Rogers, Elizabeth E; Hintz, Susan R
Infants born at extreme preterm gestation are at risk for both death and disability. Although rates of survival have improved for this population, and some evidence suggests a trend toward decreased neuromotor impairment over the past decades, a significant improvement in overall early neurodevelopmental outcome has not yet been realized. This review will examine the rates and types of neurodevelopmental impairment seen after extremely preterm birth, including neurosensory, motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes. We focus on early outcomes in the first 18-36 months of life, as the majority of large neonatal studies examining neurodevelopmental outcomes stop at this age. However, this early age is clearly just a first glimpse into lifetime outcomes; the neurodevelopmental effects of extreme prematurity may last through school age, adolescence, and beyond. Importantly, prematurity appears to be an independent risk factor for adverse development, but this population demonstrates considerable variability in the types and severity of impairments. Understanding both the nature and prevalence of neurodevelopmental impairment among extremely preterm infants is important because it can lead to targeted interventions that in turn may lead to improved outcomes.
Patel, Pooja N; Banerjee, Jayanta; Godambe, Sunit V
Despite significant advances in perinatal medicine, the management of extremely preterm infants in the delivery room remains a challenge. There is an increasing evidence for improved outcomes regarding the resuscitation and stabilisation of extremely preterm infants but there is a lack of evidence in the periviable (gestational age 23-25 wk) preterm subgroup. Presence of an experienced team during the delivery of extremely preterm infant to improve outcome is reviewed. Adaptation from foetal to neonatal cardiorespiratory haemodynamics is dependent on establishing an optimal functional residual capacity in the extremely preterm infants, thus enabling adequate gas exchange. There is sufficient evidence for a gentle approach to stabilisation of these fragile infants in the delivery room. Evidence for antenatal steroids especially in the periviable infants, delayed cord clamping, strategies to establish optimal functional residual capacity, importance of temperature control and oxygenation in delivery room in extremely premature infants is reviewed in this article. PMID:27170925
Patel, Ravi Mangal
Prematurity is the leading cause of infant mortality worldwide. In developed countries, extremely preterm infants contribute disproportionately to both neonatal and infant mortality. Survival of this high-risk population has incrementally improved in recent years. Despite these improvements, approximately 1 in 4 extremely preterm infants dies during the birth hospitalization. Among those who survive, respiratory and other morbidities are common, although their effect on quality of life is variable. In addition, long-term neurodevelopmental impairment is a large concern for patients, clinicians and families. However, the interplay of multiple factors contribute to neurodevelopmental impairment, with measures that change over time and outcomes that can be difficult to define and predict. Understanding outcomes of extremely preterm infants can help better counsel families regarding antenatal and postnatal care and guide strategies to improve survival without morbidity. This review summarizes recent evidence to provide an overview into the short- and long-term outcomes for extremely preterm infants. PMID:26799967
Carlo, Waldemar A.; Tyson, Jon E.; Langer, John C.; Walsh, Michele C.; Parikh, Nehal A.; Das, Abhik; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Shankaran, Seetha; Stoll, Barbara J.; Higgins, Rosemary D.
OBJECTIVE: Methods are required to predict prognosis with changes in clinical course. Death or neurodevelopmental impairment in extremely premature neonates can be predicted at birth/admission to the ICU by considering gender, antenatal steroids, multiple birth, birth weight, and gestational age. Predictions may be improved by using additional information available later during the clinical course. Our objective was to develop serial predictions of outcome by using prognostic factors available over the course of NICU hospitalization. METHODS: Data on infants with birth weight ≤1.0 kg admitted to 18 large academic tertiary NICUs during 1998–2005 were used to develop multivariable regression models following stepwise variable selection. Models were developed by using all survivors at specific times during hospitalization (in delivery room [n = 8713], 7-day [n = 6996], 28-day [n = 6241], and 36-week postmenstrual age [n = 5118]) to predict death or death/neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months. RESULTS: Prediction of death or neurodevelopmental impairment in extremely premature infants is improved by using information available later during the clinical course. The importance of birth weight declines, whereas the importance of respiratory illness severity increases with advancing postnatal age. The c-statistic in validation models ranged from 0.74 to 0.80 with misclassification rates ranging from 0.28 to 0.30. CONCLUSIONS: Dynamic models of the changing probability of individual outcome can improve outcome predictions in preterm infants. Various current and future scenarios can be modeled by input of different clinical possibilities to develop individual “outcome trajectories” and evaluate impact of possible morbidities on outcome. PMID:22689874
Bann, Carla; Higgins, Rosemary; Vohr, Betty
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Extremely preterm infants and infants born to adolescent mothers are at risk for adverse developmental. The objectives were to evaluate development and behavior outcomes of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants born to adolescent mothers <20 compared with adult mothers ≥20 years and to identify socioeconomic risk factors that affect outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis of 211 infants >27 weeks of adolescent mothers and 1723 infants of adult mothers at Neonatal Research Network centers from 2008 to 2011. Groups were compared and regression models were run to predict 18- to 22-month adverse outcomes. Primary outcomes were Bayley-III scores, neurodevelopmental impairment, and Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment problem scores (BITSEA/P) ≥75th percentile. RESULTS: Adolescent mothers were more often single, Hispanic, less educated, and had public insurance. By 18 to 22 months, their children had significantly increased rates of having lived ≥3 places (21% vs 9%), state supervision (7% vs 3%), rehospitalization (56% vs 46%), and BITSEA/P ≥75th percentile (50% vs 32%) and nonsignificant Bayley-III language scores <85 (56% vs 49%, P = .07). In regression analysis, children of adolescent mothers were more likely to have BITSEA/P ≥75th percentile (relative risk 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.08–2.07). Living ≥3 places and nonwhite race were predictors of adverse behavior. State supervision was an independent predictor of each Bayley-III composite <70 and neurodevelopmental impairment. CONCLUSIONS: ELBW infants of adolescent mothers experience high social and environmental risks that are associated with adverse behavior outcomes. These findings inform the need for comprehensive follow-up, coordinated care services, and behavior interventions for ELBW infants of adolescent mothers. PMID:25963007
Successful transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life involves significant physiologic changes. The majority of these changes occur relatively quickly during those first moments following delivery; however, transition for the extremely preterm infant occurs over a longer period of time. Careful assessment and perceptive interventions on the part of neonatal care providers is essential as the extremely preterm infant adjusts to life outside the womb. This article will focus on respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and neurologic transitional events experienced by the extremely premature infant.
Barnes, Patrick D.; Bulas, Dorothy; Slovis, Thomas L.; Finer, Neil N.; Wrage, Lisa A.; Das, Abhik; Tyson, Jon E.; Stevenson, David K.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Walsh, Michele C.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Yoder, Bradley A.; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Faix, Roger G.; Rich, Wade; Newman, Nancy S.; Cheng, Helen; Heyne, Roy J.; Vohr, Betty R.; Acarregui, Michael J.; Vaucher, Yvonne E.; Pappas, Athina; Peralta-Carcelen, Myriam; Wilson-Costello, Deanne E.; Evans, Patricia W.; Goldstein, Ricki F.; Myers, Gary J.; Poindexter, Brenda B.; McGowan, Elisabeth C.; Adams-Chapman, Ira; Fuller, Janell; Higgins, Rosemary D.
BACKGROUND: Extremely preterm infants are at risk for neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI). Early cranial ultrasound (CUS) is usual practice, but near-term brain MRI has been reported to better predict outcomes. We prospectively evaluated MRI white matter abnormality (WMA) and cerebellar lesions, and serial CUS adverse findings as predictors of outcomes at 18 to 22 months’ corrected age. METHODS: Early and late CUS, and brain MRI were read by masked central readers, in a large cohort (n = 480) of infants <28 weeks’ gestation surviving to near term in the Neonatal Research Network. Outcomes included NDI or death after neuroimaging, and significant gross motor impairment or death, with NDI defined as cognitive composite score <70, significant gross motor impairment, and severe hearing or visual impairment. Multivariable models evaluated the relative predictive value of neuroimaging while controlling for other factors. RESULTS: Of 480 infants, 15 died and 20 were lost. Increasing severity of WMA and significant cerebellar lesions on MRI were associated with adverse outcomes. Cerebellar lesions were rarely identified by CUS. In full multivariable models, both late CUS and MRI, but not early CUS, remained independently associated with NDI or death (MRI cerebellar lesions: odds ratio, 3.0 [95% confidence interval: 1.3–6.8]; late CUS: odds ratio, 9.8 [95% confidence interval: 2.8–35]), and significant gross motor impairment or death. In models that did not include late CUS, MRI moderate-severe WMA was independently associated with adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Both late CUS and near-term MRI abnormalities were associated with outcomes, independent of early CUS and other factors, underscoring the relative prognostic value of near-term neuroimaging. PMID:25554820
Balasubramanian, H; Strunk, T; Kohan, R
We report significant hypotension and prerenal failure in an extremely preterm infant following two doses of oral sildenafil that warranted discontinuation of the drug and treatment with inotropes. Blood pressure and urine output normalized after 24 h of withdrawal of the oral drug. Sildenafil should be used cautiously in extremely preterm infants early in the neonatal course, where there is limited data on its efficacy and safety.
Provision of human milk has important implications for the health and outcomes of extremely preterm (EP) infants. This study evaluated the effects of an exclusive human milk diet on the health of EP infants during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. EP infants <1,250 g birth weight recei...
Moore, Tamanna; Johnson, Samantha; Hennessy, Enid; Marlow, Neil
Aim: The aim of this article was to report the prevalence of, and risk factors for, positive autism screens using the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) in children born extremely preterm in England. Method: All children born at not more than 26 weeks' gestational age in England during 2006 were recruited to the EPICure-2 study. At…
Torola, Helena; Lehtihalmes, Matti; Heikkinen, Hanna; Olsen, Paivi; Yliherva, Anneli
The vocalization of preterm infants with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) up to the expansion stage was systematically described and compared with those of healthy full-term infants. The sample consisted of 18 preterm ELBW infants and the control group of 11 full-term infants. The follow-up was performed intensively using video-recordings. The…
Our objective was to compare the duration of parenteral nutrition, growth, and morbidity in extremely premature infants fed exclusive diets of either bovine milk-based preterm formula (BOV) or donor human milk and human milk-based human milk fortifier (HUM), in a randomized trial of formula vs human...
O'Donnell, Colm P F
Since ancient times, various methods have been used to revive apparently stillborn infants; many were of dubious efficacy and had the potential to cause harm. Based largely on studies of acutely asphyxiated term animal models, clinical assessment and positive pressure ventilation have become the cornerstones of neonatal resuscitation over the last 40 years. Over the last 25 years, care of extremely preterm infants in the delivery room has evolved from a policy of indifference to one of increasingly aggressive support. The survival of these infants has improved considerably in recent years; this has not, however, necessarily been due to more aggressive resuscitation. Urban myths have evolved that all extremely preterm infants died before they were intubated, and that all such infants need to immediately intubated or they will quickly die. This has never been true. Clinical assessment of infants at birth is subjective. Also, many techniques used to support preterm infants at birth have not been well studied and there is evidence that they may be harmful. It may thus be argued that many of our well-intentioned resuscitation interventions are of dubious efficacy and have the potential to cause harm. 'Resuscitation' is an emotive term which means 'restoration of life'. Death, thankfully, is a rare presentation in the delivery room. Therefore, concerning neonatal 'resuscitation', it is time to 'call it' something else. This will allow us to dispassionately distinguish preterm infants who are dead, or nearly dead, from those who are merely at high risk of parenchymal lung disease. We may then be able to refine our interventions and determine what methods of support benefit these infants most.
Davis, Alexis S.; Gantz, Marie G.; Do, Barbara; Shankaran, Seetha; Hamrick, Shannon E. G.; Kennedy, Kathleen A.; Tyson, Jon E.; Chalak, Lina F.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Goldstein, Ricki F.; Hintz, Susan R.; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Ball, M. Bethany; Hale, Ellen C.; Van Meurs, Krisa P.
Introduction Amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) monitoring is increasing in the neonatal population, but the safety and feasibility of performing aEEG in extremely preterm infants have not been systematically evaluated. Methods Inborn infants 230/7 – 286/7 weeks gestation or birth weight 401–1000 grams were eligible. Serial, six-hour aEEG recordings were obtained from first week of life until 36 weeks postmenstrual age. Adverse events were documented, and surveys evaluated the impact of the aEEGs on routine care. Success of performing aEEGs according to protocol and aEEG quality were assessed. Results 102 infants were enrolled, with 755 recordings performed. 83% of recordings were performed according to schedule, and 96% were without adverse event. Bedside nurses reported no interference with routine care for 89% of recordings. 92% of recordings had acceptable signal quality. Conclusions Serial aEEG monitoring is safe in preterm infants, with few adverse events and general acceptance by nursing staff. PMID:25474559
Leviton, Alan; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Kuban, Karl C. K.; O'Shea, T. Michael; Paneth, Nigel; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Fichorova, Raina N.; Dammann, Olaf
Gestational genitourinary infections, which have been associated with neurodevelopmental impairments among infants born near term, have not been studied among very preterm infants. The mothers of 989 infants born before 28 weeks of gestation were interviewed about urine, bladder, or kidney infections (UTIs) and cervical or vaginal infections (CVIs) during pregnancy, as well as other exposures and characteristics, and their charts were reviewed for the Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns (ELGAN) Study (2002–2004). At 2 years of age, these infants underwent a neurodevelopmental assessment. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models of developmental adversities were used to adjust for potential confounders. Infants born to women who reported a UTI were less likely than were others to have a very low Mental Development Index (adjusted odds ratio = 0.5; 95% confidence interval: 0.3, 0.8), whereas infants born to women who reported a CVI were more likely than others to have a low Psychomotor Development Index (adjusted odds ratio = 1.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 2.7). In this high-risk sample, maternal gestational CVI, but not UTI, was associated with a higher risk of impaired motor development at 2 years of age. The apparent protective effect of UTI might be spurious, reflect confounding due to untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria among women who were not given a diagnosis of UTI, or reflect preconditioning. PMID:26667255
Zuccarini, Mariagrazia; Sansavini, Alessandra; Iverson, Jana M; Savini, Silvia; Guarini, Annalisa; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Aureli, Tiziana
Delays in the motor domain have been frequently observed in preterm children, especially those born at an extremely low gestational age (ELGA;<28 weeks GA). However, early motor exploration has received relatively little attention despite its relevance for object knowledge and its impact on cognitive and language development. The present study aimed at comparing early object exploration in 20 ELGA and 20 full-term (FT) infants at 6 months of age during a 5-minute mother-infant play interaction. Object engagement (visual vs manual), visual object engagement (no act vs reach), manual object engagement (passive vs active), and active object manipulation (mouthing, transferring, banging, turn/rotating, shaking, fingering) were analyzed. Moreover, the Griffiths Mental Development Scales 0-2 years (1996) were administered to the infants. Relative to FT peers, ELGA infants spent more time in visual engagement, and less time in manual engagement, active manipulation, mouthing, and turning/rotating. Moreover, they had lower scores on general psychomotor development, eye & hand coordination, and performance abilities. Close relationships emerged between manual object engagement and psychomotor development. Clinical implications of these results in terms of early evaluation of action schemes in ELGA infants and the provision of intervention programs for supporting these abilities are discussed.
Pellicer, Adelina; Alderliesten, Thomas; Austin, Topun; van Bel, Frank; Benders, Manon; Claris, Olivier; Dempsey, Eugene; Franz, Axel R; Fumagalli, Monica; Gluud, Christian; Grevstad, Berit; Hagmann, Cornelia; Lemmers, Petra; van Oeveren, Wim; Pichler, Gerhard; Plomgaard, Anne Mette; Riera, Joan; Sanchez, Laura; Winkel, Per; Wolf, Martin; Greisen, Gorm
Objective To determine if it is possible to stabilise the cerebral oxygenation of extremely preterm infants monitored by cerebral near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) oximetry. Design Phase II randomised, single blinded, parallel clinical trial. Setting Eight tertiary neonatal intensive care units in eight European countries. Participants 166 extremely preterm infants born before 28 weeks of gestation: 86 were randomised to cerebral NIRS monitoring and 80 to blinded NIRS monitoring. The only exclusion criterion was a decision not to provide life support. Interventions Monitoring of cerebral oxygenation using NIRS in combination with a dedicated treatment guideline during the first 72 hours of life (experimental) compared with blinded NIRS oxygenation monitoring with standard care (control). Main outcome measures The primary outcome measure was the time spent outside the target range of 55-85% for cerebral oxygenation multiplied by the mean absolute deviation, expressed in %hours (burden of hypoxia and hyperoxia). One hour with an oxygenation of 50% gives 5%hours of hypoxia. Secondary outcomes were all cause mortality at term equivalent age and a brain injury score assessed by cerebral ultrasonography. Randomisation Allocation sequence 1:1 with block sizes 4 and 6 in random order concealed for the investigators. The allocation was stratified for gestational age (<26 weeks or ≥26 weeks). Blinding Cerebral oxygenation measurements were blinded in the control group. All outcome assessors were blinded to group allocation. Results The 86 infants randomised to the NIRS group had a median burden of hypoxia and hyperoxia of 36.1%hours (interquartile range 9.2-79.5%hours) compared with 81.3 (38.5-181.3) %hours in the control group, a reduction of 58% (95% confidence interval 35% to 73%, P<0.001). In the experimental group the median burden of hypoxia was 16.6 (interquartile range 5.4-68.1) %hours, compared with 53.6 (17.4-171.3) %hours in the control group (P=0.0012). The
Kersbergen, Karina J; Leemans, Alexander; Groenendaal, Floris; van der Aa, Niek E; Viergever, Max A; de Vries, Linda S; Benders, Manon J N L
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is frequently used to assess brain development in preterm infants. This study investigates maturational changes in diffusivity measures in 122 regions of the brain between 30 and 40 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) using the neonatal atlas of Oishi and colleagues (Oishi et al., 2011). Forty infants without cerebral injury and with normal neurodevelopmental outcome were selected from a cohort of preterm infants (gestational age<28 weeks), scanned longitudinally at 30 and 40 weeks PMA. Fractional anisotropy (FA) changed significantly in 84 brain regions, with the largest increase in the central brain regions; by contrast, the cortical brain regions showed a decrease in FA. Mean, radial and axial diffusivity all showed a clear decrease in the majority of brain regions. This study provides longitudinal reference diffusivity values in a cohort of extremely preterm infants, showing a central to peripheral and posterior to anterior directed gradient, in line with our current understanding of brain maturation, and adding to this knowledge. This study further elucidates brain maturation in preterm infants during the last 10 weeks prior to term equivalent age. The presented values can be used as a reference for assessing brain development in other cohorts, when investigating the effects of brain injury in this vulnerable period, and to evaluate the effect of future neuroprotective strategies.
Gagneur, Arnaud; Pinquier, Didier; Quach, Caroline
Vaccinations of premature infants are often delayed despite being at an increased risk of contracting vaccine preventable diseases. This article reviews the current knowledge on the immune response to widely used vaccines, on the protection derived from routine immunization and on vaccine safety and tolerability in a population of preterm infants. Available data evaluating the immune response of preterm infants support early immunization without correction for gestational age. For a number of antigens, the antibody response to initial doses of vaccines may be lower than that of term infants, but protective concentrations are often achieved and memory successfully induced. Vaccines are immunogenic, safe and well tolerated in preterm infants. Preterm infants should be vaccinated using the same schedules as those usually recommended for full-term infants, with the exception of the hepatitis B vaccine, where additional doses should be administered in infants receiving the first dose during the first days of life if they weighed less than 2000 g because of a documented reduced immune response. PMID:26291883
Rao, Raghavendra; Georgieff, Michael K.
SYNOPSIS Preterm infants are at risk for both iron deficiency and iron overload. The role of iron in multiple organ functions suggests that iron supplementation is essential for the preterm infant. Conversely, the potential for iron overload and the poorly developed anti-oxidant measures in the preterm infant argues against indiscriminate iron supplementation in this population. The purpose of this article is to review the predisposing factors and consequences of iron deficiency and iron overload in the preterm infant, the current recommendation for iron supplementation and its appropriateness, and describe potential management strategies that strike a balance between iron deficiency and iron toxicity. PMID:19161863
Iijima, Shigeo; Arai, Hiroko; Ozawa, Yuri; Kawase, Yasuhiro; Uga, Naoki
We investigated time-related predictors of death or neurological sequelae in extremely preterm infants (EPI) born at 22 to 24 weeks' gestation by categorizing clinical patterns according to their survival time and morbidity. Data on 113 infants born at 22 to 24 weeks' gestation from January 1991 through April 2006 were analyzed by a case-control approach. Cesarean section, Apgar score
Vohr, Betty R.; Stephens, Bonnie E.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Bann, Carla M.; Hintz, Susan R.; Epi, MS; Das, Abhik; Newman, Jamie E.; Peralta-Carcelen, Myriam; Yolton, Kimberly; Dusick, Anna M.; Evans, Patricia W.; Goldstein, Ricki F.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Pappas, Athina; Adams-Chapman, Ira; Wilson-Costello, Deanne E.; Bauer, Charles R.; Bodnar, Anna; Heyne, Roy J.; Vaucher, Yvonne E.; Dillard, Robert G.; Acarregui, Michael J.; McGowan, Elisabeth C.; Myers, Gary J.; Fuller, Janell
Objectives To compare 18- to 22-month cognitive scores and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in 2 time periods using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development’s Neonatal Research Network assessment of extremely low birth weight infants with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition (Bayley II) in 2006–2007 (period 1) and using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley III), with separate cognitive and language scores, in 2008–2011 (period 2). Study design Scores were compared with bivariate analysis, and regression analyses were run to identify differences in NDI rates. Results Mean Bayley III cognitive scores were 11 points higher than mean Bayley II cognitive scores. The NDI rate was reduced by 70% (from 43% in period 1 to 13% in period 2; P < .0001). Multivariate analyses revealed that Bayley III contributed to a decreased risk of NDI by 5 definitions: cognitive score <70 and <85, cognitive or language score <70; cognitive or motor score <70, and cognitive, language, or motor score <70 (P < .001). Conclusion Whether the Bayley III is overestimating cognitive performance or whether it is a more valid assessment of emerging cognitive skills than the Bayley II is uncertain. Because the Bayley III identifies significantly fewer children with disability, it is recommended that all extremely low birth weight infants be offered early intervention services at the time of discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit, and that Bayley scores be interpreted with caution. PMID:22421261
Duncan, Andrea Freeman; Watterberg, Kristi L.; Nolen, Tracy L.; Vohr, Betty R.; Adams-Chapman, Ira; Das, Abhik; Lowe, Jean
Objective To evaluate the relationship of race/ethnicity to cognitive and language scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development 3rd edition (BSID-III) in extremely preterm toddlers (<28+0 weeks’ estimated gestational age). Study design Extremely preterm toddlers at NICHD Neonatal Research Network Centers evaluated at 18–22 months adjusted age from 3 race/ethnic groups (White, Black, and Hispanic-White) were included in this cohort study. Multivariable regression modeling was used to identify race/ethnic differences adjusting for medical and psychosocial factors. Results Children included 369 Whites, 352 Blacks and 144 Hispanic-Whites. Cognitive scores differed between groups in unadjusted analysis (p=<0.001), but not after adjusting for medical and psychosocial factors (p=0.13). Language scores differed in adjusted and unadjusted analyses. Whites scored higher than Blacks or Hispanic-Whites, and Blacks scored higher than Hispanic-Whites. Conclusions A combination of medical variables and primary caretaker education accounted for differences in BSID-III cognitive scores between groups. Black and Hispanic-White toddlers had lower language scores than Whites, even after adjustment. Early intervention should be targeted to these identified risk factors. Assessment of early language development among minority groups may be warranted. PMID:22269248
Gonya, Jenn; Ray, William C; Rumpf, R Wolfgang; Brock, Guy
Objectives The primary objective of the study was to investigate how patterns of skin-to-skin care might impact infant early cognitive and communication performance. Design This was a retrospective cohort study. Setting This study took place in a level-IV all-referral neonatal intensive care unit in the Midwest USA specialising in the care of extremely preterm infants. Participants Data were collected from the electronic medical records of all extremely preterm infants (gestational age <27 weeks) admitted to the unit during 2010–2011 and who completed 6-month and 12-month developmental assessments in the follow-up clinic (n=97). Outcome measures Outcome measures included the cognitive and communication subscales of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III); and skin-to-skin patterns including: total hours of maternal and paternal participation throughout hospitalisation, total duration in weeks and frequency (hours per week). Analysis Extracted data were analysed through a multistep process of logistic regressions, t-tests, χ2 tests and Fisher's exact tests followed with exploratory network analysis using novel visual analytic software. Results Infants who received above the sample median in total hours, weekly frequency and total hours from mothers and fathers of skin-to-skin care were more likely to score ≥80 on the cognitive and communication scales of the Bayley-III. However, the results were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Mothers provided the majority of skin-to-skin care with a sharp decline at 30 weeks corrected age, regardless of when extremely preterm infants were admitted. Additional exploratory network analysis suggests that medical and skin-to-skin factors play a parallel, non-synergistic role in contributing to early cognitive and communication performance as assessed through the Bayley-III. Conclusions This study suggests an association between early and frequent skin-to-skin care with extremely preterm
Batton, Beau; Li, Lei; Newman, Nancy S.; Das, Abhik; Watterberg, Kristi L.; Yoder, Bradley A.; Faix, Roger G.; Laughon, Matthew M.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Walsh, Michele C.
Objective Investigate relationships between early blood pressure (BP) changes, receipt of anti-hypotensive therapy, and 18 – 22 month corrected age (CA) outcomes for extremely preterm infants. Design Prospective observational study of infants 230/7 – 266/7 weeks gestational age (GA). Hourly BP values and anti-hypotensive therapy exposure in the first 24 hours were recorded. Four groups were defined: infants who did or did not receive anti-hypotensive therapy in whom BP did or did not rise at the expected rate (defined as an increase in the mean arterial BP of ≥5 mmHg/day). Random-intercept logistic modeling controlling for center clustering, GA, and illness severity was used to investigate the relationship between BP, anti-hypotensive therapies, and infant outcomes. Setting Sixteen academic centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Main Outcome Measures Death or neurodevelopmental impairment / developmental delay (NIDD) at 18 – 22 months CA. Results Of 367 infants, 203 (55%) received an anti-hypotensive therapy, 272 (74%) survived to discharge, and 331 (90%) had a known outcome at 18 – 22 months CA. With logistic regression, there was an increased risk of death/NIDD with anti-hypotensive therapy versus no treatment (odds ratio: 1.836, 95% confidence interval: 1.092 – 3.086), but not NIDD alone (odds ratio: 1.53, 95% confidence interval: 0.708 – 3.307). Conclusion Independent of early BP changes, anti-hypotensive therapy exposure was associated with an increased risk of death/NIDD at 18 to 22 months CA when controlling for risk factors known to affect survival and neurodevelopment. PMID:26567120
Sung, Sein; Ahn, So Yoon; Park, Won Soon
Objective To investigate the trends in mortality, as well as in the timing and cause of death, among extremely preterm infants at the limit of viability, and thus to identify the clinical factors that contribute to decreased mortality. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 382 infants born at 23–26 weeks’ gestation; 124 of the infants were born between 2001 and 2005 (period I) and 258 were born between 2006 and 2011 (period II). We stratified the infants into two subgroups–“23–24 weeks” and “25–26 weeks”–and retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics and mortality in each group, as well as the timing and cause of death. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done to identify the clinical factors associated with mortality. Results The overall mortality rate in period II was 16.7% (43/258), which was significantly lower than that in period I (30.6%; 38/124). For overall cause of death, there were significantly fewer deaths due to sepsis (2.4% [6/258] vs. 8.1% [10/124], respectively) and air-leak syndrome (0.8% [2/258] vs. 4.8% (6/124), respectively) during period II than during period I. Among the clinical factors of time period, 1-and 5-min Apgar score, antenatal steroid identified significant by univariate analyses. 5-min Apgar score and antenatal steroid use were significantly associated with mortality in multivariate analyses. Conclusion Improved mortality rate attributable to fewer deaths due to sepsis and air leak syndrome in the infants with 23–26 weeks’ gestation was associated with higher 5-minute Apgar score and more antenatal steroid use. PMID:28114330
Sansavini, Alessandra; Zavagli, Veronica; Guarini, Annalisa; Savini, Silvia; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo
Extremely low gestational age children (ELGA, born below 28 weeks of GA) represent the most at-risk preterm group in terms of survival, developmental sequelae and rates of impairment and cognitive delays. However, the impact of an extremely preterm birth on mother-infant co-regulation and affective intensity which may affect early infant's development has not been investigated. Based on a relational dynamic system approach, our study aimed to investigate the quality of co-regulation and affective intensity during spontaneous play interaction in 20 mother-infant ELGA dyads compared to 20 full-term (FT) dyads at 12 months (corrected age for ELGA infants). Relationships between the quality of dyadic co-regulation and the infant's level of cognitive, motor and language development were also investigated. The quality of dyadic co-regulation was assessed using the Revised Relational Coding System (R-RCS) by Fogel et al. (2003), the mothers' and infants' affective intensity was coded using a coding system by Lunkenheimer, Olson, Hollenstein, Sameroff, and Winter (2011). Infants' development was assessed using the Bayley Scales (BSID-III, 2006). With respect to FT dyads, ELGA dyads were characterised by less frequent symmetric and more frequent unilateral co-regulation patterns and by less positive and more neutral affective intensity of both infants and mothers. Cognitive, motor and language scores were lower in ELGA infants than in FT infants. Symmetrical co-regulation was related to motor scores in ELGA infants, and to cognitive scores in FT infants. Our findings contribute to the literature by demonstrating the difficulties of ELGA mother-infant dyads at 12 months in sharing the symmetric co-regulation and positive affective intensity and how symmetric co-regulation is strictly related to motor development in ELGA infants. Based on these findings, intervention programmes to foster joint attention, active involvement and positive affective intensity in ELGA dyads and
Torola, Helena; Lehtihalmes, Matti; Heikkinen, Hanna; Olsen, Paivi; Yliherva, Anneli
The aim of this study was to systematically describe the preverbal development of preterm infants from canonical babbling up to the first word and to compare it with that of healthy full-term infants. In addition, the amount of vocalization between the preterm and full-term groups was compared. The sample consisted of 18 preterm infants with…
Beckwith, L; Sigman, M; Cohen, S E; Parmelee, A H
Data on vocal output of 51 preterm infants and 16 term infants were obtained during naturalistic home observations at 1, 3, and 8 months; during the administration of a preference-for-novelty paradigm in the laboratory at 8 months; and by the administration of the Gesell Developmental Schedules at 9 months. Preterm and term infant groups were found to show both similarities and differences: both groups vocalized a similar amount in the preference-for-novelty situation; both groups earned similar scores on the language subtest of the Gesell; both groups increased the percentage of awake time they spent in nondistress vocalization from 1 to 8 months. Term infants showed an earlier increase than did preterm infants: term infants significantly increased during the 1-3 month period, whereas preterm infants only increased significantly during the 3-8 month period. The developmental differences suggest a link between vocal output and perinatal conditions in that caregiver behavior was not found to be different among groups. Within the preterm groups, some relationships were found between vocal output and later test performance: infants who vocalized more during mutual gazing with the mother earned significantly higher scores on the language subtest of the Gesell.
Doucette, Stefani; Lemyre, Brigitte; Daboval, Thierry; Dunn, Sandra; Akiki, Salwa; Barrowman, Nick; Moore, Gregory P
Objective To determine healthcare providers' knowledge (HCP) about survival rates of extremely preterm infants (EPI) and attitudes toward resuscitation before and after an educational presentation and, to examine the relationship between knowledge and attitudes toward resuscitation. Study Design Participants completed a survey before and after attending a presentation detailing evidence-based estimates of survival rates and surrounding ethical issues. Respondents included neonatologists, obstetricians, pediatricians, maternal-fetal medicine specialists, trainees in pediatrics, obstetrics, neonatal-perinatal medicine and neonatal and obstetrical nurses. Results In total, 166 participants attended an educational presentation and 130 participants completed both pre- and postsurveys (response rate 78%). Prepresentation, for all gestations, ≤ 50% of respondents correctly identified survival/intact survival rates. Postpresentation, correct responses regarding survival/intact survival rates ranged from 49 to 86% (p < 0.001) and attitudes shifted toward being more likely to resuscitate at all gestations regardless of parental wishes. There was a weak-to-modest relationship (Spearman's coefficient 0.24-0.40, p < 0.001-0.004) between knowledge responses and attitudes. Conclusion Attendance at an educational presentation did improve HCP knowledge about survival and long term outcomes for EPI, but HCP still underestimated survival and were not always willing to resuscitate in accordance with parental wishes. These findings may represent barriers to some experts' recommendation to use shared decision-making with parents when considering the resuscitation options for their EPI.
Victor, S; Dickinson, H; Turner, M A
The aim of this study was to generate reference ranges for aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in preterm infants by describing the observed plasma concentration of these enzymes in babies born between 22 and 36 weeks' gestation. A service evaluation was conducted in babies admitted to two large neonatal intensive care units in the UK. 7006 blood samples from 1860 infants admitted to the two units between 2004 and 2008 were included. Extremely premature infants had high plasma enzyme activities when compared to babies at a later corrected gestational age. This may be due to more severe illness immediately after birth.
Reynolds, Eric W; Vice, Frank L; Bosma, James F; Gewolb, Ira H
The objective of this study was to develop a method to use digital signal processing (DSP) technology to describe quantitatively and statistically swallow-associated sounds in preterm infants and to use this method to analyze changes as infants mature. Twelve recordings of accelerometric and physiological data on bottle-feeding preterm infants between 32 and 39 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) were analyzed. Cervical auscultation was performed using an accelerometer attached over the larynx. Acoustic data were recorded and graphically displayed using DSP software. Initial discrete sounds (IDSs) were identified and used to construct an average waveform from which a 'variance index' (VI) was calculated for each infant. The shape of the IDS waveforms became progressively more uniform with advancing PMA, as indicated by a significant inverse correlation between VI and PMA (r=0.739; p=0.006). DSP technology facilitated the development of a new method to quantitatively analyze feeding in preterm infants. This method provides an elegant tool to track maturation of infant feeding and assessing feeding readiness. This technique makes the interpretation of cervical auscultation data less subjective by replacing the verbal description of the sounds of feeding with quantitative numeric values. It is anticipated that this method can be automated to facilitate further the analysis of cervical accelerometry data.
Lagercrantz, H; Edwards, D; Henderson-Smart, D; Hertzberg, T; Jeffery, H
Some autonomic nervous reflexes often tested in adult medicine have been studied in 21 preterm infants (25-37 gestational weeks). The aim was to develop such tests for preterm infants and see if there were any differences in babies with recurrent apnea and bradycardia and babies who had been exposed to sympathicolytic drugs before birth. To test sympathetic nervous activity the peripheral vascular resistance was measured before and during 45 degrees of head-up tilting. To test parasympathetic nervous activity the degree of bradycardia was measured in response to cold face test (application of an ice-cube on the fore-head) and laryngeal stimulation with saline. Finally the heart rate changes after a sudden noise (85 dB) were studied as an indicator of both sympathetic and vagal activity. The peripheral resistance was found to be relatively low in these preterm infants, particularly in some infants tested at the postnatal age of about two months. Heart rate and mean blood pressure did not change during tilting, while the peripheral resistance increased significantly mainly due to lowered limb blood flow. The median decrease of the heart rate during the cold face test was 20.0% and during laryngeal receptor stimulation 23.7%. The sudden noise usually caused a biphasic heart rate response. An autonomic nervous reflex score was calculated and found to be negative (parasympathetic) in infants with recurrent prolonged apnea and bradycardia and positive in infants with clinical signs of increased sympathetic nervous activity.
Corpeleijn, Willemijn E; Kouwenhoven, Stefanie M P; van Goudoever, Johannes B
The cause of growth restriction in preterm infants is multifactorial, but it has been estimated that about 50% of the variance in early postnatal growth can be attributed to nutrition. Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants who were born small-for-gestational age (SGA) seem to have the highest risk to become growth restricted. Possibly, the intrauterine growth-retarded preterm infant is metabolically different from its appropriately grown counterpart and therefore has different nutritional needs. Neonatal nutrition and the resulting postnatal growth are major determinants in the short- and long-term outcomes of preterm neonates. Although having favorable effects on neurodevelopmental outcome, rapid postnatal weight gain after a period of nutritional restriction is associated with the development of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in later life. It seems likely that minimization of postnatal growth failure will decrease the need for catch-up growth and thereby decrease the risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors. Monitoring postnatal growth with current growth charts is complicated. Most growth charts that are currently being used are a reflection of current (nutritional) practices and are not a prescription of how VLBW should grow under optimal conditions. In addition to body weight, other aspects of growth such as lean body mass and length gain should also be taken into account when assessing the quality of postnatal growth. Noninvasive measurements of infant body composition are useful tools in evaluating the success of different nutritional interventions. However, all currently available methods have substantial drawbacks. A relatively new and promising method is air displacement plethysmography. This method still needs to be validated in preterm neonates. In conclusion, neonatal nutrition is a major determinant in the short- and long-term outcomes of preterm neonates. Monitoring postnatal growth is complicated by the lack of prescriptive growth
Riese, Marilyn L.
Irritability levels and activity reactivity to aversive tactile stimuli were compared for 144 full-term neonates and 191 preterm infants. Irritability ratings increased across the five trials both during and post stimulation for full-term females and males and for preterm females, but not for preterm males. Activity ratings decreased across trials…
Behrendt, D; Dembinski, J; Heep, A; Bartmann, P
Objective: To assess serum concentrations of lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) in preterm infants with neonatal bacterial infection (NBI). Methods: Blood samples were analysed of 57 preterm (28+1 to 36+6, median 33+2 weeks gestation) and 17 term infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit within the first 72 hours of life with suspicion of NBI. Samples were obtained at first suspicion of sepsis and after 12 and 24 hours. Diagnosis of NBI was confirmed by raised concentrations of C reactive protein and/or interleukin 6. The influence of gestational age and labour was analysed. Results: Maximum LBP concentrations in infants with NBI were greatly increased compared with infants without NBI (13.0–46.0 µg/ml (median 20.0 µg/ml) v 0.6–17.4 µg/ml (median 4.2 µg/ml)). LBP concentrations in infected infants were not yet significantly raised when NBI was first suspected. The LBP concentrations of preterm infants were comparable to those of term infants. Regression analysis revealed no significant effect of labour or gestational age on LBP. Conclusions: Raised LBP concentrations indicate NBI in preterm and term infants. Preterm infants of > 28 weeks gestation seem to be capable of producing LBP as efficiently as term infants. Neonatal LBP concentrations are not influenced by labour. LBP may be a useful diagnostic marker of NBI in preterm infants. PMID:15499153
Stock, C; Veyrier, M; Magnin-Verschelde, S; Duband, S; Lavocat, M-P; Teyssier, G; Berthelot, P
Aspergillus is a ubiquitous fungus that can cause primary cutaneous aspergillosis in extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) neonates, then be invasive and lead to death. ELBW neonates are particularly at risk because of decreased qualitative immune defenses and defects in the skin barrier. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy and corticosteroids, often used in these patients, contribute to increased risk. We present a fatal case of primary cutaneous aspergillosis complicated with invasive aspergillosis, confirmed by autopsy, in an ELBW infant. The source of contamination was probably non-sterile disposable latex gloves used for neonatal care. The early recognition of this source led to its eviction for other hospitalized ELBW infants and no outbreak was observed.
The Baby Moves prospective cohort study protocol: using a smartphone application with the General Movements Assessment to predict neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 2 years for extremely preterm or extremely low birthweight infants
Olsen, J; Kwong, A; Doyle, LW; Marschik, PB; Einspieler, C; Cheong, JLY
Introduction Infants born extremely preterm (EP; <28 weeks' gestation) and/or with extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g birth weight) are at increased risk for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, it is challenging to predict those EP/ELBW infants destined to have long-term neurodevelopmental impairments in order to target early intervention to those in most need. The General Movements Assessment (GMA) in early infancy has high predictive validity for neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants. However, access to a GMA may be limited by geographical constraints and a lack of GMA-trained health professionals. Baby Moves is a smartphone application (app) developed for caregivers to video and upload their infant's general movements to be scored remotely by a certified GMA assessor. The aim of this study is to determine the predictive ability of using the GMA via the Baby Moves app for neurodevelopmental impairment in infants born EP/ELBW. Methods and analysis This prospective cohort study will recruit infants born EP/ELBW across the state of Victoria, Australia in 2016 and 2017. A control group of normal birth weight (>2500 g birth weight), term-born (≥37 weeks' gestation) infants will also be recruited as a local reference group. Parents will video their infant's general movements at two time points between 3 and 4 months' corrected age using the Baby Moves app. Videos will be scored by certified GMA assessors and classified as normal or abnormal. Parental satisfaction using the Baby Moves app will be assessed via survey. Neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years' corrected age includes developmental delay according to the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III and cerebral palsy diagnosis. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the Human Research and Ethics Committees at the Royal Children's Hospital, The Royal Women's Hospital, Monash Health and Mercy Health in Melbourne, Australia. Study findings will be
The fundamental principle underlying nutritional support is that intake meets needs thereby ensuring the best outcome, which, in the case of the preterm infant, is optimal growth and development. Achieving this goal is problematic. Most, if not all, very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) are undernourished and under-grown when they are first discharged from the hospital. This has important implications for the nutritional care of preterm, particularly the breast-fed, VLBWI after hospital discharge.
Survival of preterm infants, which increased dramatically during the years after the introduction of neonatal intensive care, reached a plateau in the mid- to late 1990s. Neonatal morbidity, which increased initially, has decreased since 2000 and resulted in a decrease in the rates of cerebral palsy. Follow-up of preterm infants to early childhood and school age reveals higher rates of asthma, cerebral palsy, subnormal cognitive function, poorer academic achievement, and behavioral problems. Although many of the problems persist into adulthood, preterm survivors regard their overall health and quality of life similar to that of normal birth weight controls.
Stempniewicz, Krzysztof; Walas, Wojciech; Gregorek-Pełka, Edyta; Kamińska, Ewa
In recent years, despite of significant progress in the treatment of premature infants with extremely low body weight, still a significant problem remains severe, treatment-resistant generalized infections among which the percentage of fungal infections is increasing. The invasive candidiasis, especially caused by non-albicans species of Candida, are of particular importance. In the case of resistance on fluconazole and amphotericin B the use of echinocandin drug may be a useful choice. This paper reviews the pharmacokinetics of caspofungin in neonates and children, as well as the case reports and clinical trials on the use of caspofungin in neonates, including the premature infants. We describe also the premature neonate with low birth weight and a generalized infection caused by Candida glabrata, where, despite of the treatment based on the sensitivity of the fungus it did not achieve clinical improvement and sterilization of cultures. It was not until the lead-in of caspofungin in dose 2 mg/kg/day allowed to cure the patient. There was a transient increase in the activity of aminotransferases and level of bilirubin as a complication of treatment. At the end of application of caspofungin the liver functions have been slowly normalized. Caspofungin appeared to be effective in the treatment of systemic fungal C. glabrata in premature neonate with extremely low birth weight. Echinocandins, including caspofungin, appear to be a promising alternative to previously used agents in the treatment of invasive Candida infections in newborns. However, the further randomized trials on the use of caspofungin in preterm neonates, regarding long term follow-up, should be undertaken.
Brown, Josephine V.; Bakeman, Roger; Coles, Claire D.; Sexson, William R.; Demi, Alice S.
Examined effects of prenatal drug exposure on infants born preterm and full-term to African American mothers. Found more extreme fetal growth deficits in later-born infants, and more extreme irritability increases in earlier-born infants. Gestation length did not moderate cardiorespiratory reactivity effects. Exposure effects occurred for…
Hay, William W Jr
The goal of nutrition of the preterm infant is to meet the growth rate of the healthy fetus of the same gestational age and to produce the same body composition of the healthy fetus in terms of organ growth, tissue components, and cell number and structure. Nutritional quantity and quality are fundamental for normal growth and development of preterm infants, including neurodevelopmental outcomes. Failure to provide the necessary amounts of all of the essential nutrients has produced not only growth failure, but also increased morbidity and less than optimal neurodevelopment. Growth velocities during the NICU hospitalization period for preterm infants exert a significant effect on neurodevelopmental and anthropometric outcomes. Despite the obvious need for optimal nutrition, growth failure is almost universal among preterm infants. There is every reason, therefore, to optimize nutrition of the preterm infant, in terms of total energy and protein, but also in terms of individual components such as amino acids, specific carbohydrates and lipids, and even oxygen. This review presents scientific rationale for nutrient requirements and practical guidelines and approaches to intravenous and enteral feeding for preterm infants. Intravenous feeding, including amino acids, should be started right after birth at rates that are appropriate for the gestational age of the infant. Enteral feeding should be started as soon as possible after birth, using mother's colostrum and milk as first choices. Enteral feeding should begin with trophic amounts and advanced as rapidly as tolerated, decreasing IV nutrition accordingly, while maintaining nutrient intakes at recommended rates. Feeding protocols are valuable for improving nutrition and related outcomes. Further research is needed to determine the optimal nutrition and rate of growth in preterm infants that will achieve optimal neurocognitive benefits while minimizing the longer-term risk of chronic diseases.
Manzoni, P; Rizzollo, S; Monetti, C; Carbonara, C; Priolo, C; Mastretta, E; Barberis, L; Galletto, P; Cigna, P; Leonessa, M L; Sala, U; Gomirato, G; Mostert, M; Stronati, M; Ruffinazzi, G; Tzialla, C; Jacqz-Aigrain, E; Kaguelidou, F; Farina, D
Invasive disseminated neonatal aspergillosis is an uncommon disease, with only scattered reports in literature in the last few years. Here we report on a 25-week gestational age, 730 g at birth preterm female infant who developed on day-of-life 10 multiple cutaneous exhulcerative lesions in her right arm, trunk and abdomen. Early recognition and diagnosis of these lesions as a due to cutaneous initial symptom of cutaneous disseminated aspergillosis, as well as prompt treatment with Liposomal amphotericin B + Itraconazole, secured successful recovery from the systemic infection. Skin lesions healed without any surgical treatment. The infant was discharged in good health. Long-term follow-up at three years of age revealed normality of all neurodevelopmental and cognitive parameters. To our knowledge, this is one of the very few cases of survival, free from sequelae, for a preterm infant affected by neonatal cutaneous disseminated aspergillosis.
Butler, Samantha C; O'Sullivan, Laura P; Shah, Bhavesh L; Berthier, Neil E
The current study explores the effects of exposure to maternal voice on infant sucking in preterm infants. Twenty-four preterm infants averaging 35 weeks gestational age were divided randomly into two groups. A contingency between high-amplitude sucking and presentation of maternal voice was instituted for one group while the other group served as a yoked control. No significant differences were observed in sucking of the two groups, but the degree of pitch modulation of the maternal voice predicted an increase in the rate of infant sucking.
Glass, Hannah C; Costarino, Andrew T; Stayer, Stephen A; Brett, Claire M; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J
Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for 7 years and is now approximately 11.39%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23 to 24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal estimated date of confinement. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (<1000 g) remain at high risk for death and disability with 30% to 50% mortality and, in survivors, at least 20% to 50% risk of morbidity. The introduction of continuous positive airway pressure, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91% and 95% (compared with 85%-89%) avoids excess mortality; however, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending. The development of neonatal neurocritical intensive care units may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow-up to detect and address
Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.
Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (< 1000 grams) remain at high risk for death and disability with 30–50% mortality and, in survivors, at least 20–50% risk of morbidity. The introduction of CPAP, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for
Davis, N. M.; Ford, G. W.; Anderson, P. J.; Doyle, L. W.
The aims of this study were to determine the motor outcome of extremely-low-birthweight (ELBW; less than 1000g) or very preterm (less than 28wks) children compared with normal birthweight (NBW) children, to establish the perinatal associations of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and its cognitive and behavioural consequences. Participants…
Bos, Arend F.; Roze, Elise
Aim: To determine the distribution of cognitive and motor scores in preterm children, and to establish the influence of brain lesions and decreasing gestational age thereon. Method: One hundred and six very preterm children (63 males, 43 females; gestational age 24.0-31.6wk; birthweight 480-2275g) were assessed for cognition and motor outcome at 6…
Barker, D P; Rutter, N
AIM: To determine physiological and hormonal stress responses in ventilated preterm infants. METHODS: Physiological and hormonal stress responses were studied in 47 ventilated preterm infants who were judged clinically to require sedation. The correlation between the stress response and severity of illness was examined, and responses were compared between infants with different clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Stress hormone concentrations were significantly correlated with severity of illness, assessed using the arterial: alveolar oxygen partial pressure ratio. Noradrenaline showed the strongest correlation, with an exponential pattern of increased secretion. Catecholamine concentrations before sedation were significantly higher among infants who subsequently died (n = 15, at a median age of 6 days) than among survivors: median noradrenaline 4.31 vs 2.16 nmol/l, median adrenaline 0.69 vs 0.31 nmol/l. The observed fall in noradrenaline with sedation was lower among those who died than survivors (median fall 2% vs 40%). CONCLUSION: Preterm infants are capable of hormonal stress responses appropriate for the severity of their illness. Extreme catecholamine responses, in the sickest infants, are associated with the worst outcome. PMID:8976685
Ambrósio, Cristiane Ribeiro; Sanudo, Adriana; de Almeida, Maria Fernanda Branco; Guinsburg, Ruth
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the present study was to examine the decisions of pediatricians who teach neonatal resuscitation in Brazil, particularly those who start resuscitation in the delivery room for newborns born at 23-26 gestational weeks. METHODS: The present study was a cross-sectional study that used electronic questionnaires (Dec/11-Sep/13) sent to instructors of the Neonatal Resuscitation Program of the Brazilian Society of Pediatrics. The primary outcome was the gestational age at which the respondent said that he/she would initiate positive pressure ventilation in the delivery room. Latent class analysis was used to identify the major profiles of these instructors, and logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with belonging to one of the derived classes. RESULTS: Of 685 instructors, 82% agreed to participate. Two latent classes were identified: ‘pro-resuscitation' (instructors with a high probability of performing ventilation on infants born at 23-26 weeks) and ‘pro-limitation' (instructors with a high probability of starting ventilation only for infants born at 25-26 weeks). In the multivariate model, compared with the ‘pro-limitation' class, ‘pro-resuscitation' pediatricians were more likely to be board-certified neonatologists and less likely to base their decision on the probability of the infant's death or on moral/religious considerations. CONCLUSION: The pediatricians in the most aggressive group were more likely to be specialists in neonatology and to use less subjective criteria to make delivery room decisions. PMID:27166771
Talmi, Ayelet; Harmon, Robert J.
The birth and hospitalization of a preterm infant have powerful effects on the emerging parent-infant relationship. Characteristics of parents, infant factors, and factors in the hospital and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) environments--in addition to the circumstances surrounding preterm birth--may disrupt parent-infant relationships.…
Soares, Daniele de Almeida; von Hofsten, Claes; Tudella, Eloisa
Exploratory behaviors of 9 late preterm infants and 10 full-term infants were evaluated longitudinally at 5, 6 and 7 months of age. Eight exploratory behaviors were coded. The preterm infants mouthed the object less and had delayed gains in Waving compared to the full-term infants.
Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria
In this paper, preterm infant massage therapy studies are reviewed. Massage therapy has led to weight gain in preterm infants when moderate pressure massage was provided. In studies on passive movement of the limbs, preterm infants also gained significantly more weight, and their bone density also increased. Research on ways of delivering the massage is also explored including using mothers versus therapists and the added effects of using oils. The use of mothers as therapists was effective in at least one study. The use of oils including coconut oil and safflower oil enhanced the average weight gain, and the transcutaneous absorption of oil also increased triglycerides. In addition, the use of synthetic oil increased vagal activity, which may indirectly contribute to weight gain. The weight gain was associated with shorter hospital stays and, thereby, significant hospital cost savings. Despite these benefits, preterm infant massage is only practiced in 38% of neonatal intensive care units. This may relate to the underlying mechanisms not being well understood. The increases noted in vagal activity, gastric motility, insulin and IGF-1 levels following moderate pressure massage are potential underlying mechanisms. However, those variables combined do not explain all of the variance in weight gain, highlighting the need for additional mechanism studies.
Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry
Previous work has shown that preterm infants are at higher risk for cognitive/language delays than full-term infants. Recent studies, focusing on prosody (i.e. rhythm, intonation), have suggested that prosodic perception development in preterms is indexed by maturational rather than postnatal/listening age. However, because prosody is heard in-utero, and preterms thus lose significant amounts of prenatal prosodic experience, both their maturation level and their prosodic experience (listening age) are shorter than that of full-terms for the same postnatal age. This confound does not apply to the acquisition of phonetics/phonotactics (i.e. identity and order of consonants/vowels), given that consonant differences in particular are only perceived after birth, which could lead to a different developmental pattern. Accordingly, we explore the possibility that consonant-based phonotactic perception develops according to listening age. Healthy French-learning full-term and preterm infants were tested on the perception of consonant sequences in a behavioral paradigm. The pattern of development for full-term infants revealed that 7-month-olds look equally at labial-coronal (i.e. /pat/) compared to coronal-labial sequences (i.e. /tap/), but that 10-month-olds prefer the labial-coronal sequences that are more frequent in the French lexicon. Preterm 10-month-olds (having 10 months of phonetic listening experience but 7 months of maturational age) behaved as full-term 10-month-olds. These results establish that preterm developmental timing for consonant-based phonotactic acquisition is based on listening age (experience with input). This questions the interpretation of previous results on prosodic acquisition in terms of maturational constraints, and raises the possibility that different constraints apply to the acquisition of different phonological subcomponents.
Bertino, Enrico; Di Nicola, Paola; Giuliani, Francesca; Coscia, Alessandra; Varalda, Alessia; Occhi, Luciana; Rossi, Claudia
The past two decades have seen a progressive improvement in the survival rates of preterm infants, especially in neonates <30 weeks of gestational age. These neonates constitute the large majority of the population in neonatal intensive care units. The correct evaluation of postnatal growth of these babies is nowadays of primary concern, although the definition of their optimal postnatal growth pattern is still controversial. Concerns have also been raised about the strategies to monitor their growth, specifically in relation to the charts used. At present the available charts in clinical practice are fetal growth charts, neonatal anthropometric charts and postnatal growth charts for term infants. None of these, for different reasons, is suitable to correctly evaluate preterm infant growth. An international multicentric project has recently started a study aiming at building a prescriptive standard for the evaluation of postnatal growth of preterm infants and it will be available in the next years providing a population that is conceptually as close as possible to the prescriptive approach used for the construction of the WHO infant and child growth standards. At present, while an international longitudinal standard for evaluating preterm infant postnatal growth is lacking, in Italy the best compromise in clinical practice is likely to be as follows: new Italian INeS (Italian Neonatal Study) charts up to term; International longitudinal charts WHO 2006 or CDC 2002 from term to two years; finally the Italian Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes (SIEDP) 2006 growth charts could be suitable for monitoring the growth of these infants from two years up to 20 years of age.
Hoskyns, E W; Milner, A D; Boon, A W; Vyas, H; Hopkin, I E
The adequacy of initial ventilation in 21 preterm babies (25-36 weeks' gestation), who required endotracheal intubation and positive pressure ventilation, were studied. Pressure and flow were measured at the proximal end of the endotracheal intubation tube and expiratory volume calculated from the flow trace. The results were compared with those from a group of 26 term infants who also required resuscitation. Five of 21 preterm babies (24%) had adequate tidal ventilation with the first inflation. This rose to seven of 21 (33%) by the third inflation. This was significantly less than the results in the term infants (chi 2 = 4.38 p less than 0.05). Respiratory reflex responses to resuscitation were seen in 41% of inflations in preterm and 56% of inflations in term infants. There was a significant correlation between reflex activity and adequate ventilation in the preterm group (chi 2 = 11.83, p less than 0.001) but not in the term group (chi 2 = 0.212, p = NS). No correlation was seen between initial ventilation and outcome.
Torres-Cuevas, Isabel; Cernada, Maria; Nuñez, Antonio; Escobar, Javier; Kuligowski, Julia; Chafer-Pericas, Consuelo; Vento, Maximo
Fetal life elapses in a relatively low oxygen environment. Immediately after birth with the initiation of breathing, the lung expands and oxygen availability to tissue rises by twofold, generating a physiologic oxidative stress. However, both lung anatomy and function and the antioxidant defense system do not mature until late in gestation, and therefore, very preterm infants often need respiratory support and oxygen supplementation in the delivery room to achieve postnatal stabilization. Notably, interventions in the first minutes of life can have long-lasting consequences. Recent trials have aimed to assess what initial inspiratory fraction of oxygen and what oxygen targets during this transitional period are best for extremely preterm infants based on the available nomogram. However, oxygen saturation nomogram informs only of term and late preterm infants but not on extremely preterm infants. Therefore, the solution to this conundrum may still have to wait before a satisfactory answer is available. PMID:27148504
Wallenstein, Matthew B; Bhutani, Vinod K
Moderate preterm infants remain at increased risk for adverse outcomes, including acute bilirubin encephalopathy (ABE). Evidence-based guidelines for management of hyperbilirubinemia in preterm infants less than 35 weeks' gestational age are not yet optimized. High concentrations of unconjugated bilirubin can cause permanent posticteric neurologic sequelae (kernicterus). Clinical manifestations of ABE in preterm infants are similar to, but often more subtle than, those of term infants. This review outlines clinical strategies to operationalize management of hyperbilirubinemia in moderately preterm infants to meet recently published consensus-based recommendations.
Bone health is a critical concern in managing preterm infants. Key nutrients of importance are calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorus. Although human milk is critical for the health of preterm infants, it is low in these nutrients relative to the needs of the infants during growth. Strategies should be ...
Preterm birth affects about 10% of infants born in the United States. Massage therapy is being used in some neonatal intensive care units for its potential beneficial effects on preterm infants. This article reviews published randomized controlled trials on the effects of massage in preterm infants. Most studies evaluating the effect of massage in weight gain in premature infants suggest a positive effect on weight gain. Increase in vagal tone has been reported in infants who receive massage and has been suggested as a possible mechanism for improved weight gain. More studies are needed on the underlying mechanisms of the effects of massage therapy on weight gain in preterm infants. While some trials suggest improvements in developmental scores, decreased stress behavior, positive effects on immune system, improved pain tolerance and earlier discharge from the hospital, the number of such studies is small and further evidence is needed. Further studies, including randomized controlled trials, are needed on the effects of massage in preterm infants.
Santos, Hudson; Levy, Janet; White-Traut, Rosemary; O’Shea, T. Michael; Geraldo, Victoria; David, Richard
Mothers of preterm infants experience significant psychological distress, with elevated levels of inter-correlated depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms. In a sample of racially and ethnically diverse mothers of preterm infants, we identified differing patterns of psychological distress during infant hospitalization and examined the effect of these psychological distress patterns on longitudinal trajectories of each psychological distress measure and on maternal perceptions of the child over the first year of the infant’s life. Mothers of preterm infants (N = 232) completed five questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms, anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, stress due to infant appearance, and stress due to parental role alteration during enrollment in the neonatal hospitalization, discharge, and at 2, 6, and 12 months of age adjusted for prematurity. Latent class analysis on the enrollment psychological distress variables allowed us to identify five sub-groups of mothers exhibiting similar patterns of psychological distress, differing primarily in degree and type: low distress, moderate distress, high NICU-related distress, high depressive and anxiety symptoms, and extreme distress. These classes continued to show different longitudinal trajectories for the psychological distress measures through 12 months corrected age. Mothers in the extreme distress class and, to a lesser degree, mothers in the high depressive and anxiety symptom class remained at risk of significant psychological distress one year after discharge and had less positive perceptions of their child (greater worry and higher perceptions of child vulnerability). In conclusion, distinctive subgroups of mothers during hospitalization had different patterns of psychological distress throughout the 12-month period and may require different interventions in the NICU. PMID:26495909
Radmacher, Paula G; Adamkin, David H
Human milk is the preferred feeding for all infants, including those of very low birth weight (<1500 g). It has both nutritional and anti-infective properties which are especially important for infants at risk for sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. When maternal milk is not available or the amount produced is not sufficient to meet daily needs, donor human milk may (should) be used in its place. However, donor human milk is generally term in quality and likely has insufficient protein to promote appropriate growth. Whether donor or mother's own milk, fortification of human milk is required to meet nutrient requirements for growth and development for these preterm infants who are at high risk for growth faltering during the hospital stay. There are multiple strategies and products that may be employed to support desired growth rates. The advent of human milk analyzers may be helpful in a more customized approach to fortification.
