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Sample records for f-18 fdg accumulation

  1. Uterine Epithelioid Angiosarcoma on F-18 FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae Pil; Lim, Sang Moo

    2013-06-01

    Uterine epithelioid angiosarcoma can have conventional imaging characteristics similar to those of other uterine tumors, such as leiomyoma, leiomyosarcomas or hemangioendothelioma. Uterine epithelioid angiosarcoma exhibiting increased fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) activity can be misdiagnosed. A 61-year-old woman who was diagnosed with uterine epithelioid angiosarcoma underwent F-18 FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) as a part of the pretreatment work up for surgery. F-18 FDG PET/CT showed an intense F-18 FDG uptake in the uterus in addition to increased F-18 FDG uptake at the paraaortic and aortocaval lymph nodes. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of intense F-18 FDG uptake in uterine epithelioid angiosarcoma in Korea.

  2. Solitary sternal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma detected by F-18 FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Kashyap, Raghava; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2013-01-01

    Fluorine-18 fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET) is not sensitive modality for the diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, FDG-PET imaging may be useful in the identification of extrahepatic metastases. We report an interesting image of HCC with solitary metastasis to sternum detected by F-18 FDG PET/CT.

  3. Usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma: disease extent and treatment response evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Suk; Jeong, Young Jin; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Dong Wook; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Yim, Chang-Yeol

    2012-12-01

    BACKGROUND.: Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL) is a rare form of cutaneous lymphomas, accounting for less than 1% of cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) findings of SPTCL before and after treatment were rarely reported. CASE REPORT.: We report a case of SPTCL in which F-18 FDG PET/CT showed increased FDG accumulations in numerous subcutaneous nodules without extracutaneous disease. Contrast-enhanced CT during F-18 FDG PET/CT showed multiple minimally enhancing nodules with an infiltrative pattern in the subcutaneous layer throughout the body. Follow-up F-18 FDG PET/CT after three cycles of CHOP chemotherapy showed a complete metabolic remission of the lesions. CONCLUSIONS.: F-18 FDG PET/CT is suggested to be useful in assessing the disease activity, extent and treatment response in SPTCL.

  4. Clinical implication of F-18 FDG PET/CT in patients with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jahae; Yoo, Su Woong; Kang, Sae-Ryung; Bom, Hee-Seung; Song, Ho-Chun; Min, Jung-Joon

    2014-04-01

    The contribution that F-18 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG) PET/CT makes to the diagnosis of malignancy in patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is still uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of F-18 FDG PET/CT for the detection of underlying malignancy, to investigate the correlation between PET and laboratory parameters, and to identify prognosis-related factors in patients with secondary HLH. We enrolled 14 patients who were diagnosed with HLH and referred for F-18 FDG PET/CT to exclude malignancy. The diagnostic performance of F-18 FDG PET/CT for malignancy detection was assessed. The correlations between PET and laboratory parameters were determined. The prognostic significance of the following factors was evaluated: PET and laboratory parameters, age in years, presence of underlying malignancy, and fever and splenomegaly. Six of the 14 patients had malignancies (four with lymphoma, one with multiple myeloma, and one with colonic malignancy). Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of F-18 FDG PET/CT for malignancy detection were 83, 62.5, and 71.4 %, respectively. F-18 FDG uptake in the bone marrow and spleen was positively correlated with neutrophil count and C-reactive protein. All of the PET parameters, but none of the clinical or laboratory parameters, were significantly associated with patient outcome, as determined by univariate analysis. Given the small sample size, F-18 FDG PET/CT was useful for detecting underlying malignancy, and PET parameters correlated with laboratory parameters that reflected inflammatory status. F-18 FDG PET/CT might provide prognostic information for the management of patients with secondary HLH.

  5. [The clinical value of F-18 FDG PET/CT in patients with secondary hemophagocytic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-Bing; Zhu, Yun-Xia; Liu, Xin; Pan, Bo; Zhang, Liang; Han, Yong-Sheng; Cai, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, Wei-Bo; Wu, Jing-Sheng; Sun, Zi-Min

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of F-18 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) in diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of secondary hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS). A total of 11 secondary HPS patients examined with 18F-FDG-PET/CT were retrospectively analyzed. The diagnostic value of F-18 FDG PET/CT for malignancy detection was assessed. The values of maximum standardized uptake value (SUV(max)) in spleen (SUVS(p)) and in bone marrow (SUVBM) were measured to analyze their relationship with various laboratorial parameters and clinical outcome of secondary HPS patients. The results showed that 4 out of the 11 patients had malignancies, the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of F-18 FDG PET/CT for malignancy detection were 100%, 66.7% and 75% respectively, the SUV(max) of spleen and bone marrow showed no significant correlation with laboratorial parameters, a maximum SUVS(p) of 3.10 and a maximum SUVBM of 3.47 were the optimal cutoffs for predicting patients' outcome, the increased uptake of F-18 FDG in the BM and spleen were significantly associated with shorter survival time according to univariate analysis. It is concluded that 18F-FDG PET/CT may especially play an important role in diagnosis and predicting outcome of secondary HPS for the small sample size.

  6. Renal Cell Carcinoma with Paraneoplastic Manifestations: Imaging with CT and F-18 FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ba D; Roarke, Michael C

    2007-01-01

    We present a case of renal cell carcinoma with prominent inflammatory and paraneoplastic manifestations. The initial CT detection of renal malignancy and subsequent post-therapeutic F-18 FDG PET/CT diagnosis of occult osseous metastasis were based on the patient's anemia, thrombocytosis and abnormally increased levels of serum C-reactive protein.

  7. Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in a Patient with AIDS on F-18 FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyoung Sook; Choi, Byung Wook; Zeon, Seok Kil

    2010-04-01

    The distinction between primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma and nonmalignant lesions due to opportunistic infections, in particular cerebral toxoplasmosis, is important because of the different treatments involved. A 32-year-old patient with AIDS was hospitalized for intermittent headaches. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a small well-enhanced nodular lesion in the right frontal lobe. A fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scan showed moderate FDG uptake in the nodular lesion of the right frontal lobe. We present a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the differential diagnosis of the cerebral toxoplasmosis will be discussed.

  8. Cholangiolocellular Carcinoma of the Liver Exhibiting High F-18 FDG Uptake.

    PubMed

    Mori, Naoko; Ichikawa, Tamaki; Hashimoto, Jun; Yamashita, Tomohiro; Yamada, Misuzu; Hirabayashi, Kenichi; Imai, Yutaka

    2016-06-20

    Cholangiolocellular carcinoma (CoCC) is a rare primary liver cancer. It is considered to originate from hepatic progenitor or stem cells. We report a rare case of a 74-year-old male with CoCC of the liver and duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Both tumors manifested tracer uptakes on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT); however, the uptake in hepatic tumor was extremely higher than that in the duodenal tumor. This finding was helpful to exclude the metastasis of GIST.

  9. Benign Schwannoma Mimicking Metastatic Lesion on F-18 FDG PET/CT in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sungmin

    2013-06-01

    We report a case of benign schwannoma mimicking metastatic carcinoma. A 55-year-old female with papillary thyroid carcinoma underwent total thyroidectomy. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) demonstrated a focal hypermetabolic lesion with maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) 5.3 at the right chest wall. Conventional chest CT demonstrated a 5.4 cm ovoid mass lesion between the intercostal muscles and liver. Pathology revealed a schwannoma by tumor excision. This case demonstrates that benign schwannoma may demonstrate FDG uptake mimicking metastatic carcinoma.

  10. Rapidly growing complex fibroadenoma with surrounding ductal hyperplasia mimics breast malignancy on serial F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Makis, William; Ciarallo, Anthony; Hickeson, Marc; Derbekyan, Vilma

    2011-07-01

    A 30-year-old woman was referred for an F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT to rule out lymphoma, and was found to have an incidental FDG-avid right breast nodule that grew significantly in size and FDG uptake on a subsequent scan, raising suspicion of a growing breast malignancy. Histologic evaluation showed a complex fibroadenoma with adenosis and surrounding ductal hyperplasia. Although variable F-18 FDG uptake in fibroadenomas has been described, a distinction between simple and complex fibroadenomas has not been made in the PET literature, even though complex fibroadenomas have a higher propensity to develop into malignancies. This case shows that a rapidly growing complex fibroadenoma can mimic a breast malignancy on serial F-18 FDG PET/CT scans, showing significant increase in both size and FDG-avidity on follow-up studies.

  11. Isolated thymic Langerhans cell histiocytosis discovered on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT).

    PubMed

    Turpin, Sophie; Carret, Anne-Sophie; Dubois, Josée; Buteau, Chantal; Patey, Natalie

    2015-11-01

    The thymic infiltration in young patients with multisystemic Langerhans cell histiocytosis and its radiologic features are well known. However, isolated thymic disease has seldom been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 10-month-old child admitted for fever of unknown origin. Whole-body F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) was performed to identify a focus of infection. It demonstrated an unusual aspect of the thymus, which led to further investigation and revealed isolated infiltration of the thymus by Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The patient was treated accordingly and is now disease free. As evaluation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis patients with F-18 FDG PET/CT is becoming more frequent, it is important to be aware of the scintigraphical characteristics of thymic Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

  12. Muscular Sarcoidosis Detected by F-18 FDG PET/CT in a Hypercalcemic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Han, Eun Ji; Jang, Yi Sun; Lee, In Suk; Lee, Jong Min; Kang, Siwon

    2013-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology that involves many organs, occasionally mimicking malignancy. We herein report a 50-yr-old woman of muscular sarcoidosis of chronic myopathic type, manifested by hypercalcemia and muscle wasting. Besides insignificant hilar lymphadenopathy, her sarcoidosis was confined to generalized atrophic muscles and therefore, F-18 FDG PET/CT alone among conventional imaging studies provided diagnostic clues for the non-parathyroid-related hypercalcemia. On follow-up PET/CT during low-dose steroid treatment, FDG uptake in the muscles disappeared whereas that in the hilar lymph nodes remained. PET/CT may be useful in the evaluation of unexpected disease extent and monitoring treatment response in suspected or known sarcoidosis patients. PMID:24015050

  13. Current concepts in F18 FDG PET/CT-based radiation therapy planning for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Percy; Kupelian, Patrick; Czernin, Johannes; Ghosh, Partha

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an important component of cancer therapy for early stage as well as locally advanced lung cancer. The use of F18 FDG PET/CT has come to the forefront of lung cancer staging and overall treatment decision-making. FDG PET/CT parameters such as standard uptake value and metabolic tumor volume provide important prognostic and predictive information in lung cancer. Importantly, FDG PET/CT for radiation planning has added biological information in defining the gross tumor volume as well as involved nodal disease. For example, accurate target delineation between tumor and atelectasis is facilitated by utilizing PET and CT imaging. Furthermore, there has been meaningful progress in incorporating metabolic information from FDG PET/CT imaging in radiation treatment planning strategies such as radiation dose escalation based on standard uptake value thresholds as well as using respiratory-gated PET and CT planning for improved target delineation of moving targets. In addition, PET/CT-based follow-up after radiation therapy has provided the possibility of early detection of local as well as distant recurrences after treatment. More research is needed to incorporate other biomarkers such as proliferative and hypoxia biomarkers in PET as well as integrating metabolic information in adaptive, patient-centered, tailored radiation therapy.

  14. Diagnostic performance of PET/CT with tracers other than F-18-FDG in oncology: an evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Treglia, G; Sadeghi, R; Del Sole, A; Giovanella, L

    2014-09-01

    Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18-FDG) is the most used positron emitter radiopharmaceutical worldwide. This glucose analogue allows to study the glucose metabolism which is often increased in many tumors. Nowadays the diagnostic performance of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) using F-18-FDG in different tumors is well known. On the other hand, to date, there is an increasing interest for the use of PET tracers other than F-18-FDG in oncology, because they allow to study different metabolic pathways or receptor expression. The aim of this review is to summarize the scientific literature about the diagnostic performance of PET/CT using tracers other than F-18-FDG in oncology through an evidence-based approach. In particular, the results of meta-analyses (representing the highest level of evidence) on the diagnostic performance of PET tracers other than F-18-FDG in different tumors are described. Furthermore, recommendations for the use of different PET tracers in oncology are provided based on existing literature data.

  15. A Rationale for the Use of F18-FDG PET/CT in Fever and Inflammation of Unknown Origin

    PubMed Central

    Balink, H.; Verberne, H. J.; Bennink, R. J.; van Eck-Smit, B. L. F.

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on the diagnostic value of hybrid F18-FDG Positron Emission Tomography/Computerized tomography (PET/CT) in fever of unknown origin (FUO) and inflammation of unknown origin (IUO). Due to the wide range of possible causes both FUO and IUO remain a clinical challenge for both patients and physicians. In addition, the aetiology of IUO shows the same variation in diseases as the FUO spectrum and probably requires the same diagnostic approach as FUO. There are numerous historically used diagnostic approaches incorporating invasive and non-invasive, and imaging techniques, all with relative high specificity but limited sensitivity. This hampers the generalization of these diagnostic approaches. However, recently published reports show that F18-FDG PET/CT in FUO and IUO has a high sensitivity and a relative non-specificity for malignancy, infection and inflammation. This makes F18-FDG PET/CT an ideal diagnostic tool to start the diagnostic process and to guide subsequent focused diagnostic approaches with higher specificity. In addition, F18-FDG PET/CT has a relative high negative predictive value. Therefore F18 FDG PET/CT should be incorporated in the routine diagnostic work-up of patients with FUO and IUO, preferably at an early stage in the diagnostic process. PMID:23316356

  16. A Study on the Basic Criteria for Selecting Heterogeneity Parameters of F18-FDG PET Images

    PubMed Central

    Forgacs, Attila; Pall Jonsson, Hermann; Dahlbom, Magnus; Daver, Freddie; D. DiFranco, Matthew; Opposits, Gabor; K. Krizsan, Aron; Garai, Ildiko; Czernin, Johannes; Varga, Jozsef; Tron, Lajos; Balkay, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Textural analysis might give new insights into the quantitative characterization of metabolically active tumors. More than thirty textural parameters have been investigated in former F18-FDG studies already. The purpose of the paper is to declare basic requirements as a selection strategy to identify the most appropriate heterogeneity parameters to measure textural features. Our predefined requirements were: a reliable heterogeneity parameter has to be volume independent, reproducible, and suitable for expressing quantitatively the degree of heterogeneity. Based on this criteria, we compared various suggested measures of homogeneity. A homogeneous cylindrical phantom was measured on three different PET/CT scanners using the commonly used protocol. In addition, a custom-made inhomogeneous tumor insert placed into the NEMA image quality phantom was imaged with a set of acquisition times and several different reconstruction protocols. PET data of 65 patients with proven lung lesions were retrospectively analyzed as well. Four heterogeneity parameters out of 27 were found as the most attractive ones to characterize the textural properties of metabolically active tumors in FDG PET images. These four parameters included Entropy, Contrast, Correlation, and Coefficient of Variation. These parameters were independent of delineated tumor volume (bigger than 25–30 ml), provided reproducible values (relative standard deviation< 10%), and showed high sensitivity to changes in heterogeneity. Phantom measurements are a viable way to test the reliability of heterogeneity parameters that would be of interest to nuclear imaging clinicians. PMID:27736888

  17. A Study on the Basic Criteria for Selecting Heterogeneity Parameters of F18-FDG PET Images.

    PubMed

    Forgacs, Attila; Pall Jonsson, Hermann; Dahlbom, Magnus; Daver, Freddie; D DiFranco, Matthew; Opposits, Gabor; K Krizsan, Aron; Garai, Ildiko; Czernin, Johannes; Varga, Jozsef; Tron, Lajos; Balkay, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Textural analysis might give new insights into the quantitative characterization of metabolically active tumors. More than thirty textural parameters have been investigated in former F18-FDG studies already. The purpose of the paper is to declare basic requirements as a selection strategy to identify the most appropriate heterogeneity parameters to measure textural features. Our predefined requirements were: a reliable heterogeneity parameter has to be volume independent, reproducible, and suitable for expressing quantitatively the degree of heterogeneity. Based on this criteria, we compared various suggested measures of homogeneity. A homogeneous cylindrical phantom was measured on three different PET/CT scanners using the commonly used protocol. In addition, a custom-made inhomogeneous tumor insert placed into the NEMA image quality phantom was imaged with a set of acquisition times and several different reconstruction protocols. PET data of 65 patients with proven lung lesions were retrospectively analyzed as well. Four heterogeneity parameters out of 27 were found as the most attractive ones to characterize the textural properties of metabolically active tumors in FDG PET images. These four parameters included Entropy, Contrast, Correlation, and Coefficient of Variation. These parameters were independent of delineated tumor volume (bigger than 25-30 ml), provided reproducible values (relative standard deviation< 10%), and showed high sensitivity to changes in heterogeneity. Phantom measurements are a viable way to test the reliability of heterogeneity parameters that would be of interest to nuclear imaging clinicians.

  18. Relation Between F-18 FDG Uptake of PET/CT and BRAFV600E Mutation in Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seokho; An, Young-Sil; Lee, Su Jin; So, Eu Young; Kim, Jang-Hee; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Yoon, Joon-Kee

    2015-12-01

    BRAFV600E mutation and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake are potential prognostic factors of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the BRAFV600E mutation and F-18 FDG uptake in PTC.We retrospectively included 169 PTC patients who underwent F-18 FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) before thyroidectomy from May 2009 to August 2012. Subjects were classified into overt PTC (>1 cm, n = 76) and papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC, n = 93) groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the relationship between maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the primary tumors and clinicopathologic variables.The BRAFV600E mutation was detected in 82.2% (139/169). In all subjects, the BRAFV600E mutation and tumor size were independently related to SUVmax by multivariate analysis (P = 0.048 and P < 0.001, respectively). SUVmax was significantly higher in tumors with the BRAFV600E mutation than in those with wild-type BRAF (9.4 ± 10.9 vs 5.0 ± 4.1, P < 0.001). Similarly, in overt PTC group, the BRAFV600E mutation and tumor size were independently correlated with SUVmax (P = 0.032 and P = 0.001, respectively). By contrast, in PTMC group, only tumor size was significantly associated with SUVmax (P = 0.010). The presence of the BRAFV600E mutation is independently associated with high F-18 FDG uptake on preoperative PET/CT in patients with overt PTC, but this relationship was not evident in PTMC. This study provides a better understanding of the relationship between F-18 FDG uptake and BRAFV600E mutation in patients with PTC.

  19. Very low-dose adult whole-body tumor imaging with F-18 FDG PET/CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krol, Andrzej; Naveed, Muhammad; McGrath, Mary; Lisi, Michele; Lavalley, Cathy; Feiglin, David

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if effective radiation dose due to PET component in adult whole-body tumor imaging with time-of-flight F-18 FDG PET/CT could be significantly reduced. We retrospectively analyzed data for 10 patients with the body mass index ranging from 25 to 50. We simulated F-18 FDG dose reduction to 25% of the ACR recommended dose via reconstruction of simulated shorter acquisition time per bed position scans from the acquired list data. F-18 FDG whole-body scans were reconstructed using time-of-flight OSEM algorithm and advanced system modeling. Two groups of images were obtained: group A with a standard dose of F-18 FDG and standard reconstruction parameters and group B with simulated 25% dose and modified reconstruction parameters, respectively. Three nuclear medicine physicians blinded to the simulated activity independently reviewed the images and compared diagnostic quality of images. Based on the input from the physicians, we selected optimal modified reconstruction parameters for group B. In so obtained images, all the lesions observed in the group A were visible in the group B. The tumor SUV values were different in the group A, as compared to group B, respectively. However, no significant differences were reported in the final interpretation of the images from A and B groups. In conclusion, for a small number of patients, we have demonstrated that F-18 FDG dose reduction to 25% of the ACR recommended dose, accompanied by appropriate modification of the reconstruction parameters provided adequate diagnostic quality of PET images acquired on time-of-flight PET/CT.

  20. Radiation assessment to paediatric with F-18-FDG undergo whole-body PET/CT examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhalisa, H.; Mohamad, A. S.; Rafidah, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out on wholebody radiation dose assessment to paediatrics patient who undergo PET/CT scanner at Institut Kanser Negara. Consist of 68 patients with varies of malignancies and epilepsy disease case covering age between 2 years to 12 years old. This is a retrospective study from 2010-2014. The use of PET/CT scanner as an advanced tool has been proven to give an extra radiation dose to the patient. It is because of the radiation exposure from the combination of both CT and PET scans rather than a single CT or PET scan. Furthermore, a study on radiation dose to paediatric patient undergoing PET/CT is rare in Malaysia. So, the aim of this study is to estimate the wholebody effective dose to paediatric patient in Malaysia. Effective dose from PET scan was calculated based on the activity of F18 FDG and dose coefficient reported in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 106. Effective dose from CT was determined using k coefficient as reported in ICRP publication 102 and Dose Length Product (DLP) value. The average effective dose from PET and CT were found to be 7.05mSv and 5.77mSv respectively. The mean wholebody effective dose received by a patient with combined PETCT examination was 12.78mSv. These results could be used as reference for dosimetry of a patient undergoing PETCT examination in Malaysia.

  1. Radiation assessment to paediatric with F-18-FDG undergo whole-body PET/CT examination

    SciTech Connect

    Dhalisa, H. Rafidah, Z.; Mohamad, A. S.

    2016-01-22

    This study was carried out on wholebody radiation dose assessment to paediatrics patient who undergo PET/CT scanner at Institut Kanser Negara. Consist of 68 patients with varies of malignancies and epilepsy disease case covering age between 2 years to 12 years old. This is a retrospective study from 2010-2014. The use of PET/CT scanner as an advanced tool has been proven to give an extra radiation dose to the patient. It is because of the radiation exposure from the combination of both CT and PET scans rather than a single CT or PET scan. Furthermore, a study on radiation dose to paediatric patient undergoing PET/CT is rare in Malaysia. So, the aim of this study is to estimate the wholebody effective dose to paediatric patient in Malaysia. Effective dose from PET scan was calculated based on the activity of F18 FDG and dose coefficient reported in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 106. Effective dose from CT was determined using k coefficient as reported in ICRP publication 102 and Dose Length Product (DLP) value. The average effective dose from PET and CT were found to be 7.05mSv and 5.77mSv respectively. The mean wholebody effective dose received by a patient with combined PETCT examination was 12.78mSv. These results could be used as reference for dosimetry of a patient undergoing PETCT examination in Malaysia.

  2. Correlation of Glut-1 and Glut-3 expression with F-18 FDG uptake in pulmonary inflammatory lesions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen Guang; Yu, Ming Ming; Han, Yu; Wu, Feng Yu; Yang, Guang Jie; Li, Da Cheng; Liu, Si Min

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation of glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1) and glucose transporter-3 (Glut-3) expression with F-18 FDG uptake in pulmonary inflammatory lesions.Twenty-two patients with pulmonary inflammatory lesions underwent positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) examination preoperatively, and Glut-1 and Glut-3 expression were detected by immunohistochemistry in these lesions. Correlations of Glut-1 and Glut-3 with F-FDG uptake were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation test.The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of pulmonary inflammatory lesions in 22 patients was 0.50 to 7.50, with a mean value of 3.66 ± 1.62. Immunohistochemical staining scores of Glut-1 and Glut-3 were 2.18 ± 0.96 and 2.82 ± 1.37, respectively. The expression of Glut-1 and Glut-3 was positively correlated with F-18 FDG uptake. Glut-3 expression was evidently higher than Glut-1 expression in 22 patients.Glut-1 and Glut-3 expressions are high in pulmonary inflammatory lesions, and Glut-3 plays a more important role in F-18 FDG uptake in pulmonary inflammatory lesions.

  3. F18-FDG-PET/CT for evaluation of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN): a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bertagna, Francesco; Treglia, Giorgio; Baiocchi, Gian Luca; Giubbini, Raffaele

    2013-04-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) are intraductal mucin-producing neoplasms with tall columnar, mucin-containing epithelium, with or without papillary projections, involving the main pancreatic duct and/or major side branches. They account for approximately 25 % of all cystic neoplasms and can be subdivided into benign lesions, borderline lesions, and carcinoma. In this clinical scenario accurate preoperative diagnosis can eliminate unnecessary surgery, which is risky and potentially harmful, yet enable effective selection of patients who are candidates for surgery. In this review we try to provide a complete evaluation of the use of F18-FDG-PET/CT for diagnosis of this neoplasm on the basis of published papers. F18-FDG-PET/CT seems to be an useful technique for preoperative work-up of patients with suspected IPMN and is an improvement over conventional imaging in distinguishing benign from malignant lesions, especially for selecting patients for surgical treatment or for long-term follow-up.

  4. Differentiation of thoracic tumors from post-treatment changes using PET with F-18 FDG and C-11 methionine

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Garcia, J.R.; Wong, F.C.L.

    1994-05-01

    This study was undertaken to differentiate active residual or recurrent thoracic tumors from various post-treatment changes by utilizing PET with F-18 FDG and also to compare F-18 FDG and C-11 methionine (Met) in diagnostic accuracy. We have prospectively evaluated 77 FDG-PET studies in 61 patients with histologically proven lung (37) and other thoracic (24) malignant tumors. Eleven Met-PET studies were obtained in 10 patients (three lung, seven other cancers). All patients received surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy, and their routine follow-up radiographic exam including CT showed suspected recurrent or residual tumors. PET studies were performed using Posicam scanner (Positron Co.) transaxial as well as reconstructed coronal or sagittal images were obtained after injection of 5-10 mCi F-18 FDG or 15-20 mCi C-11 Met following at least four hour fasting and attenuating correction. All PET images were visually inspected and correlated with radiographic studies. Standard uptake values (SUVs) were generated and compared on serial studies. Fifty-one studies had histologic correlation and all patients had at least six month follow-ups. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for diagnosing active thoracic tumors with FDG-PET scans were 100% (52/52), 88% (22/25) and 96% (74/77), respectively. They were 100% (7/7), 100% (4/4) and 100% (11/11), respectively with Met-PET in selected patients. Three false positive (FP) FDG cases showed active inflammation histologically. SUVs of FDG-PET were 6.5{plus_minus}2.9 for true positives and 1.4{plus_minus}1.3 for true negatives, respectively. SUVs of Met-PET were 4.3{plus_minus}2.3 for TP and 1.2{plus_minus}0.5 for TN, respectively. In conclusion, PET with FDG or Met is useful in diagnosing active thoracic tumors after various treatments, and FDG showed greater SUV than Met.

