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Sample records for eyesafe lasers components

  1. Eyesafe laser cloud mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodall, Milton A., II; Minch, J. R.; Nunez, J.; Keeter, Howard S.; Johnson, Anthony M.

    1990-07-01

    The performance of eyesafe erbium:glass lasers operating at a wavelength of 1. 54 urn has been tested under various natural and manmade obscurants. To obtain the maximum amount of information two distinct system configurations were employed. The first a laser cloud mapper was designed to provide a direct depth profile of smoke density and reflectivity as well as target position. The second configuration was a production military laser rangefinder. It is representative of systems currently incorporated in tactical armored vehicles and was used to provide a direct indication of target range. 1.

  2. Gallium arsenide eyesafe laser rangefinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Robert

    1990-07-01

    In the past terrestrial optoelectronic distance measurement in the kilometer range was only possible by marking targets with reflector prisms or by increasing the optical output power far beyond the eyesafety limits. These requirements are unacceptable for many measurement tasks and this paper describes how they can be avoided by using a low power semiconductor laser and modern signal processing techniques. 1. DESIGN GOALS A number of manufacturers have fielded optoelectronic rangefinders which must be supported by reflector prisms mounted on the target if distances beyond 100 m are to be measured. These devices based on semiconductor lasers are very accurate (to the order of mm) and because of their low optical output power they are generally eyesafe. Devices are also available for measurements without reflector prisms (non-cooperative targets) to large distances beyond 5000 m where poor target reflectivity and atmospheric attenuation are overcome by high power output usually from an NdYAG crystal laser. The very high intensity laser radiation however is dangerous to the human eye and therefore these devices are constrained to operate under rigorous safety measures. Between these two extremes there are numerous applications where not extreme range or accuracy but eyesafety non-cooperative targets small size and low cost are of primary importance. This is the case not only for civilian applications but also for military use e. g. in force-on-force exercises or special operations. Other design goals

  3. Eyesafe Raman lasers developed in West Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruger, James F.

    1990-07-01

    The eye hazard problem of pulsed lasers being used in fire control systems causes considerable safety concern during training exercises. For this reason the eye safe requirement was placed on all of the new laser systems being developed for the West German armed forces. The Rainan shifted Nd:YAG laser and the Erbium laser both operating at 1. 54 tm become the competitive technologies for many requirements. After extensive competitive trials at the proving grounds the system using the Raman technique was awarded the production contract. This paper describes the attributes of the Raman shift technology for laser range finders (LRF) and results obtained. SPIE Vol. 1207 Laser Safety Eyesafe Laser Systems and Laser Eye Protection (1990) / 155

  4. High-power semiconductor lasers at eye-safe wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osowski, Mark L.; Gewirtz, Yossi; Lammert, Robert M.; Oh, Se W.; Panja, Chameli; Elarde, Victor C.; Vaissie, Laurent; Patel, Falgun D.; Ungar, Jeffrey E.

    2009-05-01

    InP based diode lasers are required to realize the next generation of eyesafe applications, including direct rangefinding and HEL weapons systems. We report on the progress of high power eyesafe single spatial and longitudinal mode 1550nm MOPA devices, where we have achieved peak powers in excess of 10W with 50ns pulse widths. A conceptual model based on our recent MOPA results show the path towards scaling to high powers based on spatial beam combination with operating conditions suitable for direct rangefinding applications. We also report on the progress towards high power 14xx and 15xx nm pump lasers for eyesafe HEL systems.

  5. Fiber Optically Coupled Eyesafe Laser Threat Warning System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-11

    WARNING SYSTEM 11 MAY 2000 MSS SPECIALTY GROUP ON INFRARED COUNTERMEASURES NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL, MONTEREY, CA PRESENTED BY: DR. AL TORRES...A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Fiber Optically Coupled Eyesafe Laser Threat Warning System Contract Number Grant Number... WARNING SYSTEM (ESLTWS) PHASE II SBIR PROGRAM • CONCEPT: - TO DEVELOP A UNIQUE AND NOVEL EYE SAFE LASER THREAT WARNING RECEIVER SYSTEM. MUST BE

  6. UAV Infrared Search and Track (IRST)/Eyesafe Laser Range Finder (ELR) System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    boost phase. The coude path incorporated in this sensor provides a means for an external eyesafe laser rangefinder to share the aperture with...the narrow field of view passive MWIR sensor. The fabrication and installation of the coude path mechanical and optical components was completed...development of this laser and subsequently delivered it to NAVAIR for future integration into the IRST. The characteristics of the coude path, its original

  7. Tunable eye-safe Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Němec, M.; Šulc, J.; Indra, L.; Fibrich, M.; Jelínková, H.

    2015-01-01

    Er:YAG crystal was investigated as the gain medium in a diode (1452 nm) pumped tunable laser. The tunability was reached in an eye-safe region by an intracavity birefringent filter. The four tuning bands were obtained peaking at wavelengths 1616, 1632, 1645, and 1656 nm. The broadest continuous tunability was 6 nm wide peaking at 1616 nm. The laser was operating in a pulsed regime (10 ms pulse length, 10 Hz repetition rate). The maximum mean output power was 26.5 mW at 1645 nm. The constructed system demonstrated the tunability of a resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser which could be useful in the development of compact diode-pumped lasers for spectroscopic applications.

  8. Bulk Er:YAP and Er:Yb:YAP optical emission studies for eyesafe laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, Efstratios; Boquillon, Jean-Pierre; Musset, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    Emission and excitation spectra of Er-doped YAP crystals reveal a broad emission band in the eyesafe region with peaks around 1545-nm and 1608-nm and pump-bands suitable for common 800-nm and 970-nm diode lasers, suggesting YAP as a candidate crystalline host for diode-pumped laser in the 1.5-μm eyesafe regime. Erbium-doped YAP-crystal results are comparable with analogous measurements on Er:Yb:YAG, which has already demostrated efficient lasing action in the eyesafe region.

  9. Record-low quantum defect operation of an eye-safe Er-doped laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter-Gabrielyan, N.; Fromzel, V.; Dubinskii, M.

    2016-11-01

    Several new laser transitions from a resonantly-pumped Er3+:YVO4 laser have been demonstrated. Laser operation with quantum defect as low as 0.82% has been achieved. We believe that this is the lowest quantum defect operation ever reported for an eye-safe laser.

  10. Holmium-doped laser materials for eye-safe solid state laser application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woohong; Bowman, Steven R.; Baker, Colin; Villalobos, Guillermo; Shaw, Brandon; Sadowski, Bryan; Hunt, Michael; Aggarwal, Ishwar; Sanghera, Jasbinder

    2014-06-01

    Trivalent holmium has 14 laser channels from 0.55 to 3.9 μm. The laser emission of most interest is the transition 5I7→5I8 near 2 μm because of its potential for use in eye-safe systems and medical applications. In this paper, we present our recent results in the development of Ho3+ doped laser materials for eye-safe solid state lasers. We report a calorimetric study of non-radiative losses in two micron pumped holmium doped laser host materials such as silica glass, yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) crystal and Lu2O3 ceramics. Optical, spectral and morphological properties as well as the lasing performance from highly transparent ceramics are presented.

  11. Novel, ultra-compact, high-performance, eye-safe laser rangefinder for demanding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, M.; Lee, S. T.; Borthwick, A.; Morton, G.; McNeill, C.; McSporran, D.; McRae, I.; McKinlay, G.; Jackson, D.; Alexander, W.

    2016-05-01

    Compact eye-safe laser rangefinders (LRFs) are a key technology for future sensors. In addition to reduced size, weight and power (SWaP), compact LRFs are increasingly being required to deliver a higher repetition rate, burst mode capability. Burst mode allows acquisition of telemetry data from fast moving targets or while sensing-on-the-move. We will describe a new, ultra-compact, long-range, eye-safe laser rangefinder that incorporates a novel transmitter that can deliver a burst capability. The transmitter is a diode-pumped, erbium:glass, passively Q-switched, solid-state laser which uses design and packaging techniques adopted from the telecom components sector. The key advantage of this approach is that the transmitter can be engineered to match the physical dimensions of the active laser components and the submillimetre sized laser spot. This makes the transmitter significantly smaller than existing designs, leading to big improvements in thermal management, and allowing higher repetition rates. In addition, the design approach leads to devices that have higher reliability, lower cost, and smaller form-factor, than previously possible. We present results from the laser rangefinder that incorporates the new transmitter. The LRF has dimensions (L x W x H) of 100 x 55 x 34 mm and achieves ranges of up to 15km from a single shot, and over a temperature range of -32°C to +60°C. Due to the transmitter's superior thermal performance, the unit is capable of repetition rates of 1Hz continuous operation and short bursts of up to 4Hz. Short bursts of 10Hz have also been demonstrated from the transmitter in the laboratory.

  12. Eye-safe coherent laser radar system at 2.1 microns using Tm,Ho:YAG lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Sammy W.; Hale, Charley P.; Magee, James R.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Huffaker, A. V.

    1991-01-01

    An eye-safe pulsed coherent laser radar has been developed by using single-frequency Tm,Ho:YAG lasers and heterodyne detection. Returns from a mountainside located 145 km from the laser radar system and the measurement of wind velocity to ranges exceeding 20 km have been demonstrated with transmitted pulse energies of 22 mJ.

  13. SIRE (sight-integrated ranging equipment): an eyesafe laser rangefinder for armored vehicle fire control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeter, Howard S.; Gudmundson, Glen A.; Woodall, Milton A., II

    1991-04-01

    The Sight Integrated Ranging Equipment (SIRE) incorporates an eyesafe laser rangefinder into the M-36 periscope used in tactical armored vehicles, such as the Commando Stingray light tank. The SIRE unit provides crucial range data simultaneously to the gunner and fire control computer. This capability greatly reduces 'time-to-fire', improves first-round hit probability, and increases the overall effectiveness of the vehicle under actual and simulated battlefield conditions. The SIRE can provide target range up to 10-km, with an accuracy of 10-meters. The key advantage of the SIRE over similar laser rangefinder systems is that it uses erbium:glass as the active lasing medium. With a nominal output wavelength of 1.54-microns, the SIRE can produce sufficient peak power to penetrate long atmospheric paths (even in the presence of obscurants), while remaining completely eyesafe under all operating conditions. The SIRE is the first eyesafe vehicle-based system to combine this level of accuracy, maximum range capability, and fire control interface. It simultaneously improves the accuracy and confidence of the operator, and eliminates the ocular hazard issues typically encountered with laser rangefinder devices.

  14. Self-contained eye-safe laser radar using an erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, Thomas A.; Radecki, Dan J.; Tindal, Nan E.; Corriveau, John P.; Denman, Richard

    2003-07-01

    An Eye-safe Laser Radar has been developed under White Sands Missile Range sponsorship. The SEAL system, the Self-contained Eyesafe Autonomous Laser system, is designed to measure target position within a 0.5 meter box. Targets are augmented with Scotchlite for ranging out to 6 km and augmented with a retroreflector for targets out to 20 km. The data latency is less than 1.5 ms, and the position update rate is 1 kHz. The system is air-cooled, contained in a single 200-lb, 6-cubic-foot box, and uses less than 600 watts of prime power. The angle-angle-range data will be used to measure target dynamics and to control a tracking mount. The optical system is built around a diode-pumped, erbium-doped fiber laser rated at 1.5 watts average power at 10 kHz repetition rate with 25 nsec pulse duration. An 8 inch-diameter, F/2.84 telescope is relayed to a quadrant detector at F/0.85 giving a 5 mrad field of view. Two detectors have been evaluated, a Germanium PIN diode and an Intevac TE-IPD. The receiver electronics uses a DSP network of 6 SHARC processors to implement ranging and angle error algorithms along with an Optical AGC, including beam divergence/FOV control loops.Laboratory measurements of the laser characteristics, and system range and angle accuracies will be compared to simulations. Field measurements against actual targets will be presented.

  15. Eye-safe laser illuminators as less-than-lethal weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, John D.; Adler, Dean S.

    1997-01-01

    Law enforcement and military forces are often faced with situations requiring less-than-lethal response options. Low- power, eye-safe laser illuminators have been shown to be effective, non-lethal weapons for a variety of law enforcement and other-than-war military applications. Through the effects of illumination, glare, and psychological impact; lasers can provide unequivocal warning, threat assessment based on reaction to the warning, hesitation, distraction, and reductions in combat and functional effectiveness. This paper discusses ongoing research and development by Science and Engineering Associates into laser illuminator concepts for civilian and military use. Topics include fundamental design and safety issues, laser diode requirements, and laser illuminator concepts, including a grenade shell laser system that converts a standard 40-mm grenade launcher into a laser illuminator.

  16. Cryogenic Eyesafer Laser Optimization for Use Without Liquid Nitrogen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    reason for this encouraging small-quantum defect behavior. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Erbium , cryogenic, laser, YAG Sc203, sesquioxide 16. SECURITY...or CO2 lasers. Additional motivation for this project came from an observation made in our recent study of cryogenic laser operation of erbium ...1.6-µm- Erbium -Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Solid-State Laser. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2005, 86, 131115. 7. Garbuzov, D.; Kudryashov, I.; Dubinskii, D

  17. Optimal pumping for eye-safe Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchenkov, Vyacheslav A.; Polyakov, Vadim M.; Rodionov, Andrey Y.; Kovalev, Anton V.

    2016-04-01

    We report on theoretical investigation of quasi-three level Er:YAG laser. We propose a numerical model of the laser design with side pump by 1471 nm laser diodes. The model describes the dynamical propagation of the pump in the cavity and the kinetic parameters of the active medium.

  18. Efficient eye-safe neodymium doped composite yttrium gallium garnet crystal laser.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haohai; Wang, Shuxian; Han, Shuo; Wu, Kui; Su, Liangbi; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Zhengping; Xu, Jun; Wang, Jiyang

    2014-03-15

    We report a laser-diode pumped continuous-wave (cw) and passively Q-switched eye-safe laser at about 1.42 μm with the neodymium-doped yttrium gallium garnet (Nd:YGG) crystal for the first time to our knowledge. The composite Nd:YGG crystal was developed originally. A systematic comparison of laser performance between the homogeneously doped and composite Nd:YGG crystal was made, which showed that the composite Nd:YGG manifested less thermally induced effects. Cw output power of 2.06 W was obtained with the slope efficiency of 20.7%. With a V:YAG as a saturable absorber, the passive Q-switching at 1.42 μm was gotten with the pulse width, pulse energy, and peak power of 34 ns, 46.7 μJ, and 1.4 kW, respectively. The present work should provide a potential candidate for the generation of eye-safe lasers.

  19. OWL: an eyesafe 1.5-μm laser radar system for military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibert, Max; Scherbarth, Stefan

    1998-10-01

    The paper reports on current advances in the development of the Dornier Obstacle Warning System (OWS) for helicopters, with particular emphasis on the Obstacle Warning Ladar (OWL). Here both segments, development and application of the 1.5 micrometer imaging laser radar (LADAR) will be represented. It will be shown how advances in the eyesafe LADAR technology resulted in Obstacle Warning Ladar optimized for wire detection leading to a system family platform covering the range from the commercial needs up to the military requirements.

  20. Atmospheric effects on eye-safe airborne laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, Daniel H.; Youmans, Douglas G.

    1995-04-01

    Basing laser radar systems aboard aircraft provides capability for accurate tracking of ground, airborne, and ballistic missile targets from long range. The atmospheric effects of long propagation paths impact the performance of laser radar systems in two important ways -- molecular and aerosol extinction and optical turbulence. This paper provides quantitative assessment of the impact of these effects for laser radar wavelengths beyond 1.4 microns. The treatment of round-trip turbulence on direct detection systems is believed to be the first estimate of this effect. A more complete system analysis is underway and will be described in a forthcoming paper.

  1. Dual-wavelength eye-safe Nd:YAP Raman laser.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y J; Chen, Y F; Chen, W D; Zhang, G

    2015-08-01

    We report on a diode-pumped, Q-switched intracavity-Raman-shifted Nd-doped yttrium-aluminum-perovskite (Nd:YAP) laser using potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) or potassium titanyl arsenate (KTA) nonlinear crystals to produce eye-safe radiation. In both cases, we obtained simultaneous laser emission at two wavelengths corresponding to distinct Raman gain peaks and different Stokes orders for the nonlinear crystal used. From the Nd:YAP/KTP laser source, we obtained 3 ns pulses of combined 21 kW peak power at 1478 and 1503 nm. From the Nd:YAP/KTA laser source, we obtained up to 220 mW total average output power, equally split between 1474 and 1480 nm emission lines.

  2. Raman-shifted eye-safe aerosol lidar (REAL) in 2010: instrument status and two-component wind measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, Shane D.

    2010-10-01

    This paper and corresponding seminar given on 20 September 2010 at the 16th International School for Quantum Electronics in Nesebar, Bulgaria, will describe the key hardware aspects of the Raman-shifted Eye-safe Aerosol Lidar (REAL) and recent advances in extracting two-component wind vector fields from the images it produces. The REAL is an eye-safe, ground-based, scanning, elastic aerosol backscatter lidar operating at 1.54 microns wavelength. Operation at this wavelength offers several advantages compared to other laser wavelengths including: (1) maximum eye-safety, (2) invisible beam, (3) superior performance photodetectors compared with those used at longer wavelengths, (4) low atmospheric molecular scattering when compared with operation at shorter wavelengths, (5) good aerosol backscattering, (6) atmospheric transparency, and (7) availability of optical and photonic components used in the modern telecommunations industry. A key issue for creating a high-performance direct-detection lidar at 1.5 microns is the use of InGaAs avalanche photodetectors that have active areas of at most 200 microns in diameter. The small active area imposes a maximum limitation on the field-of-view of the receiver (about 0.54 mrad full-angle for REAL). As a result, a key requirement is a transmitter that can produce a pulsed (>10 Hz) beam with low divergence (<0.25 mrad full-angle), high pulse-energy (>150 mJ), and short pulse-duration (<10 ns). The REAL achieves this by use of a commercially-available flashlamp-pumped Nd:YAG laser and a custom high-pressure methane gas cell for wavelength shifting via stimulated Raman scattering. The atmospheric aerosol features in the images that REAL produces can be tracked to infer horizontal wind vectors. The method of tracking macroscopic aerosol features has an advantage over Doppler lidars in that two components of motion can be sensed. (Doppler lidars can sense only the radial component of flow.) Two-component velocity estimation is done

  3. Long-distance eye-safe laser TOF camera design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, Anton V.; Polyakov, Vadim M.; Buchenkov, Vyacheslav A.

    2016-04-01

    We present a new TOF camera design based on a compact actively Q-switched diode pumped solid-state laser operating in 1.5 μm range and a receiver system based on a short wave infrared InGaAs PIN diodes focal plane array with an image intensifier and a special readout integration circuit. The compact camera is capable of depth imaging up to 4 kilometers with 10 frame/s and 1.2 m error. The camera could be applied for airborne and space geodesy location and navigation.

  4. High-power diode lasers operating around 1500-nm for eyesafe applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Steve; Leisher, Paul; Price, Kirk; Kennedy, Keith; Dong, Weimin; Grimshaw, Mike; Zhang, Shiguo; Patterson, Jason; Das, Suhit; Karlsen, Scott; Martinsen, Rob; Bell, Jake

    2008-04-01

    Er:YAG solid state lasers offer an "eye-safe" alternative to traditional Nd:YAG lasers for use in military and industrial applications such as range-finding, illumination, flash/scanning LADAR, and materials processing. These laser systems are largely based on diode pumped solid state lasers that are subsequently (and inefficiently) frequency-converted using optical parametric oscillators. Direct diode pumping of Er:YAG around 1.5 μm offers the potential for greatly increased system efficiency, reduced system complexity/cost, and further power scalability. Such applications have been driving the development of high-power diode lasers around these wavelengths. For end-pumped rod and fiber applications requiring high brightness, nLIGHT has developed a flexible package format, based on scalable arrays of single-emitter diode lasers and efficiently coupled into a 400 μm core fiber. In this format, a rated power of 25 W is reported for modules operating at 1.47 μm, with a peak electrical to optical conversion efficiency of 38%. In centimeter-bar on copper micro-channel cooler format, maximum continuous wave power in excess of 100 W at room temperature and conversion efficiency of 50% at 6C are reported. Copper heat sink conductively-cooled bars show a peak electrical-to-optical efficiency of 43% with 40 W of maximum continuous wave output power. Also reviewed are recent reliability results at 1907-nm.

  5. Single longitudinal mode diamond Raman laser in the eye-safe spectral region for water vapor detection.

    PubMed

    Lux, Oliver; Sarang, Soumya; Williams, Robert J; McKay, Aaron; Mildren, Richard P

    2016-11-28

    We report a narrowband and tunable diamond Raman laser generating eye-safe radiation suitable for water vapor detection. Frequency conversion of a tunable pump laser operating from 1063 to 1066 nm to the second order Stokes component in an external standing-wave cavity yielded 7 W of multimode output power in the wavelength range from 1483 to 1488 nm at a conversion efficiency of 21%. Stable single longitudinal mode operation was achieved over the whole tuning range at low power (0.1 W), whereas incorporation of a volume Bragg grating as an output coupler enabled much higher stable power to be attained (0.5 W). A frequency stability of 40 MHz was obtained over a minute without active cavity stabilization. It was found that mode stability is aided via seeding of the second Stokes by four-wave mixing, which leads to a doubling of the mode-hopping interval. The laser was employed for the detection of water vapor in ambient air, demonstrating its potential for remote sensing applications.

  6. Eye-safe infrared laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) emissions from energetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Ei E.; Hömmerich, Uwe; Yang, Clayton C.; Jin, Feng; Trivedi, Sudhir B.; Samuels, Alan C.

    2016-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is a powerful diagnostic tool for detection of trace elements by monitoring the atomic and ionic emission from laser-induced plasmas. Besides elemental emissions from conventional UV-Vis LIBS, molecular LIBS emission signatures of the target compounds were observed in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) region in recent studies. Most current LIBS studies employ the fundamental Nd:YAG laser output at 1.064 μm, which has extremely low eye-damage threshold. In this work, comparative LWIR-LIBS emissions studies using traditional 1.064 μm pumping and eye-safe laser wavelength at 1.574 μm were performed on several energetic materials for applications in chemical, biological, and explosive (CBE) sensing. A Q-switched Nd: YAG laser operating at 1.064 μm and the 1.574 μm output of a pulsed Nd:YAG pumped Optical Parametric Oscillator were employed as the excitation sources. The investigated energetic materials were studied for the appearance of LWIR-LIBS emissions (4-12 μm) that are directly indicative of oxygenated breakdown products as well as partially dissociated and recombination molecular species. The observed molecular IR LIBS emission bands showed strong correlation with FTIR absorption spectra of the studied materials for 1.064 μm and 1.574 μm pump wavelengths.

  7. Eyesafe diffraction-limited single-frequency 1-ns pulsewidth Er:YAG laser transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoneman, Robert C.; Hartman, Ross; Schneider, Eric A.; Garvin, Charles G.; Henderson, Sammy W.

    2007-04-01

    We report an eyesafe diffraction-limited single-frequency 1617 nm Er:YAG laser transmitter for coherent laser radar applications. The transmitter utilizes a master oscillator/power amplifier architecture, enabling the production of high peak power output. The pulsed oscillator is Q-switched and cavity-dumped, resulting in a 1.1 ns pulsewidth. The pulsed oscillator is injection-seeded by a commercial 1617 nm CW distributed feedback laser diode, resulting in single longitudinal mode output. The oscillator and amplifier are directly pumped into the Er:YAG laser upper state by commercial diode-pumped CW 1533 nm Yb,Er-doped fiber lasers. The injection-seeded pulsed oscillator produces an average output power of 2.2 W at 10 kHz pulse repetition frequency (PRF) with a pulsewidth of 1.1 ns (0.20 MW peak power) with a beam quality 1.1 times the diffraction limit. The oscillator has a slope efficiency of 47% in the CW mode, and a conversion efficiency of 85% from CW mode to injection-seeded pulsed mode. The power amplifier produces 20 W in the CW mode with an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 34% and a beam quality 1.1 times the diffraction limit, and 6.5 W in the pulsed mode at 10 kHz PRF with 1.1 ns pulsewidth (0.59 MW peak power).

  8. Simultaneous dual-wavelength eye-safe KTP OPO intracavity pumped by a Nd:GYSGG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Maorong; Zhong, Kai; Mei, Jialin; Guo, Shibei; Xu, Degang; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-02-01

    A simultaneous dual-wavelength intracavity pumped non-critical eye-safe optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is realized using a Nd:GYSGG laser crystal and a KTP nonlinear crystal. A folded cavity is used for thermal stability and mode matching, which greatly improves the output characteristics versus a linear cavity. The maximum output power of the 1562.1 nm/1567.4 nm dual-wavelength eye-safe laser is 750 mW at 10 kHz, corresponding to the optical-to-optical conversion efficiency, single-pulse-energy and peak power of 5.8%, 75 μJ and 22.7 kW. Such a dual-wavelength OPO provides a good laser source for remote sensing for CO and CO2 gases or difference frequency generation for terahertz wave at the important 0.65 THz band.

  9. Dual-wavelength eye-safe Nd:GYSGG/YVO4 intracavity Raman laser under in-band pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, P. B.; Sheng, Q.; Ding, X.; Sun, B.; Liu, J.; Zhao, C.; Zhang, G. Z.; Yu, X. Y.; Li, B.; Wu, L.; Yao, J. Q.

    2017-01-01

    An acousto-optic (AO) Q-switched dual-wavelength laser operating at 1.5 μm eye-safe region is demonstrated via stimulated Raman scatting of a-cut YVO4-Nd:YVO4 crystal within an end-pumped dual-wavelength Nd:GYSGG laser cavity. The in-band pumping absorption peak and coefficient of the dual-wavelength laser crystal Nd:GYSGG are measured in order to carry out efficient pumping, thus overcoming the drawbacks of short thermal focal length of the crystal and scale up the eye-safe output. Under 23.2 W absorbed pump power, 2.11 W of simultaneous dual-wavelength outputs at 1497 and 1516 nm are obtained with a pulse repetition rate of 23 kHz and a corresponding conversion efficiency of 9.1%.

  10. Compact 0.7 mJ/11 ns eye-safe erbium laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitkin, V. V.; Polyakov, V. M.; Kharitonov, A. A.; Buchenkov, V. A.; Rodionov, A. Yu; Zhilin, A. A.; Dymshits, O. S.; Loiko, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the development of a compact diode-end-pumped eye-safe (~1.54 µm) passively-cooled Er,Yb:glass laser. The design of this laser is facilitated by the use of a double-pass pumping scheme and a special ZrO2 diffuse reflector for a uniform pump distribution. In the free-running mode, this laser generates 8.2 mJ/3 ms pulses with a slope efficiency of 15%. Passive Q-switching is provided by saturable absorbers made of transparent glass-ceramics containing Co2+:γ-Ga2O3 or Co2+:MgAl2O4 nanocrystals with a spinel structure. In the latter case, 0.7 mJ/10.5 ns pulses are generated corresponding to  >60 kW peak power and good beam quality (M 2  =  1.4). The designed laser is suitable for portable range-finders.

  11. Eye-safe Nd :YVO{sub 4} laser with intracavity SRS in a BaWO{sub 4} crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Zverev, Petr G; Ivleva, Lyudmila I

    2012-01-31

    A compact diode-pumped eye-safe Nd : YVO{sub 4} laser with an acousto-optic Q-switch and an intracavity BaWO{sub 4} Raman converter is developed. The laser power at a wavelength of 1536 nm with a pulse repetition rate of 20 kHz is 0.6 W, the diode-to-Stokes slope conversion efficiency reaches 44 %. Laser pulses with an energy of 35 {mu}J and a duration of 10 ns are achieved at a repetition rate of 15 kHz.

  12. Reliability of single-mode and multi-mode high-power semiconductor lasers at eye-safe wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stakelon, T.; Lucas, J.; Osowski, M.; Lammert, R.; Moon, S.; Panja, C.; Elarde, V.; Gallup, K.; Hu, W.; Ungar, J.

    2009-02-01

    High power semiconductor lasers with wavelengths in the eye-safer region have application to a variety of defense, medical and industrial applications. We report on the reliability of high power multimode and single mode InGaAsP/InP diode lasers with wavelengths in the range 1320 to 1550 nm in a variety of configurations, including single-chip, conduction-cooled arrays, arrays incorporating internal diffraction gratings, master-oscillator power amplifiers, and fiber-coupled modules of the above. In all cases we show very low rates of degradation in optical power and the absence of sudden failure from catastrophic optical damage or from laser-package interactions.

  13. Recent advances in efficient long-life, eye-safe solid state and CO2 lasers for laser radar applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. V.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Brockman, P.; Bair, C. H.; Schryer, D. R.; Upchurch, B. T.; Wood, G. M.

    1989-01-01

    The key problems in the development of eye-safe solid-state lasers are discussed, taking into account the energy transfer mechanisms between the complicated energy level manifolds of the Tm, Ho, Er ion dopants in hosts with decreasing crystal fields such as YAG or YLF. Optimization of energy transfer for efficient lasing through choice of dopant concentration, power density, crystal field and temperature is addressed. The tailoring of energy transfer times to provide efficient energy extraction for short pulses used in DIAL and Doppler lidar is considered. Recent advances in Pt/SnO2 oxide catalysts and other noble metal/metal oxide combinations for CO2 lasers are discussed. Emphasis is given to the dramatic effects of small quantities of H2O vapor for increasing the activity and lifetime of Pt/SnO2 catalysts and to increased lifetime operation with rare isotope (C-12)(O-18)2 lasing mixtures.

  14. Recent advances in efficient long-life, eye-safe solid state and CO2 lasers for laser radar applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. V.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Brockman, P.; Bair, C. H.; Schryer, D. R.; Upchurch, B. T.; Wood, G. M.

    1989-01-01

    The key problems in the development of eye-safe solid-state lasers are discussed, taking into account the energy transfer mechanisms between the complicated energy level manifolds of the Tm, Ho, Er ion dopants in hosts with decreasing crystal fields such as YAG or YLF. Optimization of energy transfer for efficient lasing through choice of dopant concentration, power density, crystal field and temperature is addressed. The tailoring of energy transfer times to provide efficient energy extraction for short pulses used in DIAL and Doppler lidar is considered. Recent advances in Pt/SnO2 oxide catalysts and other noble metal/metal oxide combinations for CO2 lasers are discussed. Emphasis is given to the dramatic effects of small quantities of H2O vapor for increasing the activity and lifetime of Pt/SnO2 catalysts and to increased lifetime operation with rare isotope (C-12)(O-18)2 lasing mixtures.

  15. High energy intracavity pumped eye-safe BaWO4 Raman laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitzler, Ondrej; Jelínková, Helena; Å ulc, Jan; Koubíková, Lucia; Němec, Michal; Nejezchleb, Karel; Å koda, Václav

    2013-03-01

    The goal of our research is a compact Raman laser emitting short pulses with high energy and peak power in "eye-safe" region around wavelength 1.5 μm. We utilize intracavity conversion of giant pulses at wavelength 1.34 μm in a BaWO4 Raman crystal (18 mm long, AR coated). Required high energy and peak power was reached using a flash-lamp pumped Nd:YAG laser (rod 100 mm long, diameter 4 mm), Q-switched by V:YAG solid-state saturable absorber (initial transmission 37% @ 1.34 μm). The L-shaped oscillator for 1.34 μm radiation consisted of a concave mirror (r = 0.5 m, HR @ 1.3 μm, HT @ 1.06 μm), flat polarizing intracavity mirror, and output coupler (r = 1 m, HR @ 1.3 μm, R = 39 % @ 1.5 μm). The polarizing mirror ensured stable linearly polarized laser emission and prevented parasitic oscillations at 1.06 μm. The Raman laser oscillator was formed by the output coupler and another intracavity mirror (r = 0.5 m, HR @ 1.5 μm, HT @ 1.3 μm), inserted between BaWO4 and the polarizing mirror. For pumping energy of 28.2 J stable vertically polarized generation of the 1st Stokes radiation at 1528 nm was reached. In multimode operation the output energy was 20 mJ in 2.25 ns pulses. Single mode operation was possible by inserting a 1.5 mm aperture between Nd:YAG and V:YAG crystal. The output energy dropped to 9.7 mJ (even for higher pump power of 30.7 W) and output pulses were shortened to 1.87 ns.

  16. Compact sources for eyesafe illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranova, N.; Pu, R.; Stebbins, K.; Bystryak, I.; Rayno, M.; Ezzo, K.; DePriest, C.

    2017-02-01

    Q-Peak has demonstrated a novel, compact, pulsed eyesafe laser architecture operating with <10 mJ pulse energies at repetition rates as high as 160 Hz. The design leverages an end-pumped solid-state laser geometry to produce adequate eyesafe beam quality (M2 4), while also providing a path towards higher-density laser architectures for pulsed eyesafe applications. The baseline discussed in this paper has shown a unique capability for high pulse repetition rates in a compact package, and offers additional potential for power scaling based on birefringence compensation. The laser consists of an actively Q-switched oscillator cavity producing pulse-widths <30 ns, and utilizing an end-pumped Nd: YAG gain medium with a Rubidium Titanyl Phosphate (RTP) electro-optical crystal. The oscillator provides an effective front-end-seed for an optical parametric oscillator (OPO), which utilizes Potassium Titanyl Arsenate (KTA) in a linear OPO geometry. This laser efficiently operates in the eyesafe band, and has been designed to fit within a volume of 3760 cm3. We will discuss details of the optical system design, modeled thermal effects and stress-induced birefringence, as well as experimental advantages of the end-pumped laser geometry, along with proposed paths to higher eyesafe pulse energies.

  17. Continuous-wave generation and tunability of eye-safe resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Němec, Michal; Indra, Lukás.; Šulc, Jan; Jelínková, Helena

    2016-03-01

    Laser sources generating radiation in the spectral range from 1.5 to 1.7 μm are very attractive for many applications such as satellite communication, range finding, spectroscopy, and atmospheric sensing. The goal of our research was an investigation of continuous-wave generation and wavelength tuning possibility of diode pumped eye-safe Er:YAG laser emitting radiation around 1645 nm. We used two 0.5 at. % doped Er:YAG active media with lengths of 10 mm and 25 mm (diameter 5 mm). As a pumping source, a fibre-coupled 1452 nm laser-diode was utilized, which giving possibility of the in-band pumping with a small quantum defect and low thermal stress of the active bulk laser material. The 150 mm long resonator was formed by a pump mirror (HT @ 1450 nm, HR @ 1610 - 1660 nm) and output coupler with 96 % reflectivity at 1610 - 1660 nm. For continuous-wave generation, the maximal output powers were 0.7 W and 1 W for 10 mm and 25 mm long laser crystals, respectively. The corresponding slope efficiencies with respect to absorbed pump power for these Er:YAG lasers were 26.5 % and 37.8 %, respectively. The beam spatial structure was close to the fundamental Gaussian mode. A wavelength tunability was realized by a birefringent plate and four local spectral maxima at 1616, 1633, 1645, and 1657 nm were reached. The output characteristics of the designed and realized resonantly diode-pumped eye-safe Er:YAG laser show that this compact system has a potential for usage mainly in spectroscopic fields.

  18. Eye-Safe Extracavity Raman Laser: a Passive Way of Eliminating Optical Feedback with Double-Pass Pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dashkevich, V. I.; Rusak, A. A.; Orlovich, V. A.; Shkadarevich, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    A passive way of eliminating optical feedback between a pump laser and an extracavity two-pass pumped Raman laser in a compact arrangement was demonstrated. Feedback was suppressed by arranging the circuit elements in a configuration where the pump-laser 100% mirror and the Raman-laser output mirror formed an unstable cavity characterized by a substantially higher threshold for generating the fundamental radiation as compared with the stable pump-laser cavity. The method was demonstrated using an eye-safe KGd(WO4)2 Raman laser pumped by a pulsed KGd(WO4)2:Nd laser with the working transition {}{^4}F_{3/2}to {}^4I_{13/2} as an example. The Raman laser emitted pulses of energy 11.5 mJ at an electrical pump energy of 10 J, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 31%. The Stokes pulse width ( 17 ns) was comparable to the pump pulse width ( 20 ns) owing to the extracavity location of the Raman laser.

  19. Comparison of eye-safe solid state laser DIAL with passive gas filter correlation measurements from aircraft and spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Robert V.; Staton, Leo D.; Wallio, H. Andrew; Wang, Liang-Guo

    1992-01-01

    Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) using solid state Ti:sapphire lasers finds current application in the NASA/LASE Project for H2O vapor measurements in the approximately = 0.820 micron region for the lower and mid-troposphere and in potential future applications in planned measurements of the approximately = 0.940 micron region where both strong and weak absorption lines enables measurements throughout the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The challenge exists to perform measurements in the eye-safe greater than 1.5 micron region. A comparison between DIAL and passive Gas Filter Correlation Radiometer (GFCR) measurements is made. The essence of the differences in signal to noise ratio for DIAL and passive GFCR measurements is examined. The state of the art of lasers and optical parametric oscillators (OPO's) is discussed.

  20. Comparison of eye-safe solid state laser DIAL with passive gas filter correlation measurements from aircraft and spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Robert V.; Staton, Leo D.; Wallio, H. Andrew; Wang, Liang-Guo

    1992-01-01

    Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) using solid state Ti:sapphire lasers finds current application in the NASA/LASE Project for H2O vapor measurements in the approximately = 0.820 micron region for the lower and mid-troposphere and in potential future applications in planned measurements of the approximately = 0.940 micron region where both strong and weak absorption lines enables measurements throughout the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The challenge exists to perform measurements in the eye-safe greater than 1.5 micron region. A comparison between DIAL and passive Gas Filter Correlation Radiometer (GFCR) measurements is made. The essence of the differences in signal to noise ratio for DIAL and passive GFCR measurements is examined. The state of the art of lasers and optical parametric oscillators (OPO's) is discussed.

  1. Monoblock laser for a low-cost, eyesafe, microlaser range finder.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, J E; Schilling, B W; Barr, D N; Lei, J S

    2000-05-20

    A small, lightweight, low-cost prototype laser has been developed for use in a microlaser range finder (muLRF). The laser design is based on a flash-lamp-pumped, Nd:YAG laser with a Cr(4+) passive Q switch. The design incorporates a monolithic potassium titanyl arsenide (KTA) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) in an intracavity configuration, producing output at 1.54 mum. Precisely cut, properly coated crystals make up the laser resonator, reducing the number of components and enabling laser oscillation with the simplest of alignment fixtures. The 1.54-mum laser cavity consists of only four rectangular-shaped crystals: a Nd:YAG laser rod, a Nd:YAG endcap, a Cr(4+) Q switch, and a KTA OPO. Along with a ceramic laser pallet and a flash lamp, these six components make up a prototype monoblock (essentially a one-piece) laser transmitter. Several of these simple prototypes have been built and tested, giving a nominal output of >3.0 mJ at 1.54 mum with a 27-ns pulse width. The transmitter was incorporated into a breadboard laser range finder, and successful ranging operations were performed to targets at ranges in excess of 3 km.

  2. Direct-diode laser illumination and pointing at eye-safe SWIR wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moor, Nick; Goings, John; Thiagarajan, Prabhu; Caliva, Brian

    2017-05-01

    Military, industrial, and medical applications have expressed interest in using 1550nm laser diodes as efficient laser sources for reduced eye safety concerns, especially where free-space propagation is concerned. In addition, covert military applications, including pointers and illuminators, benefit from the spectral insensitivity of common sensor types to 1.5um wavelengths. While more efficient than other sources, high-power broad-area laser diodes can sometimes require complex packaging and beam shaping/combining optics in order to meet requirements for brightness, uniformity, stray light, and environmental insensitivity. This paper will highlight and discuss a range of developments exploring laser diode components near 1.5um for free-space military applications, including broadarea high-power illuminators and highly-collimated pointers. Options for tailored beam conditioning and performance results will also be presented.

  3. Compact multichannel receiver using InGaAs APDs for single-pulse eye-safe laser radar imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Hoyt N.; Yun, Steven T.; Dinndorf, Kenneth M.; Hayden, David R.

    1997-08-01

    Active imaging laser radars form 3D images which can be processed to provide target identification and precision aimpoint definition in real time. Earlier raster-scanned and pushbroom-scanned 3D imaging laser radar receivers required multiple laser pulses to assemble a complete 3D image frame. Platform/target motion and atmospheric effects caused tearing and jitter in the assembled 3D images, which complicated the subsequent image processing and necessitated the use of stabilized scanning systems. This paper describes the current status of the parallel/multichannel imaging laser radar receiver (PMR) which is being developed under an SBIR Phaser II program by the USAF Wright Laboratories Armament Directorate. The PMR uses an array of multichannel laser radar receivers to form single-pulse, 3D laser radar images, thus eliminating the complex and costly scanning system, and enabling much higher frame rates than were ever before possible. The heart of the PMR is the multichannel optical receiver photonic hybrid (MORPH), a high performance 16-channel laser radar receiver module which uses an array of InGaAs avalanche photodiodes for eyesafe operation. The MORPH provides high downrange resolution, multihit range data for each detector on a compact circuit card. Optical flux is transferred from the receiver focal plane to each MORPH via a fiber optic ribbon cable. An array of MORPHs are plugged into a compact passive backplane, along with a single digital control card (DCC). The DCC, which is the same form factor as the MORPH, synchronizes the MORPHs and transfers the digital range information to the host processor over a standard parallel data interface cable. The system described here illustrates one approach to integrating and packaging high-density photonic arrays and their associated signal processing electronics to yield a compact, low power, scannerless, high performance imaging laser radar receiver, using existing technology.

  4. Widely tunable eye-safe laser by a passively Q-switched photonic crystal fiber laser and an external-cavity optical parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, H. L.; Zhuang, W. Z.; Huang, W. C.; Huang, J. Y.; Huang, K. F.; Chen, Y. F.

    2011-09-01

    We report on a widely tunable passively Q-switched photonic crystal fiber (PCF) laser with wavelength tuning range up to 80 nm. The PCF laser utilizes an AlGaInAs quantum well/barrier structure as a saturable absorber and incorporates an external-cavity optical parametric oscillator (OPO) to achieve wavelength conversion. Under a pump power of 13.1 W at 976 nm, the PCF laser generated 1029-nm radiation with maximum output energy of 750 μJ and was incident into an external-cavity OPO. The output energy and peak power of signal wave was found to be 138 μJ and 19 kW, respectively. By tuning the temperature of nonlinear crystal, periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN), in the OPO, the signal wavelength in eye-safe regime from 1513 to 1593 nm was obtained.

  5. Nanoparticle doping for high power fiber lasers at eye-safer wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Baker, Colin C; Friebele, E Joseph; Burdett, Ashley A; Rhonehouse, Daniel L; Fontana, Jake; Kim, Woohong; Bowman, Steven R; Shaw, L Brandon; Sanghera, Jasbinder; Zhang, Jun; Pattnaik, Radha; Dubinskii, Mark; Ballato, John; Kucera, Courtney; Vargas, Amber; Hemming, Alexander; Simakov, Nikita; Haub, John

    2017-06-12

    A nanoparticle (NP) doping technique was developed for fabricating erbium (Er)- and holmium (Ho)-doped silica-based optical fibers for high energy lasers. Slope efficiencies in excess of 74% were realized for Er NP doping in a single mode fiber based master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) and 53% with multi-Watt-level output in a resonantly cladding-pumped power oscillator laser configuration based on a double-clad fiber. Cores comprising Ho doped LaF3 and Lu2O3 nanoparticles exhibited slope efficiencies as high as 85% at 2.09 µm in a laser configuration. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a holmium nanoparticle doped fiber laser as well as the highest efficiency and power output reported from an erbium nanoparticle doped fiber laser.

  6. Range imaging pulsed laser sensor with two-dimensional scanning of transmitted beam and scanless receiver using high-aspect avalanche photodiode array for eye-safe wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Hidenobu; Imaki, Masaharu; Kotake, Nobuki; Hirai, Akihito; Nakaji, Masaharu; Kameyama, Shumpei

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate a range imaging pulsed laser sensor with two-dimensional scanning of a transmitted beam and a scanless receiver using a high-aspect avalanche photodiode (APD) array for the eye-safe wavelength. The system achieves a high frame rate and long-range imaging with a relatively simple sensor configuration. We developed a high-aspect APD array for the wavelength of 1.5 μm, a receiver integrated circuit, and a range and intensity detector. By combining these devices, we realized 160×120 pixels range imaging with a frame rate of 8 Hz at a distance of about 50 m.

  7. Diode-pumped continuous-wave eye-safe Nd:YAG laser at 1415 nm.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Chul; Byeon, Sung Ug; Lukashev, Alexei

    2012-04-01

    We describe the output performance of the 1415 nm emission in Nd:YAG in a plane-concave cavity under traditional pumping into the 4F5/2 level (808 nm) and direct in-band pumping into the 4F3/2 level (885 nm). An end-pumped Nd:YAG laser yielded maximum cw output power of 6.3 W and 4.2 W at 885 nm and 808 nm laser diode (LD) pumping, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power of a LD-pumped 1415 nm laser.

  8. High performance ErYb:Glass for eye-safe lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Simi

    2016-03-01

    Phosphate glasses are known to produce high gain for the Er3+ emission into 1540nm, especially when sensitized with Yb. Unfortunately, the phosphate glass matrix tends to be weaker than other available amorphous materials. Unlike crystalline materials, glass chemical structure around the active ion can be optimized for both material strength and laser output. Reported here is the result from a design of experiment that was completed in order to strengthen the glass structure of a commercially available phosphate laser glass without impacting its laser output efficiencies. Laser output performance results for the glass that met the targeted thermal and mechanical limits are presented. This effort concludes with a scalable material that is ultimately released to the commercial market.

  9. High power eye-safe Er3+:YVO4 laser diode-pumped at 976 nm and emitting at 1603 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newburgh, G. A.; Dubinskii, M.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the performance of an eye-safe laser based on a Er:YVO4 single crystal, diode-pumped at 976 nm (4I15/2-->4I11/2 transition) and operating at 1603 nm (4I13/2-->4I15/2 transition) with good beam quality. A 10 mm long Er3+:YVO4 slab, cut with its c-axis perpendicular to the laser cavity axis, was pumped in σ-polarization and lased in π-polarization. The laser operated in a quasi-continuous wave (Q-CW) regime with nearly 9 W output power, and with a slope efficiency of about 39% with respect to absorbed power. This is believed to be the highest efficiency and highest power achieved from an Er3+:YVO4 laser pumped in the 970-980 nm absorption band.

  10. Eye-Safe KGd(WO4)2:Nd Laser: Nano- and Subnanosecond Pulse Generation in Self-Frequency Raman Conversion Mode with Active Q-Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dashkevich, V. I.; Orlovich, V. A.

    2017-03-01

    The shape of the multimode Stokes pulse generated by an eye-safe KGd(WO4)2:Nd laser with self-frequency Raman conversion and active Q-switching was shown to depend on the inhomogeneity of the active-medium pump. The laser generated a short and undistorted Stokes pulse of length 2.5 ns that increased with increasing laser cavity length for a moderately inhomogeneous pump characterized by a higher population inversion in the center of the active element. The energy of the Stokes pulse ( 11.5 mJ) varied little as the output-mirror reflectivity varied in the range 5-45%. The Raman pulse became distorted if the inhomogeneity of the pump was increased considerably. The degree of pump inhomogeneity was negligible with fundamental TEM00 mode selection. The laser generated subnanosecond Stokes pulses with peak power in the MW range.

  11. High efficiency Nd:YAG ceramic eye-safe laser operating at 1442.8 nm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H N; Chen, X H; Wang, Q P; Zhang, X Y; Chang, J; Gao, L; Shen, H B; Cong, Z H; Liu, Z J; Tao, X T; Li, P

    2013-08-15

    We report on a diode-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser operating at 1442.8 nm for the first time. In our experiment, two different Nd:YAG ceramics with the Nd-doped concentrations of 1.0 and 0.6 at. % and a Nd:YAG with the Nd-doped concentration of 1.0 at. % were used as the laser gain mediums, respectively. At a pump power of 20.7 W, a maximum output power of up to 3.96 W with optical-to-optical efficiency of up to 19.1% was obtained by using the 1.0 at. % Nd-doped ceramic as the laser gain medium. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power of a LD-pumped 1.44 μm Nd:YAG ceramic laser and the highest optical-to-optical efficiency of a LD-pumped 1.44 μm Nd-doped crystal laser.

  12. Graphene Oxide saturable absorber for generating eye-safe Q-switched fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosol, A. H. A.; Jusoh, Z.; Rahman, H. A.; Rusdi, M. F. M.; Harun, S. W.; Latiff, A. A.

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports the generation of Q-switched fiber laser using thulium doped fiber (TDF) as a gain medium and graphene oxide (GO) as a saturable absorber (SA). The GO powder is embedded into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to form an SA film based on a drop-casting technique. GO-SA film is sandwiched between two fiber connectors and tighten by FC adapter before it is incorporated into an TDF laser cavity for Q-switching pulse generation. At 344 mW pump level, a stable Q-switching regime presence at 1943 nm with a 3-dB spectral bandwidth of 9 nm. The maximum repetition rate, pulse width, and pulse energy are at 25 kHz, 4.2 µs, and 0.68 µJ, respectively. All finding results are comparable with other reported pulse fiber lasers.

  13. Advanced system model for 1574-nm imaging, scannerless, eye-safe laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schael, Ulrich; Rothe, Hendrik

    2002-10-01

    Laser radar based on gated viewing uses narrow laser pulses to illuminate a whole scene for direct (incoherent) detection. Due to the time of flight principle and a very fast shutter with precisely controlled delay time, only light reflected in the range R (range slice ΔR) is detected by a camera. Scattered light which reaches the shutter outside a given exposure time (gate) is suppressed. Hence, it is possible to "look" along the optical axis through changing atmospheric transmissions (rain, haze, fog, snow). For each laser pulse, the grey value image ES(x,y) of the camera is captured by a framegrabber for subsequent evaluation. Image sequences from these laser radar systems are ideally suited to recognize objects, because of the automatic contrast generation of the technology. Difficult object recognition problems, detection, target tracking, or obstacle avoidance at bad weather conditions are favorite applications. In this paper we discuss improvements in the system modelling and simulation of our laser radar system. Formerly the system performance was calculated for the whole system using the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), leading to a general estimation of the maximum range of target detection. Changing to a pixel oriented approach, we are now able to study the system response for targets with arbitrary two and even three dimensional form. We take into account different kinds of target reflectivity and the Gaussian nature of the illuminating laser spot. Hence it is possible to simulate gray value images (range slices) and calculate range images. This will lead to a modulation transfer function for the system in future. Finally, the theoretical considerations are compared with experimental results from indoor measurements.

  14. High Average Power Raman Conversion in Diamond: ’Eyesafe’ Output and Fiber Laser Conversion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-19

    power. The efficiencies and brightness achieved are found to be higher than expected by current theories for thermal effects in diamond. The project...power can be scaled before thermal effects become evident. The mechanism for heat deposition and its spatial dependence are found to be poorly...the non- thermal regime. Demonstration of efficient (up 60%) Raman conversion of cw fiber lasers of power up to 630 W. Several further findings are

  15. Solid-State Eyesafe Laser Systems in the 1.5 - 2.1 Micrometer Region.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    have been YLiF4 ( YLF ) and YA103 (YALO), but many others have been reported. 5 The Er:YLF lasers appear most promising for this transition. The YLF host...3] has good ultraviolet transmission for the high absorption bands located above the upper lasing level. In addition, the upper level of erbium in YLF ...several sources, and researchers appear to be divided as to their choice between YLF and YALO host materials. Recent experiments (111 have resulted in

  16. Remote chemical monitoring in an industrial environment using eyesafe IR laser radar technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasmanik, Guerman A.; Shklovsky, E. J.; Freidman, Gennady I.; Lozhkarev, Vladimir V.; Matveyev, Alexander Z.; Shilov, Alexander A.; Yakovlev, Ivan V.; Peterson, Darrel G.; Partin, Judy K.

    1997-07-01

    The brief description of new lidar prototype for remote chemical monitoring and profiling in the 8 - 12 micron range is given. The lidar includes a Nd:YAG laser (1 J per pulse) source, optical parametrical oscillator (0.2 J per pulse), and four-wave Raman emitter (20 mJ output per pulse). The receiver consists of the hydrogen SRS cells, pumped by an additional OPO pulse. Sensitivity of this receiver reaches approximately 1000 photons per pixel. The applications of this lidar for remote detection of chemicals in atmosphere will also be discussed.

  17. Uranium glasses for passive Q-switching of eye-safe laser resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierczyk, Zygmunt; Stepien, Ryszard; Mierczyk, Jadwiga

    2000-10-01

    The paper presents initial results of examination of glasses doped with uranium ions. In such material an effect of non- linear adsorption is possible within a spectral range of 1.5 micrometers . A synthesis of silicate glasses, silicate-borate and phosphate glasses doped with uranium ions was performed. Substantial thermal parameters as well as optical and spectroscopic properties of the obtained glasses were examined. It was stated that wide absorption band in a spectral region of 1.4 divided by 1.6 micrometers , originated from U2+ ions, appears only in phosphate glasses. U2+ doped phosphate glass shows non-linear absorption effect in this region. Absorber transmission varying with increase in energy density of the transmitted radiation of 1.535 micrometers was determined. A giant-pulse erbium glass laser, generation the pulses of energy of 8 mJ and duration 25 ns, was applied for these investigations. Energy density of a diagnostic pulse was changed within a range of 0.001 divided by 30 J/cm3. Non-active losses, absorption cross section, saturation energy, concentration of active media, relaxation time, and energy losses for absorber bleaching were determined.

  18. Novel eye-safe line scanning 3D laser-radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, B.; Kern, Tobias; Hammer, Marcus; Schwanke, Ullrich; Nowak, Heinrich

    2014-10-01

    Today, the civil market provides quite a number of different 3D-Sensors covering ranges up to 1 km. Typically these sensors are based on single element detectors which suffer from the drawback of spatial resolution at larger distances. Tasks demanding reliable object classification at long ranges can be fulfilled only by sensors consisting of detector arrays. They ensure sufficient frame rates and high spatial resolution. Worldwide there are many efforts in developing 3D-detectors, based on two-dimensional arrays. This paper presents first results on the performance of a recently developed 3D imaging laser radar sensor, working in the short wave infrared (SWIR) at 1.5 μm. It consists of a novel Cadmium Mercury Telluride (CMT) linear array APD detector with 384x1 elements at a pitch of 25 μm, developed by AIM Infrarot Module GmbH. The APD elements are designed to work in the linear (non-Geiger) mode. Each pixel will provide the time of flight measurement, and, due to the linear detection mode, allowing the detection of three successive echoes. The resolution in depth is 15 cm, the maximum repetition rate is 4 kHz. We discuss various sensor concepts regarding possible applications and their dependence on system parameters like field of view, frame rate, spatial resolution and range of operation.

  19. Eye-safe diode laser Doppler lidar with a MEMS beam-scanner.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qi; Pedersen, Christian; Rodrigo, Peter John

    2016-02-08

    We present a novel Doppler lidar that employs a cw diode laser operating at 1.5 μm and a micro-electro-mechanical-system scanning mirror (MEMS-SM). In this work, two functionalities of the lidar system are demonstrated. Firstly, we describe the capability to effectively steer the lidar probe beam to multiple optical transceivers along separate lines-of-sight. The beam steering functionality is demonstrated using four lines-of-sight--each at an angle of 18° with respect to their symmetry axis. Secondly, we demonstrate the ability to spatially dither the beam focus to reduce the mean irradiance at the probing distance (R = 60 m) of each line-of-sight--elevant for meeting eye-safety requirements. The switching time of the MEMS-SM is measured to be in the order of a few milliseconds. Time-shared (0.25 s per line-of-sight) radial wind speed measurements at 50 Hz data rate are experimentally demonstrated. Spatial dithering of the beam focus is also implemented using a spiral scan trajectory resulting in a 16 dB reduction of beam focus mean irradiance.

  20. High-power and high-efficiency distributed feedback (DFB) lasers operating in the 1.4-1.6 μm range for eye-safe applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrod, Toby; Brunet, François; Galstad, Christian; Klaus, Michael; Olson, Don; Zenner, Chris; Xiao, Yan; Mawst, Luke; Botez, Dan

    2013-02-01

    Incorporating monolithic distributed feedback (DFB) gratings into broad-area (BA) diode lasers results in ten times narrower spectral width and four-to-five times lower thermal shift in emission wavelength. We report on our progress to obtaining a high-power, high-efficiency DFB diode pump in the 1.4-1.6 μm wavelength range for use in industrial and military, eye-safe applications. Results for Fabry-Perot diode lasers emitting at 1530 nm are also discussed. We report on an index-guided, single-emitter design (0.15 x 0.01 cm2) capable of producing 2.5 W of continuous-wave output power at room-temperature with a peak power conversion efficiency of 50%.

  1. Comparative study of eye-safe Nd:LuAG crystal and ceramic lasers at 1.83 μm operating on 4F3/2 → 4I15/2 transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhiyong; Wang, Yi; Xu, Bin; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping; Xu, Xiaodong; Li, Dongzhen; Xu, Jun

    2017-08-01

    We report on diode-pumped Nd:LuAG crystal and ceramic lasers operating at about 1.83 μm, using a simple and compact plane-concave cavity configuration. For Nd:LuAG crystal laser oscillating at 1828.43 nm, the maximum output power reaches 0.36 W with slope efficiency of about 5.0%. For Nd:LuAG ceramic laser, a maximum output power of 0.145 W is achieved with slope efficiency of about 2.2%, and the lasing wavelength peaks at 1828.76 nm. The 1.83-μm Nd laser sources could be very promising for eye-safe applications because they have stronger water absorption than another kind of eye-safe Nd lasers operating at 1.4 μm.

  2. New continuous-wave and Q-switched eye-safe Nd:YAG lasers at 1.4 μm spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Jinglong; Zhou, Zhiyong; Guan, Xiaofeng; Xu, Bin; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping

    2017-04-01

    We report new results concerning 1.4 μm eye-safe laser sources based on a conventional Nd:YAG crystal. In free-running laser mode, we obtain the highest output power of 4.64 W at 1413 nm with slope efficiency of about 23.1%. With the aid of an etalon, we achieve a simultaneous dual-wavelength laser at 1413 and 1443 nm with maximum output power of 3.18 W and slope efficiency of about 16.7%. In addition, a single wavelength laser at 1431 nm is also yielded with maximum output power of 1.96 W and slope efficiency of about 11.8%. The dual-wavelength laser and single-wavelength laser (1431 nm) are believed to be the first demonstrations from diode-pumped Nd:YAG crystal. Using a single-wall carbon nanotube as the saturable absorber, we achieve dual-wavelength Q-switched laser operation at 1413 and 1443 nm with the narrowest pulse width of about 0.49 μs, for the first time to our knowledge.

  3. Eye-Safe Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Laser infrared radar (lidar) undergoing development harmless to human eyes, consists almost entirely of solid-state components, and offers high range resolution. Operates at wavelength of about 2 micrometers. If radiation from such device strikes eye, almost completely absorbed by cornea without causing damage, even if aimed directly at eye. Continuous-wave light from laser oscillator amplified and modulated for transmission from telescope. Small portion of output of oscillator fed to single-mode fiber coupler, where mixed with return pulses. Intended for remote Doppler measurements of winds and differential-absorption measurements of concentrations of gases in atmosphere.

  4. Laser generating metallic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, Marc A.; Shannon, G. J.; Steen, William M.

    1997-04-01

    Recent developments in rapid prototyping have led to the concept of laser generating, the first additive manufacturing technology. This paper presents an innovative process of depositing multi-layer tracks, by fusing successive powder tracks, to generate three dimensional components, thereby offering an alternative to casting for small metal component manufacture. A coaxial nozzle assembly has been designed and manufactured enabling consistent omni-directional multi-layer deposition. In conjunction with this the software route from a CAD drawing to machine code generation has been established. The part is manufactured on a six axes machining center incorporating a 1.8 kW carbon-dioxide laser, providing an integrated opto-mechanical workstation. The part build-up program is controlled by a P150 host computer, linked directly to the DNC machining center. The direct manufacturing route is shown, including initial examples of simple objects (primitives -- cube, cylinder, cone) leading to more complex turbine blade generation, incorporating build-up techniques and the associated mechanical properties.

  5. Efficient high-peak-power and high-repetition-rate eye-safe laser using an intracavity KTP OPO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, J.; He, G. Y.; Jiao, Z. X.; Wang, B.

    2015-03-01

    An efficient high-peak-power and high-repetition-rate intracavity KTP optical parametric oscillator pumped by a Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser is demonstrated. We achieved 1.5 W output power of 1.5 μm at 10 kHz repetition rate with the pulse duration of 6 ns. The maximum peak power of 25 kW and the maximum pulse energy of 150 μJ have been obtained. The maximum conversion efficiency of 9.5% is achieved with respect to a laser diode power of 10.5 W.

  6. High-efficiency eye-safe Nd:YAG/SrWO4 Raman laser operating at 1664 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huanian; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    A high-energy diode-pumped actively Q-switched intracavity Raman laser with SrWO4 as the Raman active medium is demonstrated. By employing ceramic Nd:YAG laser operating at 1444 nm as pump source, first-Stokes Raman generation at 1664 nm is achieved. With a pump power of 27.7 W, a maximum output power of 1.16 W was obtained at a pulse repetition rate of 10 kHz, corresponding to an optical conversion efficiency of 4.2 %. The maximum pulse energies of as high as 266, 150.5, 189 and 116 µJ were achieved at the pulse repetition frequency of 1, 2, 5 and 10 kHz.