Leib, Susan A.; And Others
To test the hypothesis that early intervention can enhance the development of high risk preterm infants, a prescribed multimodal sensory enrichment program, within a regional neonatal intensive care unit, was designed and implemented with 28 preterm infants. Journal Availability: American Academy of Pediatrics, P.O. Box 1034, Evanston, IL 60204…
Simayijiang, Zhayida; Backman, Sofia; Ulén, Johannes; Wikström, Sverre; Åstrom, Kalle
In this paper, we study machine learning techniques and features of electroencephalography activity bursts for predicting outcome in extremely preterm infants. It was previously shown that the distribution of interburst interval durations predicts clinical outcome, but in previous work the information within the bursts has been neglected. In this paper, we perform exploratory analysis of feature extraction of burst characteristics and use machine learning techniques to show that such features could be used for outcome prediction. The results are promising, but further verification in larger datasets is needed to obtain conclusive results.
Semberova, J; O'Donnell, S M; Franta, J; Miletin, J
The available evidence does not support the routine use of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in the care of premature infants. We present a case series of 22 preterm infants born after prolonged preterm premature rupture of membranes and oligohydramnios with respiratory failure. Oxygenation index decreased significantly after commencement of iNO.
van Tilborg, Erik; Heijnen, Cobi J; Benders, Manon J; van Bel, Frank; Fleiss, Bobbi; Gressens, Pierre; Nijboer, Cora H
Preterm birth is an evolving challenge in neonatal health care. Despite declining mortality rates among extremely premature neonates, morbidity rates remain very high. Currently, perinatal diffuse white matter injury (WMI) is the most commonly observed type of brain injury in preterm infants and has become an important research area. Diffuse WMI is associated with impaired cognitive, sensory and psychological functioning and is increasingly being recognized as a risk factor for autism-spectrum disorders, ADHD, and other psychological disturbances. No treatment options are currently available for diffuse WMI and the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are far from being completely understood. Preterm birth is associated with maternal inflammation, perinatal infections and disrupted oxygen supply which can affect the cerebral microenvironment by causing activation of microglia, astrogliosis, excitotoxicity, and oxidative stress. This intricate interplay of events negatively influences oligodendrocyte development, causing arrested oligodendrocyte maturation or oligodendrocyte cell death, which ultimately results in myelination failure in the developing white matter. This review discusses the current state in perinatal WMI research, ranging from a clinical perspective to basic molecular pathophysiology. The complex regulation of oligodendrocyte development in healthy and pathological conditions is described, with a specific focus on signaling cascades that may play a role in WMI. Furthermore, emerging concepts in the field of WMI and issues regarding currently available animal models are put forward. Novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying impeded oligodendrocyte maturation in diffuse WMI may aid the development of novel treatment options which are desperately needed to improve the quality-of-life of preterm neonates.
Tudehope, David I
Key principles underpinning feeding guidelines for preterm infants include support for developmental care, breastfeeding, milk expression, and creating feeding plans. Early trophic feeding with colostrum and transitional milk improves immune protection and promotes gut maturation. Studies of preterm infants demonstrate that feeding mother's milk (MM) decreases the incidence of infection and necrotizing enterocolitis and improves neurodevelopmental outcome but may decrease ponderal and linear growth. Standard practice in neonatal units is to promote mother's own milk as the feed of choice for all infants. However, it is not feasible or prudent to do so for all preterm infants. Mothers of preterm infants have lower rates of successful breastfeeding compared with those of term infants. MM can contain harmful bacterial or viral pathogens. Although preterm human milk (HM) contains higher concentrations of protein, sodium, zinc, and calcium than mature HM, it falls short of supplying adequate quantities of nutrients required by preterm infants. Therefore, HM supplemented with nutrients is recommended for all infants born before 32 weeks gestation and for certain infants born at 32-36 weeks of gestation. HM is the preferred feed, but preterm formula is an appropriate option when there is an inadequate supply of MM.
Modrcin-Talbott, Mary Anne; Harrison, Lynda Law; Groer, Maureen W; Younger, Mary Sue
This study examined the physiological and behavioral effects of a gentle human touch nursing intervention on medically fragile preterm infants (27 to 32 weeks gestational age). The Roy adaptation model of nursing was the framework for the study. The results of this study suggest that the immediate and short-term effects of a gentle human touch nursing intervention were not aversive or stressful to preterm infants of 27 to 32 weeks gestational age; furthermore, the findings document several positive, beneficial behavioral effects of the intervention on preterm infants and indicate this type of touching may be appropriate for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit.
Holditch-Davis, Diane; Miles, Margaret Shandor; Weaver, Mark A.; Black, Beth; Beeber, Linda; Thoyre, Suzanne; Engelke, Stephen
Objective To examine inter-relationships among stress due to infant appearance and behavior in the NICU, parental role alteration stress in the NICU, depressive symptoms, state anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, and daily hassles exhibited by African American mothers of preterm infants and to determine whether there were sub-groups of mothers based on patterns of psychological distress. Method 177 African American mothers completed questionnaires on their psychological distress at enrollment during infant hospitalization and 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after term. Results Psychological distress measures were inter-correlated. There were four latent classes of mothers: the low distress class with low scores on all measures; the high NICU-related stress class with high infant appearance and parental role stress and moderate scores on other measures; the high depressive symptoms class with high depressive symptoms and state anxiety and moderately elevated scores on NICU-related stress and post-traumatic stress symptoms; the extreme distress class with the highest means on all measures. Infants in the high stress class were sicker than infants in the other classes. The extreme distress class mothers averaged the lowest educational level. The classes differed on distress measures, worry about the child, and parenting stress through 24 months with the extreme distress class having the highest values. Conclusion Although different types of maternal psychological distress were substantially related, there were distinct sub-groups of mothers that were identifiable in the NICU. Moreover, these sub-groups continued to differ on trajectories of distress and on their perceptions of the infants and parenting through 24 months after term. PMID:19412125
Bulut, Cahide; Gürsoy, Tuğba; Ovalı, Fahri
Background: Late preterm infants have increased rates of morbidity and mortality compared to term infants. Determining the risk factors in these infants leads to more comprehensive preventive and treatment strategies. Aims: Our aim was to analyse the morbidity rates such as respiratory system diseases, infections, congenital anomalies, hypoglycemia and hematologic abnormalities and mortality rates in a large group of patients at a referral center. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: Medical records of late preterm and term infants who were managed at the referral center were analysed. Results: 41752 births were analysed in 3 years. 71.9% of all births were between 37–42 gestational weeks (i.e. term) and 16.1% were between 34–37 weeks (i.e. late preterm). Compared to term infants, late preterm infants had increased rates of short-term problems. The rate of mortality increased with decreased gestational age. The duration of hospitalization was significantly higher in the smallest late preterm infants. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the need that late preterm infants who have higher risk for morbidity and mortality, compared to term infants require close monitoring. The rate of mortality and hospitalization increased with decreased gestational age. PMID:27403390
Héon, Marjolaine; Goulet, Céline; Garofalo, Carole; Nuyt, Anne Monique; Levy, Emile
A pilot study was conducted to estimate the effects of a breast milk expression education and support intervention on breast milk production outcomes in mothers of very and extremely preterm infants. Forty mothers of hospitalized preterm infants (<30 weeks of gestation) were randomized to the experimental intervention or standard care for 6 weeks. Duration and frequency of breast milk expressions and volume of expressed breast milk were measured daily. Samples of breast milk were collected thrice during the study and analyzed for their lipid concentration. Mothers in the experimental group had a statistically significant higher duration of breast milk expression in min/day (p= .043). Differences observed between the two groups regarding the frequency of breast milk expression, volume of breast milk, and lipid concentration were not statistically significant. Results suggest that the experimental intervention may promote breast milk production in mothers of very and extremely preterm infants.
Nitric oxide, an important signaling molecule with multiple regulatory effects throughout the body, is an important tool for the treatment of full-term and late-preterm infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn and hypoxemic respiratory failure. Several randomized controlled trials have evaluated its role in the management of preterm infants ≤ 34 weeks' gestational age with varying results. The purpose of this clinical report is to summarize the existing evidence for the use of inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants and provide guidance regarding its use in this population.
Abrams, Steven A
Bone health is a critical concern in managing preterm infants. Key nutrients of importance are calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorus. Although human milk is critical for the health of preterm infants, it is low in these nutrients relative to the needs of the infants during growth. Strategies should be in place to fortify human milk for preterm infants with birth weight <1800 to 2000 g and to ensure adequate mineral intake during hospitalization and after hospital discharge. Biochemical monitoring of very low birth weight infants should be performed during their hospitalization. Vitamin D should be provided at 200 to 400 IU/day both during hospitalization and after discharge from the hospital. Infants with radiologic evidence of rickets should have efforts made to maximize calcium and phosphorus intake by using available commercial products and, if needed, direct supplementation with these minerals.
Jefferies, Ann L
Kangaroo care (KC) is the practice of skin-to-skin contact between infant and parent. In developing countries, KC for low-birthweight infants has been shown to reduce mortality, severe illness, infection and length of hospital stay. KC is also beneficial for preterm infants in high-income countries. Cardiorespiratory and temperature stability, sleep organization and duration of quiet sleep, neurodevelopmental outcomes, breastfeeding and modulation of pain responses appear to be improved for preterm infants who have received KC during their hospital stay. No detrimental effects on physiological stability have been demonstrated for infants as young as 26 weeks' gestational age, including those on assisted ventilation. Mothers show enhanced attachment behaviours and describe an increased sense of their role as a mother. The practice of KC should be encouraged in nurseries that care for preterm infants. Information is available to assist in developing guidelines and protocols.
Nakanishi, H; Uchiyama, A; Kusuda, S
Objectives: To evaluate the impact of pulmonary hypertension (PH) on long-term growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Study Design: A single-center retrospective cohort of preterm infants born at <28 weeks gestational age from 2000 to 2011 was evaluated at 3 years of age. Growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes were compared among 3 groups: non-BPD, BPD without PH and BPD with PH. BPD was defined according to oxygen demand at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. PH was diagnosed by echocardiography during the neonatal intensive care unit stay. Results: Sixty-two infants without BPD, 60 with BPD without PH and 20 with BPD with PH were analyzed. Regardless of PH status, somatic growth was smaller in both BPD groups of infants than in non-BPD infants, with further reduction in the group having BPD with PH. Furthermore, a developmental quotient of <70 was more prevalent in the BPD infants with PH than in the BPD infants without PH (odds ratio (OR): 4.37; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.16 to 16.5). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that BPD with PH was one of the independent perinatal risk factors for developmental quotient <70 at 3 years of age (OR: 4.94, 95% confidence interval: 1.06 to 24.1). Conclusion: PH had an additional negative effect on long-term growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely preterm infants with BPD. PMID:27442157
Dempsey, Eugene M.
Whilst the prevalence of low blood pressure in preterm infants seems to have fallen over the last number of years, the problem is still frequently encountered in the neonatal intensive care unit and many babies continue to receive intervention. Great variability in practice persists, with a significant number of extremely low gestational age newborns in some institutions receiving some form of intervention, and in other units substantially less. A great degree of this variability relates to the actual criteria used to define hypotension, with some using blood pressure values alone to direct therapy and others using a combination of clinical, biochemical and echocardiography findings. The choice of intervention remains unresolved with the majority of centres continuing to administer volume followed by dopamine as a first line inotrope/vasopressor agent. Despite over 40 years of use there is little evidence that dopamine is of benefit both in the short term and long-term. Long-term follow up is available in only two randomised trials, which included a total of 99 babies. An under recognized problem relates to the administration of inotrope infusions in very preterm infants. There are no pediatric specific inotrope formulations available and so risks of errors in preparation and administration remain. This manuscript outlines these challenges and proposes some potential solutions. PMID:27417363
Hay, William W; Hendrickson, Kendra C
Whereas human milk is the recommended diet for all infants, preterm formulas are indicated for enteral feeding of preterm very low birth weight infants when sufficient maternal breast milk and donor human milk are not available. Feeding with preterm formulas helps to ensure consistent delivery of nutrients. The balance of risks and benefits of feeding preterm formulas versus supplemented maternal and donor breast milk for preterm infants, however, is uncertain. Numerous studies and extensive practice have shown improved growth with preterm formulas, but there is concern for increased risks of necrotizing enterocolitis, possibly from cow milk antigen in the formulas or from different gut microbiomes, increased duration of total parenteral nutrition, and increased rates of sepsis in infants receiving preterm formulas. Furthermore, whereas preterm formulas improve neurodevelopmental outcomes compared to term formulas and unfortified donor milk, they do not produce neurodevelopmental outcomes better than fortified human milk, again indicating that maternal milk has unique properties that formulas need to mimic as closely as possible.
McMullen, Sherri L; Carey, Mary G
The purpose of this secondary analysis was to determine what factors predict the transition of preterm infants to the supine sleep position prior to hospital discharge (N = 286). The supine position reduces the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. Factors found to predict a greater than 1-week transition to the supine sleep position were hospital policy (P < .001), gestational age (P < .001), and birth weight (P < .01). Transition to the supine position during hospitalization potentially reduces the risk of preterm infants being placed in nonsupine positions after hospitalization and, ultimately, the risk of untimely death by sudden infant death syndrome.
Rythén, Marianne; Niklasson, Aimon; Hellström, Ann; Hakeberg, Magnus; Robertson, Agneta
Children born extremely preterm often suffer from medical complications that have been shown to affect their oral health as toddlers and school children.The aim of this study was to investigate oral health and possible risk indicators for poor oral health in adolescents born extremely preterm compared with a control group and relate the findings to medical diagnoses at the clinical examination. Also in the same groups, compare the frequency of mineralization disturbances and its relation to postnatal morbidity and treatments. The medical records postnatally,was noted in 45 extremely preterm infants with a gestational age (GA) of <29 weeks, at 12 - 16 years of age and in age and gender matched fullterm controls with 37-43 weeks GA. A dental clinical examination was performed including a salivary examination. Medical diagnoses were noted at the time of the survey. Data from the patient dental records at 3, 6, and 9 years of age was compiled. The findings were related to gestational age, birth weight, neonatal and postnatal medical diagnoses treatments and medical diagnoses at the clinical examination. The result showed that the prevalence of plaque, gingivitis and the occurrence of Streptococcus mutans were higher among adolescents born extremely preterm compared to matched controls, and the saliva secretion was lower in the extremely preterm infants. The frequency of caries did not differ between the groups. Mineralization disturbances were more frequent in the primary dentition and more severe in the permanent dentition among the children born extremely preterm. No association between dental pathology, neonatal and postnatal morbidity and treatments was found. In conclusion, adolescents born extremely preterm have an increased number of risk indicators for a poorer oral outcome compared with the controls and more severe mineralization disturbances. These findings may imply an increased vulnerability for poorer oral health later in life.
Petkovic, Maja; Chokron, Sylvie; Fagard, Jacqueline
The extent of and reasons for visuo-manual coordination deficits in moderate and late preterm born infants without neurological impairments are not well known. This paper presents a longitudinal study on the visuo-manual development of twelve preterm infants, born after 33-36 weeks of gestation without neurological complications, between the ages of 6 and 12 months. Visuo-manual integration and grasping were assessed using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, along with bimanual coordination and handedness tests. Visual function was examined once prior to the beginning of the study. Gross motor development was also evaluated every month. Preterm infants were compared to a control group of ten full-term infants according to corrected age. Compared to full-terms, the visual perception of preterm infants was close to normal, with only a measure of visual fixation lower than in full-terms. In contrast, preterm infants had delayed development of visuo-manual integration, grasping, bimanual coordination, and handedness even when compared using corrected age. Tonicity and gestational age at birth were the main variables associated to the delays. These results are discussed in terms of the possible factors underlying such delays. They need to be confirmed on a larger sample of preterm born children, and to be correlated with later development. This would allow developing markers of future neuropsychological impairments during childhood.
Kadam, Sandeep; Pandit, Anand; Patole, Sanjay
Introduction Early home discharge of preterm infants is a priority in developing countries due to bed shortage and poor socio-economic status. There is wide variation in home discharge policies for preterm infants. Limited data exists on optimal timing for discharging such infants. In view of the socio-economic and medico-legal importance of the issue, we aimed to study the outcomes of our ex-preterm infants discharged home ‘early’, to guide our clinical practice. Aim To study the rates of re-admissions/mortality within 4 weeks after discharge in preterm (born <34 weeks) infants. Materials and Methods This was an analysis of retrospectively collected data on all ex-preterm infants (gestation <34 weeks at birth) discharged home from our Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) during the study period. Infants enrolled were stratified based on their gestation age: Group I (n=54): 26-29 weeks, Group II (n=181): 30-34 weeks. Data on demographic characteristics, hospital course and outcomes were analysed for infants meeting inclusion criteria. Re-admission and/or mortality within 4 weeks after discharge were studied. Results The mean±(SD) duration of stay was 42±19 vs. 19±14 days in group I vs. II infants. Five (2.7%) infants were re-admitted within the first four weeks after discharge in group II; none in group I. Conclusion Early home discharge for preterm infants born <34 weeks was feasible and safe in our set-up. Large prospective studies are required to confirm these benefits. PMID:28208967
Petkovic, Maja; Rat-Fischer, Lauriane; Fagard, Jacqueline
Preterm born children without neurological impairments have been shown to present some visual-manual coordination deficits, more or less depending on their tonicity and the degree of prematurity. In this paper, we compare the development of tool use in 15–23-month-old preterm infants born after 33–36 weeks of gestation without neurological complications with that of full-term infants according to corrected age. Understanding the affordance of a tool is an important cognitive milestone in early sensorimotor period. Using a tool to bring within reach an out-of-reach object, for instance, has been shown to develop during the 2nd year in full-term infants. Here we presented preterm infants with an attractive toy out of reach and with a rake-like tool within reach in five conditions of spatial relationships between the toy and the tool. Like full-terms, preterm infants used the tool with success in conditions of spatial contiguity around 15–17 months. In conditions of a spatial gap between tool and toy, i.e., the only conditions which shows without ambiguity that the infant understands the affordance of the tool, preterm infants as a group showed no delay for tool use: the frequency of spontaneous successes started to increase after 18 months, and demonstration became effective after that age. However, further analyses showed that only the preterm infants without hypotonia and born after 36 weeks of pregnancy developed tool use without delay. Hypotonic preterm infants were still largely unsuccessful in the conditions of spatial gap, even at the end of the study. The degree of prematurity also influenced the performance at tool use. These results, following the observation of a delay in the development of bimanual coordination and of handedness in the same infants at 10–12 months in a previous study, show that low risk preterm infants can still be impaired for the development of new manual skills beyond the 1st year. Thus, hypotonic preterm infants and infants
Petkovic, Maja; Rat-Fischer, Lauriane; Fagard, Jacqueline
Preterm born children without neurological impairments have been shown to present some visual-manual coordination deficits, more or less depending on their tonicity and the degree of prematurity. In this paper, we compare the development of tool use in 15-23-month-old preterm infants born after 33-36 weeks of gestation without neurological complications with that of full-term infants according to corrected age. Understanding the affordance of a tool is an important cognitive milestone in early sensorimotor period. Using a tool to bring within reach an out-of-reach object, for instance, has been shown to develop during the 2nd year in full-term infants. Here we presented preterm infants with an attractive toy out of reach and with a rake-like tool within reach in five conditions of spatial relationships between the toy and the tool. Like full-terms, preterm infants used the tool with success in conditions of spatial contiguity around 15-17 months. In conditions of a spatial gap between tool and toy, i.e., the only conditions which shows without ambiguity that the infant understands the affordance of the tool, preterm infants as a group showed no delay for tool use: the frequency of spontaneous successes started to increase after 18 months, and demonstration became effective after that age. However, further analyses showed that only the preterm infants without hypotonia and born after 36 weeks of pregnancy developed tool use without delay. Hypotonic preterm infants were still largely unsuccessful in the conditions of spatial gap, even at the end of the study. The degree of prematurity also influenced the performance at tool use. These results, following the observation of a delay in the development of bimanual coordination and of handedness in the same infants at 10-12 months in a previous study, show that low risk preterm infants can still be impaired for the development of new manual skills beyond the 1st year. Thus, hypotonic preterm infants and infants born
Thoyre, Suzanne M.; Carlson, John R.
Background During the time when preterm infants' oral feeding skills are developing they often experience physiological instability and need assistance from caregivers to maintain adequate oxygenation. Assisting infants to maintain optimal oxygenation during oral feeding requires an understanding of how they express and aim to self-regulate their oxygen status. Aim The purpose of this study was to identify potential behavioural indicators of declining oxygenation during preterm infant early bottle-feeding. Method The design was explorative. Data were collected from a secondary analysis of 20 videotapes of preterm infant bottle feedings which included concurrent oxygen saturation data. In this analysis infant behaviours and quality of breathing were coded and compared across three periods: high oxygen saturation, immediately preceding an oxygen desaturation event, and during an oxygen desaturation event. Findings Infants gave limited behavioural indicators of declining oxygenation. Immediately prior to a desaturation event, they had an increase in eye flutter and were typically sucking and apnoeic. During a desaturation event, they typically relaxed their arms/hands and stopped sucking. Conclusions Reliance on preterm infant behavioural cues will be insufficient for detection of oxygen desaturation during oral feeding. Attention to changes in breath sounds and to the pattern of sucking are potentially important intervention strategies for the prevention of and appropriate response to oxygen decline during feeding. Sucking pauses may be a time when preterm infants aim to regulate their breathing pattern and thereby increase oxygenation. Interventions that focus on detection and minimization of apnoea during feeding, and which aim to protect infant sucking pauses, may reduce the number and severity of desaturation events preterm infants experience during bottle feeding. PMID:12950569
Shaw, Alexander G.; Sim, Kathleen; Wooldridge, David J.; Li, Ming-Shi; Gharbia, Saheer; Misra, Raju; Kroll, John Simon
Background Few studies have investigated the gut microbiome of infants, fewer still preterm infants. In this study we sought to quantify and interrogate the resistome within a cohort of premature infants using shotgun metagenomic sequencing. We describe the gut microbiomes from preterm but healthy infants, characterising the taxonomic diversity identified and frequency of antibiotic resistance genes detected. Results Dominant clinically important species identified within the microbiomes included C. perfringens, K. pneumoniae and members of the Staphylococci and Enterobacter genera. Screening at the gene level we identified an average of 13 antimicrobial resistance genes per preterm infant, ranging across eight different antibiotic classes, including aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones. Some antibiotic resistance genes were associated with clinically relevant bacteria, including the identification of mecA and high levels of Staphylococci within some infants. We were able to demonstrate that in a third of the infants the S. aureus identified was unrelated using MLST or metagenome assembly, but low abundance prevented such analysis within the remaining samples. Conclusions We found that the healthy preterm infant gut microbiomes in this study harboured a significant diversity of antibiotic resistance genes. This broad picture of resistances and the wider taxonomic diversity identified raises further caution to the use of antibiotics without consideration of the resident microbial communities. PMID:28149696
Brew, Nadine; Walker, David; Wong, Flora Y
Cerebrovascular lesions, mainly germinal matrix hemorrhage and ischemic injury to the periventricular white matter, are major causes of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants. Cerebrovascular lesions and neuromorbidity increase with decreasing gestational age, with the white matter predominantly affected. Developmental immaturity in the cerebral circulation, including ongoing angiogenesis and vasoregulatory immaturity, plays a major role in the severity and pattern of preterm brain injury. Prevention of this injury requires insight into pathogenesis. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is low in the preterm white matter, which also has blunted vasoreactivity compared with other brain regions. Vasoreactivity in the preterm brain to cerebral perfusion pressure, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and neuronal metabolism is also immature. This could be related to immaturity of both the vasculature and vasoactive signaling. Other pathologies arising from preterm birth and the neonatal intensive care environment itself may contribute to impaired vasoreactivity and ineffective CBF regulation, resulting in the marked variations in cerebral hemodynamics reported both within and between infants depending on their clinical condition. Many gaps exist in our understanding of how neonatal treatment procedures and medications have an impact on cerebral hemodynamics and preterm brain injury. Future research directions for neuroprotective strategies include establishing cotside, real-time clinical reference values for cerebral hemodynamics and vasoregulatory capacity and to demonstrate that these thresholds improve long-term outcomes for the preterm infant. In addition, stimulation of vascular development and repair with growth factor and cell-based therapies also hold promise.
A phase II randomized clinical trial on cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy plus a treatment guideline versus treatment as usual for extremely preterm infants during the first three days of life (SafeBoosC): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Background Every year in Europe about 25,000 infants are born extremely preterm. These infants have a 20% mortality rate, and 25% of survivors have severe long-term cerebral impairment. Preventative measures are key to reduce mortality and morbidity in an extremely preterm population. The primary objective of the SafeBoosC phase II trial is to examine if it is possible to stabilize the cerebral oxygenation of extremely preterm infants during the first 72 hours of life through the application of cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) oximetry and implementation of an clinical treatment guideline based on intervention thresholds of cerebral regional tissue saturation rStO2. Methods/Design SafeBoosC is a randomized, blinded, multinational, phase II clinical trial. The inclusion criteria are: neonates born more than 12 weeks preterm; decision to conduct full life support; parental informed consent; and possibility to place the cerebral NIRS oximeter within 3 hours after birth. The infants will be randomized into one of two groups. Both groups will have a cerebral oximeter monitoring device placed within three hours of birth. In the experimental group, the cerebral oxygenation reading will supplement the standard treatment using a predefined treatment guideline. In the control group, the cerebral oxygenation reading will not be visible and the infant will be treated according to the local standards. The primary outcome is the multiplication of the duration and magnitude of rStO2 values outside the target ranges of 55% to 85%, that is, the ‘burden of hypoxia and hyperoxia’ expressed in ‘%hours’. To detect a 50% difference between the experimental and control group in %hours, 166 infants in total must be randomized. Secondary outcomes are mortality at term date, cerebral ultrasound score, and interburst intervals on an amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram at 64 hours of life and explorative outcomes include neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years corrected
Liaw, Jen-Jiuan; Yang, Luke; Yuh, Yeong-Seng; Yin, Ti
Although medical advances have increased the survival rate of preterm infants, morbidity in terms of neurodevelopmental impairment has not decreased for this population. This results in caregivers having to reconsider how neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) caregiving impacts on preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different phases of a routine tub bath on preterm infants' distress and state behavior in the NICU. The study used an exploratory repeated measures design that focused on preterm infants' distress and state behavior, and evaluated the effects of three phases of a routine tub bath, which were performed according to standard unit practice in the NICU. Thirteen nurses repeatedly bathed 12 infants on different days, and 64 baths were videotaped for the purpose of assessing the variety of distress behavior. The procedures of one bath could be categorized into three phases designated to Phases I, II, and III. The variables were measured by a preterm infant behavioral coding scheme developed for this research. The inter-rater reliability of the instrument ranged from .82 to .99. Mixed effects analysis of variance was used to analyze the differences among the bath phases in the occurrences of distress and state behavior. The results showed significant statistical difference among most distress behaviors during the three phases (e.g. "startle, jerk, tremor" F ratio = 25.62, p < .001; "finger splay, grasping, fisting" F ratio = 49.99, p < .001; "grimace" F ratio = 36.55, p < .001; "fussing or crying" F ratio = 25.27, p < .001), with the exception of "extension, arching and squirming". In particular, the occurrence of distress and state behavior increased significantly in phase II. Routine tub bathing not only disrupts preterm infants' sleep but also causes an increase in distress behavior. Preterm infants' stress increases with the intrusiveness of nursing procedures. NICU caregivers should consider the effects of routine
Leadford, Alicia E.; Warren, Jamie B.; Manasyan, Albert; Chomba, Elwyn; Salas, Ariel A.; Schelonka, Robert
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hypothermia contributes to neonatal mortality and morbidity, especially in preterm and low birth weight infants in developing countries. Plastic bags covering the trunk and extremities of very low birth weight infants reduces hypothermia. This technique has not been studied in larger infants or in many resource-limited settings. The objective was to determine if placing preterm and low birth weight infants inside a plastic bag at birth maintains normothermia. METHODS: Infants at 26 to 36 weeks’ gestational age and/or with a birth weight of 1000 to 2500 g born at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia, were randomized by using a 1:1 allocation and parallel design to standard thermoregulation (blanket or radiant warmer) care or to standard thermoregulation care plus placement inside a plastic bag at birth. The primary outcome measure was axillary temperature in the World Health Organization–defined normal range (36.5–37.5°C) at 1 hour after birth. RESULTS: A total of 104 infants were randomized. At 1 hour after birth, infants randomized to plastic bag (n = 49) were more likely to have a temperature in the normal range as compared with infants in the standard thermoregulation care group (n = 55; 59.2% vs 32.7%; relative risk 1.81; 95% confidence interval 1.16–2.81; P = .007). The temperature at 1 hour after birth in the infants randomized to plastic bag was 36.5 ± 0.5°C compared with 36.1 ± 0.6°C in standard care infants (P < .001). Hyperthermia (>38.0°C) did not occur in any infant. CONCLUSIONS: Placement of preterm/low birth weight infants inside a plastic bag at birth compared with standard thermoregulation care reduced hypothermia without resulting in hyperthermia, and is a low-cost, low-technology tool for resource-limited settings. PMID:23733796
Borenstein-Levin, Liron; Koren, Ilana; Kugelman, Amir; Bader, David; Toropine, Arina; Riskin, Arieh
We present two cases of transient central diabetes insipidus in preterm neonates with post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Although the association between intraventricular hemorrhage and diabetes insipidus has been described in preterm infants, the association between diabetes insipidus and hydrocephalus, and the fact that such central diabetes insipidus could be reversible with the reduction of ventricular size, either because of spontaneous resolution or the placement of ventriculo-peritoneal shunt is first described here in neonates.
Moles, Laura; de Andrés, Javier; Montes, María Teresa; Rodríguez, Juan M.; Sáenz de Pipaón, Miguel; Espinosa-Martos, Irene
The preterm infant gut has been described as immature and colonized by an aberrant microbiota. Therefore, the use of probiotics is an attractive practice in hospitals to try to reduce morbidity and mortality in this population. The objective of this pilot study was to elucidate if administration of two probiotic strains isolated from human milk to preterm infants led to their presence in feces. In addition, the evolution of a wide spectrum of immunological compounds, including the inflammatory biomarker calprotectin, in both blood and fecal samples was also assessed. For this purpose, five preterm infants received two daily doses (~109 CFU) of a 1 : 1 mixture of Bifidobacterium breve PS12929 and Lactobacillus salivarius PS12934. Bacterial growth was detected by culture-dependent techniques in all the fecal samples. The phylum Firmicutes dominated in nearly all fecal samples while L. salivarius PS12934 was detected in all the infants at numerous sample collection points and B. breve PS12929 appeared in five fecal samples. Finally, a noticeable decrease in the fecal calprotectin levels was observed along time. PMID:25759843
Background The study deals with the characteristics of temperament of preterm infants during their preschool age in order to not only investigate likely "difficult or problematic profiles", guided by impairments driven by their preterm birth, but also to provide guidelines for the activation of interventions of prevention, functional to improve the quality of preterm infant's life. Methods The study involved a group of 105 children where 50 preterm children at the average age of 5 years and 2 months, enrolled in preschools of Palermo. The research planned the child reference teachers to be administered a specific questionnaire, the QUIT, made up of 60 items investigating six specific typical dimensions of temperament (Motor control activity - related to the ability of practicing motor control activity; Attention - related to the ability of guiding and keeping the focus of attention on a certain stimulus; Inhibition to novelty - regarding with emotional reactivity in front of environmental stimuli; Social orientation - meant in terms of attention and interest towards social stimuli; Positive and negative emotionality - regarding the tendency to mainly express positive or negative emotions. Results The results show in general how preschool-aged preterm infants, identified by such a study, compared with full-term children, are characterized by "normal" temperament based on a strong inclination and orientation in mainly expressing positive feelings. Yet, an impairment of the areas most relating to attention and motor control activity seems to emerge. Conclusions The data suggest specific interventions for preterm infant development and their reference systems and, at the same time, can guide paediatrician and neonatologist dealing with preterm infants, in focalizing and monitoring, even since health status assessments, specific areas of development that, since preschool age, can highlight the presence of real forerunners of maladjustments and likely configurations of
Duan, Jun; Kong, Xiangyong; Li, Qiuping; Hua, Shaodong; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Xiaoying; Feng, Zhichun
Anemia is commonly seen in preterm infants. It may reduce the capacity of hemoglobin to transport oxygen throughout the body and may result in tissue and organ dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate the effect of anemia on the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. 243 infants who were admitted to BaYi Children's Hospital Affiliated to Clinical Medical College in Beijing Military General Hospital with gestational age (GA) less than 32 weeks from February, 2014 to February, 2015 were included in the study. Maternal and infant data were recorded. Multivarariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between anemia and BPD. Of 243 preterm infants, the incidence of anemia was higher in BPD patients than non-BPD patients (p < 0.001). Mean Hct in BPD patients was lower than non-BPD patients at different time points in 1d, 7d, 14d, and 21d. Controlling for other confounding factors, early anemia was associated with an increased risk of BPD. Number of transfusions is also a significant risk factor for BPD (p = 0.001). Therefore, prevention and treatment of early anemia is necessary and reducing number of transfusions may reduce the incidence of BPD in preterm infants.
Bertino, E; Gilli, G; Occhi, L; Giuliani, F; Di Nicola, P; Spada, E; Fabris, C
Preterm Infants' survival has greatly increased in the last few decades thanks to the improvement in obstetrical and neonatal care. These neonates constitute the large majority of the population in neonatal intensive care units. The correct evaluation of postnatal growth of these babies is nowadays of primary concern, although the definition of their optimal postnatal growth pattern is still controversial. Concerns have also been raised about the strategies to monitor their growth,specifically in relation to the charts used. At present the available charts in clinical practice are fetal growth charts, neonatal anthropometric charts and postnatal growth charts for term infants. None of these, for different reasons, is suitable to correctly evaluate preterm infant growth. An international multicentric project has recently started a study aiming at building a prescriptive standard for the evaluation of postnatal growth of preterm infants and it will be available in the next years. At present, while an international longitudinal standard for evaluating preterm infant postnatal growth is lacking, in Italy the best compromise in clinical practice is likely to be as follows: new Italian INeS (Italian Neonatal Study) charts up to term; International longitudinal charts WHO 2006 or CDC 2002 from term to two years; finally, the Italian Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes (SIEDP) 2006 growth charts could be suitable for monitoring the growth of these infants from two years up to 20 years of age.
The mother's voice, along with other developmentally appropriate sensory events (ie, touch, light, smells), stimulates maturation of the sensory systems and helps shape normal fetal development. While vast changes in the neonatal intensive care unit have occurred over the last 2 decades, little research has addressed the loss of exposure to maternal voice for the preterm infant. To address this gap, we compared studies that directly investigated effects of exposure to maternal voice on preterm infants. Studies reviewed were conducted between 1972 and 2007. All presented recordings of maternal voice at sound levels above current recommendations, and few of the findings reached statistical significance. Some potentially positive developmental effects were indicated. Future study of the effects of exposure to maternal voice on preterm infants using recommended sound levels is needed.
Teeters, Angelique; Ammerman, Robert T.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Home visiting is 1 strategy to improve child health and parenting. Since implementation of home visiting trials 2 decades ago, US preterm births (<37 weeks) have risen by 20%. The objective of this study was to review evidence regarding home visiting and outcomes of preterm infants METHODS: Searches of Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Controlled Trial Register, PsycINFO, and Embase were conducted. Criteria for inclusion were (1) cohort or controlled trial designs; (2) home-based, preventive services for infants at medical or social risk; and (3) outcomes reported for infants born preterm or low birth weight (<2500 g). Data from eligible reports were abstracted by 2 reviewers. Random effects meta-analysis was used to synthesize data for developmental and parent interaction measures. RESULTS: Seventeen studies (15 controlled trials, 2 cohort studies) were reviewed. Five outcome domains were identified: infant development, parent-infant interaction, morbidity, abuse/neglect, and growth/nutrition. Six studies (n = 336) demonstrated a pooled standardized mean difference of 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.57 to 1.02) in Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment Inventory scores at 1 year in the home-visited groups versus control. Evidence for other outcomes was limited. Methodological limitations were common. CONCLUSIONS: Reviewed studies suggest that home visiting for preterm infants promotes improved parent-infant interaction. Further study of interventions targeting preterm infants within existing programs may strengthen the impact and cost benefits of home visiting in at-risk populations. PMID:23940238
Duerden, Emma G; Taylor, Margot J; Miller, Steven P
Infants born very preterm are high risk for acquired brain injury and disturbances in brain maturation. Although survival rates for preterm infants have increased in the last decades owing to improved neonatal intensive care, motor disabilities including cerebral palsy persist, and impairments in cognitive, language, social, and executive functions have not decreased. Evidence from neuroimaging studies exploring brain structure, function, and metabolism has indicated abnormalities in the brain development trajectory of very preterm-born infants that persist through to adulthood. In this chapter, we review neuroimaging approaches for the identification of brain injury in the preterm neonate. Advances in medical imaging and availability of specialized equipment necessary to scan infants have facilitated the feasibility of conducting longitudinal studies to provide greater understanding of early brain injury and atypical brain development and their effects on neurodevelopmental outcome. Improved understanding of the risk factors for acquired brain injury and associated factors that affect brain development in this population is setting the stage for improving the brain health of children born preterm.
Paul, Rachel A; Smyser, Christopher D; Rogers, Cynthia E; English, Ian; Wallendorf, Michael; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Meyer, Erin J; Van Essen, David C; Neil, Jeffrey J; Inder, Terrie E
Allometry has been used to demonstrate a power–law scaling relationship in the brain of premature born infants. Forty-nine preterm infants underwent neonatal MRI scans and neurodevelopmental testing at age 2. Measures of cortical surface area and total cerebral volume demonstrated a power–law scaling relationship (α = 1.27). No associations were identified between these measures and investigated clinical variables. Term equivalent cortical surface area and total cerebral volume measures and scaling exponents were not related to outcome. These findings confirm a previously reported allometric scaling relationship in the preterm brain, and suggest that scaling is not a sensitive indicator of aberrant cortical maturation. PMID:25540808
Pacifici, Gian Maria
Fentanyl is a synthetic opioid that is very important in anesthetic practice because of its relatively short time to peak analgesic effect and the rapid termination of action after small bolus doses. The objective of this survey is to review the clinical pharmacology of fentanyl in preterm infants. The bibliographic search was performed using PubMed and EMBASE databases as search engines. In addition, the books Neofax: A manual of drugs used in neonatal care and Neonatal formulary were consulted. Fentanyl is N-dealkylated by CYP3A4 into the inactive norfentanyl. Fentanyl may be administered as bolus doses or as a continuous infusion. In neonates, there is a remarkable interindividual variability in the kinetic parameters. In neonates, fentanyl half-life ranges from 317 minutes to 1266 minutes and in adults it is 222 minutes. Respiratory depression occurs when fentanyl doses are >5 μg/kg. Chest wall rigidity may occur in neonates and occasionally is associated with laryngospasm. Tolerance to fentanyl may develop after prolonged use of this drug. Significant withdrawal symptoms have been reported in infants treated with continuous infusion for 5 days or longer. Fentanyl is an extremely potent analgesic and is the opioid analgesic most frequently used in the neonatal intensive care unit.
Cordewener, Debbie; Lubbe, Welma
Improved perinatal and neonatal care enhances preterm infant survival rates, but the adverse outcomes remain high. Nurses play vitally important roles regarding the follow-up assessments, treatment, and care of preterm infants. This explorative, descriptive study aimed to describe nurses' perceptions of skills required to perform effective preterm infant assessments. Thirteen semistructured interviews were conducted. Identified themes included the role of the professional nurse, the importance of preterm infant assessments, lack of skills and knowledge to conduct quality assessments, formal and continuous development training needs, the absence of assessment tools and physical resources to perform standardized assessments of preterm infants, and the required support and referral systems.
McPherson, Christopher; Haslam, Matthew; Pineda, Roberta; Rogers, Cynthia; Neil, Jeffrey J.; Inder, Terrie E.
Background Fentanyl is commonly utilized in preterm infants. Relatively little is known regarding the neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants exposed to fentanyl. Objective To investigate the association between cumulative fentanyl dose and brain injury and diameters in a cohort of preterm infants Methods Data on demographics, perinatal course, and neonatal course, including total fentanyl exposure prior to term equivalent age, were retrospectively evaluated for 103 infants born at ≤ 30 weeks gestational age who underwent magnetic resonance imaging at term equivalent age (mean gestational age 26.9 ± 1.8 weeks). Magnetic resonance images were evaluated for brain injury and regional brain diameters. Developmental testing was conducted at term equivalent and 2 years of age. Results Seventy-eight infants (76%) received fentanyl (median cumulative dose 3 μg/kg, interquartile range 1 – 441 μg/kg). Cumulative fentanyl dose in the first week of life correlated with the incidence of cerebellar hemorrhage after correction for covariates (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.1 – 4.1). Cumulative fentanyl dose before term equivalent age correlated with reductions in transverse cerebellar diameter after correction for covariates including the presence of cerebellar hemorrhage (r = 0.461, p = 0.002). No correlation was detected between cumulative fentanyl dose and development at 2 years of age. Conclusions Higher cumulative fentanyl dose in preterm infants correlated with a higher incidence of cerebellar injury and lower cerebellar diameter at term equivalent age. Our findings must be taken with caution, but emphasize the need for future prospective trials examining the risks and benefits of commonly utilized analgesic agents in preterm infants. PMID:26369570
Mitchell, Anita; Waltman, Patricia A
The frequency of painful procedures performed on preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) presents a challenge to nurses who are attempting to provide effective pain relief, and to the infants themselves who may suffer adverse consequences in response to repeated painful procedures. One new pain relief intervention under study is the administration of oral sucrose, which may activate endogenous opioid systems within the body. Studies with preterm infants that have examined the use of oral sucrose as an analgesic during heelsticks and venipunctures have shown that sucrose is effective in reducing pain. Sucrose may also be combined with nonnutritive sucking to provide significant pain relief. The use of oral sucrose is now recommended with a wide range of painful procedures in the NICU. Promising results have been observed in studies with both term and preterm infants, but less research has occurred with preterm infants. Additional research is warranted to determine the most effective approaches for the administration of sucrose, to examine the effectiveness of sucrose with additional types of painful procedures, and to examine the effects of long-term repeated use of sucrose.
Bosworth, Rain G.; Dobkins, Karen R.
In order to investigate the contributions of visual experience vs. preprogrammed mechanisms on visual development, the current study compared contrast sensitivity in preterm vs. fullterm infants. If development is tied to time since conception, preterm infants should match the developmental trajectories of fullterm infants when plotted in postterm age. By contrast, if development is influenced by visual experience, preterm and fullterm infants should match when plotted in postnatal age. Luminance (light/dark) and chromatic (red/green) contrast sensitivities (CS) were measured in 25 preterm (born, on average, 6.6 weeks early) and 77 fullterm infants, between 1 and 6 months postterm. In the first few months, luminance CS was found to be predicted by postterm age, suggesting that preprogrammed development is sufficient to account for luminance CS. By contrast, chromatic CS exceeded that predicted by postterm age, which suggests that time since birth confers a benefit on chromatic CS. The preterms’ 6.6 weeks of additional time since birth is roughly equivalent to 3.7 weeks of development in chromatic CS. In sum, these results suggest that chromatic CS is more influenced by early postnatal visual experience than luminance CS, which may have implications for development of parvocellular and magnocellular pathways. PMID:20055548
Freitas, Renata Germano B. O. N.; Nogueira, Roberto José N.; Antonio, Maria Ângela R. G. M.; Barros-Filho, Antonio de Azevedo; Hessel, Gabriel
Objective: This study aimed to review the literature about blood concentrations of selenium associated with gestational age, feeding, supplementation and related clinical features in preterm infants. Data sources: Systematic review in the following databases: MEDLINE, PubMed, Google academics, SciELO. org, ScienceDirect (Elsevier) and CINAHL-Plus with Full Text (EBSCO). Articles published up to January 2013 with the keywords "selenium deficiency", "selenium supplementation", "neonates", "infants", "newborn" and "preterm infants" were selected. Data synthesis: The studies reported that low blood selenium levels are associated with increased risk of respiratory diseases. Preterm infants, especially with low birth weight, presented lower selenium levels. Selenium deficiency has also been associated with the use of oral infant formula, enteral and parenteral nutrition (with or without selenium addition). The optimal dose and length of selenium supplementation is not well-established, since they are based only on age group and selenium ingestion by breastfed children. Furthermore, the clinical status of the infant affected by conditions that may increase oxidative stress, and consequently, selenium requirements is not taken into account. Conclusions: Prematurity and low birth weight can contribute to low blood selenium in premature infants. Selenium supplementation seems to minimize or prevent clinical complications caused by prematurity. PMID:24676200
Carvalho, Clarissa Gutierrez; Silveira, Rita C; Procianoy, Renato Soibelmann
In preterm infants, the need for intubation and mechanical ventilation is associated with ventilator-induced lung injuries and subsequent bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The aim of the present review was to improve the understanding of the mechanisms of injury that involve cytokine-mediated inflammation to contribute to the development of new preventive strategies. Relevant articles were retrieved from the PubMed database using the search terms "ventilator-induced lung injury preterm", "continuous positive airway pressure", "preterm", and "bronchopulmonary dysplasia". The resulting data and other relevant information were divided into several topics to ensure a thorough, critical view of ventilation-induced lung injury and its consequences in preterm infants. The role of pro-inflammatory cytokines (particularly interleukins 6 and 8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha) as mediators of lung injury was assessed. Evidence from studies conducted with animals and human newborns is described. This evidence shows that brief periods of mechanical ventilation is sufficient to induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Other forms of mechanical and non-invasive ventilation were also analyzed as protective alternatives to conventional mechanical ventilation. It was concluded that non-invasive ventilation, intubation followed by early surfactant administration and quick extubation for nasal continuous positive airway pressure, and strategies that regulate tidal volume and avoid volutrauma (such as volume guarantee ventilation) protect against ventilator-induced lung injury in preterm infants. PMID:24553514
Carlo, Waldemar A.; McDonald, Scott A.; Tyson, Jon E.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Shankaran, Seetha; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Das, Abhik; Schendel, Diana; Thorsen, Poul; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, David M.; Oh, William; Laptook, Abbot R.; Duara, Shahnaz; Fanaroff, Avroy A.; Donovan, Edward F.; Korones, Sheldon B.; Stevenson, David K.; Papile, Lu-Ann; Finer, Neil N.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Poindexter, Brenda B.; Wright, Linda L.; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Higgins, Rosemary D.
Objective To determine if selected pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines/mediators of inflammation reported to be related to development of cerebral palsy predict neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely low birth weight infants. Study design Infants with birth weights ≤ 1000 g (n=1067) had blood samples collected at birth and on days 3±1, 7±1, 14±3, and 21±3 to examine the association between cytokines and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The analyses were focused on five cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α, RANTES, and IL-2) reported to be most predictive of CP in term and late preterm infants. Results IL-8 was higher on days 0–4 and subsequently in infants who developed CP compared with infants who did not develop CP in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Other cytokines (IL-12, IL-17, TNF-β, SIL-rα, MIP-1β) were found to be altered on days 0–4 in infants who developed CP. Conclusions CP in former preterm infants may, in part, have a late perinatal and/or early neonatal inflammatory origin. PMID:21798559
Duncan, S D; Devlin, L A
Baclofen is a gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist used primarily as a muscle relaxant to treat spasticity in children and adults. Withdrawal of oral baclofen is known to cause a withdrawal syndrome in adults. Only one previous case describes a withdrawal syndrome in a term infant, manifested by seizures, associated with the use of oral baclofen in the mother. This case describes a withdrawal syndrome and the unique use of baclofen for withdrawal in a preterm infant.
Song, Juan; Sun, Huiqing; Xu, Falin; Kang, Wenqing; Gao, Liang; Guo, Jiajia; Zhang, Yanhua; Xia, Lei; Wang, Xiaoyang
Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of repeated low‐dose human recombinant erythropoietin (rhEPO) in the improvement of neurological outcomes in very preterm infants. Methods A total of 800 infants of ≤32‐week gestational age who had been in an intensive care unit within 72 hours after birth were included in the trial between January 2009 and June 2013. Preterm infants were randomly assigned to receive rhEPO (500IU/kg; n = 366) or placebo (n = 377) intravenously within 72 hours after birth and then once every other day for 2 weeks. The primary outcome was death or moderate to severe neurological disability assessed at 18 months of corrected age. Results Death and moderate/severe neurological disability occurred in 91 of 338 very preterm infants (26.9%) in the placebo group and in 43 of 330 very preterm infants (13.0%) in the rhEPO treatment group (relative risk [RR] = 0.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.27–0.59, p < 0.001) at 18 months of corrected age. The rate of moderate/severe neurological disability in the rhEPO group (22 of 309, 7.1%) was significantly lower compared to the placebo group (57 of 304, 18.8%; RR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.19–0.55, p < 0.001), and no excess adverse events were observed. Interpretation Repeated low‐dose rhEPO treatment reduced the risk of long‐term neurological disability in very preterm infants with no obvious adverse effects. Ann Neurol 2016;80:24–34 PMID:27130143
Neu, Madalynn; Robinson, JoAnn; Schmiege, Sarah J.
Purpose The purpose of this randomized, controlled trial was to determine if nurse supported kangaroo holding of healthy preterm infants in the first eight weeks of the infant's life facilitates early behavioral organization and development. Methods We randomized 87 infants born between 32 to 35 weeks gestation and their mothers to one of three holding groups: kangaroo (skin-to-skin between mother's breasts), blanket (held in mother's arms), or control (no holding restrictions). Nurse supported groups (kangaroo and blanket) received 8 weekly visits from a registered nurse who encouraged holding and provided education about infant development. The control group received brief social visits. Mothers recorded time held in a daily diary. The Assessment of Preterm Infant Behavior was administered when infants were 40 to 44 weeks postconceptional age. Results Total holding time averaged four to five hours per day and did not differ among groups. Mothers held kangaroo style an average of 59 minutes per day in the kangaroo group, and 5 and 9 minutes per day in the blanket and control groups respectively (p <.001). Infants in the kangaroo and blanket groups had more optimal scores than the control group in Robust Crying (p = .015) indicating that they could arouse to vigorous crying and calm. Scores, except for Attention and State Regulation, were at least as high as those of full term infants. Clinical Implications When kangaroo holding is compared to blanket holding, both methods may provide equal early behavioral organization and developmental benefit to the infant. PMID:23625100
Corvaglia, Luigi; Arcuri, Santo; Rossini, Roberto; Faldella, Giacomo
Gastroesophageal reflux (GOR) is very common among preterm infants, due to several physiological mechanisms. Although GOR should not be usually considered a pathological condition, its therapeutic management still represents a controversial issue among neonatologists; pharmacological overtreatment, often unuseful and potentially harmful, is increasingly widespread. Hence, a stepwise approach, firstly promoting conservative strategies such as body positioning, milk thickening, or changes of feeding modalities, should be considered the most advisable choice in preterm infants with GOR. This review focuses on the conservative management of GOR in the preterm population, aiming to provide a complete overview, based on currently available evidence, on potential benefits and adverse effects of nonpharmacological measures. Nonpharmacological management of GOR might represent a useful tool for neonatologists to reduce the use of antireflux medications, which should be limited to selected cases of symptomatic babies. PMID:24073393
In this study, eight mothers of pre-term infants under the care of nursing staff and neonatologists in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Children's Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia, were observed and interviewed about their birth experience and their images of themselves as mothers during their stay. Patterns and themes in the…
Commey, J. O. O.; Fitzhardinge, P. M.
A prospective study of growth and development during the first 2 years of life was performed on 71 preterm SGA (small-for-gestational-age) infants. Journal Availability: C.V. Mosby Company, 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63141. (Author/SBH)
Safe and successful oral feeding requires proper maturation of sucking, swallowing and respiration. We hypothesized that oral feeding difficulties result from different temporal development of the musculatures implicated in these functions. Sixteen medically stable preterm infants (26 to 29 weeks ge...
Ment, Laura R; Vohr, Betty R; Makuch, Robert W; Westerveld, Michael; Katz, Karol H; Schneider, Karen C; Duncan, Charles C; Ehrenkranz, Richard; Oh, William; Philip, Alistair G S; Scott, David T; Allan, Walter C
Our multicenter Indomethacin Intraventricular Hemorrhage (IVH) Prevention Trial demonstrated a reduction of IVH in preterm infants. Analysis of our cohort by sex showed indomethacin halved the incidence of IVH, eliminated parenchymal hemorrhage, and was associated with higher verbal scores at 3 to 8 years in boys.
MacDorman, Marian F; Callaghan, William M; Mathews, T J; Hoyert, Donna L; Kochanek, Kenneth D
Trends in preterm-related causes of death were examined by maternal race and ethnicity. A grouping of preterm-related causes of infant death was created by identifying causes that were a direct cause or consequence of preterm birth. Cause-of-death categories were considered to be preterm-related when 75 percent or more of total infant deaths attributed to that cause were deaths of infants born preterm, and the cause was considered to be a direct consequence of preterm birth based on a clinical evaluation and review of the literature. In 2004, 36.5 percent of all infant deaths in the United States were preterm-related, up from 35.4 percent in 1999. The preterm-related infant mortality rate for non-Hispanic black mothers was 3.5 times higher and the rate for Puerto Rican mothers was 75 percent higher than for non-Hispanic white mothers. The preterm-related infant mortality rate for non-Hispanic black mothers was higher than the total infant mortality rate for non-Hispanic white, Mexican, and Asian or Pacific Islander mothers. The leveling off of the U.S. infant mortality decline since 2000 has been attributed in part to an increase in preterm and low-birthweight births. Continued tracking of preterm-related causes of infant death will improve our understanding of trends in infant mortality in the United States.
Battineni, Sireesha; Clarke, Paul
Eruption of green, discolored teeth affecting the primary dentition has been described in association with congenital viral infection, sepsis, hemolytic jaundice, and cholestasis. The purpose of this paper was to present the cases of 3 extremely low birth weight preterm infants who were noted to have green teeth at the corrected ages of 10 to 12 months. All had a history of prolonged conjugated hyperbilirubinemia during their time in neonatal intensive care. For infants with prolonged conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, extreme preterm birth and/or extremely low birth weight may be additional risk factors predisposing to the eruption of green teeth in later infancy.
Eeles, Abbey L; Olsen, Joy E; Walsh, Jennifer M; McInnes, Emma K; Molesworth, Charlotte M L; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Doyle, Lex W; Spittle, Alicia J
Neurobehavioral assessments provide insight into the functional integrity of the developing brain and help guide early intervention for preterm (<37 weeks' gestation) infants. In the context of shorter hospital stays, clinicians often need to assess preterm infants prior to term equivalent age. Few neurobehavioral assessments used in the preterm period have established interrater reliability.
Smith, Barbara A.; Blass, Elliott M.
Preterm and term infants were given a sucrose solution, a glucose solution, or water during a test period in which the amount of their crying was measured. Sucrose reduced crying in preterm and term infants by 91% and 93%, respectively, and glucose by 86% and 81%, respectively. Water was ineffective in reducing crying in both preterm and term…
Groer, Maureen W.; Luciano, Angel A.; Dishaw, Larry J.; Ashmeade, Terri L.; Miller, Elizabeth; Gilbert, Jack A.
The very low birth weight (VLBW) infant is at great risk for marked dysbiosis of the gut microbiome due to multiple factors, including physiological immaturity and prenatal/postnatal influences that disrupt the development of a normal gut flora. However, little is known about the developmental succession of the microbiota in preterm infants as they grow and mature. This review provides a synthesis of our understanding of the normal development of the infant gut microbiome and contrasts this with dysbiotic development in the VLBW infant. The role of human milk in normal gut microbial development is emphasized, along with the role of the gut microbiome in immune development and gastroenteric health. Current research provides evidence that the gut microbiome interacts extensively with many physiological systems and metabolic processes in the developing infant. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are currently no studies prospectively mapping the gut microbiome of VLBW infants through early childhood. This knowledge gap must be filled to inform a healthcare system that can provide for the growth, health, and development of VLBW infants. In conclusion, the study speculates about how the VLBW infants’ gut microbiome might function through host-microbe interactions to contribute to the sequelae of preterm birth, including its influence on growth, development, and general health of the infant host.
Groer, Maureen W.; Luciano, Angel A.; Dishaw, Larry J.; ...
The very low birth weight (VLBW) infant is at great risk for marked dysbiosis of the gut microbiome due to multiple factors, including physiological immaturity and prenatal/postnatal influences that disrupt the development of a normal gut flora. However, little is known about the developmental succession of the microbiota in preterm infants as they grow and mature. This review provides a synthesis of our understanding of the normal development of the infant gut microbiome and contrasts this with dysbiotic development in the VLBW infant. The role of human milk in normal gut microbial development is emphasized, along with the role ofmore » the gut microbiome in immune development and gastroenteric health. Current research provides evidence that the gut microbiome interacts extensively with many physiological systems and metabolic processes in the developing infant. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are currently no studies prospectively mapping the gut microbiome of VLBW infants through early childhood. This knowledge gap must be filled to inform a healthcare system that can provide for the growth, health, and development of VLBW infants. In conclusion, the study speculates about how the VLBW infants’ gut microbiome might function through host-microbe interactions to contribute to the sequelae of preterm birth, including its influence on growth, development, and general health of the infant host.« less
Handley, Sara C.; Steinhorn, Robin H.; Hopper, Andrew O.; Govindaswami, Balaji; Bhatt, Dilip R.; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Ariagno, Ronald L.; Gould, Jeffrey B.; Lee, Henry C.
Objective To describe inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) exposure in preterm infants and variation in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) use. Study Design This was a retrospective cohort study of infants, 22–33+6/7 weeks gestational age (GA), during 2005–2013. Analyses were stratified by GA and included population characteristics, iNO use over time and hospital variation. Result Of 65 824 infants, 1 718 (2.61%) received iNO. Infants, 22–24+6/7 weeks GA, had the highest incidence of iNO exposure (6.54%). Community NICUs (n = 77, median hospital use rate 0.7%) used less iNO than regional NICUs (n = 23, median hospital use rate 5.8%). In 22–24+6/7 week GA infants the median rate in regional centers was 10.6% (hospital IQR 3.8%–22.6%). Conclusion iNO exposure varied with GA and hospital level, with the most use in extremely premature infants and regional centers. Variation reflects a lack of consensus regarding the appropriate use of iNO for preterm infants. PMID:27031320
Pilley, E; McGuire, W
Physiological monitoring studies have shown that some preterm infants who are otherwise ready for hospital discharge experience episodes of oxygen desaturation, apnoea, or bradycardia when seated in standard car safety seats. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all preterm infants are assessed for cardiorespiratory stability in their car seat before discharge: the "car seat challenge". This screening test has been incorporated into discharge assessments in most neonatal units in North America and is being increasingly used in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. The evidence base for the use of the car seat challenge in discharge assessment, the possible implications for infants, their families, and health services of adopting the practice, and the issues that may be resolved with further research are discussed.
Aceti, Arianna; Gori, Davide; Barone, Giovanni; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Di Mauro, Antonio; Fantini, Maria Pia; Indrio, Flavia; Maggio, Luca; Meneghin, Fabio; Morelli, Lorenzo; Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo; Corvaglia, Luigi
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) affects predominantly preterm infants, who have specific risk factors leading to intestinal dysbiosis. Manipulations of gut microbiota through probiotics have the potential to prevent NEC.The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics for NEC prevention in preterm infants, with a focus on specific strains, microbiological strength of currently available studies, and high-risk populations. PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for trials published within 4th February 2015. Randomized-controlled trials reporting on NEC and involving preterm infants who were given probiotics in the first month of life were included in the systematic review.Twenty-six studies were suitable for inclusion in the meta-analysis.Data about study design, population, intervention and outcome were extracted and summarized independently by two observers. Study quality and quality of evidence were also evaluated.Fixed-effects models were used and random-effects models where significant heterogeneity was present. Subgroup analyses were performed to explore sources of heterogeneity among studies. Results were expresses as risk ratio (RR) with 95 % confidence interval (CI). The main outcome was incidence of NEC stage ≥2 according to Bell's criteria. Probiotics prevented NEC in preterm infants (RR 0.47 [95 % CI 0.36-0.60], p < 0.00001). Strain-specific sub-meta-analyses showed a significant effect for Bifidobacteria (RR 0.24 [95 % CI 0.10-0.54], p = 0.0006) and for probiotic mixtures (RR 0.39 [95 % CI 0.27-0.56], p < 0.00001). Probiotics prevented NEC in very-low-birth-weight infants (RR 0.48 [95 % CI 0.37-0.62], p < 0.00001); there were insufficient data for extremely-low-birth-weight infants. The majority of studies presented severe or moderate microbiological flaws.Probiotics had an overall preventive effect on NEC in preterm infants. However, there are still insufficient data on the specific
Bos, Arend F; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N J A; Hitzert, Marrit M; Tanis, Jozien C; Roze, Elise
Fine motor skills are related to functioning in daily life and at school. We reviewed the status of knowledge, in preterm children, on the development of fine motor skills, the relation with gross motor skills, and risk factors for impaired fine motor skills. We searched the past 15 years in PubMed, using ['motor skills' or 'fine motor function' and 'preterm infant'] as the search string. Impaired gross and fine motor skills are among the most frequently occurring problems encountered by preterm children who do not develop cerebral palsy. The prevalence is around 40% for mild to moderate impairment and 20% for moderate impairment. Fine motor skill scores on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children are about 0.62 of a standard deviation lower compared with term children. Risk factors for fine motor impairments include moderately preterm birth (odds ratio [OR] 2.0) and, among very preterm children (<32 wk gestation), intra-uterine growth restriction (ORs 2-3), inflammatory conditions (late-onset sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis, ORs 3-5), and dexamethasone therapy for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (OR 2.7). A better understanding of factors that play a role in the development of and recovery from brain injury could guide future intervention attempts aimed at improving fine motor skills of preterm children.
