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Sample records for eye institute evaluation

  1. Eye Protection in Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Intended to help reduce the number of school eye injuries in New Jersey, this document begins with a brief review of existing legislation regarding eye protection in educational institutions and a list of elements essential in an eye safety program. Second, eye protection equipment is examined in terms of: the advantages of safety spectacles over…

  2. Eye Protection in Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Intended to help reduce the number of school eye injuries in New Jersey, this document begins with a brief review of existing legislation regarding eye protection in educational institutions and a list of elements essential in an eye safety program. Second, eye protection equipment is examined in terms of: the advantages of safety spectacles over…

  3. 77 FR 8266 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... evaluation of individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Eye Institute, including...: Board of Scientific Counselors, National Eye Institute. Date: March 4-5, 2012. Time: 7:00 PM to 5:00...

  4. 77 FR 55852 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... evaluation of individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Eye Institute, including...: Board of Scientific Counselors, National Eye Institute Date: September 30-October 2, 2012 Time: 5:30...

  5. 76 FR 2914 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... evaluation of individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Eye Institute, including...: Board of Scientific Counselors, National Eye Institute. Date: February 27-March 1, 2011. Time: 7 a.m....

  6. 75 FR 57968 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... evaluation of individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Eye Institute, including...: Board of Scientific Counselors, National Eye Institute. Date: October 24-25, 2010. Time: 7 p.m. to 5...

  7. 78 FR 28233 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... given of the following meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors, National Eye Institute. The... and projects conducted by the National Eye Institute, including consideration of...

  8. Eye Symptom Questionnaire to Evaluate Anterior Eye Health.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Maria A; Valikodath, Nita G; Newman-Casey, Paula Anne; Niziol, Leslie M; Musch, David C; Lee, Paul P

    2017-06-14

    Ophthalmologists assess eye complaints with a careful history and eye examination; however, other types of physicians have limited tools to evaluate anterior segment (AS) eye diseases. We identified the eye symptom questions that providers should ask to help determine the presence and urgency of AS eye diseases. Persons with and without AS disease completed a self-report eye symptom questionnaire (ESQ) based on the National Institutes of Health Toolbox symptom items in an academic center's corneal and comprehensive eye clinics. Gold standard ophthalmic examination determined the presence and urgency of AS disease. The association between reported symptom severity and the probability of AS disease, or urgent AS disease, was evaluated using logistic regression models, and sensitivity and specificity of the ESQ were also calculated. A total of 324 eyes of 162 subjects were included in the study. Of these, AS disease was present in 255 eyes (79%); of which, 111 eyes showed urgent disease. Increasing symptom severity for eye pain (odds ratio [OR]=2.58; P<0.001), glare (OR=2.61; P=0.001), and blurry vision (OR=1.98; P<0.001) were associated with increased odds of AS disease. Increasing symptom severity for eye pain (OR=2.02; P<0.001), eye redness (OR=1.69; P=0.02), and blurry vision (OR=1.41, P=0.01) were associated with increased odds of urgent AS disease. For the primary analysis with mild symptoms considered relevant, the sensitivity of the ESQ to detect AS disease was 83% and to detect urgent AS disease was 92%. Symptoms of eye pain, glare, redness, and blurry vision indicate the presence and urgency of AS disease.

  9. 75 FR 8971 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NEI K99 Grant Applications. Date: March 1, 2010... Review Officer, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300,...

  10. 75 FR 26260 - National Eye Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel, April 20, 2010, 3 p.m., to April 20, 2010, 4 p.m., National Eye Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, 1300, Bethesda,...

  11. Comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agurto, C.; Nemeth, S.; Zamora, G.; Vahtel, M.; Soliz, P.; Barriga, S.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, several research groups have developed automatic algorithms to detect diabetic retinopathy (DR) in individuals with diabetes (DM), using digital retinal images. Studies have indicated that diabetics have 1.5 times the annual risk of developing primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) as do people without DM. Moreover, DM patients have 1.8 times the risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although numerous investigators are developing automatic DR detection algorithms, there have been few successful efforts to create an automatic algorithm that can detect other ocular diseases, such as POAG and AMD. Consequently, our aim in the current study was to develop a comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm that not only detects DR in retinal images, but also automatically identifies glaucoma suspects and AMD by integrating other personal medical information with the retinal features. The proposed system is fully automatic and provides the likelihood of each of the three eye disease. The system was evaluated in two datasets of 104 and 88 diabetic cases. For each eye, we used two non-mydriatic digital color fundus photographs (macula and optic disc centered) and, when available, information about age, duration of diabetes, cataracts, hypertension, gender, and laboratory data. Our results show that the combination of multimodal features can increase the AUC by up to 5%, 7%, and 8% in the detection of AMD, DR, and glaucoma respectively. Marked improvement was achieved when laboratory results were combined with retinal image features.

  12. Videos from the National Eye Institute: Eye Diseases | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Vision Videos from the National Eye Institute: Eye Diseases Past Issues / Winter 2012 Table of Contents ... Rachel Bishop, NEI’s Chief of Consult Services, discusses eye health and the importance of comprehensive dilated exams ...

  13. 77 FR 43097 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020... Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, hoshawb@mail.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision...

  14. 75 FR 54642 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Council, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, 301-451-2020, amp@nei.nih.gov . Any person..., Vision Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: September 1, 2010. Jennifer Spaeth,...

  15. 78 FR 73867 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ..., National Eye Institute, National Institutes Of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 451-2020, loreanne.mcnicol... Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: December 4,...

  16. 77 FR 31032 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ..., National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, 301-451-2020, lam@nei.nih.gov . Any person..., Vision Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 18, 2012. Jennifer S. Spaeth,...

  17. 78 FR 64517 - National Eye Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel, October...

  18. 75 FR 37453 - National Eye Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hearby given of a chance in the meeting of the National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel, July...

  19. 77 FR 12318 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020..., MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, aes@nei.nih.gov . .Name of Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis..., 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, kenshalod@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of...

  20. 76 FR 2913 - National Eye Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Advisory Eye Council, January 20, 2011, 8:30...

  1. 77 FR 2076 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... given of the National Advisory Eye Council. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below... constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory...

  2. 75 FR 76474 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... given of the National Advisory Eye Council. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below... constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory...

  3. 78 FR 64519 - National Eye Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Advisory Eye Council, October 17, 2013, 8:30...

  4. 77 FR 63845 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    .... Contact Person: Brian Hoshaw, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Division of Extramural Research, National... timing limitations imposed by the review and funding cycle. Name of Committee: National Eye Institute...: Brian Hoshaw, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Division of Extramural Research, National Eye Institute...

  5. 76 FR 39406 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NEI Research Program Grant Applications II. Date...). Contact Person: Anne E. Schaffner, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Division of Extramural Research... the timing limitations imposed by the review and funding cycle. Name of Committee: National Eye...

  6. 75 FR 10489 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ..., National Eye Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, Msc 9300, Bethesda, MD 20892-9300, (301) 451-2020, aes@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision...

  7. 78 FR 62640 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ..., National Eye Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, Bethesda, MD 20892-9300, (301) 451-2020, aes@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision...

  8. 77 FR 14816 - National Eye Institute Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Vision Research Grant Applications. Date: April 2..., National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, kenshalod@nei.nih.gov..., MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, aes@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos....

  9. 76 FR 71350 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NEI Pediatric Vision Science Grant Applications..., MSC 9300, (301) 451-2020, aes@nei.nih.gov . This notice is being published less than 15 days prior to..., National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, (301) 451-2020,...

  10. 78 FR 9403 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ...-2020, aes@nei.nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NEI Clinical..., National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301- 451-2020, hoshawb@mail.nih.gov... Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, jeanetteh@mail.nih.gov . (Catalogue...

  11. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Dry Eye Treatment by Institutional Chinese Physicians in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Wanwen; Lee, Sze Yee; Lee, Man Xin; Tong, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Dry eye is a common health problem worldwide, causing significant discomfort and inconvenience to sufferers. The conventional treatment of dry eye via topical administration of eye drops is deemed palliative and unsatisfactory to many. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has shown some promise in dry eye treatment; however, the extent of its use and acceptance is uncertain. We evaluated the knowledge, attitude, and practice of institutional TCM practitioners in the treatment of dry eye in Singapore. A questionnaire was generated to address the study aims and sent to TCM practitioners listed in the Singapore TCM practitioners' board database. About three quarters of respondents thought that dry eye was not severe enough to be a public health burden but most thought that TCM was effective in the treatment of dry eye. Acupuncture and herbal medicine were most commonly used TCM modalities in dry eye treatment, and a single TCM treatment session would be charged S$20–50 by the practitioner. The majority of surveyed institutional TCM practitioners in Singapore believe that TCM is relevant in dry eye treatment. Public awareness should be raised regarding the availability of TCM as alternative medicine for dry eye. PMID:23213306

  12. The National Eye Institute Annual Report: FY 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Eye Inst. (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    Presented is an annual report of research and supported by the National Eye Institute (NEI) during the 1974 fiscal year. It is explained that the purpose of NEI research programs is to develop scientific knowledge which can be applied to the improved prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of visual disorders. The section on extramural and…

  13. Evaluation of the impact of intracorneal ring segments implantation on the quality of life of patients with keratoconus using the NEI-RQL (National Eye Institute Refractive Error Quality of life) instrument.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Santos Paranhos, J; Avila, M P; Paranhos, A; Schor, P

    2010-01-01

    A prospective study evaluating the impact of intracorneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation on the quality of life of patients with keratoconus using the NEI-RQL (National Eye Institute Refractive Error Quality of Life) instrument. Sixty-nine eyes of 42 keratoconus patients were implanted with the Keraring. All patients self-administered the NEI-RQL before and 4(1/2) to 8 months after surgery. The results were evaluated and analysed, along with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), refraction, contrast sensitivity, corneal topography and aberrometry preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. There was a significant improvement in all NEI-RQL scales and the overall scale. "Clarity of vision," "far vision," "near vision," "activity limitations," "appearance" and "satisfaction with correction" had the greatest improvement, ranging from 25 to 50 preoperatively to 80 to 90 after surgery. Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity and binocular BCVA improved significantly, and there was a significant decrease in keratometric values, from 50.22 dioptres preoperatively to 46.27 dioptres postoperatively. Contrast sensitivity function improved postoperatively, especially at the frequency of 6 cpd. Low-order root mean square (RMS) improved after surgery, but high-order RMS did not. ICRS implantation not only improves the quantitative metrics such as visual acuity and refraction, but also has a positive impact on patients' quality of life.

  14. Resources for eye care at secondary and tertiary level government institutions in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Motowa, Saeed; Khandekar, Rajiv; Al-Towerki, Abdulelah

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the number of healthcare personnel and equipment resources for eye care at government institutions in different administrative zones of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and to recommend measures for increasing resources to address deficiencies. Data on resources (personnel and equipment) for eye care were collected from all governmental eye units in 2012. The data was regrouped by zones and administrative areas. The mid-2012 population projections were used to calculate the ophthalmologist to population ratio and optometrist to population ratio. The equipment available for eye care was reviewed. All 60 institutions in 13 administrative areas and five zones of KSA participated in this study. There were 407 ophthalmologists and 147 optometrists. The ophthalmologist to population ratio was 1:43,000 (1:12,900 in the northern zone to 1:80,300 in the western zone). By 2015, 700 ophthalmologists will be required, and by 2020, 1,100 ophthalmologists will be required. The optometrist to population ratio was 1:95,000 (1:34,100 in the northern zone to 1:146,700 in the western zone). Nearly 2,800 and 4,400 allied eye care personnel will be needed by 2015 and 2020. Diagnostic and treatment equipment such as lasers, electrophysiologic and ultrasound equipment, and fundus cameras were not available at all institutions. Data from the private sector need to be included to draw conclusions on the human resource index for eye care in the Kingdom. An unequal distribution of resources in different zones and administrative areas requires attention. Better utilization of available resources is recommended before fulfilling the demand for additional resources.

  15. Microwave cyclodestruction: evaluation on human eyes.

    PubMed Central

    Finger, P T; Perry, H D; Shakin, J L; Bisciotti, D R; Nattis, R J

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--The study was set up to evaluate the effect of microwave cyclodestruction on human eyes. METHODS--Two human eyes were studied. For treatment a horn shaped 5.8 GHz microwave applicator and fibre optic thermometry were used. Just before enucleation, the rectangular (2 x 3 mm) microwave aperture was placed onto the conjunctiva at a position 1-2 mm posterior to the corneal scleral limbus. Each of three to four treatment spots was targeted to receive a thermal dose of 54 degrees C for 1 minute. Clinical, gross, and histopathological evaluations were performed. RESULTS--Clinical evaluations of the treatment sites (immediately after microwave application) revealed no evidence of conjunctival or scleral damage. Trace fluorescein 2% uptake was noted within the targeted zones. The first eye was sectioned along the equatorial axis. Examination of the ciliary body and pars plana revealed whitening of the ciliary processes and depigmentation. Histopathological evaluations revealed ciliary epithelial necrosis with pigment dispersion. The vascularity of the ciliary processes showed focal disruption and haemorrhage. The underlying ciliary muscle and sclera appeared to be unaffected. No other findings could be attributed to microwave cyclodestruction. CONCLUSION--The results of this phase I toxicity study suggest that microwave heating can be used to damage preferentially the epithelial layers of the human ciliary body. Images PMID:7662635

  16. 75 FR 46951 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, aes@nei.nih... Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, aes@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research,...

  17. 76 FR 24498 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, kenshalod@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research,...

  18. 77 FR 55852 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Institute, National Institutes of Health, 301-451-2020, lam@nei.nih.gov . Any person interested may file... posted when available. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision...

  19. 76 FR 13197 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ..., National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, aes@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research, National Institutes of...

  20. 75 FR 64311 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300. 301-451-2020. kenshalod@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research, National Institutes of...

  1. 77 FR 73037 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... Institute, National Institutes of Health, 301-451-2020, lam@nei.nih.gov . Any person interested may file... posted when available. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision...

  2. 75 FR 11551 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 451-2020, apm@nei.nih.gov . Any interested person may file....867, Vision Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: March 4, 2010. Jennifer...

  3. 75 FR 55806 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, rawlings@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research,...

  4. 75 FR 58410 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, aes@nei.nih.gov . ] (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research,...

  5. 76 FR 24499 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Institute, National Institutes of Health, 301-451-2020, amp@nei.nih.gov . Any person interested may file... be posted when available. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867,...

  6. 78 FR 15021 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ...-2020, aes@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research... Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301- 451-2020,...

  7. 75 FR 33628 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, kenshalod@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research, National Institutes of...

  8. 76 FR 10041 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020. aes@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research,...

  9. 75 FR 74068 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ..., National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300. 301-451-2020. rawlings@nei.nih.gov... Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300. 301-451-2020. aes@nei.nih.gov . ] (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research, National Institutes of...

  10. 78 FR 37556 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, aes@nei.nih..., Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301- 451-2020, hoshawb@mail.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: June 17, 2013. Melanie...

  11. Eye gaze as relational evaluation: averted eye gaze leads to feelings of ostracism and relational devaluation.

    PubMed

    Wirth, James H; Sacco, Donald F; Hugenberg, Kurt; Williams, Kipling D

    2010-07-01

    Eye gaze is often a signal of interest and, when noticed by others, leads to mutual and directional gaze. However, averting one's eye gaze toward an individual has the potential to convey a strong interpersonal evaluation. The averting of eye gaze is the most frequently used nonverbal cue to indicate the silent treatment, a form of ostracism. The authors argue that eye gaze can signal the relational value felt toward another person. In three studies, participants visualized interacting with an individual displaying averted or direct eye gaze. Compared to receiving direct eye contact, participants receiving averted eye gaze felt ostracized, signaled by thwarted basic need satisfaction, reduced explicit and implicit self-esteem, lowered relational value, and increased temptations to act aggressively toward the interaction partner.

  12. Tumors of the eye and ocular adnexa at the Philippine Eye Research Institute: a 10-year review.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Rolando Enrique D; Manganip, Lilibeth E; Castro, Rolando M

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to identify and describe the clinicopathologic characteristics of tumors of the eye and ocular adnexa at the Philippine Eye Research Institute. The pathology reports of specimens submitted to the Ocular Pathology Section of the Philippine Eye Research Institute over a 10-year period (2003-2012) were reviewed, and collected data was subjected to descriptive statistical tabulation and analysis. A total of 1,551 histologically confirmed tumors were included. Of these, 254 were from the conjunctiva (155 benign, 99 malignant), 530 from the eyelids (360 benign, 170 malignant), 394 were intraocular tumors (21 benign, 373 malignant), and 373 were from the orbit (231 benign, 142 malignant). Retinoblastoma was the most common tumor of the eye and ocular adnexa in the series, accounting for 43.2% of all malignancies. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most frequent cancer of the conjunctiva, while basal cell carcinoma and sebaceous gland carcinoma were the most common eyelid malignancies. Orbital malignancies had a bimodal age distribution, with rhabdomyosarcoma being most frequent in children, while in adults, lymphoma was most common, followed by lacrimal gland carcinomas. The majority of tumors of the conjunctiva, eyelids, and orbit were benign, while most intraocular tumors were malignant, with retinoblastoma being the most common.

  13. Tumors of the eye and ocular adnexa at the Philippine Eye Research Institute: a 10-year review

    PubMed Central

    Domingo, Rolando Enrique D; Manganip, Lilibeth E; Castro, Rolando M

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to identify and describe the clinicopathologic characteristics of tumors of the eye and ocular adnexa at the Philippine Eye Research Institute. Methods The pathology reports of specimens submitted to the Ocular Pathology Section of the Philippine Eye Research Institute over a 10-year period (2003–2012) were reviewed, and collected data was subjected to descriptive statistical tabulation and analysis. Results A total of 1,551 histologically confirmed tumors were included. Of these, 254 were from the conjunctiva (155 benign, 99 malignant), 530 from the eyelids (360 benign, 170 malignant), 394 were intraocular tumors (21 benign, 373 malignant), and 373 were from the orbit (231 benign, 142 malignant). Retinoblastoma was the most common tumor of the eye and ocular adnexa in the series, accounting for 43.2% of all malignancies. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most frequent cancer of the conjunctiva, while basal cell carcinoma and sebaceous gland carcinoma were the most common eyelid malignancies. Orbital malignancies had a bimodal age distribution, with rhabdomyosarcoma being most frequent in children, while in adults, lymphoma was most common, followed by lacrimal gland carcinomas. Conclusion The majority of tumors of the conjunctiva, eyelids, and orbit were benign, while most intraocular tumors were malignant, with retinoblastoma being the most common. PMID:26185414

  14. 78 FR 56905 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ..., Suite 1300, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-451- 2020, jeanetteh@mail.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: September...

  15. 77 FR 73666 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ..., 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301- 451-2020, hoshawb@mail.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  16. 78 FR 62639 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Extramural Research, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, Rockville, MD 20892, 301-451-2020, hoshawb@mail.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research, National Institutes of...

  17. 75 FR 52762 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  18. 77 FR 71428 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  20. 78 FR 25458 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Meeting

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  1. 76 FR 53687 - National Eye Institute Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-08-29

    ..., National Institutes of Health, 301-451-2020, amp@nei.nih.gov . Any person interested may file written... available. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research,...

  2. 75 FR 16818 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  3. 76 FR 46822 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  4. 75 FR 48976 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  5. 76 FR 3917 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  6. 75 FR 13769 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    ..., 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, Bethesda, MD 20892-9300, 301-451-2020, rawlings@nei.nih.gov..., MD 20892-9300 301-451-2020, rawlings@nei.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: March 15, 2010....

  7. 77 FR 64525 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-10-22

    ... Applications-- Visual Processing and Low Vision. Date: November 8, 2012. Time: 1:00 p.m. to 3:30 p.m. Agenda..., 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, aes@nei.nih.gov . ] (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.867, Vision Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  8. 78 FR 46593 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-08-01

    ... Extramural Research, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, Rockville, MD 20892, 301-451-2020, hoshawb@mail.nih.gov . This notice is being published less than 15 days prior to the meeting due to the timing limitations..., Vision Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: July 26, 2013. Melanie Gray, Program Analyst...

  9. Evaluation of the Tobii EyeX Eye tracking controller and Matlab toolkit for research.

    PubMed

    Gibaldi, Agostino; Vanegas, Mauricio; Bex, Peter J; Maiello, Guido

    2017-06-01

    The Tobii Eyex Controller is a new low-cost binocular eye tracker marketed for integration in gaming and consumer applications. The manufacturers claim that the system was conceived for natural eye gaze interaction, does not require continuous recalibration, and allows moderate head movements. The Controller is provided with a SDK to foster the development of new eye tracking applications. We review the characteristics of the device for its possible use in scientific research. We develop and evaluate an open source Matlab Toolkit that can be employed to interface with the EyeX device for gaze recording in behavioral experiments. The Toolkit provides calibration procedures tailored to both binocular and monocular experiments, as well as procedures to evaluate other eye tracking devices. The observed performance of the EyeX (i.e. accuracy < 0.6°, precision < 0.25°, latency < 50 ms and sampling frequency ≈55 Hz), is sufficient for some classes of research application. The device can be successfully employed to measure fixation parameters, saccadic, smooth pursuit and vergence eye movements. However, the relatively low sampling rate and moderate precision limit the suitability of the EyeX for monitoring micro-saccadic eye movements or for real-time gaze-contingent stimulus control. For these applications, research grade, high-cost eye tracking technology may still be necessary. Therefore, despite its limitations with respect to high-end devices, the EyeX has the potential to further the dissemination of eye tracking technology to a broad audience, and could be a valuable asset in consumer and gaming applications as well as a subset of basic and clinical research settings.

  10. 77 FR 40367 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Trials. Date: July 31, 2012. Time: 2:30 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate cooperative...: July 23, 2012. Time: 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place... Analysis. Date: July 25-26, 2012. Time: 8:30 a.m. to 9 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant...

  11. An Evaluation of the Career Education Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCowan, Richard J.; Mongerson, M. Duane

    Evaluation of a career education institute, conducted to infuse career education into the preservice certification at participating higher education institutions throughout New York State, was designed to assess the effectiveness of the conference and to serve as a model for similar activities. There were two major components of the evaluation.…

  12. Residencies at The Eye Institute of the Pennsylvania College of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Arthur H.; Klopfer, Joann

    1983-01-01

    An optometric residency program at The Eye Institute of the Pennsylvania College of Optometry that focuses on clinical training in the areas of low vision rehabilitation, pediatric optometry, visual training, behavioral vision, primary care optometry and hospital based optometry is discussed. (MSW)

  13. Reliability and validity of abbreviated surveys derived from the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire: The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gergana, Kodjebacheva; Coleman, Anne L.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Cauley, Jane A.; Yu, Fei; Stone, Katie L.; Pedula, Kathryn L.; Hochberg, Marc C.; Mangione, Carol M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To test the reliability and validity of questionnaires shortened from the National Eye Institute 25-item Vision Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-9 and NEI VFQ-8). Design A cross-sectional multi-center cohort study. Methods Reliability was assessed by Cronbach alpha coefficients. Validity was evaluated by studying the association of vision-targeted quality-of-life composite scores with objective visual function measurements. Study population: A total of 5,482 women between the ages of 65 and 100 years participated in the Year-10 clinic visit in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF). A total of 3,631 women with complete data were included in the visual acuity (VA) and visual field (VF) analysis of the NEI VFQ-9, which is defined for those who care to drive. and 5,311 in the analysis of the NEI VFQ-8. To assess differences in prevalent eye diseases, which were ascertained for a random sample of SOF participants, 853 and 1,237 women were included in the NEI VFQ-9 and the NEI VFQ-8 analyses, respectively. Results Cronbach alpha coefficient for the NEI VFQ-9 scale was 0.83 and that of the NEI VFQ-8 was 0.84. Using both questionnaires, women with VA worse than 20/40 had lower composite scores compared to those with VA 20/40 or better (p<0.001). Participants with mild, moderate, and severe binocular VF loss had lower composite scores compared to those with no binocular VF loss (p<0.001).Compared to women without chronic eye diseases in both eyes, women with at least one chronic eye disease in at least one eye had lower composite scores. Conclusions Both questionnaires showed high reliability across items and validity with respect to clinical markers of eye disease Future research should compare the properties of these shortened surveys to those of the NEI VFQ-25. PMID:20103058

  14. The origins of the National Eye Institute 1933-1968. The Fifth Charles B. Snyder Lecture.

    PubMed

    Newell, F W

    1995-01-01

    Many organizations and individuals prompted the authorization of the National Eye Institute by the United States Congress. The United States Marine Hospital and Public Health Service established a Laboratory of Hygiene in 1887, which became the research center of the National Institute of Health in 1930. The Albert D. and Mary Lasker Medical Foundation was mainly responsible for the 1945 conversion of the American Society for the Control of Cancer to the American Cancer Society, dedicated to medical research. Mildred Weisenfeld, a patient with retinitis pigmentosa, founded The Fight for Sight! in 1946 to provide funds for eye research. The Laskers invited Miss Weisenfeld to testify in support of a National Institute of Neurology, and her appeal was so persuasive that it emerged as the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Blindness. Congressman John Fogarty and Senator Lister Hill directed the attention of the Congress and the public to the need for the Federal support of medical research. In 1960 Jules Stein, the legendary founder of the Music Corporation of America (MCA), established a new philanthropy, Research to Prevent Blindness, which provided skilled leadership in detailing the need for research in blinding disease and obtaining Congressional and Presidential approval of a new institute. The Committee for Research in Ophthalmology and Blindness was instrumental in bringing the groups interested in the welfare of the blind into harmony with groups concerned with medical research in blinding disease. The Association of University Professors of Ophthalmology was the first medical society to support the need for a National Eye Institute. The National Eye Institute was formally approved 8 August 1968 and celebrated its 25th anniversary in 1993.

  15. Fluorophotometry as a diagnostic tool for the evaluation of dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Fahim, Magid M; Haji, Shamim; Koonapareddy, Chakravarthy V; Fan, Vincent C; Asbell, Penny A

    2006-01-01

    Background Dry eye disease is a common debilitating ocular disease. Current diagnostic tests used in dry eye disease are often neither sensitive nor reproducible, making it difficult to accurately diagnose and determine end points for clinical trials, or evaluate the usefulness of different medications in the treatment of dry eye disease. The recently developed fluorophotometer can objectively detect changes in the corneal epithelium by quantitatively measuring its barrier function or permeability. The purpose of the study is to investigate the use of corneal fluorescein penetration measured by the fluorophotometer as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of dry eye patients. Methods Dry eye patients (16 eyes), who presented with a chief complaint of ocular irritation corresponding with dry eye, low Schirmer's one test (<10 mm after 5 minutes) and corneal fluorescein staining score of more than two, were included in the study. Normal subjects (16 eyes), who came for refraction error evaluation, served as controls. Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved consent was obtained before enrolling the subjects in the study and all questions were answered while explaining the risks, benefits and alternatives. All Fluorophotometry of the central corneal epithelium was done utilizing the Fluorotron Master (TradeMark). Each eye had a baseline fluorescein scan performed, after which 50 l of 1% sodium fluorescein dye was instilled. Three minutes later, the fluorescein was washed with 50 ml of normal saline. Fluorescein scans were then started immediately after washing and were recorded at 10, 20, 40, and 60 minutes thereafter. The corneal peak values of fluorescein concentration were recorded within the central cornea in both dry eyes and in controls. Results Ten minutes after fluorescein installition, patients with dry eye disease averaged a five-fold increase in corneal tissue fluorescein concentration (mean = 375.26 ± 202.67 ng/ml) compared with that of normal subjects

  16. Formative Evaluation At the Yosemite Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Stanley L.

    1976-01-01

    Describes an evaluation program established at the Yosemite Institute which emphasizes assessment to achieve smooth functioning, while avoiding increased cost, increased data gathering, and unwarranted interference in the activities of individual staff members. (SL)

  17. Evaluation of eyes enucleated for scleritis.

    PubMed Central

    Fraunfelder, F. T.; Watson, P. G.

    1976-01-01

    A series of 30 enucleated eyes, all of which had a primary histological diagnosis of scleritis, was analysed. The average age of patients at enucleation was 68 years; many of these patients had had the disease for more than 30 years. In 40 per cent the diagnosis of scleritis was unsuspected and was often masked by multiple complications. Scleritis with uveitis and glaucoma was the most common combination to come to enucleation. In 82 per cent, pain was the reason for enucleation, which suggests that some patients were on inadequate levels of steroid treatment or were unable to tolerate them. In the series, 37 per cent of the eyes perforated. Perforation occurred in those patients who were having steriods but not in those who were not, but the data are inconclusive as to which method of steroid administration was most likely to cause ocular perforation. PMID:1268181

  18. Report on the National Eye Institute Audacious Goals Initiative: Regenerating the Optic Nerve.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Jeffrey L; Guido, William

    2016-03-01

    The National Eye Institute (NEI) hosted a workshop on November 19, 2014, as part of the Audacious Goals Initiative (AGI), an NEI-led effort to rapidly expand therapies for eye diseases through coordinated research funding. The central audacious goal aims to demonstrate by 2025 the restoration of usable vision in humans through the regeneration of neurons and neural connections in the eye and visual system. This workshop focused on identifying promising strategies for optic nerve regeneration. Its principal objective was to solicit input on future AGI-related funding announcements, and specifically to ask, where are we now in our scientific progress, and what progress should we reach for in the coming years? A full report was generated as a white paper posted on the NEI Web site; this report summarizes the discussion and outcomes from the meeting and serves as guidance for future funding of research that focuses on optic nerve regeneration.

  19. Objective evaluation of the visual acuity in human eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales, M. A.; López-Olazagasti, E.; Ramírez-Zavaleta, G.; Varillas, G.; Tepichín, E.

    2009-08-01

    Traditionally, the quality of the human vision is evaluated by a subjective test in which the examiner asks the patient to read a series of characters of different sizes, located at a certain distance of the patient. Typically, we need to ensure a subtended angle of vision of 5 minutes, which implies an object of 8.8 mm high located at 6 meters (normal or 20/20 visual acuity). These characters constitute what is known as the Snellen chart, universally used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the human eyes. The mentioned process of identification of characters is carried out by means of the eye - brain system, giving an evaluation of the subjective visual performance. In this work we consider the eye as an isolated image-forming system, and show that it is possible to isolate the function of the eye from that of the brain in this process. By knowing the impulse response of the eye´s system we can obtain, in advance, the image of the Snellen chart simultaneously. From this information, we obtain the objective performance of the eye as the optical system under test. This type of results might help to detect anomalous situations of the human vision, like the so called "cerebral myopia".

  20. The PIE Institute Project: Final Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Mark; Carroll, Becky; Helms, Jen; Smith, Anita

    2008-01-01

    The Playful Invention and Exploration (PIE) Institute project was funded in 2005 by the National Science Foundation (NSF). For the past three years, Inverness Research has served as the external evaluator for the PIE project. The authors' evaluation efforts have included extensive observation and documentation of PIE project activities; ongoing…

  1. Evaluation of different projectiles in matched experimental eye impact simulations.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Kennedy, Eric A; Duma, Stefan M; Stitzel, Joel D

    2011-03-01

    Eye trauma results in 30,000 cases of blindness each year in the United States and is the second leading cause of monocular visual impairment. Eye injury is caused by a wide variety of projectile impacts and loading scenarios with common sources of trauma being motor vehicle crashes, military operations, and sporting impacts. For the current study, 79 experimental eye impact tests in literature were computationally modeled to analyze global and localized responses of the eye to a variety of blunt projectile impacts. Simulations were run with eight different projectiles (airsoft pellets, baseball, air gun pellets commonly known as BBs, blunt impactor, paintball, aluminum, foam, and plastic rods) to characterize effects of the projectile size, mass, geometry, material properties, and velocity on eye response. This study presents a matched comparison of experimental test results and computational model outputs including stress, energy, and pressure used to evaluate risk of eye injury. In general, the computational results agreed with the experimental results. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to establish the stress and pressure thresholds that best discriminated for globe rupture in the matched experimental tests. Globe rupture is predicted by the computational simulations when the corneoscleral stress exceeds 17.21 MPa or the vitreous pressure exceeds 1.01 MPa. Peak stresses were located at the apex of the cornea, the limbus, or the equator depending on the type of projectile impacting the eye. A multivariate correlation analysis revealed that area-normalized kinetic energy was the best single predictor of peak stress and pressure. Additional incorporation of a relative size parameter that relates the projectile area to the area of the eye reduced stress response variability and may be of importance in eye injury prediction. The modeling efforts shed light on the injury response of the eye when subjected to a variety of blunt projectile

  2. The National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire in the Macular Telangiectasia (MacTel) Project.

    PubMed

    Clemons, Traci E; Gillies, Mark C; Chew, Emily Y; Bird, Alan C; Peto, Tunde; Figueroa, Maria; Harrington, Molly W

    2008-10-01

    To describe vision-targeted health-related quality of life (HR-QOL), measured with the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) in a cohort of patients with macular telangiectasia (MacTel) type 2 and to evaluate the relationship between visual acuity and NEI-VFQ-25 scores. This was an analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a longitudinal natural history study. Patients with MacTel type 2 were enrolled in the Natural History Study of The Macular Telangiectasia Project (The MacTel Project). NEI-VFQ-25 were completed at enrollment. Linear correlation and regression analyses were used to relate baseline NEI-VFQ-25 overall and subscale scores to visual acuity. Participants reported lower vision-related functioning measured by the NEI-VFQ-25 in most of the domains measured by the NEI VFQ compared with that of a normal reference group (P < 0.001 for all domains except color vision). Visual acuity was found to be associated with the NEI-VFQ-25 in many of the domains measuring degree of difficulty with common visual activities. This is the first cross-sectional cohort study to assess vision targeted HR-QOL in patients with MacTel type 2. Patients with MacTel type 2 reported markedly reduced visual functioning compared to reports of a normal reference group. These findings provide support to the use of the NEI-VFQ-25 in patients with MacTel type 2 to measure the effect of disease and potential therapies on vision-targeted HR-QOL.

  3. Evaluating eye drop instillation technique in glaucoma patients.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Raghav; Patil, Bharat; Shah, Bhavin M; Bali, Shveta Jindal; Mishra, Sanjay K; Dada, Tanuj

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the technique of eye drop instillation in glaucoma patients. Seventy patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or primary angle-closure glaucoma, self-administering topical antiglaucoma medications for at least 6 months were evaluated. All patients instilled a tear substitute in 1 eye using the same technique they used for instilling antiglaucoma medications at home. The parameters that were recorded included time taken to instill the first drop, number of eye drops instilled, drop contact location, any contact with the tip of the bottle, and closure of the eyelids or tear duct after drop instillation. The mean age of the patients was 54.1±10.0 years. The mean time taken to instill the first drop was 14.8±3.7 seconds (range, 8.7 to 23.5 s). The mean number of drops squeezed from the bottle per instillation was 1.8±1.2 drops (range, 1 to 8 drops). In 22 patients (31.43%), the eye drops fell on the eyelids or cheek. Fifty-three patients (75.7%) touched the tip of the bottle to the globe or periocular tissue. Twenty patients (28.57%) closed eyes after instilling drops and 4 patients (5.7%) occluded the punctum. Only 6 patients (8.57%) were able to correctly instill the eye drops (squeeze out 1 drop and instill it into the conjunctival sac without bottle tip contact). Nearly, 9 of 10 glaucoma patients were unable to instill eye drops correctly. This may be an important cause of unintentional noncompliance in glaucoma medical therapy.

  4. Pasteur Institute of Iran- An Evaluation Model

    PubMed Central

    Dejman, Masoumeh; Habibi, Elham; Baradarn Eftekhari, Monir; Falahat, Katayoun; Malekafzali, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pasteur Institute of Iran was established in 1919 with the aim to produce vaccines and prevent communicable diseases in Iran. Over time, their activities extended into areas of research, education and services. Naturally, such a vast development begs establishment of a comprehensive management and monitoring system. With this outlook, the present study was carried out with the aim to design a performance assessment model for Pasteur Institute of Iran that, in addition to determining evaluation indicators, it could prepare the necessary grounds for providing a unified assessment model for the global network of the Pasteur Institutes. Method: This study was designed and performed in 4 stages: first; design of indicators and determining their scores. Second; editing indicators according to the outcome of discussions and debates held with members of Research Council of Pasteur Institute of Iran. Third; implementation of a pilot model based on the Institute’s activities in 2011. Fourth; providing the pilot model feedback to the stakeholders and finalizing the model according to an opinion survey. Results: Based on the results obtained, the developed indicators for Pasteur Institute of Iran evaluation were designed in 10 axes and 18 sub-axes, which included 101 major and 58 minor indicators. The axes included governance and leadership, resources and facilities, capacity building, knowledge production and collaborations, reference services, economic value of products and services, participation in industrial exhibitions, status of the institute, satisfaction and institute’s role in health promotion. Conclusion: The indicators presented in this article have been prepared based on the balance in the Institute’s four missions, to provide the basis for assessment of the Institute’s activities in consecutive years, and possibility of comparison with other institutes worldwide. PMID:24842146

  5. The Bull's-Eye Values Survey: A Psychometric Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundgren, Tobias; Luoma, Jason B.; Dahl, JoAnne; Strosahl, Kirk; Melin, Lennart

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to develop and evaluate an instrument intended to identify and measure personal values, values attainment, and persistence in the face of barriers. Study 1 describes a content validity approach to the construction and preliminary validation of the Bull's Eye Values Survey (BEVS), using a sample of institutionalized…

  6. Impact of dry eye on reading in a population-based sample of the elderly: the Salisbury Eye Evaluation.

    PubMed

    van Landingham, Suzanne W; West, Sheila K; Akpek, Esen K; Muñoz, Beatriz; Ramulu, Pradeep Y

    2014-05-01

    People with dry eye often complain of difficulty reading, but this perceived deficit has not been appropriately quantified. The purpose of this study is to determine if dry eye is associated with measurable reading deficits. A cross-sectional study of 1981 participants in the Salisbury Eye Evaluation, a population-based study of the elderly. Dry eye symptoms were identified by questionnaire and clinically significant dry eye was defined as the presence of dry eye symptoms and positive Schirmer testing or ocular surface staining in either eye. Spoken reading speed was measured using short text passages. Subjects self-reported if they did not read or had difficulty reading newsprint. 13.8% of subjects (274/1981) had dry eye symptoms and 3.1% (62/1981) had clinically significant dry eye. There was no difference in reading speed between subjects with dry eye symptoms or clinically significant dry eye and their controls (p=0.99 and 0.78, respectively) in multivariable models. Compared with asymptomatic subjects, however, subjects with dry eye symptoms were more likely to report reading difficulty (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.4, p<0.01) and not reading newsprint (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.0 to 3.6, p=0.04). Similarly, subjects with clinically significant dry eye were more likely to report difficulty reading newsprint (OR=2.5, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.5, p<0.01) or not reading newsprint at all (OR=4.1, 95% CI 1.6 to 10.7, p<0.01) as compared with subjects without dry eye signs or symptoms. Dry eye did not significantly affect reading speed but was associated with self-reported reading difficulty and avoidance of newspaper reading in this elderly population-based sample.

  7. Cataract Surgery Visual Outcomes and Associated Risk Factors in Secondary Level Eye Care Centers of L V Prasad Eye Institute, India

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Sumathi; Park, Jiwon; Palamaner Subash Shantha, Ghanshyam; Khanna, Rohit C.; Rao, Gullapalli N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate cataract surgery visual outcomes and associated risk factors in rural secondary level eye care centers of L V Prasad Eye Institute (LVPEI), India. Methods The Eye Health pyramid of LVPEI has a network of rural secondary care centres (SCs) and attached vision centres (VCs) that provide high quality comprehensive eye care with permanent infrastructure to the most disadvantaged sections of society. The most common procedure performed at SCs is cataract surgery. We audited the outcome of a random sample of 2,049 cataract surgeries done from October 2009-March 2010 at eight rural SCs. All patients received a comprehensive ophthalmic examination, both before and after surgery. The World Health Organization recommended cataract surgical record was used for data entry. Visual outcomes were measured at discharge, 1–3 weeks and 4–11 weeks follow up visits. Poor outcome was defined as best corrected visual acuity <6/18. Results Mean age was 61.8 years (SD: 8.9 years) and 1,133 (55.3%) surgeries were performed on female patients. Pre-existing ocular co-morbidity was present in 165 patients (8.1%). The most common procedure was small incision cataract surgery (SICS) with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation (91.8%). Intraoperative complications were seen in 29 eyes (1.4%). At the 4–11 weeks follow-up visit, based on presenting visual acuity (PVA), 61.8% had a good outcome and based on best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), 91.7% had a good outcome. Based on PVA and BCVA, those with less than 6/60 were only 2.9% and 1.6% respectively. Using multivariable analysis, poor visual outcomes were significantly higher in patients aged ≥70 (OR 4.63; 95% CI 1.61, 13.30), in females (OR 1.58; 95% CI 1.04, 2.41), those with preoperative comorbidities (odds ratio 4.68; 95% CI 2.90, 7.57), with intraoperative complications (OR 8.01; 95% CI 2.91, 22.04), eyes that underwent no IOL or anterior chamber-IOL (OR 12.63; 95% CI 2.65, 60.25) and those undergoing extracapsular

  8. Evaluation of dry eye findings in patients with vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Aysun Sanal; Atacan, Damla; Durmazlar, Selda Pelin Kartal; Acar, Mutlu; Gurdal, Canan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association of dry eye and vitiligo diseases with objective parameters and a questionnaire. Methods: The study was conducted in 30 vitiligo patients and 31 patients with non-complicated refractory complaints. All the patients underwent complete ophthalmologic examinations including fluorescein break-up time (FBU), corneal fluorescein staining (CFS) and Schirmer test-I. The dry eye status was evaluated by means of Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). Results: The groups were similar regarding the age and gender distribution. The vitiligo group had higher OSDI scores (26.1±15.9 vs 14.7±5.4, t-test, p<0.001), shorter FBU (7.8±2.9 vs 9.8±2.2, Mann Whitney U test, p=0.005) and higher CFS positivity (18/30 vs 3/31, chi-square test, p<0.001) than control group. The groups were similar regarding the Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD) and Schirmer test results. Fourteen (46.7%) of vitiligo patients had periocular involvement. The analysis within vitiligo patients revealed that FBU and Schirmer test were shorter in patients with periocular involvement, the OSDI scores and MGD status were similar. Conclusion: Our study suggest a possible association of dry eye and vitiligo diseases. The diagnostic tools for dry eye disease are in good correlation with each other. The OSDI questionnaire seems practical for both diagnostic purposes and follow-up. PMID:26150849

  9. Responsiveness of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire to Changes in Visual Acuity

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background The National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ) measures vision-targeted quality of life, but it is unclear whether it is sensitive to changes within individuals over time. Objective To determine the responsiveness of the NEI-VFQ to “within-individual” changes in visual acuity in patients who had subfoveal choroidal neovascularization in at least one eye secondary to age-related macular degeneration, ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, or idiopathic causes, and who participated in randomized trials of submacular surgery. Methods Trained telephone interviewers administered the NEI-VFQ as part of annual follow-up data collection for pilot trials and larger clinical trials of sub-macular surgery. Best-corrected visual acuity was measured by local vision examiners at 12 months after enrollment and, typically, by central “traveling” vision examiners at 24 months after enrollment. Changes in visual acuity and NEI-VFQ scores from 12 to 24 months were analyzed using linear regression methods. Results Two-hundred eighteen patients had both interviews and visual acuity measurements at 12 and 24 months after enrollment. Changes in the overall NEI-VFQ score and in 9 of the subscales (near activities, dependency, driving, role difficulties, distance activities, mental health, general vision, peripheral vision, and social functioning) were related to changes in visual acuity of the better-seeing eye based on linear regression analysis (P<.05). In our analysis, a 3-line decrease in the visual acuity of the better-seeing eye was associated with 3.6-to 16.2-point decreases in the overall NEI-VFQ score and 9 subscale scores. Conclusions Most of the NEI-VFQ subscales were responsive to changes in the visual acuity of the better-seeing eye over a 12-month interval in this patient population. Thus, the NEI-VFQ can be used to measure change in vision-targeted quality of life over time to augment clinical measurements of visual acuity. PMID:12695250

  10. Guide to Evaluating Institutions Using ACCJC 2002 Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Association of Schools and Colleges, Aptos, CA. Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges.

    Guides institutions or evaluation teams on the preparation of a self-study report or evaluation based on ACCJC (Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges) 2002 standards. Emphasizes that institutions should use this guide as means for a more holistic evaluation through thoughtful dialogue and judgment about institutional quality.…

  11. Evaluation of eye metrics as a detector of fatigue.

    PubMed

    McKinley, R Andy; McIntire, Lindsey K; Schmidt, Regina; Repperger, Daniel W; Caldwell, John A

    2011-08-01

    This study evaluated oculometrics as a detector of fatigue in Air Force-relevant tasks after sleep deprivation. Using the metrics of total eye closure duration (PERCLOS) and approximate entropy (ApEn), the relation between these eye metrics and fatigue-induced performance decrements was investigated. One damaging effect to the successful outcome of operational military missions is that attributed to sleep deprivation-induced fatigue. Consequently, there is interest in the development of reliable monitoring devices that can assess when an operator is overly fatigued. Ten civilian participants volunteered to serve in this study. Each was trained on three performance tasks: target identification, unmanned aerial vehicle landing, and the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). Experimental testing began after 14 hr awake and continued every 2 hr until 28 hr of sleep deprivation was reached. Performance on the PVT and target identification tasks declined significantly as the level of sleep deprivation increased.These performance declines were paralleled more closely by changes in the ApEn compared to the PERCLOS measure. The results provide evidence that the ApEn eye metric can be used to detect fatigue in relevant military aviation tasks. Military and commercial operators could benefit from an alertness monitoring device.

  12. Report on the National Eye Institute Audacious Goals Initiative: Photoreceptor Regeneration and Integration Workshop.

    PubMed

    Gamm, David M; Wong, Rachel

    2015-11-01

    The National Eye Institute (NEI) hosted a workshop on May 2, 2015, as part of the Audacious Goals Initiative (AGI) to foster a concerted effort to develop novel therapies for outer retinal diseases. The central goal of this initiative is to "demonstrate by 2025 the restoration of usable vision in humans through the regeneration of neurons and neural connections in the eye and visual system." More specifically, the AGI identified two neural retinal cell classes-ganglion cells and photoreceptors-as challenging, high impact targets for these efforts. A prior workshop and subsequent white paper provided a foundation to begin addressing issues regarding optic nerve regeneration, whereas the major objective of the May 2015 workshop was to review progress toward photoreceptor replacement and identify research gaps and barriers that are limiting advancement of the field. The present report summarizes that discussion and input, which was gathered from a panel of distinguished basic science and clinical investigators with diverse technical expertise and experience with different model systems. Four broad discussion categories were put forth during the workshop, each addressing a critical area of need in the pursuit of functional photoreceptor regeneration: (1) cell sources for photoreceptor regeneration, (2) cell delivery and/or integration, (3) outcome assessment, and (4) preclinical models and target patient populations. For each category, multiple challenges and opportunities for research discovery and tool production were identified and vetted. The present report summarizes the dialogue that took place and seeks to encourage continued interactions within the vision science community on this topic. It also serves as a guide for funding to support the pursuit of cell and circuit repair in diseases leading to photoreceptor degeneration.

  13. Cross-cultural validation of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Mollazadegan, Kaziwe; Huang, Jinhai; Khadka, Jyoti; Wang, Qinmei; Yang, Feng; Gao, Rongrong; Pesudovs, Konrad

    2014-05-01

    To assess the native and the previously Rasch-modified National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ) scales in a Chinese population. Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China. Questionnaire development. Patients on the waiting list for cataract surgery completed the 39-item NEI VFQ (NEI VFQ-39). Rasch analysis was performed in 3 steps as follows: (1) Assess the psychometric properties of the original NEI VFQ. (2) Reassess the previously proposed Rasch-modified NEI VFQ scales by Pesudovs et al. (2010) in Chinese populations. (3) Compare the scores of previously recommended scales of the NEI VFQ with new Rasch-modified scales of the same questionnaire using Bland-Altman plots. Four hundred thirty-five patients (median age 70 years; range 35 to 90 years) completed the NEI VFQ-39. Response categories for 4 question types were dysfunctional and therefore repaired. The original NEI VFQ-39 and NEI VFQ-25 showed good measurement precision. However, both versions showed multidimensionality, misfitting items, suboptimum targeting, and nonfunctioning subscales. Using the previously proposed Rasch-modified scales of the NEI VFQ yielded valid measurement of each construct in the 39-item and 25-item questionnaire. Comparison between the earlier proposed NEI VFQ scales and the new versions developed in this population showed good agreement. The original NEI VFQ was once again found to be flawed. The previously proposed Rasch-analyzed versions of the NEI VFQ and the new Chinese versions showed good agreement. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of Eye Metrics as a Detector of Fatigue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    eyeglass frames. The cameras are angled upward toward the eyes and extract real-time pupil diameter, eye-lid movement, and eye-ball movement. The...because the cameras were mounted on eyeglass -like frames, the system was able to continuously monitor the eye throughout all sessions. Overall, the

  15. Development of a Preference-Based Index from the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25

    PubMed Central

    Rentz, Anne M.; Kowalski, Jonathan W.; Walt, John G.; Hays, Ron D.; Brazier, John E.; Yu, Ren; Lee, Paul; Bressler, Neil; Revicki, Dennis A.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Understanding how individuals value health states is central to patient-centered care and to health policy decision making. Generic preference-based measures of health may not effectively capture the impact of ocular diseases. Recently, 6 items from the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 were used to develop the Visual Function Questionnaire-Utility Index health state classification, which defines visual function health states. Objective To describe elicitation of preferences for health states generated from the Visual Function Questionnaire-Utility Index health state classification and development of an algorithm to estimate health preference scores for any health state. Design Non-intervention, cross-sectional study. Setting General community in four countries (Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, and United States) Participants 607 adult participants recruited from local newspaper advertisements. In the United Kingdom, an existing database of participants from previous studies was used for recruitment. Interventions Eight out of 15,625 possible health states from the Visual Function Questionnaire-Utility Index were valued using time trade-off technique. Main Outcome Measures A theta severity score was calculated for Visual Function Questionnaire-Utility Index–defined health states using item response theory analysis. Regression models were then used to develop an algorithm to assign health state preference values for all potential health states defined by the Visual Function Questionnaire-Utility Index. Results Health state preference values for the 8 states ranged from 0.343 (standard deviation, 0.395) to 0.956 (0.124). As expected, preference values declined with worsening visual function. Results indicate that the Visual Function Questionnaire-Utility Index describes states that participants view as spanning most of continuum from full health to dead. Conclusions and Relevance Visual Function Questionnaire-Utility Index health

  16. Eye tracking to evaluate evidence recognition in crime scene investigations.

    PubMed

    Watalingam, Renuka Devi; Richetelli, Nicole; Pelz, Jeff B; Speir, Jacqueline A

    2017-08-23

    Crime scene analysts are the core of criminal investigations; decisions made at the scene greatly affect the speed of analysis and the quality of conclusions, thereby directly impacting the successful resolution of a case. If an examiner fails to recognize the pertinence of an item on scene, the analyst's theory regarding the crime will be limited. Conversely, unselective evidence collection will most likely include irrelevant material, thus increasing a forensic laboratory's backlog and potentially sending the investigation into an unproductive and costly direction. Therefore, it is critical that analysts recognize and properly evaluate forensic evidence that can assess the relative support of differing hypotheses related to event reconstruction. With this in mind, the aim of this study was to determine if quantitative eye tracking data and qualitative reconstruction accuracy could be used to distinguish investigator expertise. In order to assess this, 32 participants were successfully recruited and categorized as experts or trained novices based on their practical experiences and educational backgrounds. Each volunteer then processed a mock crime scene while wearing a mobile eye tracker, wherein visual fixations, durations, search patterns, and reconstruction accuracy were evaluated. The eye tracking data (dwell time and task percentage on areas of interest or AOIs) were compared using Earth Mover's Distance (EMD) and the Needleman-Wunsch (N-W) algorithm, revealing significant group differences for both search duration (EMD), as well as search sequence (N-W). More specifically, experts exhibited greater dissimilarity in search duration, but greater similarity in search sequences than their novice counterparts. In addition to the quantitative visual assessment of examiner variability, each participant's reconstruction skill was assessed using a 22-point binary scoring system, in which significant group differences were detected as a function of total

  17. The Italian version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire: translation, validity, and reliability.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gemma Caterina Maria; Milano, Giovanni; Tinelli, Carmine

    2003-06-01

    To test the Italian adaptation of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ 25) and to investigate its validity and reliability. This prospective observational study enrolled nonhospitalized patients with 1 of 5 chronic eye diseases, and a reference sample of subjects without eye diseases. Eligible participants had to be cognitively able to respond to a health status interview and be affected by 1 of the following eye conditions: senile cataract, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and cytomegalovirus retinitis or low vision. A control group was composed of subjects with no evidence of underlying eye diseases. The Italian self-administered versions of Medical Outcomes Study Short Form and of the NEI-VFQ 25 were administered to all participants. Reliability and validity of the Italian translation of the NEI-VFQ 25 were tested using statistical methods. Statistical analysis points out that the Italian version of the NEI-VFQ 25 has good validity, discriminatory power, internal consistency, and reliability. This Italian version of the NEI-VFQ 25 shows psychometric properties comparable to those of the American version, and thus can be used in clinical research as a specific measure of quality of life in patients with chronic eye diseases.

  18. Longitudinal Evaluation of Eye Misalignment and Eye Movements Following Surgical Correction of Strabismus in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Pullela, Mythri; Degler, Brittany A.; Coats, David K.; Das, Vallabh E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Strabismus correction surgery is well documented in both the literature and practice with varying levels of success and permanence. Our goal was to characterize longitudinal changes in eye alignment and eye movements following strabismus correction surgery in a monkey model for developmental strabismus. Methods We studied two juvenile rhesus monkeys with exotropia previously induced via an optical prism-rearing paradigm in infancy. Eye misalignment was corrected via a resection–recession surgery of the horizontal rectus muscles of one eye. Binocular search coils were used to collect eye movement data during smooth-pursuit, saccades, and fixation tasks before surgical treatment, immediately after surgery, and through 6 months after treatment. Results Both animals showed an immediate ∼70% reduction in misalignment as a consequence of surgery that regressed to a 20%–40% improvement by 6 months after treatment. Significant changes were observed in saccade and smooth-pursuit gain of the nonviewing eye after surgery, which also reverted to presurgical values by 6 months. A temporary improvement in fixation stability of the nonviewing eye was observed after surgery; naso-temporal (N/T) asymmetry of monocular smooth-pursuit remained unchanged. Conclusions Surgical realignment is followed by plastic changes that often lead to reversal of surgery effects. Immediate improvement in misalignment and changes in eye movement gains are likely a result of contractility changes at the level of the extraocular muscle, whereas longer-term effects are likely a combination of neural and muscle adaptation. PMID:27820877

  19. Students' Perceptions on the Influence of Institutional Evaluation on Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Denise; Santiago, Rui A.; Sarrico, Claudia S.; Leite, Cecilia Lorea; Polidori, Marlis

    2006-01-01

    There are many studies about the experiences of higher education students, but few analyze their representations of the governance and the management of their institutions. Our study will describe, analyze and compare students' representations of institutional evaluation at three institutions in Portugal and Brazil. Our results, based on an open…

  20. Implementation evaluation of a culturally competent eye injury prevention program for citrus workers in a Florida migrant community.

    PubMed

    Luque, John S; Monaghan, Paul; Contreras, Ricardo B; August, Euna; Baldwin, Julie A; Bryant, Carol A; McDermott, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    The Partnership for Citrus Worker Health (PCWH) is a coalition that connects academic institutions, public health agencies, industry and community-based organizations for implementation of an eye safety pilot project with citrus workers using the Camp Health Aide (CHA) model. This project was an implementation evaluation of an eye safety curriculum using modeling and peer-to-peer education among Mexican migrant citrus workers in a southwest Florida community to increase positive perceptions toward the use of safety eyewear and reduce occupational eye injuries. CHAs have been employed and trained in eye safety and health during harvesting seasons since 2004. Field observations, focus group interviews, and written questionnaires assessed program implementation and initial outcomes. There was an increase in positive perceptions toward use of safety eyewear between 2004 and 2005. Evaluation of training suggested ways to improve the curriculum. The modest literacy level of the CHAs necessitated some redesign of the curriculum and its implementation (e.g., introduction of and more reliance on use of training posters). PCWH benefited by extensive documentation of the training and supervision, a pilot project that demonstrated the potential effectiveness of CHAs, and having a well-defined target population of citrus workers (n = 427). Future research can rigorously test the effectiveness of CHAs in reducing eye injuries among citrus workers.