  7. Tricolor R/G/B Laser Diode Based Eye-Safe White Lighting Communication Beyond 8 Gbit/s.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsai-Chen; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Wang, Huai-Yung; Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Huang, Yu-Fang; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2017-12-01

    White light generation by mixing red, green, and blue laser diodes (RGB LDs) was demonstrated with Commission International de l'Eclairage coordinates of (0.2928, 0.2981), a correlated color temperature of 8382 K, and a color rendering index of 54.4 to provide a maximal illuminance of 7540 lux. All the white lights generated using RGB LDs were set within the risk group-1 criterion to avoid the blue-light hazard to human eyes. In addition, the RGB-LD mixed white light was diffused using a frosted glass to avoid optical aberration and to improve the performance of the lighting source. In addition, visible light communication (VLC) by using RGB-LD mixed white-light carriers and a point-to-point scheme over 1 m was performed in the directly modulated 16-QAM OFDM data format. In back-to-back transmission, the maximal allowable data rate at 10.8, 10.4, and 8 Gbps was determined for R, G, and B LDs, respectively. Moreover, the RGB-LD mixed white light-based indoor wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM)-VLC system yielded a total allowable transmission data rate of 8.8 Gbps over 0.5 m in free space. Such a high-speed RGB-LD mixed WDM-VLC system without any channel interference can be used to simultaneously provide data transmission and white lighting in an indoor environment.

  8. Eye-Safe Polycrystalline Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    examination the fiber ends were mechanically polished with 600 grit silicon carbide ( SiC ) bonded paper. Un-coated samples were investigated using a...JCPDS card no.42-1463). The sintered samples were mechanically polished using 600, 800, and 1200 grit silicon carbide papers. Final polishing was...were mechanically polished using 600, 800, and 1200 grit silicon carbide papers. Final polishing was performed with colloidal silica suspension. The

  9. Eye-safe actively Q-switched diode-pumped lasers with intracavity Raman conversion in YVO4, KGd(WO4)2, PbWO4, and Ba(NO3)2 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dashkevich, V. I.; Shpak, P. V.; Voitikov, S. V.; Chulkov, R. V.; Grabtchikov, A. S.; Cheshev, E. A.; El-Desouki, M.; Orlovich, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    We have investigated the self-Raman and intracavity Raman frequency conversion of the end-diode-pumped acoustooptic Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser radiation to eye-safe radiation. The 1st Stokes oscillation in YVO4 (Nd:YVO4), KGd(WO4)2, PbWO4, and Ba(NO3)2 crystals excited by the laser radiation at a wavelength of 1342 nm permits obtaining oscillations at 1524, 1496 or 1527, 1527, and 1562 nm wavelengths, respectively. We have obtained pulsed lasing with a repetition rate of 2-20 kHz, an output energy of 37-95 μJ, and a duration of 6-8 ns. We propose a model of the actively Q-switched intracavity Raman laser taking into account the real switching off/on times of the actively Q-switch and the excited state absorption in the active medium. We used this model to simulate the dynamics of the self-Raman Nd:YVO4 laser. The proposed model gives results that agree fairly well with the experimental data.

  10. The eyesafe visioceilometer - A tactical visibility and cloud height lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, E. S.; Lentz, W. J.

    A recent breakthrough in the mathematical solution to the lidar equation combined with state-of-the-art microelectronics has made it possible to produce the first portable ceiling, visibility, and rangefinding device suitable for tactical use by the U.S. Army. The signal processor of the former XE-2 (Nd:YAG) can be adapted to an eyesafe unit by making use of an erbium glass laser and a GaInAs PIN photodiode detector. It is pointed out that the XE-3 (Eyesafe Visioceilometer) provides tactical real-time data when and where the user needs it, with an accuracy superior to existing nonportable runway equipment. Attention is given to system evolution, lidar theory, the relationship of backscattering and extinction coefficients, a system description, the transient recorder, the analysis of data, and details regarding tactical applications.

  11. Eye-safe lidar system for pesticide spray drift measurement.

    PubMed

    Gregorio, Eduard; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rosell-Polo, Joan R

    2015-02-04

    Spray drift is one of the main sources of pesticide contamination. For this reason, an accurate understanding of this phenomenon is necessary in order to limit its effects. Nowadays, spray drift is usually studied by using in situ collectors which only allow time-integrated sampling of specific points of the pesticide clouds. Previous research has demonstrated that the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique can be an alternative for spray drift monitoring. This technique enables remote measurement of pesticide clouds with high temporal and distance resolution. Despite these advantages, the fact that no lidar instrument suitable for such an application is presently available has appreciably limited its practical use. This work presents the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for the monitoring of pesticide clouds. Parameter design of this system is carried out via signal-to-noise ratio simulations. The instrument is based on a 3-mJ pulse-energy erbium-doped glass laser, an 80-mm diameter telescope, an APD optoelectronic receiver and optomechanically adjustable components. In first test measurements, the lidar system has been able to measure a topographic target located over 2 km away. The instrument has also been used in spray drift studies, demonstrating its capability to monitor the temporal and distance evolution of several pesticide clouds emitted by air-assisted sprayers at distances between 50 and 100 m.

  12. Eye-Safe Lidar System for Pesticide Spray Drift Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Gregorio, Eduard; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rosell-Polo, Joan R.

    2015-01-01

    Spray drift is one of the main sources of pesticide contamination. For this reason, an accurate understanding of this phenomenon is necessary in order to limit its effects. Nowadays, spray drift is usually studied by using in situ collectors which only allow time-integrated sampling of specific points of the pesticide clouds. Previous research has demonstrated that the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique can be an alternative for spray drift monitoring. This technique enables remote measurement of pesticide clouds with high temporal and distance resolution. Despite these advantages, the fact that no lidar instrument suitable for such an application is presently available has appreciably limited its practical use. This work presents the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for the monitoring of pesticide clouds. Parameter design of this system is carried out via signal-to-noise ratio simulations. The instrument is based on a 3-mJ pulse-energy erbium-doped glass laser, an 80-mm diameter telescope, an APD optoelectronic receiver and optomechanically adjustable components. In first test measurements, the lidar system has been able to measure a topographic target located over 2 km away. The instrument has also been used in spray drift studies, demonstrating its capability to monitor the temporal and distance evolution of several pesticide clouds emitted by air-assisted sprayers at distances between 50 and 100 m. PMID:25658395

  13. Laser Velocimetry: The Elusive Third Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, James F.

    1985-01-01

    The historical development of techniques for measuring three velocity components using laser velocimetry is presented. The techniques are described and their relative merits presented. Many of the approaches currently in use based on the fringe laser velocimeter have yielded inaccurate measurements of turbulence intensity in the on-axis component. A possible explanation for these inaccuracies is presented along with simulation results.

  14. Laser fabrication of beryllium components

    SciTech Connect

    Hanafee, J.E.; Ramos, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    Working with the beryllium industry on commercial applications and using prototype parts, the authors have found that the use of lasers provides a high-speed, low-cost method of cutting beryllium metal, beryllium alloys, and beryllium-beryllium oxide composites. In addition, they have developed laser welding processes for commercial structural grades of beryllium that do not need a filler metal; i.e., autogenous welds were made in commercial structural grades of beryllium by using lasers.

  15. Laser ultrasonic multi-component imaging

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Thomas K [Federal Way, WA; Telschow, Kenneth [Des Moines, WA

    2011-01-25

    Techniques for ultrasonic determination of the interfacial relationship of multi-component systems are discussed. In implementations, a laser energy source may be used to excite a multi-component system including a first component and a second component at least in partial contact with the first component. Vibrations resulting from the excitation may be detected for correlation with a resonance pattern indicating if discontinuity exists at the interface of the first and second components.

  16. Advanced laser microfabrication of photonic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Peter R.; Chen, Kevin P.; Corkum, Paul B.; Naumov, Andrei; Ng, Sandy; Zhang, Jie

    2000-11-01

    The powerful transition from electronic to photonic systems in today's Internet-driven communication industry is driving the development of processes to miniaturize and integrate optical components. New processing and packaging technologies are now required that can precisely shape and assemble transparent optical components to sub-wavelength accuracy. Laser microfabrication technology is beginning to play a role here. Our groups are exploring two extremes in laser technology- ultrafast lasers and very short wavelength F2 lasers- to microstructure optical surfaces and to profile refractive-index structures inside transparent glasses. In this paper, we compare photosensitivity responses, spatial resolution, and processing windows for the deep-ultraviolet and ultrafast laser approaches, and discuss prospects for laser printing and trimming of optical waveguide components and circuits.

  17. Design of 3D eye-safe middle range vibrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Polulyakh, Valeriy; Poutivski, Iouri

    2014-05-27

    Laser Doppler Vibrometer and Range Meter (3D-MRV) is designed for middle range distances [1–100 meters]. 3D-MRV combines more than one laser in one device for a simultaneous real time measuring the distance and movement of the targets. The first laser has a short pulse (t∼30psec) and low energy (E∼200nJ) for distance measurement and the second one is a CW (continuous wave) single frequency laser for the velocity measurement with output power (P∼30mW). Both lasers perform on the eye-safe wavelength 1.5 μm. 3D-MRV uses the same mono-static optical transmitting and receiving channel for both lasers including an output telescope and a scanning angular system. 3D-MRV has an optical polarization switch to combine linear polarized laser beams from two lasers into one optical channel. The laser beams from both lasers by turns illuminate the target and the scattered laser radiation is collected by the telescope on a photo detector. The electrical signal from photo detector is used for measuring the distance to the target and its movement. For distance measurement the time of flight method is employed. For targets movement the optical heterodyne method is employed. The received CW laser radiation is mixed on a photo detector with the frequency-shifted laser radiation that is taken from CW laser and passed through an acousto-optic cell. The electrical signal from a photo detector on the difference frequency and phase has information about movement of the scattered targets. 3D-MVR may be used for the real time picturing of vibration of the extensive targets like bridges or aircrafts.

  18. Laser marking of component parts

    SciTech Connect

    Gress, A.V. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Permanent identification of components and subassemblies for traceability and historical purposes is essential for assemblies subject to long term storage. Marketing requirements run the gamut from simple functional alphanumerics for terminal or wire numbers to complex component identification involving program nomenclature, part number, manufacturer's code, serial number, data code, and lot or batch number. The wide range of opaque materials marked includes both ferrous and nonferrous materials, plastics, composites, and ceramics.

  19. Compact efficient eye-safe intracavity optical parametric oscillator with a shared cavity configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y. F.; Su, K. W.; Chang, Y. T.; Yen, W. C

    2007-06-10

    We present a compact efficient eye-safe intracavity optical parametric oscillator pumpedby a passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser in a shared cavity configuration. A signal pulse of 3.3 mJ energy at a 1573 nm wavelength with a peak power of150 kW was achieved. The effective conversion efficiency with respective to the optimized 1064 nm Q-switched pulse energy was as high as 51%.

  20. Automated laser fabrication of cemented carbide components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, C. P.; Khajepour, A.

    2008-07-01

    Automated Laser Fabrication (ALFa) is one of the most rapidly growing rapid-manufacturing technologies. It is similar to laser cladding at process level with different end applications. In general, laser cladding technique is used to deposit materials on the substrate either to improve the surface properties or to refurbish the worn-out parts, while ALFa is capable of near net shaping the components by layer-by-layer deposition of the material directly from CAD model. This manufacturing method is very attractive for low volume manufacturing of hard materials, as near net shaping minimizes machining of hard material and subsequently brings significant savings in time and costly material. To date, many researchers have used this technology to fabricate components using various alloy steels, nickel-based alloys and cobalt-based alloys. In the present study, the work is extended to tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) composites. A set of comprehensive experiments was carried out to study the effect of processing parameters during multi-layer fabrication. The process parameters were optimized for the component-level fabrication. Fabricated components were subjected to dye-penetrant testing, three-point flexural testing, hardness measurement, optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The test results revealed that the laser-fabricated material was defect free and more ductile in nature. Thus, ALFa technology, not only produced the quality components, but also minimized machining of hard material and brought significant saving of time and costly WC-Co material.

  1. Ceramic components manufacturing by selective laser sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Ph.; Bayle, F.; Combe, C.; Goeuriot, P.; Smurov, I.

    2007-12-01

    In the present paper, technology of selective laser sintering/melting is applied to manufacture net shaped objects from pure yttria-zirconia powders. Experiments are carried out on Phenix Systems PM100 machine with 50 W fibre laser. Powder is spread by a roller over the surface of 100 mm diameter alumina cylinder. Design of experiments is applied to identify influent process parameters (powder characteristics, powder layering and laser manufacturing strategy) to obtain high-quality ceramic components (density and micro-structure). The influence of the yttria-zirconia particle size and morphology onto powder layering process is analysed. The influence of the powder layer thickness on laser sintering/melting is studied for different laser beam velocity V ( V = 1250-2000 mm/s), defocalisation (-6 to 12 mm), distance between two neighbour melted lines (so-called "vectors") (20-40 μm), vector length and temperature in the furnace. The powder bed density before laser sintering/melting also has significant influence on the manufactured samples density. Different manufacturing strategies are applied and compared: (a) different laser beam scanning paths to fill the sliced surfaces of the manufactured object, (b) variation of vector length (c) different strategies of powder layering, (d) temperature in the furnace and (e) post heat treatment in conventional furnace. Performance and limitations of different strategies are analysed applying the following criteria: geometrical accuracy of the manufactured samples, porosity. The process stability is proved by fabrication of 1 cm 3 volume cube.

  2. Laser Micromachining Fabrication of THz Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DrouetdAubigny, C.; Walker, C.; Jones, B.; Groppi, C.; Papapolymerou, J.; Tavenier, C.

    2001-01-01

    Laser micromachining techniques can be used to fabricate high-quality waveguide structures and quasi-optical components to micrometer accuracies. Successful GHz designs can be directly scaled to THz frequencies. We expect this promising technology to allow the construction of the first fully integrated THz heterodyne imaging arrays. At the University of Arizona, construction of the first laser micromachining system designed for THz waveguide components fabrication has been completed. Once tested and characterized our system will be used to construct prototype THz lx4 focal plane mixer arrays, magic tees, AR coated silicon lenses, local oscillator source phase gratings, filters and more. Our system can micro-machine structures down to a few microns accuracy and up to 6 inches across in a short time. This paper discusses the design and performance of our micromachining system, and illustrates the type, range and performance of components this exciting new technology will make accessible to the THz community.

  3. Optimization of eyesafe avalanche photodiode lidar for automobile safety and autonomous navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, George M.

    2017-03-01

    Newly emerging accident-reducing, driver-assistance, and autonomous-navigation technology for automobiles is based on real-time three-dimensional mapping and object detection, tracking, and classification using lidar sensors. Yet, the lack of lidar sensors suitable for meeting application requirements appreciably limits practical widespread use of lidar in trucking, public livery, consumer cars, and fleet automobiles. To address this need, a system-engineering perspective to eyesafe lidar-system design for high-level advanced driver-assistance sensor systems and a design trade study including 1.5-μm spot-scanned, line-scanned, and flash-lidar systems are presented. A cost-effective lidar instrument design is then proposed based on high-repetition-rate diode-pumped solid-state lasers and high-gain, low-excess-noise InGaAs avalanche photodiode receivers and focal plane arrays. Using probabilistic receiver-operating-characteristic analysis, derived from measured component performance, a compact lidar system is proposed that is capable of 220 m ranging with 5-cm accuracy, which can be readily scaled to a 360-deg field of regard.

  4. Laser rapid manufacturing of Colmonoy-6 components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, C. P.; Jain, A.; Ganesh, P.; Negi, J.; Nath, A. K.

    2006-10-01

    This paper introduces a new manufacturing technique for the fabrication of Colmonoy-6 components using laser rapid manufacturing (LRM). LRM is a upcoming rapid manufacturing technology, being developed at various laboratories around the world. It is similar to laser cladding at the process level with different end applications. In general, laser cladding technique is used to deposit material on the substrate either to improve the surface properties or to refurbish the worn out parts, while LRM is capable of near net shaping the components by layer-by-layer deposition of the material directly from CAD model. In the present study, a high power continuous wave (CW) CO 2 laser system, integrated with a co-axial powder-feeding system and three-axis workstation was used. The effect of processing parameters during multi-layer deposition of Colmonoy-6 has been studied and optimized to fabricate about a dozen bushes. Thus fabricated bushes were finally machined and ground to achieve the desired dimensions and surface finish. These bushes were tested for non-destructive testing (like-ultrasonic testing, Dye-penetrant testing), metallographic examinations, micro-hardness measurement, X-ray diffraction and thermal ageing. Results compared well with those fabricated by deposition of Colmonoy-6 on austenitic stainless steel rods using gas Tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Thus, the new manufacturing technique not only produced quality product, but also minimized machining of hard-faced material and brought significant saving of time and costly Colmonoy-6 material.

  5. Three-component laser anemometer measurement systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Louis J.

    1991-01-01

    A brief overview of the different laser anemometer (LA) optical designs available is presented. Then, the LA techniques that can be used to design a three-component measurement system for annular geometries are described. Some of the facility design considerations unique to these LA systems are also addressed. Following this, the facilities and the LA systems that were used to successfully measure the three components of velocity in the blading of annular-flow machines are reviewed. Finally, possible LA system enhancements and future research directions are presented.

  6. Low distortion laser welding of cylindrical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittel, Sonja

    2011-02-01

    Automotive components are for the most part cylindrical and thus the weld seams are of radial shape. Radial weld seams are usually produced by starting at a point on the component's surface rotating the component resulting in an overlap zone at the start/end of the weld. In this research, it is shown that the component's distortion strongly depends on the overlap of weld start and end. A correlation between overlap zone and distortion is verified by an experimental study. In order to reduce distortion generated by the overlap zone a special optics is used which allows shaping the laser beam into a ring shape which is then focused on the cylindrical surface and produces a radial ring weld seam simultaneously by one laser pulse. In doing this, the overlap zone is eliminated and distortion can be reduced. Radial weld seams are applied on precision samples and distortion is measured after welding. The distortion of the precision samples is measured by a tactile measuring method and a comparison of the results of welding with the ring optics to reference welds is done.

  7. Low distortion laser welding of cylindrical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittel, Sonja

    2010-09-01

    Automotive components are for the most part cylindrical and thus the weld seams are of radial shape. Radial weld seams are usually produced by starting at a point on the component's surface rotating the component resulting in an overlap zone at the start/end of the weld. In this research, it is shown that the component's distortion strongly depends on the overlap of weld start and end. A correlation between overlap zone and distortion is verified by an experimental study. In order to reduce distortion generated by the overlap zone a special optics is used which allows shaping the laser beam into a ring shape which is then focused on the cylindrical surface and produces a radial ring weld seam simultaneously by one laser pulse. In doing this, the overlap zone is eliminated and distortion can be reduced. Radial weld seams are applied on precision samples and distortion is measured after welding. The distortion of the precision samples is measured by a tactile measuring method and a comparison of the results of welding with the ring optics to reference welds is done.

  8. Component temperature versus laser-welding parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    Applications have arisen in which the component temperature near a laser weld is critical because of possible damage to the explosive powder adjacent to the member being welded. To evaluate the thermal excursion experienced at the powder cavity wall, a study was conducted using assemblies that had been equipped with 0.05 mm diameter thermocouple wires. The main goal of the study was to determine how changes in the laser welding parameters owuld affect the powder cavity wall temperature. The objective lens-to-work distance, pulse rate, and beam power parameters were varied. The peak temperature varied from 117/sup 0/C to 311/sup 0/C in response to welding parameter changes. The study concluded that by utilizing a selected set of welding parameters, the design requirement of a 160/sup 0/C maximum powder cavity wall temperature could easily be satisfied.

  9. A new eye-safe UV Raman spectrometer for the remote detection of energetic materials in fingerprint concentrations: Characterization by PCA and ROC analyzes.

    PubMed

    Almaviva, Salvatore; Chirico, Roberto; Nuvoli, Marcello; Palucci, Antonio; Schnürer, Frank; Schweikert, Wenka

    2015-11-01

    We report the results of proximal Raman investigations at a distance of 7 m, to detect traces of explosives (from 0.1 to 0.8 mg/cm(2)) on common clothes with a new eye-safe apparatus. The instrument excites the target with a single laser shot of few ns (10(-9)s) in the UV range (laser wavelength 266 nm) detecting energetic materials like Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), Trinitrotoluene (TNT), Urea Nitrate (UN) and Ammonium Nitrate (AN). Samples were prepared using a piezoelectric-controlled plotter device to realize well-calibrated amounts of explosives on several cm(2). Common fabrics and tissues such as polyester, polyamide and leather were used as substrates, representative of base-materials used in the production of jackets or coats. Other samples were prepared by touching the substrate with a silicon finger contaminated with explosives, to simulate a spot left by contaminated hands on a jacket or bag during the preparation of an improvised explosive device (IED) by a terrorist. The observed Raman signals showed some peculiar molecular bands of the analyzed compounds, allowing us to identify and discriminate them with high sensitivity and selectivity, also in presence of the interfering signal from the underlying fabric. A dedicated algorithm was developed to remove noise and fluorescence background from the single laser shot spectra and an automatic spectral recognition procedure was also implemented, evaluating the intensity of the characteristic Raman bands of each explosive and allowing their automatic classification. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to show the discrimination potentialities of the apparatus on different sets of explosives and to highlight possible criticalities in the detection. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to discuss and quantify the sensitivity and the selectivity of the proposed recognition procedure. To our knowledge the developed device is at the highest sensitivity nowadays achievable in the

  10. Eye-safe visible wavelength lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooley, T. W.; Reagan, J. A.

    Recent technological advances on several fronts offer the possibility for relatively low-cost, eye-safe visible-wavelength lidar systems for autonomous aerosol/environmental monitoring applications. Improved silicon photodiodes and avalanche photodiodes that have become available offer high-quantum-efficiency detection at very low dark counts (10 to 1000 count/s) and can be used in a photon counting mode for signal plus background and dark current photoelectron count rates of megahertz. The essential requirements and features of a possible lidar system that capitalizes on technical advances on several fronts are outlined. A baseline lidar system is suggested for monitoring tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols. Sensitivity to wavelength, background radiation, detector characteristics, and other system parameters is discussed for several simulated data sets.

  11. Eye-safe visible wavelength lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, T. W.; Reagan, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    Recent technological advances on several fronts offer the possibility for relatively low-cost, eye-safe visible-wavelength lidar systems for autonomous aerosol/environmental monitoring applications. Improved silicon photodiodes and avalanche photodiodes that have become available offer high-quantum-efficiency detection at very low dark counts (10 to 1000 count/s) and can be used in a photon counting mode for signal plus background and dark current photoelectron count rates of megahertz. The essential requirements and features of a possible lidar system that capitalizes on technical advances on several fronts are outlined. A baseline lidar system is suggested for monitoring tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols. Sensitivity to wavelength, background radiation, detector characteristics, and other system parameters is discussed for several simulated data sets.

  12. Nanosecond component in a femtosecond laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Shneider, M. N.; Semak, V. V.; Zhang Zhili

    2012-11-15

    Experimental and computational results show that the coherent microwave scattering from a laser-induced plasma can be used for measuring the quality of a fs laser pulse. The temporal dynamics of the microwave scattered signal from the fs-laser induced plasma can be related to the effect of nanosecond tail of the fs laser pulse.

  13. Optical components for the Nova laser

    SciTech Connect

    Wallerstein, E.P.; Baker, P.C.; Brown, N.J.

    1982-05-17

    In addition to its other characteristics, the Nova Laser Fusion facility may well be the largest precision optical project ever undertaken. Moreover, during the course of construction, concurrent research and development has been successfully conducted, and has resulted in significant advances in various technical areas, including manufacturing efficiency. Although assembly of the first two beams of Nova is just commencing, the optical production, including construction of the special facilities required for many of the components, has been underway for over three years, and many phases of the optical manufacturing program for the first 10 beams will be completed within the next two years. On the other hand, new requirements for second and third harmonic generation have created the need to initiate new research and development. This work has been accomplished through the enormous cooperation DOE/LLNL has received from commercial industry on this project. In many cases, industry, where much of the optical component research and development and virtually all of the manufacturing is being done, has made substantial investment of its own funds in facilities, equipment, and research and development, in addition to those supplied by DOE/LLNL.

  14. Defect detection in laser powder deposition components by laser thermography and laser ultrasonic inspections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santospirito, SP; Łopatka, Rafał; Cerniglia, Donatella; Słyk, Kamil; Luo, Bin; Panggabean, Dorothée.; Rudlin, John

    2013-03-01

    Laser Powder Deposition (LDP) techniques are being adopted within aerospace and automotive manufacturing to produce innovative precision components. Non-destructive techniques (NDT) for detecting and quantifying flaws within these components enables performance and acceptance criteria to be verified, improving product safety and reducing ongoing maintenance and product repair costs. In this work, software enabled techniques are presented for in-process analysis of NDT laser ultrasonic signals and pulsed laser thermography images of sequential metallic LPD layers. LPD tracks can be as thin as 200μm while deposited at a rate of 500 mm/min, requiring ultrafast inspection and processing times. The research developed analysis algorithms that allow senior engineers to develop inspection templates and profiles for in-process inspection, as well as an end-to-end, user friendly interface for engineers to perform complete manual Laser Ultrasonic or Laser Thermographic inspections. Several algorithms are offered to quantify the flaw size. location and severity. The identified defects can be imported into a sentencing engine which then automatically compares analysis results against the user defined acceptance criteria so that the manufacturing products can be verified. Where both laser ultrasonic and laser thermographic NDT data is available further statistical tools could increase the confidence level of the inspection decision.

  15. Recent advances in eye-safe Er:YAG solid-state heat-capacity technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, Marc; Bigotta, Stefano; Ibach, Thierry

    2012-11-01

    In order to address the question of the possibility of a high energy laser with an emission in the "eye-safe" wavelength range, various architectures may be considered. To provide a truly scalable and efficient laser source, however, only bulk solid-state lasers using resonantly diode-pumped erbium show the necessary properties, when coupled with the solid-state heat-capacity (SSHCL) principle of operation. Although seen as nearly being impossible to realize, such a quasi-three-level laser medium can be used in heat-capacity operation. In this operation mode, the laser medium is not cooled during lasing in order to avoid the thermal lensing occurring in bulk lasers, which, in actively cooled operation, would result in a low beam quality, destabilize the laser cavity or would even cause crystal fracture. In heat-capacity mode, the laser medium will substantially heat up during operation, which will cause an increase in re-absorption for a quasi-three-level laser medium, resulting in a general drop in output power over time. However, theoretical and experimental investigations have proven that this effectis of no concern for an Er3+:YAG SSHCL. This paper presents an overview on the theoretical background of the Er3+:YAG SSHCL, experimental results including recent advances in output power and efficiency, an investigation on the laser scaling properties and recent results on intra-cavity adaptive optics for beam-quality enhancement. The effect of fluorescence re-absorption on the laser properties, especially on threshold and laser efficiency will also be discussed. Up to 4.65 kW and 440 J in less than 800 ms are achieved using optimized doping levels for upconversion reduction in this resonantly-diode-pumped Er3+:YAG SSHCL, representing the current world record in eye-safe diode-pumped solid-state laser technology. Optical-to-optical efficiencies of over 41% and slope efficiencies of over 51% are obtained with respect to the incident pump power.

  16. Development of components for the high brightness laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmire, E.

    1980-10-01

    In 1979 DBR lasers were fabricated and their properties studied. Further investigations were undertaken of the beam expander, to determine its potential for the high brightness laser. From this data it was determined that a design change for the high brightness laser is required. This design change is described. In addition, measurements were made on laser amplification to compare this method of achieving higher power compared to the coupled diode arrays. Finally, as a spin-off of this research, a new design for a single mode laser was discovered, using the active/passive laser, a configuration which was fabricated as a first step toward fabrication of DBR lasers. Each of these research efforts are described in this report. Monolithic integration of the necessary components on one substrate for the high brightness laser has been hindered by problems in material and fabrication uniformity. This will be described, and projections for future development will be outlined.

  17. Optical materials for space based laser systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoncristiani, A. M.; Armagan, G.; Byvik, C. E.; Albin, S.

    1989-01-01

    The design features and performance characteristics of a sensitized holmium laser applicable to differential lidar and Doppler windshear measurements are presented, giving attention to the optimal choice of sensitizing/activating dopant ions. This development of a 2-micron region eye-safe laser, where holmium is sensitized by either hulium or erbium, has called for interionic energy transfer processes whose rate will not result in gain-switched pulses that are excessively long for atmospheric lidar and Doppler windshear detection. The application of diamond films for optical component hardening is noted.

  18. Optical materials for space based laser systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoncristiani, A. M.; Armagan, G.; Byvik, C. E.; Albin, S.

    1989-01-01

    The design features and performance characteristics of a sensitized holmium laser applicable to differential lidar and Doppler windshear measurements are presented, giving attention to the optimal choice of sensitizing/activating dopant ions. This development of a 2-micron region eye-safe laser, where holmium is sensitized by either hulium or erbium, has called for interionic energy transfer processes whose rate will not result in gain-switched pulses that are excessively long for atmospheric lidar and Doppler windshear detection. The application of diamond films for optical component hardening is noted.

  19. Laser fringe anemometry for aero engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strazisar, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Advances in flow measurement techniques in turbomachinery continue to be paced by the need to obtain detailed data for use in validating numerical predictions of the flowfield and for use in the development of empirical models for those flow features which cannot be readily modelled numerically. The use of laser anemometry in turbomachinery research has grown over the last 14 years in response to these needs. Based on past applications and current developments, this paper reviews the key issues which are involved when considering the application of laser anemometry to the measurement of turbomachinery flowfields. Aspects of laser fringe anemometer optical design which are applicable to turbomachinery research are briefly reviewed. Application problems which are common to both laser fringe anemometry (LFA) and laser transit anemometry (LTA) such as seed particle injection, optical access to the flowfield, and measurement of rotor rotational position are covered. The efficiency of various data acquisition schemes is analyzed and issues related to data integrity and error estimation are addressed. Real-time data analysis techniques aimed at capturing flow physics in real time are discussed. Finally, data reduction and analysis techniques are discussed and illustrated using examples taken from several LFA turbomachinery applications.

  20. Pre-loading of components during laser peenforming

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Halpin, John M.; Harris, Fritz B.

    2003-12-30

    A method and apparatus are provided for forming shapes and contours in metal sections by prestressing a workpiece and generating laser induced compressive stress on the surface of the metal workpiece. The step of prestressing the workpiece is carried out with a jig. The laser process can generate deep compressive stresses to shape even thick components without inducing unwanted tensile stress at the metal surface. The precision of the laser-induced stress enables exact prediction and subsequent contouring of parts.

  1. Component Technology for Laser Plasma Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Bosl, W J; Smith, S G; Dahlgren, T; Epperley, T; Kohn, S; Kumfert, G

    2002-06-17

    This paper will discuss the application of high performance component software technology developed for a complex physics simulation development effort. The primary tool used to build software components is called Babel and is used to create language-independent libraries for high performance computers. Components were constructed from legacy code and wrapped with a thin Python layer to enable run-time scripting. Low-level components in Fortran, C++, and Python were composed directly as Babel components and invoked interactively from a parallel Python script.

  2. Eye-safe 1.55  μm passively Q-switched Er,Yb:GdAl3(BO3)4 diode-pumped laser.

    PubMed

    Gorbachenya, K N; Kisel, V E; Yasukevich, A S; Maltsev, V V; Leonyuk, N I; Kuleshov, N V

    2016-03-01

    We report for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, on a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Er,Yb:GdAl3(BO3)4 laser. By using a Co2+:MgAl2O4 crystal as a saturable absorber, Q-switched laser pulses with a duration of 12 ns and a maximum energy of 18.7 μJ at a repetition rate of 32 kHz corresponding to an average output power of 0.6 W were obtained at 1550 nm under continuous-wave pumping. In the burst mode of operation, Q-switched laser pulses with the highest energy up to 44 μJ were realized with a pulse repetition rate of 6.5 kHz.

  3. ROMY: A 4-component large ring laser for geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igel, H.; Schreiber, K. U.; Gebauer, A.; Wassermann, J. M.; Lin, C. J.; Bernauer, F.; Simonelli, A.; Wells, J. P. R.

    2016-12-01

    Observatory-based ring lasers are currently the most sensitive technology for measurements of rotational ground motions (seismology) and variations of Earth's rotation rate. Ring laser have so far been limited to single components only (e.g., the horizontal G-ring in Wettzell, Germany, measuring the rotation around a vertical axis). Within the ROMY project (www.romy-erc.eu) funded by the European Research Council we designed and constructed the first multi-component ring laser system for geophysics. The 4-component, tetrahedral-shaped, top-down ring laser sits on a connected concrete structure embedded underground 2m below the surface at the Geophysical Observatory Fürstenfeldbruck, Germany. The 4 independent equilateral triangular-shaped He-Ne ring lasers with 12 m side length are expected to resolve rotational motions below 12 prad/s/sqrt(Hz). We will report on the design and construction process of this first-of-its-kind ring laser system, with completion expected in August 2016 by which time the optical systems are beginning to be assembled. The four rotational components are combined to the complete 3-component vector of Earth's rotation, perturbed by other geophysical signals such as earthquake induced ground motions, ocean-generated noise, Earth's free oscillations, interactions between atmosphere and solid Earth and other signals. First applications are expected in the field of seismology. We report on future plans to stabilize the ring geometry providing long-term stability for geodetic applications.

  4. Recent improvements to the Raman-shifted eye-safe aerosol lidar (REAL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, Shane D.; Petrova-Mayor, Anna; Morley, Bruce; Spuler, Scott

    2013-09-01

    Improvements to the original NCAR/NSF Raman-shifted Eye-safe Aerosol Lidar (REAL) made between 2008 and 2013 are described. They are aimed mainly at optimizing and stabilizing the performance of the system for long-term, unattended, network-controlled, remote monitoring of the horizontal vector wind field and boundary layer height, and observing atmospheric boundary layer phenomena such as fine-scale waves and density current fronts. In addition, we have improved the polarization purity of the transmitted laser radiation and studied in the laboratory the effect of the beam-steering unit mirrors on the transmitted polarization as part of a longer-term effort to make absolute polarization measurements of aerosols and clouds.

  5. Eye-safe tracking of oil fog plumes by UV lidar.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, W L

    1983-08-01

    NOAA's Wave Propagation Laboratory operated a plume-tracking lidar during two field experiments investigating atmospheric dispersion in complex terrain. The lidar successfully acquired data on oil fog plume behavior by detecting the elastic backscatter of the pulsed output of a frequency-doubled ruby laser. This UV wavelength (0.3472 microm) met stringent eye safety restrictions. An analysis of signal and noise levels demonstrates that plume definition at a wavelength of 0.3472 microm is superior in many cases to that at 0.6943 microm when pulse energies are low enough to be eye-safe at the range to the plume. This is often true in spite of the high threshold set by the large molecular scatter from the ambient air at the UV wavelength. Backscatter coefficients of oil fog at the shorter wavelength were 1-4x larger than at the longer wavelength.

  6. Laser Safety Evaluation of the MILES and Mini MILES Laser Emitting Components

    SciTech Connect

    AUGUSTONI, ARNOLD L.

    2002-02-02

    Laser safety evaluation and output emission measurements were performed (during October and November 2001) on SNL MILES and Mini MILES laser emitting components. The purpose, to verify that these components, not only meet the Class 1 (eye safe) laser hazard criteria of the CDRH Compliance Guide for Laser Products and 21 CFR 1040 Laser Product Performance Standard; but also meet the more stringent ANSI Std. z136.1-2000 Safe Use of Lasers conditions for Class 1 lasers that govern SNL laser operations. The results of these measurements confirmed that all of the Small Arms Laser Transmitters, as currently set (''as is''), meet the Class 1 criteria. Several of the Mini MILES Small Arms Transmitters did not. These were modified and re-tested and now meet the Class 1 laser hazard criteria. All but one System Controllers (hand held and rifle stock) met class 1 criteria for single trigger pulls and all presented Class 3a laser hazard levels if the trigger is held (continuous emission) for more than 5 seconds on a single point target. All units were Class 3a for ''aided'' viewing. These units were modified and re-tested and now meet the Class 1 hazard criteria for both ''aided'' as well as ''unaided'' viewing. All the Claymore Mine laser emitters tested are laser hazard Class 1 for both ''aided'' as well as ''unaided'' viewing.

  7. Rapid laser prototyping of plasmonic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, C.; Kiyan, R.; Passinger, S.; Stepanov, A. L.; Ostendorf, A.; Chichkov, B. N.

    2007-11-01

    Renewed and growing interest in the field of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) comes from a rapid advance of nanostructuring technologies. In this paper, we will report on the application of two-photon polymerization (2PP) technique for the fabrication of dielectric SPP-structures, which can be used for localization, guiding, and manipulation of SPPs on a subwavelength scale. This technology is based on nonlinear absorption of near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses. Resolutions down to 100 nm (and even better) are already achievable. Characterization of these structures is performed by leakage radiation microscopy. 2PP allows the fabrication of dielectric waveguides, splitters, and couplers directly on metal surfaces. The dielectric structures on metal films are demonstrated to be very efficient for the excitation of SPPs. Using these structures, one can achieve excitation and focusing of the resulting plasmon field.

  8. Development of Underwater Laser Cladding and Underwater Laser Seal Welding Techniques for Reactor Components (II)

    SciTech Connect

    Masataka Tamura; Shohei Kawano; Wataru Kouno; Yasushi Kanazawa

    2006-07-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is one of the major reasons to reduce the reliability of aged reactor components. Toshiba has been developing underwater laser welding onto surface of the aged components as maintenance and repair techniques. Because most of the reactor internal components to apply this underwater laser welding technique have 3-dimensional shape, effect of welding positions and welded shapes are examined and presented in this report. (authors)

  9. Laser beam brazing of car body and aircraft components

    SciTech Connect

    Haferkamp, H.; Kreutzburg, K.

    1994-12-31

    At present, when brazing car body components for the automotive industry, manual flame brazing is mostly used. The advantage of brazing as compared to welding, is the lower hardness of the braze metal, making postmachining easier. But manual flame brazing also shows several main disadvantages, such as pores within the seam and a high thermal influence on the workpiece. Therefore, investigations on laser beam brazing concerning the reduction of the technological and economical disadvantages of the flame brazing process were carried out. Laser beam brazing of aluminum alloys is also a main topic of this presentation. The fundamental research in brazing mild steel was done on lap joints. The investigations about brazing mild steel and aluminum alloys have demonstrated that it is possible to braze these metals using laser beam radiation. Laser beam brazing of 3-dimensional mild steel components requires a special program for the brazing sequence, and new specifications in design and fabrication. But comparing seams made by laser beam brazing to manual flame brazing show that there are advantages to using the automated laser process. Laser beam brazing of aluminum alloys makes it possible to join metals with poor brazeability, although brazing conditions lead to a slight melting of the gap sides.

  10. Development of eye-safe IR lidar emitter and detector technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasmanik, Guerman A.; Shklovsky, E. J.; Freidman, Gennady I.; Lozhkarev, Vladimir V.; Matveyev, Alexander Z.; Shilov, Alexander A.; Yakovlev, Ivan V.; Peterson, Darrel G.; Partin, Judy K.

    1997-08-01

    Lidar systems developed over the last decade have demonstrated impressive results when applied to the detection of specific volatile chemicals. MOst of these systems are limited to a single wavelength or, at best, a narrow wavelength band. Exceptions are DIAL systems, CO2 lidars, and dye laser sources. Currently under development at INEEL and PASSAT Ltd. are technologies that convert Nd:YAG laser energy to the 8-11 micrometers band with an output of 20 millijoules/pulse or higher. Wavelength shifting is accomplished using a tunable optical parametric oscillator and amplifier, and stimulated Raman scattering cells as the emitter. This system can be made tunable continuously from 6-11 microns which makes this an eyesafe laser system. In addition, identical SRS cells are used as low noise, narrow band receivers that are sensitive to extremely low levels of scattered laser radiation. Use of this technology is to generate a pair of pulses at different wavelengths for DIAL applications. A description of this system will be provided along with test results.

  11. Laser-machined components for microanalytical and chemical separation devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, Dean W.; Martin, Peter M.; Bennett, Wendy D.

    1998-10-01

    Excimer lasers have proven to be powerful tools for machining polymeric components used in microanalytical and microchemical separation devices. We report the use of laser machining methods to produce microfluidic channels and liquid/liquid contact membranes for a number of devices fabricated at our laboratory. Microchannels 50- to 100- micrometers -wide have been produced directly in bulk polycarbonate chips using a direct-write laser micromachining system. Wider microchannels have been produced by laser machining paths through sheets of polyimide film, then sandwiching the patterned piece between solid chips of polycarbonate stock. A comparison of direct-write and mask machining processes used to produce some of the microfluidic features is made. Examples of microanalytical devices produced using these methods are presented. Included are microdialysis units used to remove electrolytes from liquid samples and electrophoretic separation devices, both used for extremely low volume samples intended for mass spectrometric analysis. A multilayered microfluidic device designed to analyze low volume groundwater samples for hazardous metals and a fluidics motherboard are also described. Laser machining processes have also been explored for producing polymeric membranes suitable for use in liquid/liquid contactors used for removal of soluble hazardous components from waste streams. A step-and-repeat mask machining process was used to produce 0.5 X 8 cm membranes in 25- and 50-micrometers -thick polyimide. Pore diameters produced using this method were five and ten micrometers. The laser machined membranes were sputter coated with PTFE prior to use to improve fluid breakthrough characteristics.

  12. Fiber Laser Component Testing for Space Qualification Protocol Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falvey, S.; Buelow, M.; Nelson, B.; Starcher, Y.; Thienel, L.; Rhodes, C.; Tull, Jackson; Drape, T.; Westfall, C.

    A test protocol for the space qualifying of Ytterbium-doped diode-pumped fiber laser (DPFL) components was developed under the Bright Light effort, sponsored by AFRL/VSE. A literature search was performed and summarized in an AMOS 2005 conference paper that formed the building blocks for the development of the test protocol. The test protocol was developed from the experience of the Bright Light team, the information in the literature search, and the results of a study of the Telcordia standards. Based on this protocol developed, test procedures and acceptance criteria for a series of vibration, thermal/vacuum, and radiation exposure tests were developed for selected fiber laser components. Northrop Grumman led the effort in vibration and thermal testing of these components at the Aerospace Engineering Facility on Kirtland Air Force Base, NM. The results of the tests conducted have been evaluated. This paper discusses the vibration and thermal testing that was executed to validate the test protocol. The lessons learned will aid in future assessments and definition of space qualification protocols. Components representative of major items within a Ytterbium-doped diode-pumped fiber laser were selected for testing; including fibers, isolators, combiners, fiber Bragg gratings, and laser diodes. Selection of the components was based on guidelines to test multiple models of typical fiber laser components. A goal of the effort was to test two models (i.e. different manufacturers) of each type of article selected, representing different technologies for the same type of device. The test articles did not include subsystems or systems. These components and parts may not be available commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS), and, in fact, many are custom articles, or newly developed by the manufacturer. The primary goal for this effort is a completed taxonomy that lists all relevant laser components, modules, subsystems, and interfaces, and cites the documentation for space

  13. Airborne molecular contamination: quality criterion for laser and optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Airborne molecular contaminations (AMCs) have been recognized as a major problem in semiconductor fabrication. Enormous technical and financial efforts are made to remove or at least reduce these contaminations in production environments to increase yield and process stability. It can be shown that AMCs from various sources in laser devices have a negative impact on quality and lifetime of lasers and optical systems. Outgassing of organic compounds, especially condensable compounds were identified as the main source for deterioration of optics. These compounds can lead to hazing on surfaces of optics, degradation of coating, reducing the signal transmission or the laser signal itself and can enhance the probability of laser failure and damage. Sources of organic outgassing can be molding materials, resins, seals, circuit boards, cable insulation, coatings, paints and others. Critical compounds are siloxanes, aromatic amines and high boiling aromatic hydrocarbons like phthalates which are used as softeners in plastic materials. Nowadays all sensitive assembly steps are performed in controlled cleanroom environments to reduce risks of contamination. We will demonstrate a high efficient air filter concept to remove AMCs for production environments with special AMC filters and methods for the qualification and monitoring of these environments. Additionally, we show modern techniques and examples for the pre-qualification of materials. For assembled components, we provide sampling concepts for a routine measurement for process, component and product qualification. A careful selection of previously tested and certified materials and components is essential to guarantee the quality of lasers and optical devices.

  14. Picosecond laser welding of optical to metal components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Richard M.; Troughton, Michael; Chen, Jinanyong; Elder, Ian; Thomson, Robert R.; Lamb, Robert A.; Esser, M. J. Daniel; Hand, Duncan P.

    2016-03-01

    We report on practical, industrially relevant, welding of optical components to themselves and aluminum alloy components. Weld formation is achieved through the tight focusing of a 5.9ps, 400kHz Trumpf laser operating at 1030nm. By selecting suitable surface preparation, clamping and laser parameters, the plasma can be confined, even with comparatively rough surfaces, by exploiting the melt properties of the glass. The short interaction time allows for a permanent weld to form between the two materials with heating limited to a region ~300 µm across. Practical application of these weld structures is typically limited due to the induced stress within the glass and, critically, the issues surrounding post-weld thermal expansion. We report on the measured strength of the weld, with a particular emphasis on laser parameters and surface preparation.

  15. Optical Path Difference Evaluation of Laser-Soldered Optical Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhardt, T.; Hornaff, M.; Burkhardt, D.; Beckert, E.

    2015-12-01

    We present Solderjet Bumping, a laser-based soldering process, as an all inorganic joining technique for optical materials and mechanical support structures. The adhesive-free bonding process enables the low-stress assembly of fragile and sensitive components for advanced optical systems. Our process addresses high demanding applications, e.g. under high energetic radiation (short wavelengths of 280 nm and below and/or high intensities), for vacuum operation, and for harsh environmental conditions. Laser-based soldering allows the low stress assembly of aligned sub-cells as key components for high quality optical systems. The evaluation of the optical path difference in fused silica and the radiation resistant LAK9G15 glass components after soldering and environmental testing shows the potential of the technique.

  16. Laser drilling of thermal barrier coated jet-engine components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezer, H. K.

    Aero engine hot end components are often covered with ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs). Laser drilling in the TBC coated components can be a source of service life TBC degradation and spallation. The present study aims to understand the mechanisms of TBC delamination and develop techniques to drill holes without damaging the TBC, Nimonic 263 workpieces coated with TBC are used in the experiments. Microwave non-destructive testing (NDT) is employed to monitor the integrity of the coating /substrate interfaces of the post-laser drilled materials. A numerical modelling technique is used to investigate the role of melt ejection on TBC delamination. The model accounts for the vapour and the assist gas flow effects in the process. Broadly, melt ejection induced mechanical stresses for the TBC coating / bond coating and thermal effects for the bond coating / substrate interfaces are found the key delamination mechanisms. Experiments are carried out to validate the findings from the model. Various techniques that enable laser drilling without damaging the TBC are demonstrated. Twin jet assisted acute angle laser drilling is one successful technique that has been analysed using the melt ejection simulation. Optimisation of the twin jet assisted acute angle laser drilling process parameters is carried out using Design of Experiments (DoE) and statistical modelling approaches. Finally, an industrial case study to develop a high speed, high quality laser drilling system for combustor cans is described. Holes are drilled by percussion and trepan drilling in TBC coated and uncoated Haynes 230 workpieces. The production rate of percussion drilling is significantly higher than the trepan drilling, however metallurgical hole quality and reproducibility is poor. A number of process parameters are investigated to improve these characteristics. Gas type and gas pressure effects on various characteristics of the inclined laser drilled holes are investigated through theoretical

  17. Qualification and issues with space flight laser systems and components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Coyle, D. B.; Canham, John S.; Leidecker, Henning W., Jr.

    2006-02-01

    The art of flight quality solid-state laser development is still relatively young, and much is still unknown regarding the best procedures, components, and packaging required for achieving the maximum possible lifetime and reliability when deployed in the harsh space environment. One of the most important issues is the limited and unstable supply of quality, high power diode arrays with significant technological heritage and market lifetime. Since Spectra Diode Labs Inc. ended their involvement in the pulsed array business in the late 1990's, there has been a flurry of activity from other manufacturers, but little effort focused on flight quality production. This forces NASA, inevitably, to examine the use of commercial parts to enable space flight laser designs. System-level issues such as power cycling, operational derating, duty cycle, and contamination risks to other laser components are some of the more significant unknown, if unquantifiable, parameters that directly effect transmitter reliability. Designs and processes can be formulated for the system and the components (including thorough modeling) to mitigate risk based on the known failures modes as well as lessons learned that GSFC has collected over the past ten years of space flight operation of lasers. In addition, knowledge of the potential failure modes related to the system and the components themselves can allow the qualification testing to be done in an efficient yet, effective manner. Careful test plan development coupled with physics of failure knowledge will enable cost effect qualification of commercial technology. Presented here will be lessons learned from space flight experience, brief synopsis of known potential failure modes, mitigation techniques, and options for testing from the system level to the component level.

  18. Qualification and Issues with Space Flight Laser Systems and Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Coyle, D. Barry; Canham, John S.; Leidecker, Henning W.

    2006-01-01

    The art of flight quality solid-state laser development is still relatively young, and much is still unknown regarding the best procedures, components, and packaging required for achieving the maximum possible lifetime and reliability when deployed in the harsh space environment. One of the most important issues is the limited and unstable supply of quality, high power diode arrays with significant technological heritage and market lifetime. Since Spectra Diode Labs Inc. ended their involvement in the pulsed array business in the late 1990's, there has been a flurry of activity from other manufacturers, but little effort focused on flight quality production. This forces NASA, inevitably, to examine the use of commercial parts to enable space flight laser designs. System-level issues such as power cycling, operational derating, duty cycle, and contamination risks to other laser components are some of the more significant unknown, if unquantifiable, parameters that directly effect transmitter reliability. Designs and processes can be formulated for the system and the components (including thorough modeling) to mitigate risk based on the known failures modes as well as lessons learned that GSFC has collected over the past ten years of space flight operation of lasers. In addition, knowledge of the potential failure modes related to the system and the components themselves can allow the qualification testing to be done in an efficient yet, effective manner. Careful test plan development coupled with physics of failure knowledge will enable cost effect qualification of commercial technology. Presented here will be lessons learned from space flight experience, brief synopsis of known potential failure modes, mitigation techniques, and options for testing from the system level to the component level.

  19. Qualification and Issues with Space Flight Laser Systems and Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Coyle, D. Barry; Canham, John S.; Leidecker, Henning W.

    2006-01-01

    The art of flight quality solid-state laser development is still relatively young, and much is still unknown regarding the best procedures, components, and packaging required for achieving the maximum possible lifetime and reliability when deployed in the harsh space environment. One of the most important issues is the limited and unstable supply of quality, high power diode arrays with significant technological heritage and market lifetime. Since Spectra Diode Labs Inc. ended their involvement in the pulsed array business in the late 199O's, there has been a flurry of activity from other manufacturers, but little effort focused on flight quality production. This forces NASA, inevitably, to examine the use of commercial parts to enable space flight laser designs. System-level issues such as power cycling, operational derating, duty cycle, and contamination risks to other laser components are some of the more significant unknown, if unquantifiable, parameters that directly effect transmitter reliability. Designs and processes can be formulated for the system and the components (including thorough modeling) to mitigate risk based on the known failures modes as well as lessons learned that GSFC has collected over the past ten years of space flight operation of lasers. In addition, knowledge of the potential failure modes related to the system and the components themselves can allow the qualification testing to be done in an efficient yet, effective manner. Careful test plan development coupled with physics of failure knowledge will enable cost effect qualification of commercial technology. Presented here will be lessons learned from space flight experience, brief synopsis of known potential failure modes, mitigation techniques, and options for testing from the system level to the component level.

  20. Laser Cladding of TiC for Better Titanium Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampedro, J.; Pérez, I.; Carcel, B.; Ramos, J. A.; Amigó, V.

    Pure commercial titanium is widely used because of its high corrosion resistance and lower cost compared with other titanium alloys, in particular when there is no high wear requirements. Nevertheless, the wear resistance is poor and surface damage usually occurs in areas under contact loadings. Laser cladding is a suitable technique for manufacturing precise and defect free coatings of a dissimilar material with higher wear and corrosion resistance. In this work a good understanding of laser metal deposition mechanisms allowed to obtain defect free coatings of Ti6Al4 V and TiC metal matrix composite (MMC) using a flash lamp pumped Nd:YAG laser of 1 kW. A complete investigation of the process parameters is discussed and resultant wear properties are shown. The results show the feasibility to apply the process for manufacturing, improving or repairing high added value components for a wide range of industrial sectors.

  1. End-Pumped Monoblock Laser For Eyesafe Targeting Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    an enabling technology coined the “monoblock laser” due to its one-piece nature and simplicity of manufacture ( Nettleton , 2000). Variations of this...lending their technical as well as programmatic expertise to this effort. We would also like to thank John Nettleton and Dallas Barr of NVESD for...Opt. 36, 20 (1997). Moulton, P.F., “Pumping with diodes,” IEEE Circuits and Devices Magazine 7, 36-40 (1991). Nettleton , J. E., Schilling, B. W

  2. Laser micro welding of polymeric components for dental protheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hustedt, M.; von Busse, A.; Fargas, M.; Meier, O.; Ostendorf, A.; Bißinger, H.

    2006-02-01

    In dental prosthodontics, miniaturized unit assembly systems are increasingly used in order to enable the optimized adaptation of the prosthesis to the individual anatomic situation. To manufacture these miniaturized systems, there is the need to cover the complete device, in the reported case made of polycarbonate, comprising among others springs that apply pressure to fix and adjust the prosthesis. The laser is a suitable joining tool for applications in micro technology. Therefore, laser transmission welding was investigated for joining the specific miniaturized components, so-called retention modules. The housing was made of PC with carbon black. The cover consisted of transparent PC with a thickness of 400 μm along the joining contour. The wall thickness of the joining partners amounted to 400 μm. The investigations presented in this paper include detailed examinations of the welding process with and without laser mask. For both process variants, the influence of the main process parameters laser output power, welding speed and focal position was studied. The process was qualified especially with regard to joining strength, swelling, process time, reproducibility, accuracy and functionality of the complete assembly. It was examined how the positioning of the mask determines the formation of the weld seam. The geometry of the retention module and the clamping were optimized. It turned out that the clamping of the components is crucial for a reliable process. Optimized process conditions enable the micro welding of plastic components for dental products considering the high requirements regarding functionality, biocompatibility, lifetime, and esthetics. Laser transmission micro welding proved to be a suitable method to package the final assembly without any refinishing operation.

  3. Multiphoton laser lithography for the fabrication of plasmonic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passinger, Sven; Koch, Jürgen; Kiyan, Roman; Reinhardt, Carsten; Chichkov, Boris N.

    2006-08-01

    In this contribution, we demonstrate multi-photon femtosecond laser lithography for the fabrication and rapid prototyping of plasmonic components. Using this technology different dielectric and metallic SPP-structures can be fabricated in a low-cost and time-efficient way. Resolution limits of this technology will be discussed. Investigations of the optical properties of the fabricated SPP-structures by far-field leakage radiation microscopy will be reported.

  4. A self-seeded SRS system for the generation of 1.54-micron eye-safe radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Z.; Singh, U. N.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1990-01-01

    A light source is described for the efficient generation of 1.54-micron for eye-safe aerosol lidar operation. The system is based upon an Nd:YAG laser at 1.06 micron which is then Raman-shifted in methane to produce light at the first Stokes wavelength of 1.54 micron. First Stokes light generated in the backward direction was retroreflected back into the Raman cell for amplification in the tail of the 10 ns pump beam. The energy conversion efficiency and the spatial beam quality of the amplified first Stokes were found to be adversely affected when operated at higher repetition rates due to a thermal gradient produced in the generation region. A Stokes energy of 25 mJ was obtained for a pumping energy of 140 mJ at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The beam divergence of the amplified Stokes radiation was measured to be less than 1 mrad. The optimized results demonstrate the applicability of this radiation for eye-safe lidar measurements.

  5. Laser Doppler anemometer measurements using nonorthogonal velocity components: error estimates.

    PubMed

    Orloff, K L; Snyder, P K

    1982-01-15

    Laser Doppler anemometers (LDAs) that are arranged to measure nonorthogonal velocity components (from which orthogonal components are computed through transformation equations) are more susceptible to calibration and sampling errors than are systems with uncoupled channels. In this paper uncertainty methods and estimation theory are used to evaluate, respectively, the systematic and statistical errors that are present when such devices are applied to the measurement of mean velocities in turbulent flows. Statistical errors are estimated for two-channel LDA data that are either correlated or uncorrelated. For uncorrelated data the directional uncertainty of the measured velocity vector is considered for applications where mean streamline patterns are desired.

  6. Laser Doppler anemometer measurements using nonorthogonal velocity components - Error estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orloff, K. L.; Snyder, P. K.

    1982-01-01

    Laser Doppler anemometers (LDAs) that are arranged to measure nonorthogonal velocity components (from which orthogonal components are computed through transformation equations) are more susceptible to calibration and sampling errors than are systems with uncoupled channels. In this paper uncertainty methods and estimation theory are used to evaluate, respectively, the systematic and statistical errors that are present when such devices are applied to the measurement of mean velocities in turbulent flows. Statistical errors are estimated for two-channel LDA data that are either correlated or uncorrelated. For uncorrelated data the directional uncertainty of the measured velocity vector is considered for applications where mean streamline patterns are desired.

  7. Modeling laser beam propagation through components with internal multiple reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zongzhao; Zhang, Site; Wyrowski, Frank

    2015-02-01

    Component, e.g. Fabry-Perot interferometer, with internal multiple reflections plays an important role in laser technology. Its optical functionality is based on multiple reflections inside the component and the interference effect. In this paper, two electromagnetic concepts that allow the modeling of such components for general incident light are proposed. The first one is based on an iterative field tracing approach. With this approach multiple reflections through and inside the component are handled respectively. One typical example is the simulation of Newton's rings effect or the modeling of an Etalon with thickness variation because of fabrication tolerances. The other one is based on the matrix method for stratified media, which is usually used to handle optical layer systems Fabry-Perot interferometer. We present the details, demonstrate various examples and also discuss sampling issues due to the internal multiple reflections.

  8. Compact Diode-Side-Pumped Stimulated Raman Laser Based on a KGW:Nd Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezyazychnaya, T. V.; Bogdanovich, M. V.; Grigor'ev, A. V.; Lantsov, K. I.; Lebiadok, Y. V.; Leptchenkov, K. V.; Ryabtsev, A. G.; Ryabtsev, G. I.; Shpak, P. V.; Schemelev, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    We have studied an all solid-state diode-side-pumped laser which lases in the nominally eye-safe spectral range of ~1.5-1.6 μm. The optical configuration of the laser is based on using a potassium gadolinium tungstate crystal doped with neodymium ions, in which lasing occurs at a wavelength of λ = 1.351 μm and stimulated Raman selfconversion occurs to the first Stokes component (λ = 1.538 μm). The maximum output pulse energy was 17 mJ and 7 mJ for repetition frequencies of respectively 1 Hz and 10 Hz.

  9. Range resolution improvement of eyesafe ladar testbed (ELT) measurements using sparse signal deconvolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budge, Scott E.; Gunther, Jacob H.

    2014-06-01

    The Eyesafe Ladar Test-bed (ELT) is an experimental ladar system with the capability of digitizing return laser pulse waveforms at 2 GHz. These waveforms can then be exploited off-line in the laboratory to develop signal processing techniques for noise reduction, range resolution improvement, and range discrimination between two surfaces of similar range interrogated by a single laser pulse. This paper presents the results of experiments with new deconvolution algorithms with the hoped-for gains of improving the range discrimination of the ladar system. The sparsity of ladar returns is exploited to solve the deconvolution problem in two steps. The first step is to estimate a point target response using a database of measured calibration data. This basic target response is used to construct a dictionary of target responses with different delays/ranges. Using this dictionary ladar returns from a wide variety of surface configurations can be synthesized by taking linear combinations. A sparse linear combination matches the physical reality that ladar returns consist of the overlapping of only a few pulses. The dictionary construction process is a pre-processing step that is performed only once. The deconvolution step is performed by minimizing the error between the measured ladar return and the dictionary model while constraining the coefficient vector to be sparse. Other constraints such as the non-negativity of the coefficients are also applied. The results of the proposed technique are presented in the paper and are shown to compare favorably with previously investigated deconvolution techniques.

  10. Laser processing of components for polymer mircofluidic and optoelectronic products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillner, Arnold; Bremus-Koebberling, Elke A.; Wehner, Martin; Russek, Ulrich A.; Berden, Thomas

    2001-06-01

    Miniaturization is one of the keywords for the production of customer oriented and highly integrated consumer products like mobile phones, portables and other products from the daily life and there are some first silicon made products like pressure sensors, acceleration sensors and micro fluidic components, which are built in automobiles, washing machines and medical products. However, not all applications can be covered with this material, because of the limitations in lateral and 3-dimensional structuring, the mechanical behavior, the functionality and the costs of silicon. Therefore other materials, like polymers have been selected as suitable candidates for cost effective mass products. This holds especially for medical and optical applications, where the properties of selected polymers, like biocompatibility, inert chemical behavior and high transparency can be used. For this material laser micro processing offers appropriate solutions for structuring as well as for packaging with high flexibility, material variety, structure size, processing speed and easy integration into existing fabrication plants. The paper presents recent results and industrial applications of laser micro processing for polymer micro fluidic devices, like micro analysis systems, micro reactors and medical micro implants, where excimer radiation is used for lateral structuring and diode lasers have used for joining and packaging. Similar technologies have been applied to polymer waveguides to produce passive optoelectronic components for high speed interconnection with surface roughness less than 20 nm and low attenuation. The paper also reviews the technical and economical limitations and the potential of the technology for other micro products.