  5. Prognostic value of pre-treatment F-18-FDG PET-CT in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing radioembolization

    PubMed Central

    Abuodeh, Yazan; Naghavi, Arash O; Ahmed, Kamran A; Venkat, Puja S; Kim, Youngchul; Kis, Bela; Choi, Junsung; Biebel, Benjamin; Sweeney, Jennifer; Anaya, Daniel A; Kim, Richard; Malafa, Mokenge; Frakes, Jessica M; Hoffe, Sarah E; El-Haddad, Ghassan

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the value of pre-treatment 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with HCC following liver radioembolization. METHODS We identified 34 patients with HCC who underwent an FDG PET/CT scan prior to hepatic radioembolization at our institution between 2009 and 2013. Patients were seen in clinic one month after radioembolization and then at 2-3 mo intervals. We assessed the influence of FDG tumor uptake on outcomes including local liver control (LLC), distant liver control (DLC), time to distant metastases (DM), progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS The majority of patients were males (n = 25, 74%), and had Child Pugh Class A (n = 31, 91%), with a median age of 68 years (46-84 years). FDG-avid disease was found in 19 (56%) patients with SUVmax ranging from 3 to 20. Female patients were more likely to have an FDG-avid HCC (P = 0.02). Median follow up of patients following radioembolization was 12 months (1.2-62.8 mo). FDG-avid disease was associated with a decreased 1 year LLC, DLC, DM and PFS (P < 0.05). Using multivariate analysis, FDG avidity predicted for LLC, DLC, and PFS (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION In this retrospective study, pre-treatment HCC FDG-avidity was found to be associated with worse LLC, DLC, and PFS following radioembolization. Larger studies are needed to validate our initial findings to assess the role of F-18-FDG PET/CT scans as biomarker for patients with HCC following radioembolization. PMID:28058021

  6. Response Assessment and Prediction in Esophageal Cancer Patients via F-18 FDG PET/CT Scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Kyle J.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to utilize F-18 FDG PET/CT scans to determine an indicator for the response of esophageal cancer patients during radiation therapy. There is a need for such an indicator since local failures are quite common in esophageal cancer patients despite modern treatment techniques. If an indicator is found, a patient's treatment strategy may be altered to possibly improve the outcome. This is investigated with various standard uptake volume (SUV) metrics along with image texture features. The metrics and features showing the most promise and indicating response are used in logistic regression analysis to find an equation for the prediction of response. Materials and Methods: 28 patients underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT scans prior to the start of radiation therapy (RT). A second PET/CT scan was administered following the delivery of ~32 Gray (Gy) of dose. A physician contoured gross tumor volume (GTV) was used to delineate a PET based GTV (GTV-pre-PET) based on a threshold of >40% and >20% of the maximum SUV value in the GTV. Deformable registration was used in VelocityAI software to register the pre-treatment and intra-treatment CT scans so that the GTV-pre-PET contours could be transferred from the pre to intra scans (GTV-intra-PET). The fractional decrease in the maximum, mean, volume to the highest intensity 10%-90%, and combination SUV metrics of the significant previous SUV metrics were compared to post-treatment pathologic response for an indication of response. Next for the >40% threshold, texture features based on a neighborhood gray-tone dimension matrix (NGTDM) were analyzed. The fractional decrease in coarseness, contrast, busyness, complexity, and texture strength were compared to the pathologic response of the patients. From these previous two types of analysis, SUV and texture features, the two most significant results were used in logistic regression analysis to find an equation to predict the probability of a non

  7. Is there any complimentary role of F-18 NaF PET/CT in detecting of osseous involvement of multiple myeloma? A comparative study for F-18 FDG PET/CT and F-18 FDG NaF PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Ak, İlknur; Onner, Hasan; Akay, Olga Meltem

    2015-09-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a disease characterized by a monoclonal plasma cell population in the bone marrow whereby osseous involvement is a predominant feature. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the combined use of F-18 FDG and F-18 NaF PET/CT in the skeletal assessment of patients with MM and to compare the efficacy of these two PET tracers regarding detection of myeloma-indicative osseous lesions. A total of 26 patients (14 females and 12 males, mean age 61.8 ± 1.8 years (range 40-81 years)) with MM diagnosed according to standard criteria. All patients underwent both F-18 FDG PET/CT and F-18 NaF PET/CT scans within 1 week after the completion of the usual staging workup for MM. In total, approximately 128 focal F-18 FDG avid skeletal lesions were detected; the stage I (n = 5) patients had 10 bone lesions, the stage II (n = 11) patients had 43 lesions, and the stage III (n = 10) patients demonstrated 75 focal bone lesions. F-18 NaF PET/CTs demonstrated fewer myeloma indicative lesions than F-18 FDG PET/CTs. Totally, 57 focal bone lesions were detected with whole body F-18 NaF PET/CT (mean 2.19 ± 0.34, between 1 and 9 lesions); the five stage I patients had 6 bone lesions, the 11 stage II pts had 18 lesions, and the ten stage III patients demonstrated 33 focal bone lesions. On the other hand, F-18 NaF PET/CT demonstrated additional 135 bone lesions defined as rib fractures and other findings due to degenerative changes. In conclusion, our study implies that F-18 NaF PET/CT scan did not actually aid for assessing the myelomatous bone lesions in patients with MM. Therefore, a complementary F-18 NaF PET/CT may be an accurate modality for detecting of bone fracture in patients with MM.

  8. Extensive invasive extramammary Paget disease evaluated by F-18 FDG PET/CT: a case report.

    PubMed

    Li, Zu-Gui; Qin, Xiao-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a rare cutaneous, intraepithelial adenocarcinoma. Because of its rarity, little is known about the value of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in evaluating this disease. Our case report aims to increase current knowledge of FDG PET/CT in EMPD as a noninvasive imaging tool for assessing the extension of the disease and detecting distant metastases.We reported a 64-year-old Chinese man who presented with a slowly progressive, ill-margined erythematous lesion with a crusted, eroded, and scaly surface involving multiple sites of penis, scrotum, left pelvic wall, hip, groin, and thigh for >4 years, which became extensive in the past 1 year. He was referred for an FDG PET/CT examination to further evaluate the lesions. A following skin biopsy was performed to obtain a definitive histological diagnosis.FDG PET/CT imaging revealed mild FDG uptake at the extensive cutaneous lesion with subcutaneous invasion, involvement of lymph nodes, and multiple intense FDG-avid of skeletal metastases. According to the appearance of FDG PET/CT, a provisional diagnosis of advanced cutaneous malignancy was made. Histopathology findings indicated characteristic of EMPD. The patient was treated with radiation therapy and died from complications 2 months after the last dose of radiotherapy.Our case highlighted that a whole-body FDG PET/CT should be incorporated into the diagnostic algorithm of EMPD to give a comprehensive assessment of this disease.

  9. Pulmonary artery sarcoma detected on F-18 FDG PET/CT as origin of multiple spinal metastases.

    PubMed

    Chun, In Kook; Eo, Jae Seon; Paeng, Jin Chul; Kim, Dong Wan; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    2011-08-01

    A 67-year-old man with back pain was diagnosed as having multiple spinal metastases on MRI. On CT scan, only a filling defect in the right pulmonary artery was observed and suspected as venous thromboembolism. On F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT, intense hypermetabolism was observed in the right pulmonary artery in addition to the metastatic spine lesions. Biopsy confirmed the lesion as a primary pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS), and the spine lesions as metastases of PAS. Although PAS is rare and its bone metastasis presenting initial symptom is extremely rare, FDG PET/CT is an effective diagnostic modality for PAS, not only in discrimination from venous thromboembolism, but also in workup of metastatic origin.

  10. Usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in a case of Kaposi sarcoma with an unexpected bone lesion.

    PubMed

    Morooka, Miyako; Ito, Kimiteru; Kubota, Kazuo; Yanagisawa, Kunio; Teruya, Katsuji; Hasuo, Kahehiro; Shida, Yoshitaka; Minamimoto, Rhogo; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi

    2011-03-01

    Bone lesions of Kaposi sarcoma are rare. A 56-year-old man who was HIV positive and was diagnosed with Kaposi sarcoma on the basis of the results of a biopsy of skin lesions, underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT scan for detecting Kaposi sarcoma lesions and other AIDS-related diseases. An abnormal uptake was observed in the lumbar spine. MRI showed a diffuse enhanced spine lesion, and Ga-67 and ²⁰¹Tl scanning were negative. As a result, the lesion was considered to be a Kaposi sarcoma, and the shrinkage of the lesion was noted after the therapy for Kaposi sarcoma.

  11. Predictive value of intratumoral heterogeneity of F-18 FDG uptake for characterization of thyroid nodules according to Bethesda categories of fine needle aspiration biopsy results.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Jang; Chang, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    The current study was aimed to investigate the clinical value of intratumoral heterogeneity of F-18 FDG uptake for characterization of thyroid nodule (TN) with inconclusive fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) results. The current study enrolled 200 patients who showed F-18 FDG incidentaloma and were performed FNAB. The intratumoral heterogeneity of F-18 FDG uptake was represented as the heterogeneity factor (HF), defined as the derivative (dV/dT) of a volume-threshold function for a primary tumor. The diagnostic and predictive values of HF and F-18 FDG PET/CT parameters were evaluated for characterization of inconclusive FNAB results. Among F-18 FDG PET/CT parameters, SUVmax, MTV, and TLG of malignant group were statistically higher than those of Bethesda category of suspicious malignant group. However, HF values were not statistically different between the groups of Bethesda categories (Kruskal-Wallis statistics, 9.924; p = 0.0774). In ROC analysis, when HF > 2.751 was used as cut-off value, the sensitivity and specificity for prediction of malignant TN were 100 % (95 % CI 69.2-100 %) and 60 % (95 % CI 42.1-76.1 %), respectively. The AUC was 0.826 (95 % CI 0.684-0.922) and standard error was 0.0648 (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the intratumoral heterogeneity of F-18 FDG uptake represented by HF could be a predictor for characterization of TN with inconclusive FNAB results. Additional large population-based prospective studies are needed to validate the diagnostic utility of HF of F-18 FDG PET/CT.

  12. 2-Deoxy-2[F-18]FDG-PET for Detection of Recurrent Laryngeal Carcinoma after Radiotherapy: Interobserver Variability in Reporting

    PubMed Central

    van der Putten, L.; Hoekstra, O. S.; Kuik, D. J.; Comans, E. F. I.; Langendijk, J. A.; Leemans, C. R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate accuracy and interobserver variability in the assessment of 2-deoxy-2[F-18]fluoro-d-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for detection of recurrent laryngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy. Procedures Eleven experienced nuclear physicians from eight centres assessed 30 FDG-PET scans on the appearance of local recurrence (negative/equivocal/positive). Conservative (equivocal analysed as negative) and sensitive (equivocal analysed as positive) assessment strategies were compared to the reference standard (recurrence within 6months after PET). Results Seven patients had proven recurrences. For the conservative and sensitive strategy, the mean sensitivity was 87% and 97%, specificity 81% and 63%, positive predictive values 61% and 46% and negative predictive values 96% and 99%, respectively. Interobserver variability showed a reasonable relation in comparison to the reference standard (kappa = 0.55). Conclusions FDG-PET has acceptable interobserver agreement and yields good negative predictive value for detection of recurrent laryngeal carcinoma. It could therefore be used as first diagnostic step and may reduce futile invasive diagnostics. PMID:18622649

  13. Diagnosis of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection using [F-18]-FDG PET: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rehman, T; Chohan, M O; Yonas, H

    2011-06-01

    Infection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunts is a common occurrence and can often be difficult to diagnose using standard analysis of shunt fluid. This article presents the first case report on the diagnosis of a CSF shunt infection on FDG PET scan. A 26-year-old female underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement after developing a pseudomeningocele subsequent to a suboccipital craniectomy for Chiari malformation. Two months later, the patient presented with abdominal pain and non-specific symptoms and was found to have a perisplenic abscess for which she was adequately treated. Failure of her symptoms to solve and an initial negative shunt CSF analysis prompted the search for other sources of infection. An FDG PET scan performed a week later found evidence of increase tracer uptake around the distal tip of the catheter and a repeat shunt CSF analysis showed evidence of CSF infection. FDG PET may be useful in diagnosing shunt related infections in case of high clinical suspicion when standard diagnostic modalities fail to diagnose hardware infection.

  14. Functional neuroimaging using F-18 FDG PET/CT in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Madhavi; Tripathi, Manjari; Sharma, Rajnish; Jaimini, Abhinav; MD’Souza, Maria; Saw, Sanjiv; Mondal, Anupam; Kushwaha, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: People with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are at a higher risk of developing Alzheimers Dementia (AD) than their cognitively normal peers. Decreased glucose metabolism with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is a downstream marker of neuronal injury and neurodegeneration. The risk of developing AD is higher in patients with aMCI who have a pattern of AD related glucose metabolic changes on FDG-PET than those who do not have these changes. We evaluated the utility of visual and ‘statistical parametric mapping (SPM)-supported reading’ of the FDG-PET scans of patients clinically classified as aMCI for identification of predementia patterns and for prediction of their progression to AD (PTAD). Patients and Methods: A total of 35 patients diagnosed as aMCI (mini mental state examination (MMSE) score ≥ 25) at the cognitive disorders and memory (CDM) clinic of speciality neurology centers were referred for a resting FDG-PET study. All patients had a detailed neurological, neuropsychological, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation prior to referral. Mean age of patients was 67.9 ± 8.7 (standard deviation (SD)) years, male: female (M: F) =26:9. Twenty healthy age-matched controls were included in the study for SPM (http://www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm/). Scans were interpreted visually and using SPM. Each scan was classified as high, intermediate, or low likelihood for PTAD. Results: On visual analysis, four scans were classified as high likelihood of PTAD and reveled hypometabolism in AD related territories. Seven patients had hypometabolism in at least one AD related territory and were classified as intermediate likelihood for PTAD. Two patients had hypometabolism in other than AD territories, while 22 patients did not show any significant hypometabolism on their FDG-PET scans and were classified as low likelihood for PTAD. SPM analysis of these cases confirmed the areas hypometabolism in all

  15. Unexpected Second Primary Malignancies Detected by F-18 FDG PET/CT During Follow-up for Primary Malignancy: Two Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Bang, Ji-In; Lee, Eun Seong; Kim, Tae-Sung; Kim, Seok-Ki

    2015-03-01

    As the survival rate of cancer patients has increased over the last few decades, the risk of cancer survivors developing second primary malignancies has gained attention. We report two rare cases of second primary hematologic malignancy detected by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) during follow-up for primary solid malignancies. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed in a breast cancer patient and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in an anal cancer patient. F-18 FDG PET/CT findings led to the diagnosis of unexpected second primary hematologic malignancy in cancer survivors in these two cases.

  16. Quantification of F-18 FDG PET images in temporal lobe epilepsy patients using probabilistic brain atlas.

    PubMed

    Kang, K W; Lee, D S; Cho, J H; Lee, J S; Yeo, J S; Lee, S K; Chung, J K; Lee, M C

    2001-07-01

    A probabilistic atlas of the human brain (Statistical Probabilistic Anatomical Maps: SPAM) was developed by the international consortium for brain mapping (ICBM). It is a good frame for calculating volume of interest (VOI) in many fields of brain images. After calculating the counts in VOI using the product of probability of SPAM images and counts in FDG images, asymmetric indices (AI) were calculated and used for finding epileptogenic zones in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). FDG PET images from 18 surgically confirmed mTLE patients and 22 age-matched controls were spatially normalized to the average brain MRI template of ICBM. Counts from normalized PET images were multiplied with the probability of 12 VOIs from SPAM images in both temporal lobes. Finally AI were calculated on each pair of VOIs, and compared with visual assessment. If AI of mTLE patients were not within 2.9 standard deviation from those of normal control group (P < 0.008; Bonferroni correction for P < 0.05), epileptogenic zones were considered to be found successfully. The counts of VOIs in the normal control group were symmetric (AI < 4.3%, paired t test P > 0.05) except for those of the inferior temporal gyrus (P < 0.001). By AIs in six pairs of VOIs, PET in mTLE had deficit on one side (P < 0.05). Lateralization was correct in only 14/18 of patients by AI, but 17/18 were consistent with visual inspection. In three patients with normal AI, PET images were symmetric on visual inspection. The asymmetric indices obtained by taking the product of the statistical probability anatomical map and FDG PET, correlated well with visual assessment in mTLE patients. SPAM is useful for the quantification of VOIs in functional images.

  17. Registration of parametric dynamic F-18-FDG PET/CT breast images with parametric dynamic Gd-DTPA breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Alphonso; Krol, Andrzej; Lipson, Edward; Mandel, James; McGraw, Wendy; Lee, Wei; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Feiglin, David

    2009-02-01

    This study was undertaken to register 3D parametric breast images derived from Gd-DTPA MR and F-18-FDG PET/CT dynamic image series. Nonlinear curve fitting (Levenburg-Marquardt algorithm) based on realistic two-compartment models was performed voxel-by-voxel separately for MR (Brix) and PET (Patlak). PET dynamic series consists of 50 frames of 1-minute duration. Each consecutive PET image was nonrigidly registered to the first frame using a finite element method and fiducial skin markers. The 12 post-contrast MR images were nonrigidly registered to the precontrast frame using a free-form deformation (FFD) method. Parametric MR images were registered to parametric PET images via CT using FFD because the first PET time frame was acquired immediately after the CT image on a PET/CT scanner and is considered registered to the CT image. We conclude that nonrigid registration of PET and MR parametric images using CT data acquired during PET/CT scan and the FFD method resulted in their improved spatial coregistration. The success of this procedure was limited due to relatively large target registration error, TRE = 15.1+/-7.7 mm, as compared to spatial resolution of PET (6-7 mm), and swirling image artifacts created in MR parametric images by the FFD. Further refinement of nonrigid registration of PET and MR parametric images is necessary to enhance visualization and integration of complex diagnostic information provided by both modalities that will lead to improved diagnostic performance.

  18. Can brain thallium 201 SPECT substitute for F-18-FDG PET in detecting recurrent brain tumor in the presence of radiation necrosis; correlation with biopsy/surgery results

    SciTech Connect

    Antar, M.A.; Barnett, G.H.; McIntyre, W.J.

    1994-05-01

    F-18-FDG PET man has been largely successful in differentiating between radiation necrosis and recurrent brain tumors. Because of the expense and unavailability of PET scanners in most clinical centers, Tl-201 SPECT scan may offer an alternative. Therefore, we have evaluated both techniques in 18 patients (13 men and 5 women) whose ages range from 28 to 74 year old. Eleven patients had glioblastoma multiformi and 4 patients high grade astrocytoma and 3 patient meningiosarcoma. All patients received radiation therapy (5500-6000 Rad) and 13 patients received also chemotherapy. PET scan was performed 40-60 min. after 5-10 mCi of F-18 FDG (i.v.) and SPECT 30 min. after 4.6 mCi of Tl-201 chloride (i.v.). Severe FDG hypometabolism was evident in the irradiated regions, in all patients. Evidence of tumor recurrence was seen in 15 patients by both FDG PET and Thallium 201 SPECT. The ratio of peak pixel uptake of suspected tumor to that of normal cortex for FDG ranged from 0.67 to 1.5 with a mean of 1.02. The ratio of peak pixel uptake of thallium 201 in the suspected lesion to that of the contralateral scalp area ranges from 0.8 to 1.9 with mean of 1.1. There was concordance between the findings of PET and SPECT in 16/18 patients. However, the volume of involvement differs in these patients; most likely secondary to different mechanisms of uptake and both studies may complement each other. Subsequent biopsy/surgery in 11 patients confirmed tumor recurrence in 10 out of 11 patients. The findings suggest that thallium 201 brain SPECT scan can provide similar (but not identical) information regarding brain tumor recurrence in these patients.

  19. Imaging Keratitis-Icthyosis-Deafness (KID) syndrome with FDG-PET (F18-fluorodeoxiglucose-Positron Emission Tomography).

    PubMed

    Aparici, Carina Mari; Arcienega, Daniela; Cho, Eric; Hawkins, Randy

    2010-01-01

    Keratitis-Icthyosis-Deafness (KID) syndrome is a rare dysplasia characterized by vascularizing keratitis, congenital sensorineural hearing-loss, and progressive erythrokeratoderma. To our knowledge, this is the first KID syndrome imaged with FDG-PET in the literature. This paper is intended to help familiarize with the FDG abnormalities related to this rare entity.

  20. Oncocytic carcinoid tumor of the lung with intense F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT).

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Yuki; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Nishimura, Rieko; Hosokawa, Kohei; Kajihara, Makoto; Shimizu, Teruhiko; Takahashi, Tadaaki; Sakai, Shinya; Sawada, Shigeki; Yamashita, Motohiro; Ohtani, Haruhiko

    2013-10-01

    The present report describes a case of typical carcinoid tumor with intense fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake. The most of tumor cells were characterized by eosinophilic cytoplasm resulting from accumulation of mitochondria, which was called an oncocytic carcinoid tumor. Glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT-1) was expressed in a membranous pattern in the oncocytic component. Oncocytic carcinoid tumors could show intense FDG uptake due to the numerous intracellular mitochondria and the membranous overexpression of GLUT-1. Thus, it could be a potential pitfall of interpreting FDG-PET/CT image.

  1. Predictive value of F-18 FDG PET/CT quantization parameters in diffuse large B cell lymphoma: a meta-analysis with 702 participants.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mixue; Wu, Kefei; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Qi; Xie, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT) is considered to be the most beneficial imaging method for staging patients with lymphoma. Whether maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) acquired from F-18 FDG PET/CT are predictors of prognosis of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is controversial, with some studies concluding that it is and others concluding the opposite. Therefore, a systematic review was performed to explore the relationship of F-18 FDG PET/CT quantization parameters with the prognosis of DLBCL. Seven trials with a total of 703 DLBCL patients were included for analysis. Hazard ratios (HRs) for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), and odds ratios (ORs) for 3-year PFS and OS were pooled using the STATA package. Combined results suggested a strong link between the high SUVmax, MTV and TLG values and the poor 3-year PFS with ORs of 2.59, 3.69 and 2.29, respectively. Similarly, high MTV and TLG values unfavorably influenced the 3-year OS with ORs of 5.40 and 2.19, respectively. The pooled results also showed that high SUVmax and MTV were negative predictors of PFS with HRs of 1.61 (p = 0.038) and 2.18 (p = 0.000), respectively. The TLG value was not predictive of PFS. And for OS, only high MTV was a strong predictor of poor prognosis in DLBCL with HR 2.99 (p = 0.000). Our results suggested that SUVmax and MTV may be significant prognostic markers for PFS and MTV may be the only predictor for OS in DLBCL.

  2. A strategy for obtaining both resting and psychologically activated state metabolic data from a single PET study using (F-18)-fluorodeoxyglucose(FDG)

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.; Duara, R.; Barker, W.; Apicella, A.; Gilson, A.

    1985-05-01

    When psychological activation is studied with PET using the deoxyglucose method, a stable and specific psychological state for at least 30 minutes is required before commencing the scan. At this time, if the subject reverts to the testing state, a progressive degradation of the activated pattern occurs. However, a strategy could be used to obtain corrected activation state data and resting state data in a single study using a tracer such as FDG. The amount of tracer FDG and FDG-6P in the tissue at the time of study completion, t, will be the sum of the remaining quantity (R) of tracer accumulated in the tissue at the time T, when activation ceases, and the uptake during the subsequent period t-T when resting state glucose transport kinetics apply.

  3. Three-dimensional texture analysis of contrast enhanced CT images for treatment response assessment in Hodgkin lymphoma: Comparison with F-18-FDG PET

    SciTech Connect

    Knogler, Thomas; El-Rabadi, Karem; Weber, Michael; Karanikas, Georgios; Mayerhoefer, Marius E.

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: To determine the diagnostic performance of three-dimensional (3D) texture analysis (TA) of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) images for treatment response assessment in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), compared with F-18-fludeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/CT. Methods: 3D TA of 48 lymph nodes in 29 patients was performed on venous-phase CE-CT images before and after chemotherapy. All lymph nodes showed pathologically elevated FDG uptake at baseline. A stepwise logistic regression with forward selection was performed to identify classic CT parameters and texture features (TF) that enable the separation of complete response (CR) and persistent disease. Results: The TF fraction of image in runs, calculated for the 45° direction, was able to correctly identify CR with an accuracy of 75%, a sensitivity of 79.3%, and a specificity of 68.4%. Classical CT features achieved an accuracy of 75%, a sensitivity of 86.2%, and a specificity of 57.9%, whereas the combination of TF and CT imaging achieved an accuracy of 83.3%, a sensitivity of 86.2%, and a specificity of 78.9%. Conclusions: 3D TA of CE-CT images is potentially useful to identify nodal residual disease in HL, with a performance comparable to that of classical CT parameters. Best results are achieved when TA and classical CT features are combined.

  4. Non-invasive breast biopsy method using GD-DTPA contrast enhanced MRI series and F-18-FDG PET/CT dynamic image series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Alphonso William

    This study was undertaken to develop a nonsurgical breast biopsy from Gd-DTPA Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance (CE-MR) images and F-18-FDG PET/CT dynamic image series. A five-step process was developed to accomplish this. (1) Dynamic PET series were nonrigidly registered to the initial frame using a finite element method (FEM) based registration that requires fiducial skin markers to sample the displacement field between image frames. A commercial FEM package (ANSYS) was used for meshing and FEM calculations. Dynamic PET image series registrations were evaluated using similarity measurements SAVD and NCC. (2) Dynamic CE-MR series were nonrigidly registered to the initial frame using two registration methods: a multi-resolution free-form deformation (FFD) registration driven by normalized mutual information, and a FEM-based registration method. Dynamic CE-MR image series registrations were evaluated using similarity measurements, localization measurements, and qualitative comparison of motion artifacts. FFD registration was found to be superior to FEM-based registration. (3) Nonlinear curve fitting was performed for each voxel of the PET/CT volume of activity versus time, based on a realistic two-compartmental Patlak model. Three parameters for this model were fitted; two of them describe the activity levels in the blood and in the cellular compartment, while the third characterizes the washout rate of F-18-FDG from the cellular compartment. (4) Nonlinear curve fitting was performed for each voxel of the MR volume of signal intensity versus time, based on a realistic two-compartment Brix model. Three parameters for this model were fitted: rate of Gd exiting the compartment, representing the extracellular space of a lesion; rate of Gd exiting a blood compartment; and a parameter that characterizes the strength of signal intensities. Curve fitting used for PET/CT and MR series was accomplished by application of the Levenburg-Marquardt nonlinear regression

  5. Breath-hold and free-breathing F-18-FDG-PET/CT in malignant melanoma—detection of additional tumoral foci and effects on quantitative parameters

    PubMed Central

    Bärwolf, Robert; Zirnsak, Mariana; Freesmeyer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract During PET/CT acquisition, respiratory motion generates artifacts in the form of breath-related blurring, which may impair lesion detectability and diagnostic accuracy. This observational study was undertaken to verify whether breath-hold F-18-FDG-PET/CT (bhPET) detects additional foci compared to free-breathing PET/CT (fbPET) in cases of malignant melanoma, and to assess the impact of breath-holding on standard uptake values (SUV) and metabolic isocontoured volume (mVic40). Thirty-four patients with melanoma were examined. BhPET and fbPET findings of 117 lesions were compared and correlated with standard contrast-enhanced (ce) CT and MRI for lesion verification. Quantitative parameters (SUVmax, SUVmean, and mVic40) were assessed for both methods and evaluated by linear regression and Spearman correlation. The impact of lesion size and time interval between investigations was analyzed. In 1 patient, a CT-confirmed liver metastasis was seen only on bhPET but not on fbPET. At bhPET, SUVmax, and SUVmean proved significantly higher and mVic40 significantly lower than at fbPET. The positive effect on SUVmax and SUVmean was more pronounced in smaller lesions, whereas the time interval between bhPET and fbPET did not influence SUV or mVic40. In our patient cohort, bhPET yielded significantly higher SUV and provided improved volumetric lesion definition, particularly of smaller lesions. Also one additional liver lesion was identified. Breath-hold PET/CT is technically feasible, and may become clinically useful when fine quantitative evaluations are needed. PMID:28079829

  6. Semi-Quantitative Calculations of Primary Tumor Metabolic Activity Using F-18 FDG PET/CT as a Predictor of Survival in 92 Patients With High-Grade Bone or Soft Tissue Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Kim Francis; Fuglo, Hanna Maria; Rasmussen, Sine Hvid; Petersen, Michael Mork; Loft, Annika

    2015-07-01

    To assess the prognostic value of primary tumor metabolic activity in patients with high-grade bone sarcomas (BS) or soft tissue sarcomas (STS) using F-18 FDG PET/CT. A single-site, retrospective study including 92 patients with high-grade BS or STS. Pretreatment F-18 FDG PET/CT scan was performed. Clinical data were registered. Accuracy of maximum standardized uptake value of primary tumor (SUVmax) and tumor-to-background (T/B) uptake ratio as prognostic variables and identification of cut-off values to group patients were determined. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and log-rank test were used to compare survival distributions. Prognostic variables were assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Forty-one of 92 patients died during follow-up (45%). Average survival was 6.5 years (95% CI 5.8-7.3 years) and probability of 5-year survival was 52%. Accuracy of SUVmax and T/B uptake ratio as prognostic variables in all patients and during subgroup analysis of patients with STS was significant. No significant results for AUCs were registered in patients with BS. Surgery was independently prognostic for survival throughout multivariate regression analysis of all patients (P = 0.001, HR 3.84) and subgroup analysis (BS: P = 0.02, HR 11.62; STS: P = 0.005, HR 4.13). SUVmax was significant as prognostic variable in all patients (P = 0.02, HR 3.66) and in patients with STS (P = 0.007, HR 3.75). No significant results were demonstrated for T/B uptake ratio. Estimation of primary tumor metabolic activity with pretherapeutic SUVmax using F-18 FDG PET/CT demonstrates independent properties beyond histologic grading for prediction of survival in patients with high-grade STS, but not with high-grade BS.

