agreement with relativistically corrected calculations. Certain unidentified lines in the spectra may be attributable to radiative transitions between quartet states of lithiumlike ions.

  9. Ultrafast Extreme Ultraviolet Induced Isomerization of Acetylene Cations

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Y.; Rudenko, Artem; Herrwerth, O.; Foucar, L.; Kurka, M.; Kuhnel, K.; Lezius, M.; Kling, Matthias; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Belkacem, Ali; Ueda, K.; Dusterer, S.; Treusch, R.; Schroter, Claus-Dieter; Moshammer, Robbert; Ullrich, Joachim

    2011-06-17

    Ultrafast isomerization of acetylene cations ([HC = CH]{sup +}) in the low-lying excited A{sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +} state, populated by the absorption of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photons (38 eV), has been observed at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg, (FLASH). Recording coincident fragments C{sup +} + CH{sub 2}{sup +} as a function of time between XUV-pump and -probe pulses, generated by a split-mirror device, we find an isomerization time of 52 {+-} 15 fs in a kinetic energy release (KER) window of 5.8 < KER < 8 eV, providing clear evidence for the existence of a fast, nonradiative decay channel.

  10. Direct spectrotemporal characterization of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, David; Mahieu, Benoît; De Ninno, Giovanni

    2013-09-01

    We propose a method for straightforward characterization of the temporal shape of femtosecond pulses in the extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray spectral region. The approach is based on the presence of a significant linear frequency chirp in the pulse. This allows us to establish an homothetic relation between the pulse spectrum and its temporal profile. The theoretical approach is reminiscent of the one employed by Fraunhofer for describing far-field diffraction. As an application, we consider the case of a seeded free-electron laser (FEL). The theory is successfully benchmarked with numerical simulations and with experimental data collected on the FERMI@Elettra FEL. The proposed method provides FEL users with an online, shot-to-shot spectrotemporal diagnostic for time-resolved experiments.

  11. Upgrade of absolute extreme ultraviolet diagnostic on J-TEXTa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. L.; Cheng, Z. F.; Hou, S. Y.; Zhuang, G.; Luo, J.

    2014-11-01

    The absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diagnostic system is used for radiation observation on J-TEXT tokamak [J. Zhang, G. Zhuang, Z. J. Wang, Y. H. Ding, X. Q. Zhang, and Y. J. Tang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073509 (2010)]. The upgrade of the AXUV system is aimed to improve the spatial resolution and provide a three-dimensional image on J-TEXT. The new system consists of 12 AXUV arrays (4 AXUV16ELG arrays, 8 AXUV20ELG arrays). The spatial resolution in the cross-section is 21 mm for the AXUV16ELG arrays and 17 mm for the AXUV20ELG arrays. The pre-amplifier is also upgraded for a higher signal to noise ratio. By upgrading the AXUV imaging system, a more accurate observation on the radiation information is obtained.

  12. EUV mask surface cleaning effects on lithography process performance

    SciTech Connect

    George, Simi; Baclea-an, Lorie Mae; Naulleau, Patrick; Chen, Robert J.; Liang, Ted

    2010-06-18

    The reflective, multilayer based, mask architectures for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography are highly susceptible to surface oxidation and contamination. As a result, EUV masks are expected to undergo cleaning processes in order to maintain the lifetimes necessary for high volume manufacturing. For this study, the impact of repetitive cleaning of EUV masks on imaging performance was evaluated. Two, high quality industry standard, EUV masks are used for this study with one of the masks undergoing repeated cleaning and the other one kept as a reference. Lithographic performance, in terms of process window analysis and line edge roughness, was monitored after every two cleans and compared to the reference mask performance. After 8x clean, minimal degradation is observed. The cleaning cycles will be continued until significant loss imaging fidelity is found.

  13. Four-wave mixing experiments with extreme ultraviolet transient gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencivenga, F.; Cucini, R.; Capotondi, F.; Battistoni, A.; Mincigrucci, R.; Giangrisostomi, E.; Gessini, A.; Manfredda, M.; Nikolov, I. P.; Pedersoli, E.; Principi, E.; Svetina, C.; Parisse, P.; Casolari, F.; Danailov, M. B.; Kiskinova, M.; Masciovecchio, C.

    2015-04-01

    Four-wave mixing (FWM) processes, based on third-order nonlinear light-matter interactions, can combine ultrafast time resolution with energy and wavevector selectivity, and enable the exploration of dynamics inaccessible by linear methods. The coherent and multi-wave nature of the FWM approach has been crucial in the development of advanced technologies, such as silicon photonics, subwavelength imaging and quantum communications. All these technologies operate at optical wavelengths, which limits the spatial resolution and does not allow the probing of excitations with energy in the electronvolt range. Extension to shorter wavelengths--that is, the extreme ultraviolet and soft-X-ray ranges--would allow the spatial resolution to be improved and the excitation energy range to be expanded, as well as enabling elemental selectivity to be achieved by exploiting core resonances. So far, FWM applications at such wavelengths have been prevented by the absence of coherent sources of sufficient brightness and of suitable experimental set-ups. Here we show how transient gratings, generated by the interference of coherent extreme-ultraviolet pulses delivered by the FERMI free-electron laser, can be used to stimulate FWM processes at suboptical wavelengths. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the possibility of observing the time evolution of the FWM signal, which shows the dynamics of coherent excitations as molecular vibrations. This result opens the way to FWM with nanometre spatial resolution and elemental selectivity, which, for example, would enable the investigation of charge-transfer dynamics. The theoretical possibility of realizing these applications has already stimulated ongoing developments of free-electron lasers: our results show that FWM at suboptical wavelengths is feasible, and we hope that they will enable advances in present and future photon sources.

  14. Four-wave mixing experiments with extreme ultraviolet transient gratings.

    PubMed

    Bencivenga, F; Cucini, R; Capotondi, F; Battistoni, A; Mincigrucci, R; Giangrisostomi, E; Gessini, A; Manfredda, M; Nikolov, I P; Pedersoli, E; Principi, E; Svetina, C; Parisse, P; Casolari, F; Danailov, M B; Kiskinova, M; Masciovecchio, C

    2015-04-09

    Four-wave mixing (FWM) processes, based on third-order nonlinear light-matter interactions, can combine ultrafast time resolution with energy and wavevector selectivity, and enable the exploration of dynamics inaccessible by linear methods. The coherent and multi-wave nature of the FWM approach has been crucial in the development of advanced technologies, such as silicon photonics, subwavelength imaging and quantum communications. All these technologies operate at optical wavelengths, which limits the spatial resolution and does not allow the probing of excitations with energy in the electronvolt range. Extension to shorter wavelengths--that is, the extreme ultraviolet and soft-X-ray ranges--would allow the spatial resolution to be improved and the excitation energy range to be expanded, as well as enabling elemental selectivity to be achieved by exploiting core resonances. So far, FWM applications at such wavelengths have been prevented by the absence of coherent sources of sufficient brightness and of suitable experimental set-ups. Here we show how transient gratings, generated by the interference of coherent extreme-ultraviolet pulses delivered by the FERMI free-electron laser, can be used to stimulate FWM processes at suboptical wavelengths. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the possibility of observing the time evolution of the FWM signal, which shows the dynamics of coherent excitations as molecular vibrations. This result opens the way to FWM with nanometre spatial resolution and elemental selectivity, which, for example, would enable the investigation of charge-transfer dynamics. The theoretical possibility of realizing these applications has already stimulated ongoing developments of free-electron lasers: our results show that FWM at suboptical wavelengths is feasible, and we hope that they will enable advances in present and future photon sources.

  15. An intense extreme-ultraviolet source in Cetus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margon, B.; Lampton, M.; Bowyer, S.; Stern, R.; Paresce, F.

    1976-01-01

    The detection of a second EUV (100-1000 A) probable white dwarf star with the EUV telescope aboard the Apollo Soyuz mission is reported. The positional error box includes Feige 24, a binary system consisting of a very blue white dwarf and a dMe star. A grid of LTE pure-hydrogen, high-surface-gravity model atmospheres, is used, in combination with the EUV data and optical spectrophotometry, to derive the stellar parameters, yielding an effective temperature of 60,000 K, a radius of 17,000 km at 100 pc, and a luminosity of 7(d/100 pc) squared solar luminosities. The Feige 24 models appear to rule out white dwarfs with pure hydrogen atmospheres if the interstellar helium abundance and ionization are not anomalous.

  16. Contamination control program for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, David C.; Malina, Roger F.; Welsh, Barry Y.; Austin, James D.; Teti, Bonnie Gray

    1989-01-01

    A contamination-control program has been instituted for the optical components of the EUV Explorer satellite, whose 80-900 A range performance is easily degraded by particulate and molecular contamination. Cleanliness requirements have been formulated for the design, fabrication, and test phases of these instruments; in addition, contamination-control steps have been taken which prominently include the isolation of sensitive components in a sealed optics cavity. Prelaunch monitoring systems encompass the use of quartz crystal microbalances, particle witness plates, direct flight hardware sampling, and optical witness sampling of EUV scattering and reflectivity.

  17. EUV source power and lifetime: the most critical issues for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, Uwe; Kleinschmidt, Juergen; Gaebel, Kai; Birner, Henry; Ahmad, Imtiaz; Bolshukhin, Denis; Brudermann, Jesko; Chinh, Tran Duc; Flohrer, Frank; Goetze, Sven; Hergenhan, Guido; Kloepfel, Diethard; Korobotchko, Vladimir; Mader, Bjorn; Mueller, Rainer; Ringling, Jens; Schriever, Guido; Ziener, Christian

    2004-05-01

    Semiconductor chip manufacturers are expecting to use extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography for high volume manufacturing of DRAMs and ICs starting by the end of this decade. Among all the technologies and modules which have to be developed EUV sources at 13.5 nm are considered to be the most critical issue. Specifically the required output power of 115 W at the entrance of the illuminator system in combination with the required lifetimes of source components and collector optics make the source technology critical for EUV lithography. The present paper gives an update of the development status of EUV light sources at XTREME technologies, a joint venture of Lambda Physik AG, Goettingen, and Jenoptik LOS GmbH, Jena, Germany. Results on both laser produced plasma (LPP) and gas discharge produced plasma (GDPP), the two major technologies in EUV sources, are given. The LPP EUV sources use xenon-jet target systems and pulsed lasers with 500 W average power at up to 10 kHz developed at XTREME technologies. The maximum conversion efficiency from laser power into EUV in-band power is 1.0 % into 2p solid angle. 2.0 W EUV radiation is generated at 13.5 nm in 2p sr solid angle. The small source volume of < 0.3 mm diameter will allow large collection angles of 5 sr. The intermediate focus power is estimated to 1 W. Collector mirror lifetime tests showed 5 million pulses lifetime without debris mitigation. With debris mitigation in place lifetimes of more than 1 billion pulses are estimated. For the next generation of higher power EUV LPP sources a laser driver has been tested at 1.3 kW average laser power. This will lead to 5 W EUV power in intermediate focus. The GDPP EUV sources use the Z-pinch principle with efficient sliding discharge pre-ionization. Prototype commercial gas discharge sources with an EUV power of 35W in 2p sr were already delivered for integration into EUV microsteppers. These sources are equipped with a debris-filter which results in an optics lifetime

  18. Sensitivity calibration of an imaging extreme ultraviolet spectrometer-detector system for determining the efficiency of broadband extreme ultraviolet sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, S.; Rödel, C.; Krebs, M.; Hädrich, S.; Bierbach, J.; Paz, A. E.; Kuschel, S.; Wünsche, M.; Hilbert, V.; Zastrau, U.; Förster, E.; Limpert, J.; Paulus, G. G.

    2013-02-01

    We report on the absolute sensitivity calibration of an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectrometer system that is frequently employed to study emission from short-pulse laser experiments. The XUV spectrometer, consisting of a toroidal mirror and a transmission grating, was characterized at a synchrotron source in respect of the ratio of the detected to the incident photon flux at photon energies ranging from 15.5 eV to 99 eV. The absolute calibration allows the determination of the XUV photon number emitted by laser-based XUV sources, e.g., high-harmonic generation from plasma surfaces or in gaseous media. We have demonstrated high-harmonic generation in gases and plasma surfaces providing 2.3 μW and μJ per harmonic using the respective generation mechanisms.

  19. A comparison between measured surface microtopography and observed scattering in the extreme ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James; Jelinsky, Sharon; Bowyer, Stuart; Malina, Roger F.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents comparative measurements of surface roughness on prepared samples. These measurements have been made with both Talystep profilometers and WYKO interferometers. In addition, the scattering distribution from these samples was measured at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths. The utility of the WYKO interferometer and Talystep device for specifying extreme ultraviolet mirror surface quality is discussed.

  20. Holographic optical elements for the extreme-ultravioletregime

    SciTech Connect

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Salmassi, Farhad; Gullikson, Eric M.; Anderson, Erik H.

    2006-08-14

    As the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography progresses, interest grows in the extension of traditional optical components to the EUV regime. The strong absorption of EUV by most materials and its extremely short wavelength, however, makes it very difficult to implement many components that are commonplace in the longer wavelength regimes. One such component is the diffractive optical element used, for example, in illumination systems to efficiently generate modified pupil fills. Here we demonstrate the fabrication and characterization of EUV binary phase-only computer-generated holograms allowing arbitrary far-field diffraction patterns to be generated.

  1. Observation of a Quasiperiodic Pulsation in Hard X-Ray, Radio, and Extreme-ultraviolet Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Nakariakov, Valery M.; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2016-05-01

    We present a multiwavelength analysis of a quasiperiodic pulsation (QPP) observed in the hard X-ray (HXR), radio, and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) channels during an M1.9 flare that occurred on 2011 September 23-24. The nonthermal HXR emission in 25-50 keV observed by RHESSI shows five distinct impulsive peaks of decaying amplitude with a period of about 3 minutes. A similar QPP was observed in the microwave emission recorded by the Nobeyama Radioheliograph and Polarimeter in the 2, 3.75, 9.4, and 17 GHz channels. Interestingly, the 3-minute QPP was also observed in the metric and decimetric radio frequencies (25-180, 245, 610 MHz) as repetitive type III bursts. Multiwavelength observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Image Assembly, Hinode/SOT, and Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory/SECCHI suggest a fan-spine topology at the eruption site, associated with the formation of a quasi-circular ribbon during the flare. A small filament was observed below the fan loops before the flare onset. The filament rose slowly and interacted with the ambient field. This behavior was followed by an untwisting motion of the filament. Two different structures of the filament showed an approximately 3-minute periodic alternate rotation in the clockwise and counterclockwise directions. The 3-minute QPP was found to highly correlate with 3-minute oscillations in a nearby sunspot. We suggest that the periodic reconnection (modulated either by a sunspot slow-mode wave or by an untwisting filament) at a magnetic null point most likely causes the repetitive particle acceleration, generating the QPP observed in HXR, microwave, and type III radio bursts.

  2. Uncovering new thermal and mechanical behavior at the nanoscale using coherent extreme ultraviolet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogeboom-Pot, Kathleen Marie

    Tremendous recent progress in nanofabrication capabilities has made high-quality single-atomic layers and nanostructures with dimensions well below 50 nm commonplace, enabling unprecedented access to materials at the nanoscale. However, tools and techniques capable of characterizing the properties and function of nanosystems are still quite limited, leaving much of the fundamental physics that dominates material behavior in the deep nano-regime still unknown. Further understanding gained by studying nanoscale materials is critical both to fundamental science and to continued technological development. This thesis applies coherent extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light from tabletop high harmonic generation to study nanoscale systems on their intrinsic length and time scales (nanometers and femtoseconds, and above), specifically following thermal transport and acoustic dynamics. These studies have shown where and how nanostructured material properties can be quite different from their bulk counterparts. This has in turn allowed us to develop new theoretical descriptions to guide further work. By observing heat dissipation from the smallest nanostructure heat sources measured to date (at 20 nm in lateral size), this work uncovers a previously unobserved and unpredicted nanoscale thermal transport regime where both size and spacing of heat sources play a role in determining the heat dissipation effciency. Surprisingly, this shows that nanoscale heat sources can cool more quickly when spaced close together than when far apart. This discovery is significant to the engineering of thermal management in nanoscale systems and devices while also revealing new insight into the fundamental nature of thermal transport. Furthermore, we harness this new regime to demonstrate the first experimental measurement of the differential contributions of phonons with different mean free paths to thermal conductivity, down to mean free paths as short as 14 nm for the first time. The same

  3. Multilayer Phase-Only Diffraction Gratings: Fabrication andApplication to EUV Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Salmassi, Farhad; Gullikson, Eric M.; Anderson, Erik H.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2007-05-01

    The use of phase-only diffractive devices has long played an important role in advanced optical systems in varying fields. Such devices include gratings, diffractive and holographic optical elements, diffractive lenses, and phase-shift masks for advanced lithography. Extending such devices to the increasingly important regime of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths, however, is not trivial. Here, we present an effective fabrication and etch process enabling high-resolution patterning of Mo/Si multilayers for use in EUV phase devices, providing another method for fabrication of high numerical aperture diffractive devices or high-resolution EUV phase shift masks.

  4. Photoionized plasmas induced in neon with extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray pulses produced using low and high energy laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fok, T.; Węgrzyński, Ł.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Pisarczyk, T.; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Dudzak, R.; Dostal, J.; Krousky, E.; Skala, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Hrebicek, J.; Medrik, T.