  11. A new pulsed laser deposition technique: Scanning multi-component pulsed laser deposition method

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.; Jansen, M.; Fuente, G. F. de la

    2012-04-15

    The scanning multi-component pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method realizes uniform depositions of desired coatings by a modified pulsed laser deposition process, preferably with a femto-second laser-system. Multi-component coatings (single or multilayered) are thus deposited onto substrates via laser induced ablation of segmented targets. This is achieved via horizontal line-scanning of a focused laser beam over a uniformly moving target's surface. This process allows to deposit the desired composition of the coating simultaneously, starting from the different segments of the target and adjusting the scan line as a function of target geometry. The sequence and thickness of multilayers can easily be adjusted by target architecture and motion, enabling inter/intra layer concentration gradients and thus functional gradient coatings. This new, simple PLD method enables the achievement of uniform, large-area coatings. Case studies were performed with segmented targets containing aluminum, titanium, and niobium. Under the laser irradiation conditions applied, all three metals were uniformly ablated. The elemental composition within the rough coatings obtained was fixed by the scanned area to Ti-Al-Nb = 1:1:1. Crystalline aluminum, titanium, and niobium were found to coexist side by side at room temperature within the substrate, without alloy formation up to 600 deg. C.

  12. A new pulsed laser deposition technique: scanning multi-component pulsed laser deposition method.

    PubMed

    Fischer, D; de la Fuente, G F; Jansen, M

    2012-04-01

    The scanning multi-component pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method realizes uniform depositions of desired coatings by a modified pulsed laser deposition process, preferably with a femto-second laser-system. Multi-component coatings (single or multilayered) are thus deposited onto substrates via laser induced ablation of segmented targets. This is achieved via horizontal line-scanning of a focused laser beam over a uniformly moving target's surface. This process allows to deposit the desired composition of the coating simultaneously, starting from the different segments of the target and adjusting the scan line as a function of target geometry. The sequence and thickness of multilayers can easily be adjusted by target architecture and motion, enabling inter/intra layer concentration gradients and thus functional gradient coatings. This new, simple PLD method enables the achievement of uniform, large-area coatings. Case studies were performed with segmented targets containing aluminum, titanium, and niobium. Under the laser irradiation conditions applied, all three metals were uniformly ablated. The elemental composition within the rough coatings obtained was fixed by the scanned area to Ti-Al-Nb = 1:1:1. Crystalline aluminum, titanium, and niobium were found to coexist side by side at room temperature within the substrate, without alloy formation up to 600 °C.

  13. Laser polishing of 3D printed mesoscale components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaduri, Debajyoti; Penchev, Pavel; Batal, Afif; Dimov, Stefan; Soo, Sein Leung; Sten, Stella; Harrysson, Urban; Zhang, Zhenxue; Dong, Hanshan

    2017-05-01

    Laser polishing of various engineered materials such as glass, silica, steel, nickel and titanium alloys, has attracted considerable interest in the last 20 years due to its superior flexibility, operating speed and capability for localised surface treatment compared to conventional mechanical based methods. The paper initially reports results from process optimisation experiments aimed at investigating the influence of laser fluence and pulse overlap parameters on resulting workpiece surface roughness following laser polishing of planar 3D printed stainless steel (SS316L) specimens. A maximum reduction in roughness of over 94% (from ∼3.8 to ∼0.2 μm Sa) was achieved at the optimised settings (fluence of 9 J/cm2 and overlap factors of 95% and 88-91% along beam scanning and step-over directions respectively). Subsequent analysis using both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) confirmed the presence of surface oxide layers (predominantly consisting of Fe and Cr phases) up to a depth of ∼0.5 μm when laser polishing was performed under normal atmospheric conditions. Conversely, formation of oxide layers was negligible when operating in an inert argon gas environment. The microhardness of the polished specimens was primarily influenced by the input thermal energy, with greater sub-surface hardness (up to ∼60%) recorded in the samples processed with higher energy density. Additionally, all of the polished surfaces were free of the scratch marks, pits, holes, lumps and irregularities that were prevalent on the as-received stainless steel samples. The optimised laser polishing technology was consequently implemented for serial finishing of structured 3D printed mesoscale SS316L components. This led to substantial reductions in areal Sa and St parameters by 75% (0.489-0.126 μm) and 90% (17.71-1.21 μm) respectively, without compromising the geometrical accuracy of the native 3D printed samples.

  14. The effect of laser pulse width on laser-induced damage at K9 and UBK7 components surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xinda; Ba, Rongsheng; Zheng, Yinbo; Yuan, Jing; Li, Wenhong; Chen, Bo

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we investigated the effects of laser pulse width on laser-induced damage. We measured the damage threshold of K9 glass and UBK7 glass optical components at different pulse width, then analysis pulse-width dependence of damage threshold. It is shown that damage threshold at different pulse width conforms to thermal restriction mechanism, Because of cm size laser beam, defect on the optical component surface leads to laser-induced threshold decreased.

  15. Laser cooling of a trapped two-component Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Idziaszek, Z.; Santos, L.; Lewenstein, M.; Baranov, M.

    2003-04-01

    We study the collective Raman cooling of a trapped two-component Fermi gas using quantum master equation in the festina lente regime, where the heating due to photon reabsorption can be neglected. The Monte Carlo simulations show that three-dimensional temperatures of the order of 0.008T{sub F} can be achieved. We analyze the heating related to background losses, and show that our laser-cooling scheme can maintain the temperature of the gas without significant additional losses.

  16. Laser hybrid joining of plastic and metal components for lightweight components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauschenberger, J.; Cenigaonaindia, A.; Keseberg, J.; Vogler, D.; Gubler, U.; Liébana, F.

    2015-03-01

    Plastic-metal hybrids are replacing all-metal structures in the automotive, aerospace and other industries at an accelerated rate. The trend towards lightweight construction increasingly demands the usage of polymer components in drive trains, car bodies, gaskets and other applications. However, laser joining of polymers to metals presents significantly greater challenges compared with standard welding processes. We present recent advances in laser hybrid joining processes. Firstly, several metal pre-structuring methods, including selective laser melting (SLM) are characterized and their ability to provide undercut structures in the metal assessed. Secondly, process parameter ranges for hybrid joining of a number of metals (steel, stainless steel, etc.) and polymers (MABS, PA6.6-GF35, PC, PP) are given. Both transmission and direct laser joining processes are presented. Optical heads and clamping devices specifically tailored to the hybrid joining process are introduced. Extensive lap-shear test results are shown that demonstrate that joint strengths exceeding the base material strength (cohesive failure) can be reached with metal-polymer joining. Weathering test series prove that such joints are able to withstand environmental influences typical in targeted fields of application. The obtained results pave the way toward implementing metalpolymer joints in manufacturing processes.

  17. Laser-based rapid prototyping of plasmonic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Carsten; Passinger, Sven; Kiyan, Roman; Stepanov, Andrey L.; Chichkov, Boris N.

    2006-08-01

    The science of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) has attracted a lot of attention in the last years. In this contribution, we study applications of two-photon absorption of femtosecond laser radiation for the fabrication of dielectric and metallic SPP-structures, which can be used for localization, guiding, and manipulation of SPPs. Dielectric SPP components, e.g. waveguides, bends and splitters are fabricated on gold films. SPP properties are investigated by scanning optical near-field microscopy (SNOM), indicating guiding and reflection of SPPs by polymer lines. SPP excitation on dielectric line and point structures is observed by far-field microscopy. Results on plasmon focussing and on the fabrication and characterization of metallic SPP-structures and components on dielectric substrates will be presented and discussed.

  18. Evaluation of tropospheric water vapor profiling using eye-safe, infrared differential absorption lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Rye, B.J. |; Machol, J.L.; Grund, C.J.; Hardesty, R.M.

    1996-05-14

    Continuous, high quality profiles of water vapor, free of systematic bias, and of moderate temporal and spatial resolution are fundamental to the success of the ARM CART program. In addition, these should be acquired over long periods at low operational and maintenance cost. The development and verification of realistic climate model parameterizations for clouds and net radiation balance, and the correction of other CART site sensor observations for interferences due to the presence of water vapor are critically dependent on water vapor profile measurements. To date, application of profiles have been limited by vertical resolution and uniqueness and high operating cost, or diminished daytime performance, lack of eye-safety, and high maintenance cost. Recent developments in infrared laser and detector technology make possible compact IR differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems at eye-safe wavelengths. In the studies reported here, we develop DIAL system performance models and examine the potential of solving some of the shortcomings of previous methods using parameters representative of current technologies. These simulations are also applied to determine the strengths and weaknesses unique to the DIAL method for this application.

  19. Development of Underwater Laser Cladding and Underwater Laser Seal Welding Techniques for Reactor Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, Takehisa; Tamura, Masataka; Tanaka, Yoshimi; Kouno, Wataru; Makino, Yoshinobu; Kawano, Shohei; Matsunaga, Keiji

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been reported at the aged components in many nuclear power plants. Toshiba has been developing the underwater laser welding. This welding technique can be conducted without draining the water in the reactor vessel. It is beneficial for workers not to exposure the radiation. The welding speed can be attaining twice as fast as that of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW). The susceptibility of SCC can also be lower than the Alloy 600 base metal.

  20. Ultrafast laser inscription of 3D components for spatial multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Robert R.

    2016-02-01

    The thirst for bandwidth in telecommunications networks is becoming ever larger due to bandwidth hungry applications such as video-on-demand. To further increase the bandwidth capacity, engineers are now seeking to imprint information on the last remaining degree of freedom of the lightwave carrier - space. This has given rise to the field of Space Division Multiplexing (SDM). In essence, the concept of SDM simple; we aim to use the different spatial modes of an optical fibre as multiplexed data transmission channels. These modes could either be in the form of separate singlemodes in a multicore optical fibre, individual spatial modes of a multimode fibre, or indeed the individual spatial modes of a multimode multicore optical fibre. Regardless of the particular "flavour" of SDM in question, it is clear that significant interfacing issues exist between the optical fibres used in SDM and the conventional single-mode planar lightwave circuits that are essential to process the light (e.g. arrayed waveguide gratings and splitters), and efficient interconnect technologies will be required. One fabrication technology that has emerged as a possible route to solve these interconnection issues is ultrafast laser inscription (ULI), which relies on the use of focused ultrashort laser pulses to directly inscribe three-dimensional waveguide structures inside a bulk dielectric. In this paper, I describe some of the work that has been conducted around the world to apply the unique waveguide fabrication capabilities of ULI to the development of 3D photonic components for applications in SDM.

  1. Rapid Laser Prototyping Of Polymer-Based Nanoplasmonic Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, A. L.; Kiyan, R.; Reinhardt, C.; Seidel, A.; Pas-Singer, S.; Chichkov, B. N.

    Renewed and growing interest in the field of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) comes from a rapid advance of nanostructuring technologies. The application of two-photon polymerization technique for the fabrication of dielectric and metallic SPP-structures, which can be used for localization, guiding, and manipulation of SPPs waves on a subwavelength scale, is studied. This technology is based on nonlinear absorption of near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses. Excitation, propagation, and interaction of SPP waves with nanostructures are controlled and studied by leakage radiation imaging. It is demonstrated that created nanostructures on metal film are very efficient for the excitation and focusing of SPPs. Examples of passive and active SPP components are presented and discussed.

  2. Industrial site particulate pollution monitoring with an eye-safe and scanning industrial fiber lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belanger, Brigitte; Fougeres, Andre; Talbot, Mario

    2001-02-01

    12 Over the past few years, INO has developed an Industrial Fiber Lidar (IFL). It enables the particulate pollution monitoring on industrial sites. More particularly, it has been used to take measurements of particulate concentration at Port Facilities of an aluminum plant during boat unloading. It is an eye-safe and portable lidar. It uses a fiber laser also developed at INO emitting 1.7 microJoules at 1534 nm with a pulse repetition frequency of 5 kHz. Given the harsh environment of an industrial site, all the sensitive equipment like the laser source, detector, computer and acquisition electronics are located in a building and connected to the optical module, placed outside, via optical fibers up to 500 m long. The fiber link also offers all the flexibility for placing the optical module at a proper location. The optical module is mounted on a two axis scanning platform, able to perform an azimuth scan of 0 to 355 deg and an elevation scan of +/- 90 deg, which enables the scanning of zones defined by the user. On this industrial site, materials like bauxite, alumina, spathfluor and calcined coke having mass extinction coefficients ranging from 0.53 to 2.7 m2/g can be detected. Data for different measurement configurations have been obtained. Concentration values have been calculated for measurements in a hopper, along a wharf and over the urban area close to the port facilities. The lidar measurements have been compared to high volume samplers. Based on these comparisons, it has been established that the IFL is able to monitor the relative fluctuations of dust concentrations. It can be integrated to the process control of the industrial site for alarm generation when concentrations are above threshold.

  3. Location of snipers using three-dimensional infrared/laser tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, Mark D.

    1997-02-01

    We present a summary of the top level design of and recent imagery and analysis made with components of the TTC fast infrared sniper tracker (FIRST) system. The FIRST instrument will utilize a 7 cm aperture optical system, a 3 - 5 micron imaging camera, and a pulsed, eye-safe laser radar in order to detect, track, and range upon high angular velocity targets, especially bullets. The optical system is based on an ultra low inertia, high acceleration gimbal which enables large area step and star bullet detection at high coverage rates. Three dimensional track files generated by the FIRST system will be used to accurately back-project to the bullet's origin.

  4. Support structures for optical components in the Laser Demonstration Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Finucane, R.G.

    1985-01-25

    The laser system in the Laser Demonstration Facility is mounted on an array of 108 support columns. This milestone report describes the design, analyses, testing, fabrication, installation, and performance characteristics of these supports.

  5. Hot isostatic pressing of direct selective laser sintered metal components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlert, Martin Steven

    2000-10-01

    A new manufacturing process combining the benefits of Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) has been developed to permit Rapid Prototyping of high performance metal components. The new process uses Direct Metal SLS to produce a gas impermeable HIP container from the same powdered material that will eventually compose the bulk of the part. The SLS generated capsule performs the functions of the sheet metal container in traditional HIP, but unlike a sheet metal container, the SLSed capsule becomes an integral part of the final component. Additionally, SLS can produce a capsule of far greater geometric complexity than can be achieved by sheet metal forming. Two high performance alloys, Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 625, were selected for use in the development of the new process. HIP maps were constructed to predict the densification rate of the two materials during HIP processing. Comparison to experimentally determined densification behavior indicated that the maps provide a useful qualitative description of densification rates; however, the accuracy of quantitative predictions was greatly enhanced by tuning key material parameters based on a limited number of experimental HIP cycles. Microstructural characterization of SLS + HIP samples revealed two distinct regions within the components. The outer SLS processed capsule material exhibited a relatively coarse microstructure comparable to a cast, or multi-layer welded structure. No layer boundaries were discernible in the SLS material, with grains observed to grow epitaxially from previously deposited material. The microstructure of the HIP consolidated core material was similar to conventionally HIP processed powder materials, featuring a fine grain structure and preserved prior particle boundaries. The large variation in grain size between the capsule and core materials was reflected in hardness measurements conducted on the Alloy 625 material; however, the variation in hardness was less

  6. Independent component analysis classification of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forni, Olivier; Maurice, Sylvestre; Gasnault, Olivier; Wiens, Roger C.; Cousin, Agnès; Clegg, Samuel M.; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Lasue, Jérémie

    2013-08-01

    The ChemCam instrument on board Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover uses the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique to remotely analyze Martian rocks. It retrieves spectra up to a distance of seven meters to quantify and to quantitatively analyze the sampled rocks. Like any field application, on-site measurements by LIBS are altered by diverse matrix effects which induce signal variations that are specific to the nature of the sample. Qualitative aspects remain to be studied, particularly LIBS sample identification to determine which samples are of interest for further analysis by ChemCam and other rover instruments. This can be performed with the help of different chemometric methods that model the spectra variance in order to identify a the rock from its spectrum. In this paper we test independent components analysis (ICA) rock classification by remote LIBS. We show that using measures of distance in ICA space, namely the Manhattan and the Mahalanobis distance, we can efficiently classify spectra of an unknown rock. The Mahalanobis distance gives overall better performances and is easier to manage than the Manhattan distance for which the determination of the cut-off distance is not easy. However these two techniques are complementary and their analytical performances will improve with time during MSL operations as the quantity of available Martian spectra will grow. The analysis accuracy and performances will benefit from a combination of the two approaches.

  7. Explosive component acceptance tester using laser interferometer technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickstrom, Richard D.; Tarbell, William W.

    1993-01-01

    Acceptance testing of explosive components requires a reliable and simple to use testing method that can discern less than optimal performance. For hot-wire detonators, traditional techniques use dent blocks or photographic diagnostic methods. More complicated approaches are avoided because of their inherent problems with setup and maintenance. A recently developed tester is based on using a laser interferometer to measure the velocity of flying plates accelerated by explosively actuated detonators. Unlike ordinary interferometers that monitor displacement of the test article, this device measures velocity directly and is commonly used with non-spectral surfaces. Most often referred to as the VISAR technique (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflecting Surface), it has become the most widely-accepted choice for accurate measurement of velocity in the range greater than 1 mm/micro-s. Traditional VISAR devices require extensive setup and adjustment and therefore are unacceptable in a production-testing environment. This paper describes a new VISAR approach which requires virtually no adjustments, yet provides data with accuracy comparable to the more complicated systems. The device, termed the Fixed-Cavity VISAR, is currently being developed to serve as a product verification tool for hot-wire detonators and slappers. An extensive data acquisition and analysis computer code was also created to automate the manipulation of raw data into final results.

  8. Integrated tool for fabrication of electronic components by laser direct write

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, Scott A.; Zhang, Chengping; Kegresse, Todd; Liu, David

    2002-06-01

    A prototype workstation has been developed that allows the fabrication of passive electronic components at low temperatures using a laser direct-write process. The work station combines a variety of laser processing techniques onto a single, integrated platform. These techniques include material deposition, laser micromachining, laser sintering, and laser trimming. One particular process, referred to as 'mill and fill', combines the laser micromachining ability of the tool with 'off-the-shelf' conductor pastes to allow the fabrication of high density metalization at very low temperatures. The present work describes the details of the 'mill and fill' process and shows examples of prototype devices fabricated using this technique.

  9. Multifunctional Modular Common Compact Components of Lasers (SYSTEM 2350)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    pumping geometry transverse to the cavity axis. In this arrangement the individual laser diode emitters are not required to be coherent with each other...rangefinding, and target profiling, and adding optical augmentation and MILES as required. A diode pumped ND:YAG Laser Engine and switchable OPO wavelength...augmentation and MILES as required. A diode pumped ND:YAG Laser Engine and switchable OPO wavelength conversion satisfied the high end designation requirement

  10. Laser alchemy: direct writing of multifunctional components in a glass chip with femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yang; Lin, Jintian; Cheng, Ya

    2013-12-01

    Recently, hybrid integration of multifunctional micro-components for creating complex, intelligent micro/nano systems has attracted significant attention. These micro-/nano-systems have important applications in a variety of areas, such as healthcare, environment, communication, national security, and so on. However, fabrication of micro/nano systems incorporated with different functions is still a challenging task, which generally requires fabrication of discrete microcomponents beforehand followed by assembly and packaging procedures. Furthermore, current micro-/nano-fabrication techniques are mainly based on the well-established planar lithographic approach, which suffer from severe issues in producing three dimensional (3D) structures with complex geometries and arbitrary configurations. In recent years, the rapid development of femtosecond laser machining technology has enabled 3D direct fabrication and integration of multifunctional components, such as microfluidics, microoptics, micromechanics, microelectronics, etc., into single substrates. In this invited talk, we present our recent progress in this active area. Particularly, we focus on fabrication of 3D micro- and nanofluidic devices and 3D high-Q microcavities in glass substrates by femtosecond laser direct writing.

  11. Laser Peening Of Components Of Thin Cross-Section

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Halpin, John M.; Harris, Jr., Fritz B.

    2004-10-19

    The properties of a metal piece are altered by laser peening the piece on the first side using an acoustic coupling material operatively connected to the second side and subsequently laser peening the piece on the second side using an acoustic coupling material operatively connected to the first side.

  12. Laser peening of components of thin cross-section

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Halpin, John M.; Harris, Jr., Fritz B.

    2003-12-02

    The properties of a metal piece are altered by laser peening the piece on the first side using an acoustic coupling material operatively connected to the second side and subsequently laser peening the piece on the second side using an acoustic coupling material operatively connected to the first side

  13. Component validation of direct diode 488nm lasers in BD Accuri C6 flow cytometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei P.; Luo, Ningyi D.

    2016-03-01

    The 488nm laser is the most important excitation light source of flow cytometry. The indirect diode (frequency-doubled diode) 488nm lasers are used in the excitation of Becton Dickinson (BD) AccuriTM C6. For using cost effective lasers, we have validated direct diode 488nm lasers as the replacement component of frequency-doubled diode laser. BD Bioscience issued the protocols to cover wavelength, power, noise, and polarization at the operation temperature range of cytometer. Pavilion Integration Corporation (PIC) tested 6 samples as the component validation of direct diode 488nm lasers based on the protocols from BD Biosciences. BD Bioscience also tested one of laser samples to further validate the test results of power, noise, and polarization from PIC.

  14. Measuring residual stresses in metallic components manufactured with fibre Bragg gratings embedded by selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havermann, Dirk; Mathew, Jinesh; MacPherson, William N.; Hand, Duncan P.; Maier, Robert R. J.

    2015-09-01

    Metal clad single mode optical fibres containing Fibre Bragg Gratings are embedded in stainless steel components using bespoke laser based Selective Laser Melting technology (SLM). Significant residual stresses can be created in SLM manufactured components through the strong thermal gradients during the build process. We demonstrate the ability to monitor these internal stresses through embedded optical fibres with FBGs on a layer to layer basis, confirming estimates from models for residual stresses in additive manufactured components.

  15. Development of components for the high brightness laser. Final report May 77-Jun 80

    SciTech Connect

    Garmire, E.

    1980-10-01

    In 1979 DBR lasers were fabricated and their properties studied. Further investigations were undertaken of the beam expander, to determine its potential for the high brightness laser. From this data it was determined that a design change for the high brightness laser is required. This design change is described. In addition, measurements were made on laser amplification to compare this method of achieving higher power compared to the coupled diode arrays. Finally, as a spin-off of this research, a new design for a single mode laser was discovered, using the active/passive laser, a configuration which was fabricated as a first step toward fabrication of DBR lasers. Each of these research efforts are described in this report. Monolithic integration of the necessary components on one substrate for the high brightness laser has been hindered by problems in material and fabrication uniformity. This will be described, and projections for future development will be outlined.

  16. Development and testing of hermetic, laser-ignited pyrotechnic and explosive components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Daniel P.; Beckman, Thomas M.; Spangler, Ed M.; Munger, Alan C.; Woods, C. M.

    1993-01-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing interest in the use of lasers in place of electrical systems to ignite various pyrotechnic and explosive materials. The principal driving force for this work was the requirement for safer energetic components which would be insensitive to electrostatic and electromagnetic radiation. In the last few years this research has accelerated since the basic concepts have proven viable. At the present time it is appropriate to shift the research emphasis in laser initiation from the scientific arena--whether it can be done--to the engineering realm--how it can be put into actual practice in the field. Laser initiation research and development at EG&G Mound was in three principal areas: (1) laser/energetic material interactions; (2) development of novel processing techniques for fabricating hermetic (helium leak rate of less than 1 x 10(exp -8) cu cm/s) laser components; and (3) evaluation and testing of laser-ignited components. Research in these three areas has resulted in the development of high quality, hermetic, laser initiated components. Examples are presented which demonstrate the practicality of fabricating hermetic, laser initiated explosive or pyrotechnic components that can be used in the next generation of ignitors, actuators, and detonators.

  17. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Generation of Stark spectral components in Nd:YAP and Nd:YAG lasers by using volume Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorob'ev, Nikolai S.; Glebov, L. B.; Smirnov, V. I.; Chapurin, I. V.

    2009-01-01

    Generation of Stark spectral components in free-running Q-switched Nd:YAP (1064 nm and 1073 nm) and Nd:YAG (1062 nm) lasers is obtained. For this purpose reflecting volume Bragg gratings placed into the laser resonator and permitting to tune the laser emission spectrum were used. Stable generation of Stark components in both lasers is obtained. The possibility of obtaining two-frequency generation in an Nd-glass laser with the help of these gratings is shown.

  18. Comparison of micro-computed tomography and laser scanning for reverse engineering orthopaedic component geometries.

    PubMed

    Teeter, Matthew G; Brophy, Paul; Naudie, Douglas D R; Holdsworth, David W

    2012-03-01

    A significant amount of research has been undertaken to evaluate the function of implanted joint replacement components. Many of these studies require the acquisition of an accurate three-dimensional geometric model of the various implant components, using methods such as micro-computed tomography or laser scanning. The purpose of this study was to compare micro-computed tomography and laser scanning for obtaining component geometries. Five never-implanted polyethylene tibial inserts of one type were scanned with both micro-computed tomography and laser scanning to determine the repeatability of each method and measured for any deviations between the geometries acquired from the different scans. Overall, good agreement was found between the micro-computed tomography and laser scans, to within 71 microm on average. Micro-computed tomography was found to have superior repeatability to laser scanning (mean of 1 microm for micro-computed tomography versus 19 microm for laser scans). Micro-computed tomography may be preferred for visualizing small surface features, whereas laser scanning may be preferred for acquiring the geometry of metal objects to avoid computed tomography artifacts. In conclusion, the choice of micro-computed tomography versus laser scanning for acquiring orthopaedic component geometries will likely involve considerations of user preference, the specific application the scan will be used for, and the availability of each system.

  19. Diamond Wire Saw for Precision Machining of Laser Target Components

    SciTech Connect

    Bono, M J; Bennett, D W

    2005-08-08

    The fabrication of precision laser targets requires a wide variety of specialized mesoscale manufacturing techniques. The diamond wire saw developed in this study provides the capability to precisely section meso-scale workpieces mounted on the assembly stations used by the Target Fabrication Group. This new capability greatly simplifies the fabrication of many types of targets and reduces the time and cost required to build the targets. A variety of materials are used to fabricate targets, including metals, plastics with custom designed chemical formulas, and aerogels of various densities. The materials are usually provided in the form of small pieces or cast rods that must be machined to the required shape. Many of these materials, such as metals and some plastics, can be trimmed using a parting tool on a diamond turning machine. However, other materials, such as aerogels and brittle materials, cannot be adequately cut with a parting tool. In addition, the geometry of the parts often requires that the workpieces be held in a special assembly station, which excludes the use of a parting tool. In the past, these materials were sectioned using a small, handheld coping saw that used a diamond-impregnated wire as a blade. This miniature coping saw was effective, but it required several hours to cut through certain materials. Furthermore, the saw was guided by hand and often caused significant damage to fragile aerogels. To solve these problems, the diamond wire saw shown in Figure 1 was developed. The diamond wire saw is designed to machine through materials that are mounted in the Target Fabrication Group's benchtop assembly stations. These assembly stations are the primary means of aligning and assembling target components, and there is often a need to machine materials while they are mounted in the assembly stations. Unfortunately, commercially available saws are designed for very different applications and are far too large to be used with the assembly stations

  20. Measurement of Leading Edge Vortices from a Delta Wing Using a Three Component Laser Velocimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, James F.; Hepner, Timothy E.

    1988-01-01

    A demonstration of the capabilities of a three component laser velocimeter to provide a detailed experimental database of a complex flow field i s presented. The orthogonal three component laser velocimeter was used to measure the leading edge vortex flow field above a 75 degrees delta wing at angles-of-attack of 20.5 degrees and 40.0 degrees. The resulting mean velocity and turbulence intensity measurements are presented. The laser velocimeter is described in detail including a description of the data processing algorithm. A full error analysis was conducted and the results presented.

  1. Scalability of components for kW-level average power few-cycle lasers.

    PubMed

    Hädrich, Steffen; Rothhardt, Jan; Demmler, Stefan; Tschernajew, Maxim; Hoffmann, Armin; Krebs, Manuel; Liem, Andreas; de Vries, Oliver; Plötner, Marco; Fabian, Simone; Schreiber, Thomas; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the average power scalability of components that can be used for intense few-cycle lasers based on nonlinear compression of modern femtosecond solid-state lasers is investigated. The key components of such a setup, namely, the gas-filled waveguides, laser windows, chirped mirrors for pulse compression and low dispersion mirrors for beam collimation, focusing, and beam steering are tested under high-average-power operation using a kilowatt cw laser. We demonstrate the long-term stable transmission of kW-level average power through a hollow capillary and a Kagome-type photonic crystal fiber. In addition, we show that sapphire substrates significantly improve the average power capability of metal-coated mirrors. Ultimately, ultrabroadband dielectric mirrors show negligible heating up to 1 kW of average power. In summary, a technology for scaling of few-cycle lasers up to 1 kW of average power and beyond is presented.

  2. Analysis of adaptive laser scanning optical system with focus-tunable components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorný, P.; Mikš, A.; Novák, J.; Novák, P.

    2015-05-01

    This work presents a primary analysis of an adaptive laser scanner based on two-mirror beam-steering device and focustunable components (lenses with tunable focal length). It is proposed an optical scheme of an adaptive laser scanner, which can focus the laser beam in a continuous way to a required spatial position using the lens with tunable focal length. This work focuses on a detailed analysis of the active optical or opto-mechanical components (e.g. focus-tunable lenses) mounted in the optical systems of laser scanners. The algebraic formulas are derived for ray tracing through different configurations of the scanning optical system and one can calculate angles of scanner mirrors and required focal length of the tunable-focus component provided that the position of the focused beam in 3D space is given with a required tolerance. Computer simulations of the proposed system are performed using MATLAB.

  3. Precision laser surveying instrument using atmospheric turbulence compensation by determining the absolute displacement between two laser beam components

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    1993-01-01

    Atmospheric effects on sighting measurements are compensated for by adjusting any sighting measurements using a correction factor that does not depend on atmospheric state conditions such as temperature, pressure, density or turbulence. The correction factor is accurately determined using a precisely measured physical separation between two color components of a light beam (or beams) that has been generated using either a two-color laser or two lasers that project different colored beams. The physical separation is precisely measured by fixing the position of a short beam pulse and measuring the physical separation between the two fixed-in-position components of the beam. This precisely measured physical separation is then used in a relationship that includes the indexes of refraction for each of the two colors of the laser beam in the atmosphere through which the beam is projected, thereby to determine the absolute displacement of one wavelength component of the laser beam from a straight line of sight for that projected component of the beam. This absolute displacement is useful to correct optical measurements, such as those developed in surveying measurements that are made in a test area that includes the same dispersion effects of the atmosphere on the optical measurements. The means and method of the invention are suitable for use with either single-ended systems or a double-ended systems.

  4. Thermal conductivity investigation of adhesive-free bond laser components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Da; Hong, Pengda; Vedula, MahaLakshmi; Meissner, Helmuth E.

    2017-02-01

    An interferometric method has been developed and employed at Onyx Optics, Inc. to accurately measure the thermal conductivity of laser-active crystals as function of dopant concentration or inactive materials such as single crystals, optical ceramics and glasses relative to a standard of assumed to be known thermal conductivity [1]. This technique can also provide information on heat transfer resistance at the interface between two materials in close thermal contact. While the technique appears generally applicable to composites between optically homogeneous materials, we report on thermal conductivities and heat transfer coefficients of selected adhesive-free bond (AFB®) laser composites. Single crystal bars and AFB bonded crystal doublets with the combinations of various rare-earth (Nd3+, Yb3+, Er3+, and Tm3+ trivalent ion doped YAG, and un-doped YAG have been fabricated with the AFB technique. By loading the test sample in a vacuum cryostat, with a precisely controlled heat load at one end of the doublets, the temperature distribution inside the single crystal or the composite samples can been precisely mapped by measuring the optical path difference interferometrically, given the material's thermal-optical properties. No measurable heat transfer resistance can be identified for the AFB interfaces between low-concentration doped YAG and un-doped YAG. For the heavily doped RE3+:YAG, for example, 10% Yb:YAG, the thermal conductivity measured in our experiment is 8.3 W/m•K, using the thermal conductivity of undoped YAG reported in [1] as basis. The thermal transfer resistance of the AFB interface with un-doped YAG, if there is any at the AFB interface, could be less than 1.29×10-6 m2•K/W.

  5. Simultaneously Q-switched and mode-locked passive modulators for the microchip lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junewen; Lin, Jun-Ting; Hung, Te-Chien

    2004-07-01

    Five kinds of the laser passive modulators: single crystal semiconductor wafers, plastic dye sheets, lithium fluoride crystals containing F2- color center, chromium yttrium aluminum garnet crystals and ionic color filter glass that can Q-switched modulate, mode-locked modulate, and Q-switched mode-locking modulate the conventional flash-lamp pumped Nd:hosted lasers, Er:Glass eye-safe solid-state lasers as well as all those of diode-pumped Nd:hosted and Er:Glass eye-safe microchip lasers are presented. Theoretical model are proposed and the detail analysis are presented.

  6. Sub-picosecond laser induced damage test facility for petawatt reflective optical components characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozet, Martin; Néauport, Jérôme; Lavastre, Eric; Roquin, Nadja; Gallais, Laurent; Lamaignère, Laurent

    2015-05-01

    While considering long pulse or short pulse high power laser facilities, optical components performances and in particular laser damage resistance are always factors limiting the overall system performances. Consequently, getting a detailed knowledge of the behavior of these optical components under irradiations with large beam in short pulse range is of major importance. In this context, a Laser Induced Damage Threshold test facility called DERIC has been developed at the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, Bordeaux. It uses an Amplitude Systemes laser source which delivers Gaussian pulses of 500 fs at 1053 nm. 1-on-1, S-on-1 and RasterScan test procedures are implemented to study the behavior of monolayer and multilayer dielectric coatings.

  7. Packaging-induced failure of semiconductor lasers and optical telecommunications components

    SciTech Connect

    Sharps, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Telecommunications equipment for field deployment generally have specified lifetimes of > 100,000 hr. To achieve this high reliability, it is common practice to package sensitive components in hermetic, inert gas environments. The intent is to protect components from particulate and organic contamination, oxidation, and moisture. However, for high power density 980 nm diode lasers used in optical amplifiers, the authors found that hermetic, inert gas packaging induced a failure mode not observed in similar, unpackaged lasers. They refer to this failure mode as packaging-induced failure, or PIF. PIF is caused by nanomole amounts of organic contamination which interact with high intensity 980 nm light to form solid deposits over the emitting regions of the lasers. These deposits absorb 980 nm light, causing heating of the laser, narrowing of the band gap, and eventual thermal runaway. The authors have found PIF is averted by packaging with free O{sub 2} and/or a getter material that sequesters organics.

  8. Progress on the optical materials and components for the high power laser system in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Jian-Da; Dai, Ya-Ping; Xu, Qiao

    2011-11-01

    The paper summarizes the recent progress on the optical materials and components for the high power laser system in China. The amplifier material, Nd glass, has been developed with continuous melt. Non-linear crystals, KDP/DKDP, have been grown with rapid and traditional growth method. Fused silica and K9 glass has been achieved high quality. Some potential materials for next generation high power laser system are also evinced in this summary.

  9. Progress on the optical materials and components for the high power laser system in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Jian-da; Dai, Ya-ping; Xu, Qiao

    2012-01-01

    The paper summarizes the recent progress on the optical materials and components for the high power laser system in China. The amplifier material, Nd glass, has been developed with continuous melt. Non-linear crystals, KDP/DKDP, have been grown with rapid and traditional growth method. Fused silica and K9 glass has been achieved high quality. Some potential materials for next generation high power laser system are also evinced in this summary.

  10. Identification of cosmogenic argon components in Allende by laser microprobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschbaum, C.

    1986-01-01

    New techniques are presented for using a laser microprobe to determine the spallation argon systematics of calcium-aluminum inclusions. The Ar-38(s) amounts determined for melilite and anorthite in a coarse-grained inclusion from Allende are 2.9 x 10 to the -8th and 1.3 x 10 to the -8th cc/g, respectively. The ratio of the amounts is consistent with the calcium contents of these two minerals. The Ar-38(s) amount determined for a fine-grained inclusion from Allende is 1.1 x 10 to the -8th cc/g. Calcium and potassium amounts were determined from irradiated samples of the same inclusions so that production of Ar-38 from calcium during the cosmic ray exposure of Allende could be determined for these samples. The production observed was 12.4 + or - 2.1 x 10 to the -8th cc STP Ar-38/g Ca for the coarse-grained inclusion and 9.9 + or - 2.4 cc STP Ar-38/g Ca for the fine-grained inclusion. No evidence of unusual exposure was observed in the two inclusions studied.

  11. Identification of cosmogenic argon components in Allende by laser microprobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschbaum, C.

    1986-01-01

    New techniques are presented for using a laser microprobe to determine the spallation argon systematics of calcium-aluminum inclusions. The Ar-38(s) amounts determined for melilite and anorthite in a coarse-grained inclusion from Allende are 2.9 x 10 to the -8th and 1.3 x 10 to the -8th cc/g, respectively. The ratio of the amounts is consistent with the calcium contents of these two minerals. The Ar-38(s) amount determined for a fine-grained inclusion from Allende is 1.1 x 10 to the -8th cc/g. Calcium and potassium amounts were determined from irradiated samples of the same inclusions so that production of Ar-38 from calcium during the cosmic ray exposure of Allende could be determined for these samples. The production observed was 12.4 + or - 2.1 x 10 to the -8th cc STP Ar-38/g Ca for the coarse-grained inclusion and 9.9 + or - 2.4 cc STP Ar-38/g Ca for the fine-grained inclusion. No evidence of unusual exposure was observed in the two inclusions studied.

  12. Microstructural and tensile characterization of Inconel 718 laser coatings for aeronautic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambarri, Jon; Leunda, Josu; García Navas, Virginia; Soriano, Carlos; Sanz, Carmen

    2013-07-01

    The suitability of the laser cladding technique for manufacturing and repairing aeronautic components of Inconel 718 was evaluated. Multilayer coatings were deposited on Inconel 718 plates, using a continuous wave Nd:YAG laser. The microstructure of the laser cladding samples was investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy and microhardness profiles were measured after different heat treatment stages. Finally, tensile tests were carried out on fully aged samples extracted from a massive multilayer coating. It was proven that the resulting coatings satisfy the industrial requirements for aeronautic applications, with mechanical properties well above the minimum specified values and with no detrimental phases or precipitates left after the heat treatment.

  13. Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS{trademark}) for additive component processing

    SciTech Connect

    Keicher, D.M.; Romero, J.A.; Atwood, C.L.; Griffith, M.L.; Jeantette, F.P.; Harwell, L.D.; Greene, D.L.; Smugeresky, J.E.

    1996-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is presently developing an additive component processing technology called Laser Engineered Net Shaping, (LENS{trademark}). This process allows complex 3-dimensional solid metallic objects to be directly fabricated from a CAD solid model. Currently, this process functions similar to the Stereo Lithography process in which a faceted file is generated from the CAD solid model and then sliced into a sequence of layers. The sliced file is then input into another interpreter program which converts the sliced file into a series of tool path patterns required to build the entire layer. The component is fabricated by first generating an outline of the key component features and then filled using a rastering technique. This file is then used to drive the laser system to produce the desired component one layer at a time. This process differs from present rapid prototyping (RP) processes in that a fully dense, metallic component can be produced using this process.

  14. Effect of laser priming on canola yield and its components under salt stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, S. K.; Shekari, F.; Fotovat, R.; Darudi, A.

    2012-02-01

    The effect of laser priming at different irradiation times on canola yield and its components under saline conditions were investigated. The results showed that laser priming had a positive effect on yield and its components and caused yield increase under saline conditions. Increase in salt levels had a negative and significant effect on seed yield, number of seeds per pod, number of pod per plant, pod length and plant height. The results showed that 45-min laser priming had the strongest effect on yield and yield components and reduced significantly the adverse effects of salinity. By contrast, laser radiation applied for 60 and 75 min, resulted in a dramatic decrease in yield and its components. Correlation coefficients between the attributes showed that canola yield had a positive and significant correlation with plant height, number of seeds, pod per main branch and lateral branches, length of pod and number of lateral branches. Effects of laser and salinity were significant on lateral branch pod length but not on main branch pods.

  15. Laser materials processing of complex components. From reverse engineering via automated beam path generation to short process development cycles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görgl, R.; Brandstätter, E.

    2016-03-01

    The article presents an overview of what is possible nowadays in the field of laser materials processing. The state of the art in the complete process chain is shown, starting with the generation of a specific components CAD data and continuing with the automated motion path generation for the laser head carried by a CNC or robot system. Application examples from laser welding, laser cladding and additive laser manufacturing are given.

  16. Generation of Stark spectral components in Nd:YAP and Nd:YAG lasers by using volume Bragg gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Vorob'ev, Nikolai S; Glebov, L B

    2009-01-31

    Generation of Stark spectral components in free-running Q-switched Nd:YAP (1064 nm and 1073 nm) and Nd:YAG (1062 nm) lasers is obtained. For this purpose reflecting volume Bragg gratings placed into the laser resonator and permitting to tune the laser emission spectrum were used. Stable generation of Stark components in both lasers is obtained. The possibility of obtaining two-frequency generation in an Nd-glass laser with the help of these gratings is shown. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  17. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Investigation of the energy balance components for a plane target irradiated with a picosecond laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodin, V. G.; Il'in, V. V.; Komarov, V. M.; Malinov, V. A.; Migel', V. M.; Nikitin, N. V.; Charukhchev, Aleksandr V.; Chernov, V. N.

    2000-01-01

    The scattering and absorption of a high-power picosecond laser pulse by a solid target were investigated experimentally making use of the 'Progress-P' Nd:glass laser facility (λ = 1053 nm, τ = 1.4 ps) at radiation intensities I = 1016 — 1019 W cm-2 on the target surface. It was found that, for I <= 1017 W cm-2, more than 30% of the intensity of the scattered light was contained in the specularly reflected component. The absorption coefficient of the laser radiation with intensities ranging from 1018 to 1019 W cm-2 was higher for targets made of materials with higher atomic numbers.

  18. Diamond optical components for high-power and high-energy laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anoikin, Eugene; Muhr, Alexander; Bennett, Andrew; Twitchen, Daniel; de Wit, Henk

    2015-02-01

    High-power and high-energy laser systems have firmly established their industrial presence with applications that span materials processing; high - precision and high - throughput manufacturing; semiconductors, and defense. Along with high average power CO2 lasers operating at wavelengths of ~ 10 microns, solid state lasers and fiber lasers operating at ~ 1 micron wavelength are now increasingly being used, both in the high average power and high energy pulse regimes. In recent years, polycrystalline diamond has become the material of choice when it comes to making optical components for multi-kilowatt CO2 lasers at 10 micron, outperforming ZnSe due to its superior thermo-mechanical characteristics. For 1 micron laser systems, fused silica has to date been the most popular optical material owing to its outstanding optical properties. This paper characterizes high - power / high - energy performance of anti-reflection coated optical windows made of different grades of diamond (single crystal, polycrystalline) and of fused silica. Thermo-optical modeling results are also presented for water cooled mounted optical windows. Laser - induced damage threshold tests are performed and analyzed. It is concluded that diamond is a superior optical material for working with extremely high-power and high-energy laser beams at 1 micron wavelength.

  19. Towards eye-safe standoff Raman imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glimtoft, Martin; Bââth, Petra; Saari, Heikki; Mäkynen, Jussi; Näsilä, Antti; Östmark, Henric

    2014-05-01

    Standoff Raman imaging systems have shown the ability to detect single explosives particles. However, in many cases, the laser intensities needed restrict the applications where they can be safely used. A new generation imaging Raman system has been developed based on a 355 nm UV laser that, in addition to eye safety, allows discrete and invisible measurements. Non-dangerous exposure levels for the eye are several orders of magnitude higher in UVA than in the visible range that previously has been used. The UV Raman system has been built based on an UV Fabry-Perot Interferometer (UV-FPI) developed by VTT. The design allows for precise selection of Raman shifts in combination with high out-of-band blocking. The stable operation of the UV-FPI module under varying environmental conditions is arranged by controlling the temperature of the module and using a closed loop control of the FPI air gap based on capacitive measurement. The system presented consists of a 3rd harmonics Nd:YAG laser with 1.5 W average output at 1000 Hz, a 200 mm Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope, UV-FPI filter and an ICCD camera for signal gating and detection. The design principal leads to a Raman spectrum in each image pixel. The system is designed for field use and easy manoeuvring. Preliminary results show that in measurements of <60 s on 10 m distance, single AN particles of <300 μm diameter can be identified.

  20. Mid-infrared solid-state lasers and laser materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Byvik, Charles E.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of NASA-Langley's objectives for the development of advanced lasers and laser materials systems applicable to remote sensing in the mid-IR range. Prominent among current concerns are fiber-optic spectroscopy, eye-safe solid-state lasers for both Doppler sensing and mid-IR wavelength-generation laser pumping, and nonlinear optics generating tunable mid-IR radiation. Ho:YAG lasers are noted to exhibit intrinsic advantages for the desired applications, and are pumpable by GaAlAs laser diodes with a quantum efficiency approaching 2.

  1. CELiS (Compact Eyesafe Lidar System), a portable 1.5 μm elastic lidar system for rapid aerosol concentration measurement: Part 1, Instrument Design and Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, A. W.; Wojcik, M.; Moore, K. D.; Lemon, R.

    2014-12-01

    CELiS (Compact Eyesafe Lidar System) is an elastic lidar system conceived for the purpose of monitoring air quality environmental compliance regarding particulate matter (PM) generated from off-road use of wheeled and tracked vehicles. CELiS is a prototype instrument development by the Space Dynamics Laboratory to demonstrate a small, low power, eye-safe lidar system capable of monitoring PM fence-line concentration of fugitive dust from off-road vehicle activity as part of the SERDP (Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program) Measurement and Modeling of Fugitive Dust Emission from Off-Road Department of Defense Activities program. CELiS is small, lightweight and easily transportable for quick setup and measurement of PM concentration and emissions. The instrument is mounted on Moog Quickset pan and tilt positioner. Ground support equipment includes portable racks with laser power and cooler, power supplies, readout electronics and computer. The complete CELiS instrument weighs less than 300 lbs., is less than 1 cubic meters in volume and uses 700 W of 120V AC power. CELiS has a working range of better than 6km and a range resolution of 1.5m-6m. CELiS operates in a biaxial configuration at the 1.5μm eyesafe wavelength. The receiver is an off-axis parabolic (OAP) telescope, aft-optics and alignment assembly and InGaAs APD detector readout. The transmitter is a 20Hz PRF - 25mJ Quantel 1.574 μm laser with a 20x beam expander. Both the receiver and transmitter are mounted on a carbon fiber optical breadboard with a custom mounting solution to minimize misalignment due to thermal operating range (0-40 C) and pointing vectors. Any lidar system used to monitor fence-line PM emissions related to off-road training activities will be subject to a strict eye-safety requirement to protect both troops and wildlife. CELiS is eyesafe at the output aperture. CELiS has participated in two Dugway Proving Ground Lidar exercises performing within expectations

  2. Fluence Thresholds for Laser-Induced Damage of Optical Components in the Injector Laser of the SSRL Gun Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Boton, P

    2005-01-31

    Damage threshold fluences for several optical components were measured at three wavelengths using the injector laser at SSRL's Gun Test Facility. Measurements were conducted using the fundamental ir wavelength at 1053 nanometers and harmonics at 526 nm and 263 nm with 3.4ps pulses (1/e{sup 2} full width intensity); ir measurements were also conducted with 850 ps pulses. Practical surfaces relevant to the laser system performance are emphasized. Damage onset was evidenced by an alteration of the specular reflection of a cw probe laser (650 nm) from the irradiated region of the target surface. For the case of stretched ir pulses, damage to a Nd:glass rod was observed to begin at a site within the bulk material and to progress back toward the incident surface.

  3. Second Stokes component generation in the SRS of chirped laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Konyashchenko, Aleksandr V; Losev, Leonid L; Tenyakov, S Yu

    2011-05-31

    An experimental investigation was made of optical schemes for the generation of the second Stokes component in the SRS of broadband chirped laser pulses in high-pressure gases. Measurements were made of the energy conversion efficiency and the spatial characteristics of the light beam of the second Stokes component for one- and two-fold focusing of the pump radiation into the gas-filled cell as well as in schemes involving a quartz capillary and two gas-filled cells. The highest energy efficiency of conversion to the second Stokes component was attained in the case of cascade generation in the optical scheme with two pressurised-gas cells. In the SRS in hydrogen in this scheme, the Ti:sapphire laser radiation with a wavelength of 0.79 {mu}m was converted to the 2.3-{mu}m second Stokes component with an efficiency of 8.5%. (nonlinear-optics phenomena)

  4. Influence of Energy Input on Degradation Behavior of Plastic Components Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummer, Dietmar; Wudy, Katrin; Drexler, Maximilian

    Additive manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting of plastics, generate components directly from a CAD data set without using a specific mold. High building chamber temperatures in combination with long building times lead to physical and chemical degradation of the surrounding powder and the manufactured component in the case of selective laser melting of polyamide 12 (PA12). Thus the following investigations show the influence of energy densities on mechanical properties as well as on the aging behavior of the manufactured components. Therefore several building processes with varying energy densities will be conducted. Aged polymer components were analyzed with physical, thermo analytical and mechanical methods with regards to their process relevant material properties. Considered material properties for example are phase transition temperatures, melting viscosity or molecular weight. The basic understanding of the influence of energy input on material properties will lead to new process strategies with minimized polymer degradation.

  5. Broad-area and MOPA lasers with integrated grating components for beam shaping and novel functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhara, Toshiaki; Uemukai, Masahiro; Shimada, Naoyuki; Larsson, Anders

    2003-07-01

    The work of the authors' group on monolithic integrated in-plane semiconductor lasers using grating components are reviewed and the recent development is reported. The grating components provide not only feedback for lasing but also novel functions such as output beam shaping and wavelength tuning. The design and fabrication of the grating components in semiconductor waveguide are outlined, and the area-selective quantum-well disordering by impurity-free vacancy diffusion is described as an effective technique to reduce the absorption loss in the passive waveguide. Then, device description, design, fabrication and experimental results of integrated master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) lasers, high-power tunable extended-cavity lasers, and a broad-area angled-grating distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers using InGaAs/AlGaAs GRIN-SCH-SQW structures are presented. All the lasers have integrated beam forming grating coupler, and allow implementation of compact and stable lensless modules that emit a collimated output beam.

  6. Laser direct writing of 40 GHz RF components on flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharatos, F.; Iliadis, N.; Kanakis, J.; Bakopoulos, P.; Avramopoulos, H.; Zergioti, I.

    2016-05-01

    Flexible electronics have emerged as a very promising alternative of CMOS compatible electronics for a plethora of applications. Laser microfabrication techniques, such as selective laser patterning and sintering are compatible with flexible substrates and have demonstrated impressive results in the field of flexible electronic circuits and sensors. However, laser based manufacturing of radio frequency (RF) passive components or devices is still at an early stage. In this work we report on the all-laser fabrication of Silver Co-Planar Waveguides (CPWs) on polyethylene-naphthalate (PEN) substrates employing flat-top optics to achieve uniform laser fluence and thus high fabrication precision and reproducibility but also to mitigate the thermal effects of nanosecond laser pulses. The CPWs have been fabricated to match the impedance of 50 Ω ports of an Anritsu vector network analyzer operating from 40 MHz to 40 GHz. The all laser fabrication process consisted in the selective laser sintering of square dies on a Silver Nano Particle layer spin-coated on a PEN substrate followed by the selective laser patterning of the CPWs with a ns pulsed Nd:YAG laser source operating at 532 nm, according to the optimized parameters extracted from a previous studies of the authors. The CPWs have been characterized electrically at the 0.04-40 GHz regime and found to be excellent transmission lines with a 40 GHz 3 dB bandwidth, owing to the high electrical conductivity of Ag and the excellent dielectric properties of PEN. This novel process is a milestone towards the RF technology transfer to flexible electronics with low cost and specs comparable to the CMOS compatible equivalents.

  7. Integration and initial operation of the multi-component large ring laser structure ROMY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Karl Ulrich; Igel, Heiner; Wassermann, Joachim; Gebauer, André; Simonelli, Andrea; Bernauer, Felix; Donner, Stefanie; Hadziioannou, Celine; Egdorf, Sven; Wells, Jon-Paul

    2017-04-01

    Rotation sensing for the geosciences requires a high sensor resolution of the order of 10 pico- radians per second or even less. An optical Sagnac interferometer offers this sensitivity, provided that the scale factor can be made very large. We have designed and built a multi- component ring laser system, consisting of 4 individual large ring lasers, each covering an area of more than 62 square m. The rings are orientated in the shape of a tetrahedron, so that all 3 spatial directions are covered, allowing also for some redundancy. We report on the initial operation of the free running gyroscopes in their underground facility in order to establish a performance estimate for the ROMY ring laser structure. Preliminary results suggest that the quantum noise limit is lower than that of the G ring laser.

  8. Local Laser Strengthening of Steel Sheets for Load Adapted Component Design in Car Body Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, Axel; Heitmanek, Marco; Standfuss, Jens; Brenner, Berndt; Wunderlich, Gerd; Donat, Bernd

    The current trend in car body construction concerning light weight design and car safety improvement increasingly requires an adaption of the local material properties on the component load. Martensitic hardenable steels, which are typically used in car body components, show a significant hardening effect, for instance in laser welded seams. This effect can be purposefully used as a local strengthening method. For several steel grades the local strengthening, resulting from a laser remelting process was investigated. The strength in the treated zone was determined at crash relevant strain rates. A load adapted design of complex reinforcement structures was developed for compression and bending loaded tube samples, using numerical simulation of the deformation behavior. Especially for bending loaded parts, the crash energy absorption can be increased significantly by local laser strengthening.

  9. Laser adjustable actuators for high-accuracy positioning of micro components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, Gerd; Schmidt, Michael; Dirscherl, Manfred

    2003-11-01

    High-precision adjustment of smallest optical and electronic components is increasingly recognized as one of the key issues facing micromachining technology. As even narrow production tolerances for all individual parts are often not sufficient to match the tightly specified positioning accuracies of the complete assembly, in situ adjustment techniques are gaining more and more attention. Together with research partners from industry and science, the BLZ is developing a contact-free, laser-based adjustment method which allows high-accuracy adjustment of components mounted on specifically designed actuators. The underlying mechanisms do not depend on thermal effects but on selective laser ablation of prestressed layers of actuator substrate. This way, slightest deformations or modifications of particular mechanical properties can be initiated. The method promises to be more accurate and less time consuming than thermally induced laser bending.

  10. Principal components analysis as a de-noising method applied to laser Doppler reactive hyperemia signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri, C.; Humeau, A.; Abraham, P.; L'Huillier, J. P.

    2005-08-01

    Reactive hyperemia signals obtained with laser Doppler flowmetry are currently used to diagnose peripheral arterial occlusive diseases (PAOD). De-noising of such signals could lead to improved diagnoses. For this purpose, the principal components analysis is applied to signals acquired on PAOD and healthy subjects.

  11. Laser engineered net shaping (LENS) for the repair and modification of NWC metal components.

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, Clinton J.; Smugeresky, John E. (Sandia National Labs, Livermore,CA); Gill, David Dennis

    2006-11-01

    Laser Engineered Net Shaping{trademark} (LENS{reg_sign}) is a layer additive manufacturing process that creates fully dense metal components using a laser, metal powder, and a computer solid model. This process has previously been utilized in research settings to create metal components and new material alloys. The ''Qualification of LENS for the Repair and Modification of Metal NWC Components'' project team has completed a Technology Investment project to investigate the use of LENS for repair of high rigor components. The team submitted components from four NWC sites for repair or modification using the LENS process. These components were then evaluated for their compatibility to high rigor weapons applications. The repairs included hole filling, replacement of weld lips, addition of step joints, and repair of surface flaws and gouges. The parts were evaluated for mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, weldability, and hydrogen compatibility. This document is a record of the LENS processing of each of these component types and includes process parameters, build strategies, and lessons learned. Through this project, the LENS process was shown to successfully repair or modify metal NWC components.

  12. Laser ultrasound: a flexible tool for the inspection of complex CFK components and welded seams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Kopylow, Christoph; Focke, Oliver; Kalms, Michael

    2007-06-01

    Modern production processes use more and more components made of new materials like carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). These components have different sizes, functionalities, high assembly complexity and high security requirements. In addition optimized joining processes, especially during welding are implemented in manufacturing processes. The increasing requirements during the manufacturing of complex products like cars and aircrafts demand new solutions for the quality assurance. The main focus is to find a measurement strategy that is cost effective, flexible and adaptive. The extension of the conventional ultrasound technique for non destructive testing with the laser ultrasound method brings new possibilities into the production processes for example for the inspection of small complex CFRP-parts like clips and the online observation during seam welding. In this paper we describe the principle of laser ultrasound, especially the adaptation of a laser ultrasound system to the requirements of non destructive testing of CFRP-components. An important point is the generation of the ultrasound wave in the surface of the component under investigation. We will show experimental results of different components with complex shape and different defects under the surface. In addition we will present our results for the detection of defects in metals. Because the online inspection of welded seams is of high interest experiments for the investigation of welded seams are demonstrated.

  13. Fabrication of multilayer passive electric components using inkjet printing and low temperature laser processing on polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Seung Hwan; Chung, Jaewon; Pan, Heng; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2006-02-01

    The low temperature fabrication of passive electrical components (conductor, capacitor) on the flexible polymer substrate is presented in this paper. A drop-on-demand (DOD) ink-jetting system was used to print gold nano-particles suspended in Alpha-Terpineol solvent and PVP in PGMEA solvent to fabricate passive electrical components on flexible polymer substrate. Short pulsed laser ablation enabled finer electrical components to overcome limitation of inkjet process. Continuous Argon ion laser was irradiated locally to evaporate carrier solvent as well as to sinter gold nano-particles. In addition, a self alignment technique for PVP layer was demonstrated taking advantage of the deliberate modification of surface wetting characteristics. Finally, a new selective ablation of multilayered gold nanoparticle film was demonstrated using the ablation threshold difference for sintered and non sintered gold nanoparticles.

  14. Laser processes for precise microfabrication of magnetic disk-drive components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Andrew C.

    2000-11-01

    The technique of laser micro-processing has recently found several important and widespread applications in the manufacturing of disk-drive components. Examples provided here include the cleaning of surface contaminants, the formation of nano-bumps on disk surfaces for controlled surface texturing or for making glide height standards, and the micro-bending of magnetic head sliders for flight-height controls. Short-pulsed laser irradiation at suitable wavelength, fluence, and incidence direction can be used to clean off particulate and organic-film contaminants from surfaces of critical components, for example, the slider and the disk. Controlled disk texturing is needed to alleviate the problem of stiction which occurs when the disk stop spinning and the super smooth slider comes into stationary contact with the super smooth disk. A compact laser operating at high pulse repetition rate can be used to produce a low-stiction racetrack composed of typically a million nano-bumps. This can be done both for NiP/aluminum disks, or for glass disks. Single isolated bump with a specified height for providing height-standard can also be tailor-made. Very recently, we have developed a 'laser curvature adjust technique' and implemented it into production of magnetic head sliders. Here, microscopic adjustments of the curvature of air bearing surface of sliders can be produced by suitable laser scribing at the back side of the ceramic slider.

  15. Laser rapid forming technology of high-performance dense metal components with complex structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Weidong; Chen, Jing; Li, Yanming; Lin, Xin

    2005-01-01

    Laser rapid forming (LRF) is a new and advanced manufacturing technology that has been developed on the basis of combining high power laser cladding technology with rapid prototyping (RP) to realize net shape forming of high performance dense metal components without dies. Recently we have developed a set of LRF equipment. LRF experiments were carried out on the equipment to investigate the influences of processing parameters on forming characterizations systematically with the cladding powder materials as titanium alloys, superalloys, stainless steel, and copper alloys. The microstructure of laser formed components is made up of columnar grains or columnar dendrites which grow epitaxially from the substrate since the solid components were prepared layer by layer additionally. The result of mechanical testing proved that the mechanical properties of laser formed samples are similar to or even over that of forging and much better than that of casting. It is shown in this paper that LRF technology is providing a new solution for some difficult processing problems in the high tech field of aviation, spaceflight and automobile industries.

  16. Free form fabrication of metallic components using laser engineered net shaping (LENS{trademark})

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, M.L.; Keicher, D.M.; Atwood, C.L.

    1996-09-01

    Solid free form fabrication is one of the fastest growing automated manufacturing technologies that has significantly impacted the length of time between initial concept and actual part fabrication. Starting with CAD renditions of new components, several techniques such as stereolithography and selective laser sintering are being used to fabricate highly accurate complex three-dimensional concept models using polymeric materials. Coupled with investment casting techniques, sacrificial polymeric objects are used to minimize costs and time to fabricate tooling used to make complex metal castings. This paper will describe recent developments in a new technology, known as LENS{sup {trademark}} (Laser Engineered Net Shaping), to fabricate metal components directly from CAD solid models and thus further reduce the lead times for metal part fabrication. In a manner analogous to stereolithography or selective sintering, the LENS{sup {trademark}} process builds metal parts line by line and layer by layer. Metal particles are injected into a laser beam, where they are melted and deposited onto a substrate as a miniature weld pool. The trace of the laser beam on the substrate is driven by the definition of CAD models until the desired net-shaped densified metal component is produced.

  17. Design and component specifications for high average power laser optical systems

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, R.W.; Sawicki, R.H.; Johnson, S.A.; Sweatt, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    Laser imaging and transport systems are considered in the regime where laser-induced damage and/or thermal distortion have significant design implications. System design and component specifications are discussed and quantified in terms of the net system transport efficiency and phase budget. Optical substrate materials, figure, surface roughness, coatings, and sizing are considered in the context of visible and near-ir optical systems that have been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for laser isotope separation applications. In specific examples of general applicability, details of the bulk and/or surface absorption, peak and/or average power damage threshold, coating characteristics and function, substrate properties, or environmental factors will be shown to drive the component size, placement, and shape in high-power systems. To avoid overstressing commercial fabrication capabilities or component design specifications, procedures will be discussed for compensating for aberration buildup, using a few carefully placed adjustable mirrors. By coupling an aggressive measurements program on substrates and coatings to the design effort, an effective technique has been established to project high-power system performance realistically and, in the process, drive technology developments to improve performance or lower cost in large-scale laser optical systems. 13 refs.