Tusor, Nora; Arichi, Tomoki; Counsell, Serena J; Edwards, A David
Infants who are born preterm have a high incidence of neurocognitive and neurobehavioral abnormalities, which may be associated with impaired brain development. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approaches, such as diffusion MRI (d-MRI) and functional MRI (fMRI), provide objective and reproducible measures of brain development. Indices derived from d-MRI can be used to provide quantitative measures of preterm brain injury. Although fMRI of the neonatal brain is currently a research tool, future studies combining d-MRI and fMRI have the potential to assess the structural and functional properties of the developing brain and its response to injury.
Fewtrell, Mary S
Preterm infants are at risk of metabolic bone disease (MBD) because of an inadequate mineral intake. Although infants with MBD are frequently asymptomatic during the neonatal period, we previously reported that MBD predicted reduced linear growth in infancy and midchildhood. Nevertheless, some studies suggest that preterm infants undergo catch-up growth in bone mineralization during infancy. To examine the hypothesis that early nutrition programs affect later bone health and peak bone mass, we studied 20-y-old subjects who were born preterm and who were randomly assigned to a diet during the neonatal period; the diets used varied markedly in nutrient and mineral content, and phosphate supplements were not provided. Despite large variations in early nutrient and mineral intakes (and the occurrence of MBD) during the neonatal period, the randomly assigned diets did not influence peak bone mass or turnover. However, the proportion of (unsupplemented) human milk in the neonatal diet was significantly positively associated with later whole-body bone size and mineral content. Compared with population reference data, preterm subjects were significantly shorter and had lower lumbar spine bone mineral density; the deficits were greatest in those born small for gestational age (ie, a birth weight <1250 g). The lack of effect of the randomly assigned diets on peak bone mass suggests that the observed deficits in height and lumbar spine bone mass may not be related to suboptimal early nutrient or mineral intake. The higher whole-body bone mass associated with human milk intake, despite its very low nutrient content, may instead reflect nonnutritive factors in breast milk. These findings are relevant to discussions on the mineral requirements of preterm infants.
Jeon, Ga Won
The incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) has not decreased over the last decade. The most important way to decrease BPD is by weaning the patient from the ventilator as soon as possible in order to reduce ventilator-induced lung injury that underlies BPD, and by using a noninvasive ventilator (NIV). Use of a heated, humidified, high flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC), which is the most recently introduced NIV mode for respiratory support in preterm infants, is rapidly increasing in many neonatal intensive care units due to the technical ease of use without sealing, and the attending physician's preference compared to other NIV modes. A number of studies have shown that nasal breakdown and neonatal complications were lower when using a HHHFNC than when using nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP), or nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation. The rates of extubation failure during respiratory support were not different between patients who used HHHFNC and nCPAP. However, data from the use of HHHFNC as the initial respiratory support "after birth", particularly in extremely preterm infants, are lacking. Although the HHHFNC is efficacious and safe, large randomized controlled trials are needed before the HHHFNC can be considered an NIV standard, particularly for extremely preterm infants.
Ahn, Youngmee; Sohn, Min; Jun, Yonghoon; Lee, Sangmi
This prospective longitudinal study explored the growth patterns of preterm infants and the implications of rearing them in an advancing culture. The study measured the weight, length, and head circumference of 343 Korean preterm infants over 12 months corrected age. Data were analyzed using a generalized estimation equation for growth patterns of preterm infants by the degree of prematurity (mild, moderate, or severe). Results showed that the early 'catch-up phenomenon', accelerated growth rate, occurred around 11 months corrected age, although the mild preterm group weighed less, was shorter, and had a smaller head circumference than the moderate and severe preterm groups. This may reflect the Asian culture's preference for big babies and draws special attention to the influence of cultural values and childrearing practices in the growth of preterm infants. Pediatric nurses should be alert to accelerated growth in preterm infants in societies in cultural transition.
Medoff-Cooper, Barbara; Rankin, Kristin; Li, Zhuoying; Liu, Li; White-Traut, Rosemary
Objective The aim of this RCT was to evaluate sucking organization in premature infants following a preterm infant multi-sensory intervention, the Auditory, Tactile, Visual, and Vestibular (ATVV). Study Design A convenience sample of 183 healthy premature infants born 29 - 34 weeks post-menstrual age (PMA) enrolled. Sucking organization was measured at baseline, then weekly assessments, during the infant's hospital stay. Results A quadratic trend was observed for number of sucks, sucks per burst, and maturity index, with the intervention group increasing significantly faster by day 7 (Model estimates for group*day: β = 13.69, p < 0.01; β = 1.16, p < 0.01; and β = 0.12, p < 0.05, respectively). Sucking pressure increased linearly over time, with significant between-group differences at day 14 (β = 45.66, p < 0.01). Conclusion ATVV infants exhibited improved sucking organization during hospitalization, suggestive that ATVV intervention improves oral feeding. PMID:25822519
Flacking, Renée; Hellström-Westas, Lena
Objective There are indications that the prevalence of exclusively breastfed preterm infants is decreasing in Sweden. The objective was to investigate trends in exclusive breast feeding at discharge from Swedish neonatal units and associated factors in preterm infants. Design, setting and participants This is a register study with data from the Swedish Neonatal Quality Register. Data from 29 445 preterm infants (gestational age (GA) <37 weeks) who were born during the period 2004–2013 were retrieved. Data included maternal, perinatal and neonatal characteristics. Data were analysed for the whole population as well as for 3 GA groups. Results From 2004 to 2013, the prevalence of exclusive breast feeding decreased, in extremely preterm (GA 22–27 weeks) from 55% to 16%, in very preterm (GA 28–31 weeks) from 41% to 34% and in moderately preterm infants (GA 32–36 weeks) from 64% to 49%. The decline was statistically significant (p<0.001) in all 3 GA groups. This decline remained significant when adjustments were made for factors negatively associated with exclusive breast feeding and which became more prevalent during the study period, that is, small for GA (all groups) and maternal mental illness (very preterm and moderately preterm infants). Conclusions In the past 10 years, Sweden has experienced a lower rate of exclusive breast feeding in preterm infants, especially in extremely preterm infants. The factors analysed in this study explain only a small proportion of this decline. The decline in exclusive breast feeding at discharge from neonatal units raises concern and present challenges to the units to support and promote breast feeding. PMID:27965252
Choker, G; Gouyon, J B
This study was designed to improve the definition of acute renal failure (ARF) in very preterm infants. Twenty-eight newborn infants with gestational age < or =32 weeks were prospectively studied in the first 5 days of life and made up a control group as they did not present risk factors for vasomotor renal insufficiency. Renal insufficiency was defined as an increase in daily serum creatinine concentration above the 99th interval limit obtained in this control group, i.e., 43 micromol/l on day 1 and/or 21 micromol/l on day 2 and/or 14 micromol/l/day on day 3 and/or 22 micromol/l/day on day 4. According to this definition, 20 very preterm infants with ARF were identified. As compared with the control group, the ARF group showed more prolonged oliguric episodes, lower diuresis, insufficient weight loss (in spite of a reduction in water intake) and also more episodes with natremia <130 mEq/l (35 vs. 0%; p <0.05) and/or kalemia >6 mEq/l (40 vs. 11%; p <0.05). Therefore, assessment of daily changes in serum creatinine concentration in very preterm infants allows the diagnosis of clinically significant reduction in glomerular filtration rate.
Spong, Catherine Y; Iams, Jay; Goldenberg, Robert; Hauck, Fern R; Willinger, Marian
Infant mortality, stillbirths, and preterm births are major public health priorities with significant disparities based on race and ethnicity. Interestingly, when evaluating the rates over the past 30 to 50 years, the disparity persists in all three and is remarkably consistent. In the United States, the infant mortality rate is 6.7 deaths per 1,000 live births, the stillbirth rate is 6.2 per 1,000 deliveries, and the preterm birth rate is 12.8% of live births. The rates among non-Hispanic African Americans are dramatically higher, nearly double the infant mortality at 13.4 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, nearly double the stillbirth rate at 11.1 stillbirths per 1,000 deliveries, and one third higher with preterm births at 18.4% of live births. Despite numerous conferences, workshops, articles, and investigators focusing on this line of work, the disparities persist and, in some cases, are growing. In this article, we summarize a Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development workshop that focused on these disparities to identify the associated factors to determine their relative contributions, identify gaps in knowledge, and develop specific strategies to address the disparities in the short-term and long-term.
Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Anders, Thomas F.; Vollbrecht, Melissa; Poehlmann, Julie
Objective Following a transactional perspective, this longitudinal study assessed concurrent and time-lagged associations between infant daytime sleep behaviors and maternal play interactions within a sample of infants born preterm. Method Data were collected from 134 families recruited from 3 Wisconsin NICUs. Multiple methods were used to collect data at infant NICU discharge and when infants were 4, 9, and 24 months postterm, including parent-report infant sleep logs, family sociodemographic assets and a 15 minute video-taped play session. Results Within time points, infants who napped more had mothers who were rated as more positive and communicative or less negative during play interactions at 4, 9 and 24 months compared to infants who napped less. Time-lagged findings indicated that infants who took more naps experienced more optimal maternal interactive behaviors later in development than infants who took fewer naps. Additionally, mothers who expressed more negative affect at 4 months or 9 months predicted more infant daytime sleep later in development. Conclusion Previous studies document that nighttime parent-child interactions influence nighttime sleep. This study presents the natural extension that daytime sleep influences daytime interactions. The present study draws attention to the understudied area of daytime naps in young children and provides support for the longitudinal bi-directional processes between sleep and parenting interactions. PMID:20978444
Proietti, Elena; Riedel, Thomas; Fuchs, Oliver; Pramana, Isabelle; Singer, Florian; Schmidt, Anne; Kuehni, Claudia; Latzin, Philipp; Frey, Urs
Compared with term-born infants, preterm infants have increased respiratory morbidity in the first year of life. We investigated whether lung function tests performed near term predict subsequent respiratory morbidity during the first year of life and compared this to standard clinical parameters in preterms. The prospective birth cohort included randomly selected preterm infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Lung function (tidal breathing and multiple-breath washout) was measured at 44 weeks post-menstrual age during natural sleep. We assessed respiratory morbidity (wheeze, hospitalisation, inhalation and home oxygen therapy) after 1 year using a standardised questionnaire. We first assessed the association between lung function and subsequent respiratory morbidity. Secondly, we compared the predictive power of standard clinical predictors with and without lung function data. In 166 preterm infants, tidal volume, time to peak tidal expiratory flow/expiratory time ratio and respiratory rate were significantly associated with subsequent wheeze. In comparison with standard clinical predictors, lung function did not improve the prediction of later respiratory morbidity in an individual child. Although associated with later wheeze, noninvasive infant lung function shows large physiological variability and does not add to clinically relevant risk prediction for subsequent respiratory morbidity in an individual preterm.
Glass, Hannah C.; Bonifacio, Sonia L.; Sullivan, Joseph; Rogers, Elizabeth; Ferriero, Donna M.; Goldstein, Ruth; Barkovich, A. James
The utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a universal screening tool in preterm infants has been contested; however, MR is increasingly used in investigation of neonatal seizures. We evaluated 236 infants <34 weeks gestation at birth. Seizures were documented according to clinical standard of care. Infants were imaged using MRI and head ultrasound during the neonatal period. A neuroradiologist and ultrasonologist performed detailed reviews of the images. Nine infants (3.8%) had clinical suspicion of seizures during the hospital course. MRI was abnormal in each case (three with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and periventricular hemorrhagic infarct, two with findings of hypoxia-ischemia, three with white matter injury (WMI) and one each with schizencephaly and dysplasia –one infant had two lesions). Periventricular hemorrhagic infarct was more common in infants with seizures (33% vs 6% of those without seizures, OR 8.23, 95% CI 1.8-36.7). Infants with seizures were more likely to have WMI, though the difference was not significant (RR 2.4, 95% CI 0.54-11.1, P=0.3). Head ultrasound failed to detect the extent of brain abnormality in eight (89%) of the infants. In this large cohort, infants with clinical suspicion of seizures had a high rate of MRI abnormalities that were not as well characterized by head ultrasound. MRI may be the study of choice for evaluating preterm infants with seizures. Further studies using better seizure monitoring are necessary to evaluate electrographic seizures and their relationship to brain injury on MRI. PMID:19745086
Lin, Yuan-Shan; Reilly, Marie; Mercer, Vicki S.
The purpose of this study was to examine, using a modified visual cliff apparatus, possible perceptual differences at crawling age between infants born preterm and infants born at term without documented visual or motor impairments. Sixteen infants born at term and 16 born preterm were encouraged to crawl to their caregivers on a modified visual…
Greene, Michelle M.; Patra, Kousiki; Nelson, Michael N.; Silvestri, Jean M.
This study investigates the Third Edition of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III) and: (1) early patterns of neurodevelopmental performance among preterm infants 8-12 months of age; and (2) correlations between known risk factors and neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants in this cohort. Mean Language Index (LI;…
Greenslade, Sarah; Miller, Jacqueline; Tonkin, Emma; Marshall, Peter; Collins, Carmel T.
Aim: To determine how accurately the daily prescribed feed volume (mL/day) estimates the actual intake of breastfeeding preterm infants and to characterise the volume taken during a breastfeed at differing gestational and postmenstrual ages. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on preterm infants born <37 weeks gestation from two Australian neonatal units. To determine the volume taken in a 24-h period infants were weighed before and after each breastfeed. This volume was added to the charted intake to determine the total intake and then compared to the prescribed feed volume. Bland Altman analyses were used to assess the level of agreement between the two methods. Results: Fifty six infants were studied on 206 breastfeeding occasions. There was a small bias (27 mLs/day) but large 95% limits of agreement (–76 to 130 mL/day). The volume taken during a single breastfeed ranged from 0 to 101 mL (median 23 mL, IQR 9 to 31 mL) and was greater in more mature infants. Conclusions: Using the prescribed feed volume to estimate total intake has limited clinical utility for the individual infant, however the relatively small bias means that it may be useful within a population or for comparison between groups in which population means are compared. There was a large variation in volume taken during a breastfeed across all gestational and postmenstrual ages. PMID:26006120
Morison, Sara J; Holsti, Liisa; Grunau, Ruth Eckstein; Whitfield, Michael F; Oberlander, Tim F; Chan, Herbert W P; Williams, Linda
The aims of this study were to examine preterm infant reactions to pain in detail over prolonged time periods using multiple measures, and to assess the value of including specific body movements of the Neonatal Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) system to evaluate pain. Ten preterm infants born at 31 weeks mean gestational age (GA) and mean birth weight 1676 g were studied during a routine blood collection in a Level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). At 32-week post-conceptional age, computerized physiologic and video recordings were obtained continuously for 60 min (prior to, during and after lance). Motor and facial behaviors were coded independently, using the NIDCAP and the NFCS (Neonatal Facial Coding System), respectively, and compared with heart rate (HR) and oxygen saturation responses. Of the movements hypothesized to be stress cues in the NIDCAP model, extension of arms and legs (80%) and finger splay (70%) were the most common following lance. Contrary to the model, most infants (70%) had lower incidence of twitches and startles post-lance compared to baseline. Whereas all infants showed some NFCS response to lance, for three infants, the magnitude was low. HR increased and oxygen saturation decreased post-lance. Infants with more prior pain exposure, lower Apgar, and lower GA at birth, displayed more motor stress cues but less facial activity post-lance. Extension of extremities and finger splay, but not twitches and startles, from the NIDCAP, appear to be stress cues and show promise as clinical pain indicators to supplement facial and physiological pain measures in preterm infants.
Stoll, Barbara J.; Hansen, Nellie I.; Bell, Edward F.; Walsh, Michele C.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Shankaran, Seetha; Laptook, Abbot R.; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Wyckoff, Myra; Das, Abhik; Hale, Ellen C.; Ball, M. Bethany; Newman, Nancy S.; Schibler, Kurt; Poindexter, Brenda B.; Kennedy, Kathleen A.; Cotten, C. Michael; Watterberg, Kristi L.; D’Angio, Carl T.; DeMauro, Sara B.; Truog, William E.; Devaskar, Uday; Higgins, Rosemary D.
Importance Extremely preterm infants contribute disproportionately to neonatal morbidity and mortality. Objective To review 20-year trends in maternal/neonatal care, complications, and mortality among extremely preterm infants born at Neonatal Research Network centers. Design, Setting, Participants Prospective registry of 34,636 infants 22–28 weeks’ gestational age (GA) and 401–1500 gram birthweight born at 26 Network centers, 1993–2012. Exposure Extremely preterm birth. Main Outcomes Maternal/neonatal care, morbidities, and survival. Major morbidities, reported for infants who survived more than 12 hours, were: severe necrotizing enterocolitis, infection, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, severe intracranial hemorrhage, cystic periventricular leukomalacia, and/or severe retinopathy of prematurity. Regression models assessed yearly changes, adjusting for study center, race/ethnicity, GA, birthweight for GA, and sex. Results Use of antenatal corticosteroids increased from 1993 to 2012 (348/1431 [24%] to 1674/1919 [87%], p<0.001), as did cesarean delivery (625/1431 [44%] to 1227/1921 [64%], p<0.001). Delivery room intubation decreased from 1144/1433 (80%) in 1993 to 1253/1922 (65%) in 2012 (p<0.001). After increasing in the 1990s, postnatal steroid use declined to 141/1757 (8%) in 2004 (p<0.001), with no significant change thereafter. Although most infants were ventilated, continuous positive airway pressure without ventilation increased from 120/1666 (7%) in 2002 to 190/1756 (11%) in 2012 (p<0.001). Despite no improvement from 1993 to 2004, rates of late-onset sepsis declined between 2005 and 2012 for infants of each GA (median GA 26 weeks, 109/296 [37%] to 85/320 [27%], adjusted relative risk [aRR]: 0.93 [95% CI, 0.92–0.94]). Rates of other morbidities declined, but bronchopulmonary dysplasia increased between 2009 and 2012 for infants 26–27 weeks (26 weeks, 130/258 [50%] to 164/297 [55%], p<0.001). Survival increased between 2009 and 2012 for infants 23
Ramenghi, L A; Domizio, S; Quartulli, L; Sabatino, G
Sonographic characteristics of germinal-matrix (PGM) pseudocysts of prenatal origin detected on cranial ultrasound in preterm newborns were correlated with their outcomes. PGM cysts were classified as typical or atypical, according to their location. Typical PGM cysts were present at the head of the caudate nucleus or slightly medially, adjacent to the foramen of Monro. Cysts were defined as atypical when they were located subependymally elsewhere. Only one infant of 16 with a typical PGM cyst presented with psychomotor retardation. His cerebral scan also showed subependymal calcifications due to cytomegalovirus infection. Three babies had cysts in the frontal periventricular zones (atypical PGM cyst). They had negative cranial MRI (12-15 months of age) and normal neurological follow-up (24 months). In conclusion, isolated prenatal PGM cysts in preterm infants correlate with a normal outcome.
Rougé, Carole; Butel, Marie-José; Piloquet, Hugues; Ferraris, Laurent; Legrand, Arnaud; Vodovar, Michel; Voyer, Marcel; de la Cochetière, Marie-France; Darmaun, Dominique; Rozé, Jean-Christophe
Background Fecal calprotectin has been proposed as a non-invasive marker of intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease in adults and children. Fecal calprotectin levels have been reported to be much higher in both healthy full-term and preterm infants than in children and adults. Objective To determine the time course of fecal calprotectin (f-calprotectin) excretion in preterm infants from birth until hospital discharge and to identify factors influencing f-calprotectin levels in the first weeks of life, including bacterial establishment in the gut. Methodology F-calprotectin was determined using an ELISA assay in 147 samples obtained prospectively from 47 preterm infants (gestational age, and birth-weight interquartiles 27–29 weeks, and 880–1320 g, respectively) at birth, and at 2-week intervals until hospital discharge. Principal Findings Although median f-calprotectin excretion was 138 µg/g, a wide range of inter- and intra-individual variation in f-calprotectin values (from day 3 to day 78) was observed (86% and 67%, respectively). In multivariate regression analysis, f-calprotectin correlated negatively with ante and per natal antibiotic treatment (p = 0.001), and correlated positively with the volume of enteral feeding (mL/kg/d) (p = 0.009), the need to interrupt enteral feeding (p = 0.001), and prominent gastrointestinal colonization by Clostridium sp (p = 0.019) and Staphylococcus sp (p = 0.047). Conclusion During the first weeks of life, the high f-calprotectin values observed in preterm infants could be linked to the gut bacterial establishment. PMID:20552029
Boykova, Marina; Kenner, Carole
Research on the phenomenon of transition spans several decades. This article discusses the transition from hospital to home and the challenges parents of preterm infants experience during a neonatal intensive care unit stay and after discharge. The article explores the link between parental problems and rehospitalizations and the need for accurate measures of transitional concerns. An example of a theoretical model and instrument is described.
Abitbol, Carolyn L; DeFreitas, Marissa J; Strauss, José
This educational review will highlight the historical and contemporary references that establish a basic understanding of measurements of kidney function in the neonate and its relevance for the life of an individual. Importantly, the differential renal function of preterm infants relative to term infants has become paramount with the increased viability of preterm infants and the realization that kidney function is associated with gestational age. Moreover, neonatal kidney function is primarily associated with absolute renal mass and hemodynamic stability. Neonatal kidney function and its early developmental progression predict lifelong cardiovascular and renal disease risks. Validation of estimation equations of kidney function in this population has provided important reference data for other investigations and a clinical basis for prospective and longitudinal follow-up. Future research should be directed towards a better understanding of surrogate markers of kidney function from infancy through adulthood. Pediatric nephrologists should be aware of the developmental aspects of kidney function including the importance of the congenital nephron endowment and the preservation of kidney function throughout a lifetime. • Nephrogenesis occurs in utero in concert with other organ systems by branching morphogenesis, including the lungs, pancreas, and vascular tree, with over 60 % of nephrons being formed during the last trimester. • Infants born preterm before 36 weeks' gestation are in active nephrogenesis and are at increased risk of having a decreased nephron endowment from prenatal and postnatal genetic and epigenetic hazards that will impact the patient for a lifetime. • Post-natal adaptation of kidney function is directly proportional to the number of perfused nephrons, estimated by total kidney volume (TKV), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and gestational age. • Accurate measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in infants is problematic due to the
Raith, Wolfgang; Urlesberger, Berndt; Schmölzer, Georg M.
The aim of the paper was to review the literature about safety and efficiency of acupuncture therapy in term and preterm infants. We searched Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials using a predefined algorithm, reviewed abstracts from the Pediatric Academic Society annual meetings (2000–2012), and performed a manual search of references in narrative and systematic reviews. A total of 26 studies identified met our search criteria. Only 6 of these studies met our inclusion criteria; however, two studies had to be excluded because the manuscripts were published in Chinese. Hence, only four studies were included in our analysis. Three of the four studies evaluated the effects of acupuncture on infantile colic, and one assessed pain reduction during minor painful procedures in preterm babies. The limited data available suggests that acupuncture could be a safe nonpharmacologic treatment option for pain reduction in term and preterm infants and could also be a non-pharmacologic treatment option to treat infantile colic. Currently acupuncture in infants should be limited to clinical trials and studies evaluating short- and long-term effects and should be performed only by practitioners with adequate training and experience in neonatal/pediatric acupuncture. PMID:23878607
McClure, R; Kristensen, J; Grauaug, A
AIM—To determine the effect of cisapride on gastrointestinal motility in preterm infants. METHODS—Cisapride (0.2 mg/kg, 8 hourly ) or placebo was given first for seven days in a double blind randomised crossover study of 10 preterm infants. Gastrointestinal motility was assessed on day 3 of each treatment. The half gastric emptying time (GET1/2) was determined by using ultrasonography to measure the decrease in the gastric antral cross sectional area after a feed. The whole gastrointestinal transit time (WGTT) was assessed by timing the transit of carmine red through the gut. Treatments were compared using the Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test. RESULTS—Median (range) birthweight was 1200 (620, 1450) g and postconceptional age 33 (29, 34) weeks at recruitment. GET1/2 was significantly longer during cisapride treatment than during placebo; the median of the differences (95% confidence interval) was 19.2 (11, 30minutes, p=0.008). WGTT was also longer during cisapride treatment, but the difference was not significant; the median of the differences was 11(−18, 52 hours, p=0.1). CONCLUSIONS—Cisapride delays gastric emptying and may delay WGTT in preterm infants. Its use to promote gastrointestinal motility in this group cannot be recommended. PMID:10212076
Arnon, Shmuel; Regev, Rivka H; Bauer, Sofia; Shainkin-Kestenbaum, Ruth; Shiff, Yakov; Bental, Yoram; Dolfin, Tzipora; Litmanovitz, Ita
On the basis of preliminary data, this larger bi-institutional continuation trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of early iron supplementation in preterm infants calls attention to the levels of vitamin E, a marker of antioxidant activity, during iron treatment. A total of 116 preterm infants were randomly assigned to receive at 2 or 4 weeks of age ( N = 62, N = 54, respectively) 5 mg/kg/d of nonionic iron polymaltose complex concomitantly with a daily dose of 25 IU vitamin E (as dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate) from 2 weeks of age. Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) levels, iron, ferritin, hemoglobin concentration, and reticulocyte count were recorded from 2 to 8 weeks of age. The morbidities of prematurity associated with free radicals formation were also documented. A gradual increase of alpha-tocopherol levels within physiological range (0.8 to 3.5 mg/dL) was found in the 2-week and 4-week groups during the study period with no difference among the groups ( P > 0.05 for all comparisons). At 8 weeks of age, iron and ferritin levels, hemoglobin concentration, and reticulocyte count were higher in the 2-week group. No correlation was observed between timing of both iron and vitamin E supplement and hemolysis or morbidities associated with prematurity. Thus, treatment of iron with vitamin E supplement at 2 weeks of age is, in our experience, an efficacious and safe treatment for improving anemia in preterm infants.
Bertino, Enrico; Giuliani, Francesca; Baricco, Marta; Di Nicola, Paola; Peila, Chiara; Vassia, Cristina; Chiale, Federica; Pirra, Alice; Cresi, Francesco; Martano, Claudio; Coscia, Alessandra
Mother's own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding for term infants, but also provides health benefits that are of vital importance for sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), even though the growth and neurodevelopmental needs of very premature infants are best met by appropriate fortification of human milk (HM). When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor milk (DM) represents the second best alternative and, although some nutritional elements are inactivated by the pasteurization process, it still has documented advantages compared to formula. Occasionally, the concern that the use of DM might decrease breastfeeding is being raised, but reports exist in literature showing that the use of donor HM in the NICU increases breastfeeding rates at discharge for VLBW infants. The demonstrated benefits of HM highlight the importance of educating health care professionals in breastfeeding support.
Early, aggressive nutrition is an important contributing factor of long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. To ensure optimal growth in premature infants, adequate protein intake and optimal protein/energy ratio should be emphasized rather than the overall energy intake. Minimal enteral nutrition should be initiated as soon as possible in the first days of life, and feeding advancement should be individualized according to the clinical course of the infant. During hospitalization, enteral nutrition with preterm formula and fortified human milk represent the best feeding practices for facilitating growth. After discharge, the enteral nutrition strategy should be individualized according to the infant's weight at discharge. Infants with suboptimal weight for their postconceptional age at discharge should receive supplementation with human milk fortifiers or nutrient-enriched feeding, and the enteral nutrition strategy should be reviewed and modified continuously to achieve the target growth parameters. PMID:28194211
Wynn, James L.; Tan, Sylvia; Gantz, Marie G.; Das, Abhik; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Adams-Chapman, Ira; Stoll, Barbara J.; Shankaran, Seetha; Walsh, Michele C.; Auten, Kathy J.; Miller, Nancy A.; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Cotten, C. Michael; Smith, P. Brian
Background. Candidiasis carries a significant risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW; <1000 g). We sought to determine the impact of candiduria in ELBW preterm infants. Methods. Our study was a secondary analysis of the Neonatal Research Network study Early Diagnosis of Nosocomial Candidiasis. Follow-up assessments included Bayley Scales of Infant Development examinations at 18–22 months of corrected age. Risk factors were compared between groups using exact tests and general linear modeling. Death, NDI, and death or NDI were compared using generalized linear mixed modeling. Results. Of 1515 infants enrolled, 34 (2.2%) had candiduria only. Candida was isolated from blood only (69 of 1515 [4.6%]), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) only (2 of 1515 [0.1%]), other sterile site only (not urine, blood, or CSF; 4 of 1515 [0.3%]), or multiple sources (28 of 1515 [2%]). Eleven infants had the same Candida species isolated in blood and urine within 3 days; 3 (27%) had a positive urine culture result first. Most urine isolates were Candida albicans (21 of 34 [62%]) or Candida parapsilosis (7 of 34 [29%]). Rate of death or NDI was greater among those with candiduria (50%) than among those with suspected but not proven infection (32%; odds ratio, 2.5 [95% confidence interval, 1.2–5.3]) after adjustment. No difference in death and death or NDI was noted between infants with candiduria and those with candidemia. Conclusions. These findings provide compelling evidence that ELBW infants with candiduria are at substantial risk of death or NDI. Candiduria in ELBW preterm infants should prompt a systemic evaluation (blood, CSF, and abdominal ultrasound) for disseminated Candida infection and warrants treatment. PMID:22144537
Kinmond, S; Aitchison, T C; Holland, B M; Jones, J G; Turner, T L; Wardrop, C A
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the clinical effects of regulating umbilical cord clamping in preterm infants. DESIGN--A prospective randomised study. SETTING--The Queen Mother's Hospital, Glasgow. SUBJECTS--36 vaginally delivered infants over 27 and under 33 weeks' gestation. INTERVENTION--Holding the infant 20 cm below the introitus for 30 seconds before clamping the umbilical cord ("regulated" group, 17 patients), or conventional management ("random" group, 19 patients). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Initial packed cell volume, peak serum bilirubin concentrations, red cell transfusion requirements, and respiratory impairment (assessed by ventilatory requirements, arterial-alveolar oxygen tension ratio over the first day in ventilated infants, and duration of dependence on supplemental oxygen). RESULTS--There were statistically significant differences between the two groups in mean initial packed cell volume (regulated group 0.564, random group 0.509) and median red cell transfusion requirements (regulated group zero, random group 23 ml/kg). 13 infants from each group underwent mechanical ventilation and showed significant differences in mean minimum arterial-alveolar oxygen tension ratio on the first day (regulated group 0.42, random group 0.22) and in median duration of dependence on supplemental oxygen (regulated group three days, random group 10 days). Differences in final outcome measures such as duration of supplemental oxygen dependence and red cell transfusion requirements were mediated primarily through arterial-alveolar oxygen tension ratio and also packed cell volume. CONCLUSIONS--This intervention at preterm deliveries produces clinical and economic benefits. PMID:8443480
Neri, Erica; Agostini, Francesca; Salvatori, Paola; Biasini, Augusto; Monti, Fiorella
Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with full-term ones. Seventy seven preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW) and 120 full term (FT) infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 min of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviors were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis can help to plan
DeMauro, Sara B.; D'Agostino, Jo Ann; Bann, Carla; Bernbaum, Judy; Gerdes, Marsha; Bell, Edward F.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; D'Angio, Carl; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary; Hintz, Susan R.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Natarajan, Girija; Nelin, Leif; Poindexter, Brenda B.; Sanchez, Pablo J.; Shankaran, Seetha; Stoll, Barbara J.; Truog, William; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Vohr, Betty; Walsh, Michele C.; Kirpalani, Haresh
Objectives To evaluate the neurodevelopmental outcomes of very preterm (<30 weeks) infants who underwent tracheostomy. Study design Retrospective cohort study from 16 centers of the NICHD Neonatal Research Network over 10 years (2001-2011). Infants who survived to at least 36 weeks (N=8,683), including 304 infants with tracheostomies, were studied. Primary outcome was death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI, a composite of one or more of: developmental delay, neurologic impairment, profound hearing loss, severe visual impairment) at a corrected age of 18-22 months. Outcomes were compared using multiple logistic regression. We assessed impact of timing, by comparing outcomes of infants who underwent tracheostomy before and after 120 days of life. Results Tracheostomies were associated with all neonatal morbidities examined, and with most adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Death or NDI occurred in 83% of infants with tracheostomies and 40% of those without [odds ratio (OR) adjusted for center 7.0 (95%CI, 5.2-9.5)]. After adjustment for potential confounders, odds of death or NDI remained higher [OR 3.3 (95%CI, 2.4-4.6)], but odds of death alone were lower [OR 0.4 (95%CI, 0.3-0.7)], among infants with tracheostomies. Death or NDI was lower in infants who received their tracheostomies before, rather than after, 120 days of life [adjusted OR 0.5 (95%CI, 0.3-0.9)]. Conclusions Tracheostomy in preterm infants is associated with adverse developmental outcomes, and cannot mitigate the significant risk associated with many complications of prematurity. These data may inform counseling about tracheostomy in this vulnerable population. PMID:24472229
Padilla, Nelly; Eklöf, Eva; Mårtensson, Gustaf E; Bölte, Sven; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Ådén, Ulrika
Preterm infants face an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The relationship between autism during childhood and early brain development remains unexplored. We studied 84 preterm children born at <27 weeks of gestation, who underwent neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at term and were screened for ASD at 6.5 years. Full-scale intelligence quotient was measured and neonatal morbidities were recorded. Structural brain morphometric studies were performed in 33 infants with high-quality MRI and no evidence of focal brain lesions. Twenty-three (27.4%) of the children tested ASD positive and 61 (72.6%) tested ASD negative. The ASD-positive group had a significantly higher frequency of neonatal complications than the ASD-negative group. In the subgroup of 33 children, the ASD infants had reduced volumes in the temporal, occipital, insular, and limbic regions and in the brain areas involved in social/behavior and salience integration. This study shows that the neonatal MRI scans of extremely preterm children, subsequently diagnosed with ASD at 6.5 years, showed brain structural alterations, localized in the regions that play a key role in the core features of autism. Early detection of these structural alterations may allow the early identification and intervention of children at risk of ASD.
Kavšek, Michael; Bornstein, Marc H.
We review comparative studies of infant habituation and dishabituation performance focusing on preterm infants. Habituation refers to cognitive encoding, and dishabituation refers to discrimination and memory. If habituation and dishabituation constitute basic information-processing skills, and preterm infants suffer cognitive disadvantages, then preterms should show diminished habituation and dishabituation performance. Our review provides evidence that preterm infants’ habituation and dishabituation are impoverished relative to term infants. On the whole, effect sizes indicated that the differences between preterms and terms are of a medium magnitude. We also find that preterms’ performance is moderated by risk factors, stimulus materials, procedural variables, and age. These factors need to be taken into account in the construction of tests in which habituation-dishabituation tasks are employed. Overall, the habituation-dishabituation paradigm presents a promising approach in the diagnosis of cognitive status and development in preterm infants. PMID:20488657
Ozdemir, Abdurrahman A; Oral, Tugce K; Varol, Aydin
Survival rates of premature infants have increased with developing technology and evolving knowledge but late-onset sepsis is more frequent due to prolonged hospitalization periods of these infants. We report the case of an extremely low birth weight premature infant who was admitted with respiratory distress syndrome, developed necrotizing enterocolitis and fungal sepsis with endocarditis by Candida albicans. He was treated with antifungal therapy until fungal vegetation resolved. Fungal sepsis and endocarditis may be an important morbidity in preterm infants; we review the recent literature about the risk factors, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of fungal sepsis in these high risk infants.
Cohen, S E; Beckwith, L
Naturalistic home observations of 54 preterm infants and their caregivers were made when the infants were 1, 3 and 8 months of age. Differences were found in the kinds of everyday transactions which occur with preterm infants raised with and without siblings. At 1 month of age the care of firstborn and later-born infants was similar in most ways. At 3 months and 8 months firstborn infants clearly received more responsive care and more stimulation from their mothers than later-born infants. Furthermore, the firstborn infant received more social transactions from anybody. Firstborn preterm infants obtained higher Gesell developmental scores than later-born infants, replicating results reported with infant test performance of full-term infants.
Maggio, L; Costa, S; Zecca, C; Giordano, L
Whenever possible, oral feeding is the preferred method in neonatal feeding. However, many premature infants are unable to suck and swallow effectively; in these cases alternative methods of nutrient delivery must be used. We briefly review the different feeding methods used in neonatal units, with particular attention to their theoretical advantages, disadvantages and to the current best evidence available.
Mohr, Mary A; Vergales, Brooke D; Lee, Hoshik; Clark, Matthew T; Lake, Douglas E; Mennen, Anne C; Kattwinkel, John; Sinkin, Robert A; Moorman, J Randall; Fairchild, Karen D; Delos, John B
Apnea is nearly universal among very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, and the associated bradycardia and desaturation may have detrimental consequences. We describe here very long (>60 s) central apnea events (VLAs) with bradycardia and desaturation, discovered using a computerized detection system applied to our database of over 100 infant years of electronic signals. Eighty-six VLAs occurred in 29 out of 335 VLBW infants. Eighteen of the 29 infants had a clinical event or condition possibly related to the VLA. Most VLAs occurred while infants were on nasal continuous positive airway pressure, supplemental oxygen, and caffeine. Apnea alarms on the bedside monitor activated in 66% of events, on average 28 s after cessation of breathing. Bradycardia alarms activated late, on average 64 s after cessation of breathing. Before VLAs oxygen saturation was unusually high, and during VLAs oxygen saturation and heart rate fell unusually slowly. We give measures of the relative severity of VLAs and theoretical calculations that describe the rate of decrease of oxygen saturation. A clinical conclusion is that very long apnea (VLA) events with bradycardia and desaturation are not rare. Apnea alarms failed to activate for about one-third of VLAs. It appears that neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) personnel respond quickly to bradycardia alarms but not consistently to apnea alarms. We speculate that more reliable apnea detection systems would improve patient safety in the NICU. A physiological conclusion is that the slow decrease of oxygen saturation is consistent with a physiological model based on assumed high values of initial oxygen saturation.
Vergales, Brooke D.; Lee, Hoshik; Clark, Matthew T.; Lake, Douglas E.; Mennen, Anne C.; Kattwinkel, John; Sinkin, Robert A.; Moorman, J. Randall; Fairchild, Karen D.; Delos, John B.
Apnea is nearly universal among very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, and the associated bradycardia and desaturation may have detrimental consequences. We describe here very long (>60 s) central apnea events (VLAs) with bradycardia and desaturation, discovered using a computerized detection system applied to our database of over 100 infant years of electronic signals. Eighty-six VLAs occurred in 29 out of 335 VLBW infants. Eighteen of the 29 infants had a clinical event or condition possibly related to the VLA. Most VLAs occurred while infants were on nasal continuous positive airway pressure, supplemental oxygen, and caffeine. Apnea alarms on the bedside monitor activated in 66% of events, on average 28 s after cessation of breathing. Bradycardia alarms activated late, on average 64 s after cessation of breathing. Before VLAs oxygen saturation was unusually high, and during VLAs oxygen saturation and heart rate fell unusually slowly. We give measures of the relative severity of VLAs and theoretical calculations that describe the rate of decrease of oxygen saturation. A clinical conclusion is that very long apnea (VLA) events with bradycardia and desaturation are not rare. Apnea alarms failed to activate for about one-third of VLAs. It appears that neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) personnel respond quickly to bradycardia alarms but not consistently to apnea alarms. We speculate that more reliable apnea detection systems would improve patient safety in the NICU. A physiological conclusion is that the slow decrease of oxygen saturation is consistent with a physiological model based on assumed high values of initial oxygen saturation. PMID:25549762
Blüml, Stefan; Wisnowski, Jessica L; Nelson, Marvin D; Paquette, Lisa; Panigrahy, Ashok
Significant physiological switches occur at birth such as the transition from fetal parallel blood flow to a two-circuit serial system with increased arterial oxygenation of blood delivered to all organs including the brain. In addition, the extra-uterine environment exposes premature infants to a host of stimuli. These events could conceivably alter the trajectory of brain development in premature infants. We used in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure absolute brain metabolite concentrations in term and premature-born infants without evidence of brain injury at equivalent post-conceptional age. Prematurity altered the developmental time courses of N-acetyl-aspartate, a marker for axonal and neuronal development, creatine, an energy metabolite, and choline, a membrane metabolite, in parietal white matter. Specifically, at term-equivalency, metabolic maturation in preterm infants preceded development in term infants, but then progressed at a slower pace and trajectories merged at ≈340-370 post-conceptional days. In parieto/occipital grey matter similar trends were noticed but statistical significance was not reached. The timing of white matter development and synchronization of white matter and grey matter maturation in premature-born infants is disturbed. This may contribute to the greater risk of long-term neurological problems of premature infants and to their higher risk for white matter injury.
Valizadeh, Leila; Sanaeefar, Mahnaz; Hosseini, Mohammad Bager; Asgari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Shamili, Aryan
Introduction: Although the survival rate of infants born preterm has increased, the prevalence of developmental problems and motor disorders among this population of infants remains the same. This study investigated the effect of physical activity programs in and out of water on motor performance and neuromuscular development of infants born preterm and had induced immobility by mechanical ventilation. Methods: This study was carried out in Al-Zahra hospital, Tabriz. 76 premature infants were randomly assigned into four groups. One group received daily passive range of motion to all extremities based on the Moyer-Mileur protocol. Hydrotherapy group received exercises for shoulders and pelvic area in water every other day. A combination group received physical activity programs in and out of water on alternating days. Infants in a containment group were held in a fetal position. Duration of study was two weeks ‘from 32 through 33 weeks post menstrual age (PMA). Motor outcomes were measured by the Test of Infant Motor Performance. Neuromuscular developmental was assessed by New Ballard scale and leg recoil and Ankle dorsiflexion items from Dubowitz scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 13. Results: TIMP and neuromuscular scores improved in all groups. Motor performance did not differ between groups at 34 weeks PMA. Postural tone of leg recoil was significantly higher in physical activity groups post intervention. Conclusion: Physical activities and containment didn’t have different effects on motor performance in infants born preterm. Leg recoil of neuromuscular development items was affected by physical activity programs. PMID:28299299
Cevasco, Andrea M
The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of mothers' singing on their adjustment to and bonding with their new infants as well as use of music in the home environment in the first 2 weeks after their infants' birth. Preterm mothers were assessed for coping with their infants' NICU stay, and premature infants' length of hospitalization was evaluated. Fifty-four full-term infants and mothers and 20 premature infants and 16 mothers were randomly assigned to experimental or control conditions. Mothers in both experimental groups were recorded singing songs of their choice for use at home. Recordings of each preterm mother's voice were played 20 minutes per day, 3 to 5 times per week, at a time when she was not able to visit her infant in the NICU. All full-term and preterm mothers in experimental and control groups completed a posttest survey 2 weeks after infants were discharged. Comparisons revealed that experimental preterm and full-term mothers indicated less adjustment to their baby and lifestyle changes and less bonding compared to control mothers, though this difference was not significant. Preterm and full-term experimental mothers reported the greatest number of postpartum medical complications, which might explain their poor adjustment and bonding scores. There was a significant difference between mothers' value of music, with preterm experimental valuing music more. Preterm and full-term experimental mothers used music with and sang to infants more compared to preterm and full-term control mothers, but not to a significant degree. Preterm mothers reported a mean score of 4.75 (with a 5 indicating that they strongly agreed) for the following item: knowing my infant listened to my singing helped me to cope with my infant's stay in the NICU. Furthermore, preterm infants who listened to the CD recording of their mothers' singing left the hospital an average of 2 days sooner than those in the control group, though this difference was not
Henderson‐Smart, D J; Hutchinson, J L; Donoghue, D A; Evans, N J; Simpson, J M; Wright, I
Objective To identify prenatal risk factors for chronic lung disease (CLD) at 36 weeks postmenstrual age in very preterm infants. Population Data were collected prospectively as part of the ongoing audit of the Australian and New Zealand Neonatal Network (ANZNN) of all infants born at less than 32 weeks gestation admitted to all tertiary neonatal intensive care units in Australia and New Zealand. Methods Prenatal factors up to 1 minute of age were examined in the subset of infants born at gestational ages 22–31 weeks during 1998–2001, and who survived to 36 weeks postmenstrual age (n = 11 453). Factors that were significantly associated with CLD at 36 weeks were entered into a multivariate logistic regression model. Results After adjustment, low gestational age was the dominant risk factor, with an approximate doubling of the odds with each week of decreasing gestational age from 31 to less than 25 weeks (trend p<0.0001). Birth weight for gestational age also had a dose‐response effect: the lower the birth weight for gestational age, the greater the risk, with infants below the third centile having 5.67 times greater odds of CLD than those between the 25th and 75th centile (trend p<0.0001). There was also a significantly increased risk for male infants (odds ratio 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.36 to 1.68), p<0.0001). Conclusions These population based data show that the prenatal factors low gestational age, low birth weight for gestational age, and male sex significantly predict the development of chronic respiratory insufficiency in very preterm infants and may assist clinical decision about delivery. PMID:16131530
Ko, Yi-Li; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Chang, Pi-Chen
The purpose of this study was to examine the risk factors associated with pre-term labor (PTL) (< 37 gestational weeks) and low birth weight (LBW) (< 2500 gm) infants in a healthy Taiwanese population. From December 1998 through June 1999, a total of 633 healthy pregnant women were recruited at three teaching hospitals in Taipei. Using a prospective study design, the pregnancy outcome information was followed up by telephone or from medical records during the first month postpartum. Data were statistically analyzed by multiple logistic regression. The prevalence of premature births was 5.4%, and the prevalence of LBW infants was 5.1%. Pre-term births were significantly associated with high self-reported fatigue scores (OR = 3.45); extreme maternal age (< 20 and >/= 35 years, OR = 2.38); history of abortion (>/= 2, OR = 3.11); maternal height (= 158 cm, OR = 1.73); low income (OR = 1.88), and multiple pregnancies (OR = 18.78). The risk for low birth weight infants was significantly increased when the woman had an extreme maternal age (OR = 2.65), nulliparity (OR = 1.64); multiple pregnancies (OR = 9.3) and no domestic helper (OR = 1.65). The study provides a reference basis for prenatal care.
Bart, O.; Shayevits, S.; Gabis, L. V.; Morag, I.
The aim of the study was to prospectively assess the differences in participation and sensory modulation between late preterm infants (LPI) and term babies, and to predict it by LPI characteristics. The study population includes 124 late preterm infants at gestational age between 34 and 35 6/7 weeks who were born at the same medical center. The…
Haley, David W.; Grunau, Ruth E.; Oberlander, Tim F.; Weinberg, Joanne
Learning difficulties in preterm infants are thought to reflect impairment in arousal regulation. We examined relationships among gestational age, learning speed, and behavioral and physiological reactivity in 55 preterm and 49 full-term infants during baseline, contingency, and nonreinforcement phases of a conjugate mobile paradigm at 3 months…
Molinaro, Manuela; Aiazzi, Massimo; La Torre, Antonio; Cini, Elisabetta; Banfi, Roberto
Preterm infants are at high risk of neonatal sepsis. We report a case of a preterm infant under prophylaxis with Lactobacillus Rhamnosus for necrotizing enterocolitis; the child develops neonatal sepsis by Lactobacillus Rhamnosus. The infection is improved after probiotic withdrawal and had complete remission after 20 days of specific antibiotic therapy.
Lejeune, Fleur; Marcus, Leila; Berne-Audeoud, Frederique; Streri, Arlette; Debillon, Thierry; Gentaz, Edouard
This study investigated the ability of preterm infants to learn an object shape with one hand and discriminate a new shape in the opposite hand (without visual control). Twenty-four preterm infants between 33 and 34 + 6 gestational weeks received a tactile habituation task with either their right or left hand followed by a tactile discrimination…
Odd, David Edward; Emond, Alan; Whitelaw, Andrew
Aim: To investigate whether infants born late preterm have poorer cognitive outcomes than term-born infants. Method: A cohort study based on the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Cognitive measures were assessed between the ages of 8 and 11 years. Exposure groups were defined as moderate/late preterm (32-36 weeks' gestation) or term…
Thompson, Deanne K.; Warfield, Simon K.; Carlin, John B.; Pavlovic, Masa; Wang, Hong X.; Bear, Merilyn; Kean, Michael J.; Doyle, Lex W.; Egan, Gary F.; Inder, Terrie E.
Neuroanatomical structure appears to be altered in preterm infants, but there has been little insight into the major perinatal risk factors associated with regional cerebral structural alterations. MR images were taken to quantitatively compare regional brain tissue volumes between term and preterm infants and to investigate associations between…
Saudah, Noer; Nursalam; Meriana; Sulistyono, Agus
The role of parents has done less during the preterm infant care in hospitals caused dependence in caring for the baby. The objective of the research was to development a model of independence of the mother in the care of preterm infants with experiential learning approach based theory of goal attainment. Research's design used analytic…
Fanaro, Silvia; Ballardini, Elisa; Vigi, Vittorio
Optimal nutrition is one of the most important aspects in the care of pre-term infants, especially for the gestationally youngest ones. These infants should receive a supply of nutrients that can sustain growth similar to that of a third trimester normal foetus. Traditional pre-term formulas do not ensure an optimal protein supply except when fed at high volumes, with an excess of fat and carbohydrates. Formulas with a protein content of 2-2.5 g 100ml(-1) and a protein/energy (P:E) ratio of less than 3g 100 kcal(-1) are not the best choice for the very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. We have tested a new formulation designed for the nutrition of the VLBW infants that is characterised by a protein content of 2.9 g 100ml(-1) and a P:E ratio of 3.5 g 100 kcal(-1). The milk formula was well tolerated and associated with better weight gain compared with fortified breast milk (18.1 vs. 15.2 g kg(-1)day(-1); p=0.0015). These results were obtained with a noticeably lower fluid supply (157 vs. 177 ml kg day(-1); p<0.0001) and lower energy intake (130 vs. 151 kcal kg(-1)day(-1); p<0.0001). Infant length and head circumference did not differ significantly between groups. Currently, the use of a formula with a P:E ratio of 3.5 g 100 kcal(-1) appears to be safe and to represent the best choice available for the gestationally youngest infants.
Als, Heidelise; Butler, Samantha; Kosta, Sandra; McAnulty, Gloria
The Assessment of Preterm Infants' Behavior (APIB) is a newborn neurobehavioral assessment appropriate for preterm, at risk, and full-term newborns, from birth to 1 month after expected due date. The APIB is based in ethological--evolutionary thought and focuses on the assessment of mutually interacting behavioral subsystems in simultaneous…
Background In neonatology the role of chest physiotherapy is still uncertain because of the controversial outcomes. Methods The aim of this study was to test the applicability in preterm infants of 'reflex rolling', from the Vojta method, in preterm neonates with lung pathology, with particular attention to the effects on blood gases and oxygen saturation, on the spontaneous breathing, on the onset of stress or pain. The study included 34 preterm newborns with mean gestational age of 30.5 (1.6) weeks - mean (DS) - and birth weight of 1430 (423) g - mean (DS) -, who suffered from hyaline membrane disease, under treatment with nasal CPAP (continuous positive airways pressure), or from pneumonia, under treatment with oxygen-therapy. The neonates underwent phase 1 of 'reflex rolling' according to Vojta method three times daily. Respiratory rate, SatO2, transcutaneous PtcCO2 e PtcO2 were monitored; in order to evaluate the onset of stress or pain following the stimulations, the NIPS score and the PIPP score were recorded; cerebral ultrasound scans were performed on postnatal days 1-3-5-7, and then weekly. Results In this population the first phase of Vojta's 'reflex rolling' caused an increase of PtcO2 and SatO2 values. No negative effects on PtcCO2 and respiratory rate were observed, NIPS and PIPP stress scores remained unmodified during the treatment; in no patient the intraventricular haemorrhage worsened in time and none of the infants developed periventricular leucomalacia. Conclusions Our experience, using the Vojta method, allows to affirm that this method is safe for preterm neonates, but further investigations are necessary to confirm its positive effects and to evaluate long-term respiratory outcomes. PMID:20868518
Klevebro, S; Lundgren, P; Hammar, U; Smith, L E; Bottai, M; Domellöf, M; Löfqvist, C; Hallberg, B; Hellström, A
Objectives To examine differences in growth patterns in preterm infants developing major morbidities including retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH). Study design Cohort study of 2521 infants born at a gestational age (GA) of 23–30 weeks from 11 level III neonatal intensive care units in USA and Canada, and 3 Swedish population-based cohorts. Outcomes Birth weight and postnatal weight gain were examined relative to birth GA and ROP, BPD, NEC and IVH development. Results Among infants with a birth GA of 25–30 weeks, birth weight SD score and postnatal weight were lower in those developing ROP and BPD. Infants developing ROP showed lower growth rates during postnatal weeks 7–9 in the 23–24 weeks GA group, during weeks 4–6 in the 25–26 weeks GA group and during weeks 1–5 in the 27–30 weeks GA group. Infants with BPD born at 27–30 weeks GA showed lower growth rates during postnatal weeks 3–5. Infants with NEC had lower growth rates after postnatal week 6 in all GA groups, with no significant differences in birth weight SD score. IVH was not associated with prenatal or postnatal growth. Conclusions In this cohort study of extremely preterm infants, we found that the postnatal growth pattern was associated with morbidities such as ROP, BPD and NEC as well as with gestational age at birth. PMID:27856479
Mohamed, Zainah; Newton, Jennifer Margaret; Lau, Rosalind
This study sought to explore the impact of Malaysian nurses' perceptions, knowledge and experiences in preterm infant skin care practices using a descriptive approach. Questionnaires were distributed to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) nurses in one teaching hospital in Malaysia. A knowledge gap was revealed among nurses in both theoretical and practical knowledge of preterm infant skin. Nurses working for more than 5 years in NICU or having a Neonatal Nursing Certificate (NNC) were not predictors of having adequate knowledge of preterm infants' skin care. The results highlight the complex issue of providing effective skin care to preterm infants. However, a specific finding related to nurses' confidence provides some direction for future practice and research initiatives. Clear clinical evidence-based guidelines and Continuing Nursing Education on relevant topics of preterm infants' care may provide the required knowledge for the nurses.
Goelz, Rangmar; Poets, Christian F
Infantile haemangioma (IH) are vascular tumours with a unique growth dynamic, mostly absent at birth, growth in the first months followed by involution over several years, often resulting in residual skin changes. Immune-histologically, IH cells are exclusively glucose transporter protein-1 positive.The incidence of IH is increasing with decreasing gestational age, from 1-4% in term infants to 23% in those of <1000 g birth weight, with a female and Caucasian predominance. Discovery of systemic and topical beta blockers as an effective treatment option resulted in a rapid shift away from systemic steroids towards these drugs. For preterm infants, however, data on efficacy, pharmacokinetics and long-term safety are sparse or absent. Topical treatment without systemic side effects like cryotherapy may thus be an attractive alternative at an early growth stage (<10 mm). Indications for treatment with beta blockers, mostly propranolol systemically and timolol maleat 0.5% topically, are currently extrapolated from studies in older infants. Both seem effective, but adverse effects on sleep, circulation and metabolism are well described for propranolol. Long-term outcome data for either drug are missing. In conclusion, evidence on optimal IH treatment in preterms is lacking despite their high incidence; pharmacokinetic and clinical studies are warranted.
Haley, David W.; Grunau, Ruth E.; Oberlander, Tim F.; Weinberg, Joanne
Learning difficulties in preterm infants are thought to reflect impairment in arousal regulation. We examined relationships among gestational age, learning speed, and behavioral and physiological reactivity in 55 preterm and 49 full-term infants during baseline, contingency, and nonreinforcement phases of a conjugate mobile paradigm at 3 months corrected age. For all infants, negative affect, looking duration, and heart rate levels increased during contingency and nonreinforcement phases, whereas respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA, an index of parasympathetic activity) decreased and cortisol did not change. Learners showed greater RSA suppression and less negative affect than nonlearners. This pattern was particularly evident in the preterm group. Overall, preterm infants showed less learning, spent less time looking at the mobile, and had lower cortisol levels than full-term infants. Preterm infants also showed greater heart rate responses to contingency and dampened heart rate responses to nonreinforcement compared to full-term infants. Findings underscore differences in basal and reactivity measures in preterm compared to full-term infants and suggest that the capacity to regulate parasympathetic activity during a challenge enhances learning in preterm infants. PMID:20717491
de Freitas, Brunnella Alcantara Chagas; Lima, Luciana Moreira; Carlos, Carla Fernanda Lisboa Valente; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro
Abstract Objective: Identify and analyze variables associated with shorter duration of breastfeeding in preterm infants. Methods: Retrospective cohort of premature infants followed up at secondary referral service in the period of 2010-2015. Inclusion: first appointment in the first month of corrected age and have undergone three or more consultations. Exclusion: diseases that impaired oral feeding. Outcome: duration of breastfeeding. A total of 103 preterm infants were evaluated, accounting for 28.8% of the preterm infants born in the municipality in that period, with a power of study of 80%. Descriptive analysis, t-test, chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression were used. p-values <0.05 were considered significant. Results: The median duration of breastfeeding among preterm infants was 5.0 months. The risk of breastfeeding discontinuation among preterm infants with gestational age <32 weeks was 2.6-fold higher than for those born at 32 weeks or more and the risk of breastfeeding interruption in preterm infants who were receiving breastfeeding supplementation in the first outpatient visit was 3-fold higher when compared to those who were exclusively breastfed in the first consultation. Conclusions: The median duration of breastfeeding in preterm infants was below the recommended one and discontinuation was associated with gestational <32 weeks and the fact that the infant was no longer receiving exclusive breastfeeding in the first outpatient visit. When these two variables were associated, their negative effect on the median duration of breastfeeding was potentiated. PMID:26614258
Molloy, Carly; Doyle, Lex W; Makrides, Maria; Anderson, Peter J
Preterm children are at risk for a number of visual impairments which can be important for a range of other more complex visuocognitive tasks reliant on visual information. Despite the relatively high incidence of visual impairments in this group there are no good predictors that would allow early identification of those at risk for adverse outcomes. Several lines of evidence suggest that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation for preterm infants may improve outcomes in this area. For example, diets deficient in the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid DHA have been shown to reduce its concentration in the cerebral cortex and retina, which interferes with physiological processes important for cognition and visual functioning. Further, various studies with pregnant and lactating women, as well as formula-fed infants, have demonstrated a general trend that supplementation with dietary DHA is associated with better childhood outcomes on tests of visual and cognitive development over the first year of life. However, research to date has several methodological limitations, including concentrations of DHA supplementation that have been too low to emulate the in utero accretion of DHA, using single measures of visual acuity to make generalised assumptions about the entire visual system, and little attempt to match what we know about inadequate DHA and structural ramifications with how specific functions may be affected. The objective of this review is to consider the role of DHA in the context of visual processing with a specific emphasis on preterm infants and to illustrate how future research may benefit from marrying what we know about structural consequences to inadequate DHA with functional outcomes that likely have far-reaching ramifications. Factors worth considering for clinical neuropsychological evaluation are also discussed.
The establishment of micronutrient requirements for infants remains a challenge. For healthy full-term infants, breast milk is an appropriate standard for virtually all nutrients. In contrast, guidelines for infants who are not healthy, and infants who are born preterm, are much more tenuous....