    2015-04-15

    A comparative study of photoionized plasmas created by two soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (SXR/EUV) laser plasma sources with different parameters is presented. The two sources are based on double-stream Xe/He gas-puff targets irradiated with high (500 J/0.3 ns) and low energy (10 J/1 ns) laser pulses. In both cases, the SXR/EUV beam irradiated the gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the radiation pulse. Irradiation of gases resulted in formation of photoionized plasmas emitting radiation in the SXR/EUV range. The measured Ne plasma radiation spectra are dominated by emission lines corresponding to radiative transitions in singly charged ions. A significant difference concerns origin of the lines: K-shell or L-shell emissions occur in case of the high and low energy irradiating system, respectively. In high energy system, the electron density measurements were also performed by laser interferometry, employing a femtosecond laser system. A maximum electron density for Ne plasma reached the value of 2·10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}. For the low energy system, a detection limit was too high for the interferometric measurements, thus only an upper estimation for electron density could be made.

  5. On the maximum conversion efficiency into the 13.5-nm extreme ultraviolet emission under a steady-state laser ablation of tin microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basko, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    Theoretical investigation has been performed on the conversion efficiency (CE) into the 13.5-nm extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation in a scheme where spherical microspheres of tin (Sn) are simultaneously irradiated by two laser pulses with substantially different wavelengths. The low-intensity short-wavelength pulse is used to control the rate of mass ablation and the size of the EUV source, while the high-intensity long-wavelength pulse provides efficient generation of the EUV light at λ=13.5 nm. The problem of full optimization for maximizing the CE is formulated and solved numerically by performing two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulations with the RALEF-2D code under the conditions of steady-state laser illumination. It is shown that, within the implemented theoretical model, steady-state CE values approaching 9% are feasible; in a transient peak, the maximum instantaneous CE of 11.5% was calculated for the optimized laser-target configuration. The physical factors, bringing down the fully optimized steady-state CE to about one half of the absolute theoretical maximum of CE≈20 % for the uniform static Sn plasma, are analyzed in detail.

  6. Method for high-precision multi-layered thin film deposition for deep and extreme ultraviolet mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Ruffner, J.A.

    1999-06-15

    A method for coating (flat or non-flat) optical substrates with high-reflectivity multi-layer coatings for use at Deep Ultra-Violet (DUV) and Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) wavelengths. The method results in a product with minimum feature sizes of less than 0.10 [micro]m for the shortest wavelength (13.4 nm). The present invention employs a computer-based modeling and deposition method to enable lateral and vertical thickness control by scanning the position of the substrate with respect to the sputter target during deposition. The thickness profile of the sputter targets is modeled before deposition and then an appropriate scanning algorithm is implemented to produce any desired, radially-symmetric thickness profile. The present invention offers the ability to predict and achieve a wide range of thickness profiles on flat or figured substrates, i.e., account for 1/R[sup 2] factor in a model, and the ability to predict and accommodate changes in deposition rate as a result of plasma geometry, i.e., over figured substrates. 15 figs.

  7. Method for high-precision multi-layered thin film deposition for deep and extreme ultraviolet mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Ruffner, Judith Alison

    1999-01-01

    A method for coating (flat or non-flat) optical substrates with high-reflectivity multi-layer coatings for use at Deep Ultra-Violet ("DUV") and Extreme Ultra-Violet ("EUV") wavelengths. The method results in a product with minimum feature sizes of less than 0.10-.mu.m for the shortest wavelength (13.4-nm). The present invention employs a computer-based modeling and deposition method to enable lateral and vertical thickness control by scanning the position of the substrate with respect to the sputter target during deposition. The thickness profile of the sputter targets is modeled before deposition and then an appropriate scanning algorithm is implemented to produce any desired, radially-symmetric thickness profile. The present invention offers the ability to predict and achieve a wide range of thickness profiles on flat or figured substrates, i.e., account for 1/R.sup.2 factor in a model, and the ability to predict and accommodate changes in deposition rate as a result of plasma geometry, i.e., over figured substrates.

  8. Pattern inspection of etched multilayer extreme ultraviolet mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Susumu; Hirano, Ryoichi; Amano, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Hidehiro

    2016-04-01

    Patterned mask inspection for an etched multilayer (ML) extreme ultraviolet mask was investigated. In order to optimize the mask structure from the standpoint of a pattern inspection the mask structure not only from the standpoint of a pattern inspection by using a projection electron microscope but also by using a projection electron microscope but also by considering the other fabrication processes using electron beam techniques such as critical dimension metrology and mask repair, we employed a conductive layer between the ML and substrate. By measuring the secondary electron emission coefficients of the candidate materials for the conductive layer, we evaluated the image contrast and the influence of the charging effect. In the cases of 40-pair ML, 16-nm-sized extrusion and intrusion defects were found to be detectable more than 10 sigma in half pitch 44, 40, and 32 nm line-and-space patterns. Reducing 40-pair ML to 20-pair ML degraded the image contrast and the defect detectability. However, by selecting B4C as a conductive layer, 16-nm-sized defects and etching residues remained detectable. The 16-nm-sized defects were also detected after the etched part was refilled with Si. A double-layer structure with 2.5-nm-thick B4C on metal film used as a conductive layer was found to have sufficient conductivity and also was found to be free from the surface charging effect and influence of native oxide.

  9. Spectral observations of the extreme ultraviolet astronomical background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labov, S.; Bowyer, S.

    1988-01-01

    Observations in the FUV and soft X-ray bands suggest that the ISM contains several components of high-temperature gas (100,000-1 million K). If large volumes of local interstellar space are filled with this hot plasma, emission lines will be produced in the EUV. Diffuse EUV radiation, however, has only been detected with photometric instruments; no spectral measurements exist below 520 A. A unique grazing-incidence spectrometer to study the diffuse emission between 80 and 650 A with resolution 10-30 A was successfully flown on a sounding rocket in April 1986, and a preliminary analysis reveals several features. In addition to the expected interplanetary He I 584 A emission and the geocoronal He II 304 A emission, other features appear which may orginate in the hot ionized interstellar gas.

  10. Second Topical Meeting on Laser Techniques in the Extreme Ultraviolet.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-10

    lasers. Cenfined Plasma Column, S. Suckewer, C. Keane, H. .-Milchborg, C. H. Skinner , and D. Voorhees, Plasma Physics-- 1&.30 AM COFFEE BREAK...and Cr) and carbon (2d = 150 ,) from 80 to 350 eV. Spectrometer configurations composed of variable-line-space IT. J. Watson Research Center, IBM...EUV Une I (Poster Paper) Intensities in Co,.-Laser-Produced Plasmas, C. H. Skinner , C. lent Generation of Tunable Radiation below 100 nm In Keane, H

  11. Polarimetry of extreme ultraviolet lines in solar astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fineschi, Silvano; Hoover, Richard B.; Fontenla, Juan M.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Ways are suggested in which recent advancements in the fabrication of ultrasmooth, low scatter flow-polished mirror substrates and high-quality multilayer and interference film coatings can be used to create novel optical instruments for observing linear-polarization effects in the outer solar atmosphere. Attention is given to the observational parameters of all-reflective FUV/EUV imaging polarimeters; such a coronagraph/polarimeter, operating at Ly-alpha, could yield the first measurements of coronal vector magnetic fields.

  12. Collecting EUV mask images through focus by wavelength tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Mochi, Iacopo; Huh, Sungmin

    2009-02-23

    Using an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) microscope to produce high-quality images of EUV reticles, we have developed a new wavelength tuning method to acquire through-focus data series with a higher level of stability and repeatability than was previously possible. We utilize the chromatic focal-length dependence of a diffractive Fresnel zoneplate objective lens, and while holding the mask sample mechanically still, we tune the wavelength through a narrow range, in small steps. In this paper, we demonstrate the method and discuss the relative advantages that this data collection technique affords.

  13. The Solar Chromosphere/Corona Interface. I. Far-Ultraviolet to Extreme-Ultraviolet Observations and Modeling of Unresolved Coronal Funnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez-Galarce, Dennis S.; Walker, Arthur C., III; Barbee, Troy W., II; Hoover, Richard B.

    2003-01-01

    A coronal funnel model, developed by D. Rabin, was tested against a calibrated spectroheliogram recorded in the 170-1 75 A bandpass. This image was recorded on board a sounding-rocket experiment flown on 1994 November 3, called the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array II (MSSTA II). MSSTA, a joint project of Stanford University, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory' is an observing platform composed of a set of normal-incidence, multilayer-coated optics designed to obtain narrow-bandpass, high-resolution images (1 sec.- 3 sec.) at selected far-ultraviolet (FUV), extreme-ultraviolet (EUV), and soft X-ray wavelengths (44-1550 A). Using full disk images centered at 1550 A (C IV) and 173 A (Fe IX/X), the funnel model, which is based on coronal back-heating, was tested against the data incorporating observed constraints on global coverage and measured flux. Found was a class of funnel models that could account for the quiescent, globally diffuse and unresolved emission seen in the 171-175 A bandpass, where the funnels are assumed to be rooted in the C IV supergranular network. These models, when incorporated with the CHIANTI spectral code, suggest that this emission is mostly of upper transition region origin and primarily composed of Fe IX plasma. The funnels are found to have constrictions, Gamma approx. 6-20, which is in good agreement with the observations. Further, the fitted models simultaneously satisfy global areal constraints seen in both images; namely,that a global network of funnels must cover approx. 700 - 95% of the total solar surface area seen in the 171-175 A image, and a 5% of the disk area seen in the 1550 A bandpass. These findings support the configuration of the EUV magnetic network as suggested by Reeves et al. and put forth in more detail by Gabriel. Furthermore, the models are in good agreement with differential emission measure estimates made of the transition region by J. C. Raymond & J. G

  14. Challenges in development and construction of stand-alone inspection, metrology, and calibration tools for EUV lithographic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, James H.; Houser, David C.; Latzke, Aaron T.; Perera, Rupert C. C.

    2009-12-01

    Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography is currently viewed as the most promising approach for reaching the 22 nm node in the manufacture of silicon devices. One of the principal challenges in the ongoing EUVL research effort is the development of necessary at-wavelength metrology tools. EUV Technology worlds leading manufacturer of EUV metrology tools manufactures custom instrumentation for the utilization and analysis of short wavelength electromagnetic radiation - soft x-rays and extreme ultraviolet (EUV). Our company has pioneered the development of several stand-alone inspection, metrology, and calibration tools for EUV lithographic applications that can be operated in a clean room environment on the floor of a fab. An overview of necessary metrology tools for EUV Lithography will be presented, along with the challenges in developing these tools in order to support the successful implementation of EUV Lithography for the 22nm node. In addition, a detailed description of the EUV metrology tools we have delivered, their long term performance and stability of these tools along with our plans for developing a Reflectometer to achieve the HVM requirements will be discussed.

  15. Fabrication of Thiol-Ene "Clickable" Copolymer-Brush Nanostructures on Polymeric Substrates via Extreme Ultraviolet Interference Lithography.

    PubMed

    Dübner, Matthias; Gevrek, Tugce N; Sanyal, Amitav; Spencer, Nicholas D; Padeste, Celestino

    2015-06-03

    We demonstrate a new approach to grafting thiol-reactive nanopatterned copolymer-brush structures on polymeric substrates by means of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) interference lithography. The copolymer brushes were designed to contain maleimide functional groups as thiol-reactive centers. Fluoropolymer films were exposed to EUV radiation at the X-ray interference lithography beamline (XIL-II) at the Swiss Light Source, in order to create radical patterns on their surfaces. The radicals served as initiators for the copolymerization of thiol-ene "clickable" brushes, composed of a furan-protected maleimide monomer (FuMaMA) and different methacrylates, namely, methyl methacrylate (MMA), ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (EGMA), or poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA). Copolymerization with ethylene-glycol-containing monomers provides antibiofouling properties to these surfaces. The number of reactive centers on the grafted brush structures can be tailored by varying the monomer ratios in the feed. Grafted copolymers were characterized by using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The reactive maleimide methacrylate (MaMA) units were utilized to conjugate thiol-containing moieties using the nucleophilic Michael-addition reaction, which proceeds at room temperature without the need for any metal-based catalyst. Using this approach, a variety of functionalities was introduced to yield polyelectrolytes, as well as fluorescent and light-responsive polymer-brush structures. Functionalization of the brush structures was demonstrated via ATR-IR and UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy, and was also indicated by a color switch. Furthermore, grafted surfaces were generated via plasma activation, showing a strongly increased wettability for polyelectrolytes and a reversible switch in static water contact angle (CA) of up to 18° for P(EGMA-co-MaMA-SP) brushes, upon exposure to alternating visible and UV-light irradiation.

  16. Absolute, Extreme-Ultraviolet Solar Spectral Irradiance Monitor (AESSIM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    4 SUN SUN (xO.2) Neon Argon Lexan Tin 0.5 0 Helium Krypton Aluminum Inoium C Carbon 0.5 0 E Helium Xenon Titanium Indium -0.5 0 Neon Nitric Oxide Tin...required, and some concepts for solar EUV monitoring missions. 3. ACTIVITIES 3.1 Low-Power AESSIM Calibration lamp A portable secondary ’standard’ of...the Harvard College Observatory (HCO) and then tested at PTB and HCO. We tested the lamp in laboratory optical systems that had been modified to allow

  17. Time-resolved study of the extreme-ultraviolet emission and plasma dynamics of a sub-Joule, fast capillary discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, J. C.; Wyndham, E. S.; Favre, M.

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we discuss experimental observations on the dynamics of a fast, low energy capillary discharge when operated in argon and its properties as an intense source of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. The discharge pre-ionization and self-triggering were accomplished by the use of the hollow cathode effect. This allowed a compact size and low inductance discharge with multi-kA current level and a quarter-period of ˜10 ns at sub-Joule energy level. We used the novel moiré and schlieren diagnostics with a 12 ps laser to obtain the time evolution of the line electron density and to study the plasma dynamics. EUV spectroscopy and filtered diodes were also implemented to estimate the plasma temperature and density throughout the evolution of the discharge. EUV source size was measured by using a filtered slit-wire camera. We observed that EUV emission starts from a compressed plasma on axis during the second quarter-period of the current and continues until the fifth quarter-period. Ionization levels from Ar VII to X were observed. By comparing the EUV emission spectra with synthetic spectra, we found that at the onset of emission (˜7 ns), the plasma is well fitted by a single Maxwellian electron distribution function with Te ˜ 12 eV and ne ˜ 1017 cm-3. Close to peak emission (˜13 ns), plasma temperature and density increase to ˜20 eV and ne ˜ 1018 cm-3, respectively. However, in order to successfully match the experimental data, a two component electron distribution function was necessary. Later in time, a smaller fraction in the high energy component and higher temperature suggests homogenization of the plasma. The moiré and schlieren diagnostics showed multiple radial compression-waves merging on axis throughout the discharge; they are an important heating mechanism that leads to a period of severe turbulence at peak EUV emission. It was also observed that emission ceases when the axial maximum of the electron density collapses.

  18. Time-resolved study of the extreme-ultraviolet emission and plasma dynamics of a sub-Joule, fast capillary discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Valenzuela, J. C.; Wyndham, E. S.; Favre, M.

    2015-08-15

    In this work, we discuss experimental observations on the dynamics of a fast, low energy capillary discharge when operated in argon and its properties as an intense source of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. The discharge pre-ionization and self-triggering were accomplished by the use of the hollow cathode effect. This allowed a compact size and low inductance discharge with multi-kA current level and a quarter-period of ∼10 ns at sub-Joule energy level. We used the novel moiré and schlieren diagnostics with a 12 ps laser to obtain the time evolution of the line electron density and to study the plasma dynamics. EUV spectroscopy and filtered diodes were also implemented to estimate the plasma temperature and density throughout the evolution of the discharge. EUV source size was measured by using a filtered slit-wire camera. We observed that EUV emission starts from a compressed plasma on axis during the second quarter-period of the current and continues until the fifth quarter-period. Ionization levels from Ar VII to X were observed. By comparing the EUV emission spectra with synthetic spectra, we found that at the onset of emission (∼7 ns), the plasma is well fitted by a single Maxwellian electron distribution function with T{sub e} ∼ 12 eV and n{sub e} ∼ 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3}. Close to peak emission (∼13 ns), plasma temperature and density increase to ∼20 eV and n{sub e} ∼ 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}, respectively. However, in order to successfully match the experimental data, a two component electron distribution function was necessary. Later in time, a smaller fraction in the high energy component and higher temperature suggests homogenization of the plasma. The moiré and schlieren diagnostics showed multiple radial compression-waves merging on axis throughout the discharge; they are an important heating mechanism that leads to a period of severe turbulence at peak EUV emission. It was also observed that emission

  19. Extreme solar EUV flares and ICMEs and resultant extreme ionospheric effects: Comparison of the Halloween 2003 and the Bastille Day events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Fuller-Rowell, T.; Mannucci, A. J.; Iijima, B.; Gonzalez, W. D.; Judge, D. L.; Gangopadhyay, P.; Saito, A.; Tsuda, T.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Zambon, G. A.