  18. Laser materials processing of complex components: from reverse engineering via automated beam path generation to short process development cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görgl, Richard; Brandstätter, Elmar

    2017-01-01

    The article presents an overview of what is possible nowadays in the field of laser materials processing. The state of the art in the complete process chain is shown, starting with the generation of a specific components CAD data and continuing with the automated motion path generation for the laser head carried by a CNC or robot system. Application examples from laser cladding and laser-based additive manufacturing are given.

  19. Development of eye-safe lidar for aerosol measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Wilderson, Thomas D.

    1990-01-01

    Research is summarized on the development of an eye safe Raman conversion system to carry out lidar measurements of aerosol and clouds from an airborne platform. Radiation is produced at the first Stokes wavelength of 1.54 micron in the eye safe infrared, when methane is used as the Raman-active medium, the pump source being a Nd:YAG laser at 1.064 micron. Results are presented for an experimental study of the dependence of the 1.54 micron first Stokes radiation on the focusing geometry, methane gas pressure, and pump energy. The specific new technique developed for optimizing the first Stokes generation involves retroreflecting the backward-generated first Stokes light back into the Raman cell as a seed Stokes beam which is then amplified in the temporal tail of the pump beam. Almost 20 percent conversion to 1.54 micron is obtained. Complete, assembled hardware for the Raman conversion system was delivered to the Goddard Space Flight Center for a successful GLOBE flight (1989) to measure aerosol backscatter around the Pacific basin.

  20. Specification of optical components for a high average-power laser environment

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.R.; Chow, R.; Rinmdahl, K.A.; Willis, J.B.; Wong, J.N.

    1997-06-25

    Optical component specifications for the high-average-power lasers and transport system used in the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) plant must address demanding system performance requirements. The need for high performance optics has to be balanced against the practical desire to reduce the supply risks of cost and schedule. This is addressed in optical system design, careful planning with the optical industry, demonstration of plant quality parts, qualification of optical suppliers and processes, comprehensive procedures for evaluation and test, and a plan for corrective action.

  1. Optical System For Laser Welding In The Nuclear Power Plant Core Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantello, M.; Ghiringhello, G.; CAI, G.; Chiasera, M.

    1987-07-01

    This paper presents the experimental work and the results obtained in laser welding of chandelles, to the sommier plates of the Super Phoenix 2 (SPX2) reactor. The real dimensions of the sommier (m 7.70 diameter) and the high number of chandelles to he fastened to the plates (1200 chandelles) impose very strict tolerances. The laser technology is particularly useful for the very low deformations induced in the welded component and for the possibility to manipulate the energy beam using flexible optical systems.

  2. Automated Mobile Infrared Mirror System Applied To Laser Welding Of Nuclear Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Giulio; Cruciani, Diego; Cantello, Maichi

    1988-07-01

    Oxygen-free copper mirrors are currently used for transmitting, aiming and focusing high power infrared laser beams. When used in automated laser material processing systems, additional requirements are demanded of them. This paper deals with the solution adopted for their design, manufacture, assembly and in-service testing, as applied to laser welding heavy section components in AISI 304 with a 15 kW CW carbon-dioxide laser. The beam handling devices were used to demonstrate the suitability of the laser welding technique for assembling some of the structures of the reactor core in the French Superphenix nuclear plant. Two multiple rotating mirror systems, connected to each other for correct processing, had to be manufactured to perform circular welds to join sleeves to the plates of tne main diagrid, with a welding thickness of up to 15 mm. AISI 304 stainless steel is suitable for defect-free laser welded joints. Each multiple mirror systeid was dedicated to a particular welding technique: the first with the laser impinging uwards on the workpiece, the second downwards. In the latter case, special assist gas nozzles were needed to protect the mirrors from the metal vapour jets. Beam handling on a horizontal plane was also tested using another rotating mirror system for internally welding sleeves to plates. The results demonstrated the feasibility and suitability of the automated process for industrial applications. The accuracy of the results obtained using the multiple mirror system enables it to be adopted for assembling metallic structures similar to the Superphenix main diagrid. The reduction in manufacturing costs using such automated laser beam handling devices is calculated to be 30 - 40% of the total.

  3. High-rate laser metal deposition of Inconel 718 component using low heat-input approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, C. Y.; Scudamore, R. J.; Allen, J.

    Currently many aircraft and aero engine components are machined from billets or oversize forgings. This involves significant cost, material wastage, lead-times and environmental impacts. Methods to add complex features to another component or net-shape surface would offer a substantial cost benefit. Laser Metal Deposition (LMD), currently being applied to the repair of worn or damaged aero engine components, was attempted in this work as an alternative process route, to build features onto a base component, because of its low heat input capability. In this work, low heat input and high-rate deposition was developed to deposit Inconel 718 powder onto thin plates. Using the optimised process parameters, a number of demonstrator components were successfully fabricated.

  4. Fabrication of 3D components by laser-aided direct metal deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumder, Jyotirmoy; Qi, Huan

    2005-03-01

    Breinan and Kear first reported fabrication of three-dimensional metallic components via layer by layer laser cladding in 1978 and subsequently a patent was issued to Brown et al. in 1982. Recently, various groups are working world wide on different types of layered manufacturing techniques for fabrication of near net shape metallic components. Integration of lasers with multi-axis presently available CNC machines, CAD/CAM, sensors and powder metal delivery through co-axial nozzles along with the laser beam are the main innovations for fabrication of 3-Dimensional components. Continuous corrective measures during the manufacturing process are necessary to fabricate net shape functional parts with close tolerances and acceptable residual stress. The closed loop Direct Metal Deposition(DMD) System, using an optical feedback loop along with a CNC working under the instructions from a CAD/CAM software, indicate that it can produce three dimensional components directly from the CAD data eliminating intermediate machining and reduces final machining considerably. This technology is now being commercialized.

  5. Relationship of oscillating and average components of laser Doppler flowmetry signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizeva, Irina; Frick, Peter; Podtaev, Sergey

    2016-08-01

    Signals from laser Doppler flowmeters widely used in intravital studies of skin blood flow include, along with a slowly varying average component, an oscillating part. However, in most clinical studies, pulsations are usually smoothed by data preprocessing and only the mean blood flow is analyzed. To reveal the relationship between average and oscillating perfusion components measured by a laser Doppler flowmeter, we examined the microvascular response to the contralateral cold pressor test recorded at two different sites of the hand: dorsal part of the arm and finger pad. Such a protocol makes it possible to provide a wide range of perfusion. The average perfusion always decreases during cooling, while the oscillating component demonstrates a differently directed response. The wavelet analysis of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals shows that the pulsatile component is nonlinearly related to the average perfusion. Under low perfusion, the amplitude of pulsations is proportional to its mean value, but, as perfusion increases, the amplitude of pulsations becomes lower. The type of response is defined by the basal perfusion and the degree of vasoconstriction caused by cooling. Interpretation of the results is complicated by the nonlinear transfer function of the LDF device, the contribution of which is studied using artificial examples.

  6. Avoidance of crack inducement when laser welding hot-formed car body components - a variable analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Johnny K.

    The Volvo XC60 car body contains numerous parts in Ultra High Strength Steels (UHSS) in order to guarantee the structural integrity of the car in the event of a crash situation. Most of the parts are manufactured in a hot-forming process, so called presshardening, resulting in component tensile strength in the range of 1,500 MPa. As this type of material also presents fairly high carbon content (˜0.22%) it brings a challenge when it comes to welding. The Volvo XC60 car body is at the same time to a large extent assembled by laser welding technology. In early development stages of the project (Y413), it was observed that laser welding of hot-formed components presented a number of challenges due to the unique conditions offered by this welding method. The presentation will thoroughly describe the modes of procedure how to avoid crack inducement during the welding operation. A variable analysis approach was used based on the present circumstances at the production facility in the Gent plant. Crucial variables at laser welding such as gap between sheets, focal point position, welding speed and laser weld position relative to the flange edge were included in a test matrix and welding trials were carried out accordingly in the Pilot Plant in Gothenburg. The paper will discuss those welding results, the subsequent analysis and plausible theoretic explanations. From the lessons learnt in this research, the optimum laser welding parameters were then transferred to the laser welding stations in the Gent plant. There it has been proven, that also at high volume automotive manufacturing, it is possible to provide an outstanding weld quality also at such difficult pre-conditions. The presentation ends with some facts and figures and experiences from high volume series production, which also includes aspects on quality assurance.

  7. Characteristics of AFB interfaces of dissimilar crystal composites as components for solid state lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. C.; Meissner, O. R.; Meissner, H. E.

    2005-06-01

    Adhesive-free bonded (AFB®) composite crystals have proven to be useful components in diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSL). The combination of a lasing medium of higher index of refraction with laser-inactive cladding layers of lower index results in light- or wave-guided slab architectures. The cladding layers also serve to provide mechanical support, thermal uniformity and a heat sink during laser operation. Therefore, the optical and mechanical properties of these components are of interest for the design of DPSSL, especially at high laser fluencies and output power. We report on process parameters and material attributes that result in stress-free AFB® composites that are resistant to thermally induced failure. Formation of stress-free and durable bonds between two dissimilar materials requires heat-treatment of composites to a temperature high enough to ensure durable bonds and low enough to prevent forming of permanent chemical bonds. The onset temperature for forming permanent bonds at the interface sets the upper limit for heat treatment. This limiting temperature is dependent on the chemical composition, crystallographic orientation, and surface characteristics. We have determined the upper temperature limits for forming stress-free bonds between YAG and sapphire, YAG and GGG, YAG and spinel, spinel and sapphire, spinel and GGG, and sapphire and GGG composites. We also deduce the relative magnitude of thermal expansion coefficients amongst the respective single crystals as αGGG > αsapp_c > αspinel > αYAG > αsapp_a from interferometric analysis.

  8. 10-kW-class YAG laser application for heavy components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishide, Takashi; Tsubota, S.; Nayama, Michisuke; Shimokusu, Yoshiaki; Nagashima, Tadashi; Okimura, K.

    2000-02-01

    The authors have put the YAG laser of the kW class to practical use for repair welding of nuclear power plant steam generator heat exchanger tubes, all-position welding of pipings, etc. This paper describes following developed methods and systems of high power YAG laser processing. First, we apply the 6 kW to 10 kW YAG lasers for welding and cutting in heavy components. The beam guide systems we have used are optical fibers which core diameter is 0.6 mm to 0.8 mm and its length is 200 m as standard one. Using these system, we can get the 1 pass penetration of 15 mm to 20 mm and multi pass welding for more thick plates. Cutting of 100 mm thickness plate data also described for dismantling of nuclear power plants. In these systems we carried out the in-process monitoring by using CCD camera image processing and monitoring fiber which placed coaxial to the YAG optical lens system. In- process monitoring by the monitoring fiber, we measured the light intensity from welding area. Further, we have developed new hybrid welding with the TIG electrode at the center of lens for high power. The hybrid welding with TIG-YAG system aims lightening of welding groove allowances and welding of high quality. Through these techniques we have applied 7 kW class YAG laser for welding in the components of nuclear power plants.

  9. A 3-component laser-Doppler velocimeter data acquisition and reduction system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodman, L. C.; Bell, J. H.; Mehta, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    A laser doppler velocimeter capable of measuring all three components of velocity simultaneously in low-speed flows is described. All the mean velocities, Reynolds stresses, and higher-order products can be evaluated. The approach followed is to split one of the two colors used in a 2-D system, thus creating a third set of beams which is then focused in the flow from an off-axis direction. The third velocity component is computed from the known geometry of the system. The laser optical hardware and the data acquisition electronics are described in detail. In addition, full operating procedures and listings of the software (written in BASIC and ASSEMBLY languages) are also included. Some typical measurements obtained with this system in a vortex/mixing layer interaction are presented and compared directly to those obtained with a cross-wire system.

  10. A 3-component laser-Doppler velocimeter data acquisition and reduction system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodman, L. C.; Bell, J. H.; Mehta, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes a laser Doppler velocimeter capable of measuring all three components of velocity simultaneously in low-speed flows. All the mean velocities, Reynolds stresses, and higher-order products can then be evaluated. The approach followed is to split one of the colors used in a 2-D system, thus creating a third set of beams which is then focused in the flow from an off-axis direction. The third velocity component is computed from the known geometry of the system. In this report, the laser optical hardware and the data acquisition electronics are described in detail. In addition, full operating procedures and listings of the software (written in BASIC and assembly languages) are also included. Some typical measurements obtained with this system in a vortex/mixing layer interaction are presented and compared directly to those obtained with a cross-wire system.

  11. Understanding the microstructure and properties of components fabricated by laser engineered net shaping (LENS)

    SciTech Connect

    GRIFFITH,MICHELLE L.; ENSZ,MARK T.; PUSKAR,JOSEPH D.; ROBINO,CHARLES V.; BROOKS,JOHN A.; PHILLIBER,JOEL A.; SMUGERESKY,JOHN E.; HOFMEISTER,W.H.

    2000-05-18

    Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) is a novel manufacturing process for fabricating metal parts directly from Computer Aided Design (CAD) solid models. The process is similar to rapid prototyping technologies in its approach to fabricate a solid component by layer additive methods. However, the LENS technology is unique in that fully dense metal components with material properties that are similar to that of wrought materials can be fabricated. The LENS process has the potential to dramatically reduce the time and cost required realizing functional metal parts. In addition, the process can fabricate complex internal features not possible using existing manufacturing processes. The real promise of the technology is the potential to manipulate the material fabrication and properties through precision deposition of the material, which includes thermal behavior control, layered or graded deposition of multi-materials, and process parameter selection. This paper describes the authors' research to understand solidification aspects, thermal behavior, and material properties for laser metal deposition technologies.

  12. Implementation of laser acupuncture with lifting-thrusting through the use of mechanically immobile components.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Yu; Yen, San-Fong; Chang, Shu-Chen; Chiu, Ya-Hui; Kuo, Che-Chang; Wu, Chih-Er

    2015-10-01

    Lifting and thrusting constitute an important manipulation method in traditional Chinese acupuncture. Lifting and thrusting enables the implementation of various features, such as reinforcement and reduction, which enhance acupuncture effectiveness. Laser acupuncture stimulates acupoints through laser light, which is a noninvasive treatment, but can still achieve effects similar to those obtained from traditional acupuncture. Lifting and thrusting can be achieved by moving the laser focal point back and forth, thus concentrating the energy, as does the tip of the acupuncture needle when it is moved upward and downward in the acupoint. This article presents a novel optical design of a laser acupuncture device, in which a focus-tunable lens is used to move the position of the focused light in order to achieve the lifting and thrusting mechanism through programmable changes to the control current of the focus-tunable lens. The device employs an infrared laser with a wavelength of 808 nm and a maximum power of 150 mW. The focus-tunable lens used in this study had a diopter of -10 to +5. The results revealed that by controlling the lens diopter, the focused light can be moved from 4.5 to 9.5 cm. Therefore, the range of the lift and thrust for the laser acupuncture device was 5 cm. The area of the focal point was approximately 6×10(-3) mm2, which is comparable to that of the commonly used traditional acupuncture needle tip. Because the components are immobile, no additional space is required for the moving lens. Therefore, the size of the laser acupuncture head can be minimized, and the effectiveness of focus tuning can be improved.

  13. Two component laser velocimeter measurements of turbulence parameters downstream of an axisymmetric sudden expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, Richard D.; Stevenson, Warren H.; Thompson, H. Doyle

    1986-01-01

    Simultaneous two-component laser velocimeter measurements were made in an axisymmetric sudden expansion flowfield. A specially designed correction lens was employed to correct optical aberrations introduced by the circular tube. This lens system allowed the accurate simultaneous measurement of axial and radial velocities in the test section. The experimental measurements were compared to predictions generated by a code which employed the k-epsilon turbulence model. Possible sources of differences observed between model predictions and the measurements are discussed.

  14. High-brightness and narrow-linewidth diamond Raman lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lux, O.; Williams, R. J.; Sarang, S.; Jasbeer, H.; McKay, A.; Kitzler, O.; Mildren, R. P.

    2017-01-01

    We present our recent advances in the field of Raman frequency conversion using high-optical quality CVD-diamond. Different diamond Raman lasers were developed for efficiently generating multi-Watt output at specific wavelengths from the visible to the eye-safe spectral range, while single-frequency operation was accomplished by exploiting an intrinsic mode stability mechanism.

  15. High Heat Flux Interactions and Tritium Removal from Plasma Facing Components by a Scanning Laser

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; C.A. Gentile; A. Hassanein

    2002-01-28

    A new technique for studying high heat flux interactions with plasma facing components is presented. The beam from a continuous wave 300 W neodymium laser was focused to 80 W/mm2 and scanned at high speed over the surface of carbon tiles. These tiles were previously used in the TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor] inner limiter and have a surface layer of amorphous hydrogenated carbon that was codeposited during plasma operations. Laser scanning released up to 84% of the codeposited tritium. The temperature rise of the codeposit on the tiles was significantly higher than that of the manufactured material. In one experiment, the codeposit surface temperature rose to 1,770 C while for the same conditions, the manufactured surface increased to only 1,080 C. The peak temperature did not follow the usual square-root dependence on heat pulse duration. Durations of order 100 ms resulted in brittle destruction and material loss from the surface, while a duration of approximately 10 ms showed minimal change. A digital microscope imaged the codeposit before, during, and after the interaction with the laser and revealed hot spots on a 100-micron scale. These results will be compared to analytic modeling and are relevant to the response of plasma facing components to disruptions and vertical displacement events (VDEs) in next-step magnetic fusion devices.

  16. Self-tuning method for monitoring the density of a gas vapor component using a tunable laser

    DOEpatents

    Hagans, Karla; Berzins, Leon; Galkowski, Joseph; Seng, Rita

    1996-01-01

    The present invention relates to a vapor density monitor and laser atomic absorption spectroscopy method for highly accurate, continuous monitoring of vapor densities, composition, flow velocity, internal and kinetic temperatures and constituent distributions. The vapor density monitor employs a diode laser, preferably of an external cavity design. By using a diode laser, the vapor density monitor is significantly less expensive and more reliable than prior art vapor density monitoring devices. In addition, the compact size of diode lasers enables the vapor density monitor to be portable. According to the method of the present invention, the density of a component of a gas vapor is calculated by tuning the diode laser to a frequency at which the amount of light absorbed by the component is at a minimum or a maximum within about 50 MHz of that frequency. Laser light from the diode laser is then transmitted at the determined frequency across a predetermined pathlength of the gas vapor. By comparing the amount of light transmitted by the diode laser to the amount of light transmitted after the laser light passes through the gas vapor, the density of the component can be determined using Beer's law.

  17. Self-tuning method for monitoring the density of a gas vapor component using a tunable laser

    DOEpatents

    Hagans, K.; Berzins, L.; Galkowski, J.; Seng, R.

    1996-08-27

    The present invention relates to a vapor density monitor and laser atomic absorption spectroscopy method for highly accurate, continuous monitoring of vapor densities, composition, flow velocity, internal and kinetic temperatures and constituent distributions. The vapor density monitor employs a diode laser, preferably of an external cavity design. By using a diode laser, the vapor density monitor is significantly less expensive and more reliable than prior art vapor density monitoring devices. In addition, the compact size of diode lasers enables the vapor density monitor to be portable. According to the method of the present invention, the density of a component of a gas vapor is calculated by tuning the diode laser to a frequency at which the amount of light absorbed by the component is at a minimum or a maximum within about 50 MHz of that frequency. Laser light from the diode laser is then transmitted at the determined frequency across a predetermined pathlength of the gas vapor. By comparing the amount of light transmitted by the diode laser to the amount of light transmitted after the laser light passes through the gas vapor, the density of the component can be determined using Beer`s law. 6 figs.

  18. Scaling of Fiber Laser Systems Based on Novel Components and High Power Capable Packaging and Joining Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    l ri Laser Splicing/ Welding r li i / l i Contact Bonding t t i Wafer Level Bonding Mineralic, Fusion. Anodic, Eutectic, Glass-frit, liquid...diode Bonding and Packaging of Optical Components Solder Bumping Thickfilm Au Metallization Laser diode Fiber Assembly element Asphere Ceramic System

  19. Resonances of pumping and higher stokes components in fiber Brillouin lasers and a method of setting them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirin, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for setting a fiber Brillouin laser that allows simultaneous provision of the resonance of pumping and higher Stokes components. The proposed radiation source combines a low noise level and low lasing threshold characteristic of double-resonance lasers with the advantages of multifrequency optical emitters.

  20. NEET-AMM Final Technical Report on Laser Direct Manufacturing (LDM) for Nuclear Power Components

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Scott; Baca, Georgina; O'Connor, Michael

    2015-12-31

    Final technical report summarizes the program progress and technical accomplishments of the Laser Direct Manufacturing (LDM) for Nuclear Power Components project. A series of experiments varying build process parameters (scan speed and laser power) were conducted at the outset to establish the optimal build conditions for each of the alloys. Fabrication was completed in collaboration with Quad City Manufacturing Laboratory (QCML). The density of all sample specimens was measured and compared to literature values. Optimal build process conditions giving fabricated part densities close to literature values were chosen for making mechanical test coupons. Test coupons whose principal axis is on the x-y plane (perpendicular to build direction) and on the z plane (parallel to build direction) were built and tested as part of the experimental build matrix to understand the impact of the anisotropic nature of the process.. Investigations are described 316L SS, Inconel 600, 718 and 800 and oxide dispersion strengthed 316L SS (Yttria) alloys.

  1. ARTICLES: Control of spiky emission from a two-component heterojunction laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldobin, I. S.; Luk'yanov, V. N.; Solodkov, A. F.; Yakubovich, S. D.

    1985-05-01

    A machine experiment was used to analyze the operating regimes of a two-component heterojunction laser in the range of unstable states under "hard" switching-on conditions. The dependences of the characteristics of a self-modulation process on the currents in the isolated parts of the laser were determined. Calculations and experiments revealed a region of "self-modulation bistability." The application of an external synchronizing signal resulted in generation of exactly periodic continuous trains of spikes of about 100 psec duration and 0.1-1.2 GHz repetition frequency. The promising nature of the use of such trains in determination of the pass band of fast-response photodetectors was demonstrated.

  2. Development and testing of laser Doppler system components for wake vortex monitoring. Volume 2: Scanner operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, B. B.; Coffey, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    The theory and operation of the scanner portion of the laser Doppler system for detecting and monitoring aircraft trailing vortices in an airport environment are discussed. Schematics, wiring diagrams, component values, and operation and checkout procedures are included.

  3. Design Of A Low Cost Diode-Laser-Based High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayman, Matthew; Spuler, Scott; Morley, Bruce; Eloranta, Edwin W.

    2016-06-01

    A concept for an eye-safe, semiconductor-based high spectral resolution lidar has been developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The lidar operates at a wavelength of 780 nm near several rubidium absorption peaks. A rubidium vapor cell is used to block aerosol backscatter in one channel to provide a molecular backscatter measurement for calculating extinction and backscatter ratio (calibrated backscatter). Laser and optical components around 780 nm are widely developed due to the large growth in atomic cooling and trapping of rubidium. Thus this instrument can be built largely using mature commercial-off-the-shelf parts. The simulation of the conceptual design shown here uses known commercial products and suggests that such an instrument could be used for quantitative profiling of the lower troposphere.

  4. Replicated diffractive optical lens components for laser-diode-to-fiber coupling in optical bench arrangements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soechtig, Juergen; Schift, Helmut; Patterson, Bruce D.; Westenhoefer, S.

    1997-09-01

    We report on the fabrication of lens components, based on diffractive optical elements, for the purpose of imaging laser-diode emission onto fibers or photodetectors, or for collimation applications. The miniature optical elements are arranged in arrays with 250 micrometer pitch which make them well suited for applications with fiber ribbons. Test optical plates were made of polycarbonate using hot stamper replication technology. The imaging properties of these optical plates from single-mode fibers onto single-mode fibers or from lasers onto single-mode fibers are discussed. The addition of 3D-marker structures to the outline borders of such plates made them suitable for use in micro-optical benches with built-in mechanical registration structures. We fabricated the optical bench inserts with built-in passive alignment elements using deep x-ray LIGA technology (LIGA is a German acronym for 'lithographie, galvanik und abformung' meaning lithography, electroforming and molding). This technology offers high mechanical precision even for the 500 micrometer thick optical bench inserts which we fabricated by injection molding out of transparent and thermally stable polycarbonate. We report on first arrangements of plastic optical bench inserts into micro-optical benches. With the aim towards a fully replicated micro-optical bench made out of plastic we also report on a mounting concept for laser-didoes with built-in alignment trenches. The fabrication process and important properties of these special lasers which we recently developed for transceiver applications are described. We use these lasers for imaging onto single-mode fibers applying the diffractive optical element plates already mentioned.

  5. Eye-safe UV Raman spectroscopy for remote detection of explosives and their precursors in fingerprint concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almaviva, S.; Angelini, F.; Chirico, R.; Palucci, A.; Nuvoli, M.; Schnuerer, F.; Schweikert, W.; Romolo, F. S.

    2014-10-01

    We report the results of Raman investigation performed at stand-off distance between 6-10 m with a new apparatus, capable to detect traces of explosives with surface concentrations similar to those of a single fingerprint. The device was developed as part of the RADEX prototype (RAman Detection of EXplosives) and is capable of detecting the Raman signal with a single laser shot of few ns (10-9 s) in the UV range (wavelength 266 nm), in conditions of safety for the human eye. This is because the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) for the human eye is established to be 3 mJ/cm2 in this wavelength region and pulse duration. Samples of explosives (PETN, TNT, Urea Nitrate, Ammonium Nitrate) were prepared starting from solutions deposited on samples of common fabrics or clothing materials such as blue jeans, leather, polyester or polyamide. The deposition process takes place via a piezoelectric-controlled plotter device, capable of producing drops of welldefined volume, down to nanoliters, on a surface of several cm2, in order to carefully control the amount of explosive released to the tissue and thus simulate a slight stain on a garment of a potential terrorist. Depending on the type of explosive sampled, the detected density ranges from 0.1 to 1 mg/cm2 and is comparable to the density measured in a spot on a dress or a bag due to the contact with hands contaminated with explosives, as it could happen in the preparation of an improvised explosive device (IED) by a terrorist. To our knowledge the developed device is at the highest detection limits nowadays achievable in the field of eyesafe, stand-off Raman instruments. The signals obtained show some vibrational bands of the Raman spectra of our samples with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), allowing us to identify with high sensitivity (high number of True Positives) and selectivity (low number of False Positives) the explosives, so that the instrument could represent the basis for an automated and remote monitoring

  6. Laser selective microablation of sensitized intracellular components within auditory receptor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, David M.; Evans, Burt N.; Santos-Sacchi, Joseph

    1995-05-01

    A laser system can be coupled to a light microscope for laser microbeam ablation and trapping of single cells in vitro. We have extended this technology by sensitization of target structures with vital dyes to provide selective ablation of specific subcellular components. Isolated auditory receptor cells (outer hair cells, OHCs) are known to elongate and contract in response to electrical, chemical and mechanical stimulation. Various intracellular structures are candidate components mediating motility of OHCs, but the exact mechanism(s) is currently unknown. In ongoing studies of OHC motility, we have used the microbeam for selective ablation of lateral wall components and of an axial cytoskeletal core that extends from the nucleus to the cell apex. Both the area beneath the subsurface cistemae of the lateral wall and the core are rich in mitochondria. OHCs isolated from guinea pig cochlea are suspended in L- 15 medium containing 2.0 (mu) M Rhodamine 123, a porphyrin with an affinity for mitochondria. A spark-pumped nitrogen laser pumping a dye cell (Coumarin 500) was aligned on the optical axis of a Nikon Optiphot-2 to produce a 3 ns, 0.5 - 10 micrometers spot (diameter above ablation threshold w/50X water immersion, N.A. 0.8), and energy at the target approximately equals 10 (mu) J/pulse. At short incubation times in Rh123 irradiation caused local blebbing or bulging of cytoplastic membrane and thus loss of the OHC's cylindrical shape. At longer Rh123 incubation times when the central axis of the cell was targeted we observed cytoplasmic clearing, immediate cell elongation (approximately equals 5%) and clumping of core material at nuclear and apical attachments. Experiments are underway to examine the significance of these preliminary observations.

  7. The effects of short pulse laser surface cleaning on porosity formation and reduction in laser welding of aluminium alloy for automotive component manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlShaer, A. W.; Li, L.; Mistry, A.

    2014-12-01

    Laser welding of aluminium alloys typically results in porosity in the fusion zones, leading to poor mechanical and corrosion performances. Mechanical and chemical cleaning of surfaces has been used previously to remove contaminants for weld joint preparations. However, these methods are slow, ineffective (e.g. due to hydrogen trapping) or lead to environmental hazards. This paper reports the effects of short pulsed laser surface cleaning on porosity formation and reduction in laser welding of AC-170PX (AA6014) aluminium sheets (coated with Ti/Zr and lubricated using a dry lubricant AlO70) with two types of joints: fillet edge and flange couch, using an AA4043 filler wire for automotive component assembly. The effect of laser cleaning on porosity reduction during laser welding using a filler wire has not been reported before. In this work, porosity and weld fusion zone geometry were examined prior to and after laser cleaning. The nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser cleaning was found to reduce porosity significantly in the weld fusion zones. For the fillet edge welds, porosity was reduced to less than 0.5% compared with 10-80% without laser cleaning. For flange couch welds, porosity was reduced to 0.23-0.8% with laser cleaning from 0.7% to 4.3% without laser cleaning. This has been found to be due to the elimination of contaminations and oxide layers that contribute to the porosity formation. The laser cleaning is based on thermal ablation. This research focuses on porosity reduction in laser welding of aluminium alloy. Weld quality was investigated for two joints, fillet edge and flange couch joints. The effect of laser cleaning on porosity reduction after welding was investigated. It was found that laser cleaning reduced porosity less than 1% in both joints. Weld dimensions and strength were evaluated and discussed for both types of joints.

  8. Cleaning of optical components for high-power laser-based firing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sparrow, B.D.; Hendrix, J.L.

    1993-08-01

    This report discusses the progress of AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD), in addressing the issues of cleaning of hardware and optical components for laser-based firing sets. These issues are acceptability of cleaning processes and techniques of other government programs to the quality, reliability, performance, stockpile life, materials compatibility issues, and, perhaps most important, environmentally conscious manufacturing requirements of the Department of Energy (DOE). A review of ``previous cleaning art`` is presented using Military Standards (MIL STDs) and Military Interim Specifications (MISs) as well as empirical data compiled by the authors. Observations on processes and techniques used in building prototype hardware and plans for future work are presented.

  9. Radiation effects on optical components of a laser radar sensor designed for remote metrology in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.M.; Grann, E.B.; Slotwinski, A.

    1997-09-01

    A frequency modulated laser radar is being developed for in-vessel metrology and viewing of plasma-facing surfaces. Some optical components of this sensor must withstand intense gamma radiation (3 {times} 10{sup 6} rad/h) during operation. The authors have tested the effect of radiation on a silica core polarization maintaining optical fiber and on TeO{sub 2} crystals at doses up to {approximately} 10{sup 9} rad. Additional tests are planned for evaluating the performance of a complete acousto-optic (AO) scanning device. The progress made in these tests is also described.

  10. Proton radiation testing of laser optical components for NASA Jupiter Europa Orbiter Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomes, W. Joe, Jr.; Cavanaugh, John F.; Ott, Melanie N.

    2011-09-01

    The Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) is NASA's element of the joint Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM). Based on current trajectories, the spacecraft will spend a significant amount of time in the Jovian radiation belts. Therefore, research endeavors are underway to study the radiation effects on the various parts and components needed to implement the instruments. Data from these studies will be used for component selection and system design to ensure reliable operation throughout the mission duration. The radiation environment en route to Jupiter is nothing new for NASA designed systems, however, the long durations orbiting Jupiter and Europa present new challenges for radiation exposure. High-energy trapped electrons and protons at Jupiter dominate the expected radiation environment. Therefore, most of the initial component level radiation testing is being conducted with proton exposure. In this paper we will present in-situ monitoring of the optical transmission of various laser optical components during proton irradiation. Radiation induced optical attenuation of some components is less than would be expected, based on the authors experiences, and is attributed to the interaction of the protons with the materials. The results are an encouraging first step in screening these optical materials for spaceflight in a high radiation environment.

  11. Optical methods for measurements of surface shape in optical components for high power laser beam forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Józwik, Michał; Trusiak, Maciej; LiŻewski, Kamil; Martínez-Carranza, Juan; Voznesenskiy, Nikolay; Kujawińska, Małgorzata

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents modifications of full-field optical methods commonly used to test the surface quality of optical components used for forming a high power laser beam and tests of a final wavefront. The modifications in reference to surface measurements rely on implementation of the novel fringe pattern processing methods including the quality improvement of initial interferogram and analysis of a reconstructed phase based on Hilbert-Huang transform aided by the principal component analysis. Also the Point Diffraction Interferometer as the efficient tool for high quality measurements of elements with high NA is introduced. In reference to a wavefront quality measurements two solutions are discussed: the use of a lateral shear interferometer and the system employing Transport of Intensity Equation method. The pros and cons for both methods are discussed.

  12. Damage detection in reusable launch vehicle components using guided ultrasonic waves and 3D laser vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnoncel, David; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Schell, Jochen; Peres, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Reusable Launch Vehicles are often used in space applications to guarantee space exploration with reduced costs. These structures often use components from newly developed materials. It is inevitable that reliable inspection methods will be required for quality control and maintenance of such structures to avoid potential damage. This paper describes some initial results from evaluation tests based on Lamb waves for damage detection of Reusable Launch Vehicle composite components. Low-profile, surface-bonded piezoceramic transducers were used for Lamb wave generation. Non-contact measurements of Lamb wave responses were taken by a laser vibrometer. The results presented in this paper demonstrate the great potential of the method for quality inspection and structural damage detection of space composite structures.

  13. Numerical modeling of sintering of two-component metal powders with laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niziev, V. G.; Koldoba, A. V.; Mirzade, F. Kh.; Panchenko, V. Ya.; Poveschenko, Yu. A.; Popov, M. V.

    2010-09-01

    Direct laser sintering of a mixture of two metal powders with significantly different melting points is investigated by numerical simulation. The model is based on self-consistent non-linear continuity equations for volume fractions of components and on energy transfer equations for the powder mixture. It includes the movement of the solid particles due to shrinkage because of the density change of the powder mixture and the liquid flow driven by the capillary and gravity forces. The liquid flow is determined by Darcy's law. The effect of surface settlement of the powder is obtained. The width increasing rate of the melting zone depend both on the parameters of the laser radiation (on the power of the beam) and on the physical parameters of the particle's material, and it increases with the increasing of the penetrability or the increasing of the phase-transition heat. The increasing of the laser power under other factors being equal results in the acceleration of the melting front propagation.

  14. Numerical modeling of sintering of two-component metal powders with laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niziev, V. G.; Koldoba, A. V.; Mirzade, F. Kh.; Panchenko, V. Ya.; Poveschenko, Yu. A.; Popov, M. V.

    2011-02-01

    Direct laser sintering of a mixture of two metal powders with significantly different melting points is investigated by numerical simulation. The model is based on self-consistent non-linear continuity equations for volume fractions of components and on energy transfer equations for the powder mixture. It includes the movement of the solid particles due to shrinkage because of the density change of the powder mixture and the liquid flow driven by the capillary and gravity forces. The liquid flow is determined by Darcy's law. The effect of surface settlement of the powder is obtained. The width increasing rate of the melting zone depend both on the parameters of the laser radiation (on the power of the beam) and on the physical parameters of the particle's material, and it increases with the increasing of the penetrability or the increasing of the phase-transition heat. The increasing of the laser power under other factors being equal results in the acceleration of the melting front propagation.

  15. The interpretation of the intensity of components of laser scattering by interaction with matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidanovski, Z.; Srećković, M.; Ostojić, S.; Ilić, J.; Merkle, M.

    2012-05-01

    The measurement of scattered light properties offers many optical, acoustic, dielectric, thermodynamic data about the scattering medium. Brillouin spectroscopy with various modifications and different laser types has been a measurement technique in acoustics for a long time, but it is still important as an autonomous technique. It enables more detailed and exhaustive knowledge of the acoustic and optical properties of matter. A series of Rayleigh-Brillouin spectra are recorded for a set of organic solvents and phytol. The equipment used in spectra recordings enables the measurement of four components of scattered laser intensity Ihh, Ihv, Ivv and Ivh. The ratios of the linewidth, as well as shifts, are determined for Rayleigh-Brillouin spectra. According to them, the hypersound velocity and absorption coefficients can be calculated. There is much software for data processing obtained in laser interaction with matter, with different programming tools. An analysis of spectra is performed, i.e. an examination of which distribution (Gaussian or Lorentzian) better explains the experimentally obtained diagrams.

  16. Eyesafe coherent detection wind lidar based on a beam-combined pulsed laser source.

    PubMed

    Lombard, L; Valla, M; Planchat, C; Goular, D; Augère, B; Bourdon, P; Canat, G

    2015-03-15

    We report on a coherent wind lidar built with two coherently-beam-combined fiber amplifiers. The lidar performances of the combined-amplifier and the single-amplifier are compared using two criterions: carrier-to-noise ratio and wind speed noise floor. In both cases, lidar performances are not degraded with a combined source and are close to the theoretical optimum. Combined sources are well suited to improve coherent wind lidar accuracy, range, and integration time.

  17. CELiS (Compact Eyesafe Lidar System), a portable 1.5 μm elastic lidar system for rapid aerosol concentration measurement: Part 2, Retrieval of Particulate Matter Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, K. D.; Bird, A. W.; Wojcik, M.; Lemon, R.; Hatfield, J.

    2014-12-01

    An elastic backscatter light detection and ranging (Lidar) system emits a laser pulse and measures the return signal from molecules and particles along the path. It has been shown that particulate matter mass concentrations (PM) can be retrieved from Lidar data using multiple wavelengths. In this paper we describe a technique that allows for semi-quantitative PM determination under a set of guiding assumptions using only one laser wavelength. The Space Dynamics Laboratory has designed an eye-safe (1.5 μm) single wavelength elastic Lidar system called CELiS (Compact Eye-safe Lidar System), which is described in a companion paper, to which this technique is applied. Data utilized in the PM retrieval include the Lidar return signal, ambient temperature, ambient humidity, barometric pressure, particle size distribution, particle chemical composition, and PM measurements. Particle size distribution is measured with an optical particle counter. PM is measured with filter-based measurements. Chemical composition is determined through multiple analyses on exposed filter samples. Particle measurements are made both inside and outside of the plume of interest and collocated with the lidar beam for calibration. The meteorological and particle measurements are used to estimate the total extinction (σ) and backscatter (β) for background and plume aerosols. These σ and β values are used in conjunction with the lidar return signal in an inversion technique based on that of Klett (1985, Appl. Opt., 1638-1643). Variable σ/β ratios over the lidar beam path are used to estimate the values of σ and β at each lidar bin. A relationship between β and PM mass concentrations at calibration points is developed, which then allows the β values derived over the lidar beam path to be converted to PM. A PM-calibrated, scanning Lidar system like CELiS can be used to investigate PM concentrations and emissions over a large volume, a task that is very difficult to accomplish with typical

  18. 2-μm fiber laser sources for sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Geng, Jihong; Jiang, Shibin

    2014-06-01

    2-μm fiber lasers have become a research topic with an increased emphasis due to a variety of applications including eye-safe LIDAR, spectroscopy, remote sensing, and mid-infrared (mid-IR) frequency generation. We review our latest development on various 2-μm fiber laser sources, including single-frequency fiber lasers, Q-switched fiber lasers, mode-locked fiber lasers, and mid-IR supercontinuum fiber sources. All these fiber laser sources are based on thulium and holmium ions using our proprietary glass fiber technology. Potential applications of these fiber laser sources for sensing are also briefly discussed.

  19. Error Ellipsoid Analysis for the Diameter Measurement of Cylindroid Components Using a Laser Radar Measurement System

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhengchun; Wu, Zhaoyong; Yang, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    The use of three-dimensional (3D) data in the industrial measurement field is becoming increasingly popular because of the rapid development of laser scanning techniques based on the time-of-flight principle. However, the accuracy and uncertainty of these types of measurement methods are seldom investigated. In this study, a mathematical uncertainty evaluation model for the diameter measurement of standard cylindroid components has been proposed and applied to a 3D laser radar measurement system (LRMS). First, a single-point error ellipsoid analysis for the LRMS was established. An error ellipsoid model and algorithm for diameter measurement of cylindroid components was then proposed based on the single-point error ellipsoid. Finally, four experiments were conducted using the LRMS to measure the diameter of a standard cylinder in the laboratory. The experimental results of the uncertainty evaluation consistently matched well with the predictions. The proposed uncertainty evaluation model for cylindrical diameters can provide a reliable method for actual measurements and support further accuracy improvement of the LRMS. PMID:27213385

  20. Error Ellipsoid Analysis for the Diameter Measurement of Cylindroid Components Using a Laser Radar Measurement System.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhengchun; Wu, Zhaoyong; Yang, Jianguo

    2016-05-19

    The use of three-dimensional (3D) data in the industrial measurement field is becoming increasingly popular because of the rapid development of laser scanning techniques based on the time-of-flight principle. However, the accuracy and uncertainty of these types of measurement methods are seldom investigated. In this study, a mathematical uncertainty evaluation model for the diameter measurement of standard cylindroid components has been proposed and applied to a 3D laser radar measurement system (LRMS). First, a single-point error ellipsoid analysis for the LRMS was established. An error ellipsoid model and algorithm for diameter measurement of cylindroid components was then proposed based on the single-point error ellipsoid. Finally, four experiments were conducted using the LRMS to measure the diameter of a standard cylinder in the laboratory. The experimental results of the uncertainty evaluation consistently matched well with the predictions. The proposed uncertainty evaluation model for cylindrical diameters can provide a reliable method for actual measurements and support further accuracy improvement of the LRMS.

  1. Principal Component Analysis in the Spectral Analysis of the Dynamic Laser Speckle Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, K. M.; Braga, R. A., Jr.; Horgan, G. W.; Ferreira, D. D.; Safadi, T.

    2014-02-01

    Dynamic laser speckle is a phenomenon that interprets an optical patterns formed by illuminating a surface under changes with coherent light. Therefore, the dynamic change of the speckle patterns caused by biological material is known as biospeckle. Usually, these patterns of optical interference evolving in time are analyzed by graphical or numerical methods, and the analysis in frequency domain has also been an option, however involving large computational requirements which demands new approaches to filter the images in time. Principal component analysis (PCA) works with the statistical decorrelation of data and it can be used as a data filtering. In this context, the present work evaluated the PCA technique to filter in time the data from the biospeckle images aiming the reduction of time computer consuming and improving the robustness of the filtering. It was used 64 images of biospeckle in time observed in a maize seed. The images were arranged in a data matrix and statistically uncorrelated by PCA technique, and the reconstructed signals were analyzed using the routine graphical and numerical methods to analyze the biospeckle. Results showed the potential of the PCA tool in filtering the dynamic laser speckle data, with the definition of markers of principal components related to the biological phenomena and with the advantage of fast computational processing.

  2. Automated alignment of optical components for high-power diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, C.; Pyschny, N.; Haag, S.; Guerrero Lule, V.

    2012-03-01

    Despite major progress in developing brilliant laser sources a huge potential for cost reductions can be found in simpler setups and automated assembly processes, especially for large volume applications. In this presentation, a concept for flexible automation in optics assembly is presented which is based on standard micro assembly systems with relatively large workspace and modular micromanipulators to enhance the system with additional degrees of freedom and a very high motion resolution. The core component is a compact flexure-based micromanipulator especially designed for the alignment of micro optical components which will be described in detail. The manipulator has been applied in different scenarios to develop and investigate automated alignment processes. This paper focuses on the automated alignment of fast axis collimation (FAC) lenses which is a crucial step during the production of diode lasers. The handling and positioning system, the measuring arrangement for process feedback during active alignment as well as the alignment strategy will be described. The fine alignment of the FAC lens is performed with the micromanipulator under concurrent analysis of the far and the near field intensity distribution. An optimization of the image processing chains for the alignment of a FAC in front of a diode bar led to cycle times of less than 30 seconds. An outlook on other applications and future work regarding the development of automated assembly processes as well as new ideas for flexible assembly systems with desktop robots will close the talk.

  3. Laser Welding Characterization of Kovar and Stainless Steel Alloys as Suitable Materials for Components of Photonic Devices Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadhali, M. M. A.; Zainal, Saktioto J.; Munajat, Y.; Jalil, A.; Rahman, R.

    2010-03-01

    The weldability of Kovar and stainless steel alloys by Nd:YAG laser beam is studied through changing of some laser beam parameters. It has been found that there is a suitable interaction of the pulsed laser beam of low power laser pulse with both the two alloys. The change of thermophysical properties with absorbed energy from the laser pulse is discussed in this paper which reports the suitability of both Kovar and stainless steel 304 as the base materials for photonic devices packaging. We used laser weld system (LW4000S from Newport) which employs Nd:YAG laser system with two simultaneous beams output for packaging 980 nm high power laser module. Results of changing both laser spot weld width and penetration depth with changing both the pulse peak power density, pulse energy and pulse duration show that there are good linear relationships between laser pulse energy or peak power density and pulse duration with laser spot weld dimensions( both laser spot weld width and penetration depth). Therefore we concluded that there should be an optimization for both the pulse peak power and pulse duration to give a suitable aspect ratio (laser spot width to penetration depth) for achieving the desired welds with suitable penetration depth and small spot width. This is to reduce the heat affected zone (HAZ) which affects the sensitive optical components. An optimum value of the power density in the order of 105 w/cm2 found to be suitable to induce melting in the welded joints without vaporization. The desired ratio can also be optimized by changing the focus position on the target material as illustrated from our measurements. A theoretical model is developed to simulate the temperature distribution during the laser pulse heating and predict the penetration depth inside the material. Samples have been investigated using SEM with EDS. The metallographic measurements on the weld spot show a suitable weld yield with reasonable weld width to depth ratio.

  4. Laser Welding Characterization of Kovar and Stainless Steel Alloys as Suitable Materials for Components of Photonic Devices Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Fadhali, M. M. A.; Zainal, Saktioto J.; Munajat, Y.; Jalil, A.; Rahman, R.

    2010-03-11

    The weldability of Kovar and stainless steel alloys by Nd:YAG laser beam is studied through changing of some laser beam parameters. It has been found that there is a suitable interaction of the pulsed laser beam of low power laser pulse with both the two alloys. The change of thermophysical properties with absorbed energy from the laser pulse is discussed in this paper which reports the suitability of both Kovar and stainless steel 304 as the base materials for photonic devices packaging. We used laser weld system (LW4000S from Newport) which employs Nd:YAG laser system with two simultaneous beams output for packaging 980 nm high power laser module. Results of changing both laser spot weld width and penetration depth with changing both the pulse peak power density, pulse energy and pulse duration show that there are good linear relationships between laser pulse energy or peak power density and pulse duration with laser spot weld dimensions( both laser spot weld width and penetration depth). Therefore we concluded that there should be an optimization for both the pulse peak power and pulse duration to give a suitable aspect ratio (laser spot width to penetration depth) for achieving the desired welds with suitable penetration depth and small spot width. This is to reduce the heat affected zone (HAZ) which affects the sensitive optical components. An optimum value of the power density in the order of 10{sup 5} w/cm{sup 2} found to be suitable to induce melting in the welded joints without vaporization. The desired ratio can also be optimized by changing the focus position on the target material as illustrated from our measurements. A theoretical model is developed to simulate the temperature distribution during the laser pulse heating and predict the penetration depth inside the material. Samples have been investigated using SEM with EDS. The metallographic measurements on the weld spot show a suitable weld yield with reasonable weld width to depth ratio.

  5. Laser-Micromachined and Laminated Microfluidic Components for Miniaturized Thermal, Chemical and Biological Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Peter M. ); Matson, Dean W. ); Bennett, Wendy D. ); Stewart, Donald C. ); Lin, Yuehe )

    1999-01-01

    Microchannel microfluidic components are being developed for heat transfer, chemical reactor, chemical analysis, and biological analytical applications. Specific applications include chemical sensing, DNA replication, blodd analysis, capillary electrophoresis, fuel cell reactors, high temperature chemical reactors, heat pumps, combustors, and fuel processors. Two general types of component architectures have been developed and the fabrication processes defined. All involve a lamination scheme using plastic, ceramic, or metal laminates, as opposed to planar components. The first type is a stacked architecture that utilizes functionality built in each layer, with fluid flow interconnects between layers. Each layer of the laminate has specific microchannel geometry, and performs a specific function (such as mixing, heat exchange, or chemical reaction). Polymeric materials are used primarily. Fabrication processes used are laser micromaching, wet and dry etching, and coating deposition. T he laminates can also be micromolded plastics. The second architecture employs laminates to form internal microchannels and interconnects. Materials include ceramic tapes and high temperature metals. Catalysts can be placed in the microchannels. Fabrication processes used are diffusion bonding, ceramic bonding and firing, photochemical etching, and electrochemical micromaching. Bonding, thus sealing, the laminates is an important issue. Process conditions have been developed to reduce distortion of the laminates and to hermetically seal the components.

  6. Laser-micromachined and laminated microfluidic components for miniaturized thermal, chemical, and biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Peter M.; Matson, Dean W.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Stewart, Donald C.; Lin, Yuehe

    1999-03-01

    Microchannel microfluidic components are being developed for heat transfer, chemical reactor, chemical analysis, and biological analytical applications. Specific applications include chemical sensing, DNA replication, blood analysis, capillary electrophoresis, fuel cell reactors, high temperature chemical reactors, heat pumps, combustors, and fuel processors. Two general types of component architectures have been developed and the fabrication processes defined. All involve a lamination scheme using plastic, ceramic, or metal laminates, as opposed to planar components. The first type is a stacked architecture that utilizes functionality built in each layer, with fluid flow interconnects between layers. Each layer of the laminate has specific microchannel geometry, and performs a specific function. Polymeric materials are used primarily. Fabrication processes used are laser micromachining, wet and dry etching, and coating deposition. the laminates can also be micromolded plastics. The second architecture employs laminates to form internal microchannels and interconnects. Materials include ceramic tapes and high temperature metals. Catalysts can be placed in the microchannels. Fabrication processes used are diffusion bonding, ceramic bonding and firing, photochemical etching, and electrochemical micromachining. Bonding, thus sealing, the laminates is an important issue. Process conditions have been develop to reduce distortion of the laminates and to hermetically seal the components.

  7. Damage to coated ZnSe optical components by high-power CO2 laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, C. R.; Kreutz, Ernst-Wolfgang; Wesner, David A.

    1994-07-01

    Coated ZnSe optical components are irradiated with high-power, pulsed CO2 laser radiation ((lambda equals 10.6 micrometers , pulse length approximately 100 ns) at fluences up to 210 J/cm2. The components are characterized at various stages of irradiation by thermography, optical microscopy, stylus profilometry, and surface chemical analysis (x-ray photoemission and Auger electron spectroscopy). During irradiation no temperature in the component surface is observed. Two types of coating damage occur within the irradiated area of the component: a breaking apart of the ZnSe overlayer of the coating system over relatively large areas, and the formation of isolate craters of diameter approximately 30 - 50 micrometers extending in depth approximately 3 micrometers through the coating system down to the ZnSe substrate. Chemically, the irradiated area is characterized by an oxidation of both Zn and Se and an increase in the stoichiometric ratio of Zn to Se. These effects are especially pronounced at the crater defects, and are attributed to localized optical absorption, leading to thermal stress and chemical reactions of Zn and Se with atmospheric or adsorbed water and/or oxygen.

  8. Three-component laser velocimeter surveys of the flow over a backward-facing step

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kjelgaard, Scott O.

    1991-01-01

    A three-component laser velocimeter is used to investigate the flow over a backward-facing step. The backward-facing step had an expansion ratio of 2, a boundary layer height to step height ratio of 0.34 and a Reynolds number based on step height of 19,000. Results from three-component velocimeter surveys of the flow over the backward-facing step are presented with comparisons of the current experiment with previous experiments and computational results. The present results compared well with previous experiments with the exception of the reattachment length. The short reattachment length was due to the short length of the channel downstream. The measurement of the lateral velocity component showed that there is a mean flow in and out of the centerline plane as high as 7 percent of the freestream velocity. However, the shear stresses show no correlation between the lateral fluctuations and the longitudinal and vertical fluctuations, indicating that the flow is 2D in terms of the turbulence quantities.

  9. Low loss photonic components in high index bismuth borate glass by femtosecond laser direct writing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weijia; Corbari, Costantino; Kazansky, Peter G; Sakaguchi, Koichi; Carvalho, Isabel C S

    2008-09-29

    Single mode, low loss waveguides were fabricated in high index bismuth borate glass by femtosecond laser direct writing. A specific set of writing parameters leading to waveguides perfectly mode matched to standard single-mode fibers at 1.55 microm with an overall insertion loss of approximately 1 dB and with propagation loss below 0.2 dB/cm was identified. Photonic components such as Y-splitters and directional couplers were also demonstrated. A close agreement between their performances and theoretical predictions based upon the characterization of the waveguide properties is shown. Finally, the nonlinear refractive index of the waveguides has been measured to be 6.6 x 10(-15) cm(2)/W by analyzing self-phase modulation of the propagating femtosecond laser pulse at the wavelength of 1.46 microm. Broadening of the transmitted light source as large as 500 nm was demonstrated through a waveguide with the length of 1.8 cm.

  10. Spectroscopic determination of intermolecular potentials of gas laser components and of major atmospheric constituents. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klemperer, W.

    1982-01-01

    A systematic study of the structure of weakly bound complexes of hydrogen fluoride has been accomplished. This research provides a broad account of the interaction of hydrogen fluoride with a variety of laser components and atmospheric constituents. Precision structures are now available for the species ArHF, CO/sub 2/HF, N/sub 2/OHF and SCOHF as a result of the present research program. In addition, precision structures have been obtained for ArCO2 and ArN/sub 2/0. This research provides the basic information necessary for reliable modelling of intermolecular forces between HF and Ar, CO/sub 2/, N/sub 2/0 and OCS as well as between Ar and CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/0.

  11. On-line monitoring of one-step laser fabrication of micro-optical components.

    PubMed

    Juliá, J E; Soriano, J C

    2001-07-01

    The use of an on-line monitoring method based on photoelasticity techniques for the fabrication of micro-optical components by means of controlled laser heating is described. From this description it is possible to show in real time the mechanical stresses that form the microelement. A new parameter, stressed area, is introduced that quantifies the stresses of a microelement during its fabrication, facilitating a deeper understanding of the physical phenomena involved in the process as well as being a useful test of quality. It also permits the stress produced in the manufacturing process and the optical properties of the final microelement to be correlated. The results for several microlenses monitored with this technique are presented.

  12. Manufacturing and Characterization of Ti6Al4V Lattice Components Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting

    PubMed Central

    Campanelli, Sabina L.; Contuzzi, Nicola; Ludovico, Antonio D.; Caiazzo, Fabrizia; Cardaropoli, Francesco; Sergi, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates the fabrication of Selective Laser Melting (SLM) titanium alloy Ti6Al4V micro-lattice structures for the production of lightweight components. Specifically, the pillar textile unit cell is used as base lattice structure and alternative lattice topologies including reinforcing vertical bars are also considered. Detailed characterizations of dimensional accuracy, surface roughness, and micro-hardness are performed. In addition, compression tests are carried out in order to evaluate the mechanical strength and the energy absorbed per unit mass of the lattice truss specimens made by SLM. The built structures have a relative density ranging between 0.2234 and 0.5822. An optimization procedure is implemented via the method of Taguchi to identify the optimal geometric configuration which maximizes peak strength and energy absorbed per unit mass. PMID:28788707

  13. A new method to derive rotational components of recent lateral spreadings: a laser scanning application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viero, Alessia; Teza, Giordano; Massironi, Matteo; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Galgaro, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    with the laser scanner acquisitions, a supporting GPS campaign was carried out for data registration/georeferencing purposes. The results of the proposed methodology allowed a primary identification of the tectonic fabric on the spread rock sectors in terms of representativeness of joint families inside the group with respect to the external stable areas. Both bedding planes and representative joint-sets were used to derive the Euler angles that describe the rotational components of the lateral spreading. On these basis a new interpretation of the phenomena has been achieved. Surprisingly the bedding plane attitude seems to have a limited influence on the kinematics of the ongoing spreading process since the rotation angles and versus are very inhomogeneous and in general do not show clear trends along or across the strata dip direction. In addition, the results suggest a rotational component of the movement, and a probable compound sliding surface.

  14. Fatigue life enhancement of high reliability metallic components by laser shock processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaña, J. L.; Porro, J. A.; Díaz, M.; Ruiz de Lara, L.; Correa, C.; Peral, D.

    2015-03-01

    Laser shock processing (LSP) is increasingly applied as an effective technology for the improvement of metallic materials mechanical properties in different types of components as a means of enhancement of their mechanical behavior. As reported in the literature, a main effect resulting from the application of the LSP technique consists on the generation of relatively deep compression residual stresses field into metallic alloy pieces allowing the life improvement of the treated specimens against wear, crack growth and stress corrosion cracking. Additional results accomplished by the authors in the line of practical development of the LSP technique at an experimental level (aiming its integral assessment from an interrelated theoretical and experimental point of view) are presented in this paper. Concretely, experimental results on the residual stress profiles and associated mechanical properties modification successfully reached in typical materials under different LSP irradiation conditions are presented along with a practical correlated analysis on the protective character of the residual stress profiles obtained under different irradiation strategies. In this case, the specific behavior of a widely used material in high reliability components (especially in nuclear and biomedical applications) as AISI 316L is analyzed, the effect of possible "in-service" thermal conditions on the relaxation of the LSP effects being specifically characterized.

  15. [Lasers].

    PubMed

    Passeron, T

    2012-11-01

    Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be successfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and café-au-lait macules should not be treated as the relapses are nearly constant. Due to its complex pathophysiology, melasma has a special place in hyperpigmented dermatoses. Q-switched lasers (using standard parameters or low fluency) should not be used because of consistent relapses and the high risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Paradoxically, targeting the vascular component of the melasma lesion with lasers could have a beneficial effect. However, these results have yet to be confirmed. In all cases, a precise diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation is mandatory before any laser treatment, and the limits and the potential side effects of the treatment must be clearly explained to patients.

  16. Lasers.

    PubMed

    Passeron, T

    2012-12-01

    Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be successfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and café-au-lait macules should not be treated as the relapses are nearly constant. Due to its complex pathophysiology, melasma has a special place in hyperpigmented dermatoses. Q-switched lasers (using standard parameters or low fluency) should not be used because of consistent relapses and the high risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Paradoxically, targeting the vascular component of the melasma lesion with lasers could have a beneficial effect. However, these results have yet to be confirmed. In all cases, a precise diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation is mandatory before any laser treatment, and the limits and the potential side effects of the treatment must be clearly explained to patients.

  17. New Possibilities in the Fabrication of Hybrid Components with Big Dimensions by Means of Selective Laser Melting (SLM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascari, A.; Fortunato, A.; Liverani, E.; Gamberoni, A.; Tomesani, L.

    The application of laser technology to welding of dissimilar AISI316 stainless steel components manufactured with selective laser melting (SLM) and traditional methods has been investigated. The role of laser parameters on weld bead formation has been studied experimentally, with particular attention placed on effects occurring at the interface between the two parts. In order to assess weld bead characteristics, standardised tensile tests were carried out on suitable specimens and the fracture zone was analysed. The results highlighted the possibility of exploiting suitable process parameters to appropriately shape the heat affected and fusion zones in order to maximise the mechanical performance of the component and minimise interactions between the two parent metals in the weld bead.

  18. Monitoring of high-power fiber laser welding based on principal component analysis of a molten pool configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiangdong, Gao; Qian, Wen

    2013-12-01

    There exists plenty of welding quality information on a molten pool during high-power fiber laser welding. An approach for monitoring the high-power fiber laser welding status based on the principal component analysis (PCA) of a molten pool configuration is investigated. An infrared-sensitive high-speed camera was used to capture the molten pool images during laser butt-joint welding of Type 304 austenitic stainless steel plates with a high-power (10 kW) continuous wave fiber laser. In order to study the relationship between the molten pool configuration and the welding status, a new method based on PCA is proposed to analyze the welding stability by comparing the situation when the laser beam spot moves along, and when it deviates from the weld seam. Image processing techniques were applied to process the molten pool images and extract five characteristic parameters. Moreover, the PCA method was used to extract a composite indicator which is the linear combination of the five original characteristics to analyze the different status during welding. Experimental results showed that the extracted composite indicator had a close relationship with the actual welding results and it could be used to evaluate the status of the high-power fiber laser welding, providing a theoretical basis for the monitoring of laser welding quality.