  1. Graves' ophthalmopathy evaluated by infrared eye-movement recordings

    SciTech Connect

    Feldon, S.E.; Unsoeld, R.

    1982-02-01

    Thirteen patients with varying degrees of Graves' ophthalmopathy were examined using high-resolution infrared oculography to determine peak velocities for horizontal eye movements between 3 degrees and 30 degrees. As severity of the orbital disease increased, peak velocities became substantially lower. Vertical-muscle surgery failed to have any effect on peak velocity of horizontal eye movements. In contrast, orbital decompression caused notable improvement in peak velocity of eye movements. Eye-movement recordings, which provide a measure of extraocular muscle function rather than structure, may provide a safe, sensitive, and accurate method for classifying and following up patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy.

  2. Neuroimaging in the Diagnostic Evaluation of Eye Pain.

    PubMed

    Szatmáry, Gabriella

    2016-09-01

    Ocular or eye pain is a frequent complaint encountered not only by eye care providers but neurologists. Isolated eye pain is non-specific and non-localizing; therefore, it poses significant differential diagnostic problems. A wide range of neurologic and ophthalmic disorders may cause pain in, around, or behind the eye. These include ocular and orbital diseases and primary and secondary headaches. In patients presenting with an isolated and chronic eye pain, neuroimaging is usually normal. However, at the beginning of a disease process or in low-grade disease, the eye may appear "quiet," misleading a provider lacking familiarity with underlying disorders and high index of clinical suspicion. Delayed diagnosis of some neuro-ophthalmic causes of eye pain could result in significant neurologic and ophthalmic morbidity, conceivably even mortality. This article reviews some recent advances in imaging of the eye, the orbit, and the brain, as well as research in which neuroimaging has advanced the discovery of the underlying pathophysiology and the complex differential diagnosis of eye pain.

  3. Mapping the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) to EQ-5D utility scores.

    PubMed

    Kay, Stephen; Ferreira, Alberto

    2014-04-01

    To develop a mapping algorithm for the estimation of EQ-5D-based utility scores from observed 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) scores, a disease-specific, patient-reported outcome measure used in several retinal disorders to evaluate vision-specific functioning. The dataset comprised 951 paired EQ-5D/NEI VFQ-25 observations from 344 patients in RESTORE, a 12-month, randomized, double-blind trial in individuals with visual impairment due to diabetic macular edema. EQ-5D index scores (utilities) were calculated based on the UK tariff. We evaluated 11 models using predictor sets based on the NEI VFQ-25 subscales to estimate utility as a function of NEI VFQ-25 score, based on four modeling techniques. Model performance was assessed by 10-fold cross-validation comparing root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and correlation with EQ-5D score (Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients). Mapping results were similar across all techniques and predictor sets. The reverse two-part generalized estimating equation model used fewest predictors and had the best predictive performance (RMSE 0.200, MAE 0.140). Predicted and original EQ-5D values were not strongly correlated (squared Spearman correlation coefficient, 0.34). Although mapping disease-specific instruments to EQ-5D utilities is a preferred method by some reimbursement bodies, finding an appropriate mapping equation is not straightforward. In this study, mapping NEI VFQ-25 scores to EQ-5D utilities provided low predictive power, independent of the modeling methodology applied, suggesting an inability of the EQ-5D to discriminate vision-related activities, and highlighting that mapping exercises may lead to inaccurate utility values that do not represent patients' preferences.

  4. Attention to Eye Contact in the West and East: Autonomic Responses and Evaluative Ratings

    PubMed Central

    Akechi, Hironori; Senju, Atsushi; Uibo, Helen; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Hietanen, Jari K.

    2013-01-01

    Eye contact has a fundamental role in human social interaction. The special appearance of the human eye (i.e., white sclera contrasted with a coloured iris) implies the importance of detecting another person's face through eye contact. Empirical studies have demonstrated that faces making eye contact are detected quickly and processed preferentially (i.e., the eye contact effect). Such sensitivity to eye contact seems to be innate and universal among humans; however, several studies suggest that cultural norms affect eye contact behaviours. For example, Japanese individuals exhibit less eye contact than do individuals from Western European or North American cultures. However, how culture modulates eye contact behaviour is unclear. The present study investigated cultural differences in autonomic correlates of attentional orienting (i.e., heart rate) and looking time. Additionally, we examined evaluative ratings of eye contact with another real person, displaying an emotionally neutral expression, between participants from Western European (Finnish) and East Asian (Japanese) cultures. Our results showed that eye contact elicited stronger heart rate deceleration responses (i.e., attentional orienting), shorter looking times, and higher ratings of subjective feelings of arousal as compared to averted gaze in both cultures. Instead, cultural differences in the eye contact effect were observed in various evaluative responses regarding the stimulus faces (e.g., facial emotion, approachability etc.). The rating results suggest that individuals from an East Asian culture perceive another's face as being angrier, unapproachable, and unpleasant when making eye contact as compared to individuals from a Western European culture. The rating results also revealed that gaze direction (direct vs. averted) could influence perceptions about another person's facial affect and disposition. These results suggest that cultural differences in eye contact behaviour emerge from differential

  5. Evaluation of a compound eye type tactile endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Kayo; Yamada, Kenji; Sasaki, Nagisa; Takeda, Maki; Shimizu, Sachiko; Nagakura, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Hideya; Ohno, Yuko

    2013-03-01

    Minimally invasive surgical techniques for endoscope become widely used, for example, laparoscopic operation, NOTES (Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery), robotic surgery and so on. There are so many demand and needs for endoscopic diagnosis. Especially, palpation is most important diagnosis on any surgery. However, conventional endoscopic system has no tactile sensibility. There are many studies about tactile sensor for medical application. These sensors can measure object at a point. It is necessary to sense in areas for palpation. To overcome this problem, we propose compound eye type tactile endoscope. The proposed system consists of TOMBO (Thin Observation Module by Bound Optics) and clear silicon rubber. Our proposed system can estimate hardness of target object by measuring deformation of a projected pattern on the silicon rubber. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the proposed system. At first, we introduce approximated models of the silicone and the object. We formulate the stiffness of object, the deformation of silicone, and the whole object. We investigate the accuracy of measured silicone's lower surface for deformation of silicone by prototype system. Finally, we evaluate the calculated stiffness of the soft object.

  6. Clinical Evaluation of Red Eyes in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Beal, Casey; Giordano, Beverly

    2016-01-01

    Patients with the primary symptom of a red eye are commonly seen in pediatric primary care clinics. The differential diagnoses of a red eye are broad, but with a succinct history and physical examination, the diagnosis can be readily identified in many patients. Identifying conditions that threaten vision and understanding the urgency of referral to an ophthalmologist is paramount. Some systemic diseases such as leukemia, sarcoidosis, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis can present with the chief symptom of a red eye. Finally, trauma, ranging from mild to severe, often precipitates an office visit with a red eye, and thus understanding the signs that raise concern for a ruptured globe is essential. In the primary care setting, with a focused history, a few simple examination techniques, and an appreciation of the differential diagnosis, one can feel confident in managing patients with acute red eyes. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Corneal Deformation Analyzed with Scheimpflug Based Device in Healthy Eyes and Diseased Ones

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, Michele; Cennamo, Michela; Iaccarino, Stefania; Irregolare, Carlo; Bifani, Mario; Gironi Carnevale, Ugo Antonello

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the correlation between corneal biomechanical and morphological data in healthy eyes, eyes that underwent myopic photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), keratoconus affected eyes, and keratoconus affected eyes that underwent corneal collagen crosslinking (CCC). Complete clinical eye examination of all eyes was followed by tomographic (Pentacam, Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany) and biomechanical (Corvis ST, Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany) evaluation. Differences among Corvis ST (CST) parameters in the different groups have been performed. Linear regression between central corneal thickness (CCT), intraocular pressure (IOP), and anterior corneal curvature measured with Sim'K (KM), versus corneal deformation parameters measured with Corvis ST in the different groups, has been run using SPSS software version 18.0. We evaluated 64 healthy eyes of 64 patients with a mean refractive error of −0.65 ± 1.68 D (measured as spherical equivalent), 17 eyes of 17 patients that underwent myopic PRK for a mean refractive defect of −4.91 ± 2.05 D (measured as spherical equivalent), 16 eyes of 16 patients affected by keratconus (stage 2-3 of Amsler Classification), and 13 eyes of 13 patients affected by keratoconus that underwent CCC. Our data suggest that corneal curvature would have a greater influence on corneal deformation than CCT; in fact KM values are more strongly associated with more CST parameters both about corneal change in shape and both about the corneal ability to come back at original shape. PMID:25054144

  8. Development of an Arabic version of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire as a tool to study eye diseases patients in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abdelfattah, Nizar Saleh; Amgad, Mohamed; Salama, Ahmed A; Israel, Marina E; Elhawary, Ghada A; Radwan, Ahmed E; Elgayar, Mohamed M; EL Nakhal, Tamer M; Elkhateb, Islam T; Hashem, Heba A; Embaby, Doha K; Elabd, Amira A; Elwy, Reem K; Yacoub, Magdi S; Salem, Hamdy; Abdel-Baqy, Mohamed; Kassem, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    AIM To develop and test an Arabic version of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI-VFQ-25). METHODS NEI-VFQ-25 was translated into Arabic according to WHO translation guidelines. We enrolled adult consenting patients with bilateral chronic eye diseases who presented to 14 hospitals across Egypt from October to December 2012, and documented their clinical findings. Psychometric properties were then tested using STATA. RESULTS We recruited 379 patients, whose mean age was (54.5±15)y. Of 46.2% were males, 227 had cataract, 31 had glaucoma, 23 had retinal detachment, 37 had diabetic retinopathy, and 61 had miscellaneous visual defects. Non-response rate and the floor and ceiling numbers of the Arabic version (ARB-VFQ-25) were calculated. Internal consistency was high in all subscales (except general health), with Cronbach-α ranging from 0.702-0.911. Test-retest reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.79). CONCLUSION ARB-VFQ-25 is a reliable and valid tool for assessing visual functions of Arabic speaking patients. However, some questions had high non-response rates and should be substituted by available alternatives. Our results support the importance of including self-reported visual functions as part of routine ophthalmologic examination. PMID:25349812

  9. Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) in Serbian patients.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Bojan; Vukosavljevic, Miroslav; Djokic Kovac, Jelena; Resan, Mirko; Trajkovic, Goran; Jankovic, Janko; Smiljanic, Milena; Grgurevic, Anita

    2015-09-15

    To test the validity and reliability of the Serbian version of the interviewer-administered format of the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25). The Serbian version of NEI VFQ-25 was translated in accordance with standard methods that have been adopted internationally. In order to assess the reliability and validity of the translated NEI VFQ-25, we used a sample of 105 patients with four different chronic ocular diseases. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to assess internal consistency for each subscale. To assess test-retest reliability, intraclass correlation coefficients were used. The test-retest data were obtained from clinically stable patients with age-related cataracts, in surveys performed 2 weeks apart. Rasch analysis was also applied as a modern methods of psychometric assessment of the questionnaire. Four groups of patients were studied and the most prevalent were patients with cataract 40 (38.1%), followed by diabetic retinopathy 31 (29.5%), age related macular degeneration 22 (21.0%) and glaucoma 12 (11.4%). The overall index score on the NEI VFQ-25 ranged from 65.3 to 67.8 with a mean of 67.4 ± 15.0. Cronbach's alpha coefficient (index of internal consistency reliability) ranged from 0.643 to 0.889 for the subscales. Evaluation of the validity of the Serbian version of NEI VFQ-25 is presented in the multi-trait-multi-method matrix and all items passed the convergent and discriminant validity tests. Rasch analysis showed a good measurement precision, but also demonstrated misfitting items and multidimensionality of the questionnaire. Although traditional validation method indicates that the Serbian version of NEI VFQ-25 is a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of vision specific QoL in Serbian populations aged 40 years or older, Rasch analysis revealed a substantial weakness of the questionnaire that should be taken into consideration when interpreting the results.

  10. 30 CFR 401.26 - Evaluation of institutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evaluation of institutes. 401.26 Section 401.26 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR STATE WATER RESEARCH INSTITUTE PROGRAM... determination shall be based on: (1) The quality and relevance of its water resources research as funded under...

  11. College of the Siskiyous Comprehensive Institutional Evaluation System. Management Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Eugene; Peterson, Gary

    This special project, a fifth year review of an institution under current accrediting commission policy, was undertaken at College of the Siskiyous (COS). Its purpose was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the institution and its programs and services through surveys of community residents, staff members, and former and current students. A…

  12. Corneal temperature in patients with dry eye evaluated by infrared radiation thermometry.

    PubMed Central

    Fujishima, H; Toda, I; Yamada, M; Sato, N; Tsubota, K

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: The corneal temperature change following each blink was investigated in patients with dry eye using an infrared radiation thermometer. METHODS: Twenty patients with dry eye and 20 normal controls were enrolled in this study. Subjects kept their eyes open for 10 seconds without blinking and corneal temperature was measured every second with a recently improved infrared radiation thermometer. RESULTS: In the 20 patients with dry eye, corneal temperature change after keeping the eye open for 10 seconds was 0.21 (SD 0.06) degree C while it was 0.61 (0.28) degree C in the 20 normal patients (p = 0.0001). In an exponential equation, the inclination of the slope of a patient with dry eye was smaller than the normal. The correlation coefficient was r = 0.79 (0.16) in patients with dry eye and r = 0.90 (0.07) in normal patients. The mean K value of patients with dry eye was 0.20 (0.13)/second and that of normal subjects was 0.31 (0.19)/second (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Findings demonstrate the usefulness of this thermometer for measuring corneal temperature in the evaluation of dry eye. Decrease in corneal temperature with each blink in patients with dry eye was smaller than in normal subjects. Images PMID:8664227

  13. Responsiveness of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire to Progression to Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Vision Loss, and Lens Opacity

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Objective To describe the ability of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ) to detect meaningful change over time (responsiveness) to the primary Age-Related Eye Disease Study outcomes. Methods The 25-item NEI-VFQ plus appendix was administered at 2 visits at 1- to 4-year intervals to 4119 participants in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study. Events evaluated were progression to advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD), visual acuity (VA) loss of at least 15 letters, and lens opacity progression. Responsiveness was measured by the t statistic, effect size (ES), responsiveness statistic, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Variance components were used to estimate the contributions of events to variability of the NEI-VFQ score. Results Overall NEI-VFQ score was responsive to AMD progression (t = 14.0; P<.001; ES=0.81) and VA (t = 16.2; P<.001; ES=0.74). Mean changes ranged from 11 to 25 points for the subscales of general vision, near and distance activities, social functioning, mental health, role difficulties, dependency, and driving. The NEI-VFQ was unresponsive to lens opacity progression, although when the event occurred in the eye with the best vision at the first administration, the lens opacity ES was moderate for the color vision (ES = 0.62) and driving subscales (ES=0.66). Progression to advanced AMD and VA loss contributed significantly to the variation in the mean difference in overall VFQ score. Conclusions Changes in the NEI-VFQ overall and subscale scores of 10 points or more are associated with clinically significant changes in vision and AMD. This finding may assist the design of interventional studies of AMD and VA loss that include the NEI-VFQ as an outcome measure. PMID:16157800

  14. 30 CFR 401.26 - Evaluation of institutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... elsewhere; and (4) Its demonstrated record in providing for the training of scientists through student... the members' knowledge of water research and administration, shall evaluate each institute, and may...

  15. Hispanic-Serving Institutions through the Eyes of Students and Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton, Boualoy; Gonzalez-Vasquez, Nancy; Martinez, Carla R.; Plum, Caryn

    2004-01-01

    Every year, more colleges and universities become Hispanic-serving institutions. These institutions, whether public or private, two-year or four-year, find themselves in the position of serving high numbers of Latino students. They encounter opportunities for unique learning environments, access to special funding, and the potential to be…

  16. Hispanic-Serving Institutions through the Eyes of Students and Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton, Boualoy; Gonzalez-Vasquez, Nancy; Martinez, Carla R.; Plum, Caryn

    2004-01-01

    Every year, more colleges and universities become Hispanic-serving institutions. These institutions, whether public or private, two-year or four-year, find themselves in the position of serving high numbers of Latino students. They encounter opportunities for unique learning environments, access to special funding, and the potential to be…

  17. Choroidal thickness evaluation of healthy eyes, central serous chorioretinopathy, and fellow eyes using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Supriya; Pyare, Richa; Sridharan, Preethi; Arora, Tarun; Thakar, Meenakshi; Ghosh, Basudeb

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to establish a normative database of subfoveal choroidal thickness (CT) in healthy young Indians using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). Evaluation and comparison of CT of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and fellow eyes were also performed. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional, and observational study. It included 112 normal eyes of 112 healthy volunteers who had no evidence of ocular or systemic disease, 84 CSC eyes with acute, treatment-naïve CSC, and 69 fellow eyes with no evidence of neurosensory detachment or pigment epithelium detachment on SD OCT. Complete history, examination, and SD OCT were performed in all eyes. Results: The mean age of 81 patients (84 eyes) with CSC was 35.04 ± 8.86 years, 69 fellow eyes was 34.61 ± 8.71 years, and 112 healthy volunteers (112 eyes) was 33.16 ± 9.4 years (P < 0.05). The mean subfoveal CT of CSC eyes was 429 ± 74.18 μ, fellow eyes was 360 ± 57.99 μ, and normal eyes was 301.80 ± 46.59 μ (P < 0.001). Conclusion: CT varies not only with age, axial length, and refractive error but also with races. Therefore, it is important to establish a normative database in a particular population before carrying out further research in diseased states. CT in CSC eyes is significantly thicker than fellow eyes, and CT of fellow eyes is significantly thicker than normal eyes. This reinforces the fact that choroidal permeability is increased in both eyes of patients with CSC. PMID:27905337

  18. Evaluation of peripheral fundus autofluorescence in eyes with wet age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Suetsugu, Tetsuyuki; Kato, Aki; Yoshida, Munenori; Yasukawa, Tsutomu; Nishiwaki, Akiko; Hasegawa, Norio; Usui, Hideaki; Ogura, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of abnormal peripheral fundus autofluorescence (FAF) in wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using wide-field imaging instrument. Patients and methods A retrospective, case-controlled study involving 66 eyes of 46 Japanese wet AMD patients and 32 eyes of 20 control patients was performed. Wide-field FAF images were obtained for typical AMD (37 eyes/28 patients), polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) (22 eyes/20 patients), and retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) (seven eyes/four patients). Two masked ophthalmologists independently graded the images for mottled, granular, and nummular patterns. Main outcome measures were abnormal peripheral FAF frequencies and relative risks by disease subgroups and treatments. Results Abnormal peripheral FAF patterns were found in 51.5% of wet AMD eyes compared with 18.8% of control eyes (P<0.001). Mottled, granular, and nummular patterns were found in 45.5%, 31.8%, and 16.7%, respectively, of wet AMD eyes. Each disease subgroup (typical AMD, 54.1%; PCV, 36.4%; and RAP, 85.7%) showed significantly higher frequencies of peripheral FAF (P<0.001, P=0.03, and P<0.001, respectively) than control eyes (18.8%). There were no significant differences (P=0.76) between the frequencies in untreated and treated eyes. Conclusion Eyes of Japanese wet AMD patients had a higher abnormal FAF prevalence compared with control eyes. Among the three disease subtypes, abnormal patterns were least prevalent in PCV eyes. PMID:28008222

  19. An Institutional Approach to the Evaluation of Educational Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Gregor E.

    2003-01-01

    Outlines an institutional approach that guides the evaluation of educational technology in the Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences at the University of Melbourne (Victoria, Australia). Roles for an internal evaluator and educational technology practitioners are proposed, and a conceptual framework that guides the evaluation process…

  20. An Institutional Approach to the Evaluation of Educational Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Gregor E.

    2003-01-01

    Outlines an institutional approach that guides the evaluation of educational technology in the Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences at the University of Melbourne (Victoria, Australia). Roles for an internal evaluator and educational technology practitioners are proposed, and a conceptual framework that guides the evaluation process…

  1. An Evaluation of a Summer Reading Institute, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Michael

    This document describes part of the evaluation of a six-week reading institute for 69 K-3 teachers from the Raymond School, Model School Division (MSD), Washington, D.C. and thereby provides an evaluation model for schools to use in their own inservice training programs. Two evaluation instruments developed by an MSD innovation team in cooperation…

  2. Evaluation Concepts and Practices in Selected Distance Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuemer, Rudolf, Ed.

    This report contains, in addition to the introduction and preface, 13 papers written by individuals working in the field of evaluation who present the concepts and practices of evaluation at their own particular distance education institutions. The introduction (Schuemer) gives a short outline of the evaluation nomenclature and an overview of the…

  3. The EUA Institutional Evaluation Programme: An Account of Institutional Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, Maria Joao; Cardoso, Sonia; Dias, Diana; Amaral, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    When evaluating the EUA Institutional Evaluation Programme (IEP), Nilsson "et al." emphasised the interest in creating a data bank on good practices derived from its reports that would contribute to disseminating examples of effective quality management practices and to supporting mutual learning among universities. In IEP, evaluated…

  4. The EUA Institutional Evaluation Programme: An Account of Institutional Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, Maria Joao; Cardoso, Sonia; Dias, Diana; Amaral, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    When evaluating the EUA Institutional Evaluation Programme (IEP), Nilsson "et al." emphasised the interest in creating a data bank on good practices derived from its reports that would contribute to disseminating examples of effective quality management practices and to supporting mutual learning among universities. In IEP, evaluated…

  5. The eye examination in the evaluation of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Levin, Alex V; Christian, Cindy W

    2010-08-01

    Retinal hemorrhage is an important indicator of possible abusive head trauma, but it is also found in a number of other conditions. Distinguishing the type, number, and pattern of retinal hemorrhages may be helpful in establishing a differential diagnosis. Identification of ocular abnormalities requires a full retinal examination by an ophthalmologist using indirect ophthalmoscopy through a pupil that has been pharmacologically dilated. At autopsy, removal of the eyes and orbital tissues may also reveal abnormalities not discovered before death. In previously well young children who experience unexpected apparent life-threatening events with no obvious cause, children with head trauma that results in significant intracranial hemorrhage and brain injury, victims of abusive head trauma, and children with unexplained death, premortem clinical eye examination and postmortem examination of the eyes and orbits may be helpful in detecting abnormalities that can help establish the underlying etiology.

  6. Three-Dimensional Eye Shape, Myopic Maculopathy, and Visual Acuity: The Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center-Brien Holden Vision Institute High Myopia Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xinxing; Xiao, Ou; Chen, Yanxian; Wu, Huawang; Chen, Linxing; Morgan, Ian G; He, Mingguang

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the relationship among eye shape, myopic maculopathy, and visual acuity in highly myopic eyes using 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Observational case series. The study included 190 eyes of 95 participants with bilateral high myopia from the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center-Brien Holden Vision Institute High Myopia Cohort Study, with spherical power ≤-6.00 diopters (D) in both eyes. The participants underwent best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), fundus photography, cycloplegic refraction, and ocular biometry. Posterior staphyloma was identified with 3D MRI, and ocular shapes were categorized into spheroidal, ellipsoidal, conical, nasally distorted, temporally distorted, and barrel shapes according to the inferior view from T2-weighted 3D MRI (Achieva 3.0T; Philips Medical Systems, Best, the Netherlands). Myopic maculopathy was graded as C0 to C4 according to the International Photographic Classification and Grading System using fundus photography. The statistical significance of the differences in distribution of myopic maculopathy and BCVA in eyes with different ocular shapes was determined using Pearson's chi-square tests. Distributions of myopic maculopathy and BCVA in relation to different eye shapes. The mean spherical equivalent and axial length were -11.74±4.10 D and 28.18±1.73 mm in the right eyes, respectively. The same ocular shapes were observed in both eyes in 69 participants (72.6%). The predominant shape was spheroidal (53.7%), followed by nasally distorted and conical types (both 14.7%). C2 and above myopic maculopathy was observed in all barrel-shaped eyes, in 75% temporally distorted eyes, and in 71.4% nasally distorted and conical eyes. In eyes with posterior staphyloma (n = 22), 18 (81.8%) had C2 and above myopic maculopathy compared with 40 eyes (54.8%) without posterior staphyloma (n = 73). Eyes with temporal and nasal distortion, and eyes with staphyloma were more likely to have BCVA <20/40. Not all highly

  7. Pasteur Institute of Iran--an evaluation model.

    PubMed

    Dejman, Masoumeh; Habibi, Elham; Baradarn Eftekhari, Monir; Falahat, Katayoun; Malekafzali, Hossein

    2014-07-01

    Pasteur Institute of Iran was established in 1919 with the aim to produce vaccines and prevent communicable diseases in Iran. Over time, their activities extended into areas of research, education and services. Naturally, such a vast development begs establishment of a comprehensive management and monitoring system. With this outlook, the present study was carried out with the aim to design a performance assessment model for Pasteur Institute of Iran that, in addition to determining evaluation indicators, it could prepare the necessary grounds for providing a unified assessment model for the global network of the Pasteur Institutes. This study was designed and performed in 4 stages: first; design of indicators and determining their scores. Second; editing indicators according to the outcome of discussions and debates held with members of Research Council of Pasteur Institute of Iran. Third; implementation of a pilot model based on the Institute's activities in 2011. Fourth; providing the pilot model feedback to the stakeholders and finalizing the model according to an opinion survey. Based on the results obtained, the developed indicators for Pasteur Institute of Iran evaluation were designed in 10 axes and 18 sub-axes, which included 101 major and 58 minor indicators. The axes included governance and leadership, resources and facilities, capacity building, knowledge production and collaborations, reference services, economic value of products and services, participation in industrial exhibitions, status of the institute, satisfaction and institute's role in health promotion. The indicators presented in this article have been prepared based on the balance in the Institute's four missions, to provide the basis for assessment of the Institute's activities in consecutive years, and possibility of comparison with other institutes worldwide.

  8. Institutional care paths: Development, implementation, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Mandy C; Bauer, Seth R; Ahrens, Christine; Reddy, Anita; Katzan, Irene

    2017-09-15

    The Cleveland Clinic experience with care paths, including their creation and implementation, challenges overcome during development and testing, and outcomes of selected care path evaluations, is described. Care paths are tools to assist healthcare professionals in practicing evidence-based medicine. The Cleveland Clinic health system has implemented or is developing approximately 100 care paths, including care paths designed to optimize management of sepsis and septic shock and to promote timely use of i.v. tissue plasminogen activator and correct dosing of antithrombotics and statins in patients with stroke. Key steps in successful care path initiatives include (1) identifying key stakeholders, (2) achieving stakeholder consensus on a standardized approach to disease or condition management, (3) cultivating provider awareness of care paths, (4) incorporating care path tools into the electronic health record and workflow processes, and (5) securing the resources to develop, implement, and maintain care paths. Electronic health records facilitate the use of and adherence to care paths. After care path implementation, revisions are typically needed due to unexpected issues not initially identified and to optimize care path features and support resources for clinical practice. Ongoing evaluation is required to determine whether an implemented care path is producing the intended patient and quality performance outcomes. Care paths provide a standardized approach to treatment or prevention of a disease or condition, reducing unnecessary variability and expense while promoting optimal, cost-effective patient care. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Semantic Evaluation of Syntactic Structure: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn; Carminati, Maria Nella; Cook, Anne E.; Majewski, Helen; Rayner, Keith

    2006-01-01

    An eye movement study of temporarily ambiguous closure sentences confirmed that the early closure penalty in a sentence like "While John hunted the frightened deer escaped" is larger for a simple past verb ("hunted") than for a past progressive verb ("was hunting"). The results can be explained by the observation that simple past tense verbs…

  10. Semantic Evaluation of Syntactic Structure: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn; Carminati, Maria Nella; Cook, Anne E.; Majewski, Helen; Rayner, Keith

    2006-01-01

    An eye movement study of temporarily ambiguous closure sentences confirmed that the early closure penalty in a sentence like "While John hunted the frightened deer escaped" is larger for a simple past verb ("hunted") than for a past progressive verb ("was hunting"). The results can be explained by the observation that simple past tense verbs…

  11. Evaluation of the first 5 years of a national eye health programme in Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Williams, Carmel; Szetu, John L; Ramke, Jacqueline; Palagyi, Anna; du Toit, Renee; Brian, Garry

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate against its objectives the achievements of the first 5 years of a national eye health programme in Vanuatu. Programme clinical activity data were collated from surgical logs, clinic and outreach reports, and patient register books. Cataract surgical outcomes were retrieved from monitoring software. Programme annual reports provided information about management, infrastructure improvements, equipment supplied, repaired or replaced, the supply and use of consumables, and human resource development and deployment. Costs were determined from project budgets and acquittals. The programme promoted eye health, including through the integration of eye care into existing health services; established adequate facilities, at referral hospitals, provincial hospitals and rural health clinics, with equipment and manpower to provide eye care appropriate to the location; established a primary eye care programme; strengthened cataract services, although its effect on any cataract backlog is unknown; developed a diabetic eye disease diagnosis and treatment service, but its reach and effectiveness are unknown; provided accessible comprehensive eye care, but its effect on the prevalence of vision impairment is unknown; and established medical records and data collection systems, but these need more attention. This programme achieved much. However, the evaluation highlighted the limitations of inadequate project design and that, without addressing further human resource development and the Ministry of Health's wavering financial commitment, there are potential risks to ongoing services. That revenue generating capacity was not incorporated into this programme may prove to be a flaw that will limit ongoing access to eye care, especially in rural areas.

  12. Evaluation of Dry Eye and Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in Teenagers with Myopia through Noninvasive Keratograph

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiu; Lu, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Jun; Wei, Ruihua; Yang, Liyuan; Zhao, Shaozhen; Wang, Xilian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. This study aims to evaluate dry eye and ocular surface conditions of myopic teenagers by using questionnaire and clinical examinations. Methods. A total of 496 eyes from 248 myopic teenagers (7–18 years old) were studied. We administered Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, slit-lamp examination, and Keratograph 5M. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on OSDI dry eye standard, and their ocular surfaces and meibomian gland conditions were evaluated. Results. The tear meniscus heights of the dry eye and normal groups were in normal range. Corneal fluorescein scores were significantly higher whereas noninvasive break-up time was dramatically shorter in the dry eye group than in the normal group. All three meibomian gland dysfunction parameters (i.e., meibomian gland orifice scores, meibomian gland secretion scores, and meibomian gland dropout scores) of the dry eye group were significantly higher than those of the normal group (P < 0.0001). Conclusions. The prevalence of dry eye in myopic teenagers is 18.95%. Meibomian gland dysfunction plays an important role in dry eye in myopic teenagers. The Keratograph 5M appears to provide an effective noninvasive method for assessing ocular surface situation of myopic teenagers. PMID:26881059

  13. Using Eye Trackers for Usability Evaluation of Health Information Technology: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Asan, Onur; Yang, Yushi

    2015-04-14

    Eye-tracking technology has been used to measure human cognitive processes and has the potential to improve the usability of health information technology (HIT). However, it is still unclear how the eye-tracking method can be integrated with other traditional usability methodologies to achieve its full potential. The objective of this study was to report on HIT evaluation studies that have used eye-tracker technology, and to envision the potential use of eye-tracking technology in future research. We used four reference databases to initially identify 5248 related papers, which resulted in only 9 articles that met our inclusion criteria. Eye-tracking technology was useful in finding usability problems in many ways, but is still in its infancy for HIT usability evaluation. Limited types of HITs have been evaluated by eye trackers, and there has been a lack of evaluation research in natural settings. More research should be done in natural settings to discover the real contextual-based usability problems of clinical and mobile HITs using eye-tracking technology with more standardized methodologies and guidance.

  14. Using Eye Trackers for Usability Evaluation of Health Information Technology: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yushi

    2015-01-01

    Background Eye-tracking technology has been used to measure human cognitive processes and has the potential to improve the usability of health information technology (HIT). However, it is still unclear how the eye-tracking method can be integrated with other traditional usability methodologies to achieve its full potential. Objective The objective of this study was to report on HIT evaluation studies that have used eye-tracker technology, and to envision the potential use of eye-tracking technology in future research. Methods We used four reference databases to initially identify 5248 related papers, which resulted in only 9 articles that met our inclusion criteria. Results Eye-tracking technology was useful in finding usability problems in many ways, but is still in its infancy for HIT usability evaluation. Limited types of HITs have been evaluated by eye trackers, and there has been a lack of evaluation research in natural settings. Conclusions More research should be done in natural settings to discover the real contextual-based usability problems of clinical and mobile HITs using eye-tracking technology with more standardized methodologies and guidance. PMID:27026079

  15. Faculty Annual Merit Evaluation at Oregon Institute of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, John G.

    This paper describes the approach taken at the Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) for the evaluation of its faculty in conjunction with the OIT administrator evaluation methods. A set of Annual Faculty Objectives (AFO) are established by both faculty and department chairmen. They review divisional and departmental goals and agree on specific…

  16. Teaching Evaluation of Higher Education Institutions: Retrospect and Prospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siping, Gao

    2009-01-01

    China started up pilot projects for the evaluation of teaching work at regular higher education institutions (HEIs) in 1994, and, beginning in 2003, the Ministry of Education (MOE) formally set up a system of cyclical teaching evaluation. Among the 592 undergraduate colleges and universities that were listed in the plan for the first round of…

  17. Standards for Evaluating Teacher Education Programs in Higher Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddu, Roland

    This set of standards for evaluating teacher education programs is organized into seven categories: (1) targets (social, institutional, role, and learner expectations); (2) mission, goals, and purposes; (3) objectives; (4) resource allocation; (5) programs; (6) outcomes; and (7) evaluation. The set of standards is based on the assumption that…

  18. A Conceptual Framework for Evaluating Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinta, Ravi; Kebritchi, Mansureh; Ellias, Janelle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Performance evaluation is a topic that has been researched and practiced extensively in business organizations but has received scant attention in higher education institutions. A review of literature revealed that context, input, process, product (CIPP) model is an appropriate performance evaluation model for higher education…

  19. A Conceptual Framework for Evaluating Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinta, Ravi; Kebritchi, Mansureh; Ellias, Janelle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Performance evaluation is a topic that has been researched and practiced extensively in business organizations but has received scant attention in higher education institutions. A review of literature revealed that context, input, process, product (CIPP) model is an appropriate performance evaluation model for higher education…

  20. Faculty Annual Merit Evaluation at Oregon Institute of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, John G.

    This paper describes the approach taken at the Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) for the evaluation of its faculty in conjunction with the OIT administrator evaluation methods. A set of Annual Faculty Objectives (AFO) are established by both faculty and department chairmen. They review divisional and departmental goals and agree on specific…

  1. Ocular Coherence Tomography in the Evaluation of Anterior Eye Injuries in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fer, Dan M.; Law, Jennifer; Wells, Julia

    2017-01-01

    While Ocular Coherence Tomography (OCT) is not a first-line modality to evaluate anterior eye structures terrestrially, it is a resource already available on the International Space Station (ISS) that can be used in medical contingencies that involve the anterior eye. With remote guidance and subject matter expert (SME) support from the ground, a minimally trained crewmember can now use OCT to evaluate anterior eye pathologies on orbit. OCT utilizes low-coherence interferometry to produce detailed cross-sectional and 3D images of the eye in real time. Terrestrially, it has been used to evaluate macular pathologies and glaucoma. Since 2013, OCT has been used onboard the ISS as one part of a suite of hardware to evaluate the Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure risk faced by astronauts, specifically assessing changes in the retina and choroid during space flight. The Anterior Segment Module (ASM), an add-on lens, was also flown for research studies, providing an opportunity to evaluate the anterior eye in real time if clinically indicated. Anterior eye pathologies that could be evaluated using OCT were identified. These included corneal abrasions and ulcers, scleritis, and acute angle closure glaucoma. A remote guider script was written to provide ground specialists with step-by-step instructions to guide ISS crewmembers, who do not get trained on the ASM, to evaluate the anterior eye. The instructions were tested on novice subjects and/or operators, whose feedback was incorporated iteratively. The final remote guider script was reviewed by SME optometrists and NASA flight surgeons. The novel application of OCT technology to space flight allows for the acquisition of objective data to diagnose anterior eye pathologies when other modalities are not available. This demonstrates the versatility of OCT and highlights the advantages of using existing hardware and remote guidance skills to expand clinical capabilities in space flight.

  2. Evaluation of the state water-resources research institutes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ertel, M.O.

    1988-01-01

    Water resources research institutes, as authorized by the Water Resources Research Act of 1984 (Public Law 98-242), are located in each state and in the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico , and the Virgin Islands. Public Law 98-242 mandated an onsite evaluation of each of these institutes to determine whether ' . . .the quality and relevance of its water resources research and its effectiveness as an institution for planning, conducting, and arranging for research warrant its continued support in the national interest. ' The results of these evaluations, which were conducted between September 1985 and June 1987, are summarized. The evaluation teams found that all 54 institutes are meeting the basic objectives of the authorizing legislation in that they: (1) use the grant funds to support research that addresses water problems of state and regional concern; (2) provide opportunities for training of water scientists through student involvement on research projects; and (3) promote the application of research results through preparation of technical reports and contributions to the technical literature. The differences among institutes relate primarily to degrees of effectiveness, and most often are determined by the financial, political, and geographical contexts in which the institutes function and by the quality of their leadership. (Lantz-PTT)

  3. Evaluation of the anti-Acanthamoeba activity of two commercial eye drops commonly used to lower eye pressure.

    PubMed

    Sifaoui, Ines; Reyes-Batlle, María; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Wagner, Carolina; Chiboub, Olfa; De Agustino Rodríguez, Jacqueline; Rocha-Cabrera, Pedro; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2017-08-01

    Efficient treatments against Acanthamoeba Keratitis (AK), remains until the moment, as an issue to be solved due to the existence of a cyst stage which is highly resistant to most chemical and physical agents. In this study, two antiglaucoma eye drops were tested for their activity against Acanthamoeba. Moreover, this study was based on previous data which gave us evidence of a possible link between the absences of Acanthamoeba at the ocular surface in patients treated with beta blockers for high eye pressure both containing timolol as active principle. The amoebicidal activity of the tested eye drops was evaluated against four strains of Acanthamoeba using Alamar blue method. For the most active drug the cysticidal activity against A. castellanii Neff cysts and further experiments studying changes in chromatin condensation levels, in the permeability of the plasmatic membrane, the mitochondrial membrane potential and the ATP levels in the treated amoebic strains were done. Even though both eye drops were active against the different tested strains of Acanthamoeba, statistical analysis revealed that one of them (Timolol Sandoz) was the most effective one against all the tested strains presenting IC50s ranging from 0.529% ± 0.206 for the CLC 16 strain to 3.962% ± 0.150 for the type strain Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff. Timolol Sandoz 0.50% seems to induce amoebic cell death by damaging the amoebae at the mitochondrial level. Considering its effect, Timolol Sandoz 0.50% could be used in the case of contact lens wearers and patients with glaucoma. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. 77 FR 27784 - Announcement of National Eye Institute Participation in PA-11-347, “NINDS SBIR Technology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ..., ] including imaging, diagnostics, regenerative medicine, genetics/ genomics, developmental biology, cellular and gene therapy, and cell and molecular biology related to eye health and eye disease treatments....

  5. EyeTribe Tracker Data Accuracy Evaluation and Its Interconnection with Hypothesis Software for Cartographic Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Stachoň, Zdeněk; Šašinka, Čeněk; Doležalová, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    The mixed research design is a progressive methodological discourse that combines the advantages of quantitative and qualitative methods. Its possibilities of application are, however, dependent on the efficiency with which the particular research techniques are used and combined. The aim of the paper is to introduce the possible combination of Hypothesis with EyeTribe tracker. The Hypothesis is intended for quantitative data acquisition and the EyeTribe is intended for qualitative (eye-tracking) data recording. In the first part of the paper, Hypothesis software is described. The Hypothesis platform provides an environment for web-based computerized experiment design and mass data collection. Then, evaluation of the accuracy of data recorded by EyeTribe tracker was performed with the use of concurrent recording together with the SMI RED 250 eye-tracker. Both qualitative and quantitative results showed that data accuracy is sufficient for cartographic research. In the third part of the paper, a system for connecting EyeTribe tracker and Hypothesis software is presented. The interconnection was performed with the help of developed web application HypOgama. The created system uses open-source software OGAMA for recording the eye-movements of participants together with quantitative data from Hypothesis. The final part of the paper describes the integrated research system combining Hypothesis and EyeTribe. PMID:27087805

  6. Identifying and assessing strategies for evaluating the impact of mobile eye health units on health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shiwan; Turner, Angus; Tan, Irene; Muir, Josephine

    2017-08-14

    To identify and assess strategies for evaluating the impact of mobile eye health units on health outcomes. Systematic literature review. Worldwide. Peer-reviewed journal articles that included the use of a mobile eye health unit. Journal articles were included if outcome measures reflected an assessment of the impact of a mobile eye health unit on health outcomes. Six studies were identified with mobile services offering diabetic retinopathy screening (three studies), optometric services (two studies) and orthoptic services (one study). This review identified and assessed strategies in existing literature used to evaluate the impact of mobile eye health units on health outcomes. Studies included in this review used patient outcomes (i.e. disease detection, vision impairment, treatment compliance) and/or service delivery outcomes (i.e. cost per attendance, hospital transport use, inappropriate referrals, time from diabetic retinopathy photography to treatment) to evaluate the impact of mobile eye health units. Limitations include difficulty proving causation of specific outcome measures and the overall shortage of impact evaluation studies. Variation in geographical location, service population and nature of eye care providers limits broad application. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  7. [Rethinking clinical significance of tear osmolarity measurement for dry eye diagnosis and therapeutic efficacy evaluation].

    PubMed

    Liang, Lingyi; Ke, Hongming; Liu, Zuguo

    2014-09-01

    Increased tear osmolarity is one of the core mechanisms of dry eye and has been considered as an important diagnostic criterion, if not"gold standard", of dry eye. However, recent studies showed the limitations of tear osmolarity measurement not only in the diagnosis, but also in the therapeutic efficacy evaluation of dry eye. The clinical significance of tear osmolarity measurement has become a hot topic of argument. Herein, we review the publications on this topic and try to find the underlying causes of such argument.

  8. Evaluating Frugivore-fruit Interactions Using Avian Eye Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Fadzly, Nik; Burns, Kevin C.; Zuharah, Wan Fatma

    2013-01-01

    Fruit phenotypes are often hypothesised to be affected by selection by frugivores. Here, we tested two hypotheses concerning frugivore-fruit interactions from the perspective of fruit colours. We measured the spectral properties of 26 fruits and the associated leaves of plants from 2 islands in New Zealand. Visual observations were also performed to record the birds that fed on the fruits. First, we tested the fruit-foliage hypothesis, where fruit colours are assumed to be evolutionarily constrained by their own leaf colour to maximise colour contrast and fruit conspicuousness. We ran a null model analysis comparing fruit colour contrast using an avian eye model. Second, we tested the frugivore specificity hypothesis, where specific fruit colours are thought to be connected with a specific bird frugivore. We performed a regression on the number of bird visits against the fruit colour in tetrahedral colour space based on an avian eye calculation using Mantel’s test. The results show that fruit colours are not constrained by their own leaf colours. There is also no relationship or pattern suggesting a link between a specific fruit colour and specific bird visitors. We suggest that although fruit colour is one of the most highly discussed components, it is not the most important single deciding factor in frugivore fruit selection. PMID:24575247

  9. Linking Student Evaluations to Institutional Goals: A Change Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palermo, Josephine

    2013-01-01

    For the past 30?years, beginning with the seminal work of Herbert Marsh in Australia and New Zealand, institutions of higher education have developed internal practices and procedures to collect and analyse student evaluations of teaching and learning. However, the question remains: has this development resulted in the achievement of institutional…

  10. Linking Student Evaluations to Institutional Goals: A Change Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palermo, Josephine

    2013-01-01

    For the past 30?years, beginning with the seminal work of Herbert Marsh in Australia and New Zealand, institutions of higher education have developed internal practices and procedures to collect and analyse student evaluations of teaching and learning. However, the question remains: has this development resulted in the achievement of institutional…

  11. FCCSET/DOE 1993 Summer Institutes. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sue; And Others

    This document reports on the evaluation study of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET) 1993 Summer Institutes that provided opportunities for teachers from around the country to participate in hands-on education programs in areas such as environmental and ecological studies, material science, space…

  12. Does the EUA Institutional Evaluation Programme Contribute to Quality Improvement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavares, Diana Amado; Rosa, Maria Joao; Amaral, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to reflect on the relevance of the Institutional Evaluation Programme (IEP) of the European University Association (EUA) to universities' quality improvement. It aims to analyse IEP follow-up reports to determine whether the programme contributes to the development of a quality improvement culture.…

  13. Comprehensive Evaluation of the 1996 Interdisciplinary Teamed Instruction Summer Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Merrill L.; Cowley, Kimberly S.

    The Interdisciplinary Teamed Instruction (ITI) Project was a 2-year project aimed at determining the effects of ITI on teaching and learning and at validating the effectiveness of a professional development model to facilitate development, implementation, and evaluation of ITI. Through summer institutes and onsite workshops, project staff provided…

  14. Does the EUA Institutional Evaluation Programme Contribute to Quality Improvement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavares, Diana Amado; Rosa, Maria Joao; Amaral, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to reflect on the relevance of the Institutional Evaluation Programme (IEP) of the European University Association (EUA) to universities' quality improvement. It aims to analyse IEP follow-up reports to determine whether the programme contributes to the development of a quality improvement culture.…

  15. Pharmacological evaluation of anti-inflammatory pyrrole-acetic acid derivative eye drops.

    PubMed

    Bucolo, C; Spadaro, A

    1997-08-01

    The effects of mucoadhesive eye drops containing a pyrrole-acetic acid derivative (tolmetin) at 0.5% concentration on ocular inflammation produced by sodium arachidonate in the rabbit's eye were evaluated. Furthermore, the bioavailability of the mucoadhesive formulation in the aqueous humor against an aqueous-based solution was compared. Tolmetin eye drops significantly reduced the signs of ocular inflammation elicited by sodium arachidonate on conjunctiva and iris. Tolmetin treatment significantly reduced the levels of prostaglandin E2, polymorphonuclear leukocytes and protein concentration in aqueous samples obtained from the eyes treated with arachidonate. The de novo production of prostaglandin E2 by corneas obtained from rabbits sacrificed 2 hours after arachidonate instillation were significantly higher in samples taken from controls than in corneas obtained from the eyes treated with tolmetin eye drops. Furthermore, the drug treatment significantly reduced the rise in intraocular pressure arachidonate-induced. The mucoadhesive formulation showed a higher bioavailability in aqueous humor compared to the aqueous-based solution both in the uninflamed and in the inflamed rabbit eyes.

  16. [Evaluation of tear film and meibomian gland function in dry eye patients using Keratograph 5M].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kexuan; Xie, Wenjia; Ying, Jinglu; Yao, Yufeng

    2016-05-25

    Objective: To assess the application of Keratograph 5M in evaluating tear film and meibomian gland function in patients with dry eye. Methods: A total of 144 eyes were recruited in the study, in which 72 eyes were from patients diagnosed with dry eye and 72 eyes were from healthy subjects. All subjects finished following tests or examinations:ocular surface disease index (OSDI) to evaluate eye symptoms; Keratograph 5M examination to obtain tear meniscus height (TMH), noninvasive tear break-up time (NIBUT) including first NIBUT (NIBUT-Fir) and average NIBUT (NIBUT-Ave), and infrared meibography; and fluorescein sodium staining to obtain fluorescein tearbreak-up time (FBUT). Results: Dry eye group had higher OSDI score than healthy control group, but its TMH, NIBUT-Fir and NIBUT-Ave were lower than those in healthy control group (all P<0.01). Total meiboscore in dry eye group was higher than that in healthy control group (P<0.01), and it showed a significant correlation with NIBUT-Fir and NIBUT-Ave (r=-0.449 and -0.398, P<0.01), but no correlation with ages was observed (r=0.031, P>0.05). The NIBUT-Fir and NIBUT-Ave showed a significant correlation with FBUT (r=0.833 and 0.727, P<0.01). Conclusion: Keratograph 5M is a convenient, accurate and non-invasive method to assess the function of tear film and meibomian gland, and the new meibography scoring system can evaluate the function of meibomian gland objectively and succinctly.

  17. In Vivo Confocal Microscopic Evaluation of Corneal Langerhans Cells in Dry Eye Patients§

    PubMed Central

    Machetta, Federica; Fea, Antonio M; Actis, Alessandro G; de Sanctis, Ugo; Dalmasso, Paola; Grignolo, Federico M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To assess inflammatory involvement of cornea in dry eye by means of confocal microscopy, evaluating the presence and distribution of Langherans cells (LCs). Methods: 98 eyes of 49 subjects were enrolled: 18 subjects affected by Sjögren Syndrome Dry Eye (SSDE), 17 with Non-Sjögren Syndrome Dry Eye (NSSDE), 14 healthy volunteeers. Dry eye symptoms, tear film, ocular surface damage and corneal confocal microscopy were analized. Results: A significant increase of LCs density was observed at sub-basal nerve plexus (SSDE = 79 cells/mm2 andNDE = 22 cells/mm2; p = 0,0031) and sub-epithelial nerve plexus (SSDE = 38 cells/mm2 and NDE = 3 cells/mm2; p = 0,0169) in central cornea of SSDE group. An increased number of LCs from the center to the periphery of the cornea was observed, significant only in healthy volunteers group. In dry eye patients there was an increase in LCs density in both peripheral and central cornea with a significant difference between NDE (14,66 cells/mm2) and SSDE (56,66 cells/mm2) only in central cornea (p = 0,0028). In SSDE group, mean density of LCs in central cornea results also superior to NSSDE group (29,33 cells/mm2). There was no correlation between LCs density and dry eye symptoms, tear film deficiency and ocular surface damage. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the activation of an inflammatory and immunological reaction in cornea of NSSDE and SSDE patients. Confocal microscopy can be an important diagnostic tool in evaluation and follow-up of dry eye disease. PMID:25317216

  18. Aircrew Eye/Respiratory Protection (AERP): 16-Hour Extended Wear Evaluation of Chemical Protective Equipment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    Respiratory Protection (AERP) and associated clothing and equipment. Two subjects each carried out simulated tanker/transport and fighter/attack scenarios. No...AD A277 288 N•.• AL-TP-1 993-0014 ý’vI~~I~ 11~ II~I AIRCREW EYE/ RESPIRATORY PROTECTION (AERP): 16-HOUR EXTENDED WEAR EVALUATION OF R CHEMICAL...S. FUNDING NUMBERS ’Aircrew Eye/ Respiratory Protection (AERP): 16-Hour Extended PE - 62202F Wear Evaluation of Chemical Protective Equipment PR

  19. Evaluation of eye injury risk from projectile shooting toys using the focus headform - biomed 2009.

    PubMed

    Bisplinghoff, Jill A; Duma, Stefan M

    2009-01-01

    Half of eye injuries in the United States are caused by a blunt impact and more specifically, eye injuries effecting children often result from projectile shooting toys. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the risk of eye injuries of currently available projectile shooting toys. In order to assess the risk of each toy, a Facial and Ocular Countermeasure Safety (FOCUS) headform was used to measure the force applied to the eye during each hit for a total of 18 tests. The selected toys included a dart gun, a foam launcher, and a ball launcher. The force ranged from 4-93 N and was analyzed using the injury risk function for globe rupture for the FOCUS headform. Projectile characteristics were also examined using normalized energy to determine risk of corneal abrasion, hyphema, lens dislocation, retinal damage and globe rupture. It was found that the three toys tested produced peak loads corresponding with risk of globe rupture between 0% and 17.3%. The normalized energy results show no risk of hyphema, lens dislocation, retinal damage or globe rupture and a maximum risk of corneal abrasion of 5.9%. This study concludes that although there are many eye injuries caused by projectiles, the selected toys show a very low risk of eye injury.

  20. Glaucoma and mobility performance: the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Project.

    PubMed

    Friedman, David S; Freeman, Ellen; Munoz, Beatriz; Jampel, Henry D; West, Sheila K

    2007-12-01

    To determine the impact of glaucoma on mobility in a population-based cohort. Population-based observational study. Persons examined as part of a population-based eye disease study. Subjects performed a series of tasks, including walking an obstacle course, climbing stairs, performing tandem stands, and walking a 4-meter course. Persons with glaucoma were compared with those without glaucoma to identify differences in mobility. Speed to complete an obstacle course, number of bumps, ability to perform tandem stands, and walking and stair climbing speed. One thousand two hundred fifty subjects participated in the study. In an analysis adjusting for age, race, and gender, walking speed through the obstacle course was 2.4 m/minute slower for persons with bilateral glaucoma, and these individuals experienced 1.65 times the number of bumps when compared with persons without glaucoma (P<0.05 for both). None of the associations was statistically significant comparing persons with unilateral glaucoma with normals. This association remained after adjusting for other potentially confounding factors including visual acuity (VA), body mass index, height, Mini-Mental State Examination score, grip strength, arthritis, depressive symptoms, comorbidities, and use of mobility aids. Additional analyses indicate that visual field loss drives this association. Bilateral glaucoma reduces mobility performance as measured in multiple ways in this population-based study of community-dwelling individuals. Persons with bilateral glaucoma completed the walking course more slowly and had more bumps even after adjusting for use of a mobility aid, comorbidities, and VA. After adjusting for all other factors, persons with bilateral glaucoma walked on average 2.4 m less per minute through the course than those without glaucoma.

  1. Report on the National Eye Institute Audacious Goals Initiative: Replacement of Retinal Ganglion Cells from Endogenous Cell Sources

    PubMed Central

    Vetter, Monica L.; Hitchcock, Peter F.

    2017-01-01

    This report emerges from a workshop convened by the National Eye Institute (NEI) as part of the “Audacious Goals Initiative” (AGI). The workshop addressed the replacement of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from exogenous and endogenous sources, and sought to identify the gaps in our knowledge and barriers to progress in devising cellular replacement therapies for diseases where RGCs die. Here, we briefly review relevant literature regarding common diseases associated with RGC death, the genesis of RGCs in vivo, strategies for generating transplantable RGCs in vitro, and potential endogenous cellular sources to regenerate these cells. These topics provided the clinical and scientific context for the discussion among the workshop participants and are relevant to efforts that may lead to therapeutic approaches for replacing RGCs. This report also summarizes the content of the workshop discussion, which focused on: (1) cell sources for RGC replacement and regeneration, (2) optimizing integration, survival, and synaptogenesis of new RGCs, and (3) approaches for assessing the outcomes of RGC replacement therapies. We conclude this report with a summary of recommendations, based on the workshop discussions, which may guide vision scientists seeking to develop therapies for replacing RGCs in humans. PMID:28316878

  2. Evaluation of dry eye signs and symptoms in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    de A F Gomes, Beatriz; Santhiago, Marcony R; de Azevedo, Mário N L; Moraes, Haroldo V

    2012-07-01

    One of the most frequent ocular features of systemic sclerosis (SSc) is dry eye disease (DED), which has been identified to occur in 37-79% of patients. Although several studies have found weak or no correlations between symptoms and signs of dry eye, symptoms are often the motivation for seeking eye care, and are therefore a critical outcome measure when assessing treatment effect. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of symptoms of dry eye on vision-related quality of life in patients with systemic sclerosis, and to investigate the relation between clinical tests and symptoms of dry eye in these patients. In this cross-sectional study, 45 consecutive patients with SSc were enrolled. For evaluation of the symptoms the "Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI)" questionnaire was applied to all patients. After that, all individuals were submitted to a full ophthalmic examination, including the following tests: tear break-up time, Schirmer I, rose bengal staining. Patients were then grouped into dry eye and non-dry eye groups with regard to the diagnosis of dry eye. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare continuous variables, whereas the Fisher exact test was used to compare categorical data between groups. Spearman's correlation test was used to analyze the correlations between clinical tests and OSDI scores. P values <0.05 were considered significant. Dry eye disease was diagnosed in 22 patients (48.9%). Other ocular surface abnormalities found were: blepharitis (40% of the patients), pterygium (15.6%), pinguecula (82.2%), and superficial punctate keratitis (26.7%). Among the 45 patients, 29 patients (64.4%) had symptoms of ocular surface disease. The mean OSDI score was 26.8 ± 25.8 (SD). There were no statistically significant differences in OSDI scores between DED and non-DED patients. No substantive correlations were found between OSDI scores and TBUT, Schirmer I, or rose bengal staining score, and none of the observed correlations reached

  3. Smooth pursuit detection in binocular eye-tracking data with automatic video-based performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Linnéa; Nyström, Marcus; Ardö, Håkan; Åström, Kalle; Stridh, Martin

    2016-12-01

    An increasing number of researchers record binocular eye-tracking signals from participants viewing moving stimuli, but the majority of event-detection algorithms are monocular and do not consider smooth pursuit movements. The purposes of the present study are to develop an algorithm that discriminates between fixations and smooth pursuit movements in binocular eye-tracking signals and to evaluate its performance using an automated video-based strategy. The proposed algorithm uses a clustering approach that takes both spatial and temporal aspects of the binocular eye-tracking signal into account, and is evaluated using a novel video-based evaluation strategy based on automatically detected moving objects in the video stimuli. The binocular algorithm detects 98% of fixations in image stimuli compared to 95% when only one eye is used, while for video stimuli, both the binocular and monocular algorithms detect around 40% of smooth pursuit movements. The present article shows that using binocular information for discrimination of fixations and smooth pursuit movements is advantageous in static stimuli, without impairing the algorithm's ability to detect smooth pursuit movements in video and moving-dot stimuli. With an automated evaluation strategy, time-consuming manual annotations are avoided and a larger amount of data can be used in the evaluation process.