    2006-06-01

    Extreme solar flares can cause extreme ionospheric effects. The 28 October 2003 flare caused a ~25 total electron content units (TECU = 1016 el/m2 column density), or a ~30%, increase in the local noon equatorial ionospheric column density. The rise in the TEC enhancement occurred in ~5 min. This TEC increase was ~5 times the TEC increases detected for the 29 October and the 4 November 2003 flares and the 14 July 2000 (Bastille Day) flare. In the 260-340 Å EUV wavelength range, the 28 October flare peak count rate was more than twice as large as for the other three flares. Another strong ionospheric effect is the delayed influence of the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) electric fields on the ionosphere. For the 28 and 29 October flares, the associated ICMEs propagated from the Sun to the Earth at particularly high speeds. The prompt penetration of the interplanetary electric fields (IEFs) caused the dayside near-equatorial ionosphere to be strongly uplifted by E × B convection. Consequential diffusion of the uplifted plasma down the Earth's magnetic field lines to higher magnetic latitudes is a major plasma transport process during these IEF (superstorm) events. Such diffusion should lead to inverted midlatitude ionospheres (oxygen ions at higher altitudes than protons). The energy input into the midlatitude ionospheres by this superfountain phenomenon could lead to local dayside midlatitude disturbance dynamos, features which cannot propagate from the nightside auroral zones.

  20. The Variability and Spectrum of NGC 4051 from Deep, Simultaneous EUVE and XTE Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fruscione, Antonella; Cagnoni, Ilaria; Papadakis, Iossif; McHardy, Ian

    1998-01-01

    We present timing and spectral analysis of the data collected by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite (EUVE) for the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051 during 1996. NGC 4051 was observed twice in May 1996 and again in December 1996 for a total of more than 200 ksec. The observations were always simultaneous with hard X-ray observations conducted with the X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE). The EUVE light curves are extremely variable during each observation, with the maximum variability during May 1996 when we registered changes by a factor of 21 over 8 hours and more than a factor of 24 variations from peak to minimum. We detected signal in the EUVE spectrograph in the 75-100 Arange which is well fitted by absorbed power law models. We will illustrate the results of our spectral and detailed power spectrum analysis for the simultaneous EUVE and XTE spectra and light curves and discuss the consequences on possible emission mechanisms.

  1. ULTRAVIOLET AND EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET EMISSIONS AT THE FLARE FOOTPOINTS OBSERVED BY ATMOSPHERE IMAGING ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Jiong; Longcope, Dana W.; Liu Wenjuan; Sturrock, Zoe; Klimchuk, James A.

    2013-09-01

    A solar flare is composed of impulsive energy release events by magnetic reconnection, which forms and heats flare loops. Recent studies have revealed a two-phase evolution pattern of UV 1600 A emission at the feet of these loops: a rapid pulse lasting for a few seconds to a few minutes, followed by a gradual decay on timescales of a few tens of minutes. Multiple band EUV observations by the Atmosphere Imaging Assembly further reveal very similar signatures. These two phases represent different but related signatures of an impulsive energy release in the corona. The rapid pulse is an immediate response of the lower atmosphere to an intense thermal conduction flux resulting from the sudden heating of the corona to high temperatures (we rule out energetic particles due to a lack of significant hard X-ray emission). The gradual phase is associated with the cooling of hot plasma that has been evaporated into the corona. The observed footpoint emission is again powered by thermal conduction (and enthalpy), but now during a period when approximate steady-state conditions are established in the loop. UV and EUV light curves of individual pixels may therefore be separated into contributions from two distinct physical mechanisms to shed light on the nature of energy transport in a flare. We demonstrate this technique using coordinated, spatially resolved observations of UV and EUV emissions from the footpoints of a C3.2 thermal flare.

  2. Ultraviolet and Extreme-Ultraviolet Emissions at the Flare Footpoints Observed by Atmosphere Imaging Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Jiong; Sturrock, Zoe; Longcope, Dana W.; Klimchuk, James A.; Liu, Wen-Juan

    2013-01-01

    A solar flare is composed of impulsive energy release events by magnetic reconnection, which forms and heats flare loops. Recent studies have revealed a two-phase evolution pattern of UV 1600 A emission at the feet of these loops: a rapid pulse lasting for a few seconds to a few minutes, followed by a gradual decay on timescales of a few tens of minutes. Multiple band EUV observations by the Atmosphere Imaging Assembly further reveal very similar signatures. These two phases represent different but related signatures of an impulsive energy release in the corona. The rapid pulse is an immediate response of the lower atmosphere to an intense thermal conduction flux resulting from the sudden heating of the corona to high temperatures (we rule out energetic particles due to a lack of significant hard X-ray emission). The gradual phase is associated with the cooling of hot plasma that has been evaporated into the corona. The observed footpoint emission is again powered by thermal conduction (and enthalpy), but now during a period when approximate steady-state conditions are established in the loop. UV and EUV light curves of individual pixels may therefore be separated into contributions from two distinct physical mechanisms to shed light on the nature of energy transport in a flare.We demonstrate this technique using coordinated, spatially resolved observations of UV and EUV emissions from the footpoints of a C3.2 thermal flare.

  3. Corner Rounding in Photoresists for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Christopher N.; Naulleau, Patrick; Deng, Yunfei; Wallow, Thomas

    2008-06-01

    Deprotection blur in EUV resists fundamentally limits the smallest sized dense features that can be patterned in a single exposure and development step. Several metrics have recently been developed to explore the ways that different resist and process parameters affect the deprotection blur in EUV resists. One of these metrics is based on the imaging fidelity of a sharp corner on a large feature. As this metric has involved the close inspection of printing fidelity of corner features, it has brought attention to an interesting phenomena: corners print differently whether or not the remaining resist edge contains 270 degrees of resist or 90 degrees of resist. Here we present experimental data across a wide sampling of leading resists to show this effect is real and reproducible. They provide aerial image modeling results assuming thin and realistic mask models that show no corner bias between the aerial images in the 90-degree and 270-degree configurations. They also compare modeled patterning results assuming several resist models including the single blur, dual blur, and Prolith models, none of which reproduce the corner biasing that is observed experimentally.

  4. Angular distribution of ions and extreme ultraviolet emission in laser-produced tin droplet plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hong; Duan, Lian; Lan, Hui; Wang, Xinbing Chen, Ziqi; Zuo, Duluo; Lu, Peixiang

    2015-05-21

    Angular-resolved ion time-of-flight spectra as well as extreme ultraviolet radiation in laser-produced tin droplet plasma are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Tin droplets with a diameter of 150 μm are irradiated by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The ion time-of-flight spectra measured from the plasma formed by laser irradiation of the tin droplets are interpreted in terms of a theoretical elliptical Druyvesteyn distribution to deduce ion density distributions including kinetic temperatures of the plasma. The opacity of the plasma for extreme ultraviolet radiation is calculated based on the deduced ion densities and temperatures, and the angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is expressed as a function of the opacity using the Beer–Lambert law. Our results show that the calculated angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

  5. A search for EUV emission from cataclysmic variables

    SciTech Connect

    Polidan, R.S.; Mauche, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    Voyager far- and extreme-ultraviolet (500--1200 /angstrom/) spectrophotometric observations of five cataclysmic variables (the dwarf novae SS Cyg and VW Hyi and the novalike variables V3885 Sgr, RW Sex, and IX Vel) are combined with neutral hydrogen column densities derived from the curve-of-growth analysis of interstellar absorption lines in high-resolution IUE spectra to place upper limits on the emitted flux in the 600--700 /angstrom/ EUV band. No EUV emission was observed in any of the five cataclysmic variables. Relatively high neutral hydrogen column densities (> 10/sup 19/ cm/sup /minus/2/) in SS Cyg, V3885 Sgr, RW Sex, and IX Vel preclude any discussion of their intrinsic EUV emission. For VW Hyi, the low neutral hydrogen column, and excellent Voyager data place severe upper limits on the intrinsic EUV flux of this cataclysmic variable. The derived EUV limits for VW Hyi are compared to predictions from various models and Voyager observations of EUV emission from nearby hot white dwarfs. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. EUV induced low temperature SF6-based plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Skrzeczanowski, W.; Jarocki, R.; Fok, T.; Węgrzyński, Ł.

    2016-03-01

    In this work spectral investigations of low temperature F-rich photoionized plasmas were performed. The photoionized plasmas were created by irradiation of SF6 gas with intense EUV (extreme ultraviolet) radiation pulses. Two laser plasma EUV sources of different parameters used in the experiments were based on 0.8 J /4ns and 10 J/ 10 ns Nd:YAG lasers respectively. Both sources operated at 10 Hz repetition rate. The EUV radiation was focused using a dedicated reflective collector onto the gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV pulses. Irradiation of the SF6 gas resulted in dissociative ionization of the molecules, leading to creation of SFn+ ions and fluorine atoms. Further photo- or electron impact ionization and excitation processes allow for formation of photoionized plasmas emitting radiation in the wide spectral range. Emission spectra were measured in the EUV and optical ranges. The EUV spectra contained multiple spectral lines, originating from F II, F III and S II ions. The UV/VIS spectra were composed of spectral lines corresponding to radiative transitions in F II, F I and S II species. A computer simulation of the F II spectrum was performed using a collisional-radiative PrismSPECT code. Parameters of the photoionized plasmas were estimated by fitting the spectrum obtained from the simulations to the experimental one. Apart from that, the electron temperature was estimated employing Boltzmann plots based on the UV/VIS spectrum.

  7. What can We Learn about Solar Coronal Mass Ejections, Coronal Dimmings, and Extreme-ultraviolet Jets through Spectroscopic Observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Hui; McIntosh, Scott W.; Xia, Lidong; He, Jiansen; Wang, Xin

    2012-04-01

    Solar eruptions, particularly coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) jets, have rarely been investigated with spectroscopic observations. We analyze several data sets obtained by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode and find various types of flows during CMEs and jet eruptions. CME-induced dimming regions are found to be characterized by significant blueshift and enhanced line width by using a single Gaussian fit, while a red-blue (RB) asymmetry analysis and an RB-guided double Gaussian fit of the coronal line profiles indicate that these are likely caused by the superposition of a strong background emission component and a relatively weak (~10%), high-speed (~100 km s-1) upflow component. This finding suggests that the outflow velocity in the dimming region is probably of the order of 100 km s-1, not ~20 km s-1 as reported previously. These weak, high-speed outflows may provide a significant amount of mass to refill the corona after the eruption of CMEs, and part of them may experience further acceleration and eventually become solar wind streams that can serve as an additional momentum source of the associated CMEs. Density and temperature diagnostics of the dimming region suggest that dimming is primarily an effect of density decrease rather than temperature change. The mass losses in dimming regions as estimated from different methods are roughly consistent with each other, and they are 20%-60% of the masses of the associated CMEs. With the guide of RB asymmetry analysis, we also find several temperature-dependent outflows (speed increases with temperature) immediately outside the (deepest) dimming region. These outflows may be evaporation flows that are caused by the enhanced thermal conduction or nonthermal electron beams along reconnecting field lines, or induced by the interaction between the opened field lines in the dimming region and the closed loops in the surrounding plage region. In an erupted CME loop and an EUV jet

  8. EUV micropatterning for biocompatibility control of PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisinger, B.; Fahrner, M.; Frischauf, I.; Yakunin, S.; Svorcik, V.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A.; Romanin, C.; Heitz, J.

    2010-08-01

    We have investigated the influence of oriented microstructures at modified polyethylene terephthalate (PET) on the adhesion and alignment of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. For surface modification, the PET foils were exposed to the radiation of a laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source based on a double-stream gas-puff target. The emission of the plasma was focused onto the samples by means of a gold-plated ellipsoidal collector. The spectrum of the focused radiation covered the wavelength range from 9 to 70 nm. The PET samples were irradiated with the EUV pulses at a repetition rate of 10 Hz in a high vacuum. For control experiments, PET samples were also irradiated in air with the light of a 193 nm ArF-excimer laser. Different kinds of surface microstructures were obtained depending on the EUV or laser fluence and pulse number, including oriented wall- and ripple-type structures with lateral structure periods of a few µm. The surface morphology of polymer samples after the irradiation was investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Changes in chemical surface structure of the irradiated samples were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We demonstrated that the cells show good adhesion and align along oriented wall- and ripple-type microstructures on PET surfaces produced by the EUV irradiation.

  9. Plasma-based EUV light source

    DOEpatents

    Shumlak, Uri; Golingo, Raymond; Nelson, Brian A.

    2010-11-02

    Various mechanisms are provided relating to plasma-based light source that may be used for lithography as well as other applications. For example, a device is disclosed for producing extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light based on a sheared plasma flow. The device can produce a plasma pinch that can last several orders of magnitude longer than what is typically sustained in a Z-pinch, thus enabling the device to provide more power output than what has been hitherto predicted in theory or attained in practice. Such power output may be used in a lithography system for manufacturing integrated circuits, enabling the use of EUV wavelengths on the order of about 13.5 nm. Lastly, the process of manufacturing such a plasma pinch is discussed, where the process includes providing a sheared flow of plasma in order to stabilize it for long periods of time.

  10. Contamination Effects on EUV Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tveekrem, J.

    1999-01-01

    During ground-based assembly and upon exposure to the space environment, optical surfaces accumulate both particles and molecular condensibles, inevitably resulting in degradation of optical instrument performance. Currently, this performance degradation (and the resulting end-of-life instrument performance) cannot be predicted with sufficient accuracy using existing software tools. Optical design codes exist to calculate instrument performance, but these codes generally assume uncontaminated optical surfaces. Contamination models exist which predict approximate end-of-life contamination levels, but the optical effects of these contamination levels can not be quantified without detailed information about the optical constants and scattering properties of the contaminant. The problem is particularly pronounced in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV, 300-1,200 A) and far (FUV, 1,200-2,000 A) regimes due to a lack of data and a lack of knowledge of the detailed physical and chemical processes involved. Yet it is in precisely these wavelength regimes that accurate predictions are most important, because EUV/FUV instruments are extremely sensitive to contamination.

  11. Extreme-ultraviolet observations of global coronal wave rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Attrill, G. D. R.; Long, D. M.; Green, L. M.; Harra, L. K.; Van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.

    2014-11-20

    We present evidence of global coronal wave rotation in EUV data from SOHO/EIT, STEREO/EUVI, and SDO/AIA. The sense of rotation is found to be consistent with the helicity of the source region (clockwise for positive helicity, anticlockwise for negative helicity), with the source regions hosting sigmoidal structures. We also study two coronal wave events observed by SDO/AIA where no clear rotation (or sigmoid) is observed. The selected events show supporting evidence that they all originate with flux rope eruptions. We make comparisons across this set of observations (both with and without clear sigmoidal structures). On examining the magnetic configuration of the source regions, we find that the nonrotation events possess a quadrupolar magnetic configuration. The coronal waves that do show a rotation originate from bipolar source regions.

  12. A 3-D numerical study of pinhole diffraction to predict the accuracy of EUV point diffraction interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, K.A. |; Tejnil, E.; Bokor, J. |

    1995-12-01

    A 3-D electromagnetic field simulation is used to model the propagation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV), 13-nm, light through sub-1500 {Angstrom} dia pinholes in a highly absorptive medium. Deviations of the diffracted wavefront phase from an ideal sphere are studied within 0.1 numerical aperture, to predict the accuracy of EUV point diffraction interferometersused in at-wavelength testing of nearly diffraction-limited EUV optical systems. Aberration magnitudes are studied for various 3-D pinhole models, including cylindrical and conical pinhole bores.

  13. Physical processes in EUV sources for microlithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banine, V. Y.; Koshelev, K. N.; Swinkels, G. H. P. M.

    2011-06-01

    The source is an integral part of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) tool. Such a source, as well as the EUVL tool, has to fulfil very high demands both technical and cost oriented. The EUVL tool operates at a wavelength of 13.5 nm, which requires the following new developments. The light production mechanism changes from conventional lamps and lasers to relatively high-temperature emitting plasmas. The light transport, mainly refractive for deep ultraviolet (DUV), should be reflective for EUV. The source specifications as derived from the customer requirements on wafer throughput mean that the output EUV source power has to be hundreds of watts. This in its turn means that tens to hundreds of kilowatts of dissipated power has to be managed in a relatively small volume. In order to keep lithography costs as low as possible, the lifetime of the components should be as long as possible and at least of the order of thousands of hours. This poses a challenge for the sources, namely how to design and manufacture components robust enough to withstand the intense environment of high heat dissipation, flows of several keV ions as well as the atomic and particular debris within the source vessel. As with all lithography tools, the imaging requirements demand a narrow illumination bandwidth. Absorption of materials at EUV wavelengths is extreme with extinguishing lengths of the order of tens of nanometres, so the balance between high transmission and spectral purity requires careful engineering. All together, EUV lithography sources present technological challenges in various fields of physics such as plasma, optics and material science. These challenges are being tackled by the source manufacturers and investigated extensively in the research facilities around the world. An overview of the published results on the topic as well as the analyses of the physical processes behind the proposed solutions will be presented in this paper.

  14. Sub-10 nm patterning using EUV interference lithography.

    PubMed

    Päivänranta, Birgit; Langner, Andreas; Kirk, Eugenie; David, Christian; Ekinci, Yasin

    2011-09-16

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is currently considered as the leading technology for high-volume manufacturing below sub-20 nm feature sizes. In parallel, EUV interference lithography based on interference transmission gratings has emerged as a powerful tool for industrial and academic research. In this paper, we demonstrate nanopatterning with sub-10 nm resolution using this technique. Highly efficient and optimized molybdenum gratings result in resolved line/space patterns down to 8 nm half-pitch and show modulation down to 6 nm half-pitch. These results show the performance of optical nanopatterning in the sub-10 nm range and currently mark the record for photon-based lithography. Moreover, an efficient phase mask completely suppressing the zeroth-order diffraction and providing 50 nm line/space patterns over large areas is evaluated. Such efficient phase masks pave the way towards table-top EUV interference lithography systems.