  19. Astigmatism and biometric optic components of diode laser-treated threshold retinopathy of prematurity at 9 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Yang, C-S; Wang, A-G; Shih, Y-F; Hsu, W-M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the prevalence of astigmatism and its relationship with biometric optic components in preterm school children with diode laser-treated threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Methods A prospective, cross-sectional study in which cycloplegic keratometry, refraction, and ultrasound biometric measurement of optic components were performed on 24 consecutive preterm children with diode laser-treated threshold ROP at the age of 9 years. The study results were compared with data on 1021 age-matched full-term control children from a national survey. Results The laser-treated eyes had a mean astigmatism of 3.47 D, with a mean spherical equivalent of −4.49 D. Of the 46 eyes studied, 98% of eyes showed astigmatism ≥0.5 D and 50% had high astigmatism (>3.0 D). Most astigmatic eyes (97.7%) showed with-the-rule astigmatism, with the mean plus cylinder axis at 89.30o. Further correlation analysis showed the astigmatism in refraction was highly correlated with the corneal astigmatism (r=0.921, P<0.001) and the vertical corneal curvature (r=0.405, P=0.005). There was significantly steeper vertical corneal curvature (P=0.003) and flatter horizontal corneal curvature (P=0.031) in eyes with laser-treated ROP when compared with age-matched full-term controls. The eyes with laser-treated ROP also show significantly thicker lens (3.93 mm) and shallower anterior chamber depth (ACD; 2.92 mm) than full-term controls (P<0.001). Conclusions There is significantly higher prevalence and greater magnitude of astigmatism in eyes with laser-treated threshold ROP compared with full-term controls. The steeper vertical corneal curvature component contributes to the increased astigmatism in eyes with laser-treated ROP. PMID:23222565

  20. Lasers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schewe, Phillip F.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the nature of laser light. Topics include: (1) production and characteristics of laser light; (2) nine types of lasers; (3) five laser techniques including holography; (4) laser spectroscopy; and (5) laser fusion and other applications. (SK)

  1. Lasers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schewe, Phillip F.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the nature of laser light. Topics include: (1) production and characteristics of laser light; (2) nine types of lasers; (3) five laser techniques including holography; (4) laser spectroscopy; and (5) laser fusion and other applications. (SK)

  2. Applications of direct atomic laser spectral analysis of laser plasma for determination of inorganic component presence in biological objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriger, Alexey E.; Surmenko, Elena L.; Surmenko, Lev A.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2000-04-01

    The LDMA which permits to carry out the element analysis without an additional excitement of laser plasma is described. Some results on identification and differentiation of bone tumors on the basis of measured spectral characteristics are presented.

  3. Development and Deployment of a Compact Eye-Safe Scanning Differential absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Spatial Mapping of Carbon Dioxide for Monitoring/Verification/Accounting at Geologic Sequestration Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Repasky, Kevin

    2014-03-31

    A scanning differential absorption lidar (DIAL) instrument for monitoring carbon dioxide has been developed. The laser transmitter uses two tunable discrete mode laser diodes (DMLD) operating in the continuous wave (cw) mode with one locked to the online absorption wavelength and the other operating at the offline wavelength. Two in-line fiber optic switches are used to switch between online and offline operation. After the fiber optic switch, an acousto- optic modulator (AOM) is used to generate a pulse train used to injection seed an erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) to produce eye-safe laser pulses with maximum pulse energies of 66 {micro}J, a pulse repetition frequency of 15 kHz, and an operating wavelength of 1.571 {micro}m. The DIAL receiver uses a 28 cm diameter Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope to collect that backscattered light, which is then monitored using a photo-multiplier tube (PMT) module operating in the photon counting mode. The DIAL instrument has been operated from a laboratory environment on the campus of Montana State University, at the Zero Emission Research Technology (ZERT) field site located in the agricultural research area on the western end of the Montana State University campus, and at the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership site located in north-central Montana. DIAL data has been collected and profiles have been validated using a co-located Licor LI-820 Gas Analyzer point sensor.

  4. Manufacturing Technology Development of Advanced Components for High Power Solid State Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-19

    diode pump lasers , one can expect the system can be eventually pumped by 1.9- u.m diode lasers with wall-plug efficiency close to the diode ... laser resonantly pumped by a diode - pumped 1.9-um thulium laser ," Opt. Lett. 28, 1016 (2003). 2. E. Lippert, S. Nicolas, G Arisholm, K. Stenersen, G...A. Payne, 蕃-W Tm:YAG diode - pumped solid-state laser ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1592 (1997). 6. R. Weber, B.

  5. Identification of the High-Lying Pi Component of NiF by Laser-Induced Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jin; Chen, Yang; Yang, Xueliang; Ran, Qin; Chen, Congxiang

    2001-07-01

    The laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectrum of jet-cooled NiF has been studied in the range 435-570 nm. Eight electronic transitions, involving four high-lying Pi components and two lower states, the ground state X(2)Pi(3/2), and the low-lying state [0.25](2)Sigma, respectively, have been recorded. Two new Pi components are identified for the first time and their rotational constants are determined. The [20.4]Pi(3/2) component is assigned as the v'=1 level of the previously known [19.7](2)Pi(3/2) state. The [20.3]Pi(3/2) component may be linked to the component of an unreported quartet state. The previously reported [20.0](2)Pi(1/2) component is reassigned as a subcomponent of (2)Delta. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  6. Structural characterization of biomedical Co-Cr-Mo components produced by direct metal laser sintering.

    PubMed

    Barucca, G; Santecchia, E; Majni, G; Girardin, E; Bassoli, E; Denti, L; Gatto, A; Iuliano, L; Moskalewicz, T; Mengucci, P

    2015-03-01

    Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is a technique to manufacture complex functional mechanical parts from a computer-aided design (CAD) model. Usually, the mechanical components produced by this procedure show higher residual porosity and poorer mechanical properties than those obtained by conventional manufacturing techniques. In this work, a Co-Cr-Mo alloy produced by DMLS with a composition suitable for biomedical applications was submitted to hardness measurements and structural characterization. The alloy showed a hardness value remarkably higher than those commonly obtained for the same cast or wrought alloys. In order to clarify the origin of this unexpected result, the sample microstructure was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) and energy dispersive microanalysis (EDX). For the first time, a homogeneous microstructure comprised of an intricate network of thin ε (hcp)-lamellae distributed inside a γ (fcc) phase was observed. The ε-lamellae grown on the {111}γ planes limit the dislocation slip inside the γ (fcc) phase, causing the measured hardness increase. The results suggest possible innovative applications of the DMLS technique to the production of mechanical parts in the medical and dental fields. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Three component laser anemometer measurements in an annular cascade of core turbine vanes with contoured end wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Louis J.; Seasholtz, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    The three mean velocity components were measured in a full-scale annular turbine stator cascade with contoured hub end wall using a newly developed laser anemometer system. The anemometer consists of a standard fringe configuration using fluorescent seed particles to measure the axial and tangential components. The radial component is measured with a scanning confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer. These two configurations are combined in a single optical system that can operate simultaneously in a backscatter mode through a single optical access port. Experimental measurements were obtained both within and downstream of the stator vane row and compared with calculations from a three-dimensional inviscid computer program. In addition, detailed calibration procedures are described that were used, prior to the experiment, to accurately determine the laser beam probe volume location relative to the cascade hardware.

  8. Effects of Er:YAG laser irradiation and manipulation treatments on dentin components, part 1: Fourier transform-Raman study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Do Espírito Santo, Ana Maria; Junior, Aldo Brugnera; Zanin, Fátima Antônia Aparecida; da Silva Carvalho, Carolina; de Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martin, Airton Abraha~O.

    2009-03-01

    The effects of laser etching, decontamination, and storage treatments on dentin components were studied using Fourier transform (FT)-Raman spectroscopy. Thirty bovine incisors were prepared to expose the dentin surface and then divided in two main groups based upon the decontamination process and storage procedure: autoclaved (group A, n=15) or stored in thymol aqueous solution (group B, n=15). The surfaces of the dentin slices were schematically divided into four areas, with each one corresponding to a treatment subgroup. The specimens were either etched with phosphoric acid (control subgroup) or irradiated with erbium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser (subgroups: I-80 mJ, II-120 mJ, and III-180 mJ, and total energy of 12 J). Samples were analyzed by FT-Raman spectroscopy; we collected three spectra for each area (before and after treatment). The integrated areas of five Raman peaks were calculated to yield average spectra. The areas of the peaks associated with phosphate content (P<0.001), type I collagen, and organic C-H bonds (P<0.05) were reduced significantly in group A (control). Analyses of samples irradiated with reduced laser energies did not show significant changes in the dentin components. These results suggest that thymol storage treatment is advised for in vitro study; furthermore, 12 J of Er:YAG laser energy does not affect dentin components.

  9. Breakthroughs in laser bar component packaging enable a new generation of applications for self-cooled laser diode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behringer, M.; Koenig, H.; Schmitt, A.; Nagappan, S.; Kojima, R.

    2005-09-01

    Laser Diode Arrays continue to gain momentum as versatile, cost effective, reliable solution for a wide variety of existing and emerging illumination and pumping applications. In order to meet these growing demands, designers find themselves faced with three challenges: reducing system size, improving user serviceability, and managing cost. We developed a compact laser package platform that offers high output power, good reliability, and different beam collimation options. Both active cooling and passive cooling is possible with this new packaging concept. It has the footprint of the TO263 package and is based on packaging concepts that were developed for high power semiconductor devices and high volume opto semiconductor products like Light Emitting Diodes. High efficiency and high power laser bars are critical to various pumping and material processing applications. Wavelength multiplexing is an option to increase output power from laser systems. Typical wavelengths used are 808nm, 940nm and 980nm. We discuss the results of wavelength multiplexing of 880nm high power lasers.

  10. Comparative Study of Co-based Alloys in Repairing Low Cr-Mo steel Components by Laser Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, E.; Amado, J. M.; Montero, J.; Tobar, M. J.; Yáñez, A.

    Refurbishment of damaged components is nowadays a useful solution to save maintenance costs. Laser cladding is one of the most advantageous solutions to fulfill this kind of repair. With the aim of reusing deteriorated steam circuit parts of thermal power stations, a laser cladding process has been developed. Different Co-based alloys of Stellite® and Tribaloy® families, which offer good resistance against impact, corrosion and erosive wear at high temperatures, were used as coating materials to improve the durability of this repair. A comparative study of morphology, structure and hardness of the deposited layers with optimized parameters has been carried out.

  11. Laser micro-bending for precise micro-fabrication of magnetic disk drive components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Naohisa

    2003-11-01

    Laser Micro-Bending technology attracts attention as one of the laser processing technology promising from now on. It has the feature that does not contact and does not have the spring back that fabrication in high accuracy can be performed. In our company, Laser Micro-Bending technology development is tackled about ten years before, and the laser bending fabrication technology of a sheet metal and ceramic material has so far been established. It has utilized as rapid prototyping of the sheet metal. But, by re-examination of laser oscillation control etc., it finds out that it is the excellent processing method for manufacture of the high precision mechanism parts for magnetic disk drives. This report explains the technology and machines of the roll and pitch adjustment of a magnetic head suspension, and flatting or crowning of the air bearing surface of a magnetic head slider by using Laser Micro-Bending technology.

  12. Damage testing of critical optical components for high power ultra-fast lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Enam; Poole, Patrick; Jiang, Sheng; Taylor, Brittany; Daskalova, Rebecca; Van Woerkom, Linn; Freeman, Richard; Smith, Douglas

    2010-11-01

    Mirrors and gratings used in high power ultra fast lasers require a broad bandwidth and high damage fluence, which is essential to the design and construction of petawatt class short pulse lasers. Damage fluence of several commercially available high energy broad band dielectric mirrors with over 100 nm bandwidth at 45 degree angle of incidence, and pulse compression reflection gratings with gold coating with varying processing conditions is studied using a 25 femtosecond ultra-fast laser.

  13. Velocity measurement inside a motored internal combustion engine using three-component laser Doppler anemometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, V. S. S.; Turner, J. T.

    2000-10-01

    A three-component laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) system has been employed to investigate the structure of the flow inside the cylinder of a motored internal combustion engine. This model engine was reasonably representative of a typical, single cylinder, spark ignition engine although it did not permit firing. It was equipped with overhead valve gear and optical access was provided in the top and side walls of the cylinder. A principal objective was to study the influence of the inlet port design on the flow within the cylinder during the induction and compression strokes of the engine. Here, it can be noted that results obtained in an unfired engine are believed to be representative of the flow behaviour before combustion occurs in a fired engine (see P.O. Witze, Measurements of the spatial distribution and engine speed dependence of turbulent air motion in an i.c. engine, SAE Paper No. 770220, 1977; Witze, Sandia Laboratory Energy Report, SAND 79-8685, Sandia Laboratories, USA, 1979). Experimental data presented for an inclined inlet port configuration reveal the complex three-dimensional nature of the flow inside the model engine cylinder. Not surprisingly, the results also show that the inclined inlet port created flow conditions more favourable to mixing in the cylinder. Specifically, the inclined inlet flow was found to generate a region with a relatively high shear and strong recirculation zones in the cylinder. Inclining the inlet port also produced a more nearly homogeneous flow structure at top dead centre during the compression stroke. The paper identifies the special difficulties encountered in making the LDA measurements. The experimental findings are examined and the problems that arise in presenting time-varying three-dimensional data of this type are discussed. Finally, the future potential of this experimental approach is explored.

  14. Boundary Layer Observations of Water Vapor and Aerosol Profiles with an Eye-Safe Micro-Pulse Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehrir, A. R.; Repasky, K. S.; Carlsten, J.; Ismail, S.

    2011-12-01

    Measurements of real-time high spatial and temporal resolution profiles of combined water vapor and aerosols in the boundary layer have been a long standing observational challenge to the meteorological, weather forecasting, and climate science communities. To overcome the high reoccurring costs associated with radiosondes as well as the lack of sufficient water vapor measurements over the continental united states, a compact and low cost eye-safe all semiconductor-based micro-pulse differential absorption lidar (DIAL) has been developed for water vapor and aerosol profiling in the lower troposphere. The laser transmitter utilizes two continuous wave external cavity diode lasers operating in the 830 nm absorption band as the online and offline seed laser sources. An optical switch is used to sequentially injection seed a tapered semiconductor optical amplifier (TSOA) with the two seed laser sources in a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration. The TSOA is actively current pulsed to produce up to 7 μJ of output energy over a 1 μs pulse duration (150 m vertical resolution) at a 10 kHz pulse repetition frequency. The measured laser transmitter spectral linewidth is less than 500 kHz while the long term frequency stability of the stabilized on-line wavelength is ± 55 MHz. The laser transmitter spectral purity was measured to be greater than 0.9996, allowing for simultaneous measurements of water vapor in the lower and upper troposphere. The DIAL receiver utilizes a commercially available full sky-scanning capable 35 cm Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope to collect the scattered light from the laser transmitter. Light collected by the telescope is spectrally filtered to suppress background noise and is coupled into a fiber optic cable which acts as the system field stop and limits the full angle field of view to 140 μrad. The light is sampled by a fiber coupled APD operated in a Geiger mode. The DIAL instrument is operated autonomously where water vapor and

  15. Tailored boron steel sheet component properties by selective laser heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asnafi, N.; Andersson, R.; Persson, M.; Liljengren, M.

    2016-11-01

    This investigation is focused on the stamping behaviour of boron steel, the properties of which are modified by selective laser heat treatment. Both CO2 and fibre lasers are tested. By using different laser processing parameters, the hardening depth in the 1 mm thick boron steel sheet Boloc 02 is varied. Four routes are tested and verified. The forming operation (in which a so-called flexrail beam is produced) in all four routes is conducted at ambient (room) temperature. The Reference route comprises stamping of the sheet. The GridBlank route starts with selective laser heat treatment of the blank, after which the blank is allowed to cool down, moved to a hydraulic press and stamped. In the GridTube route, the blank is first stamped, after which the part is moved to a laser cell and selectively laser heat treated. The fourth route, the RapidLaser route, is similar to the GridBlank route, but a higher laser speed is used to promote higher total productivity. The GridBlank route results in the highest hardness values and the best shape accuracy. The initial sheet material exhibits a hardness of 200 HV, while the parts produced in the GridBlank route exhibit a hardness of 700 HV.

  16. Interaction of KrF-laser radiation with fundamental gas components of the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Buldakov, M.A.; Ippolitov, I.I.; Klimkin, V.M.; Matrosov, I.I.; Mitchenkov, V.M.

    1987-10-01

    This paper describes the Raman scattering of laser radiation and the fluorescence spectra of the atmosphere and its constituents as generated by an air pollution spectrometer based on a krypton fluoride laser. The role played by these constituents in the formation of noise signals in the spontaneous Raman scattering spectrum is determined.

  17. Development of a laser wind and hazard profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouse, Gordon F.; Bagley, Harold R.; Kane, Thomas J.; Leung, Christopher

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes present day wind-measuring and air-data systems, the limitations of these systems, and the formation of a consortium to develop solutions using the laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). The LDV concept is discussed as well as the issues related to developing such systems. Significant progress towards making practical, reliable, and affordable eye-safe LDV systems is being gained through the many systems built to date and flight tests. The technical goal of this program is to demonstrate that small, low-power, diode pumped, 2 micrometers wavelength, eye-safe coherent LDV systems can be built and flown on both high-performance military fighter aircraft and advanced military attack helicopters. An industry-government consortium will develop LDV systems with the name Laser Wind and Hazard Profiler.

  18. A Large Aperture, High Energy Laser System for Optics and Optical Component Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Nostrand, M C; Weiland, T L; Luthi, R L; Vickers, J L; Sell, W D; Stanley, J A; Honig, J; Auerbach, J; Hackel, R P; Wegner, P J

    2003-11-01

    A large aperture, kJ-class, multi-wavelength Nd-glass laser system has been constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Lab which has unique capabilities for studying a wide variety of optical phenomena. The master-oscillator, power-amplifier (MOPA) configuration of this ''Optical Sciences Laser'' (OSL) produces 1053 nm radiation with shaped pulse lengths which are variable from 0.1-100 ns. The output can be frequency doubled or tripled with high conversion efficiency with a resultant 100 cm{sup 2} high quality output beam. This facility can accommodate prototype hardware for large-scale inertial confinement fusion lasers allowing for investigation of integrated system issues such as optical lifetime at high fluence, optics contamination, compatibility of non-optical materials, and laser diagnostics.

  19. Integration of photoactive and electroactive components with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, R.P.; Esherick, P.; Jewell, J.L.; Lear, K.L.; Olbright, G.R.

    1997-04-29

    A monolithically integrated optoelectronic device is provided which integrates a vertical cavity surface emitting laser and either a photosensitive or an electrosensitive device either as input or output to the vertical cavity surface emitting laser either in parallel or series connection. Both vertical and side-by-side arrangements are disclosed, and optical and electronic feedback means are provided. Arrays of these devices can be configured to enable optical computing and neural network applications. 9 figs.

  20. Integration of photoactive and electroactive components with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, Robert P.; Esherick, Peter; Jewell, Jack L.; Lear, Kevin L.; Olbright, Gregory R.

    1997-01-01

    A monolithically integrated optoelectronic device is provided which integrates a vertical cavity surface emitting laser and either a photosensitive or an electrosensitive device either as input or output to the vertical cavity surface emitting laser either in parallel or series connection. Both vertical and side-by-side arrangements are disclosed, and optical and electronic feedback means are provided. Arrays of these devices can be configured to enable optical computing and neural network applications.

  1. Laser safety in design of near-infrared scanning LIDARs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Elgin, D.

    2015-05-01

    3D LIDARs (Light Detection and Ranging) with 1.5μm nanosecond pulse lasers have been increasingly used in different applications. The main reason for their popularity is that these LIDARs have high performance while at the same time can be made eye-safe. Because the laser hazard effect on eyes or skin at this wavelength region (<1.4μm) is mainly from the thermal effect accumulated from many individual pulses over a period of seconds, scanning can effectively reduce the laser beam hazard effect from the LIDARs. Neptec LIDARs have been used in docking to the International Space Station, military helicopter landing and industrial mining applications. We have incorporated the laser safety requirements in the LIDAR design and conducted laser safety analysis for different operational scenarios. While 1.5μm is normally said to be the eye-safe wavelength, in reality a high performance 3D LIDAR needs high pulse energy, small beam size and high pulse repetition frequency (PRF) to achieve long range, high resolution and high density images. The resulting radiant exposure of its stationary beam could be many times higher than the limit for a Class 1 laser device. Without carefully choosing laser and scanning parameters, including field-of-view, scan speed and pattern, a scanning LIDAR can't be eye- or skin-safe based only on its wavelength. This paper discusses the laser safety considerations in the design of eye-safe scanning LIDARs, including laser pulse energy, PRF, beam size and scanning parameters in two basic designs of scanning mechanisms, i.e. galvanometer based scanner and Risley prism based scanner. The laser safety is discussed in terms of device classification, nominal ocular hazard distance (NOHD) and safety glasses optical density (OD).

  2. Three-component Laser Doppler Anemometer for Gas Flowrate Measurements up to 5 500 m3/h

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dopheide, D.; Strunck, V.; Krey, E.-A.

    1994-01-01

    In the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) the primary standard for on-line flowrate measurements using the laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) technique has been extended to a three-component LDA to improve velocity profile measurements in the boundary layers of a nozzle flow. The LDA flowrate measuring facility now consists of a two-colour argon ion LDA and a wavelength-stabilized GaAlAs diode laser LDA. The gas flowrate is obtained by numerical integration of the measured velocity profiles across the exit plane of the nozzle. High local resolution of the velocity profile measurements is achieved by perpendicular orientation of the measurement volumes of the two-component gas laser LDA and the semiconductor diode laser LDA (LD-LDA). This allows the resolution in the boundary layer to be improved significantly to velocity gradients. The present work presents the LD-LDA system for precise velocity profile measurements at flow velocities of up to 120 m/s; selected profile measurements are described in detail to demonstrate the high resolution and the symmetry of the flow profile. For the first time a wavelength-stabilized miniaturized diode laser LDA has been successfully applied in precise velocity measurements, and comparisons with well-established gas laser LDAs have been made. The uncertainty of the flowrate measurement up to 5 500 m3/h is 0,1% for air at atmospheric pressure. A turbine gas meter, type Elster G2500, was calibrated with the LDA and used as a transfer standard for an intercomparison with the Nederlands Meetinstituut (NMI) in the flowrate range up to 5 500 m3/h with and without the installation of perforated plates to condition the flow in the inlet section of the gas meter. The results of the comparison experiment clearly show the reliability and accuracy of the online flowrate measurement of gases and underline the necessity for a detailed research programme to investigate the relationship between installation effects, upstream flow conditions

  3. High-power ultrafast Yb:fiber laser frequency combs using commercially available components and basic fiber tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinlong; Reber, Melanie A. R.; Corder, Christopher; Chen, Yuning; Zhao, Peng; Allison, Thomas K.

    2016-09-01

    We present a detailed description of the design, construction, and performance of high-power ultrafast Yb:fiber laser frequency combs in operation in our laboratory. We discuss two such laser systems: an 87 MHz, 9 W, 85 fs laser operating at 1060 nm and an 87 MHz, 80 W, 155 fs laser operating at 1035 nm. Both are constructed using low-cost, commercially available components, and can be assembled using only basic tools for cleaving and splicing single-mode fibers. We describe practical methods for achieving and characterizing low-noise single-pulse operation and long-term stability from Yb:fiber oscillators based on nonlinear polarization evolution. Stabilization of the combs using a variety of transducers, including a new method for tuning the carrier-envelope offset frequency, is discussed. High average power is achieved through chirped-pulse amplification in simple fiber amplifiers based on double-clad photonic crystal fibers. We describe the use of these combs in several applications, including ultrasensitive femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy and cavity-enhanced high-order harmonic generation.

  4. High-power ultrafast Yb:fiber laser frequency combs using commercially available components and basic fiber tools.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinlong; Reber, Melanie A R; Corder, Christopher; Chen, Yuning; Zhao, Peng; Allison, Thomas K

    2016-09-01

    We present a detailed description of the design, construction, and performance of high-power ultrafast Yb:fiber laser frequency combs in operation in our laboratory. We discuss two such laser systems: an 87 MHz, 9 W, 85 fs laser operating at 1060 nm and an 87 MHz, 80 W, 155 fs laser operating at 1035 nm. Both are constructed using low-cost, commercially available components, and can be assembled using only basic tools for cleaving and splicing single-mode fibers. We describe practical methods for achieving and characterizing low-noise single-pulse operation and long-term stability from Yb:fiber oscillators based on nonlinear polarization evolution. Stabilization of the combs using a variety of transducers, including a new method for tuning the carrier-envelope offset frequency, is discussed. High average power is achieved through chirped-pulse amplification in simple fiber amplifiers based on double-clad photonic crystal fibers. We describe the use of these combs in several applications, including ultrasensitive femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy and cavity-enhanced high-order harmonic generation.

  5. Ablation of NIF Targets and Diagnostic Components by High Power Lasers and X-Rays from High Temperature Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Eder, D.C; Anderson, A.T.; Braun, D.G; Tobin, M.T.

    2000-04-19

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will consist of 192 laser beams that have a total energy of up to 1.8 MJ in the 3rd harmonic ({lambda} = 0.35 {micro}m) with the amount of 2nd harmonic and fundamental light depending on the pulse shape. Material near best focus of the 3rd harmonic light will be vaporized/ablated very rapidly, with a significant fraction of the laser energy converted into plasma x rays. Additional plasma x rays can come from imploding/igniting capsule inside Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hohlraums. Material from outer portions of the target, diagnostic components, first-wall material, and optical components, are ablated by the plasma x rays. Material out to a radius of order 3 cm from target center is also exposed to a significant flux of 2nd harmonic and fundamental laser light. Ablation can accelerate the remaining material to high velocities if it has been fragmented or melted. In addition, the high velocity debris wind of the initially vaporized material pushes on the fragments/droplets and increases their velocity. The high velocity shrapnel fragments/droplets can damage the fused silica shields protecting the final optics in NIF. We discuss modeling efforts to calculate vaporization/ablation, x-ray generation, shrapnel production, and ways to mitigate damage to the shields.

  6. Combined fringe and Fabry-Perot laser anemometer for 3 component velocity measurements in turbine stator cascade facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, Richard G.; Goldman, Louis J.

    1986-01-01

    A laser anemometer is described that was developed for use in a 508 mm diameter annular turbine stator cascade facility. All three velocity components are measured through a single restricted optical port, both within the stator vane row and downstream of the vanes. The measurements are made through a cylindrical window in the casing that matches the tip radius of the cascade. The stator tested has a contoured hub endwall that results in a large radial flow near the hub. The anemometer uses a standard fringe configuration (LFA) with a fluorescent aerosol seed to measure the axial and circumferential velocity components. The radial component is measured with a confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer. The two configurations are combined in a single optical system and can operate simultaneously. Data are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the system.

  7. Combined fringe and Fabry-Perot laser anemometer for three component velocity measurements in turbine stator cascade facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, R. G.; Goldman, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    A laser anemometer is described that was developed for use in a 508 mm diameter annular turbine stator cascade facility. All three velocity components are measured through a single restricted optical port, both within the stator vane row and downstream of the vanes. The measurements are made through a cylindrical window in the casing that matches the tip radius of the cascade. The stator tested has a contoured hub endwall that results in a large radial flow near the hub. The anemometer uses a standard fringe configuration (LFA) with a fluorescent aerosol seed to measure the axial and circumferential velocity components. The radial component is measured with a confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer. The two configurations are combined in a single optical system and can operate simultaneously. Data are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the system.

  8. Monitoring changes of proteins and lipids in laser welded aorta tissue using Raman spectroscopy and basis biochemical component analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. H.; Wang, W. B.; Alimova, A.; Sriramoju, V.; Kartazayev, V.; Alfano, R. R.

    2009-02-01

    The changes of Raman spectra from ex-vivo porcine aorta tissues were studied before and after laser tissue welding (LTW). Raman spectra were measured and compared for normal and welded tissues in both tunica adventitial and intimal sides. The vibrational modes at the peak of 1301 cm-1 and the weak shoulder peak of 1264 cm-1 of amide III for the normal tissue changed to a peak at 1322cm-1 and a relative intense peak at 1264cm-1, respectively, for the welded tissue. The Raman spectra were analyzed using a linear regression fitting method and compared with characteristic Raman spectra from proteins and lipids compounds. The relative biochemical molecular composition changes of proteins (Collagen types I, III, V and Elastin) and lipids for the laser welded tissue were modeled by basis biochemical component analyses (BBCA) and compared with the normal tissue.

  9. Application of laser in seam welding of dissimilar steel to aluminium joints for thick structural components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meco, S.; Pardal, G.; Ganguly, S.; Williams, S.; McPherson, N.

    2015-04-01

    Laser welding-brazing technique, using a continuous wave (CW) fibre laser with 8000 W of maximum power, was applied in conduction mode to join 2 mm thick steel (XF350) to 6 mm thick aluminium (AA5083-H22), in a lap joint configuration with steel on the top. The steel surface was irradiated by the laser and the heat was conducted through the steel plate to the steel-aluminium interface, where the aluminium melts and wets the steel surface. The welded samples were defect free and the weld micrographs revealed presence of a brittle intermetallic compounds (IMC) layer resulting from reaction of Fe and Al atoms. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis indicated the stoichiometry of the IMC as Fe2Al5 and FeAl3, the former with maximum microhardness measured of 1145 HV 0.025/10. The IMC layer thickness varied between 4 to 21 μm depending upon the laser processing parameters. The IMC layer showed an exponential growth pattern with the applied specific point energy (Esp) at a constant power density (PD). Higher PD values accelerate the IMC layer growth. The mechanical shear strength showed a narrow band of variation in all the samples (with the maximum value registered at 31.3 kN), with a marginal increase in the applied Esp. This could be explained by the fact that increasing the Esp results into an increase in the wetting and thereby the bonded area in the steel-aluminium interface.

  10. Laser radar technology and applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Quebec, Canada, June 3-5, 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruickshank, James M.; Harney, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    Various papers on laser radar technology and applications are presented. The topics considered include: eye-safe solid lasers for lidar applications, practical DF laser for ranging applications, ultrafast surface barrier photodetectors, performance analyses for peak-detecting laser radars, multiple scattering for laser beams propagating in a layered atmosphere, laser radar cross section of objects immersed in the earth's atmosphere, measurements of pulse coherence in mode-locked TEA-CO2 lasers, and single longitudinal mode operation of a continuously tunable high pressure TE-CO2. Also discussed are: amplitude-modulated laser system for distance and displacement measurement, minilaser rangefinder, laser docking system radar flight experiment, improved optical resonator for laser radars, design of frequency-stable TEA-CO2 lasers, HgCdTe photodiodes for heterodyne applications, acoustooptic spectrum analyzer for laser radar applications, laser cloud mapper and its applications, scanning lidar bathymeter for water depth measurement, and fluorescence lidar for land and sea remote sensing.

  11. Screening of patients with bronchopulmonary diseases using methods of infrared laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Kistenev, Yury V; Karapuzikov, Alexander I; Kostyukova, Nadezhda Yu; Starikova, Marina K; Boyko, Andrey A; Bukreeva, Ekaterina B; Bulanova, Anna A; Kolker, Dmitry B; Kuzmin, Dmitry A; Zenov, Konstantin G; Karapuzikov, Alexey A

    2015-06-01

    A human exhaled air analysis by means of infrared (IR) laser photoacoustic spectroscopy is presented. Eleven healthy nonsmoking volunteers (control group) and seven patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, target group) were involved in the study. The principal component analysis method was used to select the most informative ranges of the absorption spectra of patients' exhaled air in terms of the separation of the studied groups. It is shown that the data of the profiles of exhaled air absorption spectrum in the informative ranges allow identifying COPD patients in comparison to the control group.

  12. Screening of patients with bronchopulmonary diseases using methods of infrared laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenev, Yury V.; Karapuzikov, Alexander I.; Kostyukova, Nadezhda Yu.; Starikova, Marina K.; Boyko, Andrey A.; Bukreeva, Ekaterina B.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Kolker, Dmitry B.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Zenov, Konstantin G.; Karapuzikov, Alexey A.

    2015-06-01

    A human exhaled air analysis by means of infrared (IR) laser photoacoustic spectroscopy is presented. Eleven healthy nonsmoking volunteers (control group) and seven patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, target group) were involved in the study. The principal component analysis method was used to select the most informative ranges of the absorption spectra of patients' exhaled air in terms of the separation of the studied groups. It is shown that the data of the profiles of exhaled air absorption spectrum in the informative ranges allow identifying COPD patients in comparison to the control group.

  13. Increase of both transcription and translation activities following separate irradiation of the in vitro system components with He-Ne laser.

    PubMed

    Vacca, R A; Marra, E; Quagliariello, E; Greco, M

    1994-09-15

    To gain insight into the mechanism by which cell irradiation with low power continuous wave He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) causes a general stimulation of biosynthetic properties, separate components of transcription and translation systems were irradiated (energy dose 2 Joules/cm2; laser power 12 mW) with measurements made of in vitro RNA and protein synthesis. In addition, all tested components were investigated with respect to influence of laser irradiation on their conformation, as spectroscopically monitored. In all cases an increase in both transcription and translation activities was found with a significant change in absorbance/fluorescence spectra.

  14. Study of a distributed feedback diode laser based hygrometer combined Herriot-gas cell and waterless optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yubin; Chang, Jun; Lian, Jie; Wang, Qiang; Wei, Wei

    2016-09-01

    A distributed feedback diode laser (DFB-DL) based hygrometer combined with a long-path-length Herriot gas cell and waterless optical components was proposed and investigated. The main function of this sensor was to simultaneously improve the measurement reliability and resolution. A comparison test between a 10-cm normal transmission-type gas cell and a 3-m Herriot gas cell was carried out to demonstrate the improvement. Reliability improvement was achieved by influence suppression of water vapor inside optical components (WVOC) through combined action of the Herriot gas cell and waterless optical components. The influence of WVOC was suppressed from 726 ppmv to 25 ppmv using the Herriot gas cell. Moreover, combined with waterless optical components, the influence of WVOC was further suppressed to no more than 4 ppmv. Resolution improvement from 11.7 ppmv to 0.32 ppmv was achieved mainly due to the application of the long-path-length Herriot gas cell. The results show that the proposed sensor has a good performance and considerable potential application in gas sensing, especially when probed gas possibly permeates into optical components.

  15. An extension to laser-induced fluorescence measures multiple velocity components simultaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, T. J.; Newsham, D.; Rynn, N.

    1996-09-01

    An extension to laser-induced fluorescence is presented. The new technique, called intermodulated optical tagging, can be used to measure multidimensional velocity distribution functions directly as well as to tag ions in two velocity and three spatial coordinates. The first application makes the technique a possible replacement for tomography, the second makes it useful for heretofore difficult transport measurements. Application to velocity-space transport perpendicular to the magnetic field is discussed for a quiescent plasma.

  16. Monitoring Rotational Components of Seismic Waves with a Ring Laser Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gakundi, Jackson; Dunn, Robert

    2015-04-01

    It has been known for decades that seismic waves can introduce rotation in the surface of the Earth. There are historic records of tombstones in Japan being rotated after large earthquakes. Until fairly recently, the primary way to detect ground rotation from earthquakes was with an array of several seismographs. The development of large ring laser interferometers has provided a way for a single instrument to make extremely sensitive measurements of ground motion. In this poster, a diagram of a large ring laser will be presented. For comparison, seismograms recorded with a ring laser and a collocated standard seismograph will be presented. A major thrust of this research is the detection and analysis of seismic responses from directional drilling sites in Arkansas and Oklahoma. There are suggestions that the injection of pressurized water used to fracture gas bearing shale may cause small earthquakes. The Arkansas Oil and Gas Commission ordered the closing of certain waste water disposal wells in North Central Arkansas. Apparently, these wells injected waste water into a previously unknown fault causing it to slip. An attempt is being made to determine if the seismic wave patterns from earthquakes generated near directional drilling sites differ from those generated miles away.

  17. Laser-induced periodic surface structures of thin, complex multi-component films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reif, Juergen; Varlamova, Olga; Ratzke, Markus; Uhlig, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Femtosecond laser-induced regular nanostructures are generated on a complex multilayer target, namely a piece of a commercial, used hard disk memory. It is shown that after single-shot 800-nm irradiation at 0.26 J/cm2 only the polymer cover layer and—in the center—a portion of the magnetic multilayer are ablated. A regular array of linearly aligned spherical 450-nm features at the uncovered interface between cover and magnetic layers appears not to be produced by the irradiation. Only after about 10 pulses on one spot, classical ripples perpendicular to the laser polarization with a period of ≈700 nm are observed, with a modulation between 40 nm above and 40 nm below the pristine surface and an ablation depth only slightly larger than the thickness of the multilayer magnetic film. Further increase of the pulse number does not result in deeper ablation. However, 770-nm ripples become parallel to the polarization and are swelling to more than 120 nm above zero, much more than the full multilayer film thickness. In the spot periphery, much shallower 300-nm ripples are perpendicular to the strong modulation and the laser polarization. Irradiation with 0.49-J/cm2 pulses from an ultrafast white-light continuum results—in the spot periphery—in the formation of 200-nm ripples, only swelling above zero after removal of the polymer cover, without digging into the magnetic film.

  18. Improvement of mechanical properties and life extension of high reliability structural components by laser shock processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaña, J. L.; Morales, M.; Porro, J. A.; Iordachescu, D.; Díaz, M.; Ruiz de Lara, L.; Correa, C.

    2011-05-01

    Profiting by the increasing availability of laser sources delivering intensities above 109 W/cm2 with pulse energies in the range of several Joules and pulse widths in the range of nanoseconds, laser shock processing (LSP) is being consolidating as an effective technology for the improvement of surface mechanical and corrosion resistance properties of metals and is being developed as a practical process amenable to production engineering. The main acknowledged advantage of the laser shock processing technique consists on its capability of inducing a relatively deep compression residual stresses field into metallic alloy pieces allowing an improved mechanical behaviour, explicitly, the life improvement of the treated specimens against wear, crack growth and stress corrosion cracking. Following a short description of the theoretical/computational and experimental methods developed by the authors for the predictive assessment and experimental implementation of LSP treatments, experimental results on the residual stress profiles and associated surface properties modification successfully reached in typical materials (specifically Al and Ti alloys) under different LSP irradiation conditions are presented. In particular, the analysis of the residual stress profiles obtained under different irradiation parameters and the evaluation of the corresponding induced surface properties as roughness and wear resistance are presented.

  19. Improved Monoblock laser brightness using external reflector.

    PubMed

    Hays, A D; Nettleton, John; Barr, Nick; Hough, Nathaniel; Goldberg, Lew

    2014-03-01

    The Monoblock laser has become the laser of choice in long-range, eye-safe laser range finders. It is eye-safe with emission at 1570 nm, high pulse energy, simple construction, and high efficiency when pumped by a laser-diode stack. Although the output beam divergence of a typical Monoblock with a 3  mm×3  mm cross section is relatively large (10-12 mrad), it can be reduced to <1  mrad using a telescope with large magnification. In this paper we present a simple and compact technique for achieving significant reduction in the Monoblock beam divergence using a partial reflector that is placed a short distance from the optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Using a 38 mm long Monoblock with a 10 mm long potassium titanyl phosphate OPO, we achieved a beam divergence of <4  mrad, corresponding to a >2.5× reduction from the unmodified laser. Performance using this technique with various feedback and etalon spacings is presented.

  20. Total velocity vector measurements in an axial-flow compressor using a 3-component laser Doppler anemometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesnakas, Christopher J.; Dancey, Clinton L.

    1988-07-01

    A three-color, three-component laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) was used to simultaneously measure the three components of velocity in a low speed (2900 rpm) axial-flow compressor rotor blade passage. Although the mean velocities and entire Reynolds stress tensor were obtained with this system, only the mean velocity results are reported here. It is demonstrated that accurate measurements in the mean motion are possible over much of the blade passage and that the secondary motions can be captured. Confirmation of the observed mean flow results is obtained through a comparison of the three dimensional flow with limited stationary pressure probe measurements and simple irrotational flow assumptions. The presentation of the measurements is followed by a discussion of the difficulties encountered in making three-dimensional velocity measurements in blade passages with LDA and suggestions are made for improving the present system for this task.

  1. An overview of micro-optical components and system technology: bulk, planar, and thin-film for laser initiated devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd

    2010-08-01

    There are a number of attractive micro optical elements or combinations of elements that are currently used or could be employed in optically initiated ordnance systems. When taking a broad-spectrum examination of optically initiated devices, the required key parameters become obviously straightforward for micro optics. Plainly stated, micro optics need to be simple, inexpensive, reliable, robust and compatible within their operational environment. This presentation focuses on the variety of optical elements and components available in the market place today that could be used to realize micro-optical beam shaping and delivery systems for optically initiated devices. A number of micro optical elements will be presented with specific bulk, planar optical and thin film optical devices, such as diffractive optics, micro prisms, axicons, waveguides, micro lenses, beam splitters and gratings. Further descriptions will be presented on the subject of coupling light from a laser beam into a multimode optical fiber. The use of micro optics for collimation of the laser source and conditioning of the laser beam to achieve the highest efficiency and matching the optical fiber NA will be explained. An emphasis on making these optical assemblies compact and rugged will be highlighted.

  2. Acousto-optic devices for operation with 2μm fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, J. D.; Stevens, G.; Shardlow, P. C.

    2016-03-01

    Fibre lasers operating in the 2μm region are of increasing interest for a range of applications, including laser machining and biomedical systems. The large mode area compared to 1μm fibre lasers combined with operation in an "eye-safe" region of the spectrum makes them particularly attractive. When developing fibre lasers at 1μm and 1·5μm manufacturers were able to call upon enabling technologies used by the telecoms industry, but at longer wavelengths, including 2μm, many such components are either unavailable or immature. We report on recent developments of Acousto-Optic Modulators and Tunable Filters that are specifically optimised for use with fibre systems operating at or around 2μm. AO devices are interesting due to their ability to conserve spatial-coherence, making them appropriate for use with single-mode optical fibres. We describe how the choice of interaction medium is an important consideration, particularly affecting the drive power and the polarisation behaviour of the device - the latter being an important parameter when used in a fibre system. We also describe two designs of AO Tunable Filter intended for laser tuning. Both designs have been demonstrated intracavity in 2μm fibre lasers. The first gives exceptionally narrow resolution (δλ/λ<0·1%). The second design is of a novel type of AOTF where a matched pair of AOTFs is configured to give a substantially net zero frequency-shift with little or no loss of pointing stability, any minor deviations in manufacture being self-compensated. Furthermore, small controlled frequency-shifts (up to about 10kHz) may be introduced with little or no detriment to the alignment of the system.

  3. Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis of the Effects of Erbium, Chromium:Yattrium-Scandium-Gallium-Garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) Laser Irradiation on Bone Mineral and Organic Components.

    PubMed

    Benetti, Carolina; Ana, Patricia Aparecida; Bachmann, Luciano; Zezell, Denise Maria

    2015-12-01

    The effects of varying the energy density of a high-intensity erbium, chromium: yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser on the mineral and organic components of bone tissue were evaluated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Bone samples obtained from the tibias of rabbits were irradiated with five energy densities (3, 6, 8, 12, and 15 J/cm(2)), and the effects on the carbonate to phosphate ratio and in the organic components were compared with those of nonirradiated samples. The increased temperature during the laser irradiation was also measured using infrared thermography to relate the observed spectral changes to the laser thermal effects. The analyses of the infrared spectra suggests that the irradiation with Er,Cr:YSGG promoted changes in bone tissue in both the mineral and organic components that depend on the laser energy density, pointing to the importance of using the proper energy density in clinical procedures.

  4. Simultaneous application of scanning laser vibrometry and thermoelasticity for measurement of stress-strain fields on mechanical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Renzo, A.; Marsili, R.; Martarelli, M.; Moretti, M.; Rosati, G.; Rossi, G. L.

    2006-06-01

    The application of both scanning laser vibrometry and thermoelasticity for measurement of stress and strain fields on mechanical components is proposed. A theoretical approach on both the measurement principles is illustrated and an application to a practical case, as an automotive fan blade, is described. The problem of the fan blade failure is tightly due to the force amplitude and frequency, that are applied in working condition; it is, therefore, important, to know the blade resonance frequencies and the mode shapes. For this reason, the measurement techniques, based on scanning laser Doppler vibrometer, give the chance to quickly perform an experimental modal analysis with high accuracy and spatial resolution and to obtain the structure's mode shapes. In the same time, it is important to assess the stress distribution level on the blade associated to every mode shape. Measurement techniques, that apply thermoelastic principle, allow to quickly determine the blade stress pattern at each load frequency. It is, therefore, possible to establish the stress pattern corresponding to the mode shape and predict the fatigue life of the component.

  5. In mold laser welding for high precision polymer based optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, N.; Pontes, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    To assemble a complete subsystem as a rear lamp, is necessary to have different machines and to perform several tasks. This necessity obliges the companies to have large structures to support all the assembling process. These huge structures are very costly and have as a consequence the reduction of the competitiveness of the companies. The process presented in this document has the intention of reducing the number of tasks needed to produce the final subsystem/product. To achieve this goal were combined several technologies, as in-mould assembling, laser welding and LEDs (light-emitting diode). One of the advantages of this process was the utilization of only one injection molding machine with three injection units to do all the assembling process. To achieve the main objective, firstly, the rear lamp was designed according to with the legislation of UNECE Vehicle Regulations - 1958 Agreements; Regulation No. 50 -Rev.2 - Position lamps, stop lamps, direction indicators for motorcycles. Posterior several polymeric materials were studied at different levels. Initial were studied several concentrations of carbon nanotubes mixed with PC (polycarbonate). This had the objective of determine, if these materials are suitable to conduct the necessary electric current to turn on the different LEDs. One of the main advantages of this process is the use of the laser transmission welded process. Since, with this welding technology is possible reduce the complexity of the final part. To understand the potentialities of this technology a combination of two materials was studied. The studied showed that all materials presented a high transparency to the laser beam. In terms of weld process, the study showed that the best welding conditions are the lowest velocity, diameter and power. With these studies was possible conclude that this new process is suitable to be implemented at the industrial level.

  6. In mold laser welding for high precision polymer based optical components

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, N. E-mail: pontes@dep.uminho.pt; Pontes, A. J. E-mail: pontes@dep.uminho.pt

    2014-05-15

    To assemble a complete subsystem as a rear lamp, is necessary to have different machines and to perform several tasks. This necessity obliges the companies to have large structures to support all the assembling process. These huge structures are very costly and have as a consequence the reduction of the competitiveness of the companies. The process presented in this document has the intention of reducing the number of tasks needed to produce the final subsystem/product. To achieve this goal were combined several technologies, as in-mould assembling, laser welding and LEDs (light-emitting diode). One of the advantages of this process was the utilization of only one injection molding machine with three injection units to do all the assembling process. To achieve the main objective, firstly, the rear lamp was designed according to with the legislation of UNECE Vehicle Regulations - 1958 Agreements; Regulation No. 50 -Rev.2 - Position lamps, stop lamps, direction indicators for motorcycles. Posterior several polymeric materials were studied at different levels. Initial were studied several concentrations of carbon nanotubes mixed with PC (polycarbonate). This had the objective of determine, if these materials are suitable to conduct the necessary electric current to turn on the different LEDs. One of the main advantages of this process is the use of the laser transmission welded process. Since, with this welding technology is possible reduce the complexity of the final part. To understand the potentialities of this technology a combination of two materials was studied. The studied showed that all materials presented a high transparency to the laser beam. In terms of weld process, the study showed that the best welding conditions are the lowest velocity, diameter and power. With these studies was possible conclude that this new process is suitable to be implemented at the industrial level.

  7. Fabrication of microstructures in aviation components with a femtosecond laser based on PZT scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaojun; Zhao, Wei; Li, Ming; Zhao, Hualong; Zhang, Huixing; Li, Peng; Yang, Yong; Cheng, Guanghua

    2013-05-01

    Thermal defects and low precision are the main disadvantages of fabricating micro-holes, irregular holes, and micro-slots in thermostable aviation materials. We demonstrate a manufacturing method employing a femtosecond laser and piezoelectric ceramic (PZT). The production process parameters were optimized according to the metallographic and dimensional accuracy of the microstructure, which was measured by phase-contrast microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The limitations in a conventional aeroengine, such as in the recast layer, recrystallization, and micro-cracks, which degrade the performance and service life, were resolved with a simple, controllable, and commercial method.

  8. Photochemical welding of silica optical components to silicone rubber by F2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoshi, M.; Li, J.; Herman, P. R.; Inoue, N.

    2007-04-01

    Photochemical welding of fused silica glass to silicone rubber has been demonstrated by 157-nm F2 laser-induced photochemical modification of the silicone surface in contact with the glass. Fused-silica coverslips (150 m thick), silica optical fibres (125 µm diameter), and 2.9- µm diameter microspheres were successfully welded onto 2-mm-thick silicone rubber by irradiating the silicone surface through the partially transparent glasses. Sufficient photochemical conversion for strong welding was provided by multiple exposures of tens to thousands of pulses in a narrow optimized fluence window near ~6-mJ/cm2 per pulse.

  9. Comparison of electron beam and laser beam powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process for high temperature turbine component materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N; Pint, Bruce A; Ryan, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The evolving 3D printer technology is now at the point where some turbine components could be additive manufactured (AM) for both development and production purposes. However, this will require a significant evaluation program to qualify the process and components to meet current design and quality standards. The goal of the project was to begin characterization of the microstructure and mechanical properties of Nickel Alloy X (Ni-22Cr-18Fe-9Mo) test bars fabricated by powder bed fusion (PBF) AM processes that use either an electron beam (EB) or laser beam (LB) power source. The AM materials produced with the EB and LB processes displayed significant differences in microstructure and resultant mechanical properties. Accordingly, during the design analysis of AM turbine components, the specific mechanical behavior of the material produced with the selected AM process should be considered. Comparison of the mechanical properties of both the EB and LB materials to those of conventionally processed Nickel Alloy X materials indicates the subject AM materials are viable alternatives for manufacture of some turbine components.

  10. Laser scanning tomography in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study: principal components and associations.

    PubMed

    Khawaja, Anthony P; Chan, Michelle P Y; Broadway, David C; Garway-Heath, David F; Luben, Robert; Yip, Jennifer L Y; Hayat, Shabina; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2013-10-09

    To describe Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) measures, their principal components, and their associations in a British population. The European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk Eye Study is nested within a multicenter cohort study. Measurements were taken with the HRT-2 and the software subsequently updated to yield HRT-3 parameters. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify distinct components of the HRT variables. Generalized estimating equation models were used to examine associations of these components with age, sex, height, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, social class, education, alcohol intake, smoking status, axial length, IOP, and lens status. Complete data were available from 10,859 eyes of 6430 participants with a mean age of 68 years. Principal components analysis identified three components with an eigenvalue greater than 1, explaining 79.9% of the variance of all the HRT measures. These were named cup, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and rim based on the factor loadings they were most correlated with. Older age was significantly associated with a greater cup (P = 0.003), smaller RNFL (P < 0.001), and smaller rim (P < 0.001). Female sex (P = 0.001), higher education (P < 0.001), and shorter axial length (P < 0.001) were associated with a greater RNFL. Lower BMI and higher IOP were associated with a greater cup (both, P < 0.001) and a smaller rim (BMI, P = 0.001; IOP, P < 0.001). Heidelberg Retina Tomograph measures in this cohort were largely explained by three principal components related to optic disc cup, RNFL, and rim. Associations with cup and rim were distinct to associations with RNFL, suggesting different underlying determinants.

  11. Laser Scanning Tomography in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study: Principal Components and Associations

    PubMed Central

    Khawaja, Anthony P.; Chan, Michelle P. Y.; Broadway, David C.; Garway-Heath, David F.; Luben, Robert; Yip, Jennifer L. Y.; Hayat, Shabina; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To describe Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) measures, their principal components, and their associations in a British population. Methods. The European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk Eye Study is nested within a multicenter cohort study. Measurements were taken with the HRT-2 and the software subsequently updated to yield HRT-3 parameters. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify distinct components of the HRT variables. Generalized estimating equation models were used to examine associations of these components with age, sex, height, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, social class, education, alcohol intake, smoking status, axial length, IOP, and lens status. Results. Complete data were available from 10,859 eyes of 6430 participants with a mean age of 68 years. Principal components analysis identified three components with an eigenvalue greater than 1, explaining 79.9% of the variance of all the HRT measures. These were named cup, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and rim based on the factor loadings they were most correlated with. Older age was significantly associated with a greater cup (P = 0.003), smaller RNFL (P < 0.001), and smaller rim (P < 0.001). Female sex (P = 0.001), higher education (P < 0.001), and shorter axial length (P < 0.001) were associated with a greater RNFL. Lower BMI and higher IOP were associated with a greater cup (both, P < 0.001) and a smaller rim (BMI, P = 0.001; IOP, P < 0.001). Conclusions. Heidelberg Retina Tomograph measures in this cohort were largely explained by three principal components related to optic disc cup, RNFL, and rim. Associations with cup and rim were distinct to associations with RNFL, suggesting different underlying determinants. PMID:24030456

  12. Manufacturing and Characterization of 18Ni Marage 300 Lattice Components by Selective Laser Melting

    PubMed Central

    Contuzzi, Nicola; Campanelli, Sabina L.; Casavola, Caterina; Lamberti, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    The spreading use of cellular structures brings the need to speed up manufacturing processes without deteriorating mechanical properties. By using Selective Laser Melting (SLM) to produce cellular structures, the designer has total freedom in defining part geometry and manufacturing is simplified. The paper investigates the suitability of Selective Laser Melting for manufacturing steel cellular lattice structures with characteristic dimensions in the micrometer range. Alternative lattice topologies including reinforcing bars in the vertical direction also are considered. The selected lattice structure topology is shown to be superior over other lattice structure designs considered in literature. Compression tests are carried out in order to evaluate mechanical strength of lattice strut specimens made via SLM. Compressive behavior of samples also is simulated by finite element analysis and numerical results are compared with experimental data in order to assess the constitutive behavior of the lattice structure designs considered in this study. Experimental data show that it is possible to build samples of relative density in the 0.2456–0.4367 range. Compressive strength changes almost linearly with respect to relative density, which in turns depends linearly on the number of vertical reinforces. Specific strength increases with cell and strut edge size. Numerical simulations confirm the plastic nature of the instability phenomena that leads the cellular structures to collapse under compression loading. PMID:28811445

  13. Manufacturing and Characterization of 18Ni Marage 300 Lattice Components by Selective Laser Melting.

    PubMed

    Contuzzi, Nicola; Campanelli, Sabina L; Casavola, Caterina; Lamberti, Luciano

    2013-08-13

    The spreading use of cellular structures brings the need to speed up manufacturing processes without deteriorating mechanical properties. By using Selective Laser Melting (SLM) to produce cellular structures, the designer has total freedom in defining part geometry and manufacturing is simplified. The paper investigates the suitability of Selective Laser Melting for manufacturing steel cellular lattice structures with characteristic dimensions in the micrometer range. Alternative lattice topologies including reinforcing bars in the vertical direction also are considered. The selected lattice structure topology is shown to be superior over other lattice structure designs considered in literature. Compression tests are carried out in order to evaluate mechanical strength of lattice strut specimens made via SLM. Compressive behavior of samples also is simulated by finite element analysis and numerical results are compared with experimental data in order to assess the constitutive behavior of the lattice structure designs considered in this study. Experimental data show that it is possible to build samples of relative density in the 0.2456-0.4367 range. Compressive strength changes almost linearly with respect to relative density, which in turns depends linearly on the number of vertical reinforces. Specific strength increases with cell and strut edge size. Numerical simulations confirm the plastic nature of the instability phenomena that leads the cellular structures to collapse under compression loading.

  14. Pre- and postextraction analyses of different charge state ion components produced in a laser ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloni, F.; Doria, D.; Lorusso, A.; Nassisi, V.; Krasa, J.

    2006-03-01

    Knowledge of the relative abundance and the energy distributions of various ion species produced in laser ablation plasma is essential both in the fundamental physics ground, to understand the thermalization and expansion dynamics of the plasma plume, and in the applied physics ground, to obtain an efficient and versatile ion source. We present measurements and analyses related to such aspects, both for plasma in free expansion and for the extracted ion bunch. In particular, we characterized the former by means of ion current measurements, employing appropriate Faraday cups and electrostatic spectrometers. With regard to the latter, we performed time-of-flight spectrometry and depth profiling of implanted substrates. The extracted bunch signal showed modulation on time of flight due to the presence of multiply charged ions; depth profiling by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy also showed a maximum penetration range and a profile modulation compatible with a multienergetic beam. In these experiments we used ultraviolet excimer lasers, at irradiance values in the range of 0.1-10GW/cm2, to generate plasma from Cu and Al targets. The ion beams were extracted at voltages of tens of kV, dc.

  15. Laser micromachined and laminated microchannel components for chemical sensors and heat transfer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Peter M.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Hammerstrom, D. J.; Johnston, John W.; Matson, Dean W.

    1997-09-01

    The fabrication of microchannel chemical sensors with seven laminated individual functional modules is described. The sensors, used to detect chromium in nuclear and chemical waste streams, were fabricated using laser micromachining, bulk silicon micromachining, photolithographic techniques, sputter coating deposition, and anodic and adhesive bonding processes. The size of the sensor was 2 cm by 2.2 cm, with a total thickness of 2.2 cm. It consisted of two or more reservoir modules to hold the liquids being evaluate, two or more micropump modules to pump the liquids through the sensor, a chemical mixing module, a reaction module, and a sensor module with electrical circuitry for connection to external measurement equipment. The fluids were directed through the layers by interconnecting flow channels. The reservoir modules were fabricated by machining Pyrex and anodic bonding to silicon. The chemical mixing module was fabricated by wet etching Pyrex and anodic bonding to silicon. The reaction module contained a serpentine 200- micrometers -wide channel, and was formed by laser micromachining polyimide. The first prototype of this sensor employed external micropumps, while the second prototype will use off-the-shelf piezoelectric micropumps. The detector layer consisted of iridium, silver, and platinum sensor pads connected to gold contact strips. The modules were joined using adhesive bonding, and an electrostatic technique was used for silicon-Pyrex bonding.

  16. Er:YAG laser cavity preparation and composite resin bonding with a single-component adhesive system: relationship between shear bond strength and microleakage.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Marie-France; Semez, Gianfranco; Leforestier, Eric; Muller-Bolla, Michèle; Nammour, Samir; Rocca, Jean-Paul

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the performances of a single-component adhesive system when an Er:YAG laser was used to prepare cavities. Shear bond strength tests were performed on composite rods bonded with a single-component adhesive system to dentin surfaces prepared using either bur+acid, Er:YAG laser (fluence = 44 J/cm2), or Er:YAG laser+acid. Class V cavities were prepared differently according to the molar surface: buccal surfaces were prepared using a diamond bur, and lingual surfaces using the Er:YAG laser. In group 1, cavity walls were not acid treated after Er:YAG laser preparation. In group 2, only the enamel walls were acid treated. In group 3, all the enamel and dentin walls were acid treated. Microleakage was assessed using a methylene blue dye penetration method. Bond strength values did not differ significantly between the three groups (P = 0.162). Better marginal adaptation was obtained between the composite resin and cavity walls when Er:YAG laser preparation was followed by a total acid etching (P = 0.008). Our results supported the use of single-component adhesive systems in cavities prepared using Er:YAG laser. The step of acid etching must be maintained for the whole cavity walls in regard of the microleakage values. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Laser ranging at 1550 nm with 1-GHz sine-wave gated InGaAs/InP APD single-photon detector.

    PubMed

    Ren, Min; Gu, Xiaorong; Liang, Yan; Kong, Weibin; Wu, E; Wu, Guang; Zeng, Heping

    2011-07-04

    We demonstrated a laser ranging system with single photon detection at 1550 nm. The single-photon detector was a 1-GHz sine-wave gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode. In daylight, 8-cm depth resolution was achieved directly by using a time-of-flight approach based on time-correlated single photon counting measurement. This system presented a potential for low energy level and eye-safe laser ranging system in long-range measurement.

  18. Efficient 1645-nm Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, York E.; Setzler, Scott D.; Snell, Kevin J.; Budni, Peter A.; Pollak, Thomas M.; Chicklis, E. P.

    2004-05-01

    We report a resonantly fiber-laser-pumped Er:YAG laser operating at the eye-safe wavelength of 1645 nm, exhibiting 43% optical efficiency and 54% incident slope efficiency and emitting 7-W average power when repetitively Q switched at 10 kHz. To our knowledge, this is the best performance (conversion efficiency and average power) obtained from a bulk solid-state Q-switched erbium laser. At a 1.1-kHz pulse repetition frequency the laser produces 3.4-mJ pulses with a corresponding peak power of 162 kW. Frequency doubling to produce 822.5-nm, 4.7-kW pulses at 10 kHz was performed to demonstrate the laser's utility.

  19. A maxillary laser-welded component removable partial denture: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Domagala, Daniel M; Waliszewski, Michael P

    2009-01-01

    Component removable partial dentures (RPDs) are fabricated in pieces and assembled on the definitive cast. The treatment modality described is believed by the authors to optimize the passive fit and frictional retention of the RPD. Increased frictional retention and stability is believed to improve the clinical performance of the RPD. Patients may thereby benefit from more esthetic and more durable prostheses.

  20. Optimization of fringe-type laser anemometers for turbine engine component testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, R. G.; Oberle, L. G.; Weikle, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    The fringe type laser anemometer is analyzed using the Cramer-Rao bound for the variance of the estimate of the Doppler frequency as a figure of merit. Mie scattering theory is used to calculate the Doppler signal wherein both the amplitude and phase of the scattered light are taken into account. The noise from wall scatter is calculated using the wall bidirectional reflectivity and the irradiance of the incident beams. A procedure is described to determine the optimum aperture mask for the probe volume located a given distance from a wall. The expected performance of counter type processors is also discussed in relation to the Cramer-Rao bound. Numerical examples are presented for a coaxial backscatter anemometer. Previously announced in STAR as N84-25019

  1. Optimization of fringe-type laser anemometers for turbine engine component testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, R. G.; Oberle, L. G.; Weikle, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    The fringe type laser anemometer is analyzed using the Cramer-Rao bound for the variance of the estimate of the Doppler frequency as a figure of merit. Mie scattering theory is used to calculate the Doppler signal wherein both the amplitude and phase of the scattered light are taken into account. The noise from wall scatter is calculated using the wall bidirectional reflectivity and the irradiance of the incident beams. A procedure is described to determine the optimum aperture mask for the probe volume located a given distance from a wall. The expected performance of counter type processors is also discussed in relation to the Cramer-Rao bound. Numerical examples are presented for a coaxial backscatter anemometer.