  4. Echobiometric evaluation of the axial length of the eye and intraocular lens calculation in pseudophakic eyes: our experience.

    PubMed

    Polizzi, A; Schenone, M; Ciurlo, C; Bertagno, R; Molfino, F; Camoriano, G P; Saccà, S C

    1998-01-01

    Intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation in 46 pseudophakic eyes (extracapsular cataract extraction with IOL in posterior chamber), utilizing a Javal keratometer, a Sonomed A 2000 echobiometer (probe 10 MHz, velocity=1,548 m/s) and the SRK2 formula, although there was a statistically significant reduction of the axial length, both in normal and hyperopic eyes, demonstrated no statistically significant differences of IOL power, when compared to the power previously calculated in the phakic eye.

  5. CON4EI: Evaluation of QSAR models for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals.

    PubMed

    Geerts, L; Adriaens, E; Alépée, N; Guest, R; Willoughby, J A; Kandarova, H; Drzewiecka, A; Fochtman, P; Verstraelen, S; Van Rompay, A R

    2017-09-20

    Assessment of ocular irritation is a regulatory requirement in safety evaluation of industrial and consumer products. Although a number of in vitro ocular irritation assays exist, none are capable of fully categorizing chemicals as stand-alone assays. Therefore, the CEFIC-LRI-AIMT6-VITO CON4EI (CONsortium for in vitro Eye Irritation testing strategy) project was developed to assess the reliability of eight in vitro test methods and computational models as well as establishing an optimal tiered-testing strategy. For three computational models (Toxtree, and Case Ultra EYE_DRAIZE and EYE_IRR) performance parameters were calculated. Coverage ranged from 15 to 58%. Coverage was 2 to 3.4 times higher for liquids than for solids. The lowest number of false positives (5%) was reached with EYE_IRR; this model however also gave a high number of false negatives (46%). The lowest number of false negatives (25%) was seen with Toxtree; for liquids Toxtree predicted the lowest number of false negatives (11%), for solids EYE_DRAIZE did ((78%).It can be concluded that the training sets should be enlarged with high quality data. The tested models are not yet sufficiently powerful for stand-alone evaluations, but that they can surely become of value in an integrated weight-of-evidence approach in hazard assessment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The Perceptive Eye: Toward the Reformation of Educational Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Elliot W.

    The evolution of educational evaluation has been significantly influenced by the assumptions and procedures of educational research which, in turn, aspires to make educational practice scientific. The concept of education connoisseurship and education criticism is posited upon a different set of techniques. Connoisseurship is an appreciative art…

  7. Small wind systems field evaluation. Volume 2: Institutional issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, D. M.; Liske, C.

    1983-07-01

    The operation, management, and results of the field evaluation program (FEP) for small wind systems is described. The FEP was initiated in early 1979 with the objective to install wind systems in the states and territories to assist local governments in evaluating and addressing the institutional concerns associated with the proliferation of small wind systems in utility interconnected applications. Institutional issues defined, encountered and addressed by Rocky Flats in operating the FEP are summarized. Information dissemination, which includes briefings of state and local governments and utility personnel is outlined. The scope and acievements of the program are detailed. Specific problems encountered and addressed are described which includes height restrictions posed by proximity to airports and requirements for state and local approvals of various types. Other barriers include lack of public knowledge, lack of data sources, local wind resource uncertainties, lack of industry standards, and low institutional and consumer confidence. Regulatory barriers which would impact other federal projects and large private wind farm development efforts are considered.

  8. Evaluation of a community-based participatory farmworker eye health intervention in the "black dirt" region of New York state.

    PubMed

    Earle-Richardson, Giulia; Wyckoff, Lynae; Carrasquillo, Marilyn; Scribani, Melissa; Jenkins, Paul; May, John

    2014-09-01

    Eye irritation is a constant hazard for migrant and seasonal farmworkers, but there are few studies of the problem or how to address it. Researchers evaluated the effect of a community-based participatory eye health intervention on farmworker eye symptoms in the Hudson Valley, NY. A randomized pre-post intervention with 2, 4-week follow-up periods was implemented with a sample of 97 farmworkers. Five eye symptoms were measured, along with utilization of protective eyewear and eye drops. Leading baseline eye symptoms were redness (49%), blurred vision (43%), itching (43%), and eye pain (29%). Significant reductions in eye pain (P = 0.009), and non-significant reductions in redness were observed for the intervention group while controls experienced increases in both. The intervention was effective in significantly reducing eye pain, and to a lesser extent, redness. Future eyewear promotion programs should offer a range of eye wear, tailor offerings to local climate and tasks, evaluate eyewear durability, and include eye drops. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Re-evaluation and quantification of the different sources of nerve fibres supplying the rat eye

    PubMed Central

    Cavallotti, Carlo; Frati, Alessandro; Sagnelli, Paolo; Pescosolido, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    The denervation and/or the removal of peripheral nerve ganglia are useful surgical techniques for studying the source and distribution of peripheral nerves in all organs, including the eye. The amount and distribution of the remaining nerve fibres supplying the eye (after sectioning of various types of nervous fibres and/or removal of nerve ganglia) were evaluated in the rat. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were anaesthetized and one or more of the following nervous tissues were removed: superior cervical ganglion, main ciliary ganglion, pterygopalatine ganglion, trigeminal ganglion and the ophthalmic-maxillary nerve. In some animals, chemical sympathectomy was performed by administration of 6-OH dopamine. The eyes were cut in serial sections, but only three regions (cornea, iris and choroid) were harvested and submitted for various nerve fibre staining techniques. The results were quantified and statistically analysed. Superior cervical ganglionectomy and/or chemical sympathectomy induced the destruction of almost all the catecholaminergic nerve fibres in the three examined regions of the rat eye. Removal of the ciliary ganglion (partial parasympathectomy) caused the destruction of about 60% of the cholinergic nerve fibres of the same regions of the rat eye, while subtotal parasympathectomy destroyed about 80% of the cholinergic nerve fibres. Surgical transsection of the ophthalmo-maxillary nerve or the removal of the trigeminal ganglion led to a degeneration of almost all sensitive nerve fibres of the three examined regions of the rat eye. The denervation experiments confirmed the presence of the different types of nerve fibres (sympathetic, parasympathetic and sensitive) in the three studied structures of the rat eye. PMID:15733292

  10. Evaluation of dry eye and meibomian gland dysfunction with meibography in vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Palamar, M; Kiyat, P; Ertam, I; Yagci, A

    2017-03-10

    PurposeTo evaluate the dry eye and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) of vitiligo patients with meibography.MethodsTwenty eyes of 20 vitiligo patients (Group 1) and 20 eyes of 20 healthy individuals (Group 2) were enrolled. All subjects had undergone a comprehensive ophthalmic examination including corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining (Oxford scale scoring), tear film break-up time (T-BUT), Schirmer 1 test, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score assessment, and upper and lower eyelid meibography using infrared captures of a biomicroscope (Topcon, SL-D701, IJssel, The Netherlands). Partial or complete loss of the meibomian glands was scored for each eyelid from grade 0 (no loss) through grade 3 (lost area was >2/3 of the total meibomian gland area).ResultsThe mean ages of Group 1 and Group 2 were 35.5±13.4 (range, 8-54) and 35.2±12.4 years (range, 8-52), respectively (P=0.942). Mean Schirmer 1 values were lower, and Oxford score, OSDI score, and meiboscores of lower eyelids were higher in Group 1, but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.139, P=0.057, P=0.071, P=0.300, respectively). T-BUT values were significantly lower, and meiboscores of upper eyelids and total (upper+lower) eyelids were significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (P=0.047, P=0.001, P=0.003, respectively).ConclusionVitiligo can be associated with dry eye and there are significant differences in meibomian gland morphology in patients with vitiligo when compared with healthy subjects. For this reason, patients with vitiligo should be monitored for dry eye and MGD, and promptly start treatment when needed.Eye advance online publication, 10 March 2017; doi:10.1038/eye.2017.38.

  11. In vivo Confocal Microscopy Evaluation of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in Dry Eye Patients with Different Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hui; Chen, Jing-Yao; Wang, Yu-Qian; Lin, Zhi-Rong; Wang, Shen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dry eye patients suffer from all kinds of symptoms. Sometimes, the clinical signs evaluation does not disclose any obvious difference in routine examination; in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) is a powerful tool for ocular surface disease. This study aimed to clarify meibomian gland (MG) alterations in dry eye patients with different symptoms and to compare the findings using IVCM. Methods: A total of sixty patients were recruited, all subjected to Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and Salisbury Eye Evaluation Questionnaire (SEEQ), and questionnaires for the assessment of dry eye symptoms before clinical sign examinations were given to the patients. Finally, IVCM was applied to observe MG's structure. Statistical analysis was performed using the t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test and Spearman correlation analysis. The differences were statistically significant when P < 0.05. Results: In the severe symptom group, OSDI and SEEQ scores were significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with the mild symptoms group. All other clinical sign examinations had no statistical difference in the two groups (P > 0.05). However, all the IVCM-observed data showed that patients with severe symptoms had more significant fibrosis in MG (acinar unit area 691.87 ± 182.01 μm2 for the severe, 992.17 ± 170.84 μm2 for the mild; P < 0.05) and severer decrease in the size of MG acinar units than those observed in patients with mild symptoms (MG acinar unit density [MGAUD] 70.08 ± 18.78 glands/mm2, MG acinar unit longest diameter [MGALD] 51.50 ± 15.51 μm, MG acinar unit shortest diameter [MGASD] 20.30 ± 11.85 μm for the severe, MGAUD 89.53 ± 39.88 glands/mm2, MGALD 81.57 ± 21.14 μm, MGASD 42.37 ± 14.55 μm for the mild; P < 0.05). Dry eye symptoms were negatively correlated with MG confocal microscopic parameters and positively correlated with conjunctival inflammatory cells and Langerhans cells (P < 0.05). Conclusions: IVCM application provides a strong support to

  12. Interactions between landscape elements and tranquility evaluation based on eye tracking experiments (L).

    PubMed

    Ren, Xinxin; Kang, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Visual attention in tranquility evaluations has been examined by eye tracking experiments using audiovisual materials collected in traditional villages of China. The results show that without sound stimuli, the attention areas in tranquility evaluations are more concentrated, compared with those in visual aesthetic quality evaluations. With sound stimuli, the attention areas of tranquility evaluations disperse significantly from those without sound stimuli, where artificial sounds tend to expand the visual attention area on corresponding artificial landscape elements, whereas natural sounds promote larger attention areas on natural landscape elements. During information extraction for tranquility evaluations, both with and without sound stimuli, buildings and facilities, the sky, and vegetation are attractive landscape elements.

  13. National Eye Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  14. [A quality evaluation tableau for health institutions: an educational tool].

    PubMed

    Moll, Marie Christine; Decavel, Frédérique; Merlet, Christine

    2009-09-01

    For a few years, health institutions have had to comply with the certification and the need to establish the new governance. Thanks to the accreditation version 2 (obtained in 2005), the elaboration of the hospital project (adopted in October, 2006) and the organization in poles since 2006, the quality oriented management became a priority axis at the University Hospital of Angers. The strategic adaptation to quality requirements leads to develop the hospital management, more especially at the level of the clinical, medico technical and administrative poles. The elements of the hospital project including the part about the quality, risk and evaluation aim at being adapted by every pole according to the level of its project. This adaptation which is imposed to each pole manager requires a practical and educational accompaniment allowing at the same time to realize a diagnosis of the progress of the quality approach, a measure of the impact of the global impregnation within the institution and a comparison between pole. A eight axis dashboard with criteria and a user guide were developed from certification ISO 9001, the EFQM manual and the certification manual version 2 of the Healthcare High Authorities. The criteria are transcribed in an EXCEL grid ready to use. Succeeding in estimating your own quality system means that you demonstrate the maturity of the quality approach. The results of this evaluation confirmed those of the certification. The dashboard is a management structuring tool at the service of the multidisciplinary team. Two considerations emerge from these results: First of all, for the hospital top management, the axes to be improved emerge as a priority to determine and target the next annual action plans. The results also allow to support the auto evaluation for the certification version 2010 planned in January of the same year. It is a pragmatic tool which allows auto evaluation and comparison to estimate the pole performances. It is a strategic

  15. Evaluating anesthetic protocols for functional blood flow imaging in the rat eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moult, Eric M.; Choi, WooJhon; Boas, David A.; Baumann, Bernhard; Clermont, Allen C.; Feener, Edward P.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the suitability of five different anesthetic protocols (isoflurane, isoflurane-xylazine, pentobarbital, ketamine-xylazine, and ketamine-xylazine-vecuronium) for functional blood flow imaging in the rat eye. Total retinal blood flow was measured at a series of time points using an ultrahigh-speed Doppler OCT system. Additionally, each anesthetic protocol was qualitatively evaluated according to the following criteria: (1) time-stability of blood flow, (2) overall rate of blood flow, (3) ocular immobilization, and (4) simplicity. We observed that different anesthetic protocols produced markedly different blood flows. Different anesthetic protocols also varied with respect to the four evaluated criteria. These findings suggest that the choice of anesthetic protocol should be carefully considered when designing and interpreting functional blood flow studies in the rat eye.

  16. Performance evaluation for different sensing surface of BICELLs bio-transducers for dry eye biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laguna, M. F.; Holgado, M.; Santamaría, B.; López, A.; Maigler, M.; Lavín, A.; de Vicente, J.; Soria, J.; Suarez, T.; Bardina, C.; Jara, M.; Sanza, F. J.; Casquel, R.; Otón, A.; Riesgo, T.

    2015-03-01

    Biophotonic Sensing Cells (BICELLs) are demonstrated to be an efficient technology for label-free biosensing and in concrete for evaluating dry eye diseases. The main advantage of BICELLs is its capability to be used by dropping directly a tear into the sensing surface without the need of complex microfluidics systems. Among this advantage, compact Point of Care read-out device is employed with the capability of evaluating different types of BICELLs packaged on Biochip-Kits that can be fabricated by using different sensing surfaces material. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of the combination of three sensing surface materials: (3-Glycidyloxypropyl) trimethoxysilane (GPTMS), SU-8 resist and Nitrocellulose (NC) for two different biomarkers relevant for dry eye diseases: PRDX-5 and ANXA-11.

  17. Eye Tracking: A Novel Approach for Evaluating and Improving the Safety of Healthcare Processes in the Simulated Setting.

    PubMed

    Henneman, Elizabeth A; Marquard, Jenna L; Fisher, Donald L; Gawlinski, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Eye tracking, used to evaluate a clinician's eye movements, is an example of an existing technology being used in novel ways by patient safety researchers in the simulated setting. The use of eye-tracking technology has the potential to augment current teaching, evaluation, and research methods in simulated settings by using this quantitative, objective data to better understand why an individual performed as he or she did on a simulated or naturalistic task. Selected literature was reviewed with the purpose of explicating how eye tracking can be used by researchers and educators to evaluate error-prone processes. The literature reviewed was obtained by querying the databases PubMed, CINHAL, and Google Scholar using the key words eye tracking, patient safety, and medical errors from 2005 through 2015.An introduction to the use of eye tracking, including both theoretical underpinnings and technological considerations, is presented. In addition, examples of how eye tracking has been used in research studies conducted in both simulated and naturalistic settings are provided. The use of eye-tracking technology to capture the eye movements of novice and expert clinicians has provided new insight into behaviors associated with the identification of medical errors. The study of novices' and experts' eye movements provides data about clinician performance not possible with existing evaluation methods such as direct observation, verbal reports, and thinking out loud. The use of eye tracking to capture the behaviors of experts can lead to the development of training protocols to guide the education of students and novice practitioners. Eye-tracking technology clearly has the potential to transform the way clinical simulation is used to improve patient safety practices.

  18. Evaluation of eye drop administration technique in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Gail F; Hollander, David A; Williams, Julia M

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate eye drop administration by patients at multiple visits in the setting of a randomized controlled trial. Patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension were randomized to 12 weeks of treatment with topical ocular hypotensive medication in a multicenter, investigator-masked trial. At baseline, patients were given a questionnaire for self-assessment of difficulty with drop administration. At baseline and 12 weeks, patients demonstrated drop instillation using a bottle of artificial tears. Patient self-assessment of difficulty with drop administration and observed patient difficulty with drop administration, defined as bottle touching eye/adnexa, drop missing the ocular surface, or administering more than 1 drop. Of 164 enrolled patients, 50% had previously been treated with ocular hypotensive medication for ≥3 years. Only 11.4% of patients reported difficulty with eye drop administration at study entry. At baseline, 18.2% of patients touched their eye/adnexa with the bottle and 10.3% missed the eye. At 12 weeks, 18.5% and 8.6% of patients, respectively, had similar difficulties. Overall, difficulty with drop instillation was observed in 42.1% of patients. Difficulty at both visits was seen in 35.3% of patients who reported difficulty at entry and in 17.2% of patients who denied difficulty. The relative risk of demonstrating difficulty at either visit was 2.0 times greater for patients who self-reported difficulty at study entry (P = 0.004). The relative risk of demonstrating difficulty at week 12 was 3.8 times greater for patients with observed difficulty at baseline (P < 0.001). Limitations of the study design included self-administration of drops to the eye of the patient's choice and observation in an office setting. Patients with experience instilling topical glaucoma medications continue to have difficulties with eye drop administration, including patients who do not self-report difficulty. The risk of difficulty with eye drop administration is

  19. Contribution of malocclusion and female facial attractiveness to smile esthetics evaluated by eye tracking.

    PubMed

    Richards, Michael R; Fields, Henry W; Beck, F Michael; Firestone, Allen R; Walther, Dirk B; Rosenstiel, Stephen; Sacksteder, James M

    2015-04-01

    There is disagreement in the literature concerning the importance of the mouth in overall facial attractiveness. Eye tracking provides an objective method to evaluate what people see. The objective of this study was to determine whether dental and facial attractiveness alters viewers' visual attention in terms of which area of the face (eyes, nose, mouth, chin, ears, or other) is viewed first, viewed the greatest number of times, and viewed for the greatest total time (duration) using eye tracking. Seventy-six viewers underwent 1 eye tracking session. Of these, 53 were white (49% female, 51% male). Their ages ranged from 18 to 29 years, with a mean of 19.8 years, and none were dental professionals. After being positioned and calibrated, they were shown 24 unique female composite images, each image shown twice for reliability. These images reflected a repaired unilateral cleft lip or 3 grades of dental attractiveness similar to those of grades 1 (near ideal), 7 (borderline treatment need), and 10 (definite treatment need) as assessed in the aesthetic component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (AC-IOTN). The images were then embedded in faces of 3 levels of attractiveness: attractive, average, and unattractive. During viewing, data were collected for the first location, frequency, and duration of each viewer's gaze. Observer reliability ranged from 0.58 to 0.92 (intraclass correlation coefficients) but was less than 0.07 (interrater) for the chin, which was eliminated from the study. Likewise, reliability for the area of first fixation was kappa less than 0.10 for both intrarater and interrater reliabilities; the area of first fixation was also removed from the data analysis. Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed a significant effect (P <0.001) for level of attractiveness by malocclusion by area of the face. For both number of fixations and duration of fixations, the eyes overwhelmingly were most salient, with the mouth receiving the second most

  20. ADEA/AAL Institute for Allied Health Educators: Program Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Overman, Pamela R; Grzesikowski, Tami; Tucker-Lively, Felicia; Weinstein, George; Haden, N Karl

    2015-05-01

    Revised accreditation standards for dental and dental hygiene education programs have increased emphasis on faculty development that can improve teaching and learning, foster curricular change including use of teaching and learning technologies, and enhance retention and satisfaction of faculty. The American Dental Education Association (ADEA) and Academy for Academic Leadership (AAL) established the Institute for Allied Health Educators (IAHE) in 2007 to address faculty development needs for allied dental and allied health educators. In 2009, it was transitioned to an online program, which resulted in increased enrollment and diversity of participants. After seven years, a comprehensive program evaluation was warranted. The authors developed an online questionnaire based on Kirkpatrick's four-level model of training evaluation; for this study, levels one (satisfaction), two (knowledge and skill acquisition), and three (behavior change) were examined. Of the 400 program participants invited to take part in the study, a 38% response rate was achieved, with the majority indicating full-time faculty status. Nearly all (95-97%) of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed the program contributed to their teaching effectiveness, and 88-96% agreed or strongly agreed it enhanced their knowledge of educational concepts and strategies. In addition, 83% agreed or strongly agreed the program helped them develop new skills and confidence with technology, with 69% agreeing or strongly agreeing that it helped them incorporate technology into their own educational setting. Nearly 90% were highly positive or positive in their overall assessment of the program; 95% indicated they would recommend it to a colleague; and 80% agreed or strongly agreed they had discussed what they learned with faculty colleagues at their home institutions who had not attended the program. Positive findings from this evaluation provide evidence that the IAHE has been able to meet its goals.

  1. Healthy Eyes in Schools: An Evaluation of a School and Community-Based Intervention to Promote Eye Health in Rural Timor-Leste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobday, Karen; Ramke, Jacqueline; du Toit, Rènée; Pereira, Sara M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether there was an improvement in the knowledge, attitudes and practices of students after the Healthy Eyes in Schools Project intervention and to complete a process evaluation to inform future implementation of health promotion interventions. Design: A descriptive, mixed-methods design was used, including questionnaires and…

  2. Healthy Eyes in Schools: An Evaluation of a School and Community-Based Intervention to Promote Eye Health in Rural Timor-Leste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobday, Karen; Ramke, Jacqueline; du Toit, Rènée; Pereira, Sara M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether there was an improvement in the knowledge, attitudes and practices of students after the Healthy Eyes in Schools Project intervention and to complete a process evaluation to inform future implementation of health promotion interventions. Design: A descriptive, mixed-methods design was used, including questionnaires and…

  3. Optimizing the post-graduate institutional program evaluation process.

    PubMed

    Lypson, Monica L; Prince, Mark E P; Kasten, Steven J; Osborne, Nicholas H; Cohan, Richard H; Kowalenko, Terry; Dougherty, Paul J; Reynolds, R Kevin; Spires, M Catherine; Kozlow, Jeffrey H; Gitlin, Scott D

    2016-02-17

    Reviewing program educational efforts is an important component of postgraduate medical education program accreditation. The post-graduate review process has evolved over time to include centralized oversight based on accreditation standards. The institutional review process and the impact on participating faculty are topics not well described in the literature. We conducted multiple Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles to identify and implement areas for change to improve productivity in our institutional program review committee. We also conducted one focus group and six in-person interviews with 18 committee members to explore their perspectives on the committee's evolution. One author (MLL) reviewed the transcripts and performed the initial thematic coding with a PhD level research associate and identified and categorized themes. These themes were confirmed by all participating committee members upon review of a detailed summary. Emergent themes were triangulated with the University of Michigan Medical School's Admissions Executive Committee (AEC). We present an overview of adopted new practices to the educational program evaluation process at the University of Michigan Health System that includes standardization of meetings, inclusion of resident members, development of area content experts, solicitation of committed committee members, transition from paper to electronic committee materials, and focus on continuous improvement. Faculty and resident committee members identified multiple improvement areas including the ability to provide high quality reviews of training programs, personal and professional development, and improved feedback from program trainees. A standing committee that utilizes the expertise of a group of committed faculty members and which includes formal resident membership has significant advantages over ad hoc or other organizational structures for program evaluation committees.

  4. Evaluation of the preserving efficacy of lubricant eye drops with a novel preservative system.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Ruth A; Buck, Sally L; Henry, Cindy L; Schlech, Barry A

    2006-12-01

    Products provided in multidose containers must be adequately preserved in order to prevent contamination during repeated use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of a lubricant eye drop formulation without traditional preservatives to control and prevent contamination under extreme microbial conditions. Bottles of a new lubricant eye drop with a novel preservative system (SYSTANE FREE Lubricant Eye Drops, Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX) were stored at elevated (40 degrees C) and room temperature (25 degrees C) for up to 1 year. The formulation was inoculated with microorganisms to contain high levels (approximately 1x10(6) colony forming units [cfu]/mL) of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger. The inoculated samples were stored at 20-25 degrees C during testing. Three types of tests were conducted: (1) tests with 1 inoculation, (2) tests with 2 inoculations over 28-day test periods, and (3) tests with 6 inoculations over a 6-month test period. Additionally, a comparison of the preservative efficacy of the SYSTANE FREE formulation to marketed products, including sodium perborate, stabilized oxychloro complex, and polyhexamethylene biguanide eye drops, was performed. In all studies, the number of survivors was determined using standard microbiological dilution pour-plate techniques. The results consistently showed that the SYSTANE FREE formulation meets preservative efficacy standards equally well, or better, than, marketed eye drop products. Even with multiple inoculations, the formulation repeatedly showed no recovery of the organisms. Though the SYSTANE FREE formulation contains no traditional preservatives, its unique blend of ions and buffers was capable of preventing contamination of the contents even after exposure to extreme conditions.

  5. Health systems analysis of eye care services in Zambia: evaluating progress towards VISION 2020 goals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background VISION 2020 is a global initiative launched in 1999 to eliminate avoidable blindness by 2020. The objective of this study was to undertake a situation analysis of the Zambian eye health system and assess VISION 2020 process indicators on human resources, equipment and infrastructure. Methods All eye health care providers were surveyed to determine location, financing sources, human resources and equipment. Key informants were interviewed regarding levels of service provision, management and leadership in the sector. Policy papers were reviewed. A health system dynamics framework was used to analyse findings. Results During 2011, 74 facilities provided eye care in Zambia; 39% were public, 37% private for-profit and 24% owned by Non-Governmental Organizations. Private facilities were solely located in major cities. A total of 191 people worked in eye care; 18 of these were ophthalmologists and eight cataract surgeons, equivalent to 0.34 and 0.15 per 250,000 population, respectively. VISION 2020 targets for inpatient beds and surgical theatres were met in six out of nine provinces, but human resources and spectacles manufacturing workshops were below target in every province. Inequalities in service provision between urban and rural areas were substantial. Conclusion Shortage and maldistribution of human resources, lack of routine monitoring and inadequate financing mechanisms are the root causes of underperformance in the Zambian eye health system, which hinder the ability to achieve the VISION 2020 goals. We recommend that all VISION 2020 process indicators are evaluated simultaneously as these are not individually useful for monitoring progress. PMID:24575919

  6. Evaluating Engagement with Graduate Outcomes across Higher Education Institutions in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spronken-Smith, R.; Bond, C.; McLean, A.; Frielick, S.; Smith, N.; Jenkins, M.; Marshall, S.

    2015-01-01

    Our research addressed two aims: to develop a systematic way to evaluate institutional engagement with graduate outcomes and to explore such engagement in higher education institutions in Aotearoa/New Zealand. An online survey was completed by 14/29 institutions with nine follow-up interviews to gather information on institutional engagement with…

  7. Objective method for evaluating orthodontic treatment from the lay perspective: An eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Cai, Bin; Cao, Yang; Zhou, Chen; Yang, Le; Liu, Runzhong; Long, Xiaojing; Wang, Weicai; Gao, Dingguo; Bao, Baicheng

    2016-10-01

    Currently, few methods are available to measure orthodontic treatment need and treatment outcome from the lay perspective. The objective of this study was to explore the function of an eye-tracking method to evaluate orthodontic treatment need and treatment outcome from the lay perspective as a novel and objective way when compared with traditional assessments. The scanpaths of 88 laypersons observing the repose and smiling photographs of normal subjects and pretreatment and posttreatment malocclusion patients were recorded by an eye-tracking device. The total fixation time and the first fixation time on the areas of interest (eyes, nose, and mouth) for each group of faces were compared and analyzed using mixed-effects linear regression and a support vector machine. The aesthetic component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need was used to categorize treatment need and outcome levels to determine the accuracy of the support vector machine in identifying these variables. Significant deviations in the scanpaths of laypersons viewing pretreatment smiling faces were noted, with less fixation time (P <0.05) and later attention capture (P <0.05) on the eyes, and more fixation time (P <0.05) and earlier attention capture (P <0.05) on the mouth than for the scanpaths of laypersons viewing normal smiling subjects. The same results were obtained when comparing posttreatment smiling patients, with less fixation time (P <0.05) and later attention capture on the eyes (P <0.05), and more fixation time (P <0.05) and earlier attention capture on the mouth (P <0.05). The pretreatment repose faces exhibited an earlier attention capture on the mouth than did the normal subjects (P <0.05) and posttreatment patients (P <0.05). Linear support vector machine classification showed accuracies of 97.2% and 93.4% in distinguishing pretreatment patients from normal subjects (treatment need), and pretreatment patients from posttreatment patients (treatment outcome), respectively

  8. Evaluation of Color Settings in Aerial Images with the Use of Eye-Tracking User Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirijovsky, J.; Popelka, S.

    2016-06-01

    The main aim of presented paper is to find the most realistic and preferred color settings for four different types of surfaces on the aerial images. This will be achieved through user study with the use of eye-movement recording. Aerial images taken by the unmanned aerial system were used as stimuli. From each image, squared crop area containing one of the studied types of surfaces (asphalt, concrete, water, soil, and grass) was selected. For each type of surface, the real value of reflectance was found with the use of precise spectroradiometer ASD HandHeld 2 which measures the reflectance. The device was used at the same time as aerial images were captured, so lighting conditions and state of vegetation were equal. The spectral resolution of the ASD device is better than 3.0 nm. For defining the RGB values of selected type of surface, the spectral reflectance values recorded by the device were merged into wider groups. Finally, we get three groups corresponding to RGB color system. Captured images were edited with the graphic editor Photoshop CS6. Contrast, clarity, and brightness were edited for all surface types on images. Finally, we get a set of 12 images of the same area with different color settings. These images were put into the grid and used as stimuli for the eye-tracking experiment. Eye-tracking is one of the methods of usability studies and it is considered as relatively objective. Eye-tracker SMI RED 250 with the sampling frequency 250 Hz was used in the study. As respondents, a group of 24 students of Geoinformatics and Geography was used. Their task was to select which image in the grid has the best color settings. The next task was to select which color settings they prefer. Respondents' answers were evaluated and the most realistic and most preferable color settings were found. The advantage of the eye-tracking evaluation was that also the process of the selection of the answers was analyzed. Areas of Interest were marked around each image in the

  9. Evaluation metrics for range-gated active imaging systems using a Lissajous-type eye pattern.

    PubMed

    Laurenzis, Martin

    2010-04-20

    In this paper a new method to evaluate gated viewing systems and range-gated imaging sequences, using a Lissajous-type eye pattern, is presented. This approach enables the comparison of gated viewing systems and defines clear criteria for depth resolution and depth mapping capabilities of an active imaging system. A distinct parameter can be depicted and sensed within a single chart. Therefore, this approach is a first proposal for an evaluation procedure of gated viewing systems and an enhanced analysis tool in the means of 3D capabilities.

  10. Peripapillary crescent enlargement in highly myopic eyes evaluated by fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography

    PubMed Central

    Yasuzumi, K; Ohno-Matsui, K; Yoshida, T; Kojima, A; Shimada, N; Futagami, S; Tokoro, T; Mochizuki, M

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate angiographic features of myopic crescents using fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (IA). Methods: FA and IA angiograms of 88 highly myopic eyes (47 consecutive patients) were reviewed. The follow up period ranged from 5–28 years. Results: FA revealed two zones of the myopic crescent: a consistently hypofluorescent inner zone and an outer zone with delayed choroidal filling. IA revealed dislocation of the Zinn-Haller ring to the border between the two zones. Myopic crescent enlargement occurred in 68.1%. Only the outer zone increased significantly in most of the eyes with enlarged crescents. Conclusions: The inner zone might develop as a result of mechanical stretching, and the outer zone might be the result a secondary circulatory disturbance and mechanical stretching. PMID:12928272

  11. Ocular surface evaluation in eyes with chronic glaucoma on long term topical antiglaucoma therapy

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Manu; Vanathi, Murugesan; Dada, Tanuj; Agarwal, Tushar; Dhiman, Rebika; Khokhar, Sudarshan

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate ocular surface changes and its correlation with the central corneal subbasal nerve fibre layer in chronic glaucoma patients. METHODS A prospective comparative study of ocular surface evaluation was performed in 50 eyes of 25 patients using two or more antiglaucoma medications for at least 6mo and 50 eyes of 25 normal subjects without any ocular problems as controls. The study parameters evaluated included visual acuity, intraocular pressure, ocular surface evaluation parameters [fluorescein break-up time (FTBUT), Schirmer's I test, ocular surface staining scores and ocular surface disease index score (OSDI)], central corneal sensation (Cochet Bonnett aesthesiometer), central subbasal nerve fiber layer density (SBNFLD) by confocal microscopy. RESULTS The mean values in the glaucoma cases and control groups respectively were as follows: OSDI score (35.89±16.07/6.02±3.84; P=0.001), Schirmer's I test score (7.63±2.64 mm/12.86±1.93 mm; P=0.001), FTBUT (9.44±2.76s/11.8±1.88s; P=0.001), corneal (5.7±2.33/ 1.1±0.58; P=0.001) and conjunctival staining score (5.06±1.94/0.84±0.46; P=0.001), corneal sensitivity (4.68±0.44/5.07±0.37; P=0.076), mean subbasal nerve fiber number (3.58±0.99/5.40±1.70; P=0.001), SBNFL length (1101.44±287.56 µm/1963.70±562.56 µm; P=0.001) and density (6883.94±1798.03 µm/mm2/12 273.15±3516.04 µm/mm2; P=0.001). Dry eye severity of level 2 and 3 was seen in 66% of glaucoma group. Corneal (R2=0.86) and conjunctival staining (R2=0.71) and OSDI score (R2=0.67) showed statistically significant negative correlation with central corneal SBNFLD while FTBUT (R2=0.84), corneal sensitivity (R2=0.52) showed positive correlation to central corneal SBNFLD in the long term topical antiglaucoma medication group. CONCLUSION Ocular surface changes and antiglaucoma therapy induced dry eye is found to be associated with decreased SBNFLD in eyes on long term topical antiglaucoma medications. PMID:28730085

  12. Ocular surface evaluation in eyes with chronic glaucoma on long term topical antiglaucoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Saini, Manu; Vanathi, Murugesan; Dada, Tanuj; Agarwal, Tushar; Dhiman, Rebika; Khokhar, Sudarshan

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate ocular surface changes and its correlation with the central corneal subbasal nerve fibre layer in chronic glaucoma patients. A prospective comparative study of ocular surface evaluation was performed in 50 eyes of 25 patients using two or more antiglaucoma medications for at least 6mo and 50 eyes of 25 normal subjects without any ocular problems as controls. The study parameters evaluated included visual acuity, intraocular pressure, ocular surface evaluation parameters [fluorescein break-up time (FTBUT), Schirmer's I test, ocular surface staining scores and ocular surface disease index score (OSDI)], central corneal sensation (Cochet Bonnett aesthesiometer), central subbasal nerve fiber layer density (SBNFLD) by confocal microscopy. The mean values in the glaucoma cases and control groups respectively were as follows: OSDI score (35.89±16.07/6.02±3.84; P=0.001), Schirmer's I test score (7.63±2.64 mm/12.86±1.93 mm; P=0.001), FTBUT (9.44±2.76s/11.8±1.88s; P=0.001), corneal (5.7±2.33/ 1.1±0.58; P=0.001) and conjunctival staining score (5.06±1.94/0.84±0.46; P=0.001), corneal sensitivity (4.68±0.44/5.07±0.37; P=0.076), mean subbasal nerve fiber number (3.58±0.99/5.40±1.70; P=0.001), SBNFL length (1101.44±287.56 µm/1963.70±562.56 µm; P=0.001) and density (6883.94±1798.03 µm/mm(2)/12 273.15±3516.04 µm/mm(2); P=0.001). Dry eye severity of level 2 and 3 was seen in 66% of glaucoma group. Corneal (R(2)=0.86) and conjunctival staining (R(2)=0.71) and OSDI score (R(2)=0.67) showed statistically significant negative correlation with central corneal SBNFLD while FTBUT (R(2)=0.84), corneal sensitivity (R(2)=0.52) showed positive correlation to central corneal SBNFLD in the long term topical antiglaucoma medication group. Ocular surface changes and antiglaucoma therapy induced dry eye is found to be associated with decreased SBNFLD in eyes on long term topical antiglaucoma medications.

  13. The Ex Vivo Eye Irritation Test (EVEIT) in evaluation of artificial tears: Purite-preserved versus unpreserved eye drops.

    PubMed

    Schrage, N; Frentz, M; Spoeler, F

    2012-09-01

    Preservatives in artificial tears cause controversy. New developments such as the Purite system have been introduced into the market, with the promise of little damage to the corneal surface. We wanted to give insight into the differences in the effect of preserved and unpreserved artifical tears on rabbit corneas cultured with the Ex Vivo Eye Irritation Test (EVEIT) system. We compared the two artifical tears products Hylo Comod and Optive being dropped for 72 hours each hour one drop onto the corneal surface. Each cornea was mechanically wounded with four epithelial defects on each cornea with a size of 3 to 4.5 mm(2). With n = 4 corneas in the Hylo-Comod and n = 4 corneas in the Optive group, we exposed the corneal surfaces to repeated doses of these artificial tears for 3 days. We observed healing of corneal erosions and surface epithelial integrity with sodium-fluoresceine staining under cobalt blue light illumination. We found nearly complete healing of epithelial defects with both artificial tears. The Hylo-Comod group healed significantly faster. After 72 hours, the vast majority of epithelial defects were closed. All corneas exposed to Purite showed superficial stippling, whereas the HyloComod group did not show any stippling of the cornea; this difference was significant. Epithelial healing and recovery in the EVEIT system is observed in both groups, confirming the concept of artificial tears as a supporting factor of corneal health and healing. The superficial stippling of the corneal epithelium was observed only in the Optive group. This effect is considered as a marker of dry eye syndrome, and should be prevented by the application of artificial tears. Preservative-free eye drops such as HyloComod improve healing, and prevent symptoms of dry eye syndrome in the EVEITsystem. Compared to EVEIT results of former experiments with benzalconium chloride-preserved eye drops, Optive promoted healing of corneal erosions.

  14. Analyzing Institutional Evaluation Reports Prepared from 2013-2015 by European University Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Süzen, Zeynep Bumin

    2017-01-01

    European University Association is an institution which guides not only European but all universities in their efforts to improve their quality within the context of Bologna Process. In this study Institutional Evaluation Reports prepared by EUA for all higher education institutions that applied to be evaluated between 2013 and 2015 were examined.…

  15. Optimization and validation of an existing, surgical and robust dry eye rat model for the evaluation of therapeutic compounds.

    PubMed

    Joossen, Cedric; Lanckacker, Ellen; Zakaria, Nadia; Koppen, Carina; Joossens, Jurgen; Cools, Nathalie; De Meester, Ingrid; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; Delputte, Peter; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this research was to optimize and validate an animal model for dry eye, adopting clinically relevant evaluation parameters. Dry eye was induced in female Wistar rats by surgical removal of the exorbital lacrimal gland. The clinical manifestations of dry eye were evaluated by tear volume measurements, corneal fluorescein staining, cytokine measurements in tear fluid, MMP-9 mRNA expression and CD3(+) cell infiltration in the conjunctiva. The animal model was validated by treatment with Restasis(®) (4 weeks) and commercial dexamethasone eye drops (2 weeks). Removal of the exorbital lacrimal gland resulted in 50% decrease in tear volume and a gradual increase in corneal fluorescein staining. Elevated levels of TNF-α and IL-1α have been registered in tear fluid together with an increase in CD3(+) cells in the palpebral conjunctiva when compared to control animals. Additionally, an increase in MMP-9 mRNA expression was recorded in conjunctival tissue. Reference treatment with Restasis(®) and dexamethasone eye drops had a positive effect on all evaluation parameters, except on tear volume. This rat dry eye model was validated extensively and judged appropriate for the evaluation of novel compounds and therapeutic preparations for dry eye disease.

  16. Program Evaluation within a Correctional Institution: Threats to the Validity of Evaluative Conclusions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Glenn

    A year-long case study of the effects of an educational and vocational rehabilitation program in a youth training center was discussed in terms of fourteen issues which might threaten the validity of an evaluation or research project. This correctional institution housed women aged 14 to 21 who were long-term wards of the state, held on remand, or…

  17. Patterns of uveitis at the Apex Institute for Eye Care in India: Results from a prospectively enrolled patient data base (2011-2013).

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Pradeep; Gogia, Varun; Shah, Bhavin; Gupta, Shikha; Sagar, Pradeep; Garg, Satpal

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the clinical and etiological profile of uveitis at the apex institute for eye care in India. This is a prospective, prevalence study. 980 consecutive patients with uveitis referred to uvea clinic, Dr. RP Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences (Ophthalmology division, All India Institute of Medical Sciences). Demographic data of each patient were noted and a thorough ocular examination including slit lamp examination and dilated fundus evaluation was carried out. OCT and fluorescein angiography were undertaken whenever indicated. Uveitis was classified based on the anatomic location of inflammation (IUSG classification). Relevant serological and radiological investigations were obtained based on systemic symptomatology, and if the uveitis was recurrent (even in the absence of systemic symptoms). The presence of a systemic disease was confirmed by obtaining an internist consultation. The main outcome measures include pattern of uveitis according to anatomical classification and the etiology. Out of 980 patients with uveitis, 413 (42.14 %) patients had anterior uveitis, 131 (13.36 %) had intermediate uveitis, 165 (16.83 %) had posterior uveitis, 91 (9.2 %) had panuveitis, 47 (4.7 %) had retinal vasculitis, 22 (2.24 %) had scleritis, 17 (1.7 %) had masquerade syndromes, 8 (0.8 %) had keratouveitis, 22 (2.24 %) had sclerokeratouveitis, 19 (1.9 %) had endophthalmitis and 45 (4.5 %) had other causes of inflammation including trauma and intraocular surgery. Out of all uveitic patients definite etiological correlation could be made out in 225 (23 %) patients; thus 77 % were categorised as idiopathic. Only 9 % of all patients were found to have uveitis with an infectious etiology. Amongst infectious causes of uveitis tuberculosis was the leading cause, accounting for sixty percent of all infectious uveitis (approximately 5 % of overall uveitis). Non-infectious uveitis etiology accounted for more than 90 % of all cases with

  18. Multimodal Imaging Evaluations of Focal Choroidal Excavations in Eyes with Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi-Qing; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of focal choroidal excavation (FCE) concurrent with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) using multimodal imaging. Methods. This was a retrospective single-institution study. Clinical features and multimodal imaging findings were analyzed in eyes with CSC and FCEs, using imaging methods including optical coherence tomography (OCT), OCT angiography (OCTA), fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and multispectral imaging. Results. Seventeen patients (4.8%) with 21 FCEs (19 eyes) were found among 351 consecutive Chinese patients with CSC. Chronic CSC represented 47.1% of those cases. Window defects in 12 lesions identified through FA and hypoautofluorescence in 13 lesions identified through FAF revealed retinal pigment epithelial attenuation. Choroidal hemodynamic disturbances characterized by localized filling defects at the excavation and circumferential hyperperfusion were validated by both ICGA and OCTA, which were similar to the angiographic features of normal chronic CSC. The hyperreflective tissue beneath FCE, observed on B-scan OCT, presented as intensive choroidal flow signals on OCTA. Conclusions. FCE is not uncommon in patients with CSC. Multimodal imaging suggested that the aberrant choroidal circulation might be a contribution factor for leakage from the dysfunctional retinal pigment epithelium at the area of excavation. PMID:27437148

  19. Evaluating the risk of eye injuries: intraocular pressure during high speed projectile impacts.

    PubMed

    Duma, Stefan M; Bisplinghoff, Jill A; Senge, Danielle M; McNally, Craig; Alphonse, Vanessa D

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the risk of eye injuries by determining intraocular pressure during high speed projectile impacts. A pneumatic cannon was used to impact eyes with a variety of projectiles at multiple velocities. Intraocular pressure was measured with a small pressure sensor inserted through the optic nerve. A total of 36 tests were performed on 12 porcine eyes with a range of velocities between 6.2 m/s and 66.5 m/s. Projectiles selected for the test series included a 6.35  mm diameter metal ball, a 9.25  mm diameter aluminum rod, and an 11.16  mm diameter aluminum rod. Experiments were designed with velocities in the range of projectile consumer products such as toy guns. A range of intraocular pressures ranged between 2017 mmHg to 26,426 mmHg (39 psi-511 psi). Four of the 36 impacts resulted in globe rupture. Intraocular pressures dramatically above normal physiological pressure were observed for high speed projectile impacts. These pressure data provide critical insight to chronic ocular injuries and long-term complications such as glaucoma and cataracts.

  20. Evaluation of the toxicity of graphene oxide exposure to the eye.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Yan, Liang; Wu, Qian; Li, Yijian; Li, Qiyou; Chen, Siyu; Yang, Yuli; Gu, Zhanjun; Xu, Haiwei; Yin, Zheng Qin

    2016-11-01

    Graphene and its derivatives are the new carbon nanomaterials with the prospect for great applications in electronics, energy storage, biosensors and medicine. However, little is known about the toxicity of graphene or its derivatives in the case of occasional or repeated ocular exposure. We performed in vitro and in vivo studies to evaluate the toxicity of graphene oxide (GO) exposure to the eye. Primary human corneal epithelium cells (hCorECs) and human conjunctiva epithelium cells (hConECs) were exposed to GO (12.5-100 μg/mL). Acute GO exposure (2 h) did not induce cytotoxicity to hCorECs. However, short-term GO exposure (24 h) exerted significant cytotoxicity to hCorECs and hConECs with increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Glutathione (GSH) reduced the GO-induced cytotoxicity. We further performed acute eye irritation tests in albino rabbits according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines, and the rabbits did not exhibit corneal opacity, conjunctival redness, abnormality of the iris, or chemosis at any time point after the instillation of 100 μg/mL of GO. However, 5-day repeated GO exposure (50 and 100 μg/mL) caused reversible mild corneal opacity, conjunctival redness and corneal epithelium damage to Sprague-Dawley rats, which was also alleviated by GSH. Therefore, our study suggests that GO-induced time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity to hCorECs and hConECs via oxidative stress. Occasional GO exposure did not cause acute eye irritation; short-term repeated GO exposure generally resulted in reversible damage to the eye via oxidative stress, which may be alleviated by the antioxidant GSH.

  1. Neurologic Evaluation of Acute Lacrimomimetic Effect of Cyclosporine in an Experimental Rabbit Dry Eye Model

    PubMed Central

    Toshida, Hiroshi; Nguyen, Doan H.; Beuerman, Roger W.; Murakami, Akira

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate neurologically acute lacrimation caused by cyclosporine (CsA) eyedrops in rabbit. METHODS Normal adult male New Zealand White rabbits and those that underwent parasympathectomy each received a single instillation of 0.1% CsA or vehicle eyedrops. Schirmer tear test (STT) results, flow rate of lacrimal gland (LG) fluid from the excretory lacrimal duct of the main LG, and blink rate (over a 3-minute period) were measured before and after instillation of CsA or vehicle. Light microscopy was performed to examine the main LG in vitro. Protein release from LG fragments was assessed after incubation with CsA for 30 minutes. RESULTS In normal rabbits, the STT value and the flow rate of LG fluid were significantly increased after treatment with CsA compared with vehicle (P < 0.05). In contrast, no changes were found in denervated eyes. The blink rate of CsA-treated eyes was significantly higher than that of vehicle- treated eyes in normal rabbits (P < 0.005), whereas that of denervated eyes decreased significantly after CsA instillation compared with before administration (P < 0.005). Light microscopy showed that the cytoplasm of acinar cells was packed with secretory granules in denervated LG tissue 7 days after parasympathectomy. The same finding was observed 3 hours after CsA instillation. CsA had no stimulatory effect on protein release by acinar cells in LG fragments at all concentrations tested. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that CsA has no direct effect on tear fluid secretion from the LG in an acute model. Instead, CsA increases reflex tear flow. PMID:19218606

  2. Evaluation of the IrisPlex DNA-based eye color prediction assay in a United States population.

    PubMed

    Dembinski, Gina M; Picard, Christine J

    2014-03-01

    DNA phenotyping is a rapidly developing area of research in forensic biology. Externally visible characteristics (EVCs) can be determined based on genotype data, specifically based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). These SNPs are chosen based on their association with genes related to the phenotypic expression of interest, with known examples in eye, hair, and skin color traits. DNA phenotyping has forensic importance when unknown biological samples at a crime scene do not result in a criminal database hit; a phenotypic profile of the sample can therefore be used to develop investigational leads. IrisPlex, an eye color prediction assay, has previously shown high prediction rates for blue and brown eye color in a Dutch European population. The objective of this work was to evaluate its utility in a North American population. We evaluated six SNPs included in the IrisPlex assay in population sample collected from a USA college campus. We used a quantitative method of eye color classification based on (RGB) color components of digital photographs of the eye taken from each study volunteer so that each eye was placed in one of three eye color categories: brown, intermediate, or blue. Objective color classification was shown to correlate with basic human visual determination making it a feasible option for use in future prediction assay development. Using these samples and various models, the maximum prediction accuracies of the IrisPlex system after allele frequency adjustment was 58% and 95% brown and blue eye color predictions, respectively, and 11% for intermediate eye colors. Future developments should include incorporation of additional informative SNPs, specifically related to the intermediate eye color, and we recommend the use of a Bayesian approach as a prediction model as likelihood ratios can be determined for reporting purposes.

  3. Ethnomedical survey and safety evaluation of traditional eye medicines used in Misungwi district, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Maregesi, Sheila M.; Messo, Charles W.; Mathias, Juma

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed at documenting products used as traditional eye medicine (TEM) in Misungwi district, Tanzania, and performing preliminary analysis on safety status. Methodology: Ethnomedical study was conducted in Misungwi district. Information was sourced by face-to-face interview with traditional healers, traditional medicine vendors, and knowledgeable people guided by a well-structured questionnaire. Safety was evaluated by determining pH using pH meter and mineral analysis using the Delta, Portable X-ray fluorescence equipment, and qualitative chemical tests. Results: A total of 23 TEM products were recorded from botanical (79%) and zoological (21%) sources including animal excreta. Liquid preparation ranked highest among dosage forms. Safety evaluation showed that only one product possessed the pH value of 7.4 as recommended for topical ophthalmic medicines. Fourteen minerals were detected and quantified in three samples; some of these minerals are known for their negative effects to the eyes, of medical interest is strontium used for the management of benign eye tumors. Information providers were unaware of health risks associated with the use of TEM. Conclusion: This study has revealed the common use of TEM in Misungwi district. The majority of the products are from the botanical source. Although literature provides supporting data for the application to some of the recorded TEM, safety evaluation by pH and mineral analysis in this study have indicated possible ophthalmological medical problems that could result from using such products. Extensive scientific studies including animal experiments and identification of bioactive compounds are essential to develop safe TEMs. PMID:28163964

  4. Isoluminant chromatic pupillometry an evaluation of peak velocity contraction in pseudophakic eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, A. S.; Suaste, E.

    2012-10-01

    To describe a way to evaluate the peak velocity of contraction (PVC) and Time of peak velocity contraction (TPVC), of pupillary responses at two isoluminant chromatic stimuli (Blue and Red) with a luminance level of 9 cd/m2 in patients with multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL) implant by means of high speed video-oculography (HSV) and digital eye image processing. In this preliminary study (PS) are studied pupillary responses from patients with hypertension (HTA) and patients without systemic sickness (HS), using t-student analysis. Results from t-student test, of this PS represent that peak velocity contraction was presented faster in subjects with hypertension in both colors.

  5. Evaluating Fault Management Operations Concepts for Next-Generation Spacecraft: What Eye Movements Tell Us

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, Miwa; Ravinder, Ujwala; McCann, Robert S.; Beutter, Brent; Spirkovska, Lily

    2009-01-01

    Performance enhancements associated with selected forms of automation were quantified in a recent human-in-the-loop evaluation of two candidate operational concepts for fault management on next-generation spacecraft. The baseline concept, called Elsie, featured a full-suite of "soft" fault management interfaces. However, operators were forced to diagnose malfunctions with minimal assistance from the standalone caution and warning system. The other concept, called Besi, incorporated a more capable C&W system with an automated fault diagnosis capability. Results from analyses of participants' eye movements indicate that the greatest empirical benefit of the automation stemmed from eliminating the need for text processing on cluttered, text-rich displays.

  6. Eye Disease Simulations

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIH Campus Mission Statement As part of the federal government’s National Institutes of Health (NIH), the National Eye ... National Institutes of Health (NIH) and is the Federal government’s lead agency for vision research that leads to ...

  7. AN INDEPENDENT EVALUATION OF THE 1962 SUMMER INSTITUTE PROGRAM OF THE COMMISSION ON ENGLISH OF THE COLLEGE ENTRANCE EXAMINATION BOARD, WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE INSTITUTES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GERBER, JOHN C.

    THE OBJECTIVES WERE TO EVALUATE THE 1962 SUMMER INSTITUTE PROGRAM OF THE COMMISSION ON ENGLISH OF THE COLLEGE ENTRANCE EXAMINATION BOARD (CEEB). EACH OF THE 20 INSTITUTES WAS EVALUATED SEPARATELY SINCE EACH WAS RELATIVELY INDEPENDENT. AS PART OF THE EFFORT, AN ATTEMPT WAS MADE TO EVALUATE THE EFFECT OF THE INSTITUTE TRAINING UPON THE PARTICIPANTS…

  8. Evaluation of the in vitro ocular toxicity of the fortified antibiotic eye drops prepared at the Hospital Pharmacy Departments.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ferreiro, Anxo; González-Barcia, Miguel; Gil-Martínez, María; Santiago Varela, María; Pardo, María; Blanco-Méndez, José; Piñeiro-Ces, Antonio; Lamas Díaz, María Jesús; Otero-Espinar, Francisco J

    2016-09-01

    The use of parenteral antibiotic eye drop formulations with non-marketed compositions or concentrations, commonly called fortified antibiotic eye drops, is a common practice in Ophthalmology in the hospital setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro ocular toxicity of the main fortified antibiotic eye drops prepared in the Hospital Pharmacy Departments. We have conducted an in vitro experimental study in order to test the toxicity of gentamicin, amikacin, cefazolin, ceftazidime, vancomycin, colistimethate sodium and imipenem-cilastatin eye drops; their cytotoxicity and acute tissue irritation have been evaluated. Cell-based assays were performed on human stromal keratocytes, using a cell-based impedance biosensor system [xCELLigence Real-Time System Cell Analyzer (RTCA)], and the Hen's Egg Test for the ocular irritation tests. All the eye drops, except for vancomycin and imipenem, have shown a cytotoxic effect dependent on concentration and time; higher concentrations and longer exposure times will cause a steeper decline in the population of stromal keratocytes. Vancomycin showed a major initial cytotoxic effect, which was reverted over time; and imipenem appeared as a non-toxic compound for stromal cells. The eye drops with the highest irritating effect on the ocular surface were gentamicin and vancomycin. Those antibiotic eye drops prepared at the Hospital Pharmacy Departments included in this study were considered as compounds potentially cytotoxic for the ocular surface; this toxicity was dependent on the concentration used.