  15. Calibration of the Berkeley EUV Airglow Rocket Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotton, Daniel M.; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Siegmund, Oswald

    1989-01-01

    The Berkeley Extreme-ultraviolet Airglow Rocket Spectrometer (BEARS), a multiinstrument sounding rocket payload, made comprehensive measurements of the earth's dayglow. The primary instruments consisted of two near-normal Rowland mount spectrometers: one channel to measure several atomic oxygen features at high spectral resolution (about 1.5 A) in the band passes 980-1040 and 1300-1360 A, and the other to measure EUV dayglow and the solar EUV simultaneously in a much broader bandpass (250-1150 A) at moderate resolution (about 10 A). The payload also included a hydrogen Lyman-alpha photometer to monitor the solar irradiance and goecoronal emissions. The instrument was calibrated at the EUV calibration facility at the University of California at Berkeley, and was subsequently launched successfully on September 30, 1988 aboard a four-stage experimental sounding rocket, Black Brant XII flight 12.041 WT. The calibration procedure and resulting data are presented.

  16. Scatterometry evaluation of focus-dose effects of EUV structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasari, Prasad; Kritsun, Oleg; Li, Jie; Volkman, Catherine; Hu, Jiangtao; Liu, Zhuan

    2013-04-01

    CD and shape control of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) structures is critical to ensure patterning performance at the 10 nm technology node and beyond. The optimum focus/dose control by EUV scanner is critical for CD uniformity, and the scanner depends on reliable and rapid metrology feedback to maintain control. The latest advances in scatterometry such as ellipsometry (SE), reflectometry (NISR), and Mueller matrix (MM) offers complete pattern profile, critical dimensions (CD), side-wall angles, and dimensional characterization. In this study, we will present the evaluation results of CD uniformity and focus dose sensitivity of line and space EUV structures at the limit of current ASML NXE 3100 scanner printability and complex 3D EUV structures. The results will include static and dynamic precision and CD-SEM correlation data.

  17. The design of an echelle spectrometer for diffuse extreme ultraviolet/far ultraviolet astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Christopher

    1986-01-01

    The novel, relatively high-resolution nebular spectrometer design presented incorporates a mechanical precollimator with an objective echelle grating that proceeds to a cross-dispensing Wadsworth configuration; the minimum feasible number of reflections is employed in order to maximize EUV sensitivity. The configuration, which is noted to be capable of yielding a comparatively large field of view for optimal diffuse emission sensitivity, is compact and employs conventionally fabricated optical components and available microchannel plate detectors. The sensitivities obtainable approach the limit stipulated by Liouville's theorem.

  18. Novel ultra-high sensitive 'metal resist' for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimori, Toru; Tsuchihashi, Toru; Minegishi, Shinya; Kamizono, Takashi; Itani, Toshiro

    2016-03-01

    This study describes the use of a novel ultra-high sensitive `metal resist' for use in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. Herein, the development of a metal resist has been studied for improving the sensitivity when using metal-containing non-chemically amplified resist materials; such materials are metal-containing organic-inorganic hybrid compounds and are referred to as EUVL Infrastructure Development Center, Inc. (EIDEC) standard metal EUV resist (ESMR). The novel metal resist's ultra-high sensitivity has previously been investigated for use with electron beam (EB) lithography. The first demonstration of ESMR performance was presented in SPIE2015, where it was shown to achieve 17-nm lines with 1.5 mJ/cm2: equivalent in EUV lithography tool. The sensitivity of ESMR using EUV open-flame exposure was also observed to have the same high sensitivity as that when using EB lithography tool. Therefore, ESMR has been confirmed to have the potential of being used as an ultra-high sensitive EUV resist material. The metal-containing organic-inorganic hybrid compounds and the resist formulations were investigated by measuring their sensitivity and line-width roughness (LWR) improvement. Furthermore, new processing conditions, such as new development and rinse procedures, are an extremely effective way of improving lithographic performance. In addition, the optimal dry-etching selective conditions between the metal resist and spin-on carbon (SOC) were obtained. The etched SOC pattern was successfully constructed from a stacked film of metal resist and SOC.

  19. High-brightness laser-induced EUV source based on tin plasma with an unlimited lifetime of electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Vinokhodov, A Yu; Lash, A A; Krivtsun, V M; Koshelev, K N; Borisov, V M; Yakushev, O F

    2016-01-31

    Characteristics of a source of laser-induced radiation in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) range, obtained in a discharge between two jets of liquid tin, are investigated. The possibility of designing a high-brightness EUV source on this basis for employing in mask inspection techniques in projection EUV lithography is demonstrated. The average efficiency of converting the electric energy to radiation in the spectral range of 13.5 ± 0.135 nm is approximately 2%/2π sr with the size of emitting plasma 0.2 ± 0.35 mm. The possibility of producing a EUV source with a brightness of about 200 W (mm{sup 2} sr){sup -1} is demonstrated. (euv lithography sources)

  20. The Origin of the EUV Emission in Her X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, D. A.; Marshall, H.

    1999-01-01

    Her X-1 exhibits a strong orbital modulation of its EUV (Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation) flux with a large decrease around time of eclipse of the neutron star, and a significant dip which appears at different orbital phases at different 35-day phases. We consider observations of Her X-1 in the EUVE by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), which includes data from 1995 near the end of the Short High state, and date from 1997 at the start of the Short High state. The observed EUV lightcurve has bright and faint phases. The bright phase can be explained as the low energy tail of the soft x-ray pulse. The faint phase emission has been modeled to understand its origin. We find: the x-ray heated surface of HZ Her is too cool to produce enough emission; the accretion disk does not explain the orbital modulation; however, reflection of x-rays off of HZ Her can produce the observed lightcurve with orbital eclipses. The dip can be explained by shadowing of the companion by the accretion disk. We discuss the constraints on the accretion disk geometry derived from the observed shadowing.

  1. Spectroscopy of the extreme-ultraviolet source Feige 24 - The binary orbit and the mass of the white dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorstensen, J. R.; Charles, P. A.; Bowyer, S.; Margon, B.

    1978-01-01

    Results are reported for coude spectroscopy of the extreme-ultraviolet white dwarf Feige 24. Radial velocities of the H-alpha, He I 5876-A, and He I 6678-A emission lines, and the underlying M-dwarf absorption features, were determined from spectrograms obtained with the Lick 3-m telescope. The velocities show a binary period of 4.239(+ or - 0.0015) days. The emission-line and absorption-line velocities agree in phase, which indicates that the emission lines originate in the atmosphere of the M-dwarf secondary as a result of reprocessing of the EUV radiation. This effect is modeled, and the observed amplitude of the emission-line variability is used to place a lower limit on the orbital inclination. From these and other data it is shown that the mass of the white dwarf lies between 0.46 and 1.24 solar masses. Some possible implications for the evolution of binary stars are briefly discussed.

  2. Characterization of carbon contamination under ion and hot atom bombardment in a tin-plasma extreme ultraviolet light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgov, A.; Lopaev, D.; Lee, C. J.; Zoethout, E.; Medvedev, V.; Yakushev, O.; Bijkerk, F.

    2015-10-01

    Molecular contamination of a grazing incidence collector for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography was experimentally studied. A carbon film was found to have grown under irradiation from a pulsed tin plasma discharge. Our studies show that the film is chemically inert and has characteristics that are typical for a hydrogenated amorphous carbon film. It was experimentally observed that the film consists of carbon (∼70 at.%), oxygen (∼20 at.%) and hydrogen (bound to oxygen and carbon), along with a few at.% of tin. Most of the oxygen and hydrogen are most likely present as OH groups, chemically bound to carbon, indicating an important role for adsorbed water during the film formation process. It was observed that the film is predominantly sp3 hybridized carbon, as is typical for diamond-like carbon. The Raman spectra of the film, under 514 and 264 nm excitation, are typical for hydrogenated diamond-like carbon. Additionally, the lower etch rate and higher energy threshold in chemical ion sputtering in H2 plasma, compared to magnetron-sputtered carbon films, suggests that the film exhibits diamond-like carbon properties.

  3. Enhanced defect detection capability using learning system for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask inspection tool with projection electron microscope optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Ryoichi; Hatakeyama, Masahiro; Terao, Kenji; Watanabe, Hidehiro

    2016-04-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) patterned mask defect detection is a major issue that must be addressed to realize EUVL-based device fabrication. We have designed projection electron microscope (PEM) optics for integration into a mask inspection system, and the resulting PEM system performs well in half-pitch (hp) 16-nm-node EUVL patterned mask inspection applications. A learning system has been used in this PEM patterned mask inspection tool. The PEM identifies defects using the "defectivity" parameter that is derived from the acquired image characteristics. The learning system has been developed to reduce the labor and the costs associated with adjustment of the PEM's detection capabilities to cope with newly defined mask defects. The concepts behind this learning system and the parameter optimization flow are presented here. The learning system for the PEM is based on a library of registered defects. The learning system then optimizes the detection capability by reconciling previously registered defects with newly registered defects. Functional verification of the learning system is also described, and the system's detection capability is demonstrated by applying it to the inspection of hp 11-nm EUV masks. We can thus provide a user-friendly mask inspection system with reduced cost of ownership.

  4. Extreme ultraviolet patterned mask inspection performance of advanced projection electron microscope system for 11nm half-pitch generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Ryoichi; Iida, Susumu; Amano, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Hatakeyama, Masahiro; Murakami, Takeshi; Suematsu, Kenichi; Terao, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    Novel projection electron microscope optics have been developed and integrated into a new inspection system named EBEYE-V30 ("Model EBEYE" is an EBARA's model code) , and the resulting system shows promise for application to half-pitch (hp) 16-nm node extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) patterned mask inspection. To improve the system's inspection throughput for 11-nm hp generation defect detection, a new electron-sensitive area image sensor with a high-speed data processing unit, a bright and stable electron source, and an image capture area deflector that operates simultaneously with the mask scanning motion have been developed. A learning system has been used for the mask inspection tool to meet the requirements of hp 11-nm node EUV patterned mask inspection. Defects are identified by the projection electron microscope system using the "defectivity" from the characteristics of the acquired image. The learning system has been developed to reduce the labor and costs associated with adjustment of the detection capability to cope with newly-defined mask defects. We describe the integration of the developed elements into the inspection tool and the verification of the designed specification. We have also verified the effectiveness of the learning system, which shows enhanced detection capability for the hp 11-nm node.

  5. Effects of plasma spatial profile on conversion efficiency of laser produced plasma sources for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanein, A.; Sizyuk, V.; Sizyuk, T.; Harilal, S.

    2009-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography devices that use laser produced plasma (LPP), discharge produced plasma (DPP), and hybrid devices need to be optimized to achieve sufficient brightness with minimum debris generation to support the throughput requirements of High-Volume Manufacturing (HVM) lithography exposure tools with long lifetime. Source performance, debris mitigation, and reflector system are all critical to efficient EUV collection and component lifetime. Enhanced integrated models are continued to be developed using HEIGHTS computer package to simulate EUV emission at high power and debris generation and transport in multiple and colliding LPP. A new center for materials under extreme environments (CMUXE) is established to benchmark HEIGHTS models for various EUV related issues. The models being developed and enhanced include, for example, new ideas and parameters of multiple laser beams in different geometrical configurations and with different pre-pulses to maximize EUV production. Recent experimental and theoretical work show large influence of the hydrodynamic processes on EUV generation. The effect of plasma hydrodynamics evolution on the EUV radiation generation was analyzed for planar and spherical geometry of a tin target in LPP devices. The higher efficiency of planar target in comparison to the spherical geometry was explained with better hydrodynamic containment of the heated plasma. This is not the case if the plasma is slightly overheated. Recent experimental results of the conversion efficiency (CE) of LPP are in good agreement with HEIGHTS simulation.

  6. Effects of deprotonation efficiency of protected units on line edge roughness and stochastic defect generation in chemically amplified resist processes for 11 nm node of extreme ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Santillan, Julius Joseph; Itani, Toshiro

    2014-11-01

    The deprotonation of polymer radical cations plays an important role in the acid generation in chemically amplified resists upon exposure to ionizing radiation. In this study, the effects of the deprotonation efficiency of protected units of a resist polymer on line edge roughness (LER) and stochastic defect generation were investigated. The suppression of stochastic effects is essential for the realization of high-volume production of semiconductor devices with an 11 nm critical dimension using extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. By increasing the deprotonation efficiency, the chemical contrast (latent image quality) was improved; however, the protected unit number fluctuation did not significantly change. Consequently, LER and the probability of stochastic defect generation were reduced. This effect was prominent when the protection ratio was close to 100%.

  7. A particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo study of plasma-induced damage of normal incidence collector optics used in extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Wieggers, R. C.; Goedheer, W. J.; Akdim, M. R.; Bijkerk, F.; Zegeling, P. A.

    2008-01-01

    We present a kinetic simulation of the plasma formed by photoionization in the intense flux of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) light source. The model is based on the particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo approach. The photoelectric effect and ionization by electron collisions are included. The time evolution of the low density argon plasma is simulated during and after the EUV pulse and the ion-induced sputtering of the coating material of a normal incidence collector mirror is computed. The relation between the time and position at which the ions are created and their final energy is studied, revealing how the evolution and the properties of the sheath influence the amount of sputtered material. The influence of the gas pressure and the source intensity is studied, evaluating the behavior of Ar{sup +} and Ar{sup 2+} ions. A way to reduce the damage to the collector mirror is presented.

  8. LWR improvement in EUV resist process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Chawon; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Sumin; Na, Hai-Sub; Park, Chang-Min; Park, Cheolhong; Cho, Kyoung-Yong

    2011-04-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is the most effective way to print sub-30 nm features. The roughness of both the resist sidewall (line width roughness [LWR]) and resist top must be overcome soon for EUVL to be implemented. Currently, LWR can vary by about 1 nm according to the recipe used. We have characterized two promising techniques to improve LWR, an EUV rinse/TBAH process and an implant process, and demonstrated their efficacy. After cleaning inspection (ACI), LWR was improved with both the rinse and implant processes. After development inspection (ADI), LWR improved (0.12 nm, 2.4%) and ACI LWR improved (0.1 nm, 2.0% improvement) after using the EUV rinse process. ADI and ACI LWR improvement (0.45 nm, 9.1%, and 0.3 nm, 6.9%, respectively) was demonstrated with the EUV rinse/TBAH process. ADI LWR improvement (0.5 nm, 8.1%) and ACI LWR improvement (-0.5 nm, -16.9%) were characterized with the implant process. Critical dimension (CD) showed similar changes through pitch after the EUV rinse or TBAH process, but the degree of change depended on the initial pattern size giving CD difference of 2 nm between 30 nm HP and 50 nm HP after the implant process. For this technique, the dependence of CD change on pattern size must be minimized. Further extensive studies with rinse or implant are strongly encouraged for continued LWR improvement and real process implementation in EUVL. Demonstrating <2.2 nm LWR after pattern transfer is important in EUVL and needs to be pursued using various technical approaches. Initial resist LWR is important in assessing LWR improvements with additional process techniques. An initial EUV LWR < ~5.0 nm is required to properly assess the validity of the technique. Further study is required to improve ADI LWR and maintain better LWR after etch with advanced EUV rinse materials. Defects also need to be confirmed following the EUV rinse and TBAH developer. Further developing the implant process should focus on LWR improvement at low

  9. Molybdenum-silicon multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, T. W., Jr.; Mrowka, S.; Hetrick, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    Multilayer structures of molybdenum and silicon have been synthesized by sputter deposition onto flat silicon single-crystal silicon substrates and spherically ground (0.5and 22.0-m radii) fused silica substrates; and the reflectivities for 170.4-A (72.8-eV), 160.1-A (77.4-eV), and 228-A (54.4-eV) light measured at near normal incidence. Observed peak values ranged from 26.2 to 78 percent, the highest reflectivities occurring closest to normal incidence. Energy resolutions were about 10 in all cases. Model calculations were performed using optical constants and experimentally determined multilayer structural parameters. In all cases the measured reflectivities were equal to or larger (by up to a factor of 2) than the calculated values, a result attributed to uncertainty in the optical constants used in the calculations. Experimental and calculated angular-peak positions and energy resolutions were in good agreement. The high reflectivities of these molybdenum-silicon structures will make possible application of traditional optics approaches in the EUV and support new developments including free-electron lasers.