  7. Comparison of F-18 FDG-PET/CT and Tc-99m MIBI in the preoperative evaluation of cold thyroid nodules in the same patient group.

    PubMed

    Sager, Sait; Vatankulu, Betul; Erdogan, Ezgi; Mut, Sanem; Teksoz, Serkan; Ozturk, Tulin; Sonmezoglu, Kerim; Kanmaz, Bedii

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have reported that standardized uptake values of FDG-PET imaging might predict malignant thyroid nodules and can be used in the preoperative evaluation of thyroid lesions. The aim of our study was to evaluate FDG-PET imaging in patients with cold thyroid nodules and to compare the imaging findings with Tc-99m MIBI scans and with post-op histopathology results. Twenty-three patients (18F, 5M) with 24 nodules that were suspicious in ultrasound and cold in Tc-99m pertechnetate scan, were included in the study. Each nodule underwent sonographically guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. FDG-PET and MIBI scans were performed with an interval of 3-5 days. All patients underwent thyroidectomy and their FDG-PET, and MIBI thyroid scan results were compared with post-thyroidectomy pathology results. Post-op histopathology results found 7 malignant and 17 benign nodules. Six of the seven malignant nodules had increased uptake, which were positive for malignancy in both PET and MIBI scans. Each imaging method used different radiopharmaceuticals but showed one false-negative result in two different patients. FDG-PET produced false positives in eight nodules and MIBI scans found false positives in four nodules. FDG-PET imaging and MIBI scan showed the same sensitivity in malignant nodule evaluation, but their specificity differed. As a result, we suggest that FDG-PET imaging is not superior to MIBI scanning in differentiating malignant from benign thyroid nodules. MIBI imaging should be the first choice in the preoperative evaluation of patients with cold thyroid nodules as an adjunct procedure to FNAB because of its low cost and availability. This imaging technique can be used routinely in patients who are reluctant to undergo FNAB.

  8. Assessment of myocardial injury after reperfusion with T1-201, Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PPi) and F-18 deoxyglucose (FDG)

    SciTech Connect

    Sochor, H.; Schwaiger, M.; Hansen, H.W.; Parodi, O.; Selin, C.; Huang, S.C.; Ellison, D.; Grover, M.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    The authors previously demonstrated that enhanced glucose utilization assessed by FDG and Positron-CT in reperfused myocardium predicts functional recovery. This study compared segmental uptake of FDG with T1-201 and PPi as conventional indicators of tissue viability in 5 dogs, submitted to a 3 hr LAD occlusion followed by 24 hrs of reperfusion (R). Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was then determined by microspheres and T1-201, PPi and FDG administered i.v. Regional tracer concentrations were determined by well counting of tissue samples and grouped according to MBF (% of control). Severe flow reductions were associated with PPi uptake increase, T1-201 decrease and depressed glucose utilization representing mainly irreversible injury. Moderately reduced MBF areas showed the highest PPi uptake with T1-201 similar to MBF, but preserved FDG uptake not different from control, indicating partially viable tissue. Areas with MBF >60% had significantly increased PPi despite normal T1-201 uptake and enhanced glucose utilization and thus, preserved viability. Thus, assessment of tissue injury by conventional tracers such as T1-201 and PPi is limited. By contrast, quantification of residual glucose metabolism by PCT appears more accurate for evaluating myocardial viability and predicting potential functional recovery.

  9. Volume-Based F-18 FDG PET/CT Imaging Markers Provide Supplemental Prognostic Information to Histologic Grading in Patients With High-Grade Bone or Soft Tissue Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Kim Francis; Fuglo, Hanna Maria; Rasmussen, Sine Hvid; Petersen, Michael Mork; Loft, Annika

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the prognostic value of different volume-based calculations of tumor metabolic activity in the initial assessment of patients with high-grade bone sarcomas (BS) and soft tissue sarcomas (STS) using F-18 FDG PET/CT.A single-site, retrospective study from 2002 to 2012 including 92 patients with histologically verified high-grade BS (N = 37) or STS (N = 55). All patients underwent a pretreatment F-18 FDG PET/CT scan. Clinical data were registered. Measurements of the accuracy of metabolic tumor volume with a preset threshold of 40% of the maximum standardized uptake value of primary tumor (MTV40%) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) as prognostic variables and identification of optimal discriminating cut-off values were performed through ROC curve analysis. Patients were grouped according to the cut-off values. All deaths were considered an event in survival analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and log-rank test were used to compare the degree of equality of survival distributions. Prognostic variables with related hazard ratios (HR) were assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis.Forty-one of 92 patients died during follow-up (45%; 12 BS and 29 STS). Average survival for included patients was 6.5 years (95% CI 5.8-7.3 years) and probability of 5-year survival was 52%. There was a high-significant accuracy of TLG and MTV40% as prognostic variables when looking on all patients and during subgroup analysis. AUCs were higher for TLG than for MTV40%. TLG above optimal cut-off value was the only variable which was independently prognostic for survival throughout multivariate regression analysis of all included patients (P = 0.01, HR 4.78 [95% CI 1.45-15.87]) and subgroup analysis (BS: P = 0.04, HR 11.11 [95% CI 1.09-111.11]; STS: P < 0.05, HR 3.37 [95% CI 1.02-11.11]). No significant results were demonstrated for MTV40%.Volume-based F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging markers in terms of pretreatment estimation

  10. F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-guided sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes in the diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Simonen, Piia; Lehtonen, Jukka; Kandolin, Riina; Schildt, Jukka; Marjasuo, Suvi; Miettinen, Heikki; Airaksinen, Juhani; Vihinen, Tapani; Tuohinen, Suvi; Haataja, Petri; Kupari, Markku

    2015-11-15

    Histologic proof of granulomatous inflammation is prerequisite for the diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS). Because of the limited sensitivity of endomyocardial biopsy (EMB), confirmation of sarcoidosis often has to be acquired from extracardiac biopsies. We set out to review our experience of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18-FDG PET) in guiding extracardiac tissue biopsies in suspected CS. We included in this work 68 consecutive patients with proved CS who had undergone cardiac F-18-FDG PET with (n = 57) or without whole-body imaging as part of initial diagnostic evaluation. Their hospital charts, imaging studies, and diagnostic biopsies were reviewed in retrospect. Whole-body PET images showed extracardiac foci of abnormally high F-18-FDG uptake in 39 of 57 patients, of whom 38 had involvement of mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN). Parallel F-18-FDG uptake was found in other lymph nodes (n = 10), lungs (n = 9), liver (n = 3), spleen (n = 2), and thyroid gland (n = 1). Adding the mediastinal findings at cardiac PET without whole-body imaging, abnormal F-18-FDG uptake in MLN was found in totally 43 of the 68 patients with CS (63%). Histology of systemic sarcoidosis was known at presentation of cardiac symptoms in 8 patients. Of the 60 patients with missing histology, 24 patients underwent mediastinoscopy for sampling of PET-positive MLN, most often (n = 20) after nondiagnostic EMB; microscopy revealed diagnostic noncaseating granulomatous inflammation in 24 of the 24 cases (sensitivity 100%). In the remaining 36 patients, sarcoidosis histology was confirmed by EMB (n = 30), by biopsy of lungs (n = 2) or peripheral lymph nodes (n = 2), or at autopsy (n = 1) or post-transplantation (n = 1). In conclusion, MLN accumulate F-18-FDG at PET in most patients with CS and provide a highly productive source for diagnostic biopsies either primarily or subsequent to nondiagnostic EMB.

  11. F-18 Fluoride Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography for Detecting Atherosclerotic Plaques.

    PubMed

    Kang, Won Jun

    2015-01-01

    A large number of major cardiovascular events occur in patients due to minimal or some lumen narrowing of the coronary artery. Recent biological studies have shown that the biological composition or vulnerability of the plaque is more critical for plaque rupture compared to the degree of stenosis. To overcome the limitations of anatomical images, molecular imaging techniques have been suggested as promising imaging tools in various fields. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), which is widely used in the field of oncology, is an example of molecular probes used in atherosclerotic plaque evaluation. FDG is a marker of plaque macrophage glucose utilization and inflammation, which is a prominent characteristic of vulnerable plaque. Recently, F-18 fluoride has been used to visualize vulnerable plaque in clinical studies. F-18 fluoride accumulates in regions of active microcalcification, which is normally observed during the early stages of plaque formation. More studies are warranted on the accumulation of F-18 fluoride and plaque formation/vulnerability; however, due to high specific accumulation, low background activity, and easy accessibility, F-18 fluoride is emerging as a promising non-invasive imaging probe to detect vulnerable plaque.

  12. Monte Carlo estimation of radiation dose in organs of female and male adult phantoms due to FDG-F18 absorbed in the lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belinato, Walmir; Santos, William S.; Silva, Rogério M. V.; Souza, Divanizia N.

    2014-03-01

    The determination of dose conversion factors (S values) for the radionuclide fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) absorbed in the lungs during a positron emission tomography (PET) procedure was calculated using the Monte Carlo method (MCNPX version 2.7.0). For the obtained dose conversion factors of interest, it was considered a uniform absorption of radiopharmaceutical by the lung of a healthy adult human. The spectrum of fluorine was introduced in the input data file for the simulation. The simulation took place in two adult phantoms of both sexes, based on polygon mesh surfaces called FASH and MASH with anatomy and posture according to ICRP 89. The S values for the 22 internal organs/tissues, chosen from ICRP No. 110, for the FASH and MASH phantoms were compared with the results obtained from a MIRD V phantoms called ADAM and EVA used by the Committee on Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD). We observed variation of more than 100% in S values due to structural anatomical differences in the internal organs of the MASH and FASH phantoms compared to the mathematical phantom.

  13. SU-D-9A-02: Relative Effects of Threshold Choice and Spatial Resolution Modeling On SUV and Volume Quantification in F18-FDG PET Imaging of Anal Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, F; Bowsher, J; Palta, M; Czito, B; Willett, C; Yin, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: PET imaging with F18-FDG is utilized for treatment planning, treatment assessment, and prognosis. A region of interest (ROI) encompassing the tumor may be determined on the PET image, often by a threshold T on the PET standard uptake values (SUVs). Several studies have shown prognostic value for relevant ROI properties including maximum SUV value (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total glycolytic activity (TGA). The choice of threshold T may affect mean SUV value (SUVmean), MTV, and TGA. Recently spatial resolution modeling (SRM) has been introduced on many PET systems. SRM may also affect these ROI properties. The purpose of this work is to investigate the relative influence of SRM and threshold choice T on SUVmean, MTV, TGA, and SUVmax. Methods: For 9 anal cancer patients, 18F-FDG PET scans were performed prior to treatment. PET images were reconstructed by 2 iterations of Ordered Subsets Expectation Maximization (OSEM), with and without SRM. ROI contours were generated by 5 different SUV threshold values T: 2.5, 3.0, 30%, 40%, and 50% of SUVmax. Paired-samples t tests were used to compare SUVmean, MTV, and TGA (a) for SRM on versus off and (b) between each pair of threshold values T. SUVmax was also compared for SRM on versus off. Results: For almost all (57/60) comparisons of 2 different threshold values, SUVmean, MTV, and TGA showed statistically significant variation. For comparison of SRM on versus off, there were no statistically significant changes in SUVmax and TGA, but there were statistically significant changes in MTV for T=2.5 and T=3.0 and in SUVmean for all T. Conclusion: The near-universal statistical significance of threshold choice T suggests that, regarding harmonization across sites, threshold choice may be a greater concern than choice of SRM. However, broader study is warranted, e.g. other iterations of OSEM should be considered.

  14. F-18 SRA landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A highly-modified F-18 Hornet being flown by the Dryden Flight Research Center in a joint NASA/DOD/industry research program touches down on the main runway at Edwards Air Force Base following another research flight. The two-seat 'B' model F-18, formerly a support aircraft at DFRC, has been converted into a Sytems Research Aircraft (SRA) to flight test a variety of experimental components and sub-sytems. Among the more than 20 experiments is the Advanced L-Probe Air Data Integration, or 'ALADIN,' scheduled to begin flight tests this fall. Similiar to a standard pitot tube, the fuselage-mounted ALADIN probe measures and integrates Mach speed, altitude, angle of attack and side-slip angle. The experiment also incorporates a neural network computer which will be 'trained' to compute air data measured by the probe.

  15. Alterations in 18F-FDG accumulation into neck-related muscles after neck dissection for patients with oral cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kito, Shinji; Koga, Hirofumi; Kodama, Masaaki; Habu, Manabu; Kokuryo, Shinya; Oda, Masafumi; Matsuo, Kou; Nishino, Takanobu; Matsumoto-Takeda, Shinobu; Uehara, Masataka; Yoshiga, Daigo; Tanaka, Tatsurou; Nishimura, Shun; Miyamoto, Ikuya; Sasaguri, Masaaki; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Yoshioka, Izumi; Morimoto, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Background 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) accumulations are commonly seen in the neck-related muscles of the surgical and non-surgical sides after surgery with neck dissection (ND) for oral cancers, which leads to radiologists having difficulty in diagnosing the lesions. To examine the alterations in 18F-FDG accumulation in neck-related muscles of patients after ND for oral cancer. Material and Methods 18F-FDG accumulations on positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) in neck-related muscles were retrospectively analyzed after surgical dissection of cervical lymph nodes in oral cancers. Results According to the extent of ND of cervical lymph nodes, the rate of patients with 18F-FDG-PET-positive areas increased in the trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, and posterior neck muscles of the surgical and/or non-surgical sides. In addition, SUVmax of 18F-FDG-PET-positive areas in the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles were increased according to the extent of the ND. Conclusions In evaluating 18F-FDG accumulations after ND for oral cancers, we should pay attention to the 18F-FDG distributions in neck-related muscles including the non-surgical side as false-positive findings. Key words:18F-FDG, PET-CT, oral cancers, muscles. PMID:27031062

  16. F-18 SRA landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A highly modified F-18B Hornet fighter being flown by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center settles towards the runway at Edwards Air Force Base following another research flight. Known as the Systems Research Aircraft (SRA), the two-seat F-18 is currently engaged in a multi-year project to evaluate a variety of advanced control subsystems and sensors. Among the more than 20 experiments being researched in the joint NASA/DOD/industry program is the Electrical-Powered Actuation Design (EPAD), which is testing prototype aileron actuators which operate independently of the aircraft's hydraulic system. One experimental electrohydrostatic actuator (EHA) generates hydraulic force to move the aileron via a compact electric-driven hydraulic pump incorporated in the actuator itself. Another 'smart' actuator uses actuator-mounted electronics while a third electro-mechanical actuator is electrically operated and moves the aileron mechanically. Such actuators could eliminate much of the need for complex central hydraulic systems on future aircraft, with signifigant savings in weight and cost. They are also being evaluated for use on the planned Reusable Launch Vehicle.

  17. F-18 FDG PET/CT and Tc-99m sulfur colloid SPECT imaging in the diagnosis and treatment of a case of dual solitary fibrous tumors of the retroperitoneum and pancreas.

    PubMed

    Azadi, Javad; Subhawong, Andrea; Durand, Daniel James

    2012-03-01

    Although FDG PET is increasingly used for the staging of many types of sarcoma, little has been written regarding the FDG PET imaging characteristics of solitary fibrous tumor. We report a patient undergoing FDG PET/CT surveillance for squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue who was incidentally found to have two soft tissue masses in the retroperitoneum and pancreatic tail. Due to their low degree of FDG avidity, they were followed conservatively for approximately one year as they gradually increased in size. Technetium-99m sulfur colloid SPECT helped confirm that the pancreatic tail mass was not a splenule, after which both lesions were surgically resected and found to be extrathoracic solitary fibrous tumors without malignant features. These findings suggest that, as with other low-grade sarcomas, benign extrathoracic solitary fibrous tumors exhibit relatively little glycolytic metabolism in vivo.

  18. [18F]FDG Accumulation in Early Coronary Atherosclerotic Lesions in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Tarkia, Miikka; Saraste, Antti; Stark, Christoffer; Vähäsilta, Tommi; Savunen, Timo; Strandberg, Marjatta; Saunavaara, Virva; Tolvanen, Tuula; Teuho, Jarmo; Teräs, Mika; Metsälä, Olli; Rinne, Petteri; Heinonen, Ilkka; Savisto, Nina; Pietilä, Mikko; Saukko, Pekka; Roivainen, Anne; Knuuti, Juhani

    2015-01-01

    Objective Inflammation is an important contributor to atherosclerosis progression. A glucose analogue 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) has been used to detect atherosclerotic inflammation. However, it is not known to what extent [18F]FDG is taken up in different stages of atherosclerosis. We aimed to study the uptake of [18F]FDG to various stages of coronary plaques in a pig model. Methods First, diabetes was caused by streptozotocin injections (50 mg/kg for 3 days) in farm pigs (n = 10). After 6 months on high-fat diet, pigs underwent dual-gated cardiac PET/CT to measure [18F]FDG uptake in coronary arteries. Coronary segments (n = 33) were harvested for ex vivo measurement of radioactivity and autoradiography (ARG). Results Intimal thickening was observed in 16 segments and atheroma type plaques in 10 segments. Compared with the normal vessel wall, ARG showed 1.7±0.7 times higher [18F]FDG accumulation in the intimal thickening and 4.1±2.3 times higher in the atheromas (P = 0.004 and P = 0.003, respectively). Ex vivo mean vessel-to-blood ratio was higher in segments with atheroma than those without atherosclerosis (2.6±1.2 vs. 1.3±0.7, P = 0.04). In vivo PET imaging showed the highest target-to-background ratio (TBR) of 2.7. However, maximum TBR was not significantly different in segments without atherosclerosis (1.1±0.5) and either intimal thickening (1.2±0.4, P = 1.0) or atheroma (1.6±0.6, P = 0.4). Conclusions We found increased uptake of [18F]FDG in coronary atherosclerotic lesions in a pig model. However, uptake in these early stage lesions was not detectable with in vivo PET imaging. Further studies are needed to clarify whether visible [18F]FDG uptake in coronary arteries represents more advanced, highly inflamed plaques. PMID:26120829

  19. Comparison of F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose and F-18 Fluorothymidine Positron Emission Tomography in Differentiating Radiation Necrosis from Recurrent Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Enslow, Michael S.; Zollinger, Lauren V.; Morton, Kathryn A.; Kadrmas, Dan J.; Butterfield, Regan I.; Christian, Paul E.; Boucher, Kenneth M.; Heilbrun, Marta E.; Jensen, Randy L.; Hoffman, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Report The objective was to compare F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and F-18 fluorothymidine (FLT) positron emission tomography (PET) in differentiating radiation necrosis from recurrent glioma. Materials and methods Visual and quantitative analyses were derived from static FDG PET and static and dynamic FLT PET in 15 patients with suspected recurrence of treated ≥ grade II glioma with a new focus of Gd-contrast enhancement on MRI. For FDG PET, SUVmax and the ratio of lesion SUVmax to the SUVmean of contralateral white matter were measured. For FLT PET, SUVmax and Patlak-derived metabolic flux parameter Kimax were measured for the same locus. A 5-point visual confidence scale was applied to FDG PET and FLT PET. ROC analysis was applied to visual and quantitative results. Differences between recurrent tumor and radiation necrosis were tested by Kruskal-Wallis analysis. Based on follow-up Gd-MRI imaging, lesion-specific recurrent tumor was defined as a definitive increase in size of the lesion, and radiation necrosis as stability or regression. Results For FDG SUVmax, FDG ratio lesion:white matter and FLT Kimax, there was a significant difference between mean values for recurrent tumor and radiation necrosis. Recurrent tumor was best identified by FDG ratio of lesion:contralateral normal white matter (AUC 0.98, CI 0.91–1.00, sens. 100%, spec. 75% for an optimized cut-off value of 1.82). Conclusion Both quantitative and visual determinations allow accurate differentiation between recurrent glioma and radiation necrosis by both FDG and FLT PET. In this small series, FLT PET offers no advantage over FDG PET. PMID:22889774

  20. Ictal onset zone and seizure propagation delineated on ictal F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Madhavi; Tripathi, Manjari; Garg, Ajay; Damle, Nishikant; Bal, Chandrasekhar

    2016-01-01

    The present case highlights the utility of ictal F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in delineating the seizure onset zone in a child with complex partial seizures. Although F-18 FDG PET has been successfully used to delineate interictal hypometabolism, planned ictal FDG PET, in cases with prolonged seizure activity, can provide better spatial resolution than single-photon emission CT by delineating the seizure onset zone and propagation pathway.

  1. Asymmetrical F-18 Flurorodeoxyglucose uptake in the breasts: A dilemma solved by patient history.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ravi Kant; Tripathi, Madhavi; Sahoo, Manas Kumar; Nazar, Aftab Hasan; Agarwal, Krishankant; Kumar, Kunal; Damle, Nishikant; Bal, Chandrasekhar

    2016-01-01

    The present case highlights the importance of history taking in solving the dilemmas of variant F-18 FDG uptake on PET/CT. Asymmetrically increased, abnormal looking, FDG uptake in the right breast of our patient was related to her breast feeding practice. Because of personal preference the patient suckled her child from the right breast only. This resulted in asymmetry of size, increase in glandular breast parenchyma and FDG uptake in the breast that was suckled.

  2. Pilot study of F(18)-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/computerised tomography in Wilms' tumour: correlation with conventional imaging, pathology and immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Begent, Joanna; Sebire, Neil J; Levitt, Gill; Brock, Penelope; Jones, Kathy Pritchard; Ell, Peter; Gordon, Isky; Anderson, John

    2011-02-01

    Wilms' tumour is the second most common paediatric solid tumour. Prognosis is good although higher stage disease carries significant mortality and treatment related morbidity. In the UK, risk stratification is based on histological response to pre-operative chemotherapy. F(18)-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (F(18)FDG-PET) is an emerging functional imaging technique in paediatric oncology. Little is known about the relationship between F(18)FDG-PET images and the disease process of Wilms' tumour. We performed F(18)FDG-PET/CT scans in seven children with Wilms' tumour after induction chemotherapy, immediately before surgery. The standard uptake values (SUV) of F(18)FDG-PET/CT images were related to conventional imaging and histopathological findings. In total seven children were studied. F(18)FDG-PET/CT was consistently safely performed. All tumours showed F(18)FDG activity. Four tumours had activity with SUV/bw max >5 g/ml. Histological examination of these active areas revealed viable anaplastic Wilms' tumour. Furthermore, in these four tumours GLUT-1 and Ki67 immunostaining was strongly positive. Three further tumours demonstrated lower uptake (SUV/bw max <5 g/ml), which represented areas of microscopic foci of residual viable tumour mixed with post chemotherapy change. Metastatic disease was F(18)FDG avid in two of four children with stage four diseases. In conclusion, following chemotherapy, active Wilms' tumour is F(18)FDG avid and higher SUV was seen in histologically high risk disease.

  3. Diffuse FDG renal uptake in lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Navalkissoor, Shaunak; Szyszko, Teresa; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Nunan, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    In patients presenting with acute renal failure and known/suspected lymphoma, the diagnosis of diffuse renal involvement is important, as there is potential for rapid resolution with chemotherapy. Although FDG is excreted through the kidneys and focal renal disease may be difficult to identify, diffuse renal FDG is more easily recognized and is always abnormal. We report a patient presenting with acute renal failure and suspected lymphoma. F-18 FDG PET/CT study demonstrated diffuse increased FDG uptake in bilaterally enlarged kidneys. Following 1 cycle of chemotherapy, the renal function normalized. An interim F-18 FDG PET/CT demonstrated normal size and FDG uptake within both kidneys.

  4. F-18 HARV research pilot Jim Smolka

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    James W. 'Smoke' Smolka, a research pilot at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, since 1985, was co-project pilot on the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) aircraft. Before joining NASA, Smolka was an F-16 experimental test pilot with General Dynamics Corporation for two years at Edwards. He was also a project pilot with the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI) F-16 Joint Test Force located at Dryden. In addition to his work with the F-18 program, Smolka also flies as a pilot on the NASA B-52 launch aircraft, and as a co-project pilot on the F-16XL Supersonic Laminar Flow aircraft. He also participated in F-15 HIDEC flight and engine control system programs, and the AFTI F-111 Mission Adaptive Wing, and F-104 Aeronautical Research Aircraft programs. Smolka has accumulated 5000 hours of flight time since he became a pilot in 1973. NASA used an F-18 Hornet fighter aircraft as its High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The aircraft is on loan from the U.S. Navy. The high angle of attack technology program is a joint effort of NASA's Dryden, Ames, Langley, and Lewis Research Centers. Its flight operations were based at Dryden.

  5. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT and post hoc PET/MRI in a case of primary meningeal melanomatosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong Je; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Hwang, Seong Wook; Cho, Suk Kyong; Kim, Hae Won; Lee, Sang-Woo; Hwang, Jeong-Hyun; Lee, Jaetae

    2013-01-01

    Primary meningeal melanomatosis is a rare, aggressive variant of primary malignant melanoma of the central nervous system, which arises from melanocytes within the leptomeninges and carries a poor prognosis. We report a case of primary meningeal melanomatosis in a 17-year-old man, which was diagnosed with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) PET/CT, and post hoc F-18 FDG PET/MRI fusion images. Whole-body F-18 FDG PET/CT was helpful in ruling out the extracranial origin of melanoma lesions, and in assessing the therapeutic response. Post hoc PET/MRI fusion images facilitated the correlation between PET and MRI images and demonstrated the hypermetabolic lesions more accurately than the unenhanced PET/CT images. Whole body F-18 FDG PET/CT and post hoc PET/MRI images might help clinicians determine the best therapeutic strategy for patients with primary meningeal melanomatosis.