  9. Dwarf Eye Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

  10. Dwarf Eye Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

  11. Evaluation of Eye Irritation Potential of Solid Substance with New 3D Reconstructed Human Cornea Model, MCTT HCETM

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Won-hee; Jung, Kyoung-mi; Yang, Hye-ri; Lee, Miri; Jung, Haeng-Sun; Lee, Su-Hyon; Park, Miyoung; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    The eye irritation potential of drug candidates or pharmaceutical ingredients should be evaluated if there is a possibility of ocular exposure. Traditionally, the ocular irritation has been evaluated by the rabbit Draize test. However, rabbit eyes are more sensitive to irritants than human eyes, therefore substantial level of false positives are unavoidable. To resolve this species difference, several three-dimensional human corneal epithelial (HCE) models have been developed as alternative eye irritation test methods. Recently, we introduced a new HCE model, MCTT HCETM which is reconstructed with non-transformed human corneal cells from limbal tissues. Here, we examined if MCTT HCETM can be employed to evaluate eye irritation potential of solid substances. Through optimization of washing method and exposure time, treatment time was established as 10 min and washing procedure was set up as 4 times of washing with 10 mL of PBS and shaking in 30 mL of PBS in a beaker. With the established eye irritation test protocol, 11 solid substances (5 non-irritants, 6 irritants) were evaluated which demonstrated an excellent predictive capacity (100% accuracy, 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity). We also compared the performance of our test method with rabbit Draize test results and in vitro cytotoxicity test with 2D human corneal epithelial cell lines. PMID:26157556

  12. Evaluation of Eye Irritation Potential of Solid Substance with New 3D Reconstructed Human Cornea Model, MCTT HCE(TM).

    PubMed

    Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Kyoung-Mi; Yang, Hye-Ri; Lee, Miri; Jung, Haeng-Sun; Lee, Su-Hyon; Park, Miyoung; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2015-07-01

    The eye irritation potential of drug candidates or pharmaceutical ingredients should be evaluated if there is a possibility of ocular exposure. Traditionally, the ocular irritation has been evaluated by the rabbit Draize test. However, rabbit eyes are more sensitive to irritants than human eyes, therefore substantial level of false positives are unavoidable. To resolve this species difference, several three-dimensional human corneal epithelial (HCE) models have been developed as alternative eye irritation test methods. Recently, we introduced a new HCE model, MCTT HCE(TM) which is reconstructed with non-transformed human corneal cells from limbal tissues. Here, we examined if MCTT HCE(TM) can be employed to evaluate eye irritation potential of solid substances. Through optimization of washing method and exposure time, treatment time was established as 10 min and washing procedure was set up as 4 times of washing with 10 mL of PBS and shaking in 30 mL of PBS in a beaker. With the established eye irritation test protocol, 11 solid substances (5 non-irritants, 6 irritants) were evaluated which demonstrated an excellent predictive capacity (100% accuracy, 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity). We also compared the performance of our test method with rabbit Draize test results and in vitro cytotoxicity test with 2D human corneal epithelial cell lines.

  13. Human Resources and Staff Development as Part of an Institutional Evaluation: The Case of Oulu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liuhanen, Anna-Maija

    1996-01-01

    At the University of Oulu (Finland), a 1992-93 institutional evaluation included both self-assessment and external evaluation. The self-evaluation paid little attention to institutional human resource management, while the external assessment gave substantial attention to personnel policy, staff development, and manpower planning. A more strategic…

  14. Clinical evaluation of an oil-based lubricant eyedrop in dry eye patients with lipid deficiency.

    PubMed

    Baudouin, Christophe; Galarreta, David J; Mrukwa-Kominek, Ewa; Böhringer, Daniel; Maurino, Vincenzo; Guillon, Michel; Rossi, Gemma C M; Van der Meulen, Ivanka J; Ogundele, Abayomi; Labetoulle, Marc

    2017-03-10

    To evaluate and compare the efficacy of a lipid-based lubricant eyedrop formulation (hydroxypropyl guar/propylene glycol/phospholipid [HPG/PG/PL]) with preservative-free saline for the treatment of dry eye. This was a prospective, multicenter, randomized, single-masked, parallel-group phase 4 clinical study. Patients ≥18 years diagnosed with dry eye received 1 drop of saline 4 times daily (QID) for 15 days during a run-in phase, followed by randomization. Patients then instilled HPG/PG/PL or saline QID through day 35 and as needed through day 90. Change in tear film break-up time (TFBUT), change in total ocular surface staining (TOSS) score, and Impact of Dry Eye on Everyday Life (IDEEL) were evaluated on day 35. Increase in TFBUT from baseline to day 35 was assessed during the interim and final analyses. Mean ± SE difference between the HPG/PG/PL (n = 110) and saline groups (n = 100) was 1.3 ± 0.4 seconds (interim analysis; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5-2.1 seconds; p = 0.0012) and 1.0 ± 0.3 seconds (final analysis; 95% CI 0.4-1.6 seconds; p = 0.0011), demonstrating the superiority of HPG/PG/PL. The mean ± SE difference between the HPG/PG/PL and saline groups for IDEEL treatment effectiveness scores was 16.0 ± 3.6 (95% CI 8.9-23.1; p<0.0001). No significant differences in TOSS scores or IDEEL inconvenience scores were observed between treatment groups. Thirty-five days of QID HPG/PG/PL treatment resulted in a statistically significant improvement in TFBUT and IDEEL treatment effectiveness scores compared with saline but not in TOSS or IDEEL treatment inconvenience scores. HPG/PG/PL was well-tolerated by patients.

  15. An evaluation of the California Forestry Institute for Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Edward Albert

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the California Forestry Institute for Teachers (FIT) environmental education workshop. There were two populations in this study. FIT workshop participants (n = 224) and agricultural education students (n = 72) of teacher completing FIT training (treatment) and students (n = 122) of teachers with no FIT training (control). FIT participants completed and returned a questionnaire designed to determine a profile of FIT workshop participants and to measure frequency and utilization of workshop materials, curriculum integration, barriers, and workshop improvement. Agricultural education students & teachers completed a forestry & environmental education knowledge and attitude assessment. Descriptive statistics, t-tests, correlation and ANOVA were used to determine mean differences between groups. Findings and conclusions. Typical workshop participant was female, 46 years old, taught 16 years, holds a BS degree, works with elementary age students, resides in metropolitan area and does not belong to a conservation-type organization. As a result a of attending FIT, number of outdoor activities increased, number of environmentally-related filed trips increased and the number of lessons incorporating environmental education topics. FIT participants integrate EE into curriculum for a number of reasons. Lack of time and preparation were barriers, which existed that prevent integration of environmental education into their class curriculum. Participants were satisfied with structure of the workshop format and recommended no changes. Five thematic areas emerged as suggested changes in workshop subject content. A significant difference existed between group knowledge scores of agriculture students of teachers with FIT training compared to students of teachers with no FIT training. There were significant differences in scores of FIT-trained students when a comparison was made by place of residence. No significant

  16. 78 FR 48879 - Proposed Collection; 60-day Comment Request: Outcomes Evaluation of the National Cancer Institute...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... opportunity for public comment on proposed data collection projects, National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) will publish periodic summaries of proposed projects to be submitted to... Evaluation of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) SUMMARY: In...

  17. The Institute of American Indian Arts Background Information (Task One of the Transition Evaluation). Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tippeconnic, John W., Jr.

    The paper, prepared as Task One of the Institute of American Indian Arts Transition Evaluation, provides pertinent background information about the Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, New Mexico. A brief history of the Institute is given, with information about its philosophy and purpose; objectives; organization and administration; the…

  18. Guide for the Evaluation and Accreditation of Institutions in Oklahoma Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

    Policies and procedures for accreditation, evaluation, and establishment of new institutions are presented. Part 1 outlines the policies and procedures for state accreditation as required by state law. These cover accreditation standards, expenses, consultants, institution's request for accreditation, institutional self-study, statistical…

  19. Evaluation of an E.P.D.A. Institute "Teachers for Multicultural Education."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Robert W.; And Others

    An institute to retrain teachers (K-8) for multicultural education was evaluated to determine 1) types of knowledge relevant to teaching in a minority community that can successfully be taught in an 8-week summer institute and 2) changes in attitude and conceptual structure associated with the institute. The program included sensitivity training…

  20. Toxicity evaluation of the photoprotective compound LQFM048: Eye irritation, skin toxicity and genotoxic endpoints.

    PubMed

    de Ávila, Renato Ivan; de Sousa Vieira, Marcelo; Gaeti, Marilisa Pedroso Nogueira; Moreira, Larissa Cleres; de Brito Rodrigues, Laís; de Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Vinhal, Daniela Cristina; Menegatti, Ricardo; Valadares, Marize Campos

    2017-02-01

    A new molecule, LQFM048, originally designed through molecular hybridization using green chemistry approach, is in development as a photoprotective agent. Eye irritation, skin toxicity and genotoxicity evaluations are mandatory for predicting health risks. In this context, the purpose of this study was to investigate the eye irritation potential of LQFM048 by combining Short Time Exposure (STE), Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) associated with corneal histomorphometry and Hen's Egg Test-Chorioallantoic Membrane (HET-CAM). Additionally, skin toxicity was evaluated by interleukin-18 production in the HaCaT keratinocyte, Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA:BrdU-ELISA) method, 3T3 Neutral red uptake (NRU) assay and in vivo phototoxicity test. Genotoxic potential of LQFM048 was also analyzed by cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (MNvit test-cytoB) in HepG2 cells. Our results showed that LQFM048 did not induce eye irritation and it was classified as UN GHS No Category for both STE and BCOP assays and non-irritating for HET-CAM test. LQFM048 showed non-potential skin sensitization with stimulation index (SI=0.7) in the LLNA:BrdU-ELISA method. Corroborating in vivo tests, it did not promote significant cytotoxicity in HaCaT cells and it showed similar levels of IL-18 when compared to control. Furthermore, LQFM048 induced non-phototoxic potential with photo-irritation factor (PIF) and mean photo effect (MPE) of 1 and -0.138, respectively, for 3T3 cells. Similarly, it was not phototoxic for in vivo testing with or without exposure to UVA, showing SI values of 1 and 1.2, respectively. The micronucleus test showed that LQFM048 was not genotoxic, under the conditions tested.In conclusion, LQFM048, a heterocyclic compound obtained through an environmentally acceptable simple synthetic route, seems to be safe for human use, especially for the development of a new sunscreen product, since it is neither an eye irritant, nor a contact allergen, nor mutagenic and nor

  1. Usability Evaluation of Clinical Guidelines on the Web Using Eye-Tracker.

    PubMed

    Khodambashi, Soudabeh; Gilstad, Heidi; Nytrø, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    Publishing clinical guidelines (GLs) on the web increases their accessibility. However, evaluating their usability and understanding how users interact with the websites has been neglected. In this study we used Tobii eye-tracker to analyse users' interaction with five commercial and public GL sites popular in Norway (four in Norwegian and one English of US origin (UpToDate)). We measured number of clicks and usage rate for search functions, task completion time, users' objective and perception of task success rate. We also measured learning effect for inexperienced users. We found a direct correlation between participant's satisfaction regarding website usability and the time spent, number of mouse clicks and use of search function to obtain the desired results. Our study showed that users' perceived success rate was not reliable and GL publishers should evaluate their website regarding presentation format, layout, navigation bar and search function.

  2. Evaluation of Topical Hesperetin Matrix film for Back-of-the-Eye Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Adelli, Goutham R.; Hingorani, Tushar; Punyamurthula, Nagendra; Balguri, Sai Prachetan; Majumdar, Soumyajit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The goal of the present study is to develop a poly (ethylene oxide) N10 (PEO N10) based melt-cast matrix system for efficient and prolonged delivery of hesperetin (HT), a promising bioflavonoid, to the posterior segment of the eye through the topical route. Methods HT film was prepared by melt-cast method using PEO N10 and cut into 4 mm × 2 mm segments, each weighing 8 mg. This film was evaluated with respect to in vitro release rates and also transmembrane delivery across Spectra/Por® membrane (MWCO: 10000 Daltons) and isolated rabbit corneas. Ocular tissue concentrations were also determined post application of the film in ex vivo and in vivo models. Results HT release from the film was determined to be about 95.3 % within 2 h. In vitro transcorneal flux was observed to be 0.58 ± 0.05 μg/min/cm2 across the isolated rabbit cornea. High levels of HT were detected in the retina-choroid (RC) and vitreous humor (VH) in the ex vivo model following topical application of the film. Significant levels of HT were observed in both anterior and posterior segment ocular tissues 1h post topical application of the 10 and 20 %w/w HT films on the rabbit eye. Moreover, HT was detected in the VH and RC even after 6h following topical application of the film in vivo. Conclusion The results from this study suggest that the melt-cast films can serve as a viable platform for sustained topical delivery of bioflavonoids, and other therapeutic agents, into the back-of-the eye tissues. PMID:25728824

  3. Comparative clinical evaluation of tacrolimus and cyclosporine eye drops for the treatment of canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    PubMed

    Radziejewski, Krzysztof; Balicki, Ireneusz

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tacrolimus eye drops in alleviating the clinical symptoms of canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) and to compare this efficacy with that of cyclosporine. The clinical study was conducted on 40 dogs diagnosed with idiopathic KCS. The dogs were divided into two groups of 20 animals each. In Group I, 0.75% cyclosporine eye drops were administered three times a day, while in Group II 0.02% tacrolimus eye drops were given twice daily. In addition, each group was subdivided into three subgroups based on the results of Schirmer tear test I (STT I). Clinical and ophthalmologic examinations were performed prior to the treatment as well as after one and two months of therapy. The application of both tacrolimus and cyclosporine resulted in a significant reduction of neovascularisation after the first and second month of treatment (P < 0.05, P < 0.001); however, in moderate and advanced stages, the observed efficacy of tacrolimus was higher. Across all patients, a significant increase in STT I values was observed after both the first and second month of treatment with tacrolimus (P < 0.01), as well as after two months of treatment with cyclosporine (P < 0.05). In both groups, some patients were observed to exhibit inhibited development of pigmentation, but an analysis of particular clinical cases and statistical data revealed no statistically significant discrepancies in the course of the study. In cases of advanced canine KCS, the efficacy of tacrolimus may be higher than that of cyclosporine.

  4. Evaluation of point-of-care test for elevated tear matrix metalloproteinase 9 in post-LASIK dry eyes.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tommy C Y; Ye, Cong; Chan, Kwok Ping; Chu, Kai On; Jhanji, Vishal

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the performance of a point-of-care test for detection of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) levels in post-laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) dry eyes. A comparative study between patients with mild to moderate post-LASIK dry eyes and age-matched normal subjects was conducted. Ocular surface disease index (OSDI), tear break-up time (TBUT), and tear film MMP-9 and total protein levels were compared between the two groups. A point-of-care test device (RPS InflammaDry, Sarasota, Florida, USA) was utilised to confirm elevated MMP-9 levels in tear film. Fourteen post-LASIK dry eyes and 34 normal eyes were included. There was no significant difference in age and gender between both groups (p>0.175). The OSDI was significantly higher (25.5±7.7 vs 7.4±2.5; p<0.001) and TBUT levels were significantly lower (5.4±0.9 vs 13.5±2.3; p<0.001) in patients with dry eye compared with normal subjects. The tear film MMP-9 levels were 52.7±32.5 ng/mL in dry eyes and 4.1±2.1 ng/mL in normal eyes (p<0.001). MMP-9 levels were >40 ng/mL in 7/14 (50.0%) post-LASIK dry eyes. The InflammaDry was positive in 8/14 (57.1%) post-LASIK eyes. All positive cases had tear film MMP-9 levels ≥38.03 ng/mL. Agreement between InflammaDry and MMP-9 was excellent with Cohen κ value of 0.857 in post-LASIK dry eyes. Only half of post-LASIK dry eyes were found to have significant inflammation associated with elevated MMP-9. The OSDI is useful to non-specifically identify patients with symptomatic dry eye while the InflammaDry determined which patients with dry eye were associated with significant inflammation that may guide therapeutic management decisions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. A 10-year prospective audit of LASIK outcomes for myopia in 37,932 eyes at a single institution in Asia.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Leonard H; Chan, Wing Kwong; Koh, Jane; Mehta, Jodhbir S; Tan, Donald T

    2010-06-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy, predictability and safety of LASIK surgery as a treatment for myopia performed as part of a large-scale, prospective clinical audit spanning 10 years in an Asian study population and to evaluate the outcomes and trends. Prospective, nonrandomized, single-center, multisurgeon study. We included 37,932 eyes of 19,753 patients that underwent myopic LASIK at the Singapore National Eye Centre between 1998 and 2007. All eyes underwent LASIK as a treatment for myopia. Pre- and postoperative refractions, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were documented. Safety, efficacy, refractive predictability, treatment trends, retreatment rates, and complications for mild, moderate, and high myopia according to spherical equivalence (SE) of less than -5.00 diopters (D), -5.00 D or more to less than -10.0 D, and -10.00 D or more, respectively. Patients' median age was 32 years (mean, 33.0+/-7.9 years); there were 6832 males (34.6%) and 12,921 females included. Patients were predominantly ethnic Chinese (90.5%). Mean follow-up time was 68.8 days. The mean spherical error corrected was -5.90+/-2.57 D (median, -5.625 D), and outcomes were categorized into low, moderate, or high myopia. The UCVA achieving > or =20/40 has been consistently above 90% since 2000, with 72.8% achieving > or =20/20. More than 93.0% of eyes achieved within +/-1.00 D target in the last 4 years. An improvement in safety was observed since the start of the study, with the best outcomes observed in 2007; loss of 1 and 2 Snellen line BCVA postoperatively was 2.4% and 0.1%, respectively. The overall retreatment rate was 3.8%; 91% of retreated eyes achieved UCVA of > or =20/30. Between 1998 and 2007, there was a significant improvement in postoperative UCVA and BCVA (P<0.001). Myopic LASIK performed in Asian eyes within a comprehensive LASIK clinical program with appropriate clinical audit governance can be safe and effective, with high

  6. Evaluating a Tablet Application and Differential Reinforcement to Increase Eye Contact in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Tricia; Crosland, Kimberly; Miltenberger, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    We tested the effectiveness of a tablet application and differential reinforcement to increase eye contact in 3 children with autism. The application required the child to look at a picture of a person's face and identify the number displayed in the person's eyes. Eye contact was assessed immediately after training, 1 hr after training, and in a…

  7. Evaluating a Tablet Application and Differential Reinforcement to Increase Eye Contact in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Tricia; Crosland, Kimberly; Miltenberger, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    We tested the effectiveness of a tablet application and differential reinforcement to increase eye contact in 3 children with autism. The application required the child to look at a picture of a person's face and identify the number displayed in the person's eyes. Eye contact was assessed immediately after training, 1 hr after training, and in a…

  8. [Evaluation of the arterial blood flow parameters in the eye of myopic patients].

    PubMed

    Mrugacz, Małgorzata; Bryl, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Myopia is a common refractive defect. Has a good vision from near and deterioration of vision with increasing distance. The main reason for its occurrence is too long axis of the eyeball. The consequence of elongation of the eyeball is the development of degenerative changes in the retina. Despite much research has failed to clearly identify the causes of degenerative changes in those short-sighted. The aim of the study was to evaluate the maximum and minimum speed in arterial blood vessels of the eye in people with myopia. The study included 70 patients (138 eyes), 53 women and 17 men, aged from 18 to 79 years, with myopia of -0.25 to -18.0 Dsph and length of the eyeball from 22.61 to 33.36 mm. Depending on the kind and the degree of the progress of degenerative changes, patients were divided in 4 groups: I - without degenerative changes on the fundus (n=32; K-23, M-9); II- with the short-sighted sickle (n=20; K-14, M-6); Ill - with the structure thinned down of the retina, accompanying the short-sighted sickle (n = 8; K-6, M-2); IV - with extensive choroidal-retina disappearances in the fundus (n = 10; K-7, M-3). In all individuals enrolled underwent Color Doppler ultrasound with apparatus SSA 770A Toshiba Aplio with linear probe frequency 12 MHz, judging maximum (Vmax) and minimum (Vmin) speed in the arteries of the eye: ophthalmic artery (OA), central retinal artery (CRA) and short posterior ciliary arteries (SPCA) located on the nasal and temporal side of the optic disc. The results were statistically analyzed. No statistically significant relationship between the nature of degenerative changes of the eye, and blood velocity in the OA. There was a increase in Vmax and Vmin blood in OA in Group IV, but these changes were not statistically significant. Statistically significant correlation was observed while in the CRA. With a decrease in Vmax and Vmin of blood flowing through a vessel exacerbation of retinal degeneration. Vmax and Vmin changes in the blood did

  9. Evaluation of helmet-mounted display targeting symbology based on eye tracking technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijing; Wen, Fuzhen; Ma, Caixin; Zhao, Shengchu; Liu, Xiaodong

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to find the Target Locator Lines (TLLs) which perform best by contrasting and comparing experiment based on three kinds of TTLs of fighter HMD. 10 university students, male, with an average age of 21-23, corrected visual acuity 1.5, participated in the experiment. In the experiment, head movement data was obtained by TrackIR. The geometric relationship between the coordinates of the real world and coordinates of the visual display was obtained by calculating the distance from viewpoint to midpoint of both eyes and the head movement data. Virtual helmet system simulation experiment environment was created by drawing TLLs of fighter HMD in the flight simulator visual scene. In the experiment, eye tracker was used to record the time and saccade trajectory. The results were evaluated by the duration of the time and saccade trajectory. The results showed that the symbol"locator line with digital vector length indication" cost most time and had the longest length of the saccade trajectory. It is the most ineffective and most unacceptable way. "Locator line with extending head vector length symbol" cost less time and had less length of the saccade trajectory. It is effective and acceptable;"Locator line with reflected vector length symbol" cost the least time and had the least length of the saccade trajectory. It is the most effective and most acceptable way. "Locator line with reflected vector length symbol" performs best. The results will provide reference value for the research of TTLs in future.

  10. An evaluation of interactive image matting techniques supported by eye tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhemann, Christoph; Gelautz, Margrit; Fölsner, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the quantitative evaluation of interactive single image matting techniques has become possible by the introduction of high-quality ground truth datasets. However, quantitative comparisons conducted in previous work are based on error metrics (e.g. sum of absolute differences) that are not necessarily correlated to the visual quality of the image as perceived by the user. This motivates research to better understand the perception of errors inherent to matting algorithms, in order to provide the ground for a future design of error metrics that better reflect the subjective impression of the human observer. In this work we gain novel insights into the perception of errors due to imperfect matting results. To investigate these errors, we compare two recent state-of-the-art matting algorithms in a user study. We use an eye-tracker to reveal details of the decision making of the users. The data acquired in the user study show a considerable correlation between expert knowledge in photography and the ability of the user to detect errors in the image. This is also reflected in the eye-tracking data which reveals different types of scanning paths dependent on the experience of the user.

  11. Three Cognitive Issues Related to Evaluation of Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhentian, Liu

    2009-01-01

    China's evaluation of undergraduate teaching work at institutions of higher education began in 1994 and has proceeded for thirteen years now. The evaluations have had a positive effect in such aspects as promoting teaching, reform, and administration and improving quality at institutions of higher education and have been widely acknowledged in…

  12. Development of an evaluation function for eye-hand coordination robotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Pernalete, N; Tang, F; Chang, S M; Cheng, F Y; Vetter, P; Stegemann, M; Grantner, J

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the continuation of a work presented at ICORR 07, in which we discussed the possibility of improving eye-hand coordination in children diagnosed with this problem, using a robotic mapping from a haptic user interface to a virtual environment. Our goal is to develop, implement and refine a system that will assess and improve the eye-hand coordination and grip strength in children diagnosed with poor graphomotor skills. A detailed analysis of patters (e.g., labyrinths, letters and angles) was conducted in order to select three very distinguishable levels of difficulty that could be included in the system, and which would yield the greatest benefit in terms of assessment of coordination and strength issues as well as in training. Support algorithms (position, force, velocity, inertia and viscosity) were also developed and incorporated into the tasks in order to introduce general computer assistance to the mapping of the user's movements to the computer screen without overriding the user's commands to the robotic device. In order to evaluate performance (given by %accuracy and time) of the executed tasks, a sophisticated evaluation function was designed based on image analysis and edge detection algorithms. This paper presents the development of the haptic tasks, the various assistance algorithms, the description of the evaluation function and the results of a study implemented at the Motor Development Clinic at Cal Poly Pomona. The results (Accuracy and Time) of this function are currently being used as inputs to an Intelligent Decision Support System (described in), which in turn, suggests the next task to be executed by the subject based on his/her performance. © 2011 IEEE

  13. Evaluation of patient visual comfort and repeatability of refractive values in non-presbyopic healthy eyes

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Francisco; Sanchez-Cano, Ana; Lopez de la Fuente, Carmen; Fuentes-Broto, Lorena; Pinilla, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the intra-operator repeatability in healthy subjects using the WAM-5500 auto-kerato/refractometer and the iTrace aberrometer, to compare the refractive values and the subjective refraction obtained with both devices and to determine which of these three spherocylindrical corrections allows the subject to achieve the best visual comfort. METHODS Forty-two non-presbyopic healthy eyes of 42 subjects were enrolled in this prospective study. Refractive values were compared, evaluating the repeatability, the relationship between the methods and the best visual comfort obtained. RESULTS Sphere, cylinder and axis results showed good intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC); the highest ICC was obtained using the spherical refraction with the autorefractometer and the aberrometer, achieving levels of 0.999 and 0.998, respectively. The power vector (PV) was calculated for each refraction method, and the results indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between them (P>0.05). Direct comparison of PV measurements using the three methods showed that aberrometer refraction gave the highest values, followed by the subjective values; the autorefractometer gave the lowest values. The subjective method correction was most frequently chosen as the first selection. Equal values were found for the autorefractometer and the aberrometer as the second selection. CONCLUSION The iTrace aberrometer and the WAM-5500 auto-kerato/refractometer showed high levels of repeatability in healthy eyes. Refractive corrections with the aberrometer, the autorefractometer and subjective methods presented similar results, but spherocylindrical subjective correction was the most frequently selected option. These technologies can be used as complements in refractive evaluation, but they should not replace subjective refraction. PMID:26558222

  14. Electroretinogram evaluation of equine eyes with extensive 'bullet-hole' fundic lesions.

    PubMed

    Allbaugh, Rachel A; Ben-Shlomo, Gil; Whitley, R David

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of extensive bullet-hole nontapetal fundic lesions in horses on retinal function as measured by full-field electroretinography (ERG). Full-field ERG was performed on two horses with numerous bullet-hole lesions in the nontapetal fundus of both eyes. The ERG was first recorded from the eye with the more extensive lesions in response to a low-intensity light stimulus (0.03 cd s/m(2) ) that was given at times (T) T = 5, 10, 15, 20 min of dark adaptation. Consecutively, combined rod-cone response was evaluated bilaterally in response to high-intensity light stimulus (3 cd s/m(2) ), followed by cone function evaluation by flicker stimulus (3 cd s/m(2) at 30 Hz). Off-line analysis of the ERG recordings was then performed. Despite extensive bullet-hole lesions in the nontapetal fundus bilaterally in both horses, retinal function as measured by ERG did not show any observable deficits. The b-wave amplitude of the full-field ERG increased continuously from 5 to 20 min of dark adaptation peaking at 446 μv and 377 μv for horse number 1 and 2, respectively. The b-wave amplitudes of the combined rod-cone response were OS- 459 μv and OD- 392 μv for horse number 1 and OS- 491 μv and OD- 608 μv for horse number 2. The amplitude of the flicker ERG for horse number 1 was OS- 86 μv and OD- 110 μv and for horse number 2, OS- 80 μv and OD- 74 μv. Extensive bullet-hole chorioretinal lesions do not appear to compromise outer retinal function in these horses. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  15. Evaluation of Adjunct Faculty in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langen, Jill M.

    2011-01-01

    The role that part-time faculty play in higher education is changing. No longer are part-time faculty used on an occasional basis at a few institutions. These individuals now play a critical part in the delivery of higher education to students. This study was developed to answer questions regarding how the performance of adjunct faculty is…

  16. Delivering Library Services at a Maximum Security Institution: Staff Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, Lorraine

    The survey summarized in this report was administered to 54 sample staff members--school teachers, vocational education and shop instructors, corrections officers, counselors, administrators and secretaries, and inmates who hold responsible jobs--at the Connecticut Correctional Institution-Cheshire, to determine the extent to which the staff has…

  17. Evaluation of Adjunct Faculty in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langen, Jill M.

    2011-01-01

    The role that part-time faculty play in higher education is changing. No longer are part-time faculty used on an occasional basis at a few institutions. These individuals now play a critical part in the delivery of higher education to students. This study was developed to answer questions regarding how the performance of adjunct faculty is…

  18. Assessing the Potential Use of Eye-Tracking Triangulation for Evaluating the Usability of an Online Diabetes Exercise System.

    PubMed

    Schaarup, Clara; Hartvigsen, Gunnar; Larsen, Lars Bo; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Årsand, Eirik; Hejlesen, Ole Kristian

    2015-01-01

    The Online Diabetes Exercise System was developed to motivate people with Type 2 diabetes to do a 25 minutes low-volume high-intensity interval training program. In a previous multi-method evaluation of the system, several usability issues were identified and corrected. Despite the thorough testing, it was unclear whether all usability problems had been identified using the multi-method evaluation. Our hypothesis was that adding the eye-tracking triangulation to the multi-method evaluation would increase the accuracy and completeness when testing the usability of the system. The study design was an Eye-tracking Triangulation; conventional eye-tracking with predefined tasks followed by The Post-Experience Eye-Tracked Protocol (PEEP). Six Areas of Interests were the basis for the PEEP-session. The eye-tracking triangulation gave objective and subjective results, which are believed to be highly relevant for designing, implementing, evaluating and optimizing systems in the field of health informatics. Future work should include testing the method on a larger and more representative group of users and apply the method on different system types.

  19. Retina Image Analysis and Ocular Telehealth: The Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Hamilton Eye Institute Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Karnowski, Thomas Paul; Giancardo, Luca; Li, Yaquin; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William; Chaum, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Automated retina image analysis has reached a high level of maturity in recent years, and thus the question of how validation is performed in these systems is beginning to grow in importance. One application of retina image analysis is in telemedicine, where an automated system could enable the automated detection of diabetic retinopathy and other eye diseases as a low-cost method for broad-based screening. In this work we discuss our experiences in developing a telemedical network for retina image analysis, including our progression from a manual diagnosis network to a more fully automated one. We pay special attention to how validations of our algorithm steps are performed, both using data from the telemedicine network and other public databases.

  20. Retina image analysis and ocular telehealth: the Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Hamilton Eye Institute case study.

    PubMed

    Karnowski, Thomas P; Giancardo, Luca; Li, Yaqin; Tobin, Kenneth W; Chaum, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Automated retina image analysis has reached a high level of maturity in recent years, and thus the question of how validation is performed in these systems is beginning to grow in importance. One application of retina image analysis is in telemedicine, where an automated system could enable the automated detection of diabetic retinopathy and other eye diseases as a low-cost method for broad-based screening. In this work, we discuss our experiences in developing a telemedical network for retina image analysis, including our progression from a manual diagnosis network to a more fully automated one. We pay special attention to how validations of our algorithm steps are performed, both using data from the telemedicine network and other public databases.

  1. Evaluation of eyes with relative pupillary block by indentation ultrasound biomicroscopy gonioscopy.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Koichi; Ito, Kunio; Esaki, Koji; Sugimoto, Kota; Sano, Toru; Miura, Katsuya; Sasoh, Mikio; Uji, Yukitaka

    2004-03-01

    To investigate changes in anterior chamber angle configuration with indentation ultrasound biomicroscopy gonioscopy of relative pupillary block (RPB). Cross-sectional study. This study included 26 eyes of 26 patients with RPB. We determined angle opening distance 500 and angle recess area using indentation ultrasound biomicroscopy gonioscopy and compared a small-sized standard eye cup with a new eye cup with an area for inducing pressure. Indentation ultrasound biomicroscopy images documented concavity of the iris in eyes with RPB. Both the new and the small standard eye cups widened the anterior chamber angle significantly (P <.0001) without causing corneal damage. Angle changes were significantly greater for the new eye cup design. Indentation ultrasound biomicroscopy gonioscopy is a useful technique for observation and diagnosis of RPB. Using a small standard or the newly designed eye cup, the procedure can be performed easily and without causing corneal damage.

  2. Comparative evaluation of outcomes of phacoemulsification in vitrectomized eyes: silicone oil versus air/gas group.

    PubMed

    Titiyal, Jeewan S; Agarwal, Esha; Angmo, Dewang; Sharma, Namrata; Kumar, Atul

    2016-08-02

    The purpose of this study is to comparatively evaluate the morphology of cataract, intraoperative and postoperative complications (IPC), and surgical outcomes of phacoemulsification in post 23G vitrectomized eyes in silicone oil versus air/gas group. This prospective interventional clinical study took place in the Dr. RP Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, AIIMS, New Delhi, India. Eighty-nine eyes of 89 consecutive vitrectomized patients with cataract were included. All underwent phacoemulsification and evaluated for cataract morphology, surgical difficulties, IPC, visual acuity, and specular count. Mean age of patients was 50.24 ± 15.19 years. There were 65 males and 24 females and 48 eyes in silicone oil group and 41 in air/gas group. Combination type was the commonest morphology seen in both silicone oil (52.08 %) and air/gas group (70.33 %) followed by posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC) in 31.25 % silicone group and 12.2 % air/gas group. Posterior capsular plaque (PCP) was seen in 41.67 % of silicone oil versus 7.32 % air/gas group; p < 0.005. Pupillary abnormalities were significantly more in oil (31.25 %) than in air/gas group (9.76 %); p = 0.014. Mean duration between vitrectomy and phacoemulsification in oil group versus air/gas group was 8.39 ± 4.7 months and 10.9 ± 5.22 months, respectively; p < 0.005. Mean postoperative logMAR visual acuity was better in air/gas (0.43 ± 0.25) than in oil (0.66 ± 0.29) group, p < 0.005. There was no significant difference in mean endothelial cell loss postoperatively in either groups (p = 0.25). Morphology of cataract differs in the two groups with PSC being more common in oil group. The mean time of cataract onset was significantly less in patients with oil group, and poor visual outcome in oil group may be attributable to the increased PCP noted.

  3. [Development of human visual cognitive function in childhood: evaluation by exploratory eye movements to a picture of a smiling face].

    PubMed

    Egami, Chiyomi; Morita, Kiichiro; Ishii, Youhei; Yamashita, Yushiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the development of human visual cognitive function in childhood, we examined exploratory eye movements in 78 healthy subjects using affective pictures. We divided them into six groups, each of which comprised 14 subjects (7 boys or men, 7 girls or women) at the indicated ages. Exploratory eye movements were recorded via gazing points using an eye-mark recorder. The total eye scanning length (TESL) of gaze points increased significantly with age, and the mean eye scanning length, in 4-6-year-olds was significantly shorter than in the others groups. The total number of gaze points (TNGP) on the left half of the screen increased significantly with age. The left TNGP in 4-6-year-olds was significantly smaller than in the other groups. The response search score (RSS) measured in 8 areas of the screen increased significantly with age. It was concluded that exploratory eye movements are useful markers to estimate the development of human visual cognitive function in childhood.

  4. Clinical evaluation of pranoprofen combined with fluorometholone eye drops on postoperative reaction of corneal cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xu; Fan, Zheng Jun; Peng, Xiu Jun; Jia, Hong Zhen; Wu, Teng Fei

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pranoprofen eye drops for reducing postoperative ocular pain and inflammation after corneal cross-linking (CXL). Twenty-seven patients (38 eyes) with keratoconus undergoing CXL were examined and randomly divided into control (12 cases; 18 eyes) and experimental groups (15 cases; 20 eyes). The patients in the control group were given fluorometholone eye drops, and those in the experimental group were administered with fluorometholone combined with pranoprofen eye drops.Corneal irritation and haze were compared between the two groups at 1 month postoperatively. At 1 to 3 days after surgery, the corneal irritation in the experimental group was significantly reduced compared with that in the control group (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference on 5 to 7 days postoperatively (P>0.05).The average degree of haze in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group 1 month after surgery (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in the best-corrected vision acuity and intraocular pressure between the two groups. There were 2 cases with P<20 mmHg intraocular pressure in the control group. The combined use of fluorometholone and pranoprofen can significantly reduce inflammatory response, alleviate corneal irritation at early stage after CXL, effectively prevent and control the average of haze, and reduce the incidence of steroid-induced ocular hypertension after surgery.

  5. Against the Rules: Procedural Problems in Institutional Self-Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Helen

    This paper addresses the problem of how to introduce new forms of evaluation into school organization without a damaging loss of trust. The evaluators here are teachers engaged in curriculum policy evaluation within the schools in which they work. One way of conceptualizing and rooting contemporary activity under the label of school…

  6. Patterns of uveitis in children at the apex institute for eye care in India: analysis and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Takkar, Brijesh; Venkatesh, Pradeep; Gaur, Nripen; Garg, Sat Pal; Vohra, Rajpal; Ghose, Supriyo

    2017-08-31

    To study patterns of uveitis in Indian children and compare with data sets published earlier in the literature. Consecutive patients below 16 years of age presenting to the uvea clinic of a tertiary eye care center were included prospectively through the period of July 2009-August 2013. Children with retinal vasculitis, exogenous endophthalmitis and masquerade syndromes were excluded from analysis. Uveitis was classified as per the nomenclature system adopted by the International Uveitis Study Group. Hemogram, Mantoux test and chest X-ray were done for each patient, along with tailored investigations and pediatric review as per clinical profile. Clinical pattern and etiology were the main outcome measures. One hundred and thirty-four children were analyzed. Anterior uveitis (40%) was the commonest pattern followed by intermediate uveitis (25%), panuveitis (18%) and posterior uveitis (17%). Bilateral disease was present in 54%, 15% had infectious uveitis, 10% had granulomatous uveitis and 54% had idiopathic uveitis. Complications were present in half of the patients. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (22), followed by toxoplasmosis (10) and tuberculosis (5), was the commonest etiology. Intermediate uveitis, non-granulomatous inflammation and older onset of disease had the high odds ratio of having idiopathic disease. Patterns of pediatric uveitis can vary between regions from even within the same geopolitical region. Anterior uveitis is commonest, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis and toxoplasmosis are the most frequent etiologies. Diagnosis of pediatric ocular tuberculosis is more difficult than in adults and needs better and well-defined criteria.

  7. Choroidal thickness profiles in myopic eyes of young adults in the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial cohort

    PubMed Central

    Harb, Elise; Hyman, Leslie; Gwiazda, Jane; Marsh-Tootle, Wendy; Zhang, Qinghua; Hou, Wei; Norton, Thomas T; Weise, Katherine; Dirkes, Keri; Zangwill, Linda M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship of choroidal thickness with axial length (AL) and myopia in young adult eyes in the ethnically diverse Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET) cohort. Design Cross-sectional, multi-center, study Methods In addition to measures of myopia by cycloplegic autorefraction and AL by A-scan ultrasonography, participants underwent optical coherence tomography imaging of the choroid (RTVue) in both eyes at their last visit (14 years after baseline). Using digital calipers, two independent readers measured choroidal thickness in the right eye (left eye if poor quality; n=37) at seven locations: fovea and 750, 1500, 2250μm nasal (N) and temporal (T) to the fovea. Results Choroidal thickness measurements were available from 294/346 (85%) of imaged participants (mean age: 24.3±1.4 years; 44.9% male) with mean myopia of -5.3±2.0D and mean AL of 25.5±1.0mm. Overall, choroidal thickness varied by location (p<0.0001) and was thickest at the fovea (273.8±70.9 μm) and thinnest nasally (N2250,191.5±69.3 μm). Multivariable analyses showed significantly thinner choroids in eyes with more myopia and longer AL at all locations except T2250 (p≤0.001) and presence of peri-papillary crescent at all locations except T1500 and T2250 (p≤0.0001). Choroidal thickness varied by ethnicity at N2250 (p<0.0001), with Asians having the thinnest and African Americans the thickest choroids. Conclusion Choroids are thinner in longer, more myopic young adult eyes. The thinning was most prominent nasally and in eyes with a crescent. In the furthest nasal location, ethnicity was associated with choroidal thickness. The findings suggest that choroidal thickness should be evaluated, especially in the nasal regions where myopic degenerations are most commonly seen clinically. PMID:25896460

  8. Choroidal Thickness Profiles in Myopic Eyes of Young Adults in the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial Cohort.

    PubMed

    Harb, Elise; Hyman, Leslie; Gwiazda, Jane; Marsh-Tootle, Wendy; Zhang, Qinghua; Hou, Wei; Norton, Thomas T; Weise, Katherine; Dirkes, Keri; Zangwill, Linda M

    2015-07-01

    To examine the relationship of choroidal thickness with axial length (AL) and myopia in young adult eyes in the ethnically diverse Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET) cohort. Cross-sectional, multicenter study. In addition to measures of myopia by cycloplegic autorefraction and AL by A-scan ultrasonography, participants underwent optical coherence tomography imaging of the choroid in both eyes at their last visit (14 years after baseline). Using digital calipers, 2 independent readers measured choroidal thickness in the right eye (left eye if poor quality; n = 37) at 7 locations: fovea and 750, 1500, and 2250 μm nasal (N) and temporal (T) to the fovea. Choroidal thickness measurements were available from 294 of 346 (85%) imaged participants (mean age: 24.3 ± 1.4 years; 44.9% male) with mean myopia of -5.3 ± 2.0 diopters and mean AL of 25.5 ± 1.0 mm. Overall, choroidal thickness varied by location (P < .0001) and was thickest at the fovea (273.8 ± 70.9 μm) and thinnest nasally (N2250, 191.5 ± 69.3 μm). Multivariable analyses showed significantly thinner choroids in eyes with more myopia and longer AL at all locations except T2250 (P ≤ .001) and presence of peripapillary crescent at all locations except T1500 and T2250 (P ≤ .0001). Choroidal thickness varied by ethnicity at N2250 (P < .0001), with Asians having the thinnest and African Americans the thickest choroids. Choroids are thinner in longer, more myopic young adult eyes. The thinning was most prominent nasally and in eyes with a crescent. In the furthest nasal location, ethnicity was associated with choroidal thickness. The findings suggest that choroidal thickness should be evaluated, especially in the nasal regions where myopic degenerations are most commonly seen clinically. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [IMSS in numbers. Evaluation of the performance of health institutions in Mexico, 2004].

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    The evaluation of health institutions performance in Mexico during 2004 was done using 29 indicators that describe intra-hospital mortality rates, productivity of health services, availability of health resources, quality of care, security, investment and costs of health care and the satisfaction level by users of health services. This exercise describes the efficiency and organization of health services provided by the different health institutions and allows comparing and balancing the performance of each institution. Results indicate the differences in availability of resources, inequity in the financing health care services, and inefficiency in the use of resources but also describe the level of efficacy of certain institutions and the satisfaction level that different users have of health services. The evaluation of the performance of the entire health institutions should provide the means to improve all the process of health care and to increase the quality of care in all health institutions in the country.

  10. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer > Eye Cancer > Eye Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Eye Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... trained to treat intraocular cancer. Parts of the eye The eye is the organ that collects light ...

  11. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Your eyes can get infections from bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Eye infections can occur in different parts of the eye and can affect just one eye or both. Two common eye infections are Conjunctivitis - also known as pinkeye. Conjunctivitis is ...

  12. Evaluation Concepts and Practice in Selected Distance Education Institutions. ZIFF-Papiere 108.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathore, Harish, Ed.; Schuemer, Rudolf, Ed.

    This document contains five papers examining evaluation concepts and practice in selected distance education (DE) institutions. "Preface" (Harish Rathore, Rudolf Schuemer) defines evaluation in DE and provides an overview of the evaluation philosophies, agendas, and methodologies discussed in the five papers. "Evaluation Practices at the Indira…

  13. Evaluating a tablet application and differential reinforcement to increase eye contact in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Tricia; Crosland, Kimberly; Miltenberger, Raymond

    2016-03-01

    We tested the effectiveness of a tablet application and differential reinforcement to increase eye contact in 3 children with autism. The application required the child to look at a picture of a person's face and identify the number displayed in the person's eyes. Eye contact was assessed immediately after training, 1 hr after training, and in a playroom. The tablet application was not effective; however, differential reinforcement was effective for all participants.

  14. Diquafosol sodium ophthalmic solution for the treatment of dry eye: clinical evaluation and biochemical analysis of tear composition.

    PubMed

    Shigeyasu, Chika; Yamada, Masakazu; Akune, Yoko; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of 3% diquafosol sodium ophthalmic solution for dry eye, and to analyze the concentration of tear proteins and mucin-like substances after the treatment. Fifty eyes of 25 patients with dry eye syndrome were prospectively enrolled. The patients were treated with diquafosol solution at a dose of 1 drop in each eye 6 times daily for 4 weeks. The parameters of clinical efficacy were tear osmolarity, tear breakup time (BUT), fluorescein staining scores for the cornea and conjunctiva, Schirmer test values, and subjective symptoms evaluated using the ocular surface disease index (OSDI). Tears collected with Schirmer test strips were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the concentrations of the total protein and the 4 major tear proteins, namely, secretory IgA, lactoferrin, lipocalin-1, lysozyme, and N-acetyl-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), were measured. Neu5Ac is a major sialic acid, a marker of secretory mucins. The BUT, keratoconjunctival staining scores, and Schirmer test values were improved with statistical significance after the treatment with diquafosol solution, while changes in the other parameters, including tear osmolarity, corneal staining scores, and OSDI scores were not significant. The Neu5Ac concentration was significantly increased, which was not accompanied by changes in tear proteins. Topical application of diquafosol significantly improved the clinical parameters of the BUT, keratoconjunctival staining scores, and Schirmer test values and was accompanied by increased sialic acid content in the tears of patients with dry eye.

  15. Evaluation of Eye Protection Filters Used with Broad-Spectrum and Conventional LED Curing Lights.

    PubMed

    Soares, Carlos José; Rodrigues, Monise de Paula; Vilela, Andomar Bruno Fernandes; Rizo, Erick René Cerda; Ferreira, Lorraine Braga; Giannini, Marcelo; Price, Richard Bengt

    2017-01-01

    The high irradiance and the different emission spectra from contemporary light curing units (LCU) may cause ocular damage. This study evaluated the ability of 15 eye protection filters: 2 glasses, 1 paddle design, and 12 dedicated filters to block out harmful light from a monowave (HP-3M ESPE) and a broad-spectrum (Valo, Ultradent) LED LCU. Using the anterior sensor in the MARC-Patient Simulator (BlueLight Analytics) the irradiance that was delivered through different eye protection filters was measured three times. The LCUs delivered a similar irradiance to the top of the filter. The mean values of the light that passed through the filters as percent of the original irradiance were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test (a= 0.05). The emission spectra from the LCUs and through the filters were also obtained. Two-way ANOVA showed that the interaction between protective filters and LCUs significantly influenced the amount of light transmitted (p< 0.001). Tukey test showed that the amount of light transmitted through the protective filters when using the HP-3M-ESPE was significantly greater compared to when using the Valo, irrespective of the protective filter tested. When using the HP-3M-ESPE, the Glasses filter allowed significantly more light through, followed by XL 3000, ORTUS, Google Professional, Gnatus filters. The Valo filter was the most effective at blocking out the harmful light. Some protective filters were less effective at blocking the lower wavelengths of light (<420 nm). However, even in the worst scenario, the filters were able to block at least 97% of the irradiance.

  16. [Evaluation of astigmatism and blood-aqueous barrier breakdown following procedures in the anterior eye segment].

    PubMed

    Zarnowski, T; Chmiel, M; Haszcz, D; Zagórski, Z

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the disruption of the blood-aqueous barrier (BAB) and the induced astigmatism following phacoemulsification, trabeculectomy and phacotrabeculectomy. 141 eyes of patients who underwent different surgical procedures of the anterior segment were examined with the use of computer-assisted videokeratography. All maps were recorded preoperatively, and one and five days after surgery. We also applied a laser flare-meter in 41 eyes in order to quantify aqueous flare following these procedures. The mean surgically-induced astigmatism following conventional trabeculectomy was 2.1 D and 1.4 D one and five days postoperatively, phacoemulsification with sutures 2.7 D and 1.9 D and phacotrabeculectomy 3.0 D and 2.4 D, respectively. Lower values of astigmatism obtained after sutureless phacoemulsification were 0.6 D and 0.3 D one and five days postoperatively, respectively (p < 0.05 vs Phaco+IOL+Trab. group, p < 0.01 vs other groups). It was found that aqueous flare values following phacotrabeculectomy were 58.0 photon counts/milisec.--one day, 39.3--3 days, 24.4--7 days, 20.4--10 days postoperatively. Significantly reduced values were observed after phacoemulsification--27.6 one day after surgery and 17.6--3 days later (p < 0.01 vs Phaco+IOL+Trab.group). It could be concluded that induced astigmatism and the amount of inflammation were the highest after triple procedure and the lowest after phacoemulsification.

  17. A general numerical method evaluating three-dimensional eye rotations by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

    PubMed

    Ott, D; Lades, M; Holthoff, K; Eckmiller, R

    1990-07-01

    A general computational method is described to specify completely the rotational state of the eye in three dimensions by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO). The method uses the simplex algorithm to fit the eye's rotational parameters to data given by n individually selected ocular fundus landmarks before and after the eye rotation. The rotational parameters are expressed as the rotation vector and three spherical Euler angles. The method, which was implemented in the C programming language, can be applied for various eye movement measurements in clinical and laboratory environments, including SLO.

  18. Peer Reviewers' Dilemmas: Values Antinomies when Evaluating Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patry, Jean-Luc; Gastager, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Whenever evaluations are done, there are antinomies of interests both within and between stakeholders. To account for such antinomies, taxonomy has been developed which will be presented and discussed using the peer review processes in university evaluations as example. The taxonomy contains four dimensions: a) seven values domains are…

  19. Dispositional Statements on Student Teacher Evaluation Instruments: Commonalities across Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Alice; Wilkins, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate summative student teacher evaluation instruments to determine the most common dispositions evaluated by teacher preparatory programs. Thirty-two (32) final student teaching instruments were purposely selected from across the United States and examined. Thirteen disposition categories emerged from the…

  20. Eye Movement Dysfunction in First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analytic Evaluation of Candidate Endophenotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Monica E.; Iacono, William G.; Ones, Deniz S.

    2008-01-01

    Several forms of eye movement dysfunction (EMD) are regarded as promising candidate endophenotypes of schizophrenia. Discrepancies in individual study results have led to inconsistent conclusions regarding particular aspects of EMD in relatives of schizophrenia patients. To quantitatively evaluate and compare the candidacy of smooth pursuit,…

  1. Some reflections on evaluating institutional review board effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2015-11-01

    Most commentators agree that it is important to conduct empirical research on the effectiveness of institutional review board (IRB) review and oversight but the studies that have been published so far do not directly address this question because they do not attempt to measure the impact of the IRB on the welfare or rights of human subjects. Additional studies on IRB composition, staffing, review times, consistency, and so forth will not yield that evidence that is needed to measure IRB effectiveness if they do not also collect data on the welfare and rights of human research subjects. Researchers should consider developing studies, such as randomized, controlled trials, or prospective, cohort designs, which directly measure IRB effectiveness. Such studies could yield information that will be invaluable in improving IRB review and oversight and protecting human research subjects. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. PRAMS: a systematic method for evaluating penal institutions under litigation.

    PubMed

    Wills, Cheryl D

    2007-01-01

    Forensic psychiatrists serve as expert witnesses in litigation involving the impact of conditions of confinement, including mental health care delivery, on the emotional well-being of institutionalized persons. Experts review volumes of data before formulating opinions and preparing reports. The author has developed PRAMS, a method for systematically reviewing and presenting data during mental health litigation involving detention and corrections facilities. The PRAMS method divides the examination process into five stages: paper review, real-world view, aggravating circumstances, mitigating circumstances, and supplemental information. PRAMS provides the scaffolding on which a compelling picture of an institution's system of care may be constructed and disseminated in reports and during courtroom testimony. Also, PRAMS enhances the organization, analysis, publication, and presentation of salient findings, thereby coordinating the forensic psychiatrist's efforts to provide expert opinions regarding complex systems of mental health care.

  3. Formative Evaluation of the Intel[R] Innovation in Education Institutes. Summary Report. CCT Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Julie Thompson; Keisch, Deborah; Culp, Katie McMillan

    2004-01-01

    During the summer and fall of 2003, Education Development Center's Center for Children and Technology (CCT) undertook a formative evaluation of the Intel Innovation in Education institutes. The institutes are one- to two-and-a-half day district-level trainings intended to introduce professional development providers to the online resources and…

  4. Organizational Effectiveness Evaluation for Higher Education Institutions, Ministry of Tourism and Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraipetch, Chanita; Kanjanawasee, Sirichai; Prachyapruit, Apipa

    2013-01-01

    The present research was aimed to: 1) develop the components and indicators of organizational effectiveness for public higher education institutions under the Ministry of Tourism and Sports, Thailand, and 2) develop organizational effectiveness evaluation system for these institutions. The sample included total 41 participants comprising…

  5. Tracking Our Success: How TAFE Institutes Evaluate Their Effectiveness and Efficiency. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misko, Josie; Halliday-Wynes, Sian

    2009-01-01

    The key drivers of technical and further education (TAFE) institutes' systems for monitoring and evaluating effectiveness and efficiency are accountability for government funding, compliance with legislation and quality assurance requirements. The need to supplement government funding with commercial income requires institutes to understand the…

  6. A Methodology for Sustainability Evaluation and Reporting in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madeira, Ana C.; Carravilla, Maria Antonia; Oliveira, Jose F.; Costa, Carlos A. V.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology that allows higher education institutions (HEIs) to promote, to evaluate and to report on sustainability. The ultimate goal of the afore-mentioned methodology is to help HEIs achieve sustainability. First, a model entitled Sustainability in Higher Education Institutions (SusHEI) that generally…

  7. A System Evaluation Theory Analyzing Value and Results Chain for Institutional Accreditation in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquibut, Rene Ymbong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to apply the system evaluation theory (SET) to analyze the institutional quality standards of Oman Academic Accreditation Authority using the results chain and value chain tools. Design/methodology/approach: In systems thinking, the institutional standards are connected as input, process, output and feedback and leads to…

  8. 76 FR 13097 - Institute of Museum and Library Services; Evaluation by Grantees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES 45 CFR Part 1180 Institute of Museum and Library Services; Evaluation by Grantees AGENCY: Institute of Museum and Library Services, National Foundation On the Arts and Humanities....

  9. A Methodology for Sustainability Evaluation and Reporting in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madeira, Ana C.; Carravilla, Maria Antonia; Oliveira, Jose F.; Costa, Carlos A. V.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology that allows higher education institutions (HEIs) to promote, to evaluate and to report on sustainability. The ultimate goal of the afore-mentioned methodology is to help HEIs achieve sustainability. First, a model entitled Sustainability in Higher Education Institutions (SusHEI) that generally…

  10. Performance Evaluation of Indian Technical Institutions Using PROMETHEE-GAIA Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Chakraborty, Shankar

    2015-01-01

    It has now become an important issue to evaluate the performance of technical institutions to develop better research and enrich the existing teaching processes. The results of such performance appraisal would serve as a reference point for decisions to choose a particular institution, hire manpower, and provide financial support for the…

  11. L'evaluation des politiques institutionnelles d'evaluation des apprentissages. Rapport synthese (The Evaluation of Institutional Policies of Evaluation of Learning. Synthesis Report). 2410-0520.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindfelt, Bengt, Ed.

    In accordance with provincial educational regulations, Quebec's community colleges have adopted "politiques institutionnelles d'evaluation des apprentissages" (PIEA), or institutional policies of the evaluation of learning. This report provides a synthesis of evaluations of the PIEA conducted by the province's Commission on the…

  12. Eye muscle test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the extraocular muscles which results in uncontrolled eye movements. The test involves moving the eyes in six different directions in space to evaluate the proper functioning of the extraocular ...

  13. Description and Evaluation of the First National Patient and Public Involvement Day for Thyroid Eye Disease in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Porteous, Carol; Bunce, Catey; Bonstein, Karen; Hickey, Janis; Dayan, Colin M.; Adams, Gill; Rose, Geoff E.; Ezra, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To ensure appropriate patient-focused outcomes, the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) in the United Kingdom has made consultation with patients, caregivers, and the public a prerequisite to providing research funding. One method of encouraging engagement with research is through patient and public involvement (PPI) events. We describe the planning and implementation of a PPI day for thyroid eye disease (TED) and evaluate our own event using feedback from delegates. Methods: The Moorfields NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, in partnership with TED charities, arranged the first national PPI day for TED in the United Kingdom. The event included didactic lectures; pre-event and postevent questionnaires; an exhibition with stalls, posters, and an interactive voting wall to determine research priorities; focus group sessions to explore patient experiences and perceptions of research; and one-on-one interviews recording individual patient stories. Results: Of 100 attendees, 70 completed questionnaires. When asked whether the day had provided what they wanted, 48 of 52 (92%) said yes; 3 of 52 (6%) said no. Overall 6 of 52 (12%) rated the event as good; 28 of 52 (54%), very good; and 18 of 52 (34%), excellent. Thirty-six patients registered to participate in further research, identifying “finding the cause for TED,” “improving psychological support,” and “achieving a better cosmetic outcome” as key priorities. A poor understanding of TED among medical professionals was a common complaint. Conclusions: The event received positive feedback and achieved its key objective of engaging patients, researchers, and clinicians in a two-way discussion about research priorities and improved study design. An invaluable insight was gained into patients' needs for a better quality of life, and we have demonstrated that important data can be captured from such events, providing an evidential basis consistent with the NIHR principles of patient

  14. Renal function evaluation in an adult female with cat-eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bellinghieri, G; Triolo, O; Stella, N C; Gemelli, M; Musolino, R; Monardo, P; Savica, V

    1994-01-01

    Cat-eye syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly involving the kidney. It is rarely reported in literature, while renal function has never been studied up to now. Shown here are the morphofunctional renal alterations observed in a female patient affected by cat-eye syndrome.