Head, Lauren M
Preterm birth is associated with long-term deficits in executive functioning and cognitive performance. As advances in neonatal care enable more preterm infants to survive, development of strategies to address high rates of neurodevelopmental disabilities and poor academic achievement in preterm infants are crucial. Evidence suggests that infants' brains are plastic in nature and, therefore, can be shaped by the environment. Kangaroo care has become popularized as a means of modifying the stress of the NICU environment. However, few studies have examined whether kangaroo care affects neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants. This review examined available literature that investigated the effect of kangaroo care on cognition in preterm infants. Current evidence suggests that short-term benefits of kangaroo care are associated with improved neurodevelopment. However, few studies have examined the long-term impact of kangaroo care on cognitive outcomes in preterm infants. To address neurological disparities in children born preterm, research using kangaroo care as a strategy to improve neurodevelopment in preterm infants is warranted.
Tian, Xu; Yi, Li-Juan; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Ma, Li; Ou, Yang-Xiang; Shuai, Ting; Zeng, Zi; Song, Guo-Min
Abstract Oral feeding for preterm infants has been a thorny problem worldwide. To improve the efficacy of oral feeding in preterm infants, oral motor intervention (OMI), which consists of nonnutritive sucking, oral stimulation, and oral support, was developed. Published studies demonstrated that OMI may be as an alternative treatment to solve this problem; however, these results remain controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis (TSA) to objectively evaluate the potential of OMI for improving the current status of oral feeding in preterm infants. A search of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure was performed to capture relevant citations until at the end of October, 2014. Lists of references of eligible studies and reviews were also hand-checked to include any latent studies. Two independent investigators screened literature, extracted data, and assessed the methodology, and then a meta-analysis and TSA was performed by using Reviewer Manager (RevMan) 5.3 and TSA 0.9 beta, respectively. A total of 11 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which included 855 participants, were incorporated into our meta-analysis. The meta-analyses suggested that OMI is associated with the reduced transition time (ie, the time needed from tube feeding to totally oral feeding) (mean difference [MD], −4.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], −5.22 to −2.84), shorten hospital stays (MD, −3.64; 95% CI, −5.57 to −1.71), increased feeding efficiency (MD, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.36–1.27), and intake of milk (MD, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.06–0.21) rather than weight gain. Results of TSA for each outcomes of interest confirmed these pooled results. With present evidences, OMI can be as an alternative to improve the condition of transition time, length of hospital stays, feeding efficiency, and intake of milk in preterm infants. However, the pooled results may be impaired due to low quality included, and thus
Neal, Diana O; Lindeke, Linda L
Although there is general agreement that noise in the neonatal intensive care unit should be reduced, there is controversy about the use of music as a developmental care strategy with prererm infants. Much literature supports using music with preterm infants, indicating that it enhances physiologic and neurobehavioral functioning, but some experts worry that music is overstimulating. This article presents evidence supporting the use of music with preterm infants as well as criticism of same. Recommendations for music interventions with preterm infants are discussed, although fUrther research is needed before specific guidelines can he established.
King, Jennifer P; Gazmararian, Julie A; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K
The purpose of this study was to identify disparities in neonatal, post-neonatal, and overall infant mortality rates among infants born late preterm (34-36 weeks gestation) and early term (37-38 weeks gestation) by race/ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality. In analyses of 2003-2005 data from US period linked birth/infant death datasets, we compared infant mortality rates by race/ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality among infants born late preterm or early term and also determined the leading causes of death among these infants. Among infants born late preterm, infants born to American Indian/Alaskan Native, non-Hispanic black, or teenage mothers had the highest infant mortality rates per 1,000 live births (14.85, 9.90, and 11.88 respectively). Among infants born early term, corresponding mortality rates were 5.69, 4.49, and 4.82, respectively. Among infants born late preterm, singletons had a higher infant mortality rate than twins (8.59 vs. 5.62), whereas among infants born early term, the rate was higher among twins (3.67 vs. 3.15). Congenital malformations and sudden infant death syndrome were the leading causes of death among both late preterm and early term infants. Infant mortality rates among infants born late preterm or early term varied substantially by maternal race/ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality. Information about these disparities may help in the development of clinical practice and prevention strategies targeting infants at highest risk.
Head, Lauren M; Baralt, Melissa; Darcy Mahoney, Ashley E
Preterm birth is associated with long-term deficits in executive functioning and cognitive performance. Using the model of brain plasticity as a theoretical framework, it is possible that preterm infants' neurodevelopmental sequelae can be altered. Evidence suggests that bilingualism confers cognitive advantages on executive functioning, so it is possible that bilingualism may improve preterm infants' neurodevelopment. However, bilingualism has only been studied in term children. This review examined literature that compared the performance of preterm-born children to term children and bilingual children to monolingual children on executive function tasks. To address cognitive disparities in preterm-born children, studies investigating the effect of bilingualism on preterm infants' executive functioning is warranted.
van den Berg, Jolice P.; Westerbeek, Elisabeth A. M.; Smits, Gaby P.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; van Elburg, Ruurd M.
Background Maternal antibodies, transported over the placenta during pregnancy, contribute to the protection of infants from infectious diseases during the first months of life. In term infants, this protection does not last until the first recommended measles-mumps-rubella vaccination at 14 months in the Netherlands, while these viruses still circulate. The aim of the study was to investigate the antibody concentration against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella (MMRV) in mothers and preterm infants or healthy term infants at birth. Methods Antibody concentrations specific for MMRV were measured in cord blood samples from preterm (gestational age <32 weeks and/or birth weight <1500 g) and term infants, and matched maternal serum samples, using a fluorescent bead-based multiplex immune-assay. Results Due to lower placental transfer ratios of antibodies against MMRV in 96 preterm infants (range 0.75–0.87) compared to 42 term infants (range 1.39–1.65), the preterm infants showed 1.7–2.5 times lower geometric mean concentrations at birth compared to term infants. Maternal antibody concentration is the most important determinant of infant antibody concentration against MMRV. Conclusions Preterm infants benefit to a lesser extent from maternal antibodies against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella than term infants, posing them even earlier at risk for infectious diseases caused by these still circulating viruses. PMID:24728480
Vergales, Brooke D.; Paget-Brown, Alix O.; Lee, Hoshik; Guin, Lauren E.; Smoot, Terri J.; Rusin, Craig G.; Clark, Matthew T.; Delos, John B.; Fairchild, Karen D.; Lake, Douglas E.; Moorman, Randall; Kattwinkel, John
Objective In 2006 the apnea of prematurity (AOP) consensus group identified inaccurate counting of apnea episodes as a major barrier to progress in AOP research. We compare nursing records of AOP to events detected by a clinically validated computer algorithm that detects apnea from standard bedside monitors. Study Design Waveform, vital sign, and alarm data were collected continuously from all very low-birth-weight infants admitted over a 25-month period, analyzed for central apnea, bradycardia, and desaturation (ABD) events, and compared with nursing documentation collected from charts. Our algorithm defined apnea as > 10 seconds if accompanied by bradycardia and desaturation. Results Of the 3,019 nurse-recorded events, only 68% had any algorithm-detected ABD event. Of the 5,275 algorithm-detected prolonged apnea events > 30 seconds, only 26% had nurse-recorded documentation within 1 hour. Monitor alarms sounded in only 74% of events of algorithm-detected prolonged apnea events > 10 seconds. There were 8,190,418 monitor alarms of any description throughout the neonatal intensive care unit during the 747 days analyzed, or one alarm every 2 to 3 minutes per nurse. Conclusion An automated computer algorithm for continuous ABD quantitation is a far more reliable tool than the medical record to address the important research questions identified by the 2006 AOP consensus group. PMID:23592319
Schappin, Renske; Wijnroks, Lex; Uniken Venema, Monica M. A. T.; Jongmans, Marian J.
Background With improved medical outcome in preterm infants, the psychosocial situation of their families is receiving increasing attention. For parents, the birth of a preterm infant is generally regarded as a stressful experience, and therefore many interventions are based on reducing parental stress. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether parents of children born preterm experience more stress than parents of term-born children, which would justify these interventions. This meta-analysis provides a comprehensive account of parental stress in parents of preterm infants, from birth of the infant through to their adolescence. Mean levels of stress in specific domains of family functioning were investigated, and stress levels in parents of preterm and term infants, and fathers and mothers of preterm infants, were compared. Furthermore, we investigated moderators of parental stress. Methods and Findings A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted including 38 studies describing 3025 parents of preterm (<37 wk) and low birth weight (<2500 g) infants. Parental stress was measured with two parent-reported questionnaires, the Parenting Stress Index and the Parental Stressor Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The results indicate that parents of preterm-born children experience only slightly more stress than parents of term-born children, with small effect sizes. Furthermore, mothers have slightly more stress than fathers, but these effect sizes are also small. Parents report more stress for infants with lower gestational ages and lower birth weights. There is a strong effect for infant birth year, with decreasing parental stress from the 1980s onward, probably due to increased quality of care for preterm infants. Conclusions Based on our findings we argue that prematurity can best be regarded as one of the possible complications of birth, and not as a source of stress in itself. PMID:23405105
Acolet, D; Modi, N; Giannakoulopoulos, X; Bond, C; Weg, W; Clow, A; Glover, V
The biochemical and clinical response to massage in preterm infants was assessed. Eleven stable infants, of 29 weeks' median gestational age, median birth weight 980 g, and median postnatal age 20 days, were studied. Blood samples were obtained for the determination of adrenaline, noradrenaline, and cortisol 45 minutes before the start of massage and approximately one hour after completion of massage. Cortisol, but not catecholamine, concentrations decreased consistently after massage (median difference -35.8 nmol/l; 95% confidence interval -0.5 to -94.0, Wilcoxon matched pairs). There was a slight decrease in skin temperature (median difference -0.36 degrees C, 95% confidence interval -0.09 to -0.65) but there was no change in oxygenation or oxygen requirement. This study has shown that it is possible to detect an objective hormonal change following a supposedly 'non-therapeutic' intervention in preterm infants. The development of such methods of assessment are likely to be of particular relevance in the extremely immature or ill neonate in whom behavioural evaluation cannot play more than a limited part. Images PMID:8439193
Meijssen, Dominique; Wolf, Marie-Jeanne; Koldewijn, Karen; Houtzager, Bregje A.; Van Wassenaer, Aleid; Tronick, Ed; Kok, Joke; Van Baar, Anneloes
Background: Prematurity and perinatal insults lead to increased developmental vulnerability. The home-based Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP) was designed to improve development of preterm infants. In a multicenter randomized controlled trial the effect of IBAIP on mother-infant interaction was studied as a secondary…
Brown, Josephine V.; Bakeman, Roger; Sampers, Jackie S.; Korner, Anneliese F.; Constantinou, Janet C.; Anand, K. J. S.
In spite of numerous recent outcome studies of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants, no data exist on their development prior to term. In this study we traced and compared the neurobehavioral development of 251 ELBW (less than 1,000 g) and 240 low birth weight (LBW; 1,000 g-2,500 g) preterms born between 1995 and 2004 from 32 to 37 weeks…
Donn, S.M.; Roloff, D.W.; Keyes, J.W. Jr.
Radionuclide lumbar cisternography using indium 111-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (111In-DTPA) and a mobile gamma-camera with a converging collimator was utilized as a bedside procedure to evaluate CSF dynamics and the patency of the cerebral ventricular system in 30 preterm infants with hydrocephalus. Serial images of the brain were obtained at 0, 1, 2, 6, 24, and 48 hours after instillation of the isotope in the lumbar subarachnoid space. Three distinct patterns were seen. Infants with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus displayed prompt ventricular filling but markedly delayed emptying with minimal flow over the cerebral convexities. Infants with ventriculomegaly secondary to suspected brain atrophy or periventricular leukomalacia demonstrated a pattern of prompt ventricular filling, delayed emptying, but with flow present over the convexities. An infant with noncommunicating hydrocephalus secondary to an Arnold-Chiari malformation showed a pattern of complete obstruction with no ventricular filling. Radionuclide lumbar cisternography appears to be a safe, well-tolerated procedure which produces images of sufficient resolution to provide valuable information about CSF dynamics, delineating basal cisternae, ventricles, and subarachnoid flow paths.
Kennedy, K.; Ipson, M.; Birch, D.; Tyson, J.; Anderson, J.; Nusinowitz, S.; West, L.; Spencer, R.; Birch, E.
AIMS—To examine the effects of light on retinal development and function in preterm infants as measured by the electroretinogram (ERG). Secondary outcomes included visual acuity testing, the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity, and general wellbeing, reflected in feeding tolerance, rate of weight gain, and length of hospital stay. METHODS—Eligibility criteria for enrolment were birthweight ⩽ 1250 g and gestational age ⩽ 31 weeks. Sixty one infants were randomly allocated by 6 hours after birth to a control or treatment group which wore 97% light filtering goggles for a minimum of four weeks or until the infant reached 31 weeks postmenstrual age. RESULTS—There were no significant differences between the two groups in the numbers of electroretinograms performed at 36 weeks of postmenstrual age. Although the sample size was not large enough to exclude clinically important differences in secondary outcomes, no significant differences were observed between the groups in visual acuity testing at 4-6 months corrected age, incidence of retinopathy of prematurity, weight gain, or length of stay. CONCLUSION—These data support the safety and feasibility of this intervention. A much larger study will be needed to determine whether light reduction to the eyes of very low birthweight infants will reduce the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity or enhance general wellbeing. Keywords: light exposure; retinal development; electroretinogram PMID:9175946
Chen, Hsiu-Lin; Lee, Wei-Te; Lee, Pei-Lun; Liu, Po-Len; Yang, Rei-Cheng
This study aimed to evaluate changes in tibial bone speed of sound (SOS) over time, in preterm and term infants during infancy, in addition to identifying factors influencing the development of tibial SOS during infancy. Preterm (n = 155) and term (n = 65) infants were enrolled in this study. Tibial bone SOS was measured using quantitative ultrasonography (QUS) on the left tibia of newborn infants after birth (within 7 days), at 1 month old, and then every 2 months until subjects were approximately 12-15 months old. Follow-up checks included anthropometric measurements and tibial bone SOS. Mean tibial bone SOS at birth was significantly higher in term infants (mean ± SD, 2968.5 ± 99.7 m/s) than in preterm infants (2912.2 ± 122.6 m/s). Values of follow-up tibial bone SOS declined for the first 4 months, and then increased gradually until 12-15 months old. This increasing trend was greater in preterm infants after 2 months of corrected age than in term infants. There were no significant differences by 12-15 months of age between preterm and term infants. A longitudinal mixed-effect model controlling for internal correlations and other covariates in the two groups showed that age and the SOS value at birth were important factors affecting the tibial bone SOS in both preterm and term newborn infants during infancy. There are significant differences in the pattern of change in tibial bone SOS values between preterm and term infants during the first 12-15 months of life. Age and SOS value at birth were important factors affecting the pattern of tibial bone SOS change in both preterm and term newborn infants during infancy.
Poehlmann, Julie; Schwichtenberg, A. J. Miller; Bolt, Daniel M.; Hane, Amanda; Burnson, Cynthia; Winters, Jill
This longitudinal study examined predictors of rates of growth in dyadic interaction quality in children born preterm who did not experience significant neurological findings during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization. Multiple methods were used to collect data from 120 preterm infants (48% girls, 52% boys) and their mothers.…
Narvey, Michael R
Preterm infants younger than 37 weeks corrected gestational age are at increased risk for abnormal control of respiration. The infant car seat challenge has been used as a screening tool to ensure cardiorespiratory stability before discharging preterm infants from many hospitals in Canada. While it is clear that infants placed in a car seat are more likely to experience oxygen desaturation and/or bradycardia than when they are supine, neither positioning predicts an adverse neurodevelopmental outcome or mortality post-discharge. A review of the literature yielded insufficient evidence to recommend routine use of the infant car seat challenge as part of discharge planning for preterm infants. This finding has prompted a change in recommendation from a previous Canadian Paediatric Society position statement published in 2000. PMID:27398056
Qiu, Wu; Yuan, Jing; Kishimoto, Jessica; Chen, Yimin; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Chiu, Bernard; Fenster, Aaron
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) or bleed within the brain is a common condition among pre-term infants that occurs in very low birth weight preterm neonates. The prognosis is further worsened by the development of progressive ventricular dilatation, i.e., post-hemorrhagic ventricle dilation (PHVD), which occurs in 10-30% of IVH patients. In practice, predicting PHVD accurately and determining if that specific patient with ventricular dilatation requires the ability to measure accurately ventricular volume. While monitoring of PHVD in infants is typically done by repeated US and not MRI, once the patient has been treated, the follow-up over the lifetime of the patient is done by MRI. While manual segmentation is still seen as a gold standard, it is extremely time consuming, and therefore not feasible in a clinical context, and it also has a large inter- and intra-observer variability. This paper proposes a segmentation algorithm to extract the cerebral ventricles from 3D T1- weighted MR images of pre-term infants with PHVD. The proposed segmentation algorithm makes use of the convex optimization technique combined with the learned priors of image intensities and label probabilistic map, which is built from a multi-atlas registration scheme. The leave-one-out cross validation using 7 PHVD patient T1 weighted MR images showed that the proposed method yielded a mean DSC of 89.7% +/- 4.2%, a MAD of 2.6 +/- 1.1 mm, a MAXD of 17.8 +/- 6.2 mm, and a VD of 11.6% +/- 5.9%, suggesting a good agreement with manual segmentations.
Kale, Yusuf; Aydemir, Ozge; Ceylan, Ozben; Bas, Ahmet Yagmur; Demirel, Nihal
Dexamethasone is widely used in preterm infants with severe pulmonary disease. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a transient side effect observed after multiple doses of dexamethasone. We report a preterm infant with myocardial hypertrophy after a single dose of dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg) used to treat laryngeal edema secondary to prolonged intubation. A benign course was observed without left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and with recovery within 4 weeks. Myocardial effects of dexamethasone may be independent of dose and duration of treatment. The risk/benefit ratio must be carefully considered before using even a single dose of dexamethasone in preterm infants.
McPherson, Christopher; Grunau, Ruth E
Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the adverse consequences of untreated pain and stress on brain development in the preterm infant. Sucrose has widely been implemented as standard therapy for minor procedural pain. Anesthetics are commonly utilized in preterm infants during major surgery. Pharmacologic agents (benzodiazepines and opioids) have been examined in clinical trials of preterm infants requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Controversy exists regarding the safety and long-term impact of these interventions. Ongoing multidisciplinary research will help define the impact of these agents and identify potential alternative therapies.
Meyers, Jeffrey M.; Bann, Carla M.; Stoll, Barbara J.; D’Angio, Carl T.; Bell, Edward F.; Duncan, Andrea F.; Guillet, Ronnie
Objective To compare neurodevelopmental outcomes in postnatal growth-restricted infants born < 29 weeks with and without postnatal head-sparing. Study Design We analyzed developmental outcomes at 2 years of age among postnatally growth-restricted infants with and without head-sparing. The primary outcome was Bayley III cognitive composite score; secondary outcomes included Bayley III motor composite score, moderate/severe cerebral palsy, GMFCS level ≥2, and presence or absence of neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI). Results Of 1098 infants evaluated at 18–22 months, 658 were postnatally growth-restricted, of whom 301 had head-sparing. In the multivariate model including independent risk factors for poor growth and poor developmental outcome, infants with head-sparing had higher adjusted motor composite scores (mean difference 4.65, p<0.01), but no differences in other neurodevelopmental outcomes. Conclusion Postnatal head-sparing is associated with improved neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely preterm infants, specifically Bayley III motor scores, but whether beneficial effects of PHS persist later in life is unknown. PMID:27629374
Crapnell, TL; Rogers, CE; Neil, JJ; Inder, TE; Woodward, LJ; Pineda, RG
Aim To investigate early medical and family factors associated with later feeding risk in preterm infants. Methods For this longitudinal study, we enrolled 136 infants born ≤30 weeks gestation. Medical and social background factors were assessed at term equivalent age. Infants underwent magnetic resonance imaging, neurobehavioral evaluation, and feeding assessment. Parent involvement in the neonatal intensive care unit was tracked, and maternal mental health was assessed at discharge. At age two years, feeding outcome was assessed using the Eating Subscale of the Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (n=80). Associations between feeding problems at age two and 1) early medical factors, 2) neurobehavioral functioning and feeding at term equivalent age, 3) cerebral structure, and 4) maternal mental health were investigated using regression. Results Eighteen (23%) children had feeding problems at age two years. Feeding problems were associated with early hypotonia (p=0.03; β=0.29) and lower socioeconomic status (p=0.046; β=−0.22). No associations were observed between early medical factors, early feeding performance, cerebral structure alterations or maternal well-being and feeding outcome. Conclusion Early hypotonia may disrupt the development of oral-motor skills. Hypotonia and poor feeding also may share a common etiology. Associations with lower socioeconomic status highlight the influence of family background factors in feeding problems in the preterm infant. PMID:23952198
Qiao, Linxia; Tang, Qingya; Zhu, Wenying; Zhang, Haiyan; Zhu, Yuefang; Wang, Hua
Abstract Backgroud: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of early parenteral iron supplementation combined erythropoietin for prevention of anemia in preterm infants. Methods: In total, 96 preterm infants were randomly assigned to 3 groups: a control group receiving standard parenteral nutrition (group 1: n = 31), an iron-supplemented group (group 2: IS, n = 33), and an iron-supplemented combined erythropoietin group (group 3: IS+EPO, n = 32). The primary objective was to assess hemoglobin (Hb) levels. The secondary objectives included assessment of red blood cell counts (RBC), mean cell volume (MCV), serum iron, ferritin, percentages of reticulocyte (RET), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and oxidative stress, which was assessed by measuring plasma levels of malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase at baseline and at 2 weeks. The blood routine indices including Hb, RBC, MCV, and percentages of RET were measured at corrected age of 1 and 3 months. Results: At 2 weeks of life, the percentages of reticulocyte in group 2 and group 3 were significantly higher than those in group 1 (2.1±0.4, 2.5±0.3, and 1.7±0.3, respectively, P < 0.001, P<0.001), whereas TIBC were significantly lower than those in group 1 (36.7±4.6, 36.0±4.7, and 41.6 ± 5.2 respectively, P = 0.011, P = 0.006). There were no significant differences in RBC counts, the levels of hemoglobin, ferritin, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase among the 3 groups at 2weeks of life. RBC, Hb, MCV, body weight, body length, and head circumference at a corrected age of 1 month did not differ among 3 groups. At corrected age of 3months, more infants in the control group had abnormal Hb and MCV levels (Hb levels: 114.3 ± 21.3, 123.7 ± 31.6, and 125.1 ± 21.2, P = 0.021, P = 0.034, respectively; MCV: 74.1 ± 3.5, 78.3 ± 4.7 and 79.1 ± 5.2, P = 0.017, P = 0.012, respectively), whereas cases of oral iron, cases of breastfeeding
Winchester, Suzy Barcelos; Sullivan, Mary C; Marks, Amy Kerivan; Doyle, Thomas; DePalma, Jennifer; McGrath, Margaret M
The effects of gradient levels of perinatal morbidity on school outcomes have been investigated at age 12 in four preterm groups, classified as healthy (no medical or neurological illness), medical morbidity, neurological morbidity, and small-for-gestational-age (SGA), and a full-term comparison group. Teachers report on academic competence, social skills, and problem behaviors. Data on school type, classroom setting, and school service use are gathered from school records. Preterm groups are found to be equivalent to full-term peers in social skills and problem behavior. Preterm groups with neurological and SGA morbidity have the lowest academic competence scores. Unexpectedly, preterm infants with medical morbidity have higher academic competence scores compared with the other preterm groups. School service use increases with greater perinatal morbidity and is contingent on multiple rather than single indicators of perinatal morbidity. Continued monitoring of preterm infants through early adolescence will ensure that appropriate school services and resources are available to maximize their school success.
Yaari, Maya; Yitzhak, Neta; Harel, Ayelet; Friedlander, Edwa; Bar-Oz, Benjamin; Eventov-Friedman, Smadar; Mankuta, David; Gamliel, Ifat; Yirmiya, Nurit
Stability and change in early autism spectrum disorder risk were examined in a cohort of 99 preterm infants (?34 weeks of gestation) using the Autism Observation Scale for Infants at 8 and 12 months and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule--Toddler Module at 18 months. A total of 21 infants were identified at risk by the Autism Observation…
Jering, Karola; Aschner, Michael; Beller, Amy; Hamm, Ellyn L.; Langdon, Margaret; Maitre, Nathalie L.
Perinatal mercury exposure has neurodevelopmental consequences, which may be worse in preterm infants. In our cohort (N=60), maternal and infant prenatal exposures were low, but infant levels increased during hospitalization and correlated only with duration of parenteral nutrition. A non-negligible exposure resulted from the nutrition preparation on equipment shared with adult preparations. PMID:25812777
Patel, Manisha; Mohr, Mary; Lake, Douglas; Delos, John; Moorman, J. Randall; Sinkin, Robert A.; Kattwinkel, John; Fairchild, Karen
Background Periodic breathing (PB) is a normal immature breathing pattern in neonates that, if extreme, may be associated with pathologic conditions. Methods We used our automated PB detection system to analyze all bedside monitor chest impedance data on all infants <35 weeks’ gestation in the University of Virginia Neonatal Intensive Care Unit from 2009-2014 (n=1211). Percent time spent in PB was calculated hourly (>50 infant-years’ data). Extreme PB was identified as a 12h period with PB >6 standard deviations above the mean for gestational age (GA) and post-menstrual age (PMA) and >10% time in PB. Results PB increased with GA, with the highest amount in infants 30-33 weeks’ GA at about 2 weeks’ chronologic age. Extreme PB was identified in 76 infants and in 45% was temporally associated with clinical events including infection or necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), immunizations, or caffeine discontinuation. In 8/28 cases of septicemia and 10/21 cases of NEC there was a >2-fold increase in %PB over baseline in the day prior to diagnosis. Conclusion Infants <35 weeks GA spend, on average, <6% of the time in PB. An acute increase in PB may reflect illness or physiological stressors or may occur without any apparent clinical event. PMID:27002984
Cannon, Daniel C.; Phillips, John; Caprihan, Arvind; Patel, Shrena; Winter, Sarah; Steffen, Michael; Yeo, Ronald A.; Campbell, Richard; Wiedmeier, Susan; Baker, Shawna; Gonzales, Sean; Lowe, Jean
BACKGROUND: We previously reported improved neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years among infants treated with the erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) darbepoetin alfa (darbepoetin) or erythropoietin. Here we characterize 4-year outcomes. METHODS: Former preterm infants randomly assigned to receive darbepoetin (10 μg/kg, once per week), erythropoietin (400 U/kg, 3 times/week), or placebo through 35 weeks’ postconceptual age were evaluated at 3.5 to 4 years of age. For comparison, healthy children formerly delivered full term (term controls [TCs]) were also recruited. All participants were assessed by using measures of full-scale IQ (FSIQ) and general language from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Third Edition, and an overall measure of executive function, on the basis of tests evaluating inhibitory control and spatial working memory. Rates of neurodevelopmental impairment were compared across groups. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis of variance compared children randomly assigned to ESAs (n = 39), placebo (n =14), and TCs (n = 24). FSIQ and performance IQ were significantly higher in the ESA group than in the placebo group (FSIQ: 91.1 ± 17.5 vs 79.2 ± 18.5, P = .036; performance IQ: 93.0 ± 17.0 vs 79.5 ± 19.5, P = .018). Follow-up analyses revealed that the children receiving ESAs performed better than those who received placebo on executive function tasks. The ESA group’s performance was below that of TCs, but the results did not reach significance on executive function. The incidence of neurodevelopmental impairment was greater in the placebo group than in the ESA group. CONCLUSIONS: ESA-treated infants had better cognitive outcomes and less developmental impairment at 3.5 to 4 years of age compared with placebo-treated infants. ESAs show promise in improving long-term cognitive outcomes of infants born prematurely. PMID:26908704
Rivera, Lidys; Siddaiah, Roopa; Oji-Mmuo, Christiana; Silveyra, Gabriela R.; Silveyra, Patricia
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infants, associated with arrested lung development and a need for supplemental oxygen. Over the past few decades, the incidence of BPD has significantly raised as a result of improved survival of VLBW infants requiring mechanical ventilation. While early disease detection is critical to prevent chronic lung remodeling and complications later in life, BPD is often difficult to diagnose and prevent due to the lack of good biomarkers for identification of infants at risk, and overlapping symptoms with other diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension (PH). Due to the current lack of effective treatment available for BPD and PH, research is currently focused on primary prevention strategies, and identification of biomarkers for early diagnosis, that could also represent potential therapeutic targets. In addition, novel histopathological, biochemical, and molecular factors have been identified in the lung tissue and in biological fluids of BPD and PH patients that could associate with the disease phenotype. In this review, we provide an overview of biomarkers for pediatric BPD and PH that have been identified in clinical studies using various biological fluids. We also present a brief summary of the information available on current strategies and guidelines to prevent and diagnose BPD and PH, as well as their pathophysiology, risk factors, and experimental therapies currently available. PMID:27065351
Jefferies, Ann L
At the time of discharge home, parents of preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit often feel apprehensive and may question their ability to care for their baby. The well-planned, comprehensive discharge of a medically stable infant helps to ensure a positive transition to home and safe, effective care after discharge. This statement provides guidance in planning discharge of infants born before 34 weeks’ gestational age from tertiary and community settings. Discharge readiness is usually determined by demonstration of functional maturation, including the physiological competencies of thermoregulation, control of breathing, respiratory stability, and feeding skills and weight gain. Supporting family involvement and providing education from the time of admission improve parental confidence and decrease anxiety. Assessing the physical and psychosocial discharge environment is an important part of the discharge process. The clinical team is responsible for ensuring that appropriate investigations and screening tests have been completed, that medical concerns have been resolved and that a follow-up plan is in place at the time of discharge home. PMID:24627654
Cooke, Richard J
A clear relationship exists between undernutrition, poorer growth and poor development in term and preterm infants. However, preterm infants are at greater risk than term infants. Undernutrition is more common and 'programmed' growth rates are almost six times faster. Thus, even short periods of nutritional deprivation may have significant effects. Recent advances have led to an improvement in early growth but very low birthweight infants remain small for gestational age at hospital discharge. Studies suggest that a 'window of opportunity' exists after hospital discharge, in that better growth between discharge and 2-3 months corrected age is paralleled by better development, and poorer growth is associated with poorer development. However, interventions aimed at improving growth and development have yielded varying results. This may partly be related to differences in study design as well as the composition of the nutrient-enriched formulas. Irrespective, one point is concerning, i.e. infant boys appear to be at a developmental disadvantage when fed a term infant formula after discharge. A single study has also suggested that dietary intervention can improve brain growth in term and preterm infants with perinatal brain injury. However, concern has been expressed about rapid 'catch-up' growth in preterm infants and the development of insulin resistance and visceral adiposity. Data from our group do not support the idea of increased or altered adiposity in preterm infants fed a nutrient-enriched formula after hospital discharge.
Czajka, Hanna; Lauterbach, Ryszard; Pawlik, Dorota
The immunization of infants against infectious diseases still raises many controversies, not only with parents, but also among physicians. This refers particularly to preterm infants. Due to the increasing popularity of polyvalent vaccines, a number of studies has recently been conducted to verify their immunogenicity and safety in preterm infants. The aim of the present paper was to review the current literature dealing with the problem in question. The following recommendations regarding the use of polyvalent vaccines in preterm infants and neonates with low birth weight can be formulated on the basis of current evidence (1). Due to sufficient immunogenicity, polyvalent vaccines can be administered to preterm infants in accordance with their calendar age (2). Booster vaccination of preterm infants after completing 12 months of age is vital for achieving complete and persistent immunity against all vaccine antigens (3). In order to reduce the risk of adverse events after the administration of a polyvalent vaccine, it is essential to carefully consider the cardiorespiratory status of preterm infants during preimmunization examination, as well as their history of any cardiorespiratory dysfunctions. In such cases administering the first dose of the vaccine in a hospital setting is strongly advised.
Hao, Hu; Li, Sitao; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Hong; Liu, Mengxian; Shi, Congcong; Chen, Jing; Xiao, Xin
Objective: To characterize the metabolic products of urine associated with preterm birth, thus providing clinical guidelines for intestinal and parenteral nutrition in preterm infants. Methods: Urine samples of 47 preterm infants and 45 full-term infants were collected and prepared for trimethylsilylation by treatment with urease. The levels of lysine, phenylalanine, histidine, ornithine, fumaric acid, malic acid, succinic acid, lactose, stearic acid, and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and statistically analyzed. Results: The normalized concentrations of the following metabolites in preterm infant urine samples were significantly lower than that of full-term infant urine samples: lysine (P = 0.003), phenylalanine (P = 0.001), histidine (P = 0.006), ornithine (P = 0.000), fumaric acid (P = 0.002), malic acid (P = 0.006), succinic acid (P = 0.000), lactose (P = 0.000), stearic acid (P = 0.000) and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (P = 0.000). Conclusions: The results of the GC/MS analysis indicated that amino acid, carbohydrate, and fatty acid metabolism defects exist in preterm infants. The use of GC/MS to determine metabolic products in urine samples could be helpful for prospectively evaluating the nutritional status of preterm infants, and therefore providing clinical guidelines on reasonable nutritional support. PMID:26629171
Myers, Eliza; Ment, Laura R
Preterm birth has been defined as one of the major public health problems of this decade, preterm neonates being at high risk for neurodevelopmental disabilities. As preterm survival rates increase, the next great imperative for perinatal medicine is to understand and prevent the serious adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm birth. The challenge for neonatologists and neurologists alike is identifying early markers of outcome in the prematurely born. This article reviews current trends in prevalence, mortality, and morbidity, and the present status of outcome data for cognitive and neurosensory neurodevelopmental dysfunctions in preterm infants. New neuroimaging modalities and analysis tools are contributing to the understanding of neurologic sequelae of preterm birth by providing microstructural evidence of injury sustained by the preterm brain.
Menon, Gopi; Williams, Thomas C
A mother's expressed breast milk (MEBM) is overall the best feed for her preterm baby during the neonatal period, and is associated with improved short-term and long-term outcomes. Neonatal services should commit the resources needed to optimise its use. The place of banked donor expressed breast milk (DEBM) is less clear, but it probably has a role in reducing the risk of necrotising enterocolitis and sepsis in preterm infants at particularly high risk. There is considerable variation in the composition of human milk and nutrient fortification is often needed to achieve intrauterine growth rates. Human milk can transmit potentially harmful micro-organisms, and pasteurisation, which denatures some of the bioactive factors, is the only known way of preventing this. This is carried out for DEBM but not MEBM in the UK. Future research on human milk should focus on (a) critical exposure periods, (b) understanding better its bioactive properties, (c) the role of DEBM and (d) nutritional quality assurance.
Hirtz, Deborah G.; Weiner, Steven J.; Bulas, Dorothy; DiPietro, Michael; Seibert, Joanna; Rouse, Dwight J.; Mercer, Brian M.; Varner, Michael W.; Reddy, Uma M.; Iams, Jay D.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Sorokin, Yoram; Thorp, John M.; Ramin, Susan M.; Malone, Fergal D.; Carpenter, Marshall W.; O’Sullivan, Mary J.; Peaceman, Alan M.; Hankins, Gary D. V.; Dudley, Donald; Caritis, Steve N.
Objective To evaluate the relationship of maternal antenatal magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) with neonatal cranial ultrasound abnormalities and cerebral palsy (CP). Study design In a randomized trial of MgSO4 or placebo in women at high risk of preterm delivery, up to three cranial ultrasound were obtained in the neonatal period. Images were reviewed by at least two pediatric radiologists masked to treatment and other clinical conditions. Diagnoses were predefined for intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), intracerebral echolucency or echodensity, and ventriculomegaly. CP was diagnosed at two years by standardized neurological examination. Results Intraventricular hemorrhage, PVL, intracerebral echolucency or echodensity, and ventriculomegaly were all strongly associated with an increased risk of CP. MgSO4 administration did not affect the risk of cranial ultrasound abnormality observed at 35 weeks post-menstrual age or later. However, for the 82% of infants born at <32 weeks gestation, MgSO4 was associated with a reduction in risk of echolucency or echodensity. The reduction in risk for echolucency explained 21% of the effect of MgSO4 on CP (p=0.04), and for echodensity explained 20% of the effect (p=0.02). Conclusions MgSO4 given prior to preterm delivery was associated with decreased risk of developing echodensities and echolucencies at <32 weeks gestation. However, this effect can only partially explain the effect of MgSO4 on CP at two years of age. PMID:26254839
De Schuymer, Leentje; De Groote, Isabel; Desoete, Annemie; Roeyers, Herbert
Preterm infants avert their gaze more often and for longer periods in early social interactions compared to full term infants. In previous studies this finding is interpreted as being a function of the higher degree of parental stimulation that is often found in parents of preterm children. The current study explores an additional hypothesis. Since the development of general visual attention abilities is found to be less optimal in preterm children, it is possible that less optimal maturation of attention abilities partially explains the elevated gaze aversion in a social context. Therefore, the current study investigated the association between gaze aversion in a social context and the ability to disengage and shift visual attention in a non-social context in 20 preterm and 42 full term infants aged 4 and 6 months. Results confirm that preterm infants are slower to shift their attention in a non-social context and that they avert their gaze more often in a social context compared to full term children. Furthermore, more frequent gaze aversion during social interaction at 6 months was related to longer disengagement and the shifting of attention at 4 and 6 months, but only within the preterm group. The results suggest that attention maturation is less optimal in preterm children; this can be observed in a non-social as well as a social context. Less attention maturation in preterm children can negatively influence the amount of time they can stay actively involved in social interaction.
Lin, Yuan-Shan; Reilly, Marie; Mercer, Vicki S
The purpose of this study was to examine, using a modified visual cliff apparatus, possible perceptual differences at crawling age between infants born preterm and infants born at term without documented visual or motor impairments. Sixteen infants born at term and 16 born preterm were encouraged to crawl to their caregivers on a modified visual cliff. Successful trials, crossing time, duration of visual attention, duration of tactile exploration, motor strategies, and avoidance behaviors were analyzed. A significant surface effect was found, with longer crossing times and longer durations of visual attention and tactile exploration in the condition with the visual appearance of a deep cliff. Although the two groups of infants did not differ on any of the timed measures, infants born at term demonstrated a larger number of motor strategies and avoidance behaviors by simple tally. This study indicates that infants born at term and those born preterm can perceive a visual cliff and adapt their responses accordingly.
Berseth, C L; Harris, C L; Wampler, J L; Hoffman, D R; Diersen-Schade, D A
We report the fatty acid composition of mother׳s own human milk from one of the largest US cohorts of lactating mothers of preterm infants. Milk fatty acid data were used as a proxy for intake at enrollment in infants (n=150) who received human milk with a powder human milk fortifier (HMF; Control) or liquid HMF [LHMF; provided additional 12mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 20mg arachidonic acid (ARA)/100mL human milk]. Mothers provided milk samples (n=129) and reported maternal DHA consumption (n=128). Infant blood samples were drawn at study completion (Study Day 28). Human milk and infant PPL fatty acids were analyzed using capillary column gas chromatography. DHA and ARA were within ranges previously published for US term and preterm human milk. Compared to Control HMF (providing no DHA or ARA), human milk fortified with LHMF significantly increased infant PPL DHA and ARA and improved preterm infant DHA and ARA status.
Eastick, K.; Leeming, J. P.; Bennett, D.; Millar, M. R.
This investigation was undertaken to determine the magnitude of, and interrelations between, reservoirs of coagulase negative staphylococci on infants' skin at various sites (including sites used for insertion of intravascular catheters) and in faeces during the first six months of life. Sites with large numbers of coagulase negative staphylococci were identified by sampling 16 skin sites and stools from 20 preterm neonates at 8-30 days of life. A more detailed survey of numbers and types of coagulase negative staphylococci in stool and at six skin sites of 10 preterm infants was then performed over the first six months of life. Isolates of coagulase negative staphylococci were collected and characterised by speciation, antibiotic susceptibility profiling, and plasmid restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Large, relatively stable reservoirs were identified in the faeces, around the ear, and in the axilla and nares. Skin on the forearm and leg, sites at which peripheral catheters are frequently sited, carried small unstable numbers of coagulase negative staphylococci, which were usually indistinguishable from coagulase negative staphylococci isolated from other body sites on the same baby. Contamination of catheter insertion sites with coagulase negative staphylococci from reservoir sites on the same baby could explain these observations. These data suggest that interventions reducing cross-contamination between sites on the same baby might be as important in preventing coagulase negative staphylococcal bacteraemias as measures taken to prevent cross infection between babies. Procedures which are likely to result in heavy coagulase negative staphylococcal contamination of the hands of healthcare staff, such as changing soiled nappies, should receive particular attention. PMID:8777675
Tully, Kristin P.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Brandon, Debra
Objective To compare maternal report of planned and practiced home sleep locations of infants born late preterm (34 0/7 to 36 6/7 gestational weeks) with those infants born term (≥ 37 0/7 gestational weeks) over the first postpartum month. Methods Open-ended semi-structured maternal interviews were conducted in a U.S. hospital following birth and by phone at one month postpartum during 2010–2012. Participants were 56 mother-infant dyads: 26 late preterm and 30 term. Results Most women planned to room share at home with their infants and reported doing so for some or all of the first postpartum month. More women reported bed sharing during the first postpartum month than had planned to do so in both the late preterm and term groups. The primary reason for unplanned bed sharing was to soothe nighttime infant fussiness. Those participants who avoided bed sharing at home commonly discussed their fear for infant safety. A few parents reported their infants were sleeping propped on pillows and co-sleeping on a recliner. Some women in both the late preterm and term groups reported lack of opportunity to obtain a bassinet prior to childbirth. Conclusions The discrepancy between plans for infant sleep location at home and maternally reported practices were similar in late preterm and term groups. Close maternal proximity to their infants at night was derived from the need to assess infant well-being, caring for infants, and women’s preferences. Bed sharing concerns related to infant safety and the establishment of an undesirable habit, and alternative arrangements included shared recliner sleep. PMID:25626714
Tully, Kristin P; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Brandon, Debra
To compare maternal report of planned and practiced home sleep locations of infants born late preterm (34 0/7 to 36 6/7 gestational weeks) with those infants born term (≥37 0/7 gestational weeks) over the first postpartum month. Open-ended semi-structured maternal interviews were conducted in a US hospital following birth and by phone at 1 month postpartum during 2010-2012. Participants were 56 mother-infant dyads: 26 late preterm and 30 term. Most women planned to room share at home with their infants and reported doing so for some or all of the first postpartum month. More women reported bed sharing during the first postpartum month than had planned to do so in both the late preterm and term groups. The primary reason for unplanned bed sharing was to soothe nighttime infant fussiness. Those participants who avoided bed sharing at home commonly discussed their fear for infant safety. A few parents reported their infants were sleeping propped on pillows and co-sleeping on a recliner. Some women in both the late preterm and term groups reported lack of opportunity to obtain a bassinet prior to childbirth. The discrepancy between plans for infant sleep location at home and maternally reported practices were similar in late preterm and term groups. Close maternal proximity to their infants at night was derived from the need to assess infant well-being, caring for infants, and women's preferences. Bed sharing concerns related to infant safety and the establishment of an undesirable habit, and alternative arrangements included shared recliner sleep.
Montirosso, Rosario; Provenzi, Livio
Epigenetics refers to chemical modifications leading to changes in gene expression without any alteration of the DNA structure. We suggest ways through which epigenetic mechanisms might contribute to alter developmental trajectories in preterm infants. Although theoretical and methodological issues still need to be addressed, we discuss how epigenetics might be an emergent research field with potential innovative insights for researchers and clinicians involved in the neonatal care of preterm infants.
Cabral, Thais Invenção; Pereira da Silva, Louise Gracelli; Tudella, Eloisa; Simões Martinez, Cláudia Maria
Infants born preterm and/or with low birth weight may present a clinical condition of organic instability and usually face a long period of hospitalization in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units, being exposed to biopsychosocial risk factors to their development due to decreased spontaneous movement and excessive sensory stimuli. This study assumes that there are relationships between the integration of sensory information of preterm infants, motor development and their subsequent effects.
Dosani, Aliyah; Oliver, Lynnette May; Lodha, Abhay K; Young, Marilyn
Purpose In Alberta, the high occurrence of late preterm infants and early hospital discharge of mother-infant dyads has implications for postpartum care in the community. Shortened hospital stay and complexities surrounding the care of biologically and developmentally immature late preterm infants heighten anxiety and fears. Our descriptive phenomenological study explores mothers’ experience of caring for their late preterm infants in the community. Methods Eleven mothers were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Interview transcripts were analysed using an interpretive thematic approach. Findings The mothers’ hospital experience informed their perspective that being a late preterm infant was not a “big deal,” and they tended to treat their infant as normal. “Feeding was really problem,” especially the variability in feeding effectiveness, which was not anticipated. Failing to recognize late preterm infants’ feeding distress exemplified lack of knowledge of feeding cues and tendencies to either rationalize or minimize feeding concerns. Public health nurses represent a source of informational support for managing neonatal morbidities associated with being late preterm; however, maternal experiences with public health nurses varied. Some nurses used a directive style that overwhelmed certain mothers. Seeing multiple public health nurses and care providers was not always effective, given inconsistent and contradictory guidance to care. These new and changing situations increased maternal anxiety and stress and influenced maternal confidence in care. Fathers, family, and friends were important sources of emotional support. Conclusion After discharge, mothers report their lack of preparation to meet the special needs of their late preterm infants. Current approaches to community-based care can threaten maternal confidence in care. New models and pathways of care for late preterm infants and their families need to be responsive to the
van den Dungen, F. A. M.; Vermeulen, R. J.; van Weissenbruch, M. M.
Introduction This study describes cerebral ultrasound abnormalities caused by late-onset sepsis (LOS) in very preterm infants with a gestational age of < 32 weeks and/or birthweight < 1500 grams. Methods The prospective study (“INFANT study”) included 117 preterm infants with suspected LOS. Proven LOS was defined as a positive blood culture after 72 hours of life. In case of coagulase-negative staphylococci an elevated C-reactive protein was additionally required to establish proven LOS. Patients were identified as proven LOS and patients with only clinical symptoms of LOS. Cerebral ultrasound images were obtained in the first week after birth, during/after LOS and before discharge. Cerebral findings were divided in no/minor and major abnormalities. Results Eighty-six preterm infants had proven LOS and 31 preterm infants had only clinical signs of LOS. Four infants were excluded because pre-existing major brain abnormalities. No significant differences (p = 0.624) for incidence of major brain abnormalities on cerebral ultrasound were found. Conclusion No differences were revealed in prevalence of major brain abnormalities between the groups with proven LOS and with clinical signs of LOS. Both infants with a gram negative sepsis developed major brain abnormalities, whereas only two of 66 preterm infants coagulase-negative staphylococci sepsis developed major brain abnormalities. PMID:28301503
Human milk contains many bioactive proteins that are likely to be involved in the better outcomes of breast-fed infants compared with those fed infant formula. Bovine milk proteins or protein fractions may be able to provide some of these benefits and may, therefore, be used for preterm infants. Recombinant human milk proteins are likely to exert bioactivities similar to those of the native human milk proteins, but considerable research is needed before they can be used in routine care of preterm infants.
Gogate, Lakshmi; Maganti, Madhavilatha; Perenyi, Agnes
Purpose: This experimental study examined term infants (n = 34) and low-risk near-term preterm infants (gestational age 32-36 weeks) at 2 months chronological age (n = 34) and corrected age (n = 16). The study investigated whether the preterm infants presented with a delay in their sensitivity to synchronous syllable-object pairings when compared…
Radulova, P; Slancheva, B; Marinov, R
Prolonged inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) from birth in preterm neonates with BPD improves endogenous surfactant function as well as lung growth, angiogenesis, and alveologenesis. As a result there is a reduction in the frequency of the "new" form of BPD in neonates under 28 weeks of gestation and birth weight under 1000 gr. Delivery of inhaled nitric oxide is a new method of prevention of chronic lung disease. According to a large number of randomized trials iNO in premature neonates reduces pulmonary morbidity and leads to a reduction of the mortality in this population of patients. This new therapy does not have serious side effects. We represent a clinical case of extremely premature newborn infant with BPD treated with iNO.
Johnson, Samantha; Wolke, Dieter; Hennessy, Enid; Marlow, Neil
This study assessed the impact of extremely preterm birth on academic attainment at 11 years of age, investigated neuropsychological antecedents of attainment in reading and mathematics, and examined early predictors of educational outcomes. Children born extremely preterm had significantly poorer academic attainment and a higher prevalence of learning difficulties than their term peers. General cognitive ability and specific deficits in visuospatial skills or phoneme deletion at 6 years were predictive of mathematics and reading attainment at 11 years in both extremely preterm and term children. Phonological processing, attention, and executive functions at 6 years were also associated with academic attainment in children born extremely preterm. Furthermore, social factors, neonatal factors (necrotizing enterocolitis, breech delivery, abnormal cerebral ultrasound, early breast milk provision), and developmental factors at 30 months (head circumference, cognitive development), were independent predictors of educational outcomes at 11 years. Neonatal complications combined with assessments of early cognitive function provide moderate prediction for educational outcomes in children born extremely preterm.
Brecht, Marcus; Garg, Alka; Longstaff, Karen; Cooper, Celia; Andersen, Chad
Probiotics for preterm infants have been shown to reduce the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis and all-cause mortality in a recent meta-analysis. It has been argued, however, that some of these results may not be applicable to specific subgroups, e.g. infants with a birth weight of <1,000 g. The specific role of probiotics in improving health outcomes in preterm and term infants following intestinal surgery is not well defined. We report a case of a premature infant diagnosed with late-onset sepsis due to Lactobacillus rhamnosus following a laparotomy. We review pertinent published cases. This case highlights the importance of considering preterm infants as being at a higher risk of systemic probiotic infection following intestinal surgery.
Giannì, Maria Lorella; Consonni, Dario; Liotto, Nadia; Roggero, Paola; Morlacchi, Laura; Piemontese, Pasqua; Menis, Camilla; Mosca, Fabio
(1) Background: Late preterm infants account for the majority of preterm births and are at risk of altered body composition. Because body composition modulates later health outcomes and human milk is recommended as the normal method for infant feeding, we sought to investigate whether human milk feeding in early life can modulate body composition development in late preterm infants; (2) Methods: Neonatal, anthropometric and feeding data of 284 late preterm infants were collected. Body composition was evaluated at term-corrected age by air displacement plethysmography. The effect of human milk feeding on fat-free mass and fat mass content was evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis; (3) Results: Human milk was fed to 68% of the infants. According to multiple regression analysis, being fed any human milk at discharge and at term-corrected and being fed exclusively human milk at term-corrected age were positively associated with fat-free mass content(β = −47.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = −95.7; −0.18; p = 0.049; β = −89.6, 95% CI = −131.5; −47.7; p < 0.0001; β = −104.1, 95% CI = −151.4; −56.7, p < 0.0001); (4) Conclusion: Human milk feeding appears to be associated with fat-free mass deposition in late preterm infants. Healthcare professionals should direct efforts toward promoting and supporting breastfeeding in these vulnerable infants. PMID:27782098
Giannì, Maria Lorella; Consonni, Dario; Liotto, Nadia; Roggero, Paola; Morlacchi, Laura; Piemontese, Pasqua; Menis, Camilla; Mosca, Fabio
(1) Background: Late preterm infants account for the majority of preterm births and are at risk of altered body composition. Because body composition modulates later health outcomes and human milk is recommended as the normal method for infant feeding, we sought to investigate whether human milk feeding in early life can modulate body composition development in late preterm infants; (2) Methods: Neonatal, anthropometric and feeding data of 284 late preterm infants were collected. Body composition was evaluated at term-corrected age by air displacement plethysmography. The effect of human milk feeding on fat-free mass and fat mass content was evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis; (3) Results: Human milk was fed to 68% of the infants. According to multiple regression analysis, being fed any human milk at discharge and at term-corrected and being fed exclusively human milk at term-corrected age were positively associated with fat-free mass content(β = -47.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -95.7; -0.18; p = 0.049; β = -89.6, 95% CI = -131.5; -47.7; p < 0.0001; β = -104.1, 95% CI = -151.4; -56.7, p < 0.0001); (4) Conclusion: Human milk feeding appears to be associated with fat-free mass deposition in late preterm infants. Healthcare professionals should direct efforts toward promoting and supporting breastfeeding in these vulnerable infants.
Ferrari, Alize J; Whittingham, Koa; Boyd, Roslyn; Sanders, Matthew; Colditz, Paul
Over 10% of preterm infants develop major disabilities, 50% develop behavioural problems and 40% need special education (Huddy et al., 2001; Webster, 2003). Prem Baby Triple P is a new variant of the Positive Parenting Program (Triple P) adapted specifically for parents of very preterm infants. The aim of this study is to assess the acceptability of Prem Baby Triple P to parents of infants born preterm and to test whether parental attributions and parental perception of infant health/developmental status are barriers to intervention acceptability. One hundred and twenty-three parents of preterm infants participated, 83 parents of very preterm infants and 40 parents of preterm infants. In addition, 32 parents of term infants participated as a comparison group. The acceptability of Prem Baby Triple P was moderately high and did not differ significantly across the three groups. Parental attributions were not found to be barriers to intervention acceptability and parental perceptions that their infant is less healthy/developmentally delayed facilitated Prem Baby Triple P acceptance in parents of infants born very preterm. This suggests that the planned Prem Baby Triple P content is acceptable to parents of infants born very preterm and sensitised to medical and developmental issues. These findings, as social validation data, will contribute towards the further development of Prem Baby Triple P and a future randomised controlled trial.
Wagner, Julie; Hanson, Corrine; Anderson-Berry, Ann
Preterm infants provided with sufficient nutrition to achieve intrauterine growth rates have the greatest potential for optimal neurodevelopment. Although human milk is the preferred feeding for preterm infants, unfortified human milk provides insufficient nutrition for the very low-birth-weight infant. Even after fortification with human milk fortifier, human milk often fails to meet the high protein needs of the smallest preterm infants, and additional protein supplementation must be provided. Although substantial evidence exists to support quantitative protein goals for human milk-fed preterm infants, the optimal type of protein for use in human milk fortification remains uncertain. This question was addressed through a PubMed literature search of prospective clinical trials conducted since 1990 in preterm or low-birth-weight infant populations. The following 3 different aspects of protein quality were evaluated: whey-to-casein ratio, hydrolyzed versus intact protein, and bovine milk protein versus human milk protein. Because of a scarcity of current studies conducted with fortified human milk, studies examining protein quality using preterm infant formulas were included to address certain components of the clinical question. Twenty-six studies were included in the review study. No definite advantage was found for any specific whey-to-casein ratio. Protein hydrolyzate products with appropriate formulations can support adequate growth and biochemical indicators of nutrition status and may reduce gastrointestinal transit time, gastroesophageal reflux events, and later incidence of atopic dermatitis in some infants. Plasma amino acid levels similar to those of infants fed exclusive human milk-based diets can be achieved with products composed of a mixture of bovine proteins, peptides, and amino acids formulated to replicate the amino acid composition of human milk. Growth and biochemical indicators of nutrition status are similar for infants fed human milk
Giarraputo, James; DeLoach, Jordan; Padbury, James; Uzun, Alper; Marsit, Carmen; Hawes, Katheleen; Lester, Barry
Background: Although there are no accepted “normal” levels of circulating cortisol in preterm infants, critically ill preterm infants show lower cortisol levels than healthy preterm infants. The regulation of cortisol reactivity by epigenetic changes in glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) expression has been demonstrated. This study aims to examine the relationship between medical morbidities in preterm infants and DNA methylation of NR3C1. Methods: Pyrosequencing was used to determine DNA methylation in CpG sites 1-4 of promoter region 1F of NR3C1. Cluster analysis placed 67 preterm infants born <1,500 g into groups based on medical morbidities. The DNA methylation pattern was compared across groups. Results: Cluster analysis identified a high medical risk cluster and a low medical risk cluster. A Mann-Whitney U-test showed lower methylation at CpG1 for infants in the high-risk group (M = 0.336, SE = 0.084) than infants in the low-risk group (M = 0.617, SE = 0.109, P = 0.032). The false discovery rate was low (q = 0.025). Cohen's D effect size was moderate (0.525). Conclusion: Decreased DNA methylation of CpG1 of NR3C1 in high-risk infants may allow for increased binding of transcription factors involved in the stress response, repair and regulation of NR3C1. This may ensure healthy growth in high-risk preterm infants over increasing cortisol levels. PMID:27653086
Field, Tiffany Martini
Infants' looking and looking-away behaviors, as well as cardiac responses to mothers' spontaneous and imitative faces and to dolls' animated and still faces, were recorded for 18 term and 19 preterm infants when they were three months old. (JMB)
Barnard, Kathryn E.; Bee, Helen L.
Tests the hypothesis that appropriately timed stimulation provided to preterm infants would aid self-regulating and lead to quiet sleep. It was expected that effects of self-regulation would be evident in infant development interaction and performance. Stimulation consisted of a gentle horizontal movement and a heartbeat sound presented on…
Adiposity may contribute to the future risk of disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of an air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) system to estimate percentage fat mass (%FM) in preterm infants and to evaluate interdevice reliability in infants. A total of 70 pr...
Katz, Brenda; Patel, Padma; Duffy, Lynn; Schelonka, Robert L.; Dimmitt, Reed A.; Waites, Ken B.
A PCR assay was used to analyze endotracheal aspirates from preterm infants for Ureaplasma parvum versus U. urealyticum. U. parvum was detected more often than U. urealyticum. There was no significant difference or trend in the prevalence of either species between infants with or without bronchopulmonary dysplasia when isolated alone. PMID:16145157
May, M; Ströbel, P; Preisshofen, T; Seidenspinner, S; Marx, A; Speer, C P
Apoptosis and proliferation and the effect of exogenous surfactant on these processes were investigated in the lungs of mechanically ventilated/oxygen-treated preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome and stillborn foetuses. Apoptotic and proliferation indices were determined in lung tissue sections from 27 ventilated/oxygen-treated preterm infants and 29 stillborn foetuses. The effect of exogenous surfactant on apoptosis and proliferation was studied in 16 ventilated preterm infants; 11 untreated infants served as control. Apoptotic and proliferating cells were identified by double labelling combining terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labelling or Ki-67 with cell marker proteins. Pathways to cell death were explored by immunolabelling of cleaved caspases-3, -8 and -9. In the lungs of ventilated/oxygen-treated preterm infants, the numbers of apoptotic and proliferating cells increased significantly compared to the respective numbers in the lungs of stillborn foetuses. Apoptosis was detected in alveolar epithelial cells, whereas epithelial, endothelial and smooth muscle cells proliferated. Surfactant treatment reduced apoptosis induced by ventilation/oxygen-treatment; however, the decrease was not significant. Caspases-8 and -9 do not contribute to ventilation-induced apoptosis, whereas caspase-3 is involved. In conclusion, ventilation/oxygen-treatment induces epithelial cell apoptosis and proliferation of epithelial, endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the lungs of preterm infants.
Plakkal, Nishad; Soraisham, Amuchou Singh; Amin, Harish
Intracranial abscesses are serious conditions but uncommon in preterm neonates. Citrobacter species are an uncommon cause of bacterial meningitis in neonates, but are associated with brain abscesses in a majority of cases. We report a preterm infant who developed Citrobacter freundii meningitis with brain abscess, who was successfully treated with antibiotics and surgical drainage. The infant had normal neurological outcome at follow-up. We report this case to highlight the importance of serial neuroimaging in the diagnosis of cerebral abscess in infants with Citrobacter meningitis.
Stalnaker, Kelsey A; Poskey, Gail A
Bone mineralization of preterm infants is significantly less than full-term infants at birth, placing preterm infants at risk for osteopenia of prematurity and other metabolic bone diseases. Advances in nutritional supplementation and standard nursing care alone have been unsuccessful in improving bone mineralization postnatally. Research supports a daily physical activity protocol of passive range of motion and gentle joint compression when combined with adequate nutritional supplementation reduces osteopenia of prematurity. This article provides a systematic review of the current evidence surrounding early physical activity and neonatal massage for the treatment of osteopenia and indicates the need for universal handling protocols in caring for this unique population.
Kilbride, H W; Aylward, G P; Doyle, L W; Singer, L T; Lantos, J
Longitudinal follow-up with assessment of developmental status at about 2 years of age is routine for high-risk newborns. The results of these assessments can be used for many purposes, including helping physicians, parents, and teachers plan educational or developmental interventions. These assessments also provide outcome measures for clinical research studies. Outcome results may also serve as a source of information for clinicians when counseling parents regarding provision of care for extreme preterm infants. Consideration should be given to use of different outcome metrics based on the purpose for testing. Categorization of composite cognitive, motor and neurosensory findings to define levels of impairment should be limited to research. Planning for individual interventions is better guided by descriptive findings. Current tools for assessing neurodevelopmental status at 2 years of age have important limitations. First, outcomes at early ages do not always predict function later in life. They are, at best, an estimate of longer-term outcomes, with important individual variation. For infants without severe neurologic injury, postnatal environmental factors play a predominant role in determining long-term cognitive and academic outcomes. Further investigations should assess quality of life and other considerations that are important for parents when making decisions about neonatal intensive care unit care for their infant.Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, 2 March 2017; doi:10.1038/jp.2017.12.