  6. MO-G-17A-07: Improved Image Quality in Brain F-18 FDG PET Using Penalized-Likelihood Image Reconstruction Via a Generalized Preconditioned Alternating Projection Algorithm: The First Patient Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidtlein, CR; Beattie, B; Humm, J; Li, S; Wu, Z; Xu, Y; Zhang, J; Shen, L; Vogelsang, L; Feiglin, D; Krol, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the performance of a new penalized-likelihood PET image reconstruction algorithm using the 1{sub 1}-norm total-variation (TV) sum of the 1st through 4th-order gradients as the penalty. Simulated and brain patient data sets were analyzed. Methods: This work represents an extension of the preconditioned alternating projection algorithm (PAPA) for emission-computed tomography. In this new generalized algorithm (GPAPA), the penalty term is expanded to allow multiple components, in this case the sum of the 1st to 4th order gradients, to reduce artificial piece-wise constant regions (“staircase” artifacts typical for TV) seen in PAPA images penalized with only the 1st order gradient. Simulated data were used to test for “staircase” artifacts and to optimize the penalty hyper-parameter in the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) sense. Patient FDG brain scans were acquired on a GE D690 PET/CT (370 MBq at 1-hour post-injection for 10 minutes) in time-of-flight mode and in all cases were reconstructed using resolution recovery projectors. GPAPA images were compared PAPA and RMSE-optimally filtered OSEM (fully converged) in simulations and to clinical OSEM reconstructions (3 iterations, 32 subsets) with 2.6 mm XYGaussian and standard 3-point axial smoothing post-filters. Results: The results from the simulated data show a significant reduction in the 'staircase' artifact for GPAPA compared to PAPA and lower RMSE (up to 35%) compared to optimally filtered OSEM. A simple power-law relationship between the RMSE-optimal hyper-parameters and the noise equivalent counts (NEC) per voxel is revealed. Qualitatively, the patient images appear much sharper and with less noise than standard clinical images. The convergence rate is similar to OSEM. Conclusions: GPAPA reconstructions using the 1{sub 1}-norm total-variation sum of the 1st through 4th-order gradients as the penalty show great promise for the improvement of image quality over that currently achieved

  7. Symmetric increased skeletal muscular uptake of F-18 fluoro-deoxyglucose: A clue for the diagnosis of Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Sampath; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Kashyap, Raghava; Bhattacharya, Anish; Singh, Baljinder

    2011-07-01

    F-18 fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the thyroid and thymus is well reported in patients with Graves' disease. Incidental skeletal muscle uptake has also been reported in other non-musculoskeletal (benign and malignant) pathologies. We report a patient of Graves' disease showing symmetrical skeletal muscle uptake but no thyroidal or thymus uptake of FDG.

  8. F-18 SRA in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is using this early-model F-18 Hornet as a flying research platform to evaluate a number of emerging technologies in aircraft control and information systems. The Systems Research Aircraft, a pre-production two-seat version of the twin-engine tactical fighter aircraft, has been extensively modified for its research role. Among projects flown on the plane are experiments to evaluate fiber optics for flight-critical control systems, advanced air data acquisition systems, and electrically-powered flight control actuators which do not require connection to the aircraft central hydraulic system. The new technologies could lead to lighter and more efficient aircraft designs with higher performance and greater safety.

  9. F-18 SRA during flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This bright blue-and-white twin-jet aircraft may look like an ordinary F/A-18 Hornet fighter, but inside its a different bird. Currently being flown by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in a multi-year, joint NASA/DOD/industry program, the former Navy fighter has been modified into a unique Systems Research Aircraft (SRA) to investigate a host of new technologies in the areas of flight controls, airdata sensing and advanced computing. One of the more than 20 experiments being tested aboard the SRA F-18 is an advanced air data sensing system which uses a group of pressure taps flush-mounted on the forward fuselage to measure both altitude and wind speed and direction--critical data for flight control and research investigations. The Real-Time Flush Air Data Sensing system concept is being evaluated for possible use on the X-33 resuable space-launch vehicle. The primary goal of the SRA program is to validate through flight research cutting-edge technologies which could benefit future aircraft and spacecraft by improving efficiency and performance, reducing weight and complexity, with a resultant reduction on development and operational costs.

  10. F-18 SRA during flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Systems Research Aircraft (SRA), a highly modified F-18 jet fighter, is seen here during a recent research flight. The former Navy aircraft is being flown by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, California, to evaluate a number of experimental aerospace technologies in a multi-year, joint NASA/DOD/industry program. Among the more than 20 experiments being flight-tested were several involving fiber optic sensor systems. Experiments developed by McDonnell-Douglas and Lockheed-Martin centered on installation and maintenace techniques for various types of fiber-optic hardware proposed for use in military and commercial aircraft, while a Parker-Hannifin experiment focused in alternative fiber-optic designs for position measurement sensors as well as operational experience in handling optical sensor systems. Other experiments being flown on this testbed aircraft include electronically-controlled control surface actuators, flush air data collection systems, 'smart' skin antennae and laser-based systems. Incorporation of one or more of these technologies in future aircraft and spacecraft could result in signifigant savings in weight, maintenance and overall cost.

  11. F-18 HARV research pilot Dana Purifoy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Dana D. Purifoy is an aerospace research pilot at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. He joined NASA in August 1994. Purifoy is a former Air Force test pilot who served as a project pilot in the joint NASA/Air Force X-29 Forward Swept Wing research program conducted at Dryden from 1984 to 1991. His most recent assignment in the Air Force was flying U-2 aircraft as a test pilot at Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, CA. In addition to flying the X-29 at Dryden as an Air Force pilot, Purifoy also served as project pilot and joint test force director with the AFTI F-16 (Advanced Fighter Technology Integration/F-16) program, also located at Dryden. Before his assignments as project pilot on the X-29 and AFTI/F-16 aircraft, Purifoy was chief of the Academics Systems Branch at the Air Force Test Pilot School at Edwards. Prior to becoming a test pilot, he flew F-111 and F-16 aircraft in Great Britain and Germany. He has accumulated 3800 hours of flying time in his career. The final flight for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) took place at NASA Dryden on May 29, 1996. The highly modified F-18 airplane flew 383 flights over a nine year period and demonstrated concepts that greatly increase fighter maneuverability. Among concepts proven in the aircraft is the use of paddles to direct jet engine exhaust in cases of extreme altitudes where conventional control surfaces lose effectiveness. Another concept, developed by NASA Langley Research Center, is a deployable wing-like surface installed on the nose of the aircraft for increased right and left (yaw) control on nose-high flight angles.

  12. Haematogenous muscular metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer in F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Savas, Karyagar; Pinar, Koc Zehra; Sevda, Karyagar Saglampinar; Evrim, Savli; Halit, Cinarka; Sevdegul, Mungan; Ansal, Balci Tansel

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study F-18 FDG PET/CT is the most effective method for demonstrating extrapulmonary metastases of lung cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the level of muscular metastasis of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) in F-18 FDG PET/CT and to demonstrate the characteristics of this special group of patients. Material and methods A total of 1150 patients with the diagnosis of NSCLC, who were referred for F-18 FDG PET/CT, were included into the study. Among these patients, the findings of 13 who were shown to have muscle metastases were studied. Results In the retrospective analysis of the patients, 13 patients (12 male, 1 female; mean: 59 ±7 years old) were found to have haematogenous (excluding local invasion) muscular metastases of NSCLC using F-18 FDG PET/CT. Two of the 13 patients had only muscular metastases (one patient isolated, one patient two foci). The other 11 patients had additional distant metastases in six metastatic sites (bone in 7 patients, distant lymph node in 6, adrenal gland in 5, contralateral lung in 3, liver in 1, and brain metastasis in 1 patient). Five patients died during the mean 11 ±8 months follow up. Conclusions Muscular metastasis is not a rare condition, especially in F-18 FDG PET/CT examinations, and is frequently associated with additional distant metastases. PMID:26557766

  13. Added value of using a cocktail of F-18 sodium fluoride and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose in positron emission tomography/computed tomography for detecting bony metastasis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chan, Hung-Pin; Hu, Chin; Yu, Chang-Ching; Huang, Tsung-Chi; Peng, Nan-Jing

    2015-04-01

    Current nuclear imaging of the skeletal system is achieved using technetium-99m (Tc-99m) methylene diphosphonate (MDP), F-18 sodium fluoride (NaF), or F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). However, comparisons of these are rare in the literature. We present a case of a 51-year-old female with suspicious lung cancer due to main symptoms of dyspnea, nonproductive cough, and pleural pain. Tc-99m MDP whole-body bone scan (WBBS) showed multiple bony metastases. Five days later, positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) images using both F-18 NaF and a cocktail of F-18 NaF and F-18 FDG were obtained on the same day 2 hours apart. The former showed more foci and precisely showed bony lesions compared to those obtained using Tc-99m MDP WBBS. However, the latter demonstrated more extensive radiotracer uptake, especially in osteolytic lesions, and additional soft tissue lesions in the left axillary and surpraclavicular nodes as well as the left pleura. Surgical biopsy was performed in left axillary nodes, and the metastatic carcinoma was found to be of breast origin. This case demonstrated that a cocktail of F-18 NaF and F-18 FDG could be useful in PET/CT for not only detecting more skeletal lesions but also guiding biopsies accurately to the affected tissue.

  14. Utility of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose posıtron emıssıon tomography/computed ın carcınoma of unknown primary.

    PubMed

    Elboga, Umut; Kervancioğlu, Selim; Sahin, Ertan; Basibuyuk, Mustafa; Celen, Y Zeki; Aktolun, Cumali

    2014-01-01

    Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is a heterogeneous group of tumors with various clinical features causing diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of F-18 FDG PET/CT for localizing the primary tumor, disclosing additional metastases, and changing the treatment in patients with CUP. One hundred and twelve metastatic patients (female = 40, male = 72, median age = 60.5 years) in whom conventional diagnostic work-up failed to disclose the primary tumor were included in the study. F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging was performed in a standard protocol (patient supine, arms on patient's side, vertex to thigh, 369.3 MBq (296-444 MBq) F-18 FDG, a 60-minute uptake period, 6-7 bed position). Histopathology was taken as the only reference standard. F-18 FDG PET/CT correctly detected primary tumor in 37 of 112 (33.03%) patients. The most common site of primary tumor detected by F-18 FDG PET/CT was lung (n = 18), which was followed by nasopharynx (n = 7), pancreas (n = 5), tonsil (n = 2), breast (n = 2), thyroid (n = 1), uterus (n = 1) and colon/rectum (n = 1). F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging disclosed additional previously undetected metastases in 32 (28.5%) and changed the treatment in 33 (29.4%) of 112 patients. There were false positive F-18 FDG PET/CT results in 21 (18.5%) patients. F-18 FDG PET/CT is able to disclose the primary tumor, disclose new metatases and change the treatment in about one third of patients with CUP.

  15. Potential of F-18 PET/CT in the Detection of Leptomeningeal Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Short, Ryan G; Bal, Susan; German, John P; Poelstra, Raymond J; Kardan, Arash

    2014-12-01

    Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) is a rare but increasingly common condition in which malignant cells migrate to the meninges. The gold standard for diagnosing LM is detection of cancer cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) is also used to diagnose LM. We describe a case of LM in which CE-MRI of the neuroaxis was initially negative for meningeal enhancement but F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) revealed hypermetabolism within the lumbar spinal canal. Positive F-18 FDG PET findings have rarely been reported in LM and, to our knowledge, have never been reported in the context of initially negative CE-MRI scanning of the neuroaxis. F-18 FDG PET/CT may represent an alternative modality for diagnosing LM in patients who are unable to undergo CE-MRI and/or LP or in patients for whom initial CE-MRI and/or LP are negative for LM.

  16. Pancreatic tuberculosis: Evaluation of therapeutic response using F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Sampath; Bhattacharya, Anish; Rana, Surinder Singh; Bhasin, Deepak Kumar; Srinivasan, Radhika; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2014-10-01

    F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) is a functional imaging technique that monitors glucose metabolism in tissues. Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) has been reported to show intense uptake of FDG, with a decrease in metabolism of the tuberculous lesions after successful anti-tubercular treatment (ATT). The authors present a patient with pancreatic TB and demonstrate the usefulness of FDG PET/CT in monitoring the response to ATT.

  17. Intracranial Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis in Three Cases from Breast Cancer Demonstrated on F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computerized Tomography.

    PubMed

    Ortapamuk, Hulya; Demir, Mustafa Kemal

    2017-01-01

    Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC) is an uncommon late manifestation of non-central nervous system (CNS) solid tumors. With prolonged survival in solid tumors, an increased frequency of metastases is noted in these tumors too. The detection of tumor cells in the cerebrospinal fluid remains the gold standard. Noninvasively, magnetic resonance imaging is frequently used for the diagnosis of LC. Although its low sensitivity of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) on demonstrating CNS lesions, it could be useful in identifying the possibility of LC of breast carcinoma by giving high attention to the meninges. We discuss here three cases all of them having intracranial LC; where (18)F-FDG PET/CT study helped us in the diagnosis of LC. To our knowledge, this is the second report about intracranial LC from breast cancer demonstrating on (18)F-FDG PET/CT.

  18. Intracranial Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis in Three Cases from Breast Cancer Demonstrated on F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computerized Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ortapamuk, Hulya; Demir, Mustafa Kemal

    2017-01-01

    Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC) is an uncommon late manifestation of non-central nervous system (CNS) solid tumors. With prolonged survival in solid tumors, an increased frequency of metastases is noted in these tumors too. The detection of tumor cells in the cerebrospinal fluid remains the gold standard. Noninvasively, magnetic resonance imaging is frequently used for the diagnosis of LC. Although its low sensitivity of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) on demonstrating CNS lesions, it could be useful in identifying the possibility of LC of breast carcinoma by giving high attention to the meninges. We discuss here three cases all of them having intracranial LC; where 18F-FDG PET/CT study helped us in the diagnosis of LC. To our knowledge, this is the second report about intracranial LC from breast cancer demonstrating on 18F-FDG PET/CT. PMID:28242978

  19. Advantages and disadvantages of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in carcinoma of unknown primary.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaozhou; Li, Xiaofeng; Song, Xiuyu; Dai, Dong; Zhu, Lei; Zhu, Yanjia; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Huiqin; Xu, Wengui

    2016-11-01

    Carcinoma of unknown primary is a type of malignant disease where the primary carcinoma cannot be identified by conventional examination, which presents challenges in diagnosis and therapy. This study aims to evaluate the detailed clinical value and indications of using fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) in a large sample. A total of 449 patients who were selected under strict standards were retrospectively included in this study. F-18 FDG PET/CT accurately detected the primary carcinoma in 115 of 449 patients whose primaries could not be detected by conventional examination (25.6%), with additional 27 false-positive patients. The most common primary site was the lung (34.8%). In addition, except for in metastatic melanoma (1/19, 5.3%) and axillary metastasis patients (2/49, 4.1%), F-18 FDG PET/CT had a comparative performance in detecting primary carcinoma in other pathological types and anatomical locations. The scan is able to guide treatment strategy modifications to some extent (130/449, 29.0%). We strongly recommend the use of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the early phase of examination. It is also recommended as a supplementary radiological method, and certain patients may benefit from its application in cases where regular examination is inconclusive. However, in metastatic melanoma or axillary metastasis patients where the primary site cannot be identified by routine examination, regular application of F-18 FDG PET/CT for the sole purpose of detecting the primary carcinoma should not be encouraged.

  20. Advantages and disadvantages of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in carcinoma of unknown primary

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaozhou; Li, Xiaofeng; Song, Xiuyu; Dai, Dong; Zhu, Lei; Zhu, Yanjia; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Huiqin; Xu, Wengui

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma of unknown primary is a type of malignant disease where the primary carcinoma cannot be identified by conventional examination, which presents challenges in diagnosis and therapy. This study aims to evaluate the detailed clinical value and indications of using fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) in a large sample. A total of 449 patients who were selected under strict standards were retrospectively included in this study. F-18 FDG PET/CT accurately detected the primary carcinoma in 115 of 449 patients whose primaries could not be detected by conventional examination (25.6%), with additional 27 false-positive patients. The most common primary site was the lung (34.8%). In addition, except for in metastatic melanoma (1/19, 5.3%) and axillary metastasis patients (2/49, 4.1%), F-18 FDG PET/CT had a comparative performance in detecting primary carcinoma in other pathological types and anatomical locations. The scan is able to guide treatment strategy modifications to some extent (130/449, 29.0%). We strongly recommend the use of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the early phase of examination. It is also recommended as a supplementary radiological method, and certain patients may benefit from its application in cases where regular examination is inconclusive. However, in metastatic melanoma or axillary metastasis patients where the primary site cannot be identified by routine examination, regular application of F-18 FDG PET/CT for the sole purpose of detecting the primary carcinoma should not be encouraged. PMID:27895731

  1. Identification of ischemic and hibernating myocardium: feasibility of post-exercise F-18 deoxyglucose positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Marwick, T.H.; MacIntyre, W.J.; Salcedo, E.E.; Go, R.T.; Saha, G.; Beachler, A. )

    1991-02-01

    The identification of ischemic and hibernating myocardium facilitates the selection of patients most likely to benefit from revascularization. This study examined the feasibility of metabolic imaging, using post-exercise F-18 deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for the diagnosis of both ischemia and hibernation in 27 patients with known coronary anatomy. Normal post-exercise FDG uptake was defined in each patient by reference to normal resting perfusion and normal coronary supply. Abnormal elevation of FDG (ischemia or hibernation) was compared in 13 myocardial segments in each patient, with the results of dipyridamole stress perfusion imaging performed by rubidium-82 positron emission tomography (Rb-PET). Myocardial ischemia was diagnosed by either FDG-PET or Rb-PET in 34 segments subtended by significant local coronary stenoses. Increased FDG uptake was present in 32/34 (94%) and a reversible perfusion defect was identified by Rb-PET in 22/34 (65%, p less than .01). In 3 patients, ischemia was identified by metabolic imaging alone. In 16 patients with previous myocardial infarction, perfusion defects were present at rest in 89 regions, 30 of which (34%) demonstrated increased FDG uptake, consistent with the presence of hibernation. Increased post-exercise FDG uptake appears to be a sensitive indicator of ischemia and myocardial hibernation. Increased post-exercise FDG uptake, appears to be a sensitive indicator of ischemia and myocardial hibernation. This test may be useful in selecting post-infarction patients for revascularization.

  2. F-18 SRA taxi at dawn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    One of NASA's F/A-18 Hornets is seen here sitting on the ramp at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, at dawn August 6, 1993. F-18 aircraft, on loan to NASA by the U.S. Navy, are currently being flown at Dryden as support aircraft and as research testbeds. As support aircraft, they are used primarily for safety chase, pilot proficiency and aerial photography. As research aircraft, they are involved in thrust vectoring and high angle of attack research, as well as numerous smaller scale experiments.

  3. F-18 cockpit and instrument panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center's F/A-18 chase and support aircraft retains the basic fighter plane cockpit controls with some exceptions. The pilot's center control stick is relatively typical of a modern fighter aircraft. This F-18 has no weapons delivery capability. The primary cockpit displays include a left- and right-side cathode-ray tube display, referred to as the DDIs, and the heads-up display (HUD). The DDIs and HUD are generally used to display primary flight condition information such as airspeed, altitude, altitude rate, attitude, heading, etc. Other flight conditions displayed include angle of attack (AOA), Mach number, and load factor. The HUD also provides primary flight condition information to the pilot without having to refer to the DDIs. Select flight controls information also can be presented on the HUD. The twenty pushbuttons located on the periphery of each DDI are used to select a variety of displays for pilot interrogation of F-18 systems. These displays are pilot selectable and menu driven.

  4. Synthesis of 6-(F-18)L-fluoro-dopa using F-18 labelled acetyl hypofluorite

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, M.J.; Abeysekera, B.; Ruth, T.J.; Grierson, J.R.; Pate, B.D.

    1985-05-01

    The synthesis of (F-18)6-fluoro-dopa via acetyl hypofluorite has recently been reported. The authors have modified this procedure by adding an acetate protecting group on the dopa ring and have treated this new starting material with either solution or gas phase F-18 acetyl hypofluorite. Using this starting material the yield has been significantly increased over the published method. The authors routinely prepare 4-5 mCi of pure (F-18)6-fluoro-dopa (3-4% radiochemical yield, at EOS) in an overall synthesis time of 2 hours. Both 2 and 6 fluoro-dopa are produced in nearly equivalent amounts by this method as determined by /sup 19/F nmr. These are easily separated by HPLC after deblocking with HI. The final isolated product is >99% in the L-isomer form and fluorinated in >97% in the 6 position.

  5. F18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and computed tomography is not accurate in preoperative staging of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Tae Kyung; Choi, Yun Young; Song, Soon Young

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinical benefits of F18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) over multi-detector row CT (MDCT) in preoperative staging of gastric cancer. Methods FDG-PET/CT and MDCT were performed on 78 patients with gastric cancer pathologically diagnosed by endoscopy. The accuracy of radiologic staging retrospectively was compared to pathologic result after curative resection. Results Primary tumors were detected in 51 (65.4%) patients with 18F-FDG-PET/CT, and 47 (60.3%) patients with MDCT. Regarding detection of lymph node metastasis, the sensitivity of FDG-PET/CT was 51.5% with an accuracy of 71.8%, whereas those of MDCT were 69.7% and 69.2%, respectively. The sensitivity of 18F-FDG-PET/CT for a primary tumor with signet ring cell carcinoma was lower than that of 18F-FDG-PET/CT for a primary tumor with non-signet ring cell carcinoma (35.3% vs. 73.8%, P < 0.01). Conclusion Due to its low sensitivity, 18F-FDG-PET/CT alone shows no definite clinical benefit for prediction of lymph node metastasis in preoperative staging of gastric cancer. PMID:22066108

  6. Intelligent [F-18] fluoride target system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hichwa, R. D.; Aykac, M.; Bilgen, D.; Watkins, G. L.

    1999-06-01

    An automated target filling system has been developed for [F-18]F- production from [O-18]water. The system consists of a pair of standard syringe dispensing pumps, valve manifolds, pressure and flow sensors, RS-232 serial I/O modules, high pressure silver targets and X-windows software. Operations are controlled through a graphical interface and can be manipulated individually, in groups for specific functions, or as complex processes either manually or automatically. Major functional operations include: 1) system test, 2) target fill, 3) target empty, and 4) target clean up. Fault conditions if present are identified and flagged. Alternate (duplicate) pathways are automatically used if a nonfatal failure mode is detected. Results from the testing procedures are logged to a file for documented adherence to SOPs and trend assessment of performance.

  7. F-18 SRA in flight from below

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is using this early-model F-18 Hornet as a flying research platform to evaluate a number of emerging technologies in aircraft control and information systems. The Systems Research Aircraft, a pre-production two-seat version of the twin-engine tactical fighter aircraft, has been extensively modified for its research role. Among projects flown on the plane are experiments to evaluate fiber optics for flight-critical control systems, advanced air data acquisition systems, and electrically-powered flight control actuators which do not require connection to the aircraft central hydraulic system. The new technologies could lead to lighter and more efficient aircraft designs with higher performance and greater safety.

  8. Relationship between Tl-201, Tc-99m (Sn) pyrophosphate and F-18 2-deoxyglucose uptake in ischemically injured dog myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Sochor, H.; Schwaiger, M.; Schelbert, H.R.; Huang, S.C.; Ellison, D.; Hansen, H.; Selin, C.; Parodi, O.; Phelps, M.E.

    1987-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated that enhanced glucose utilization in reperfused myocardium as assessed by F-18 2-deoxyglucose (FDG) and positron tomography predicts functional recovery. In this study, we compared segmental uptake of F-18 FDG with that of Tl-201 and Tc-99m (Sn) pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PPi) as conventional markers of tissue viability in seven dogs after a 3-hour intracoronary balloon occlusion and 20 hours of reperfusion. Myocardial blood flow was determined with microspheres. Regional retention fractions were calculated from tracer tissue concentrations, the arterial input function, and blood flow. Ischemic injury was assessed by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and histologic analysis. At 24 hours, blood flow was 22% lower in reperfused than in control myocardium (p less than 0.05). Uptake of Tl-201 was related linearly to blood flow (r = 0.92), while glucose utilization and Tc-99m PPi were 2.9 (p less than 0.01) and 4.7 (p less than 0.05) times higher in reperfused than in control myocardium. Retention fractions of Tc-99m PPi increased with the degree of ischemic injury, while F-18 FDG uptake was highest in segments with mild cell injury. Thus, in ischemically injured myocardium, Tl-201 primarily reflects blood flow. F-18 FDG as a marker of glucose utilization identifies ischemically injured but viable tissue. The admixture of necrotic cells can be determined with Tc-99m PPi. Our results indicate that a dual tracer approach might best characterize the presence and extent of reversibly and of irreversibly injured tissue in a given myocardial region.

  9. 76 FR 37129 - Determination That SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 (Sodium Fluoride F-18) Injection, 10 to 200 Millicuries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 (Sodium Fluoride F... Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 (sodium fluoride F-18) injection, 10... effectiveness. This determination will allow FDA to approve abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for...

  10. Experiments With Recirculating Target for F-18 Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, M. Y.

    2003-08-01

    Approximately 10 ml of O-18 water was loaded in an apparatus containing a 5 ml storage vessel, pump, silver target attached to a cyclotron, filter, backpressure regulator, conductivity meter, several valves and ion exchange cartridges. The water was continuously pumped through the target during proton bombardment at a rate 5 ml/min. Continuous irradiation with beam current ranging from 10 to 50 uA was conducted while pressure, temperature and conductivity were continuously monitored. The results indicate that recirculating of the target water can increase production of F-18 in relation to consumed O-18 water material. It can also increase productivity by eliminating idle periods for re-filling the target. A backpressure regulator can precisely control target pressure. This method also allows for continuous monitoring of the target material temperature, pressure, conductivity and accumulated radioactivity. Results of these observations provide important information about target performance and physical processes taking place inside the target.

  11. F-18 SRA during flight from below

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Systems Research Aircraft (SRA), a highly modified F-18 jet fighter, shows its colors during a recent research flight. The former Navy aircraft is being flown by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, California, to evaluate a number of experimental aerospace technologies in a multi-year, joint NASA/DOD/industry program. Among the more than 20 experiments being flight-tested were several involving fiber optic sensor systems. Experiments developed by McDonnell-Douglas and Lockheed-Martin centered on installation and maintenace techniques for various types of fiber-optic hardware proposed for use in military and commercial aircraft, while a Parker-Hannifin experiment focused in alternative fiber-optic designs for postion measurement sensors as well as operational experience in handling optical sensor systems. Other experiments being flown on this testbed aircraft include electronically-controlled control surface actuators, flush air data collection systems, 'smart' skin antennae and laser-based systems. Incorporation of one or more of these technologies in future aircraft and spacecraft could result in signifigant savings in weight, maintenance and overall cost.

  12. F-18 SRA in flight over lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Systems Research Aircraft (SRA), a highly modified F-18 jet fighter, on an early research flight over Rogers Dry Lake. The former Navy aircraft is being flown by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, California, to evaluate a number of experimental aerospace technologies in a multi-year, joint NASA/DOD/industry program. Among the more than 20 experiments being flight-tested were several involving fiber optic sensor systems. Experiments developed by McDonnell-Douglas and Lockheed-Martin centered on installation and maintenace techniques for various types of fiber-optic hardware proposed for use in military and commercial aircraft, while a Parker-Hannifin experiment focused in alternative fiber-optic designs for postion measurement sensors as well as operational experience in handling optical sensor systems. Other experiments being flown on this testbed aircraft include electronically-controlled control surface actuators, flush air data collection systems, 'smart' skin antennae and laser-based systems. Incorporation of one or more of these technologies in future aircraft and spacecraft could result in signifigant savings in weight, maintenance and overall cost.

  13. Rare case of primary inferior vena cava leiomyosarcoma on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan: Differentiation from nontumor thrombus in a background of procoagulant state.

    PubMed

    Singh, Natasha; Shivdasani, Divya; Karangutkar, Sanket

    2014-10-01

    We report a rare case of leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava (IVC) in which F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan provided vital evidence, which led to its diagnosis, in a background of procoagulant state of the patient, where previous ultrasound-Doppler and echocardiography studies were nonspecific and revealed bilateral lower limb deep vein thrombosis with thrombus in IVC. The whole body F-18 FDG PET-CT scan was done in view of no significant improvement in clinical status of the patient over few months in spite of appropriate medical management. FDG PET-CT scan revealed high grade uptake in a large mass lesion occupying the right atrium, extending superiorly into terminal superior vena cava, inferiorly into dilated IVC and probably into hepatic veins. CT guided biopsy of this F-18 FDG avid mass was consistent with the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma, which however was not amenable to surgery at this stage. F-18 FDG PET-CT accurately differentiated tumor mass from bland thrombus and further had a significant impact on the management, since aggressive surgery combined with adjuvant therapy offers the best outcome for patients with leiomyosarcoma of the IVC.