  15. A new experimental device to evaluate eye ulcers using a multispectral electrical impedance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellotti, Mariela I.; Bast, Walter; Berra, Alejandro; Bonetto, Fabián J.

    2011-07-01

    We present a novel experimental technique to determine eye ulcers in animals using a spectral electrical impedance technique. We expect that this technique will be useful in dry eye syndrome. We used a sensor that is basically a platinum (Pt) microelectrode electrically insulated by glass from a cylindrical stainless steel counter-electrode. This sensor was applied to the naked eye of New Zealand rabbits (2.0-3.5 kg in weight). Whereas half of the eyes were normal (control), we applied to the remainder a few drops of 20% (v/v) alcohol to produce an ulcer in the eye. Using a multispectral electrical impedance system we measured ulcerated and control eyes and observed significant difference between normal and pathological samples. We also investigated the effects of different applied pressures and natural degradation of initially normal eyes as a function of time. We believe that this technique could be sufficiently sensitive and repetitive to help diagnose ocular surface diseases such as dry eye syndrome.

  16. Genotoxicity, acute oral and dermal toxicity, eye and dermal irritation and corrosion and skin sensitisation evaluation of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Sik; Song, Kyung Seuk; Sung, Jae Hyuck; Ryu, Hyun Ryol; Choi, Byung Gil; Cho, Hyun Sun; Lee, Jin Kyu; Yu, Il Je

    2013-08-01

    To clarify the health risks related to silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), we evaluated the genotoxicity, acute oral and dermal toxicity, eye irritation, dermal irritation and corrosion and skin sensitisation of commercially manufactured Ag-NPs according to the OECD test guidelines and GLP. The Ag-NPs were not found to induce genotoxicity in a bacterial reverse mutation test and chromosomal aberration test, although some cytotoxicity was observed. In acute oral and dermal toxicity tests using rats, none of the rats showed any abnormal signs or mortality at a dose level of ∼ 2000 mg/kg. Similarly, acute eye and dermal irritation and corrosion tests using rabbits revealed no significant clinical signs or mortality and no acute irritation or corrosion reaction for the eyes and skin. In a skin sensitisation test using guinea pigs, one animal (1/20) showed discrete or patchy erythema, thus Ag-NPs can be classified as a weak skin sensitiser.

  17. Evaluation of eye irritation by S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester secreted by Beauveria bassiana CS1029.

    PubMed

    Son, Hyeong-U; Lee, Sang-Han

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester produced by cell subtype Beauveria bassiana CS1029 causes acute toxicity when used for cosmetic purposes by performing an eye irritation test. New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were treated with a 100 mg/dose of S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester according to standard procedure guidelines. No significant changes in terms of ocular lesions of the cornea, turbidity of the cornea, swelling of the eyelid or ocular discharge were observed in the methyl ester-treated groups, while sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate, a positive control, caused severe toxicity. The anatomical and pathological observations indicate that the methyl ester produced by Beauveria bassiana CS1029 did not induce eye irritation in the lenses of the rabbits. The data suggest that the methyl ester evaluated in this study has promising potential as a cosmetic ingredient that does not irritate the eye.

  18. Evaluation of eye irritation by S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester secreted by Beauveria bassiana CS1029

    PubMed Central

    SON, HYEONG-U; LEE, SANG-HAN

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester produced by cell subtype Beauveria bassiana CS1029 causes acute toxicity when used for cosmetic purposes by performing an eye irritation test. New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were treated with a 100 mg/dose of S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester according to standard procedure guidelines. No significant changes in terms of ocular lesions of the cornea, turbidity of the cornea, swelling of the eyelid or ocular discharge were observed in the methyl ester-treated groups, while sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate, a positive control, caused severe toxicity. The anatomical and pathological observations indicate that the methyl ester produced by Beauveria bassiana CS1029 did not induce eye irritation in the lenses of the rabbits. The data suggest that the methyl ester evaluated in this study has promising potential as a cosmetic ingredient that does not irritate the eye. PMID:24137288

  19. One algorithm to rule them all? An evaluation and discussion of ten eye movement event-detection algorithms.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Richard; Larsson, Linnea; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Stridh, Martin; Nyström, Marcus

    2017-04-01

    Almost all eye-movement researchers use algorithms to parse raw data and detect distinct types of eye movement events, such as fixations, saccades, and pursuit, and then base their results on these. Surprisingly, these algorithms are rarely evaluated. We evaluated the classifications of ten eye-movement event detection algorithms, on data from an SMI HiSpeed 1250 system, and compared them to manual ratings of two human experts. The evaluation focused on fixations, saccades, and post-saccadic oscillations. The evaluation used both event duration parameters, and sample-by-sample comparisons to rank the algorithms. The resulting event durations varied substantially as a function of what algorithm was used. This evaluation differed from previous evaluations by considering a relatively large set of algorithms, multiple events, and data from both static and dynamic stimuli. The main conclusion is that current detectors of only fixations and saccades work reasonably well for static stimuli, but barely better than chance for dynamic stimuli. Differing results across evaluation methods make it difficult to select one winner for fixation detection. For saccade detection, however, the algorithm by Larsson, Nyström and Stridh (IEEE Transaction on Biomedical Engineering, 60(9):2484-2493,2013) outperforms all algorithms in data from both static and dynamic stimuli. The data also show how improperly selected algorithms applied to dynamic data misestimate fixation and saccade properties.

  20. 78 FR 13097 - Electric Power Research Institute; Seismic Evaluation Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... Resolution of Fukushima Near-Term Task Force Recommendation 2.1: Seismic,'' Revision 0, hereafter referred to... Insights from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident,'' dated March 12, 2012. The NRC issued the RFI following the NRC staff's evaluation of the earthquake and tsunami, and resulting nuclear accident, at the...

  1. Wartime open globe eye injuries.

    PubMed

    Plestina-Borjan, Ivna; Medvidovic-Grubisic, Maria; Zuljan, Igor; Lakos, Venera; Miljak, Snjezana; Markovic, Irena; Ivanisevic, Milan

    2010-03-01

    Open globe injuries are the most serious eye injuries in war as in peace time. The purpose of this study is to analyze wartime open globe eye injuries in 72 patients treated at the Department of Ophthalmology, Clinical Hospital of Split from July 1991 to April 1993, during the intensive war in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and to evaluate crucial factors responsible for the functional success of the treatment. Wartime open globe eye injuries were retrospectively analyzed in 72 patients (80 eyes) hospitalized at Clinical Hospital of Split, Department of Ophthalmology, between July 1991 and April 1993. The causes and ways of wounding, localization of wounds and presence, nature and localization of the foreign body, as well as admission time, microsurgical management and other factors contributing to poor visual outcome were studied. Standard international classification of ocular traumas (the Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology and the International Ocular Trauma Classification) was used for the classified and graded injuries. Open globe eye injuries amounted to 52.65% of all war injuries to the eyes. Bilateral injuries were found in eight patients (11.11%). The most frequent cause of the injures were fragments of explosive devices (more than two-thirds). Most of the patients were admitted to the hospital within 24 hours of the injury. Using current microsurgical techniques, the attempt was made to achieve not only anatomical but also functional recovery already in the primary treatment. In 30 eyes (37.50%) final visual acuity amounted to more than 0.1, and in 22 eyes (27.50%) it reached 0.5. There was a statistically significant correlation between admission within the first 12 hours and postoperative improved visual acuity (chi(2) = 4.53; p = 0.033). Statistically significantly better visual acuity was found in patients with lesions limited to the anterior segment of the eye. Primary enucleation or evisceration was performed only exceptionally: one enucleation

  2. Evaluation of an automatic dry eye test using MCDM methods and rank correlation.

    PubMed

    Peteiro-Barral, Diego; Remeseiro, Beatriz; Méndez, Rebeca; Penedo, Manuel G

    2017-04-01

    Dry eye is an increasingly common disease in modern society which affects a wide range of population and has a negative impact on their daily activities, such as working with computers or driving. It can be diagnosed through an automatic clinical test for tear film lipid layer classification based on color and texture analysis. Up to now, researchers have mainly focused on the improvement of the image analysis step. However, there is still large room for improvement on the machine learning side. This paper presents a methodology to optimize this problem by means of class binarization, feature selection, and classification. The methodology can be used as a baseline in other classification problems to provide several solutions and evaluate their performance using a set of representative metrics and decision-making methods. When several decision-making methods are used, they may offer disagreeing rankings that will be solved by conflict handling in which rankings are merged into a single one. The experimental results prove the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in this domain. Also, its general purpose allows to adapt it to other classification problems in different fields such as medicine and biology.

  3. IMAGE-GUIDED EVALUATION AND MONITORING OF TREATMENT RESPONSE IN PATIENTS WITH DRY EYE DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Hamrah, Pedram

    2014-01-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) is one of the most common ocular disorders worldwide. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development of DED are not well understood and thus treating DED has been a significant challenge for ophthalmologists. Most of the currently available diagnostic tests demonstrate low correlation to patient symptoms and have low reproducibility. Recently, sophisticated in vivo imaging modalities have become available for patient care, namely, in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). These emerging modalities are powerful and non-invasive, allowing real-time visualization of cellular and anatomical structures of the cornea and ocular surface. Here we discuss how, by providing both qualitative and quantitative assessment, these techniques can be used to demonstrate early subclinical disease, grade layer-by-layer severity, and allow monitoring of disease severity by cellular alterations. Imaging-guided stratification of patients may also be possible in conjunction with clinical examination methods. Visualization of subclinical changes and stratification of patients in vivo, allows objective image-guided evaluation of tailored treatment response based on cellular morphological alterations specific to each patient. This image-guided approach to DED may ultimately improve patient outcomes and allow studying the efficacy of novel therapies in clinical trials. PMID:24696045

  4. Vitamin B12 deficiency evaluation and treatment in severe dry eye disease with neuropathic ocular pain.

    PubMed

    Ozen, Serkan; Ozer, Murat Atabey; Akdemir, Mehmet Orçun

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to understand the effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on neuropathic ocular pain (NOP) and symptoms in patients with dry eye disease (DED). Patients with severe DED (without receiving topical artificial tears treatment) and ocular pain were enrolled (n = 90). Patients with severe DED and vitamin B12 deficiency (group 1, n = 45) received parenteral vitamin B12 supplement + topical treatment (artificial tears treatment + cyclosporine), and patients with severe DED and normal serum vitamin B12 level (group 2, n = 45) received only topical treatment (artificial tears treatment + cyclosporine). Patients were evaluated by the ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire, 3rd question (have you experienced painful or sore eyes during last week?) score of OSDI as a pain determiner and pain frequency measure), tear break up time (TBUT), and Schirmer's type 1 test. We compared the groups' OSDI, TBUT, and Schirmer's test recordings at the first visit and after 12 weeks retrospectively. The OSDI score, 3rd OSDI question score, TBUT, and Schirmer's test results improved after 12 weeks (p < 0.001 for each group). The mean vitamin B12 level at enrollment was 144.24 ±43.36 pg/ml in group 1 and 417.53 ±87.22 pg/ml in group 2. The mean vitamin B12 level in group 1 reached to 450 ±60.563 pg/ml after 12 weeks of treatment. The mean score changes between the groups were not statistically significant; however, the decrease in the OSDI questionnaire score (-30.80 ±5.24) and 3rd OSDI question score (-2.82 ±0.53) were remarkable in group 1 (Table 2). The mean TBUT increase was +7.98 ±2.90 s and Schirmer's test result increase was +12.16 ±2.01 mm in group 1. The mean TBUT increase was +6.18 ±1.49 s and Schirmer's test result increase was +6.71 ±1.47 mm in group 2. These findings indicate that vitamin B12 deficiency is related with NOP. It may be important to consider measuring the serum vitamin B12 level in patients with severe DED presenting with resistant ocular

  5. Lasik eye surgery - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... presentations/100206.htm Lasik eye surgery - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  6. Accuracy of a technology-assisted eye exam in evaluation of referable diabetic retinopathy and concomitant ocular diseases.

    PubMed

    Conlin, Paul R; Asefzadeh, Baharak; Pasquale, Louis R; Selvin, Gerald; Lamkin, Rebecca; Cavallerano, Anthony A

    2015-12-01

    Digital retinal imaging using store-and-forward technology is used to screen for diabetic retinopathy (DR). Its usefulness in detecting non-diabetic eye diseases is uncertain. We determined the level of agreement between teleretinal imaging supplemented with visual acuity and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements (ie, technology-assisted eye (TAE) exam) and a comprehensive eye exam in evaluation for DR and non-diabetic ocular conditions. We conducted a prospective, observational study with two parallel evaluations. Patients with diabetes (n=317) had a TAE exam and a comprehensive eye exam on the same day. A subset of participants with normal baseline exams (n=72) had follow-up exams 1 year later. We measured the level of agreement for referable ocular findings. Agreement for referable ocular findings was moderate (n=389, agreement: 77%; κ: 0.55), due in part to ungradable exams (22%). However, about half of the ungradable exams had findings that warranted referral. There was substantial agreement for follow-up exams (n=72, agreement: 93%; κ: 0.63). Among all gradable exams (n=303), the TAE exam had 86% sensitivity and 84% specificity for referable ocular findings, with high agreement (≥94%) for DR and other major ocular diagnoses. There was moderate-to-substantial agreement between a TAE exam and a comprehensive eye exam for referable ocular findings in patients with diabetes. Ungradable exams were a frequent marker of ocular pathology. Teleretinal imaging may be a useful evaluation for both diabetic and non-diabetic ocular conditions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Evaluating program effects on institutional delivery in Peru.

    PubMed

    McQuestion, Michael J; Velasquez, Anibal

    2006-07-01

    We evaluate the joint effects of two targeted Peruvian health programs on a mother's choice of whether to deliver in a public emergency obstetric care (EmOC) facility. The national maternal and child health insurance, or SMI Program, provided delivery care coverage to Peru's poorest households beginning in 1998. During 1996-2002, Proyecto 2000 sought to improve the quality of EmOC and increase utilization of public EmOC facilities in the districts reporting the highest maternal and neonatal mortality levels. Our data come from the Proyecto 2000 endline evaluation, which sampled 5335 mothers living in the catchment areas of 29 treatment and 29 matched control EmOC facilities. Using propensity scoring and two quality of care indices, we find significantly higher quality of care in Proyecto 2000 treatment facilities. Using variance components logistic models, we find a mother enrolled in the SMI Program was more likely to have delivered her last child in a public EmOC, controlling for household constraints. Residence in a Proyecto 2000 treatment area did not significantly affect the choice. A cross-level interaction term was insignificant, indicating the two program effects were independent.

  8. A resonator sensor for measurement of intraocular pressure--evaluation in an in vitro pig-eye model.

    PubMed

    Eklund, A; Bäcklund, T; Lindahl, O A

    2000-08-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement is performed routinely at every eye clinic. High IOP, which can be a sign of glaucoma, can lead to degeneration of the retina and can cause blindness. In this study we developed a resonator sensor for IOP measurement based on an oscillator consisting of a piezoelectric element made of lead zirconate titanate, a flat contact piece of nylon and a feedback circuit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the new sensor's ability to determine lOP in an in vitro pig-eye model. Six eyes from four pigs were removed and fixed in agar. They were then pressurized by a saline column (10-35 cm H2O) through a cannula inserted into the vitreous chamber. The IOP was measured with the resonator sensor applied to cornea. An Alcon applanation pneumatonometer and a standard Viggo-Spectramed pressure sensor connected to the saline column were used as references. The IOP as measured with the resonator sensor correlated well with the pressure elicited by the saline column for individual eyes (r = 0.96-0.99, n = 60) and for all eyes (r = 0.92, n = 360). The correlation between the resonance sensor and the pneumatonometer was r = 0.92 (n = 360). The pneumatonometer also showed a good correlation with the saline column (r = 0.98, n = 360). We conclude that our in vitro pig-eye model made it possible to induce reproducible variation in IOP, and measurement of that pressure with the newly developed resonator sensor gave very promising results for development of a clinically applicable IOP tonometer with unique properties.

  9. Evaluation of thyroid eye disease: quality-of-life questionnaire (TED-QOL) in Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Son, Byeong Jae; Lee, Sang Yeul; Yoon, Jin Sook

    2014-04-01

    To assess impaired quality of life (QOL) of Korean patients with thyroid eye disease (TED) using the TED-QOL questionnaire, to evaluate the adaptability of the questionnaire, and to assess the correlation between TED-QOL and scales of disease severity. Prospective, cross-sectional study. Total of 90 consecutive adult patients with TED and Graves' disease were included in this study. TED-QOL was translated into Korean and administered to the patients. The results were compared with clinical severity scores (clinical activity score, VISA (vision loss (optic neuropathy); inflammation; strabismus/motility; appearance/exposure) classification, modified NOSPECS (no signs or symptoms; only signs; soft tissue; proptosis; extraocular muscle; cornea; sight loss) score, Gorman diplopia scale, and European Group of Graves' Orbitopathy Classification). Clinical scores indicating inflammation and strabismus in patients with TED were positively correlated with overall and visual function-related QOL (Spearman coefficient 0.21-0.38, p < 0.05). Clinical scores associated with appearance were positively correlated with appearance-related QOL (Spearman coefficient 0.26-0.27, p < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, age, soft-tissue inflammation, motility disorder of modified NOSPECS, and motility disorder of VISA classification had positive correlation with overall and function-related QOL. Sex, soft-tissue inflammation, proptosis of modified NOSPECS, and appearance of VISA classification had correlation with appearance-related QOL. In addition, validity of TED-QOL was proved sufficient based on the outcomes of patient interviews and correlation between the subscales of TED-QOL. TED-QOL showed significant correlations with various objective clinical parameters of TED. TED-QOL was a simple and useful tool for rapid evaluation of QOL in daily outpatient clinics, which could be readily translated into different languages to be widely applicable to various populations. Copyright © 2014

  10. Imaging shear stress distribution and evaluating the stress concentration factor of the human eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph Antony, S.

    2015-03-01

    Healthy eyes are vital for a better quality of human life. Historically, for man-made materials, scientists and engineers use stress concentration factors to characterise the effects of structural non-homogeneities on their mechanical strength. However, such information is scarce for the human eye. Here we present the shear stress distribution profiles of a healthy human cornea surface in vivo using photo-stress analysis tomography, which is a non-intrusive and non-X-ray based method. The corneal birefringent retardation measured here is comparable to that of previous studies. Using this, we derive eye stress concentration factors and the directional alignment of major principal stress on the surface of the cornea. Similar to thermometers being used for monitoring the general health in humans, this report provides a foundation to characterise the shear stress carrying capacity of the cornea, and a potential bench mark for validating theoretical modelling of stresses in the human eye in future.

  11. Imaging shear stress distribution and evaluating the stress concentration factor of the human eye

    PubMed Central

    Joseph Antony, S.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy eyes are vital for a better quality of human life. Historically, for man-made materials, scientists and engineers use stress concentration factors to characterise the effects of structural non-homogeneities on their mechanical strength. However, such information is scarce for the human eye. Here we present the shear stress distribution profiles of a healthy human cornea surface in vivo using photo-stress analysis tomography, which is a non-intrusive and non-X-ray based method. The corneal birefringent retardation measured here is comparable to that of previous studies. Using this, we derive eye stress concentration factors and the directional alignment of major principal stress on the surface of the cornea. Similar to thermometers being used for monitoring the general health in humans, this report provides a foundation to characterise the shear stress carrying capacity of the cornea, and a potential bench mark for validating theoretical modelling of stresses in the human eye in future. PMID:25754336

  12. Eye pain

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthalmalgia; Pain - eye ... Pain in the eye can be an important symptom of a health problem. Make sure you tell your health care provider if you have eye pain that does not go away. Tired eyes or ...

  13. In the eye of the Cuban epidemic neuropathy storm: Rosaralis Santiesteban MD PhD, Neurology and Neurosurgery Institute. Interview by Christina Mills.

    PubMed

    Mills, Christina

    2011-01-01

    When Cuba was hit by a neuropathy epidemic two decades ago, Dr Rosaralis Santiesteban was one of the Cuban health professionals who played a key role in its management, as reflected in a recent issue of Seminars in Ophthalmology. She was well prepared for her part: trained in medicine at the University of Havana before completing a residency in ophthalmology and eventually a doctorate in medical sciences, she has received multiple honors for her research, publishing and teaching. In 2007, she was named Distinguished Researcher by the Cuban Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment. She has headed the Department of Neuro-ophthalmology at Cuba's Neurology and Neurosurgery Institute since 1977. Now called Cuban Epidemic Neuropathy, the 1990s epidemic that affected over 50,000 Cubans is the largest and best-documented of its kind in history. As researchers pressed to unravel the mystery of its etiology to hasten the epidemic's end, Dr Santiesteban recognized that similar outbreaks had occurred during Cuba's wars of independence in the late 1800s--described in her book, Epidemias y Endemias de neuropatía en Cuba. In the proverbial eye of the storm during the 1990s epidemic, she shares her reflections below on the context, causes, evolution and lessons learned from the challenge that put Cuba's health system to the test.

  14. Evaluation of potential organ culture media for eye banking using human donor corneas

    PubMed Central

    Moller-Pedersen, T; Hartmann, U; Moller, H; Ehlers, N; Engelmann, K

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To evaluate the ability of different commercially available cell culture solutions to preserve human donor corneas during 3 weeks of "closed system" organ culture at physiological temperature. This screening was performed in an attempt to establish a rational basis for the development of a serum-free organ culture medium for eye banking.
METHODS—72 normal human donor corneas were organ cultured for 21 days at 31°C in eight different test media (nine corneas in each group). The basic culture solutions included: minimal essential medium (MEM), MEM with stabilised L-glutamine, M199, DIF-1000, SFM, F99, and F99 with ascorbic acid, insulin, bFGF, transferrin, selenium, and lipids (termed F99-Sr). All media were supplemented with 2% fetal calf serum (FCS), except for MEM, which was also studied at 8% FCS. The evaluation parameters included: (1) the endothelial cell loss as evaluated using trypan blue staining; (2) the ability of keratocytes and endothelial cells to incorporate tritiated uridine into RNA as evaluated using autoradiography and digital image analysis; (3) the leakage of immunogenic keratan sulphate as assessed using ELISA; and (4) changes in storage medium pH, glucose, and lactate content.
RESULTS—SFM induced the lowest endothelial cell loss of 14% (SD 2%) and the highest RNA synthesis rates of all test solutions supplemented with 2% FCS. Corneas stored in SFM also showed the least leakage of keratan sulphate and the highest glucose consumption and lactate production. In five media (MEM with 2% FCS, MEM with stabilised L-glutamine, M199, F99, and F99-Sr), comparable and intermediate potentials for organ culture were observed with endothelial cell loss of 16-19%. By contrast, 29% (4%) of the endothelium was lost after storage in DIF-1000. Interestingly, the use of 8% FCS (in MEM) had a marked protective effect on the endothelium, which showed the highest RNA synthetic activity combined with a cell loss of only 11% (4%), compared with 19% (6

  15. Clinical evaluation of posterior embryotoxon in one institution.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, H; Shirai, S; Majima, A; Sano, M; Ikeda, K

    1997-01-01

    To elucidate the pathogenesis of posterior embryotoxon, we estimated its incidence in our clinic and evaluated its associated ocular and systemic anomalies. Slit-lamp and gonioscopic examinations were performed on 440 randomly selected patients at Nagoya City University Hospital over a 10-month period. Posterior embryotoxon was detected in 107, 50 bilateral and 57 unilateral, cases (24.3%). Twelve (11.2%) of the 107 cases had open-angle glaucoma. Accompanying ocular anomalies included six cases of sclerocornea, two each of persistent pupillary membrane and familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, and 1 each of melanocytoma of the optic nervehead, choroidal nevus and subconjunctival dermoid cyst. Associated systemic anomalies included three cases of Alagille syndrome, two of congenital biliary atresia, and one each of congenital facial palsy with microtia, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, empty sella syndrome, Hirschsprung disease and Wilson disease. Many of these ocular and systemic anomalies were caused by the maldevelopment of neural crest cells. Patients with posterior embryotoxon should be examined for the possible presence of open-angle glucoma and for ocular and systemic anomalies related to maldevelopment of neural crest cells.

  16. A Fuzzy-Based Fusion Method of Multimodal Sensor-Based Measurements for the Quantitative Evaluation of Eye Fatigue on 3D Displays.

    PubMed

    Bang, Jae Won; Choi, Jong-Suk; Heo, Hwan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2015-05-07

    With the rapid increase of 3-dimensional (3D) content, considerable research related to the 3D human factor has been undertaken for quantitatively evaluating visual discomfort, including eye fatigue and dizziness, caused by viewing 3D content. Various modalities such as electroencephalograms (EEGs), biomedical signals, and eye responses have been investigated. However, the majority of the previous research has analyzed each modality separately to measure user eye fatigue. This cannot guarantee the credibility of the resulting eye fatigue evaluations. Therefore, we propose a new method for quantitatively evaluating eye fatigue related to 3D content by combining multimodal measurements. This research is novel for the following four reasons: first, for the evaluation of eye fatigue with high credibility on 3D displays, a fuzzy-based fusion method (FBFM) is proposed based on the multimodalities of EEG signals, eye blinking rate (BR), facial temperature (FT), and subjective evaluation (SE); second, to measure a more accurate variation of eye fatigue (before and after watching a 3D display), we obtain the quality scores of EEG signals, eye BR, FT and SE; third, for combining the values of the four modalities we obtain the optimal weights of the EEG signals BR, FT and SE using a fuzzy system based on quality scores; fourth, the quantitative level of the variation of eye fatigue is finally obtained using the weighted sum of the values measured by the four modalities. Experimental results confirm that the effectiveness of the proposed FBFM is greater than other conventional multimodal measurements. Moreover, the credibility of the variations of the eye fatigue using the FBFM before and after watching the 3D display is proven using a t-test and descriptive statistical analysis using effect size.

  17. A Fuzzy-Based Fusion Method of Multimodal Sensor-Based Measurements for the Quantitative Evaluation of Eye Fatigue on 3D Displays

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Jae Won; Choi, Jong-Suk; Heo, Hwan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid increase of 3-dimensional (3D) content, considerable research related to the 3D human factor has been undertaken for quantitatively evaluating visual discomfort, including eye fatigue and dizziness, caused by viewing 3D content. Various modalities such as electroencephalograms (EEGs), biomedical signals, and eye responses have been investigated. However, the majority of the previous research has analyzed each modality separately to measure user eye fatigue. This cannot guarantee the credibility of the resulting eye fatigue evaluations. Therefore, we propose a new method for quantitatively evaluating eye fatigue related to 3D content by combining multimodal measurements. This research is novel for the following four reasons: first, for the evaluation of eye fatigue with high credibility on 3D displays, a fuzzy-based fusion method (FBFM) is proposed based on the multimodalities of EEG signals, eye blinking rate (BR), facial temperature (FT), and subjective evaluation (SE); second, to measure a more accurate variation of eye fatigue (before and after watching a 3D display), we obtain the quality scores of EEG signals, eye BR, FT and SE; third, for combining the values of the four modalities we obtain the optimal weights of the EEG signals BR, FT and SE using a fuzzy system based on quality scores; fourth, the quantitative level of the variation of eye fatigue is finally obtained using the weighted sum of the values measured by the four modalities. Experimental results confirm that the effectiveness of the proposed FBFM is greater than other conventional multimodal measurements. Moreover, the credibility of the variations of the eye fatigue using the FBFM before and after watching the 3D display is proven using a t-test and descriptive statistical analysis using effect size. PMID:25961382

  18. Evaluation Institute on Interethnic Aspects of Public School Education in West Virginia. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himelrick, John B.

    This evaluation of the Institute on Interethnic Aspects of Public School Education in West Virginia consisted of two district procedures. The first was intended to evaluate the effectiveness of the program in terms of the change occurring in the participants as perceived by the participants themselves. This was done by a pre- and post-program…

  19. Evaluation of the Leadership Institute: A Program to Build Individual and Organizational Capacity through Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Claire Yueh-Ti; King, Jeff; Cochran, Graham R.; Argabright, Karen J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported here was to evaluate the impact of Leadership Institute, a program designed to strengthen leadership capacity through developing individuals' emotional intelligence (EQ). A pre-and posttest approach was used to collect data from two workshops with identical EQ content, program structure, and evaluation.…

  20. Analysis of Questionnaires Applied in the Evaluation Process of Academicians in Higher Education Institutes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalayci, Nurdan; Cimen, Orhan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the questionnaires used to evaluate teaching performance in higher education institutes and called "Instructor and Course Evaluation Questionnaires (ICEQ)" in terms of questionnaire preparation techniques and components of curriculum. Obtaining at least one ICEQ belonging to any state and private…

  1. Evaluation of the Cosmetology Program at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute--Fall, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipes, V. David

    In fall 1981, the cosmetology program at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute (CCC&TI) was evaluated as part of a process to create a model for the periodic evaluation of all occupational programs at the school. In addition to collecting information for planning and program improvement, the study sought to assess the achievement of…

  2. Evaluation of the Cosmetology Program at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute--Fall, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipes, V. David

    In fall 1981, the cosmetology program at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute (CCC&TI) was evaluated as part of a process to create a model for the periodic evaluation of all occupational programs at the school. In addition to collecting information for planning and program improvement, the study sought to assess the achievement of…

  3. Evaluation of National Institute for Learning Development and Discovery Educational Therapy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimpong, Prince Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In Maryland, some Christian schools have enrolled students with learning disabilities (LDs) but do not have any interventional programs at the school to help them succeed academically. The purpose of this qualitative program evaluation was to evaluate the National Institute for Learning Development (NILD) and Discovery Therapy Educational Program…

  4. A Longitudinal Evaluation of the National Cancer Institute Science Enrichment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Colleen F.; Goodman, Irene F.

    This paper proposes the design and key methodological features of a longitudinal evaluation of the National Cancer Institute Science Enrichment Program (NCISEP). Goodman Research Group's (GRG) five-year longitudinal evaluation is designed as a randomized experiment with a control group and employs both quantitative and qualitative data collection…

  5. Automated Grading System for Evaluation of Corneal Superficial Punctate Keratitis Associated with Dry Eye.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, John D; Lane, Keith; Ousler, George W; Angjeli, Endri; Smith, Lisa; Abelson, Mark

    2015-03-03

    Purpose. To develop an automated method of grading fluorescein staining that accurately reproduces the clinical grading system currently in use. Methods. From the slit lamp photograph of the fluorescein-stained cornea, the region of interest was selected and punctate dot number calculated using software developed with the Opencv computer vision library. Images (N=229) were then divided into six incremental severity categories based on computed scores. The final selection of fifty-four photographs represented the full range of scores: nine images from each of six categories. These were then evaluated by three investigators using a clinical 0-4 corneal staining scale. Pearson correlations were calculated to compare investigator scores, and mean investigator and automated scores. Lin's Concordance Correlations (CCC) and Bland Altman plots were used to assess agreement between methods and between investigators. Results. Pearson's correlation between investigators was 0.914; mean CCC between investigators was 0.882. Bland-Altman analysis indicated that scores assessed by Investigator 3 were significantly higher than those of Investigators 1 and 2 (paired t-test). The predicted grade was calculated to be: Gpred=1.48log(Ndots) - 0.206. The two-point Pearson's correlation coefficient between the methods was 0.927 (p<0.0001). CCC between predicted automated score Gpred and mean investigator score was 0.929, 95% C.I. (0.884, 0.957). Bland-Altman analysis did not indicate bias. The difference in standard deviation between clinical and automated methods was 0.398. Conclusion. An objective, automated analysis of corneal staining provides a quality assurance tool to be used to substantiate clinical grading of key corneal staining endpoints in multi-centered clinical trials of dry eye.

  6. Eye-Tracking as a Tool to Evaluate Functional Ability in Everyday Tasks in Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Kasneci, Enkelejda; Black, Alex A; Wood, Joanne M

    2017-01-01

    To date, few studies have investigated the eye movement patterns of individuals with glaucoma while they undertake everyday tasks in real-world settings. While some of these studies have reported possible compensatory gaze patterns in those with glaucoma who demonstrated good task performance despite their visual field loss, little is known about the complex interaction between field loss and visual scanning strategies and the impact on task performance and, consequently, on quality of life. We review existing approaches that have quantified the effect of glaucomatous visual field defects on the ability to undertake everyday activities through the use of eye movement analysis. Furthermore, we discuss current developments in eye-tracking technology and the potential for combining eye-tracking with virtual reality and advanced analytical approaches. Recent technological developments suggest that systems based on eye-tracking have the potential to assist individuals with glaucomatous loss to maintain or even improve their performance on everyday tasks and hence enhance their long-term quality of life. We discuss novel approaches for studying the visual search behavior of individuals with glaucoma that have the potential to assist individuals with glaucoma, through the use of personalized programs that take into consideration the individual characteristics of their remaining visual field and visual search behavior.

  7. Eye-Tracking as a Tool to Evaluate Functional Ability in Everyday Tasks in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Black, Alex A.

    2017-01-01

    To date, few studies have investigated the eye movement patterns of individuals with glaucoma while they undertake everyday tasks in real-world settings. While some of these studies have reported possible compensatory gaze patterns in those with glaucoma who demonstrated good task performance despite their visual field loss, little is known about the complex interaction between field loss and visual scanning strategies and the impact on task performance and, consequently, on quality of life. We review existing approaches that have quantified the effect of glaucomatous visual field defects on the ability to undertake everyday activities through the use of eye movement analysis. Furthermore, we discuss current developments in eye-tracking technology and the potential for combining eye-tracking with virtual reality and advanced analytical approaches. Recent technological developments suggest that systems based on eye-tracking have the potential to assist individuals with glaucomatous loss to maintain or even improve their performance on everyday tasks and hence enhance their long-term quality of life. We discuss novel approaches for studying the visual search behavior of individuals with glaucoma that have the potential to assist individuals with glaucoma, through the use of personalized programs that take into consideration the individual characteristics of their remaining visual field and visual search behavior. PMID:28293433

  8. Ethical and Pedagogical Issues in the Use of Simulation Activities in the Classroom: Evaluating the "Blue Eyes-Brown Eyes" Prejudice Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Deborah A.; Kiger, Gary

    The effectiveness of a well-known prejudice-reduction simulation activity, "Blue Eyes-Brown Eyes," was assessed as a tool for changing the attitudes of nonblack teacher education students toward blacks. The subjects were 164 students enrolled in eight sections of an introductory elementary education course at a state university. Three…

  9. Modeling and evaluation of hand-eye coordination of surgical robotic system on task performance.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuanqian; Wang, Shuxin; Li, Jianmin; Li, Aimin; Liu, Hongbin; Xing, Yuan

    2017-05-04

    Robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery changes the direct hand and eye coordination in traditional surgery to indirect instrument and camera coordination, which affects the ergonomics, operation performance, and safety. A camera, two instruments, and a target, as the descriptors, are used to construct the workspace correspondence and geometrical relationships in a surgical operation. A parametric model with a set of parameters is proposed to describe the hand-eye coordination of the surgical robot. From the results, optimal values and acceptable ranges of these parameters are identified from two tasks. A 90° viewing angle had the longest completion time; 60° instrument elevation angle and 0° deflection angle had better performance; there is no significant difference among manipulation angles and observing distances on task performance. This hand-eye coordination model provides evidence for robotic design, surgeon training, and robotic initialization to achieve dexterous and safe manipulation in surgery. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Evaluation of dermal and eye irritation and skin sensitization due to carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Ema, Makoto; Matsuda, Akitaka; Kobayashi, Norihiro; Naya, Masato; Nakanishi, Junko

    2011-12-01

    The present paper summarizes the results of our studies on dermal and eye irritation and skin sensitization due to carbon nanotubes (CNTs), whose potential applications and uses are wide and varied, including CNT-enhanced plastics, electromagnetic interference/radio-frequency (EMI/RFI) shielding, antistatic material, flexible fibers and advanced polymers, medical and health applications, and scanning probe microscopy. Skin and eyes have the highest risk of exposure to nanomaterials, because deposition of nanomaterials to the surficial organs has the potential to be a major route of exposure during the manufacturing, use, and disposal of nanomaterials. Two products composed of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and two products composed of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were tested regarding acute dermal and acute eye irritation using rabbits, and skin sensitization using guinea pigs. The concentrations of the CNTs in the substances were the maximum allowable for administration. The two products of SWCNTs and one of the products of MWCNTs were not irritants to the skin or eyes. The other product of MWCNTs caused very slight erythema at 24h, but not at 72h, after patch removal in the dermal irritation experiments and conjunctival redness and blood vessel hyperemia at 1h, but not at 24h, in eye irritation experiments. These findings showed that one product of MWCNTs was a very weak acute irritant to the skin and eyes. No products of SWCNTs and MWCNTs exhibited skin-sensitization effects. Our knowledge of the toxicological effects of CNTs is still limited. Further information is needed to clarify the potential for irritation and sensitization given the complex nature of CNTs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluating Silent Reading Performance with an Eye Tracking System in Patients with Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Noriaki; Fukuchi, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between silent reading performance and visual field defects in patients with glaucoma using an eye tracking system. Methods Fifty glaucoma patients (Group G; mean age, 52.2 years, standard deviation: 11.4 years) and 20 normal controls (Group N; mean age, 46.9 years; standard deviation: 17.2 years) were included in the study. All participants in Group G had early to advanced glaucomatous visual field defects but better than 20/20 visual acuity in both eyes. Participants silently read Japanese articles written horizontally while the eye tracking system monitored and calculated reading duration per 100 characters, number of fixations per 100 characters, and mean fixation duration, which were compared with mean deviation and visual field index values from Humphrey visual field testing (24–2 and 10–2 Swedish interactive threshold algorithm standard) of the right versus left eye and the better versus worse eye. Results There was a statistically significant difference between Groups G and N in mean fixation duration (G, 233.4 msec; N, 215.7 msec; P = 0.010). Within Group G, significant correlations were observed between reading duration and 24–2 right mean deviation (rs = -0.280, P = 0.049), 24–2 right visual field index (rs = -0.306, P = 0.030), 24–2 worse visual field index (rs = -0.304, P = 0.032), and 10–2 worse mean deviation (rs = -0.326, P = 0.025). Significant correlations were observed between mean fixation duration and 10–2 left mean deviation (rs = -0.294, P = 0.045) and 10–2 worse mean deviation (rs = -0.306, P = 0.037), respectively. Conclusions The severity of visual field defects may influence some aspects of reading performance. At least concerning silent reading, the visual field of the worse eye is an essential element of smoothness of reading. PMID:28095478

  12. Evaluation of healthy equine eyes by use of retinoscopy, keratometry, and ultrasonographic biometry.

    PubMed

    Grinninger, Petra; Skalicky, Monika; Nell, Barbara

    2010-06-01

    To assess natural variations in degree of refraction, corneal curvature, corneal astigmatism, corneal radius, and intraocular distance of healthy equine eyes. 159 horses with healthy eyes that were admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital for nonophthalmic surgeries. Eyes of horses were examined with a retinoscope prior to anesthesia and with a keratograph and A- and B-scan ultrasonographic biometers during surgery. In addition, manual caliper measurements of horizontal and vertical corneal radii were obtained. Mean +/- SD degree of refraction in the horizontal meridian of eyes was -0.06 +/- 0.68 diopters (D). Vitreous body length and horse age correlated negatively with refraction values. The horizontal corneal radius (15.96 +/- 1.28 mm) was larger than the vertical corneal radius (15.02 +/- 1.09 mm). Accordingly, the vertical corneal curvature (21.56 +/- 1.68 D) was greater than the horizontal corneal curvature (22.89 +/- 1.65 D). Axial globe length (40.52 +/- 2.67 mm), anterior chamber depth (6.35 +/- 0.59 mm), lens thickness (12.30 +/- 0.83 mm), and vitreous body length (21.87 +/- 1.85 mm) were positively correlated with body weight, height, and age. Results of keratograph and caliper measurements correlated well for horizontal corneal diameter but poorly for vertical corneal diameter. Results of A- and B-scan ultrasonography differed by < or = 1 mm in 64% of measured eyes. Results of keratometry and ultrasonographic biometry varied widely. Additional research is needed to validate the keratograph used in our study for measurements in equine eyes.

  13. Evaluation of a Novel Artificial Tear in the Prevention and Treatment of Dry Eye in an Animal Model.

    PubMed

    She, Yujing; Li, Jinyang; Xiao, Bing; Lu, Huihui; Liu, Haixia; Simmons, Peter A; Vehige, Joseph G; Chen, Wei

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate effects of a novel multi-ingredient artificial tear formulation containing carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and hyaluronic acid (HA) in a murine dry eye model. Dry eye was induced in mice (C57BL/6) using an intelligently controlled environmental system (ICES). CMC+HA (Optive Fusion™), CMC-only (Refresh Tears(®)), and HA-only (Hycosan(®)) artificial tears and control phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were administered 4 times daily and compared with no treatment (n = 64 eyes per group). During regimen 1 (prevention regimen), mice were administered artificial tears or PBS for 14 days (starting day 0) while they were exposed to ICES, and assessed on days 0 and 14. During regimen 2 (treatment regimen), mice exposed to ICES for 14 days with no intervention were administered artificial tears or PBS for 14 days (starting day 14) while continuing exposure to ICES, and assessed on days 0, 14, and 28. Corneal fluorescein staining and conjunctival goblet cell density were measured. Artificial tear-treated mice had significantly better outcomes than control groups on corneal staining and goblet cell density (P < 0.01). Mice administered CMC+HA also showed significantly lower corneal fluorescein staining and higher goblet cell density, compared with CMC (P < 0.01) and HA (P < 0.05) in both regimens 1 and 2. The artificial tear formulation containing CMC and HA was effective in preventing and treating environmentally induced dry eye. Improvements observed for corneal fluorescein staining and conjunctival goblet cell retention suggest that this combination may be a viable treatment option for dry eye disease.

  14. Evaluation of a Novel Artificial Tear in the Prevention and Treatment of Dry Eye in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    She, Yujing; Li, Jinyang; Xiao, Bing; Lu, Huihui; Liu, Haixia; Simmons, Peter A.; Vehige, Joseph G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To evaluate effects of a novel multi-ingredient artificial tear formulation containing carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and hyaluronic acid (HA) in a murine dry eye model. Methods: Dry eye was induced in mice (C57BL/6) using an intelligently controlled environmental system (ICES). CMC+HA (Optive Fusion™), CMC-only (Refresh Tears®), and HA-only (Hycosan®) artificial tears and control phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were administered 4 times daily and compared with no treatment (n = 64 eyes per group). During regimen 1 (prevention regimen), mice were administered artificial tears or PBS for 14 days (starting day 0) while they were exposed to ICES, and assessed on days 0 and 14. During regimen 2 (treatment regimen), mice exposed to ICES for 14 days with no intervention were administered artificial tears or PBS for 14 days (starting day 14) while continuing exposure to ICES, and assessed on days 0, 14, and 28. Corneal fluorescein staining and conjunctival goblet cell density were measured. Results: Artificial tear-treated mice had significantly better outcomes than control groups on corneal staining and goblet cell density (P < 0.01). Mice administered CMC+HA also showed significantly lower corneal fluorescein staining and higher goblet cell density, compared with CMC (P < 0.01) and HA (P < 0.05) in both regimens 1 and 2. Conclusions: The artificial tear formulation containing CMC and HA was effective in preventing and treating environmentally induced dry eye. Improvements observed for corneal fluorescein staining and conjunctival goblet cell retention suggest that this combination may be a viable treatment option for dry eye disease. PMID:26322539

  15. Evaluation of pharmacological activities and assessment of intraocular penetration of an ayurvedic polyherbal eye drop (Itone™) in experimental models.

    PubMed

    Velpandian, Thirumurthy; Gupta, Pankaj; Ravi, Alok Kumar; Sharma, Hanuman Prasad; Biswas, Nihar Ranjan

    2013-01-02

    The polyherbal eye drop (Itone™) is a mixture of aqueous distillates of nineteen traditionally used ingredients that sum up to impart potency to the formulation and make it a useful adjunct in various ocular pathologies. However, as there have been no controlled experimental studies accounting to the above claim, therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the polyherbal formulation (PHF) for antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, anticataract, antioxidant and cytotoxicity in addition to the evaluation of intraocular penetration of PHF in rabbit eyes using LC-MS/MS. Antiangiogenic activity of the PHF was evaluated using in ovo chick chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) assay and in vivo cautery induced corneal neovascularization assay in rats. Anticataract potential was evaluated using steroid induced cataract in developing chick embryos, sodium selenite induced cataract in rat pups and galactose induced cataract in rats. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using di-phenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in vitro using inhibition of LTB4 formation in human WBCs and in vivo using carrageenan induced paw edema assay in rats. The cytotoxicity was evaluated against HeLa cancer cell lines using (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Furthermore evaluation of the intraocular penetration of the PHF was carried out in rabbit eyes via aqueous humor paracentesis and further analysis using LC-MS/MS. PHF significantly inhibited VEGF induced proliferation of new blood vessels in CAM assay and inhibited the cautery induced corneal neovascularization in rats. Additionally, PHF showed noticeable delay in the progression of cataract in the selenite and galactose induced cataract models whereby the PHF treated lenses were graded for stages II and III respectively. However, the PHF did not show any anticataract activity in the hydrocortisone induced cataract model. Moreover, PHF

  16. Evaluation of pharmacological activities and assessment of intraocular penetration of an ayurvedic polyherbal eye drop (Itone™) in experimental models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The polyherbal eye drop (Itone™) is a mixture of aqueous distillates of nineteen traditionally used ingredients that sum up to impart potency to the formulation and make it a useful adjunct in various ocular pathologies. However, as there have been no controlled experimental studies accounting to the above claim, therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the polyherbal formulation (PHF) for antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, anticataract, antioxidant and cytotoxicity in addition to the evaluation of intraocular penetration of PHF in rabbit eyes using LC-MS/MS. Materials and methods Antiangiogenic activity of the PHF was evaluated using in ovo chick chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) assay and in vivo cautery induced corneal neovascularization assay in rats. Anticataract potential was evaluated using steroid induced cataract in developing chick embryos, sodium selenite induced cataract in rat pups and galactose induced cataract in rats. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using di-phenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in vitro using inhibition of LTB4 formation in human WBCs and in vivo using carrageenan induced paw edema assay in rats. The cytotoxicity was evaluated against HeLa cancer cell lines using (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Furthermore evaluation of the intraocular penetration of the PHF was carried out in rabbit eyes via aqueous humor paracentesis and further analysis using LC-MS/MS. Results PHF significantly inhibited VEGF induced proliferation of new blood vessels in CAM assay and inhibited the cautery induced corneal neovascularization in rats. Additionally, PHF showed noticeable delay in the progression of cataract in the selenite and galactose induced cataract models whereby the PHF treated lenses were graded for stages II and III respectively. However, the PHF did not show any anticataract activity in the hydrocortisone

  17. An Evaluation of Educational Neurological Eye Movement Disorder Videos Posted on Internet Video Sharing Sites.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Simon J

    2016-03-01

    Internet video sharing sites allow the free dissemination of educational material. This study investigated the quality and educational content of videos of eye movement disorders posted on such sites. Educational neurological eye movement videos were identified by entering the titles of the eye movement abnormality into the search boxes of the video sharing sites. Also, suggested links were followed from each video. The number of views, likes, and dislikes for each video were recorded. The videos were then rated for their picture and sound quality. Their educational value was assessed according to whether the video included a description of the eye movement abnormality, the anatomical location of the lesion (if appropriate), and the underlying diagnosis. Three hundred fifty-four of these videos were found on YouTube and Vimeo. There was a mean of 6,443 views per video (range, 1-195,957). One hundred nineteen (33.6%) had no form of commentary about the eye movement disorder shown apart from the title. Forty-seven (13.3%) contained errors in the title or in the text. Eighty (22.6%) had excellent educational value by describing the eye movement abnormality, the anatomical location of the lesion, and the underlying diagnosis. Of these, 30 also had good picture and sound quality. The videos with excellent educational value had a mean of 9.84 "likes" per video compared with 2.37 for those videos without a commentary (P < 0.001). The videos that combined excellent educational value with good picture and sound quality had a mean of 10.23 "likes" per video (P = 0.004 vs videos with no commentary). There was no significant difference in the mean number of "dislikes" between those videos that had no commentary or which contained errors and those with excellent educational value. There are a large number of eye movement videos freely available on these sites; however, due to the lack of peer review, a significant number have poor educational value due to having no commentary

  18. Evaluation of reading speed and contrast sensitivity in dry eye disease.

    PubMed

    Ridder, William H; Zhang, Yi; Huang, Jing-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Visual disturbance is a common symptom reported by patients with dry eye disease (DED). The purpose of this study was to evaluate visual performance, including reading speed and contrast sensitivity, in control and DED subjects. Fifty-two DED patients (mild, n = 17; moderate, n = 22; severe, n = 13; based on corneal staining and the Ocular Surface Disease Index ≥ 20) and 20 control subjects (Ocular Surface Disease Index <13, no corneal staining) took part in this study. The age ranges for the control and DED patients were 18 to 45 years and 19 to 84 years, respectively. Contrast sensitivity was measured using the Holladay Automated Contrast Sensitivity System, and reading speed was determined using the Wilkins Rate of Reading Test. Analysis of covariance was conducted to compare clinical characteristics among subject groups while adjusting for age, sex, and study site. Partial correlation coefficients from linear regression were used to measure the linear relationship between contrast sensitivity and reading speed with DED parameters. The log of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuities and contrast sensitivity were not significantly different across subject groups. The DED patients (134.9 ± 4.95 words per minute) exhibited slower reading speeds than the control subjects (158.3 ± 8.40 words per minute, p = 0.046). As DED severity increased, the reading speed decreased (141.0 ± 7.96 words per minute, 136.8 ± 7.15 words per minute, and 127.0 ± 9.63 words per minute in mild, moderate, and severe groups, respectively). Reading rate was found to correlate weakly with corneal staining based on a partial correlation coefficient (-0.345, p < 0.001) but not with other DED parameters. The reading rate was lower in DED subjects than that in control subjects. As the DED severity increased, the reading rate decreased. This finding is consistent with patient-reported symptoms and provides direct evidence for the impact of DED on reading performance. These findings

  19. Juvenile eye growth, when completed? An evaluation based on IOL-Master axial length data, cross-sectional and longitudinal.

    PubMed

    Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian

    2014-05-01

    To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close to emmetropia were included in a cross-sectional set-up (age 4-20 years, 91 males, 69 females), and (ii) 78 longitudinal data sets (67 male and 11 female annual repeat exams over 2-7 years, n=30; age span 4-19 years) were available for evaluating individual axial elongation. The IOL-Master equipment was preferred for conventional ultrasound oculometry due to its extreme repeatability of measuring values, thus making it well fitted for evaluating very small differences. In particular, this had bearing for the decelerating end phase of growth in the longitudinal investigation. Sorby's statement about age 13 as general limit found support from the cross-sectional data, which suggested stable emmetropic eye size from about 11-12 years, with an average apparently outgrown male emmetropic value of 23.5 mm versus females' 22.9 mm. The longitudinal data, however, showed emmetropic growth also beyond this age, with individual data to establish continued axial elongation also at age 13-18 years. The final basic teenage growth is however minute and without practical implications. Individual ocular growth curves have indicated axial elongation to occur also after the age of 13 years. With regard to the - mainly academic - discrepancy between cross-sectional and longitudinal results, bigger samples are needed, and the juvenile myopic trend has to be acknowledged. © 2013 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Predictive Analysis Between Topographic, Pachymetric and Wavefront Parameters in Keratoconus, Suspects and Normal Eyes: Creating Unified Equations to Evaluate Keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Gaurav; Suhail, Muhammad; Srivastava, Dhruv

    2016-01-01

    To perform prediction analysis between topographic, pachymetric and wavefront parameters in keratoconus, suspects, and normal cases and to look at the possibility of a unified equation to evaluate keratoconus. This cross-sectional, observational study was done in cornea services of a specialty hospital. Fifty eyes of 50 candidates with a diagnosis of normal, keratoconus suspect, and keratoconus were included in each group (total 150 eyes). All eyes underwent detailed analysis on Scheimplug + Placido device (Sirius, CSO, Italy). Main parameters evaluated were topographic [maximum keratometry (Max Km), average keratometry and astigmatism at 3, 5, and 7 mm], pachymetric [central and minimum corneal thickness (MCT) and their difference, corneal volume] and corneal aberrations [higher order aberrations root-mean-square (HOARMS), coma, spherical, residual].Central tendency, predictive fits and regression models, were computed. The measured variables had a significant difference in mean between the three groups (Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.001). Max Km, MCT, and HOARMS had significant fits with other topographic, pachymetric and wavefront parameters, respectively. Inter-relations between these three (Max Km, MCT, and HOARMS) were also stronger for keratoconus (R(2) from 0.75 to 0.33) compared to suspect/normal eyes (R(2) from 0.15 to 0.003). These three variables (Max Km, MCT and HOARMS) were used as representative variables to create the unified equations. The equation for the pooled data was (Kmax = 59.5 + 2.3 × HOARMS-0.03 × MCT; R(2)= 0.7, p < 0.001). Major variables used for grading keratoconus (MaxKm, MCT, HOARMS) can be linked by linear regression equations to predict the pathology's behavior.

  1. Higher Education Institutional and Program Evaluations in Taiwan and the Emerging Roles of Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan (HEEACT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Wei, Yen-Shun; Wang, Li-Yun

    2013-01-01

    Post-secondary education institutions in Taiwan are divided into two tracks, general higher education (HE) and technological and vocational education (TVE). The evaluation of all universities/colleges is mandated by the University Act. Higher education institutions receive mandated institutional evaluation every six years and program evaluation…

  2. Establishment of a new in vitro test method for evaluation of eye irritancy using a reconstructed human corneal epithelial model, LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masakazu; Hamajima, Fumiyasu; Ogasawara, Takahiro; Hata, Ken-ichiro

    2013-12-01

    Finding in vitro eye irritation testing alternatives to animal testing such as the Draize eye test, which uses rabbits, is essential from the standpoint of animal welfare. It has been developed a reconstructed human corneal epithelial model, the LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL, which has a representative corneal epithelium-like structure. Protocol optimization (pre-validation study) was examined in order to establish a new alternative method for eye irritancy evaluation with this model. From the results of the optimization experiments, the application periods for chemicals were set at 1min for liquid chemicals or 24h for solid chemicals, and the post-exposure incubation periods were set at 24h for liquids or zero for solids. If the viability was less than 50%, the chemical was judged to be an eye irritant. Sixty-one chemicals were applied in the optimized protocol using the LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL and these results were evaluated in correlation with in vivo results. The predictions of the optimized LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL eye irritation test methods were highly correlated with in vivo eye irritation (sensitivity 100%, specificity 80.0%, and accuracy 91.8%). These results suggest that the LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL eye irritation test could be useful as an alternative method to the Draize eye test.

  3. Evaluation of Mathematics Curriculum in Primary Teacher Training Institute in Somalia. African Studies in Curriculum Development & Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jama, Mohamed A. F.

    This study sought to evaluate the mathematics curriculum of the Halane Teacher Training Institute in Somalia with a view toward: (1) determining its weaknesses and recommending measures for improvement; (2) examining its relevance to the present needs of the Somali society; (3) determining the suitability of instructional materials and other…

  4. Evaluation of Mathematics Curriculum in Primary Teacher Training Institute in Somalia. African Studies in Curriculum Development & Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jama, Mohamed A. F.