  2. Ultrafast laser inscribed integrated waveguide components for L-band interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arriola, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Choudhury, Debaditya; Labadie, L.; Thomson, R. R.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we report the fabrication and mid-infrared characterization (λ = 3.39 μm) of evanescent field directional couplers. These devices were fabricated using the femtosecond laser direct-writing technique in commercially available Gallium Lanthanum Sulphide (GLS) glass substrates. We demonstrate that the power splitting ratios of the devices can be controlled by adjusting the length of the interaction section between the waveguides, and consequently we demonstrate power splitting ratios of between 8% and 99% for 3.39 μm light. We anticipate that mid-IR beam integrated-optic beam combination instruments based on this technology will be key for future mid-infrared astronomical interferometry, particularly for nulling interferometry and earth-like exoplanet imaging.

  3. Optimization of fringe-type laser anemometers for turbine engine component testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, R. G.; Oberle, L. G.; Weikle, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    The fringe type laser anemometer is analyzed using the Cramer-Rao bound for the variance of the estimate of the Doppler frequency as a figure of merit. Mie scattering theory is used to calculate the Doppler signal wherein both the amplitude and phase of the scattered light are taken into account. The noise from wall scatter is calculated using the wall bidirectional reflectivity and the irradiance of the incident beams. A procedure is described to determine the optimum aperture mask for the probe volume located a given distance from a wall. The expected performance of counter type processors is also discussed in relation to the Cramer-Rao bound. Numerical examples are presented for a coaxial backscatter anemometer. Previously announced in STAR as N84-25019

  4. Selective Laser Melting of Hot Gas Turbine Components: Materials, Design and Manufacturing Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goutianos, Stergios

    2017-07-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) allows the design and manufacturing of novel parts and structures with improved performance e.g. by incorporating complex and more efficient cooling schemes in hot gas turbine parts. In contrast to conventional manufacturing of removing material, with SLM parts are built additively to nearly net shape. This allows the fabrication of arbitrary complex geometries that cannot be made by conventional manufacturing techniques. However, despite the powerful capabilities of SLM, a number of issues (e.g. part orientation, support structures, internal stresses), have to be considered in order to manufacture cost-effective and high quality parts at an industrial scale. These issues are discussed in the present work from an engineering point of view with the aim to provide simple quidelines to produce high quality SLM parts.

  5. Dynamic behavior of binary component ion-exchange displacement chromatography of proteins visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qing-Hong; Shi, Zhi-Cong; Sun, Yan

    2012-09-28

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was introduced to visualize particle-scale binary component protein displacement behavior in Q Sepharose HP column. To this end, displacement chromatography of two intrinsic fluorescent proteins, enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and red fluorescent protein (RFP), were developed using sodium saccharin (NaSac) as a displacer. The results indicated that RFP as well as eGFP could be effectively displaced in the single-component experiments by 50 mmol/L NaSac at 120 and 140 mmol/L NaCl whereas a fully developed displacement train with eGFP and RFP was only observed at 120 mmol/L NaCl in binary component displacement. At 140 mmol/L NaCl, there was a serious overlapping of the zones of the two proteins, indicating the importance of induced-salt effect on the formation of an isotachic displacement train. CLSM provided particle-scale evidence that induced-salt effect occurred likewise in the interior of an adsorbent and was synchronous to the introduction of the displacer. CLSM results at 140 mmol/L NaCl also demonstrated that both the proteins had the same fading rate at 50 mmol/L NaSac in the initial stage, suggesting the same displacement ability of NaSac to both the proteins. In the final stage, the fading rate of RFP in the adsorbent became slow, particularly at lower displacer concentrations. In the binary component displacement, the two proteins exhibited distinct fading rates as compared to the single component displacement and the remarkable lagging of the fading rate was observed in protein displacements. It suggested that the co-adsorbed proteins had significant influence on the formation of an isotachic train and the displacement chromatography of the proteins. Therefore, this research provided particle-scale insight into the dynamic behavior and complexity in the displacement of proteins.

  6. Two-component laser Doppler anemometer for measurement of velocity and turbulent shear stress near prosthetic heart valves.

    PubMed

    Woo, Y R; Yoganathan, A P

    1985-01-01

    The velocity and turbulent shear stress measured in the immediate vicinity of prosthetic heart valves play a vital role in the design and evaluation of these devices. In the past hot wire/film and one-component laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) systems were used extensively to obtain these measurements. Hot wire/film anemometers, however, have some serious disadvantages, including the inability to measure the direction of the flow, the disturbance of the flow field caused by the probe, and the need for frequent calibration. One-component LDA systems do not have these problems, but they cannot measure turbulent shear stresses directly. Since these measurements are essential and are not available in the open literature, a two-component LDA system for measuring velocity and turbulent shear stress fields under pulsatile flow conditions was assembled under an FDA contract. The experimental methods used to create an in vitro data base of velocity and turbulent shear stress fields in the immediate vicinity of prosthetic heart valves of various designs in current clinical use are also discussed.

  7. Hydrodynamic model for expansion and collisional relaxation of x-ray laser-excited multi-component nanoplasma

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Vikrant; Ziaja, Beata

    2016-01-15

    The irradiation of an atomic cluster with a femtosecond x-ray free-electron laser pulse results in a nanoplasma formation. This typically occurs within a few hundred femtoseconds. By this time the x-ray pulse is over, and the direct photoinduced processes no longer contributing. All created electrons within the nanoplasma are thermalized. The nanoplasma thus formed is a mixture of atoms, electrons, and ions of various charges. While expanding, it is undergoing electron impact ionization and three-body recombination. Below we present a hydrodynamic model to describe the dynamics of such multi-component nanoplasmas. The model equations are derived by taking the moments of the corresponding Boltzmann kinetic equations. We include the equations obtained, together with the source terms due to electron impact ionization and three-body recombination, in our hydrodynamic solver. Model predictions for a test case, expanding spherical Ar nanoplasma, are obtained. With this model, we complete the two-step approach to simulate x-ray created nanoplasmas, enabling computationally efficient simulations of their picosecond dynamics. Moreover, the hydrodynamic framework including collisional processes can be easily extended for other source terms and then applied to follow relaxation of any finite non-isothermal multi-component nanoplasma with its components relaxed into local thermodynamic equilibrium.

  8. Laser Consolidation - A Novel One-Step Manufacturing Process for Making Net-Shape Functional Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    addition , this computer-aided manufacturing process provides an excellent opportunity for manufacturing complex parts that are difficult to make by...consolidation process, more unique features can be added to the components to provide additional functionality, reduce manufacturing time and cost...Functional Prototypes IN-625 alloy 316L S.S Stellite 6 alloy LC IN-738 Applications - Manufacturing Complex Net-Shape Parts LC IN-625LC IN-625 Applications

  9. Analysis of components of compound action potentials in response to infrared laser light (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Junqi; Lothet, Emilie H.; Jansen, E. Duco; Horn, Charles C.; Chiel, Hillel J.; Jenkins, Michael W.

    2017-02-01

    Many techniques may modulate peripheral nerve activity. Infrared light (IR) can excite or inhibit nerves. Compound action potentials (CAPs) are often measured as an endpoint, focusing on complete block, or overall amplitude reduction. To our knowledge, no standard techniques determine whether CAP sub-components have been modulated. Treatments may alter timing of CAP components as well as blocking them. How can these be distinguished? We developed a numerical simulation in which extracellularly recorded action potentials were summed, assuming a Gaussian distribution for their onset time. Onset time for sub-populations was delayed (shifting), or amplitudes were reduced to zero (blocking). We demonstrated that area under the rectified curve, divided by the entire duration of the CAP, provided a more stable measure of change than other options (e.g., power). Regions must be selected such that the CAP's individual components do not shift out of the analysis window. The largest reductions in area under the curve due to shifts were 55% due to destructive interference, which is likely to be much larger than typically observed experimentally. In contrast, blocking components could reduce the area under the curve to zero. The analysis was applied to sequential nerve stimulations. At every point, variance of the normalized area was computed. Choosing regions of lowest variance across stimulations defined an objective criterion for boundaries between CAP subcomponents. Analysis was applied to IR effects on CAPs recorded in the pleural-abdominal connective of Aplysia californica and musk shrew vagus. Slower conducting CAP subcomponents were selectively blocked before faster subcomponents.

  10. Analysis of glass fragments by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Bajic, Stanley J; Aeschliman, David B; Saetveit, Nathan J; Baldwin, David P; Houk, R S

    2005-09-01

    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is used to differentiate glass samples with similar optical and physical properties based on trace elemental composition. Laser ablation increases the number of elements that can be used for differentiation by eliminating problems commonly associated with dissolution and contamination. In this study, standard residential window and tempered glass samples that could not be differentiated by refractive index or density were successfully differentiated by LA-ICP-MS. The primary analysis approach used is Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the complete mass spectrum. PCA, a multivariate analysis technique, provides rapid analysis of samples without time-consuming pair-wise comparison of calibrated analyses or prior knowledge of the elements present in the samples. Probabilities for positive association of the individual samples are derived from PCA. Utilization of the Q-statistic with PCA allowed us to distinguish all samples within the set to a certainty greater than the 99% confidence interval.

  11. Concept and design of a multiple-function laser (MFL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karning, Heinrich; Ruger, James F.; Weispfenning, Martin

    1998-10-01

    The multifunctional properties of modern Laser sources for future military sensor applications will be studied. The goal of this study is the design of a modular laser source which covers various functions like: Laser rangefinding. Target designation (1.06 micrometer), Eyesafe target designation (1.5 micrometer), Laser radar for Automatic target recognition, Identification friend or foe using Laser interrogation with D- band response as well as allowance for Covert communication and Missile jamming with a laser in the 3 to 5 micrometer range. It is obvious that these applications require a wide range of power levels, wavelength agility and pulse repetition rates. The concept for a compact Laser source to cover these requirements will be presented. In addition a concept for the integrated sensor to provide the above mentioned functions will also be presented.

  12. Using laser technological unit ALTI "Karavella" for precision components of IEP production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labin, N. A.; Chursin, A. D.; Paramonov, V. S.; Klimenko, V. I.; Paramonova, G. M.; Kolokolov, I. S.; Vinogradov, K. Y.; Betina, L. L.; Bulychev, N. A.; Dyakov, Yu. A.; Zakharyan, R. A.; Kazaryan, M. A.; Koshelev, K. K.; Kosheleva, O. K.; Grigoryants, A. G.; Shiganov, I. N.; Krasovskii, V. I.; Sachkov, V. I.; Plyaka, P. S.; Feofanov, I. N.; Chen, C.

    2015-12-01

    The paper revealed the using of industrial production equipment ALTI "Karavella-1", "Karavella-1M", "Karavella-2" and "Karavella-2M" precision components of IEP production [1-4]. The basis for the ALTI using in the IEP have become the positive results of research and development of technologies of foil (0.01-0.2 mm) and thin sheets (0.3-1 mm) materials micromachining by pulsed radiation CVL [5, 6]. To assess the micromachining quality and precision the measuring optical microscope (UHL VMM200), projection microscope (Mitutoyo PV5100) and Carl Zeiss microscope were used.

  13. Effect of instrumentation using curettes, piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler and Er,Cr:YSGG laser on the morphology and adhesion of blood components on root surfaces: a SEM study.

    PubMed

    Tsurumaki, Jackeline do Nascimento; Souto, Bráulio Henrique Marques; Oliveira, Guilherme José Pimentel Lopes de; Sampaio, José Eduardo Cézar; Marcantonio Júnior, Elcio; Marcantonio, Rosemary Adriana Chiérici

    2011-01-01

    This study used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the morphology and adhesion of blood components on root surfaces instrumented by curettes, piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler and Er,Cr:YSGG laser. One hundred samples from 25 teeth were divided into 5 groups: 1) Curettes; 2) Piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler; 3) Curettes plus piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler; 4) Er,Cr:YSGG laser; 5) Curettes plus Er,Cr:YSGG laser. Ten samples from each group were used for analysis of root morphology and the other 10 were used for analysis of adhesion of blood components on root surface. The results were analyzed statistically by the Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests with a significance level of 5%. The group treated with curettes showed smoother surfaces when compared to the groups were instrumented with piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler and the Er,Cr:YSGG laser. The surfaces instrumented with piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler and Er,Cr:YSGG laser, alone or in combination with hand scaling and root planing, did not differ significantly (p>0.05) among themselves. No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) among groups were found as to the adhesion of blood components on root surface. Ultrasonic instrumentation and Er,Cr:YSGG irradiation produced rougher root surfaces than the use of curettes, but there were no differences among treatments with respect to the adhesion of blood components.

  14. A non-critically phase matched KTA optical parametric oscillator intracavity pumped by an actively Q-switched Nd:GYSGG laser with dual signal wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Kai; Guo, Shibei; Wang, Maorong; Mei, Jialin; Xu, Degang; Yao, Jianquan

    2015-06-01

    A non-critically phase matched eye-safe KTA optical parametric oscillator intracavity pumped by a dual-wavelength acousto-optically Q-switched Nd:GYSGG laser is demonstrated. Simultaneous dual signal wavelength at 1525.1 nm/1531.2 nm can be realized using only one laser crystal and one nonlinear crystal. When the absorbed diode pump power at 808 nm is 7.48 W, the maximum output power, single pulse energy and peak power are 296 mW, 2.96 μJ and 6.4 kW, respectively. As the signal wavelengths exactly locates at the absorption band of C2H2, such an Nd:GYSGG/KTA eye-safe laser has good application prospects in differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for C2H2 detection and difference frequency generation for terahertz waves at 0.77 THz.

  15. Parametric Raman anti-Stokes laser at 503 nm with phase-matched collinear beam interaction of orthogonally polarized Raman components in calcite under 532 nm 20 ps laser pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smetanin, Sergei; Jelínek, Michal; Kubeček, Václav

    2017-05-01

    Lasers based on stimulated-Raman-scattering process can be used for the frequency-conversion to the wavelengths that are not readily available from solid-state lasers. Parametric Raman lasers allow generation of not only Stokes, but also anti-Stokes components. However, practically all the known crystalline parametric Raman anti-Stokes lasers have very low conversion efficiencies of about 1 % at theoretically predicted values of up to 40 % because of relatively narrow angular tolerance of phase matching in comparison with angular divergence of the interacting beams. In our investigation, to widen the angular tolerance of four-wave mixing and to obtain high conversion efficiency into the antiStokes wave we propose and study a new scheme of the parametric Raman anti-Stokes laser at 503 nm with phasematched collinear beam interaction of orthogonally polarized Raman components in calcite under 532 nm 20 ps laser pumping. We use only one 532-nm laser source to pump the Raman-active calcite crystal oriented at the phase matched angle for orthogonally polarized Raman components four-wave mixing. Additionally, we split the 532-nm laser radiation into the orthogonally polarized components entering to the Raman-active calcite crystal at the certain incidence angles to fulfill the tangential phase matching compensating walk-off of extraordinary waves for collinear beam interaction in the crystal with the widest angular tolerance of four-wave mixing. For the first time the highest 503-nm anti-Stokes conversion efficiency of 30 % close to the theoretical limit of about 40 % at overall optical efficiency of the parametric Raman anti-Stokes generation of up to 3.5 % in calcite is obtained due to realization of tangential phase matching insensitive to the angular mismatch.

  16. Femtosecond laser rapid prototyping of nanoshells and suspending components towards microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dong; Chen, Qi-Dai; Niu, Li-Gang; Wang, Jian-Nan; Wang, Juan; Wang, Rui; Xia, Hong; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2009-08-21

    Microfluidic researches are now resorting to advanced micro-nanoprocessing technologies for production of more functional "lab-on-a-chip" systems. However, two-photon polymerization (TPP), a powerful designable micro-nanofabrication approach, has not been put to use on the exciting field, largely due to the difficulties in forming buried channels. Here, we solve the problem by TPP prototyping of nanoshells, for which the usage of the negative tone resin SU-8 is found critical. The fabrication efficiency improved by orders of magnitude, together with the prospect of integration of movable micro-mechanical and optical components into the chip would make TPP a promising enabling tool for the micro-analytical systems. Finally, a 25 microm length functional microvalve in a microfluidic channel was rapidly realized and its "ON" and "OFF" states were tested.

  17. Induction of engineered residual stresses fields and enhancement of fatigue life of high reliability metallic components by laser shock processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaña, J. L.; Porro, J. A.; Díaz, M.; Ruiz de Lara, L.; Correa, C.; Gil-Santos, A.; Peral, D.

    2013-02-01

    Laser shock processing (LSP) is being increasingly applied as an effective technology for the improvement of metallic materials mechanical and surface properties in different types of components as a means of enhancement of their corrosion and fatigue life behavior. As reported in previous contributions by the authors, a main effect resulting from the application of the LSP technique consists on the generation of relatively deep compression residual stresses field into metallic alloy pieces allowing an improved mechanical behaviour, explicitly the life improvement of the treated specimens against wear, crack growth and stress corrosion cracking. Additional results accomplished by the authors in the line of practical development of the LSP technique at an experimental level (aiming its integral assessment from an interrelated theoretical and experimental point of view) are presented in this paper. Concretely, follow-on experimental results on the residual stress profiles and associated surface properties modification successfully reached in typical materials (especially Al and Ti alloys characteristic of high reliability components in the aerospace, nuclear and biomedical sectors) under different LSP irradiation conditions are presented along with a practical correlated analysis on the protective character of the residual stress profiles obtained under different irradiation strategies. Additional remarks on the improved character of the LSP technique over the traditional "shot peening" technique in what concerns depth of induced compressive residual stresses fields are also made through the paper.

  18. Nonlinear methods of generation of eye-safe radiation: periodically polled crystals PPLN and PPKTP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zendzian, Waldemar

    2003-10-01

    We present the results of investigations on OPO systems, operating at the 'eye safe' region λ=1.5-1.6μm. The peak power of 0.65 MW with 1.9-mJ energy at 1572 nm-wavelngth was demonstrated in a simple singly resonant OPO intracavity pumped by passively Q-switched Nd:YAG slab laser with 300 W quasi-cw diode array as a pump unit. The KTP crystal, of 5×5×20 mm3 size, 'x-cut' for non-critically phase-matched parametric generation at the signal wavelength of 1572 nm, was used as nonlinear converter. The five-fold shortening of signal pusle duration with respect to 1064-nm pump radiation was observed. The conversion efficiency of 44% with respect to 1064-nm pump energy and 3.8% with respect to diode pump energy was demonstrated. As a pump source for the extracavity OPO with PPLN (Λ=29.6 μm) the diode pumped acousto-optically q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser of 2.5-W average power was used. The conversion efficiency of 43% was demonstrated. The pulses of 110 μJ energy, 7.8 ns duration and up to 10 kHz repetition rate were obtained. The signal wavelengh was temperature tuned from 1.510 μm to 1.560 μm.

  19. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Holographic sensors for diagnostics of solution components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraiskii, A. V.; Postnikov, V. A.; Suitanov, T. T.; Khamidulin, A. V.

    2010-02-01

    The properties of holographic sensors of two types are studied. The sensors are based on a three-dimensional polymer-network matrix of copolymers of acrylamide, acrylic acid (which are sensitive to the medium acidity and bivalent metal ions) and aminophenylboronic acid (sensitive to glucose). It is found that a change in the ionic composition of a solution results in changes in the distance between layers and in the diffraction efficiency of holograms. Variations in the shape of spectral lines, which are attributed to the inhomogeneity of a sensitive layer, and nonmonotonic changes in the emulsion thickness and diffraction efficiency were observed during transient processes. The composition of the components of a hydrogel medium is selected for systems which can be used as a base for glucose sensors with the mean holographic response in the region of physiological glucose concentration in model solutions achieving 40 nm/(mmol L-1). It is shown that the developed holographic sensors can be used for the visual and instrumental determination of the medium acidity, alcohol content, ionic strength, bivalent metal salts and the quality of water, in particular, for drinking.

  20. Integrated Path Detection of Co2 and CH4 Using a Waveform Driven Electro-Optic Single Sideband Laser Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Gerd; Maxwell, Stephen; Plusquellic, David

    2016-06-01

    Integrated path concentrations of ambient levels of carbon dioxide and methane have been measured during nighttime periods at NIST, Boulder (CO, USA), using a ground-based, eyesafe laser system. In this contribution, we describe the transmitter and receiver system, demonstrate measurements of CO2 and CH4 in comparison with an in situ point sensor measurement using a commercial cavity ring-down instrument, and demonstrate a speckle noise reduction method.

  1. The Resonantly Diode Pumped, Cryogenic Ho3+:YVO4 2.05-Micrometers Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    code) (301) 394-2007 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 iii Contents List of Figures iv 1. The Diode-pumped Holmium ...The Diode-pumped Holmium -doped Solid-state Laser Holmium (Ho) as a rare earth laser ion continues to gain the interest of the laser community as it...emits at eye-safe wavelengths around 2 µm and is useful for atmospheric sensing and medical applications. Diode-pumped holmium co-doped thulium (Tm

  2. Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M; Kelleher, E J R; Torrisi, F; Sun, Z; Hasan, T; Popa, D; Wang, F; Ferrari, A C; Popov, S V; Taylor, J R

    2012-10-22

    We demonstrate mode-locking of a thulium-doped fiber laser operating at 1.94 μm, using a graphene-polymer based saturable absorber. The laser outputs 3.6 ps pulses, with ~0.4 nJ energy and an amplitude fluctuation ~0.5%, at 6.46 MHz. This is a simple, low-cost, stable and convenient laser oscillator for applications where eye-safe and low-photon-energy light sources are required, such as sensing and biomedical diagnostics.

  3. Injection-seeded operation of a Q-switched Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Sammy W.; Hale, Charley P.; Magee, James R.

    1991-01-01

    Single-frequency Tm,Ho:YAG lasers operating near 2 microns are attractive sources for several applications including eye-safe laser radar (lidar) and pumping of AgGaSe2 parametric oscillators for efficient generation of longer wavelengths. As part of a program to develop a coherent lidar system using Tm,Ho:YAG lasers, a diode laser-pumped tunable CW single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG laser and a flashlamp-pumped single-transverse-mode Q-switched Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG laser were developed. The CW laser was used to injection-seed the flashlamp-pumped laser, resulting in SLM Q-switched output. Operational characteristics of the CW and Q-switched lasers and injection-seeding results are reported.

  4. Injection-seeded operation of a Q-switched Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Sammy W.; Hale, Charley P.; Magee, James R.

    1991-01-01

    Single-frequency Tm,Ho:YAG lasers operating near 2 microns are attractive sources for several applications including eye-safe laser radar (lidar) and pumping of AgGaSe2 parametric oscillators for efficient generation of longer wavelengths. As part of a program to develop a coherent lidar system using Tm,Ho:YAG lasers, a diode laser-pumped tunable CW single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG laser and a flashlamp-pumped single-transverse-mode Q-switched Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG laser were developed. The CW laser was used to injection-seed the flashlamp-pumped laser, resulting in SLM Q-switched output. Operational characteristics of the CW and Q-switched lasers and injection-seeding results are reported.

  5. An overview of avalanche photodiodes and pulsed lasers as they are used in 3D laser radar type applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dion, Bruno; Bertone, Nick

    2004-08-01

    This paper will examine how Avalanche Photodiodes (APD) and Infrared Pulsed lasers (PL) are used and optimized to provide the "intelligence" to smart weapons. The basics of APD's and PL will be covered and the principle "time of flight ranging" which is the underlining principle of 3D laser radar will be illustrated. The time of flight principle is used for range finding, lidar, 3D laser radar and speed measurements - this information can then be used to provide intelligence to the smart weapon. Examples of such systems are discussed and illustrated, for example: Cluster bombs, Proximity fuses, and how laser range finding systems can be incorporated with GPS to produce effective and lethal weapons. The APD's that are discussed include silicon APD's for cost effective weapons, and 1550nm APDs for eye-safe systems. An overview of the different PL's will be outlined, but the focus will be on 905nm laser pulsars for cost effective laser weapons.

  6. X-ray lasers and methods utilizing two component driving illumination provided by optical laser means of relatively low energy and small physical size

    DOEpatents

    Rosen, Mordecai D.; Matthews, Dennis L.

    1991-01-01

    An X-ray laser (10), and related methodology, are disclosed wherein an X-ray laser target (12) is illuminated with a first pulse of optical laser radiation (14) of relatively long duration having scarcely enough energy to produce a narrow and linear cool plasma of uniform composition (38). A second, relatively short pulse of optical laser radiation (18) is uniformly swept across the length, from end to end, of the plasma (38), at about the speed of light, to consecutively illuminate continuously succeeding portions of the plasma (38) with optical laser radiation having scarcely enough energy to heat, ionize, and invert them into the continuously succeeding portions of an X-ray gain medium. This inventive double pulse technique results in a saving of more than two orders of magnitude in driving optical laser energy, when compared to the conventional single pulse approach.

  7. Local Production of the Alternative Pathway Component Factor B Is Sufficient to Promote Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Schnabolk, Gloriane; Coughlin, Beth; Joseph, Kusumam; Kunchithapautham, Kannan; Bandyopadhyay, Mausumi; O'Quinn, Elizabeth C.; Nowling, Tamara; Rohrer, Bärbel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Complement factor B (CFB) is a required component of the alternative pathway (AP) of complement, and CFB polymorphisms are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk. Complement factor B is made in the liver, but expression has also been detected in retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-choroid. We investigated whether production of CFB by the RPE can promote AP activation in mouse choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Methods. Transgenic mice expressing CFB under the RPE65 promoter were generated and crossed onto factor B-deficient (CFB-KO) mice. Biological activity was determined in vitro using RPE monolayers and in vivo using laser-induced CNV. Contribution of systemic CFB was investigated using CFB-KO reconstituted with CFB-sufficient serum. Results. Transgenic mice (CFB-tg) expressed CFB in RPE-choroid; no CFB was detected in serum. Cultured CFB-tg RPE monolayers secreted CFB apically and basally upon exposure to oxidative stress that was biologically active. Choroidal neovascularization sizes were comparable between wild-type and CFB-tg mice, but significantly increased when compared to lesions in CFB-KO mice. Injections of CFB-sufficient serum into CFB-KO mice resulted in partial reconstitution of systemic AP activity and significantly increased CNV size. Conclusions. Mouse RPE cells express and secrete CFB sufficient to promote RPE damage and CNV. This further supports that local complement production may regulate disease processes; however, the reconstitution experiments suggest that additional components may be sequestered from the bloodstream. Understanding the process of ocular complement production and regulation will further our understanding of the AMD disease process and the requirements of a complement-based therapeutic. PMID:25593023

  8. Functionalisation of Ti6Al4V components fabricated using selective laser melting with a bioactive compound.

    PubMed

    Vaithilingam, Jayasheelan; Kilsby, Samuel; Goodridge, Ruth D; Christie, Steven D R; Edmondson, Steve; Hague, Richard J M

    2015-01-01

    Surface modification of an implant with a biomolecule is used to improve its biocompatibility and to reduce post-implant complications. In this study, a novel approach has been used to functionalise phosphonic acid monolayers with a drug. Ti6Al4V components fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM) were functionalised with Paracetamol (a pharmaceutically relevant biomolecule) using phosphonic acid based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The attachment, stability of the monolayers on the SLM fabricated surface and functionalisation of SAMs with Paracetamol were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface wettability measurements. The obtained results confirmed that SAMs were stable on the Ti6Al4V surface for over four weeks and then began to desorb from the surface. The reaction used to functionalise the phosphonic acid monolayers with Paracetamol was noted to be successful. Thus, the proposed method has the potential to immobilise drugs/proteins to SAM coated surfaces and improve their biocompatibility and reduce post-implant complications. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Unsteady fluid dynamics of several mechanical prosthetic heart valves using a two component laser Doppler anemometer system.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, T; Modi, V J

    1997-10-01

    Five typical mechanical heart valves (Starr-Edwards, Björk-Shiley convexo-concave (c-c), Björk-Shiley monostrut, Bicer-Val, and St. Jude Medical) were tested in the mitral position under the pulsatile flow condition. The test program included measurements of velocity and turbulent stresses at 5 downstream locations. The study was carried out using a sophisticated cardiac simulator in conjunction with a highly sensitive 2 component laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) system. The continuous monitoring of parametric time histories revealed useful details about the complex flow and helped to establish the locations and times of the peak parameter values. Based upon the nondimensional presentation of data, the following general conclusions can be made. First, all the 5 valve designs created elevated turbulent stresses during the accelerating and peak flow phases, presenting the possibility of thromboembolism and perhaps hemolysis. Second, the difference in valve configuration seemed to affect the flow characteristics; third, the bileaflet design of the St. Jude valve appeared to create a lower turbulence stress level.

  10. Determination of the in-plane components of motion in a Lamb wave from single-axis laser vibrometry.

    PubMed

    Rajic, Nik; Rosalie, Cedric; Norman, Patrick; Davis, Claire

    2014-06-01

    A method is proposed for determining in-plane components of motion in a Lamb wave from laser vibrometer measurements of surface motion out of plane. The approach relies on a frequency domain transformation that assumes knowledge only of the plate thickness and the bulk wave speeds. An outline of the relevant theory is followed by several validation case studies that generally affirm a useful level of accuracy and robust performance across a relatively wide frequency-thickness product range. In a comparison to the two-angle vibrometry approach, the proposed method is shown to be simpler to implement and to yield estimates with a consistently higher signal to noise ratio. The approach is then used to furnish estimates of the in-plane strains in Lamb waves propagating in an aluminum plate at frequencies below the first cut-off. These estimates are compared to strain measurements obtained from an adhesively bonded fiber Bragg grating. The agreement is shown to be excellent overall with an average discrepancy of less than 6%; however, systematic errors of twice that amount were recorded in the low-frequency-thickness product regime. These low-frequency discrepancies are not consistent with known sources of experimental error and cannot be explained by shear-lag theory.

  11. Laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of triacylglycerols and other components in fingermark samples.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Beth; Gidden, Jennifer; Lay, Jackson O; Durham, Bill

    2011-03-01

    The chemical composition of fingermarks could potentially be important for determining investigative leads, placing individuals at the time of a crime, and has applications as biomarkers of disease. Fingermark samples containing triacylglycerols (TAGs) and other components were analyzed using laser desorption/ionization (LDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF MS). Only LDI appeared to be useful for this application while conventional matrix-assisted LDI-TOF MS was not. Tandem MS was used to identify/confirm selected TAGs. A limited gender comparison, based on a simple t-distribution and peaks intensities, indicated that two TAGs showed gender specificity at the 95% confidence level and two others at 97.5% confidence. Because gender-related TAGs differences were most often close to the standard deviation of the measurements, the majority of the TAGs showed no gender specificity. Thus, LDI-TOF MS is not a reliable indicator of gender based on fingermark analysis. Cosmetic ingredients present in some samples were identified. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. SLR2000: a microlaser-based single photoelectron satellite laser ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J.; McGarry, Jan F.

    1998-01-01

    SLR2000 is an autonomous and eyesafe satellite laser ranging (SLR) station with an expected single shot range precision of about one centimeter and a normal point (time-averaged) precision better than 3 mm. The system wil provide continuous 24 hour tracking coverage for a constellation of over twenty artificial satellites. Replication costs are expected to be roughly an order of magnitude less than current operational systems, and the system will be about 75% less expensive to operate and maintain relative to manned systems. Computer simulations have predicted a daylight tracking capability to GPS and lower satellites with telescope apertures of 40 cm and have demonstrated the ability of our current autotracking algorithm to extract mean signal strengths below .001 photoelectrons per pulse from daytime background noise. The dominant cost driver in present SLR systems is the onsite and central infrastructure manpower required to operate the system, to service and maintain the complex subsystems, and to ensure that the transmitted laser beam is not a hazard to onsite personnel or to overflying aircraft. To keep development, fabrication, and maintenance costs at a minimum, we adopted the following design philosophies: (1) use off the shelf commercial components wherever possible; this allows rapid component replacement and "outsourcing" of engineering support; (2) use smaller telescopes (less than 50 cm) since this constrains the cost, size, and weight of the telescope and tracking mount; and (3) for low maintenance and failsafe reliability, choose simple versus complex technical approaches and, where possible, use passive techniques and components rather than active ones. Adherence to these philosophies has led to the SLR2000 design described here.

  13. Study of laser-induced removal of co-deposits from tokamak plasma-facing components using ion diagnostics and optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolowski, J.; Gasior, P.; Hoffman, J.; Kubkowska, M.; Rosinski, M.; Szymanski, Z.

    2010-10-01

    The paper presents studies of the application of ion diagnostics and optical spectroscopy for on-line measurement of the amount and characteristics of co-deposits from the laser-ablated surface of the plasma-facing components (e.g. graphite tiles). For removal of the co-deposit layer a repetitive Nd:YAG laser was used. Determination of the characteristics of ions emitted from the laser-illuminated targets was performed using ion collectors (on the basis of a time-of-flight method) and an optical spectrometer. The main ion stream parameters and spectral lines of deuterium and carbon or tungsten ions were measured depending on laser pulse parameters. The research proved that optical spectroscopy could be a convenient method for on-line observation of the co-deposited layer removal by means of laser ablation. In combination with the investigation of collected co-deposit dust, the performed study made it possible to state that laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy can be useful as a diagnostic method for the ablative co-deposited layer removal and the wall conditioning. The properties of modified surfaces of samples and collected dust (evaporated co-deposit) were determined using different measuring methods.

  14. Coherent laser radar atmospheric turbulence sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatt, Philip; Frehlich, Rod G.; Hannon, Stephen M.

    1998-09-01

    A single-ended, range-resolved, refractive turbulence sensor concept was investigated for ground-based and airborne platforms. This technology is of interest to the Air Force's Airborne Laser (ABL) program, because it will enable the determination of optimal engagement paths for the weapons laser. In this paper we describe the performance of a range- resolved refractive turbulence profiler which is based upon a coherent laser radar array receiver technology. We present Monte-Carlo simulation performance predictions for several sensor configurations, including a one micron ABL sensor and an eye-safe two micron ground-based sensor. In addition to its refractive turbulence sensing function, this innovative sensor will be capable of measuring wind velocity and characterizing wind turbulence.

  15. Comparative study of excimer and erbium:YAG lasers for ablation of structural components of the knee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vari, Sandor G.; Shi, Wei-Qiang; van der Veen, Maurits J.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Miller, J. M.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1991-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficiency and thermal effect of a 135 ns pulsed-stretched XeCl excimer laser (308 nm) and a free-running Erbium:YAG laser (2940 nm) with 200 microsecond(s) pulse duration for ablation of knee joint structures (hyaline and fibrous cartilage, tendon and bone). The radiant exposure used for tissue ablation ranged from 2 to 15 J/cm2 for the XeCl excimer and from 33 to 120 J/cm2 for Er:YAG. The excimer and Er:YAG lasers were operated at 4 and 5 Hz respectively. The ablative laser energy was delivered to tissue through fibers. Ablation rates of soft tissues (hyaline and fibrous cartilage, tendon) varied from 8.5 to 203 micrometers /pulse for excimer and from 8.2 to 273 micrometers /pulse for Er:YAG lasers. Ablation rates of soft tissues are linearly dependent on the radiant exposure. Within the range of parameters tested all the tissues except the bone could be rapidly ablated by both lasers. Bone ablation was much less efficient, requiring 15 J/cm2 and 110 J/cm2 radiant exposure for excimer and Er:YAG lasers to ablate 9.5 and 8.2 micrometers tissue per pulse. However, excimer laser ablation produced less thermal damage in the tissues studied compared to Er:YAG at the same laser parameters. The authors conclude that both lasers are capable of efficient knee joint tissue ablation. XeCl excimer laser requires an order of magnitude less energy than Er:YAG laser for comparable tissue ablation.

  16. 1.6 μm microchip laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šulc, J.; Jelínková, H.; Ryba-Romanowski, W.; Lukasiewicz, T.

    2009-03-01

    Properties of new pulsed-diode-pumped Er:YVO4 and Er:YVO4+CaO microchip lasers working in an ``eye-safe'' spectral region were investigated. As a pumping source, a fiber coupled (core diameter-200 μm) laser diode emitting radiation at wavelength 976 nm was used. The laser diode was operating in pulsed regime with 3 ms pulse width, and 20 Hz repetition rate. The result obtained was 175 mW and 152 mW output peak power for the Er:YVO4 and Er:YVO4+CaO lasers, respectively. The maximal efficiency with respect to the absorbed power was ~ 5%. The laser emission for Er:YVO4 microchip was observed in detail in the range 1593 nm to 1604 nm with respect to pumping. However, for Er:YVO4+CaO crystal only 1604 nm was generated.

  17. Laser Surface Treatment of Hydro and Thermal Power Plant Components and Their Coatings: A Review and Recent Findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, B. S.

    2015-11-01

    High-power diode laser (HPDL) surface modification of hydro and thermal power plant components is of the utmost importance to minimize their damages occurring due to cavitation erosion, water droplet erosion, and particle erosion (CE, WDE, and PE). Special emphasis is given on the HPDL surface treatment of martensitic and precipitate-hardened stainless steels, Ti6Al4V alloy, plasma ion nitro-carburized layers, high pressure high velocity oxy-fuel and twin-wire arc sprayed coatings. WDE test results of all these materials and coatings in `untreated' and `HPDL- treated at 1550 °C' conditions, up to 8.55 million cycles, are already available. Their WDE testing was further continued up to 10.43 million cycles. The X20Cr13 and X10CrNiMoV1222, the most common martensitic stainless steels used in hydro and thermal power plants, were HPDL surface treated at higher temperature (1650 °C) and their WDE test results were also obtained up to 10.43 million cycles. It is observed that the increased HPDL surface temperature from 1550 to 1650 °C has resulted in significant improvement in their WDE resistances because of increased martensitic (ά) phase at higher temperature. After conducting long-range WDE tests, the correlation of CE, WDE, and PE resistances of these materials and protective coatings with their mechanical properties such as fracture toughness and microhardness product, ultimate resilience, modified resilience, and ultimate modified resilience has been reviewed and discussed. One of the edges of a 500 MW low pressure steam turbine moving blade (X10CrNiMoV1222 stainless steel) was HPDL surface treated at 1550 °C and its radii of curvatures and deflections were measured. These were compared with the data available earlier from a flat rectangular sample of similar composition and identical HPDL surface temperature.

  18. Three-component laser Doppler velocimetry measurements in the vicinity of mechanical heart valves in a mock-circulatory loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Richard Scott

    Streakline flow visualization and three-component laser Doppler velocimetry were conducted in a mock-circulatory loop on four mechanical heart valve types in the mitral position. Measurements were conducted in the regurgitant flow region proximal to the valve. Results for the Bjork-Shiley Monostrutsp{TM} valve showed a highly non-uniform flow at valve closure, with very large velocities in the minor orifice region. These velocities were on the order of 15-20 mps and lasted less than one millisecond. Following closure, an interval of sustained regurgitant flow persisted for the duration of systole. Reynolds stresses were calculated from three-dimensional data, and yielded a maximum of 8,100 dyne/cmsp2. Values as high as 80,000 dyne/cmsp2 were calculated during the initial spike, but due to the intermittency of the spike, they are artificially high. Similar measurements were conducted in the minor orifice of the Medtronic-Hall valve, and maximum velocities of about 4 mps were measured during the sustained regurgitant flow. Maximum Reynolds shear stresses were about 7,000 dyne/cmsp2. The velocity spike at closing was noted with this valve also. Two-component measurements around the center hole in the occluder showed a sustained jet with maximum velocities of about 1 mps, and maximum Reynolds shear stresses of about 2,000 dyne/cmsp2. Measurements in the St. Jude Medical valve showed velocities and stresses to be very low. No closing spike was measured, and sustained velocities were observed in the hinge region of about 0.2 mps with maximum stresses of about 1,000 dyne/cmsp2. The CarboMedicssp{TM} valve showed a regurgitant jets emanating from the gap between the leaflet and valve housing ring, with velocities of 3.3 mps for the duration of systole, and calculated stresses of 8,100 dyne/cmsp2. No closing spike was noted. Differences between two and three-dimensional Reynolds shear stresses were significant only at locations where two-dimensional calculated values were

  19. All fiber thulium-doped fiber laser pumped Q-switched Ho:YAP laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ting; Ye, Xisheng; Yang, Zhongguo; Chen, Xiaolong; Xia, Wenbin; Zhang, Jiayang; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Jianyu; Si, Jiliang; Chen, Weibiao

    2017-05-01

    The high power infrared 2μm lasers have been extensively investigated for a number of commercial, scientific and engineering applications, such as remote chemical sensing, medical diagnostics, eye-safe laser radar, and environmental monitoring. Furthermore, high-power 2μm lasers are effective pump sources of optical parametrical oscillators and optical parametrical amplifications to generate mid-infrared 3-5μm laser. In recent years, Ho:YAlO3(Ho:YAP) crystal has drawn great attention as a promising efficient laser material for its long emission wavelength at 2118nm. An acoustic-optical Q-switched Ho:YAP laser pumped by an all fiber thulium-doped fiber laser is demonstrated. The all fiber thulium-doped fiber laser can emit 80W output power, and the output laser wavelength is 1915nm. By using this 1915nm laser to end pump the AO Q-switched Ho:YAP laser system, 2118nm laser with 30W average power and 45ns pulse width at 20kHz repetition rates was obtained.

  20. [Comparative evaluation of influence of low-intensity laser radiation of different spectrum components and regimen of laser work upon microcirculation in comprehensive treatment of chronic parodontitis].

    PubMed

    Krechina, E K; Shidova, A V; Maslova, V V

    2008-01-01

    Comparative study of the influence details of low-intensity pulse and continuous oscillation of laser radiation of red and infrared parts of spectrum upon microcirculation indices in comprehensive treatment of chronic parodontitis of light and middle severity was performed. For the first time the predominantly activating influence upon microcirculation in gingival tissues of the pulsed laser radiation in the red part of spectrum was established.

  1. Measurement of vapor/liquid distributions in a binary-component fuel spray using laser imaging of droplet scattering and vapor absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shiyan; Zhang, Yuyin; Wu, Shenqi; Xu, Bin

    2014-08-01

    Fuel volatility has a great effect on its evaporation processes and the mixture formation and thus combustion and emissions formation processes in internal combustion engines. To date, however, instead of the actual gasoline or diesel fuel, many researchers have been using single-component fuel in their studies, because the composition of the former is too complicated to understand the real physics behind the evaporation and combustion characteristics. Several research groups have reported their results on droplets evaporation in a spray of multi-component fuel, carried out both numerically and experimentally. However, there are plenty of difficulties in quantitative determination of vapor concentration and droplet distributions of each component in a multicomponent fuel spray. In this study, to determine the vapor phase concentration and droplet distributions in an evaporating binary component fuel spray, a laser diagnostics based on laser extinction by droplet scattering and vapor absorption was developed. In practice, measurements of the vapor concentration distributions of the lower (n-tridencane) and higher (n-octane) volatility components in the binary component fuel sprays have been carried out at ambient temperatures of 473K and 573K, by substituting p-xylene for noctane or α-methylnaphthalene for n-tridecane. p-Xylene and α-methylnaphthalene were selected as the substitutes is because they have strong absorption band near 266nm and transparent near 532nm and, their thermo-physical properties are similar to those of the original component. As a demonstration experiment, vapor/liquid distribution of the lower boiling point (LBP) and higher boiling point (HBP) components in the binary component fuel spray have been obtained.

  2. In situ identification of organic components of ink used in books from the 1900s by atmospheric pressure matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giurato, Laura; Candura, Andrea; Grasso, Giuseppe; Spoto, Giuseppe

    2009-11-01

    This paper describes the use of atmospheric pressure/matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (AP/MALDI-MS) as a spatially resolved analytical technique for the study of organic components of inks used to print coloured parts of ancient books. The possibility to operate at atmospheric pressure makes MALDI-MS a new in situ micro-destructive diagnostic tool suitable for analysing samples in air, simplifying the investigation of the organic components of artistic and archaeological objects. In this work, several organic dyes and pigments were identified in situ by analysing different coloured areas of books printed in the years 1911 and 1920. The detected colouring materials, which were available since the 1890s, were often identified as a mixture, confirming the typical procedures used in the lithographic printing processes. The matrix deposition and the laser desorption process did not cause visible alteration of the sample surface.

  3. Stable Gain-Switched Thulium Fiber Laser With 140-nm Tuning Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fengqiu; Meng, Yafei; Kelleher, Edmund; Guo, Guoxiang; Li, Yao; Xu, Yongbing; Zhu, Shining

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a gain-switched thulium fiber laser that can be continuously tuned over 140 nm, while maintaining stable nanosecond single-pulse operation. To the best of our knowledge, this system represents the broadest tuning range for a gain-switched fiber laser. The system simplicity and wideband wavelength tunability combined with the ability to control the temporal characteristics of the gain-switched pulses mean this is a versatile source highly suited to a wide range of applications in the eye-safe region of the infrared, including spectroscopy, sensing and material processing, as well as being a practical seed source for pumping nonlinear processes.

  4. Proximal Detection of Traces of Energetic Materials with an Eye-Safe UV Raman Prototype Developed for Civil Applications.

    PubMed

    Chirico, Roberto; Almaviva, Salvatore; Colao, Francesco; Fiorani, Luca; Nuvoli, Marcello; Schweikert, Wenka; Schnürer, Frank; Cassioli, Luigi; Grossi, Silvana; Murra, Daniele; Menicucci, Ivano; Angelini, Federico; Palucci, Antonio

    2015-12-22

    A new Raman-based apparatus for proximal detection of energetic materials on people, was developed and tested for the first time. All the optical and optoelectronics components of the apparatus, as well as their optical matching, were carefully chosen and designed to respect international eye-safety regulations. In this way, the apparatus is suitable for civil applications on people in public areas such as airports and metro or railway stations. The acquisition software performs the data analysis in real-time to provide a fast response to the operator. Moreover, it allows for deployment of the apparatus either as a stand alone device or as part of a more sophisticated warning system architecture made up of several sensors. Using polyamide as substrate, the apparatus was able to detect surface densities of ammonium nitrate (AN), 2-methyl-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNT), 3-nitrooxy-2,2-bis(nitrooxymethyl)propyl] nitrate (PETN) and urea nitrate (UN) in the range of 100-1000 μg/cm² at a distance of 6.4 m using each time a single laser pulse of 3 mJ/cm². The limit of detection calculated for AN is 289 μg/cm². AN and UN provided the highest percentages of true positives (>82% for surface densities of 100-400 μg/cm² and fingerprints) followed by TNT and PETN (17%-70% for surface densities of 400-1000 μg/cm² and fingerprints).

  5. Proximal Detection of Traces of Energetic Materials with an Eye-Safe UV Raman Prototype Developed for Civil Applications

    PubMed Central

    Chirico, Roberto; Almaviva, Salvatore; Colao, Francesco; Fiorani, Luca; Nuvoli, Marcello; Schweikert, Wenka; Schnürer, Frank; Cassioli, Luigi; Grossi, Silvana; Murra, Daniele; Menicucci, Ivano; Angelini, Federico; Palucci, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    A new Raman-based apparatus for proximal detection of energetic materials on people, was developed and tested for the first time. All the optical and optoelectronics components of the apparatus, as well as their optical matching, were carefully chosen and designed to respect international eye-safety regulations. In this way, the apparatus is suitable for civil applications on people in public areas such as airports and metro or railway stations. The acquisition software performs the data analysis in real-time to provide a fast response to the operator. Moreover, it allows for deployment of the apparatus either as a stand alone device or as part of a more sophisticated warning system architecture made up of several sensors. Using polyamide as substrate, the apparatus was able to detect surface densities of ammonium nitrate (AN), 2-methyl-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNT), 3-nitrooxy-2,2-bis(nitrooxymethyl)propyl] nitrate (PETN) and urea nitrate (UN) in the range of 100–1000 μg/cm2 at a distance of 6.4 m using each time a single laser pulse of 3 mJ/cm2. The limit of detection calculated for AN is 289 μg/cm2. AN and UN provided the highest percentages of true positives (>82% for surface densities of 100–400 μg/cm2 and fingerprints) followed by TNT and PETN (17%–70% for surface densities of 400–1000 μg/cm2 and fingerprints). PMID:26703613

  6. Functional Safety of Hybrid Laser Safety Systems - How can a Combination between Passive and Active Components Prevent Accidents?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugauer, F. P.; Stiehl, T. H.; Zaeh, M. F.

    Modern laser systems are widely used in industry due to their excellent flexibility and high beam intensities. This leads to an increased hazard potential, because conventional laser safety barriers only offer a short protection time when illuminated with high laser powers. For that reason active systems are used more and more to prevent accidents with laser machines. These systems must fulfil the requirements of functional safety, e.g. according to IEC 61508, which causes high costs. The safety provided by common passive barriers is usually unconsidered in this context. In the presented approach, active and passive systems are evaluated from a holistic perspective. To assess the functional safety of hybrid safety systems, the failure probability of passive barriers is analysed and added to the failure probability of the active system.

  7. High-power 2-μm diode-pumped Tm:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Raymond J.; Sutton, Steven B.; Honea, Eric C.; Skidmore, Jay A.; Emanuel, Mark A.

    1996-03-01

    Using a scalable diode end-pumping technology developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory we have demonstrated a compact Tm:YAG laser capable of generating greater than 50 W of cw 2 micrometer laser output power. The design and operational characteristics of this laser, which was built originally for use in assessing laser surgical techniques, are discussed. The 2 micrometer radiation produced by the 3F4 - 3H6 transition of Tm3+ has many practical applications because it is strongly absorbed by water and also because it is an 'eye-safe' wavelength. The strong absorption of 2 micrometer radiation by water makes this transition a very attractive candidate for performing laser surgical procedures as most tissue types are predominately composed of liquid water. The fact that 2 micrometer radiation is considered 'eye-safe' makes this transition attractive for laser range finding and remote sensing applications where other laser wavelengths could pose a safety hazard. At sufficiently high doping densities, Tm3+ exhibits a beneficial two-for-one quantum pump efficiency enabling well developed AlGaAs laser diode arrays to be used as efficient excitation sources. Many applications requiring 2 micrometer laser radiation such as remote sensing, laser radar, anti sensor, sensor spoofing, and OPO pumping have driven the development of diode pumped all solid state TM3+ laser systems because of their potential for efficiency, compactness, and ruggedness. Here we focus on Tm3+:YAG and the scalable diode end-pumping technology developed at LLNL which enables higher average power operation of diode pumped Tm3+ laser systems than has previously been possible. To date we have demonstrated cw operation of this laser to power levels of 51 W. The end-pumping technology used is the same as was previously used to demonstrate a 100 mJ Q-switched Nd:YLF laser. (Truncated.)

  8. Remote chemical sensing by laser optical pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, C.G.; Magnotta, F.

    1996-08-01

    We are exploring a new approach to remote chemical identification that promises higher precision than can be achieved by conventional DIAL approaches. This technique also addresses and potentially solves the problem of detecting a target gas in the presence of an interfering gas or gases. This new approach utilizes an eye-safe infrared optical pumping pulse to deplete the population of a specific rotational level(s) and then sends probe pulses at the same or different wavelengths to interrogate the bleaching of the absorption. We have experimentally measured optical saturation fluence level at atmospheric pressure for HCl, and find this level to be {approximately}1 mJ/cm{sup 2}, significantly below eye-safe limits in agreement with calculations. Calculations have been performed on other molecules of interest with similar results. In the laboratory, using time-delay-replicated pulses at a single frequency we have made absorption measurements with precision levels routinely approaching 0.1% after averaging 200 laser pulses. These results as well as those of two other pulse experiments will be presented. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Comparing the above-ground component biomass estimates of western junipers using airborne and full-waveform terrestrial laser scanning data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, R.; Glenn, N. F.; Spaete, L.; Hardegree, S. P.

    2012-12-01

    With the rapid expansion into shrub steppe and grassland ecosystems over the last century, western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis var. occidentalis Hook) is becoming a major component of the regional carbon pool in the Intermountain West. Understanding how biomass is allocated across individual tree components is necessary to understand the uncertainties in biomass estimates and more accurately quantify biomass and carbon dynamics in these ecosystems. Estimates of component biomass are also important for canopy fuel load assessment and predicting rangeland fire behavior. Airborne LiDAR can capture vegetation structure over larger scales, but the high crown penetration and sampling density of terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) instruments can better capture tree components. In this study, we assessed the ability of airborne LiDAR to estimate biomass of tree components of western juniper with validation data from field measured tees and a full-waveform TLS. Sixteen juniper trees (height range 1.5-10 m) were randomly selected using a double sampling strategy from different height classes in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in the Owyhee Mountains, southwestern Idaho, USA. Each tree was scanned with a full-waveform TLS, and the dry biomass of each component (foliage, branches and main stem) were measured by destructive harvesting of the trees. We compare the allometric relationships of biomass estimates of the tree components obtained from field-measured trees and TLS-based estimates with the estimates from discrete-return airborne-LiDAR based estimates.

  10. Femtosecond laser excitation of mixed Ar/Kr clusters: peculiarities of K-line x-ray production from nanoplasma under varied fraction of initial gas components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhvaniya, I. A.; Dzhidzhoev, M. S.; Gordienko, V. M.

    2017-09-01

    For the first time, we defined the range of krypton fraction (C Kr) in an initial binary Ar-Kr gas mixture that provides the production of large (N ~ 106 atoms/cluster) mixed Ar/Kr clusters under co-expansion of the mixture at room temperature and the stagnant pressure of 25 bar. Mixed Ar/Kr clusters exist at the krypton fraction of 3-15%. The presence of mixed clusters is detected by the simultaneous generation of both x-ray Kα lines of argon (E  =  3.1 keV) and krypton (E  =  12.7 keV) from nanoplasma originating as a result of femtosecond nonlinear laser excitation with intensity about 5 · 1017 W cm-2. It was shown that the amplitude of lines in dual-energy x-ray spectrum can be controlled by proper selection of the fraction of initial gas mixture components. Maximal laser energy conversion efficiency to krypton x-ray line is achieved for pure krypton clusters (i.e. C Kr  =  100%) and reaches 2 · 10-7 at laser intensity of 5 · 1017 W cm-2. The laser energy conversion efficiency to argon x-ray line reaches the maximal value of 3 · 10-6 at C kr  =  0%.

  11. Laser-based communication link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenersen, Knut; Landroe, Stig; Christensen, Oeyvind

    1993-04-01

    A prototype of a laser based communication link for point to point transmission of data through the atmosphere is described. The link has a laser transmitter and a receiver at each end, which allows full duplex communication. The link has a EUROCOM B interface and can be used for transmission of 512 kbit/s data between two switches in the Norwegian military tactical communication system TADKOM. The data are transmitted through the air as FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) modulated laser light. The laser transmitter is an eyesafe 10 mW diode laser with 1.55 micrometer wavelength. The transmitter and receiver lobes have an angular divergence of about 1.5 mrad, and the system requires an alignment accuracy of better than 0.5 mrad for good performance. The maximum range of the link is slightly larger than the optical visibility for optical visibilities below 2 km. For 10 km visibility the maximum range is about 5 km. Based on available visibility statistics, it was calculated that a 1 km link should be in operation 97 to 99% of the time (average over one year) for typical locations in Norway. The link was tested with TADKOM equipment in laboratory.

  12. Elimination of continuous-wave component in a figure-eight fiber laser based on a polarization asymmetrical NOLM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Escobar, E.; Bello-Jiménez, M.; Pottiez, O.; Ibarra-Escamilla, B.; López-Estopier, R.; Duran-Sánchez, M.; García Ramírez, M. A.; Kuzin, E. A.

    2017-07-01

    The operation of a nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) with polarization-dependent transmission was analyzed to perform high-quality ultrashort optical pulses in a figure-eight fiber laser configuration. The design of the NOLM is based on a symmetrical coupler, a loop of highly twisted low-birefringence fiber and a quarter-wave retarder (QWR) to provide polarization asymmetry. Pedestal-free optical pulses were obtained by careful adjustment of the NOLM low-power transmission, which is easily realized in our setup by rotation of the QWR. The laser is capable of operating in both the conventional soliton and the noise-like pulse regimes. Optical pulses as short as 1.39 ps were observed at the fundamental repetition frequency of 0.8 MHz. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by the elimination of low-intensity radiation at the laser output.

  13. Laser Powder Welding with a Co-based alloy for repairing steam circuit components in thermal power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, E.; Tobar, M. J.; Yáñez, A.; García, J.; Taibo, J.

    Due to the costs of replacing certain damage parts in thermal power stations by new ones, it is frequent to carry out several tasks of repair and maintenance by means of conventional welding. With the objective of improving and optimizing these maintenance duties, a laser powder welding process of a Co-based alloy, Stellite®6, on a Cr-Mo low alloy steel, ASTM A182 F11, has been developed. Moreover, a comparative study of morphology and microstructure of the deposited layers has been carried out between the laser process and a conventional one.

  14. High-power gas-discharge excimer ArF, KrCl, KrF and XeCl lasers utilising two-component gas mixtures without a buffer gas

    SciTech Connect

    Razhev, A M; Kargapol'tsev, E S; Churkin, D S

    2016-03-31

    Results of an experimental study of the influence of a gas mixture (laser active medium) composition on an output energy and total efficiency of gas-discharge excimer lasers on ArF* (193 nm), KrCl* (222 nm), KrF* (248 nm) and XeCl* (308 nm) molecules operating without a buffer gas are presented. The optimal ratios of gas components (from the viewpoint of a maximum output energy) of an active medium are found, which provide an efficient operation of laser sources. It is experimentally confirmed that for gas-discharge excimer lasers on halogenides of inert gases the presence of a buffer gas in an active medium is not a necessary condition for efficient operation. For the first time, in two-component gas mixtures of repetitively pulsed gas-discharge excimer lasers on electron transitions of excimer molecules ArF*, KrCl*, KrF* and XeCl*, the pulsed energy of laser radiation obtained under pumping by a transverse volume electric discharge in a low-pressure gas mixture without a buffer gas reached up to 170 mJ and a high pulsed output power (of up to 24 MW) was obtained at a FWHM duration of the KrF-laser pulse of 7 ns. The maximal total efficiency obtained in the experiment with two-component gas mixtures of KrF and XeCl lasers was 0.8%. (lasers)

  15. Development of an in-situ multi-component reinforced Al-based metal matrix composite by direct metal laser sintering technique — Optimization of process parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik; Saha, Partha

    2014-07-01

    In the present investigation, an in-situ multi-component reinforced aluminum based metal matrix composite was fabricated by the combination of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis and direct metal laser sintering process. The different mixtures of Al, TiO{sub 2} and B{sub 4}C powders were used to initiate and maintain the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis by laser during the sintering process. It was found from the X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy that the reinforcements like Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiC, and TiB{sub 2} were formed in the composite. The scanning electron microscopy revealed the distribution of the reinforcement phases in the composite and phase identities. The variable parameters such as powder layer thickness, laser power, scanning speed, hatching distance and composition of the powder mixture were optimized for higher density, lower porosity and higher microhardness using Taguchi method. Experimental investigation shows that the density of the specimen mainly depends upon the hatching distance, composition and layer thickness. On the other hand, hatching distance, layer thickness and laser power are the significant parameters which influence the porosity. The composition, laser power and layer thickness are the key influencing parameters for microhardness. - Highlights: • The reinforcements such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiC, and TiB{sub 2} were produced in Al-MMC through SHS. • The density is mainly influenced by the material composition and hatching distance. • Hatching distance is the major influencing parameter on porosity. • The material composition is the significant parameter to enhance the microhardness. • The SEM micrographs reveal the distribution of TiC, TiB{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the composite.

  16. High-power optical parametric oscillator based on a high-pulse repetition rate, master Nd : KGW laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanovich, M. V.; Grigor'ev, A. V.; Lantsov, K. I.; Lepchenkov, K. V.; Ryabtsev, A. G.; Ryabtsev, G. I.; Shchemelev, M. A.; Titovets, V. S.; Agrawal, L.; Bhardwaj, A.

    2017-05-01

    An optical scheme of an optical parametric oscillator with a master laser based on an Nd : KGW active element excited by two orthogonally oriented diode side pump modules is proposed to form radiation pulses with energies above 30 mJ and a repetition rate of 1 - 20 Hz in the eye-safe spectral range of 1.5 - 1.6 μm. The two-module excitation of the active medium makes the distribution of the master laser radiation intensity in the output beam cross section more uniform and provides a reliable operation of the optical parametric oscillator.

  17. Additive Manufacturing of IN100 Superalloy Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy for Turbine Engine Hot-Section Component Repair: Process Development, Modeling, Microstructural Characterization, and Process Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Ranadip; Das, Suman

    2015-09-01

    This article describes additive manufacturing (AM) of IN100, a high gamma-prime nickel-based superalloy, through scanning laser epitaxy (SLE), aimed at the creation of thick deposits onto like-chemistry substrates for enabling repair of turbine engine hot-section components. SLE is a metal powder bed-based laser AM technology developed for nickel-base superalloys with equiaxed, directionally solidified, and single-crystal microstructural morphologies. Here, we combine process modeling, statistical design-of-experiments (DoE), and microstructural characterization to demonstrate fully metallurgically bonded, crack-free and dense deposits exceeding 1000 μm of SLE-processed IN100 powder onto IN100 cast substrates produced in a single pass. A combined thermal-fluid flow-solidification model of the SLE process compliments DoE-based process development. A customized quantitative metallography technique analyzes digital cross-sectional micrographs and extracts various microstructural parameters, enabling process model validation and process parameter optimization. Microindentation measurements show an increase in the hardness by 10 pct in the deposit region compared to the cast substrate due to microstructural refinement. The results illustrate one of the very few successes reported for the crack-free deposition of IN100, a notoriously "non-weldable" hot-section alloy, thus establishing the potential of SLE as an AM method suitable for hot-section component repair and for future new-make components in high gamma-prime containing crack-prone nickel-based superalloys.