  14. Differential diagnosis of adrenal mass using imaging modality: special emphasis on f-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong Je; Lee, Jaetae

    2014-03-01

    Adrenal incidentalomas are adrenal masses serendipitously detected during an imaging study performed for reasons unrelated to suspicion of adrenal disease. The incidence of adrenal incidentalomas has increased because of the widespread use of various imaging modalities. In oncology patients with adrenal incidentalomas, the characterization of the adrenal masses is challenging because nearly 50% of incidental adrenal masses are metastatic lesions that need special medical attention. Although unenhanced computed tomography (CT) densitometry, chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), delayed contrast-enhanced CT and CT histogram analysis have been used as sensitive and specific modalities for differentiating benign from malignant adrenal masses, F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET)/CT is a highly accurate imaging modality compared to CT or MRI, especially when these two imaging modalities are combined. In addition, a semiquantitative analysis using standardized uptake value ratio further improves the diagnostic accuracy of F-18 FDG PET/CT in differentiating benign from malignant adrenal masses. Thus, F-18 FDG PET/CT is very helpful for determining the best therapeutic management, especially for assessing the need for surgery.

  15. Defining risk groups of patients with cancer of unknown primary site and cervical nodal metastases by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Su, Yung-Yueh; Chen, Shih-Shin; Hsieh, Chia-Hsun; Liao, Chun-Ta; Lin, Chien-Yu; Kang, Chung-Jan; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2016-08-01

    We sought to investigate the clinical utility of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) in Taiwanese patients with cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) and cervical nodal metastases. We also aimed to study the impact of F-18 FDG PET/CT on clinical treatment priority in this patient group. Between September 2006 and May 2014, patients with CUP and cervical nodal metastases who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging study were retrospectively identified. The clinicopathological risk factors and PET parameters were analyzed in relation to 2-year overall survival (OS) rates using univariate and multivariate analyses. Two-year OS curves were plotted with the Kaplan-Meier method. Of the eligible patients (n = 54), 12 (22.2%) had distant metastases (DM) at presentation. A total of 13 (24.1%) and 15 (27.8%) primary tumors were identified by FDG PET/CT imaging and an additional triple biopsy, respectively. The results of multivariate analysis identified smoking [p = 0.033, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.197-40.342], a maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of cervical nodes ≥ 14.2 (p = 0.035, 95% CI = 1.134-28.029), and DM at presentation (p = 0.031, 95% CI = 1.257-114.854) as independent predictors of 2-year OS. Specifically, patients who carried ≥ 2 risk factors showed poorer outcomes (70.3% vs. 11.8%, p < 0.001). Fifteen study patients (27.8%) had their treatment modified by FDG PET/CT findings. We conclude that FDG PET/CT is clinically useful in CUP patients not only for tumor staging, but also for modifying treatment regimens.

  16. Skeletal muscle metastases as the initial manifestation of an unknown primary lung cancer detected on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Bhattacharya, Anish; Singh, Navneet; Harisankar, Chidambaram Natarajan Balasubramanian; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle metastasis as the initial presentation of the unknown primary lung cancer is unusual. A 65-year-old male patient presented with pain and swelling of the right forearm. Fine needle aspiration of the swelling revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. The patient underwent whole body F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to identify the site of the primary malignancy. The authors present PET/CT images showing FDG-avid metastases to the skeletal muscles along with a previously unknown primary tumor in the right lung, in a patient presenting with initial muscular symptoms without any pulmonary manifestations.

  17. F18 Life Support: APECS and EDOX Cockpit Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrick, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Two systems are currently being integrated into the F18 Hornet support aircraft at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC). The first system is the Aircrew Personal Environmental Control System (APECS). The system is designed to increase aircrew performance by combating heat stress in the cockpit. The second system is the Extended Duration Oxygen System (EDOX). This system will provide additional redundancy and oxygen system duration to the F18 without extensive modification to the current system.

  18. Analysis of predictability of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT in the recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suk Kyeong; So, Young; Chung, Hyun Woo; Yoo, Young Bum; Park, Kyung Sik; Hwang, Tae Sook; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Won Woo

    2016-10-01

    Whether preoperative F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) can predict recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) remains unclear. Herein, we evaluated the potential of primary tumor FDG avidity for the prediction of tumor recurrence in PTC patients. A total of 412 PTC patients (72 males, 340 females; age: 47.2 ± 12.2 years; range: 17-84 years) who underwent FDG-PET/CT prior to total thyroidectomy (n = 350), subtotal thyroidectomy (n = 2), or lobectomy (n = 60) from 2007 to 2011 were analyzed. The predictive ability for recurrence was investigated among various clinicopathological factors, BRAF(V)(600E) mutation, and preoperative FDG avidity of the primary tumor using Kaplan-Meier (univariate) and Cox proportional hazards regression (multivariate) analyses. Of the 412 patients, 19 (4.6%) experienced recurrence, which was confirmed either by pathology (n = 17) or high serum thyroglobulin level (n = 2), during a mean follow-up period of 43.9 ± 16.6 months. Of the 412 patients, 237 (57.5%) had FDG-avid tumors (maximum standardized uptake value, 7.1 ± 7.0; range: 1.6-50.5). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that tumor size (P = 0.0054), FDG avidity of the tumor (P = 0.0049), extrathyroidal extension (P = 0.0212), and lymph node (LN) stage (P < 0.0001) were significant predictors for recurrence. However, only LN stage remained a significant predictor in the multivariate analysis (P < 0.0001). Patients with FDG-avid tumors had higher LN stage (P < 0.0001), larger tumor size (P < 0.0001), and more frequent extrathyroidal extension (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, FDG avidity of the primary tumor in preoperative FDG-PET/CT could not predict the recurrence of PTC. LN stage was the only identified predictor of PTC recurrence.

  19. Insufficiency of bone scintigraphy in vertebral lesions of langerhans cell histiocytosis compared to f-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography and diagnostic computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Koç, Zehra Pınar; Şimşek, Selçuk; Akarsu, Saadet; Balcı, Tansel Ansal; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Kepenek, Ferat

    2015-02-05

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a benign disorder related to the histiocytes which can infiltrate bone tissue. The most effective method for demonstrating severity of this disease is PET/CT and bone scintigraphy might show bone lesions. We present a seventeen year old male patient with disseminated LCH presented with exophtalmos and having multiple vertebral lesions which were identified by F-18 FDG PET/CT scan and diagnostic CT but not in the bone scintigraphy.

  20. Mapping the Binding Domain of the F18 Fimbrial Adhesin

    PubMed Central

    Smeds, A.; Pertovaara, M.; Timonen, T.; Pohjanvirta, T.; Pelkonen, S.; Palva, A.

    2003-01-01

    F18 fimbrial Esherichia coli strains are associated with porcine postweaning diarrhea and pig edema disease. Recently, the FedF subunit was identified as the adhesin of the F18 fimbriae. In this study, adhesion domains of FedF were further studied by constructing deletions within the fedF gene and expressing FedF proteins with deletions either together with the other F18 fimbrial subunits or as fusion proteins tagged with maltose binding protein. The region essential for adhesion to porcine intestinal epithelial cells was mapped between amino acid residues 60 and 109 of FedF. To map the binding domain even more closely, all eight charged amino acid residues within this region were independently replaced by alanine. Three of these single point mutants expressing F18 fimbriae exhibited significantly diminished capabilities to adhere to porcine epithelial cells in vitro. In addition, a triple point mutation and a double point mutation completely abolished receptor adhesiveness. The result further confirmed that the region between amino acid residues 60 and 109 is essential for the binding of F18 fimbriae to their receptor. In addition, the adhesion capability of the binding domain was eliminated after treatment with iodoacetamide, suggesting the formation of a disulfide bridge between Cys-63 and Cys-83, whereas Cys-111 and Cys-116 could be deleted without affecting the binding ability of FedF. PMID:12654838

  1. Falsely Negative F-18 FDG PET of Osteosarcoma Arising In Paget Disease.

    PubMed

    Bush, Lisabeth Ann; Toresdahl, Brett; Hoch, Benjamin; Chew, Felix S

    2009-01-01

    We present the case of a large, painful pelvic bone tumor in a 53-year-old woman with severe Paget disease. Her presentation was complicated with bilateral total hip arthroplasty, history of spinal stenosis, and multiple lucent lesions in the spine and pelvis in severely affected pagetoid bone. This case features the rare but dreaded complication of osteosarcomatous transformation in Paget disease. A variety of imaging modalities including PET/CT were utilized in the evaluation of these lesions. The PET/CT findings were counter-intuitive with regard to the intense uptake of the underlying chronic disease process and the near-absence of uptake in the tumors. The histology of the pelvic mass is also intriguing, as it demonstrated a sarcoma with giant cell features. Conservative, non-operative management was chosen, due to the patient's poor medical condition, so we may never know the nature of the spinal lesion in this case, but will discuss the differential diagnosis for a lytic spinal lesion in a patient with severe Paget disease complicated by osteosarcoma with giant cell features.

  2. Pharmacologic perturbation as a potential tool to increase the sensitivity of FDG-PET in the evaluation of brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, F.C.L.; Kim, E.E.; Yung, W.K.A.

    1994-05-01

    The usefulness of F-18 FDG PET in the study of brain tumors is limited by the high baseline cortical uptake which decreases the contrast of the tumor. Two alternatives to increase the tumor/background contrast have been reported: barbiturate-induced coma and postprandial state. This project evaluates the effects of sedation with diazepam or of oral glucose intake on the brain tumor/background contrast during F-18 FDG PET studies.

  3. [Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm (IPMN) of the Pancreas Showing High Accumulation of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)--A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Kubota, Masaru; Nishimura, Masashige; Nakatsuka, Rie; Miyazaki, Susumu; Danno, Katsuki; Motoori, Masaaki; Matsuda, Chu; Fujitani, Kazumasa; Iwase, Kazuhiro

    2015-11-01

    The diagnosis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas includes radiographic (CT, MRI) and endoscopic evaluation (ERCP, EUS). The treatment strategy is outlined in the 2012 International Consensus Guidelines (ICG). Herein, we report a case initially not indicated for surgery. Four months after the initial diagnosis, the cystic lesion transformed into a solid mass-like lesion visible on CT. FDG-PET showed abnormal FDG uptake at the same location. Surgical resection was performed immediately, and the tumor was diagnosed as IPMN with inflammation. FDG-PET showed a false-positive diagnosis for the malignancy in this case of IPMN.

  4. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance for Evaluating Catheter Related FDG Avidity

    PubMed Central

    Gage, Kenneth L.; Berman, Claudia G.; Montilla-Soler, Jaime L.

    2016-01-01

    A 53-year-old female with a history of metastatic left arm melanoma presented for F(18) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) which showed a moderately FDG avid focus at her port catheter tip near the cavoatrial junction. Although catheter tip related FDG avidity has previously been suggested to be bland thrombus or infection, melanoma can metastasize to unusual locations including the superior vena cava. In addition, the patient had an elevated risk of anticoagulation due to a history of hemorrhagic brain metastases. Therefore, confirmatory cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) was obtained and findings were consistent with bland catheter-related thrombus. PMID:27867676

  5. A quantitative analysis of the F18 flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Stacy A.; Dugan, Joanne B.; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an informal quantitative analysis of the F18 flight control system (FCS). The analysis technique combines a coverage model with a fault tree model. To demonstrate the method's extensive capabilities, we replace the fault tree with a digraph model of the F18 FCS, the only model available to us. The substitution shows that while digraphs have primarily been used for qualitative analysis, they can also be used for quantitative analysis. Based on our assumptions and the particular failure rates assigned to the F18 FCS components, we show that coverage does have a significant effect on the system's reliability and thus it is important to include coverage in the reliability analysis.

  6. Evaluation of cancer detection with whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) and 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoh, Carl K.; Hawkins, Randall A.; Glaspy, John A.; Dahlbom, Magnus; Tse, Nielson Y.; Hoffman, Edward T.; Schiepers, Christiaan; Choi, Yong; Rege, Sheila; Nitzsche, Egbert U.; Maddahi, Jamshid; Phelps, Michael E.

    1993-08-01

    Until recently, positron emission tomography (PET) has been acquired and displayed in a standard transaxial image format. The development of whole body PET has allowed biochemical and physiologic imaging of the entire body, expanding the limited axial field of view of the conventional PET scanner. In this study, the application of whole body PET studies with 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) for tumor imaging was evaluated. Whole body PET studies were positive (presence of focal FDG uptake relative to surrounding tissue activity) in 61 of 70 patients (87%) with biopsy confirmed malignant tumors. PET images failed to reveal focal hypermetabolism in 9 of the 70 patients. Of the 17 patients with benign biopsies lesions, 13 patients had whole body PET studies without focal areas of FDG uptake. Because of the high glycolytic rate of malignant tissue, the whole body PET FDG technique has promise in the detection of a wide variety of both primary and metastatic malignancies. The presence of FDG uptake in benign inflammatory conditions may limit the specificity of the technique. The true positive rates for the characterization of known lesions was 87% in this series, and the PET FDG method is promising both in determining both the nature of a localized lesion, and in defining the systemic extent of malignant disease.

  7. F-18 HARV With Nose Strakes For Forebody Vortex Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    1996-01-01

    Nose of F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) modified with conformal, mechanically actuated nose strakes for enhanced rolling (ANSER). Forebody vortex control effected by use of actuated strakes and/or other flow-control devices. System provides means to evaluate design tradeoffs.

  8. Preparation and biodistribution of F-18 labeled FQNPe

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, H.; Beets, K.; McPherson, D.W.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1996-05-01

    1-Azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-(1-fluoropentan-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetate (FQNPe) is an attractive candidate for the in vivo imaging of muscarinic receptors (mAChR) by PET. Initial studies with this new agent demonstrated a high binding affinity and ability to bind to regions of the brain containing mAChR. Fluorine-18 (F-18) labeling of racemic 1 was performed using X = tosyl, triflate, or mesylate group and a decay corrected radiolabeling yields of 2.6, 33, 75%, respectively, were obtained. F-18-3 in 11 % yield (decay corrected to beginning of synthesis). Initial biodistribution studies in rats (n=5) showed F-18-3 had high cerebral uptake of 0.72 ({plus_minus}0.26) and 0.83 ({plus_minus} 0.12) injected dose/gram at 15 and 30 minutes, respectively. The F-18 labeling and biodistribution study of the (-)-quinuclidinyl (-)-acetate and (-)-quinuclidinyl (+)-acetate isomers of FQNPe are currently being pursued.

  9. Two F-18s in Autonomous Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This 32 second video clip shows two F-18s in NASA's Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) program. The aircraft use smoke contrails to gather data on wingtip vortices. Flight research attempts to utilize the energy in the vortices for more efficient flight.

  10. Bitemporal hypometabolism in Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease measured by positron emission tomography with (F-18)2-fluorodeoxyglucose

    SciTech Connect

    Friedland, R.P.; Budinger, T.F.; Prusiner, S.B.; Jagust, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    It is well established that Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) is caused by a slow infectious agent similar to the scrapie prion. However, the pathogenesis of this infection is poorly understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed on a 54 year old male subject with autopsy confirmed CJD using (F-18)2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and the Donner 280-crystal tomograph. An x-ray computed tomographic study of the brain performed 4 days prior to PET was normal. In the PET study the frontal to temporal cortex difference of activity densities was 30% on the left and 12% on the right, reflecting temporal hypometabolism. The left-right temporal cortex difference of activity density was 25%, documenting marked hemispheric asymmetry. These findings are similar to those previously obtained in PET-FDG studies of patients with clinically defined Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and are distinctly different from PET-FDG finding in patients with other dementing illnesses or in healthy aged subjects. Recent work has demonstrated extensive biological similarities between CJD, scrapie and AD. The similarities in the regional metabolic alterations between CJD and AD provide additional evidence for the hypothesis that AD is caused by a slow infectious (prion-like) pathogen.

  11. Synthesis of F-18 labeled resazurin by direct electrophilic fluorination

    PubMed Central

    Kachur, Alexander V.; Arroyo, Alejandro D.; Popov, Anatoliy V.; Saylor, Sarah J.; Delikatny, E. James

    2015-01-01

    We present the synthesis and characterization of F18-labeled fluorinated derivatives of resazurin, a probe for cell viability. The compounds were prepared by direct fluorination of resazurin with diluted [F18]-F2 gas under acidic conditions. The fluorination occurs into the ortho-positions to the hydroxyl group producing various mono-, di-, and trifluorinated derivatives. The properties of the fluorinated resazurins are similar to the parent compound with the addition of fluorine leading to decreased pKa values and a bathochromic shift of the absorption maxima. The fluorinated resazurin derivatives can be used as probes for observation of cell viability in various cells, tissues and organs using a combination of positron emission tomography and direct optical imaging of Cerenkov luminescence. PMID:26504251

  12. F-18 HARV final flight over Edwards AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The final flight for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) took place at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on May 29, 1996 and was flown by NASA pilot Ed Schneider. The highly modified F-18 airplane flew 383 flights over a nine year period and demonstrated concepts that greatly increase fighter maneuverability. Among concepts proven in the aircraft is the use of paddles to direct jet engine exhaust in cases of extreme altitudes where conventional control surfaces lose effectiveness. Another concept, developed by NASA Langley Research Center, is a deployable wing-like surface installed on the nose of the aircraft for increased right and left (yaw) control on nose-high flight angles.

  13. F-18 HARV final flight over Dryden FRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The final flight for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) took place at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on May 29, 1996 and was flown by NASA pilot Ed Schneider. The highly modified F-18 airplane flew 383 flights over a nine year period and demonstrated concepts that greatly increase fighter maneuverability. Among concepts proven in the aircraft is the use of paddles to direct jet engine exhaust in cases of extreme altitudes where conventional control surfaces lose effectiveness. Another concept, developed by NASA Langley Research Center, is a deployable wing-like surface installed on the nose of the aircraft for increased right and left (yaw) control on nose-high flight angles.

  14. F-18 high alpha research vehicle: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.; Regenie, Victoria A.; Flick, Bradley C.

    1994-01-01

    The F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle has proven to be a useful research tool with many unique capabilities. Many of these capabilities are to assist in characterizing flight at high angles of attack, while some provide significant research in their own right. Of these, the thrust vectoring system, the unique ability to rapidly reprogram flight controls, the reprogrammable mission computer, and a reprogrammable onboard excitation system have allowed an increased utility and versatility of the research being conducted. Because of this multifaceted approach to research in the high angle of attack regime, the capabilities of the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle were designed to cover as many high alpha technology bases as the program would allow. These areas include aerodynamics, controls, handling qualities, and propulsion.

  15. F-18 HARV in flight refueling with KC-135 tanker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A thrust vectoring system can be seen mounted on the aft end of this NASA F-18 research aircraft at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, during an inflight refueling stop with a KC-135A (Serial #55-3135) tanker. The system was used to enhance its maneuverability and control at high angles of attack (high alpha) when conventional aerodynamic controls - ailerons, rudders, and elevators - are ineffective. The system features three spoon-shaped paddles mounted around the exhaust nozzles of each engine. The system, linked to the aircraft's flight control system, moves the paddles into the exhaust flow to redirect thrust for directional control and increased maneuverability at angles of attack near 70 degrees. First research flights with the system operating began during the spring of 1991. Data from the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) program produced information to validate computer codes and wind tunnel results and led to design methods providing better performance in future aircraft.

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for F-18 (Fluorine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope F-18 (Fluorine, atomic number Z = 9, mass number A = 18).

  17. Flagella from F18+Escherichia coli play a role in adhesion to pig epithelial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Duan, Qiangde; Zhou, Mingxu; Zhu, Xiaofang; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Jun; Bao, Wenbin; Wu, Shenglong; Ruan, Xiaosai; Zhang, Weiping; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2013-02-01

    F18 fimbriae and toxins produced by F18 fimbriae-carrying Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains are known virulence factors responsible for post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) and edema disease (ED). In this study, we showed that fliC isogenic mutants constructed in two reference wild-type F18 fimbriae (F18+) E. coli were markedly impaired in adherence in vitro cell models (p < 0.05). Flagella purified from F18+E. coli could directly bind to cultured piglet epithelial cells and block adherence of F18+E. coli to cells when pre-incubated. In addition, the F18+E. coli fliC deletion mutants up-regulated the expression of type I fimbriae produced by F18+E. coli strains. These results demonstrated that expression of flagella is essential for the adherence of F18+E. coli in vitro.

  18. Functional neuroimaging in epilepsy: FDG PET and ictal SPECT.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, D. S.; Lee, S. K.; Lee, M. C.

    2001-01-01

    Epileptogenic zones can be localized by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) and ictal single-photon emission computed tomography(SPECT). In medial temporal lobe epilepsy, the diagnostic sensitivity of FDG PET or ictal SPECT is excellent, however, the sensitivity of MRI is so high that the incremental sensitivity by FDG PET or ictal SPECT has yet to be proven. When MRI findings are ambiguous or normal, or discordant with those of ictal EEG, FDG PET and ictal SPECT are helpful for localization without the need for invasive ictal EEG. In neocortical epilepsy, the sensitivities of FDG PET or ictal SPECT are fair. However, because almost a half of the patients are normal on MRI, FDG PET and ictal SPECT are helpful for localization or at least for lateralization in these non-lesional epilepsies in order to guide the subdural insertion of electrodes. Interpretation of FDG PET has been recently advanced by voxel-based analysis and automatic volume of interest analysis based on a population template. Both analytical methods confirmed the performance of previous visual interpretation results. Ictal SPECT was analyzed using subtraction methods(coregistered to MRI) and voxel-based analysis. Rapidity of injection of tracers, HMPAO versus ECD, and repeated ictal SPECT, which remain the technical issues of ictal SPECT, are detailed. PMID:11748346

  19. [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for targeting radiation dose escalation for patients with glioblastoma multiforme: Clinical outcomes and patterns of failure

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, James G. . E-mail: drjay@u.washington.edu; Stelzer, Keith J.; Mankoff, David A.; Tralins, Kevin S.; Krohn, Kenneth A.; Muzi, Mark; Silbergeld, Daniel L.; Rostomily, Robert C.; Scharnhorst, Jeffrey B.S.; Spence, Alexander M.

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging for brain tumors has been shown to identify areas of active disease. Radiation dose escalation in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme may lead to improved disease control. Based on these premises, we initiated a prospective study of FDG-PET for the treatment planning of radiation dose escalation for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. Methods and Materials: Forty patients were enrolled. Patients were treated with standard conformal fractionated radiotherapy with volumes defined by MRI imaging. When patients reached a dose of 45-50.4 Gy, they underwent FDG-PET imaging for boost target delineation, for an additional 20 Gy (2 Gy per fraction) to a total dose of 79.4 Gy (n = 30). Results: The estimated 1-year and 2-year overall survival (OS) for the entire group was 70% and 17%, respectively, with a median overall survival of 70 weeks. The estimated 1-year and 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 18% and 3%, respectively, with a median of 24 weeks. No significant improvements in OS or PFS were observed for the study group in comparison to institutional historical controls. Conclusions: Radiation dose escalation to 79.4 Gy based on FDG-PET imaging demonstrated no improvement in OS or PFS. This study establishes the feasibility of integrating PET metabolic imaging into radiotherapy treatment planning.

  20. F-18 HARV in flight with actuated nose strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's F-18 from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, soars over the Mojave Desert while flying the third and final phase of the HARV (High Alpha Research Vehicle) program. A set of control surfaces called strakes were installed in the nose of the aircraft. The strakes, outlined in gold and white, provided improved yaw control at steep angles of attack. Normally folded flush, the units -- four feet long and six inches wide -- can be opened independently to interact with the nose vortices to produce large side forces for control. Testing involved evaluation of the strakes by themselves as well as combined with the aircraft's Thrust Vectoring System. The strakes were designed by NASA's Langley Research Center, then installed and flight tested at Dryden.

  1. F-18 HARV in flight with actuated nose strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's F-18 from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, soars over the Mojave Desert while flying the current phase of the HARV (High Alpha Research Vehicle) program. A set of control surfaces called strakes were installed in the nose of the aircraft. The strakes, outlined in gold and white, provided improved yaw control at steep angles of attack. Normally folded flush, the units -- four feet long and six inches wide -- can be opened independently to interact with the nose vortices to produce large side forces for control. Testing involved evaluation of the strakes by themselves as well as combined with the aircraft's Thrust Vectoring System. The strakes were designed by NASA's Langley Research Center, then installed and flight tested at Dryden.

  2. Performance of an Electro-Hydrostatic Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    1997-01-01

    An electro-hydrostatic actuator was evaluated at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The primary goal of testing this actuator system was the flight demonstration of power-by-wire technology on a primary flight control surface. The electro-hydrostatic actuator uses an electric motor to drive a hydraulic pump and relies on local hydraulics for force transmission. This actuator replaced the F-18 standard left aileron actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft and was evaluated throughout the Systems Research Aircraft flight envelope. As of July 24, 1997 the electro-hydrostatic actuator had accumulated 23.5 hours of flight time. This paper presents the electro-hydrostatic actuator system configuration and component description, ground and flight test plans, ground and flight test results, and lessons learned. This actuator performs as well as the standard actuator and has more load capability than required by aileron actuator specifications of McDonnell- Douglas Aircraft, St. Louis, Missouri. The electro-hydrostatic actuator system passed all of its ground tests with the exception of one power-off test during unloaded dynamic cycling.

  3. FDG uptake in cervical facet subchondral cysts demonstrated by PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Lin, Eugene; Sicuro, Paul

    2008-04-01

    F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in facet joints related to degenerative disease has been previously described. However, FDG uptake in subchondral cysts is the subject of this report. We describe 2 cases of intense focal FDG uptake in subchondral cysts in the cervical facets seen on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) exams. The location of these cysts immediately adjacent to the facet joints and the presence of associated facet joint degenerative changes are helpful in distinguishing this uptake from metastatic disease or other bone lesions.

  4. F-18 SRA in banked flight over lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's F/A-18 Hornet is seen here in a banked turn over Rogers Dry Lake in the Mojave desert on an early research flight. Currently being flown by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in a multi-year, joint NASA/DOD/industry program, the former Navy fighter has been modified into a unique Systems Research Aircraft (SRA) to investigate a host of new technologies in the areas of flight controls, airdata sensing and advanced computing. One of the more than 20 experiments being tested aboard the SRA F-18 is an advanced air data sensing system which uses a group of pressure taps flush-mounted on the forward fuselage to measure both altitude and wind speed and direction--critical data for flight control and research investigations. The Real-Time Flush Air Data Sensing system concept is being evaluated for possible use on the X-33 and X-34 resuable space-launch vehicles. The primary goal of the SRA program is to validate through flight research cutting-edge technologies which could benefit future aircraft and spacecraft by improving efficiency and performance, reducing weight and complexity, with a resultant reduction on development and operational costs.

  5. F-18 production with the TOP linac injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cianfarani, Cesidio; Cisbani, Evaristo; Orlandi, Gianluca; Frullani, Salvatore; Picardi, Luigi; Ronsivalle, Concetta

    2006-06-01

    ENEA and ISS (Italian National Institute of Health), are collaborating to develop a dedicated proton medical accelerator, TOP (Oncological Therapy with Protons) linac, consisting of a sequence of three pulsed linear accelerators. The 7 MeV injector can be used in three operating modes: Protontherapy and Radiobiology Mode—injecting low current proton beam into the TOP linac accelerating sections; Radioisotope Mode—generating an intense proton beam (8-10 mA, 50-100 μs, 30-100 Hz) to produce the positron-emitting radionuclide F18 for PET analyses. In the high current mode, at the exit of the injector the beam is guided through a magnetic quadrupoles channel to a target composed by a thin chamber (0.5 mm thick and 1 in. diameter) containing water enriched with O18. Production yield as well as total activity similar to these achieved with higher energy cyclotrons have been obtained. Environmental doses measured give indications on the shielding required for operation under current radioprotection regulations. Improvements are foreseen to optimize the production yield, the useful beam current and to better characterize gamma and neutron dose rates in the different operational modes.