    This study sought to evaluate the mathematics curriculum of the Halane Teacher Training Institute in Somalia with a view toward: (1) determining its weaknesses and recommending measures for improvement; (2) examining its relevance to the present needs of the Somali society; (3) determining the suitability of instructional materials and other…

  5. Annotated Bibliography on Program Evaluation in Residential Adult Education (Conferences and Institutes).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulich, Jindra, Ed.; And Others

    Designed especially for relative novices in residential adult education conference and institute work, this annotated bibliography covers 29 books, periodical articles, and book chapters. These items have been chosen for practical application or theoretical significance to the evaluation of program design and content and of learning within…

  6. Evaluation of the MIND Research Institute's Spatial-Temporal Math (ST Math) Program in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Staci; Rice, John; Nakamoto, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The MIND Research Institute contracted with the Evaluation Research Program at WestEd to conduct an independent assessment of mathematics outcomes in elementary school grades across California that were provided with the ST Math program. Spatial-Temporal (ST) Math is a game-based instructional software designed to boost K-5 and secondary-level…

  7. Academic Advising Audit: An Institutional Evaluation and Analysis of the Organization and Delivery of Advising Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, David S.

    Designed to assist institutions in evaluating the current status of their academic advising program, this manual provides guidelines and materials used to conduct a four-step audit. Following a brief introduction, an overview of the audit procedure is presented. The next four sections, corresponding to the steps in the audit, are presented: (1)…

  8. A Model for Evaluating the Extent to Which an Institution Reaches Stated Goals and Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Warren H.

    The components and objectives of North Central Technical College's Planning, Management, and Evaluation System (PME) are presented as a model upon which college administrators can relate institutional goals with societal needs. The report first describes the two-year planning process through which ad hoc committees made up of students, faculty,…

  9. Parent Involvement Program Institute: Parents as Partners with Schools. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Strategic Planning/Research and Development.

    An evaluation was done of the 1992 Parent Involvement Program Institute (PIPI), a program sponsored by the Office of Parent Involvement of the New York City Board of Education and held at Pace University (New York City). The PIPI brought together parents to showcase successful program components, and to provide help and encouragement to parents…

  10. Educational Innovation: Research and Evaluation Techniques. (Report of 1967 Summer Institutes).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Robert L.

    Three 4-week institutes were held, one each in Los Angeles, St. Louis, and Philadelphia, to prepare competent school personnel at the state, county, and district levels to formulate, conduct, and evaluate educational experiments. Participants included teachers, principals, curriculum specialists, research consultants, and superintendents. The…

  11. Evaluation of Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Management Graduates: A Ten Year Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dona, Comp.; And Others

    A study of graduates from the Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Management program at St. Louis Community College at Forest Park was conducted, primarily in order to elicit information from graduates regarding potentially effective recruitment methods for minority groups and women. The study also sought to obtain evaluation of course curriculum…

  12. Evaluation of the Nursing Program at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute--Summer, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipes, V. David

    In summer 1983, an evaluation of the nursing program at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute was conducted to determine whether program objectives were being met, to measure program success, and to identify areas needing improvement. Surveys were sent to 19 early (pre-1978) and 47 recent Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) graduates; 17…

  13. AN EVALUATION OF A SUMMER INSTITUTE TO TRAIN INSTRUCTORS OF INSTRUMENT TECHNOLOGY. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHNELLE, KARL B., JR.

    AN EVALUATION WAS MADE TO DETERMINE THE ADEQUACY AND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A 1966 SUMMER INSTITUTE HELD AT THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AGRICULTURAL AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE, MORRISVILLE, NEW YORK. FURTHER OBJECTIVES WERE TO CONSTRUCTIVELY CRITICIZE THE APPROACH TAKEN, TO SUGGEST CHANGES FOR SUCCEEDING PROGRAMS, AND TO FORMULATE PLANS FOR THE…

  14. A Conceptual Framework to Help Evaluate the Quality of Institutional Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to present a general conceptual framework which can be used to evaluate quality and institutional performance in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: The quality of higher education is at the heart of the setting up of the European Higher Education Area. Strategic management is widely used in higher education…

  15. Evaluation Dimensions for Full-Time Head Coaches at NCAA Division II Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorney, Blaine; Ness, R. Gary

    2000-01-01

    Athletic directors, intercollegiate head coaches, and student athletes (n=34) participated in a Delphi study to determine dimensions that should be included in the evaluation of full-time head coaches at National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II institutions. Responses were used to develop a 15-category, 91-dimension tool representing…

  16. Evaluation of 1975 Postsecondary Educational Programs in the Eight Pennsylvania State Correctional Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, James P.; Fickes, Joan Gaughan

    This study examines the role of the 14 colleges participating in postsecondary programs in eight Pennsylvania correctional institutions, to assess the quality of instruction and educational services, and to determine the attitudes of the offenders towards the college program. Data used in the evaluation was collected by questionnaires administered…

  17. Eye Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  18. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  19. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  20. Eye Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sep. 01, 2016 Eye allergies, also called allergic conjunctivitis, are quite common. They occur when the eyes ... can tear and burn. Unlike other kinds of conjunctivitis, eye allergies are not spread from person to ...

  1. Watery eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common causes of excess tearing is dry eyes . Drying causes the eyes to become uncomfortable, which stimulates the body to produce too many tears. One of the main tests for tearing is to check whether the eyes ...

  2. [Institutional handling of sexual abuse: experiences, evaluations, and desires of nonabusing parents of sexually abused children].

    PubMed

    Klopfer, U; Berger, C; Lennertz, I; Breuer, B; Deget, F; Wolke, A; Fegert, J M; Lehmkuhl, G; Lehmkuhl, U; Lüderitz, A; Walter, M

    1999-11-01

    This article describes experiences of parents of sexual abused children and their evaluations of institutional interventions on sexual child abuse. Results are presented of a study investigating 'individual and institutional reactions on sexual child abuse'. The number of contacted institutions, personnel experiences with these institutions and resulting requirements are described. The results are based on a sample of 47 (82.5%) girls and 10 (17.5%) boys (range 6-18 years) and interviews with their 'non-abusing' parents. 28 (49.1%) of these children were abused by a member of the family, 29 (50.9%) children by non-familiar persons. It could be shown that 70.2% of the children had contacted four or more different institutions soon after the sexual abuse had been revealed. In cases of sexual abuse by a family member the first contacted institution was the Youth-and-Health-Care-System whereas in cases of sexual abuse by non-familiar persons mostly the police was contacted. Nevertheless in most cases both judicial and supporting approach were chosen. Additionally to concrete advices and professional competences the interviewed parents reported that emotional warmth was a very helpful aspect of the professional intervention. Generally the perspective of the parents seems to give some interesting informations about 'consumer satisfaction'.

  3. Evaluation of a New Scoring System for Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Photography Using HRA1 in 964 Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Samin; Moon, Jong Wook; Ha, Seung Joo; Kim, Chan Yun; Seong, Gong Je

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defect by a new scoring system for RNFL photography using the Heidelberg Retina Angiograph 1 (HRA1). Methods This retrospective study included 128 healthy eyes and 836 primary open-angle glaucoma eyes. The RNFL photography using HRA1 was interpreted using a new scoring system, and correlated with visual field indices of standard automated perimetry (SAP). Using the presence of RNFL defect, darkness, width, and location, we established the new scoring system of RNFL photos. Results The mean RNFL defect score I in the early, moderate, severe, and control groups were 7.3, 9.2, 10.4, and 3.6, respectively. The mean RNFL defect score II in the early, moderate, severe, and control groups were 14.5, 28.5, 43.4, and 3.4, respectively. Correlations between the RNFL defect score II and the mean deviation of SAP was the strongest of the various combinations (r=-0.675, P<.001). Conclusions Using a new scoring system, we propose a method for semi-quantitative interpretation of RNFL photographs. This scoring system may be helpful to distinguish between normal and glaucomatous eyes, and the score is associated with the severity of visual field loss. PMID:18063886

  4. Use of the field-of-view evaluation apparatus (FOVEA) for laser eye protection research: capabilities, limitations, and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVilbiss, Carita A.; Schmeisser, Elmar T.; Ercoline, William R.; Cantu, Naomi

    2001-05-01

    While the major technological goal of laser eye protection (LEP) is to attenuate any laser radiation that passes through it, consideration of the physical format in which it is realized must not be overlooked. The best protective material can be rendered essentially useless if it does not cover the appropriate field of regard for the wearer. To map the visual field of regard (FOR) coverage provided by LEP devices, the field of view evaluation apparatus (FOVEA) was used. The FOVEA is a one-meter radius arc perimeter containing computer-controlled light emitting diodes at one-degree intervals. Three different mapppings of the visual field can be obtained with this facility: (a) the monocular baseline FOR; (b) the accessibility the LEP demonstrates against the direct threat (i.e., a laser source entering the eye beyond frame edge); and (c) the accessibility to indirect hazard (i.e., laser energy reflected from the lens backside entering the eye). Comparison of the direct and indirect fields of regard demonstrates the wide coverage variation generated by alternate frame styles and differing head shapes. These results need to be interpreted with respect to FOVEA limitations. First, the full FOR is mapped without regard for the relative importance of the periphery versus the fovea. Second, the coverage from a particular frame style must be measured and specified with an appropriate range of anthropometric face forms to ensure coverage consistency.

  5. Evaluating a Novel Eye Tracking Tool to Detect Invalid Responding in Neurocognitive Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-07

    delirium 56 patients and healthy controls. They reported the most reliable oculomotor index of dementia severity was the number of error...Neuropsychology 25:791-8 74. Exton C, Leonard M. 2009. Eye tracking technology: A fresh approach in delirium assessment? International Review of Psychiatry...Sciences In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy 2014 UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY, SCHOOL OF MEDICINE

  6. Comparison of cytologic and histologic evaluations of the conjunctiva in the normal equine eye.

    PubMed

    Bourges-Abella, Nathalie; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Diquelou, Armelle; Guillot, Emilie; Regnier, Alain; Trumel, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    To describe the cells observed in conjunctival brush cytology (CBC) from normal horses and compare these findings with conjunctival structural histology so as to understand which cells are recovered from CBC. This study was divided into three parts. (1) Conjunctival brush smears were collected from 20 healthy horses on both eyes and a differential count on 300 cells was carried out on May Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) smears. (2) A similar protocol was used for whole eyes from five horses obtained rapidly after death from a slaughterhouse. The eyes were then assessed for conjunctival histology. (3) Cytobrush smears were collected from five healthy horses. Smears were examined after MGG or periodic acid Schiff (PAS) staining. The differential cell count showed a majority of deep and intermediate epithelial cells with very few superficial and goblet cells in both eyes. A stratified columnar to cuboidal epithelium was observed on nearly the whole surface of the conjunctiva. A stratified squamous type was observed at the palpebral and bulbar edges. Areas with highest mucus cell indices were found from the nasal to the temporal edge of the equine inferior conjunctiva in the upper palpebral segment near the fornix and in a part of the nasal fornix. In MGG smears no mucus cells were identified; however, they were numerous in PAS smears (22.6% +/- 11) and were mostly cylindrical cells (42.5% +/- 14.4 PAS positive). Cytobrush smears in the healthy horse are characterized by a majority of polyhedral and cylindrical cells and a few squamous cells. The cylindrical cells may be mucous cells and probably originate from the main stratified columnar to cuboidal epithelium.

  7. Evaluation of the food store environment on and near the campus of 15 postsecondary institutions.

    PubMed

    Horacek, Tanya M; Erdman, Maria B; Reznar, Melissa M; Olfert, Melissa; Brown-Esters, Onikia N; Kattelmann, Kendra K; Kidd, Tandalayo; Koenings, Mallory; Phillips, Beatrice; Quick, Virginia; Shelnutt, Karla P; White, Adrienne A

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the food stores on and near postsecondary campuses varying in institutional size. The design of the study is an environmental audit survey. Fifteen U.S. postsecondary education institutions participated in this study between 2009-2011. Eighty-one stores (44% grocery, 17% campus, and 39% convenience/drug) were evaluated. The Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Stores was modified to evaluate food stores. Analysis. Analysis of variance with post hoc Tukey B and t-tests assessed differences between store types and by institutional size. Grocery stores had significantly higher scores than campus/convenience stores for healthy foods (19.5 ± 3.8 vs. 2.4 ± 1.7), and for the availability (19.5 ± 3.8 vs. 2.4 ± 1.7) and quality (5.9 ± 0.5 vs. 1.8 ± 2.2) of fruits/vegetables (p < .001). Healthy foods and beverages were significantly more expensive (-0.6 ± 3.4 vs. 0.9 ± 2.0; p < .031) than their less healthful alternatives in grocery stores, but not in convenience stores. There were no differences by institutional size for grocery stores; however, smaller institutions' convenience stores had significantly lower availability and quality of fruits/vegetables and total food store environment scores. A college campus provides a food environment with an array of shopping venues, most of which are not consistent with dietary recommendations for obesity prevention. The limited quality of healthy food in on-campus and convenience stores and the exacerbated deficiencies for small postsecondary institutions provide evidence to support environmental and policy initiatives to improve the quality of campus food store environments.

  8. EVALUATION OF MACULAR ISCHEMIA IN EYES WITH CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study.

    PubMed

    Ghashut, Rima; Muraoka, Yuki; Ooto, Sotaro; Iida, Yuto; Miwa, Yuko; Suzuma, Kiyoshi; Murakami, Tomoaki; Kadomoto, Shin; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2017-06-30

    To quantitatively assess macular perfusion status using optical coherence tomography angiography in eyes with aflibercept-treated central retinal vein occlusion and resolved macular edema and to investigate the impact of macular morphology and perfusion status on visual function. This prospective consecutive case series included 23 patients with central retinal vein occlusion. All patients received intravitreal aflibercept injections before analysis. Visual acuity, macular sensitivity, and the macular nonperfusion area (NPA) were evaluated in eyes without macular edema. The macular NPA was evaluated by optical coherence tomography angiography using 3 mm × 3 mm images of the macula. Foveal ellipsoid zone disruption was also analyzed. The superficial macular NPA measured 4.15 mm ± 0.71 mm (95% confidence interval 3.85-4.46), and the deep macular NPA measured 4.23 mm ± 0.97 mm (95% confidence interval 3.82-4.56). The logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity was significantly associated with foveal ellipsoid zone disruption (P = 0.001), the superficial macular NPA (P = 0.015), and the deep macular NPA (P = 0.018). Macular sensitivity correlated negatively with logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity (P = 0.007), the superficial macular NPA (P = 0.029), and the deep macular NPA (P = 0.040), but not with the foveal ellipsoid zone disruption (P = 0.435). Optical coherence tomography angiography is a novel technique that enables segmented evaluation of the macular perfusion status in eyes with central retinal vein occlusion and provides visual prognostic information. Enlargement of the macular NPA in the superficial and deep layers was significantly correlated with impaired visual acuity and with decreased macular sensitivity in patients with aflibercept-treated central retinal vein occlusion and resolved macular edema.

  9. The Cost-effectiveness of Welcome to Medicare Visual Acuity Screening and a Possible Alternative Welcome to Medicare Eye Evaluation Among Persons Without Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Rein, David B.; Wittenborn, John S.; Zhang, Xinzhi; Hoerger, Thomas J.; Zhang, Ping; Klein, Barbara Eden Kobrin; Lee, Kris E.; Klein, Ronald; Saaddine, Jinan B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of visual acuity screening performed in primary care settings and of dilated eye evaluations performed by an eye care professional among new Medicare enrollees with no diagnosed eye disorders. Medicare currently reimburses visual acuity screening for new enrollees during their initial preventive primary care health check, but dilated eye evaluations may be a more cost-effective policy. Design Monte Carlo cost-effectiveness simulation model with a total of 50 000 simulated patients with demographic characteristics matched to persons 65 years of age in the US population. Results Compared with no screening policy, dilated eye evaluations increased quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) by 0.008 (95% credible interval [CrI], 0.005–0.011) and increased costs by $94 (95% CrI, −$35 to $222). A visual acuity screening increased QALYs in less than 95% of the simulations (0.001 [95% CrI, −0.002 to 0.004) and increased total costs by $32 (95% CrI, −$97 to $159) per person. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of a visual acuity screening and an eye examination compared with no screening were $29 000 and $12 000 per QALY gained, respectively. At a willingness-to-pay value of $15 000 or more per QALY gained, a dilated eye evaluation was the policy option most likely to be cost-effective. Conclusions The currently recommended visual acuity screening showed limited efficacy and cost-effectiveness compared with no screening. In contrast, a new policy of reimbursement for Welcome to Medicare dilated eye evaluations was highly cost-effective. PMID:22232367

  10. The cost-effectiveness of Welcome to Medicare visual acuity screening and a possible alternative welcome to medicare eye evaluation among persons without diagnosed diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rein, David B; Wittenborn, John S; Zhang, Xinzhi; Hoerger, Thomas J; Zhang, Ping; Klein, Barbara Eden Kobrin; Lee, Kris E; Klein, Ronald; Saaddine, Jinan B

    2012-05-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of visual acuity screening performed in primary care settings and of dilated eye evaluations performed by an eye care professional among new Medicare enrollees with no diagnosed eye disorders. Medicare currently reimburses visual acuity screening for new enrollees during their initial preventive primary care health check, but dilated eye evaluations may be a more cost-effective policy. Monte Carlo cost-effectiveness simulation model with a total of 50 000 simulated patients with demographic characteristics matched to persons 65 years of age in the US population. Compared with no screening policy, dilated eye evaluations increased quality-adjusted life-years(QALYs) by 0.008 (95% credible interval [CrI], 0.005-0.011) and increased costs by $94 (95% CrI, −$35 to$222). A visual acuity screening increased QALYs in less than 95% of the simulations (0.001 [95% CrI, −0.002 to 0.004) and increased total costs by $32 (95% CrI, −$97 to $159) per person. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of a visual acuity screening and an eye examination compared with no screening were $29 000 and$12 000 per QALY gained, respectively. At a willingness-to-pay value of $15 000 or more per QALY gained, a dilated eye evaluation was the policy option most likely to be cost-effective. The currently recommended visual acuity screening showed limited efficacy and cost-effectiveness compared with no screening. In contrast, anew policy of reimbursement for Welcome to Medicare dilated eye evaluations was highly cost-effective.

  11. Reproducibility analysis of measurements with a mechanical semiautomatic eye model for evaluation of intraocular lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rank, Elisabet; Traxler, Lukas; Bayer, Natascha; Reutterer, Bernd; Lux, Kirsten; Drauschke, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Mechanical eye models are used to validate ex vivo the optical quality of intraocular lenses (IOLs). The quality measurement and test instructions for IOLs are defined in the ISO 11979-2. However, it was mentioned in literature that these test instructions could lead to inaccurate measurements in case of some modern IOL designs. Reproducibility of alignment and measurement processes are presented, performed with a semiautomatic mechanical ex vivo eye model based on optical properties published by Liou and Brennan in the scale 1:1. The cornea, the iris aperture and the IOL itself are separately changeable within the eye model. The adjustment of the IOL can be manipulated by automatic decentration and tilt of the IOL in reference to the optical axis of the whole system, which is defined by the connection line of the central point of the artificial cornea and the iris aperture. With the presented measurement setup two quality criteria are measurable: the modulation transfer function (MTF) and the Strehl ratio. First the reproducibility of the alignment process for definition of initial conditions of the lateral position and tilt in reference to the optical axis of the system is investigated. Furthermore, different IOL holders are tested related to the stable holding of the IOL. The measurement is performed by a before-after comparison of the lens position using a typical decentration and tilt tolerance analysis path. Modulation transfer function MTF and Strehl ratio S before and after this tolerance analysis are compared and requirements for lens holder construction are deduced from the presented results.

  12. Significance of crossed eye-hand dominance for the adult neuropsychological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Swiercinsky, D P

    1977-08-01

    The variable of opposit eye and hand dominance is reviewed as a possible sign of learning problems and as an indication of congenital or early developmental brain impairment. It is considered as an independent variable in examining differences along several dimensions of psychological functioning as a possible discriminator of performance levels. It is also considered as a variable in discriminant function analysis to predict brain lesion process. Although few results were statistically significant, the numerous analyses were remarkably convergent in suggesting that crossed dominance is related to poorer verbal learning skills and is a useful variable in differentiating various process diagnostic groups.

  13. Comparative Evaluation of the Corneal and Anterior Chamber Parameters Derived From Scheimpflug Imaging in Arab and South Asian Normal Eyes.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Gaurav; Srivastava, Dhruv; Avadhani, Kavitha; Thirumalai, Sandeep M; Choudhuri, Sounak

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the differences in the normal corneal and anterior segment Scheimpflug parameters in Arab and South Asian eyes. This hospital-based study was performed at a cornea and refractive surgery service in Abu Dhabi. A total of 600 consecutive normal candidates of South Asian (group 1, n = 300) and Arab (group 2, n = 300) origins underwent Scheimpflug imaging (Sirius; Costruzione Strumenti Oftalmici, Italy). One eye was randomly selected for evaluation. The age and sex distributions in both groups were comparable. The pachymetric variables were statistically higher in group 2 (group 2 vs. group 1, 544.3 ± 32.2 μm vs. 535.1 ± 31.4 μm for central corneal thickness, 541.0 ± 32.6 μm vs. 531.9 ± 31.5 μm for minimum corneal thickness, 571.7 ± 43.2 μm vs. 558.1 ± 42.3 μm for apical thickness, and 58.1 ± 4.2 vs. 57.3 ± 4.3 mm³ for the corneal volume; P < 0.05). The anterior chamber volume (group 2 vs. group 1: 166.4 ± 16.4 vs. 161.6 ± 20.5 mm³) and angle (group 2 vs. group 1: 44.6 ± 6.2 vs. 43.5 ± 5.8 degrees) were also higher for group 2 (P < 0.05). Central corneal curvature and apical corneal curvature (apex K) were higher in group 1 (P < 0.05) with comparable astigmatism. The flat keratometry (K), steep K, and apex K were 43.6 ± 2.2 diopters (D), 44.9 ± 1.8 D, and 45.7 ± 1.8 D for group 1, and 43.1 ± 2.2 D, 44.5 ± 2 D, and 45.2 ± 1.9 D for group 2. The effect size (Cohen d) for significant parameters ranged from 0.2 to 0.3. Normal eyes of Arab ethnicity tend to have statistically thicker and flatter corneas and less-crowded anterior segments than those of the South Asian counterparts. These epidemiological differences have a mild to moderate biological effect size (Cohen d), but they should be considered when evaluating these eyes for anterior segment or corneal procedures.

  14. Evaluating educators using a novel toolbox: applying rigorous criteria flexibly across institutions.

    PubMed

    Gusic, Maryellen E; Baldwin, Constance D; Chandran, Latha; Rose, Suzanne; Simpson, Deborah; Strobel, Henry W; Timm, Craig; Fincher, Ruth Marie E

    2014-07-01

    Valuing faculty as educators is essential for medical schools to fulfill their unique mission of educating physicians. The 2006 Consensus Conference on Educational Scholarship, sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Group on Educational Affairs, provided educators seeking academic promotion with a portfolio-based format for documenting activities in five domains, using evidence of quantity, quality, a scholarly approach, and educational scholarship. Yet, the lack of a rigorous, widely accepted system to assess educator portfolio submissions during the promotion and tenure process continues to impede the ability to fully value educators and educational scholars.The AAMC Task Force on Educator Evaluation was formed in 2010 to establish consensus guidelines for use by those responsible for the rigorous evaluation of the educational contributions of faculty. The task force delineated the educational contributions currently valued by institutions and then fulfilled its charge by creating the Toolbox for Evaluating Educators, a resource which contains explicit evidence-based criteria to evaluate faculty in each of the five domains of educator activity. Adoption of such criteria is now the rate-limiting step in using a fair process to recognize educators through academic promotion. To inform institutional review and implementation of these criteria, this article describes the iterative, evidence- and stakeholder-based process to establish the criteria. The authors advocate institutional adoption of these criteria so that faculty seeking academic promotion as educators, like their researcher colleagues, can be judged and valued using established standards for the assessment of their work.

  15. CATS EYES Adjustment Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    AL-TR-1 993-0025 AD-A264 069 CATS EYES ADJUSTMENT PROCEDURES A R M Joseph C. Antonio DTIC S ELECTET University of Dayton Research Institute MAY 13...Final November 1992 - January 1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS C F33615-90-C-0005 CATS EYES Adjustment Procedures PE - 62205F 6. AUTHOR(S) PR...the loss of NVG performance resulting from improper goggle adjustments. This report describes correct adjustment procedures for the CATS EYES NVG system

  16. Evaluation of eye protection filters for use with dental curing and bleaching lamps.

    PubMed

    Bruzell, Ellen M; Johnsen, Bjørn; Aalerud, Tommy Nakken; Christensen, Terje

    2007-06-01

    Exposure to intense radiation sources in a dental clinic necessitates the use of eye protective filters to avoid blue-light photochemical retinal hazard. We have investigated the filtering quality and assessed whether the filters protect sufficiently against retinal hazards throughout the workday. Visible light transmittance of 18 protective filters was measured. These products consisted of spectacles, stationary lamp shields, and a hand-held shield intended for use in dental clinics. Nine of the 18 tested filters had adequate filtering capacity according to today's lamp technology and exposure limit values. These filters transmitted less than 0.1% of the radiation at any wavelength between 400 nm and 525 nm. Seven of the nine filters showed transmission values below the detection limit (approximately 10(-3)%) in the wavelength band between 400 nm and 500 nm. Filters of inferior quality may prove inadequate if the use and radiation intensity of the lamps further increase. Lack of protection may also occur if a filter is used to protect against emission from a lamp with properties other than the lamp for which the filter has been intended. It is of major importance that the spectacles/shields accommodate the emission from the lamp source. The suppliers of dental radiation sources should be responsible for information on the need for and proper use of eye protectors. In addition, the filters should be marked according to testing procedures appropriate for the specific use.

  17. Evaluation of tropospheric water vapor profiling using eye-safe, infrared differential absorption lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Rye, B.J. |; Machol, J.L.; Grund, C.J.; Hardesty, R.M.

    1996-05-14

    Continuous, high quality profiles of water vapor, free of systematic bias, and of moderate temporal and spatial resolution are fundamental to the success of the ARM CART program. In addition, these should be acquired over long periods at low operational and maintenance cost. The development and verification of realistic climate model parameterizations for clouds and net radiation balance, and the correction of other CART site sensor observations for interferences due to the presence of water vapor are critically dependent on water vapor profile measurements. To date, application of profiles have been limited by vertical resolution and uniqueness and high operating cost, or diminished daytime performance, lack of eye-safety, and high maintenance cost. Recent developments in infrared laser and detector technology make possible compact IR differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems at eye-safe wavelengths. In the studies reported here, we develop DIAL system performance models and examine the potential of solving some of the shortcomings of previous methods using parameters representative of current technologies. These simulations are also applied to determine the strengths and weaknesses unique to the DIAL method for this application.

  18. Evaluation of perception performance in neck dissection planning using eye tracking and attention landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgert, Oliver; Örn, Veronika; Velichkovsky, Boris M.; Gessat, Michael; Joos, Markus; Strauß, Gero; Tietjen, Christian; Preim, Bernhard; Hertel, Ilka

    2007-03-01

    Neck dissection is a surgical intervention at which cervical lymph node metastases are removed. Accurate surgical planning is of high importance because wrong judgment of the situation causes severe harm for the patient. Diagnostic perception of radiological images by a surgeon is an acquired skill that can be enhanced by training and experience. To improve accuracy in detecting pathological lymph nodes by newcomers and less experienced professionals, it is essential to understand how surgical experts solve relevant visual and recognition tasks. By using eye tracking and especially the newly-developed attention landscapes visualizations, it could be determined whether visualization options, for example 3D models instead of CT data, help in increasing accuracy and speed of neck dissection planning. Thirteen ORL surgeons with different levels of expertise participated in this study. They inspected different visualizations of 3D models and original CT datasets of patients. Among others, we used scanpath analysis and attention landscapes to interpret the inspection strategies. It was possible to distinguish different patterns of visual exploratory activity. The experienced surgeons exhibited a higher concentration of attention on the limited number of areas of interest and demonstrated less saccadic eye movements indicating a better orientation.

  19. Long-term observation and evaluation of femtosecond laser-assisted thin-flap laser in situ keratomileusis in eyes with thin corneas but normal topography.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Minoru; Watabe, Miyuki; Mita, Mariko; Waring, George O

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the long-term outcomes of thin-flap laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in eyes with thin corneas (central corneal thickness [CCT] <500 μm) but normal topography. Private center, Tokyo, Japan. Retrospective randomized comparative study. The efficacy, safety, predictability, and topography of LASIK were evaluated in eyes with a CCT of less than 500 μm but with normal topography (thin-cornea group) to 6 years postoperatively. The LASIK outcomes in the thin-cornea group were compared with those in eyes with a CCT of 500 μm or greater (control group). Analysis was performed to determine whether there were differences between the groups at the last checkup 3 to 4 years postoperatively. In the thin-cornea group (291 eyes; 146 patients), no significant differences were observed in LASIK outcomes when eyes were subdivided by the time of final checkup (3, 4, and ≥ 5 years). There was a significant difference in visual and refractive outcomes between 3 months postoperatively and the last checkup in the thin-cornea group and the control group (371 eyes; 193 patients). No significant difference in visual, refractive, or topography outcomes was observed between the 2 groups at the last checkup. Laser in situ keratomileusis in eyes with thin corneas was as safe and effective as and showed similar long-term stability in eyes with a CCT of 500 μm or greater. No eye in either group had a postoperative complication. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of criteria for evaluating clinical response in thyroid eye disease (CRI-TED) using a modified Delphi technique

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Raymond S.; Tsirbas, Angelo; Gordon, Mark; Lee, Diana; Khadavi, Nicole; Garneau, Helene Chokron; Goldberg, Robert A.; Cahill, Kenneth; Dolman, Peter J.; Elner, Victor; Feldon, Steve; Lucarelli, Mark; Uddin, Jimmy; Kazim, Michael; Smith, Terry J.; Khanna, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    To identify components of a provisional clinical response index for thyroid eye disease (CRI-TED) using a modified Delphi technique. The International Thyroid Eye Disease Society (ITEDS) conducted a structured, 3-round Delphi exercise establishing consensus for a core set of measures for clinical trials in TED. The steering committee discussed the results in a face-to-face meeting (nominal group technique) and evaluated each criterion with respect to its feasibility, reliability, redundancy, and validity. Redundant measures were consolidated or excluded. Criteria were parsed into 11 domains for the Delphi surveys. Eighty four respondents participated in the Delphi-1 survey, providing 220 unique items. Ninety- two members (100% of the respondents from Delphi 1 plus eight new participants) responded in Delphi-2 and rated the same 220 items. Sixty-four members (76% of participants) rated 153 criteria in Delphi-3 (67 criteria were excluded due to redundancy). Criteria with a mean greater than 6 (1 least appropriate to 9 most appropriate) were further evaluated by the nominal group technique and provisional core measures were chosen. Using a Delphi exercise, we developed provisional core measures for assessing disease activity and severity in clinical trials of therapies for TED. These measures will be iteratively refined for use in multicenter clinical trials. PMID:19752424

  1. BEDVH--A method for evaluating biologically effective dose volume histograms: Application to eye plaque brachytherapy implants

    SciTech Connect

    Gagne, Nolan L.; Leonard, Kara L.; Huber, Kathryn E.; Mignano, John E.; Duker, Jay S.; Laver, Nora V.; Rivard, Mark J.

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: A method is introduced to examine the influence of implant duration T, radionuclide, and radiobiological parameters on the biologically effective dose (BED) throughout the entire volume of regions of interest for episcleral brachytherapy using available radionuclides. This method is employed to evaluate a particular eye plaque brachytherapy implant in a radiobiological context. Methods: A reference eye geometry and 16 mm COMS eye plaque loaded with {sup 103}Pd, {sup 125}I, or {sup 131}Cs sources were examined with dose distributions accounting for plaque heterogeneities. For a standardized 7 day implant, doses to 90% of the tumor volume ( {sub TUMOR}D{sub 90}) and 10% of the organ at risk volumes ( {sub OAR}D{sub 10}) were calculated. The BED equation from Dale and Jones and published {alpha}/{beta} and {mu} parameters were incorporated with dose volume histograms (DVHs) for various T values such as T = 7 days (i.e., {sub TUMOR} {sup 7}BED{sub 10} and {sub OAR} {sup 7}BED{sub 10}). By calculating BED throughout the volumes, biologically effective dose volume histograms (BEDVHs) were developed for tumor and OARs. Influence of T, radionuclide choice, and radiobiological parameters on {sub TUMOR}BEDVH and {sub OAR}BEDVH were examined. The nominal dose was scaled for shorter implants to achieve biological equivalence. Results: {sub TUMOR}D{sub 90} values were 102, 112, and 110 Gy for {sup 103}Pd, {sup 125}I, and {sup 131}Cs, respectively. Corresponding {sub TUMOR} {sup 7}BED{sub 10} values were 124, 140, and 138 Gy, respectively. As T decreased from 7 to 0.01 days, the isobiologically effective prescription dose decreased by a factor of three. As expected, {sub TUMOR} {sup 7}BEDVH did not significantly change as a function of radionuclide half-life but varied by 10% due to radionuclide dose distribution. Variations in reported radiobiological parameters caused {sub TUMOR} {sup 7}BED{sub 10} to deviate by up to 46%. Over the range of {sub OAR

  2. Evaluating the efficiency of a zakat institution over a period of time using data envelopment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Anath Rau; Hamzah, Ahmad Aizuddin

    2017-08-01

    It is crucial for a zakat institution to evaluate and understand how efficiently they have operated in the past, thus ideal strategies could be developed for future improvement. However, evaluating the efficiency of a zakat institution is actually a challenging process as it involves the presence of multiple inputs or/and outputs. This paper proposes a step-by-step procedure comprising two data envelopment analysis models, namely dual Charnes-Cooper-Rhodes and slack-based model to quantitatively measure the overall efficiency of a zakat institution over a period of time. The applicability of the proposed procedure was demonstrated by evaluating the efficiency of Pusat Zakat Sabah, Malaysia from the year of 2007 up to 2015 by treating each year as a decision making unit. Two inputs (i.e. number of staff and number of branches) and two outputs (i.e. total collection and total distribution) were used to measure the overall efficiency achieved each year. The causes of inefficiency and strategy for future improvement were discussed based on the results.

  3. Evaluation of patients with dry eye disease for conjunctival Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum

    PubMed Central

    Abdelfattah, Maha Mohssen; Khattab, Rania Abdelmonem; Mahran, Magda H.; Elborgy, Ebrahim S.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the possibility of the development of dry eye disease (DED) as a result of persistent infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the conjunctiva of patients. METHODS This study was conducted on 58 patients of age range 20-50y, diagnosed with DED confirmed by Schirmer I test and tear breakup time. The non-dry eye control group included 27 subjects of the same age. Ocular specimens were collected as conjunctival scrapings and swabs divided into three groups: the first used for bacterial culture, the second and third taken to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. RESULTS Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 65.5% and 76% of DED patients by DFA and PCR methods respectively. Ureaplasma urealyticum was found in 44.8% of DED infected patients using the PCR method. Both organisms were identified in only 37.9% of DED patients found to be infected. Control subjects had a 22% detection rate of Chlamydia trachomatis by DFA assay versus a 7% detection rate by PCR; while Ureaplasma urealyticum was detected in 3.7% of the controls by PCR method. The conjunctival culture revealed that gram positive microorganisms represented 75% of isolates with coagulase negative Staphylococci the most common (50%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (20%), whereas gram negative microorganisms occurred in 25% of cases, isolating Moraxella spp. as the most frequent organism. CONCLUSION Our results tend to point out that Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were detected in a moderate percentage of patients with DED, and could be a fair possibility for its development. PCR is more reliable in detecting Chlamydia trachomatis than DFA technique. The presence of isolated conjunctival bacterial microflora can be of some potential value. PMID:27803864

  4. Evaluation of a national eye care programme: re-survey after 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Faal, H.; Minassian, D.; Dolin, P.; Mohamed, A.; Ajewole, J.; Johnson, G.

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To re-survey the Gambia after an interval of 10 years to assess the impact of a national eye care programme (NECP) on the prevalence of blindness and low vision.
METHOD—Comparison of two multistage cluster random sample surveys taking into account the marked increase in population in the Gambia, west Africa. Samples of the whole population in 1986 and 1996 were taken. The definition of blindness is presenting vision less than 3/60 in the better eye, or visual fields constricted to less than 10° from fixation. Low vision is less than 6/18 but 3/60 or better. Causes of blindness were determined clinically by three ophthalmologists.
RESULTS—The crude prevalence of blindness fell from 0.70% to 0.42%, a relative reduction of 40%. During the same 10 year period, the population increased by 51% from 775 000 to 1 169 000. When the results were standardised for age, a west to east gradient was found for changes in risk of blindness over the 10 year period. This matched the phased west to east introduction of the NECP interventions. There was a modest but significant increase in the risk of low vision across the whole country.
CONCLUSIONS—The overall reduction in risk of blindness, in those areas where the NECP has been active, appears to justify the programme and the support of donor organisations. The low vision cases due to cataract must now be addressed.

 PMID:10966942

  5. [Qualitative evaluation of the alcoholism integral approach with the GIA model (alcoholism institutional groups)].

    PubMed

    Villafañe, Claudia I

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation, over a period of 6 years, on the effectiveness of the Alcoholism Institutional Group (GIA), in the Puerto San Julián Hospital, Santa Cruz, Argentina. The theoretical framework refers to three aspects: subject, social and institutional order. The qualitative logic and the process of analytic induction were used. information was gathered through semi-structured interviews to selected cases (intentional sampling). The constant comparative method for the analysis was used. the GIA method is effective from the aspects of the subject and the social order; the subject included in the treatment was able to: a) deconstruct the socially assumed role as an alcoholic, b) reconstruct their identity, c) restore the fabric of family, labour and social links, d) identify the healthy aspects of their personality to recover the capacities obstructed by the illness, e) learn to solve conflicts collectively thanks to group functioning, f) report to destigmatize the illness, and g) develop a healthy life project. The GIA method proved partially effective from the institutional angle; the task succeeded in uncovering, affirming and working on alcoholism as an illness within the hospital setting, but with less involvement than other local institutions, which motivated projects and strategies started from the results of this research.

  6. Cervical spine evaluation in urban trauma centers: lowering institutional costs and complications through helical CT scan.

    PubMed

    Grogan, Eric L; Morris, John A; Dittus, Robert S; Moore, Derek E; Poulose, Benjamin K; Diaz, Jose J; Speroff, Theodore

    2005-02-01

    In the evaluation of the cervical spine (c-spine), helical CT scan has higher sensitivity and specificity than plain radiographs in the moderate- and high-risk trauma population, but is more costly. We hypothesize that institutional costs associated with missed injuries make helical CT scan the least costly approach. A cost-minimization study was performed using decision analysis examining helical CT scan versus radiographic evaluation of the c-spine. Parameter estimates were obtained from the literature for probability of c-spine injury, probability of paralysis after missed injury, plain film sensitivity and specificity, CT scan sensitivity and specificity, and settlement cost of missed injuries resulting in paralysis. Institutional costs of CT scan and plain radiography were used. Sensitivity analyses tested robustness of strategy preference, accounted for parameter variability, and determined threshold values for individual parameters on strategy preference. C-spine evaluation with helical CT scan has an expected cost of US 554 dollars per patient compared with US 2,142 dollars for plain films. CT scan is the least costly alternative if threshold values exceed US 58,180 dollars for institutional settlement costs, 0.9% for probability of c-spine fracture, and 1.7% for probability of paralysis. Plain films are least costly if CT scan costs surpass US 1,918 dollars or plain film sensitivity exceeds 90%. Helical CT scan is the preferred initial screening test for detection of cervical spine fractures among moderate- to high-risk patients seen in urban trauma centers, reducing the incidence of paralysis resulting from false-negative imaging studies and institutional costs, when settlement costs are taken into account.

  7. Safety and comfort evaluation of a new formulation of Visine® lubricant eye drops containing HydroBlend™ and GentlePur™

    PubMed Central

    Torkildsen, Gail; Frisch, Sherryl; Bai, Mingqi; Gentner, Louis; Doshi, Uday; Zhang, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical safety and comfort of a new benzalkonium chloride-free Visine® lubricant eye drop formulation (Hydroblend™ and GentlePur™) in healthy and dry eye subjects. Methods This was a single-site, open-label clinical study comprised of 22 healthy and 22 dry eye subjects. Subjects were instructed to instill 1–2 drops of the test product four times a day for 2 weeks and were examined at visit 1 (day 0), visit 2 (day 7), and visit 3 (day 14). Assessments at each visit included postdosing product usage comfort scores, predosing fluorescein corneal staining score, predosing visual acuity, and pre- and postdosing ocular structure change using slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Adverse events were monitored throughout the course of the study. Results Throughout the 14 days of the trial period, subjects from both healthy and dry eye groups rated the eye drops as “very comfortable”. For dry eye group, the mean product usage comfort scores for the first 3 minutes postdosing ranged from 8.5 to 8.8 at visit 1 and 9.2 to 9.6 at visit 3 on a 0–10 point scale, with 0 being very uncomfortable and 10 being very comfortable. The mean corneal staining scores over five corneal regions changed from 0.65 at visit 1 to 0.39 at visit 3 for dry eye group. The individual region corneal staining scores were also decreased from visits 1 to 3 for dry eye group. All subjects maintained pretreatment means visual acuity at visits 2 and 3. Biomicroscopic examination indicated no structural changes at all visits. There were no significant adverse events reported during the course of the study. Conclusion The study confirms that GentlePur™ is an appropriate choice as a preservative for ocular application. The new formulation was safe and comfortable when used four times a day in healthy and dry eye subjects. PMID:26929596

  8. Safety and comfort evaluation of a new formulation of Visine(®) lubricant eye drops containing HydroBlend™ and GentlePur™.

    PubMed

    Torkildsen, Gail; Frisch, Sherryl; Bai, Mingqi; Gentner, Louis; Doshi, Uday; Zhang, Jane

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical safety and comfort of a new benzalkonium chloride-free Visine(®) lubricant eye drop formulation (Hydroblend™ and GentlePur™) in healthy and dry eye subjects. This was a single-site, open-label clinical study comprised of 22 healthy and 22 dry eye subjects. Subjects were instructed to instill 1-2 drops of the test product four times a day for 2 weeks and were examined at visit 1 (day 0), visit 2 (day 7), and visit 3 (day 14). Assessments at each visit included postdosing product usage comfort scores, predosing fluorescein corneal staining score, predosing visual acuity, and pre- and postdosing ocular structure change using slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Adverse events were monitored throughout the course of the study. Throughout the 14 days of the trial period, subjects from both healthy and dry eye groups rated the eye drops as "very comfortable". For dry eye group, the mean product usage comfort scores for the first 3 minutes postdosing ranged from 8.5 to 8.8 at visit 1 and 9.2 to 9.6 at visit 3 on a 0-10 point scale, with 0 being very uncomfortable and 10 being very comfortable. The mean corneal staining scores over five corneal regions changed from 0.65 at visit 1 to 0.39 at visit 3 for dry eye group. The individual region corneal staining scores were also decreased from visits 1 to 3 for dry eye group. All subjects maintained pretreatment means visual acuity at visits 2 and 3. Biomicroscopic examination indicated no structural changes at all visits. There were no significant adverse events reported during the course of the study. The study confirms that GentlePur™ is an appropriate choice as a preservative for ocular application. The new formulation was safe and comfortable when used four times a day in healthy and dry eye subjects.

  9. Evaluation of existing (Q)SAR models for skin and eye irritation and corrosion to use for REACH registration.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, Geert R; Braeken, Els; Van Deun, Koen; Van Miert, Sabine

    2017-01-04

    The performance of the (Q)SAR models Derek Nexus, Toxtree and Case Ultra for the prediction of skin and eye irritation/corrosion is investigated. For irritation and corrosion of the skin, 117 compounds and for the eye, 125 compounds were listed. The balance between the groups positive and negative for irritation and corrosion was maintained. The obtained predictions were compared with experimental data and the numbers of true and false positives and negatives were determined. Based on these results several performance parameters of the tested (Q)SAR models were calculated. Despite all the efforts to make good and valid models, the results indicate a poor predictivity of the current models: a lot of compounds were not predicted, were out of the applicability domain or were predicted wrong. Considering our results, it can be concluded that the tested models are not yet sufficiently powerful for implementation. Possibly the training-sets used within the current models are not yet comprehensive enough or the incorporated data are not of enough quality. Although the use of these models as stand-alone evaluation is not recommended, these models can be of value as weight-of-evidence in the context of expert knowledge in an Integrated Approach to Testing and Assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of Attention Bias in Morphine and Methamphetamine Abusers towards Emotional Scenes during Early Abstinence: An Eye-Tracking Study.

    PubMed

    Soleimannejad, Maryam; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Khorrami, Anahita; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Pishyareh, Ebrahim

    2015-10-01

    We hypothesized that inappropriate attention during the period of abstinence in individuals with substance use disorder can result in an inadequate perception of emotion and unsuitable reaction to emotional scenes. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the attentional bias towards emotional images in former substance abusers and compare it to healthy adults. Paired images of general scenes consisting of pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images were presented to subjects for 3 s while their attentional bias and eye movements were measured by eye tracking. The participants were 72 male adults consisting of 23 healthy control, 24 morphine former abusers, and 25 methamphetamine former abusers. The former abusers were recruited from a private addiction quitting center and addiction rehabilitation campus. The healthy individuals were selected from general population. Number and duration of first fixation, duration of first gaze, and sustained attention towards emotional scenes were measured as the main variables and the data were analyzed using the repeated measures ANOVA. A significant difference was observed between former morphine abusers and healthy control in terms of number and duration of first fixations and first gaze duration towards pleasant images. Individuals with morphine use disorder have more problems with attending to emotional images compared to methamphetamine abusers and healthy people.

  11. Evaluation of corrective reconstruction methods using a 3D cardiac-torso phantom and bull's-eye plots

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, X.D.; Tsui, B.M.W.; Gregoriou, G.K.; Lalush, D.S.; Li, J. ); Eisner, R.L. . Dept. of Radiology)

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the investigation was to study the effectiveness of the corrective reconstruction methods in cardiac SPECT using a realistic phantom and to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the reconstructed images using bull's-eye plots. A 3D mathematical phantom which realistically models the anatomical structures of the cardiac-torso region of patients was used. The phantom allows simulation of both the attenuation distribution and the uptake of radiopharmaceuticals in different organs. Also, the phantom can be easily modified to simulate different genders and variations in patient anatomy. Two-dimensional projection data were generated from the phantom and included the effects of attenuation and detector response blurring. The reconstruction methods used in the study included the conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) with no attenuation compensation, and the first-order Chang algorithm, an iterative filtered backprojection algorithm (IFBP), the weighted least square conjugate gradient algorithm and the ML-EM algorithm with non-uniform attenuation compensation. The transaxial reconstructed images were rearranged into short-axis slices from which bull's-eye plots of the count density distribution in the myocardium were generated.

  12. Can We Really Trust Anyone Who Profits from Ranking Higher Education Institutions, or How Would One Evaluate Institutional Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micceri, Ted

    2005-01-01

    Although numerous quality ratings exist in today's media-centric environment (Money Magazine, and U.S. News and World Report, etc.), it is quite difficult to provide any reasonably meaningful estimates of institutional quality, either qualitative or quantitative. Global ratings of university "quality" abound, despite the fact that there…

  13. Teaching evidence-based medicine at complementary and alternative medicine institutions: strategies, competencies, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zwickey, Heather; Schiffke, Heather; Fleishman, Susan; Haas, Mitch; Cruser, des Anges; LeFebvre, Ron; Sullivan, Barbara; Taylor, Barry; Gaster, Barak

    2014-12-01

    As evidence-based medicine (EBM) becomes a standard in health care, it is essential that practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) become experts in searching and evaluating the research literature. In support of this goal, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) provided R25 funding to nine CAM colleges to develop individual programs focused on teaching EBM. An overarching goal of these research education grants has been to provide CAM faculty and students with the skills they need to apply a rigorous evidence-based perspective to their training and practice. This paper reviews the competencies and teaching strategies developed and implemented to enhance research literacy at all nine R25-funded institutions. While each institution designed approaches suitable for its research culture, the guiding principles were similar: to develop evidence-informed skills and knowledge, thereby helping students and faculty to critically appraise evidence and then use that evidence to guide their clinical practice. Curriculum development and assessment included faculty-driven learning activities and longitudinal curricular initiatives to encourage skill reinforcement and evaluate progress. As the field of integrative medicine matures, the NIH-NCCAM research education grants provide essential training for future clinicians and clinician-researchers. Building this workforce will facilitate multidisciplinary collaborations that address the unique needs for research that informs integrative clinical practice.

  14. Teaching Evidence-Based Medicine at Complementary and Alternative Medicine Institutions: Strategies, Competencies, and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Schiffke, Heather; Fleishman, Susan; Haas, Mitch; Cruser, des Anges; LeFebvre, Ron; Sullivan, Barbara; Taylor, Barry; Gaster, Barak

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: As evidence-based medicine (EBM) becomes a standard in health care, it is essential that practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) become experts in searching and evaluating the research literature. In support of this goal, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) provided R25 funding to nine CAM colleges to develop individual programs focused on teaching EBM. An overarching goal of these research education grants has been to provide CAM faculty and students with the skills they need to apply a rigorous evidence-based perspective to their training and practice. Methods/Results: This paper reviews the competencies and teaching strategies developed and implemented to enhance research literacy at all nine R25-funded institutions. While each institution designed approaches suitable for its research culture, the guiding principles were similar: to develop evidence-informed skills and knowledge, thereby helping students and faculty to critically appraise evidence and then use that evidence to guide their clinical practice. Curriculum development and assessment included faculty-driven learning activities and longitudinal curricular initiatives to encourage skill reinforcement and evaluate progress. Conclusion: As the field of integrative medicine matures, the NIH-NCCAM research education grants provide essential training for future clinicians and clinician-researchers. Building this workforce will facilitate multidisciplinary collaborations that address the unique needs for research that informs integrative clinical practice. PMID:25380144

  15. Drugs affecting the cholinergic system in the intact mammalian eye. I. Evaluation of the miotic activity of acetylcholine-like drugs in the mouse eye.

    PubMed

    Maayani, S; Treister, G; Sokolovsky, M

    1975-03-01

    The effect of concentration and pH on the miotic activity of five acetylcholine-like drugs were studied in the intact mouse eye. The data suggests that it is mainly the nonionized form of the drug which contributes to its miotic activity. Acetylcholine-like drugs, degradable by cholinesterases, exert their miotic activity at higher concentrations than do those which are resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis. More active acetylcholine-like drugs appear to be less sensitive to concentration changes.

  16. Protect Their Eyes: An Eye Safety Guide for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Society to Prevent Blindness, Columbus.

    This guide provides information on eye safety and aids educators, administrators, and supervisors in the development and implementation of eye safety programs. The American National Standards Institute (AMSI) requirements for both street and safety glasses; essential eyewear for safety in hazardous areas; the National Society to Prevent…

  17. From the Eye of the Nurses: 360-Degree Evaluation of Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunyemi, Dotun; Gonzalez, Gustavo; Fong, Alex; Alexander, Carolyn; Finke, David; Donnon, Tyrone; Azziz, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Evaluations from the health care team can provide feedback useful in guiding residents' professional growth. We describe the significance of 360-degree evaluation of residents by the nursing staff. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 1642 nurses' anonymous evaluations on 26 residents from 2004 to 2007 was performed. Nurses'…

  18. From the Eye of the Nurses: 360-Degree Evaluation of Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunyemi, Dotun; Gonzalez, Gustavo; Fong, Alex; Alexander, Carolyn; Finke, David; Donnon, Tyrone; Azziz, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Evaluations from the health care team can provide feedback useful in guiding residents' professional growth. We describe the significance of 360-degree evaluation of residents by the nursing staff. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 1642 nurses' anonymous evaluations on 26 residents from 2004 to 2007 was performed. Nurses'…

  19. Institute of Medicine core competencies as a foundation for nursing program evaluation.

    PubMed

    Morris, Tama L; Hancock, Dawson R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to explore one institution's experience integrating the Institute of Medicine (IOM) competencies into a pre-licensure baccalaureate nursing curriculum. In response to a growing number of errors in the health care system and efforts to increase patient safety and quality of care, the IOM proposed that students in health care professions learn to implement five core competencies. The program evaluation encompassed a mixed-method, stakeholder-focused methodology using a curriculum matrix triangulated with Student and Faculty Core Competency surveys. Results of the study indicate that all competencies were evident in the curriculum. Students often cited barriers to implementation of the competencies while faculty cited opportunities. Findings suggest that faculty need to raise student awareness of performing the competencies and be deliberate in the design of experiences to facilitate competency implementation.

  20. The effect of gender on eye colour variation in European populations and an evaluation of the IrisPlex prediction model.

    PubMed

    Pietroni, Carlotta; Andersen, Jeppe D; Johansen, Peter; Andersen, Mikkel M; Harder, Stine; Paulsen, Rasmus; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2014-07-01

    In two recent studies of Spanish individuals, gender was suggested as a factor that contributes to human eye colour variation. However, gender did not improve the predictive accuracy on blue, intermediate and brown eye colours when gender was included in the IrisPlex model. In this study, we investigate the role of gender as a factor that contributes to eye colour variation and suggest that the gender effect on eye colour is population specific. A total of 230 Italian individuals were typed for the six IrisPlex SNPs (rs12913832, rs1800407, rs12896399, rs1393350, rs16891982 and rs12203592). A quantitative eye colour score (Pixel Index of the Eye: PIE-score) was calculated based on digital eye images using the custom made DIAT software. The results were compared with those of Danish and Swedish population samples. As expected, we found HERC2 rs12913832 as the main predictor of human eye colour independently of ancestry. Furthermore, we found gender to be significantly associated with quantitative eye colour measurements in the Italian population sample. We found that the association was statistically significant only among Italian individuals typed as heterozygote GA for HERC2 rs12913832. Interestingly, we did not observe the same association in the Danish and Swedish population. This indicated that the gender effect on eye colour is population specific. We estimated the effect of gender on quantitative eye colour in the Italian population sample to be 4.9%. Among gender and the IrisPlex SNPs, gender ranked as the second most important predictor of human eye colour variation in Italians after HERC2 rs12913832. We, furthermore, tested the five lower ranked IrisPlex predictors, and evaluated all possible 3(6) (729) genotype combinations of the IrisPlex assay and their corresponding predictive values using the IrisPlex prediction model [4]. The results suggested that maximum three (rs12913832, rs1800407, rs16891982) of the six IrisPlex SNPs are useful in practical

  1. Putting evaluation capacity building in context: Reflections on the Ontario Brain Institute's Evaluation Support Program.

    PubMed

    King, Jean A

    2017-05-13

    This article, in three parts, reflects on the content of the six articles included in the forum. It begins with a description of the Evaluation Support Program, emphasizing its key attributes. Next, it raises two points regarding ECB theory: (1) the need to become clearer about the concepts and terms used to describe and study this phenomenon, and (2) the potential value of social science theory to understand ECB and improve its practice. The article concludes with practical ideas for improving ECB: (1) framing it as an educative act, which assigns the evaluator the critical role of evaluation teacher/coach; and (2) the importance of never assuming that an ECB effort begins in unchartered territory, but rather that it builds on people's knowledge, skills, attitudes, and previous experiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye and keeps it healthy. previous continue Light, Lens, Action These next parts are really cool, ... the eye. previous continue Rods and Cones Process Light The retina uses special cells called rods and ...

  3. Eye Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  4. Eye emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... by common household products such as cleaning solutions, garden chemicals, solvents, or other types of chemicals. Fumes ... in the eye with a ball, such as indoor racket sports Images Eye First aid kit References ...

  5. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking good care of ... are qualified to perform eye exams. Aging and Vision Changes As you age, it is normal to ...

  6. Eye Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of retinal detachment, a ...

  7. Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye and keeps it healthy. previous continue Light, Lens, Action These next parts are really cool, ... the eye. previous continue Rods and Cones Process Light The retina uses special cells called rods and ...

  8. Evaluation of 10 AMD Associated Polymorphisms as a Cause of Choroidal Neovascularization in Highly Myopic Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Anter, Jaouad; Bezunartea, Jaione; Hernandez-Sanchez, Maria; García-García, Laura; Alonso, Elena; Ruiz-Moreno, Jose María; Araiz-Iribarren, Javier; Fernandez-Robredo, Patricia; García-Layana, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) commonly occurs in age related macular degeneration and pathological myopia patients. In this study we conducted a case-control prospective study including 431 participants. The aim of this study was to determine the potential association between 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 4 different genetic regions (CFI, COL8A1, LIPC, and APOE), and choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration and the development of choroidal neovascularization in highly myopic eyes of a Caucasian population. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex and hypertension was performed for each allele, genotype and haplotype frequency analysis. We found that in the univariate analysis that both single-nucleotide polymorphisms in COL8A1 gene (rs13095226 and rs669676) together with age, sex and hypertension were significantly associated with myopic CNV development in Spanish patients (p<0.05). After correcting for multiple testing none of the polymorphisms studied remained significantly associated with myopic CNV (p>0.05); however, analysis of the axial length between genotypes of rs13095226 revealed an important influence of COL8A1 in the development of CNV in high myopia. Furthermore we conducted a meta-analysis of COL8A1, CFI and LIPC genes SNPs (rs669676, rs10033900 and rs10468017) and found that only rs669676 of these SNPs were associated with high myopia neovascularization. PMID:27643879

  9. Retrospective analysis of the Draize test for serious eye damage/eye irritation: importance of understanding the in vivo endpoints under UN GHS/EU CLP for the development and evaluation of in vitro test methods.