Rogahn, J.; Ryan, S.; Wells, J.; Fraser, B.; Squire, C.; Wild, N.; Hughes, A.; Amegavie, L.
BACKGROUND—Low levels of circulating thyroid hormones have been associated with poorer general and neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm babies and it has been speculated that the association is causal. Low levels of circulating thyroid hormone have been reported after inadequate intake of iodine in preterm infants being fed milk formula. AIM—To investigate whether increased iodine intake from supplemented preterm formula would improve thyroid hormone levels in preterm babies (this study) and hence improve neurodevelopmental status (planned subsequent study). METHOD—A total of 121 preterm infants were entered into a randomised controlled trial of standard (68 µg/l) versus increased (272µg/l) iodine in preterm formula. RESULTS—The two groups were comparable at recruitment. No evidence of an effect of the intervention on thyroid hormone levels was seen up to 41 weeks after conception. CONCLUSION—Calls for increased iodine content of preterm infant formulas are not justified by this study. PMID:10952698
Kalmár, Magda; Tóth, Ildikó; Krishna, Sandeep; Jensen, Mogens H.; Semsey, Szabolcs
Several studies have reported that interactions of mothers with preterm infants show differential characteristics compared to that of mothers with full-term infants. Interaction of preterm dyads is often reported as less harmonious. However, observations and explanations concerning the underlying mechanisms are inconsistent. In this work 30 preterm and 42 full-term mother-infant dyads were observed at one year of age. Free play interactions were videotaped and coded using a micro-analytic coding system. The video records were coded at one second resolution and studied by a novel approach using network analysis tools. The advantage of our approach is that it reveals the patterns of behavioral transitions in the interactions. We found that the most frequent behavioral transitions are the same in the two groups. However, we have identified several high and lower frequency transitions which occur significantly more often in the preterm or full-term group. Our analysis also suggests that the variability of behavioral transitions is significantly higher in the preterm group. This higher variability is mostly resulted from the diversity of transitions involving non-harmonious behaviors. We have identified a maladaptive pattern in the maternal behavior in the preterm group, involving intrusiveness and disengagement. Application of the approach reported in this paper to longitudinal data could elucidate whether these maladaptive maternal behavioral changes place the infant at risk for later emotional, cognitive and behavioral disturbance. PMID:23805298
Faldella, G; Govoni, M; Alessandroni, R; Marchiani, E; Salvioli, G P; Biagi, P L; Spano, C
The influence of dietary long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCP) supply, and especially of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on evoked potential maturation, was studied in 58 healthy preterm infants using flash visual evoked potentials (VEPs), flash electroretinography (ERG), and brainstem acoustic evoked potentials (BAEPs) at 52 weeks of postconceptional age. At the same time, the fatty acid composition of red blood cell membranes was examined. The infants were fed on breast milk (n = 12), a preterm formula supplemented with LCP (PF-LCP) (n = 21), or a traditional preterm formula (PF) (n = 25). In the breast milk and PF-LCP groups the morphology and latencies of the waves that reflect the visual projecting system were similar; in the PF group the morphology was quite different and the wave latencies were significantly longer. This could mean that the maturation pattern of VEPs in preterm infants who did not receive LCP was slower. Moreover, a higher level of erythrocyte LCP, especially DHA, was found in breast milk and PF-LCP groups compared with the PF group. ERG and BAEP recordings were the same in all three groups. These results suggest that a well balanced LCP supplement in preterm formulas can positively influence the maturation of visual evoked potentials in preterm infants when breast milk is not available. PMID:8949693
Ramos-Navarro, Cristina; Sánchez-Luna, Manuel; Zeballos-Sarrato, Susana; González-Pacheco, Noelia
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy and feasibility of a new, less invasive surfactant administration technique for beractant replacement using a specifically designed cannula in preterm infants born at <32 weeks of gestation and to compare short- and long-term outcomes between this approach and standard treatment, consisting of intubation, administration of surfactant and early extubation to nasal continuous positive airway pressure. METHOD: This was a single-center, prospective, open-label, non-randomized, controlled pilot study with an experimental cohort of 30 patients treated with less invasive surfactant administration and a retrospective control group comprising the 30 patients most recently treated with the standard approach. Beractant (4 ml/kg) was administered as an exogenous surfactant in both groups if patients on nasal continuous positive airway pressure during the first three days of life were in need of more than 30% FiO2. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02611284. RESULTS: In the group with less invasive surfactant administration, beractant was successfully administered in all patients. Thirteen patients (43.3%) in the group with less invasive surfactant administration required invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 1 hour during the first 3 days of life, compared with 22 (73%) in the control group (p<0.036). The rate of requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours was similar between the infants in the two groups (46% vs. 40%, respectively). There were no differences in other outcomes. CONCLUSION: The administration of beractant (4 ml/kg) using a less invasive surfactant administration technique with a specifically designed cannula for administration is feasible. Moreover, early invasive mechanical ventilation exposure is significantly reduced by this method compared with the strategy involving intubation, surfactant administration and early extubation. PMID:27074172
Finer, N; Rich, W
In an effort to determine the actual conduct of neonatal resuscitation and the errors that may be occurring during this process, we developed a method of video recording neonatal resuscitations as an ongoing quality assurance project. We initiated video recordings of resuscitations using simple video recorders attached to an overhead warmer and reviewed the resultant tapes during biweekly quality improvement meetings. We also added the continuous recording of analog information such as heart rate, oximeter values, fraction of inspired oxygen and airway pressure. We subsequently developed a checklist that includes a preresuscitation briefing and a postresuscitation debriefing, all of which are reviewed at the same time as the video recording. We have examined the use of oxygen in the very preterm infant, the effectiveness of bag and mask ventilation, including the detection of airway obstruction during such ventilation, intubation in the delivery area and environment. In addition, we have trained our teams and leaders using Crew Resource Management and focused on improved communication. The availability of a dedicated room for resuscitation allows an increased ambient environment and the ability to provide a user-friendly setting similar to the neonatal intensive care unit to optimize performance. There are numerous opportunities for improving team and leader performance and outcomes following neonatal resuscitation. Further prospective studies are required to evaluate specific interventions.
Griffin, I.; Cooke, R.; Reid, M.; McCormick, K.; Smith, J.
AIMS—To prospectively evaluate the iron nutritional status of preterm infants fed either a term (0.5 mg/dl iron) or preterm (0.9mg/dl) formulas fortified with iron after hospital discharge. METHODS—Healthy low birthweight preterm infants were randomly assigned into three groups at the time of hospital discharge. Group A were fed an iron fortified preterm formula (0.9 mg/dl iron) until 6 months corrected age; group B, a fortified term formula (0.5 mg/l iron) until 6 months corrected age group C, the preterm formula between hospital discharge and term, then the term formula until 6 months corrected age. RESULTS—Seventy eight infants were followed up to 6 months corrected age. Iron intake from formula differed significantly between the groups (A, 1.17 mg/kg/day (SD 0.32) > C, 0.86 mg/kg/day (SD 0.40) = B, 0.81 mg/kg/day (SD 0.23); p < 0.0001). Haemoglobin concentrations were similar to those of iron sufficient preterm infants of the same postnatal age, and term infants of the same postmenstrual age (after 3 months of age). There were no significant differences in haemoglobin concentration (p = 0.391), plasma ferritin (A vs B, p = 0.322), or in the incidence of iron deficiency (A vs B, p = 0.534). CONCLUSIONS—Iron fortified formulas containing between 0.5 and 0.9 mg/dl iron seem to meet the iron nutritional needs of preterm infants after hospital discharge. PMID:10375362
Lucas, A; Morley, R; Cole, T J; Gore, S M
Whether breast milk influences later neurodevelopment has been explored in non-randomised studies, potentially confounded by social and demographic differences between feed groups. Here in a strictly randomised prospective multicentre trial, Bayley psychomotor and mental development indices (PDI and MDI) were assessed at 18 months postterm in survivors of 502 preterm infants assigned to receive, during their early weeks, mature donor breast milk or a preterm formula. These diets were compared as sole enteral feeds or as supplements to the mother's expressed breast milk. No differences in outcome at 18 months were seen between the two diet groups despite the low nutrient content of donor milk in relation to the preterm formula and to the estimated needs of preterm infants. These results contrast with those reported from our parallel two centre study that compared infants randomly assigned a standard term formula or the preterm formula during their early weeks; those fed standard formula, now regarded as nutritionally insufficient for preterm infants, were substantially disadvantaged in PDI and MDI at 18 months post-term. It is shown here that infants from that study fed solely on standard formula had significantly lower developmental scores at 18 months than those fed on donor breast milk in the present study; yet the standard formula had a higher nutrient content than the donor milk. Thus, donor milk feeding was associated with advantages for later development that may have offset any potentially deleterious effects of its low nutrient content for preterm infants. As these outcome advantages were not confounded by the social and educational biases usually associated with mothers' choice to breast feed, our data add significant support to the view that breast milk promotes neurodevelopment. PMID:8154907
Hallowell, Sunny G; Spatz, Diane L
Late-preterm infants (34 0/7-36 6/7 weeks gestation) are physiologically and developmentally immature at birth. The relationship between brain development and feeding is important since adequate oral intake is imperative to prevent feeding-related morbidity and mortality associated with being late preterm. One third of brain growth occurs in the last 6-8 weeks of gestation. The ontogeny of coordinated oral feeding appears to follow a chronological, predictable pattern in preterm neonates. This suggests that neurodevelopmental maturation, rather than experience or learned behavior, is largely responsible for feeding behaviors. The aim of this article is to provide a review of the literature that establishes the relationship between brain development and feeding in the late-preterm infant.
Manea, Aniko; Boia, Marioara; Iacob, Daniela; Dima, Mirabela; Iacob, Radu Emil
INTRODUCTION Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants (i.e. preterm infants weighing < 1,000 g) often present with morphofunctional multiple organ immaturity. This study aimed to determine whether early enteral feeding improves digestive tolerance, and whether there is a difference in growth between ELBW infants who were fed with formula and those who were fed with breast milk. METHODS This study was conducted from 2012–2013 and involved 34 ELBW infants from the Preterm Neonatology Clinic of the ‘Louis Turcanu’ Clinical Children’s Hospital Timisoara, Romania. Early enteral nutrition was introduced for all the infants – Group I was fed with formula, while Group II was fed with breast milk. Infants in each group were given their designated type of milk (formula/breast milk), using the same feeding method and the same volume rate advancement. They were monitored for any evidence of digestive intolerance (i.e. clinical signs of infection and necrotising enterocolitis [NEC]). Their growth curves and signs of infection were also monitored. RESULTS The average weight gained per week was greater among the infants in Group II than in Group I (120.83 g vs 97.27 g). The incidence of infection was 100% in Group I and 66.6% in Group II. Two of the infants in Group I developed NEC. CONCLUSION Early enteral feeding helped to improve the weight of ELBW infants. Breast milk was more effective than formula at improving the weight of these infants. Feeding with formula increased the incidence of NEC, invasive infection and morbidity among ELBW infants. PMID:26767893
van Kooij, Britt J. M.; Benders, Manon J. N. L.; Anbeek, Petronella; van Haastert, Ingrid C.; de Vries, Linda S.; Groenendaal, Floris
Aim: To assess the relation between cerebellar volume and spectroscopy at term equivalent age, and neurodevelopment at 24 months corrected age in preterm infants. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was performed around term equivalent age in 112 preterm infants (mean gestational age 28wks 3d [SD 1wk 5d]; birthweight 1129g [SD 324g]).…
Del Prete, Alberto; Bellù, Roberto; Tronick, Ed; Borgatti, Renato
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between the neurobehavior of very preterm infants and the level of NICU quality of developmental care. METHODS: The neurobehavior of 178 very preterm infants (gestational age ≤29 weeks and/or birth weight ≤1500 g) from 25 NICUs participating in a large multicenter, longitudinal study (Neonatal Adequate Care for Quality of Life, NEO-ACQUA) was examined with a standardized neurobehavioral assessment, the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS). A questionnaire, the NEO-ACQUA Quality of Care Checklist was used to evaluate the level of developmental care in each of the NICUs. A factor analyses applied to NEO-ACQUA Quality of Care Checklist produced 2 main factors: (1) the infant-centered care (ICC) index, which measures parents’ involvement in the care of their infant and other developmentally oriented care interventions, and (2) the infant pain management (IPM) index, which measures the NICU approach to and the procedures used for reducing infant pain. The relations between NNNS neurobehavioral scores and the 2 indexes were evaluated. RESULTS: Infants from NICUs with high scores on the ICC evidenced higher attention and regulation, less excitability and hypotonicity, and lower stress/abstinence NNNS scores than infants from low-care units. Infants from NICUs with high scores on the IPM evidenced higher attention and arousal, lower lethargy and nonoptimal reflexes NNNS scores than preterm infants from low-scoring NICUs. CONCLUSIONS: Very preterm infant neurobehavior was associated with higher levels of developmental care both in ICC and in IPM, suggesting that these practices support better neurobehavioral stability. PMID:22492762
Padilla, Nelly; Skiöld, Béatrice; Eklöf, Eva; Mårtensson, Gustaf; Vollmer, Brigitte; Ådén, Ulrika
Objective Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain carried out during the neonatal period shows that 55–80% of extremely preterm infants display white matter diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI). Our aim was to study differences in developmental outcome at the age of 6.5 years in children born extremely preterm with and without DEHSI. Study Design This was a prospective cohort study of 83 children who were born in Stockholm, Sweden, between 2004 and 2007, born at gestational age of < 27 weeks + 0 days and who underwent an MRI scan of their brain at term equivalent age. The outcome measures at 6.5 years included testing 66 children with the modified Touwen neurology examination, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fourth Edition, Beery Visual-motor Integration test—Sixth Edition, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Group-wise comparisons were done between children with and without DEHSI using Student t-test, Mann Whitney U test, Chi square test and regression analysis. Results DEHSI was detected in 39 (59%) of the 66 children who were assessed at 6.5 years. The presence of DEHSI was not associated with mild neurological dysfunction, scores on M-ABC assessment, cognition, visual-motor integration, or behavior at 6.5 years. Conclusion The presence of qualitatively defined DEHSI on neonatal MRI did not prove to be a useful predictor of long-term impairment in children born extremely preterm. PMID:26886451
Kaplan, Michael; Hammerman, Cathy; Bhutani, Vinod K
Prematurity and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency are risk factors for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. The 2 conditions may interact additively or synergistically, contributing to extreme hyperbilirubinemia, with the potential for bilirubin neurotoxicity. This hyperbilirubinemia is the result of sudden, unpredictable, and acute episodes of hemolysis in combination with immaturity of bilirubin elimination, primarily of conjugation. Avoidance of contact with known triggers of hemolysis in G6PD-deficient individuals will prevent some, but not all, episodes of hemolysis. All preterm infants with G6PD deficiency should be vigilantly observed for the development of jaundice both in hospital and after discharge home.
Ceschin, Rafael; Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Paquette, Lisa B.; Nelson, Marvin D.; Blüml, Stefan; Panigrahy, Ashok
Thalamic structural co-variation with cortical regions has been demonstrated in preterm infants, but its relationship to cortical function and severity of non-cystic white matter injury (non-cystic WMI) is unclear. The relationship between thalamic morphology and both cortical network synchronization and cortical structural connectivity has not been established. We tested the hypothesis that in preterm neonates, thalamic volume would correlate with primary cortical visual function and microstructural integrity of cortico-cortical visual association pathways. A total of 80 term-equivalent preterm and 44 term-born infants underwent high-resolution structural imaging coupled with visual functional magnetic resonance imaging or diffusion tensor imaging. There was a strong correlation between thalamic volume and primary visual cortical activation in preterms with non-cystic WMI (r = 0.81, p-value = 0.001). Thalamic volume also correlated strongly with interhemispheric cortico-cortical connectivity (splenium) in preterm neonates with a relatively higher severity of non-cystic WMI (p-value < 0.001). In contrast, there was lower correlation between thalamic volume and intrahemispheric cortico-cortical connectivity, including the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior frontal orbital fasciculus. This study shows distinct temporal overlap in the disruption of thalamo-cortical and interhemispheric cortico-cortical connectivity in preterm infants suggesting developmental synergy between thalamic morphology and the emergence of cortical networks in the last trimester. PMID:26106571
Ambalavanan, N; Aschner, J L
While diagnoses of hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF) and pulmonary hypertension (PH) in preterm infants may be based on criteria similar to those in term infants, management approaches often differ. In preterm infants, HRF can be classified as 'early' or 'late' based on an arbitrary threshold of 28 postnatal days. Among preterm infants with late HRF, the pulmonary vascular abnormalities associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) represent a therapeutic challenge for clinicians. Surfactant, inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), sildenafil, prostacyclin and endothelin receptor blockers have been used to manage infants with both early and late HRF. However, evidence is lacking for most therapies currently in use. Chronic oral sildenafil therapy for BPD-associated PH has demonstrated some preliminary efficacy. A favorable response to iNO has been documented in some preterm infants with early PH following premature prolonged rupture of membranes and oligohydramnios. Management is complicated by a lack of clear demarcation between interventions designed to manage respiratory distress syndrome, prevent BPD and treat HRF. Heterogeneity in clinical phenotype, pathobiology and genomic underpinnings of BPD pose challenges for evidence-based management recommendations. Greater insight into the spectrum of disease phenotypes represented by BPD can optimize existing therapies and promote development of new treatments. In addition, better understanding of an individual's phenotype, genotype and biomarkers may suggest targeted personalized interventions. Initiatives such as the Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes Program provide a framework to address these challenges using genetic, environmental, physiological and clinical data as well as large repositories of patient samples.
Habersaat, Stephanie; Borghini, Ayala; Nessi, Jennifer; Pierrehumbert, Blaise; Forcada-Guex, Margarita; Ansermet, François; Müller-Nix, Carole
Previous studies have found that mothers of very preterm infants often report symptoms of posttraumatic stress, which has been related to cortisol dysregulation. However, the exact nature of this association is not clear and can be different regarding the predominance of some specific symptoms of posttraumatic stress, as suggested by a recent model. The objective of the present study is to assess the association between diurnal salivary cortisol and posttraumatic stress symptoms in mothers of very preterm infants. Seventy-four mothers of very preterm infants were included in the study. Mothers' cortisol regulation and posttraumatic stress symptoms were evaluated 12 months after child theoretical term (40 weeks of gestation). Results showed an association between higher re-experiencing symptoms and flatter cortisol slopes. These results may help to understand differences found in studies assessing the relation between severity of posttraumatic stress and cortisol levels, by supporting the symptoms' theory.
Ludington-Hoe, S M; Nguyen, N; Swinth, J Y; Satyshur, R D
Many preterm infants cared for in incubators do not experience Kangaroo Care (KC), skin-to-skin contact with their mothers, due to fear of body heat loss when being held outside the incubator. A randomized clinical trial of 16 KC and 13 control infants using a pretest-test-posttest design of three consecutive interfeeding intervals of 2.5 to 3.0 h duration each was conducted over 1 day. Infant abdominal and toe temperatures were measured in and out of the incubator; maternal breast temperature was measured during KC. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no change in abdominal temperature across all periods and between groups. Toe temperatures were significantly higher during KC than incubator periods, and maternal breast temperature met each infant's neutral thermal zone requirements within 5 min of onset of KC. Preterm infants similar to those studied here will maintain body warmth with up to 3 h of KC.
Yu, V Y; Davis, N G; Mercado, M F; Bajuk, B; Astbury, J
Of 103 mothers who delivered an extremely low birth-weight (ELBW, less than 1,000g) infant, 29% were primiparous; 51% of those who were multiparous had at least one previous miscarriage or perinatal death. The 41 (40%) mothers who decided against subsequent pregnancy were significantly older than the remaining mothers. Mothers were also significantly more likely to decide against subsequent pregnancy if their ELBW infant had survived. The outcome of subsequent pregnancies within 3 years of the ELBW birth was ascertained; 28% ended in miscarriage, 3% in stillbirth, 1% in neonatal death, 21% in a surviving preterm infant and 51% in a survivor born at term. Mothers diagnosed to have cervical incompetence had a significantly higher risk of a subsequent preterm birth. During the study period, 87% of mothers who became pregnant subsequent to their ELBW infant gave birth to at least one surviving child. Of the subsequent livebirths, 36% were less than 2,500g, 11% were less than 1,500g and 5% were less than 1,000g. Significantly more mothers whose ELBW infant had died conceived again within 1 year compared to those whose ELBW infant had survived. The necessary time for recovery from bereavement may be cut short by the subsequent pregnancy. The psychological problems as a result of unresolved mourning which mothers experience and their effects on subsequent children need to be further studied.
Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Jiang, Pingping; Frøkiær, Hanne; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Thymann, Thomas; Sangild, Per T.
Preterm neonates are highly sensitive to systemic infections in early life but little is known about systemic immune development following preterm birth. We hypothesized that preterm neonates have immature systemic immunity with distinct developmental trajectory for the first several weeks of life, relative to those born at near-term or term. Using pigs as a model, we characterized blood leukocyte subsets, antimicrobial activities and TLR-mediated cytokine production during the first weeks after preterm birth. Relative to near-term and term pigs, newborn preterm pigs had low blood leukocyte counts, poor neutrophil phagocytic rate, and limited cytokine responses to TLR1/2/5/7/9 and NOD1/2 agonists. The preterm systemic responses remained immature during the first postnatal week, but thereafter showed increased blood leukocyte numbers, NK cell proportion, neutrophil phagocytic rate and TLR2-mediated IL-6 and TNF-α production. These immune parameters remained different between preterm and near-term pigs at 2–3 weeks, even when adjusted for post-conceptional age. Our data suggest that systemic immunity follows a distinct developmental trajectory following preterm birth that may be influenced by postnatal age, complications of prematurity and environmental factors. Consequently, the immediate postnatal period may represent a window of opportunity to improve innate immunity in preterm neonates by medical, antimicrobial or dietary interventions. PMID:27830761
Vermeulen, Françoise; Verscheure, Virginie; Damis, Eliane; Vermeylen, Danièle; Leloux, Gaëlle; Dirix, Violette; Locht, Camille; Mascart, Françoise
Based on studies reporting specific antibody titers, it is recommended to vaccinate preterm infants against Bordetella pertussis according to their chronological age. However, as specific T-cell responses also are involved in the protection against B. pertussis, we have determined whether highly preterm infants (<31 weeks) are able to mount these immune responses during vaccination. Forty-eight premature infants were vaccinated at 2, 3, and 4 months of their chronological age with an acellular (Pa; n = 24) or a whole-cell (Pw; n = 24) tetravalent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-polio vaccine, and blood samples were collected at 2, 3, and 6 months of age. Most of the Pa- and Pw-vaccinated infants developed at 3 or 6 months of age a gamma interferon (IFN-γ) response to the B. pertussis antigens, accompanied by an interleukin-5 (IL-5) and IL-13 secretion for the Pa-vaccinated infants. No association was found between a very low infant birth weight, the occurrence of severe infections, and corticosteroid treatment or the administration of gammaglobulins with a low level of antigen-induced IFN-γ secretion. We conclude that like full-term infants, most preterm infants are able to mount a specific cellular immune response to the administration of the first doses of an acellular or a whole-cell pertussis vaccine. PMID:20016042
Corvaglia, Luigi; Gabrielli, Liliana; Chiereghin, Angela; Lazzarotto, Tiziana
Background. The neonatal immune system is not fully developed at birth; newborns have adequate lymphocytes counts but these cells lack function. Objective. To assess the activity of T-cells and the influence of the main perinatal factors in very preterm infants (birth weight < 1500 g). Design. Blood samples from 59 preterm infants (21/59 were dizygotic twins) were collected at birth and at 30 days of life to measure CD4+ T-cell activity using the ImmuKnow™ assay. Fifteen healthy adults were included as a control group. Results. CD4+ T-cell activity was lower in VLBW infants compared with adults (p < 0.001). Twins showed lower immune activity compared to singletons (p = 0.005). Infants born vaginally showed higher CD4+ T-cell activity compared to those born by C-section (p = 0.031); infants born after prolonged Premature Rupture of Membranes (pPROM) showed higher CD4+ T-cell activity at birth (p = 0.002) compared to infants born without pPROM. Low CD4+ T-cell activity at birth is associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in the first week of life (p = 0.049). Conclusions. Preterm infants show a lack in CD4+ T-cell activity at birth. Perinatal factors such as intrauterine inflammation, mode of delivery, and zygosity can influence the adaptive immune activation capacity at birth and can contribute to exposing these infants to serious complications such as NEC. PMID:28070527
Einspieler, Christa; Bos, Arend F.; Libertus, Melissa E.; Marschik, Peter B.
Apart from motor and behavioral dysfunctions, deficits in cognitive skills are among the well-documented sequelae of preterm birth. However, early identification of infants at risk for poor cognition is still a challenge, as no clear association between pathological findings based on neuroimaging scans and cognitive functions have been detected as yet. The Prechtl General Movement Assessment (GMA) has shown its merits for the evaluation of the integrity of the young nervous system. It is a reliable tool for identifying infants at risk for neuromotor deficits. Recent studies on preterm infants demonstrate that abnormal general movements (GMs) also reflect impairments of brain areas involved in cognitive development. The aim of this systematic review was to discuss studies that included (i) the Prechtl GMA applied in preterm infants, and (ii) cognitive outcome measures in six data bases. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria and yielded the following results: (a) children born preterm with consistently abnormal GMs up to 8 weeks after term had lower intelligence quotients at school age than children with an early normalization of GMs; (b) from 3 to 5 months after term, several qualitative, and quantitative aspects of the concurrent motor repertoire, including postural patterns, were predictive of intelligence at 7–10 years of age. These findings in 428 individuals born preterm suggest that normal GMs along with a normal motor repertoire during the first months after term are markers for normal cognitive development until at least age 10. PMID:27047429
Cong, Xiaomei; Xu, Wanli; Janton, Susan; Henderson, Wendy A; Matson, Adam; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Maas, Kendra; Graf, Joerg
Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, p< 0.05-0.01. Male infants were found to begin with a low α-diversity, whereas females tended to have a higher diversity shortly after birth. Female infants were more likely to have higher abundance of Clostridiates, and lower abundance of Enterobacteriales than males during early life. Infants fed mother's own breastmilk (MBM) had a higher diversity of gut microbiome and significantly higher abundance in Clostridiales and Lactobacillales than infants fed non-MBM. Permanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types. In conclusion
Xu, Wanli; Janton, Susan; Henderson, Wendy A.; Matson, Adam; McGrath, Jacqueline M.; Maas, Kendra; Graf, Joerg
Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, p< 0.05–0.01. Male infants were found to begin with a low α-diversity, whereas females tended to have a higher diversity shortly after birth. Female infants were more likely to have higher abundance of Clostridiates, and lower abundance of Enterobacteriales than males during early life. Infants fed mother’s own breastmilk (MBM) had a higher diversity of gut microbiome and significantly higher abundance in Clostridiales and Lactobacillales than infants fed non-MBM. Permanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types. In conclusion
de Vries, Linda S.; Groenendaal, Floris; Toet, Mona C.; Lemmers, Petra M. A.; Vosse van de, Renè E.; van Bel, Frank; Benders, Manon J. N. L.
The combined monitoring of oxygen supply and delivery using Near-InfraRed spectroscopy (NIRS) and cerebral activity using amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) could yield new insights into brain metabolism and detect potentially vulnerable conditions soon after birth. The relationship between NIRS and quantitative aEEG/EEG parameters has not yet been investigated. Our aim was to study the association between oxygen utilization during the first 6 h after birth and simultaneously continuously monitored brain activity measured by aEEG/EEG. Forty-four hemodynamically stable babies with a GA < 28 weeks, with good quality NIRS and aEEG/EEG data available and who did not receive morphine were included in the study. aEEG and NIRS monitoring started at NICU admission. The relation between regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2) and cerebral fractional tissue oxygen extraction (cFTOE), and quantitative measurements of brain activity such as number of spontaneous activity transients (SAT) per minute (SAT rate), the interval in seconds (i.e. time) between SATs (ISI) and the minimum amplitude of the EEG in μV (min aEEG) were evaluated. rScO2 was negatively associated with SAT rate (β=-3.45 [CI=-5.76- -1.15], p=0.004) and positively associated with ISI (β=1.45 [CI=0.44-2.45], p=0.006). cFTOE was positively associated with SAT rate (β=0.034 [CI=0.009-0.059], p=0.008) and negatively associated with ISI (β=-0.015 [CI=-0.026- -0.004], p=0.007). Oxygen delivery and utilization, as indicated by rScO2 and cFTOE, are directly related to functional brain activity, expressed by SAT rate and ISI during the first hours after birth, showing an increase in oxygen extraction in preterm infants with increased early electro-cerebral activity. NIRS monitored oxygenation may be a useful biomarker of brain vulnerability in high-risk infants. PMID:25965343
Rythén, Marianne; Thilander, Birgit; Robertson, Agneta
It has been shown that children born extremely preterm (EPT) often suffer from medical complications and growth restrictions in early childhood. Catchup growth diminishes these effects but the children are known to have lower weight, height, and head circumference as school children. Effects on enamel development have been shown. How this affects the dento-alveolar outcome during adolescence is not known. Forty EPT children with a gestational age (GA) of less than 29 weeks, at 12-16 years of age, and matched healthy controls born at term, with a GA of 37-43 weeks, were examined. Data from the clinical examination, dental casts, and bitewing radiographs were collected and compared. Malocclusion was noted, and dento-alveolar length, width, palatal height, and mesio-distal tooth width were measured. Medical diagnoses, neurological, and neuropsychiatric disturbances were noted at the time of the survey. The two groups were compared with an epidemiological normal reference material. The results showed no differences between the controls and reference material. Angle Class II was the most frequent malocclusion associated with morbidity, neurological, and neuropsychiatric disturbances, followed by deep bite and overjet. Three or more malocclusions were almost twice as common among the EPT children compared with the controls. Significantly smaller incisors, canines, and first molars were found. In summary, the EPT children, during adolescence, had medical aberrations as well as dento-alveolar effects opposed to the healthy children born at term. Dentists should be aware of this and treatment plans should be made in due time.
Enomoto, Masahiro; Keszler, Martin; Sakuma, Mio; Kikuchi, Shin; Katayama, Yoshinori; Takei, Atsuko; Ikegami, Hitoshi; Minami, Hirotaka
Objectives Although adding volume guarantee (VG) to conventional ventilation has been a well-established respiratory management for preterm infants, the evidence of VG combined with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) has not been studied well. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of VG added to HFOV on respiratory and other physiological parameters. Methods We conducted a pilot study in extremely low-birth-weight infants ventilated with HFOV + VG with stable pulmonary status after 28 days of age. VG was applied for 6 hours and removed for the following 6 hours, and data were collected during these 12 hours. Results Six neonates were included in this study (gestational age: 22w5d-23w6d, birthweight: 424-584 g). High-frequency expired tidal volume per weight and amplitude were similar between periods with and without VG. Fluctuation of SpO2, but not heart rate, was significantly smaller when babies were ventilated with VG than without VG. Fluctuation of minute volume and carbon dioxide diffusion coefficient significantly increased after VG removal. The proportion of time with SpO2 < 80% was decreased by VG overall, especially in three cases. Conclusion This pilot study suggests VG combined with HFOV attenuates fluctuation of SpO2 and CO2 clearance, which may prevent hypoxemia and hypocapnia.
McLaurin, K K; Farr, A M; Wade, S W; Diakun, D R; Stewart, D L
Objective: Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which causes lower respiratory tract infections, is the leading cause of hospitalization among children <1 year old in the United States. Risk factors for RSV hospitalization include premature birth and younger chronologic age, along with several comorbid conditions. However, in terms of RSV hospitalization costs, premature infants are rarely studied separately from full-term infants. The objective of this study is to describe the cost and severity of RSV hospitalizations among preterm and full-term infants without chronic lung disease or other high-risk conditions. Study Design: This analysis used Truven Health Market Scan Multi-State Medicaid and Commercial Claims and Encounters databases, which contain a combined 4 million births from 2003 to 2013. Infants with comorbid conditions associated with increased risk for RSV infection were excluded. Infants were classified as preterm (<29, 29−30, 31−32, 33−34 and 35−36 weeks' gestational age (wGA)) or full term based on diagnostic coding. Health-care claims during the first year of life were evaluated for RSV hospitalizations, defined as inpatient claims with a diagnosis code for RSV in any position. Costs of RSV hospitalizations were captured and reported in 2014 USD. Inpatient claims for RSV hospitalizations were evaluated for the presence of codes indicating admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), use of mechanical ventilation (MV) and length of stay. These three measures were used to describe hospital severity. Chronologic age at the time of RSV hospitalization was also captured. Data were summarized and no statistical comparisons were conducted. Results: There were 1 683 188 infants insured through Medicaid and 1 663 832 infants insured through commercial plans born from 1 July 2003 to 30 June 2013. Of those, 10.8 and 8.8% in each database, respectively, were born prematurely. There were 29 967 Medicaid-insured infants and 16 310
Griffin, Ian; Cooke, Richard J
There is little data on iron retention in healthy preterm infants. Twenty-four metabolic balance studies were carried out in 13 preterm infants between 17 and 63 days of age, in 11 cases 2 balance were carried out 7d apart. Iron intake was 1.11 mg/kg/day (SD 0.06), less than the 2 mg/kg/d typically recommended for preterm infants. Iron retention was positive in the majority (3/13) of the first balances, and in all 11 of the second balances. Iron retention increased significantly between the two balances (from 0.095 mg/kg/d (SD 0.178) to 0.270 (SD 0.209)). Iron retention was significantly related to the time that the infant had been on enteral feeds at the time the balance was carried out. Iron retention was significantly greater than the requirement estimated to be needed to meet the needs for growth and expansion of the circulating red cell mass. Iron intakes of about 1mg/kg/d seem to be adequate to support the requirements for growth in preterm infants during this time period, but are significantly less than the estimated in utero accretion rate of the fetus.
Burchell, A; McGeechan, A; Hume, R
BACKGROUND—Hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity is low at birth, and in term infants rises rapidly to adult levels. In contrast, in most preterm infants, it remains low postnatally making them vulnerable to repeated hypoglycaemic episodes, resultant cerebral damage, or risk of sudden and unexpected death. AIMS—To investigate the clinical features of preterm infants with low glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme activity to determine the influencing factors. METHODS—Clinical data from 36 preterm infants were correlated by stepwise multiple regression analysis with Vmax of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase as the dependent variable. RESULTS—The most significant correlation was with the administration of insulin (units/kg/h postnatal life) with lesser effects of respiratory distress syndrome and dopamine administration. The Vmax changes reflected changes in the level of expression of the glucose-6-phosphatase protein. CONCLUSION—In a variety of animal models, hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase levels have been shown to decrease in response to insulin, which also decreases transcription of the glucose-6-phosphatase gene. The association of insulin administration with high levels of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity and protein expression was therefore most unexpected. Results from model systems, or adults, must be extrapolated to the metabolism of preterm infants with caution. PMID:10794792
Bertino, E; Coscia, A; Arslanoglu, S; Cresi, F; Sabatino, G; Giuliani, F; Chiale, F; Occhi, L; Martano, C; Gilli, G
Preterm infants' survival has greatly increased in the last few decades thanks to the improvement in obstetrical and neonatal care. The correct evaluation of postnatal growth of these babies is nowadays of primary concern, although the definition of their optimal postnatal growth pattern is still controversial. Concerns have also been raised about the strategies to monitor their growth, specifically in relation to the charts used. At present, the charts available in clinical practice are fetal growth charts, neonatal anthropometric charts and postnatal growth charts for term infants. None of these, for different reasons, is suitable to correctly evaluate preterm infant growth. Recently, an international project has recently started aiming to create prescriptive standard for the evaluation of postnatal growth of preterm infants (INTERGROWTH-21st). Alternatively, at present, while specific charts for evaluating preterm infant postnatal growth are lacking, the best compromise is likely to be as follows: from birth to term neonatal anthropometric charts; International longitudinal charts WHO 2006 or CDC 2002 from term to childhood.
Hulzebos, Christian V.; van Zoonen, Anne G. J. F.; Hulscher, Jan B. F.; Schat, Trijntje E.; Kooi, Elisabeth M. W.; Koehorst, Martijn; Boverhof, Renze; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; Groen, Albert K.; Verkade, Henkjan J.
Background Intestinal bile salts (BSs) may be implicated in NEC development. We hypothesized that fecal BS levels are higher in preterm infants at risk for NEC. Methods We compared the composition and concentration of fecal BSs in ten preterm infants who developed NEC (Bell’s Stage ≥ II) with twenty matched control infants without NEC. Conjugated and unconjugated fecal BSs were measured after birth (T1) and twice prior to NEC (T2, T3). Data are presented as medians and interquartile ranges. Results GA and BW were similar in all preterms: ~27+4 weeks and ~1010 g. Age of NEC onset was day 10 (8–24). T1 was collected 2 (1–3) days after birth. T2 and T3 were collected 5 (5–6) days and 1 (0–2) day before NEC or at corresponding postnatal ages in controls. The composition of conjugated BSs did not differ between the two groups. Total unconjugated BSs were 3-fold higher before NEC compared to controls at corresponding ages (0.41 μmol/g feces (0.21–0.74) versus 0.14 μmol/g feces (0.06–0.46), p < 0.05). Conclusion Fecal BS concentrations are higher in preterm infants who develop NEC compared to infants without NEC. Further study is needed to determine the predictive value of fecal BSs in the development of NEC. PMID:28045982
Saleh, Mohammad I; Nalbant, Demet; Widness, John A; Veng-Pedersen, Peter
A population pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model was developed to describe changes in erythropoiesis as a function of plasma erythropoietin (EPO) concentration over the first 30 days of life in preterm infants who developed severe anemia requiring red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Several covariates were tested as possible factors influencing the responsiveness to EPO. Discarded blood samples in 27 ventilated preterm infants born at 24-29 wk of gestation were used to construct plasma EPO, hemoglobin (Hb), and RBC concentration-time profiles. The amount of Hb removed for laboratory testing and that transfused throughout the study period were recorded. A population PK/PD model accounting for the dynamic Hb changes experienced by these infants was simultaneously fitted to plasma EPO, Hb, and RBC concentrations. A covariate analysis suggested that the erythropoietic efficacy of EPO is increased for preterm infants at later gestational ages. The PD analysis showed a sevenfold difference in maximum Hb production rate dependent on gestational age and indicated that preterm infants, when stimulated by EPO, have the capacity to produce additional Hb that may result in a decrease in RBC transfusions. The present model has utility in clinical trial simulations investigating the treatment potential of erythropoietic stimulating agents in the treatment of anemia of prematurity.
Schneider, Nora; Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L.
Adequate nutrition is important for neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm-born infants. In this review, we aim to summarize the current knowledge on nutritional interventions initiated during the hospital stay targeting brain and cognitive development benefits in preterm human infants. Studies can broadly be split in general dietary intervention studies and studies investigating specific nutrients or nutritional supplements. In general, mother’s breast milk was reported to be better for preterm infants’ neurodevelopment compared to infant formula. The differences in methodologies make it difficult to conclude any effects of interventions with individual nutrients. Only protein and iron level studies showed some consistent findings regarding optimal doses; however, confirmatory studies are needed. This review does not support some widely accepted associations, such as that between long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and visual development. Clear nutritional recommendations cannot be made based on this review. However, the type of infant nutrition (i.e., breast milk versus formula or donor milk), the timing of the nutritional intervention, and the dose of the nutrient/supplement have been found to be relevant factors in determining the success of nutritional intervention studies in preterm infants. PMID:28241501
Naoi, Nozomi; Fuchino, Yutaka; Shibata, Minoru; Niwa, Fusako; Kawai, Masahiko; Konishi, Yukuo; Okanoya, Kazuo; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako
Preterm infants are at increased risk of language-related problems later in life; however, few studies have examined the effects of preterm birth on cerebral responses to speech at very early developmental stages. This study examined cerebral activation and functional connectivity in response to infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech (ADS) in full-term neonates and preterm infants at term-equivalent age using 94-channel near-infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that compared with ADS, IDS increased activity in larger brain areas such as the bilateral frontotemporal, temporal, and temporoparietal regions, both in full-term and preterm infants. Preterm infants exhibited decreased activity in response to speech stimuli in the right temporal region compared with full-term infants, although the significance was low. Moreover, preterm infants exhibited increased interhemispheric connectivity compared with full-term controls, especially in the temporal and temporoparietal regions. These differences suggest that preterm infants may follow different developmental trajectories from those born at term owing to differences in intrauterine and extrauterine development.
Czekuc-Kryskiewicz, Edyta; Pludowski, Pawel; Zaniuk, Katarzyna; Jaworski, Maciej; Łuba, Anna; Grzybowska, Karolina; Piłat, Krystyna; Dobrzanska, Anna
Background Metabolic bone disease of prematurity still occurs in preterm infants, although a significant improvement in neonatal care has been observed in recent decades. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the precise technique for assessing bone mineral content (BMC) in preterm infants, but is not widely available. Aim To investigate the clinical and biochemical parameters, including bone metabolism markers as potential predictors of BMC, in preterm infants up to 3 months corrected age (CA). Materials and Methods Ca-P homeostasis, iPTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, osteocalcin, N-terminal propeptide, cross-linked C-telopeptide and amino-terminal pro C-type natriuretic peptide and the DXA scans were prospectively performed in 184 preterm infants (≤ 34 weeks’ gestation) between term age and 3 mo CA. Lower bone mass was defined as BMC below or equal to respective median value for the whole study group, rounded to the nearest whole number. Results The appropriate quality DXA scans were available for 160 infants (87%) examined at term and for 130 (71%) tested at 3 mo CA. Higher iPTH level was the only independent predictor of lower BMC at term, whereas lower BMC at 3 mo CA was associated both with lower urinary phosphate excretion and higher serum osteocalcin level. ROC analysis showed that iPTH >43.6 pg/mL provided 40% sensitivity and 88% specificity in identification of preterm infants with lower BMC at term. In turn, urinary phosphate excretion (TRP>97% or UP/Cr ≤0.74 mg/mg) and serum osteocalcin >172 ng/mL provided 40% sensitivity and 93% specificity in identification of infants with decreased BMC at 3 mo CA. Conclusion Serum iPTH might to be a simple predictor of reduced BMC in preterm infants at term age, but urinary phosphate excretion and serum osteocalcin might predict reduced BMC at 3 mo CA. These results represent a promising diagnostic tool based on simple, widely available biochemical measurements for bone mass assessment in preterm infants. PMID
Background Preterm infants requiring assisted ventilation are at significant risk of both pulmonary and cerebral injury. Inhaled Nitric Oxide, an effective therapy for pulmonary hypertension and hypoxic respiratory failure in the full term infant, has also been studied in preterm infants. The most recent Cochrane review of preterm infants includes 11 studies and 3,370 participants. The results show a statistically significant reduction in the combined outcome of death or chronic lung disease (CLD) in two studies with routine use of iNO in intubated preterm infants. However, uncertainty remains as a larger study (Kinsella 2006) showed no significant benefit for iNO for this combined outcome. Also, trials that included very ill infants do not demonstrate significant benefit. One trial of iNO treatment at a later postnatal age reported a decrease in the incidence of CLD. The aim of this individual patient meta-analysis is to confirm or refute these potentially conflicting results and to determine the extent to which patient or treatment characteristics may explain the results and/or may predict benefit from inhaled Nitric Oxide in preterm infants. Methods/Design The Meta-Analysis of Preterm Patients on inhaled Nitric Oxide (MAPPiNO) Collaboration will perform an individual patient data meta-analysis to answer these important clinical questions. Studies will be included if preterm infants receiving assisted ventilation are randomized to receive inhaled Nitric Oxide or to a control group. The individual patient data provided by the Collaborators will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis where possible. Binary outcomes will be analyzed using log-binomial regression models and continuous outcomes will be analyzed using linear fixed effects models. Adjustments for trial differences will be made by including the trial variable in the model specification. Discussion Thirteen (13) trials, with a total of 3567 infants are eligible for inclusion in the MAPPiNO systematic
Mitchell, Anita J.; Yates, Charlotte C.; Williams, D. Keith; Chang, Jason Y.; Hall, Richard Whit
Objectives 1. Determine whether stress in preterm infants, measured with salivary cortisol, decreases after five days of Kangaroo Care (KC) compared to five days of Standard Care (SC). 2. To determine whether kangaroo care provides sustainable pain relief beyond the period of skin-to-skin holding. Study Design Preterm infants (n=38) born at 27-30 weeks gestational age were randomized to either the KC or the SC group and received the allocated intervention starting on day of life (DOL) five and continuing for five days. Salivary cortisol was collected on DOL five and again on DOL ten. Differences were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and t tests. Pain during nasal suctioning over five days was assessed using the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP). Result 1. Adequate saliva samples for salivary cortisol were collected for 13 KC infants and 11 SC infants. There was no main effect of group (p=0.49), but there was a significant main effect of age (DOL five versus DOL ten), with salivary cortisol levels decreasing in both groups (p=0.02). 2. Pain scores for both groups (n=38) indicted mild to moderate pain during suctioning, with no significant difference in pain scores between groups. Conclusion 1. KC did not affect salivary cortisol levels in preterm neonates, but levels in both the KC and SC groups decreased over time from DOL five to ten. Salivary cortisol may vary with age of infant. 2. Infants experience pain during routine suctioning and may require pain management. PMID:24246458
Jenik, Alejandro; Fustiñana, Carlos; Marquez, Maritza; Mage, David; Fernandez, Gloria; Mariani, Gonzalo
Oxygen saturation is lower during bottle feeding than during breastfeeding in preterm infants. Our objective was to compare two different bottle systems in healthy preterm infants before discharge in terms of SpO(2) and oral feeding efficiency (rate of milk intake). Infants without supplement oxygen needs were evaluated twice on the same day during two consecutive feeds, by the same nurse. Infants served as their own controls for comparison of two systems of bottles, the order of which was randomized. The new bottle's nipple design mimics mom's breast in shape and feel, and the bottle vents to air when the child sucks on the nipple. The other system was the hospital's standard plastic bottle with silicone nipple. The rate of milk intake was calculated as the total volume transferred minus volume lost divided by time of feeding, mL/min. Thirty-four infants (BW: 1, 163 ± 479.1 g) were studied at 35.4 ± 1.3 weeks after-conception. SpO(2) was significantly higher in infants fed with the new bottle design. Milk intake rate was significantly higher with the new bottle than with the standard bottle design. The new bottle design improves oral feeding performance in preterm infants near to discharge when compared to that of a standard bottle.
Kaneshi, Yosuke; Ohta, Hidenobu; Morioka, Keita; Hayasaka, Itaru; Uzuki, Yutaka; Akimoto, Takuma; Moriichi, Akinori; Nakagawa, Machiko; Oishi, Yoshihisa; Wakamatsu, Hisanori; Honma, Naoki; Suma, Hiroki; Sakashita, Ryuichi; Tsujimura, Sei-ichi; Higuchi, Shigekazu; Shimokawara, Miyuki; Cho, Kazutoshi; Minakami, Hisanori
Previous studies have demonstrated that a light-dark cycle has promoted better sleep development and weight gain in preterm infants than constant light or constant darkness. However, it was unknown whether brief light exposure at night for medical treatment and nursing care would compromise the benefits brought about by such a light-dark cycle. To examine such possibility, we developed a special red LED light with a wavelength of >675 nm which preterm infants cannot perceive. Preterm infants born at <36 weeks’ gestational age were randomly assigned for periodic exposure to either white or red LED light at night in a light-dark cycle after transfer from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit to the Growing Care Unit, used for supporting infants as they mature. Activity, nighttime crying and body weight were continuously monitored from enrolment until discharge. No significant difference in rest-activity patterns, nighttime crying, or weight gain was observed between control and experimental groups. The data indicate that nursing care conducted at 3 to 4-hour intervals exposing infants to light for <15 minutes does not prevent the infants from developing circadian rest-activity patterns, or proper body growth as long as the infants are exposed to regular light-dark cycles. PMID:26877166
Kaneshi, Yosuke; Ohta, Hidenobu; Morioka, Keita; Hayasaka, Itaru; Uzuki, Yutaka; Akimoto, Takuma; Moriichi, Akinori; Nakagawa, Machiko; Oishi, Yoshihisa; Wakamatsu, Hisanori; Honma, Naoki; Suma, Hiroki; Sakashita, Ryuichi; Tsujimura, Sei-ichi; Higuchi, Shigekazu; Shimokawara, Miyuki; Cho, Kazutoshi; Minakami, Hisanori
Previous studies have demonstrated that a light-dark cycle has promoted better sleep development and weight gain in preterm infants than constant light or constant darkness. However, it was unknown whether brief light exposure at night for medical treatment and nursing care would compromise the benefits brought about by such a light-dark cycle. To examine such possibility, we developed a special red LED light with a wavelength of >675 nm which preterm infants cannot perceive. Preterm infants born at <36 weeks' gestational age were randomly assigned for periodic exposure to either white or red LED light at night in a light-dark cycle after transfer from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit to the Growing Care Unit, used for supporting infants as they mature. Activity, nighttime crying and body weight were continuously monitored from enrolment until discharge. No significant difference in rest-activity patterns, nighttime crying, or weight gain was observed between control and experimental groups. The data indicate that nursing care conducted at 3 to 4-hour intervals exposing infants to light for <15 minutes does not prevent the infants from developing circadian rest-activity patterns, or proper body growth as long as the infants are exposed to regular light-dark cycles.
Jenik, Alejandro; Fustiñana, Carlos; Marquez, Maritza; Mage, David; Fernandez, Gloria; Mariani, Gonzalo
Oxygen saturation is lower during bottle feeding than during breastfeeding in preterm infants. Our objective was to compare two different bottle systems in healthy preterm infants before discharge in terms of SpO2 and oral feeding efficiency (rate of milk intake). Infants without supplement oxygen needs were evaluated twice on the same day during two consecutive feeds, by the same nurse. Infants served as their own controls for comparison of two systems of bottles, the order of which was randomized. The new bottle's nipple design mimics mom's breast in shape and feel, and the bottle vents to air when the child sucks on the nipple. The other system was the hospital's standard plastic bottle with silicone nipple. The rate of milk intake was calculated as the total volume transferred minus volume lost divided by time of feeding, mL/min. Thirty-four infants (BW: 1, 163 ± 479.1 g) were studied at 35.4 ± 1.3 weeks after-conception. SpO2 was significantly higher in infants fed with the new bottle design. Milk intake rate was significantly higher with the new bottle than with the standard bottle design. The new bottle design improves oral feeding performance in preterm infants near to discharge when compared to that of a standard bottle. PMID:22778757
Schwirian, P M; Eesley, T; Cuellar, L
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a water-pillow treatment in reducing bilateral head flattening of preterm infants. The subjects were 21 healthy infants of less than 36 weeks gestational+ age. Care of the experimental babies included supporting the head on a small water pillow and supporting the torso at the same level to avoid flexion or curvature of the spine; the control group received customary care. The ratios of the anterior-posterior diameter to the biparietal diameter were significantly different for the two groups (p less than .0005). The heads of the control infants became flattened on both sides, while those of the experimental babies maintained the round shape they had at admission to the unit. The findings support the use of a small water pillow, in combination with support for the torso, as a means of alleviating bilateral head flattening in preterm infants.
Perenyi, Agnes; Amodio, John; Katz, Joanne S; Stefanov, Dimitre G
Objective To assess the clinical usefulness of measurement of corpus callosum (CC) size in head ultrasound (HUS) to predict short-term neurodevelopmental (ND) outcomes in preterm infants. We hypothesised that including CC measurements in routine HUS will be an additional tool for early identification of infants at risk of adverse short-term ND outcome, over and above the predictive power of perinatal morbidities. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and outpatient NICU follow-up clinic of an academic medical centre in New York City. Participants 929 HUS of 502 infants with gestational age of 23–36 weeks in African-American infants were initially studied. Exclusion criteria included those who died, had gross abnormalities in HUS, infants with race other than African-American, infants with suboptimal quality of HUS, late preterm infants and infants who did not participate in ND follow-up. A total of 173 infants completed the study. Interventions CC size (length and thickness) was measured in a subset of 87 infants who had routine HUS between 23 and 29 weeks (0–6 postnatal weeks). Relevant clinical variables were collected from chart reviews. ND assessments were completed in outpatient follow-up clinics. A statistical model was developed to assess the clinical utility and possible predictive value of CC measurements for adverse short-term ND outcome, while adjusting for perinatal morbidities. Primary and secondary outcome measures CC size and ND status. Results Measurements of CC size did not add substantial predictive power to predict short-term ND outcome beyond the information provided by the presence of morbidities related to prematurity. Conclusions No association was found between morbidities related to prematurity and short-term ND outcome and CC size in preterm infants. CC measurements in HUS early in life did not have an additional value in predicting short-term ND outcome, therefore did not seem to
Als, Heidelise; Butler, Samantha; Kosta, Sandra; McAnulty, Gloria
The Assessment of Preterm Infants' Behavior (APIB) is a newborn neurobehavioral assessment appropriate for preterm, at risk, and full-term newborns, from birth to 1 month after expected due date. The APIB is based in ethological–evolutionary thought and focuses on the assessment of mutually interacting behavioral subsystems in simultaneous interaction with the environment. The subsystems of functioning assessed include the autonomic (respiration, digestion, color), motor (tone, movement, postures), state organization (range, robustness, transition patterns), attention (robustness, transitions), and self-regulation (effort, success) systems as well as the degree of facilitation required to support reorganization and subsystem balance. The environment is represented by a sequence of distal, proximal, tactile, and vestibular challenges, derived from the BNBAS. The APIB conceptualizes infant competence as the degree of differentiation of subsystem function and degree of modulation of subsystem balance at any stage in infant development. Infants are understood as actively seeking their next differentiation, while counting on good enough environments to assure progressing developmental competence. In the case of interference such as premature birth, the mismatch of expectation and actual experience causes misalignment, which may become developmentally costly. The assessment is a finely tuned dialogue between examiner and infant, which requires training, skill and self-knowledge. The APIB has well established inter-rater-reliability, concurrent and construct validity, and is clinically relevant for behavioral intervention and individually appropriate and supportive care. PMID:15856436
Wagner, Brandie D.; Sontag, Marci K.; Harris, J. Kirk; Miller, Joshua I.; Morrow, Lindsey; Robertson, Charles E.; Stephens, Mark; Poindexter, Brenda B.; Abman, Steven H.; Mourani, Peter M.
Preterm birth exposes the developing lung to an environment with direct exposure to bacteria, often facilitated by endotracheal intubation. Despite evidence linking bacterial infections to the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), systematic studies of airway microbiota are limited. The objective was to identify specific patterns of the early respiratory tract microbiome from tracheal aspirates of mechanically ventilated preterm infants that are associated with the development and severity of BPD. Infants with gestational age ≤34 weeks, and birth weight 500–1250g were prospectively enrolled. Mechanically ventilated infants had tracheal aspirate samples collected at enrollment, 7, 14, and 21 days of age. BPD was determined by modified NIH criteria with oxygen reduction tests; infants without BPD were excluded due to low numbers. Aspirates were processed for bacterial identification by 16S rRNA sequencing, and bacterial load by qPCR. Cross-sectional analysis was performed using 7 day samples and longitudinal analysis was performed from subjects with at least 2 aspirates. Microbiome analysis was performed on tracheal aspirates from 152 infants (51, 49, and 52 with mild, moderate, and severe BPD, respectively). Seventy-nine of the infants were included in the cross-sectional analysis and 94 in the longitudinal. Shannon Diversity, bacterial load, and relative abundance of individual taxa were not strongly associated with BPD status. Longitudinal analysis revealed that preterm infants who eventually developed severe BPD exhibited greater bacterial community turnover with age, acquired less Staphylococcus in the first days after birth, and had higher initial relative abundance of Ureaplasma. In conclusion, longitudinal changes in the airway microbial communities of mechanically ventilated preterm infants may be associated with BPD severity, whereas cross-sectional analysis of airway ecology at 7 days of age did not reveal an association with BPD severity
Yu, Yueyue; Lu, Lei; Sun, Jun; Petrof, Elaine O; Claud, Erika C
Development of the infant small intestine is influenced by bacterial colonization. To promote establishment of optimal microbial communities in preterm infants, knowledge of the beneficial functions of the early gut microbiota on intestinal development is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of early preterm infant microbiota on host gut development using a gnotobiotic mouse model. Histological assessment of intestinal development was performed. The differentiation of four epithelial cell lineages (enterocytes, goblet cells, Paneth cells, enteroendocrine cells) and tight junction (TJ) formation was examined. Using weight gain as a surrogate marker for health, we found that early microbiota from a preterm infant with normal weight gain (MPI-H) induced increased villus height and crypt depth, increased cell proliferation, increased numbers of goblet cells and Paneth cells, and enhanced TJs compared with the changes induced by early microbiota from a poor weight gain preterm infant (MPI-L). Laser capture microdissection (LCM) plus qRT-PCR further revealed, in MPI-H mice, a higher expression of stem cell marker Lgr5 and Paneth cell markers Lyz1 and Cryptdin5 in crypt populations, along with higher expression of the goblet cell and mature enterocyte marker Muc3 in villus populations. In contrast, MPI-L microbiota failed to induce the aforementioned changes and presented intestinal characteristics comparable to a germ-free host. Our data demonstrate that microbial communities have differential effects on intestinal development. Future studies to identify pioneer settlers in neonatal microbial communities necessary to induce maturation may provide new insights for preterm infant microbial ecosystem therapeutics.
Vinall, Jillian; Miller, Steven P; Chau, Vann; Brummelte, Susanne; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E
Procedural pain is associated with poorer neurodevelopment in infants born very preterm (≤ 32 weeks gestational age), however, the etiology is unclear. Animal studies have demonstrated that early environmental stress leads to slower postnatal growth; however, it is unknown whether neonatal pain-related stress affects postnatal growth in infants born very preterm. The aim of this study was to examine whether greater neonatal pain (number of skin-breaking procedures adjusted for medical confounders) is related to decreased postnatal growth (weight and head circumference [HC] percentiles) early in life and at term-equivalent age in infants born very preterm. Participants were n=78 preterm infants born ≤ 32 weeks gestational age, followed prospectively since birth. Infants were weighed and HC measured at birth, early in life (median: 32 weeks [interquartile range 30.7-33.6]) and at term-equivalent age (40 weeks [interquartile range 38.6-42.6]). Weight and HC percentiles were computed from sex-specific British Columbia population-based data. Greater neonatal pain predicted lower body weight (Wald χ(2)=7.36, P=0.01) and HC (Wald χ(2)=4.36, P=0.04) percentiles at 32 weeks postconceptional age, after adjusting for birth weight percentile and postnatal risk factors of illness severity, duration of mechanical ventilation, infection, and morphine and corticosteroid exposure. However, later neonatal infection predicted lower weight percentile at term (Wald χ(2)=5.09, P=0.02). Infants born very preterm undergo repetitive procedural pain during a period of physiological immaturity that appears to impact postnatal growth, and may activate a downstream cascade of stress signaling that affects later growth in the neonatal intensive care unit.
Finn, Daragh; Boylan, Geraldine B.; Ryan, C. Anthony; Dempsey, Eugene M.
Monitoring of preterm infants in the delivery room (DR) remains limited. Current guidelines suggest that pulse oximetry should be available for all preterm infant deliveries, and that if intubated a colorimetric carbon dioxide detector should provide verification of correct endotracheal tube placement. These two methods of assessment represent the extent of objective monitoring of the newborn commonly performed in the DR. Monitoring non-invasive ventilation effectiveness (either by capnography or respiratory function monitoring) and cerebral oxygenation (near-infrared spectroscopy) is becoming more common within research settings. In this article, we will review the different modalities available for cardiorespiratory and neuromonitoring in the DR and assess the current evidence base on their feasibility, strengths, and limitations during preterm stabilization. PMID:27066463
Elke, Griesmaier; Vera, Neubauer; Maria, Gnigler; Michaela, Höck; Ursula, Kiechl-Kohlendorfer
The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency of and the predictors for rehospitalization in preterm infants into early childhood, focusing on gender differences. All preterm infants born at <32 weeks of gestation in North Tyrol between January 2003 and December 2005 were enrolled in this survey. About one fifth of all children were readmitted, showing an inverse downward trend with increasing age. The most common reason for readmission in the third (36.5%) and fourth (42.9%) years of life was respiratory infection, but changed to miscellaneous surgeries in the fifth (52.1%). Male sex showed significantly higher readmission rates and more miscellaneous surgeries. Additionally, male sex and chronic lung disease were risk conditions for rehospitalization in the multivariate analysis. Readmission rates and respiratory infections in preterm-born children showed an inverse downward trend with increasing age. In early childhood, gender difference still plays a role with regard to rehospitalization. PMID:27335903
Rothman, Adam L.; Sevilla, Monica B.; Mangalesh, Shwetha; Gustafson, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Laura; Cotten, C. Michael; Shimony, Joshua S.; Pizoli, Carolyn E.; El-Dairi, Mays A.; Freedman, Sharon F.; Toth, Cynthia A.