  10. Evaluation of photomask flatness compensation for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballman, Katherine; Lee, Christopher; Zimmerman, John; Dunn, Thomas; Bean, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    As the semiconductor industry continues to strive towards high volume manufacturing for EUV, flatness specifications for photomasks have decreased to below 10nm for 2018 production, however the current champion masks being produced report P-V flatness values of roughly 50nm. Write compensation presents the promising opportunity to mitigate pattern placement errors through the use of geometrically adjusted target patterns which counteract the reticle's flatness induced distortions and address the differences in chucking mechanisms between e-beam write and electrostatic clamping during scan. Compensation relies on high accuracy flatness data which provides the critical topographical components of the reticle to the write tool. Any errors included in the flatness data file are translated to the pattern during the write process, which has now driven flatness measurement tools to target a 6σ reproducibility <1nm. Using data collected from a 2011 Sematech study on the Alpha Demo Tool, the proposed methodology for write compensation is validated against printed wafer results. Topographic features which lack compensation capability must then be held to stringent specifications in order to limit their contributions to the final image placement error (IPE) at wafer. By understanding the capabilities and limitations of write compensation, it is then possible to shift flatness requirements towards the "non-correctable" portion of the reticle's profile, potentially relieving polishers from having to adhere to the current single digit flatness specifications.

  11. Mask substrate requirements and development for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL)

    SciTech Connect

    Hector, S D; Shell, M; Taylor, J S; Tong, W M

    1999-09-28

    The mask is deemed one of the areas that require significant research and development in EUVL. Silicon wafers will be used for mask substrates for an alpha-class EUVL exposure tool due to their low-defect levels and high quality surface finish. However, silicon has a large coefficient of thermal expansion that leads to unacceptable image distortion due to absorption of EUV light. A low thermal expansion glass or glass-ceramic is likely to be required in order to meet error budgets for the 70nm node and beyond. Since EUVL masks are used in reflection, they are coated with multilayers prior to patterning. Surface imperfections, such as polishing marks, particles, scratches, or digs, are potential nucleation sites for defects in the multilayer coating, which could result in the printed defects. Therefore we are accelerating developments in the defect reduction and surface finishing of low thermal expansion mask substrates in order to understand long-term issues in controlling printable defects, and to establish the infrastructure for supplying masks. In this paper, we explain the technical requirements for EUVL mask substrates and describe our efforts in establishing a SEMI standard for EUVL masks. We will also report on the early progress of our suppliers in producing low thermal-expansion mask substrates for our development activities.

  12. At-wavelength interferometry of high-NA diffraction-limited EUV optics

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Naulleau, Patrick; Rekawa, Senajith; Denham, Paul; Liddle, J. Alexander; Anderson, Erik; Jackson, Keith; Bokor, Jeffrey; Attwood, David

    2003-08-01

    Recent advances in all-reflective diffraction-limited optical systems designed for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography have pushed numerical aperture (NA) values from 0.1 to 0.3, providing Rayleigh resolutions of 27-nm. Worldwide, several high-NA EUV optics are being deployed to serve in the development of advanced lithographic techniques required for EUV lithography, including the creation and testing of new, high-resolution photoresists. One such system is installed on an undulator beamline at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source. Sub{angstrom}-accuracy optical testing and alignment techniques, developed for use with the previous generations of EUV lithographic optical systems, are being extended for use at high NA. Considerations for interferometer design and use are discussed.

  13. Study on RLS trade-off resist upgrade for production ready EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junghyung; Kim, Jieun; Jeong, Seunguk; Lim, Mijung; Koo, Sunyoung; Lim, Chang-Moon; Kim, Young-Sik

    2016-03-01

    Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) is the most promising technology as substitute for multiple patterning based on ArF immersion lithography. If enough productivity can be accomplished, EUV will take main role in the chip manufacturing. Since the introduction of NXE3300, many significant results have been achieved in source power and availability, but lots of improvements are still required in various aspects for the implementation of EUV lithography on high volume manufacturing. Among them, it is especially important to attain high sensitivity resist without degrading other resolution performance. In this paper, performances of various resists were evaluated with real device patterns on NXE3300 scanner and technical progress of up-to-date EUV resists will be shown by comparing with the performance of their predecessors. Finally the prospect of overcoming the triangular trade-off between sensitivity, resolution, line edge roughness (LER) and achieving high volume manufacturing will be discussed.

  14. EUV light source with high brightness at 13.5 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, V. M.; Koshelev, K. N.; Prokof'ev, A. V.; Khadzhiyskiy, F. Yu; Khristoforov, O. B.

    2014-11-01

    The results of the studies on the development of a highbrightness radiation source in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) range are presented. The source is intended for using in projection EUV lithography, EUV mask inspection, for the EUV metrology, etc. Novel approaches to creating a light source on the basis of Z-pinch in xenon allowed the maximal brightness [130 W(mm2 sr)-1] to be achieved in the vicinity of plasma for this type of radiation sources within the 2% spectral band centred at the wavelength of 13.5 nm that corresponds to the maximal reflection of multilayer Mo/Si mirrors. In this spectral band the radiation power achieves 190 W in the solid angle of 2π at a pulse repetition rate of 1.9 kHz and an electric power of 20 kW, injected into the discharge.

  15. EUV light source with high brightness at 13.5 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Borisov, V M; Prokof'ev, A V; Khristoforov, O B; Koshelev, K N; Khadzhiyskiy, F Yu

    2014-11-30

    The results of the studies on the development of a highbrightness radiation source in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) range are presented. The source is intended for using in projection EUV lithography, EUV mask inspection, for the EUV metrology, etc. Novel approaches to creating a light source on the basis of Z-pinch in xenon allowed the maximal brightness [130 W(mm{sup 2} sr){sup -1}] to be achieved in the vicinity of plasma for this type of radiation sources within the 2% spectral band centred at the wavelength of 13.5 nm that corresponds to the maximal reflection of multilayer Mo/Si mirrors. In this spectral band the radiation power achieves 190 W in the solid angle of 2π at a pulse repetition rate of 1.9 kHz and an electric power of 20 kW, injected into the discharge. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  16. Comparison of CD measurements of an EUV photomask by EUV scatterometry and CD-AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholze, Frank; Soltwisch, Victor; Dai, Gaoliang; Henn, Mark-Alexander; Gross, Hermann

    2013-09-01

    EUV scatterometry is a potential high-throughput measurement method for the characterization of EUV photomask structures. We present a comparison of angle resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) scatterometry and critical dimension atomic force microscope (CD-AFM) as a reference metrology for measurements of geometrical parameters like line width (CD), height and sidewall angle of EUV photomask structures. The structures investigated are dense and semidense bright and dark lines with different nominal CDs between 140 nm and 540 nm. The results show excellent linearity of the critical dimension measured with both methods within a range of only 1.8 nm and an offset of the absolute values below 3 nm. A maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method is used to reconstruct the shape parameters and to estimate their uncertainties from the measured scattering efficiencies. The newly developed CD-AFM at PTB allows versatile measurements of parameters such as height, CD, sidewall angle, line edge/width roughness, corner rounding, and pitch. It applies flared tips to probe steep and even undercut sidewalls and employs a new vector approaching probing (VAP) strategy which enables very low tip wear and high measurement flexibility. Its traceability is ensured by a set of calibrated step-height and reference CD standards.

  17. Laser triggered Z-pinch broadband extreme ultraviolet source for metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, I.; Lunney, J. G.; Juschkin, L.; Sidelnikov, Y.; O'Reilly, F.; Sokell, E.; Sheridan, P.

    2013-05-20

    We compare the extreme ultraviolet emission characteristics of tin and galinstan (atomic %: Ga: 78.35, In: 14.93, Sn: 6.72) between 10 nm and 18 nm in a laser-triggered discharge between liquid metal-coated electrodes. Over this wavelength range, the energy conversion efficiency for galinstan is approximately half that of tin, but the spectrum is less strongly peaked in the 13-15 nm region. The extreme ultraviolet source dimensions were 110 {+-} 25 {mu}m diameter and 500 {+-} 125 {mu}m length. The flatter spectrum, and -19 Degree-Sign C melting point, makes this galinstan discharge a relatively simple high radiance extreme ultraviolet light source for metrology and scientific applications.

  18. Fabrication of high-resolution zone plates with wideband extreme-ultraviolet holography

    SciTech Connect

    Solak, Harun H.; David, Christian; Gobrecht, Jens

    2004-10-04

    We report an achromatic holographic method to fabricate high-resolution x-ray optics using coherent extreme-ultraviolet radiation from an undulator source. The interference pattern between two spherical beams, which are created using Fresnel zone plates, is recorded to produce a higher-resolution zone plate. Analytical and simulation results showing the formation of the zone plate pattern was confirmed experimentally with the production and testing of a lens with 60-nm outermost zone width. The combination of extreme-ultraviolet light, which exposes photoresists with practically no proximity effect, and holography, which guarantees the accurate placement of zones, addresses the main difficulties faced in the improvement of the resolution of x-ray lenses. Holography with extreme-ultraviolet light has the potential to produce lenses with sub-10-nm resolution.

  19. [Theoretical analysis and experimental measurement for secondary electron yield of microchannel plate in extreme ultraviolet region].

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Ni, Qi-liang; Dong, Ning-ning; Chen, Bo

    2010-08-01

    Photon counting detectors based on microchannel plate have widespread applications in astronomy. The present paper deeply studies secondary electron of microchannel plate in extreme ultraviolet. A theoretical model describing extreme ultraviolet-excited secondary electron yield is presented, and the factor affecting on the secondary electron yields of both electrode and lead glass which consist of microchannel plate is analyzed according to theoretical formula derived from the model. The result shows that the higher secondary electron yield is obtained under appropriate condition that the thickness of material is more than 20 nm and the grazing incidence angle is larger than the critical angle. Except for several wavelengths, the secondary electron yields of both electrode and lead glass decrease along with the increase in the wavelength And also the quantum efficiency of microchannel plate is measured using quantum efficiency test set-up with laser-produced plasmas source as an extreme ultraviolet radiation source, and the result of experiment agrees with theoretical analysis.

  20. EUV variability experiment (EVE); multiple EUV grating spectrographs (MEGS), radiometric calibrations and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Hock, Rachel A.; Crotser, David A.; Eparvier, Francis G.; Furst, Mitch; Triplett, Matthew A.; Woodraska, Donald L.; Woods, Thomas N.

    2007-09-01

    The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), scheduled for launch in early 2009, incorporates a suite of instruments including the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE). Two channels of EVE, the Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph (MEGS) A and B channels use concave reflection gratings to image solar spectra onto CCDs to measure the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance from 5 to 105 nm. MEGS provides these spectra at 0.1nm spectral resolution every 10 seconds with an absolute accuracy of better than 25% over the SDO 5-year mission. The calibration of the MEGS channels in order to convert the instrument counts in to physical units of W/m2/nm was performed at the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility III (SURF III) located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Although the final post-environmental calibrations have yet to be performed, preliminary results from the pre-environmental calibrations show very good agreement with the theoretical optical design given by Crotser et al. Further analysis is still needed in regards to the higher order contributions to determine the final first order QT for all channels, but two techniques are currently being analyzed and show promising results.

  1. Developing an EUV multilayer adaptive mirror: the first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corso, Alain Jody; Bonora, Stefano; Zuppella, Paola; Baksh, Peter; Miszczak, Magdalena; Brocklesby, William; Wang, Zhanshan; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; Pelizzo, Maria Guglielmina

    2016-09-01

    The growing interest in the study of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation-matter interaction is feeding up the development of new technologies able to overcame some current technological limits. Adaptive optics is an established technology already widely used for wavefront correction in many applications such as astronomical telescopes, laser communications, high power laser systems, microscopy and high resolution imaging systems. Although this technology is already exploited in the EUV and X-ray range, its usage is only feasible in systems with a grazing incidence configuration. On the other hand, the development of a EUV normal incidence adaptive optics can open new interesting possibilities in many different fields ranging from free electron laser and synchrotron applications up to EUV photolithography. In this work we report the preliminary results achieved in the developing of a normal incidence EUV multilayered adaptive mirror tuned at 30.4nm. The proper functioning and potential applications of such device have been demonstrated by using a High order Harmonics Generation (HHG) source.

  2. Further investigation of EUV process sensitivities for wafer track processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradon, Neil; Nafus, K.; Shite, H.; Kitano, J.; Kosugi, H.; Goethals, M.; Cheng, S.; Hermans, J.; Hendrickx, E.; Baudemprez, B.; Van Den Heuvel, D.

    2010-04-01

    As Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography technology shows promising results below 40nm feature sizes, TOKYO ELECTRON LTD.(TEL) is committed to understanding the fundamentals needed to improve our technology, thereby enabling customers to meet roadmap expectations. TEL continues collaboration with imec for evaluation of Coater/Developer processing sensitivities using the ASML Alpha Demo Tool for EUV exposures. The results from the collaboration help develop the necessary hardware for EUV Coater/Developer processing. In previous work, processing sensitivities of the resist materials were investigated to determine the impact on critical dimension (CD) uniformity and defectivity. In this work, new promising resist materials have been studied and more information pertaining to EUV exposures was obtained. Specifically, post exposure bake (PEB) impact to CD is studied in addition to dissolution characteristics and resist material hydrophobicity. Additionally, initial results show the current status of CDU and defectivity with the ADT/CLEAN TRACK ACTTM 12 lithocluster. Analysis of a five wafer batch of CDU wafers shows within wafer and wafer to wafer contribution from track processing. A pareto of a patterned wafer defectivity test gives initial insight into the process defects with the current processing conditions. From analysis of these data, it's shown that while improvements in processing are certainly possible, the initial results indicate a manufacturable process for EUV.

  3. Sun's image in the extreme ultraviolet radiation emitted from the corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Skylab space station's Extreme Ultraviolet monitor is a closed loop television system that permitted man for the first time to watch the Sun's image in the extreme ultraviolet radiation emitted from its million-degree outer atmosphere, the corona. This photograph shows a view of the TV scope made by Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, on August 15, 1973. Dr. Garriott made this picture with a Land-Polaroid SX-70 camera - the first time that any Polaroid camera has been used in space.

  4. Wave-mixing with high-order harmonics in extreme ultraviolet region

    SciTech Connect

    Dao, Lap Van; Dinh, Khuong Ba; Le, Hoang Vu; Gaffney, Naylyn; Hannaford, Peter

    2015-01-12

    We report studies of the wave-mixing process in the extreme ultraviolet region with two near-infrared driving and controlling pulses with incommensurate frequencies (at 1400 nm and 800 nm). A non-collinear scheme for the two beams is used in order to spatially separate and to characterise the properties of the high-order wave-mixing field. We show that the extreme ultraviolet frequency mixing can be treated by perturbative, very high-order nonlinear optics; the modification of the wave-packet of the free electron needs to be considered in this process.

  5. Extreme ultraviolet source using a forced recombination process in lithium plasma generated by a pulsed laser

    SciTech Connect

    Nagano, Akihisa; Inoue, Takahiro; Nica, Petru-Edward; Amano, Sho; Miyamoto, Shuji; Mochizuki, Takayasu

    2007-04-09

    An extreme ultraviolet source having a tamper has been studied. This target scheme recombines forcedly lithium ions by low temperature electrons from the tamper, converting Li{sup 3+} rapidly to excited Li{sup 2+} which emit intense 1s-2p Lyman {alpha} emissions at 13.5 nm. A strong 13.5 nm emission appeared at 20-30 ns after the time of laser peak within a small space volume near the tamper. The authors obtained an enhancement of extreme ultraviolet conversion efficiency by a factor of about 2 with the tamper against that of a target without the tamper at the same laser irradiation condition00.

  6. Coherent Extreme Ultraviolet Generation and Surface Studies Using Ultraviolet Excimer Lasers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-10

    are detected by a two-stage multi-channel plate detector, (MCP-Chevron type), which is connected to a transient digitizer (Tektronix 7912 AD). The...Supplement). 43. "Ultraviolet Excitation of Cryogenic Rare-Gas Chlorine Solutions ," H. Jara, M. Shahidi, H. Pummer, H. Egger, akd C. K. Rhodes, in...like core. In principle, these equations are nonlinear in the applied electromagnetic field. We observe that the incident electromagentic field has a

  7. Modeling of EUV photoresists with a resist point spreadfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, Jason P.; Naulleau, Patrick; Spanos, Costas J.

    2005-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is under development for possible deployment at the 32-nm technology node. One active area of research in this field is the development of photoresists that can meet the stringent requirements (high resolution, high sensitivity, low LER, etc.) of lithography in this regime. In order to facilitate research in this and other areas related to EUV lithography, a printing station based upon the 0.3-NA Micro Exposure Tool (MET) optic was established at the Advanced Light Source, a synchrotron facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. A resist modeling technique using a resist point spread function has been shown to have good agreement with experiments for certain EUV resists such as Shipley EUV-2D [2]. The resist point spread function is a two-dimensional function that, when convolved with the simulated aerial image for a given mask pattern and applied to a threshold function, gives a representation of the photoresist pattern remaining after development. The simplicity of this modeling approach makes it attractive for rapid modeling of photoresists for process development applications. In this work, the resist point spread functions for three current high-resolution EUV photoresists [Rohm and Haas EUV-2D, Rohm and Haas MET-1K (XP 3454C), and KRS] are extracted experimentally. This model is then used in combination with aerial image simulations (including effects of projection optic aberrations) to predict the resist pattern for a variety of test patterns. A comparison is made between these predictions and experimental results to evaluate the effectiveness of this modeling technique for newer high-resolution EUV resists.