  6. FDG PET/CT findings of common bile duct tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Aisheng; Wang, Yang; Gong, Jing; Zuo, Changjing

    2014-01-01

    Common bile duct (CBD) tuberculosis is rare. A 39-year-old woman was referred because of a 5-month history of abdominal pain. Abdominal enhanced MRI and CT showed dilatation of the distal CBD with irregularly thickened wall. Enhanced CT revealed enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes. FDG PET/CT showed increased FDG uptake of the CBD lesion and several retroperitoneal lymph nodes with slight FDG uptake. CBD cholangiocarcinoma with retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis was suspected. CBD tuberculosis was confirmed by endoluminal biopsy. Tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abnormal biliary FDG accumulation, particularly in tuberculosis endemic areas.

  7. F-15B and F-18 SRA in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA's F-15B (upper right), later used for aerodynaic flight research, is seen here with the F/A-18B Systems Research Aircraft, on a flight from the Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California. Currently being flown by Dryden in a multi-year, joint NASA/DOD/industry program, the F/A-18B has been modified into a unique Systems Research Aircraft (SRA) to investigate a host of new technologies in the areas of flight controls, airdata sensing and advanced computing. One of the more than 20 experiments being tested aboard the SRA F-18 is an advanced air data sensing system which uses a group of pressure taps flush-mounted on the forward fuselage to measure both altitude and wind speed and direction--critical data for flight control and research investigations. The Real-Time Flush Air Data Sensing system concept is being evaluated for possible use on the X-33 and X-34 resuable space-launch vehicles. The primary goal of the SRA program is to validate through flight research cutting-edge technologies which could benefit future aircraft and spacecraft by improving effeciency and performance, reducing weight and complexity, with a resultant reduction on development and operational costs. NASA's F-15B aircraft is being used by Dryden as an aerospace research aircraft. Certain experiments can be placed on the Flight Test Fixture, which is mounted under the fuselage. The research projects can then be subjected to different aerodynamic loads, speeds and temperatures. The F-15B, No. 836, was acquired in 1993 and is also used at Dryden as a research support aircraft.

  8. Accumulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenwick, J. R.; Karigan, G. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An accumulator particularly adapted for use in controlling the pressure of a stream of fluid in its liquid phase utilizing the fluid in its gaseous phase was designed. The accumulator is characterized by a shell defining a pressure chamber having an entry throat for a liquid and adapted to be connected in contiguous relation with a selected conduit having a stream of fluid flowing through the conduit in its liquid phase. A pressure and volume stabilization tube, including an array of pressure relief perforations is projected into the chamber with the perforations disposed adjacent to the entry throat for accommodating a discharge of the fluid in either gaseous or liquid phases, while a gas inlet and liquid to gas conversion system is provided, the chamber is connected with a source of the fluid for continuously pressuring the chamber for controlling the pressure of the stream of liquid.

  9. Defining PET / CT Protocols With Optimized F18-FDG (Fluorodeoxyglucose) Dose, Focusing on Reduced Radiation Dose and Improved Image Quality

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-19

    Malignant Neoplasm of Breast.; Hodgkin's Disease.; Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Follicular (Nodular).; Malignant Neoplasm of Bronchus and Lung.; Malignant Neoplasm of Colon.; Secondary Neoplasm Malignant and Unspecified Lymph Nodes.; Malignant Melanoma of the Skin.; Malignant Neoplasm of Small Intestine.

  10. Radiosynthesis of F-18-3-acetylcyclofoxy: A high affinity opiate antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Channing, M.A.; Eckelman, W.C.; Bennett, J.M.; Burke, T.R. Jr.; Rice, K.C.; Larson, S.M.

    1985-05-01

    A convenient method for the preparation of F-18-3-acetylcyclofoxy (3-acetyl-6-deoxy-6-beta-F-18-fluoronaltrexone was developed. The method uses reactor-produced F-18-fluoride as its tetraethylammonium salt. F-18 fluoride is produced at the National Bureau of Standards nuclear reactor by the Li-6(n,..cap alpha..)H-3, 0-16(H-3,n) F-18 nuclear reaction. A sealed quartz tube containing enriched lithium carbonate (0.4 g) was irradiated in a neutron flux of 1.1 x 10/sup 14/ n/cm/sup 2//s for 2h to produce 80 mCi. The lithium is removed by cation exchange resin. The fluoride is then adsorbed on a strong anion exchange column which is rinsed to remove H-3 and any remaining cations. The F-18 is then eluted with tetraethylammonium hydroxide to produce tetraethylammonium fluoride (TEAF). The triflate of 3-acetyl-6-alpha-naltrexol, synthesized by reaction of the alcohol with trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride was added in anhydrous acetonitrile to the dry F-18 TEAF containing 0.2 ..mu..mol F-19 TEAF. The mixture was refluxed for 15 minutes after which the product was purified by reversed phase chromatography. F-18-acetylcyclofoxy was prepared in 35% radiochemical yield. About 55% of the F-18 was lost by decay (36%) and by incomplete transfer (19%). The specific activity of the final product was approximately 50 Ci/mmol but the effective specific activity was approximately 25 Ci/mmol. Visualization of the basal ganglia in baboons was possible using PET. F-18 3-acetylcyclofoxy is the first positron-emitting opiate for which the active and inactive forms of naloxone were used to unequivocially demonstrate stereospecific displacement from opiate receptor-rich regions.

  11. Active transport of C-11-Methyl-D-Glucose and 3-F-18-Deoxyglucose in acute ischemic brain disease and Huntington's chorea, studied by positron-emission-tomography (PET)

    SciTech Connect

    Vyska, K.; Magloire, R.; Schuier, F.; Machulla, H.J.; Knust, E.J.; Lange, W.; Becker, V.; Spohr, G.; Notohamiprodjo, G.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    C-11-Methyl-D-Glucose (CMG) and 3-F-18-Deoxyglucose (3FDG) were demonstrated to be non-metabolizable glucose analogues which are transported across the blood-brain-barrier into and out of tissue via the glucose carrier system (GCS). These two substances were used as indicators for determining the perfusion-independent rate constant of GCS in the brain. Five normals with informed consent, 12 patients with acute ischemic brain disease and 9 patients with initial and advanced Huntington's chorea were examined by PET after i.v. application of 5 mCi of GMG or 3FDG. In each patient 30 transaxial images were registered in 1 selected plane, image collection time being 1 min. Time-activity curves were created from different regions of interest. The slope to tracer steady state between tissue and blood yields the perfusion-independent rate constant of GCS from tissue to blood (k/sub 2/). In normals k/sub 2/ for CMG was 0.235 +- 0.03/min, as expected, and for 3FDG 0.47 +- 0.07/min indicating a higher affinity to GCS for 3FDG than CMG. In acute ischemic brain disease k/sub 2/ was normal or reduced at the site of insult for both CMG and 3FDG. In Huntington's chorea, k/sub 2/ was reduced in the basal ganglia but normal or occasionally significantly increased in frontal or occipital cortical areas, for CMG and 3FDG. The authors conclude that CMG permits noninvasive analysis of the perfusion-independent rate constant of CCS. 3FDG shows a higher affinity for CCS than CMC but gives comparable information.

  12. Development of [F-18]-Labeled Amyloid Imaging Agents for PET

    SciTech Connect

    Mathis, CA

    2007-05-09

    The applicant proposes to design and synthesize a series of fluorine-18-labeled radiopharmaceuticals to be used as amyloid imaging agents for positron emission tomography (PET). The investigators will conduct comprehensive iterative in vitro and in vivo studies based upon well defined acceptance criteria in order to identify lead agents suitable for human studies. The long term goals are to apply the selected radiotracers as potential diagnostic agents of Alzheimer's disease (AD), as surrogate markers of amyloid in the brain to determine the efficacy of anti-amyloid therapeutic drugs, and as tools to help address basic scientific questions regarding the progression of the neuropathology of AD, such as testing the "amyloid cascade hypothesis" which holds that amyloid accumulation is the primary cause of AD.

  13. [F-18]FDDNP microPET imaging correlates with brain Aβ burden in a transgenic rat model of Alzheimer disease: effects of aging, in vivo blockade, and anti-Aβ antibody treatment.

    PubMed

    Teng, Edmond; Kepe, Vladimir; Frautschy, Sally A; Liu, Jie; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Yang, Fusheng; Chen, Ping-Ping; Cole, Graham B; Jones, Mychica R; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Flood, Dorothy G; Trusko, Stephen P; Small, Gary W; Cole, Gregory M; Barrio, Jorge R

    2011-09-01

    In vivo detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology in living patients using positron emission tomography (PET) in conjunction with high affinity molecular imaging probes for β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau has the potential to assist with early diagnosis, evaluation of disease progression, and assessment of therapeutic interventions. Animal models of AD are valuable for exploring the in vivo binding of these probes, particularly their selectivity for specific neuropathologies, but prior PET experiments in transgenic mice have yielded conflicting results. In this work, we utilized microPET imaging in a transgenic rat model of brain Aβ deposition to assess [F-18]FDDNP binding profiles in relation to age-associated accumulation of neuropathology. Cross-sectional and longitudinal imaging demonstrated that [F-18]FDDNP binding in the hippocampus and frontal cortex progressively increases from 9 to 18months of age and parallels age-associated Aβ accumulation. Specificity of in vivo [F-18]FDDNP binding was assessed by naproxen pretreatment, which reversibly blocked [F-18]FDDNP binding to Aβ aggregrates. Both [F-18]FDDNP microPET imaging and neuropathological analyses revealed decreased Aβ burden after intracranial anti-Aβ antibody administration. The combination of this non-invasive imaging method and robust animal model of brain Aβ accumulation allows for future longitudinal in vivo assessments of potential therapeutics for AD that target Aβ production, aggregation, and/or clearance. These results corroborate previous analyses of [F-18]FDDNP PET imaging in clinical populations.

  14. Numerical simulation of the flow about the F-18 HARV at high angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murman, Scott M.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes research done over the past two years as part of NASA Grant NCC 2-729. This research has been aimed at validating numerical methods for computing the flow about the complete F-18 HARV at alpha = 30 deg and alpha = 45 deg. At 30 deg angle of attack, the flow about the F-18 is dominated by the formation, and subsequent breakdown, of strong vortices over the wing leading-edge extensions (LEX). As the angle of attack is increased to alpha = 45 deg, the fuselage forebody of the F-18 contains significant laminar and transitional regions which are not present at alpha = 30 deg. Further, the flow over the LEX at alpha = 45 deg is dominated by an unsteady shedding in time, rather than strong coherent vortices. This complex physics, combined with the complex geometry of a full aircraft configuration, provides a challenge for current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. The following sections present the numerical method and grid generation scheme that was used, a review of prior research done to numerically model the F-18 HARV, and a discussion of the current research. The current research is broken into two main topics: the effect of engine-inlet mass-flow rate on the F-18 vortex breakdown position, and the results using a refined F-18 computational model to compute the flow at alpha = 30 deg and alpha = 45 deg.

  15. Numerical simulation of the flow about the F-18 HARV at high angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murman, Scott M.

    1995-01-01

    This research has been aimed at validating numerical methods for computing the flow about the complete F-18 HARV at alpha = 30 deg and alpha = 45 deg. At 30 deg angle of attack, the flow about the F-18 is dominated by the formation, and subsequent breakdown, of strong vortices over the wing leading-edge extensions (LEX). As the angle of attack is increased to alpha = 45 deg, the fuselage forebody of the F-18 contains significant laminar and transitional regions which are not present at alpha = 30 deg. Further, the flow over the LEX at alpha = 45 deg is dominated by an unsteady shedding in time, rather than strong coherent vortices. This complex physics, combined with the complex geometry of a full-aircraft configuration, provides a challenge for current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. The following sections present the numerical method and grid generation scheme that was used, a review of prior research done to numerically model the F-18 HARV, and a discussion of the current research. The current research is broken into three main topics; the effect of engine-inlet mass-flow rate on the F-18 vortex breakdown position, the results using a refined F-18 computational model to compute the flow at alpha = 30 deg and alpha = 45 deg, and research done using the simplified geometry of an ogive-cylinder configuration to investigate the physics of unsteady shear-layer shedding. The last section briefly summarizes the discussion.

  16. Metabolism of human gliomas: Assessment with H-1 MR spectroscopy and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET

    SciTech Connect

    Alger, J.R.; Frank, J.A.; Bizzi, A.; Fulham, M.J.; DeSouza, B.X.; Duhaney, M.O.; Inscoe, S.W.; Black, J.L.; van Zijl, P.C.; Moonen, C.T. , Bethesda, MD )

    1990-12-01

    Localized hydrogen-1 magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) were employed to obtain metabolic information from intracranial gliomas. Advantages and difficulties associated with comparison of results from the two modalities were realized. Forty patients were studied with H-1 MR spectroscopy. MR signal intensities from lactate, N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline, and creatine from a volume of interest containing the tumor and a contralateral volume were obtained and evaluated. NAA signal intensities were generally decreased in the tumor spectra, and choline signal intensities were elevated. H-1 MR spectroscopy was unsuccessful in eight patients, and FDG PET scans were not obtained in four of the patients with successful MR spectroscopic examinations. Lactate signal intensity was detected in 10 of the 28 patients who had successful H-1 MR spectroscopic and FDG PET studies. Lactate signal intensities were observed in lesions shown at FDG PET to be hypermetabolic, as well as in lesions found to be hypometabolic.

  17. Expression of key glycosphingolipid biosynthesis-globo series pathway genes in Escherichia coli F18-resistant and Escherichia coli F18-sensitive piglets.

    PubMed

    Dong, W H; Dai, C H; Sun, L; Wang, J; Sun, S Y; Zhu, G Q; Wu, S L; Bao, W B

    2016-08-01

    A pioneering study showed that the glycosphingolipid biosynthesis-globo series pathway genes (FUT1, FUT2, ST3GAL1, HEXA, HEXB, B3GALNT1 and NAGA) may play an important regulatory role in resistance to Escherichia coli F18 in piglets. Therefore, we analysed differential gene expression in 11 tissues of two populations of piglets sensitive and resistant respectively to E. coli F18 and the correlation of differential gene expression in duodenal and jejunal tissues. We found that the mRNA expression of the seven genes was relatively high in spleen, liver, lung, kidney, stomach and intestinal tract; the levels in thymus and lymph nodes were lower, with the lowest levels in heart and muscle. FUT2 gene expression in the duodenum and jejunum of the resistant population was significantly lower than that in the sensitive group (P < 0.01). ST3GAL1 gene expression was also significantly lower in the duodenum of the resistant population than in the sensitive group (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed among the remaining genes. The expression level of FUT1 was extremely significantly positively correlated with FUT2 and B3GALNT1 expression (P < 0.01) and also had a significant positive correlation with NAGA expression (P < 0.05). The expression level of FUT2 had extremely significant positive correlations with FUT1, ST3GAL1 and B3GALNT1 (P < 0.01). These results suggest that FUT2 plays an important role in E. coli F18 resistance in piglets. FUT1, ST3GAL1, B3GALNT1 and NAGA may also participate in the mechanism of resistance to E. coli F18.

  18. Effectiveness of F18+ Fimbrial Antigens Released by a Novel Autolyzed Salmonella Expression System as a Vaccine Candidate against Lethal F18+ STEC Infection

    PubMed Central

    Won, Gayeon; Lee, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Porcine edema disease (ED) caused by Shiga toxin 2e producing Escherichia coli expressing F18ab+ fimbriae (F18ab+STEC) frequently occurs in post-weaned piglets, resulting in a significant economic loss in swine industries worldwide. In the present study, we proposed an efficient prevention scheme against ED in which the attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium inactivated by the E-mediated cell lysis to deliver target antigens, FedF and FedA, which function in fimbrial-mediated adhesion and as a major subunit of F18ab+fimbriae, respectively. The co-expression of FedA and FedF protein with outer membrane protein A signal peptide was confirmed in the resultant strains JOL1460 and JOL1464 by immunoblot analysis. Immunization with the candidate strains in mice led to the significant generation of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, specific to both antigens and secretory IgA specific to FedF (P < 0.05). The titers of IgG isotypes, IgG1 and IgG2a, used as markers for T-helpers (Th)-2 and Th-1lymphocytes, respectively, also significantly increased in the immunized group (P < 0.05). The increase in CD3+CD4+ T lymphocyte subpopulation and in vitro proliferative activity was observed in in vivo stimulated splenocytes, which indicated the immunostimulatory effect of the candidate strains. Moreover, the immunized mice were completely protected from a lethal challenge against wild-type F18+STEC whereas 28% of mice died in the non-immunized group. This study demonstrated that the inactivated Salmonella system could efficiently release FedF and FedA and induce robust immune responses specific to the target antigens, which is sufficient to protect the mice from the lethal challenge. PMID:27920758

  19. [Cloning and expression of F18 fimbrial operon gene clusters from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and their bioactivity].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Jun; Zhu, Guo-Qiang

    2007-10-01

    The fed operon gene clusters with each size of 5.6kb, encoding the F18ab or F18ac fimbriae, was amplified respectively by high fidelity PCR using the genomic DNA templates from F18 fimbriae E. coli strains 107/86 or 2134P. The PCR products with the restriction enzyme sites at each end were digested and then cloned into the vector pET-22b (+), the recombinant plamids with the inserts of both type of fed gene clusters were constructed and screened, further confirmed by the means of combination with restriction endonuclease analysis and sequencing. The both types of fimbriae F18ab and F18ac were expressed efficiently in the E. coli BL21 (DE3) after proper concentration of IPTG induction. Expressed fimbriae were revealed and confirmed by transmissible electromicroscope observation. The both fimbriae F18ab and F18ac were isolated and purified from the recombinant E. coli, and only a single major band of protein with size of approximately 15kDa was visualized in Coomassie blue-stained gels after SDS-PAGE. The rabbits sera with high titer of anti-F18 fimbriae were detected after being immunized with the purified F18ab or F18ac fimbriae. The results of combination of agglutination assay with Western blotting showed that the sera directed against both fimbriae F18ab and F18ac reacted positively with the F18 fimbriae from both wild E. coli 107/86 and 2134P. Small intestine epithelial cells with F18 fimbriae receptors, which were from post-weaning piglets with the genotypes of FUT1 gene both M307(GG) and M307(AG), were prepared and tested for the adherence of E. coli expressing F18 fimbriae under the microscopic examination. Adhesion and adhesion inhibition test showed both of the recombinant E. coli expressing F18ab or F18ac fimbriae respectively could adhere to the jejunal epithelial cells in vitro as E. coli 107/86 and 2134p did. The both of anti-sera directed against fimbriae F18ab or F18ac respectively can efficiently inhibit the fimbriae-mediated post-weaning piglet

  20. STM study of C60F18 high dipole moment molecules on Au(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairagi, K.; Bellec, A.; Chumakov, R. G.; Menshikov, K. A.; Lagoute, J.; Chacon, C.; Girard, Y.; Rousset, S.; Repain, V.; Lebedev, A. M.; Sukhanov, L. P.; Svechnikov, N. Yu.; Stankevich, V. G.

    2015-11-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy studies of C60F18 molecules deposited on Au(111) are reported and compared to C60 molecules both at liquid helium temperature and room temperature (RT). Whereas adsorption and electronic properties of C60F18 single molecules were studied at low temperature (LT), self-assemblies were investigated at RT. In both cases, the fluorine atoms of the C60F18 molecules are pointed towards the surface. Individual C60F18 molecules on Au(111) have a HOMO-LUMO gap of 2.9 eV. The self-assembled islands exhibit a close-packed hexagonal lattice with amorphous borders. The comparison with C60 molecules clearly demonstrates the influence of the C60F18 electric dipole moment (EDM) on the electronic properties of single molecules and on the thermodynamics of self-assembled islands. Besides, the apparent height value of a separate molecule increases in a self-assembly environment as a result of a depolarization phenomenon.

  1. Ground-Recorded Sonic Boom Signatures of F-18 Aircraft in Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahm, Catherine M.; Haering, Edward A., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Two F-18 aircraft were flown, one above the other, in two formations, in order for the shock systems of the two aircraft to merge and propagate to the ground. The first formation had the canopy of the lower F-18 in the tail shock of the upper F-18 (called tail-canopy). The second formation had the canopy of the lower F- 18 in the inlet shock of the upper F-18 (called inlet-canopy). The flight conditions were Mach 1.22 and an altitude of 23,500 ft . An array of five sonic boom recorders was used on the ground to record the sonic boom signatures. This paper describes the flight test technique and the ground level sonic boom signatures. The tail-canopy formation resulted in two, separated, N-wave signatures. Such signatures probably resulted from aircraft positioning error. The inlet-canopy formation yielded a single modified signature; two recorders measured an approximate flattop signature. Loudness calculations indicated that the single inlet-canopy signatures were quieter than the two, separated tail-canopy signatures. Significant loudness occurs after a sonic boom signature. Such loudness probably comes from the aircraft engines.

  2. Results From F-18B Stability and Control Parameter Estimation Flight Tests at High Dynamic Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moes, Timothy R.; Noffz, Gregory K.; Iliff, Kenneth W.

    2000-01-01

    A maximum-likelihood output-error parameter estimation technique has been used to obtain stability and control derivatives for the NASA F-18B Systems Research Aircraft. This work has been performed to support flight testing of the active aeroelastic wing (AAW) F-18A project. The goal of this research is to obtain baseline F-18 stability and control derivatives that will form the foundation of the aerodynamic model for the AAW aircraft configuration. Flight data have been obtained at Mach numbers between 0.85 and 1.30 and at dynamic pressures ranging between 600 and 1500 lbf/sq ft. At each test condition, longitudinal and lateral-directional doublets have been performed using an automated onboard excitation system. The doublet maneuver consists of a series of single-surface inputs so that individual control-surface motions cannot be correlated with other control-surface motions. Flight test results have shown that several stability and control derivatives are significantly different than prescribed by the F-18B aerodynamic model. This report defines the parameter estimation technique used, presents stability and control derivative results, compares the results with predictions based on the current F-18B aerodynamic model, and shows improvements to the nonlinear simulation using updated derivatives from this research.

  3. F-18 SRA closeup of nose cap showing Advanced L-Probe Air Data Integration experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This L-shaped probe mounted on the forward fuselage of a modified F-18 Systems Research Aircraft was the focus of an air data collection experiment flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Advanced L-Probe Air Data Integration (ALADIN) experiment focused on providing pilots with angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip information as well as traditional airspeed and altitude data from a single system. For the experiment, the probes--one mounted on either side of the F-18's forward fuselage--were hooked to a series of four transducers, which relayed pressure measurements to an on-board research computer.

  4. The poststall nonlinear dynamics and control of an F-18: A preliminary investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patten, William N.

    1988-01-01

    The successful high angle of attack (HAOA) operation of fighter aircraft will necessarily require the introduction of a new onboard control methodology that address the nonlinearity of the system when flown at the stall/poststall limits of the craft's flight envelope. As a precursor to this task, a researcher endeavored to familarize himself with the dynamics of one specific aircraft, the F-18, when it is flown at HAOA. This was accomplished by conducting a number of real time flight sorties using the NASA-Langley Research Center's F-18 simulator, which was operated with a pilot in the loop. In addition to developing a first hand familarity with the aircraft's dynamic characteristic at HAOA, work was also performed to identify the input/output operational footprint of the F-18's control surfaces. This investigator proposes to employ the nonlinear models of the plant identified this summer in a subsequent research effort that will make it possible to fly the F-18 effectively at poststall angles of attack. The controller design used there will rely on a new technique proposed by this investigator that provides for the automatic generation of online optimal control solutions for nonlinear dynamic systems.

  5. Measurement of Radiative Proton Capture on F18 and Implications for Oxygen-Neon Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akers, C.; Laird, A. M.; Fulton, B. R.; Ruiz, C.; Bardayan, D. W.; Buchmann, L.; Christian, G.; Davids, B.; Erikson, L.; Fallis, J.; Hager, U.; Hutcheon, D.; Martin, L.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nelson, K.; Spyrou, A.; Stanford, C.; Ottewell, D.; Rojas, A.

    2013-06-01

    The rate of the F18(p,γ)Ne19 reaction affects the final abundance of the γ-ray observable radioisotope F18, produced in novae. However, no successful measurement of this reaction exists and the rate used is calculated from incomplete information on the contributing resonances. Of the two resonances thought to play a significant role, one has a radiative width estimated from the assumed analogue state in the mirror nucleus, F19. The second does not have an analogue state assignment at all, resulting in an arbitrary radiative width being assumed. Here, we report the first successful direct measurement of the F18(p,γ)Ne19 reaction. The strength of the 665 keV resonance (Ex=7.076MeV) is found to be over an order of magnitude weaker than currently assumed in nova models. Reaction rate calculations show that this resonance therefore plays no significant role in the destruction of F18 at any astrophysical energy.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Bacteriophage f18SE, Isolated in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Segovia, Cristopher; Vasquez, Ignacio; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Robeson, James

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophage f18SE was isolated from poultry sewage in Olmue, Chile, and lytic activity was demonstrated against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and serovar Pullorum strains. This bacteriophage has a 41,868-bp double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) genome encoding 53 coding sequences (CDSs) and belongs to the family Siphoviridae, subfamily Jerseyvirinae. PMID:26450716

  7. Targeting Pod Effects on Weapons Release from F-18C Hornet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    70 L I S T O F T A B L E S Table 1. Number of surface patches used on models ...from the F-18C Hornet 6. AUTHOR( S ) - Godiksen III, William H. 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ...AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10

  8. Structural loads testing on the Active Aeroelastic Wing F-18 in the Flight Loads Laboratory at NASA'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Structural loads testing on the Active Aeroelastic Wing F-18 in the Flight Loads Laboratory at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The heavily modified and instrumented F-18A entered the Loads Lab in mid-March, 2001, for fit checks of loads hardware and instrumentation checkout prior to initiation of actual structural loads testing. The F-18A underwent loads testing on its modified wings for almost six months, followed by extensive systems tests and simulation before flight tests began.

  9. F-18 SRA closeup of nose cap showing new flush air data system sensor holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The small numbers on the nose of this F-18 aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, show the locations of 11 tiny holes which are an integral part of a new air data system installed on the aircraft. The Real-Time Flush Air Data Sensing system measures the speed and direction of the airflow past the aircraft and its altitude, similar to standard air data systems. It incorporates flush-mounted pressure taps, miniature transducers and an advanced research computer to give pilots more accurate information than standard systems employing external probes can provide. Developed by Dryden researchers in cooperation with Honeywell's Research and Technology Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota, the system was flight tested on Dryden's Systems Research Aircraft (SRA) last year, and is now being used as a precise reference for other air data systems currently being evaluated on the modified F-18.

  10. The measurement and improvement of the lateral agility of the F-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggold, David P.; Valasek, John; Downing, David R.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of vehicle configuration and flight control system performance on the roll agility of a modern fighter aircraft has been investigated. A batch simulation of a generic F-18 Hornet was used to study the roll agility as measured by the time to roll through 90 deg metric. Problems discussed include definition of agility, factors affecting the agility of a vehicle, the development of the time to roll through 90 deg agility metric, and a simulation experiment. It is concluded that the integral of stability or wind axis roll rate should be used as a measure of the roll measure traversed. The time through roll angle 90 deg metric is considered to be a good metric for measuring the transient performance aspect of agility. Roll agility of the F-18, as measured by 90 deg metric, can be improved by 10 to 30 percent. Compatible roll and rudder actuator rates can significantly affect 90 deg agility metric.