Purpose To assess retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness at term-equivalent age in very preterm (<32 weeks gestational age) versus term-born infant cohorts, and compare very preterm infant RNFL thickness with brain anatomy and neurodevelopment. Design Cohort study. Methods RNFL was semi-automatically segmented (one eye per infant) in 57 very preterm and 50 term infants with adequate images from bedside portable, handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography (Bioptigen, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC) imaging at 37-42 weeks postmenstrual age. Mean RNFL thickness was calculated for the papillomacular bundle (−15° to + 15°) and temporal quadrant (−45° to +45°) relative to the fovea-optic nerve axis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans clinically obtained in 26 very preterm infants were scored for global structural abnormalities by an expert masked to data except for age. Cognitive, language, and motor skills were assessed with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III (Pearson, San Antonio, TX) in 33 of the very preterm infants at 18-24 months corrected age. Results RNFL was thinner for very preterm versus term infants at the papillomacular bundle ([mean ± standard deviation] 61 ± 17 versus 72 ± 13 μm, p<0.001) and temporal quadrant (72 ± 21 versus 82 ± 16 μm, p=0.005). In very preterm infants, thinner papillomacular bundle RNFL correlated with higher global brain MRI lesion burden index (R2=0.35, p=0.001) and lower cognitive (R2=0.18, p=0.01) and motor (R2=0.17, p=0.02) scores. Relationships were similar for temporal quadrant. Conclusions Thinner RNFL in very preterm infants relative to term-born infants may relate to brain structure and neurodevelopment. PMID:26386157
Mitchell, Anita J.; Yates, Charlotte; Williams, Keith; Hall, Richard W
Background/aims Kangaroo care (KC) has possible benefits for promoting physiological stability and positive developmental outcomes in preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to compare bradycardia and desaturation events in preterm infants in standard incubator care (SC) versus KC. Methods Thirty-eight infants 27 to 30 weeks gestational age were randomly assigned to 2 hours of KC daily between days of life (DOL) 5 to 10 or to continuous SC. Infants were monitored for bradycardia (heart rate <80) or oxygen desaturation (<80%). Analysis of hourly events was based on three sets of data: SC group 24 hours daily, KC group during incubator time 22 hours daily, and KC group during holding time 2 hours daily. Results The KC group had fewer bradycardia events per hour while being held compared to time spent in an incubator (p=0.048). The KC group also had significantly fewer oxygen desaturation events while being held than while in the incubator (p=0.017) and significantly fewer desaturation events than infants in standard care (p=0.02). Conclusion KC reduces bradycardia and oxygen desaturation events in preterm infants, providing physiological stability and possible benefits for neurodevelopmental outcomes. PMID:24246597
Haley, David W; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E
Cortisol plays an important role in learning and memory. An inverted-U shaped function has been proposed to account for the positive and negative effects of cortisol on cognitive performance and memory in adults, such that too little or too much impair but moderate amounts facilitate performance. Whether such relationships between cortisol and mental function apply to early infancy, when cortisol secretion, learning, and memory undergo rapid developmental changes, is unknown. We compared relationships between learning/memory and cortisol in preterm and full-term infants and examined whether a greater risk for adrenal insufficiency associated with prematurity produces differential cortisol-memory relationships. Learning in three-month old (corrected for gestational age) preterm and full-term infants was evaluated using a conjugate reinforcement mobile task. Memory was tested by repeating the same task 24h later. Salivary cortisol samples were collected before and 20 min after the presentation of the mobile. We found that preterm infants had lower cortisol levels and smaller cortisol responses than full-term infants. This is consistent with relative adrenal insufficiency reported in the neonatal period. Infants who showed increased cortisol levels from 0 to 20 min on Day 1 had significantly better memory, regardless of prematurity, than infants who showed decreased cortisol levels.
Hansen, Ellen Saeter
This article focuses on preterm infants' early triangular capacity, restricted to the use of triangular bids in interaction with their parents. An observational setting, the Lausanne Trilogue Play (LTP), is used for studying the patterns of interaction. This is an approach focusing on the family as a whole. These observations are part of a study…
Field, Tiffany Martini
This paper presents a study of the looking and looking away or gaze alternation behavior of both full term and preterm infants in the presence of varying degrees of facial animation. The faces used in the study included, in increasing order of animation, a Raggedy Ann doll's face, a moving and talking doll's face, a mother's less animated face…
Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Ceschin, Rafael C.; Choi, So Young; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Painter, Michael J.; Nelson, Marvin D.; Blüml, Stefan; Panigrahy, Ashok
Introduction Altered thalamocortical development is hypothesized to be a key substrate underlying neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. However, the pathogenesis of this abnormality is not well-understood. We combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the parietal white matter and morphometric analyses of the thalamus to investigate the association between white matter metabolism and thalamic volume and tested the hypothesis that thalamic volume would be associated with diminished N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), a measure of neuronal/axonal maturation, independent of white matter injury. Methods Data from 106 preterm infants (mean gestational age at birth: 31.0 weeks ± 4.3; range 23–36 weeks) who underwent MR examinations under clinical indications were included in this study. Results Linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant association between parietal white matter NAA concentration and thalamic volume. This effect was above and beyond the effect of white matter injury and age at MRI and remained significant even when preterm infants with punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) were excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, choline, and amongst the preterm infants without pWMLs, lactate concentrations were also associated with thalamic volume. Of note, the associations between NAA and choline concentration and thalamic volume remained significant even when the sample was restricted to neonates who were term-equivalent age or older. Conclusion These observations provide convergent evidence of a neuroimaging phenotype characterized by widespread abnormal thalamocortical development and suggest that the pathogenesis may involve impaired axonal maturation. PMID:25666231
Beaino, Ghada; Khoshnood, Babak; Kaminski, Monique; Pierrat, Veronique; Marret, Stephane; Matis, Jacqueline; Ledesert, Bernard; Thiriez, Gerard; Fresson, Jeanne; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Zupan-Simunek, Veronique; Arnaud, Catherine; Burguet, Antoine; Larroque, Beatrice; Breart, Gerard; Ancel, Pierre-Yves
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the independent role of cerebral lesions on ultrasound scan, and several other neonatal and obstetric factors, as potential predictors of cerebral palsy (CP) in a large population-based cohort of very preterm infants. Method: As part of EPIPAGE, a population-based prospective cohort study, perinatal data…
The clinical measures of gastric residuals and abdominal distention are often used to guide feeding in preterm infants, but there are few data demonstrating their usefulness. Similarly, techniques are now available to investigate gastrointestinal (GI) function noninvasively and safely, but their abi...
Aloysius, A; Hickson, M
This pilot study developed an appropriate procedure to evaluate the paladai cup compared to bottle feeding in preterm infants, using weighed napkins and video analysis to assess amount of spillage, volume consumed, time taken and physiological stability. Paladai results demonstrated increased spillage, increased feed times with more stress cues.
Mörelius, Evalotte; He, Hong-Gu; Shorey, Shefaly
Recently, more and more researchers have been using salivary cortisol reactivity to evaluate stress in preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The aim of this integrative literature review was to summarize the evidence of interventions leading to a change in salivary cortisol from the baseline in preterm infants in the NICU. The electronic databases of PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched for relevant studies. The inclusion criteria were studies with preterm infants exposed to an intervention evaluated by salivary cortisol reactivity before discharge from the NICU, which were published in English. In total, 16 studies were included. Eye-screening examination and heel lance provoked an increase in the salivary cortisol level. Music, prone position, and co-bedding among twins decreased the salivary cortisol level. Several studies reported a low rate of successful saliva sampling or did not use control groups. Future studies need to focus on non-painful interventions in order to learn more about salivary cortisol regulation in preterm infants. Moreover, these studies should use study designs comprising homogenous gestational and postnatal age groups, control groups, and reliable analysis methods that are able to detect cortisol in small amounts of saliva. PMID:26999185
Shohat, M; Wielunsky, E; Reisner, S H
In order to investigate the severity and incidence of hyperammonemia in preterm infants receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with crystalline L-amino acids having high arginine content (Travasol), we determined the plasma ammonia (PA) levels in a group of 29 preterm infants on TPN, weekly and 1 wk posttherapy. Their mean gestational age was 29.9 +/- 2.6 wk and mean birth weight 1208 +/- 262 g. Thirty five blood samples obtained from 15 preterm infants not on TPN with mean gestational age 32.2 +/- 1.9 wk and a birth weight of 1495 +/- 161 g served as a control. In the parenteral nutrition group the mean PA level (140 +/- 58 micrograms/100 ml) was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than that in the same group one week post TPN (97 +/- 34 micrograms/100 ml) and in the control group (86 +/- 35 micrograms/100 ml). The incidence of hyperammonemia (greater than 160 micrograms/100 ml) was 30% in the TPN group versus 3% in the controls (p less than 0.01). Maximal PA level during that treatment was 405 versus 216 micrograms/100 ml 1 wk post-TPN versus 163 micrograms/100 ml in the controls. The data show a significant increase in PA levels in preterm infants receiving TPN with Travasol, possibly because of its high glycine content.
Twohig, Aoife; Reulbach, Udo; Figuerdo, Ricardo; McCarthy, Anthony; McNicholas, Fiona; Molloy, Eleanor Joan
The infant-parent relationship has been shown to be of particular significance to preterm infant socioemotional development. Supporting parents and infants in this process of developing their relationships is an integral part of neonatal intensive care; however, there is limited knowledge of NICU staff perceptions about this aspect of care. To explore NICU staff perceptions about attachment and socioemotional development of preterm infants, experience of training in this area and the emotional impact of their work. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of staff perceptions of the emotional experiences of parents and the developing parent-infant relationship in an NICU was conducted in a Level III NICU, after pilot testing, revision, and ethical approval. Fifty-seven (68%) of NICU staff responded to the survey. Respondents identified parents' emotional experiences such as "anxiety," "shock," "loss of control," and "lack of feelings of competence as parents" as highly prevalent. Infant cues of "responding to parent's voice" and "quieting-alerting" were ranked most highly; "crying" and "physiological changes" were ranked lowest. Preterm infant medical risk, maternal emotional state, and mental health are perceived to impact most highly on the developing relationship, as compared with infant state or behavior and socioeconomic factors. Fifty-three (93%) respondents felt confident, and 50 (87.8%) felt competent discussing their emotional experiences with parents. Fifty-four (95%) responded that attending to these areas was an integral part of their role; however, staff had seldom received education in this area. Respondents also perceived that specific psychological support for parents was lacking both during and after the infant's discharge. While all staff surveyed perceived the nature of their work to be emotionally stressful, there were differences among NICU staff disciplines and with years of experience in the NICU in terms of their perceptions about education in
... Scientific Name Preterm labor Preterm birth Preterm infant Late-preterm birth ... first-time pregnancies No benefit in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds ...
Verweij, P. E.; Meis, J. F.; Christmann, V.; Van der Bor, M.; Melchers, W. J.; Hilderink, B. G.; Voss, A.
Between March and May 1996 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was cultured from endotracheal aspirate samples from five preterm infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Four infants were superficially colonized, but a fifth died due to S. maltophilia septicaemia. S. maltophilia was cultured from tap water from three outlets in the NICU including one with a previously unnoticed defective sink drain. Water from these outlets was used to wash the preterm infants. Environmental and clinical S. maltophilia isolates yielded identical banding patterns on random arbitrary polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR analysis. The outbreak was controlled by reinforcement of hand disinfection, limitation of the use of tap water for hand washing and by using sterile water to wash the preterm infants. We conclude that tap water should not be used for washing preterm infants in the NICU, unless steps are taken to prevent microbial growth in the outlets. PMID:9692603
Japakasetr, Suchada; Sirikulchayanonta, Chutima; Suthutvoravut, Umaporn; Chindavijak, Busba; Kagawa, Masaharu; Nokdee, Somjai
Very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants are vulnerable to growth restriction after discharge due to cumulative protein and energy deficits during their hospital stay and early post-discharge period. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of the preterm infant, post-discharge nutrition (PIN) program to reduce post-discharge growth restriction in Thai VLBW preterm infants. A prospective, non-randomized interventional cohort study was undertaken to assess the growth of 22 VLBW preterm infants who received the PIN program and compared them with 22 VLBW preterm infants who received conventional nutrition services. Infant’s growth was recorded monthly until the infants reached six months’ corrected age (6-moCA). Intervention infants had significantly greater body weights (p = 0.013) and head circumferences (p = 0.009). Also, a greater proportion of the intervention group recovered their weight to the standard weight at 4-moCA (p = 0.027) and at 6-moCA (p = 0.007) and their head circumference to the standard head circumference at 6-moCA (p = 0.004) compared to their historical comparison counterparts. Enlistment in the PIN program thus resulted in significantly reduced post-discharge growth restriction in VLBW preterm infants. Further research on longer term effects of the program on infant’s growth and development is warranted. PMID:27999313
Gibson, Molly K.; Wang, Bin; Ahmadi, Sara; Burnham, Carey-Ann D.; Tarr, Phillip I.; Warner, Barbara B.; Dantas, Gautam
Development of the preterm infant gut microbiota is emerging as a critical research priority1. Since preterm infants almost universally receive early and often extended antibiotic therapy2, it is important to understand how these interventions alter gut microbiota development3-6. Analysis of 401 stools from 84 longitudinally sampled preterm infants demonstrates that meropenem, cefotaxime and ticarcillin–clavulanate are associated with significantly reduced species richness. In contrast, vancomycin and gentamicin, the antibiotics most commonly administered to preterm infants, have non-uniform effects on species richness, but these can be predicted with 85% accuracy based on the relative abundance of only two bacterial species and two antibiotic resistance (AR) genes at treatment initiation. To investigate resistome development, we functionally selected resistance to 16 antibiotics from 21 faecal metagenomic expression libraries. Of the 794 AR genes identified, 79% had not previously been classified as AR genes. Combined with deep shotgun sequencing of all stools, we find that multidrug-resistant members of the genera Escherichia, Klebsiella and Enterobacter, genera commonly associated with nosocomial infections, dominate the preterm infant gut microbiota. AR genes that are enriched following specific antibiotic treatments are generally unique to the specific treatment and are highly correlated with the abundance of a single species. The most notable exceptions include ticarcillin–clavulanate and ampicillin, both of which enrich for a large number of overlapping AR genes, and are correlated with Klebsiella pneumoniae. We find that all antibiotic treatments are associated with widespread collateral microbiome impact by enrichment of AR genes that have no known activity against the specific antibiotic driver. PMID:27572443
Wisnowski, Jessica L; Blüml, Stefan; Paquette, Lisa; Zelinski, Elizabeth; Nelson, Marvin D; Painter, Michael J; Damasio, Hanna; Gilles, Floyd; Panigrahy, Ashok
Preterm infants (∼10% of all births) are at high-risk for long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities, most often resulting from white matter injury sustained during the neonatal period. Glutamate excitotoxicity is hypothesized to be a key mechanism in the pathogenesis of white matter injury; however, there has been no in vivo demonstration of glutamate excitotoxicity in preterm infants. Using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), we tested the hypothesis that glutamate and glutamine, i.e., markers of glutamatergic metabolism, are altered in association with punctate white matter lesions and "diffuse excessive high signal intensity" (DEHSI), the predominant patterns of preterm white matter injury. We reviewed all clinically-indicated MRS studies conducted on preterm infants at a single institution during a six-year period and determined the absolute concentration of glutamate, glutamine, and four other key metabolites in the parietal white matter in 108 of those infants after two investigators independently evaluated the studies for punctate white matter lesions and DEHSI. Punctate white matter lesions were associated with a 29% increase in glutamine concentration (p = 0.002). In contrast, there were no differences in glutamatergic metabolism in association with DEHSI. Severe DEHSI, however, was associated with increased lactate concentration (p = 0.001), a marker of tissue acidosis. Findings from this study support glutamate excitotoxicity in the pathogenesis of punctate white matter lesions, but not necessarily in DEHSI, and suggest that MRS provides a useful biomarker for determining the pathogenesis of white matter injury in preterm infants during a period when neuroprotective agents may be especially effective.
Trindade, Cleide Enoir Petean; And Others
Studied the maternal plasmatic zinc behavior at delivery time and the cord blood zinc concentration from appropriate and low-birth-weight full-term infants and appropriate preterm infants. Findings indicated that neither prematurity nor fetal growth delay interfere in maternal or newborn infants' zinc levels. (BJD)
Benzies, Karen Marie; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Kurilova, Jana; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Blahitka, Laurie; Lacaze-Masmonteil, Thierry
This study evaluated the effects of an innovative educational--behavioral intervention for first-time fathers of late preterm (34-36 weeks' gestation) infants, with the aim of enhancing the infant's environment through strengthening fathers' skills in interaction with their young infant. Using a randomized controlled trial, fathers of 111 late…
Barton, Samantha K.; Tolcos, Mary; Miller, Suzie L.; Roehr, Charles C.; Schmölzer, Georg M.; Davis, Peter G.; Moss, Timothy J. M.; LaRosa, Domenic A.; Hooper, Stuart B.; Polglase, Graeme R.
The initiation of ventilation in the delivery room is one of the most important but least controlled interventions a preterm infant will face. Tidal volumes (V T) used in the neonatal intensive care unit are carefully measured and adjusted. However, the V Ts that an infant receives during resuscitation are usually unmonitored and highly variable. Inappropriate V Ts delivered to preterm infants during respiratory support substantially increase the risk of injury and inflammation to the lungs and brain. These may cause cerebral blood flow instability and initiate a cerebral inflammatory cascade. The two pathways increase the risk of brain injury and potential life-long adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. The employment of new technologies, including respiratory function monitors, can improve and guide the optimal delivery of V Ts and reduce confounders, such as leak. Better respiratory support in the delivery room has the potential to improve both respiratory and neurological outcomes in this vulnerable population. PMID:26618148
Allen, M C; Alexander, G R
Pediatricians often informally use motor milestones to screen infant motor development, and one advantage is that they can be used during sequential office visits, as a multistep screening process. In this study we evaluated six motor milestones (roll prone to supine, roll supine to prone, sit with support, sit without support, crawl and cruise) as a multistep process in screening for cerebral palsy in 173 high-risk preterm infants (<33 weeks gestational age) who had been followed with sequential developmental assessments for at least 18 months. At the 18 to 24 month evaluation, 31 (18%) had cerebral palsy. We found that using the motor milestones as serial screening tests for cerebral palsy was more effective in terms of positive predictive value than any individual milestone alone. Limited community resources can be more efficiently used if preterm infants with delays in more than four motor milestones are referred for further evaluation and early intervention services.
Barton, Samantha K; Tolcos, Mary; Miller, Suzie L; Roehr, Charles C; Schmölzer, Georg M; Davis, Peter G; Moss, Timothy J M; LaRosa, Domenic A; Hooper, Stuart B; Polglase, Graeme R
The initiation of ventilation in the delivery room is one of the most important but least controlled interventions a preterm infant will face. Tidal volumes (V T) used in the neonatal intensive care unit are carefully measured and adjusted. However, the V Ts that an infant receives during resuscitation are usually unmonitored and highly variable. Inappropriate V Ts delivered to preterm infants during respiratory support substantially increase the risk of injury and inflammation to the lungs and brain. These may cause cerebral blood flow instability and initiate a cerebral inflammatory cascade. The two pathways increase the risk of brain injury and potential life-long adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. The employment of new technologies, including respiratory function monitors, can improve and guide the optimal delivery of V Ts and reduce confounders, such as leak. Better respiratory support in the delivery room has the potential to improve both respiratory and neurological outcomes in this vulnerable population.
DeVincenzo, John P; Ambrose, Christopher S; Makari, Doris; Weiner, Leonard B
In July 2014, the Committee on Infectious Diseases (COID) updated their guidance on the use of palivizumab, recommending against use in preterm infants 29 to 35 weeks' gestational age (wGA). A primary data source cited to support this significant change was the low respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalization rate observed in the subpopulation of preterm (<37 wGA) infants evaluated from 2000 to 2005 through the New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN). Here we critically appraise the preterm infant data from the NVSN in the context of data regarding the use of palivizumab in this same time period. Data from the NVSN, an analysis of Florida Medicaid data, and a national survey of US in-hospital palivizumab administration demonstrated that during 2001 to 2007, palivizumab was administered to 59% to 83% of preterm infants born at <32 wGA and 21% to 27% of all preterm infants (<37 wGA). When the NVSN data regarding incidence of RSV hospitalization in preterm infant subgroups were evaluated as a function of chronologic age, preterm infants <32 wGA showed a paradoxical increase in RSV hospitalization with older age, with the highest risk of RSV hospitalization occurring at 18 to 23 months of age. This pattern is most consistent with a reduction in RSV hospitalizations in <32 wGA infants in the first 12 to 18 months of life due to high palivizumab use at these young ages. The NVSN data were not designed to and cannot accurately describe RSV disease burden in preterm infants given the small size of the analyzed subpopulation and the high use of palivizumab during the study period.
Janssen, Anjo J. W. M.; Akkermans, Reinier P.; Steiner, Katerina; de Haes, Olga A. M.; Oostendorp, Rob A. B.; Kollee, Louis A. A.; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.
Preterm birth increases the risk for neurologic and developmental disabilities and therefore long-term follow-up is important. This prospective follow-up study aims to describe longitudinal motor performance in preterm infants from 6 to 24 months and to detect the influence of risk factors on motor performance trajectories. We included preterm…
Watanabe, Shimpei; Akiyama, Shizuko; Hanita, Takushi; Li, Heng; Nakagawa, Machiko; Kaneshi, Yousuke; Ohta, Hidenobu
Using uterine explants from Per1::Luc rats and in situ hybridization, we recently reported that the circadian property of the molecular clock in the uterus and placenta is stably maintained from non-pregnancy, right through to the end stage of pregnancy under regular light-dark (LD) cycles. Despite long-lasting increases in progesterone during gestation and an increase in estrogen before delivery, the uterus keeps a stable Per1::Luc rhythm throughout the pregnancy. The study suggests the importance of stable circadian environments for fetuses to achieve sound physiology and intrauterine development. This idea is also supported by epidemiological and animal studies, in which pregnant females exposed to repeated shifting of the LD cycles have increased rates of reproductive abnormalities and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Leading from this, we introduced artificial circadian environments with controlled lighting conditions to human preterm infants by developing and utilizing a specific light filter which takes advantage of the unique characteristics of infants' developing visual photoreceptors. In spite of growing evidence of the physiological benefits of nighttime exposure to darkness for infant development, many Japanese Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs) still prefer to maintain constant light in preparation for any possible emergencies concerning infants in incubators. To protect infants from the negative effects of constant light on their development in the NICU, we have developed a new device similar to a magic mirror, by which preterm infants can be shielded from exposure to their visible wavelengths of light even in the constant light conditions of the NICU while simultaneously allowing medical care staff to visually monitor preterm infants adequately. The device leads to significantly increased infant activity during daytime than during night time and better weight gains.
Ranger, Manon; Grunau, Ruth E
SUMMARY Infants born preterm (<37 weeks of gestation) are particularly vulnerable to procedural stress and pain exposure during neonatal intensive care, at a time of rapid and complex brain development. Concerns regarding effects of neonatal pain on brain development have long been expressed. However, empirical evidence of adverse associations is relatively recent. Thus, many questions remain to be answered. This review discusses the short- and long-term effects of pain-related stress and associated treatments on brain maturation and neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born preterm. The current state of the evidence is presented and future research directions are proposed. PMID:24641344
Patrianakos-Hoobler, Athena I.; Msall, Michael E.; Huo, Dezheng; Marks, Jeremy D.; Plesha-Troyke, Susan; Schreiber, Michael D.
Aim: To determine whether neurodevelopmental outcomes at the age of 2 years accurately predict school readiness in children who survived respiratory distress syndrome after preterm birth. Method: Our cohort included 121 preterm infants who received surfactant and ventilation and were enrolled in a randomized controlled study of inhaled nitric…
It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement of either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models fo...
Butcher, Phillipa R.; van Braeckel, Koen; Bouma, Anke; Einspieler, Christa; Stremmelaar, Elisabeth F.; Bos, Arend F.
Background: The quality of very preterm infants' spontaneous movements at 11 to 16 weeks post-term age is a powerful predictor of their later neurological status. This study investigated whether early spontaneous movements also have predictive value for the intellectual and behavioural problems that children born very preterm often experience.…
Beauchamp, Miriam H.; Thompson, Deanne K.; Howard, Kelly; Doyle, Lex W.; Egan, Gary F.; Inder, Terrie E.; Anderson, Peter J.
Children born preterm exhibit working memory deficits. These deficits may be associated with structural brain changes observed in the neonatal period. In this study, the relationship between neonatal regional brain volumes and working memory deficits at age 2 years were investigated, with a particular interest in the dorsolateral prefrontal…
Glucocorticoids are the consensus treatment to avoid respiratory distress in preterm infants but there is accumulating evidence that these agents evoke long-term neurobehavioral deficits. Earlier, we showed that the developing rat forebrain is far more sensitive to glucocorticoi...
Language development in infants born very preterm is often compromised. Poor language skills have been described in preschoolers and differences between preterms and full terms, relative to early vocabulary size and morphosyntactical complexity, have also been identified. However, very few data are available concerning early speech perception abilities and their predictive value for later language outcomes. An overview of the results obtained in a prospective study exploring the link between early speech perception abilities and lexical development in the second year of life in a population of very preterm infants (≤32 gestation weeks) is presented. Specifically, behavioral measures relative to (a) native-language recognition and discrimination from a rhythmically distant and a rhythmically close nonfamiliar languages, and (b) monosyllabic word-form segmentation, were obtained and compared to data from full-term infants. Expressive vocabulary at two test ages (12 and 18 months, corrected age for gestation) was measured using the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory. Behavioral results indicated that differences between preterm and control groups were present, but only evident when task demands were high in terms of language processing, selective attention to relevant information and memory load. When responses could be based on acquired knowledge from accumulated linguistic experience, between-group differences were no longer observed. Critically, while preterm infants responded satisfactorily to the native-language recognition and discrimination tasks, they clearly differed from full-term infants in the more challenging activity of extracting and retaining word-form units from fluent speech, a fundamental ability for starting to building a lexicon. Correlations between results from the language discrimination tasks and expressive vocabulary measures could not be systematically established. However, attention time to novel words in the word segmentation
Ramos-Navarro, Cristina; Sanchez-Luna, Manuel; Sanz-López, Ester; Maderuelo-Rodriguez, Elena; Zamora-Flores, Elena
Background Noninvasive ventilation is being increasingly used on preterm infants to reduce ventilator lung injury and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of synchronized nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (SNIPPV) to prevent intubation in premature infants. Methods Prospective observational study of SNIPPV use on preterm infants of less than 32 weeks' gestation. All patients were managed using a prospective protocol intended to reduce invasive mechanical ventilation (iMV) use. Previous respiratory status, as well as respiratory outcomes and possible secondary side effects were analyzed. Results SNIPPV was used on 78 patients: electively to support extubation on 25 ventilator-dependent patients and as a rescue therapy after nasal continuous positive airway pressure failure on 53 patients. For 92% of patients in the elective group and 66% in the rescue group, iMV was avoided over the following 72 hours. No adverse effects were detected, and all patients were in a stable condition even if intubation was eventually needed. Conclusions The application of SNIPPV in place of or to remove mechanical ventilation avoids intubation in 74.4% of preterm infants with respiratory failure. No adverse effects were detected. PMID:27500013
Jonsson, Maria; van Doorn, Jan; van den Berg, Johannes
Difficulties with feeding and eating are more common among pre-term infants compared with full-term infants. The primary objective of this study was to describe parents' perceptions of developmental eating patterns and occurrence of eating difficulties in a group of pre-term infants, compared with a control group. A parent questionnaire was administered for a study group (27 pre-term infants born between 28-33 weeks gestation) and a control group (29 full-term infants born between 38-41 weeks gestation). Parents of the pre-term children reported significantly more problems with early feeding, but only half of them reported that their infants received intervention to aid their feeding development during neonatal care. At 3 years of age the pre-term children weighed significantly less than the full-term children, but their parents were more satisfied with their eating habits and portion sizes than the control group parents. This finding may reflect differing parenting experiences between the two groups rather than an actual difference in eating skills. It suggests that parents of pre- term infants would benefit from practical guidance in supporting their premature infants in developing eating skills. Future studies using objective measures are recommended to verify the findings reported here.
Wirbelauer, Johannes; Thomas, Wolfgang; Rieger, Lorenz; Speer, Christian P
It is unclear if very immature preterm infants who are born small for gestational age (SGA) have similar leukocyte counts as infants who are born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Our study included 49 preterm infants with a gestational age ≤32 weeks and without exposure to chorioamnionitis and funisitis. Blood cells were counted in the first 2 hours of life. Eighteen SGA preterm infants were compared with 31 AGA preterm infants. Gestational age, sex, rate of caesarean section, and prenatal administration of corticosteroids did not differ between the groups. Median birth weight was 583 g in the SGA group versus 1100 g in the AGA group. Infants in the SGA group had significantly lower counts of leukocytes, total neutrophils, immature neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. These findings were not affected by maternal preeclampsia. No significant difference for nucleated red blood cell counts was found. Prenatal growth retardation is an independent factor for lower counts of different leukocytes in very immature preterm infants. It is not clear if these low leukocyte counts are associated with a higher risk of neonatal infections or if lower numbers of inflammatory cells protect the lung and brain of very immature SGA infants by reducing inflammatory events postnatally.
Moles, L; Gómez, M; Jiménez, E; Fernández, L; Bustos, G; Chaves, F; Cantón, R; Rodríguez, J M; Del Campo, R
Preterm infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are exposed to multidrug-resistant bacteria previously adapted to the hospital environment. The aim of the present study was to characterize the bacterial antibiotic-resistant high-risk lineages colonizing preterm infants during their NICU stay and their persistence in faeces after 2 years. A total of 26 preterm neonates were recruited between October 2009 and June 2010 and provided 144 faecal samples. Milk samples (86 mother's milk, 35 human donor milk and 15 formula milk) were collected at the same time as faecal samples. An additional faecal sample was recovered in 16 infants at the age of 2 years. Samples were plated onto different selective media, and one colony per morphology was selected. Isolates were identified by 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence and MALDI-TOF. Antibiotic susceptibility (agar dilution), genetic diversity (RAPD, PFGE and MLST) and virulence factors (only in enterococcal and staphylococcal isolates) were determined by PCR. A high proportion of antibiotic-resistant high-risk clones was detected in both faecal and milk samples during the NICU admittance. Almost all infants were colonized by Enterococcus faecalis ST64 and Enterococcus faecium ST18 clones, while a wider genetic diversity was observed for the Gram-negative isolates. Multidrug-resistant high-risk clones were not recovered from the faecal samples of the 2-year-olds. In conclusion, the gut of preterm infants admitted to the NICU might be initially colonized by antibiotic-resistant and virulent high-risk lineages, which are later replaced by antibiotic-susceptible community ones.
Neu, Madalynn; Hazel, Nicholas A.; Robinson, JoAnn; Schmiege, Sarah J.; Laudenslager, Mark
Objective To determine whether kangaroo holding of healthy preterm infants over the first eight weeks of an infant’s life facilitates co-regulation of salivary cortisol between mother and infant. Study Design Randomized control trial. Infants were assigned to receive one hour of daily kangaroo (skin-to-skin contact on chest of mother) or blanket holding (dressed and held in mother’s arms). A registered nurse visited mothers weekly for eight weeks to encourage holding and provide information about infant development. A control group had no holding restrictions and received weekly brief social visits. Subjects The study included 79 preterm infants, born between 32 and 35 weeks gestation age and were a mean of 15 days (± 5.7) at enrollment. Outcome Measures Co-regulation was conceptualized as progressive reduction in the absolute difference between mother and infant cortisol levels across 60 minutes of holding at each holding session. Mother and infant cortisol levels were measured before holding and at 30 and 60 minutes after holding began during three holding sessions (baseline and at two and eight weeks after study initiation). Primary analyses were conducted using hierarchical linear models. Results There was much variability in cortisol levels. Levels of mothers and infants cortisol decreased during holding. No significant co-regulation occurred in any group at any holding session or over time. Conclusions Decreasing level of cortisol in both mothers and infants suggest that holding promoted the expected decline in stress hormone levels. However, supported holding methods did not differentially affect co-regulation compared to controls. Holding is pleasurable and stress may need to be present in order for mothers and infants to demonstrate co-regulation in cortisol levels. PMID:24480604
Jackson, L; Burchell, A; McGeechan, A; Hume, R
Aims: To define clinical, metabolic, and hormonal characteristics of preterm infants relative to glucagon responsiveness. Methods: Two phase study of 78 preterm infants (25–36 weeks gestation) on regular four hourly feeds anticipating discharge home at 36 weeks mean corrected gestation. In phase 1 infants were fasted until hypoglycaemic, or maximally for eight hours. Endocrine and metabolic profiles were obtained at completion. Phase 2 was performed the following day. A feed was omitted and replaced by a bolus dose of intravenous glucagon (100 µg/kg). Main outcome measures were measurements of blood glucose and lactate concentrations, taken immediately pre-glucagon, and thereafter every 15 minutes for 60 minutes. A rise in glucose concentration of >1 mmol/l (55 infants) was defined as an adequate response to glucagon. An inadequate glycaemic response was <1 mmol/l (23 infants). Results: Several differences in fasting blood glucose and hormone concentrations were identified in infants with an inadequate glycaemic response to glucagon compared to those with an adequate response: relative fasting hyperglycaemia (mean 3.7 v 3.3 mmol/l, p = 0.008); fasting hyperinsulinaemia (mean 4.3 v 2.6 mU/l, p = 0.014); an increased insulin:glucagon ratio (0.19 v 0.11, p = 0.014), and a lower insulin sensitivity QUICKI index (0.19 v 0.22, p = 0.04). There was no distinctive phenotype to reliably predict response to glucagon. Conclusion: Some preterm infants show an inadequate glycaemic response to glucagon and have features suggestive of insulin resistance. The potential long term implications of such insulin resistance may have appreciable public health consequences. PMID:12496230
Steinhorn, Rachel; McPherson, Chris; Anderson, Peter J; Neil, Jeffrey; Doyle, Lex W; Inder, Terrie
Objective To investigate the association of morphine exposure in very preterm infants with cerebral volumes and neurodevelopmental outcome from birth through middle childhood. Study design Observational study of very preterm infants in the Victorian Infant Brain Study cohort. 230 infants born <30 weeks’ gestational age or <1,250 g were recruited from all admissions to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the Royal Women’s Hospital. 57 (25%) infants received morphine analgesia during their NICU stay at the attending physician’s discretion. Primary outcomes were regional brain volumes at term and 7 years; neurobehavioral performance at term; and cognitive, motor, emotional, behavioral, communication, and executive function scores at age 2 and 7 years. Linear regressions were used to compare outcomes between participants who did and did not receive morphine. Results At term, preterm infants who received morphine had similar rates of grey matter injury to no-morphine infants, but a trend towards smaller cortical volumes in the orbitofrontal (pleft=0.002, pright=0.01) and subgenual (pleft=0.01) regions. At seven years, cortical volumes did not differ between groups. At 2 years, morphine-exposed children were more likely to show behavioral dysregulation (p=0.007) than no-morphine children, but at seven years no detrimental impacts of morphine on neurobehavioral outcome were observed. Conclusions Low-dose morphine analgesia received during neonatal intensive care was associated with early alterations in cerebral structure and short-term neurobehavioral problems that did not persist into childhood. PMID:25919729
Casper, Charlotte; Hascoet, Jean-Michel; Ertl, Tibor; Gadzinowski, Janusz S.; Carnielli, Virgilio; Rigo, Jacques; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Couce, María L.; Vågerö, Mårten; Palmgren, Ingrid; Timdahl, Kristina; Hernell, Olle
Introduction Feeding strategies are critical for healthy growth in preterm infants. Bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL), present in human milk, is important for fat digestion and absorption but is inactivated during pasteurization and absent in formula. This study evaluated if recombinant human BSSL (rhBSSL) improves growth in preterm infants when added to formula or pasteurized breast milk. Patients and Methods LAIF (Lipase Added to Infant Feeding) was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study in infants born before 32 weeks of gestation. The primary efficacy variable was growth velocity (g/kg/day) during 4 weeks intervention. Follow-up visits were at 3 and 12 months. The study was performed at 54 centers in 10 European countries. Results In total 415 patients were randomized (rhBSSL n = 207, placebo n = 208), 410 patients were analyzed (rhBSSL n = 206, placebo n = 204) and 365 patients were followed until 12 months. Overall, there was no significantly improved growth velocity during rhBSSL treatment compared to placebo (16.77 vs. 16.56 g/kg/day, estimated difference 0.21 g/kg/day, 95% CI [-0.40; 0.83]), nor were secondary endpoints met. However, in a predefined subgroup, small for gestational age infants, there was a significant effect on growth in favor of rhBSSL during treatment. The incidence of adverse events was higher in the rhBSSL group during treatment. Conclusions Although this study did not meet its primary endpoint, except in a subgroup of infants small for gestational age, and there was an imbalance in short-term safety, these data provide insights in nutrition, growth and development in preterm infants. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01413581 PMID:27244221
Roberts, Calum T; Owen, Louise S; Manley, Brett J; Frøisland, Dag H; Donath, Susan M; Dalziel, Kim M; Pritchard, Margo A; Cartwright, David W; Collins, Clare L; Malhotra, Atul; Davis, Peter G
Background Treatment with nasal high-flow therapy has efficacy similar to that of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) when used as postextubation support in neonates. The efficacy of high-flow therapy as the primary means of respiratory support for preterm infants with respiratory distress has not been proved. Methods In this international, multicenter, randomized, noninferiority trial, we assigned 564 preterm infants (gestational age, ≥28 weeks 0 days) with early respiratory distress who had not received surfactant replacement to treatment with either nasal high-flow therapy or nasal CPAP. The primary outcome was treatment failure within 72 hours after randomization. Noninferiority was determined by calculating the absolute difference in the risk of the primary outcome; the chosen margin of noninferiority was 10 percentage points. Infants in whom high-flow therapy failed could receive rescue CPAP; infants in whom CPAP failed were intubated and mechanically ventilated. Results Trial recruitment stopped early at the recommendation of the independent data and safety monitoring committee because of a significant difference in the primary outcome between treatment groups. Treatment failure occurred in 71 of 278 infants (25.5%) in the high-flow group and in 38 of 286 infants (13.3%) in the CPAP group (risk difference, 12.3 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.8 to 18.7; P<0.001). The rate of intubation within 72 hours did not differ significantly between the high-flow and CPAP groups (15.5% and 11.5%, respectively; risk difference, 3.9 percentage points; 95% CI, -1.7 to 9.6; P=0.17), nor did the rate of adverse events. Conclusions When used as primary support for preterm infants with respiratory distress, high-flow therapy resulted in a significantly higher rate of treatment failure than did CPAP. (Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council and others; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN
Seo, Sun Young; Shim, Gyu Hong; Chey, Myoung Jae
Purpose This study aimed to identify prognostic factors of neurological outcomes, including developmental delay, cerebral palsy and epilepsy in late-preterm and term infants with perinatal asphyxia. Methods All late-preterm and term infants with perinatal asphyxia or hypoxic-ischemic insults who admitted the neonatal intensive care unit of Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital between 2006 and 2014 and were followed up for at least 2 years were included in this retrospective study. Abnormal neurological outcomes were defined as cerebral palsy, developmental delay and epilepsy. Results Of the 114 infants with perinatal asphyxia, 31 were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 83 infants, 10 died, 56 had normal outcomes, and 17 had abnormal outcomes: 14 epilepsy (82.4%), 13 cerebral palsy (76.5%), 16 developmental delay (94.1%). Abnormal outcomes were significantly more frequent in infants with later onset seizure, clinical seizure, poor electroencephalography (EEG) background activity, lower Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes and abnormal brain imaging (P<0.05). Infants with and without epilepsy showed significant differences in EEG background activity, clinical and electrographic seizures on EEG, Apgar score at 5 minutes and brain imaging findings. Conclusion We should apply with long-term video EEG or amplitude integrated EEG in order to detect and management subtle clinical or electrographic seizures in neonates with perinatal asphyxia. Also, long-term, prospective studies with large number of patients are needed to evaluate more exact prognostic factors in neonates with perinatal asphyxia. PMID:27895691
Fairchild, Karen; Mohr, Mary; Paget-Brown, Alix; Tabacaru, Christa; Lake, Douglas; Delos, John; Moorman, J. Randall; Kattwinkel, John
Background Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is nearly universal among very preterm infants, but neither the apnea burden nor its clinical associations have been systematically studied in a large consecutive cohort. Methods We analyzed continuous bedside monitor chest impedance and electrocardiographic waveforms and oxygen saturation data collected on all NICU patients <35 weeks gestation from 2009–2014 (n=1211; >50 infant-years of data). “ABDs”, defined as central apnea ≥10 sec associated with both bradycardia <100 bpm and oxygen desaturation <80%, were identified using a validated automated algorithm. Results Number and duration of apnea events decreased with increasing gestational age (GA) and post-menstrual age (PMA). ABDs were more frequent in infants <31 wks GA at birth but were not more frequent in those with severe ROP, BPD or severe IVH after accounting for GA. In the day before diagnosis of late-onset septicemia and necrotizing enterocolitis, ABD events were increased in some infants. Many infants continued to experience short ABD events in the week prior to discharge home. Conclusions Frequency of apnea events is a function of GA and PMA in infants born preterm, and increased apnea is associated with acute but not with chronic pathologic conditions. PMID:26959485
Savini, Sara; Correani, Alessio; Pupillo, Daniele; D'Ascenzo, Rita; Biagetti, Chiara; Pompilio, Adriana; Simonato, Manuela; Verlato, Giovanna; Cogo, Paola; Taus, Marina; Nicolai, Albano; Carnielli, Virgilio Paolo
Several studies reported the association between total plasma phytosterol concentrations and the parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC). To date, no data are available on phytosterol esterification in animals and in humans during parenteral nutrition (PN). We measured free and esterified sterols (cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol) plasma concentrations during PN in 16 preterm infants (500-1249 g of birth weight; Preterm-PN), in 11 term infants (Term-PN) and in 12 adults (Adult-PN). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for measurements. Plasma concentrations of free cholesterol (Free-CHO), free phytosterols (Free-PHY) and esterified phytosterols (Ester-PHY) were not different among the three PN groups. Esterified cholesterol (Ester-CHO) was statistically lower in Preterm-PN than Adult-PN. Preterm-PN had significantly higher Free-CHO/Ester-CHO and Free-PHY/Ester-PHY ratios than Adult-PN (Free-CHO/Ester-CHO: 1.1 ± 0.7 vs. 0.6 ± 0.2; Free-PHY/Ester-PHY: 4.1 ± 2.6 vs. 1.3 ± 0.8; *P < 0.05). Free-CHO/Ester-CHO and Free-PHY/Ester-PHY ratios of Term-PN (Free-CHO/Ester-CHO: 1.1 ± 0.4; Free-PHY/Ester-PHY: 2.9 ± 1.7) were not different from either Preterm-PN or from Adult-PN. Plasma Free-CHO/Ester-CHO and Free-PHY/Ester-PHY were unchanged after 24 h on fat-free PN both in Preterm-PN and in Adult-PN. Free-PHY/Ester-PHY did not correlate with phytosterol intake in Preterm-PN. Free-PHY/Ester-PHY of Preterm-PN was positively correlated with the Free-CHO/Ester-CHO and negatively correlated with gestational age and birth weight. In conclusion, PHY were esterified to a lesser extent than CHO in all study groups; the esterification was markedly decreased in Preterm-PN compared to Adult-PN. The clinical consequences of these findings warrant further investigations.
Boss, Renee D
Extremely premature infants face multiple acute and chronic life-threatening conditions. In addition, the treatments to ameliorate or cure these conditions often entail pain and discomfort. Integrating palliative care from the moment that extremely premature labor is diagnosed offers families and clinicians support through the process of defining goals of care and making decisions about life support. For both the extremely premature infant who dies soon after birth and the extremely premature infant who experiences multiple complications over weeks and months in the neonatal intensive care unit, palliative care can maintain a focus on infant comfort and family support. This article highlights the ways in which palliative care can be incorporated into intensive care for all critically ill infants.
Lai, Hui-Ling; Chen, Chia-Jung; Peng, Tai-Chu; Chang, Fwu-Mei; Hsieh, Mei-Lin; Huang, Hsiao-Yen; Chang, Shu-Chuan
The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the influences of music during kangaroo care (KC) on maternal anxiety and preterm infants' responses. There are no experimental studies that explore the influences of combination of music and KC on psychophysiological responses in mother-infant dyads. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 30 hospitalized preterm infants body weight 1500 gm and over, gestational age 37 weeks and lower from two NICUs. Mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to the treatment and the control group using permuted block randomization stratified on gender. There were 15 mother-infant dyads in each group. Subjects in the treatment dyads listened to their choice of a lullaby music during KC for 60 min/section/day for three consecutive days. Control dyads received routine incubator care. Using a repeated measures design with a pretest and three posttests, the responses of treatment dyads including maternal anxiety and infants' physiologic responses (heart rate, respiratory rate, and O2 saturation) as well as behavioural state were measured. The results revealed that there were no significant differences between the two groups on infants' physiologic responses and the values were all in the normal range. However, infants in the treatment group had more occurrence of quiet sleep states and less crying (p<0.05-0.01). Music during KC also resulted in significantly lower maternal anxiety in the treatment group (p<0.01). Maternal state anxiety improved daily, indicating a cumulative dose effect. The findings provide evidence for the use of music during KC as an empirically-based intervention for bahavioural state stability and maternal anxiety in mother-infant dyads.
Smyser, Tara A; Smyser, Christopher D; Rogers, Cynthia E; Gillespie, Sarah K; Inder, Terrie E; Neil, Jeffrey J
Spatial and functional gradients of development have been described for the maturation of cerebral gray and white matter using histological and radiological approaches. We evaluated these patterns in very preterm (VPT) infants using diffusion tensor imaging. Data were obtained from 3 groups: 1) 22 VPT infants without white matter injury (WMI), of whom all had serial MRI studies during the neonatal period, 2) 19 VPT infants with WMI, of whom 3 had serial MRI studies and 3) 12 healthy, term-born infants. Regions of interest were placed in the cortical gray and adjacent white matter in primary motor, primary visual, visual association, and prefrontal regions. From the MRI data at term-equivalent postmenstrual age, differences in mean diffusivity were found in all areas between VPT infants with WMI and the other 2 groups. In contrast, minimal differences in fractional anisotropy were found between the 3 groups. These findings suggest that cortical maturation is delayed in VPT infants with WMI when compared with term control infants and VPT infants without WMI. From the serial MRI data from VPT infants, synchronous development between gray and white matter was evident in all areas and all groups, with maturation in primary motor and sensory regions preceding that of association areas. This finding highlights the regionally varying but locally synchronous nature of the development of cortical gray matter and its adjacent white matter.
Conrad, Amy L.; Richman, Lynn; Lindgren, Scott; Nopoulos, Peg; Bell, Edward F.
Objective Preterm infants are frequently transfused with red blood cells based on standardized guidelines or clinical concern that anemia taxes infants’ physiological compensatory mechanisms and thereby threatens their health and well-being. The impact of various transfusion guidelines on long-term neurocognitive outcome is not known. The purpose of this study is to evaluate long-term neurocognitive outcome on children born prematurely and treated at birth with different transfusion guidelines. Methods Neurocognitive outcomes were examined at school age for 56 preterm infants randomly assigned to a liberal (n = 33) or restrictive (n = 23) transfusion strategy. Tests of intelligence, achievement, language, visual-spatial/motor, and memory skills were administered. Between-group differences were assessed. Results Those in the liberal transfusion group performed more poorly than those in the restrictive group on measures of associative verbal fluency, visual memory, and reading. Conclusions Findings highlight possible long-term neurodevelopmental consequences of maintaining higher hematocrit levels. PMID:21360360
Drakulic, B S; Garbanati, J A; Gold, M N
A portable data-acquisition system suitable for long-term noninvasive monitoring of physiologic and behavioral variables in preterm infants is described. The system includes two video cameras, a video screen-splitter and amplifier, a time-lapse video recorder, a microphone, a force-responsive transducer, an analog signal conditioner, and two microcomputers. One microcomputer, located in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) acquires electrophysiologic signals and preprocesses data in real time, during a continuous 48-hour session. After each session, the data file is transferred by telephone line to the other microcomputer, located in a laboratory, for editing, reduction, display, and final analysis. This arrangement enables noninvasive and nonintrusive monitoring, which is crucial for long-term recording of sleep-wake state organization of preterm infants.
Briere, Carrie-Ellen; McGrath, Jacqueline; Cong, Xiaomei; Cusson, Regina
Oral feeding readiness has been described by researchers in the neonatal intensive care unit, and research has continued on this topic for many years. The purpose of this narrative review is to identify research and practice guidelines related to oral feeding readiness in preterm infants that have occurred during the last decade. The introduction and mastery of oral feeding is a major developmental task for the preterm infant that is often a prerequisite for discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit. Having a better understanding of the evidence supporting the development of this skill will help the practicing nurse choose appropriate interventions and the researcher to develop trajectories of research that continue to increase our knowledge in this important practice area.
Cohen, Amy M.; Cook, Noah; Harris, Mary Catherine; Ying, Gui-shuang; Binenbaum, Gil
Objective Evaluate physiologic and behavioral pain responses of premature infants following instillation of mydriatic eye drops for ROP examinations. While burning and stinging occurs in older patients, the infant pain response is not well characterized. Study Design Vital sign and video monitor recorded infant responses before, during, and after mydriatic (tropicamide 1%, phenylephrine 2.5%) administration upon first ROP exam. Two masked observers graded Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) scores immediately prior and following eye drop administration. Scores <7 indicate no/minimal pain, 7-12 slight/moderate, >12 severe. Results Twenty infants had mean pre-mydriatic PIPP score 3.6 (SD 1.6), mean post-mydriatic score 5.7 (SD 3.4), mean change 2.1 (SD 3.4)(p=0.01). One (5%) had pre-mydriatic PIPP score ≥7, seven (35%) post scores ≥7 (p=0.07) with one >12. Conclusions Mydriatic drops cause a clinically significant pain response in one third of infants. Non-pharmacologic supportive measures are recommended for all infants until predictive factors are defined. PMID:23238569
Zvizdic, Zlatan; Heljic, Suada; Popovic, Nusret; Alajbegovic-Halimic, Jasmina; Milisic, Emir; Jonuzi, Asmir
Background: necrotizing enterocolitis is a serious condition that affects mostly preterm infants, with high mortality rate. Aim: to estimate the influence of potentially contributing factors of this multifactorial disease. Methods: the study group included 51 necrotizing enterocolitis infants who were less than 37 week gestation who were hospitalized in NICU during a five year period. The control group consisted of 71 patients with approximately the same gestational age and birth weight. Average gestational age in the study group was 30.2 weeks (SD 3.7), average birth weight 1502g (SD 781.5). Average postnatal age in the time of the presenting NEC was 18.2 days (SD 12.8). Results: Logistic regression estimates the influence of risk factors, which in our study related to the treatment of preterm infants on the likelihood of NEC development. Our regression model consisted of seven independent variables (nosocomial infections, mechanical ventilation, nasal continuous positive pressure, morphine, inotropes, blood transfusions, and H2 blockers), which were shown to have a statistically significant impact, X2 (7, n=1222) = 49.522, p<0.0001; two independent variables (nosocomial infection and H2 blockers use) were statistically significant. Preterm infants with nosocomial infection had a three times greater chance of developing NEC, and infants who received H2 blockers had a 1.5 higher risk. Conclusions: Underlying pathology of very low birth weight infants and their treatment in NICU contribute to NEC development. Identifying risk factors can be crucial for the early diagnosis and outcome of disease. Awareness of risk factors should influence changes in practice to reduce the risk of NEC. PMID:27047269
Holsti, Liisa; Grunau, Ruth E.; Oberlander, Tim F.; Whitfield, Michael F.; Weinberg, Joanne
Objectives To describe developmentally appropriate, specific body movements and other biobehavioral responses of preterm infants to a group of routine care giving tasks (Clustered Care), and to compare responses to acute pain with those of Clustered Care. Methods In a randomized design, 54 preterm infants were assessed at 32 weeks gestational age during 3 phases of blood collection (Baseline, Lance/squeeze, Recovery) and of diaper changing, measuring abdominal girth and axillary temperature, and mouth care (Baseline, Clustered Care, Recovery) in a neonatal intensive care unit. The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program and 1 facial action from the Neonatal Facial Coding System, Brow Bulge, were coded from separate continuous bedside video recordings. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were also acquired continuously. Results Brow Bulge, heart rate, and a subset of 9 Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program movements increased and oxygen saturation decreased significantly to Lance/squeeze compared to Baseline. Similar facial and physiological changes occurred during Clustered Care, but with less intensity. However, infants showed greater frequencies and variety of Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program stress cues during Clustered Care than during Lance/squeeze. Stress cues persisted after Clustered Care, whereas the infants returned to Baseline following Lance/squeeze. Discussion Changes in facial activity and heart rate remain the most sensitive markers of pain in preterm infants. Tactile procedures, such as diaper changing, produce lower intensity facial and physiological responses than pain procedures, but greater body reactions. Also, the effects from tactile procedures appear to last longer. Adding observations of a small number of specific body movements to the assessment of pain and stress provides complementary information particularly for those infants who may show dampened facial
Grunau, Ruth E; Holsti, Liisa; Haley, David W; Oberlander, Tim; Weinberg, Joanne; Solimano, Alfonso; Whitfield, Michael F; Fitzgerald, Colleen; Yu, Wayne
Data from animal models indicate that neonatal stress or pain can permanently alter subsequent behavioral and/or physiological reactivity to stressors. However, cumulative effects of pain related to acute procedures in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) on later stress and/or pain reactivity has received limited attention. The objective of this study is to examine relationships between prior neonatal pain exposure (number of skin breaking procedures), and subsequent stress and pain reactivity in preterm infants in the NICU. Eighty-seven preterm infants were studied at 32 (+/-1 week) postconceptional age (PCA). Infants who received analgesia or sedation in the 72 h prior to each study, or any postnatal dexamethasone, were excluded. Outcomes were infant responses to two different stressors studied on separate days in a repeated measures randomized crossover design: (1) plasma cortisol to stress of a fixed series of nursing procedures; (2) behavioral (Neonatal Facial Coding System; NFCS) and cardiac reactivity to pain of blood collection. Among infants born
Greenberg, D N; Yoder, B A; Clark, R H; Butzin, C A; Null, D M
Previous studies suggest that low birth weight black infants have less morbidity and birth-weight-specific mortality during the perinatal period than low birth weight white infants. We studied the effect of maternal race on outcome in preterm infants born at a military hospital that offers free access to obstetric and neonatal care. Between January 1, 1986, and December 31, 1991, data were prospectively collected on all 667 infants delivered at Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center with an estimated gestational age of less than 35 weeks. Three hundred ninety-two white infants and 165 black infants were included in the data analysis. The mean (+/- SD) birth weight was 1701 +/- 65 g for white infants and 1462 +/- 66 g for black infants. The mean estimated gestational age was 31.0 +/- 3.2 weeks for white infants and 29.9 +/- 3.8 weeks for black infants. Preeclampsia was more frequent in black mothers than in white mothers for the entire study population (21% vs 14%), but the birth weight differential between races remained after correction for preeclampsia. There were no significant differences between races in stillbirths, gender, maternal age, maternal transfer status, number of prenatal visits, or percentages of mothers with small-for-gestational-age infants, multiple-gestation infants, prolonged rupture of membranes, or initial prenatal visit during the first trimester. Intraventricular hemorrhage was more frequent in white infants at 27 through 29 weeks estimated gestational age (50% vs 13%). There were no significant differences between the two groups in survival or in the occurrence of severe intraventricular hemorrhage or bronchopulmonary dysplasia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Chapman, A K; Aucott, S W; Milstone, A M
Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) is a widely used topical antiseptic that is recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for skin cleansing before central venous catheter insertion in adults and children. Because of limited safety data, CHG is not recommended for use in children <2 months of age. CHG is, however, frequently used in Neonatal Intensive Care Units across the United States. Here, we will review the safety of CHG use in preterm infants.
Collaco, Joseph M.; Dadlani, Gul H.; Nies, Melanie K.; Leshko, Jenny; Everett, Allen D.; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A.
Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a significant cause of morbidity in preterm infants, but no screening guidelines exist. We sought to identify risk factors and clinical outcomes associated with PH in preterm infants to develop a PH risk score. Methods Retrospective analysis of two separate populations of preterm infants (NICU cohort n = 230; Clinic registry n = 580). Results 8.3% of the NICU cohort had PH after 4 weeks of age, while 14.8% of the clinic registry had PH after 2 months of age. Lower birth weights and longer initial hospitalizations were associated with PH in both populations (p<0.001 for all tests). Using adjusted logistic regression, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) requiring ligation was associated with PH in both the NICU cohort (OR: 3.19; p = 0.024) and the clinic registry (OR: 2.67; p<0.001). Risk factors (birth weight ≤780 grams, home supplemental oxygen use, and PDA ligation) identified in the clinic registry (training dataset) were validated in the NICU cohort with 0–1 factors present were associated with ≤1.5% probability of having PH, any 2 factors with a 25% probability, and all 3 factors with a 40% probability. Conclusions Lower birth weight, PDA ligation, and respiratory support were associated with PH in both populations. A PH risk score based on clinical indicators from the training dataset predicted PH in the validation set. This risk score could help focus resources to preterm infants at higher risk for PH. Further work is needed to determine whether earlier or more aggressive management of ductal lesions could alter PH outcomes. PMID:27716811
Fowlie, P; Davis, P
Background: Rates of long term morbidity remain unacceptably high in infants surviving after preterm birth. Prophylactic indomethacin has been shown to effectively reduce the rate of intraventricular haemorrhage in this group but there is the potential for unwanted side effects because of reduced organ perfusion. Objective: To examine the effect of prophylactic indomethacin on mortality and short and long term morbidity of preterm infants. Data sources: Medline (1966–2002), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and abstracts of the Society for Pediatric Research and the European Society for Pediatric Research were searched independently by both authors. Review methods: Trials were included if they used a randomised design, enrolled preterm infants given intravenous indomethacin within 24 hours of birth, and reported any of the prespecified outcome measures. Each author extracted data and assessed trial quality independently, according to the methods of the Cochrane Collaboration. Data were combined in a meta-analysis where appropriate. Results: Nineteen trials fulfilling the inclusion criteria were identified, of which four reported long term outcomes. Short term benefits of indomethacin were identified, including a reduction in the rate of severe intraventricular haemorrhage (relative risk (RR) 0.66 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53 to 0.82)) and the need for surgical ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus (RR 0.51 (95% CI 0.37 to 0.71)). No evidence of short term gastrointestinal or renal adverse effects was detected. There was no significant difference between indomethacin and control groups with respect to the important long term outcome of death or severe neurosensory impairment (RR 1.02 (95% CI 0.90 to 1.15)). Conclusions: Prophylactic indomethacin has a number of short term benefits for the preterm infant but there is no evidence to suggest that it results in an improvement in the rate of survival free of disability. PMID:14602691
Zaramella, Patrizia; De Salvia, Alessandra; Zaninotto, Martina; Baraldi, Maura; Capovilla, Giovanni; De Leo, Domenico; Chiandetti, Lino
This case report describes a preterm newborn infant who was treated with a single dose of rasburicase for an increase in uric acid level. He died on the third day as a result of complications of hemolysis, which appeared to be precipitated by rasburicase. The patient's death was preceded by progressive respiratory insufficiency, lactic acidosis, and hyperbilirubinemia, culminating in refractory hypoxia and hypotension. A postmortem assay for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase showed deficiency and the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Mediterranean genotype.