  8. Synergistic effect of EUV from the laser-sustained detonation plasma in a ground-based atomic oxygen simulation on fluorinated polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Tagawa, Masahito; Abe, Shingo; Kishida, Kazuhiro; Yokota, Kumiko; Okamoto, Akio

    2009-01-05

    The contribution of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) from a laser-sustained plasma on the mass loss phenomenon of fluorinated polymer in a ground-based laser-detonation atomic oxygen beam source was evaluated. The atomic oxygen beam and EUV from the oxygen plasma were separated by the high-speed chopper wheel installed in the beam source. The mass changes of the fluorinated polymer and polyimide were measured from the frequency shift of the quartz crystal microbalance during the beam exposures. It has been made clear that the fluorinated polymer erodes by EUV exposure alone. In contrast, no erosion was detected for polyimide by EUV alone. The atomic oxygen-induced erosion was measured for both materials even without EUV exposure. However, no strong synergistic effect was observed for a fluorinated polymer even under the simultaneous exposure condition of atomic oxygen and EUV. Similar results were observed even in simultaneous exposure of atomic oxygen (without EUV) and 172 nm vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) from an excimer lamp. These experiments suggest that the primary origin of the accelerated erosion of fluorinated polymer observed in a laser detonation atomic oxygen source is not the EUV from the laser-sustained plasma.

  9. Evaluation of measurement uncertainties in EUV scatterometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, H.; Scholze, F.; Rathsfeld, A.; Bär, M.

    2009-06-01

    Scatterometry, the analysis of light diffracted from a periodic structure, is a versatile metrology tool for characterizing periodic surface structures, regarding the critical dimension (CD) and other properties of the surface profile. For extreme ultraviolet (EUV) masks, only EUV radiation provides direct information on the mask performance comparable to the operating regime in an EUV lithography tool. With respect to the small feature dimensions on EUV masks, the short wavelength of EUV is also advantageous since it provides a large number of diffraction orders from the periodic structures irradiated. We present measurements at a prototype EUV mask with large fields of periodic lines-space structures using an EUV reflectometer at the Berlin storage ring BESSY II and discuss the corresponding reconstruction results with respect to their measurement uncertainties. As a non-imaging indirect optical method scatterometry requires the solution of the inverse problem, i.e., the determination of the geometry parameters describing the surface profile from the measured light diffraction patterns. In the time-harmonic case the numerical simulation of the diffraction process for periodic 2D structures can be realized by the finite element solution of the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation. Restricting the solutions to a class of surface profiles and fixing the set of measurements, the inverse problem can be formulated as a nonlinear operator equation in Euclidean space. The operator maps the profile parameters to special efficiencies of diffracted plane wave modes. We employ a Gauss-Newton type iterative method to solve this operator equation, i.e., we minimize the deviation of the calculated efficiencies from the measured ones by variation of the geometry parameters. The uncertainties of the reconstructed geometry parameters depend on the uncertainties of the input data and can be estimated by statistical methods like Monte Carlo or the covariance method applied to the

  10. IUE spectra of Feige 4, a suspected source of extreme-ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, A. V.; Boggess, A.

    1982-01-01

    IUE spectra are presented for Feige 4, a DB-type white dwarf. The observed energy distribution is in good agreement with that predicted by a model atmosphere with an effective temperature of 15,500 K and having extremely low hydrogen and metal abundances. These results are evidence against Feige 4 being the source of the apparent extreme-ultraviolet signal detected by Prognoz 6.

  11. On the Nature and Genesis of EUV Waves: A Synthesis of Observations from SOHO, STEREO, SDO, and Hinode (Invited Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsourakos, Spiros; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2012-11-01

    A major, albeit serendipitous, discovery of the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory mission was the observation by the Extreme Ultraviolet Telescope (EIT) of large-scale extreme ultraviolet (EUV) intensity fronts propagating over a significant fraction of the Sun's surface. These so-called EIT or EUV waves are associated with eruptive phenomena and have been studied intensely. However, their wave nature has been challenged by non-wave (or pseudo-wave) interpretations and the subject remains under debate. A string of recent solar missions has provided a wealth of detailed EUV observations of these waves bringing us closer to resolving the question of their nature. With this review, we gather the current state-of-the-art knowledge in the field and synthesize it into a picture of an EUV wave driven by the lateral expansion of the CME. This picture can account for both wave and pseudo-wave interpretations of the observations, thus resolving the controversy over the nature of EUV waves to a large degree but not completely. We close with a discussion on several remaining open questions in the field of EUV waves research.

  12. Studies of Solar EUV Irradiance from SOHO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, Linton

    2002-01-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance central and first order channel time series (COC and FOC) from the Solar EUV Monitor aboard the Solar and Heliospheric observatory (SOHO) issued in early 2002 covering the time period 1/1/96-31/1201 were analyzed in terms of other solar measurements and indices. A significant solar proton effect in the first order irradiance was found and characterized. When this effect is removed, the two irradiance time series are almost perfectly correlated. Earlier studies have shown good correlation between the FOC and the Hall core-to-wing ratio and likewise, it was the strongest component of the COC. Analysis of the FOC showed dependence on the F10.7 radio flux. Analysis of the CDC signals showed additional dependences on F10.7 and the GOES x-ray fluxes. The SEM FOC was also well correlated with thein 30.4 nm channel of the SOHO EUV Imaging Telescope (EIT). The irradiance derived from all four EIT channels (30.4 nm, 17.1 nm, 28.4 nm, and 19.5 nm) showed better correlation with MgII than F10.7.

  13. Comparing Vacuum and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation for Postionization of Laser Desorbed Neutrals from Bacterial Biofilms and Organic Fullerene

    SciTech Connect

    Gaspera, Gerald L.; Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Zhou, Jia; Ahmed, Musahid; Moored, Jerry F.; Hanley, Luke

    2010-12-08

    Vacuum and extreme ultraviolet radiation from 8 - 24 eV generated at a synchrotron was used to postionize laser desorbed neutrals of antibiotic-treated biofilms and a modified fullerene using laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS). Results show detection of the parent ion, various fragments, and extracellular material from biofilms using LDPI-MS with both vacuum and extreme ultraviolet photons. Parent ions were observed for both cases, but extreme ultraviolet photons (16-24 eV) induced more fragmentation than vacuum ultraviolet (8-14 eV) photons.

  14. SUMER: Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, K.; Axford, W. I.; Curdt, W.; Gabriel, A. H.; Grewing, M.; Huber, M. C. E.; Jordan, S. D.; Kuehne, M.; Lemaire, P.; Marsch, E.

    1992-01-01

    The experiment Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) is designed for the investigations of plasma flow characteristics, turbulence and wave motions, plasma densities and temperatures, structures and events associated with solar magnetic activity in the chromosphere, the transition zone and the corona. Specifically, SUMER will measure profiles and intensities of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) lines emitted in the solar atmosphere ranging from the upper chromosphere to the lower corona; determine line broadenings, spectral positions and Doppler shifts with high accuracy, provide stigmatic images of selected areas of the Sun in the EUV with high spatial, temporal and spectral resolution and obtain full images of the Sun and the inner corona in selectable EUV lines, corresponding to a temperature from 10,000 to more than 1,800,000 K.

  15. SECONDARY WAVES AND/OR THE 'REFLECTION' FROM AND 'TRANSMISSION' THROUGH A CORONAL HOLE OF AN EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET WAVE ASSOCIATED WITH THE 2011 FEBRUARY 15 X2.2 FLARE OBSERVED WITH SDO/AIA AND STEREO/EUVI

    SciTech Connect

    Olmedo, Oscar; Vourlidas, Angelos; Zhang Jie; Cheng Xin

    2012-09-10

    For the first time, the kinematic evolution of a coronal wave over the entire solar surface is studied. Full Sun maps can be made by combining images from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory satellites, Ahead and Behind, and the Solar Dynamics Observatory, thanks to the wide angular separation between them. We study the propagation of a coronal wave, also known as the 'Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope' wave, and its interaction with a coronal hole (CH) resulting in secondary waves and/or reflection and transmission. We explore the possibility of the wave obeying the law of reflection. In a detailed example, we find that a loop arcade at the CH boundary cascades and oscillates as a result of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wave passage and triggers a wave directed eastward that appears to have reflected. We find that the speed of this wave decelerates to an asymptotic value, which is less than half of the primary EUV wave speed. Thanks to the full Sun coverage we are able to determine that part of the primary wave is transmitted through the CH. This is the first observation of its kind. The kinematic measurements of the reflected and transmitted wave tracks are consistent with a fast-mode magnetohydrodynamic wave interpretation. Eventually, all wave tracks decelerate and disappear at a distance. A possible scenario of the whole process is that the wave is initially driven by the expanding coronal mass ejection and subsequently decouples from the driver and then propagates at the local fast-mode speed.

  16. Mechanisms of radiation damage to Sc/Si multilayer mirrors under EUV laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pershyn, Y. P.; Zubarev, E. N.; Voronov, D. L.; Sevryukova, V. A.; Kondratenko, V. V.; Vaschenko, G.; Grisham, M.; Menoni, C. S.; Rocca, J. J.; Artioukov, I. A.; Uspenskii, Y. A.; Vinogradov, A. V.

    2009-06-01

    Specific structural changes in Sc/Si multilayer mirrors irradiated with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) laser single pulses (λ = 46.9 nm) at near damage threshold fluences (0.04-0.23 J cm-2) are analysed. We have identified melting of surface layers as the basic degradation mechanism for the mirrors. Both heat generation during silicide formation and low heat conduction of the layered system significantly decreases the degradation threshold of Sc/Si multilayer mirrors compared with bulk materials. The results are relevant to the use of the multilayer mirrors for shaping and directing the intense beams produced by the new generation of coherent EUV sources.

  17. Coordinated Observations of X-ray and High-resolution EUV Active Region Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    The recently-launched High-resolution Coronal imager (Hi-C) sounding rocket provided the highest resolution images of coronal loops and other small-scale structures in the 193 Angstrom passband to date. With just 5 minutes of observations, the instrument recorded a variety of dynamic coronal events -- including even a small B-class flare. We will present our results comparing these extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations with X-ray imaging from Hinode/XRT as well as EUV AIA data to identify sources of hot plasma rooted in the photosphere and track their affect on the overall topology and dynamics of the active region.

  18. Coordinated Observations of X-ray and High-Resolution EUV Active Region Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Sabrina; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    The recently-launched High-resolution Coronal imager (Hi-C) sounding rocket provided the highest resolution images of coronal loops and other small-scale structures in the 193 Angstrom passband to date. With just 5 minutes of observations, the instrument recorded a variety of dynamic coronal events -- including even a small B-class flare. We will present our results comparing these extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations with X-ray imaging from Hinode/XRT as well as EUV AIA data to identify sources of hot plasma rooted in the photosphere and track their affect on the overall topology and dynamics of the active region.

  19. Non-Gaussian Velocity Distributions in Solar Flares from Extreme Ultraviolet Lines: A Possible Diagnostic of Ion Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffrey, Natasha L. S.; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Labrosse, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    In a solar flare, a large fraction of the magnetic energy released is converted rapidly to the kinetic energy of non-thermal particles and bulk plasma motion. This will likely result in non-equilibrium particle distributions and turbulent plasma conditions. We investigate this by analyzing the profiles of high temperature extreme ultraviolet emission lines from a major flare (SOL2014-03-29T17:44) observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode. We find that in many locations the line profiles are non-Gaussian, consistent with a kappa distribution of emitting ions with properties that vary in space and time. At the flare footpoints, close to sites of hard X-ray emission from non-thermal electrons, the κ index for the Fe xvi 262.976 Å line at 3 MK takes values of 3–5. In the corona, close to a low-energy HXR source, the Fe xxiii 263.760 Å line at 15 MK shows κ values of typically 4–7. The observed trends in the κ parameter show that we are most likely detecting the properties of the ion population rather than any instrumental effects. We calculate that a non-thermal ion population could exist if locally accelerated on timescales ≤0.1 s. However, observations of net redshifts in the lines also imply the presence of plasma downflows, which could lead to bulk turbulence, with increased non-Gaussianity in cooler regions. Both interpretations have important implications for theories of solar flare particle acceleration.

  20. Polarization-ratio reflectance measurements in the extreme ultraviolet.

    PubMed

    Brimhall, N; Heilmann, N; Ware, M; Peatross, J

    2009-05-01

    We demonstrate a technique for determining optical constants of materials in the extreme UV from the ratio of p-polarized to s-polarized reflectance. The measurements are based on laser-generated high-order harmonics, which have easily rotatable linear polarization but that are prone to brightness fluctuations and systematic drifts during measurement. Rather than measure the absolute reflectance, we extract the optical constants of a material from the ratio of p-polarized to s-polarized reflectance at multiple incident angles. This has the advantage of dividing out long-term fluctuations and possible systematic errors. We show that the reflectance ratio is as sensitive as the absolute reflectance to material optical properties.

  1. Cluster beam targets for laser plasma extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray sources

    DOEpatents

    Kublak, Glenn D.; Richardson, Martin C. (CREOL

    1996-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing extreme ultra violet (EUV) and soft x-ray radiation from an ultra-low debris plasma source are disclosed. Targets are produced by the free jet expansion of various gases through a temperature controlled nozzle to form molecular clusters. These target clusters are subsequently irradiated with commercially available lasers of moderate intensity (10.sup.11 -10.sup.12 watts/cm.sup.2) to produce a plasma radiating in the region of 0.5 to 100 nanometers. By appropriate adjustment of the experimental conditions the laser focus can be moved 10-30 mm from the nozzle thereby eliminating debris produced by plasma erosion of the nozzle.

  2. The October 28, 2003 extreme EUV solar flare and resultant extreme ionospheric effects: Comparison to other Halloween events and the Bastille Day event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Judge, D. L.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Gangopadhyay, P.; Jones, A. R.; Nuttall, J.; Zambon, G. A.; Didkovsky, L.; Mannucci, A. J.; Iijima, B.; Meier, R. R.; Immel, T. J.; Woods, T. N.; Prasad, S.; Floyd, L.; Huba, J.; Solomon, S. C.; Straus, P.; Viereck, R.

    2005-01-01

    Some of the most intense solar flares measured in 0.1 to 0.8 nm x-rays in recent history occurred near the end of 2003. The Nov 4 event is the largest in the NOAA records (X28) and the Oct 28 flare was the fourth most intense (X17). The Oct 29 flare was class X7. These flares are compared and contrasted to the July 14, 2000 Bastille Day (X10) event using the SOHO SEM 26.0 to 34.0 nm EUV and TIMED SEE 0.1-194 nm data. High time resolution, ~30s ground-base GPS data and the GUVI FUV dayglow data are used to examine the flare-ionosphere relationship. In the 26.0 to 34.0 nm wavelength range, the Oct 28 flare is found to have a peak intensity greater than twice that of the Nov 4 flare, indicating strong spectral variability from flare-to-flare. Solar absorption of the EUV portion of the Nov 4 limb event is a possible cause. The dayside ionosphere responds dramatically (~2.5 min 1/e rise time) to the x-ray and EUV input by an abrupt increase in total electron content (TEC). The Oct 28 TEC ionospheric peak enhancement at the subsolar point is ~25 TECU (25 × 1012 electrons/cm2) or 30% above background. In comparison, the Nov 4, Oct 29 and the Bastille Day events have ~5-7 TECU peak enhancements above background. The Oct 28 TEC enhancement lasts ~3 hrs, far longer than the flare duration. This latter ionospheric feature is consistent with increased electron production in the middle altitude ionosphere, where recombination rates are low. It is the EUV portion of the flare spectrum that is responsible for photoionization of this region. Further modeling will be necessary to fully understand the detailed physics and chemistry of flare-ionosphere coupling.

  3. Electron impact polarization expected in solar EUV lines from flaring chromospheres/transition regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fineschi, S.; Fontenla, Juan M.; Macneice, P.; Ljepojevic, N. N.

    1991-01-01

    We have evaluated lower bounds on the degree of impact Extreme Ultraviolet/Ultraviolet (EUV/UV) line polarization expected during solar flares. This polarization arises from collisional excitation by energetic electrons with non-Maxwellian velocity distributions. Linear polarization was observed in the S I 1437 A line by the Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter/Solar Maximum Mission (UVSP/SMM) during a flare on 15 July 1980. An early interpretation suggested that impact excitation by electrons propagating through the steep temperature gradient of the flaring transition region/high chromosphere produced this polarization. Our calculations show that the observed polarization in this UV line cannot be due to this effect. We find instead that, in some flare models, the energetic electrons can produce an impact polarization of a few percent in EUV neutral helium lines (i.e., lambda lambda 522, 537, and 584 A).

  4. CORONAL RESPONSE TO AN EUV WAVE FROM DEM ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Vanninathan, K.; Veronig, A. M.; Dissauer, K.; Hannah, I. G.; Kontar, E. P.

    2015-10-20

    Extreme-Ultraviolet (EUV) waves are globally propagating disturbances that have been observed since the era of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Exteme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope instrument. Although the kinematics of the wave front and secondary wave components have been widely studied, there is not much known about the generation and plasma properties of the wave. In this paper we discuss the effect of an EUV wave on the local plasma as it passes through the corona. We studied the EUV wave, generated during the 2011 February 15 X-class flare/coronal mass ejection event, using Differential Emission Measure diagnostics. We analyzed regions on the path of the EUV wave and investigated the local density and temperature changes. From our study we have quantitatively confirmed previous results that during wave passage the plasma visible in the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) 171 Å channel is getting heated to higher temperatures corresponding to AIA 193 and 211 Å channels. We have calculated an increase of 6%–9% in density and 5%–6% in temperature during the passage of the EUV wave. We have compared the variation in temperature with the adiabatic relationship and have quantitatively demonstrated the phenomenon of heating due to adiabatic compression at the wave front. However, the cooling phase does not follow adiabatic relaxation but shows slow decay indicating slow energy release being triggered by the wave passage. We have also identified that heating is taking place at the front of the wave pulse rather than at the rear. Our results provide support for the case that the event under study here is a compressive fast-mode wave or a shock.