  18. Design and daytime performance of laser-induced fluorescence spectrum lidar for simultaneous detection of multiple components, dissolved organic matter, phycocyanin, and chlorophyll in river water.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yasunori; Kakuda, Kei; Yokoyama, Mizuho; Kubota, Tomoki; Tomida, Takayuki; Park, Ho-Dong

    2016-08-20

    In this work, we developed mobile laser-induced fluorescence spectrum (LIFS) lidar based on preliminary experiments on the excitation emission matrix of a water sample and a method for reducing solar background light using the synchronous detection technique. The combination of a UV short-pulse laser (355 nm, 6 ns) for fluorescence excitation with a 10-100 ns short-time synchronous detection using a gated image-intensified multi-channel CCD of the fluorescence made the LIFS lidar operation possible even in daytime. The LIFS lidar with this construction demonstrated the potential of natural river/lake water quality monitoring at the Tenryu River/Lake Suwa. Three main components in the fluorescence data of the water, dissolved organic matter, phycocyanin, and chlorophyll, were extracted by spectral analysis using the standard spectral functions of these components. Their concentrations were estimated by adapting experimentally calibrated data. Results of long-term field observations using our LIFS lidar from 2010 to 2012 show the necessity of simultaneous multi-component detection to understand the natural water environment.

  19. High-efficiency high-brightness diode lasers at 1470 nm/1550 nm for medical and defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallup, Kendra; Ungar, Jeff; Vaissie, Laurent; Lammert, Rob; Hu, Wentao

    2012-03-01

    Diode lasers in the 1400 nm to 1600 nm regime are used in a variety of applications including pumping Er:YAG lasers, range finding, materials processing, aesthetic medical treatments and surgery. In addition to the compact size, efficiency, and low cost advantages of traditional diode lasers, high power semiconductor lasers in the eye-safe regime are becoming widely used in an effort to minimize the unintended impact of potentially hazardous scattered optical radiation from the laser source, the optical delivery system, or the target itself. In this article we describe the performance of high efficiency high brightness InP laser bars at 1470nm and 1550nm developed at QPC Lasers for applications ranging from surgery to rangefinding.

  20. The effect of travel speed on thermal response in CO{sub 2} laser welding of small electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Gianoulakis, S.E.; Burchett, S.N.; Fuerschbach, P.W.; Knorovsky, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    A comprehensive three-dimensional numerical investigation of the effect of heat source travel speed on temperatures and resulting thermal stresses was performed for CO{sub 2}-laser welding. The test specimen was a small thermal battery header containing several stress-sensitive glass-to-metal seals surrounding the electrical connections and a temperature sensitive ignitor located under the header near the center. Predictions of the thermal stresses and temperatures in the battery header were made for several travel speeds of the laser. The travel speeds examined ranged from 10 mm/sec to 50 mm/sec. The results indicate that faster weld speeds result in lower temperatures and stresses for the same size weld. This is because the higher speed welds are more efficient, requiring less energy to produce a given weld. Less energy absorbed by the workpiece results in lower temperatures, which results in lower stresses.

  1. Measurement and Analysis of Porosity in Al-10Si-1Mg Components Additively Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Suraj; Cunningham, Ross; Ozturk, Tugce; Rollett, Anthony D.

    2016-10-18

    Aluminum alloys are candidate materials for weight critical applications because of their excellent strength and stiffness to weight ratio. However, defects such as voids decrease the strength and fatigue life of these alloys, which can limit the application of Selective Laser Melting. In this study, the average volume fraction, average size, and size distribution of pores in Al10-Si-1Mg samples built using Selective Laser Melting have been characterized. Synchrotron high energy X-rays were used to perform computed tomography on volumes of order one cubic millimeter with a resolution of approximately 1.5 μm. Substantial variations in the pore size distributions were found as a function of process conditions. Even under conditions that ensured that all locations were melted at least once, a significant number density was found of pores above 5 μm in diameter.

  2. High-power gas-discharge excimer ArF, KrCl, KrF and XeCl lasers utilising two-component gas mixtures without a buffer gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razhev, A. M.; Kargapol'tsev, E. S.; Churkin, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    Results of an experimental study of the influence of a gas mixture (laser active medium) composition on an output energy and total efficiency of gas-discharge excimer lasers on ArF* (193 nm), KrCl* (222 nm), KrF* (248 nm) and XeCl* (308 nm) molecules operating without a buffer gas are presented. The optimal ratios of gas components (from the viewpoint of a maximum output energy) of an active medium are found, which provide an efficient operation of laser sources. It is experimentally confirmed that for gas-discharge excimer lasers on halogenides of inert gases the presence of a buffer gas in an active medium is not a necessary condition for efficient operation. For the first time, in two-component gas mixtures of repetitively pulsed gas-discharge excimer lasers on electron transitions of excimer molecules ArF*, KrCl*, KrF* and XeCl*, the pulsed energy of laser radiation obtained under pumping by a transverse volume electric discharge in a low-pressure gas mixture without a buffer gas reached up to 170 mJ and a high pulsed output power (of up to 24 MW) was obtained at a FWHM duration of the KrF-laser pulse of 7 ns. The maximal total efficiency obtained in the experiment with two-component gas mixtures of KrF and XeCl lasers was 0.8%.

  3. Laser development for optimal helicopter obstacle warning system LADAR performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaniv, A.; Krupkin, V.; Abitbol, A.; Stern, J.; Lurie, E.; German, A.; Solomonovich, S.; Lubashitz, B.; Harel, Y.; Engart, S.; Shimoni, Y.; Hezy, S.; Biltz, S.; Kaminetsky, E.; Goldberg, A.; Chocron, J.; Zuntz, N.; Zajdman, A.

    2005-04-01

    Low lying obstacles present immediate danger to both military and civilian helicopters performing low-altitude flight missions. A LADAR obstacle detection system is the natural solution for enhancing helicopter safety and improving the pilot situation awareness. Elop is currently developing an advanced Surveillance and Warning Obstacle Ranging and Display (SWORD) system for the Israeli Air Force. Several key factors and new concepts have contributed to system optimization. These include an adaptive FOV, data memorization, autonomous obstacle detection and warning algorithms and the use of an agile laser transmitter. In the present work we describe the laser design and performance and discuss some of the experimental results. Our eye-safe laser is characterized by its pulse energy, repetition rate and pulse length agility. By dynamically controlling these parameters, we are able to locally optimize the system"s obstacle detection range and scan density in accordance with the helicopter instantaneous maneuver.

  4. Investigation on scalable high-power lasers with enhanced 'eye-safety' for future weapon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigotta, S.; Diener, K.; Eichhorn, M.; Galecki, L.; Geiss, L.; Ibach, T.; Scharf, H.; von Salisch, M.; Schöner, J.; Vincent, G.

    2016-10-01

    The possible use of lasers as weapons becomes more and more interesting for military forces. Besides the generation of high laser power and good beam quality, also safety considerations, e. g. concerning eye hazards, are of importance. The MELIAS (medium energy laser in the "eye-safe" spectral domain) project of ISL addresses these issues, and ISL has developed the most powerful solid-state laser in the "eye-safe" wavelength region up to now. "Eye safety" in this context means that light at a wavelength of > 1.4 μm does not penetrate the eye and thus will not be focused onto the retina. The basic principle of this technology is that a laser source needs to be scalable in power to far beyond 100 kW without a significant deterioration in beam quality. ISL has studied a very promising laser technology: the erbium heat-capacity laser. This type of laser is characterised by a compact design, a simple and robust technology and a scaling law which, in principle, allows the generation of laser power far beyond megawatts at small volumes. Previous investigations demonstrated the scalability of the SSHCL and up to 4.65 kW and 440 J in less than 800 ms have been obtained. Opticalto- optical efficiencies of over 41% and slope efficiencies of over 51% are obtained. The residual thermal gradients, due to non perfect pumping homogeneity, negatively affect the performance in terms of laser pulse energy, duration and beam quality. In the course of the next two years, ISL will be designing a 25 to 30 kW erbium heat-capacity laser.

  5. Coilable single crystal fibers of doped-YAG for high power laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Gisele; Soleimani, Nazila; Ponting, Bennett; Gebremichael, Eminet

    2013-05-01

    Single crystal fibers are an intermediate between laser crystals and doped glass fibers. They can combine the advantages of both by guiding laser light and matching the efficiencies found in bulk crystals, making them ideal candidates for high-power laser and fiber laser applications. In particular, a very interesting feature of single crystal fiber is that they can generate high power in the eye-safe range (Er:YAG) with a high efficiency, opening new possibilities for portable directed energy weapons. This work focuses on the growth of a flexible fiber with a core of dopant (Er, Nd, Yb, etc…) that will exhibit good waveguiding properties. Direct growth or a combination of growth and cladding experiments are described. We have, to date, demonstrated the growth of a flexible foot long 45 microns doped YAG fiber. Scattering loss measurements at visible wavelengths along with dopant profile characterization are also presented. Laser characterization for these fibers is in progress.

  6. Characterization of Guided Mode Resonance Filters for Wavelength Stabilization of Thulium Fiber Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dax, Tany; Richardson, Martin; Sims, Andrew

    2009-10-01

    Stable, eye-safe lasers are important for use in medical environments and atmospheric propagation. A Guided Mode Resonance Filter (GMRF) consists of a waveguide between a layer of substrate and a diffractive layer. The GMRFs are produced at UNC Charlotte. The Thulium (Tm) doped fiber used consists of an octagonal undoped fiber with a doped core, and is the gain medium of the fiber laser. The Laser Plasma Laboratory at the UCF College of Optics and Photonics performed the necessary characterization of the output spectra and damage thresholds of the GMRF when used as the feedback element of the Thulium fiber lasers. This summer's Research Experience for Undergraduates project aided in this characterization. The laser reached 10W of stabilized output. Further, the GMRFs withstood thermal changes and focused power with no damage or change in output spectra.

  7. Treatment of erythemato-telangiectatic rosacea with brimonidine alone or combined with vascular laser based on preliminary instrumental evaluation of the vascular component.

    PubMed

    Micali, Giuseppe; Dall'Oglio, Federica; Verzì, Anna Elisa; Luppino, Ivano; Bhatt, Karishma; Lacarrubba, Francesco

    2017-09-09

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcome of a series of patients with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea (ETR) affected by persistent erythema and varying degree of telangiectasias being treated with brimonidine alone or combined with a vascular laser based on the type of vascular components preliminarily evaluated by clinical and instrumental observation. Ten patients affected by ETR were enrolled in a pilot, open study. Instrumental evaluation included erythema-directed digital photography by VISIA-CR™ system and X10 dermoscopy. Those patients showing marked background erythema and minimal telangiectasias (group A) were treated with a single application of brimonidine 0.33% gel, while patients showing both marked background erythema and marked telangiectasias (group B) were treated with a session of Nd:YAG laser and reevaluated 1 month later after a single application of brimonidine. An Investigator Global Assessment (IGA) of treatment outcome was performed at the end of treatment in both groups. In group A, 6 h after brimonidine application, a marked reduction of the background erythema was observed in all patients, and IGA was rated as excellent. In group B, 6 h following the application of brimonidine, a marked reduction of the background erythema was observed in all cases, while telangiectasias remained unchanged. A further treatment with brimonidine 1 month after the Nd:YAG laser session determined complete clearing of facial erythema, and IGA was rated as excellent. In conclusion, a preliminary evaluation of the vascular component by erythema-directed digital photography and dermoscopy in ETR may be helpful to select the most appropriate therapeutic strategy.

  8. Laser device

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2004-11-23

    A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

  9. Laser device

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2007-07-10

    A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

  10. The Elusive Third Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, James F.

    2004-01-01

    The historical development of techniques for measuring three velocity components using laser velocimetry is presented. The techniques are described and their relative merits presented. Many of the approaches currently in use based on the fringe laser velocimeter have yielded inaccurate measurements of turbulence intensity in the on-axis component. A possible explanation for these inaccuracies is presented along with simulation results.

  11. The elusive third component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, J. F.

    The historical development of techniques for measuring three velocity components using laser velocimetry is presented. The techniques are described and their relative merits presented. Many of the approaches currently in use based on the fringe laser velocimeter have yielded inaccurate measurements of turbulence intensity in the on-axis component. A possible explanation for these inaccuracies is presented along with simulation results.

  12. Rapid metabolic profiling of Nicotiana tabacum defence responses against Phytophthora nicotianae using direct infrared laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and principal component analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Successful defence of tobacco plants against attack from the oomycete Phytophthora nicotianae includes a type of local programmed cell death called the hypersensitive response. Complex and not completely understood signaling processes are required to mediate the development of this defence in the infected tissue. Here, we demonstrate that different families of metabolites can be monitored in small pieces of infected, mechanically-stressed, and healthy tobacco leaves using direct infrared laser desorption ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The defence response was monitored for 1 - 9 hours post infection. Results Infrared laser desorption ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry allows rapid and simultaneous detection in both negative and positive ion mode of a wide range of naturally occurring primary and secondary metabolites. An unsupervised principal component analysis was employed to identify correlations between changes in metabolite expression (obtained at different times and sample treatment conditions) and the overall defence response. A one-dimensional projection of the principal components 1 and 2 obtained from positive ion mode spectra was used to generate a Biological Response Index (BRI). The BRI obtained for each sample treatment was compared with the number of dead cells found in the respective tissue. The high correlation between these two values suggested that the BRI provides a rapid assessment of the plant response against the pathogen infection. Evaluation of the loading plots of the principal components (1 and 2) reveals a correlation among three metabolic cascades and the defence response generated in infected leaves. Analysis of selected phytohormones by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry verified our findings. Conclusion The described methodology allows for rapid assessment of infection-specific changes in the plant metabolism, in particular of phenolics, alkaloids

  13. Room temperature high power mid-IR diode laser bars for atmospheric sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crump, Paul; Patterson, Steve; Dong, Weimin; Grimshaw, Mike; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Shiguo; Elim, Sandrio; Bougher, Mike; Patterson, Jason; Das, Suhit; Wise, Damian; Matson, Triston; Balsley, David; Bell, Jake; DeVito, Mark; Martinsen, Rob

    2007-04-01

    Peak CW optical power from single 1-cm diode laser bars is advancing rapidly across all commercial wavelengths and the available range of emission wavelengths also continues to increase. Both high efficiency ~ 50% and > 100-W power InP-based CW bars have been available in bar format around 1500-nm for some time, as required for eye-safe illuminators and for pumping Er-YAG crystals. There is increasing demand for sources at longer wavelengths. Specifically, 1900-nm sources can be used to pump Holmium doped YAG crystals, to produce 2100-nm emission. Emission near 2100-nm is attractive for free-space communications and range-finding applications as the atmosphere has little absorption at this wavelength. Diode lasers that emit at 2100-nm could eliminate the need for the use of a solid-state laser system, at significant cost savings. 2100-nm sources can also be used as pump sources for Thulium doped solid-state crystals to reach even longer wavelengths. In addition, there are several promising medical applications including dental applications such as bone ablation and medical procedures such as opthamology. These long wavelength sources are also key components in infra-red-counter-measure systems. We have extended our high performance 1500-nm material to longer wavelengths through optimization of design and epitaxial growth conditions and report peak CW output powers from single 1-cm diode laser bars of 37W at 1910-nm and 25W at 2070-nm. 1-cm bars with 20% fill factor were tested under step-stress conditions up to 110-A per bar without failure, confirming reasonable robustness of this technology. Stacks of such bars deliver high powers in a collimated beam suitable for pump applications. We demonstrate the natural spectral width of ~ 18nm of these laser bars can be reduced to < 3-nm with use of an external Volume Bragg Grating, as required for pump applications. We review the developments required to reach these powers, latest advances and prospects for longer

  14. Full-Time, Eye-Safe Cloud and Aerosol Lidar Observation at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Sites: Instruments and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, James R.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Flynn, Connor J.; Turner, David D.; Spinhirne, James D.; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Hwang, I. H.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric radiative forcing, surface radiation budget, and top of the atmosphere radiance interpretation involves a knowledge of the vertical height structure of overlying cloud and aerosol layers. During the last decade, the U.S. Department of Energy through I the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has constructed four long- term atmospheric observing sites in strategic climate regimes (north central Oklahoma, In Barrow. Alaska, and Nauru and Manus Islands in the tropical western Pacific). Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) systems provide continuous, autonomous observation of all significant atmospheric cloud and aerosol at each of the central ARM facilities. Systems are compact and transmitted pulses are eye-safe. Eye-safety is achieved by expanding relatively low-powered outgoing Pulse energy through a shared, coaxial transmit/receive telescope. ARM NIPL system specifications, and specific unit optical designs are discussed. Data normalization and calibration techniques are presented. A multiple cloud boundary detection algorithm is also described. These techniques in tandem represent an operational value added processing package used to produce normalized data products for Cloud and aerosol research and the historical ARM data archive.

  15. Efficient continuous-wave eye-safe region signal output from intra-cavity singly resonant optical parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Ding, Xin; Sheng, Quan; Yin, Su-Jia; Shi, Chun-Peng; Li, Xue; Yu, Xuan-Yi; Wen, Wu-Qi; Yao, Jian-Quan

    2012-01-01

    We report an efficient continuous-wave (CW) tunable intra-cavity singly resonant optical parametric oscillator based on the multi-period periodically poled lithium niobate and using a laser diode (LD) end-pumped CW 1064 nm Nd:YVO4 laser as the pump source. A highly efficiency CW operation is realized through a careful cavity design for mode matching and thermal stability. The signal tuning range is 1401-1500 nm obtained by varying the domain period. The maximum output power of 2.2 W at 1500 nm is obtained with a 17.1 W 808 nm LD power and the corresponding conversion efficiency is 12.9%.

  16. Determination of electron temperature temporal evolution in laser-induced plasmas through Independent Component Analysis and 3D Boltzmann plot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredice, F.; Pacheco Martinez, P.; Sarmiento Mercado, R.; Sánchez-Aké, C.; Villagrán-Muniz, M.; Sirven, J. B.; El Rakwe, M.; Grifoni, E.; Legnaioli, S.; Lorenzetti, G.; Pagnotta, S.; Palleschi, V.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we present the application of Independent Component Analysis to a set of time-resolved LIBS spectra, acquired on a brass sample at different delay times. The decomposition of the LIBS spectra in few Independent Components with a given temporal evolution is then exploited for obtaining the temporal evolution of the plasma electron temperature, through the application of the three-dimensional Boltzmann plot method recently proposed by the authors. This method allows the determination of the electron temperature temporal evolution without any knowledge of the spectral parameters (transition probability, degeneracy of the levels, etc.…) of the emitting lines. Only the knowledge of the energy of the upper level of the transition is required. The reduction of the LIBS spectral dataset to few Independent Components and associated proportions, further simplifies the determination of the plasma electron temperature temporal evolution, since the intensity of the emission lines does not need to be calculated. The results obtained are compared with the ones obtained using classical two-dimensional Boltzmann plot approach.

  17. Particle size determination of a three-component suspension using a laser-scattering particle size distribution analyzer.

    PubMed

    Toongsuwan, S; Chang, H C; Li, L C; Stephens, D; Plichta-Mahmoud, H

    2000-08-01

    In this study, a rapid and accurate particle size determination method using a light-scattering particle size analyzer was developed to measure the particle size and size distribution of a suspension containing three solid components: clotrimazole, triamcinolone, and sarafloxacin, which have different refractive indices. To ensure that data represent the size distribution of the primary particles of the suspension, the optimal sonication prior to and during measurement was determined. It was found that the results obtained using the average relative refractive index (RRI) of the three components agreed with the results obtained using three individual RRIs. In addition, the results from two analysts demonstrated good reproducibility of this method. The size distribution data of the suspension were also compared to those of the bulk drugs. The results showed that the median particle size of this three-component suspension is relatively close to that of clotrimazole, which accounts for 80% of solid particles in the suspension. Furthermore, the results obtained using the light-scattering technique were comparable to those obtained using a polarized light microscope equipped with an image analyzer, indicating acceptable accuracy of this technique.

  18. InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode arrays for eye-safe three-dimensional imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dries, John C.; Martin, Tara; Huang, Wei; Lange, Michael J.; Cohen, Marshall J.

    2003-09-01

    We report on recent progress in developing 2-dimensional arrays of InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes. Advances in compound semiconductor epitaxy and device processing technologies enable large (128x128) element focal plane arrays with breakdown voltage standard deviations < 0.3%. The uniformity in breakdown voltage simplifies readout integrated circuit designs, in that a single bias voltage may be used for all elements in the array. Each element in the array achieves responsivities greater than 10 A/W at a wavelength of 1550 nm, while maintaining dark currents less than 20 nA. The APD arrays stand to enable new cameras for such applications as three-dimensional imaging, and various other laser radar and communications systems. In particular, the improved responsivity of avalanche photodiodes over their pin photodiode counterparts can improve sensitivities by as much as 6 - 10 dB depending upon the readout integrated circuit bandwidth. So-called "flash" laser radar systems wherein a single high energy laser pulse is used to image a target require the extra sensitivity afforded by avalanche photodiodes due to the low return photon count from distant targets.

  19. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Principles of construction of a multiport associative memory from quantum-electronics components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, V. B.

    1995-11-01

    The principles of construction are proposed, the feasibility of implementation is considered, and the main parameters are estimated of an optoelectronic multiport associative memory which allows M users to carry out simultaneously and independently a parallel associative search for keys and selection of data associated with these keys from a shared memory with the capacity of N words. Addressed writing of keys and data through M ports is also possible. The main base components of such a memory should be arrays of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, optical threshold inverters and photodetectors, and memory arrays based on hybrid memory boards with electrically controlled optical pixels, in combination with spherical free-space optics and electronic control circuits.

  20. Surface chemistry of Ti6Al4V components fabricated using selective laser melting for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Vaithilingam, Jayasheelan; Prina, Elisabetta; Goodridge, Ruth D; Hague, Richard J M; Edmondson, Steve; Rose, Felicity R A J; Christie, Steven D R

    2016-10-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) has previously been shown to be a viable method for fabricating biomedical implants; however, the surface chemistry of SLM fabricated parts is poorly understood. In this study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine the surface chemistries of (a) SLM as-fabricated (SLM-AF) Ti6Al4V and (b) SLM fabricated and mechanically polished (SLM-MP) Ti6Al4V samples and compared with (c) traditionally manufactured (forged) and mechanically polished Ti6Al4V samples. The SLM-AF surface was observed to be porous with an average surface roughness (Ra) of 17.6±3.7μm. The surface chemistry of the SLM-AF was significantly different to the FGD-MP surface with respect to elemental distribution and their existence on the outermost surface. Sintered particles on the SLM-AF surface were observed to affect depth profiling of the sample due to a shadowing effect during argon ion sputtering. Surface heterogeneity was observed for all three surfaces; however, vanadium was witnessed only on the mechanically polished (SLM-MP and FGD-MP) surfaces. The direct and indirect 3T3 cell cytotoxicity studies revealed that the cells were viable on the SLM fabricated Ti6Al4V parts. The varied surface chemistry of the SLM-AF and SLM-MP did not influence the cell behaviour. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Immobilisation of an antibacterial drug to Ti6Al4V components fabricated using selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaithilingam, Jayasheelan; Kilsby, Samuel; Goodridge, Ruth D.; Christie, Steven D. R.; Edmondson, Steve; Hague, Richard J. M.

    2014-09-01

    Bacterial infections from biomedical implants and surgical devices are a major problem in orthopaedic, dental and vascular surgery. Although the sources of contaminations that lead to bacterial infections are known, it is not possible to control or avoid such infections completely. In this study, an approach to immobilise Ciprofloxacin® (an antibacterial drug) to phosphonic acid based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) adsorbed on a selectively laser melted (SLM) Ti6Al4V structure, has been presented. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and static water contact angle measurements confirmed the attachment of SAMs and the drug. Results showed that Ciprofloxacin® is highly stable under the oxidative conditions used in this study. In-vitro stability was estimated by immersing the Ciprofloxacin® immobilised substrates in 10 mM of Tris-HCl buffer (pH-7.4) for 42 days. The Tris-HCl buffer was analysed using UV-vis spectrophotometry at 7, 14, 28 and 42 day time intervals to determine the release of the immobilised drug. The drug was observed to release in a sustained manner. 50% of the drug was released after 4 weeks with approximately 40% of the drug remaining after 6 weeks. Antibacterial susceptibility tests revealed that the immobilised drug was therapeutically active upon its release. This study demonstrates the potential to use self-assembled monolayers to modify SLM fabricated surfaces with therapeutics.

  2. Spectrally Tailored Pulsed Thulium Fiber Laser System for Broadband Lidar CO2 Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, William S.; Georgieva, Elena M.; McComb, Timothy S.; Cheung, Eric C.; Hassell, Frank R.; Baldauf, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    Thulium doped pulsed fiber lasers are capable of meeting the spectral, temporal, efficiency, size and weight demands of defense and civil applications for pulsed lasers in the eye-safe spectral regime due to inherent mechanical stability, compact "all-fiber" master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) architectures, high beam quality and efficiency. Thulium fiber's longer operating wavelength allows use of larger fiber cores without compromising beam quality, increasing potential single aperture pulse energies. Applications of these lasers include eye-safe laser ranging, frequency conversion to longer or shorter wavelengths for IR countermeasures and sensing applications with otherwise tough to achieve wavelengths and detection of atmospheric species including CO2 and water vapor. Performance of a portable thulium fiber laser system developed for CO2 sensing via a broadband lidar technique with an etalon based sensor will be discussed. The fielded laser operates with approximately 280 J pulse energy in 90-150ns pulses over a tunable 110nm spectral range and has a uniquely tailored broadband spectral output allowing the sensing of multiple CO2 lines simultaneously, simplifying future potentially space based CO2 sensing instruments by reducing the number and complexity of lasers required to carry out high precision sensing missions. Power scaling and future "all fiber" system configurations for a number of ranging, sensing, countermeasures and other yet to be defined applications by use of flexible spectral and temporal performance master oscillators will be discussed. The compact, low mass, robust, efficient and readily power scalable nature of "all-fiber" thulium lasers makes them ideal candidates for use in future space based sensing applications.

  3. Computational modelling of Er(3+): Garnet laser materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, Lee H.

    1994-01-01

    The Er(3+) ion has attracted a lot of interest for four reasons: (1) Its (4)I(sub 13/2) yields (4)I(sub 15/2) transition lases in the eyesafe region near 1.5 micron; (2) the (4)I(sub 13/2) transition lases near 2.8 micron, an important wavelength for surgical purposes; (3) it displays surprisingly efficient upconversion with lasing observed at 1.7, 1.2, 0.85, 0.56, 0.55, and 0.47 micron following 1.5 micron pumping; and (4) it has absorption bands at 0.96 and 0.81 micron and thus can be diode pumped. However, properties desirable for upconversion reduce the efficiency of 1.5 and 3 micron laser operation and vice versa. Since all of the processes are influenced by the host via the crystal field induced stark splittings in the Er levels, this project undertook modelling of the host influence on the Er lasinng behavior. While growth and measurement of all ten Er(3+) doped garnets is the surest way of identifying hosts which maximize upconversion (or conversly, 1.5 and 3 micron performance), it is also expensive - costing approximately $10,000/material or approximately $100,000 for the materials computationally investigated here. The calculations were performed using a quantum mechanical point charge model developed by Clyde Morrison at Harry Diamond Laboratories. The programs were used to fit the Er:YAG experimental energy levels so that the crystal field parameters, B(sub nm) could be extracted. From these radial factors, rho (sub n) were determined for Er(3+) in garnets. These, in combination with crystal field components, Anm, available from X-ray data, were used to predict energy levels for Er in the other nine garnet hosts. The levels in Er:YAG were fit with an rms error of 12.2/cm over a 22,000/cm range. Predicted levels for two other garnets for which literature values were available had rms errors of less than 17/cm , showing the calculations to be reliable. Based on resonances between pairs of calculated stark levels, the model predicts GSGG as the best host

  4. Precision optical metrology without lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Ralf B.; Burke, Jan; Falldorf, Claas

    2015-07-01

    Optical metrology is a key technique when it comes to precise and fast measurement with a resolution down to the micrometer or even nanometer regime. The choice of a particular optical metrology technique and the quality of results depends on sample parameters such as size, geometry and surface roughness as well as user requirements such as resolution, measurement time and robustness. Interferometry-based techniques are well known for their low measurement uncertainty in the nm range, but usually require careful isolation against vibration and a laser source that often needs shielding for reasons of eye-safety. In this paper, we concentrate on high precision optical metrology without lasers by using the gradient based measurement technique of deflectometry and the finite difference based technique of shear interferometry. Careful calibration of deflectometry systems allows one to investigate virtually all kinds of reflecting surfaces including aspheres or free-form surfaces with measurement uncertainties below the μm level. Computational Shear Interferometry (CoSI) allows us to combine interferometric accuracy and the possibility to use cheap and eye-safe low-brilliance light sources such as e.g. fiber coupled LEDs or even liquid crystal displays. We use CoSI e.g. for quantitative phase contrast imaging in microscopy. We highlight the advantages of both methods, discuss their transfer functions and present results on the precision of both techniques.

  5. Upconversion Effects in Resonantly Pumped Er3+ and Pr3+ Doped Low Phonon-Energy Crystals for Eye-Safe Laser Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-14

    collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. Elizabeth City ...State University 1704 Weeksville Road Elizabeth City , NC 27909 -9913 14-Apr-2015 ABSTRACT Final Report: Upconversion Effects in Resonantly Pumped Er3...Fax: 252-335- 3508 Email: ablulett@mail.ecsu.edu Elizabeth City State University Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics Jenkins Science

  6. Acousto-optic modulation in diode pumped solid state lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabczynski, Jan K.; Zendzian, Waldemar; Kwiatkowski, Jacek

    2007-02-01

    The main properties of acousto-optic modulators (AOM) applied in laser technology are presented and discussed in the paper. The critical review of application of AOMs in several types of diode pumped solid state lasers (DPSSL) is given. The short description of few DPSSLs developed in our group is presented in the following chapters of the paper. The parameters of a simple AO-Q-switched Nd:YVO 4 laser (peak power up to 60 kW, pulse duration of 5-15 ns, repetition rate in the range 10-100 kHz, with average power above 5 W) are satisfactory for different application as follows: higher harmonic generation, pumping of 'eye-safe' OPOs etc. The achieved brightness of 10 17 W/m2/srd is comparable to the strongest technological Q-switched lasers of kW class of average power. The main aim of paper is to present novel type of lasers with acousto-optic modulation namely: AO-q-switched and mode locked (AO-QML) lasers. We have designed the 3.69-m long Z-type resonator of the frequency matched to the RF frequency of AOM. As a gain medium the Nd:YVO 4 crystal end pumped by 20 W laser diode was applied. The energy of envelope of QML pulse train was up to 130 μJ with sub-nanosecond mode locked pulse of maximum 30-μJ energy.

  7. Time-Variable Gravity from Satellite Laser-Ranging: The Low-Degree Components and Their Connections with Geophysical/Climatic Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Cox, Christopher M.

    2004-01-01

    Satellite laser-ranging (SLR) has been observing the tiny variations in Earth s global gravity for over 2 decades. The oblateness of the Earth's gravity field, J2, has been observed to undergo a secular decrease of J2 due mainly to the post-glacial rebound of the mantle. Sometime around 1998 this trend reversed quite suddenly. This reversal persisted until 2001, at which point the atmosphere-corrected time series appears to have reversed yet again towards normal. This anomaly signifies a large interannual change in global mass distribution. A number of possible causes have been considered, with oceanic mass redistribution as the leading candidate although other effects, such as glacial melting and core effects may be contributing. In fact, a strong correlation has been found between the J2 variability and the Pacific decadal oscillation. It is relatively more difficult to solve for corresponding signals in the shorter wavelength harmonics from the existing SLR-derived time variable gravity results, although it appears that geophysical fluid mass transport is being observed. For example, the recovered J3 time series shows remarkable agreement with NCEP-derived estimates of atmospheric gravity variations. Likewise, some of the non-zonal harmonic components have significant interannual signal that appears to be related to mass transport related to climatic effects such as El Nino Southern Oscillation. We will present recent updates on the J2 evolution, as well as a monthly time sequence of low-degree component map of the time-variable gravity complete through degree 4, and examine possible geophysical/climatic causes.

  8. Mass Flow Characterization of Selective Deposition of Polymer Powders with Vibrating Nozzles for Laser Beam Melting of Multi-material Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stichel, Thomas; Laumer, Tobias; Linnenweber, Tim; Amend, Philipp; Roth, Stephan

    The generation of multi-material components by laser beam melting (LBM) is a challenge which requires the invention of new coating devices for preparation of arbitrary powder patterns. One solution is the usage of vibration-controlled nozzles for selective deposition of polymer powders. Powder flow can be initiated by vibration enabling a start-stop function without using any mechanical shutter. In this report, the delivery of polymer powder by vibrating nozzles is investigated with respect to their application in LBM machines. Therefore, a steel nozzle attached to a piezo actor and a weighing cell is used in order to measure the stability and time-dependence of the powder mass flow upon vibration excitation with the usage of different kind of powder formulations. The results show that precompression of the powder inside the nozzle by vibration excitation is essential to realize a reliable start-stop function with reproducible discharge cyles and to prevent a initial flush of powder flow. Moreover, the use of different powder materials showed that mass flow is even possible with powders which are not optimized regarding flowability, but is readily enhanced with a factor of 2 to 3 by admixing Aerosil® fumed silica.

  9. Principle component analysis combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry for rapid diagnosing the sera of patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tiao-Lai; Cho, Yi-Tzu; Su, Hong; Shiea, Jentaie

    2013-09-23

    Previously, we demonstrated that 6M HCl hydrolysis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry is a useful technique to detect potential protein biomarkers in the sera collected from major depression (MD) patients and from healthy controls. In this study, the effects of various organic acids in hydrolyzing proteins in serum were first examined. The organic matrixes commonly used in MALDI analysis were also examined for characterizing the hydrolyzed peptides. Finally, principle component analysis (PCA) was used to analyze the MALDI mass spectra of acid-hydrolyzed serum samples. It was found that 20% TFA and sinapinic acid were the optimal reagents for hydrolysis and MALDI matrix. Samples collected from MD patients and healthy controls were readily classified through PCA analysis. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve based on the ratio of the intensities of the two fragment ions (m/z 8606 and 9287) indicated by PCA plot was also constructed. The area under the curve was 0.845; the sensitivity and specificity were both 80%. An analytical platform employing trifluoroacetic acid to hydrolyze serum proteins followed by MALDI-TOF/MS and PCA analysis was developed to rapidly differentiate the sera between MD patients and healthy controls. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Laser Micromachining of THz Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-29

    such an instrument [3] for use on the Large Binocular Telescope now being constructed on Mount Graham, Arizona. Before operation the cell is evacuated...micromachined, 2 THz array receiver being developed for SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory for Far Infrared •: Astronomy [3]. Test feedhorns for the array

  11. Intracavity optical parametric oscillator based on GTR-KTP driven by laser-diode end-pumped Q-switched Nd:YVO 4 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian-Fei; Zhang, Bai-Tao; Huang, Hai-Tao; He, Jing-Liang; Xu, Jin-Long; Zhao, Shuang; Yang, Xiu-Qin; Qiu, Gang; Liu, Zong-Kai

    2010-07-01

    An efficient, eye-safe, high-repetition-rate, single-resonant intracavity optical parameter oscillator, driven by a laser-diode (LD) end-pumped acousto-optically Q-switched Nd:YVO 4 laser, based on high gray-trace resistance KTiPO 4 (GTR-KTP), was demonstrated. With a pump power of 13.8 W and frequency repetition rate of 40 kHz, the maximum power of 1.72 W with pulse width of 2.09 ns at signal wavelength 1572 nm is obtained. The corresponding peak power and single pulse energy is calculated to be 21 kW and 43 μJ, respectively. And the conversion efficiency from incident pump power at 808 nm to output power at signal wavelength 1572 nm is about 12.5%. The output instability is measured only to be 1% within 1 h.

  12. 10 CFR Appendix F to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Laser-Based Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... compound. Common nomenclature for these processes include: first category-atomic vapor laser isotope...) Desublimers (or cold traps) used to remove UF6 from the enrichment process for subsequent transfer upon... −120 °C or less; or (iii) UF6 cold traps capable of temperatures of −20 °C or less. (13) Lasers or...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix F to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Laser-Based Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... compound. Common nomenclature for these processes include: first category-atomic vapor laser isotope...) Desublimers (or cold traps) used to remove UF6 from the enrichment process for subsequent transfer upon... −120 °C or less; or (iii) UF6 cold traps capable of temperatures of −20 °C or less. (13) Lasers or...

  14. Diode Laser Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botez, Dan; Scifres, Don R.

    2005-11-01

    Contributors; 1. Monolithic phase-locked semiconductor laser arrays D. Botez; 2. High power coherent, semiconductor laser master oscillator power amplifiers and amplifier arrays D. F. Welch and D. G. Mehuys; 3. Microoptical components applied to incoherent and coherent laser arrays J. R. Leger; 4. Modeling of diode laser arrays G. R. Hadley; 5. Dynamics of coherent semiconductor laser arrays H. G. Winfuland and R. K. Defreez; 6. High average power semiconductor laser arrays and laser array packaging with an emphasis for pumping solid state lasers R. Solarz; 7. High power diode laser arrays and their reliability D. R. Scifres and H. H. Kung; 8. Strained layer quantum well heterostructure laser arrays J. J. Coleman; 9. Vertical cavity surface emitting laser arrays C. J. Chang-Hasnain; 10. Individually addressed arrays of diode lasers D. Carlin.

  15. Multi-Velocity Component LDV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A laser doppler velocimeter uses frequency shifting of a laser beam to provide signal information for each velocity component. A composite electrical signal generated by a light detector is digitized and a processor produces a discrete Fourier transform based on the digitized electrical signal. The transform includes two peak frequencies corresponding to the two velocity components.

  16. Resonantly cladding-pumped Yb-free Er-doped LMA fiber laser with record high power and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Fromzel, Viktor; Dubinskii, Mark

    2011-03-14

    We report the results of our power scaling experiments with resonantly cladding-pumped Er-doped eye-safe large mode area (LMA) fiber laser. While using commercial off-the-shelf LMA fiber we achieved over 88 W of continuous-wave (CW) single transverse mode power at ~1590 nm while pumping at 1532.5 nm. Maximum observed optical-to-optical efficiency was 69%. This result presents, to the best of our knowledge, the highest power reported from resonantly-pumped Yb-free Er-doped LMA fiber laser, as well as the highest efficiency ever reported for any cladding-pumped Er-doped laser, either Yb-co-doped or Yb-free.

  17. Laser safety evaluation and output measurements for the VITAL -2 Variable Intensity Tactical Aiming Light (laser) used with the Proforce M-4 system in force-on-force exercises.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2004-02-01

    A laser safety hazard evaluation and pertinent output measurements were performed (June 2003 through August 2003) on several VITAL-2 Variable Intensity Tactical Aiming Light--infrared laser, associated with the Proforce M-4 system used in force-on-force exercises. The VITAL-2 contains two diode lasers presenting 'Extended Source' viewing out to a range on the order of 1.3 meters before reverting to a 'Small Source' viewing hazard. Laser hazard evaluation was performed in concert with the ANSI Std. Z136.1-2000 for the safe use of lasers and the ANSI Std. Z136.6-2000 for the safe use of lasers outdoors. The results of the laser hazard analysis for the VITAL-2, indicates that this Tactical Aiming IR laser presents a Class 1 laser hazard to personnel in the area of use. Field measurements performed on 71 units confirmed that the radiant outputs were at all times below the Allowable Emission Limit and that the irradiance of the laser spot was at all locations below the Maximum Exposure Limit. This system is eye-safe and it may be used under current SNL policy in force-on-force exercises. The VITAL-2 Variable Intensity Tactical Aiming Light does not present a laser hazard greater than Class 1, to aided viewing with binoculars.

  18. Coherent Doppler Laser Radar: Technology Development and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been investigating, developing, and applying coherent Doppler laser radar technology for over 30 years. These efforts have included the first wind measurement in 1967, the first airborne flights in 1972, the first airborne wind field mapping in 1981, and the first measurement of hurricane eyewall winds in 1998. A parallel effort at MSFC since 1982 has been the study, modeling and technology development for a space-based global wind measurement system. These endeavors to date have resulted in compact, robust, eyesafe lidars at 2 micron wavelength based on solid-state laser technology; in a factor of 6 volume reduction in near diffraction limited, space-qualifiable telescopes; in sophisticated airborne scanners with full platform motion subtraction; in local oscillator lasers capable of rapid tuning of 25 GHz for removal of relative laser radar to target velocities over a 25 km/s range; in performance prediction theory and simulations that have been validated experimentally; and in extensive field campaign experience. We have also begun efforts to dramatically improve the fundamental photon efficiency of the laser radar, to demonstrate advanced lower mass laser radar telescopes and scanners; to develop laser and laser radar system alignment maintenance technologies; and to greatly improve the electrical efficiency, cooling technique, and robustness of the pulsed laser. This coherent Doppler laser radar technology is suitable for high resolution, high accuracy wind mapping; for aerosol and cloud measurement; for Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) measurements of atmospheric and trace gases; for hard target range and velocity measurement; and for hard target vibration spectra measurement. It is also suitable for a number of aircraft operations applications such as clear air turbulence (CAT) detection; dangerous wind shear (microburst) detection; airspeed, angle of attack, and sideslip measurement; and fuel savings through

  19. Coherent Doppler Laser Radar: Technology Development and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been investigating, developing, and applying coherent Doppler laser radar technology for over 30 years. These efforts have included the first wind measurement in 1967, the first airborne flights in 1972, the first airborne wind field mapping in 1981, and the first measurement of hurricane eyewall winds in 1998. A parallel effort at MSFC since 1982 has been the study, modeling and technology development for a space-based global wind measurement system. These endeavors to date have resulted in compact, robust, eyesafe lidars at 2 micron wavelength based on solid-state laser technology; in a factor of 6 volume reduction in near diffraction limited, space-qualifiable telescopes; in sophisticated airborne scanners with full platform motion subtraction; in local oscillator lasers capable of rapid tuning of 25 GHz for removal of relative laser radar to target velocities over a 25 km/s range; in performance prediction theory and simulations that have been validated experimentally; and in extensive field campaign experience. We have also begun efforts to dramatically improve the fundamental photon efficiency of the laser radar, to demonstrate advanced lower mass laser radar telescopes and scanners; to develop laser and laser radar system alignment maintenance technologies; and to greatly improve the electrical efficiency, cooling technique, and robustness of the pulsed laser. This coherent Doppler laser radar technology is suitable for high resolution, high accuracy wind mapping; for aerosol and cloud measurement; for Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) measurements of atmospheric and trace gases; for hard target range and velocity measurement; and for hard target vibration spectra measurement. It is also suitable for a number of aircraft operations applications such as clear air turbulence (CAT) detection; dangerous wind shear (microburst) detection; airspeed, angle of attack, and sideslip measurement; and fuel savings through

  20. Lasers '83. Proceedings of the international conference

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    Among the topics discussed are the development history of the semiconductor diode laser, laser material processing, nonlinear spectroscopy, recent advancements in diode lasers, laser-driven particle accelerators, laser applications in the atmospheric sciences, laser-assisted collisions, novel (garnet and alexandrite) solid state laser materials, IR molecular lasers, devices and components for fiber-optic communications, free-electron lasers and masers, and picosecond optical phenomena. Also covered are laser-stimulated materials surface processes, color center laser developments, blue-green and metal vapor lasers, laser chemistry, nonlinear effects, high energy lasers, excimer lasers, laser trapping of ions, optical cavities and propagation, laser isotope separation, laser trapping of atoms, laser applications in biochemistry, tunable coherent short wavelength radiation, laser spectroscopy, picosecond studies of condensed phase molecular systems, and combustion and plasma diagnostics.

  1. Mode-locked thulium-bismuth codoped fiber laser using graphene saturable absorber in ring cavity.

    PubMed

    Zen, D I M; Saidin, N; Damanhuri, S S A; Harun, S W; Ahmad, H; Ismail, M A; Dimyati, K; Halder, A; Paul, M C; Das, S; Pal, M; Bhadra, S K

    2013-02-20

    We demonstrate mode locking of a thulium-bismuth codoped fiber laser (TBFL) operating at 1901.6 nm, using a graphene-based saturable absorber (SA). In this work, a single layer graphene is mechanically exfoliated using the scotch tape method and directly transferred onto the surface of a fiber pigtail to fabricate the SA. The obtained Raman spectrum characteristic indicates that the graphene on the core surface has a single layer. At 1552 nm pump power of 869 mW, the mode-locked TBFL self starts to generate an optical pulse train with a repetition rate of 16.7 MHz and pulse width of 0.37 ps. This is a simple, low-cost, stable, and convenient laser oscillator for applications where eye-safe and low-photon-energy light sources are required, such as sensing and biomedical diagnostics.

  2. High-power 1550 nm tapered DBR lasers fabricated using soft UV-nano-imprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viheriälä, Jukka; Aho, Antti T.; Mäkelä, Jaakko; Salmi, Joel; Virtanen, Heikki; Leinonen, Tomi; Dumitrescu, Mihail; Guina, Mircea

    2016-03-01

    Paper reports the DBR-RWG surface grating design, the fabrication process, and the output characteristics of tapered DBR laser diodes for the applications, like for example LIDAR and range finding, that require eye-safe high-power single-mode coherent light sources. The fabricated regrowth-free DBR AlGaInAs/InP lasers exhibited a CW output power as high as 560 mW in single-mode operation at room temperature. At maximum output power the SMSR was 38 dB, proving the excellent behavior of the surface gratings. The tapered section enabled scaling the maximum CW power at room temperature from 125 mW to 560 mW, by increasing its length from 0.5 mm to 4.0 mm. The paper discusses the limitations and performance variation associated to the power scaling by using the tapered section length as a scaling parameter.

  3. Pulsed self-Raman laser operation in Nd:SrMoO 4 at 1.57 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šulc, Jan; Jelínková, Helena; Nejezchleb, Karel; Škoda, Václav; Basiev, Tasoltan T.; Doroshenko, Maxim E.; Ivleva, Ludmila I.; Osiko, Vyacheslav V.; Zverev, Peter G.

    2008-02-01

    The goal of our research was the construction of the laser emitting short pulses with high peak power in "eye-safe" region around wavelength 1.5 μm. We use Raman self-conversion of giant pulses at wavelength 1.3 μm in Nd 3+-doped Raman active crystal SrMoO 4 (diameter 4.4 mm, length 42 mm). Fundamental laser wavelength was obtained using this advanced solid-state medium Nd 3+:SrMoO 4, lasing at 1378.1 nm, and pumped at wavelength 752nm by free-running alexandrite laser. High-peak power required for efficient Raman conversion was reached by Q-switching of the Nd 3+:SrMoO 4 laser by V:YAG solid-state saturable absorber (initial transmission 93% @ 1380 nm). Specially designed resonator mirrors were used to ensure proper feed-back for Raman laser. The resonator pump mirror was concave with 0.5m curvature and with high transmission at 752nm and high reflectivity in the range from 1250nm to 1580 nm; the reflectivity of the output coupler was 3% @ 1380nm and 25% @ 1570 nm. Both mirrors have reflectivity around 1 μm as small as possible to prevent lasing at other Nd 3+ lines. With the described laser system, simultaneous generation of wavelengths 1378.1nm and 1569.8nm was obtained. The single pulse output energy 0.8mJ at 1569.8nm was reached. The length of the generated pulse at this wavelength was measured to be 8.7 ns (FWHM). These values correspond with the peak power of 92 kW in eye-safe region.

  4. Compact pulsed high-energy Er:glass laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Peng; Liu, Jian

    2012-03-01

    Bulk Erbium-doped lasers are widely used for long-distance telemetry and ranging. In some applications such as coherent Doppler radars, laser outputs with a relatively long pulse width, good beam profile and pulse shape are required. High energy Q-switched Er:glass lasers were demonstrated by use of electro-optic (E/O) Q-switching or frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR) Q-switching. However, the output pulse durations in these lasers were fixed to relatively small values and extremely hard to tune. We report here on developing a novel and compact Q-switched Er:Yb co-doped phosphate glass laser at an eye-safe wavelength of 1.5 μm. A rotating mirror was used as a Q-switch. Co-linear pump scheme was used to maintain a good output beam profile. Near-perfect Gaussian temporal shape was obtained in our experiment. By changing motor rotation speed, pulse duration was tunable and up to 240 ns was achieved. In our preliminary experiment, output pulse energies of 44 mJ and 4.5 mJ were obtained in free-running and Q-switched operation modes respectively.

  5. Q-switched resonantly pumped Er:YAG laser with a fiber-like geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigotta, Stefano; Eichhorn, Marc

    2010-10-01

    Er3+:YAG eye-safe laser emitting at 1.6 μm is an interesting source for various applications such as remote sensing, ranging, designation and free-space communications for two main reasons: its emitting wavelength lies in a region of high atmospheric transmission and high sensor sensitivity and the resonant pumping into the 4I13/2 upper laser manifold ensures highly efficient operation. The recent availability of internal grating stabilized narrow linewidth, high-power laser diodes in the 1.53 μm range, makes this laser even more appealing. The only shortcoming to be solved for a really efficient resonantly diode pumped Er3+:YAG laser is how to have a good overlap between the pump radiation and the laser cavity mode. Indeed, due to up-conversion processes among the Er3+ ions, to achieve efficient lasers it is necessary to use low doped samples. This requires the use of rods with lengths of several cm that are not compatible with the low beam quality of the diode lasers. In this work, we report on a resonantly diode pumped Q-switched Er3+:YAG laser with a crystalline fibre-like geometry emitting at 1.64 μm. In this scheme, the pump radiation is confined into a 60 mm long crystal with a diameter of 1.2 mm thanks to the multiple total internal reflections (TIR) that occur on the barrel surface, allowing efficiently pumping of such a long crystal. A maximum output power of more than 14 W in continuous wave mode and pulse energies of 8 mJ in Q-switching mode have been observed, when pumped with - 40 W of absorbed power. Even if these values are still far from the performances reported using hybrid fibre-bulk laser scheme, these results clearly show that TIR-based Er3+:YAG fibre-shaped crystalline rod laser is a promising technology for the development of efficient high-power and high-energy eye-safe laser. Finally, the effect of thermal lensing on such crystalline fibre geometry is discussed.

  6. Fiber optic confocal laser Doppler velocimeter using an all-fiber laser source for high resolution measurements.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Utkarsh; Chen, Gang; Kang, Jin; Ilev, Ilko; Waynant, Ronald

    2005-08-08

    We demonstrate and analyze a novel fiber optic confocal laser Doppler velocimeter using an ultra-narrow linewidth all-fiber laser source centered at around 1550 nm (eye-safe region). The narrow spectral linewidth of the fiber laser (<10 kHz) is used to achieve an extremely high velocity resolution (~0.0075 m/s), which is an order of magnitude better as compared to the commonly used semiconductor diode lasers or He-Ne lasers based systems. The directional optical circulator based design used in our system is much simpler to implement and is power conserving compared to the conventional Michelson interferometer based designs. We perform Gaussian beam propagation analysis by using the ABCD law to study the performance of the confocal design. The analysis is in good accord with our experimental results. The confocal design is capable of providing ultrahigh spatial resolution (~5microm, in both lateral and longitudinal directions) for high-precision velocity distribution measurement applications.

  7. Agile beam laser

    SciTech Connect

    Valley, G. C.

    1985-01-08

    A laser system for providing a rapidly steerable laser output beam. The laser system includes a phase conjugate reflector, laser gain medium and its associated pump source, an output coupling device, and an optical element which selectably controls the transverse lasing mode of the laser system. The components are arranged to form a laser oscillator between the phase conjugate reflector and the optical device, and is operated in such a manner that each selected transverse mode of laser operation generates an output beam from the system which has a different wavefront tilt. Accordingly, the output beam is steerable and is dependent upon the selected transverse mode which is currently lasing in the oscillator.

  8. A High Energy 2-microns Laser for Multiple Lidar Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Singh, Upendra N.; Barnes, James C.; Barnes, Norman P.; Petros, Mulugeta

    2000-01-01

    Solid-state 2-microns laser has been receiving considerable interest because of its eye-safe property and efficient diode pump operation, It has potential for multiple lidar applications to detect water vapor. carbon dioxide and winds. In this paper, we describe a 2-microns double pulsed Ho:Tm:YLF laser and end-pumped amplifier system. A comprehensive theoretical model has been developed to aid the design and optimization of the laser performance. In a single Q-switched pulse operation the residual energy stored in the Tm atoms will be wasted. However, in a double pulses operation mode, the residual energy stored in the Tm atoms will repopulate the Ho atoms that were depleted by the extraction of the first Q-switched pulse. Thus. the Tin sensitized Ho:YLF laser provides a unique advantage in applications that require double pulse operation, such as Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL). A total output energy of 146 mJ per pulse pair under Q-switch operation is achieved with as high as 4.8% optical to optical efficiency. Compared to a single pulse laser, 70% higher laser efficiency is realized. To obtain high energy while maintaining the high beam quality, a master-oscillator-power-amplifier 2-microns system is designed. We developed an end-pumped Ho:Tm:YLF disk amplifier. This amplifier uses two diode arrays as pump source. A non-imaging lens duct is used to couple the radiation from the laser diode arrays to the laser disk. Preliminary result shows that the efficiency of this laser can be as high as 3%, a factor of three increases over side-pump configuration. This high energy, highly efficient and high beam quality laser is a promising candidate for use in an efficient, multiple lidar applications.

  9. A High Energy 2-microns Laser for Multiple Lidar Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Singh, Upendra N.; Barnes, James C.; Barnes, Norman P.; Petros, Mulugeta

    2000-01-01

    Solid-state 2-microns laser has been receiving considerable interest because of its eye-safe property and efficient diode pump operation, It has potential for multiple lidar applications to detect water vapor. carbon dioxide and winds. In this paper, we describe a 2-microns double pulsed Ho:Tm:YLF laser and end-pumped amplifier system. A comprehensive theoretical model has been developed to aid the design and optimization of the laser performance. In a single Q-switched pulse operation the residual energy stored in the Tm atoms will be wasted. However, in a double pulses operation mode, the residual energy stored in the Tm atoms will repopulate the Ho atoms that were depleted by the extraction of the first Q-switched pulse. Thus. the Tin sensitized Ho:YLF laser provides a unique advantage in applications that require double pulse operation, such as Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL). A total output energy of 146 mJ per pulse pair under Q-switch operation is achieved with as high as 4.8% optical to optical efficiency. Compared to a single pulse laser, 70% higher laser efficiency is realized. To obtain high energy while maintaining the high beam quality, a master-oscillator-power-amplifier 2-microns system is designed. We developed an end-pumped Ho:Tm:YLF disk amplifier. This amplifier uses two diode arrays as pump source. A non-imaging lens duct is used to couple the radiation from the laser diode arrays to the laser disk. Preliminary result shows that the efficiency of this laser can be as high as 3%, a factor of three increases over side-pump configuration. This high energy, highly efficient and high beam quality laser is a promising candidate for use in an efficient, multiple lidar applications.

  10. Laser hazard analysis for airborne AURA (Big Sky variant) Proteus platform.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2004-02-01

    A laser safety and hazard analysis was performed for the airborne AURA (Big Sky Laser Technology) lidar system based on the 2000 version of the American National Standard Institute's (ANSI) Standard Z136.1, for the Safe Use of Lasers and the 2000 version of the ANSI Standard Z136.6, for the Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The AURA lidar system is installed in the instrument pod of a Proteus airframe and is used to perform laser interaction experiments and tests at various national test sites. The targets are located at various distances or ranges from the airborne platform. In order to protect personnel, who may be in the target area and may be subjected to exposures, it was necessary to determine the Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) for each laser wavelength, calculate the Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance (NOHD), and determine the maximum 'eye-safe' dwell times for various operational altitudes and conditions. It was also necessary to calculate the appropriate minimum Optical Density (ODmin) of the laser safety eyewear used by authorized personnel who may receive hazardous exposures during ground base operations of the airborne AURA laser system (system alignment and calibration).

  11. Laser Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, L. L. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An optical resonator cavity configuration has a unitary mirror with oppositely directed convex and concave reflective surfaces disposed into one fold and concertedly reversing both ends of a beam propagating from a laser rod disposed between two total internal reflection prisms. The optical components are rigidly positioned with perpendicularly crossed virtual rooflines by a compact optical bed. The rooflines of the internal reflection prisms, are arranged perpendicularly to the axis of the laser beam and to the optical axes of the optical resonator components.

  12. Controlling Laser Spot Size in Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Harold E.

    2005-01-01

    Three documents discuss a method of controlling the diameter of a laser beam projected from Earth to any altitude ranging from low orbit around the Earth to geosynchronous orbit. Such laser beams are under consideration as means of supplying power to orbiting spacecraft at levels of the order of tens of kilowatts apiece. Each such beam would be projected by use of a special purpose telescope having an aperture diameter of 15 m or more. Expanding the laser beam to such a large diameter at low altitude would prevent air breakdown and render the laser beam eyesafe. Typically, the telescope would include an adaptive-optics concave primary mirror and a convex secondary mirror. The laser beam transmitted out to the satellite would remain in the near field on the telescope side of the beam waist, so that the telescope focal point would remain effective in controlling the beam width. By use of positioning stages having submicron resolution and repeatability, the relative positions of the primary and secondary mirrors would be adjusted to change the nominal telescope object and image distances to obtain the desired beam diameter (typically about 6 m) at the altitude of the satellite. The limiting distance D(sub L) at which a constant beam diameter can be maintained is determined by the focal range of the telescope 4 lambda f(sup 2) where lambda is the wavelength and f the f/number of the primary mirror. The shorter the wavelength and the faster the mirror, the longer D(sub L) becomes.

  13. Growth of new materials for solid state laser applications. The growth of ZnGeP2 by the vertical Bridgman method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, R. S.

    1993-01-01

    This is the final technical report on the cooperative NASA program 'Growth of New Materials for Solid State Laser Applications,' covering the period from 9-1-86 through 3-31-91. The first two and one half years of the program, from 9-1-86 through 3-31-89, was devoted to the development of new eye-safe laser sources. Single crystal fibers of rare earth doped and co-doped YAG were grown by the laser-heated pedestal growth method, characterized for their structural properties and supplied to NASA/Langley for spectroscopic evaluation. From 4-1-89 though 3-31-91, research focused on the growth of zinc germanium phosphide for nonlinear optical applications in the IR. The vertical Bridgman growth process was evaluated as a means to achieve better control over the short wavelength optical absorption in this material that adversely affects 2 micron-pumped optical parametric oscillators.

  14. Near Infrared (NIR) Imaging Techniques Using Lasers and Nonlinear Crystal Optical Parametric Oscillator/Amplifier (OPO/OPA) Imaging and Transferred Electron (TE) Photocathode Image Intensifiers

    SciTech Connect

    YATES,GEORGE J.; MCDONALD,THOMAS E. JR.; BLISS,DAVID E.; CAMERON,STEWART M.; GREIVES,KENNETH H.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.

    2000-12-20

    Laboratory experiments utilizing different near-infrared (NIR) sensitive imaging techniques for LADAR range gated imaging at eye-safe wavelengths are presented. An OPO/OPA configuration incorporating a nonlinear crystal for wavelength conversion of 1.56 micron probe or broadcast laser light to 807 nm light by utilizing a second pump laser at 532 nm for gating and gain, was evaluated for sensitivity, resolution, and general image quality. These data are presented with similar test results obtained from an image intensifier based upon a transferred electron (TE) photocathode with high quantum efficiency (QE) in the 1-2 micron range, with a P-20 phosphor output screen. Data presented include range-gated imaging performance in a cloud chamber with varying optical attenuation of laser reflectance images.

  15. Diode laser pumping sources for cryogenically cooled solid-state lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiorov, M. A.; Trofimov, I. E.

    2008-04-01

    One of the recent advances in solid-state laser (SSL) defense technology is the 100W level Er-doped "eye-safe" laser with low quantum defect pumping at 1.53μm. Major technical challenges in achieving high-wattage devices include increasing the system power conversion efficiency and arranging the removal of heat from both the crystal and the pumps. It is known that performance of the crystal can be improved dramatically by cryogenic cooling. Hence, it is desirable to have cryo-cooled pumps to realize ergonomic and efficient diode-pumped SSL with unified cryogenic cooling. In this paper we report on the development of LN2-cooled InP-based λ~1.5-1.6 μm diode pumps. The broad area lasers demonstrated 11W in continuous-wave (CW) regime at an operating current of 20A. Despite the highest CW power measured to date from an InP-based emitter, we did not observe catastrophic optical mirror damage. The spectral width of the radiation from a cooled device decreased 1.5-2 from its room-temperature value, which will significantly improve pumping efficiency. We show that laser diode design has to be optimized for performance at cryogenic temperatures. Reviewing the data on LN2 cooled lasers emitting in the wavelength range of 1.13 - 1.8 μm, we discuss the route to increase the power conversion of the LN2 cooled InP-based pumps to greater than 60% and further narrow and stabilize the laser emission spectrum.

  16. Technique for Reducing Laser Beam Divergence of Intra-Cavity Nonlinear Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Alan D.

    During the past few years the Monoblock laser has become the laser-of-choice for laser range-finders. It's eye-safe 1570 nm emission, high pulse energy, simple construction, and high efficiency, when pumped by a laser-diode stack, provide advantages that are not available with other laser types. Although the relative divergence of the Monoblock output beam is large, it can be reduced to the required <1 mR using a telescope with a large magnification. This solution, however, is not acceptable for applications where the laser and telescope size must be kept to a minimum. A simple and compact technique for achieving significant reduction in the Monoblock beam divergence using a partial reflector that is placed a short distance from the optical parametric oscillator (OPO) has been developed. Using an ultra-compact 38 mm Monoblock with a 10 mm long KTP OPO, we achieved a beam divergence of <4 mR, corresponding to a >2.5 X reduction from the unmodified laser. Modeling and experimental results are presented detailing the theory and performance for this novel technique.