  11. F18 EF5 PET/CT Imaging in Patients with Brain Metastases from Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    with Brain Metastases from Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lilie Lin, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Pennsylvania...Annual 3. DATES COVERED 01 July 2012 to 30 June 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE F18 EF5 PET/CT Imaging in Patients with Brain Metastases from Breast 5a...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to estimate the degree of residual hypoxia after whole brain radiation therapy in patients

  12. Validating novel tau PET tracer [F-18]-AV-1451 (T807) on postmortem brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Marquie, Marta; Normandin, Marc D.; Vanderburg, Charles R.; Costantino, Isabel; Bien, Elizabeth A.; Rycyna, Lisa G.; Klunk, William E.; Mathis, Chester A.; Ikonomovic, Milos D.; Debnath, Manik L.; Vasdev, Neil; Dickerson, Bradford C.; Gomperts, Stephen N.; Growdon, John H.; Johnson, Keith A.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Gomez-Isla, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine region and substrate-specific autoradiographic and in vitro binding patterns of PET tracer [F-18]-AV-1451 (previously known as T807), tailored to allow in vivo detection of paired helical filament tau-containing lesions, and to determine whether there is off-target binding to other amyloid/non-amyloid proteins. Methods We applied [F-18]-AV-1451 phosphor screen autoradiography, [F-18]-AV-1451 nuclear emulsion autoradiography and [H-3]-AV-1451 in vitro binding assays to the study of postmortem samples from patients with a definite pathological diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration-tau, frontotemporal lobar degeneration-TDP-43, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, cerebral amyloid angiopathy and elderly controls free of pathology. Results Our data suggest that AV-1451 strongly binds to tau lesions primarily made of paired helical filaments in Alzheimer’s brains e.g. intra and extraneuronal tangles and dystrophic neurites, but does not seem to bind to a significant extent to neuronal and glial inclusions mainly composed of straight tau filaments in non-Alzheimer tauopathy brains or to β-amyloid, α-synuclein or TDP-43-containing lesions. AV-1451 off-target binding to neuromelanin- and melanin-containing cells and, to a lesser extent, to brain hemorrhagic lesions was identified. Interpretation Our data suggest that AV-1451 holds promise as surrogate marker for the detection of brain tau pathology in the form of tangles and paired helical filament-tau-containing neurites in Alzheimer’s brains but also point to its relatively lower affinity for lesions primarily made of straight tau filaments in non-Alzheimer tauopathy cases and to the existence of some AV-1451 off-target binding. These findings provide important insights for interpreting in vivo patterns of [F-18]-AV-1451 retention. PMID:26344059

  13. Pet imaging of human pituitary 5-HT2 receptors with F-18 setoperone

    SciTech Connect

    Fischman, A.J.; Bonab, A.A.; Babich, J.W.

    1995-05-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) receptors play an important role in the regulation of pituitary function. In particular, 5HT agonists stimulate ACTH, {beta}-endorphin, prolactin and growth hormone secretion but inhibit TSH release. 5-HT binding sites have been identified by autoradiographic studies of rat and human pituitary. In the present investigation, we used PET with F-18 setoperone to image 5-HT2 receptors in normal humans. Setoperone, a piperidine derivative with potent 5-HT2 receptor blocking properties was labelled with F-18 by nucleophilic substitution on the nitro derivative. After HPLC purification, specific activity was between 10,000 and 15,000 mCi/{mu} mole and radiochemical purity was >98%. Six healthy male volunteers were injected with 5-7 mCi of F-18. Setoperone and serial PET images and arterial blood samples were collected over 2 hrs. Specific binding to 5-HT2 receptors in the frontal cortex (FC), striatum (ST) and pituitary (P) was quantitated using the cerebellum (C) as reference. The tracer showed clear retention in FC, ST and P (known to contain a high density of 5-HT2 receptors) relative to C (known to be devoid of 5-HT2 receptors). In all subjects, FC/C, ST/C and P/C ratios increased during the first hr. and remained stable thereafter. For FC and ST, the ratios reached similar values; 3.92{plus_minus}0.73 and 3.53{plus_minus}0.32. For pituitary, a significantly higher ratio, was measured at all times; 6.53{plus_minus}1.82 (p<0.01). These results indicate that F-18 setoperone is an effective PET radiopharmaceutical for imaging 5-HT2 receptors in the human pituitary. Future applications of this agent could provide important new insights into neuroendocrine function.

  14. [F-18]-(-,-)-FQNPe - an attractive ligand for evaluation of muscarinic-cholinergic neuron activity by PET

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Beets, A.L.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1997-05-01

    The stereoisomers of 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-{alpha}-(1-fluoropentan-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetate ({open_quotes}FQNPe{close_quotes}) have been resolved. (-,-)- receptors (K{sub i}, nM; ml, 0.3; m2, 0.1). [F-18]-(-,-)-FQNPe demonstrated high cerebral and myocardial uptake in rats in vivo. We now report significant blocking of [F-18]-(-.-)-FQNPe uptake in receptor-rich tissues in rats in vivo after (R)-QNB pretreatment and the absence of any TLC detectable FQNPe metabolites in tissue extracts. Rats were injected with (R)-QNB (3 mg/kg) 1 h prior to [F-18]-FQNPe injection (370-629 KBq). After 1 h, rats were sacrificed and tissues removed and counted. (R)-QNB significantly decreased FQNPe uptake in heart and all receptor-rich regions but not blood (Table; Mean % ID/g, n=5); C, control; Q, (R)-QNB; Hrt, heart; Cer, cerebellum; Pon, pons; Med, medulla; Cor, cortex; Stri, striatum; Hip, hippocampus; Th, thallamus; SuC, superior colliculi; InC, inferior colliculi. Tissues from untreated rats were Folch-extracted and 71-77% of activity was in organic extracts from brain and heart. TLC of organic extracts indicated a single radioactive component with R{sub f} of FQNPe. These combined results demonstrate that [F-18]-(-,-)-FQNPe does not appear to be metabolized in heart and brain, shows good receptor localization and is thus an attractive ligand for evaluation as a potential imaging agent by PET.

  15. Ground-recorded sonic boom signatures of F-18 aircraft formation flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahm, Catherine M.; Haering, Edward A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Two F-18 aircraft were flown, one above the other, in two formations, in order for the shock systems of the two aircraft to merge and propagate to the ground. The first formation had the canopy of the lower F-18 in the inlet shock of the upper F-18 (called inlet-canopy). The flight conditions were Mach 1.22 and an altitude of 23,500 ft. An array of five sonic boom recorders was used on the ground to record the sonic boom signatures. This paper describes the flight test technique and the ground level sonic boom signatures. The tail-canopy formation resulted in two, separated, N-wave signatures. Such signatures probably resulted from aircraft positioning error. The inlet-canopy formation yielded a single modified signature; two recorders measured an approximate flattop signature. Loudness calculations indicated that the single inlet-canopy signatures were quieter than the two, separated tail-canopy signatures. Significant loudness occurs after a sonic boom signature. Such loudness probably comes from the aircraft engines.

  16. In vivo characterization of chronic traumatic encephalopathy using [F-18]FDDNP PET brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Barrio, Jorge R; Small, Gary W; Wong, Koon-Pong; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Liu, Jie; Merrill, David A; Giza, Christopher C; Fitzsimmons, Robert P; Omalu, Bennet; Bailes, Julian; Kepe, Vladimir

    2015-04-21

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is an acquired primary tauopathy with a variety of cognitive, behavioral, and motor symptoms linked to cumulative brain damage sustained from single, episodic, or repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI). No definitive clinical diagnosis for this condition exists. In this work, we used [F-18]FDDNP PET to detect brain patterns of neuropathology distribution in retired professional American football players with suspected CTE (n = 14) and compared results with those of cognitively intact controls (n = 28) and patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD) (n = 24), a disease that has been cognitively associated with CTE. [F-18]FDDNP PET imaging results in the retired players suggested the presence of neuropathological patterns consistent with models of concussion wherein brainstem white matter tracts undergo early axonal damage and cumulative axonal injuries along subcortical, limbic, and cortical brain circuitries supporting mood, emotions, and behavior. This deposition pattern is distinctively different from the progressive pattern of neuropathology [paired helical filament (PHF)-tau and amyloid-β] in AD, which typically begins in the medial temporal lobe progressing along the cortical default mode network, with no or minimal involvement of subcortical structures. This particular [F-18]FDDNP PET imaging pattern in cases of suspected CTE also is primarily consistent with PHF-tau distribution observed at autopsy in subjects with a history of mild TBI and autopsy-confirmed diagnosis of CTE.

  17. In vivo characterization of chronic traumatic encephalopathy using [F-18]FDDNP PET brain imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barrio, Jorge R.; Small, Gary W.; Wong, Koon-Pong; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Liu, Jie; Merrill, David A.; Giza, Christopher C.; Fitzsimmons, Robert P.; Omalu, Bennet; Bailes, Julian; Kepe, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is an acquired primary tauopathy with a variety of cognitive, behavioral, and motor symptoms linked to cumulative brain damage sustained from single, episodic, or repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI). No definitive clinical diagnosis for this condition exists. In this work, we used [F-18]FDDNP PET to detect brain patterns of neuropathology distribution in retired professional American football players with suspected CTE (n = 14) and compared results with those of cognitively intact controls (n = 28) and patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) (n = 24), a disease that has been cognitively associated with CTE. [F-18]FDDNP PET imaging results in the retired players suggested the presence of neuropathological patterns consistent with models of concussion wherein brainstem white matter tracts undergo early axonal damage and cumulative axonal injuries along subcortical, limbic, and cortical brain circuitries supporting mood, emotions, and behavior. This deposition pattern is distinctively different from the progressive pattern of neuropathology [paired helical filament (PHF)-tau and amyloid-β] in AD, which typically begins in the medial temporal lobe progressing along the cortical default mode network, with no or minimal involvement of subcortical structures. This particular [F-18]FDDNP PET imaging pattern in cases of suspected CTE also is primarily consistent with PHF-tau distribution observed at autopsy in subjects with a history of mild TBI and autopsy-confirmed diagnosis of CTE. PMID:25848027

  18. F-18 chase craft with NASA test pilots Schneider and Fulton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ed Schneider, (left), is the project pilot for the F-18 High Angle of Attack program at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. He has been a NASA research pilot at Dryden since 1983. In addition to his assignment with the F-18 High Angle of Attack program, Schneider is a project pilot for the F-15B aeronautical research aircraft, the NASA NB-52B launch aircraft, and the SR-71 'Blackbird' aircraft. He is a Fellow and was the 1994 President of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots. In 1996 he was awarded the NASA Exceptional Service Medal. Schneider is seen here with Fitzhugh L. Fulton Jr., (right), who was a civilian research pilot at Dryden. from August 1, 1966, until July 3, 1986, following 23 years of service as a pilot in the U.S. Air Force. Fulton was the project pilot on all early tests of the 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) used to air launch the Space Shuttle prototype Enterprise in the Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) at Dryden in l977. For his work in the ALT program, Fulton received NASA's Exceptional Service Medal. He also received the Exceptional Service Medal again in 1983 for flying the 747 SCA during the European tour of the Space Shuttle Enterprise. During his career at Dryden, Fulton was project pilot on NASA's NB-52B launch aircraft used to air launch a variety of piloted and unpiloted research aircraft, including the X-15s and lifting bodies. He flew the XB-70 prototype supersonic bomber on both NASA-USAF tests and NASA research flights during the late 1960s, attaining speeds exceeding Mach 3. He was also a project pilot on the YF-12A and YF-12C research program from April 14, 1969, until September 25, 1978. The F/A-18 Hornet seen behind them is used primarily as a safety chase and support aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. As support aircraft, the F-18's are used for safety chase, pilot proficiency and aerial photography. As a safety chase aircraft, F-18's, flown by research pilots

  19. FDG-PET-positive ovarian thecoma with GLUT5 expression: Five cases.

    PubMed

    Bono, Yukiko; Mizumoto, Yasunari; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Iwadare, Jyunpei; Obata, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorodeoxyglucose F18 ((18) F-FDG) is useful for detecting malignancies, but benign lesions occasionally have false-positive (18) F-FDG uptake. Here, we report the cases of five postmenopausal women with solid ovarian tumors suspected to be ovarian cancer on magnetic resonance imaging and (18) F-FDG uptake. Mean age of the five patients was 57 years (range, 53-65 years). Average early standardized uptake value (SUV) of (18) F-FDG was 5.76 (range, 2.2-12.0) and delayed SUV was 6.56 (range, 2.4-13.8). In all five patients, frozen section diagnosis at surgery was thecoma, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. On immunohistochemistry, immunoreactive glucose transporter 5 (GLUT5) expression was detected in thecoma tissues. This case shows that thecoma sometimes has positive (18) F-FDG uptake on positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), indicating the need for caution regarding false-positive PET-CT in patients with benign solid ovarian tumor.

  20. F-18 HARV in high-alpha flight with smoke generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, used an F-18 Hornet fighter aircraft as its High Angle-of-Attack (alpha) Research Vehicle (HARV) in a three-phased flight research program lasting from April 1987 until September 1996. The aircraft completed 385 research flights and demonstrated stabilized flight at angles of attack between 65 and 70 degrees using thrust vectoring vanes, a research flight control system, and (eventually) forebody strakes (hinged structures on the forward side of the fuselage to provide control by interacting with vortices that are generated at high angles of attack, and thus create side forces). This combination of technologies provided carefree handling of a fighter aircraft in a part of the flight regime that was otherwise very dangerous. Flight research with the HARV increased our understanding of flight at high angles of attack, enabling designers of U.S. fighter aircraft to design airplanes that will fly safely in portions of the flight envelope that pilots previously had to avoid. Angle of attack (alpha) is an aeronautical term that describes the angle of an aircraft body and wings relative to its actual flightpath. During maneuvers, pilots often fly at extreme angles of attack -- with the nose pitched up while the aircraft continues in its original direction. This can lead to conditions in which the airflow becomes separated over large regions of the lifting surfaces (airfoils). These conditions can result in insufficient lift to maintain altitude or control of the aircraft and a corresponding increase in drag -- a condition known as stall. (In an ideal situation, the airflow would remain attached to the airfoil surface from leading to trailing edge; this would reduce the drag that impedes the movement of the airfoil through the atmosphere. When the airflow separates from the surface, this increases the drag and can lead to a stall.) The HARV was developed from a pre-production model of the F-18, a single

  1. Changes in Cervical Cancer FDG Uptake During Chemoradiation and Association With Response

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, Elizabeth A.; Thomas, Maria; Siegel, Barry A.; Dehdashti, Farrokh; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research showed that pretreatment uptake of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), as assessed by the maximal standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) and the variability of uptake (FDG{sub hetero}), predicted for posttreatment response in cervical cancer. In this pilot study, we evaluated the changes in SUV{sub max} and FDG{sub hetero} during concurrent chemoradiation for cervical cancer and their association with post-treatment response. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients with stage Ib1-IVa cervical cancer were enrolled. SUV{sub max}, FDG{sub hetero}, and metabolic tumor volume (MTV) were recorded from FDG-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scans performed pretreatment and during weeks 2 and 4 of treatment and were evaluated for changes and association with response assessed on 3-month post-treatment FDG-PET/CT. Results: For all patients, the average pretreatment SUV{sub max} was 17.8, MTV was 55.4 cm{sup 3}, and FDG{sub hetero} was -1.33. A similar decline in SUV{sub max} was seen at week 2 compared with baseline and week 4 compared with week 2 (34%). The areas of highest FDG uptake in the tumor remained relatively consistent on serial scans. Mean FDG{sub hetero} decreased during treatment. For all patients, MTV decreased more from week 2 to week 4 than from pretreatment to week 2. By week 4, the average SUV{sub max} had decreased by 57% and the MTV had decreased by 30%. Five patients showed persistent or new disease on 3-month post-treatment PET. These poor responders showed a higher average SUV{sub max}, larger MTV, and greater heterogeneity at all 3 times. Week 4 SUV{sub max} (P=.037), week 4 FDG{sub hetero} (P=.005), pretreatment MTV (P=.008), and pretreatment FDG{sub hetero} (P=.008) were all significantly associated with post-treatment PET response. Conclusions: SUV{sub max} shows a consistent rate of decline during treatment and declines at a faster rate than MTV regresses. Based on this pilot study

  2. The Effect of Endogenous Adenosine on Neuronal Activity in Rats: An FDG PET Study

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Soumen; Zhang, Dali; Mzengeza, Shadreck; Ko, Ji Hyun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT 2–18F‐fluorodeoxy‐D‐glucose (FDG) is a glucose analog that is taken up by cells and phosphorylated. The amount of FDG accumulated by cells is a measure of the rate of glycolysis, which reflects cellular activity. As the levels and actions of the neuromodulator adenosine are dynamically regulated by neuronal activity, this study was designed to test whether endogenous adenosine affects tissue accumulation of FDG as assessed by positron emission tomography (PET) or by postmortem analysis of tissue radioactivity. Rats were given an intraperitoneal injection of the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8‐cyclopentyl‐1,3‐dipropyl‐xanthine (DPCPX, 3 mg/kg), the adenosine kinase inhibitor ABT‐702 (3 mg/kg), or vehicle 10 minutes prior to an intravenous injection of FDG (15.4 ± 0.7 MBq per rat). Rats were then subjected to a 15 minute static PET scan. Reconstructed images were normalized to FDG PET template for rats and standard uptake values (SUVs) were calculated. To examine the regional effect of active treatment compared to vehicle, statistical parametric mapping analysis was performed. Whole‐brain FDG uptake was not affected by drug treatment. Significant regional hypometabolism was detected, particularly in cerebellum, of DPCPX‐ and ABT‐702 treated rats, relative to vehicle‐treated rats. Thus, endogenous adenosine can affect FDG accumulation although this effect is modest in quiescent rats. PMID:27082948

  3. Numerical simulation of the flow about an F-18 aircraft in the high-alpha regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murman, Scott M.; Rizk, Yehia M.

    1994-01-01

    The current research is aimed at developing and extending numerical methods to accurately predict the high Reynolds number flow about the NASA F-18 HARV at large angles of attack. The resulting codes are validated by comparison of the numerical results with in-flight aerodynamic measurements and flow visualization obtained on the HARV. Further, computations have been used to provide an analysis and numerical optimization of a pneumatic slot blowing concept, and a mechanical strake concept, for use as potential forebody flow control devices in improving high-alpha maneuverability.

  4. New Cyclotron Targetry to Enhance F-18 clinical Position Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    J. Michael Doster

    2008-12-19

    This project proposes to develop cyclotron targets that produce F-18 for clinical Positron Emission Tomography (PET) at significantly higher rates than that available from current targetry. This production rate of 18F is directly proportional to the beam current. Higher beam currents would result in increased 18F production but would be accompanied by higher heat loads to the target. The beam power available in most commercial cyclotrons exceeds the heat removal capacity of current target technology by a factor of two to four, significantly limiting the production rate of Fluorine-18.

  5. 4-[F-18]fluoroproline: A potential tracer for collagen synthesis. Radiosynthesis and biological evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hamacher, K.; Herz, M.; Truckenbrodt, R.

    1996-05-01

    Proline is an important constituent of the structural protein collagen. It has been shown that its fluorinated analogs (2S,4S)- and particularly (2S,4R)-4-fluoroproline are also incorporated into collagen (Gottlieb et al., Biochemistry (1965), 4: 2507). 4-[F-18]fluoroproline is therefore a potential probe for studying abnormal collagen synthesis e. g. in tumors, lung fibrosis and liver cirrhosis. We have evaluated the two diastereomeric forms using a transplantable osteosarcoma in mice as an in vivo model for elevated collagen synthesis, and a MCF 7 mamma carcinoma cell line for monolayer incubation studies.

  6. Guidelines for brain radionuclide imaging. Perfusion single photon computed tomography (SPECT) using Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals and brain metabolism positron emission tomography (PET) using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose. The Belgian Society for Nuclear Medicine.

    PubMed

    Vander Borght, T; Laloux, P; Maes, A; Salmon, E; Goethals, I; Goldman, S

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of these guidelines is to assist nuclear medicine practitioners in recommending, performing, interpreting, and reporting the results of brain perfusion SPECT studies using Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals and brain metabolism PET studies using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). These guidelines have been adapted and extended from those produced by the Society of Nuclear Medicine (Juni et al., 1998) and the European Association of Nuclear Medicine by a Belgian group of experts in the field trained in neurology and/or nuclear medicine. Some indications are not universally approved (e.g. brain death), but largely supported by the literature. They have been included in these guidelines in order to provide recommendations and a standardised protocol.

  7. An Overview of the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.; Pahle, Joseph W.; Wilson, R. Joseph; Flick, Bradley C.; Rood, Richard L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle. The three flight phases of the program are introduced, along with the specific goals and data examples taken during each phase. The aircraft configuration and systems needed to perform the disciplinary and inter-disciplinary research are discussed. The specific disciplines involved with the flight research are introduced, including aerodynamics, controls, propulsion, systems, and structures. Decisions that were made early in the planning of the aircraft project and the results of those decisions are briefly discussed. Each of the three flight phases corresponds to a particular aircraft configuration, and the research dictated the configuration to be flown. The first phase gathered data with the baseline F-18 configuration. The second phase was the thrust-vectoring phase. The third phase used a modified forebody with deployable nose strakes. Aircraft systems supporting these flights included extensive instrumentation systems, integrated research flight controls using flight control hardware and corresponding software, analog interface boxes to control forebody strakes, a thrust-vectoring system using external post-exit vanes around axisymmetric nozzles, a forebody vortex control system with strakes, and backup systems using battery-powered emergency systems and a spin recovery parachute.

  8. Thrust Vectoring on the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.; Pahle, Joseph W.

    1996-01-01

    Investigations into a multiaxis thrust-vectoring system have been conducted on an F-18 configuration. These investigations include ground-based scale-model tests, ground-based full-scale testing, and flight testing. This thrust-vectoring system has been tested on the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The system provides thrust vectoring in pitch and yaw axes. Ground-based subscale test data have been gathered as background to the flight phase of the program. Tests investigated aerodynamic interaction and vane control effectiveness. The ground-based full-scale data were gathered from static engine runs with image analysis to determine relative thrust-vectoring effectiveness. Flight tests have been conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Parameter identification input techniques have been developed. Individual vanes were not directly controlled because of a mixer-predictor function built into the flight control laws. Combined effects of the vanes have been measured in flight and compared to combined effects of the vanes as predicted by the cold-jet test data. Very good agreement has been found in the linearized effectiveness derivatives.

  9. A New F-18 Labeled PET Agent For Imaging Alzheimer's Plaques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Padmakar V.; Vasdev, Neil; Hao, Guiyang; Arora, Veera; Long, Michael; Slavine, Nikolai; Chiguru, Srinivas; Qu, Bao Xi; Sun, Xiankai; Bennett, Michael; Antich, Peter P.; Bonte, Frederick J.

    2011-06-01

    Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Advances in development of imaging agents have focused on targeting amyloid plaques. Notable success has been the development of C-11 labeled PIB (Pittsburgh Compound) and a number of studies have demonstrated the utility of this agent. However, the short half life of C-11 (t1/2: 20 min), is a limitation, thus has prompted the development of F-18 labeled agents. Most of these agents are derivatives of amyloid binding dyes; Congo red and Thioflavin. Some of these agents are in clinical trials with encouraging results. We have been exploring new class of agents based on 8-hydroxy quinoline, a weak metal chelator, targeting elevated levels of metals in plaques. Iodine-123 labeled clioquinol showed affinity for amyloid plaques however, it had limited brain uptake and was not successful in imaging in intact animals and humans. We have been successful in synthesizing F-18 labeled 8-hydroxy quinoline. Small animal PET/CT imaging studies with this agent showed high (7-10% ID/g), rapid brain uptake and fast washout of the agent from normal mice brains and delayed washout from transgenic Alzheimer's mice. These promising results encouraged us in further evaluation of this class of compounds for imaging AD plaques.

  10. F-18 SRA closeup of nose cap showing new flush air data system sensor holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Small numbers on the nose cap of this F-18 Systems Research Aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, show the locations of 11 tiny holes, which are an integral part of a new air data system installed on the aircraft. The Real-Time Flush Air Data Sensing system measures the speed and direction of the airflow past the aircraft and its altitude, similar to standard air data systems. It differs from those systems by incorporating flush-mounted pressure taps, miniature transducers and an advanced research computer to give the pilot more accurate information than systems employing external probes provide. Stephen A. Whitmore of Dryden's Aerodynamics Branch won NASA's Space Act Award for his development of the Real-Time Flush Air Data Sensing system. The award honors projects which are scientifically or technologically significant to the aeronautics and space community. The system was flight tested on the modified F-18 last year, and is now being used as a precise reference system for other air data systems currently being evaluated on the aircraft.

  11. Effects of nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics on performance, stability and control of an F-18 configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guofeng

    Large-amplitude forced oscillation data for an F-18 configuration are analyzed with two modeling methods: Fourier functional analysis to form the indicial integrals, and a generalized dynamic aerodynamic model for stability and control analysis. The indicial integral is first applied to calculate the pitch damping parameter for comparison with the conventional forced oscillation test. It is shown that the reduced frequency affects the damping much more strongly than the test amplitude. Using the indicial integral models in a flight simulation code for an F-18 configuration, it is found that the configuration with unsteady aerodynamics becomes unstable in pitch if the pitch rate is high, in contrast to the quasi-steady configuration which depends mainly on the instantaneous angle of attack. In a pitch-up maneuver in the post-stall regime the configuration with unsteady aerodynamics can stay at a high pitch attitude and angle of attack without losing altitude for a much longer duration than the quasi-steady model. However, the speed will decrease faster because of higher drag. The newly developed generalized dynamic aerodynamic model is of the nonlinear algebraic form with the coefficients being determined from a set of large amplitude oscillatory experimental data by using least-square fitting. The resulting model coefficients are functions of the reduced frequency and amplitude. The new aerodynamic models have been verified with data in harmonic oscillation with a smaller amplitude and in constant pitch-rate motions. The new algebraic models are especially useful in stability and control analysis, and are used in bifurcation analysis and control studies for the same F-18 HARV configuration. The results show significant differences in the equilibrium surfaces and dynamic stability. It is also shown that control gains developed with the conventional quasi-steady aerodynamic data may not be adequate when the effect of unsteady aerodynamics is significant. A numerical

  12. Cranberry extract inhibits in vitro adhesion of F4 and F18(+)Escherichia coli to pig intestinal epithelium and reduces in vivo excretion of pigs orally challenged with F18(+) verotoxigenic E. coli.

    PubMed

    Coddens, Annelies; Loos, Michaela; Vanrompay, Daisy; Remon, Jean Paul; Cox, Eric

    2017-01-20

    F4(+)E. coli and F18(+)E. coli infections are an important threat for pig industry worldwide. Antibiotics are commonly used to treat infected piglets, but the emerging development of resistance against antibiotics raises major concerns. Hence, alternative therapies to prevent pigs from F4(+)E. coli and F18(+)E. coli infections need to be developed. Since cranberry previously showed anti-adhesive activity against uropathogenic E. coli, we aimed to investigate whether cranberry extract could also inhibit binding of F4(+)E. coli and F18(+)E. coli to pig intestinal epithelium. Using the in vitro villus adhesion assay, we found that low concentrations of cranberry extract (20μg or 100μg/ml) have strong inhibitory activity on F4(+)E. coli (75.3%, S.D.=9.31 or 95.8%, S.D.=2.56, respectively) and F18(+)E. coli adherence (100% inhibition). This effect was not due to antimicrobial activity. Moreover, cranberry extract (10mg or 100mg) could also abolish in vivo binding of F4 and F18 fimbriae to the pig intestinal epithelium in ligated loop experiments. Finally, two challenge experiments with F18(+)E. coli were performed to address the efficacy of in-feed or water supplemented cranberry extract. No effect could be observed in piglets that received cranberry extract only in feed (1g/kg or 10g/kg). However, supplementation of feed (10g/kg) and drinking water (1g/L) significantly decreased excretion and diarrhea. The decreased infection resulted in a decreased serum antibody response indicating reduced exposure to F18(+)E. coli.