  5. From powerful research platform for industrial EUV photoresist development, to world record resolution by photolithography: EUV interference lithography at the Paul Scherrer Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buitrago, Elizabeth; Fallica, Roberto; Fan, Daniel; Karim, Waiz; Vockenhuber, Michaela; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A.; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-09-01

    Extreme ultraviolet interference lithography (EUV-IL, λ = 13.5 nm) has been shown to be a powerful technique not only for academic, but also for industrial research and development of EUV materials due to its relative simplicity yet record high-resolution patterning capabilities. With EUV-IL, it is possible to pattern high-resolution periodic images to create highly ordered nanostructures that are difficult or time consuming to pattern by electron beam lithography (EBL) yet interesting for a wide range of applications such as catalysis, electronic and photonic devices, and fundamental materials analysis, among others. Here, we will show state-of the-art research performed using the EUV-IL tool at the Swiss Light Source (SLS) synchrotron facility in the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). For example, using a grating period doubling method, a diffraction mask capable of patterning a world record in photolithography of 6 nm half-pitch (HP), was produced. In addition to the description of the method, we will give a few examples of applications of the technique. Well-ordered arrays of suspended silicon nanowires down to 6.5 nm linewidths have been fabricated and are to be studied as field effect transistors (FETs) or biosensors, for instance. EUV achromatic Talbot lithography (ATL), another interference scheme that utilizes a single grating, was shown to yield well-defined nanoparticles over large-areas with high uniformity presenting great opportunities in the field of nanocatalysis. EUV-IL is in addition, playing a key role in the future introduction of EUV lithography into high volume manufacturing (HVM) of semiconductor devices for the 7 and 5 nm logic node (16 nm and 13 nm HP, respectively) and beyond while the availability of commercial EUV-tools is still very much limited for research.

  6. Contemporaneous IUE, EUVE, and High-Energy Observations of 3C 273

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramos, E.; Kafatos, M.; Fruscione, A.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; McHardy, I. M.; Hartman, R. C.; Titarchuk, L. G.; vonMontigny, C.

    1997-01-01

    We present the results of our 1994 January and 1995 January observations of the quasar 3C 273 obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) and the Extreme-Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). These observations were part of a large multiwavelength campaign to observe 3C 273 from radio through gamma-rays. Our 1995 January photometric observations with the EUVE Lexan/B Deep Survey (DS) instrument indicate strong evidence for variability, at a 99% confidence level, during the 12 day observing period. We have utilized ROSAT PSPC soft X-ray power-law models to correlate with EUVE count rates. Besides variations in the normalization level between both observations, our EUV count rates are consistent with a simple power-law model with spectral index alpha approx. 1.77 (F(sub upsilon) proportional to upsilon(sup -alpha) that can be extrapolated from the soft X-rays to the EUV range. The active galactic nucleus 3C 273 is an important blazar to study because in our picture it reveals the presence of both disk and relativistic beam spectral contributions.

  7. Reconstruction of Solar EUV Flux 1740-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalgaard, L.

    2015-12-01

    Solar Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) radiation creates the conducting E-layer of the ionosphere, mainly by photo ionization of molecular Oxygen. Solar heating of the ionosphere creates thermal winds which by dynamo action induce an electric field driving an electric current having a magnetic effect observable on the ground, as was discovered by G. Graham in 1722. The current rises and sets with the Sun and thus causes a readily observable diurnal variation of the geomagnetic field, allowing us the deduce the conductivity and thus the EUV flux as far back as reliable magnetic data reach. High-quality data go back to the 'Magnetic Crusade' of the 1830s and less reliable, but still usable, data are available for portions of the hundred years before that. J.R. Wolf and, independently, J.-A. Gautier discovered the dependence of the diurnal variation on solar activity, and today we understand and can invert that relationship to construct a reliable record of the EUV flux from the geomagnetic record. We compare that to the F10.7 flux and the sunspot number, and find that the reconstructed EUV flux reproduces the F10.7 flux with great accuracy. On the other hand, it appears that the Relative Sunspot Number as currently defined is beginning to no longer be a faithful representation of solar magnetic activity, at least as measured by the EUV and related indices. The reconstruction suggests that the EUV flux reaches the same low (but non-zero) value at every sunspot minimum (possibly including Grand Minima), representing an invariant 'solar magnetic ground state'.

  8. Galileo Ultraviolet Spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hord, C. W.; Mcclintock, W. E.; Stewart, A. I. F.; Barth, C. A.; Esposito, L. W.; Thomas, G. E.; Sandel, B. R.; Hunten, D. M.; Broadfoot, A. L.; Shemansky, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    The Galileo ultraviolet spectrometer experiment uses data obtained by the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) mounted on the pointed orbiter scan platform and from the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (EUVS) mounted on the spinning part of the orbiter with the field of view perpendicular to the spin axis. The UVS is a Ebert-Fastie design that covers the range 113-432 nm with a wavelength resolution of 0.7 nm below 190 and 1.3 nm at longer wavelengths. The UVS spatial resolution is 0.4 deg x 0.1 deg for illuminated disk observations and 1 deg x 0.1 deg for limb geometries. The EUVS is a Voyager design objective grating spectrometer, modified to cover the wavelength range from 54 to 128 nm with wavelength resolution 3.5 nm for extended sources and 1.5 nm for point sources and spatial resolution of 0.87 deg x 0.17 deg. The EUVS instrument will follow up on the many Voyager UVS discoveries, particularly the sulfur and oxygen ion emissions in the Io torus and molecular and atomic hydrogen auroral and airglow emissions from Jupiter. The UVS will obtain spectra of emission, absorption, and scattering features in the unexplored, by spacecraft, 170-432 nm wavelength region. The UVS and EUVS instruments will provide a powerful instrument complement to investigate volatile escape and surface composition of the Galilean satellites, the Io plasma torus, micro- and macro-properties of the Jupiter clouds, and the composition structure and evolution of the Jupiter upper atmosphere.

  9. Calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet grazing incident spectrometer at the Advanced Light Source.

    PubMed

    Bakeman, M S; van Tilborg, J; Sokollik, T; Baum, D; Ybarrolaza, N; Duarte, R; Toth, C; Leemans, W P

    2010-10-01

    We present the design and calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet spectrometer. Calibration was performed at the Advance Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This spectrometer will be used to record the single shot spectrum of radiation emitted by the tapered hybrid undulator (THUNDER) undulator installed at the LOASIS GeV-class laser-plasma-accelerator. The spectrometer uses an aberration-corrected concave grating with 1200 lines/mm covering 11-62 nm and a microchannel plate detector with a CsI coated photocathode for increased quantum efficiency in the extreme ultraviolet. A touch screen interface controls the grating angle, aperture size, and placement of the detector in vacuum, allowing for high-resolution measurements over the entire spectral range.

  10. Calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet grazing incident spectrometer at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Bakeman, M. S.; Tilborg, J. van; Sokollik, T.; Baum, D.; Ybarrolaza, N.; Duarte, R.; Toth, C.; Leemans, W. P.

    2010-10-15

    We present the design and calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet spectrometer. Calibration was performed at the Advance Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This spectrometer will be used to record the single shot spectrum of radiation emitted by the tapered hybrid undulator (THUNDER) undulator installed at the LOASIS GeV-class laser-plasma-accelerator. The spectrometer uses an aberration-corrected concave grating with 1200 lines/mm covering 11-62 nm and a microchannel plate detector with a CsI coated photocathode for increased quantum efficiency in the extreme ultraviolet. A touch screen interface controls the grating angle, aperture size, and placement of the detector in vacuum, allowing for high-resolution measurements over the entire spectral range.

  11. Investigations on the emission in the extreme ultraviolet of a pseudospark based discharge light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Klaus; Vieker, Jochen; von Wezyk, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    A new concept of a discharge based extreme ultraviolet radiation source is presented. This concept is based on an electrode system that consists of two consecutive pseudospark discharge stages. The first stage is used to create a pinch plasma as emitter in the extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray range and the second stage is used as a high current switch between the storage capacity and the first stage. First results on the emission characteristics for the working gases nitrogen, krypton, and xenon, with focus on the emission at 2.88 nm, 6-7 nm, and around 13.5 nm, respectively, are disclosed under the aspect of the access to a larger discharge parameter range. It is shown that this increased range opens a path to a higher spectral peak brightness.

  12. Method for plasma formation for extreme ultraviolet lithography-theta pinch

    DOEpatents

    Hassanein, Ahmed; Konkashbaev, Isak; Rice, Bryan

    2007-02-20

    A device and method for generating extremely short-wave ultraviolet electromagnetic wave, utilizing a theta pinch plasma generator to produce electromagnetic radiation in the range of 10 to 20 nm. The device comprises an axially aligned open-ended pinch chamber defining a plasma zone adapted to contain a plasma generating gas within the plasma zone; a means for generating a magnetic field radially outward of the open-ended pinch chamber to produce a discharge plasma from the plasma generating gas, thereby producing a electromagnetic wave in the extreme ultraviolet range; a collecting means in optical communication with the pinch chamber to collect the electromagnetic radiation; and focusing means in optical communication with the collecting means to concentrate the electromagnetic radiation.

  13. High-resolution time-resolved extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy on NSTX.

    PubMed

    Lepson, J K; Beiersdorfer, P; Clementson, J; Bitter, M; Hill, K W; Kaita, R; Skinner, C H; Roquemore, A L; Zimmer, G

    2012-10-01

    We report on upgrades to the flat-field grazing-incidence grating spectrometers X-ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (XEUS) and Long-Wavelength Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (LoWEUS), at the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. XEUS employs a variable space grating with an average spacing of 2400 lines/mm and covers the 9-64 Å wavelength band, while LoWEUS has an average spacing of 1200 lines/mm and is positioned to monitor the 90-270 Å wavelength band. Both spectrometers have been upgraded with new cameras that achieve 12.5 ms time resolution. We demonstrate the new time resolution capability by showing the time evolution of iron in the NSTX plasma.

  14. Numerical simulations based on probe measurements in EUV-induced hydrogen plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrikosov, Alex; Reshetnyak, Viktor; Astakhov, Dmitry; Dolgov, Alexandr; Yakushev, Oleg; Lopaev, Dmitry; Krivtsun, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    We use the two-dimensional particle-in-cell model with Monte Carlo collisions to study the plasma induced in hydrogen by short pulses of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation at wavelengths in the range 10–20 nm with a pulse duration of about 40 ns (FWHM). This plasma is formed via both photoionization by the high-energy EUV photons and by the secondary photoelectrons emitted from the hydrogen molecules and the irradiated surface. The latter process can be enhanced by the external electric field that accelerates the electrons. In order to establish a base for our model so as to obtain accurate results, we record a temporally-resolved series of current–voltage characteristics for a small probing electrode inserted into EUV-induced hydrogen plasma. We then resort to simulating this plasma in the same geometry with the probe in our model which we validate by matching its results to the experimentally measured dynamics of the probe current–voltage curves. Having validated the model this way, we use this model as an independent instrument capable of obtaining the spatiotemporal picture of EUV-induced plasma evolution. We use this instrument to study the plasma formation during the EUV pulse and point out the processes that take part in forming this plasma, such as impact ionization and direct ionization by EUV photons.

  15. High-resolution extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopy of potassium using anti-Stokes radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothenberg, J. E.; Young, J. F.; Harris, S. E.

    1981-01-01

    The use of a new extreme-ultraviolet radiation source based on spontaneous anti-Stokes scattering for high-resolution absorption spectroscopy of transition originating from the 3p6 shell of potassium is reported. The region from 546.6 to 536.8 A is scanned at a resolution of about 1.2 Kayser. Within this region, four previously unreported lines are observed.

  16. A NOISE ADAPTIVE FUZZY EQUALIZATION METHOD FOR PROCESSING SOLAR EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Druckmueller, M.

    2013-08-15

    A new image enhancement tool ideally suited for the visualization of fine structures in extreme ultraviolet images of the corona is presented in this paper. The Noise Adaptive Fuzzy Equalization method is particularly suited for the exceptionally high dynamic range images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. This method produces artifact-free images and gives significantly better results than methods based on convolution or Fourier transform which are often used for that purpose.

  17. Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging of Electron Heated Targets in Petawatt Laser Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, T; MacPhee, A; Key, M; Akli, K; Mackinnon, A; Chen, C; Barbee, T; Freeman, R; King, J; Link, A; Offermann, D; Ovchinnikov, V; Patel, P; Stephens, R; VanWoerkom, L; Zhang, B; Beg, F

    2007-11-29

    The study of the transport of electrons, and the flow of energy into a solid target or dense plasma, is instrumental in the development of fast ignition inertial confinement fusion. An extreme ultraviolet (XUV) imaging diagnostic at 256 eV and 68 eV provides information about heating and energy deposition within petawatt laser-irradiated targets. XUV images of several irradiated solid targets are presented.

  18. Extreme ultraviolet marking system for anti-counterfeiting tags with adjustable security level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lazzaro, P.; Bollanti, S.; Flora, F.; Mezi, L.; Murra, D.; Torre, A.; Bonfigli, F.; Montereali, R. M.; Vincenti, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a recently patented apparatus which consists of an extreme ultraviolet radiation source writing invisible patterns on thin tags of alkali halides. The tags patterned using this method are almost impossible to counterfeit, and offer a much better protection against fakes than available anti-counterfeiting techniques. We will discuss if this novel technology is ready for industrial production of anti-counterfeiting tags.

  19. Transmission grating based extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer for time and space resolved impurity measurements.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Stutman, Dan; Tritz, Kevin; Finkenthal, Michael; Tarrio, Charles; Grantham, Steven

    2010-10-01

    A free standing transmission grating based imaging spectrometer in the extreme ultraviolet range has been developed for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The spectrometer operates in a survey mode covering the approximate spectral range from 30 to 700 Å and has a resolving capability of δλ/λ on the order of 3%. Initial results from space resolved impurity measurements from NSTX are described in this paper.

  20. Bright subcycle extreme ultraviolet bursts from a single dense relativistic electron sheet.

    PubMed

    Ma, W J; Bin, J H; Wang, H Y; Yeung, M; Kreuzer, C; Streeter, M; Foster, P S; Cousens, S; Kiefer, D; Dromey, B; Yan, X Q; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J; Zepf, M; Schreiber, J

    2014-12-05

    Double-foil targets separated by a low density plasma and irradiated by a petawatt-class laser are shown to be a copious source of coherent broadband radiation. Simulations show that a dense sheet of relativistic electrons is formed during the interaction of the laser with the tenuous plasma between the two foils. The coherent motion of the electron sheet as it transits the second foil results in strong broadband emission in the extreme ultraviolet, consistent with our experimental observations.

  1. a New Method to Calculate the Density Map of Magnetic Equatorial Plane of the Plasmasphere from the EUV Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jie

    The Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) data was collected by the EUV sensor on the American IMAGE satellite which represented the line integrals of the density of He+ along the EUV radiation. In this paper, we introduce a new method which can be used to calculate the density map of magnetic equatorial plane of the plasmasphere from the EUV data. The new method is derived from the ART algorithm in computed tomography (CT) which is different from the several existing methods. The value of each element of the EUV data is back-projected to the corresponded L-curves. It is assumed that the He+ density is constant along L-curve. Different from the existing methods, each element of EUV data is considered as a sum of all the He+ densities on the L-curves which are passed though by the corresponding EUV radiation ray. Finally, the numerical experimental results are presented to verify our new method for the plasmasphere density in the magnetic equatorial plane.

  2. The Origin of the EUV Emission in Her X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, D. A.; Marshall, H.

    1999-01-01

    Her X-1 exhibits a strong orbital modulation of its EUV flux with a large decrease around time of eclipse of the neutron star, and a significant dip which appears at different orbital phases at different 35-day phases. We consider observations of Her X-1 in the EUVE by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), which includes data from 1995 near the end of the Short High state, and date from 1997 at the start of the Short High state. The observed EUV lightcurve has bright and faint phases. The bright phase can be explained as the low energy tail of the soft x-ray pulse. The faint phase emission has been modeled to understand its origin. We find: the x-ray heated surface of HZ Her is too cool to produce enough emission; the accretion disk does not explain the orbital modulation; however, reflection of x-rays off of HZ Her can produce the observed lightcurve with orbital eclipses. The dip can be explained by shadowing of the companion by the accretion disk. We discuss the constraints on the accretion disk geometry derived from the observed shadowing.

  3. EUV assist layers for use in multilayer processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouattara, Tantiboro; Washburn, Carlton; Collin, Aline; Krishnamurthy, Vandana; Guerrero, Douglas; Weigand, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) exposure is among the front-runners for single-exposure lithography for the 16-nm node and below. Previous work has shown that assist layers are critical for performing EUV lithography. Assist layers enhance the adhesion of EUV photoresists, block substrate contamination, and improve the resolution, line width roughness, and sensitivity (RLS) trade-off. As we progress from development to manufacturing, materials must mature to align with industry needs. To bring devices produced using EUV lithography to reality, a trilayer process is the best and most flexible option. The requirements for a trilayer process include utilizing assist layers with a good etch selectivity to the carbon-rich etch transfer layer (ETL) and to the photoresist coupled with good RLS performance. In this paper, we report the study of new assist layers made with novel resins that have shown superior lithography performance, as well as high etch selectivity to both the ETL and the photoresist. We have demonstrated how to significantly improve the lithography with the benefits of the pattern transfer requirements for trilayer processing.