  17. Measurement capabilities of a compact thermal-type standard of energy unit of pulse laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzeczanowski, Wojciech

    2001-08-01

    New instrument for measurements of laser pulse energy is described. Due to its parameters it can be used as a standard for unit of energy of pulse laser radiation. The instrument consists of a control unit, three sources of laser radiation, two receivers of optical signal, and a laptop. The whole system can be easily transported enabling one to carry out measurements in situ, at customer's, not only in laboratory conditions. This is a very important feature of the instrument because it allows inexpensive calibration and testing of large industrial laser installations and interesting laboratory intercomparisons as well. A method of measurement used in operation of the standard is presented. Main characteristics of the standard are shown. Methods of calculation of uncertainties of measurement during laser energy meters calibration by means of the standard of energy unit of pulse laser radiation are also presented. An alternative measurement option of the standard operating as an energy calibrator for unknown pulse optical radiation source is also available. Some results of testing of laser energy meters at eye-safe wavelength (1.54 micrometer) are presented.

  18. Thulium/holmium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by black phosphorus nanoplatelets-based saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao; Zheng, Xin; Yin, Ke; Cheng, Xiang'ai; Jiang, Tian

    2015-12-01

    By coupling black phosphorus (BP) nanoplatelets (NPs) with a fiber-taper evanescent light field, a saturable absorber (SA) based on the BP NPs has been successfully fabricated and used in a thulium/holmium-doped fiber laser as the mode locker. The SA had a modulation depth of ∼9.8% measured at 1.93 μm. A stable mode-locking operation at 1898 nm was achieved with a pulse width of 1.58 ps and a fundamental mode-lock repetition rate of 19.2 MHz. By increasing the pump intensity, phenomena of multi-pulsing operations, including harmonic mode-locked states and soliton bunches, were obtained in the experiment, showing that the BP NPs possess an ultrafast optical response time. This work suggests that the BP NPs-based SA is potentially useful for ultrashort, pulsed laser operations in the eye-safe region of 2 μm.

  19. Miniature solid-state lasers for pointing, illumination, and warning devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. C.; Singley, J. M.; Yager, E.; Kowalewski, K.; Lotito, B.; Guelzow, J.; Hildreth, J.; Kuper, J. W.

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we review the current status of and progress towards higher power and more wavelength diverse diode-pumped solid-state miniature lasers. Snake Creek Lasers now offers unprecedented continuous wave (CW) output power from 9.0 mm and 5.6 mm TO type packages, including the smallest green laser in the world, the MicroGreen TM laser, and the highest density green laser in the world, the MiniGreen TM laser. In addition we offer an infrared laser, the MiniIR TM, operating at 1064 nm, and have just introduced a blue Mini laser operating at 473 nm in a 9.0 mm package. Recently we demonstrated over 1 W of output power at 1064 nm from a 12 mm TO type package, and green output power from 300-500 mW from the same 12 mm package. In addition, the company is developing a number of other innovative new miniature CW solid-state lasers operating at 750 nm, 820 nm, 458 nm, and an eye-safe Q-switched laser operating at 1550 nm. We also review recently demonstrated combining volume Bragg grating (VBG) technology has been combined with automatic power control (APC) to produce high power MiniGreen TM lasers whose output is constant to +/- 10 % over a wide temperature range, without the use of a thermoelectric cooler (TEC). This technology is expected to find widespread application in military and commercial applications where wide temperature operation is particularly important. It has immediate applications in laser pointers, illuminators, and laser flashlights, and displays.

  20. CO2 laser modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Barry

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: (1) CO2 laser kinetics modeling; (2) gas lifetimes in pulsed CO2 lasers; (3) frequency chirp and laser pulse spectral analysis; (4) LAWS A' Design Study; and (5) discharge circuit components for LAWS. The appendices include LAWS Memos, computer modeling of pulsed CO2 lasers for lidar applications, discharge circuit considerations for pulsed CO2 lidars, and presentation made at the Code RC Review.

  1. Elevation scanning laser/multi-sensor hazard detection system controller and mirror/mast speed control components. [roving vehicle electromechanical devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    The electro-mechanical and electronic systems involved with pointing a laser beam from a roving vehicle along a desired vector are described. A rotating 8 sided mirror, driven by a phase-locked dc motor servo system, and monitored by a precision optical shaft encoder is used. This upper assembly is then rotated about an orthogonal axis to allow scanning into all 360 deg around the vehicle. This axis is also driven by a phase locked dc motor servo-system, and monitored with an optical shaft encoder. The electronics are realized in standard TTL integrated circuits with UV-erasable proms used to store desired coordinates of laser fire. Related topics such as the interface to the existing test vehicle are discussed.

  2. Fluoride and Oxide Holmium Doped Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalisky, Yehoshua

    1989-12-01

    Laser holmium belongs to a family of rare earth doped ions emitting in the near or mid-IR spectral range. Its 2.1 μm laser emission has potential applications in many fields as will be discussed below. In this review we will concentrate on the following topics: A. General characteristics of Ho3+ laser and hosts. B. Significant milestones in holmium laser development. C. Mechanism of basic processes. D. Engineering considerations E. Applications F. Trends and future. A. General Characteristics The main characteristics of holmium laser are as follows: 1-A. Its emission wavelength originates from the 517-->518 transition (≍2.1 μm) 2-A. The main laser hosts used are: oxide crystals such as YAG (Y3Al5O12), YAlO3 or fluorides such as YLF (YLiF4) or HoBaYb28. 3-A. Energy sensitizers such as Cr3+, Tm3+, Er3+ are used in order to increase the laser efficiency and to better utilize the lamp emission spectrum. 4-A. Holmium laser needs liquid nitrogen cooling for efficient operation. At ambient temperature it behaves as a quasi three-level system with high lasing threshold and low slope efficiency. 5-A. The laser can be operated both in CW or pulsed modes. 6-A. It has high gain cross section and a long lifetime of 5I7 level which results in an efficient Q-switched operation. 7-A. Applications: Medical Free space communication Eye-safe range finders or Target illuminators Remote sensing Tunable operational amplifier The most popular hosts for holmium laser are the aPHo:YAG (erbium-thulium-sensitized Ho:YAG) and aPHo:YLF. Tables 1 and 2 summarize the mechanical and optical properties of YLF, YAG and GSGG (gadolinium scandium galium garnet), respectively. The mechanical and thermal properties of YAG are better than those of GSGG and superior relative to YLF - see Table 1. From Table 2 it is inferred that YLF has a negative derivative of its refraction index with temperature, implying that YLF may show a lower thermal lensing effect than YAG in spite of its lower thermal

  3. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation process

    DOEpatents

    Wyeth, R.W.; Paisner, J.A.; Story, T.

    1990-08-21

    A laser spectroscopy system is utilized in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. The system determines spectral components of an atomic vapor utilizing a laser heterodyne technique. 23 figs.

  4. High-power, high-efficiency, high-brightness long-wavelength laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Steve; Crump, Paul; Wang, Jun; Dong, Weimin; Grimshaw, Mike; Zhang, Shiguo; Elim, Sandrio; Das, Suhit; Bougher, Mike; Patterson, Jason; Kuang, Guokui; Bell, Jake; Farmer, Jason; DeVito, Mark

    2006-05-01

    Interest is rapidly growing in solid-state lasers emitting from 1500-nm to 2100-nm with applications in eye-safe range finding, LIDAR, infrared countermeasures, medicine, dentistry, and others. Traditionally, these solid-state lasers have been pumped by flash lamps or more recently, by semiconductor diode lasers. In the case of the latter, the diodes of choice have been those emitting below 1-μm. The sub-micron class of semiconductor diode lasers is highly mature and has enjoyed recent rapid advances in power and efficiency. Unfortunately, the quantum defect generated when converting to the desired wavelengths results in large amounts of excess heat generation leading to costly and heavy, expensive cooling systems and performance problems related to thermal lensing. System complexity adds further cost and weight when intermediaries, such as optical parametric oscillators, are required to reach the desired longer wavelengths. Recent advances in laser diodes emitting from 1400-nm to over 1900-nm now enable the near resonant pumping of such solid state media as Er:YAG, Ho:YAG and Cr:ZnSe. Record results in the peak output power and electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency of diode lasers emitting around 1470-nm, 1700-nm and 1900-nm are presented here.

  5. Er:YGG planar waveguides grown by pulsed laser deposition for LIDAR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackenzie, Jacob I.; Grant-Jacob, James A.; Beecher, Stephen; Riris, Haris; Yu, Anthony W.; Shepherd, David P.; Eason, Robert W.

    2017-02-01

    Er:YGG planar waveguide amplifiers (PWAs) are promising candidates to meet the needs of greenhouse-gas differentialabsorption LIDAR applications. We report pulsed-laser-deposition growth of this doped crystal and net-gain performance (internal gain 2 dB/cm for 0.7-at.% Er-doping) in a 0.9-cm-long uncoated single-pass PWA. Rapid fabrication is also demonstrated with optimized parameters, where crystal growth rates approaching 20 microns/hour have been realized. We compare Er-doping concentrations ranging from 0.5 at.% - 4 at.%, and report on their spectroscopic properties. Furthermore, we show the ability to tailor the deposited crystal properties, controlling the waveguide and gain characteristics. Finally, we discuss the spectroscopy and potential performance of this relatively unstudied material for PWAs in the eye-safe regime.

  6. PHYSICAL PROCESSES IN LASER MEDIA: Influence of the chemical composition of the hydrogen-containing component in an RH active medium and of the initiation method on the parameters of a pulsed chemical SF6-RH laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal', A. V.; Dodonov, A. A.; Rusanov, V. D.; Shiryaevskiĭ, V. L.; Sholin, G. V.

    1992-02-01

    The influence of the composition of the active medium on the lasing characteristics and energy deposition efficiency was studied under conditions of electron-beam and electric-discharge initiation in SF6-H2 and SF6-HI pulsed hydrogen fluoride chemical lasers.The best radiation energy characteristics were achieved for an SF6-HI active medium using electron-beam initiation and for an SF6-H2 active medium when the pump reaction was initiated by a self-sustained volume discharge. The following pulse parameters were obtained for an SF6-HI laser:energy 1.5 J, half-height pulse duration 60 ns,and leading edge duration 20 ns.

  7. Er:YAG crystal temperature influence on laser output characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Němec, Michal; Å ulc, Jan; Hubka, Zbyněk.; Hlinomaz, Kryštof; Jelínková, Helena

    2017-02-01

    The main goal of this work was to investigate the influence of the temperature of the Er:YAG active medium on laser properties in eye-safe spectral region for three various pump wavelengths. The tested Er:YAG sample doped by 0.5% of Er3+ ions had a cylindrical shape with 25mm in length and 5mm in diameter. The absorption spectrum of the Er:YAG active medium in the range from 1400nm up to 1700nm for temperatures 80K and 300K was measured. The crystal was placed inside the vacuum chamber of a liquid nitrogen cooled cryostat. The temperature was controlled within the 80 - 340K temperature range. Three pump sources generating at 1535, 1452, and 1467nm were applied. The first one was flash lamp pumped Er:glass laser (repetition rate 0.5 Hz, pulse duration 1 ms, pulse energy 148 mJ). The further two sources were fiber coupled laser diodes (repetition rate 10 Hz, pulse duration 10 ms, maximum pulse energies 106mJ and 195 mJ). The semi-hemispherical laser resonator consisted of a pump curved mirror and output plan coupler with a reflectivity of 90% @ 1645 nm. The laser output characteristics were investigated in dependence on temperature of active medium for three laser pumping systems. The output energy has an optimum in dependence on active medium temperature and pump wavelengths. The maximal generated laser energies were 16.2mJ (90 K), 28.7mJ (120 K), and 33.2mJ (220 K), for pump wavelengths 1452 nm, 1467 nm, and 1535 nm, respectively.

  8. A compact dual-wavelength fiber laser: some design aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Christian; Zadravec, Dusan

    2017-05-01

    High performance in combination with small size, low weight and low power consumption are among the main drivers in modern defense and commercial applications of laser systems. Consequently, designers of such systems strive for innovative solutions in the field of laser technology. Ten years ago Safran Vectronix AG (hereafter Vectronix) pioneered these activities with the fielding of the first fiber laser for hand-held rangefinders. This paper will deal with the latest evolution of an eye-safe fiber laser source which can emit two wavelengths for an extended range of applications. In order to comply with high performance requirements the laser on one side has to produce high enough pulse energy and on the other side - especially due to the ever increasing requirement for compactness - to use so called single-stage amplification in combination with bending insensitive fiber solutions. Also, the ASE (Amplified Spontaneous Emission) has to be reduced as much as possible as this light enters the eye safety equation but does not contribute in terms of range performance. All of this has to meet severe environmental requirements typical for most demanding defense applications. Additionally, the laser in its rangefinding mode has to produce a sequence of high frequency pulses in such a way that no substantial temperature effects would arise and thus impair either the pulse energy or the boresight alignment. Additionally, in this paper, a compact dual-stage dual-wavelength version of the above laser will be described, which has been developed to generate much stronger pulses for very long rangefinding applications.

  9. Laser system using regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Emmett, John L. [Pleasanton, CA

    1980-03-04

    High energy laser system using a regenerative amplifier, which relaxes all constraints on laser components other than the intrinsic damage level of matter, so as to enable use of available laser system components. This can be accomplished by use of segmented components, spatial filters, at least one amplifier using solid state or gaseous media, and separated reflector members providing a long round trip time through the regenerative cavity, thereby allowing slower switching and adequate time to clear the spatial filters, etc. The laser system simplifies component requirements and reduces component cost while providing high energy output.

  10. Laser system using regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Emmett, J.L.

    1980-03-04

    High energy laser system is disclosed using a regenerative amplifier, which relaxes all constraints on laser components other than the intrinsic damage level of matter, so as to enable use of available laser system components. This can be accomplished by use of segmented components, spatial filters, at least one amplifier using solid state or gaseous media, and separated reflector members providing a long round trip time through the regenerative cavity, thereby allowing slower switching and adequate time to clear the spatial filters, etc. The laser system simplifies component requirements and reduces component cost while providing high energy output. 10 figs.

  11. Enhanced Droplet Erosion Resistance of Laser Treated Nano Structured TWAS and Plasma Ion Nitro-Carburized Coatings for High Rating Steam Turbine Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, B. K.; Arya, Vivek; Mann, B. S.

    2010-09-01

    This article deals with surface modification of twin wire arc sprayed (TWAS) and plasma ion nitro-carburized X10CrNiMoV1222 steel using high power diode laser (HPDL) to overcome water droplet erosion occurring in low pressure steam turbine (LPST) bypass valves and LPST moving blades used in high rating conventional, critical, and super critical thermal power plants. The materials commonly used for high rating steam turbines blading are X10CrNiMoV1222 steel and Ti6Al4V titanium alloy. The HPDL surface treatment on TWAS coated X10CrNiMoV1222 steel as well as on plasma ion nitro-carburized steel has improved water droplet resistance manifolds. This may be due to combination of increased hardness and toughness as well as the formation of fine grained structure due to rapid heating and cooling rates associated with the laser surface treatment. The water droplet erosion test results along with their damage mechanism are reported in this article.

  12. Development and testing of laser Doppler system components for wake vortex monitoring. Volume 1: Scanner development, laboratory and field testing and system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D. J.; Krause, M. C.; Coffey, E. W.; Huang, C. C.; Edwards, B. B.; Shrider, K. R.; Jetton, J. L.; Morrison, L. K.

    1974-01-01

    A servo-controlled range/elevation scanner for the laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) was developed and tested in the field to assess its performance in detecting and monitoring aircraft trailing vortices in an airport environment. The elevation scanner provides a capability to manually point the LDV telescope at operator chosen angles from 3.2 deg. to 89.6 deg within 0.2 deg, or to automatically scan the units between operator chosen limits at operator chosen rates of 0.1 Hz to 0.5 Hz. The range scanner provides a capability to manually adjust the focal point of the system from a range of 32 meters to a range of 896 meters under operator control, or to scan between operator chosen limits and at rates from 0.1 Hz to 6.9 Hz. The scanner controls are designed to allow simulataneous range and elevation scanning so as to provide finger scan patterns, arc scan patterns, and vertical line scan patterns. The development and testing of the unit is discussed, along with a fluid dynamic model of the wake vortex developed in a laser Doppler vortex sensor simulation program.

  13. Single Longitudinal Mode, High Repetition Rate, Q-switched Ho:YLF Laser for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong; Petzar, Paul; Petros, M.; Chen, Songsheng; Trieu, Bo; Lee, Nyung; Singh, U.

    2009-01-01

    Ho:YLF/LuLiF lasers have specific applications for remote sensing such as wind-speed measurement and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration measurement in the atmosphere because the operating wavelength (around 2 m) is located in the eye-safe range and can be tuned to the characteristic lines of CO2 absorption and there is strong backward scattering signal from aerosol (Mie scattering). Experimentally, a diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser has been successfully used as the transmitter of coherent differential absorption lidar for the measurement of with a repetition rate of 5 Hz and pulse energy of 75 mJ [1]. For highly precise CO2 measurements with coherent detection technique, a laser with high repetition rate is required to averaging out the speckle effect [2]. In addition, laser efficiency is critically important for the air/space borne lidar applications, because of the limited power supply. A diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser is difficult to efficiently operate in high repetition rate due to the large heat loading and up-conversion. However, a Tm:fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF laser with low heat loading can be operated at high repetition rates efficiently [3]. No matter whether wind-speed or carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration measurement is the goal, a Ho:YLF/LuLiF laser as the transmitter should operate in a single longitudinal mode. Injection seeding is a valid technique for a Q-switched laser to obtain single longitudinal mode operation. In this paper, we will report the new results for a single longitudinal mode, high repetition rate, Q-switched Ho:YLF laser. In order to avoid spectral hole burning and make injection seeding easier, a four mirror ring cavity is designed for single longitudinal mode, high repetition rate Q-switched Ho:YLF laser. The ramp-fire technique is chosen for injection seeding.

  14. Single Longitudinal Mode, High Repetition Rate, Q-switched Ho:YLF Laser for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong; Petzar, Paul; Petros, M.; Chen, Songsheng; Trieu, Bo; Lee, Nyung; Singh, U.

    2009-01-01

    Ho:YLF/LuLiF lasers have specific applications for remote sensing such as wind-speed measurement and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration measurement in the atmosphere because the operating wavelength (around 2 m) is located in the eye-safe range and can be tuned to the characteristic lines of CO2 absorption and there is strong backward scattering signal from aerosol (Mie scattering). Experimentally, a diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser has been successfully used as the transmitter of coherent differential absorption lidar for the measurement of with a repetition rate of 5 Hz and pulse energy of 75 mJ [1]. For highly precise CO2 measurements with coherent detection technique, a laser with high repetition rate is required to averaging out the speckle effect [2]. In addition, laser efficiency is critically important for the air/space borne lidar applications, because of the limited power supply. A diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser is difficult to efficiently operate in high repetition rate due to the large heat loading and up-conversion. However, a Tm:fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF laser with low heat loading can be operated at high repetition rates efficiently [3]. No matter whether wind-speed or carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration measurement is the goal, a Ho:YLF/LuLiF laser as the transmitter should operate in a single longitudinal mode. Injection seeding is a valid technique for a Q-switched laser to obtain single longitudinal mode operation. In this paper, we will report the new results for a single longitudinal mode, high repetition rate, Q-switched Ho:YLF laser. In order to avoid spectral hole burning and make injection seeding easier, a four mirror ring cavity is designed for single longitudinal mode, high repetition rate Q-switched Ho:YLF laser. The ramp-fire technique is chosen for injection seeding.

  15. Multiple pass laser amplifier system

    DOEpatents

    Brueckner, Keith A.; Jorna, Siebe; Moncur, N. Kent

    1977-01-01

    A laser amplification method for increasing the energy extraction efficiency from laser amplifiers while reducing the energy flux that passes through a flux limited system which includes apparatus for decomposing a linearly polarized light beam into multiple components, passing the components through an amplifier in delayed time sequence and recombining the amplified components into an in phase linearly polarized beam.

  16. A Microstructure Evolution Model for the Processing of Single-Crystal Alloy CMSX-4 Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy for Turbine Engine Hot-Section Component Repair (Part II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Ranadip; Bansal, Rohan; Gambone, Justin J.; Das, Suman

    2014-12-01

    Part I [Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 2014, DOI:10.1007/s11663-014-0117-9] presented a comprehensive thermal, fluid flow, and solidification model that can predict the temperature distribution and flow characteristics for the processing of CMSX-4 alloy powder through scanning laser epitaxy (SLE). SLE is an additive manufacturing technology aimed at the creation of equiaxed, directionally solidified and single-crystal (SX) deposits of nickel-based superalloys using a fast-scanning laser beam. Part II here further explores the Marangoni convection-based model to predict the solidification microstructure as a function of the conditions at the trailing edge of the melt pool formed during the SLE process. Empirical values for several microstructural characteristics such as the primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS), the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) criterion and the oriented-to-misoriented transition (OMT) criterion are obtained. Optical microscopy provides visual information on the various microstructural characteristics of the deposited material such as melt depth, CET location, OMT location, PDAS, etc. A quantitative and consistent investigation of this complex set of characteristics is both challenging and unprecedented. A customized image-analysis technique based on active contouring is developed to automatically extract these data from experimental micrographs. Quantitative metallography verifies that even for the raster scan pattern in SLE and the corresponding line heat source assumption, the PDAS follows the growth relation w ~ G -0.5 V -0.25 ( w = PDAS, G = temperature gradient and V = solidification velocity) developed for marginal stability under constrained growth. Models for the CET and OMT are experimentally validated, thereby providing powerful predictive capabilities for controlling the microstructure of SX alloys processed through SLE.

  17. Laser peening of metals- enabling laser technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.; Daly, J.; Harrisson, J.

    1997-11-13

    Laser peening, a surface treatment for metals, employs laser induced shocks to create deep and intense residual stresses in critical components. In many applications this technology is proving to be superior to conventional treatments such as shot peening. The laser peening process has generated sufficiently impressive results to move it from a laboratory demonstration phase into a significant industrial process. However until now this evolution has been slowed because a laser system meeting the average power requirements for a high throughput process has been lacking.

  18. Development of components for cost effective terahertz measurement system: terahertz quantum cascade laser and terahertz quantum well infrared photo-detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosako, Iwao; Sekine, Norihiko; Patrashin, Mikhail; Yasuda, Hiroaki

    2007-09-01

    Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy have attracted a lot of attention in recent years, because monocycle terahertz radiation can be generated using an ultra-short pulse laser and semiconductor device technologies. The availability of monocycle terahertz radiation sources has encouraged innovative research and development activities worldwide in an extremely wide range of applications, from security to medical systems. However, the fundamental device technology, namely the semiconductor emitter, amplifier, modulator, focal plane array detector, and optical thin film among others, in the terahertz frequencies has not yet been fully established. Therefore, a measurement system in the terahertz range remains a costly alternative. We report in this paper our recent developments of a terahertz quantum cascade laser (THz-QCL) and a terahertz quantum well photo-detector (THz-QWIP). We believe that the combination of a semiconductor emitter (THz-QCL) and a semiconductor detector array (THz-QWIP) is a good choice for developing a cost-effective measurement system for a given terahertz range (from 1.5 THz to 5.0 THz), because both of these items are based on mass-production semiconductor fabrication techniques. We fabricated the THz-QCLs using a resonant longitudinal-optical phonon depopulation (RPD) scheme, which is made up of both a GaAs/AlGaAs material system and a GaSb/AlGaSb material system. The GaAs/AlGaAs THz-QCL has already successfully demonstrated a high peak power (about 30 milliwatts in pulsed operation) operation at 3.1 THz and a high operating temperature (123K). On the other hand, we have fabricated a THz-QWIP structure consisting of 20 periods of GaAs/Al 0.02Ga 0.98As quantum wells with a grating coupler on the top of detector devices, and successfully operated it at 3 THz with a responsivity of 13mA/W. We now believe we are ready to make a cost-effective measurement system, although both of the devices still require cryogenic coolers.

  19. Proof-of-concept experiment for on-line laser induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of impurity layer deposited on optical window and other plasma facing components of Aditya tokamak.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Gulab Singh; Kumar, Rohit; Kumar, Ajai; Rai, Awadhesh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    In the present manuscript, we demonstrate the design of an experimental setup for on-line laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis of impurity layers deposited on specimens of interest for fusion technology, namely, plasma-facing components (PFCs) of a tokamak. For investigation of impurities deposited on PFCs, LIBS spectra of a tokamak wall material like a stainless steel sample (SS304) have been recorded through contaminated and cleaned optical windows. To address the problem of identification of dust and gases present inside the tokamak, we have shown the capability of the apparatus to record LIBS spectra of gases. A new approach known as "back collection method" to record LIBS spectra of impurities deposited on the inner surface of optical window is presented.

  20. Proof-of-concept experiment for on-line laser induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of impurity layer deposited on optical window and other plasma facing components of Aditya tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Maurya, Gulab Singh; Kumar, Rohit; Rai, Awadhesh Kumar; Kumar, Ajai

    2015-12-15

    In the present manuscript, we demonstrate the design of an experimental setup for on-line laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis of impurity layers deposited on specimens of interest for fusion technology, namely, plasma-facing components (PFCs) of a tokamak. For investigation of impurities deposited on PFCs, LIBS spectra of a tokamak wall material like a stainless steel sample (SS304) have been recorded through contaminated and cleaned optical windows. To address the problem of identification of dust and gases present inside the tokamak, we have shown the capability of the apparatus to record LIBS spectra of gases. A new approach known as “back collection method” to record LIBS spectra of impurities deposited on the inner surface of optical window is presented.

  1. Laser dividing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    English, Jr., R. Edward; Johnson, Steve A.

    1995-01-01

    A laser beam dividing apparatus (10) having a first beam splitter (14) with an aperture (16) therein positioned in the path of a laser beam (12) such that a portion of the laser beam (12) passes through the aperture (16) onto a second beam splitter (20) and a portion of the laser beam (12) impinges upon the first beam splitter (14). Both the first beam splitter (14) and the second beam splitter (20) are, optionally, made from a dichroic material such that a green component (24) of the laser beam (12) is reflected therefrom and a yellow component (26) is refracted therethrough. The first beam splitter (14) and the second beam splitter (20) further each have a plurality of facets (22) such that the components (24, 26) are reflected and refracted in a number equaling the number of facets (22).

  2. Mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haibach, Fred; Erlich, Adam; Deutsch, Erik

    2011-06-01

    Block Engineering has developed an absorption spectroscopy system based on widely tunable Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCL). The QCL spectrometer rapidly cycles through a user-selected range in the mid-infrared spectrum, between 6 to 12 μm (1667 to 833 cm-1), to detect and identify substances on surfaces based on their absorption characteristics from a standoff distance of up to 2 feet with an eye-safe laser. It can also analyze vapors and liquids in a single device. For military applications, the QCL spectrometer has demonstrated trace explosive, chemical warfare agent (CWA), and toxic industrial chemical (TIC) detection and analysis. The QCL's higher power density enables measurements from diffuse and highly absorbing materials and substrates. Other advantages over Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy include portability, ruggedness, rapid analysis, and the ability to function from a distance through free space or a fiber optic probe. This paper will discuss the basic technology behind the system and the empirical data on various safety and security applications.

  3. Microchip Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-31

    physics that underlies their performance, typical operating parameters for the devices, and several of their applications . Keywords Composite-cavity...laser, Diode -pumped laser, Laser, Microchip laser, Miniature laser, Monolithic laser, Passively Q-switched laser, Q-switched laser, Saturable...cavity mirrors are deposited directly on the gain medium and the laser is pumped with a diode laser, either directly, as shown in Fig. 1, or via an

  4. Laser-based displays: a review.

    PubMed

    Chellappan, Kishore V; Erden, Erdem; Urey, Hakan

    2010-09-01

    After the invention of lasers, in the past 50 years progress made in laser-based display technology has been very promising, with commercial products awaiting release to the mass market. Compact laser systems, such as edge-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and optically pumped semiconductor lasers, are suitable candidates for laser-based displays. Laser speckle is an important concern, as it degrades image quality. Typically, one or multiple speckle reduction techniques are employed in laser displays to reduce speckle contrast. Likewise, laser safety issues need to be carefully evaluated in designing laser displays under different usage scenarios. Laser beam shaping using refractive and diffractive components is an integral part of laser displays, and the requirements depend on the source specifications, modulation technique, and the scanning method being employed in the display. A variety of laser-based displays have been reported, and many products such as pico projectors and laser televisions are commercially available already.

  5. Coaxial short pulsed laser

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, M.A.; Davies, T.J.

    1975-08-01

    This invention relates to a laser system of rugged design suitable for use in a field environment. The laser itself is of coaxial design with a solid potting material filling the space between components. A reservoir is employed to provide a gas lasing medium between an electrode pair, each of which is connected to one of the coaxial conductors. (auth)

  6. Focusing laser scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callen, W. R.; Weaver, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Economical laser scanner assembled from commercially available components, modulates and scans focused laser beam over area up to 5.1 by 5.1 cm. Scanner gives resolution comparable to that of conventional television. Device is highly applicable to area of analog and digital storage and retrieval.

  7. Athermal laser design.

    PubMed

    Bovington, Jock; Srinivasan, Sudharsanan; Bowers, John E

    2014-08-11

    This paper discusses circuit based and waveguide based athermalization schemes and provides some design examples of athermalized lasers utilizing fully integrated athermal components as an alternative to power hungry thermo-electric controllers (TECs), off-chip wavelength lockers or monitors with lookup tables for tunable lasers. This class of solutions is important for uncooled transmitters on silicon.

  8. LD-pumped erbium and neodymium lasers with high energy and output beam quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabanov, Vladimir V.; Bezyazychnaya, Tatiana V.; Bogdanovich, Maxim V.; Grigor'ev, Alexandr V.; Lebiadok, Yahor V.; Lepchenkov, Kirill V.; Ryabtsev, Andrew G.; Ryabtsev, Gennadii I.; Shchemelev, Maxim A.

    2013-05-01

    Physical and fabrication peculiarities which provide the high output energy and beam quality for the diode pumped erbium glass and Nd:YAG lasers are considered. Developed design approach allow to make passively Q-switched erbium glass eye-safe portable laser sources with output energy 8 - 12 mJ (output pulse duration is less than 25 ns, pulse repetition rate up to 5 Hz) and beam quality M2 less than 1.3. To reach these values the erbium laser pump unit parameters were optimized also. Namely, for the powerful laser diode arrays the optimal near-field fill-factor, output mirror reflectivity and heterostructure properties were determined. Construction of advanced diode and solid-state lasers as well as the optical properties of the active element and the pump unit make possible the lasing within a rather wide temperature interval (e.g. from minus forty till plus sixty Celsius degree) without application of water-based chillers. The transversally pumped Nd:YAG laser output beam uniformity was investigated depending on the active element (AE) pump conditions. In particular, to enhance the pump uniformity within AE volume, a special layer which practically doesn't absorb the pump radiation but effectively scatters the pump and lasing beams, was used. Application of such layer results in amplified spontaneous emission suppression and improvement of the laser output beam uniformity. The carried out investigations allow us to fabricate the solid-state Nd:YAG lasers (1064 nm) with the output energy up to 420 mJ at the pulse repetition rate up to 30 Hz and the output energy up to 100 mJ at the pulse repetition rate of of 100 Hz. Also the laser sources with following characteristics: 35 mJ, 30 Hz (266 nm); 60 mJ, 30 Hz (355 nm); 100 mJ, 30 Hz (532 nm) were manufactured on the base of the developed Nd:YAG quantrons.

  9. Eye safety analysis for non-uniform retinal scanning laser trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schelinski, Uwe; Dallmann, Hans-Georg; Grüger, Heinrich; Knobbe, Jens; Pügner, Tino; Reinig, Peter; Woittennek, Franziska

    2016-03-01

    Scanning the retinae of the human eyes with a laser beam is an approved diagnosis method in ophthalmology; moreover the retinal blood vessels form a biometric modality for identifying persons. Medical applied Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopes (SLOs) usually contain galvanometric mirror systems to move the laser spot with a defined speed across the retina. Hence, the load of laser radiation is uniformly distributed and eye safety requirements can be easily complied. Micro machined mirrors also known as Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are interesting alternatives for designing retina scanning systems. In particular double-resonant MEMS are well suited for mass fabrication at low cost. However, their Lissajous-shaped scanning figure requires a particular analysis and specific measures to meet the requirements for a Class 1 laser device, i.e. eye-safe operation. The scanning laser spot causes a non-uniform pulsing radiation load hitting the retinal elements within the field of view (FoV). The relevant laser safety standards define a smallest considerable element for eye-related impacts to be a point source that is visible with an angle of maximum 1.5 mrad. For non-uniform pulsing expositions onto retinal elements the standard requires to consider all particular impacts, i.e. single pulses, pulse sequences in certain time intervals and cumulated laser radiation loads. As it may be expected, a Lissajous scanning figure causes the most critical radiation loads at its edges and borders. Depending on the applied power the laser has to be switched off here to avoid any retinal injury.

  10. 2-Micron Diode-Pumped Pulsed Laser Transmitter for SPARCLE: A Coherent Wind Lidar Shuttle Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Barnes, Norman P.; Phillips, Mark W.

    1998-01-01

    To enable a tropospheric vector wind velocity profiling from space with a pulsed Doppler lidar, a diode-pumped, room temperature Ho:Tm:YLF coherent pulsed transmitter has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center. This pulsed laser transmitter will be a part of coherent wind lidar shuttle mission SPARCLE. The acronym stands for SPAce Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment and is primarily a technology demonstration mission and is expected to fly in 2001 as NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) second Earth Orbiter (EO-2) mission. The laser transmitter for SPARCLE is a Ho:Tm:YLF power oscillator operating at eye-safe wavelength of 2.05 microns. The Q-switched output energy is 125 mJ at six Hz, and it has a near-transform limited beam with a pulse width of 170 ns. The high power and high beam quality of this laser makes it well suited as a coherent wind lidar transmitter on a space platform. When the output of this power oscillator is amplified by using four diode-pumped Ho:Tm:YLF amplifiers, an output energy of 600 mJ at 10 Hz is achieved. This is the highest energy ever produced at 10 Hz, and is at least an order of magnitude greater than previously achieved for a 2-micron diode-pumped laser at room temperature.

  11. Compact MEMS mirror based Q-switch module for pulse-on-demand laser range finders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanović, Veljko; Kasturi, Abhishek; Atwood, Bryan; Su, Yu; Limkrailassiri, Kevin; Nettleton, John E.; Goldberg, Lew; Cole, Brian J.; Hough, Nathaniel

    2015-02-01

    A highly compact and low power consuming Q-switch module was developed based on a fast single-axis MEMS mirror, for use in eye-safe battery-powered laser range finders The module's 1.6mm x 1.6mm mirror has <99% reflectance at 1535nm wavelength and can achieve mechanical angle slew rates of over 500 rad/sec when switching the Er/Yb:Glass lasing cavity from pumping to lasing state. The design targeted higher efficiency, smaller size, and lower cost than the traditional Electro-Optical Q-Switch. Because pulse-on-demand capability is required, resonant mirrors cannot be used to achieve the needed performance. Instead, a fast point-to-point analog single-axis tilt actuator was designed with a custom-coated high reflectance (HR) mirror to withstand the high intra-cavity laser fluence levels. The mirror is bonded on top of the MEMS actuator in final assembly. A compact MEMS controller was further implemented with the capability of autonomous on-demand operation based on user-provided digital trigger. The controller is designed to receive an external 3V power supply and a digital trigger and it consumes ~90mW during the short switching cycle and ~10mW in standby mode. Module prototypes were tested in a laser cavity and demonstrated high quality laser pulses with duration of ~20ns and energy of over 3mJ.

  12. 2-Micron Diode-Pumped Pulsed Laser Transmitter for SPARCLE: A Coherent Wind Lidar Shuttle Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Barnes, Norman P.; Phillips, Mark W.

    1998-01-01

    To enable a tropospheric vector wind velocity profiling from space with a pulsed Doppler lidar, a diode-pumped, room temperature Ho:Tm:YLF coherent pulsed transmitter has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center. This pulsed laser transmitter will be a part of coherent wind lidar shuttle mission SPARCLE. The acronym stands for SPAce Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment and is primarily a technology demonstration mission and is expected to fly in 2001 as NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) second Earth Orbiter (EO-2) mission. The laser transmitter for SPARCLE is a Ho:Tm:YLF power oscillator operating at eye-safe wavelength of 2.05 microns. The Q-switched output energy is 125 mJ at six Hz, and it has a near-transform limited beam with a pulse width of 170 ns. The high power and high beam quality of this laser makes it well suited as a coherent wind lidar transmitter on a space platform. When the output of this power oscillator is amplified by using four diode-pumped Ho:Tm:YLF amplifiers, an output energy of 600 mJ at 10 Hz is achieved. This is the highest energy ever produced at 10 Hz, and is at least an order of magnitude greater than previously achieved for a 2-micron diode-pumped laser at room temperature.

  13. Standoff gas leak detectors based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frish, M. B.; Wainner, R. T.; Green, B. D.; Laderer, M. C.; Allen, M. G.

    2005-11-01

    Trace gas sensing and analysis by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) has become a robust and reliable technology accepted for industrial process monitoring and control, quality assurance, environmental sensing, plant safety, and infrastructure security. Sensors incorporating well-packaged wavelength-stabilized near-infrared (1.2 to 2.0 μm) laser sources sense over a dozen toxic or industrially-important gases. A large emerging application for TDLAS is standoff sensing of gas leaks, e.g. from natural gas pipelines. The Remote Methane Leak Detector (RMLD), a handheld standoff TDLAS leak survey tool that we developed, is replacing traditional leak detection tools that must be physically immersed within a leak to detect it. Employing a 10 mW 1.6 micron DFB laser, the RMLD illuminates a non-cooperative topographic surface, up to 30 m distant, and analyzes returned scattered light to deduce the presence of excess methane. The eye-safe, battery-powered, 6-pound handheld RMLD enhances walking pipeline survey rates by more than 30%. When combined with a spinning or rastering mirror, the RMLD serves as a platform for mobile leak mapping systems. Also, to enable high-altitude surveying and provide aerial disaster response, we are extending the standoff range to 3000 m by adding an EDFA to the laser transmitter.

  14. Extended ocular hazard distances associated with intrabeam aided viewing of the Sandia remote sensing system, airborne aura laser (Big Sky Variant).

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2004-08-01

    A laser hazard analysis to determine the Extended Ocular Hazard Distances associated with a possible intrabeam aided viewing of the Sandia Remote Sensing System (SRSS) airborne AURA laser (Big Sky Laser Technology) was performed based on the 2000 version of the American National Standard Institute's (ANSI) Standard Z136.1, for the Safe Use of Lasers and the 2000 version of the ANSI Standard Z136.6, for the Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The AURA lidar system is installed in the instrument pod of a Proteus airframe and is used to perform laser interaction experiments and tests at various national test sites. The targets are located at various distances (ranges) from the airborne platform. Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance (NOHD) and maximum ''eye-safe'' dwell times for various operational altitudes associated with unaided intrabeam exposure of ground personnel were determined and presented in a previous SAND report. Although the target areas are controlled and the use of viewing aids are prohibited there is the possibility of the unauthorized use of viewing aids such as binoculars. This aided viewing hazard analysis is supplemental to the previous SAND report for the laser hazard analysis of the airborne AURA.

  15. High-peak-power sub-nanosecond intracavity KTiOPO4 optical parametric oscillator pumped by a dual-loss modulated laser with acousto-optic modulator and single-walled carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Junpeng; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Zhao, Jia; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Li, Tao; Qiao, Wenchao; Lu, Jianren; Wang, Yonggang; Chu, Hongwei; Luan, Chao

    2016-08-01

    A high-peak-power low-repetition-rate sub-nanosecond intracavity KTiOPO4 (KTP) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by a doubly Q-switched and mode-locked (QML) YVO4/Nd:YVO4 laser with an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) and a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber (SWCNT-SA) has been demonstrated. A maximum output power of 373 mW at a signal wavelength of 1570 nm was obtained. The smallest pulse width, highest pulse energy, and greatest peak power of mode-locking pulses were estimated to be 119 ps, 124 µJ, and 1.04 MW, respectively, under a maximum incident pump power of 8.3 W and an AOM repetition rate of 2 kHz. This OPO operation paves a simple way to produce eye-safe laser sources at 1570 nm with low repetition rates, small pulse widths, and high peak powers.

  16. Laser Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauger, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes lasers and indicates that learning about laser technology and creating laser technology activities are among the teacher enhancement processes needed to strengthen technology education. (JOW)

  17. Laser Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauger, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes lasers and indicates that learning about laser technology and creating laser technology activities are among the teacher enhancement processes needed to strengthen technology education. (JOW)

  18. Laser apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koepf, G. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A laser apparatus having a pump laser device for producing pump laser energy upon being excited is disclosed. The pump laser device has a resonating cavity for oscillating and amplifying the pump laser energy. A source laser device is used for producing source laser energy upon being excited by the pump laser energy. The source laser device has a resonating cavity for oscillating and amplifying the source laser energy. The source laser's resonating cavity is coupled within a portion of the pump laser's resonating cavity.

  19. The reverse laser drilling of transparent materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, T. R.; Lindner, P. A.

    1980-01-01

    Within a limited range of incident laser-beam intensities, laser drilling of a sapphire wafer initiates on the surface of the wafer where the laser beam exits and proceeds upstream in the laser beam to the surface where the laser beam enters the wafer. This reverse laser drilling is the result of the constructive interference between the laser beam and its reflected component on the exit face of the wafer. Constructive interference occurs only at the exit face of the sapphire wafer because the internally reflected laser beam suffers no phase change there. A model describing reverse laser drilling predicts the ranges of incident laser-beam intensity where no drilling, reverse laser drilling, and forward laser drilling can be expected in various materials. The application of reverse laser drilling in fabricating feed-through conductors in silicon-on-sapphire wafers for a massively parallel processer is described.

  20. Energy-transfer studies and efficient cw laser operation of a cw Er,Yb:YCOB laser at 1.55 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Phillip A.; Dawes, Judith M.; Dekker, Peter; Piper, James A.; Jiang, Haidong; Jiang, Huiajing; Wang, Jiyang

    2003-06-01

    All-solid-state laser devices operating in the 1.5 - 1.6 μm wavelength range have many practical applications. The most notable of these is their use in optical telecommunications, but the current research drive is to increase the output power from high beam quality, solid-state devices for eye-safe applications such as laser range finding and target acquisition, remote sensing of trace elements in air, light detecting and ranging, medicine, metrology and atmospheric phenomena such as measurements of wind shear. Yb3+ ions are co-doped into the host material to improve the pumping efficiency by taking advantage of commercial InGaAs diode lasers emitting at 980 nm. The absorbed pump is then non-radiative transferred to the Er3+ ions, and rapidly decaying to the 4I13/2 upper-laser level. Laser operation in Er,Yb co-doped systems has been dominated by glass hosts (in particular, phosphate) with attempts in crystalline materials yielding disappointing results despite their superior mechanical and thermal properties. In this paper we will present efficient diode-pumped laser operation of the crystalline host material Er,Yb:YCOB at 1.55 μm. By studying the energy transfer mechanisms of this material, we have identified the optimum dopant concentrations and 250 mW of continuous wave (cw) output in TEM00 transverse mode has been obtained with a 2mm crystal in an hemispherical cavity. Also, >150 mW cw has been obtained in a flat-flat cavity arrangement. The output coupling in each case was 1%. The slope efficiency of the laser was 21.9%.

  1. Airborne Visible Laser Optical Communications Program (AVLOC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The design, development, and operation of airborne and ground-based laser communications and laser radar hardware is described in support of the Airborne Visible Laser Optical Communication program. The major emphasis is placed on the development of a highly flexible test bed for the evaluation of laser communications systems techniques and components in an operational environment.

  2. Laser Technology Is Primed for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytle, Jim

    1986-01-01

    Explains the three characteristics of laser light (monochromatic light, divergence, and coherence), the components of a laser, applications of the laser (alignment, distance measurement, welding/cutting, marking, medical applications), and a complete laser training system appropriate for classroom use. (CT)

  3. Classification of protein binders in artist's paints by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry: an evaluation of principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA).

    PubMed

    Fremout, Wim; Kuckova, Stepanka; Crhova, Michaela; Sanyova, Jana; Saverwyns, Steven; Hynek, Radovan; Kodicek, Milan; Vandenabeele, Peter; Moens, Luc

    2011-06-15

    Proteomics techniques are increasingly applied for the identification of protein binders in historical paints. The complex nature of paint samples, with different kinds of pigments mixed into, and degradation by long term exposure to light, humidity and temperature variations, requires solid analysis and interpretation methods. In this study matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectra of tryptic-digested paint replicas are subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) in order to distinguish proteinaceous binders based on animal glues, egg white, egg yolk and milk casein from each other. The most meaningful peptide peaks for a given protein class will be determined, and if possible, annotated with their corresponding amino acid sequence. The methodology was subsequently applied on egg temperas, as well as on animal glues from different species. In the latter small differences in the MALDI-TOF mass spectra can allow the determination of a mammal or sturgeon origin of the glue. Finally, paint samples from the 16(th) century altarpiece of St Margaret of Antioch (Mlynica, Slovakia) were analysed. Several expected peaks are either present in lower abundance or completely missing in these natural aged paints, due to degradation of the paints. In spite of this mammalian glue was identified in the St Margaret samples.

  4. External-cavity diamond Raman laser performance at 1240 nm and 1485 nm wavelengths with high pulse energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashinin, V. P.; Ralchenko, V. G.; Bolshakov, A. P.; Ashkinazi, E. E.; Gorbashova, M. A.; Yurov, V. Yu; Konov, V. I.

    2016-06-01

    We report on an external-cavity diamond Raman laser (DRL) pumped with a Q-switched Nd:YAG and generating at 1st and 2nd Stokes (1240 nm and 1485 nm) with enhanced output energy. The slope efficiency of 54% and output energy as high as 1.2 mJ in single pulse at 1240 nm have been achieved with optimized cavity, while the pulse energy of 0.70 mJ was obtained in the eye-safe spectral region at 1485 nm. Calculations of thermal lensing effect indicate it as a possible reason for the observed decrease in conversion efficiency at the highest pump energies.

  5. Laser beam temporal and spatial tailoring for laser shock processing

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd; Dane, C. Brent

    2001-01-01

    Techniques are provided for formatting laser pulse spatial shape and for effectively and efficiently delivering the laser energy to a work surface in the laser shock process. An appropriately formatted pulse helps to eliminate breakdown and generate uniform shocks. The invention uses a high power laser technology capable of meeting the laser requirements for a high throughput process, that is, a laser which can treat many square centimeters of surface area per second. The shock process has a broad range of applications, especially in the aerospace industry, where treating parts to reduce or eliminate corrosion failure is very important. The invention may be used for treating metal components to improve strength and corrosion resistance. The invention has a broad range of applications for parts that are currently shot peened and/or require peening by means other than shot peening. Major applications for the invention are in the automotive and aerospace industries for components such as turbine blades, compressor components, gears, etc.

  6. Brain components

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The brain is composed of more than a thousand billion neurons. Specific groups of them, working in concert, provide ... of information. The 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The ...

  7. Diversified pulse generation from frequency shifted feedback Tm-doped fibre lasers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, He; Chen, Sheng-Ping; Jiang, Zong-Fu; Hou, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed fibre lasers operating in the eye-safe 2 μm spectral region have numerous potential applications in areas such as remote sensing, medicine, mid-infrared frequency conversion, and free-space communication. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate versatile 2 μm ps-ns pulses generation from Tm-based fibre lasers based on frequency shifted feedback and provide a comprehensive report of their special behaviors. The lasers are featured with elegant construction and the unparalleled capacity of generating versatile pulses. The self-starting mode-locking is initiated by an intra-cavity acousto-optical frequency shifter. Diversified mode-locked pulse dynamics were observed by altering the pump power, intra-cavity polarization state and cavity structure, including as short as 8 ps single pulse sequence, pulse bundle state and up to 12 nJ, 3 ns nanosecond rectangular pulse. A reflective nonlinear optical loop mirror was introduced to successfully shorten the pulses from 24 ps to 8 ps. Beside the mode-locking operation, flexible Q-switching and Q-switched mode-locking operation can also be readily achieved in the same cavity. Up to 78 μJ high energy nanosecond pulse can be generated in this regime. Several intriguing pulse dynamics are characterized and discussed. PMID:27193213

  8. Diversified pulse generation from frequency shifted feedback Tm-doped fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, He; Chen, Sheng-Ping; Jiang, Zong-Fu; Hou, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Pulsed fibre lasers operating in the eye-safe 2 μm spectral region have numerous potential applications in areas such as remote sensing, medicine, mid-infrared frequency conversion, and free-space communication. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate versatile 2 μm ps-ns pulses generation from Tm-based fibre lasers based on frequency shifted feedback and provide a comprehensive report of their special behaviors. The lasers are featured with elegant construction and the unparalleled capacity of generating versatile pulses. The self-starting mode-locking is initiated by an intra-cavity acousto-optical frequency shifter. Diversified mode-locked pulse dynamics were observed by altering the pump power, intra-cavity polarization state and cavity structure, including as short as 8 ps single pulse sequence, pulse bundle state and up to 12 nJ, 3 ns nanosecond rectangular pulse. A reflective nonlinear optical loop mirror was introduced to successfully shorten the pulses from 24 ps to 8 ps. Beside the mode-locking operation, flexible Q-switching and Q-switched mode-locking operation can also be readily achieved in the same cavity. Up to 78 μJ high energy nanosecond pulse can be generated in this regime. Several intriguing pulse dynamics are characterized and discussed.

  9. Large-area high-power VCSEL pump arrays optimized for high-energy lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chad; Geske, Jonathan; Garrett, Henry; Cardellino, Terri; Talantov, Fedor; Berdin, Glen; Millenheft, David; Renner, Daniel; Klemer, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Practical, large-area, high-power diode pumps for one micron (Nd, Yb) as well as eye-safer wavelengths (Er, Tm, Ho) are critical to the success of any high energy diode pumped solid state laser. Diode efficiency, brightness, availability and cost will determine how realizable a fielded high energy diode pumped solid state laser will be. 2-D Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) arrays are uniquely positioned to meet these requirements because of their unique properties, such as low divergence circular output beams, reduced wavelength drift with temperature, scalability to large 2-D arrays through low-cost and high-volume semiconductor photolithographic processes, high reliability, no catastrophic optical damage failure, and radiation and vacuum operation tolerance. Data will be presented on the status of FLIR-EOC's VCSEL pump arrays. Analysis of the key aspects of electrical, thermal and mechanical design that are critical to the design of a VCSEL pump array to achieve high power efficient array performance will be presented.

  10. Quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of multi-component fuel/air mixing in a firing gasoline-direct-injection engine: Effects of residual exhaust gas on quantitative PLIF

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ben; Ewart, Paul; Wang, Xiaowei; Stone, Richard; Ma, Hongrui; Walmsley, Harold; Cracknell, Roger; Stevens, Robert; Richardson, David; Fu, Huiyu; Wallace, Stan

    2010-10-15

    A study of in-cylinder fuel-air mixing distributions in a firing gasoline-direct-injection engine is reported using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging. A multi-component fuel synthesised from three pairs of components chosen to simulate light, medium and heavy fractions was seeded with one of three tracers, each chosen to co-evaporate with and thus follow one of the fractions, in order to account for differential volatility of such components in typical gasoline fuels. In order to make quantitative measurements of fuel-air ratio from PLIF images, initial calibration was by recording PLIF images of homogeneous fuel-air mixtures under similar conditions of in-cylinder temperature and pressure using a re-circulation loop and a motored engine. This calibration method was found to be affected by two significant factors. Firstly, calibration was affected by variation of signal collection efficiency arising from build-up of absorbing deposits on the windows during firing cycles, which are not present under motored conditions. Secondly, the effects of residual exhaust gas present in the firing engine were not accounted for using a calibration loop with a motored engine. In order to account for these factors a novel method of PLIF calibration is presented whereby 'bookend' calibration measurements for each tracer separately are performed under firing conditions, utilising injection into a large upstream heated plenum to promote the formation of homogeneous in-cylinder mixtures. These calibration datasets contain sufficient information to not only characterise the quantum efficiency of each tracer during a typical engine cycle, but also monitor imaging efficiency, and, importantly, account for the impact of exhaust gas residuals (EGR). By use of this method EGR is identified as a significant factor in quantitative PLIF for fuel mixing diagnostics in firing engines. The effects of cyclic variation in fuel concentration on burn rate are analysed for different

  11. Theoretical and experimental study of generation mechanisms for laser ultrasound in woven graphite/epoxy composites with translaminar stitching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Adam Daniel

    The aerospace industry is beginning to use advanced composite materials for primary load bearing structures and their failure mechanisms must be better understood to predict their behavior in service. The Combined Loads Tests (COLTS) facility is being constructed at the NASA Langley Research Center to characterize these failure mechanisms. Laser based ultrasonic NDE can monitor the samples during dynamic loading without interfering with the structural tests. However, the constraints of implementing laser ultrasound in a structures laboratory reduces the efficiency of the technique. The system has to be ``eye-safe'' because many people will be present during the structural tests. Consequently, laser light has to be delivered through fiber optics and a significant amount of light is lost. Also, the nature of the composite materials makes laser ultrasonic inspection difficult. The composites of interest are formed from woven layers that are stitched through the laminate thickness and bound in a resin matrix. These materials attenuate ultrasound strongly and exhibit a high degree of scattering. Generation mechanisms in laser based ultrasound must be better understood to improve generation efficiency and consequently improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Although some experimental and theoretical studies have been conducted to characterize generation mechanisms, more extensive work is needed for composite materials. Specifically, we are concerned with generation mechanisms in thick, stitched composite structures. We describe a theoretical and experimental investigation of laser generated ultrasound in complex composite materials. We first develop a mathematical model describing the thermoelastic generation of ultrasound in a general anisotropic material. We then present a wide range of experimental data investigating the effects of laser and material parameters on the generated ultrasound. We specifically consider the relationship between laser pulse width, laser

  12. AN ELECTRON SOURCE FOR A LASER ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C

    2004-09-15

    Laser accelerators offer the promise of producing attosecond electron bunches from a compact accelerator. Electron source requirements for laser accelerators are challenging in several respects, but are achievable. The authors discuss these requirements, and propose an injector design. Simulation and design work for essential components for a laser accelerator electron source suitable for a high energy physics machine will be presented. Near-term plans to test key technical components of the laser injector will also be discussed.

  13. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments: January - February 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-21

    85-88. (RZFZA, 88/2L224). 773. Gorbunov,M.V.; Kaminskiy,A.S.; Safonov,A.N. (IRE). Valley-orbit splitting of the ground state of excitons bound to...in Block 20, if different from report) 18. Supplementary Notes 19. KEY WORDS -7 Solid State Lasers; Liquid Lasers,; Gas Lasers; Chemical Lasers; Laser...basic research on solid state , liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; sptctroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse

  14. Barium Nitrate Raman Laser Development for Remote Sensing of Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCray, Christopher L.; Chyba, Thomas H.

    1997-01-01

    In order to understand the impact of anthropogenic emissions upon the earth's environment, scientists require remote sensing techniques which are capable of providing range-resolved measurements of clouds, aerosols, and the concentrations of several chemical constituents of the atmosphere. The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique is a very promising method to measure concentration profiles of chemical species such as ozone and water vapor as well as detect the presence of aerosols and clouds. If a suitable DIAL system could be deployed in space, it would provide a global data set of tremendous value. Such systems, however, need to be compact, reliable, and very efficient. In order to measure atmospheric gases with the DIAL technique, the laser transmitter must generate suitable on-line and off-line wavelength pulse pairs. The on-line pulse is resonant with an absorption feature of the species of interest. The off-line pulse is tuned so that it encounters significantly less absorption. The relative backscattered power for the two pulses enables the range-resolved concentration to be computed. Preliminary experiments at NASA LaRC suggested that the solid state Raman shifting material, Ba(NO3)2, could be utilized to produce these pulse pairs. A Raman oscillator pumped at 532 nm by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser can create first Stokes laser output at 563 nm and second Stokes output at 599 nm. With frequency doublers, UV output at 281 nm and 299 nm can be subsequently obtained. This all-solid state system has the potential to be very efficient, compact, and reliable. Raman shifting in Ba(NO3)2, has previously been performed in both the visible and the infrared. The first Raman oscillator in the visible region was investigated in 1986 with the configurations of plane-plane and unstable telescopic resonators. However, most of the recent research has focused on the development of infrared sources for eye-safe lidar applications.

  15. Battery component

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, F.; Batson, D.C.; Miserendino, A.J.; Boyle, G.

    1988-03-15

    A mechanical component for reserve type electrochemical batteries having cylindrical porous members is described comprising a disc having: (i) circular grooves in one flat side for accepting the porous members; and (ii) at least one radial channel in the opposite flat side in fluid communication with the grooves.

  16. Laser scribe optimization study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wannamaker, A.L.

    1996-09-01

    The laser scribe characterization/optimization project was initiated to better understand what factors influence response variables of the laser marking process. The laser marking system is utilized to indelibly identify weapon system components. Many components have limited field life, and traceability to production origin is critical. In many cases, the reliability of the weapon system and the safety of the users can be attributed to individual and subassembly component fabrication processes. Laser beam penetration of the substrate material may affect product function. The design agency for the DOE had requested that Federal Manufacturing and Technologies characterize the laser marking process and implement controls on critical process parameters.

  17. Laser aircraft. [using kerosene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzberg, A.; Sun, K.; Jones, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of a laser-powered aircraft is discussed. Laser flight would be completely compatible with existing airports and air-traffic control, with the airplane using kerosene only power, up to a cruising altitude of 9 km where the laser satellite would lock on and beam laser energy to it. Two major components make up the laser turbofan, a heat exchanger for converting laser radiation into thermal energy, and conventional turbomachinery. The laser power satellite would put out 42 Mw using a solar-powered thermal engine to generate electrical power for the closed-cycle supersonic electric discharge CO laser, whose radiators, heat exchangers, supersonic diffuser, and ducting will amount to 85% of the total subsystem mass. Relay satellites will be used to intercept the beam from the laser satellite, correct outgoing beam aberrations, and direct the beam to the next target. A 300-airplane fleet with transcontinental range is projected to save enough kerosene to equal the energy content of the entire system, including power and relay satellites, in one year.

  18. The Texas Petawatt Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Mikael; Gaul, Erhard; Ditmire, Todd; Douglas, Skyler; Gorski, Dan; Henderson, Watson; Blakeney, Joel; Hammond, Doug; Gerity, Michael; Caird, John; Erlandson, Al; Iovanovic, Igor; Ebbers, Chris; Molander, Bill

    2005-12-01

    We report on the design and construction of the Texas Petawatt Laser. This research facility will consist of two, synchronized laser systems that will be used for a wide variety of high intensity laser and high energy density science experiments. The first laser is a novel, high energy (200 J), short pulse (150 fs) petawatt-class laser that is based on hybrid, broadband optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA) and mixed silicate and phosphate Nd:glass amplification. The second laser will provide 500 J at 527 nm (>1 kJ @1053 nm) with pulse widths selectable from 2-20 ns. Design and construction began in early 2003 and is scheduled to complete in 2007. In this report we will briefly discuss some of the important applications of this system, present the design of the laser and review some of the technology used to achieve pulse durations approaching 100 fs. Currently, the facility has been renovated for laser construction. The oscillator and stretcher are operational with the first stage of gain measured at 2×106. Output energies of 500μJ have been achieved with good near field image quality. Delivery has been taken for Nova components that will compose the main amplifier chain of the laser system.

  19. Laser technologies in ophthalmic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atezhev, V. V.; Barchunov, B. V.; Vartapetov, S. K.; Zav'yalov, A. S.; Lapshin, K. E.; Movshev, V. G.; Shcherbakov, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    Excimer and femtosecond lasers are widely used in ophthalmology to correct refraction. Laser systems for vision correction are based on versatile technical solutions and include multiple hard- and software components. Laser characteristics, properties of laser beam delivery system, algorithms for cornea treatment, and methods of pre-surgical diagnostics determine the surgical outcome. Here we describe the scientific and technological basis for laser systems for refractive surgery developed at the Physics Instrumentation Center (PIC) at the Prokhorov General Physics Institute (GPI), Russian Academy of Sciences.

  20. Delineation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates from cystic fibrosis patients by fatty acid methyl ester profiles and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectra using hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Vidigal, Pedrina Gonçalves; Mosel, Frank; Koehling, Hedda Luise; Mueller, Karl Dieter; Buer, Jan; Rath, Peter Michael; Steinmann, Joerg

    2014-12-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunist multidrug-resistant pathogen that causes a wide range of nosocomial infections. Various cystic fibrosis (CF) centres have reported an increasing prevalence of S. maltophilia colonization/infection among patients with this disease. The purpose of this study was to assess specific fingerprints of S. maltophilia isolates from CF patients (n = 71) by investigating fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) through gas chromatography (GC) and highly abundant proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and to compare them with isolates obtained from intensive care unit (ICU) patients (n = 20) and the environment (n = 11). Principal component analysis (PCA) of GC-FAME patterns did not reveal a clustering corresponding to distinct CF, ICU or environmental types. Based on the peak area index, it was observed that S. maltophilia isolates from CF patients produced significantly higher amounts of fatty acids in comparison with ICU patients and the environmental isolates. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) based on the MALDI-TOF MS peak profiles of S. maltophilia revealed the presence of five large clusters, suggesting a high phenotypic diversity. Although HCA of MALDI-TOF mass spectra did not result in distinct clusters predominantly composed of CF isolates, PCA revealed the presence of a distinct cluster composed of S. maltophilia isolates from CF patients. Our data suggest that S. maltophilia colonizing CF patients tend to modify not only their fatty acid patterns but also their protein patterns as a response to adaptation in the unfavourable environment of the CF lung. © 2014 The Authors.