    PubMed

    Adriaens, Els; Barroso, João; Eskes, Chantra; Hoffmann, Sebastian; McNamee, Pauline; Alépée, Nathalie; Bessou-Touya, Sandrine; De Smedt, Ann; De Wever, Bart; Pfannenbecker, Uwe; Tailhardat, Magalie; Zuang, Valérie

    2014-03-01

    For more than two decades, scientists have been trying to replace the regulatory in vivo Draize eye test by in vitro methods, but so far only partial replacement has been achieved. In order to better understand the reasons for this, historical in vivo rabbit data were analysed in detail and resampled with the purpose of (1) revealing which of the in vivo endpoints are most important in driving United Nations Globally Harmonized System/European Union Regulation on Classification, Labelling and Packaging (UN GHS/EU CLP) classification for serious eye damage/eye irritation and (2) evaluating the method's within-test variability for proposing acceptable and justifiable target values of sensitivity and specificity for alternative methods and their combinations in testing strategies. Among the Cat 1 chemicals evaluated, 36-65 % (depending on the database) were classified based only on persistence of effects, with the remaining being classified mostly based on severe corneal effects. Iritis was found to rarely drive the classification (<4 % of both Cat 1 and Cat 2 chemicals). The two most important endpoints driving Cat 2 classification are conjunctiva redness (75-81 %) and corneal opacity (54-75 %). The resampling analyses demonstrated an overall probability of at least 11 % that chemicals classified as Cat 1 by the Draize eye test could be equally identified as Cat 2 and of about 12 % for Cat 2 chemicals to be equally identified as No Cat. On the other hand, the over-classification error for No Cat and Cat 2 was negligible (<1 %), which strongly suggests a high over-predictive power of the Draize eye test. Moreover, our analyses of the classification drivers suggest a critical revision of the UN GHS/EU CLP decision criteria for the classification of chemicals based on Draize eye test data, in particular Cat 1 based only on persistence of conjunctiva effects or corneal opacity scores of 4. In order to successfully replace the regulatory in vivo Draize eye test, it will

  10. Evaluation of naked eye single tube red cell osmotic fragility test in detecting beta-thalassemia trait.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, K; Lokeshwar, M R; Birewar, N; Nigam, V; Manglani, M V; Raju, N B

    1991-05-01

    The Naked Eye Single Tube Red Cell Osmotic Fragility Test (NESTROFT) was applied to 4 groups of subjects: (i) Normal; (ii) Proven beta-thalassemia trait carriers; (iii) Iron deficiency anemia; and (iv) other hemoglobinopathies, to evaluate its effectiveness as a screening test for beta-thalassemia minor. The test was successful in detecting 105/110 subjects with beta-thalassemia trait. The sensitivity of the test was 95.5% and specificity was 87%. The predictive value of the positive test was 70.5% and that of the negative test was 98.3%. NESTROFT was also positive in 9/17 subjects with HbS trait, in 3/3 subjects with HbD trait and in 1/1 subjects with HbE trait. The test proved to be simple, cheap, easy to perform and adaptable for field surveys, coming close to an ideal screening test for beta-thalassemia minor.

  11. Evaluation of the effects of olopatadine ophthalmic solution, 0.2% on the ocular surface of patients with allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye.

    PubMed

    Mah, F S; O'Brien, T; Kim, T; Torkildsen, G

    2008-02-01

    Olopatadine hydrochloride 0.2% (Pataday, Alcon, Fort Worth, USA) is a topical ocular anti-allergic agent that has shown high rates of efficacy in treating ocular itching, the primary symptom of allergic conjunctivitis, and allows for once-daily dosing. Since some patients suffer from signs or symptoms of dry eye in addition to ocular allergy, this study was designed to evaluate the safety of olopatadine 0.2% in a population of patients with both allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye. This was a single-center, 3-visit, double-masked, randomized study. Fifty-two patients diagnosed with ocular allergy and mild-to-moderate dry eye were evaluated. After a run-in period, patients were randomized to receive either olopatadine hydrochloride 0.2% or a tear saline, and self-dosed once-daily for 1 week. Outcome measures included tear film break-up time, corneal and conjunctival staining, tear volume and flow as measured by fluorophotometry, Schirmer's test, injection, and symptom evaluations. No significant differences between the treatment groups were observed (p > 0.05). No serious adverse events occurred during the trial. Variability in the presentation of dry eye can hinder the observation of treatment effects. Although the study design facilitated the comparison of olopatadine 0.2% against an agent that was certain to not exacerbate dry eye, future comparison of olopatadine 0.2% against other agents in its drug class would provide useful information about relative drug tolerabilities. As there were no significant changes in the signs and symptoms of dry eye, olopatadine hydrochloride 0.2% is safe to use in ocular allergy patients with mild-to-moderate dry eye.

  12. The Eyes Have It

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA'S Ames Research Center contracted with SRI international to contract a device that would be able to anticipate, track, and monitor involuntary ocular movement horizontally, vertically, and with respect to depth-of-field. This development helped research institutions to understand the eye. The Eyetracker, manufactured and distributed by Forward Optical Technologies, Inc. is now used in the clinical/medical field.

  13. Climate services for society: origins, institutional arrangements, and design elements for an evaluation framework

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Catherine; Dessai, Suraje

    2014-01-01

    Climate services involve the generation, provision, and contextualization of information and knowledge derived from climate research for decision making at all levels of society. These services are mainly targeted at informing adaptation to climate variability and change, widely recognized as an important challenge for sustainable development. This paper reviews the development of climate services, beginning with a historical overview, a short summary of improvements in climate information, and a description of the recent surge of interest in climate service development including, for example, the Global Framework for Climate Services, implemented by the World Meteorological Organization in October 2012. It also reviews institutional arrangements of selected emerging climate services across local, national, regional, and international scales. By synthesizing existing literature, the paper proposes four design elements of a climate services evaluation framework. These design elements include: problem identification and the decision-making context; the characteristics, tailoring, and dissemination of the climate information; the governance and structure of the service, including the process by which it is developed; and the socioeconomic value of the service. The design elements are intended to serve as a guide to organize future work regarding the evaluation of when and whether climate services are more or less successful. The paper concludes by identifying future research questions regarding the institutional arrangements that support climate services and nascent efforts to evaluate them. PMID:25798197

  14. Variation among institutional review boards in evaluating the design of a multicenter randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Stark, AR; Tyson, JE; Hibberd, PL

    2010-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to examine the variation among institutional review boards (IRBs) in evaluation of the study design of a multicenter trial. Study Design We assessed the first written response of local IRBs to each site investigator for a multicenter trial of vitamin A supplementation in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants performed by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Each author of this paper independently reviewed and categorized IRB concerns as major, minor or none, according to the predefined criteria. Result Initially, 9 of 18 IRBs withheld approval because of at least one major concern. These concerns reflected difficulties in evaluating specific scientific issues for the design of the trial, including its justification, enrollment criteria, control and experimental therapies, co-interventions, toxicity assessment, outcome monitoring and informed consent. Conclusion The difficulty in assessing appropriate trial design for the specific hypothesis under investigation resulted in considerable variability in the evaluation by local IRBs. PMID:19798046

  15. Evaluation of leadership competencies of executives in Lithuanian public health institutions.

    PubMed

    Stankūnas, Mindaugas; Sauliūnė, Skirmantė; Smith, Tony; Avery, Mark; Šumskas, Linas; Czabanowska, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. Lithuanian and international public health experts emphasize the importance of leadership in public health. The aim of this study was to explore the self-assessed level of leadership competencies of executives in Lithuanian public health institutions. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of executives of Lithuanian public health institutions in 2010. The total number of returned questionnaires was 55 (response rate, 58.5%). Respondents were asked about their competencies in leadership, teamwork, communication, and conflict management. The evaluation was carried out by analyzing the answers provided in the survey, which used a 5-point rating scale. In addition, the Belbin Team-Role Self-Perception Inventory and the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument were used. RESULTS. The results showed that respondents were reserved or limited in their individual capacities through this evaluation of their leadership competencies. The mean score was 3.47 (SD, 0.71). Skills in competency areas of communication, teamwork, and conflict management were scored higher (3.73 [SD, 0.67], 3.73 [SD, 0.62], and 3.53 [SD, 0.63], respectively). Most of executives preferred to choose action-oriented roles (76.2%). The most common role was "implementer" (69.1%). "Avoiding" (52.7%) was the most common conflict solving strategy. The results showed that 89.1% of executives wanted to improve teamwork; 83.6%, leadership competencies; 81.8%, communication; and 80.0%, conflict management. CONCLUSIONS. The study results suggest that the executives of Lithuanian public health institutions evaluate their leadership competencies moderately. These results indicate the value of leadership training for public health executives.

  16. Evaluation of Corneal Biomechanical Properties in Patients With Thyroid Eye Disease Using Ocular Response Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Moghimi, Sasan; Safizadeh, Mona; Mazloumi, Mehdi; Hosseini, Hamid; Vahedian, Zakieh; Rajabi, Mohammad T

    2016-03-01

    To assess variations in the corneal biomechanical properties in thyroid eye disease (TED) patients using ocular response analyzer (ORA). In this observational cross-sectional study, 75 patients with TED and 57 healthy subjects were enrolled. The mean age of the patients and healthy subjects were 47.50±1.55 and 43.6±1.23 years, respectively (P=0.06). All study participants underwent comprehensive ophthalmologic examination, Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT), corneal pachymetry, and corneal biomechanical analysis using ORA. Corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), cornea-compensated IOP value (IOPcc), and Goldmann-corrected IOP value (IOPg) were measured with ORA. Central corneal thickness (CCT) in patients group (536.18±36.20 μm) and control group (539.22±28.83 μm) were not significantly different (P=0.1). In TED group, the IOPcc (20.23±0.54 mm Hg) was significantly higher than both IOP-GAT (17.54±0.49 mm Hg, P<0.001) and IOPg (18.35±0.52, P<0.001). CH in TED patients (9.01±0.20) was significantly lower compared with CH in healthy subjects (10.45±0.21) (P<0.001). Although CRF was lower in TED patients (10.06±0.16) in comparison with normal subjects (10.42±0.29), this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.25). Both CH and CRF were positively correlated with CCT (r=0.52, P<0.001 and r=0.62, P<0.001, respectively) in TED group. In TED patients, CH seems to be lower than in normal subjects. GAT might underestimate the IOP due to differences in corneal properties of cornea in TED patients.

  17. Macular Evaluation wıth Spectral Domain Type Optic Coherence Tomography in Eyes with Acute Nonarteritic Ischemic Optic Neuropathy at the Presentation Visit

    PubMed Central

    Donmez, Oya; Kocaoglu, Gamze; Yaman, Aylin; Bajin, Meltem Soylev; Saatci, Ali Osman

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the macula with spectral domain type optic coherence tomography (OCT) in eyes with acute nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) at the presentation visit. Methods: Medical charts of the 133 patients who received the diagnosis of acute NAION between January 2008 and July 2014 at the Neuro-ophthalmology unit of Dokuz Eylul University were reviewed retrospectively. Sixtythree patients within 30 days of symptom onset with available baseline spectral domain type macular OCT were included in this study. Clinical and macular characteristics of the affected eye were assessed and compared to the fellow eyes. Results: Sixty-three eyes of 63 patients comprised the study group. Twenty one study eyes (33.3%) had normal posterior pole, 22 (34.9%) some evidence of subretinal fluid, 10 (15.8%) vitreomacular adhesion, five (7%) age-related macular degeneration related changes, four (6%) epiretinal membrane and one (1%) previous grid laser scars. On the other hand, 41 of 63 the fellow eyes (65%) had normal posterior pole, ten (15.8%), vitreomacular adhesion, seven (10.7%), age-related macular degeneration related changes, three (4%) epiretinal membrane and two (3%) other type of changes. OCT scan passing through the fovea exhibited 10 or more hyperreflective dots in 10 (15%) of the study eyes whereas two of the fellow eyes (3.2%) had 10 or more hyperreflective dots. Conclusion: Macular OCT can be a part of the routine neuroophthalmologic examination in patients with acute NAION not only to show the NAION related changes such as the subretinal fluid accumulation but also to identify the other coexistent macular abnormalities.

  18. Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, nondestructive evaluation: technical activities 1988. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Yolken, H.T.

    1988-10-01

    The report provides brief reviews of technical activities in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) that were carried out by or for the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST--formerly the National Bureau of Standards) in fiscal year 1988 (October 1, 1987, through September 30, 1988). The reviews in the annual report are arranged in the following sections that reflect the NDE Program's four major activity areas: NDE for Ceramic and Metal Powder Production and Consolidation; NDE for Formability of Metals; NDE for Composites Processing and Interfaces; and NDE Standards and Methods. Each of the sections is preceded by an introduction.

  19. 34 CFR 657.20 - How does the Secretary evaluate an institutional application for an allocation of fellowships?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application for an allocation of fellowships? 657.20 Section 657.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of... FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND AREA STUDIES FELLOWSHIPS PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Select an Institution for an Allocation of Fellowships? § 657.20 How does the Secretary evaluate an institutional application for...

  20. 34 CFR 657.20 - How does the Secretary evaluate an institutional application for an allocation of fellowships?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... application for an allocation of fellowships? 657.20 Section 657.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of... FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND AREA STUDIES FELLOWSHIPS PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Select an Institution for an Allocation of Fellowships? § 657.20 How does the Secretary evaluate an institutional application for...

  1. 34 CFR 657.20 - How does the Secretary evaluate an institutional application for an allocation of fellowships?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... application for an allocation of fellowships? 657.20 Section 657.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of... FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND AREA STUDIES FELLOWSHIPS PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Select an Institution for an Allocation of Fellowships? § 657.20 How does the Secretary evaluate an institutional application for...

  2. 34 CFR 657.20 - How does the Secretary evaluate an institutional application for an allocation of fellowships?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application for an allocation of fellowships? 657.20 Section 657.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of... FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND AREA STUDIES FELLOWSHIPS PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Select an Institution for an Allocation of Fellowships? § 657.20 How does the Secretary evaluate an institutional application for...

  3. 34 CFR 657.20 - How does the Secretary evaluate an institutional application for an allocation of fellowships?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... application for an allocation of fellowships? 657.20 Section 657.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of... FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND AREA STUDIES FELLOWSHIPS PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Select an Institution for an Allocation of Fellowships? § 657.20 How does the Secretary evaluate an institutional application for...

  4. Are Summer Institutes Funded by FHWA and State Departments of Transportation Effective? Case Studies of Evaluation and Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleong, Chandra; Aleong, John

    2008-01-01

    For the last three years Delaware State University (DSU) and the University of Vermont (UVM) have implemented a new approach to a summer program or "Institute" that emphasizes evaluation and accountability. Beginning in 2005, both institutes changed the focus of their programs to fulfill not only the primary objectives of instilling…

  5. National Trauma Institute prospective evaluation of the ventilator bundle in trauma patients: does it really work?

    PubMed

    Croce, Martin A; Brasel, Karen J; Coimbra, Raul; Adams, Charles A; Miller, Preston R; Pasquale, Michael D; McDonald, Chanchai S; Vuthipadadon, Somchan; Fabian, Timothy C; Tolley, Elizabeth A

    2013-02-01

    Since its introduction by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement, the ventilator bundle (VB) has been credited with a reduction in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The VB consists of stress ulcer prophylaxis, deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis, head-of-bed elevation, and daily sedation vacation with weaning assessment. While there is little compelling evidence that the VB is effective, it has been widely accepted. The Centers for Medical and Medicaid Services has suggested that VAP should be a "never event" and may reduce payment to providers. To provide evidence of its efficacy, the National Trauma Institute organized a prospective multi-institutional trial to evaluate the utility of the VB. This prospective observational multi-institutional study included six Level I trauma centers. Entry criteria required at least 2 days of mechanical ventilation of trauma patients in an intensive care unit (ICU). Patients were followed up daily in the ICU until the development of VAP, ICU discharge, or death. Compliance for each VB component was recorded daily, along with patient risk factors and injury specifics. Primary outcomes were VAP and death. VB compliance was analyzed as a time-dependent covariate using Cox regression as it relates to outcomes. A total 630 patients were enrolled; 72% were male, predominately with blunt injury; and mean age, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and 24-hour Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score were 47, 24, and 8.7, respectively. VAP occurred in 36%; mortality was 15%. Logistic regression identified male sex and pulmonary contusion as independent predictors of VAP and age, ISS, and 24-hour Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation as independent predictors of death. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the VB, as a time-dependent covariate, was not associated with VAP prevention. In trauma patients, VAP is independently associated with male sex and chest injury severity and not the VB. While quality improvement activities should

  6. Eyes, Bulging (Proptosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... them know what to expect during the evaluation. Warning signs In people with bulging eyes, certain symptoms ... child When to see a doctor People with warning signs should see a doctor as soon as ...

  7. Scientific Considerations for Evaluating Cancer Bioassays Conducted by the Ramazzini Institute

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Jane C.; Jinot, Jennifer; Evans, Marina V.; Cote, Ila; Vandenberg, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Ramazzini Institute (RI) has completed nearly 400 cancer bioassays on > 200 compounds. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and others have suggested that study design and protocol differences between the RI and other laboratories by may contribute to controversy regarding cancer hazard findings, principally findings on lymphoma/leukemia diagnoses. Objective: We aimed to evaluate RI study design, protocol differences, and accuracy of tumor diagnoses for their impact on carcinogenic hazard characterization. Methods: We analyzed the findings from a recent Pathology Working Group (PWG) review of RI procedures and tumor diagnoses, evaluated consistency of RI and other laboratory findings for chemicals identified by the RI as positive for lymphoma/leukemia, and examined evidence for a number of other issues raised regarding RI bioassays. The RI cancer bioassay design and protocols were evaluated in the context of relevant risk assessment guidance from international authorities. Discussion: Although the PWG identified close agreement with RI diagnoses for most tumor types, it did not find close agreement for lymphoma/leukemia of the respiratory tract or for neoplasms of the inner ear and cranium. Here we discuss a) the implications of the PWG findings, particularly lymphoma diagnostic issues; b) differences between RI studies and those from other laboratories that are relevant to evaluating RI cancer bioassays; and c) future work that may help resolve some concerns. Conclusions: We concluded that a) issues related to respiratory tract infections have complicated diagnoses at that site (i.e., lymphoma/leukemia), as well as for neoplasms of the inner ear and cranium, and b) there is consistency and value in RI studies for identification of other chemical-related neoplasia. Citation: Gift JS, Caldwell JC, Jinot J, Evans MV, Cote I, Vandenberg JJ. 2013. Scientific considerations for evaluating cancer bioassays conducted by the Ramazzini Institute

  8. Evaluation of the clinical efficacy and safety of an eye counter pad containing caffeine and vitamin K in emulsified Emu oil base

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadraji, Fatemeh; Shatalebi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: People strive to maintain the best look and have a youthful appearance. The skin around the eye is an area without many oil glands and collagen in comparison to the body rest, so it is more prone to fine lines and dehydration, which makes it look dull. The aim of this research is to develop and evaluate in vivo efficacy of an anti-wrinkle and dark circle eye pad consisting of 3% w/w caffeine and 1% vitamin K in a convenient, healthy, and cosmeceutical base. Materials and Methods: Pre-emulsions containing selected ingredients in a specified effective concentration were prepared. The selected formulation, based upon pharmaceutical parameters, was coated on a nonwoven fabric in an eye counter shape, and stored in a jar. Then in vivo trial was carried out for investigation of its anti-wrinkling efficacy on 11 healthy women. In a single blind trial, the sample pad was applied under the right eye and the placebo pad, consisting of water, was placed under the left eye simultaneously. The efficacy and safety of the formulation was evaluated visually and with a multi skin test MC 900 instrument. Result: After four weeks, the skin around the right eye of all the subjects experienced a reduction in the depth of wrinkles and dark circles, and from a subjective point of view, the appearance and elasticity of the skin were improved. Conclusions: The caffeine pad containing vitamin K in an Emu oil base shows an improvement in eye counter appearance with anti-dark circle capacity and as an emollient. PMID:25625116

  9. Evaluation of eye tissue elasticity by means of sound propagation speed measuring in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crispim, Joao; Bogar, Adriano; Allemann, Norma; Neto, Jarbas C. C.; Chamon, Wallace

    2015-06-01

    Introduction: To date, it has never been demonstrated the propagation sound speed in human corneas and lens in vivo. With the advent of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), it became possible to determine the dimensions of the ocular tissues without the interference of sound propagation speed and to use this information to define the real propagation sound speed for each patient and individualized structure. Aim: To determine the sound propagation speed in the cornea and lens from patients that theoretically exhibits differences in tissue elasticity (normal corneas and keratoconus, corneas of young and elderly patients, in addition to clear crystalline lens from young and elderly patients with cataract). Then, relate the determined velocity in each group with the expected tissue elasticity of the cornea and lens. Methods: We studied 100 eyes from 50 patients: 50 with keratoconus and no cataract and 50 with cataract and no corneal changes. All patients measured corneal and lens thickness by ultrasound methods (Ultrasonic Biomicroscopy - UBM and Ultrasonic Pachymetry - USP) and by OCT (RTVue®, Lenstar® and Visante®), then were divided into 2 groups: Group 1 (Cornea) analyzed the central corneal thickness (UBM, USP, RTVue®, Visante®, Lenstar®); Group 2 (Lens) analyzed the axial thickness of the lens (UBM and Lenstar®). Based on standard ultrasonic speed from USP (1640 m/s) and UBM (1548 m/s), we calculated the real sound propagation speed in each tissue. Results: Based on USP, the corneal sound speed on control group (1616 m/s) was faster than on keratoconus group (1547 m/s) (P < 0.0001). Based on UBM, the lens sound speed on cataract group (1664 m/s) was faster that on control group (1605 m/s) (P < 0.0001). Discussion: It is known that sound propagates faster in materials with lower elasticity. We found that the sound speed on keratoconic corneas (high elasticity) was slower and on cataract lens (lower elasticity) was faster than normal corneas and lens in vivo.

  10. Quality of institutional care of older people as evaluated by nursing staff.

    PubMed

    Isola, Arja; Backman, Kaisa; Voutilainen, Päivi; Rautsiala, Tarja

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to report on the quality of institutional nursing of older people as evaluated by nursing staff in 2001 and to compare the responses with those obtained in 1998. The healthcare division of one Finnish city authorised an outside survey of long-term geriatric care in the hospitals providing such care in 1998. Based on the results, recommendations concerning the development of care of older people were issued. A re-survey was conducted in 2001, using the same criteria of quality assessment. A survey research method was used. All the seven institutions providing long-term geriatric care, including a total of 53 wards, participated. In 1998, a total of 607 questionnaires was returned. The response percentage was 78.6%. In 2001, a total of 573 questionnaires was returned. The response percentage was 76.8%. The staff considered their possibilities to help geriatric patients best in the domain of physical care and slightly less good in the domain of psychosocial care. The differences in staff estimates between the two years were very small. More than 90% of the respondents considered their knowledge of physical care adequate. The nursing staff's evaluations were roughly similar in 1998 and 2001. More than 98% of the respondents considered the helping of older people important or moderately important in the other subdomains except sexual expression. According to the nursing staff, intentional or unintentional negligence in care was more common than physically or psychically offensive conduct. Observations concerning maltreatment had increased from 1998 to 2001. The staff reported both physical and mental fatigue. Nevertheless, the nursing staff appeared to be quite content with their current workplaces. The findings indicated that geriatric care mostly aims to respond to the physical needs of older people. Nursing should, therefore, be developed and improved because mere satisfaction of physical needs is not enough to guarantee a good quality of

  11. Evaluating institutional capacity for research ethics in Africa: a case study from Botswana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The increase in the volume of research conducted in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC), has brought a renewed international focus on processes for ethical conduct of research. Several programs have been initiated to strengthen the capacity for research ethics in LMIC. However, most such programs focus on individual training or development of ethics review committees. The objective of this paper is to present an approach to institutional capacity assessment in research ethics and application of this approach in the form of a case study from an institution in Africa. Methods We adapted the Octagon model originally used by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency to assess an organization along eight domains in research ethics: basic values and identity; structure and organization; ability to carry out activities; relevance of activities to stated goals; capacity of staff and management; administrative, financing and accounting systems; its relations with target groups; and the national context. We used a mixed methods approach to collect empirical data at the University of Botswana from March to December 2010. Results The overall shape of the external evaluation Octagon suggests that strengths of the University of Botswana are in the areas of structure, relevance, production and identity; while the university still needs more work in the areas of systems of finance, target groups, and environment. The Octagons also show the similarities and discrepancies between the 'external' and 'internal' evaluations and provide an opportunity for exploration of these different assessments. For example, the discrepant score for 'identity' between internal and external evaluations allows for an exploration of what constitutes a strong identity for research ethics at the University of Botswana and how it can be strengthened. Conclusions There is a general lack of frameworks for evaluating research ethics capacity in LMICs. We presented an approach that

  12. Biophysical and Morphological Evaluation of Human Normal and Dry Eye Meibum Using Hot Stage Polarized Light Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Butovich, Igor A.; Lu, Hua; McMahon, Anne; Ketelson, Howard; Senchyna, Michelle; Meadows, David; Campbell, Elaine; Molai, Mike; Linsenbardt, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To study melting characteristics and the morphology of human and mouse meibum. Methods. Hot stage cross-polarized light microscopy (HSPM) and immunohistochemical approaches were used. Results. Isolated human meibum, and meibum of mice (either isolated or within the meibomian ducts of mice), were found to be in liquid-crystal state at physiological temperatures. Melting of both types of meibum started at approximately 10°C and was completed at approximately 40°C. Melting curves of isolated meibum and meibum inside the meibomian ducts were multiphasic with at least two or three clearly defined phase transition temperatures, typically at approximately 12 ± 2°C (minor transition), 21 ± 3°C, and 32 ± 3°C, regardless the source of meibum. Melting was highly cooperative in nature. Samples of abnormal human meibum collected from dry eye patients with meibomian gland dysfunction often showed an increased presence of nonlipid, nonmelting, nonbirefringent, chloroform-insoluble inclusions of a protein nature. The inclusions were positively stained for cytokeratins. The presence of these inclusions was semiquantitatively characterized using a newly proposed 0 to 4 scale. In the presence of large amounts of these inclusions, melting characteristics of meibum and its structural integrity were altered. Conclusions. HSPM is an effective tool that is suitable for biophysical and morphological evaluation of meibum. Morphological properties and melting characteristics of human meibum were found to be similar to those of mice. Abnormal meibum of many dry eye patients contained large quantities of nonlipid, protein-like inclusions, which were routinely absent in meibum of normal controls. PMID:24282231

  13. Evaluation of Eye Irritation Potential of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Achyranthes aspera by In Vitro and In Vivo Method.

    PubMed

    Rajpal Deshmukh, Gajanan; Hema Kumar, Kuntrapakam; Suresh Reddy, Poojari Venkata; Srinivasa Rao, Boddapati; Venkata Satish Kumar, Chirumamilla

    2012-01-01

    The present paper is an attempt to investigate the eye irritation potential of aqueous leaf extract of Achyranthes aspera by in vitro, Hen's Egg Chorioallantoic Membrane Test (HET-CAM) and in vivo acute eye irritation test in rabbits. The irritation score (IS) obtained after treatment of the extract on HET-CAM is 0.07 and that of in rabbits is 0.55, Which does not comes under either category 1 or 2 as per the harmonized integrated classification system. The aqueous extract of Achyranthes aspera showed no eye irritation properties both in vitro and in vivo methods when compared with negative control whereas positive controls showed eye irritation potential.

  14. Fibrinoid reaction after lens extraction in rabbit eyes.

    PubMed

    Ben Simon, Guy J; Kenet, Gili; Spierer, Abraham

    2012-05-01

    To measure the inflammatory reaction in the anterior chamber after lens extraction in a rabbit model and to evaluate the effect of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or steroids on the amount of inflammation as measured by fibrinogen levels in the aqueous humor. Animal laboratory, Goldschleger Research Institute, Tel Aviv University, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel. Experimental study. Twenty-six eyes of New Zealand white rabbits had lens extraction surgery. One day later, aqueous humor (∼0.1 mL) was withdrawn from the anterior chamber and examined for fibrinogen concentration. Control rabbits received no treatment (9 eyes) or artificial tear eyedrops (5 eyes). One study group received NSAID drops (diclofenac) (6 eyes), and another study group received steroid drops (dexamethasone-neomycin) (6 eyes). All rabbits were treated hourly for 9 applications. Aqueous humor (∼0.1 mL) was withdrawn from the anterior chamber and examined for fibrinogen concentration 1 day later. Fibrinogen levels were also measured in the aqueous in 8 unoperated eyes. Steroid-treated eyes achieved the lowest inflammatory score, followed by NSAID eyes, artificial tears eyes, and untreated eyes. The mean fibrinogen concentrations in the aqueous humor were 69.1 mg% untreated, 52.0 mg% artificial tears, 18.5 mg% NSAIDs, and 2.8 mg% steroids (P=.002). Measurement of aqueous fibrinogen after lens extraction surgery in a rabbit animal model was simple and provided a useful parameter for precise evaluation of postoperative intraocular reaction. Steroids and NSAIDs were effective in reducing postoperative inflammation. Steroids reduced inflammation to almost undetectable values. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Staff Survey Results, 1999-2000. Eye on Evaluation. E&R Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Nartarshia

    Evaluation and Research staff of the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS), North Carolina, have conducted spring surveys of school staff since 1992. These surveys provide important information about staff perceptions of individual schools, the system overall, and specific programs and initiatives. School administrators and professionals,…

  16. An Evaluation of the New Teacher Induction Program in Turkey through the Eyes of Beginning Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hangül, Sükrü

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this study was to explore and compare beginning teachers' experiences and evaluations about the new teacher induction program put into practice by the Turkish Ministry of Education. According to the directive and training program announced by the Ministry of Education on March 2nd 2016, the teachers who were appointed in February, 2016 took…

  17. The IMPACT study: a prospective evaluation of the effects of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% on ocular surface staining and visual performance in patients with dry eye

    PubMed Central

    Stonecipher, Karl G; Torkildsen, Gail L; Ousler, George W; Morris, Scot; Villanueva, Linda; Hollander, David A

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% on ocular surface staining and visual performance in patients with dry eye. Methods This was a single-center, 6-month, open-label, Phase IV study. Patients with bilateral dry eye disease and a symptom score of ≥2 on the Ocular Discomfort and 4-Symptom Questionnaire, an Ocular Surface Disease Index score of >12, at least one eye with Schirmer’s score <10 mm/5 minutes, and central corneal staining graded as ≥2 on the Ora Calibra™ Corneal and Conjunctival Staining Scale were enrolled. Cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Restasis®) was instilled twice daily in each eye. The primary efficacy endpoints were ocular surface staining and visual function at 6 months. Secondary outcome measures included Schirmer’s test, tear film breakup time, symptoms, and adverse events. Results A total of 40 patients with the mean age of 59.4 years (range, 40–78 years) were enrolled; 35 (87.5%) were female and 37 (92.5%) completed the study. At 6 months, inferior corneal, central corneal, total corneal, and total ocular surface fluorescein staining were significantly improved from baseline in both eyes (P<0.001). Patient responses on the Ocular Surface Disease Index showed significant improvement in blurred vision and visual function related to reading, driving at night, working with a computer or bank machine, and watching television (P≤0.041). At 6 months, 35.1% of patients achieved ≥5 mm improvement and 18.9% achieved ≥10 mm improvement in the average eye Schirmer score. Mean tear film breakup time improved by >50% in both eyes (P>0.001). Patients reported significant improvement in ocular discomfort and dry eye symptoms (P<0.001). No patients discontinued treatment because of stinging or any other ocular adverse event. Conclusion Dry eye patients with difficulties with day-to-day visual function demonstrated improvement in both signs and symptoms of dry eye and

  18. A pilot study to evaluate incorporating eye care for children into reproductive and child health services in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania: a historical comparison study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many blinding eye conditions of childhood are preventable or treatable, particularly in developing countries. However, primary eye care (PEC) for children is poorly developed, leading to unnecessary visual loss. Activities for control by health workers entail interventions for systemic conditions (measles, vitamin A deficiency), identification and referral of children with sight threatening conditions and health education for caregivers. This pilot study evaluated integrating a package of activities to promote child eye health into Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) services in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Design: historical comparison study. Fifteen Clinical Officers and 15 nurses in 15 randomly selected RCH clinics were trained in PEC for children in July 2010. They were given educational materials (poster and manual) and their supervisors were orientated. Knowledge and practices were assessed before and 3 weeks after training. One year later their knowledge and practices were compared with a different group of 15 Clinical Officers and 15 nurses who had not been trained. Results Before training staff had insufficient knowledge to identify, treat and refer children with eye diseases, even conjunctivitis. Some recommended harmful practices or did not know that cataract requires urgent referral. Eye examination, vitamin A supplementation of mothers after delivery and cleaning the eyes at birth with instillation of antibiotics (Crede’s prophylaxis) were not routine, and there were no eye-specific educational materials. Three weeks after training several clinics delivering babies started Crede’s prophylaxis, vitamin A supplementation of women after delivery increased from 83.7% to 100%, and all staff included eye conditions in health education sessions. At one year, trained staff were more likely to correctly describe, diagnose and treat conjunctivitis (z=2.34, p=0.04)(30%-vs-60.7%). Mystery mothers observed health education sessions in 7/10 RCH

  19. The IMPACT study: a prospective evaluation of the effects of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% on ocular surface staining and visual performance in patients with dry eye.

    PubMed

    Stonecipher, Karl G; Torkildsen, Gail L; Ousler, George W; Morris, Scot; Villanueva, Linda; Hollander, David A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% on ocular surface staining and visual performance in patients with dry eye. This was a single-center, 6-month, open-label, Phase IV study. Patients with bilateral dry eye disease and a symptom score of ≥2 on the Ocular Discomfort and 4-Symptom Questionnaire, an Ocular Surface Disease Index score of >12, at least one eye with Schirmer's score <10 mm/5 minutes, and central corneal staining graded as ≥2 on the Ora Calibra™ Corneal and Conjunctival Staining Scale were enrolled. Cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Restasis(®)) was instilled twice daily in each eye. The primary efficacy endpoints were ocular surface staining and visual function at 6 months. Secondary outcome measures included Schirmer's test, tear film breakup time, symptoms, and adverse events. A total of 40 patients with the mean age of 59.4 years (range, 40-78 years) were enrolled; 35 (87.5%) were female and 37 (92.5%) completed the study. At 6 months, inferior corneal, central corneal, total corneal, and total ocular surface fluorescein staining were significantly improved from baseline in both eyes (P<0.001). Patient responses on the Ocular Surface Disease Index showed significant improvement in blurred vision and visual function related to reading, driving at night, working with a computer or bank machine, and watching television (P≤0.041). At 6 months, 35.1% of patients achieved ≥5 mm improvement and 18.9% achieved ≥10 mm improvement in the average eye Schirmer score. Mean tear film breakup time improved by >50% in both eyes (P>0.001). Patients reported significant improvement in ocular discomfort and dry eye symptoms (P<0.001). No patients discontinued treatment because of stinging or any other ocular adverse event. Dry eye patients with difficulties with day-to-day visual function demonstrated improvement in both signs and symptoms of dry eye and reported improved visual function after 6

  20. Eyeing Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jupiter casts a baleful eye toward the moon Ganymede in this enhanced-contrast image from NASA's Cassini spacecraft.

    Jupiter's 'eye', the Great Red Spot, was captured just before disappearing around the eastern edge of the planet. The furrowed eyebrow above and to the left of the spot is a turbulent wake region caused by westward flow that has been deflected to the north and around the Red Spot. The smallest features visible are about 240 kilometers (150 miles) across.

    Within the band south of the Red Spot are a trio of white ovals, high pressure counterclockwise-rotating regions that are dynamically similar to the Red Spot. The dark filamentary features interspersed between white ovals are probably cyclonic circulations and, unlike the ovals, are rotating clockwise.

    Jupiter's equatorial zone stretching across the planet north of the Spot appears bright white, with gigantic plume clouds spreading out from the equator both to the northeast and to the southeast in a chevron pattern. This zone looks distinctly different than it did during the Voyager flyby 21 years ago. Then, its color was predominantly brown and the only white plumes conspicuous against the darker material beneath them were oriented southwest-to-northeast.

    Ganymede is Jupiter's largest moon, about 50 percent larger than our own Moon and larger than the planet Mercury. The visible details in this image are different geological terrains. Dark areas tend to be older and heavily cratered; brighter areas are younger and less cratered. Cassini images of Ganymede and Jupiter's other large moons taken near closest approach on Dec. 30 will have resolutions about four times better than that seen here.

    This image is a color composite of ones taken with different filters by Cassini's narrow-angle camera on Nov. 18, 2000, processed to enhance contrast. Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of

  1. Eye development.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nicholas E; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-06-15

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This article provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens.

  2. An Evaluation of the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes-Test" with Seventh to Ninth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Müller, Christoph Michael; Gmünder, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders are often considered to have difficulty with using facial cues (e.g., cues from the eye region) to understand others' mental states. One of the pioneering assessments to test competence in this skill is the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes-Test" (RMET). In order to find out more about the…

  3. An Evaluation of the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes-Test" with Seventh to Ninth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Müller, Christoph Michael; Gmünder, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders are often considered to have difficulty with using facial cues (e.g., cues from the eye region) to understand others' mental states. One of the pioneering assessments to test competence in this skill is the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes-Test" (RMET). In order to find out more about the…

  4. Radiobiology for eye plaque brachytherapy and evaluation of implant duration and radionuclide choice using an objective function

    SciTech Connect

    Gagne, Nolan L.; Leonard, Kara L.; Rivard, Mark J.

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: Clinical optimization of Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) eye plaque brachytherapy is currently limited to tumor coverage, consensus prescription dosage, and dose calculations to ocular structures. The biologically effective dose (BED) of temporary brachytherapy treatments is a function of both chosen radionuclide R and implant duration T. This study endeavored to evaluate BED delivered to the tumor volume and surrounding ocular structures as a function of plaque position P, prescription dose, R, and T. Methods: Plaque-heterogeneity-corrected dose distributions were generated with MCNP5 for the range of currently available COMS plaques loaded with sources using three available low-energy radionuclides. These physical dose distributions were imported into the PINNACLE{sup 3} treatment planning system using the TG-43 hybrid technique and used to generate dose volume histograms for a T = 7 day implant within a reference eye geometry including the ciliary body, cornea, eyelid, foveola, lacrimal gland, lens, optic disc, optic nerve, retina, and tumor at eight standard treatment positions. The equation of Dale and Jones was employed to create biologically effective dose volume histograms (BEDVHs), allowing for BED volumetric analysis of all ROIs. Isobiologically effective prescription doses were calculated for T = 5 days down to 0.01 days, with BEDVHs subsequently generated for all ROIs using correspondingly reduced prescription doses. Objective functions were created to evaluate the BEDVHs as a function of R and T. These objective functions are mathematically accessible and sufficiently general to be applied to temporary or permanent brachytherapy implants for a variety of disease sites. Results: Reducing T from 7 to 0.01 days for a 10 mm plaque produced an average BED benefit of 26%, 20%, and 17% for {sup 103}Pd, {sup 125}I, and {sup 131}Cs, respectively, for all P; 16 and 22 mm plaque results were more position-dependent. {sup 103}Pd produced a 16

  5. Diabetes eye exams

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...

  6. A multi-institution evaluation of MLC log files and performance in IMRT delivery.

    PubMed

    Kerns, James R; Childress, Nathan; Kry, Stephen F

    2014-08-11

    The multileaf collimator (MLC) is a critical component to accurate intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivery. This study examined MLC positional accuracy via MLC logs from Varian machines from six institutions and three delivery techniques to evaluate typical positional accuracy and treatment and mechanical parameters that affect accuracy. Typical accuracy achieved was compared against TG-142 recommendations for MLC performance; more appropriate recommendations are suggested. Over 85,000 Varian MLC treatment logs were collected from six institutions and analyzed with FractionCHECK. Data were binned according to institution and treatment type to determine overall root mean square (RMS) and 95th percentile error values, and then to look for correlations between those errors and with mechanical and treatment parameters including mean and maximum leaf speed, gantry angle, beam-on time, mean leaf error, and number of segments. Results of treatment logs found that leaf RMS error and 95th percentile leaf error were consistent between institutions, but varied by treatment type. The step and shoot technique had very small errors: the mean RMS leaf error was 0.008 mm. For dynamic treatments the mean RMS leaf error was 0.32 mm, while volumetric-modulated arc treatment (VMAT) showed an RMS leaf error of 0.46 mm. Most MLC leaf errors were found to be well below TG-142 recommended tolerances. For the dynamic and VMAT techniques, the mean and maximum leaf speeds were significantly linked to the leaf RMS error. Additionally, for dynamic delivery, the mean leaf error was correlated with RMS error, whereas for VMAT the average gantry speed was correlated. For all treatments, the RMS error and the 95th percentile leaf error were correlated. Restricting the maximum leaf speed can help improve MLC performance for dynamic and VMAT deliveries. Furthermore, the tolerances of leaf RMS and error counts for all treatment types should be tightened from the TG-142 values to make them

  7. Outcome evaluation of patients with newly diagnosed anaplastic gliomas treated in a single institution.

    PubMed

    Pessina, Federico; Navarria, Pierina; Cozzi, Luca; Tomatis, Stefano; Clerici, Elena; Ascolese, Anna Maria; Simonelli, Matteo; Perrino, Matteo; Riva, Marco; Rossi, Marco; Rudà, Roberta; Santoro, Armando; Bello, Lorenzo; Scorsetti, Marta

    2017-07-18

    To evaluate the outcome of newly diagnosed anaplastic glioma patients treated in our institution in relation to the 2016 WHO classification suggestions. This retrospective study included patients who underwent surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy alone or concomitant and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Response was recorded using the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology criteria. 123 patients were analyzed. The median progression-free survival time and the 2, 3 and 5 years progression-free survival rate were 27 months, 65.5, 21.2 and 21.2%; the 2, 3 and 5 years overall survival rate were 89.7, 83.0 and 58.4%. From the univariate/multivariate analysis, the factors conditioning survival were Karnofsky performance scale, extent of resection, IDH1 mutation status and presence of 1p/19q codeletion. The choice of adjuvant treatment have to consider molecular assessment and, in our experience, the extent of surgical resection.

  8. Evaluation of the William S. Hall Psychiatric Institute Clinical Psychology Internship: a replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Stader, Sandra R; Myers, DeRosset; Forand, Angela Q; Holmes, George R; McNulty, George F; Frey, Linda; Bolton, Staci S

    2010-12-01

    This study extends three earlier investigations involving participants who completed their predoctoral clinical psychology internship at the William S. Hall Psychiatric Institute. Intern graduates (N = 37) evaluated how effectively their internship training prepared them for seven aspects of their current work as practicing psychologists. Participants also rated the relevancy of 24 different internship training experiences to their current work and how much these experiences contributed to their development as clinical psychologists. The present study, in conjunction with the three previous studies, covers most of the 40-year period since the inception of the internship program. Analysis of the current data indicates the internship has improved over time and was deemed an exceptional training experience by its graduates. Findings may be of particular interest to internship directors and faculty interested in improving their training program and those who plan to conduct a self-study to maintain their accreditation for clinical psychology internship.

  9. Evaluation of Ocular Gene Therapy in an Italian Patient Affected by Congenital Leber Amaurosis Type 2 Treated in Both Eyes.

    PubMed

    Testa, Francesco; Maguire, Albert M; Rossi, Settimio; Marshall, Kathleen; Auricchio, Alberto; Melillo, Paolo; Bennett, Jean; Simonelli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy clinical trials with gene augmentation therapy for Leber Congenital Amaurosis have shown partial reversal of retinal dysfunction. Most studies described the effect of treatment in a single eye and limited evidence is reported in literature about patients treated in both eyes. In this chapter, we present the findings of a young patient treated in both eyes. Efficacy of the treatment was assessed with Best Corrected Visual Acuity, Goldman Visual Field testing, Esterman computerized binocular visual field and Microperimetric testing. Post-treatment results showed improvement of visual function in both eyes, in particular, a strong amelioration was observed after the first injection, by using conventional monocular tests. Moreover, the treatment in the second eye resulted in a further improvement of binocular visual functionality, as easily detected by computerized binocular visual field. In conclusion, our data suggest that gene therapy can inhibit retinal degeneration and can be safe and effective in restoring visual functionality in young subjects treated in both eyes. Finally, new outcome measurements, in particular binocular computerized visual field parameters, can therefore be useful to quantify overall visual gain in patients undergoing gene therapy in both eyes.

  10. Evaluating research training outcomes: experience from the cancer prevention fellowship program at the National Cancer Institute.

    PubMed

    Dores, Graça M; Chang, Shine; Berger, Vance W; Perkins, Susan N; Hursting, Stephen D; Weed, Douglas L

    2006-06-01

    The authors describe an evaluation approach to assess research training that is easy to implement, takes into account individual experience and diversity in research disciplines, and can be adapted to measure various outcomes, depending upon program goals. Using publications as the outcome measure, the authors analyzed data from 66 trainees in the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) to illustrate this evaluation strategy. For postdoctoral fellows entering the CPFP between 1987 and 1997, the authors considered the three-year period prior to entry in the CPFP (pre-CPFP), the period during training, and the three-year period after completion of the CPFP (post-CPFP). Summary measures for individuals' publications during each of the three time periods were calculated, and the probability of change in total, peer-reviewed, and first-authored publications post-CPFP compared to pre-CPFP was assessed. Compared to pre-CPFP, the CPFP fellows published significantly more total, peer-reviewed, and first-authored publications post-CPFP. Post-CPFP younger individuals published more than older fellows. MDs had a greater increase in publications over time than did PhDs, but both groups had similar overall numbers of publications post-CPFP. Individuals pursuing a master of public health degree during training published more post-CPFP than did those who did not pursue this training in the program. Training programs facing the challenge of evaluating research outcomes will require new evaluation methods that take into account program goals. This easily adaptable, longitudinal evaluation strategy allows for diversity in research disciplines and research experience and can inform programmatic needs and individual progress.

  11. Eye Movement Disorders in Dyslexia. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Festinger, Leon; And Others

    Eye movements of 18 male and seven female dyslexic children and 10 normal children were evaluated to determine if eye movement disorders may be the cause of some of the symptoms associated with dyslexia. Data on eye movements were collected while Ss moved their eyes from one fixation point to another in a nonreading situation. Errors in vertical…

  12. Evaluating Cognitive Action Control Using Eye-Movement Analysis: An Oculomotor Adaptation of the Simon Task

    PubMed Central

    Duprez, Joan; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Naudet, Florian; Dondaine, Thibaut; Auffret, Manon; Robert, Gabriel; Drapier, Dominique; Argaud, Soizic; Vérin, Marc; Sauleau, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive action control has been extensively studied using conflict tasks such as the Simon task. In most recent studies, this process has been investigated in the light of the dual route hypothesis and more specifically of the activation-suppression model using distributional analyses. Some authors have suggested that cognitive action control assessment is not specific to response modes. In this study we adapted the Simon task, using oculomotor responses instead of manual responses, in order to evaluate whether the resolution of conflict induced by a two-dimensional stimulus yielded similar results to what is usually reported in tasks with manual responses. Results obtained from 43 young healthy participants revealed the typical congruence effect, with longer reaction times (RT) and lesser accuracy in the incongruent condition. Conditional accuracy functions (CAF) also revealed a higher proportion of fast errors in the incongruent condition and delta plots confirmed that conflict resolution was easier, as the time taken to respond increased. These results are very similar to what has been reported in the literature. Furthermore, our observations are in line with the assumptions of the activation-suppression model, in which automatic activation in conflict situations is captured in the fastest responses and selective inhibition of cognitive action control needs time to build up. Altogether, our results suggest that conflict resolution has core mechanisms whatever the response mode, manual or oculomotor. Using oculomotor responses in such tasks could be of interest when investigating cognitive action control in patients with severe motor disorders. PMID:26973499

  13. Eye Health

    PubMed Central

    Connell, A. M. S.

    1988-01-01

    The status of eye care in the Caribbean is discussed. Methods of primary eye care providers at all levels from primary to tertiary in the region are presented against a background of the major causes of blindness, cataract, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. Epidemiological surveys examining prevalence, risk factors, and intervention programs are being undertaken. PMID:3404562

  14. Eyes - bulging

    MedlinePlus

    ... emotional support is important. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if: You have bulging eyes and the cause has not yet been diagnosed. Bulging eyes are accompanied by other symptoms. ... The provider will ask about your medical history and do a physical exam. Some questions ...

  15. Evaluating Adherence to Dilated Eye Examination Recommendations Among Patients with Diabetes, Combined with Patient and Provider Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Maxine D.; Rajput, Yamina; Gu, Tao; Singer, Joseph R.; Marshall, Amanda R.; Ryu, Seonyoung; Barron, John; MacLean, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus remains the leading cause of new cases of blindness among US adults. Routine dilated eye examinations can facilitate early detection and intervention for diabetes-related eye disease, providing an opportunity to reduce the risk for diabetes-related blindness in working-aged Americans. The Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) established criteria for performing dilated eye examination in patients with diabetes. Objectives To obtain information about adherence and nonadherence to diabetic eye examinations among insured patients to understand the barriers to routine dilated eye examinations, and to identify ways to improve the quality of care for these patients. Methods This retrospective claims analysis is based on administrative claims from the HealthCore Integrated Research Database, a broad database representing claims from a large commercially insured population. Patients with diabetes and who had ≥1 dilated eye examinations between August 1, 2011, and July 31, 2013, were defined as adherent to the HEDIS recommendations. The analysis was augmented with findings from focus groups. The patient focus groups included adherent and nonadherent patients. The provider focus group participants were general practice or internal medicine physicians and ophthalmologists who provided medical care for the study population. For the administrative claims analysis, comparisons between the adherent and nonadherent patients were performed using t-tests for continuous data and chi-square tests for categorical data. Results Of 339,646 patients with diabetes identified in a claims data set, 43% were adherent and 57% were nonadherent to the HEDIS eye examination performance measure. The common barriers to routine eye examination cited by 29 patients across 4 focus groups included a lack of understanding of insurance benefits (N = 15), a lack of awareness of the importance of dilated eye examinations (N = 12), and time constraints (N

  16. Racial Differences in Lens Opacity Incidence and Progression: The Salisbury Eye Evaluation (SEE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Philip; Munoz, Beatriz; Friedman, David; West, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate racial differences in nuclear and cortical lens opacity incidence and progression over a 2-year period in an older American population. Methods. Prospective population-based cohort study of a multiethnic population of 2520 people (26% African-American and 74% Caucasian), 65 to 84 years of age, living in Salisbury, Maryland. Data at baseline included race, education level, past steroid use, smoking status, alcohol status, sunlight exposure, and history of hypertension and diabetes. Lens photographs were taken at baseline and at 2-year follow-up and were graded using the Wilmer grading scheme. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the independent associations between race, as well as other risk factors, and incidence and progression of cortical and nuclear opacities. Results. African-Americans had lower rates of nuclear opacity incidence (Odds Ratio [OR]: 0.52; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.35–0.76) and nuclear opacity progression (OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.38–0.92) compared with Caucasians. African-Americans had higher rates of cortical opacity incidence (OR: 1.90; 95% CI: 1.21–2.98) and cortical opacity progression (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.21–2.45) compared with Caucasians. Additionally, nuclear opacity incidence was associated with age, female sex, and current smoking status. Nuclear progression was associated with past smoking and current smoking. Cortical opacity incidence was associated with female sex, Ultraviolet-B exposure, and a history of diabetes. Cortical opacity progression was associated with current smoking status. Conclusions. Differences by race in the type of cataract incidence and progression, even adjusting for personal and environmental risk factors, deserve further exploration. PMID:23572101

  17. Are We Who We Think We Are: Evaluating Brand Promise at a Liberal-Arts Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Jacci L.; Jackson, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    For this research we developed a series of questions for students at a small, private, not-for-profit institution in order to determine whether or not the students' perceptions match what the institution believes itself to be as expressed in its brand promise statement. We examined whether or not the institution's marketing and its brand help…

  18. Are We Who We Think We Are: Evaluating Brand Promise at a Liberal-Arts Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Jacci L.; Jackson, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    For this research we developed a series of questions for students at a small, private, not-for-profit institution in order to determine whether or not the students' perceptions match what the institution believes itself to be as expressed in its brand promise statement. We examined whether or not the institution's marketing and its brand help…

  19. On the Special Characteristics of Institutional Operation in the Process of Undergraduate Teaching Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xianjun, Liu

    2009-01-01

    That each institution of higher education should develop its own salient special characteristics ("te se") of institutional operation is a matter of major and far-reaching significance for the reform and development of higher education, and every institution of higher education should attach a high degree of importance to, and correctly…

  20. Evaluation of Eye Irritation Potential of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Achyranthes aspera by In Vitro and In Vivo Method

    PubMed Central

    Rajpal Deshmukh, Gajanan; Hema Kumar, Kuntrapakam; Suresh Reddy, Poojari Venkata; Srinivasa Rao, Boddapati; Venkata Satish Kumar, Chirumamilla

    2012-01-01

    The present paper is an attempt to investigate the eye irritation potential of aqueous leaf extract of Achyranthes aspera by in vitro, Hen's Egg Chorioallantoic Membrane Test (HET-CAM) and in vivo acute eye irritation test in rabbits. The irritation score (IS) obtained after treatment of the extract on HET-CAM is 0.07 and that of in rabbits is 0.55, Which does not comes under either category 1 or 2 as per the harmonized integrated classification system. The aqueous extract of Achyranthes aspera showed no eye irritation properties both in vitro and in vivo methods when compared with negative control whereas positive controls showed eye irritation potential. PMID:23724295

  1. Statistical evaluation of control inputs and eye movements in the use of instruments clusters during aircraft landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, A. O.; Brown, J. L.; Bailey, G.

    1977-01-01

    Two different types of analyses were done on data from a study in which eye movements and other variables were recorded while four pilots executed landing sequences in a Boeing 737 simulation. Various conditions were manupulated, including changes in turbulence, starting position, and instrumentation. Control inputs were analyzed in the context of the various conditions and compared against ratings of workload obtained using the Cooper-Harper scale. A number of eye-scanning measures including mean dwell time and transition from one instrument to another were entered into a principal components factor analysis. The results show a differentiation between control inputs and eye-scanning behavior. This shows the need for improved definition of workload and experiments to uncover the important differences among control inputs, eye-scanning and cognitive processes of the pilot.

  2. Evaluation of the impact of the revised National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Lifting Equation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ming-Lun; Putz-Anderson, Vern; Garg, Arun; Davis, Kermit

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of the revised National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health lifting equation (RNLE). Background The RNLE has been used extensively as a risk assessment method for prevention of low back pain (LBP). However, the impact of the RNLE has not been documented. Methods A systematic review of the literature on the RNLE was conducted. The review consisted of three parts: characterization of the RNLE publications; assessment of the impact of the RNLE; and evaluation of the influences of the RNLE on ergonomic standards. The literature for assessing the impact was categorized into four research areas: methodology, laboratory, field and risk assessment studies using the Lifting Index (LI) or Composite LI (CLI), both of which are the products of the RNLE. Results The impact of the RNLE has been both widespread and influential. We found 24 studies that examined the criteria used to define lifting capacity used by the RNLE, 28 studies that compared risk assessment methods for identifying LBP, 23 studies that found the RNLE useful in identifying the risk of LBP with different work populations, and 13 studies on the relationship between LI/CLI and LBP outcomes. We also found evidence on the adoption of the RNLE as an ergonomic standard for use by various local, state, and international entities. Conclusion The review found 13 studies that link LI/CLI to adverse LBP outcomes. These studies showed a positive relationship between LI/CLI metrics and the severity of LBP outcomes. PMID:26822795

  3. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic ureteral reimplantation with psoas hitch: a multi-institutional, multinational evaluation.