Tabatabai, Shahrzad; Shakiba, Marjan; Alaei, Mohammad Reza; Saneifard, Hedieh
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is a rare disease among preterm infants. This syndrome was first described in 1985 in four infants with a gestational age of <30 weeks. Several explanations for this syndrome have been suggested namely the immaturity of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal (HPG) axis, lack of negative feedback, increased sensitivity of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) receptors due to mutation and high level of estradiol. In this report, a case of hyperstimulation syndrome in a newborn with gestational age of 30 weeks is presented and the probable mechanisms in the literature are discussed. PMID:28050466
Rajpara, Anand; Blackmon, Joseph; Laarman, Rachel; Skaggs, Robert; Liolios, Ana; Lui, Deede; Fraga, Garth
Our patient is a 26-week-old preterm female infant delivered by caesarean section secondary to severe maternal preeclampsia who had been receiving subcutaneous recombinant erythropoietin (r-EPO) for anemia of prematurity. At 8 weeks of age after 8 doses of r-EPO, the infant developed numerous non-blanching erythematous macules and patches located on the back, posterior shoulder, and posterior arms, concerning for late-onset blueberry muffin lesions. Biopsy of the lesions confirmed dermal hematopoiesis. After r-EPO was discontinued all skin lesions gradually resolved over a period of 2 weeks and never recurred.
Kim, Jae H.; Chan, Gary; Schanler, Richard; Groh-Wargo, Sharon; Bloom, Barry; Dimmit, Reed; Williams, Larry; Baggs, Geraldine; Barrett-Reis, Bridget
ABSTRACT Objectives: This study was a comparison of growth and tolerance in premature infants fed either standard powdered human milk fortifier (HMF) or a newly formulated concentrated liquid that contained extensively hydrolyzed protein. Methods: This was an unblinded randomized controlled multicenter noninferiority study on preterm infants receiving human milk (HM) supplemented with 2 randomly assigned HMFs, either concentrated liquid HMF containing extensively hydrolyzed protein (LE-HMF) or a powdered intact protein HMF (PI-HMF) as the control. The study population consisted of preterm infants ≤33 weeks who were enterally fed HM. Infants were studied from the first day of HM fortification until day 29 or hospital discharge, whichever came first. Results: A total of 147 preterm infants were enrolled. Noninferiority was observed in weight gain reported in the intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis was 18.2 and 17.5 g · kg−1 · day−1 for the LE-HMF and PI-HMF groups, respectively. In an a priori defined subgroup of strict protocol followers (n = 75), the infants fed LE-HMF achieved greater weight over time than those fed PI-HMF (P = 0.036). The LE-HMF group achieved greater linear growth over time compared to the PI-HMF (P = 0.029). The protein intake from fortified HM was significantly higher in the LE-HMF group compared with the PI-HMF group (3.9 vs 3.3 g · kg−1 · day−1, P < 0.0001). Both fortifiers were well tolerated with no significant differences in overall morbidity. Conclusions: Both fortifiers showed excellent weight gain (grams per kilograms per day), tolerance, and low incidence of morbidity outcomes with the infants who were strict protocol followers fed LE-HMF having improved growth during the study. These data point to the safety and suitability of this new concentrated liquid HMF (LE-HMF) in preterm infants. Growth with this fortifier closely matches the recent recommendations for a weight gain of >18 g · kg−1 · day−1. PMID
Mimouni, Francis B; Nathan, Natalie; Ziegler, Ekhard E; Lubetzky, Ronit; Mandel, Dror
There is evidence that multinutrient fortification of human milk increases in-hospital growth of preterm infants, but fortification has not been shown to improve long-term growth and neurodevelopmental outcome. We aimed to ascertain whether randomized controlled trials have determined the effect of early versus late introduction of fortifiers on growth and/or other outcomes, and have compared the efficacy/adverse effects of human milk-based versus cow milk-based fortifiers. We conclude that there is little evidence that early introduction of human milk fortification affects important outcomes, and limited evidence that a bovine fortifier places the infant at a higher risk of NEC.
Santos, Janelle; Pearce, Sarah E.; Stroustrup, Annemarie
Purpose of review Over 300,000 infants are hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in the United States annually during a developmental period critical to later neurobehavioral function. Environmental exposures during the fetal period and infancy have been shown to impact long-term neurobehavioral outcomes. This review summarizes evidence linking NICU-based environmental exposures to neurodevelopmental outcomes of children born preterm, Recent findings Preterm infants experience multiple exposures important to neurodevelopment during the NICU hospitalization. The physical layout of the NICU, management of light and sound, social interactions with parents and NICU staff, and chemical exposures via medical equipment are important to long-term neurobehavioral outcomes in this highly vulnerable population. Summary Existing research documents NICU-based exposure to 1) neurotoxic chemicals, 2) aberrant light, 3) excess sound, and 4) restricted social interaction. In total, this creates an environment of co-existing excesses (chemicals, light, sound) and deprivation (touch, speech). The full impact of these co-exposures on the long-term neurodevelopment of preterm infants has not been adequately elucidated. Research into the importance of the NICU from an environmental health perspective is in its infancy, but could provide understanding about critical modifiable factors impacting the neurobehavioral health of hundreds of thousands of children each year. PMID:25635585
Gould, S J; Howard, S
The germinal layer in preterm infants is a common site of intracerebral hemorrhage that is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in survivors. This matrix is composed of a mass of immature cells containing many thin-walled blood vessels. A major factor in the occurrence of hemorrhage at this site is the absence of a network of fibers to support these vessels. This immunocytochemical study has examined glial differentiation within the germinal layer of brains from fetuses and preterm infants of gestational ages 18 to 35 weeks. Progressive glial differentiation with gestation is described. This process is not uniform and the more posterior germinal layer, lying over the body of the caudate nucleus, demonstrates more rapid maturation than that lying anteriorly near the head of the caudate nucleus. Anteriorly, even at 35 weeks of gestation, a central core of germinal layer cells remains immature with little evidence of glial differentiation. These changes may be related to the occurrence and distribution of germinal layer hemorrhages in preterm infants of varying gestations.
Suppiej, Agnese; Mento, Giovanni; Zanardo, Vincenzo; Franzoi, Malida; Battistella, Pier Antonio; Ermani, Mario; Bisiacchi, Patrizia S
Auditory processing during sleep was investigated in premature infants by auditory event related potentials (AERPs). Twenty-six premature infants (mean GA 30 week- range 25-35) admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit were studied, prior to discharge, in active and quiet sleep at a mean post-conceptional age of 35 weeks. Infant state was determined by behavioral observation according to standard criteria. An auditory odd-ball paradigm was used with frequently occurring 'standard' tones at 1000Hz and infrequent 'deviant' tones at 2000Hz. Waveforms were recorded at Fz, Cz, Pz, T3 and T4 scalp locations. Measurements were performed in 18 patients because 8 preterm infants were excluded since they had less than the required artifact-free deviant trials in each sleep state. The responses to standard tones were equally recorded in both active and quiet sleep, but auditory responses to deviant tones consisting of an increased frontal negativity in the time period from 200 to 300ms after the stimulus were recorded only in active sleep. A significant effect of electrode placement, for frontal location by sleep condition and sleep condition by 50ms time windows was shown by repeated measures analyses of variance. The significance of these findings on evoked potential methodology in preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care unit is discussed.
Hahn, Gitte Holst; Christensen, Karl Bang; Leung, Terence S.; Greisen, Gorm
Coherence between spontaneous fluctuations in arterial blood pressure (ABP) and the cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy signal can detect cerebral autoregulation. Because reliable measurement depends on signals with high signal-to-noise ratio, we hypothesized that coherence is more precisely determined when fluctuations in ABP are large rather than small. Therefore, we investigated whether adjusting for variability in ABP (variabilityABP) improves precision. We examined the impact of variabilityABP within the power spectrum in each measurement and between repeated measurements in preterm infants. We also examined total monitoring time required to discriminate among infants with a simulation study. We studied 22 preterm infants (GA<30) yielding 215 10-min measurements. Surprisingly, adjusting for variabilityABP within the power spectrum did not improve the precision. However, adjusting for the variabilityABP among repeated measurements (i.e., weighting measurements with high variabilityABP in favor of those with low) improved the precision. The evidence of drift in individual infants was weak. Minimum monitoring time needed to discriminate among infants was 1.3-3.7 h. Coherence analysis in low frequencies (0.04-0.1 Hz) had higher precision and statistically more power than in very low frequencies (0.003-0.04 Hz). In conclusion, a reliable detection of cerebral autoregulation takes hours and the precision is improved by adjusting for variabilityABP between repeated measurements.
The use of music as part of a stress reduction therapy has been applied both to premature infants and their parents in the Neonatal Reanimation Service. This aim of music therapy amounts to an attempt to help the premature infant regaining its physical and neurological balance, so important to its psychological and physical development, mainly by masking the sometimes excessive noise present in the intensive care unit and/or in the incubator. Studies have demonstrated the positive impact of music therapy on oxygen saturation, heartbeat, and on the general level of relaxation experienced by premature infants. In this project, the palliative technique used was that of live singing, directly to the infant, accompanied by a pentatonic harp. The aim was to improve the state of health, both physical and psychological, of a group of premature infants, whose gestation period varied between 23 and 36 weeks. The technique used was to apply what amounts to a protective cocoon of sounds to a premature infant in the neonatal unit, which measurably reduced the level of stress as indicated by the babies' increasingly relaxed demeanour and induced a measurable increase on the level of oxygen saturation and a reduction of heart rate.
Olafsen, Kåre S; Rønning, John A; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Ulvund, Stein Erik; Dahl, Lauritz Bredrup; Kaaresen, Per Ivar
Temperamental regulatory competence and social communication in term and preterm infants at 12 months corrected age was studied in a randomized controlled intervention trial aimed at enhancing maternal sensitive responsiveness. Surviving infants <2000 g from a geographically defined area were randomized to an intervention (71) or a control group (69), and compared with term infants (74). The intervention was a modified version of the "Mother-Infant Transaction Program". Regulatory competence was measured with the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, and social communication with the Early Social Communication Scales. Preterm intervention infants with low regulatory competence had higher responding to joint attention than preterm control infants. A sensitizing intervention may moderate the association between temperament and social communication, and thus allow an alternative functional outlet for preterm infants low in regulatory competence. The finding may have implications for conceptualizations of the role of early sensitizing interventions in promoting important developmental outcomes for premature infants.
Johnson, Samantha; Hollis, Chris; Kochhar, Puja; Hennessy, Enid; Wolke, Dieter; Marlow, Neil
Objective: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for psychiatric disorders in extremely preterm children. Method: All babies born less than 26 weeks gestation in the United Kingdom and Ireland from March through December 1995 were recruited to the EPICure Study. Of 307 survivors at 11 years of age, 219 (71%) were assessed alongside 153…
Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…
Lynn, Lisa N.; Cuskelly, Monica; O'Callaghan, Michael J.; Gray, Peter H.
Survival rates are increasing for children born extremely preterm, yet despite the majority of these children having IQ scores within the average range, 50-70% of these children have later school difficulties. This paper reviews factors associated with academic difficulties in these children, emphasizing the contributions of executive functions…
Awazu, Midori; Arai, Mie; Ohashi, Shoko; Takahashi, Hirotaka; Sekine, Takashi; Ikeda, Kazushige
Two preterm infants, with extremely low birth weight born at gestational weeks 24 and 25, showed generalized proximal tubular dysfunction during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit, including glucosuria, low molecular weight proteinuria, phosphaturia, uricosuria, enzymuria (elevated urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase), panaminoaciduria, and hypercalciuria, associated with renal calcification. Renal tubular acidosis was not present in either patient. DNA mutation analysis for Dent's disease, performed in patient 1, was negative. Although both patients had rickets of prematurity, tubular dysfunction persisted after its resolution. Patient 2, who had severe chronic lung disease, also had elevated serum creatinine, proteinuria, and hypertension, suggesting glomerular damage. In patient 1, low molecular weight proteinuria, enzymuria, panaminoaciduria, hypercalciuria, and renal calcification were still present at the age of 8 years. In patient 2, tubular dysfunction resolved except for β2 microglobulinuria at the age of 5 years. While a reduced nephron number resulting in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is well-known, generalized proximal tubular dysfunction can also occur in infants born preterm and/or with extremely low birth weight. PMID:28203565
Linder, N; Davidovitch, N; Reichman, B; Kuint, J; Lubin, D; Meyerovitch, J; Sela, B A; Dolfin, Z; Sack, J
The influence of topical iodine-containing antiseptics on thyroid function test results of premature infants was determined in two separate studies. Thyroxine and thyrotropin levels were measured on blood-spotted filter paper. Samples were obtained from 128 premature infants on their tenth day of life; the infants were treated in two neonatal intensive care units. Both units used similar treatment protocols; however, one routinely used topical iodinated antiseptic agents (n = 73), whereas the other used chlorhexidine-containing antiseptics (n = 55). There was no difference in the mean T4 levels between the two groups. The mean thyrotropin levels were elevated in preterm babies exposed to iodine (15.4 vs 7.8 mIU/L, p < 0.01). Among the iodine-exposed infants, elevated thyrotropin levels (> 30 mIU/L) were found in 13.7% of infants, compared with none in the chlorhexidine-treated group (p < 0.01). We then studied an additional 46 premature infants who were treated in one neonatal intensive care unit. Iodine-containing solutions were used in 24 infants and chlorhexidine was used in 22 infants. T4 and thyrotropin levels were measured weekly during the first 28 days, one every 2 weeks until the age of 60 days, and at the age of 90 days. Among iodine-exposed infants, 20.8% had thyrotropin values > 30 mIU/L, whereas none of the infants in the chlorhexidine group had elevated thyrotropin values (p < 0.05). The elevated thyrotropin levels correlated positively with the area of disinfection. Elevated urine iodine levels were present reflecting an abnormally high iodine absorption. This study suggests that iodine absorption from topical iodine-containing antiseptics may cause disturbances in thyroid function test results in premature infants. We recommend that caution be exercised in the use of iodine-containing antiseptics in premature infants.
Jabraeile, Mahnaz; Rasooly, Alehe Seyyed; Farshi, Mahni Rahkar; Malakouti, Jamileh
Background: Despite the fact that effect of massage with or without oil on the baby's weight gain is not clear, but recent studies have shown that massage with essential oils make lipid absorption through the skin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of olive oil massage on weight gain in preterm infants. Materials and Methods: This study was a single-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial. In this study, infants who met inclusion criteria for the study were divided into two groups by using random numbers table. Newborns in intervention group were under massage for 10 days and 3 times for 15 min daily; the mother of these newborns had been trained already using olive oil. Moreover, the infants of the control group were under massaging without oil same as the above-mentioned method. Researchers weighed babies daily during 10 days and recorded it at the checklist. Data from the study were reviewed and analyzed by descriptive statistics and repeated measure test using the statistical software SPSS/13. Results: This study showed that the neonatal weight gain in the infants with the oil massage was 21 g daily in average, whereas the increase in infant massage without oil was 7 g. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Considering the positive effect of infant massage on weight gain in premature infants with olive oil, it is recommended that nurses use oil in infant massage in the neonatal units. PMID:27397955
Scalise, L.; Marchionni, P.; Ercoli, I.; Tomasini, E. P.
The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is a part of a pediatric hospital dedicated to the care of ill or pre-term patients . NICU's patients are underweight and most of the time they need cardiac and respiratory support therapies; they are placed in incubators or in cribs maintaining target environmental and body temperatures and protecting patients from bacteria and virus. Patients are continuously monitored for long period of time (days or weeks) due to their possible several health conditions. the most common vital signs monitored are: respiration rate, heart rate, body temperature, blood saturation, etc. Most of the devices used for transducing such quantities in electronic signals - like spirometer or electrocardiogram (ECG) - are in direct contact with the patient and results, also in consideration of the specific patient, largely invasive. In this paper, we propose a novel measurement system for non-contact and non-invasive assessment of the respiration activity, with particular reference to the detection of peculiar respiration events of extreme interest in intensive care units, such as: irregular inspiration/expiration acts, hiccups and apneas. The sensing device proposed is the Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDVi) which is an non contact, optical measurement system for the assessment of a surface velocity and displacement. In the past it has been demonstrated to be suitable to measure heart rate (HR) and respiration rate (RR) in adult and in preterm infant trough chest-wall displacements. The measurement system is composed by a LDVi system and a data acquisition board installed on a PC, with no direct contact with the patient. Tests have been conducted on 20 NICU patients, for a total of 7219 data sampled. Results show very high correlation (R=0.99) with the reference instrument used for the patient monitoring (mechanical ventilator), with an uncertainty < ±7 ms (k=2). Moreover, during the tests, some peculiar respiration events, have been recorded on 6 of
Sansavini, Alessandra; Guarini, Annalisa; Savini, Silvia; Broccoli, Serena; Justice, Laura; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo
The present study involved a systematic longitudinal analysis, with three points of assessment in the second year of life, of gestures/actions, word comprehension, and word production in a sample of very preterm infants compared to a sample of full-term infants. The relationships among these competencies as well as their predictive value on…
Poehlmann, Julie; Hane, Amanda; Burnson, Cynthia; Maleck, Sarah; Hamburger, Elizabeth; Shah, Prachi E.
Background: The differential susceptibility (DS) model suggests that temperamentally prone-to-distress infants may exhibit adverse outcomes in negative environments but optimal outcomes in positive environments. This study explored temperament, parenting, and 36-month cognition and behavior in preterm infants using the DS model. We hypothesized…
van der Pal, Sylvia M.; Maguire, Celeste M.; Bruil, Jeanet; le Cessie, Saskia; van Zwieten, Paul; Veen, Sylvia; Wit, Jan M.; Walther, Frans J.
This study explored the effects of basic developmental care on the behaviour of very pre-term infants and parental stress at 1 and 2 years of corrected age. A randomized controlled trial was done to compare basic Developmental Care (standardized nests and incubator covers) and controls (standard care). Parents of infants born less than 32 weeks of…
Scott, Megan N.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Fristad, Mary A.; Klein, Nancy; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Minich, Nori; Hack, Maureen
Objective To examine the prevalence of behavior disorders in a 2001–2003 birth cohort of extremely preterm/extremely low birth weight (EPT/ELBW, <28 weeks gestational age and/or <1000 g) children in kindergarten. Method We compared 148 EPT/ELBW children to 111 term-born normal birth weight (NBW) classmate controls on reports of psychiatric symptoms obtained from parent interview (P-ChIPS), parent and teacher ratings of behavior (CBCL, TRF, BRIEF), and teacher ratings of social functioning (SSBS-2). Associations of behavior disorders with global cognitive ability and tests of executive function were also examined within the EPT/ELBW group. Results Rates of ADHD Combined on psychiatric interview were about twice as high for the EPT/ELBW group than for the NBW group, OR (95% CI)=2.50 (1.34, 4.68), p=.004. The EPT/ELBW group also had much higher rates of teacher-identified disorders in attention, behavior self-regulation, and social functioning, with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) ranging from 3.35 (1.64, 6.83) to 18.03 (4.12, 78.94), all p’s<.01. ADHD and impaired behavior self-regulation were associated with deficits on tests of executive function but not with global cognitive impairment. Conclusions The findings document elevated rates of disorders in attention, behavior self-regulation, and socialization in EPT/ELBW children and suggest that deficits on tests of executive function are associated with some of these disorders. Early identification and intervention for these disorders are needed to promote early adjustment to school and facilitate learning progress. PMID:22245934
Ikeda, N; Shoji, H; Murano, Y; Mori, M; Matsunaga, N; Suganuma, H; Ikeno, M; Hisata, K; Hirayama, S; Ueno, T; Miida, T; Shimizu, T
Evidence suggests that breastfeeding during infancy lowers the risk of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its attendant risk factors in adult life. To investigate the influence of feeding type on the risk factors of MS, we assessed insulin sensitivity and lipid and apolipoprotein metabolism in preterm infants. Blood samples were collected from preterm infants at the time of discharge. Infants were separated into two groups: a breast milk (BM) group receiving ⩾90% of their intake from BM, and a mixed-fed (MF) group receiving ⩾50% of their intake from formula. The following indices were then compared between the two groups. Blood glucose and serum insulin levels were used to calculate the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). We also measured serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), apolipoprotein-A1 (apoA1) and apolipoprotein-B (apoB) levels, and the ratios of TC/HDLc, LDLc/HDLc and apoB/apoA1. The mean gestational age was 32.9 weeks at birth, and blood samples were collected at a mean corrected age of 37.4 weeks. There were 22 infants in the BM group and 19 in the MF group. QUICKI was significantly higher in the BM group. TC, HDLc and apoA1 were not significantly different between the groups, but LDLc and apoB levels were significantly higher in the BM group. The TC/HDLc, LDLc/HDLc and apoB/apoA1 ratios were significantly higher in the BM group. In preterm infants, the type of feeding exposure in the early postnatal period may influence glucose, lipid and apolipoprotein metabolism, and affect markers of MS.
McCarthy, Roberta A; McKenna, Malachi J; Oyefeso, Oyinkansola; Uduma, Ogenna; Murray, Barbara F; Brady, Jennifer J; Kilbane, Mark T; Murphy, John F; Twomey, Anne; O' Donnell, Colm P; Murphy, Nuala P; Molloy, Eleanor J
Little is known about vitamin D status in preterm infants and their response to supplementation. To investigate this, we assessed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels using RIA in a consecutive sample of stable preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (born ≤ 32 weeks gestation or birth weight ≤ 1·5 kg), and we explored associated factors. Serum 25OHD level was first assessed once infants were tolerating feeds (n 274). If this first 25OHD level was below 50 nmol/l (20 ng/ml), which is the level associated with covering requirements in terms of skeletal health in the majority, then we recommended prolonged augmented vitamin D intake ( ≥ 10 μg (400 IU) daily) from a combination of fortified feeds and vitamin supplements and follow-up re-assessment at approximately 6 weeks corrected age (n 148). The first assessment, conducted at a median for chronological age of 18 (interquartile range (IQR) 11-28) d, found that 78 % had serum 25OHD levels below 50 nmol/l. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that the determinants of serum 25OHD levels were duration of vitamin D supplementation and gestational age at birth (r 2 0·215; P< 0·001). At follow-up, after a median of 104 (IQR 78-127) d, 87 % achieved levels ≥ 50 nmol/l and 8 % had levels >125 nmol/l, a level associated with potential risk of harm. We conclude that low 25OHD levels are an issue for preterm VLBW infants, warranting early nutritional intervention. In infants with serum 25OHD levels < 50 nmol/l, a vitamin D intake of ≥ 10 μg (400 IU) daily achieves target levels in the majority; however, further work is needed to determine the exact dose to safely meet target levels without overcorrection.
Over the past 20 years, corticosteroid use in the preterm infant has fallen in and out offavor. Steroids were introduced in the 1980s as a mode of preventing and treating chronic lung disease (CLD) in the preterm infant population. This use has been targeted toward low birth weight infants who are unable to wean off the ventilator. Dose, duration, and timing of treatment with dexamerhasone, the steroid typically used in NICUs, has varied. This article examines why the medication has fallen out of favor and whether postnatal corticosteroids still have a place in preventing and treating CLD.
Bridges, Kayla M; Pereira-da-Silva, Luis; Tou, Janet C; Ziegler, Jane; Brunetti, Luigi
Very preterm infants (<32 weeks' gestation) are at high risk for impaired skeletal development because of factors that limit the provision of extrauterine nutrients. Cumulative net deficiencies of calcium, phosphorus, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (ARA) are evident in these infants after prolonged administration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). This is significant because minerals as well as metabolites of DHA and ARA are important modulators of bone cell differentiation, lengthening of bone, and bone matrix deposition. Furthermore, diets containing only precursors of DHA and ARA result in suboptimal skeletal growth. With the emergence of new intravenous lipid emulsions, it is important to understand the impact of fatty acids on bone metabolism in the third trimester in order to optimize the provision of TPN in very preterm infants. The purpose of this review is to evaluate current evidence regarding intravenous lipid emulsions and bone metabolism in very preterm infants receiving prolonged TPN and to identify areas of research needed.
Shinya, Yuta; Kawai, Masahiko; Niwa, Fusako; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako
Human infant crying has been researched as a non-invasive tool for assessing neurophysiological states at an early developmental stage. Little is known about the acoustic features of spontaneous cries in preterm infants, although their pain-induced cries are at a higher fundamental frequency (F0) before term-equivalent age. In this study, we investigated the effects of gestational age, body size at recording and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) on the F0 of spontaneous cries in healthy preterm and full-term infants at term-equivalent age. We found that shorter gestational age was significantly associated with higher F0, although neither smaller body size at recording nor IUGR was related to increased F0 in preterm infants. These findings suggest that the increased F0 of spontaneous cries is not caused by their smaller body size, but instead might be caused by more complicated neurophysiological states owing to their different intrauterine and extrauterine experiences. PMID:25122740
Wilcox, W D; Carrigan, T A; Dooley, K J; Giddens, D P; Dykes, F D; Lazzara, A; Ray, J L; Ahmann, P A
Range-gated pulsed Doppler (RGPD) ultrasonography was utilized to study the effect of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) on carotid arterial blood flow in small preterm infants. Carotid arterial flow velocity studies were performed on 23 preterm infants, sampling right and left carotid arteries. Studies on seven infants after PDA ligation and on seven who developed no evidence of PDA were used as controls. A strong relationship was demonstrated between diastolic reversal in the carotid arteries and PDA. The results of this study indicate that the RGPD flow velocity curve from the carotid artery is more sensitive than M-mode echocardiography or clinical examination in detecting PDA, and that PDA in small preterm infants is associated with a distinct abnormality in the carotid arterial flow pattern.
Panfoli, Isabella; Ravera, Silvia; Podestà, Marina; Cossu, Claudia; Santucci, Laura; Bartolucci, Martina; Bruschi, Maurizio; Calzia, Daniela; Sabatini, Federica; Bruschettini, Matteo; Ramenghi, Luca Antonio; Romantsik, Olga; Marimpietri, Danilo; Pistoia, Vito; Ghiggeri, Gianmarco; Frassoni, Francesco; Candiano, Giovanni
Exosomes are secreted nanovesicles that are able to transfer RNA and proteins to target cells. The emerging role of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) exosomes as promoters of aerobic ATP synthesis restoration in damaged cells, prompted us to assess whether they contain an extramitochondrial aerobic respiration capacity. Exosomes were isolated from culture medium of human MSCs from umbilical cord of ≥37-wk-old newborns or between 28- to 30-wk-old newborns (i.e.,term or preterm infants). Characterization of samples was conducted by cytofluorometry. Oxidative phosphorylation capacity was assessed by Western blot analysis, oximetry, and luminometric and fluorometric analyses. MSC exosomes express functional respiratory complexes I, IV, and V, consuming oxygen. ATP synthesis was only detectable in exosomes from term newborns, suggestive of a specific mechanism that is not completed at an early gestational age. Activities are outward facing and comparable to those detected in mitochondria isolated from term MSCs. MSC exosomes display an unsuspected aerobic respiratory ability independent of whole mitochondria. This may be relevant for their ability to rescue cell bioenergetics. The differential oxidative metabolism of pretermvs.term exosomes sheds new light on the preterm newborn's clinical vulnerability. A reduced ability to repair damaged tissue and an increased capability to cope with anoxic environment for preterm infants can be envisaged.-Panfoli, I., Ravera, S., Podestà, M., Cossu, C., Santucci, L., Bartolucci, M., Bruschi, M., Calzia, D., Sabatini, F., Bruschettini, M., Ramenghi, L. A., Romantsik, O., Marimpietri, D., Pistoia, V., Ghiggeri, G., Frassoni, F., Candiano, G. Exosomes from human mesenchymal stem cells conduct aerobic metabolism in term and preterm newborn infants.
Arslanoglu, Sertac; Corpeleijn, Willemijn; Moro, Guido; Braegger, Christian; Campoy, Cristina; Colomb, Virginie; Decsi, Tamas; Domellöf, Magnus; Fewtrell, Mary; Hojsak, Iva; Mihatsch, Walter; Mølgaard, Christian; Shamir, Raanan; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes
The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition aims to document the existing evidence of the benefits and common concerns deriving from the use of donor human milk (DHM) in preterm infants. The comment also outlines gaps in knowledge and gives recommendations for practice and suggestions for future research directions. Protection against necrotizing enterocolitis is the major clinical benefit deriving from the use of DHM when compared with formula. Limited data also suggest unfortified DHM to be associated with improved feeding tolerance and with reduced cardiovascular risk factors during adolescence. Presence of a human milk bank (HMB) does not decrease breast-feeding rates at discharge, but decreases the use of formula during the first weeks of life. This commentary emphasizes that fresh own mother's milk (OMM) is the first choice in preterm infant feeding and strong efforts should be made to promote lactation. When OMM is not available, DHM is the recommended alternative. When neither OMM nor DHM is available, preterm formula should be used. DHM should be provided from an established HMB, which follows specific safety guidelines. Storage and processing of human milk reduces some biological components, which may diminish its health benefits. From a nutritional point of view, DHM, like HM, does not meet the requirements of preterm infants, necessitating a specific fortification regimen to optimize growth. Future research should focus on the improvement of milk processing in HMB, particularly of heat treatment; on the optimization of HM fortification; and on further evaluation of the potential clinical benefits of processed and fortified DHM.
Ferrari, F; Bertoncelli, N; Gallo, C; Roversi, M F; Guerra, M P; Ranzi, A; Hadders‐Algra, M
Objective To evaluate whether lying in a nest affects the posture and spontaneous movements of healthy preterm infants. Method 10 healthy preterm infants underwent serial video recording in the supine position, when lying in a nest and outside it, at three ages: 30–33 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) (early preterm), 34–36 weeks PMA (late preterm) and 37–40 weeks PMA (term). The nest was shell‐shaped, made by putting two rolled blankets in a form of an oval. Posture was assessed both before and after general movements by scoring the predominant postural pattern. Movements towards and across the midline, elegant wrist movements, abrupt hand and/or limb movements, rolling to side, and frozen postures of the arms and legs were assessed during four general movements. All data relating to motor and postural items were normalised into frequencies of events per minute because the general movements varied in duration. Results When lying in the nest, the infants more often displayed a flexed posture with shoulder adduction and elbow, and hip and knee flexion, and the head was frequently in the midline. The nest was also associated with an increase in elegant wrist movements and movements towards and across the midline and a reduction in abrupt movements and frozen postures of the limbs. The nest did not affect the occurrence of asymmetrical tonic neck posture. Conclusions A nest promotes a flexed posture of the limbs with adduction of shoulders, facilitates elegant wrist movements and movements towards and across the midline and reduces abrupt movements and frozen postures of the arms and legs. PMID:17344252
de Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho; Cruvinel, Fernando; Lukasova, Katerina; D'Antino, Maria Eloisa Famá
Preterm babies are more prone to develop disorders and so require immediate intensive care. In the conventional neonatal intensive care, the baby is kept in the incubator, separated from the mother. Some actions have been taken in order to make this mother-child separation less traumatic. One of these actions is the Kangaroo mother care (KMC) characterized by skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn. The objective of this study was to compare the mood variation of mothers enrolled in the KMC program to those in the conventional incubator care. In one general hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 90 mothers were evaluated before and after contact with the baby in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The participants were divided into three groups: 30 mothers of term newborns (TG), 30 mothers of preterm infants included in KMC program (PGK) and 30 preterms with incubator placement (PGI). The Brazilian version of the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) was used for the assessment before and after the infant's visit. Results showed that TG mothers reported fewer occurrences of depressive states than PGK and PGI mothers. A significant mood variation was observed for PGK and PGI after the infant's visit. PGK mothers reported feeling calmer, stronger, well-coordinated, energetic, contented, tranquil, quick-witted, relaxed, proficient, happy, friendly and clear-headed. The only variation showed by PGI mothers was an increase in feeling clumsy. This study shows a positive effect of the KMC on the mood variation of preterm mothers and points to the need of a more humane experience during the incubator care.
Dembinski, J.; Behrendt, D.; Heep, A.; Dorn, C.; Reinsberg, J.; Bartmann, P.
To assess the effect of gestational age and labor on the interleukin-8 (IL-8) concentration in whole cord blood and serum, IL-8 levels were determined simultaneously in cord blood serum and lysate in 134 infants. Following the elimination of some of the samples due to exclusion criteria, the data for 99 uninfected infants (71 term and 28 preterm) and 9 infants with neonatal bacterial infection delivered either vaginally or by elective or emergency cesarean section were analyzed. The effects of labor and gestational age were tested by analysis of variance. IL-8 was not detectable in the serum of 25 infants, whereas IL-8 levels in whole blood were measurable in all of the samples. The median IL-8 conncentrations in whole cord blood lysate were 106 pg/ml (range, 20 to 415 pg/ml) in preterm infants and 176 pg/ml (range, 34 to 1,667 pg/ml) in term infants. In contrast to the IL-8 levels in serum, IL-8 levels in whole blood were reduced after ECS. Gestational age had no independent effect on the IL-8 concentrations in either serum or whole blood; these concentrations increased in infected infants after labor. We conclude that the neonatal proinflammatory response to labor stress was more evident in the concentrations of IL-8 in whole blood than in serum. The levels of IL-8 in whole-blood lysate reflect proinflammatory stimulation in neonates and may be a useful diagnostic tool for the early diagnosis of neonatal infection. PMID:11874870
St John, Nick; Lilo, Emily A.; Jo, Booil; Benitz, William; Stevenson, David K.; Horwitz, Sarah M.
OBJECTIVE: The current study evaluates a treatment intervention developed with the goal of reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety in parents of premature infants. METHODS: A total of 105 mothers of preterm infants (25–34 weeks’ gestational age; >600 g) were randomized to receive a 6-session intervention developed to target parental trauma as well as facilitate infant redefinition (n = 62) or to an active comparison group (n = 43). Mothers in the intervention group received a combination of trauma-focused treatments, including psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring, progressive muscle relaxation, and development of their trauma narrative. The intervention also incorporated material targeting infant redefinition, defined as the process of changing the mother’s negative perceptions of her infant and the parenting experience. RESULTS: Mothers in the intervention group reported a greater reduction in both trauma symptoms (Cohen’s d = 0.41, P = .023) and depression (Cohen’s d = 0.59, P < .001) compared with the comparison group. Patients under both conditions improved significantly in terms of anxiety, with no differences between groups. Results of the moderator analysis showed that mothers with higher ratings of baseline NICU stress benefited more from the intervention compared with mothers who had lower ratings (P = .036). CONCLUSIONS: This short, highly manualized intervention for mothers of preterm infants statistically significantly reduced symptoms of trauma and depression. The intervention is feasible, can be delivered with fidelity, and has high ratings of maternal satisfaction. Given that improvements in mothers’ distress may lead to improved infant outcomes, this intervention has the potential for a high public health impact. PMID:23999956
Gouin, Marion; Nguyen, Sylvie; Savagner, Christophe; Troussier, Francoise; Gascouin, Géraldine; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Flamant, Cyril
Preterm infants are at greater risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, which is associated with neurodevelopmental impairment. These infants are also more likely to develop severe bronchiolitis, which can contribute to neurodevelopmental impairment. The aim of this study was to determine whether severe bronchiolitis in very preterm infants (born before 33 weeks of gestation) was associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental impairment at 2 years of age. We analyzed a population-based cohort of infants (the Loire Infant Follow-up Team cohort) born between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2009. Severe bronchiolitis was defined as hospitalization due to bronchiolitis during the first year of life. Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed at 2 years of corrected age. A total of 2,405 infants were included in this analysis and categorized based on neonatal respiratory status: 1,308 (54.4 %) received no respiratory assistance, 864(35.9 %) received oxygen for <28 days, and 167 (6.9 %) had mild and 66 (2.7) moderate or severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At 2 years, 502 children displayed non-optimal neurodevelopmental outcome (20.9 %). Moderate or severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia was significantly associated with non-optimal neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years (adjusted odds ratios (OR) = 2.3 [95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.3-3.9], p = 0.003). In the first year, 318 infants acquired severe bronchiolitis (13.2 %), which was not associated with non-optimal neurodevelopmental outcome (adjusted OR = 1.0 [95 % CI: 0.8-1.4]; p = 0.88). In conclusion, respiratory status in the neonatal period was significantly associated with non-optimal neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years, while severe bronchiolitis was not.
Gonzalez, Daniel; Delmore, Paula; Bloom, Barry T.; Cotten, C. Michael; Poindexter, Brenda B.; McGowan, Elisabeth; Shattuck, Karen; Bradford, Kathleen K.; Smith, P. Brian; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Morris, Maurine; Yin, Wanrong; Benjamin, Daniel K.
Clindamycin may be active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a common pathogen causing sepsis in infants, but optimal dosing in this population is unknown. We performed a multicenter, prospective pharmacokinetic (PK) and safety study of clindamycin in infants. We analyzed the data using a population PK analysis approach and included samples from two additional pediatric trials. Intravenous data were collected from 62 infants (135 plasma PK samples) with postnatal ages of <121 days (median [range] gestational age of 28 weeks [23 to 42] and postnatal age of 17 days [1 to 115]). In addition to body weight, postmenstrual age (PMA) and plasma protein concentrations (albumin and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein) were found to be significantly associated with clearance and volume of distribution, respectively. Clearance reached 50% of the adult value at PMA of 39.5 weeks. Simulated PMA-based intravenous dosing regimens administered every 8 h (≤32 weeks PMA, 5 mg/kg; 32 to 40 weeks PMA, 7 mg/kg; >40 to 60 weeks PMA, 9 mg/kg) resulted in an unbound, steady-state concentration at half the dosing interval greater than a MIC for S. aureus of 0.12 μg/ml in >90% of infants. There were no adverse events related to clindamycin use. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01728363.) PMID:26926644
Ferrari, F; Vagnarelli, F; Gargano, G; Roversi, M; Biagioni, O; Ranzi, A; Cavazzuti, G
OBJECTIVES—To determine the incidence of catheter related thrombosis and to test the efficacy of recombinant tissue type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN—From January 1995 to December 1998, echocardiography was performed in the first few days of life in 76 very low birthweight (⩽ 1500 g) infants out of a total of 147 having an umbilical catheter placed. When intracardiac thrombosis was diagnosed, rt-PA infusion was performed. RESULTS—Four infants (5%) developed an intracardiac thrombosis during the first few days of life. In three of them, rt-PA at a dose of 0.4-0.5 mg/kg in a 20-30 minute bolus led to dissolution of the clot. One patient received a three hour infusion after the bolus, at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg/h, with resolution of the thrombus. No systemic effects were observed after rt-PA infusion. CONCLUSIONS—Early thrombosis may occur as a complication of umbilical catheterisation in preterm infants; early echocardiographic detection of this disorder allows complete, safe, and rapid lysis with rt-PA. PMID:11420328
ter Horst, Hendrik J; Verhagen, Elise A; Keating, Paul; Bos, Arend F
Impaired cerebral oxygen delivery may cause cerebral damage in preterm infants. At lower levels of cerebral perfusion and oxygen concentration, electrocerebral activity is disturbed. The balance between cerebral oxygen delivery and oxygen use can be measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and electrocerebral activity can be measured by amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG). Our aim was to determine the relationship between regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rcSO2), fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE), and aEEG. We recorded longitudinal digital aEEG and rcSO2 prospectively in 46 preterm infants (mean GA 29.5 wk, SD 1.7) for 2 hr on the 1st to 5th, 8th, and 15th d after birth. We excluded infants with germinal matrix hemorrhage exceeding grade I and recordings of infants receiving inotropes. FTOE was calculated using transcutaneous arterial oxygen saturation (tcSaO2) and rcSO2 values: (tcSaO2 - rcSO2)/tcSaO2. aEEG was assessed by calculating the mean values of the 5th, 50th, and 95th centiles of the aEEG amplitudes. The aEEG amplitude centiles changed with increasing GA. FTOE and aEEG amplitude centiles increased significantly with postnatal age. More mature electrocerebral activity was accompanied by increased FTOE. FTOE also increased with increasing postnatal age and decreasing Hb levels.
Lejeune, Fleur; Parra, Johanna; Berne-Audéoud, Frédérique; Marcus, Leïla; Barisnikov, Koviljka; Gentaz, Edouard; Debillon, Thierry
Premature birth is a sudden change of the sensory environment of a newborn, while their senses are still in development, especially in the stressful and noisy environment of the NICU. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of noise on the early tactile manual abilities of preterm infants (between 29 and 35 weeks PCA). Infants were randomly assigned to one of the two conditions: Silence and Noise. For each condition, two phases were introduced: a habituation phase (repeated presentation of the same object, prism or cylinder), followed by a test phase (presentation of the familiar or a novel object). In the Silence condition, they received the tactile habituation and test phases: In the Noise condition, they went through the same phases, while an alarm sounded. Sixty-three preterm infants were included. They displayed a strong and effective ability to memorize tactile manual information and to detect the difference between two shape features, but this ability seems to be impaired by the concomitant exposure to an alarm sound. This study is the first to highlight the effect of a negative stimulus on sensory functioning in premature infants. It reinforces the importance of developing environmental measures to lower the sound level in NICUs. PMID:26987399
Sortica da Costa, Cristine; Placek, Michal M; Czosnyka, Marek; Cabella, Brenno; Kasprowicz, Magdalena; Austin, Topun; Smielewski, Peter
A characteristic feature of complex healthy biological systems is the ability to react and adapt to minute changes in the environment. This 'complexity' manifests itself in highly irregular patterns of various physiological measurements. Here, we apply Multiscale Entropy (MSE) analysis to assess the complexity of systemic and cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals in a cohort of 61 critically ill preterm infants born at median (range) gestational age of 26 (23-31) weeks, before 24 h of life. We further correlate the complexity of these parameters with brain injury and mortality. Lower complexity index (CoI) of oxygenated haemoglobin (HbO2), deoxygenated haemoglobin (Hb) and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) were observed in those infants who developed intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) compared to those who did not (P = 0.002, P = 0.010 and P = 0.038, respectively). Mean CoI of HbO2, Hb and total haemoglobin index (THI) were lower in those infants who died compared to those who survived (P = 0.012, P = 0.004 and P = 0.003, respectively). CoI-HbO2 was an independent predictor of IVH (P = 0.010). Decreased complexity of brain signals was associated with mortality and brain injury. Measurement of brain signal complexity in preterm infants is feasible and could represent a significant advance in the brain-oriented care.
Rehman, Moghis Ur; Narchi, Hassib
Neonatal osteopenia is an important area of interest for neonatologists due to continuing increased survival of preterm infants. It can occur in high-risk infants such as preterm infants, infants on long-term diuretics or corticosteroids, and those with neuromuscular disorders. Complications such as rickets, pathological fractures, impaired respiratory function and poor growth in childhood can develop and may be the first clinical evidence of the condition. It is important for neonatologists managing such high-risk patients to regularly monitor biochemical markers for evidence of abnormal bone turnover and inadequate mineral intake in order to detect the early phases of impaired bone mineralization. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry has become an increasingly used research tool for assessing bone mineral density in children and neonates, but more studies are still needed before it can be used as a useful clinical tool. Prevention and early detection of osteopenia are key to the successful management of this condition and oral phosphate supplements should be started as soon as is feasible. PMID:26413483
Asztalos, Elizabeth V; Church, Paige T; Riley, Patricia; Fajardo, Carlos; Shah, Prakesh S
Objective This study aims to examine the association between the absence of neonatal comorbidities, as well as the presence of indicators of clinical progress with good neurodevelopmental (ND) outcomes, at 18 months corrected age in a national cohort of preterm infants of < 29 weeks' gestation. Design Study subjects included preterm infants (< 29 weeks' gestation) born in 2010 and 2011. Univariate analyses were conducted and regression estimates were calculated for variables where odds of a good ND outcome, composite scores ≥ 100 in three domains (cognitive, language, and motor) in the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd ed. (Bayley-III), were estimated. Results In total, 2,069 infants were included in the analyses. For all three domains evaluated on the Bayley-III, cognition, language, motor, respectively, the absence of three major morbidities was associated with a score ≥ 100: bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, and severe neurological injury. Less time spent on positive pressure support and on total parenteral nutrition administration were associated with a positive motor outcome and showed a positive trend for both cognition and language scores. Conclusion The absence of neonatal comorbidities was associated with good ND outcome. Less time spent on positive pressure support and parenteral nutrition may also contribute to a good ND outcome.
Spanó Nakano, Ana Márcia; Stefanello, Juliana; Campos Pereira Silveira, Renata Cristina
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of acupuncture versus placebo acupuncture on anxiety in lactating mothers with preterm infants. A parallel, randomized, patient-assessor blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in a tertiary school hospital in Londrina, Brazil, between 2011 and 2012. Mothers (n = 29) with very low birth weight infants born at this institution were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: acupuncture, AG (n = 14), or placebo acupuncture, PG (n = 15). Treatment sessions occurred once a week, using 5 Chinese auricular points unilaterally. The primary outcome measure was STAI-State scores, and secondary outcome measure was salivary cortisol levels. Both measures were collected before and after treatment and submitted to a blind assessor. Before-after treatment mean difference in STAI-State scores was observed in both groups (AG = 8.71 and PG = 8.20), not statistically significant (P = 0.888), although within group analysis was significant for both groups (P < 0.005). Salivary cortisol levels did not change after treatment in both groups (P = 0.480). There was no correlation between STAI and salivary cortisol results. At infant's hospital discharge, 76% subjects were breastfeeding exclusively. There was no difference between real and placebo acupuncture for anxiety in mothers with preterm infants. PMID:24369477
Lapillonne, A; Picaud, J C; Chirouze, V; Goudable, J; Reygrobellet, B; Claris, O; Salle, B L
Because docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may be an essential nutrient for the visual and early cognitive development of preterm infants, DHA enrichment of preterm formulas has been recommended. This randomized trial was designed to study the n-6 and n-3 fatty acid status of healthy preterm infants fed a formula enriched with a low eicosapentaenoic-fish oil until 4 mo corrected age compared with that of infants fed a standard formula. A reference group of breast-fed infants was studied concurrently. The fatty acid content of red blood cell (RBC) phospholipid was assessed at enrollment, hospital discharge, expected term, and 3 and 6 mo postterm. The DHA content of RBC phospholipid was higher in infants fed the enriched versus the standard formula at hospital discharge, expected term, and 3 and 6 mo postterm. However, compared with infants fed the standard formula, infants fed the enriched formula had also higher RBC phospholipid eicosapentaenoic content (0.69 +/- 0.15% versus 0.25 +/- 0.12%, p < 0.001), and lower RBC phospholipid arachidonic acid content (15.1 +/- 0.93% versus 18.8 +/- 0.89%; p < 0.001). We conclude that supplementing preterm infants with low-eicosapentaenoic fish oil is effective in improving DHA status, but results in worsening of n-6 fatty acid status. We speculate that preterm infants may require a dietary supply of arachidonic acid as well as DHA if the same fatty acid status as that of breast-fed infants is to be achieved.
Mazzella, M; Bellini, C; Calevo, M; Campone, F; Massocco, D; Mezzano, P; Zullino, E; Scopesi, F; Arioni, C; Bonacci, W; Serra, G
OBJECTIVE—To compare the effectiveness of the Infant Flow Driver (IFD) with single prong nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) in preterm neonates affected by respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN—Randomised controlled study. PATIENTS—Between September 1997 and March 1999, 36 preterm infants who were eligible for CPAP treatment were randomly selected for either nCPAP or IFD and studied prospectively for changes in oxygen requirement and/or respiratory rate. The requirement for mechanical ventilation, complications of treatment, and effects on mid-term outcome were also evaluated. RESULTS—Use of the IFD had a significantly beneficial effect on both oxygen requirement and respiratory rate (p < 0.0001) when compared with nCPAP. Moreover, O2 requirement and respiratory rate were significantly decreased by four hours (p < 0.001 and p < 0.03 respectively). The probability of remaining supplementary oxygen free over the first 48 hours of treatment was significantly higher in patients treated with the IFD than with nCPAP (p < 0.02). IFD treated patients had a higher success (weaning) rate (94% v 72%) and shorter duration of treatment (49.3 (31) v 56 (29.7) hours respectively; mean (SD)), although the difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS—IFD appears to be a feasible device for managing respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants, and benefits may be had with regard to oxygen requirement and respiratory rate when compared with nCPAP. The trend towards reduced requirement for mechanical ventilation, shorter clinical recovery time, and shorter duration of treatment requires further evaluation in a multicentre randomised clinical trial. PMID:11517199
Shinya, Yuta; Kawai, Masahiko; Niwa, Fusako
ABSTRACT This study investigated whether lower vagal function in preterm infants is associated with increased fundamental frequency (F 0; frequency of vocal fold vibration) of their spontaneous cries. We assessed respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during quiet sleep as a measure of vagal function, and its relationship with the F 0 of spontaneous cries in healthy preterm and term infants at term‐equivalent age. The results showed that preterm infants have significantly lower RSA, and higher overall F 0 than term infants. Moreover, lower RSA was associated with higher overall F 0 in preterm infants, whereas higher RSA was positively associated with mean and maximum F 0, and a larger F 0 range in term infants. These results suggest that individual differences in vagal function may be associated with the F 0 of spontaneous cries via modulation of vocal fold tension in infants at an early developmental stage. © 2016 The Authors. Developmental Psychobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58:724–733, 2016. PMID:27037599
Shinya, Yuta; Kawai, Masahiko; Niwa, Fusako; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako
This study investigated whether lower vagal function in preterm infants is associated with increased fundamental frequency (F0 ; frequency of vocal fold vibration) of their spontaneous cries. We assessed respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during quiet sleep as a measure of vagal function, and its relationship with the F0 of spontaneous cries in healthy preterm and term infants at term-equivalent age. The results showed that preterm infants have significantly lower RSA, and higher overall F0 than term infants. Moreover, lower RSA was associated with higher overall F0 in preterm infants, whereas higher RSA was positively associated with mean and maximum F0 , and a larger F0 range in term infants. These results suggest that individual differences in vagal function may be associated with the F0 of spontaneous cries via modulation of vocal fold tension in infants at an early developmental stage. © 2016 The Authors. Developmental Psychobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58:724-733, 2016.
Savman, K; Nilsson, U A; Blennow, M; Kjellmer, I; Whitelaw, A
Posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD) is closely associated with white matter injury and neurologic disability in the preterm infant. An important factor in periventricular white matter damage may be the specific vulnerability of iron-rich immature oligodendroglia to reactive oxygen species toxicity. Non-protein-bound iron (NPBI) is a potent catalyst in the generation of hydroxyl radicals (Fenton reaction). Our objective was to determine whether NPBI is increased in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from preterm infants with PHVD compared with preterm control infants. Samples of CSF were obtained from 20 infants with PHVD and 10 control subjects. The level of NPBI was determined by a new spectrophotometric method using bathophenanthroline as a chelator. To evaluate the effect of hemolysis, CSF and blood were mixed in different proportions, spun, frozen and thawed, and then analyzed for NPBI. NPBI was found in 75% (15 of 20) of infants with PHVD and in 0% (0 of 10) of control infants (p = 0.0002). Hemolysis induced in vitro did not result in any significant levels of NPBI. Within the group with PHVD, NPBI concentrations in CSF did not correlate with disability, parenchymal brain lesions, or the need for shunt surgery. NPBI was increased in CSF from preterm infants with PHVD, and the increase could not be explained by hemolysis alone. Free iron may help to explain the association between intraventricular hemorrhage and white matter damage.
Moeskops, Pim; Benders, Manon J. N. L.; Pearlman, Paul C.; Kersbergen, Karina J.; Leemans, Alexander; Viergever, Max A.; Išgum, Ivana
The cerebral cortex rapidly develops its folding during the second and third trimester of pregnancy. In preterm birth, this growth might be disrupted and influence neurodevelopment. The aim of this work is to extract quantitative biomarkers describing the cortex and evaluate them on a set of preterm infants without brain pathology. For this study, a set of 19 preterm - but otherwise healthy - infants scanned coronally with 3T MRI at the postmenstrual age of 30 weeks were selected. In ten patients (test set), the gray and white matter were manually annotated by an expert on the T2-weighted scans. Manual segmentations were used to extract cortical volume, surface area, thickness, and curvature using voxel-based methods. To compute these biomarkers per region in every patient, a template brain image has been generated by iterative registration and averaging of the scans of the remaining nine patients. This template has been manually divided in eight regions, and is transformed to every test image using elastic registration. In the results, gray and white matter volumes and cortical surface area appear symmetric between hemispheres, but small regional differences are visible. Cortical thickness seems slightly higher in the right parietal lobe than in other regions. The parietal lobes exhibit a higher global curvature, indicating more complex folding compared to other regions. The proposed approach can potentially - together with an automatic segmentation algorithm - be applied as a tool to assist in early diagnosis of abnormalities and prediction of the development of the cognitive abilities of these children.
Posod, Anna; Odri Komazec, Irena; Kager, Katrin; Pupp Peglow, Ulrike; Griesmaier, Elke; Schermer, Elisabeth; Würtinger, Philipp; Baumgartner, Daniela
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Evidence points towards an unfavorable cardiovascular risk profile of former preterm infants in adolescence and adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine whether cardiovascular risk predictors are detectable in former very preterm infants at a preschool age. Five- to seven-year-old children born at <32 weeks’ gestational age were included in the study. Same-aged children born at term served as controls. Basic data of study participants were collected by means of follow-up databases and standardized questionnaires. At study visit, anthropometric data, blood pressure readings and aortic intima-media thickness were assessed. Blood samples were obtained after an overnight fast. In comparison to children born at term, former preterm infants had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] per 1-SD higher blood pressure level 3.2 [2.0–5.0], p<0.001 and 1.6 [1.1–1.2], p = 0.008), fasting glucose levels (OR [95% CI] 5.2 [2.7–10.1], p<0.001), homeostasis model assessment index (OR [95% CI] 1.6 [1.0–2.6], p = 0.036), and cholesterol levels (OR [95% CI] 2.1 [1.3–3.4], p = 0.002). Systolic prehypertension (23.7% vs. 2.2%; OR [95% CI] 13.8 [3.1–60.9], p = 0.001), elevated glucose levels (28.6% vs. 5.9%; OR [95% CI] 6.4 [1.4–28.8], p = 0.016), and hypercholesterolemia (77.4% vs. 52.9%; OR [95% CI] 3.0 [1.3–7.1], p = 0.010) were significantly more prevalent in the preterm group. As former very preterm infants display an unfavorable cardiovascular risk profile already at a preschool age, implementation of routine cardiovascular follow-up programs might be warranted. PMID:27959909
Cecchini, Stefano; Schena, Emiliano; Silvestri, Sergio
We describe the underlying theory, design and experimental evaluation of an electromechanical analogue infant lung to simulate spontaneous breathing patterns of preterm infants. The aim of this work is to test the possibility to obtain breathing patterns of preterm infants by taking into consideration the air compressibility. Respiratory volume function represents the actuation pattern, and pulmonary pressure and flow-rate waveforms are mathematically obtained through the application of the perfect gas and adiabatic laws. The mathematical model reduces the simulation interval into a step shorter than 1 ms, allowing to consider an entire respiratory act as composed of a large number of almost instantaneous adiabatic transformations. The device consists of a spherical chamber where the air is compressed by four cylinder-pistons, moved by stepper motors, and flows through a fluid-dynamic resistance, which also works as flow-rate sensor. Specifically designed software generates the actuators motion, based on the desired ventilation parameters, without controlling the gas pneumatic parameters with a closed-loop. The system is able to simulate tidal volumes from 3 to 8 ml, breathing frequencies from 60 to 120 bpm and functional residual capacities from 25 to 80 ml. The simulated waveforms appear very close to the measured ones. Percentage differences on the tidal volume waveform vary from 7% for the tidal volume of 3 ml, down to 2.2-3.5% for tidal volumes in the range of 4-7 ml, and 1.3% for the tidal volume equal to 8 ml in the whole breathing frequency and functional residual capacity ranges. The open-loop electromechanical simulator shows that gas compressibility can be theoretically assessed in the typical pneumatic variable range of preterm infant respiratory mechanics.
Lanaro, Diego; Ruffini, Nuria; Manzotti, Andrea; Lista, Gianluca
Abstract Background: Osteopathic medicine is an emerging and complementary method used in neonatology. Methods: Outcomes were the mean difference in length of stay (LOS) and costs between osteopathy and alternative treatment group. A comprehensive literature search of (quasi)- randomized controlled trials (RCTs), was conducted from journal inception to May, 2015. Eligible studies must have treated preterm infants directly in the crib or bed and Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT) must have been performed by osteopaths. A rigorous Cochrane-like method was used for study screening and selection, risk of bias assessment and data reporting. Fixed effect meta-analysis was performed to synthesize data. Results: 5 trials enrolling 1306 infants met our inclusion criteria. Although the heterogeneity was moderate (I2 = 61%, P = 0.03), meta-analysis of all five studies showed that preterm infants treated with OMT had a significant reduction of LOS by 2.71 days (95% CI −3.99, −1.43; P < 0.001). Considering costs, meta-analysis showed reduction in the OMT group (−1,545.66€, −1,888.03€, −1,203.29€, P < 0.0001). All studies reported no adverse events associated to OMT. Subgroup analysis showed that the benefit of OMT is inversely associated to gestational age. Conclusions: The present systematic review showed the clinical effectiveness of OMT on the reduction of LOS and costs in a large population of preterm infants. PMID:28328840
Belfort, Mandy B.; Santo, Eilann; McCormick, Marie C.
Background Former preterm and very low birth weight (VLBW) infants require close neurodevelopmental surveillance after hospital discharge, but in-person professional testing is resource-intensive and inconvenient for families. A standardised developmental questionnaire completed by parents offers an alternative to in-person testing, but few such questionnaires have been validated. Our aim was to validate the Motor and Social Development (MSD) scale in a sample of former preterm infants. Methods We studied 321 visits to a neonatal follow-up clinic. Parents completed the MSD, which measures cognitive, motor, and social abilities. Psychologists and physical therapists administered the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd edition (Bayley-III) cognitive and motor scales. Results The median (range) gestational age was 28 (23, 34) weeks and birthweight 980 (400, 2700) g. Corrected age at study participation ranged 5–35 months. The mean (standard deviation) Bayley-III motor score was 94 (16); cognitive 98 (16); and MSD 91 (18). Internal consistency of the MSD was moderate to high (Cronbach alpha of 0.65 to 0.88). The MSD was moderately correlated with the Bayley-III motor (Pearson r=0.49, P<0.001) and cognitive (r=0.45, P<0.001) scales. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81, 0.95) for the MSD to detect a low Bayley-III motor score (<70); and 0.88 (95% CI 0.82, 0.95) for a low cognitive score, indicating good discrimination. Conclusions The MSD has good internal and concurrent validity, and may be useful for neurodevelopmental assessment of former preterm and VLBW infants in clinical and research settings. PMID:23374065
Siew, Melissa L.; van Vonderen, Jeroen J.; Hooper, Stuart B.; te Pas, Arjan B.
Objective To investigate the differences in breathing pattern and effort in infants at birth who failed or succeeded on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during the first 48 hours after birth. Methods Respiratory function recordings of 32 preterm infants were reviewed of which 15 infants with a gestational age of 28.6 (0.7) weeks failed CPAP and 17 infants with a GA of 30.1 (0.4) weeks did not fail CPAP. Frequency, duration and tidal volumes (VT) of expiratory holds (EHs), peak inspiratory flows, CPAP-level and FiO2-levels were analysed. Results EH incidence increased <6 minutes after birth and remained stable thereafter. EH peak inspiratory flows and VT were similar between CPAP-fail and CPAP-success infants. At 9-12 minutes, CPAP-fail infants more frequently used smaller VTs, 0-9 ml/kg and required higher peak inspiratory flows. However, CPAP-success infants often used large VTs (>9 ml/kg) with higher peak inspiratory flows than CPAP-fail infants (71.8 ± 15.8 vs. 15.5 ± 5.2 ml/kg.s, p <0.05). CPAP-fail infants required higher FiO2 (0.31 ± 0.03 vs. 0.21 ± 0.01), higher CPAP pressures (6.62 ± 0.3 vs. 5.67 ± 0.26 cmH2O) and more positive pressure-delivered breaths (45 ± 12 vs. 19 ± 9%) (p <0.05) Conclusion At 9-12 minutes after birth, CPAP-fail infants more commonly used lower VTs and required higher peak inspiratory flow rates while receiving greater respiratory support. VT was less variable and larger VT was infrequently used reflecting early signs of fatigue. PMID:26052947
Cooke, Richard J
Despite recent innovations in nutritional care, postnatal growth failure between birth and hospital discharge remains a significant problem in preterm infants. Whether or not it is entirely preventable is unclear. What is clear is that feeding practices and growth outcomes vary widely between neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This partly reflects lack of data in key areas but it also reflects inconsistent translation of principles into practice and limitations in the way infants are fed and growth monitored in the NICU. These issues will be reviewed, in the process underline the key roles that audit, standardised feeding protocol, individualised nutritional care and a nutritional support team play in improving outcome in these high-risk infants.