  4. Beyond EUV lithography: a comparative study of efficient photoresists' performance

    PubMed Central

    Mojarad, Nassir; Gobrecht, Jens; Ekinci, Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography at 13.5 nm is the main candidate for patterning integrated circuits and reaching sub-10-nm resolution within the next decade. Should photon-based lithography still be used for patterning smaller feature sizes, beyond EUV (BEUV) lithography at 6.x nm wavelength is an option that could potentially meet the rigid demands of the semiconductor industry. We demonstrate simultaneous characterization of the resolution, line-edge roughness, and sensitivity of distinct photoresists at BEUV and compare their properties when exposed to EUV under the same conditions. By using interference lithography at these wavelengths, we show the possibility for patterning beyond 22 nm resolution and characterize the impact of using higher energy photons on the line-edge roughness and exposure latitude. We observe high sensitivity of the photoresist performance on its chemical content and compare their overall performance using the Z-parameter criterion. Interestingly, inorganic photoresists have much better performance at BEUV, while organic chemically-amplified photoresists would need serious adaptations for being used at such wavelength. Our results have immediate implications for deeper understanding of the radiation chemistry of novel photoresists at the EUV and soft X-ray spectra. PMID:25783209

  5. Novel metal containing resists for EUV lithography extendibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Simone, Danilo; Sayan, Safak; Dei, Satoshi; Pollentier, Ivan; Kuwahara, Yuhei; Vandenberghe, Geert; Nafus, Kathleen; Shiratani, Motohiro; Nakagawa, Hisashi; Naruoka, Takehiko

    2016-03-01

    Strong interest has recently developed among the researchers in the use of metals in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography photoresists [1, 2] aiming to simultaneously achieve the resolution, line-width roughness and sensitivity (RLS) requirements for 10nm technology node and below and have the highest productivity with low exposure dose requirements (below 20mJ/cm2). In this paper two different metal containing resists (MCR) are discussed: the first one uses metal oxide nanoparticles (NP) bonded with ligands as an alternative non chemically amplified EUV photoresist; the second one introduces a metal species (the sensitizer) into a conventional chemically amplified EUV photoresist. In both cases, the metal is added to the resist system to increase the absorption of EUV photons as well as increase the generation of secondary electrons, thereby making more effective use of the dose. The initial work is focused on manufacturing compatibility, concerning metal cross-contamination, outgassing and hydrides formation risk. Next, lithographic performance is evaluated with respect to the RLS requirements by patterning on NXE:3300 full field scanner exposure tool, with particular emphasis on the material stability of different formulations.. Finally, imaging results at different processing conditions are also reported and discussed.

  6. Projection effects in coronal dimmings and associated EUV wave event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dissauer, Karin; Temmer, Manuela; Veronig, Astrid; Vanninathan, Kamalam; Magdalenic, Jasmina

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the high-speed (v > 1000 km s-1) extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave associated with an X1.2 flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) from NOAA active region 11283. This EUV wave features peculiar on-disk signatures, in particular we observe an intermittent "disappearance" of the front for 120 s in SDO/AIA 171, 193, 211 Å data, whereas the 335 Å filter, sensitive to hotter plasmas (T˜ 2.5 MK), shows a continuous evolution of the wave front. We exploit the multi-point quadrature position of SDO and STEREO-A, to make a thorough analysis of the EUV wave evolution, with respect to its kinematics and amplitude evolution. We identify on-disk coronal dimming regions in SDO/AIA, reminiscent of core dimmings, that have no corresponding on-disk dimming signatures in STEREO-A/EUVI. Reconstructing the SDO line-of-sight (LOS) direction in STEREO-A clearly shows that the observed SDO on-disk dimming areas are not the footprints of the erupting fluxrope but result from decreased emission from the expanding CME body integrated along the LOS. In this context, we conclude that the intermittent disappearance of the EUV wave in the AIA 171, 193, 211 Å filters, which are channels sensitive to plasma with temperatures below ˜ 2 MK is also caused by such LOS integration effects. These observations clearly demonstrate that single-view image data provide us with limited insight to correctly interpret coronal features.

  7. First measurements of highly ionized impurity emission distribution by grazing-incidence flat-field extreme ultraviolet spectrometer in HL-2A.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhengying; Dong, Chunfeng; Zhou, Hangyu; Morita, Shigeru; Sun, Ping; Fu, Bingzhong; Lu, Ping; Ding, Xuantong; Yang, Qingwei; Duan, Xuru

    2014-11-01

    A space-resolved grazing-incidence flat-field extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer has been developed in the HL-2A tokamak to measure vertical impurity emission profiles with simultaneous spectral, temporal, and spatial resolution. The spectrometer working in the wavelength range of 30-500 Å has been equipped with a gold-coated varied-line-spacing holographic grating with curvature of 5606 mm and a back illuminated charge-coupled device with size of 6.6 × 26.6 mm(2) (255 × 1024 pixels). A lower half of the HL-2A plasma with averaged minor radius of 40 cm is observed when the spectrometer with horizontal dispersion is placed at a distance of 7.5 m away from the plasma center. An excellent spatial resolution of 12 mm is achieved when a space-resolved slit with vertical width of 0.5 mm is adopted. The radial profiles of intrinsic impurities in several ionization stages have been measured with high throughput and extremely low stray light.

  8. EUV patterning improvement toward high-volume manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Yuhei; Matsunaga, Koichi; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Nafus, Kathleen; Foubert, Philippe; Goethals, Anne-Marie

    2015-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) technology is a promising candidate for a semiconductor process for 18nm half pitch and beyond. So far, the studies of EUV for manufacturability have been focused on particular aspects. It still requires fine resolution, uniform and smooth patterns, and low defectivity, not only after lithography but also after the etch process. Tokyo Electron Limited and imec are continuously collaborating to improve manufacturing quality of the process of record (POR) on a CLEAN TRACKTM LITHIUS ProTMZ-EUV. This next generation coating/developing system has been upgraded with defectivity reduction enhancements which are applied along with TELTM best known methods. We have evaluated process defectivity post lithography and post etch. Apart from defectivity, FIRMTM rinse material and application compatibility with sub 18nm patterning is improved to prevent line pattern collapse and increase process window on next generation resist materials. This paper reports on the progress of defectivity and patterning performance optimization towards the NXE:3300 POR.

  9. Interferometric at-wavelength flare characterization of EUV optical systems

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan

    2001-01-01

    The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) provides the high-accuracy wavefront characterization critical to the development of EUV lithography systems. Enhancing the implementation of the PS/PDI can significantly extend its spatial-frequency measurement bandwidth. The enhanced PS/PDI is capable of simultaneously characterizing both wavefront and flare. The enhanced technique employs a hybrid spatial/temporal-domain point diffraction interferometer (referred to as the dual-domain PS/PDI) that is capable of suppressing the scattered-reference-light noise that hinders the conventional PS/PDI. Using the dual-domain technique in combination with a flare-measurement-optimized mask and an iterative calculation process for removing flare contribution caused by higher order grating diffraction terms, the enhanced PS/PDI can be used to simultaneously measure both figure and flare in optical systems.

  10. Photons, electrons, and acid yields in EUV photoresists: a progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainard, Robert; Hassanein, Elsayed; Li, Juntao; Pathak, Piyush; Thiel, Brad; Cerrina, Franco; Moore, Richard; Rodriguez, Miguel; Yakshinskiy, Boris; Loginova, Elena; Madey, Theodore; Matyi, Richard; Malloy, Matt; Rudack, Andrew; Naulleau, Patrick; Wüest, Andrea; Dean, Kim

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes our initial investigation into building a greater understanding of the complex mechanism occurring during extreme ultraviolet (EUV) exposure of resist materials. In particular, we are focusing on the number and energy of photoelectrons generated and available for reaction with photoacid generators (PAGs). We propose that this approach will best enable the industry to develop resists capable of meeting resolution, line width roughness (LWR), and sensitivity requirements.

  11. Inhomogeneity of PAGs in a hybrid-type EUV resist system studied by molecular-dynamics simulations for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toriumi, Minoru; Itani, Toshiro

    2015-03-01

    It is desirable to simultaneously improve the resolution, line-edge roughness (LER), and sensitivity of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) resist materials. In a resist film, nanometer-scale inhomogeneous structures may have significant direct effects on the resolution and LER along with indirect effects on sensitivity. This study will evaluate the inhomogeneity of photoacid generators (PAGs) in a hybrid-type EUV resist film using molecular-dynamics simulations. The results show the inhomogeneity of PAG positions and motions in the resist film. Moreover, PAG anions show larger diffusion coefficients than PAG cations. These results can be elucidated in terms of the free volumes in the resist matrix and the molecular structures of PAG, such as the bulky phenyl groups of PAG cations and the fluorine-atom interactions in PAG anions.

  12. Extreme-Ultraviolet-Initated High-Order Harmonic Generation: Driving Inner-Valence Electrons Using Below-Threshold-Energy Extreme-Ultraviolet Light.

    PubMed

    Brown, A C; van der Hart, H W

    2016-08-26

    We propose a novel scheme for resolving the contribution of inner- and outer-valence electrons in extreme-ultraviolet (XUV)-initiated high-harmonic generation in neon. By probing the atom with a low-energy (below the 2s ionization threshold) ultrashort XUV pulse, the 2p electron is steered away from the core, while the 2s electron is enabled to describe recollision trajectories. By selectively suppressing the 2p recollision trajectories, we can resolve the contribution of the 2s electron to the high-harmonic spectrum. We apply the classical trajectory model to account for the contribution of the 2s electron, which allows for an intuitive understanding of the process.

  13. Extreme-Ultraviolet-Initated High-Order Harmonic Generation: Driving Inner-Valence Electrons Using Below-Threshold-Energy Extreme-Ultraviolet Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, A. C.; van der Hart, H. W.

    2016-08-01

    We propose a novel scheme for resolving the contribution of inner- and outer-valence electrons in extreme-ultraviolet (XUV)-initiated high-harmonic generation in neon. By probing the atom with a low-energy (below the 2 s ionization threshold) ultrashort XUV pulse, the 2 p electron is steered away from the core, while the 2 s electron is enabled to describe recollision trajectories. By selectively suppressing the 2 p recollision trajectories, we can resolve the contribution of the 2 s electron to the high-harmonic spectrum. We apply the classical trajectory model to account for the contribution of the 2 s electron, which allows for an intuitive understanding of the process.

  14. Designing a Small-Sized Engineering Model of Solar EUV Telescopr for a Korean Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jung-Hoon; Jang, Min-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Joon

    2001-11-01

    For the research of solar EUV (extreme ultraviolet) radiation, we have designed a small-sized engineering model of solar EUV telescope, which is suitable for a Korean satellite. The EUV solar telescope was designed to observe the sun at 584.3Å (He¥°) and 629.7Å (O¥´). The optical system is an f/8 Ritchey-Chrètien, and the effective diameter and focal length are 80§® and 640§®, respectively. The He¥°and O¥´ filters are loaded in a filter wheel. In the detection part, the MCP (MicroChannel Plate) type is Z-stack, and the channel-to-diameter ratio is 40:1. MCP and CCD are connected by fiber optic taper. A commercial optical design software is used for the analysis of the optical system design.

  15. EUV dynamic spectral map-a new tool to look into the variety of solar irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.; Wang, Y.; Liu, K.

    2013-12-01

    As The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Launched on February 11, 2010 , the instrument EVE aboard on it has measured the solar extreme ultraviolet irradiance variations for three years. Due to flares solar radiation varies rapidly and for different spectrums has different responses . So the different type flares viewed by the EVE present different morphology . As for a longer term, the solar radiation also changes for solar rotation in 28 days and solar cycles for 11-year sunspot cycle. We come up with a new tool to display these changes-EUV dynamic spectral map.This paper will briefly present how we produce this map and make a classification of the solar flare base on the EUV map and shows the long-term EUV background emission variations of three years during the Solar Cycle 24.

  16. Dependence of defect size and shape on detectability for EUV patterned mask inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Susumu; Hirano, Ryoichi; Amano, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Hidehiro

    2015-03-01

    Defect detectability using electron beam (EB) inspection for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask was investigated by comparing a projection electron microscope (PEM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) inspection system. The detectability with EB does not coincide with the printability data because the contrasts of EUV aerial image and EB image for EUV mask are reversed. The detectability for 16 nm sized defect on a half pitch 64 nm line and space pattern is acceptable under 2-nm-line edge roughness (LER) (3 sigma) in both PEM and SEM inspections by applying a special algorithm for image processing. The required and robust inspection conditions such as the number of electrons per pixel and pixel size (resolution) are examined for SEM inspection system. Throughput of a PEM inspection system corresponds to that of a multi-beam SEM one with 250 - 1000 beams.

  17. Data indexing techniques for the EUVE all-sky survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J.; Saba, V.; Dobson, C.

    1992-01-01

    This poster describes techniques developed for manipulating large full-sky data sets for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer project. The authors have adapted the quatrilateralized cubic sphere indexing algorithm to allow us to efficiently store and process several types of large data sets, such as full-sky maps of photon counts, exposure time, and count rates. A variation of this scheme is used to index sparser data such as individual photon events and viewing times for selected areas of the sky, which are eventually used to create EUVE source catalogs.

  18. The Storm-Time Plasmasphere by IMAGE/EUV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    With the availability of routine global images of the plasmasphere from the IMAGE Mission Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUV), we now have a growing body of observations that both characterize and quantify the dynamics of the plasmasphere. Direct interactions of the plasmasphere with the ring current and indirect interaction through localized electric fields appear to be the cause of a complex array of structures in the spatial distribution of thermal plasma. This presentation will show those features in detail and discuss possible mechanisms for their cause.

  19. Space-resolved extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy free of high-energy neutral particle noise in wavelength range of 10-130 Å on the large helical device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xianli; Morita, Shigeru; Oishi, Tetsutarou; Goto, Motoshi; Dong, Chunfeng

    2014-04-01

    A flat-field space-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer system working in wavelength range of 10-130 Å has been constructed in the Large Helical Device (LHD) for profile measurements of bremsstrahlung continuum and line emissions of heavy impurities in the central column of plasmas, which are aimed at studies on Zeff and impurity transport, respectively. Until now, a large amount of spike noise caused by neutral particles with high energies (≤180 keV) originating in neutral beam injection has been observed in EUV spectroscopy on LHD. The new system has been developed with an aim to delete such a spike noise from the signal by installing a thin filter which can block the high-energy neutral particles entering the EUV spectrometer. Three filters of 11 μm thick beryllium (Be), 3.3 μm thick polypropylene (PP), and 0.5 μm thick polyethylene terephthalate (PET: polyester) have been examined to eliminate the spike noise. Although the 11 μm Be and 3.3 μm PP filters can fully delete the spike noise in wavelength range of λ ≤ 20 Å, the signal intensity is also reduced. The 0.5 μm PET filter, on the other hand, can maintain sufficient signal intensity for the measurement and the spike noise remained in the signal is acceptable. As a result, the bremsstrahlung profile is successfully measured without noise at 20 Å even in low-density discharges, e.g., 2.9 × 1013 cm-3, when the 0.5 μm PET filter is used. The iron n = 3-2 Lα transition array consisting of FeXVII to FeXXIV is also excellently observed with their radial profiles in wavelength range of 10-18 Å. Each transition in the Lα array can be accurately identified with its radial profile. As a typical example of the method a spectral line at 17.62 Å is identified as FeXVIII transition. Results on absolute intensity calibration of the spectrometer system, pulse height and noise count analyses of the spike noise between holographic and ruled gratings and wavelength response of the used filters

  20. Absolute intensity calibration of the Wendelstein 7-X high efficiency extreme ultraviolet overview spectrometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiche, Albert; Biel, Wolfgang; Marchuk, Oleksandr; Burhenn, Rainer

    2008-09-01

    The new high effiency extreme ultraviolet overview spectrometer (HEXOS) system for the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X is now mounted for testing and adjustment at the tokamak experiment for technology oriented research (TEXTOR). One part of the testing phase was the intensity calibration of the two double spectrometers which in total cover a spectral range from 2.5 to 160.0 nm with overlap. This work presents the current intensity calibration curves for HEXOS and describes the method of calibration. The calibration was implemented with calibrated lines of a hollow cathode light source and the branching ratio technique. The hollow cathode light source provides calibrated lines from 16 up to 147 nm. We could extend the calibrated region in the spectrometers down to 2.8 nm by using the branching line pairs emitted by an uncalibrated pinch extreme ultraviolet light source as well as emission lines from boron and carbon in TEXTOR plasmas. In total HEXOS is calibrated from 2.8 up to 147 nm, which covers most of the observable wavelength region. The approximate density of carbon in the range of the minor radius from 18 to 35 cm in a TEXTOR plasma determined by simulating calibrated vacuum ultraviolet emission lines with a transport code was 5.5×1017 m-3 which corresponds to a local carbon concentration of 2%.