    PubMed

    Patil, Nilesh N; Mottrie, Alexandre; Sundaram, Bala; Patel, Vipul R

    2008-07-01

    To report the collective experience of three multinational institutions with the use of robotics to evaluate and treat complex distal ureteral obstruction. A total of 12 patients from The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; Onze-Lieve-Vrouw Ziekenhuis, Aalst, Belgium; and Hospital Sultanah Aminah, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia underwent robotic-assisted laparoscopic ureteral reimplantation between August 2004 and July 2006. The indications for ureteral reimplantation included ureteral stricture (n = 10) and ureterovaginal fistula (n = 2). Nine patients had pathology on the left side and 4 patients had right-sided disease. Surgery was performed by three experienced laparoscopic robotic surgeons with the daVinci Surgical System. The mean patient age (range) was 41.3 years (19 to 67 years). The mean operative time was 208 minutes (80 to 360 minutes). The mean robot time was 173 minutes (75 to 300 minutes). The mean estimated blood loss was 48 mL (45 to 100 minutes). The mean length of hospitalization was 4.3 days (2 to 8 days). All the procedures were completed successfully robotically without open conversion. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. Postoperative intravenous urography and Mercapto Acetyl TriGlycine 3 showed normal findings in 10 patients and a mild residual hydronephrosis in 2 patients. After a mean follow-up of 15.5 months, all patients were asymptomatic of their initial disease state. This multi-institutional, multinational experience illustrates that ureteral reimplantation with psoas hitch can be performed safely and effectively to treat lower tract ureteral obstruction.

  4. Unilateral Amblyopia Affects Two Eyes: Fellow Eye Deficits in Amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Meier, Kimberly; Giaschi, Deborah

    2017-03-01

    Unilateral amblyopia is a visual disorder that arises after selective disruption of visual input to one eye during critical periods of development. In the clinic, amblyopia is understood as poor visual acuity in an eye that was deprived of pattern vision early in life. By its nature, however, amblyopia has an adverse effect on the development of a binocular visual system and the interactions between signals from two eyes. Visual functions aside from visual acuity are impacted, and many studies have indicated compromised sensitivity in the fellow eye even though it demonstrates normal visual acuity. While these fellow eye deficits have been noted, no overarching theory has been proposed to describe why and under what conditions the fellow eye is impacted by amblyopia. Here, we consider four explanations that may account for decreased fellow eye sensitivity: the fellow eye is adversely impacted by treatment for amblyopia; the maturation of the fellow eye is delayed by amblyopia; fellow eye sensitivity is impacted for visual functions that rely on binocular cortex; and fellow eye deficits reflect an adaptive mechanism that works to equalize the sensitivity of the two eyes. To evaluate these ideas, we describe five visual functions that are commonly reported to be deficient in the amblyopic eye (hyperacuity, contrast sensitivity, spatial integration, global motion, and motion-defined form), and unify the current evidence for fellow eye deficits. Further research targeted at exploring fellow eye deficits in amblyopia will provide us with a broader understanding of normal visual development and how amblyopia impacts the developing visual system.

  5. Post-market drug evaluation research training capacity in Canada: an environmental scan of Canadian educational institutions.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Matthew O; Soon, Judith A; MacLeod, Stuart M; Sharma, Sunaina; Patel, Anik

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing efforts by Health Canada intended to modernize the legislation and regulation of pharmaceuticals will help improve the safety and effectiveness of drug products. It will be imperative to ensure that comprehensive and specialized training sites are available to train researchers to support the regulation of therapeutic products. The objective of this educational institution inventory was to conduct an environmental scan of educational institutions in Canada able to train students in areas of post-market drug evaluation research. A systematic web-based environmental scan of Canadian institutions was conducted. The website of each university was examined for potential academic programs. Six core programmatic areas were determined a priori as necessary to train competent post-market drug evaluation researchers. These included biostatistics, epidemiology, pharmacoepidemiology, health economics or pharmacoeconomics, pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics and patient safety/pharmacovigilance. Twenty-three academic institutions were identified that had the potential to train students in post-market drug evaluation research. Overall, 23 institutions taught courses in epidemiology, 22 in biostatistics, 17 in health economics/pharmacoeconomics, 5 in pharmacoepidemiology, 5 in pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics, and 3 in patient safety/pharmacovigilance. Of the 23 institutions, only the University of Ottawa offered six core courses. Two institutions offered five, seven offered four and the remaining 14 offered three or fewer. It is clear that some institutions may offer programs not entirely reflected in the nomenclature used for this review. As Heath Canada moves towards a more progressive licensing framework, augmented training to increase research capacity and expertise in drug safety and effectiveness is timely and necessary.

  6. Prospective multi-institutional study evaluating the performance of prostate cancer risk calculators.

    PubMed

    Nam, Robert K; Kattan, Michael W; Chin, Joseph L; Trachtenberg, John; Singal, Rajiv; Rendon, Ricardo; Klotz, Laurence H; Sugar, Linda; Sherman, Christopher; Izawa, Jonathan; Bell, David; Stanimirovic, Aleksandra; Venkateswaran, Vasundara; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Yu, Changhong; Loblaw, D Andrew; Narod, Steven A

    2011-08-01

    Prostate cancer risk calculators incorporate many factors to evaluate an individual's risk for prostate cancer. We validated two common North American-based, prostate cancer risk calculators. We conducted a prospective, multi-institutional study of 2,130 patients who underwent a prostate biopsy for prostate cancer detection from five centers. We evaluated the performance of the Sunnybrook nomogram-based prostate cancer risk calculator (SRC) and the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) -based risk calculator (PRC) to predict the presence of any cancer and high-grade cancer. We examined discrimination, calibration, and decision curve analysis techniques to evaluate the prediction models. Of the 2,130 patients, 867 men (40.7%) were found to have cancer, and 1,263 (59.3%) did not have cancer. Of the patients with cancer, 403 (46.5%) had a Gleason score of 7 or more. The area under the [concentration-time] curve (AUC) for the SRC was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.65 to 0.69); the AUC for the PRC was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.59 to 0.64). The AUC was higher for predicting aggressive disease from the SRC (0.72; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.75) compared with that from the PRC (0.67; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.70). Decision curve analyses showed that the SRC performed better than the PRC for risk thresholds of more than 30% for any cancer and more than 15% for aggressive cancer. The SRC performed better than the PRC, but neither one added clinical benefit for risk thresholds of less than 30%. Further research is needed to improve the AUCs of the risk calculators, particularly for higher-grade cancer.

  7. In vivo evaluation of a biodegradable donut-shaped minitablet for prolonged posterior segment drug delivery in the rabbit eye model.

    PubMed

    Choonara, Yahya E; Pillay, Viness; Danckwerts, Michael Paul; Carmichael, Trevor R; Meyer, Leith C R; Du Toit, Lisa C; Naylor, Simon; Wanblad, Carla

    2011-05-01

    This study focused on the in vivo evaluation of a biodegradable ganciclovir-loaded donut-shaped minitablet (DSMT) for controlled drug delivery in the New Zealand white albino rabbit eye model. Specialized tablet tooling was used to manufacture a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) DSMT device that was implanted into 18 rabbits through the pars plana/peripheral retina of the right eyes of each rabbit. The left eyes were used as controls. Possible adverse effects on ocular tissues were assessed by histomorphology, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements, and indirect ophthalmoscopy. The ex vivo microenvironmental vitreous pH was also monitored. Rabbits were euthanized at predetermined intervals and the residual devices, vitreous humor, and ocular tissue were retrieved and stored appropriately until further analysis. The DSMT was well tolerated up to 72 days and was still visible in the superotemporal quadrant of the eye. The mean IOP range (6-8 mmHg; N = 18) and changes in vitreous pH (7.25 ± 0.01; N = 3) correlated with baseline measurements. The DSMT displayed constant ganciclovir release at a rate of 2.02 μ g/h maintained within the 50% effective dose for human cytomegalovirus retinitis (N = 3). The design simplicity and application of the biodegradable DSMT device may provide a superior alternative for prolonged rate-controlled intraocular drug delivery.

  8. Comparing the Impact of Refractive and Non-Refractive Vision Loss on Functioning and Disability: The Salisbury Eye Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Zebardast, Nazlee; Swenor, Bonnielin K.; van Landingham, Suzanne W.; Massof, Robert W.; Munoz, Beatriz; West, Sheila K.; Ramulu, Pradeep Y.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effects of uncorrected refractive error (URE) and non-refractive visual impairment (VI) on performance and disability measures. Design Cross-sectional population-based study. Participants 2469 individuals with binocular presenting visual acuity (PVA) of 20/80 or better who participated in the first round of the Salisbury Eye Evaluation study. Methods URE was defined as binocular PVA of 20/30 or worse, improving to better than 20/30 with subjective refraction. VI was defined as post-refraction binocular best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/30 or worse. The visual acuity decrement attributable to VI was calculated as the difference between BCVA and 20/30 while that due to URE was taken as the difference between PVA and BCVA. Multivariable regression analyses were used to assess the disability impact of 1) vision status (VI, URE, or normal vision) using the group with normal vision as reference, and 2) a one-line decrement in acuity due to VI or URE. Main Outcome Measures Objective measures of visual function were obtained from timed performance of mobility and near vision tasks, self-reported driving cessation, and self-reported visual difficulty measured by the Activities of Daily Vision (ADV) scale. ADV responses were analyzed using Rasch analysis to determine visual ability. Results Compared to individuals with normal vision, subjects with VI (n=191) had significantly poorer objective and subjective visual functioning in all metrics examined (p<0.05) while subjects with URE (n=132) demonstrated slower walking speeds, slower near task performance, more frequent driving cessation and lower ADV scores (p<0.05), but did not demonstrate slower stair climbing or descent speed. For all functional metrics evaluated, the impact of VI was greater than the impact of URE. The impact of a one-line VA decrement due to VI was associated with greater deficits in mobility measures and driving cessation when compared to a one-line VA decrement due to URE

  9. Comparing the Impact of Refractive and Nonrefractive Vision Loss on Functioning and Disability: The Salisbury Eye Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zebardast, Nazlee; Swenor, Bonnielin K; van Landingham, Suzanne W; Massof, Robert W; Munoz, Beatriz; West, Sheila K; Ramulu, Pradeep Y

    2015-06-01

    To compare the effects of uncorrected refractive error (URE) and nonrefractive visual impairment (VI) on performance and disability measures. Cross-sectional, population-based study. A total of 2469 individuals with binocular presenting visual acuity (PVA) of ≥ 20/80 who participated in the first round of the Salisbury Eye Evaluation study. The URE was defined as binocular PVA of ≤ 20/30, improving to >20/30 with subjective refraction. The VI was defined as post-refraction binocular best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of ≤ 20/30. The visual acuity decrement due to VI was calculated as the difference between BCVA and 20/30, whereas visual acuity due to URE was taken as the difference between PVA and BCVA. Multivariable regression analyses were used to assess the disability impact of (1) vision status (VI, URE, or normal vision) using the group with normal vision as reference and (2) a 1-line decrement in acuity due to VI or URE. Objective measures of visual function were obtained from timed performance of mobility and near vision tasks, self-reported driving cessation, and self-reported visual difficulty measured by the Activities of Daily Vision (ADV) scale. The ADV responses were analyzed using Rasch analysis to determine visual ability. Compared with individuals with normal vision, subjects with VI (n = 191) had significantly poorer objective and subjective visual functioning in all metrics examined (P < 0.05), whereas subjects with URE (n = 132) demonstrated slower walking speeds, slower near task performance, more frequent driving cessation, and lower ADV scores (P < 0.05), but did not demonstrate slower stair climbing or descent speed. For all functional metrics evaluated, the impact of VI was greater than the impact of URE. The impact of a 1-line VA decrement due to VI was associated with greater deficits in mobility measures and driving cessation when compared with a 1-line VA decrement due to URE. Visual impairment is associated with greater

  10. Evaluation of a Public Child Eye Health Tertiary Facility for Pediatric Cataract in Southern Nigeria I: Visual Acuity Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Roseline E.; Adio, Adedayo; Oparah, Sidney K.; Odey, Friday; Eyo, Okon A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective study of the outcome of congenital and developmental cataract surgery was conducted in a public child eye health tertiary facility in children <16 years of age in Southern Nigeria, as part of an evaluation. Materials and Method: Manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery with or without anterior vitrectomy was performed. The outcome measures were visual acuity (VA) and change (gain) in visual acuity. The age of the child at onset, duration of delay in presentation, ocular co-morbidity, non ocular co-morbidity, gender, and pre operative visual acuity were matched with postoperative visual acuity. A total of 66 children were studied for a period of six weeks following surgery. Results: Forty eight (72.7%) children had bilateral congenital cataracts and 18 (27.3%) children had bilateral developmental cataracts. There were 38(57.6%) males and 28 (42.4%) females in the study. Thirty Five (53%) children had good visual outcome (normal vision range 6/6/ -6/18) post-operatively. The number of children with blindness (vision <3/60) decreased from 61 (92.4%) pre-operatively to 4 (6.1%) post-operatively. Post operative complication occurred in 6.8% of cases six week after surgery. Delayed presentation had an inverse relationship with change (gain) in visual acuity (r = - 0.342; p-value = 0.005). Pre-operative visual acuity had a positive relationship with post operative change (gain) in visual acuity (r = 0.618; p-value = 0.000). Conclusion: Predictors of change in visual acuity in our study were; delayed presentation and pre-operative VA. Cataract surgery in children showed clinical benefit. PMID:27347247

  11. Function and visual impairment in a population-based study of older adults. The SEE project. Salisbury Eye Evaluation.

    PubMed

    West, S K; Munoz, B; Rubin, G S; Schein, O D; Bandeen-Roche, K; Zeger, S; German, S; Fried, L P

    1997-01-01

    The Salisbury Eye Evaluation (SEE) project investigates the impact of vision on functional status in a population-based sample of elderly persons. The prevalence of self-reports of functional status and the association with visual acuity loss are described. A random sample of men and women 65 to 84 years of age from Salisbury, Maryland were recruited for home interviews and clinic examinations. Of the eligible sample, 78% responded to the home questionnaire and 65% responded to the questionnaire and the clinic examination. Binocular visual acuity of each person was measured using ETDRS charts and protocols. Questions were asked concerning activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, physical function, social interaction, and activities of daily vision. Analyses of the association of presenting visual acuity worse than 20/40 with the measures of function were carried out and adjusted for age, race, and sex. All measures of functional status showed a decline with age; women and blacks were more likely to report difficulties. The age-adjusted proportions of those with visual impairment were not significantly different between men and women (7.2% versus 6.7%; P = 0.60). Black persons had almost twice the rate (10.4%) of white persons (5.6%; P < 0.001). Age, race, gender, and visual impairment were all significantly related to declines in functional status in multivariate models. Data on functional status in the project population were similar to national data and confirmed higher rates of disability in women and blacks. Binocular visual acuity worse than 20/40 appeared to have an impact on all the self-report measures of functional status. Further analyses on the interaction of vision with other comorbid conditions on function status clearly are indicated.

  12. Black Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  13. Eye Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  14. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... become red, he probably has a condition called conjunctivitis . Also known as pinkeye, this inflammation, which can be painful and itchy, ... bacteria, antibiotic eye drops are the usual treatment. Conjunctivitis caused by viruses should not be treated with ...

  15. Microbiological contamination in digital radiography: evaluation at the radiology clinic of an educational institution.

    PubMed

    Malta, Cristiana P; Damasceno, Naiana Nl; Ribeiro, Rosangela A; Silva, Carolina Sf; Devito, Karina L

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the contamination rate of intra and extraoral digital X ray equipment in a dental radiology clinic at a public educational institution. Samples were collected on three different days, at two times in the day: in the morning, before attending patients, and at the end of the day, after appointment hours and before cleaning and disinfection procedures. Samples were collected from the periapical X-ray machine (tube head, positioning device, control panel and activator button), the panoramic X- ray machine (temporal support, bite block, control panel and activator button), the intraoral digital system (sensor), and the digital system computers (keyboard and mouse). The samples were seeded in different culture media, incubated, and colony forming units (CFU/mL) counted. Biochemical tests were performed for suspected colonies of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Gramnegative bacilli (GNB). Fungi were visually differentiated into filamentous fungi and yeasts. The results indicated the growth of fungi and Staphylococcus fromall sampling locations. GNB growth was observed from all sites sampled from the intraoral X-ray equipment. On the panoramic unit, GNB growth was observed in samples from activator button, keyboard and mouse. In general, a higher number of CFU/mL was present before use. It can be concluded that more stringent protocols are needed to control infection and prevent X-ray exams from acting as vehicle for cross contamination.

  16. Criteria for the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. (RIFM) safety evaluation process for fragrance ingredients.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bruze, M; Cadby, P; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Ellis, G; Fryer, A D; Fukayama, M; Griem, P; Hickey, C; Kromidas, L; Lalko, J F; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Renskers, K; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Sipes, I G; Smith, B; Vitale, D; Wilcox, D K

    2015-08-01

    The Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. (RIFM) has been engaged in the generation and evaluation of safety data for fragrance materials since its inception over 45 years ago. Over time, RIFM's approach to gathering data, estimating exposure and assessing safety has evolved as the tools for risk assessment evolved. This publication is designed to update the RIFM safety assessment process, which follows a series of decision trees, reflecting advances in approaches in risk assessment and new and classical toxicological methodologies employed by RIFM over the past ten years. These changes include incorporating 1) new scientific information including a framework for choosing structural analogs, 2) consideration of the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC), 3) the Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) for dermal sensitization, 4) the respiratory route of exposure, 5) aggregate exposure assessment methodology, 6) the latest methodology and approaches to risk assessments, 7) the latest alternatives to animal testing methodology and 8) environmental risk assessment. The assessment begins with a thorough analysis of existing data followed by in silico analysis, identification of 'read across' analogs, generation of additional data through in vitro testing as well as consideration of the TTC approach. If necessary, risk management may be considered.

  17. Evaluation of the Impact of the Revised National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Lifting Equation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Lun; Putz-Anderson, Vern; Garg, Arun; Davis, Kermit G

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate the impact of the Revised National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Lifting Equation (RNLE). The RNLE has been used extensively as a risk assessment method for prevention of low back pain (LBP). However, the impact of the RNLE has not been documented. A systematic review of the literature on the RNLE was conducted. The review consisted of three parts: characterization of the RNLE publications, assessment of the impact of the RNLE, and evaluation of the influences of the RNLE on ergonomic standards. The literature for assessing the impact was categorized into four research areas: methodology, laboratory, field, and risk assessment studies using the Lifting Index (LI) or Composite LI (CLI), both of which are the products of the RNLE. The impact of the RNLE has been both widespread and influential. We found 24 studies that examined the criteria used to define lifting capacity used by the RNLE, 28 studies that compared risk assessment methods for identifying LBP, 23 studies that found the RNLE useful in identifying the risk of LBP with different work populations, and 13 studies on the relationship between LI/CLI and LBP outcomes. We also found evidence on the adoption of the RNLE as an ergonomic standard for use by various local, state, and international entities. The review found 13 studies that link LI/CLI to adverse LBP outcomes. These studies showed a positive relationship between LI/CLI metrics and the severity of LBP outcomes. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  18. Radiation Oncology Medical Student Clerkship: Implementation and Evaluation of a Bi-institutional Pilot Curriculum

    SciTech Connect

    Golden, Daniel W.; Spektor, Alexander; Rudra, Sonali; Ranck, Mark C.; Krishnan, Monica S.; Jimenez, Rachel B.; Viswanathan, Akila N.; Koshy, Matthew; Howard, Andrew R.; Chmura, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a structured didactic curriculum to complement clinical experiences during radiation oncology clerkships at 2 academic medical centers. Methods and Materials: A structured didactic curriculum was developed to teach fundamentals of radiation oncology and improve confidence in clinical competence. Curriculum lectures included: (1) an overview of radiation oncology (history, types of treatments, and basic clinic flow); (2) fundamentals of radiation biology and physics; and (3) practical aspects of radiation treatment simulation and planning. In addition, a hands-on dosimetry session taught students fundamentals of treatment planning. The curriculum was implemented at 2 academic departments in 2012. Students completed anonymous evaluations using a Likert scale to rate the usefulness of curriculum components (1 = not at all, 5 = extremely). Likert scores are reported as (median [interquartile range]). Results: Eighteen students completed the curriculum during their 4-week rotation (University of Chicago n=13, Harvard Longwood Campus n=5). All curriculum components were rated as extremely useful: introduction to radiation oncology (5 [4-5]); radiation biology and physics (5 [5-5]); practical aspects of radiation oncology (5 [4-5]); and the treatment planning session (5 [5-5]). Students rated the curriculum as “quite useful” to “extremely useful” (1) to help students understand radiation oncology as a specialty; (2) to increase student comfort with their specialty decision; and (3) to help students with their future transition to a radiation oncology residency. Conclusions: A standardized curriculum for medical students completing a 4-week radiation oncology clerkship was successfully implemented at 2 institutions. The curriculum was favorably reviewed. As a result of completing the curriculum, medical students felt more comfortable with their specialty decision and better prepared to begin radiation oncology residency.

  19. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Preventing Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. ...

  20. Design, simulation and evaluation of uniform magnetic field systems for head-free eye movement recordings with scleral search coils.

    PubMed

    Eibenberger, Karin; Eibenberger, Bernhard; Rucci, Michele

    2016-08-01

    The precise measurement of eye movements is important for investigating vision, oculomotor control and vestibular function. The magnetic scleral search coil technique is one of the most precise measurement techniques for recording eye movements with very high spatial (≈ 1 arcmin) and temporal (>kHz) resolution. The technique is based on measuring voltage induced in a search coil through a large magnetic field. This search coil is embedded in a contact lens worn by a human subject. The measured voltage is in direct relationship to the orientation of the eye in space. This requires a magnetic field with a high homogeneity in the center, since otherwise the field inhomogeneity would give the false impression of a rotation of the eye due to a translational movement of the head. To circumvent this problem, a bite bar typically restricts head movement to a minimum. However, the need often emerges to precisely record eye movements under natural viewing conditions. To this end, one needs a uniform magnetic field that is uniform over a large area. In this paper, we present the numerical and finite element simulations of the magnetic flux density of different coil geometries that could be used for search coil recordings. Based on the results, we built a 2.2 × 2.2 × 2.2 meter coil frame with a set of 3 × 4 coils to generate a 3D magnetic field and compared the measured flux density with our simulation results. In agreement with simulation results, the system yields a highly uniform field enabling high-resolution recordings of eye movements.

  1. Evaluation of Inner Retinal Layers in Eyes With Temporal Hemianopic Visual Loss From Chiasmal Compression Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Mário L. R.; Hokazono, Kenzo; Fernandes, Danilo B.; Costa-Cunha, Luciana V. F.; Sousa, Rafael M.; Raza, Ali S.; Wang, Diane L.; Hood, Donald C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We measured macular inner retinal layer thicknesses using frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (fd-OCT) and correlated these measures with visual field (VF) in eyes with temporal hemianopia from chiasmal compression and band atrophy (BA) of the optic nerve. Methods. Macular fd-OCT scans and VFs were obtained from 33 eyes of 33 patients with temporal hemianopia and 36 control eyes. The macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), combined retinal ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers (RGCL+), and the inner nuclear layer (INL) were segmented. Measurements were averaged for each macula quadrant. Scans were assessed qualitatively for microcysts in the INL. The VF was estimated from the central 16 test points. The two groups were compared. Correlations between VF and OCT measurements were assessed. Results. The mRNFL, RGCL+, and total retinal (TR) macular thickness measurements were significantly smaller in BA eyes than controls. In the nasal quadrants, INL measurements were significantly greater in BA eyes than controls. The mRNFL and RGCL+ measurements had greater discrimination ability than TR measurements in the temporal quadrants. A significant correlation was found between most OCT parameters and their corresponding VF parameters. The strongest association was observed between RNFL and RGCL+ thickness, and VF loss in the corresponding area. The INL microcysts were found in seven eyes with BA, but not in controls. Conclusions. Band atrophy leads to mRNFL and RGCL+ thinning, and INL thickening, and mRNFL and RGCL+ measurements are correlated strongly with VF loss. Segmented macular thickness measurements may be useful for quantifying neuronal loss in chiasmal compression. PMID:24764062

  2. Strategic Marketing Evaluation: A Focus Area for Institutional Research. AIR 1983 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Edward M.; Gackenbach, Rusty

    The level of awareness, knowledge, and current practices regarding strategic marketing within institutional research (IR) offices were studied for colleges in the Rocky Mountain region. Of the 18 responding offices, 9 indicated that their institutions utilized a marketing approach to planning. Of these 9 offices, 56 percent reported formal…

  3. Strategic Marketing Evaluation: A Focus Area for Institutional Research. AIR 1983 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Edward M.; Gackenbach, Rusty

    The level of awareness, knowledge, and current practices regarding strategic marketing within institutional research (IR) offices were studied for colleges in the Rocky Mountain region. Of the 18 responding offices, 9 indicated that their institutions utilized a marketing approach to planning. Of these 9 offices, 56 percent reported formal…

  4. An Evaluation of the Institutional Conservation Program: Results of On-Site Analyses. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Synectics Group, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The Institutional Conservation Program (ICP) is a voluntary grant program designed to help such non-profit institutions as schools, hospitals, local governments, and public care facilities save energy and reduce anticipated energy-related costs. Another primary ICP goal is to conserve oil, thereby reducing the nation's dependence on imported…

  5. An Evaluation of Two National Science Foundation Academic Year Institutes for Earth Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Berry

    Reported is a study of the effectiveness of specially designed Earth Science teacher improvement programs, with emphasis on content competency. Thirty-three National Science Foundation (NSF) Academic Year Institute (AYI) participants from two 1969-70 institutes for Earth Science teachers were administered pretests of the Earth Science Achievement…

  6. Multi-laboratory evaluation of SkinEthic HCE test method for testing serious eye damage/eye irritation using solid chemicals and overall performance of the test method with regard to solid and liquid chemicals testing.

    PubMed

    Alépée, N; Adriaens, E; Grandidier, M H; Meloni, M; Nardelli, L; Vinall, C J; Toner, F; Roper, C S; Van Rompay, A R; Leblanc, V; Cotovio, J

    2016-08-01

    A prospective multicentre study of the reconstructed human corneal epithelial tissue-based in vitro test method (SkinEthic™ HCE) was conducted to evaluate its usefulness to identify chemicals as either not classified for serious eye damage/eye irritation (No Cat.) or as classified (Cat. 1/Cat. 2) within UN GHS. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the transferability and reproducibility of the SkinEthic™ HCE EITS protocol for solids and define its predictive capacity. Briefly, 60 chemicals were three times tested (double blinded) in 3 laboratories and 35 additional chemicals were tested three times in one laboratory. Good within laboratory reproducibility was achieved of at least 95% (57/60) and 96.8% (92/95) for the extended data set. Furthermore, the overall concordance between the laboratories was 96.7% (58/60). The accuracy of the SkinEthic™ HCE EITS for the extended dataset, based on bootstrap resampling, was 81.0% (95% CI: 78.9% to 83.2%) with a sensitivity of 90.5% (95% CI: 88.1% to 92.9%) and specificity of 73.6% (95% CI: 71.7% to 75.5%). Overall, 200 chemicals were tested (105 liquids (EITL protocol) and 95 solids (EITS protocol)) resulting in a sensitivity of 95.2%, specificity of 72.1% and accuracy of 83.7%, thereby meeting all acceptance criteria for predictive capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Improvements in Signs and Symptoms of Dry Eye after Instillation of 2% Rebamipide.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Tsutomu; Fujita, Miho; Yamada, Yumi; Kobayashi, Maika; Fujimoto, Chiaki; Takahashi, Hisatomo; Igarashi, Toru; Nakano, Yuichiro; Suzuki, Hisaharu; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Because dry eye greatly reduces quality of life, this study aimed to examine rebamipide instillation in patients with dry eye and assess the improvement of signs and symptoms as evaluated with the Ocular Surface Disease Index, which is the most popular index and is highly reliable. From June 2013 through January 2014, we examined 50 eyes of 25 patients with dry eye (6 men and 19 woman) at our institution. Dry eye was diagnosed on the basis of the presence of symptoms, tear dynamics, and ocular surface abnormalities according to the Japanese criteria for dry eye. Before being enrolled, all patients underwent ocular surface health assessment, including history interviews, and completed the Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire. Patients received 2% rebamipide ophthalmic solution 4 times daily for 4 weeks. Signs and symptoms were analyzed before and 4 weeks after rebamipide administration. Tear dynamics, tear break-up time, and ocular surface abnormalities were measured and compared between before and 4 weeks after rebamipide administration. Of the 25 patients, 9 had definite dry eye and 16 had probable dry eye. Tear break-up time and the fluorescein staining score significantly improved after 4 weeks. However, no significant change was observed for the Schirmer test I and the lissamine green staining score. The administration of 2% rebamipide 4 times daily for 4 weeks improves the signs and symptoms of dry eye and improves patients' quality of life.

  8. A Retention Intervention for First-Year Students with Disabilities in an Art and Design Institution: A Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunnien, Taffey

    2016-01-01

    Institutions of higher education are experiencing historic enrollment of students with disabilities. The focus of this evaluation report was Jumpstart, a transition program for students with disabilities entering their first year of college. The Jumpstart program prepares talented students with disabilities to navigate the college environment at a…

  9. On Student Evaluation of Teaching and Improvement of the Teaching Quality Assurance System at Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunrong, Bie; Fan, Meng

    2009-01-01

    Student evaluation of teaching is a fundamental system for assuring teaching quality at higher education institutions (HEIs). Its establishment has provided students with a routine channel for voicing their wishes with regard to teaching and is helpful for HEIs to establish "serve the students" as the aim of their operations. Student…

  10. On Student Evaluation of Teaching and Improvement of the Teaching Quality Assurance System at Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunrong, Bie; Fan, Meng

    2009-01-01

    Student evaluation of teaching is a fundamental system for assuring teaching quality at higher education institutions (HEIs). Its establishment has provided students with a routine channel for voicing their wishes with regard to teaching and is helpful for HEIs to establish "serve the students" as the aim of their operations. Student…

  11. Final Evaluation of Region II Institute for the Training of Teachers of English as a Second Language (ESL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Public Continuing and Adult Education, Washington, DC.

    The National Association for Public Continuing and Adult Education (NAPCAE) evaluated the 1971 New Jersey English as a Second Language (ESL) Institute. The 100 participants were to receive practical teaching experience in adult basic education classes composed of ESL students and emphasizing the audiolingual teaching method. The document briefly…

  12. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Institute of Education Sciences in Carrying Out Its Priorities and Mission. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Stephen E.; Muller, Patricia A.; Akey, Theresa M.; McManus, John; Phillips, MacDonald; Plucker, Jonathan; Sharp, Sean

    2008-01-01

    The report evaluates the effectiveness of the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) in carrying out its priorities and mission using primarily pre-existing data sources. The study focused on three central questions: (1) Rigor (To what extent, and in which ways, has IES been successful in advancing the rigor of education research); (2) Relevance…

  13. Research on China's System of Evaluating Teachers in Institutions of Higher Education for Professional Titles and Appointments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meirong, Che

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation for and appointment to professional titles is a major aspect of personnel management in institutions of higher education. Diligence in this area is important for firing the enthusiasm of the broad mass of teachers for their work and for the stable and sustainable development of university research work.

  14. The Development of Evaluation Model for Internal Quality Assurance System of Dramatic Arts College of Bunditpattanasilpa Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinthukhot, Kittisak; Srihamongkol, Yannapat; Luanganggoon, Nuchwana; Suwannoi, Paisan

    2013-01-01

    The research purpose was to develop an evaluation model for the internal quality assurance system of the dramatic arts College of Bunditpattanasilpa Institute. The Research and Development method was used as research methodology which was divided into three phases; "developing the model and its guideline", "trying out the actual…

  15. More Is Not Always Better: Comprehensive Evaluation of a Summer Institute on Interdisciplinary Teamed Instruction for School-Level Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Merrill L.; Cowley, Kimberly S.; Burns, Rebecca C.

    The Interdisciplinary Teamed Instruction (ITI) project investigated the effects of interdisciplinary, teamed instruction on secondary school teaching and learning. It examined the effectiveness of a professional development model that facilitated the development, implementation, and evaluation of ITI. Through summer institutes and onsite…

  16. An Evaluation of the First Year Experience from the Mature Students' Perspective: A Multi-Institutional Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Amanda; Parmar, Deeba; Trotter, Eileen

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the experiences of mature students across three higher education institutions in the UK. The issues arising are of relevance to academics who are involved in widening participation and in evaluating support in their own programmes for the diversity of students. The sample includes mature students from programmes in Health,…

  17. A Mastery Rubric for the Design and Evaluation of an Institutional Curriculum in the Responsible Conduct of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; FitzGerald, Kevin T.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a Mastery Rubric for the design and evaluation of an institutional curriculum in the responsible conduct of research (RCR), motivated by new federal (US) research funding requirements for documenting this training over investigators' careers. A Mastery Rubric outlines the desired knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) for a course or…

  18. Increasing the Reading Achievement of At-Risk Children through Direct Instruction: Evaluation of the Rodeo Institute for Teacher Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Coleen D.; Francis, David J.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the Rodeo Institute for Teacher Excellence (RITE), a phonics-based program that addressed at-risk students' failure to develop reading skills and provided teacher professional development. Data on K-2 students in intervention and control schools indicated that the RITE program successfully increased RITE students' reading abilities,…

  19. Voluntary Opportunities for Inspiring Coordinators of Education Report on: Washington Technical Institute Students' Evaluation of the VOICE Tutorial Service 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Technical Inst., Washington, DC.

    Project VOICE tutoring service at the Washington Technical Institute (WTI) sent an eight-item evaluation questionnaire to students who had used its tutoring service in 1970. The survey was designed to assess the effectiveness of the service from the students' point of view and discover new ways to strengthen the program. Two hundred questionnaires…

  20. Service Evaluation in a Special Library: Supporting Development Research at the Institute of Social Sciences Library, New Delhi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Sharmila

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the development of special libraries to meet demands of interdisciplinary information and describes the library at The Institute of Social Sciences, New Delhi (India) which establishes a synergy between research and information derived from research through a computerized information management system. Considers evaluation of special…

  1. Evaluation of "First Certificate Gold Course Book": Evidence from Students of a Private English Institute in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haghighi, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the "first certificate Gold course book" (Aclam & Burgess, 2006) taught at Mehr English Institute in Lahijan (Guilan Province, Iran). The objectives of this book focused on developing a communicative competence, providing plenty of practice, including listening and reading texts to bring the…

  2. Research on China's System of Evaluating Teachers in Institutions of Higher Education for Professional Titles and Appointments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meirong, Che

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation for and appointment to professional titles is a major aspect of personnel management in institutions of higher education. Diligence in this area is important for firing the enthusiasm of the broad mass of teachers for their work and for the stable and sustainable development of university research work.

  3. First Annual Mock Job Fair "Gateway to Success," Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island. Summary Report and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caswell, Cal

    A "Gateway to Success" Mock Job Fair Program was conducted at Federal Correction Institute, Terminal Island. Prior to participation, inmates and employers were administered a pre-program needs assessment questionnaire to determine expectations. Results of the program evaluations (completed by inmates and employers) documented a need for…

  4. Evaluation of SARs for the prediction of eye irritation/corrosion potential: structural inclusion rules in the BfR decision support system.

    PubMed

    Tsakovska, I; Saliner, A Gallegos; Netzeva, T; Pavan, M; Worth, A P

    2007-01-01

    The proposed REACH regulation within the European Union (EU) aims to minimise the number of laboratory animals used for human hazard and risk assessment while ensuring adequate protection of human health and the environment. One way to achieve this goal is to develop non-testing methods, such as (quantitative) structure-activity relationships ([Q]SARs), suitable for identifying toxicological hazard from chemical structure and physicochemical properties alone. A database containing data submitted within the EU New Chemicals Notification procedure was compiled by the German Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung (BfR). On the basis of these data, the BfR built a decision support system (DSS) for the prediction of several toxicological endpoints. For the prediction of eye irritation and corrosion potential, the DSS contains 31 physicochemical exclusion rules evaluated previously by the European Chemicals Bureau (ECB), and 27 inclusion rules that define structural alerts potentially responsible for eye irritation and/or corrosion. This work summarises the results of a study carried out by the ECB to assess the performance of the BfR structural rulebase. The assessment included: (a) evaluation of the structural alerts by using the training set of 1341 substances with experimental data for eye irritation and corrosion; and (b) external validation by using an independent test set of 199 chemicals. Recommendations are made for the further development of the structural rules in order to increase the overall predictivity of the DSS.

  5. Evaluation of Central Corneal Thickness Using Corneal Dynamic Scheimpflug Analyzer Corvis ST and Comparison with Pentacam Rotating Scheimpflug System and Ultrasound Pachymetry in Normal Eyes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ayong; Zhao, Weiqi; Savini, Giacomo; Huang, Zixu; Bao, Fangjun; Lu, Weicong; Wang, Qinmei; Huang, Jinhai

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements by corneal dynamic Scheimpflug analyzer Corvis ST in normal eyes and compare the agreement with Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug System and ultrasound pachymetry. Methods. 84 right eyes underwent Corvis ST measurements performed by two operators. The test-retest repeatability (TRT), within-subject coefficient of variation (CoV), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to evaluate the intraoperator repeatability and interoperator reproducibility. CCT measurements also were obtained from Pentacam and ultrasound pachymetry by the first operator. The agreement between the three devices was evaluated with 95% limits of agreement (LoA) and Bland-Altman plots. Results. Corvis ST showed high repeatability as indicated by TRT ≤ 13.0 μm, CoV < 0.9%, and ICC > 0.97. The interoperator reproducibility was also excellent. The CoV was <0.9%, and ICC was >0.97. Corvis ST showed significantly lower values than Pentacam and ultrasound pachymetry (P < 0.001). The 95% LoA between Corvis ST and Pentacam or ultrasound pachymetry were -15.8 to 9.5 μm and -27.9 to 12.3 μm, respectively. Conclusions. Corvis ST showed excellent repeatability and interoperator reproducibility of CCT measurements in normal eyes. Corvis ST is interchangeable with Pentacam but not with ultrasound pachymetry.

  6. Evaluation of Central Corneal Thickness Using Corneal Dynamic Scheimpflug Analyzer Corvis ST and Comparison with Pentacam Rotating Scheimpflug System and Ultrasound Pachymetry in Normal Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ayong; Zhao, Weiqi; Savini, Giacomo; Huang, Zixu; Bao, Fangjun; Lu, Weicong; Wang, Qinmei; Huang, Jinhai

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements by corneal dynamic Scheimpflug analyzer Corvis ST in normal eyes and compare the agreement with Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug System and ultrasound pachymetry. Methods. 84 right eyes underwent Corvis ST measurements performed by two operators. The test-retest repeatability (TRT), within-subject coefficient of variation (CoV), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to evaluate the intraoperator repeatability and interoperator reproducibility. CCT measurements also were obtained from Pentacam and ultrasound pachymetry by the first operator. The agreement between the three devices was evaluated with 95% limits of agreement (LoA) and Bland-Altman plots. Results. Corvis ST showed high repeatability as indicated by TRT ≤ 13.0 μm, CoV < 0.9%, and ICC > 0.97. The interoperator reproducibility was also excellent. The CoV was <0.9%, and ICC was >0.97. Corvis ST showed significantly lower values than Pentacam and ultrasound pachymetry (P < 0.001). The 95% LoA between Corvis ST and Pentacam or ultrasound pachymetry were −15.8 to 9.5 μm and −27.9 to 12.3 μm, respectively. Conclusions. Corvis ST showed excellent repeatability and interoperator reproducibility of CCT measurements in normal eyes. Corvis ST is interchangeable with Pentacam but not with ultrasound pachymetry. PMID:26697213

  7. [Evaluation of the capacity of personal protection on poison emergency items in Chinese disease control and prevention institutes].

    PubMed

    Xie, Li-jing; Zhou, Jing; Meng, Cong-shen; Zhang, Shou-lin; Zhang, Hong-shun; Jiang, Shao-feng; Wang, Ming-liang; Sun, Cheng-ye

    2009-02-01

    To analyze the capacity of personal protection on poison emergency items in Chinese disease control and prevention institutes. Evaluation analysis based on data obtained from investigating personal protection equipments and professional knowledge quizzing about personal protection in poisoning control of 57 different level centers for disease control and prevention selected from China by a multi-stage stratified sampling. All 80.70% of the institutes possessed the protection equipments, provincial, municipal, county level institutes were 100.00%, 95.24%, 66.67%, respectively, with significant statistical difference (H = 7.94, P < 0.05). The average level of the type of individual protective equipments in disease control and prevention institutes was (5.42 +/- 4.00) kinds, the average points in category of provincial, municipal, county level institutes were (11.33 +/- 3.67), (6.52 +/- 3.16), (3.47 +/- 3.10) kinds, being statistically significant (F = 17.30, P < 0.05); type difference counts of disease control and prevention institutes in economic development, secondary, less-developed regions were (6.41 +/- 4.03), (3.55 +/- 3.35), (6.45 +/- 4.07) kinds, with statistical significance (F = 3.70, P < 0.05). Protection equipments chiefly possessed were latex gloves, gauze masks and C-protective clothing. Protective clothing and respiratory protective equipments were insufficient evidently. The average points in testing personal protection basic knowledge were (71.39 +/- 12.52) points; there were no differences between different institutes with different economic regions, levels, technical posts and title degrees. Certain advances have been achieved in recent years in personal protection capacity of institutes for disease control and prevention, but far from the actual demands, and maybe no enough effective response on emergency occurred.

  8. Dermal, eye, and oral toxicologic evaluations of brass powder, fog oil, diesel fuel, and their mixtures. Report for 1 May-30 September 1985 on Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhew, D.A.; Smith, S.H.; Doyle, G.L.; Kreuger, J.C.; Mellon, K.A.

    1985-12-01

    Five test articles were evaluated to establish their eye and skin irritation potential and their oral and dermal toxicity. The test articles evaluated were as followed: 1) Brass Powder, 2) Fog Oil, 3) Diesel Fuel, 4) 0.75 parts Fog Oil:1 part Brass Powder (w/w mixture), and 5) 0.7 parts Diesel Fuel: 1 part Brass Powder (w/w mixture). Oral studies were conducted utilizing the Fischer-344 albino rat as the test system; all other studies utilized the New Zealand White Albino Rabbit as the test system. Results obtained in these studies are summarized.

  9. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of the anti-cataract effect of eye drops containing disulfiram and low-substituted methylcellulose using ICR/f rats as a hereditary cataract model.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Takeuchi, Noriko

    2012-01-01

    We attempted to develop anti-cataract eye drops using disulfiram (DSF) and low-substituted methylcellulose (MC), and evaluated their anti-cataract effect in terms of the lens opacification vs. age-profile curves using a one-exponential equation. The eye drops were prepared using 0.5% DSF and 2% MC (DSF eye drops), and ICR/f rats, a recessive-type hereditary cataractous strain, were used as the experimental model. Gelation of DSF eye drops containing MC was first observed at about 35°C, close to body temperature. In in vivo transcorneal penetration experiments using rabbit corneas, only diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) was detected in the aqueous humor, while DSF was not detected. The DDC penetration level of DSF eye drops containing MC was approximately 1.3-fold higher than that of DSF eye drops. The opacification rate constant (k) of ICR/f rat instilled with DSF eye drops with or without MC was lower, and the initial time of opacification (τ) was longer than those of ICR/f rats instilled with saline. Furthermore, the k of ICR/f rats instilled with DSF eye drops with MC was lower than that of ICR/f rats instilled with DSF eye drops without MC. In conclusion, the analysis of kinetic parameters including k and τ using a one-exponential equation provided useful information for clarifying the anti-cataract effect of eye drops. ICR/f rats instilled with DSF eye drops using a low-substituted MC-based drug delivery system demonstrated a delay in cataract development, probably resulting from an increase in the retention of DSF eye drops on the cornea.

  10. Evaluation of Statens Serum Institut Enteric Medium for Detection of Enteric Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Blom, Marianne; Meyer, Aase; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Gaarslev, Knud; Espersen, Frank

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of the Statens Serum Institut (SSI) enteric medium for isolation and direct identification of enteric pathogens was evaluated. Six different biochemical reactions can be read by using the SSI enteric medium, allowing direct identification of a range of enteric pathogens. All 248 gram-negative bacterial species that were tested grew on the SSI enteric medium. Only 10 of 248 bacteria (4%) showed discrepant results in the biochemical reactions, and none of these were enteric pathogens. Forty-three of 47 enteric pathogens (92%) produced identical rates of semiquantitative growth on the SSI enteric medium and 5% blood agar, whereas three Vibrio spp. and one Aeromonas spp. showed reduced growth. Gram-positive bacteria did not grow on the SSI enteric medium. Most enteric pathogens had a detection limit of 50 bacteria per ml of feces, but higher numbers of Vibrio spp. and some Shigella spp. were required for detection. The growth rates of 125 enteric pathogens and 12 Yersinia spp. on the SSI enteric medium, xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), Hektoen enteric (HE), Salmonella-Shigella (SS), and cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin (CIN) agar were compared. Detection rates after application of 200 CFU were 99% for SSI enteric medium, 92% for XLD, 88% for HE, and 82% for SS agar. The 12 Yersinia spp. grew excellently on both the SSI enteric medium and CIN agar. We conclude that the performance of the SSI enteric medium compares favorably to those of other media tested. Its ability to detect Yersinia spp. may limit the number of media needed in the typical laboratory. The direct identification of enteric pathogens on the medium may also provide a more rapid diagnosis. PMID:10364603

  11. Evaluation of IAEA Clearance Concept for Low-level Radioactive Waste from a Radioisotope Research Institute.

    PubMed

    Yumoto, Yasuhiro; Okada, Shigeru; Kinno, Ikuo; Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Nakayama, Eiichi

    2016-05-01

    The clearance of solid low-level radioactive laboratory waste (LLRW) after decay-in-storage (DIS) obtained from a research institute and thoroughly separated using the separation and classification protocols presented in this study was evaluated. The radioisotope (RI) content of incinerated LLRW from the specified RI research group (group A); the RI content of LLRW obtained in fiscal year 2000, which contained radionuclides with half-lives of less than 164 d (LLRW2); and the RI content of the LLRW reported in group A's disposal records were compared. The LLRW2 and LLRW of group A were incinerated after 2 y of decay-in-storage and immediately after storage, respectively. The highest ratio of the RI of incinerated LLRW to the value in the disposal records was 2.52 for ⁵¹Cr. The radioactivities of radionuclides in both the LLRW2 and LLRW for ³⁵S, ⁴⁵Ca, ⁵¹Cr, ¹²⁵I, ³²P, ³³P, and ⁹⁹mTc and the incinerated ash after 1 y later of decay-in-storage were below the clearance level defined by the RS-G-1.7 of the International Basic Safety Standard without contamination by ³H and ¹⁴C. These remains contained very small amounts of some long-half-life radionuclides of natural origin after 7 y of decay-in-storage. This LLRW separation protocol was effective for the separation of ³H and ¹⁴C. LLRW2 after 2 years of DIS and its incinerated ash after one year later of DIS were below the clearance level for radioactivity and radioactivity concentration.

  12. Implications of Web of Science journal impact factor for scientific output evaluation in 16 institutions and investigators' opinion.

    PubMed

    Wáng, Yì-Xiáng J; Arora, Richa; Choi, Yongdoo; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Egorov, Vyacheslav I; Frahm, Jens; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Kuyumcu, Suleyman; Laurent, Sophie; Loffroy, Romaric; Maurea, Simone; Morcos, Sameh K; Ni, Yicheng; Oei, Edwin H G; Sabarudin, Akmal; Yu, Xin

    2014-12-01

    Journal based metrics is known not to be ideal for the measurement of the quality of individual researcher's scientific output. In the current report 16 contributors from Hong Kong SAR, India, Korea, Taiwan, Russia, Germany, Japan, Turkey, Belgium, France, Italy, UK, The Netherlands, Malaysia, and USA are invited. The following six questions were asked: (I) is Web of Sciences journal impact factor (IF) and Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) citation the main academic output performance evaluation tool in your institution? and your country? (II) How does Google citation count in your institution? and your country? (III) If paper is published in a non-SCI journal but it is included in PubMed and searchable by Google scholar, how it is valued when compared with a paper published in a journal with an IF? (IV) Do you value to publish a piece of your work in a non-SCI journal as much as a paper published in a journal with an IF? (V) What is your personal view on the metric measurement of scientific output? (VI) Overall, do you think Web of Sciences journal IF is beneficial, or actually it is doing more harm? The results show that IF and ISI citation is heavily affecting the academic life in most of the institutions. Google citation and evaluation, while is being used and convenient and speedy, has not gain wide 'official' recognition as a tool for scientific output evaluation.

  13. Are Ultrasound-Guided Ophthalmic Blocks Injurious to the Eye? A Comparative Rabbit Model Study of Two Ultrasound Devices Evaluating Intraorbital Thermal and Structural Changes

    PubMed Central

    Palte, Howard D.; Gayer, Steven; Arrieta, Esdras; Shaw, Eric Scot; Nose, Izuru; Lee, Elizabete; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Dubovy, Sander; Birnbach, David J.; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Background Since Atkinson’s original description of retrobulbar block in 1936, needle-based anesthetic techniques have become integral to ophthalmic anesthesia. These techniques are unfortunately associated with rare, grave complications such as globe perforation. Ultrasound has gained widespread acceptance for peripheral nerve blockade but its translation to ocular anesthesia has been hampered because sonic energy, in the guise of thermal or biomechanical insult, is potentially injurious to vulnerable eye tissue. The United States Food and Drug Administration have defined guidelines for safe use of ultrasound for ophthalmic examination but most ultrasound devices used by anesthesiologists are not Food and Drug Administration-approved for ocular application because they generate excessive energy. Regulating agencies state that ultrasound examination can be safely undertaken as long as tissue temperatures do not increase >1.5°C above physiological levels. Methods Using a rabbit model, we investigated the thermal and mechanical ocular effects after prolonged ultrasonic exposure to single orbital and non-orbital-rated devices. In a dual-phase study, aimed at detecting ocular injury, the eyes of 8 rabbits were exposed to continuous 10-minute ultrasound examinations from two devices: 1) the Sonosite Micromaxx (non-orbital-rated) and 2) the Sonomed VuMax (orbital-rated) machines. In Phase I temperatures were continuously monitored via thermocouples implanted within specific eye structures (n=4). In Phase II the eyes were subjected to ultrasonic exposure without surgical intervention (n=4). All eyes underwent light microscopy examinations followed, at different intervals, by histology evaluations conducted by an ophthalmic pathologist. Results Temperature changes were monitored in the eyes of four rabbits. The non-orbital-rated transducer produced increases in ocular tissue temperature that surpassed the safe limit (increases> 1.50C ) in the lens of three rabbits (at 5

  14. Are ultrasound-guided ophthalmic blocks injurious to the eye? A comparative rabbit model study of two ultrasound devices evaluating intraorbital thermal and structural changes.

    PubMed

    Palte, Howard D; Gayer, Steven; Arrieta, Esdras; Scot Shaw, Eric; Nose, Izuru; Lee, Elizabete; Arheart, Kristopher L; Dubovy, Sander; Birnbach, David J; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2012-07-01

    Since Atkinson's original description of retrobulbar block in 1936, needle-based anesthetic techniques have become integral to ophthalmic anesthesia. These techniques are unfortunately associated with rare, grave complications such as globe perforation. Ultrasound has gained widespread acceptance for peripheral nerve blockade, but its translation to ocular anesthesia has been hampered because sonic energy, in the guise of thermal or biomechanical insult, is potentially injurious to vulnerable eye tissue. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has defined guidelines for safe use of ultrasound for ophthalmic examination, but most ultrasound devices used by anesthesiologists are not FDA-approved for ocular application because they generate excessive energy. Regulating agencies state that ultrasound examinations can be safely undertaken as long as tissue temperatures do not increase >1.5°C above physiological levels. Using a rabbit model, we investigated the thermal and mechanical ocular effects after prolonged ultrasonic exposure to single orbital- and nonorbital-rated devices. In a dual-phase study, aimed at detecting ocular injury, the eyes of 8 rabbits were exposed to continuous 10-minute ultrasound examinations from 2 devices: (1) the Sonosite Micromaxx (nonorbital rated) and (2) the Sonomed VuMax (orbital rated) machines. In phase I, temperatures were continuously monitored via thermocouples implanted within specific eye structures (n = 4). In phase II the eyes were subjected to ultrasonic exposure without surgical intervention (n = 4). All eyes underwent light microscopy examinations, followed at different intervals by histology evaluations conducted by an ophthalmic pathologist. Temperature changes were monitored in the eyes of 4 rabbits. The nonorbital-rated transducer produced increases in ocular tissue temperature that surpassed the safe limit (increases >1.5°C) in the lens of 3 rabbits (at 5.0, 5.5, and 1.5 minutes) and cornea of 2 rabbits (both at 1

  15. Dry eye associated with laser in situ keratomileusis: Mechanical microkeratome versus femtosecond laser.

    PubMed

    Salomão, Marcella Q; Ambrósio, Renato; Wilson, Steven E

    2009-10-01

    To compare the incidence of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)-associated dry eye and the need for postoperative cyclosporine A treatment after flap creation with a femtosecond laser and a mechanical microkeratome. Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. Eyes were randomized to flap creation with an IntraLase femtosecond laser (30 or 60 kHz) or a Hansatome microkeratome. No patient had signs, symptoms, or treatment of dry eye preoperatively. Flap thickness was determined by intraoperative ultrasonic pachymetry. Slitlamp assessments of the cornea and need for postoperative dry-eye treatment were evaluated preoperatively and 1 month postoperatively. The flap was created with the femtosecond laser in 113 eyes and with the microkeratome in 70 eyes. The difference in mean central flap thickness between the femtosecond group (111 mum +/- 14 [SD]) and the microkeratome group (131 +/- 25 mum) was statistically significant (P<.001). The incidence of LASIK-associated dry eye was statistically significantly higher in the microkeratome group (46%) than in the femtosecond group (8%) (P<.0001), as was the need for postoperative cyclosporine A treatment (24% and 7%, respectively) (P<.01). In the microkeratome group, there was no correlation between thick flaps and a higher incidence of LASIK-induced dry eye. Eyes with femtosecond flaps had a lower incidence of LASIK-associated dry eye and required less treatment for the disorder. In addition to neurotrophic effects from corneal nerve cutting, other factors may be important because no correlation was found between flap thickness (or ablation depth) and the incidence of LASIK-induced dry eye.

  16. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...

  17. Eye Twitching

    MedlinePlus

    ... aspects of life. Hemifacial spasm involves twitches of muscles on one side of the face, including the eyelid. Eye twitching usually goes away on its own within a few days or weeks with rest, stress relief and decreased caffeine. Schedule an appointment with your doctor if: The ...

  18. Googly Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Beverage take-out trays are funky in their form and function. In this article, the author describes how to make googly eye masks out of discarded take-out trays and other common recycled or discarded materials. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  19. The injured eye

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3–4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world. PMID:21149360

  20. Development and Evaluation of the National Cancer Institute's Dietary Screener Questionnaire Scoring Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Frances E; Midthune, Douglas; Kahle, Lisa; Dodd, Kevin W

    2017-06-01

    Background: Methods for improving the utility of short dietary assessment instruments are needed.Objective: We sought to describe the development of the NHANES Dietary Screener Questionnaire (DSQ) and its scoring algorithms and performance.Methods: The 19-item DSQ assesses intakes of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, added sugars, dairy, fiber, and calcium. Two nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls and the DSQ were administered in NHANES 2009-2010 to respondents aged 2-69 y (n = 7588). The DSQ frequency responses, coupled with sex- and age-specific portion size information, were regressed on intake from 24-h recalls by using the National Cancer Institute usual intake method to obtain scoring algorithms to estimate mean and prevalences of reaching 2 a priori threshold levels. The resulting scoring algorithms were applied to the DSQ and compared with intakes estimated with the 24-h recall data only. The stability of the derived scoring algorithms was evaluated in repeated sampling. Finally, scoring algorithms were applied to screener data, and these estimates were compared with those from multiple 24-h recalls in 3 external studies.Results: The DSQ and its scoring algorithms produced estimates of mean intake and prevalence that agreed closely with those from multiple 24-h recalls. The scoring algorithms were stable in repeated sampling. Differences in the means were <2%; differences in prevalence were <16%. In other studies, agreement between screener and 24-h recall estimates in fruit and vegetable intake varied. For example, among men in 2 studies, estimates from the screener were significantly lower than the 24-h recall estimates (3.2 compared with 3.8 and 3.2 compared with 4.1). In the third study, agreement between the screener and 24-h recall estimates were close among both men (3.2 compared with 3.1) and women (2.6 compared with 2.5).Conclusions: This approach to developing scoring algorithms is an advance in the use of screeners. However, because these