Bonfim, Suely de Fátima Santos Freire; de Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete Lucena; de Sousa, Nayara Francisca Cabral; da Silva, Daiana Vieira Câmara; Leal, Luciana Pedrosa
OBJECTIVE: to assess the incidence and risk factors associated with nasal septum injury in premature infants using reused and new nasal prongs. METHOD: the study was a cohort from an open therapeutic intervention. The sample included 70 infants with a gestational age inferior to 37 weeks, who used nasal prongs and were hospitalized at the neonatal service of a hospital in Recife-PE, in the Northeast of Brazil. The data were collected in patient files through the assessment of the application of the device and of the nasal septum. Multinomial Logistic Regression and Survival analyses were applied. RESULTS: the incidence of nasal injury corresponded to 62.9%. In the multiple analysis, only the length of the infant's treatment was a determinant factor for the occurrence and severity of the injuries. CONCLUSION: the type of nasal prong does not serve as a risk factor for the nasal injury. The high incidence of nasal injury indicates the need to adapt the nursing care with emphasis on prevention. PMID:25493679
Clark, Matthew T.; Delos, John B.; Lake, Douglas E.; Lee, Hoshik; Fairchild, Karen D.; Kattwinkel, John; Moorman, J. Randall
Summary A near-ubiquitous pathology in very low birth weight infants is neonatal apnea, breathing pauses with slowing of the heart and falling blood oxygen. Events of substantial duration occasionally occur after an infant is discharged from the NICU. It is not known whether apneas result from a predictable process or from a stochastic process, but the observation that they occur in seemingly random clusters justifies the use of stochastic models. We use a hidden-Markov model to analyze the distribution of durations of apneas and the distribution of times between apneas. The model suggests the presence of four breathing states, ranging from very stable (with an average lifetime of 12 hours) to very unstable (with an average lifetime of 10 seconds). Although the states themselves are not visible, the mathematical analysis gives estimates of the transition rates among these states. We have obtained these transition rates, and shown how they change with post-menstrual age; as expected, the residence time in the more stable breathing states increases with age. We also extrapolated the model to predict the frequency of very prolonged apnea during the first year of life. This paradigm – stochastic modeling of cardiorespiratory control in neonatal infants to estimate risk for severe clinical events – may be a first step toward personalized risk assessment for life threatening apnea events after NICU discharge. PMID:26963049
Armbrust, Sven; Kramer, Axel; Olbertz, Dirk; Zimmermann, Kathrin; Fusch, Christoph
Background Norovirus is an important cause of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis in all ages. Atypical courses are described. Clinical symptoms are diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, abdominal cramps, fever and malaise. Apart from three recent short reports we describe for the first time an outbreak of norovirus in a tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Findings The typical symptoms of norovirus infection are in part also seen in premature born infants but with a different pattern and a huge variety of clinical courses. Vomiting is not the main symptom of norovirus infection in premature infants but distended abdomen and other symptoms such as apnea, gastric remainders or sepsis like appearance. The course in premature born patients could be explained by an immunocompromised mice model. Extensive hygienic measures were necessary to control the outbreak without closing the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Conclusion Norovirus infection in premature infants shows an impressive pattern of a wide variety of clinical courses. Only the consequent use of different hygienic pattern can lead to elimination of norovirus. PMID:19490612
De Paepe, Monique E; Shapiro, Svetlana; Hansen, Katrine; Gündoğan, Füsun
Assessment of lung growth is a critical component of the perinatal autopsy. Increased lung liquid content may lead to overestimation of lung growth based on (wet) lung weight. In contrast, lung volume is not influenced by intraalveolar lung liquid. Our aim was to establish age-specific reference values for postmortem lung volume/BW in preterm and term infants. We performed a retrospective analysis of fetuses/infants (16-41 weeks' gestation) without (N = 134) or with (N = 79) risk factors for pulmonary hypoplasia. Lungs were inflated at standardized pressure and volumes determined by water immersion method. Lung volume increased 11-fold between 16 and 41 weeks' gestation, concomitant with a 16-fold increase in BW. Mean lung volume/BW remained constant at 33-34 ml/kg between 16 and 31 weeks' gestation and decreased to 23.4 ml/kg at term. Lung volume/BW of infants with severe risk factors (renal anomalies, diaphragmatic hernia) was significantly lower than age-matched standards. In this group, all fetuses/infants diagnosed as having lung hypoplasia by lung volume/BW also had lung hypoplasia LW/BW standards. However, in infants with "softer" risk factors (rupture of membranes, chromosomal anomalies), 5/26 cases diagnosed with lung hypoplasia based on lung volume/BW had normal LW/BW ratios. In these discrepant cases, lung sections showed significant inflammation and edema, likely accounting for increased wet lung weight. In conclusion, we determined age-specific lung volume/BW reference values for preterm and term infants. In selected situations assessment of lung volume/BW may represent a useful complementary tool to LW/BW for postmortem evaluation of lung size.
Christian, Eisha A; Melamed, Edward F; Peck, Edwin; Krieger, Mark D; McComb, J Gordon
OBJECT Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) in the preterm infant remains a major neurological complication of prematurity. The authors first described insertion of a specially designed low-profile subcutaneous ventricular catheter reservoir for temporary management of hydrocephalus in 1983. This report presents the follow-up experience with the surgical management of PHH in this population and describes outcomes both in infants who were stable for permanent shunt insertion and those initially temporized with a ventricular reservoir (VR) prior to permanent ventriculoperitoneal (VP)/ventriculoatrial (VA) shunt placement. METHODS A retrospective review was undertaken of the medical records of all premature infants surgically treated for posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) between 1997 and 2012 at Children's Hospital Los Angeles. RESULTS Over 14 years, 91 preterm infants with PHH were identified. Fifty neonates received temporizing measures via a VR that was serially tapped for varying time periods. For the remaining 41 premature infants, VP/VA shunt placement was the first procedure. Patients with a temporizing measure as their initial procedure had undergone CSF diversion significantly earlier in life than those who had permanent shunting as the initial procedure (29 vs 56 days after birth, p < 0.01). Of the infants with a VR as their initial procedure, 5/50 (10%) did not undergo subsequent VP/VA shunt placement. The number of shunt revisions and the rates of loculated hydrocephalus and shunt infection did not statistically differ between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS Patients with initial VR insertion as a temporizing measure received a CSF diversion procedure significantly earlier than those who received a permanent shunt as their initial procedure. Otherwise, the outcomes with regard to shunt revisions, loculated hydrocephalus, and shunt infection were not different for the 2 groups.
Palac, Hannah L.; Yogev, Ram; Ernst, Linda M.; Mestan, Karen K.
Background Early onset sepsis (EOS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants, yet diagnosis remains inadequate resulting in missed cases or prolonged empiric antibiotics with adverse consequences. Evaluation of acute phase reactant (APR) biomarkers in umbilical cord blood at birth may improve EOS detection in preterm infants with intrauterine infection. Methods In this nested case-control study, infants (29.7 weeks gestation, IQR: 27.7–32.2) were identified from a longitudinal cohort with archived cord blood and placental histopathology. Patients were categorized using culture, laboratory, clinical, and antibiotic treatment data into sepsis groups: confirmed sepsis (cEOS, n = 12); presumed sepsis (PS, n = 30); and no sepsis (controls, n = 30). Nine APRs were measured in duplicate from cord blood using commercially available multiplex immunoassays (Bio-Plex Pro™). In addition, placental histopathologic data were linked to biomarker results. Results cEOS organisms were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Proteus mirabilis, Haemophilus influenzae and Listeria monocytogenes. C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid P and ferritin were significantly elevated in cEOS compared to controls (p<0.01). SAA, CRP, and Hp were elevated in cEOS but not in PS (p<0.01) and had AUCs of 99%, 96%, and 95% respectively in predicting cEOS. Regression analysis revealed robust associations of SAA, CRP, and Hp with EOS after adjustment for covariates. Procalcitonin, fibrinogen, α-2-macroglobulin and tissue plasminogen activator were not significantly different across groups. Placental acute inflammation was associated with APR elevation and was present in all cEOS, 9 PS, and 17 control infants. Conclusion This study shows that certain APRs are elevated in cord blood of premature infants with EOS of intrauterine origin. SAA, CRP, and Hp at birth have potential diagnostic utility for risk stratification and
Lobo, Michele A.; Galloway, James C.
Infants born preterm have increased risk for learning disabilities yet we lack assessments to successfully detect these disabilities in early life. We followed 23 full-term and 29 preterm infants from birth through 24 months to assess for differences in and stability of learning abilities across time. Measures included the Bayley-III cognitive…
Schneider, J; Vasung, L; Truttmann, A C; Huppi, P S
Due to advances in neonatal intensive care over the last decades, the pattern of brain injury seen in very preterm infants has evolved in more subtle lesions that are still essential to diagnose in regard to neurodevelopmental outcome. While cranial ultrasound is still used at the bedside, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming increasingly used in this population for the assessment of brain maturation and white and grey matter lesions. Therefore, MRI provides a better prognostic value for the neurodevelopmental outcome of these preterms. Furthermore, the development of new MRI techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging, resting state functional connectivity and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, may further increase the prognostic value, helping to counsel parents and allocate early intervention services.
Perrella, Sharon L; Hepworth, Anna R; Gridneva, Zoya; Simmer, Karen N; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T
We evaluated the effects of fortification and composition on gastric emptying and curding in un/fortified pairs of mother's own milk (MOM, n = 17) and pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM, n = 15) in preterm infants. Retained meal proportions (%) and curding were determined from sonography. Immediate and subsequent postprandial % were higher for PDHM (23%, P = 0.026; 15%, P = 0.006) and fortified meals (31.5%; 8.8%, both P < 0.001), whereas higher casein, whey, and lactose concentrations were associated with lower immediate postprandial % (all P < 0.006). Curding did not affect emptying. Influences of fortification, pasteurization, and differing breast milk compositions are small and unlikely implicated in preterm feeding intolerance.
Boss, Renee D.
Extremely premature infants face multiple acute and chronic life-threatening conditions. In addition, the treatments to ameliorate or cure these conditions often entail pain and discomfort. Integrating palliative care from the moment that extremely premature labor is diagnosed offers families and clinicians support through the process of defining…
Abdel-Hady, H; Mohareb, S; Khashaba, M; Abu-Alkhair, M; Greisen, G
This trial assessed the consequences of discontinuation of nasal-CPAP in stable preterm infants breathing room air. Eighty-eight infants with a mean gestational age of 29 (24-33) weeks and a mean birthweight of 1264 (665-2060)g, randomized to either discontinuation of CPAP or its continuation, were clinically observed and monitored for 6 h by cardiorespiratory monitor, pulse oximeter and transcutaneous blood gas monitor. The abdominal circumference and gastric air and aspirate volumes were measured prior to meals at trial entry and after 6 h. Discontinuation of CPAP led to a small but significant decrease in oxygenation at 1 and 6 h. During the trial, five infants in the experimental group required supplemental oxygen and one infant was put back on CPAP owing to excessive apnoeas. Discontinuation of CPAP did not influence the TcPCO2 or the number of apnoeas and bradycardias during the trial, but led to significantly increased respiratory rate, retractions, and flaring at 6 h. It also led to a significant decrease in the abdominal circumference and gastric air volume. Thirty-nine percent of infants were put back on CPAP some time after the trial, mainly because of recurrent apnoeas and bradycardias. Taking the infant off CPAP during the trial reduced subsequent use of CPAP.
Leone, Tina A; Finer, Neil N; Rich, Wade
The immediate newborn transition is a time of great physiologic adjustments and many infants need assistance to make a successful transition to newborn life. Assisted ventilation is the most important intervention performed during this transitional period. Noninvasive ventilation is a necessary skill for all pediatric providers because it is the most frequently required lifesaving measure provided in the delivery room. Providing ventilation in the least injurious manner is also necessary and many aspects of how this can best be done are still unknown. Following the normal physiology of fetal to neonatal transition continues to be a logical, but challenging, approach to initial ventilatory support of the newborn in the delivery room.
Madlinger-Lewis, Laura; Reynolds, Lauren; Zarem, Cori; Crapnell, Tara; Inder, Terrie; Pineda, Roberta
There is a paucity of studies that have investigated the developmental benefits of positioning in the neonatal intensive care unit. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a new, alternative positioning device compared to traditional positioning methods used with preterm infants. In this randomized, blinded clinical trial, one hundred preterm infants (born ≤32 weeks gestation) from a level III neonatal intensive care unit in the United States were enrolled at birth. Participants were randomized to be positioned in the alternative positioning device or to traditional positioning methods for their length of stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. Infants were assessed using the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale at term equivalent age. Clinical and feeding outcomes were also captured. Linear and logistic regression were used to investigate differences in neurobehavioral outcome, feeding performance, and medical outcomes. Infants in the alternative positioning arm of the study demonstrated less asymmetry of reflex and motor responses on the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (p=0.04; Adjusted Mean Difference=0.90, 95% CI 0.05–1.75) than those positioned using traditional positioning methods. No other significant differences were observed. Reductions in asymmetry among preterm infants is an important benefit of alternative positioning, as symmetrical movement and responses are crucial for early development. However, it will be important to follow this sample of preterm infants to determine the effects of early positioning on neurodevelopmental outcome in childhood. PMID:24374602
Imdad, Aamer; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Globally, about 20 million infants are born with low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g). Of all LBW infants, approximately 95% are born in developing countries. The greatest incidence of LBW occurs in South-Central Asia; the second greatest is in Africa. The two main reasons for LBW are preterm birth (<37 weeks) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), which are risk factors for increased morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. Maternal nutrition status is one of the most important risk factors for LBW/IUGR. Providing balanced protein energy and multiple micronutrient supplements to pregnant women will reduce incidence of IUGR. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy will reduce the incidence of pre-eclampsia and preterm birth in developing countries. Exclusive breastfeeding is protective for a mother and her infant and has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in infancy. Kangaroo mother care for preterm infants will reduce severe morbidity and mortality as well. Community-based intervention packages are among the most effective methods of reducing morbidity and mortality in mothers and children. Future research should focus on improving triage of preterm and IUGR infants. Exclusive breastfeeding should be promoted, and appropriate alternative food supplements should be provided when breastfeeding is not possible.
Beaino, Ghada; Khoshnood, Babak; Kaminski, Monique; Marret, Stéphane; Pierrat, Véronique; Vieux, Rachel; Thiriez, Gérard; Matis, Jacqueline; Picaud, Jean-Charles; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Alberge, Corine; Larroque, Béatrice; Bréart, Gérard; Ancel, Pierre-Yves
Aim To assess cerebral lesions and other medical as well as social characteristics as predictors of risk of mild and severe cognitive deficiencies in very preterm infants. Methods As part of the EPIPAGE population-based prospective cohort study, perinatal data and cognitive outcome at 5 years of age were recorded for 1503 infants born before 33 weeks of gestation in nine regions of France in 1997. Mild cognitive deficiency was defined as a Mental Processing Composite score on the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children test of between 70 and 84, and severe cognitive deficiency as a score of <70. Results After controlling for cerebral lesions and other medical as well as social factors, low parental socio-economic status and lack of breastfeeding were significant predictors of mild and severe cognitive deficiencies, whereas presence of cerebral lesions, being small for gestational age and having a large number of siblings were predictors of severe cognitive deficiency. Conclusion Predictors of poor cognitive outcome in very preterm infants are low social status, lack of breastfeeding, presence of cerebral lesions on ultrasound scan, being born small for gestational age and having a high number of siblings. Social factors predicted both mild and severe cognitive deficiencies, whereas medical factors predicted mostly severe cognitive deficiencies. PMID:21241364
Samuels, Noor; van de Graaf, Rob; Been, Jasper V.; de Jonge, Rogier C. J.; Hanff, Lidwien M.; Wijnen, René M. H.; Kornelisse, René F.; Reiss, Irwin K. M.; Vermeulen, Marijn J.
Evidence on the clinical effectiveness of probiotics in the prevention of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants is conflicting and cohort studies lacked adjustment for time trend and feeding type. This study investigated the association between the introduction of routine probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum; Infloran®) on the primary outcome ‘NEC or death’. Preterm infants (gestational age <32 weeks or birth weight <1500 gram) admitted before (Jan 2008–Sep 2012; n = 1288) and after (Oct 2012–Dec 2014; n = 673) introduction of probiotics were compared. Interrupted time series logistic regression models were adjusted for confounders, effect modification by feeding type, seasonality and underlying temporal trends. Unadjusted and adjusted analyses showed no difference in ‘NEC or death’ between the two periods. The overall incidence of NEC declined from 7.8% to 5.1% (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42–0.93, p = 0.02), which was not statistically significant in the adjusted models. Introduction of probiotics was associated with a reduced adjusted odds for ‘NEC or sepsis or death’ in exclusively breastmilk-fed infants (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.21–0.93, p = 0.03) only. We conclude that introduction of probiotics was not associated with a reduction in ‘NEC or death’ and that type of feeding seems to modify the effects of probiotics. PMID:27545195
Amann, Elena; Uhlig, Ulrike; Yang, Yang; Fuchs, Hans W.; Zemlin, Michael; Mercier, Jean-Christophe; Maier, Rolf F.; Hummler, Helmut D.; Uhlig, Stefan; Thome, Ulrich H.
Background Ventilated preterm infants frequently develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) which is associated with elevated inflammatory mediators in their tracheal aspirates (TA). In animal models of BPD, inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been shown to reduce lung inflammation, but data for human preterm infants is missing. Methods Within a European multicenter trial of NO inhalation for preterm infants to prevent BPD (EUNO), TA was collected to determine the effects of iNO on pulmonary inflammation. TA was collected from 43 premature infants randomly assigned to receive either iNO or placebo gas (birth weight 530–1230 g, median 800 g, gestational age 24 to 28 2/7 weeks, median 26 weeks). Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, interferon γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), neuropeptide Y and leukotriene B4 were measured in serial TA samples from postnatal day 2 to 14. Furthermore, TA levels of nitrotyrosine and nitrite were determined under iNO therapy. Results The TA levels of IP-10, IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1α, IL-1β, ASM and albumin increased with advancing postnatal age in critically ill preterm infants, whereas nitrotyrosine TA levels declined in both, iNO-treated and placebo-treated infants. The iNO treatment generally increased nitrite TA levels, whereas nitrotyrosine TA levels were not affected by iNO treatment. Furthermore, iNO treatment transiently reduced early inflammatory and fibrotic markers associated with BPD development including TGF-β1, IP-10 and IL-8, but induced a delayed increase of ASM TA levels. Conclusion Treatment with iNO may have played a role in reducing several inflammatory and fibrotic mediators in TA of preterm infants compared to placebo-treated infants. However, survival without BPD was not affected in the main EUNO trial. Trial registration NCT00551642 PMID:28046032
Padilla, Nelly; Falcón, Carles; Sanz-Cortés, Magdalena; Figueras, Francesc; Bargallo, Núria; Crispi, Fátima; Eixarch, Elisenda; Arranz, Angela; Botet, Francesc; Gratacós, Eduard
Previous evidence suggests that preterm newborns with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have specific neurostructural and neurodevelopmental anomalies, but it is unknown whether these effects persist in early childhood. We studied a sample of 18 preterm IUGR, 15 preterm AGA - born between 26 and 34 weeks of gestational age (GA) - and 15 healthy born-term infants. Infants were scanned at 12 months corrected age (CA), in a 3T scanner, without sedation. Analyses were made by automated lobar volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed in all subjects at 18 months CA with the Bayley Scale for Infant and Toddler Development, third edition. IUGR infants had reduced relative volumes for the insular and temporal lobes. According to VBM, IUGR infants had bilateral reduced gray matter (GM) in the temporal, parietal, frontal, and insular regions compared with the other groups. IUGR infants had increased white matter (WM) in temporal regions compared to the AGA group and in frontal, parietal, occipital, and insular regions compared to the term group. They also showed decreased WM in the cerebellum and a non-significant trend in the hippocampus compared to term infants. IUGR infants had reduced neurodevelopmental scores, which were positively correlated with GM in various regions. These data suggest that the IUGR induces a distinct brain pattern of structural changes that persist at 1 year of life and are associated with specific developmental difficulties.
Kavanaugh, Karen; Moro, Teresa T.; Savage, Teresa A.
Objective To describe nurse behaviors that assisted parents to make life support decisions for an extremely premature infant before and after the infant’s birth. Design Qualitative, longitudinal, collective case study where interviews were done pre- and postnatally and medical chart data were collected. Setting Interviews were conducted face-to-face in a private room in the hospital, in the mother’s home, or over the telephone. Participants A sample of 40 cases (40 mothers, 14 fathers, 42 physicians, 17 obstetric nurses, 6 neonatal nurses, and 6 neonatal nurse practitioners) was recruited from three hospitals that provided high risk perinatal care. Parents were at least 18 years of age, English speaking, and had participated in a prenatal discussion with a physician regarding treatment decisions for their infant due to threatened preterm delivery. Physicians and nurses were those identified by parents who had spoken to them about life support treatment decisions for the infant. Methods Using a semi-structured interview guide, a total of 203 interviews were conducted (137 prenatal, 51 postnatal, and 15 end-of-life). For this analysis, all coded data related to the nurse’s role were analyzed and summarized. Results Parents and nurses both described several nurse behaviors: providing emotional support; giving information, and meeting the physical care needs of mothers, infants, and fathers. Physicians’ description of the nurse behaviors focused on the way nurses provided emotional support and gave information. Conclusions Nurses play a critical role in assisting parents surrounding life support decisions. PMID:20409115
Phillips, Sam; de Waal, Koert A
Background: The diameter of the aortic root is used as a parameter to calculate blood flow in very preterm infants. There are considerable differences in diameter of the four anatomical landmarks of the aortic root in children and adults, but limited data are available for the very preterm population. The aim of this study was to obtain reference and reliability data on two-dimensional measurements of the aortic root in very preterm infants <30 weeks gestation. Materials and Methods: Fifty long axis echocardiograms were reviewed and re-analyzed for measurements at the four anatomical landmarks of the aortic root; the aortic annulus, sinus of Valsalva (SV), sinotubular junction, and the proximal ascending aorta (PAA). A subjective visual scoring system was developed to quantify image quality. A random sample of images was blindly re-measured to assess intra- and inter-observer reliability. Results: Significant differences in diameter were found between the four landmarks, except between SV and PAA. Inter-observer coefficients showed marginal variation ranging from 5.0% to 8.2%, with slightly lower intra-observer variability. Overall image quality score was poorest for PAA on standard long axis images but improved when the probe was adjusted along the outflow tract. Conclusion: We present reliability and reference values for all four anatomic landmarks of the aortic root in very preterm infants and demonstrated the importance of standardizing and reporting cardiac output measurements in preterm infants. PMID:26556963
Beckwith, Leila; And Others
Caregiver-infant transactions with 51 premature infants were studied in naturalistic observations in the home when the infants were aged 1, 3, and 8 months. Gesell developmental schedules and a sensorimotor scale were administered at 9 months. (Author/JH)
Yang, Chunyan; Liu, Zhaoguo; Tian, Min; Xu, Ping; Li, Baoyun; Yang, Qiaozhi; Yang, Yujun
Background We aimed to evaluate the clinical value of serum albumin levels for the evaluation and prognosis of late preterm infants with infections. Material/Methods This was a retrospective study performed in late preterm infants admitted at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the Liaocheng People’s Hospital between July 2012 and March 2013. Data, including laboratory test results, neonatal critical illness score (NCIS), perinatal complications and prognosis, were analyzed. The newborn infants were divided into 3 groups according to their serum albumin levels, (≥30 g/L, 25–30 g/L and ≤25 g/L for high, moderate, and low, respectively). Results Among 257 patients, birth weight was 2003±348 g, gestational age was 35.7±2.3 weeks, and 59.1% were male. In addition, 127 (49.4%) were in the low albumin group. There were 32 patients with sepsis, 190 with infections, and 35 without infection, and their rates of hypoalbuminemia were 86.0%, 50.5%, and 30.7%, respectively (P<0.05). Albumin levels of the patients who survived were higher than those of the patients who died. In the low albumin group, the number of individual-event-critical NCIS cases and the frequency of multiple organs injuries were 63.8% and 28.3%, respectively, and were higher than in the 2 other groups. Mortality was higher in patients with sepsis. Hypoalbuminemia was associated with severe adverse outcomes (odds ratio=6.3, 95% confidence interval: 3.7–10.9, P<0.001). Conclusions Hypoalbuminemia was frequent among neonates with sepsis. Lower albumin levels might be associated with a poorer prognosis. Albumin levels could be appropriate for the diagnosis and prognosis of late preterm neonates with infections. PMID:26747243
Patel, Aloka L.; Mutlu, Ece A.; Sun, Yan; Koenig, Lars; Green, Stefan; Jakubowicz, Andrew; Mryan, Janet; Engen, Phillip; Fogg, Louis; Chen, Andrea L.; Pombar, Xavier; Meier, Paula P.; Keshavarzian, Ali
Objectives To examine the changes in bacteria in hospitalized preterm infants over the first month of life. Methods Rectal swabs were collected daily from 12 preterm infants. DNA was extracted from swabs from day of birth and weekly thereafter. Bacterial taxa were identified with next generation sequencing using universal bacterial primers targeted at the 16S rDNA on a 454 Roche titanium platform. Sequences were clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and taxonomy was assigned against the Greengenes databank using Qiime1.4. Quantitative PCR was used to determine the abundance of Bifidobacterium spp. Functional assessment of the microbiome was performed with PICRUSt. Results Average birth weight and gestational age were 1055g and 28 weeks, respectively. There were 6-35 different bacterial families identified in the day of birth samples, unrelated to mode of delivery. Richness decreased over hospitalization (week 1: 16.9±7.7 vs. weeks 3-5: 10.7±3.4, p<0.001). The Shannon diversity index demonstrated lowest diversity at birth, an increase at week 2, followed by a rapid decline at weeks 3-5, suggesting development of a more uniform microbiota composition after 2 weeks of NICU stay. Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcaceae, and Enterococcaceae constituted the majority of the bacterial families. Bifidobacterium spp. were infrequently detected at very low levels. PICRUSt analysis revealed enhancement of peroxisome, PPAR and adipocytokine signaling; plant-pathogen interaction; and aminobenzoate degradation pathways in week 1 samples. Conclusions Our results suggest that while preterm infants have individualized microbiota that are detectable at birth, the differences decrease during the neonatal intensive care unit hospitalization with increasing prominence of pathogenic microbiota. PMID:26230901
Schwab, Frank; Garten, Lars; Geffers, Christine; Gastmeier, Petra; Piening, Brar
Objective To determine the effect of dual-strain probiotics on the development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), mortality and nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSI) in preterm infants in German neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Design A multi-center interrupted time series analysis. Setting 44 German NICUs with routine use of dual-strain probiotics on neonatal ward level. Patients Preterm infants documented by NEO-KISS, the German surveillance system for nosocomial infections in preterm infants with birth weights below 1,500 g, between 2004 and 2014. Intervention Routine use of dual-strain probiotics containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. (Infloran) on the neonatal ward level. Main outcome measures Incidences of NEC, overall mortality, mortality following NEC and nosocomial BSI. Results Data from 10,890 preterm infants in 44 neonatal wards was included in this study. Incidences of NEC and BSI were 2.5% (n = 274) and 15.0%, (n = 1631), respectively. Mortality rate was 6.1% (n = 665). The use of dual-strain probiotics significantly reduced the risk of NEC (HR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.38–0.62), overall mortality (HR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.44–0.83), mortality after NEC (HR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.26–0.999) and nosocomial BSI (HR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.81–0.98). These effects were even more pronounced in the subgroup analysis of preterm infants with birth weights below 1,000 g. Conclusion In order to reduce NEC and mortality in preterm infants, it is advisable to add routine prophylaxis with dual-strain probiotics to clinical practice in neonatal wards. PMID:27332554
Yu, Xiurong; Sun, Hongying; Lin, Xiangyun; Liu, Xiuxiang
BACKGROUND Breast feeding can enhance preterm infants' neurodevelopmental outcome, regulate immune function development. This study aims to develop breastfeeding evaluation indicators system in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) and to provide theoretical basis for all-round evaluation of breast feeding quality for hospitalized preterm infants. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study was performed based on Avedis Donabedian's theory of medical care quality. Preterm infant breast feeding evaluation indicators system frame was initially formed by using literature review, clinical on-spot observation and expert consultation methods. By using specialists meeting method and Delphi method, evaluation indicators system for preterm infants breastfeeding was verified and established. Breastfeeding evaluation indicators system were performed in NICU of hospitals in Binzhou and Shanghai. Feasibility and usability of indicators system were examined. RESULTS Breastfeeding evaluation indicators system for preterm infants comprise 3 levels, including level 1 (3 indicators), level 2 (7 indicators), and level 3 (18 indicators). Recognition rates of importance for level 2 and 3 range from 94.4% to 100.0% and 80.6% to 100.0%, respectively. Mean of Likert rating for level 2 and 3 range from 3.31 to 3.89 and 3.03 to 3.97, which are all higher than the average value of 2.50. Kendall's coefficient and its significance test showed that consistency of experts' opinion for indicators' importance is high (P<0.001). This strategy of combining qualitative and quantitative methods could be used in overall evaluation of the breastfeeding quality in NICUs. CONCLUSIONS Indicators system is feasible and is a promising evaluation tool for continuously improving breastfeeding quality for preterm infants in NICUs.
Toti, P; Buonocore, G; Rinaldi, G; Catella, A M; Bracci, R
The present study examines the histological features of the lungs of neonates who died of respiratory distress syndrome or related complications after surfactant therapy. Our aim was to determine whether these lungs showed any unusual histological findings. Complete autopsies were performed 6-12 h after death in 10 surfactant-treated preterm infants and in 30 infants who died before surfactant therapy was available. Representative paraffin sections of all pulmonary lobes, stained with haematoxylin and eosin, were examined microscopically. A few selected slides were also stained with periodic acid-Schiff, Vierhoff-van Gieson, and Mallory trichrome. Hyaline membrane disease and bronchopulmonary dysplasia were present in each group, although there was an increased incidence of intra-alveolar haemorrhage in surfactant-treated babies (in 8 of 10 surfactant-treated as compared with 7 of 30 untreated babies). Amongst those treated with surfactant, we observed the persistence of acute alveolar damage with unresolved hyaline membrane disease in 5 infants who died at the ages of 5, 6, 10, 12, and 13 days, respectively, and histological evidence of pneumocyte type 2 hyperplasia and dysplasia in 2 infants who died at 22 and 41 days of age, respectively. These observations reveal that surfactant-treated infants who fail to respond to therapy have continuing alveolar injury and an increased incidence of intra-alveolar haemorrhage. Since oxygen radicals can induce pneumocyte damage and necrosis and since free radicals provoke alveolar haemorrhage in animal models, we propose that the lesions we observed may stem from a lack, in some preterm babies, of specific mechanisms that detoxify oxygen radicals.
Ding, Guodong; Yu, Jing; Chen, Yan; Vinturache, Angela; Pang, Yu; Zhang, Jun
Few studies have examined the possible pregnancy-related risk factors for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)-associated deaths during infancy. Infant death due to NEC in preterm babies was identified from the US Linked Livebirth and Infant Death records between 2000 and 2004. The average number of cigarettes per day reported by the mothers who were smoking during pregnancy was classified in three categories: non-smoking, light smoking (<10 cigarettes/day) and heavy smoking (≥10 cigarettes/day). Logistic regression analyses examined the association between prenatal smoking and NEC-associated infant mortality rates with adjustment for potential confounders. Compared with non-smoking mothers, light and heavy smoking mothers have a higher risk of NEC-associated infant mortality [light smoking: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.43; heavy smoking: aOR = 1.30, 95% CI, 1.12–1.52], respectively. Moreover, the association was stronger among white race (light smoking: aOR = 1.69, 95% CI, 1.34–2.13; heavy smoking: aOR = 1.44, 95% CI, 1.18–1.75) and female babies (light smoking: aOR = 1.31, 95% CI, 1.02–1.69; heavy smoking: aOR = 1.62, 95% CI, 1.29–2.02). Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased risks of infant mortality due to NEC in preterm babies, especially in white race and female babies. PMID:28361963
Bailey, Beth A; Sokol, Robert J
In addition to fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with many other adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. Research suggests that alcohol use during pregnancy may increase the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, and sudden infant death syndrome. This research has some inherent difficulties, such as the collection of accurate information about alcohol consumption during pregnancy and controlling for comorbid exposures and conditions. Consequently, attributing poor birth outcomes to prenatal alcohol exposure is a complicated and ongoing task, requiring continued attention to validated methodology and to identifying specific biological mechanisms.
Lindenmeyer, Rodrigo L.; Farias, Lucas; Mendonça, Taís; Filho, João Borges Fortes; Procianoy, Renato S.; Silveira, Rita C.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants and correlate it with postconceptional age. METHODS: The intraocular pressure in a prospective cohort of very low birth weight premature infants (defined as a birth weight ≤1,500 g and gestational age ≤32 weeks) admitted to Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil was evaluated weekly. The evaluated outcome was the variation in the intraocular pressure following changes in the postconceptional age (defined as the gestational age at birth plus the age in weeks at the time of examination) in the weeks following preterm birth. Mixed-effects models were used for the statistical analysis to determine the intraocular pressure variation according to postconceptional age, and means and 10th and 90th percentiles were calculated for the intraocular pressure values. RESULTS: Fifty preterm infants with a mean gestational age of 29.7±1.6 weeks and a mean birth weight of 1,127.7±222.7 g were evaluated. The mean intraocular pressure for the entire cohort considering both eyes was 14.9±4.5 mmHg, and 13.5% of all recorded intraocular pressure values were greater than 20 mmHg. The analysis revealed a mean reduction in the intraocular pressure of 0.29 mmHg for each increase in postconceptional age (p = 0.047; 95% CI: −0.58 to −0.0035). The mean intraocular pressure (P10–P90) decreased from 16.3 mmHg (10.52–22.16) at 26.3 weeks to 13.1 mmHg (7.28–18.92) at 37.6 weeks of postconceptional age. CONCLUSIONS: The mean intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants was 14.9±4.5 mmHg. This value decreased 0.29 mmHg per week as the postconceptional age increased. PMID:23184197
Claas, Marieke J; de Vries, Linda S; Bruinse, Hein W
Our objectives were to describe the obstetric complications of women who delivered an extremely low-birth-weight infant by comparing two consecutive 5-year periods and infants appropriate for gestational age (AGA) versus infants small for gestational age (SGA). This descriptive study included women ( N = 261) who delivered an infant ≤750 g (major structural and chromosomal anomalies excluded) between 1996 and 2000 (cohort I, N = 145) and 2001 to 2005 (cohort II, N = 116) in the University Hospital Utrecht, the Netherlands. Of these, 84.3% of the multigravidas ( N = 121) had a complicated obstetric history: 46.3% miscarriage(s), 22.3% preterm deliveries, and 16.5% hypertensive disorders. In the index pregnancies ( N = 261), the most prevalent complications were hypertensive disorders (52.1%, P = 0.002; more in cohort II) and SGA ( P = 0.007), fetal distress (39.5%), and intrauterine growth restriction (32.6%) resulting in a caesarean section in 47.9% and a spontaneous vaginal delivery in 19.2%. Intrauterine deaths occurred in 35.2%, merely due to placental insufficiency (59.8%) and termination of pregnancy because of deteriorating hypertensive disorders (23.9%). A high percentage of parous mothers had a seriously complicated obstetric history. The index pregnancy was largely complicated by hypertensive disorders. The majority of infants with a birth weight ≤750 g were growth-restricted due to placental insufficiency. Follow-up is extremely important to evaluate neonatal morbidity and neurodevelopmental outcome.
Baum, J D
This editorial addresses the question of how best to feed the low birth weight infant. A study by Atkinson et al. on the composition of preterm mothers' milk found the nitrogen concentration in preterm milk to be considerably higher than in term milk. Preterm milk may be uniquely suited to the growth requirements of preterm infants. With the exception of calcium and phosphorus, preterm milk fits the requirements for preterm infant growth. Because of the difficulties of sustaining lactation without the infant sucking at the breast, partly due to the mother's motivation in the face of all the difficulties of having a baby in a Special Care Baby Unit, and partly due to the associated socioeconomic disadvantages, it is not possible for all mothers who deliver preterm babies to sustain their lactation. The composition of preterm milk should be used as a guide for the preparation of a human milk formula built from human milk products from a milk bank. The development of a human milk formula must take into account variations in the absorption of nutrients in low birth weight infants which may be affected by the processing of the milk, and variations in fat absorption in preterm infants which occur even when they are fed their mothers' fresh unprocessed milk.
Mansouri, Majid; Hemmatpour, Sirous; Sedighiani, Fouzieh; Ghamari, Mojgan; Chavoshi, Delnia
Introduction In the near future, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) will be the most significant cause of blindness in upper and middle-income countries. Due to the increasing survival chances for premature and low birth weight infants and the importance of the diagnosis and treatment of ROP, this study was aimed at determining the prevalence of ROP and its related factors in Sanandaj, Iran, in 2014. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 47 preterm infants, weighing less than 2000 g or with a gestational age of less than of 34 weeks. The sampling method was census. From the first examination to 1 to 4 weeks later, until retinal vascularization completion, examinations were performed by the same ophthalmologist. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 and frequency, mean, SD and Chi-square tests. Results The prevalence of ROP in the infants was 10.6%. Prevalence among girls was 16% and among boys it was 4.5%. The results showed that 23.5% of infants with ROP needed mechanical ventilation. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.031). Conclusion In this study, the prevalence of ROP in the NICU and neonatal ward of Besat Hospital in Sanandaj was low. However, due to serious consequences of the disease in premature infants, timely screening, determination, and control of risk factors provided necessary support to manage the disease. PMID:27790346
Rogers, Cynthia E; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Wallendorf, Michael; Inder, Terrie E
Objective We investigated whether particular demographic, maternal psychosocial, and infant factors identified mothers of very preterm infants at risk for postpartum depression or anxiety at the time of discharge from a level III urban Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Study Design A racially diverse cohort of mothers (N=73) of preterm infants (gestational age <30 weeks) completed a comprehensive questionnaire at discharge from the NICU assessing postpartum depression, anxiety, and psychosocial and demographic factors. Additionally, infants underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging prior to discharge. Result Twenty percent of mothers had clinically significant levels of depression while 43% had moderate-severe anxiety. Being married (p<.01), parental role alteration (p<.01) and prolonged ventilation (p<.05) were associated with increased depressive symptoms. No psychosocial, demographic, or infant factors, including severity of brain injury, were associated with state anxiety levels. Conclusion Maternal factors, such as marital status, stress from parental role alteration, and infant factors, such as prolonged ventilation, are associated with increased depression. However, clinically significant levels of anxiety are common in mothers of very preterm infants with few identifiable risk factors. These findings support the need for universal screening within the NICU. PMID:22678144
Zhou, Wei; Li, Wei; Qu, Liu-Hong; Tang, Juan; Chen, Shan; Rong, Xiao
To study the relationships of MBP and S100B with PVH-IVH and PVL in preterm infants. 385 cases of preterm infants, whose gestational age was less than 34 weeks, were enrolled in the study. The plasma levels of S100B and MBP were detected within 24 hours and on the 3rd, 7th, 14th day after birth. Cranial ultrasound was preformed 2-3 d, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks and 4 weeks after birth. They also received Cranial MRI examination before discharge or when the correct gestational age reached 40 weeks. According to the exclusion standard, 73 cases were excluded. The included 312 cases were divided into 3 groups (no brain damage group, PVH-IVH group and PVL group) according to the result of cranial ultrasound and MRI. The differences of plasma levels of S100B and MBP among groups were compared, and the relationships of the plasma levels of S100B and MBP with gestational age in no brain damage group were analyzed. The results of cranial ultrasound and/or MRI showed: 204 cases had no brain damage (enrolled in no brain damage group); 69 cases had PVH-IVH (enrolled in PVH-IVH group); 27 cases had PVL and 12 cases had PVL and PVH-IVH (both enrolled in PVL group). The plasma level of S100B: within 24 h and on the 3rd d after birth, the serum levels of S100B in PVH-IVH group were significantly higher than those in no brain damage group (P < 0.05); and the plasma levels of S100B in PVL group were significantly higher than those in no brain damage group and PVH-IVH group (all P < 0.05). On 7th d and 14th d after birth, there were no significant differences between PVH-IVH group and no brain damage group (P > 0.05); and the plasma levels of S100B in PVL group were still significantly higher than those in no brain damage group and PVH-IVH group (all P < 0.05). The plasma levels of MBP: within 24 h and on the 3rd d, 7th d and 14th d after birth, there were no significant differences between PVH-IVH group and no brain damage group (all P > 0.05); and the plasma levels of MBP in PVL
When the day of discharge from a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) comes for the parents of newborn infants, they are filled with long-awaited joy and happiness. They go home feeling as parents, away from scheduled routines of the hospital, monitor alarms, clinical rounds, numerous tests, and so on. What do we know about what happens after these little patients and their families leave the NICU? What happens from the point of leaving the hospital until when things get settled and life becomes perceived as normal? This article presents a short summary of research conducted with the vulnerable population of high-risk and preterm infants and their families postdischarge. Available evidence suggests that transition to home after hospital discharge, a phenomenon that many families experience, is challenging and requires attention from clinicians and researchers if we are to provide effective, efficient, and high-quality care.
Zhou, Wei; Li, Wei; Qu, Liu-Hong; Tang, Juan; Chen, Shan; Rong, Xiao
To study the relationships of MBP and S100B with PVH-IVH and PVL in preterm infants. 385 cases of preterm infants, whose gestational age was less than 34 weeks, were enrolled in the study. The plasma levels of S100B and MBP were detected within 24 hours and on the 3rd, 7th, 14th day after birth. Cranial ultrasound was preformed 2-3 d, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks and 4 weeks after birth. They also received Cranial MRI examination before discharge or when the correct gestational age reached 40 weeks. According to the exclusion standard, 73 cases were excluded. The included 312 cases were divided into 3 groups (no brain damage group, PVH-IVH group and PVL group) according to the result of cranial ultrasound and MRI. The differences of plasma levels of S100B and MBP among groups were compared, and the relationships of the plasma levels of S100B and MBP with gestational age in no brain damage group were analyzed. The results of cranial ultrasound and/or MRI showed: 204 cases had no brain damage (enrolled in no brain damage group); 69 cases had PVH-IVH (enrolled in PVH-IVH group); 27 cases had PVL and 12 cases had PVL and PVH-IVH (both enrolled in PVL group). The plasma level of S100B: within 24 h and on the 3rd d after birth, the serum levels of S100B in PVH-IVH group were significantly higher than those in no brain damage group (P < 0.05); and the plasma levels of S100B in PVL group were significantly higher than those in no brain damage group and PVH-IVH group (all P < 0.05). On 7th d and 14th d after birth, there were no significant differences between PVH-IVH group and no brain damage group (P > 0.05); and the plasma levels of S100B in PVL group were still significantly higher than those in no brain damage group and PVH-IVH group (all P < 0.05). The plasma levels of MBP: within 24 h and on the 3rd d, 7th d and 14th d after birth, there were no significant differences between PVH-IVH group and no brain damage group (all P > 0.05); and the plasma levels of MBP in PVL
Mamopoulos, Apostolos; Petousis, Stamatios; Tsimpanakos, John; Masouridou, Sophia; Kountourelli, Kelly; Margioula-Siarkou, Chrysoula; Papouli, Maria; Rousso, David
Background Neonates born between 24 + 0 and 27 + 6 gestational weeks, widely known as extremely preterm neonates, present a category characterized by increased neonatal mortality and morbidity. Main objective of the present study is to analyze the effect of various epidemiological and pregnancy-related parameters on unfavorable neonatal mortality and morbidity outcomes. Methods A retrospective study was performed enrolling cases delivered during 2003 - 2008 in our department. Cases of neonatal death as well as pathological Apgar score (≤ 4 in the first and ≤ 7 in the fifth minute of life), need for emergency resuscitation, respiratory disease syndrome (RDS), neonatal asphyxia, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and neonatal death were recorded for neonates of our analysis. A multivariate regression model was used to correlate these outcomes with gestational week at delivery, maternal age, parity, kind of gestation (singleton or multiple), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), birth weight (BW), preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), mode of delivery (vaginal delivery or cesarean section) and antenatal use of corticosteroids. Results Out of 5,070 pregnancies delivered, 57 extremely preterm neonates were born (1.1%). Mean BW was 780.35 ± 176.0, RDS was observed in 93.0% (n = 53), resuscitation was needed in 54.4% (n = 31) while overall mortality rate was 52.6% (n = 30). BW was independently associated with neonatal death (P = 0.004), pathological Apgar score in the first (P = 0.05) and fifth minute of life (P = 0.04) as well as neonatal sepsis (P = 0.05). Conclusion BW at delivery is independently affecting neonatal mortality and morbidity parameters in extremely preterm neonates. PMID:26015815
Key elements of the check list for neonatal discharge include: discharge discussion with parents, relation with maternal and child welfare assistants and family practitioner, scheduling of follow-up visits, request for insurance coverage, parental presence allowance, special education allowance, debriefing with nurses and nurses providers, clinical and biological appraisal, discharge prescription. For a former extremely premature baby, going home - often after a long hospitalization and a variety of pathologic problems - must be prepared and should not be decided in haste, not only for the baby and his/her parents, but also. for the neonatal staff!
Ramenghi, Luca Antonio; Ricci, Daniela; Mercuri, Eugenio; Groppo, Michela; De Carli, Agnese; Ometto, Alessandra; Fumagalli, Monica; Bassi, Laura; Pisoni, Silvia; Cioni, Giovanni; Mosca, Fabio
The presence of abnormal visual function has been related to overt lesions in the thalami, peritrigonal white matter (such as cavitational-necrotic periventricular leucomalacia) and optic radiations, and also to the extent of occipital cortex involvement. The normal development of visual function seems to depend on the integrity of a network that includes not only optic radiations and the primary visual cortex but also other cortical and subcortical areas, such as the frontal or temporal lobes or basal ganglia, which have been found to play a topical role in the development of vision. Therefore, the complex functions and functional connectivity of the developing brain of premature infants can be studied only with highly sophisticated techniques such as diffusion tensor tractography. The combined use of visual tests and neonatal structural and functional neuroimaging, which have become available for newborn infants, provides a better understanding of the correlation between structure and function from early life. This appears to be particularly relevant considering the essential role of early visual function in cognitive development. The identification of early visual impairment is also important, as it allows for early enrolment in intervention programmes. The association of clinical and functional studies to newer imaging techniques, which are being increasingly used also in neonates, are likely to provide further information on early aspects of vision and the mechanisms underlying brain plasticity, which are still not fully understood. Early exposure to a difficult postnatal environment together with early and unexpected removal from a protective milieu are exclusive and peculiar factors of prematurity that interfere with the normal development of the visual system in pre-term babies. The problem is further compounded by the influence of different perinatal brain lesions affecting the developing brain of premature babies. Nevertheless, in the last few decades
Yu, Xiurong; Sun, Hongying; Lin, Xiangyun; Liu, Xiuxiang
Background Breast feeding can enhance preterm infants’ neurodevelopmental outcome, regulate immune function development. This study aims to develop breastfeeding evaluation indicators system in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) and to provide theoretical basis for all-round evaluation of breast feeding quality for hospitalized preterm infants. Material/Methods This study was performed based on Avedis Donabedian’s theory of medical care quality. Preterm infant breast feeding evaluation indicators system frame was initially formed by using literature review, clinical on-spot observation and expert consultation methods. By using specialists meeting method and Delphi method, evaluation indicators system for preterm infants breastfeeding was verified and established. Breastfeeding evaluation indicators system were performed in NICU of hospitals in Binzhou and Shanghai. Feasibility and usability of indicators system were examined. Results Breastfeeding evaluation indicators system for preterm infants comprise 3 levels, including level 1 (3 indicators), level 2 (7 indicators), and level 3 (18 indicators). Recognition rates of importance for level 2 and 3 range from 94.4% to 100.0% and 80.6% to 100.0%, respectively. Mean of Likert rating for level 2 and 3 range from 3.31 to 3.89 and 3.03 to 3.97, which are all higher than the average value of 2.50. Kendall’s coefficient and its significance test showed that consistency of experts’ opinion for indicators’ importance is high (P<0.001). This strategy of combining qualitative and quantitative methods could be used in overall evaluation of the breastfeeding quality in NICUs. Conclusions Indicators system is feasible and is a promising evaluation tool for continuously improving breastfeeding quality for preterm infants in NICUs. PMID:27783574
Strobel, Natalie A; Peter, Sue; McAuley, Kimberley E; McAullay, Daniel R; Marriott, Rhonda; Edmond, Karen M
Objectives Our primary objective was to determine the incidence of hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous and non-Indigenous preterm infants aged postdischarge from birth admission to 11 months in Western Australia. Secondary objectives were to assess incidence in the poorest infants from remote areas and to determine the primary causes of hospital usage in preterm infants. Design Prospective population-based linked data set. Setting and participants All preterm babies born in Western Australia during 2010 and 2011. Main outcome measures All-cause hospitalisations and emergency department presentations. Results There were 6.9% (4211/61 254) preterm infants, 13.1% (433/3311) Indigenous preterm infants and 6.5% (3778/57 943) non-Indigenous preterm infants born in Western Australia. Indigenous preterm infants had a higher incidence of hospital admission (adjusted incident rate ratio (aIRR) 1.24, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.42) and emergency department presentation (aIRR 1.71, 95% CI 1.44 to 2.02) compared with non-Indigenous preterm infants. The most disadvantaged preterm infants (7.8/1000 person days) had a greater incidence of emergency presentation compared with the most advantaged infants (3.1/1000 person days) (aIRR 1.61, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.00). The most remote preterm infants (7.8/1000 person days) had a greater incidence of emergency presentation compared with the least remote preterm infants (3.0/1000 person days; aIRR 1.82, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.22). Conclusions In Western Australia, preterm infants have high hospital usage in their first year of life. Infants living in disadvantaged areas, remote area infants and Indigenous infants are at increased risk. Our data highlight the need for improved postdischarge care for preterm infants. PMID:28100563
Pappas, Athina; Shankaran, Seetha; Hansen, Nellie I.; Bell, Edward F.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Walsh, Michele C.; Das, Abhik; Bara, Rebecca; Hale, Ellen C.; Newman, Nancy S.; Boghossian, Nansi S.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Cotten, C. Michael; Adams-Chapman, Ira; Hamrick, Shannon; Higgins, Rosemary D.
Little is known about the outcomes of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) preterm infants with congenital heart defects (CHDs). The aim of this study was to assess the mortality, morbidity, and early childhood outcomes of ELBW infants with isolated CHD compared with infants with no congenital defects. Participants were 401–1,000 g infants cared for at National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network centers between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2005. Neonatal morbidities and 18–22 months’ corrected age outcomes were assessed. Neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) was defined as moderate to severe cerebral palsy, Bayley II mental or psychomotor developmental index < 70, bilateral blindness, or hearing impairment requiring aids. Poisson regression models were used to estimate relative risks for outcomes while adjusting for gestational age, small for gestational-age status, and other variables. Of 14,457 ELBW infants, 110 (0.8 %) had isolated CHD, and 13,887 (96 %) had no major birth defect. The most common CHD were septal defects, tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary valve stenosis, and coarctation of the aorta. Infants with CHD experienced increased mortality (48 % compared with 35 % for infants with no birth defect) and poorer growth. Surprisingly, the adjusted risks of other short-term neonatal morbidities associated with prematurity were not significantly different. Fifty-seven (52 %) infants with CHD survived to 18–22 months’ corrected age, and 49 (86 %) infants completed follow-up. A higher proportion of surviving infants with CHD were impaired compared with those without birth defects (57 vs. 38 %, p = 0.004). Risk of death or NDI was greater for ELBW infants with CHD, although 20% of infants survived without NDI. PMID:22644414
Fewtrell, Mary S; Edmonds, Caroline J; Isaacs, Elizabeth; Bishop, Nick J; Lucas, Alan
Aluminium is the most common metallic element, but has no known biological role. It accumulates in the body when protective gastrointestinal mechanisms are bypassed, renal function is impaired, or exposure is high - all of which apply frequently to preterm infants. Recognised clinical manifestations of aluminium toxicity include dementia, anaemia and bone disease. Parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions are liable to contamination with aluminium, particularly from acidic solutions in glass vials, notably calcium gluconate. When fed parenterally, infants retain >75% of the aluminium, with high serum, urine and tissue levels. Later health effects of neonatal intravenous aluminium exposure were investigated in a randomised trial comparing standard PN solutions with solutions specially sourced for low aluminium content. Preterm infants exposed for >10 d to standard solutions had impaired neurologic development at 18 months. At 13-15 years, subjects randomised to standard PN had lower lumbar spine bone mass; and, in non-randomised analyses, those with neonatal aluminium intake above the median had lower hip bone mass. Given the sizeable number of infants undergoing intensive care and still exposed to aluminium via PN, these findings have contemporary relevance. Until recently, little progress had been made on reducing aluminium exposure, and meeting Food and Drug Administration recommendations (<5 μg/kg per d) has been impossible in patients <50 kg using available products. Recent advice from the UK Medicines and Healthcare regulatory Authority that calcium gluconate in small volume glass containers should not be used for repeated treatment in children <18 years, including preparation of PN, is an important step towards addressing this problem.
Fewtrell, M S; Loh, K L; Blake, A; Ridout, D A; Hawdon, J
Background Human milk has considerable short and long term benefits for preterm infants, but mothers may experience difficulties in expressing breast milk for infants too immature or sick to breast feed. Oxytocin has been used to assist breast feeding and milk expression, but few data are available to support this intervention in the neonatal unit setting. Aim To test the hypothesis that oxytocin nasal spray increases early milk output in mothers expressing milk for preterm infants. Methods A randomised, double blind trial of oxytocin nasal spray (100 µl per dose) versus placebo was conducted in mothers delivering infants <35 weeks gestation. Sprays were used before expression of milk using an electric pump up to day 5. Main outcome Total weight of milk expressed while using spray (study powered to detect >1SD difference between groups). Secondary outcomes Pattern of milk production; number of pumping sessions; weight/fat content of milk expressed during a fixed 20 minute period on day 5 (“physiological study”); mother's opinion of expressing and spray assessed by questionnaire. Results Fifty one mothers were randomised (27 oxytocin, 24 placebo). Total milk production did not differ between groups. Repeated measures analysis of variance suggested significantly (p = 0.001) different patterns of milk production, with initial faster production in the oxytocin group then convergence between groups. Parity did not influence the response to the intervention. No significant differences were seen in milk weight or fat content in the physiological study nor in mothers' opinions of milk expression and treatment. Conclusions Despite marginal differences in the pattern of early milk production, the use of oxytocin nasal spray did not significantly improve outcome. Most mothers believed they were receiving the active spray, suggesting a significant placebo effect (supported by limited data from historical controls) and benefits from the extra breast feeding
Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van Goudoever, Johannes B
Postnatal growth failure is still one of the most commonly observed morbidities in preterm infants. Intolerance of enteral nutrition is a common problem in these infants and in neonates with surgical conditions. Therefore, adequate parenteral nutrition is crucial to support organ development, including that of the brain. Short-term studies on the early introduction of parenteral lipids have demonstrated that early lipid administration seems safe and well tolerated and prevents essential fatty acid deficiency. Further well-designed and adequately powered studies are necessary to determine the optimal dose of lipid infusion and the long-term effects on morbidity, growth, and neurodevelopment. Administration of a pure soybean oil emulsion might result in excess formation of proinflammatory eicosanoids and peroxidation, and their use reduces the availability of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids necessary for central nervous system development and immune function. Alternatives to the use of pure soybean oils include emulsions with partial replacement of soybean oil with medium-chain triglycerides, olive oil, and/or fish oil. These newer lipid emulsions offer many theoretical advantages. Future large-scale randomized controlled trials in premature infants should demonstrate whether these newer lipid emulsions are truly safe and result in improved short- and long-term outcomes. It seems safe to start lipid emulsions from birth onward at a rate of 2 g lipids/kg/day (based on short-term results only). Mixed lipid emulsions, including those containing fish oil, seem to reduce nosocomial infections in preterm infants and might reduce bile acid accumulation. Liver damage may be reduced by decreasing or removing lipids from parenteral nutrition or may be reduced by using fish oil-containing lipid emulsions containing high levels of vitamin E.
White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen F; Fabiyi, Camille; Rankin, Kristin M; Li, Zhyouing; Liu, Li
While premature infants have a high need for positive interactions, both infants and their mothers are challenged by the infant's biological immaturity. This randomized clinical trial of 198 premature infants born at 29-34 weeks gestation and their mothers examined the impact of the H-HOPE (Hospital to Home: Optimizing the Infant's Environment) intervention on mother-premature infant interaction patterns at 6-weeks corrected age (CA). Mothers had at least 2 social environmental risk factors such as minority status or less than high school education. Mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to the H-HOPE intervention group or an attention control group. H-HOPE is an integrated intervention that included (1) twice-daily infant stimulation using the ATVV (auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular-rocking stimulation) and (2) four maternal participatory guidance sessions plus two telephone calls by a nurse-community advocate team. Mother-infant interaction was assessed at 6-weeks CA using the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training-Feeding Scale (NCAST, 76 items) and the Dyadic Mutuality Code (DMC, 6-item contingency scale during a 5-min play session). NCAST and DMC scores for the Control and H-HOPE groups were compared using t-tests, chi-square tests and multivariable analysis. Compared with the Control group (n = 76), the H-HOPE group (n = 66) had higher overall NCAST scores and higher maternal Social-Emotional Growth Fostering Subscale scores. The H-HOPE group also had significantly higher scores for the overall infant subscale and the Infant Clarity of Cues Subscale (p < 0.05). H-HOPE dyads were also more likely to have high responsiveness during play as measured by the DMC (67.6% versus 58.1% of controls). After adjustment for significant maternal and infant characteristics, H-HOPE dyads had marginally higher scores during feeding on overall mother-infant interaction (β = 2.03, p = 0.06) and significantly higher scores on the infant subscale (β = 0.75, p
Fleming, Peter J; Ingram, Jennifer; Johnson, Debbie; Blair, Peter S
The length of stay for moderately preterm infants has progressively become shorter in the UK in recent years but staff still commonly inform parents that their baby will go home around their estimated date of delivery (EDD). Parents need as much notice as possible to prepare for the discharge of their baby, and to gain the necessary skills and knowledge to care for their infant safely. We report the use of routinely collected neonatal data to develop and implement a simple centile chart for date of discharge from hospital, which allows staff and parents to predict the likely discharge date more accurately for preterm infants, most of whom now go home more than 3 weeks before their EDD. This information allows better and timelier planning for discharge of such infants, by parents and staff.
Ingram, Jennifer; Johnson, Debbie; Blair, Peter S
The length of stay for moderately preterm infants has progressively become shorter in the UK in recent years but staff still commonly inform parents that their baby will go home around their estimated date of delivery (EDD). Parents need as much notice as possible to prepare for the discharge of their baby, and to gain the necessary skills and knowledge to care for their infant safely. We report the use of routinely collected neonatal data to develop and implement a simple centile chart for date of discharge from hospital, which allows staff and parents to predict the likely discharge date more accurately for preterm infants, most of whom now go home more than 3 weeks before their EDD. This information allows better and timelier planning for discharge of such infants, by parents and staff. PMID:27698193
Niemarkt, Hendrik J; Jennekens, Ward; Pasman, Jaco W; Katgert, Titia; Van Pul, Carola; Gavilanes, Antonio W D; Kramer, Boris W; Zimmermann, Luc J; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto; Andriessen, Peter
Our study aimed at automated power spectral analysis of the EEG in preterm infants to identify changes of spectral measures with maturation. Weekly (10-20 montage) 4-h EEG recordings were performed in 18 preterm infants with GA <32 wk and normal neurological follow-up at 2 y, resulting in 79 recordings studied from 27(+4) to 36(+3) wk of postmenstrual age (PMA, GA + postnatal age). Automated spectral analysis was performed on 4-h EEG recordings. The frequency spectrum was divided in delta 1 (0.5-1 Hz), delta 2 (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), and beta (13-30 Hz) band. Absolute and relative power of each frequency band and spectral edge frequency were calculated. Maturational changes in spectral measures were observed most clearly in the centrotemporal channels. With advancing PMA, absolute powers of delta 1 to 2 and theta decreased. With advancing PM