  13. F-18 HARV in flight close-up of actuated nose strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's F-18 from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, soars over the Mojave Desert while flying the third phase of the HARV (High Alpha Research Vehicle) program. This is a closer look at the set of control surfaces called strakes that were installed in the nose of the aircraft. The strakes, outlined in gold and white, are expected to provide improved yaw control at steep angles of attack. Normally folded flush, the units -- four feet long and six inches wide -- can be opened independently to interact with the nose vortices to produce large side forces for control. Testing involved evaluation of the strakes by themselves as well as combined with the aircraft's Thrust Vectoring System. The strakes were designed by NASA's Langley Research Center, then installed and flight tested at Dryden.

  14. F-18 HARV in flight close-up of actuated nose strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's F-18 from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, soars over the Mojave Desert while flying the third phase of the HARV (High Alpha Research Vehicle) program. This is a closer look at the set of control surfaces called strakes that were installed in the nose of the aircraft. The strakes, outlined in gold and white, provided improved yaw control at steep angles of attack. Normally folded flush, the units -- four feet long and six inches wide -- can be opened independently to interact with the nose vortices to produce large side forces for control. Testing involved evaluation of the strakes by themselves as well as combined with the aircraft's Thrust Vectoring System. The strakes were designed by NASA's Langley Research Center, then installed and flight tested at Dryden.

  15. F-18 HARV on ramp close-up of actuated nose strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Outlined with gold stripes are the hinged nose strakes, modifications made to NASA's F-18 HARV (High Alpha Research Vehicle) at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Actuated Nose Strakes for Enhanced Rolling (ANSER) were installed to fly the third and final phase in the HARV flight test project. Normally folded flush, the units -- four feet long and six inches wide -- can be opened independently to interact with the nose vortices to produce large side forces for control. Early wind tunnel tests indicated that the strakes would be as effective in yaw control at high angles of attack as rudders are at lower angles. Testing involved evaluation of the strakes by themselves as well as combined with the aircraft's Thrust Vectoring System. The strakes were designed by NASA's Langley Research Center, then installed and flight tested at Dryden.

  16. Numerical simulation of the flow about the F-18 HARV at high angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murman, Scott M.

    1994-01-01

    As part of NASA's High Alpha Technology Program, research has been aimed at developing and extending numerical methods to accurately predict the high Reynolds number flow about the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) at large angles of attack. The HARV aircraft is equipped with a bidirectional thrust vectoring unit which enables stable, controlled flight through 70 deg angle of attack. Currently, high-fidelity numerical solutions for the flow about the HARV have been obtained at alpha = 30 deg, and validated against flight-test data. It is planned to simulate the flow about the HARV through alpha = 60 deg, and obtain solutions of the same quality as those at the lower angles of attack. This report presents the status of work aimed at extending the HARV computations to the extreme angle of attack range.

  17. Computational Investigation of an F-18 Aircraft in the High-Alpha Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murman, Scott M.; Rizk, Yehia M.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    One of the goals of NASA's High Alpha Technology Program is to provide flight-validated design methods for the high-angle-of-attack regime. This is an integrated effort utilizing computational simulations, wind tunnel experiments, and flight tests using the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The dominant physics of the aircraft flows in the high alpha regime changes as the angle of attack is increased. At moderate angle of attack the flow is characterized by boundary layer separation and the formation of tight vortices. As the angle of attack is increased, these vortices break down producing unsteady wakes. With further increase in angle of attack, the, vortex breakdown moves progressively upstream until the entire flowfield becomes dominated by the unsteady wake. Previous computational work has demonstrated the ability to simulate flows about the F-18 HARV in the medium-to-high angle of attack range, where the flowfield is characterized by the vortex formation and subsequent breakdown. This paper extends the previous computations to include conditions of 45 degree angle of attack where the flowfield becomes dominated by the unsteady wake shed from the Leading Edge Extension (LEX), and regions of laminar and transitional flow appear on the fuselage forebody. A more complete surface geometry is utilized, which includes the features of the engine nacelle, inlet diffuser, and the boundary layer diverter duct. A volume grid sensitivity study was also performed to extend the accuracy of the results, most notably in the prediction of the LEX vortex breakdown position. This paper includes comparisons of computational results with both in-flight surface pressure measurements, and flow visualizations of the surface and off-surface particle trajectories.

  18. Diagnostic evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) using PET-FDG imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.; Chandramouli, B.; Reeb, S.

    1994-05-01

    We have reported high sensitivity of PET-FDG imaging in detecting malignancy in SPNs. We now report clinical utility of PET-FDG imaging in pre-intervention workup of 66 pts (age 24-89 yrs) with radiographically indeterminate SPNs (0.5-3 cm) in size. All pts had PET imaging performed 1 hr after injection of 10 mCi of F-18 FDG. Images were analyzed qualitatively and semi-quantitatively to compute DUR indices using ROI analysis. Final diagnosis was established by histology in 65/66 pts (thoracotomy 47, needle biopsy 13, bronchoscopy 5, stable nodule 1). PET-FDG imaging demonstrates sensitivity, specificity and predictive accuracy of 94%, 87% and 92% respectively. All 3 false negative cases were SPNs <1.5 cm in size and histologically adenoca. True positive malignant SPNs were adenoca 18, small cell 5, squamous cell 12, nonsmall cell 7, and others 6. Among 15 benign lesions (granuloma 6, histoplasmosis 4, nonspecific inflammation 2, hamartoma 1, stable nodule 1, organizing pneumonia 1), 2 false positive cases were seen in histoplasmosis. In 10 patients hilar/mediastinal lymph node lesions were accurately classified as benign (5) or malignant (5). Mean DUR in malignant lesions (5.41{plus_minus}2.63) was significantly greater (p value <0.001) than benign lesions (1.12{plus_minus}0.78). In conclusion, PET-FDG imaging is highly accurate in differentiating benign from malignant lung modules and lymph node lesions. PET-FDG imaging may thus optimize surgical management of pts with radiographically SPNs.

  19. Diagnostic Ability of FDG-PET/CT in the Detection of Malignant Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Reiko; Abe, Koichiro; Sakai, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the role of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for the differential diagnosis of malignant and benign pleural effusion. We studied 36 consecutive patients with histologically proven cancer (excluding malignant mesothelioma) who underwent FDG-PET/CT for suspected malignant pleural effusion. Fourteen patients had cytologically proven malignant pleural effusion and the other 22 patients had either negative cytology or clinical follow-up, which confirmed the benign etiology. We examined the maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of pleural effusion and the target-to-normal tissue ratio (TNR), calculated as the ratio of the pleural effusion SUVmax to the SUVmean of the normal tissues (liver, spleen, 12th thoracic vertebrae [Th12], thoracic aorta, and spinalis muscle). We also examined the size and density (in Hounsfield units) of the pleural effusion and pleural abnormalities on CT images. TNR (Th12) and increased pleural FDG uptake compared to background blood pool were significantly more frequent in cases with malignant pleural effusion (P < 0.05 for both). The cutoff TNR (Th12) value of >0.95 was the most accurate; the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for this value were 93%, 68%, and 75%, respectively. FDG-PET/CT can be a useful method for the differential diagnosis of malignant and benign pleural effusion. PMID:26200610

  20. SU-E-J-258: Prediction of Cervical Cancer Treatment Response Using Radiomics Features Based On F18-FDG Uptake in PET Images

    SciTech Connect

    Altazi, B; Fernandez, D; Zhang, G; Biagioli, M; Moros, E; Moffitt, H. Lee

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Radiomics have shown potential for predicting treatment outcomes in several body sites. This study investigated the correlation between PET Radiomics features and treatment response of cervical cancer outcomes. Methods: our dataset consisted of a cohort of 79 patients diagnosed with cervical cancer, FIGO stage IB-IVA, age range 25–86 years, (median age at diagnosis: 50 years) all treated between: 2009–14 with external beam radiation therapy to a dose range between: 45–50.4 Gy (median= 45 Gy), concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy and MRI-based brachytherapy to a dose of 20–30 Gy (median= 28 Gy). Metabolic Tumor Volume (MTV) in patient’s primary site was delineated on pretreatment PET/CT by two board certified Radiation Oncologists. The features extracted from each patient’s volume were: 26 Co-occurrence matrix (COM) Feature, 11 Run-Length Matrix (RLM), 11 Gray Level Size Zone Matrix (GLSZM) and 33 Intensity-based features (IBF). The treatment outcome was divided based on the last follow up status into three classes: No Evidence of Disease (NED), Alive with Disease (AWD) and Dead of Disease (DOD). The ability for the radiomics features to differentiate between the 3 treatments outcome categories were assessed by One-Way ANOVA test with p-value < 0.05 was to be statistically significant. The results from the analysis were compared with the ones obtained previously for standard Uptake Value (SUV). Results: Based on patients last clinical follow-up; 52 showed NED, 17 AWD and 10 DOD. Radiomics Features were able to classify the patients based on their treatment response. A parallel analysis was done for SUV measurements for comparison. Conclusion: Radiomics features were able to differentiate between the three different classes of treatment outcomes. However, most of the features were only able to differentiate between NED and DOD class. Also, The ability or radiomics features to differentiate types of response were more significant than SUV.

  1. SU-E-J-243: Reproducibility of Radiomics Features Through Different Voxel Discretization Levels in F18-FDG PET Images of Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Altazi, B; Fernandez, D; Zhang, G; Biagioli, M; Moros, E; Moffitt, H. Lee

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Site-specific investigations of the role of Radiomics in cancer diagnosis and therapy are needed. We report of the reproducibility of quantitative image features over different discrete voxel levels in PET/CT images of cervical cancer. Methods: Our dataset consisted of the pretreatment PET/CT scans from a cohort of 76 patients diagnosed with cervical cancer, FIGO stage IB-IVA, age range 31–76 years, treated with external beam radiation therapy to a dose range between 45–50.4 Gy (median dose: 45 Gy), concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy and MRI-based Brachytherapy to a dose of 20–30 Gy (median total dose: 28 Gy). Two board certified radiation oncologists delineated Metabolic Tumor volume (MTV) for each patient. Radiomics features were extracted based on 32, 64, 128 and 256 discretization levels (DL). The 64 level was chosen to be the reference DL. Features were calculated based on Co-occurrence (COM), Gray Level Size Zone (GLSZM) and Run-Length (RLM) matrices. Mean Percentage Differences (Δ) of features for discrete levels were determined. Normality distribution of Δ was tested using Kolomogorov - Smirnov test. Bland-Altman test was used to investigate differences between feature values measured on different DL. The mean, standard deviation and upper/lower value limits for each pair of DL were calculated. Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) analysis was performed to examine the reliability of repeated measures within the context of the test re-test format. Results: 3 global and 5 regional features out of 48 features showed distribution not significantly different from a normal one. The reproducible features passed the normality test. Only 5 reproducible results were reliable, ICC range 0.7 – 0.99. Conclusion: Most of the radiomics features tested showed sensitivity to voxel level discretization between (32 – 256). Only 4 GLSZM, 3 COM and 1 RLM showed insensitivity towards mentioned discrete levels.

  2. Radiation Dose from Whole-Body F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography: Nationwide Survey in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate average radiation exposure from 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) examinations and to analyze possible factors affecting the radiation dose. A nation-wide questionnaire survey was conducted involving all institutions that operate PET/CT scanners in Korea. From the response, radiation doses from injected FDG and CT examination were calculated. A total of 105 PET/CT scanners in 73 institutions were included in the analysis (response rate of 62.4%). The average FDG injected activity was 310 ± 77 MBq and 5.11 ± 1.19 MBq/kg. The average effective dose from FDG was estimated to be 5.89 ± 1.46 mSv. The average CT dose index and dose-length product were 4.60 ± 2.47 mGy and 429.2 ± 227.6 mGy∙cm, which corresponded to 6.26 ± 3.06 mSv. The radiation doses from FDG and CT were significantly lower in case of newer scanners than older ones (P < 0.001). Advanced PET technologies such as time-of-flight acquisition and point-spread function recovery were also related to low radiation dose (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the average radiation dose from FDG PET/CT is estimated to be 12.2 mSv. The radiation dose from FDG PET/CT is reduced with more recent scanners equipped with image-enhancing algorithms. PMID:26908992

  3. Preparations for flight research to evaluate actuated forebody strakes on the F-18 high-alpha research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.; Shah, Gautam H.; Dicarlo, Daniel J.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the NASA High-Angle-of-Attack Technology Program (HATP), flight tests are currently being conducted with a multi-axis thrust vectoring system applied to the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). A follow-on series of flight tests with the NASA F-18 HARV will be focusing on the application of actuated forebody strake controls. These controls are designed to provide increased levels of yaw control at high angles of attack where conventional aerodynamic controls become ineffective. The series of flight tests are collectively referred to as the Actuated Nose Strakes for Enhanced Rolling (ANSER) Flight Experiment. The development of actuated forebody strake controls for the F-18 HARV is discussed and a summary of the ground tests conducted in support of the flight experiment is provided. A summary of the preparations for the flight tests is also provided.

  4. Imaging cardiac SCN5A using the novel F-18 radiotracer radiocaine

    PubMed Central

    Hooker, Jacob M.; Strebl, Martin G.; Schroeder, Frederick A.; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Ambardekar, Amrut V.; McKinsey, Timothy A.; Schoenberger, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The key function of the heart, a well-orchestrated series of contractions, is controlled by cardiac action potentials. These action potentials are initiated and propagated by a single isoform of voltage gated sodium channels – SCN5A. However, linking changes in SCN5A expression levels to human disease in vivo has not yet been possible. Radiocaine, an F-18 radiotracer for positron emission tomography (PET), is the first SCN5A imaging agent in the heart. Explants from healthy and failing human hearts were compared using radiocaine autoradiography to determine that the failing heart has ~30% lower SCN5A levels - the first evidence of changes in SCN5A expression in humans as a function of disease. Paving the way for translational imaging, radiocaine proved to exhibit high in vivo specific binding to the myocardium of non-human primates. We envision that SCN5A measurements using PET imaging may serve as a novel diagnostic tool to stratify arrhythmia risk and assess for progression of heart failure in patients with a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:28205593

  5. Performance characteristics of nonaxisymmetric nozzles installed on the F-18 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, F. J.; Gowadia, N. S.; Wooten, W. H.

    1979-01-01

    The Langley Research Center has conducted an experimental program on a model of the F-18 airplane to determine the performance of nonaxisymmetric nozzles relative to the aircraft's baseline axisymmetric nozzle. The performance of a single expansion ramp (ADEN) and two-dimensional convergent-divergent (2-D C-D) nozzle were compared to the baseline axisymmetric nozzles. The effects of vectoring and reversing were also studied. Performance of a modified YF-17 airplane with the ADEN nozzle was also estimated. The results of this investigation indicate that nonaxisymmetric nozzles can be installed on a twin engine fighter airplane with equal or better performance than axisymmetric nozzles. The nonaxisymmetric nozzles also offer potential for innovative and improved aircraft maneuver through thrust vectoring and reversing. The YF-17/ADEN flown as a technology demonstrator would have reduced performance compared to an unmodified YF-17. However, on an equal aircraft weight basis, performance would essentially be equivalent. This study also showed that the YF-17 can serve as a testbed to validate nonaxisymmetric nozzle technology.

  6. Forebody Flow Visualization on the F-18 HARV with Actuated Forebody Strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.; Murri, Daniel G.

    1998-01-01

    Off-surface smoke flow visualization and extensive pressure measurements were obtained on the forebody of the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle equipped with actuated forebody strakes. Test points at alpha = 50 deg. were examined in which only one strake was deflected or in which both strakes were deflected differentially. The forebody pressures were integrated to obtain forebody yawing moments. Results showed that small single strake deflections can cause an undesirable yawing moment reversal. At alpha = 50 deg., this reversal was corrected by deploying both strakes at 20 deg. initially, then differentially from 20 deg. to create a yawing moment. The off-surface flow visualization showed that in the case of the small single strake deflection, the resulting forebody/strake vortex remained close to the surface and caused accelerated flow and increased suction pressures on the deflected side. When both strakes were deflected differentially, two forebody/strake vortices were present. The forebody/strake vortex from the larger deflection would lift from the surface while the other would remain close to the surface. The nearer forebody/strake vortex would cause greater flow acceleration, higher suction pressures and a yawing moment on that side of the forebody. Flow visualization provided a clear description of the strake vortices fluid mechanics.

  7. Forebody Aerodynamics of the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle with Actuated Forebody Strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.; Murri, Daniel G.

    2003-01-01

    Extensive pressure measurements and off-surface flow visualization were obtained on the forebody and strakes of the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) equipped with actuated forebody strakes. Forebody yawing moments were obtained by integrating the circumferential pressures on the forebody and strakes. Results show that large yawing moments can be generated with forebody strakes. At a 50 -angle-of-attack, deflecting one strake at a time resulted in a forebody yawing moment control reversal for small strake deflection angles. However, deflecting the strakes differentially about a 20 symmetric strake deployment eliminated the control reversal and produced a near linear variation of forebody yawing moment with differential strake deflection. At an angle of attack of 50 and for 0 and 20 symmetric strake deployments, a larger forebody yawing moment was generated by the forward fuselage (between the radome and the apex of the leading-edge extensions) than on the radome where the actuated forebody strakes were located. Cutouts on the flight vehicle strakes that were not on the wind tunnel models are believed to be responsible for deficits in the suction peaks on the flight radome pressure distributions and differences in the forebody yawing moments.

  8. Experience with Ada on the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle flight test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regenie, Victoria A.; Earls, Michael; Le, Jeanette; Thomson, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Considerable experience has been acquired with Ada at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility during the on-going High Alpha Technology Program. In this program, an F-18 aircraft has been highly modified by the addition of thrust-vectoring vanes to the airframe. In addition, substantial alteration was made in the original quadruplex flight control system. The result is the High Alpha Research Vehicle. An additional research flight control computer was incorporated in each of the four channels. Software for the research flight control computer was written Ada. To date, six releases of this software have been flown. This paper provides a detailed description of the modifications to the research flight control system. Efficient ground-testing of the software was accomplished by using simulations that used the Ada for portions of their software. These simulations are also described. Modifying and transferring the Ada flight software to the software simulation configuration has allowed evaluation of this language. This paper also discusses such significant issues in using Ada as portability, modifiability, and testability as well as documentation requirements.

  9. Adaptive Flight Control Design with Optimal Control Modification on an F-18 Aircraft Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J.; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Griffin, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    In the presence of large uncertainties, a control system needs to be able to adapt rapidly to regain performance. Fast adaptation is referred to as the implementation of adaptive control with a large adaptive gain to reduce the tracking error rapidly; however, a large adaptive gain can lead to high-frequency oscillations which can adversely affect the robustness of an adaptive control law. A new adaptive control modification is presented that can achieve robust adaptation with a large adaptive gain without incurring high-frequency oscillations as with the standard model-reference adaptive control. The modification is based on the minimization of the Y2 norm of the tracking error, which is formulated as an optimal control problem. The optimality condition is used to derive the modification using the gradient method. The optimal control modification results in a stable adaptation and allows a large adaptive gain to be used for better tracking while providing sufficient robustness. A damping term (v) is added in the modification to increase damping as needed. Simulations were conducted on a damaged F-18 aircraft (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) with both the standard baseline dynamic inversion controller and the adaptive optimal control modification technique. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed modification in tracking a reference model.

  10. Experience with Ada on the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle Flight Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regenie, Victoria A.; Earls, Michael; Le, Jeanette; Thomson, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Considerable experience was acquired with Ada at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility during the on-going High Alpha Technology Program. In this program, an F-18 aircraft was highly modified by the addition of thrust-vectoring vanes to the airframe. In addition, substantial alteration was made in the original quadruplex flight control system. The result is the High Alpha Research Vehicle. An additional research flight control computer was incorporated in each of the four channels. Software for the research flight control computer was written in Ada. To date, six releases of this software have been flown. This paper provides a detailed description of the modifications to the research flight control system. Efficient ground-testing of the software was accomplished by using simulations that used the Ada for portions of their software. These simulations are also described. Modifying and transferring the Ada for flight software to the software simulation configuration has allowed evaluation of this language. This paper also discusses such significant issues in using Ada as portability, modifiability, and testability as well as documentation requirements.

  11. Flight-determined engine exhaust characteristics of an F404 engine in an F-18 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Webb, Lannie D.

    1993-01-01

    Personnel at the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA-Langley) and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (NASA-Dryden) recently completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Several types of aircraft with high nozzle pressure ratio engines were flown to satisfy a twofold objective. First, assessments were made of subsonic climb-to-cruise noise from flights conducted at varying altitudes in a Mach 0.30 to 0.90 range. Second, using data from flights conducted at constant altitude in a Mach 0.30 to 0.95 range, engineers obtained a high quality noise database. This database was desired to validate the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program and other system noise prediction codes. NASA-Dryden personnel analyzed the engine data from several aircraft that were flown in the test program to determine the exhaust characteristics. The analysis of the exhaust characteristics from the F-18 aircraft are reported. An overview of the flight test planning, instrumentation, test procedures, data analysis, engine modeling codes, and results are presented.

  12. F-16XL and F-18 High Speed Acoustic Flight Test Databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, J. J.; Wilson, M. R.; Rawls, J., Jr.; Norum, T. D.; Golub, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the recorded acoustic data and the computed narrow-band and 1/3-octave band spectra produced by F-18 and F-16XL aircraft in subsonic flight over an acoustic array. Both broadband-shock noise and turbulent mixing noise are observed in the spectra. Radar and c-band tracking systems provided the aircraft position which enabled directivity and smear angles from the aircraft to each microphone to be computed. These angles are based on source emission time and thus give some idea about the directivity of the radiated sound field due to jet noise. A follow-on static test was also conducted where acoustic and engine data were obtained. The acoustic data described in the report has application to community noise analysis, noise source characterization and validation of prediction models. A detailed description of the signal processing procedures is provided. Follow-on static tests of each aircraft were also conducted for which engine data and far-field acoustic data are presented.

  13. Effect of Actuated Forebody Strakes on the Forebody Aerodynamics of the NASA F-18 HARV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.; Murri, Daniel G.; Lanser, Wendy R.

    1996-01-01

    Extensive pressure measurements and off-surface flow visualization were obtained on the forebody and strakes of the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) equipped with actuated forebody strakes. Forebody yawing moments were obtained by integrating the circumferential pressures on the forebody and strakes. Results show that large yawing moments can be generated with forebody strakes. At angles of attack greater than 40 deg., deflecting one strake at a time resulted in a forebody yawing moment control reversal for small strake deflection angles. At alpha = 40 deg. and 50 deg., deflecting the strakes differentially about a 20 deg. symmetric strake deployment eliminated the control reversal and produced a near linear variation of forebody yawing moment with differential strake deflection. At alpha = 50 deg. and for 0 deg. and 20 deg. symmetric strake deployments, a larger forebody yawing moment was generated by the forward fuselage (between the radome and the apex of the leading-edge extensions), than on the radome where the actuated forebody strakes were located. Cutouts on the flight vehicle strakes that were not on the wind tunnel models are believed to be responsible for deficits in the suction peaks on the flight radome pressure distributions and differences in the forebody yawing moments.

  14. Forebody Aerodynamics of the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle with Actuated Forebody Strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.; Murri, Daniel G.

    2001-01-01

    Extensive pressure measurements and off-surface flow visualization were obtained on the forebody and strakes of the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) equipped with actuated forebody strakes. Forebody yawing moments were obtained by integrating the circumferential pressures on the forebody and strakes. Results show that large yawing moments can be generated with forebody strakes. At a 50 deg-angle-of-attack, deflecting one strake at a time resulted in a forebody yawing moment control reversal for small strake deflection angles. However, deflecting the strakes differentially about a 20 deg symmetric strake deployment eliminated the control reversal and produced a near linear variation of forebody yawing moment with differential strake deflection. At an angle of attack of 50 deg and for 0 deg and 20 deg symmetric strake deployments, a larger forebody yawing moment was generated by the forward fuselage (between the radome and the apex of the leading-edge extensions) than on the radome where the actuated forebody strakes were located. Cutouts on the flight vehicle strakes that were not on the wind tunnel models are believed to be responsible for deficits in the suction peaks on the flight radome pressure distributions and differences in the forebody yawing moments.

  15. F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography study of Impaired Emotion Processing in First Episode Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Mona; Kumar, Arvind; Tripathi, Madhavi; Bhatia, Triptish; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Beniwal, Ram Pratap; Gur, Ruben C.; Gur, Raquel E.; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia cases have consistently shown to have behavioural and neurofunctional abnormalities but studies during early course are scarce. The present work assesses the performance of acute first episode schizophrenia cases on correlation of a facial emotion perception task with brain function using Fluorine-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Methods Twenty First episode schizophrenia cases and 20 matched healthy controls living in the community were enrolled. For cases, longest duration of illness was one year and treatment with neuroleptic did not exceed two weeks on the day of scan. To measure facial emotion perception (FEP) both groups were administered the Emotion battery from the Penn Computerized Battery followed by PET acquisition. SPM 8 analysis for group differences at p<0.001 was performed. Results Schizophrenia subjects showed hypoactivation of bilateral prefrontal cortices and fusiform gyrii, with significant hyperactivation of bilateral basal ganglia and left precuneus. Positive correlation of metabolism in prefrontal cortex and performance indices on emotions domain was seen. No correlation of CPZ equivalent days with metabolism in basal ganglia was observed. Conclusions The performance of schizophrenia cases on FEP task was significantly impaired in comparison to the control group. Brain regions implicated in emotion processing showed hypometabolism in cases as compared to controls. Failure of schizophrenia cases to optimally recruit brain circuitry may be contributing to deficits on FEP task. These findings suggest inherent deficits in neural circuitry of emotion processing in schizophrenia; devoid of confounding effects of neuroleptics and duration of illness. PMID:25655909

  16. Expression of GLUT-1 and GLUT-3 in xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis induced a positive result on ¹⁸F-FDG PET: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Shigeaki; Shimada, Yutaka; Sekine, Shinichi; Shibuya, Kazuto; Yoshioka, Isaku; Matsui, Koshi; Okumura, Tomoyuki; Yoshida, Toru; Nagata, Takuya; Uotani, Hideyuki; Tsukada, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Although several reports have revealed that fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) is useful for differentiating between benign and malignant lesions in the gallbladder, the positive results of (18)F-FDG PET are not specific for malignancy because (18)F-FDG is also accumulated in inflammatory lesions. It is known that the most important pathway for (18)F-FDG to enter the cell body is mediated by the facilitative glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) through GLUT-3. We herein present a case of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) with a positive result on (18)F-FDG PET. In this case, GLUT-1 and GLUT-3 were both positively expressed in inflammatory cells at the gallbladder wall of XGC and this is the first report to reveal GLUT expression in XGC. This report reveals that surgeons should carefully consider the appropriate treatment of gallbladder tumor, even with a positive result on (18)F-FDG PET.

  17. Screening for occult malignancy with FDG-PET/CT in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Ana; Redondo, Margarita; Rubio, Tomás; Del Olmo, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Wilhelmi, Pablo; García-Velloso, María J; Richter, José A; Páramo, José A; Lecumberri, Ramón

    2013-11-01

    Extensive screening strategies to detect occult cancer in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) are complex and no benefit in terms of survival has been reported. FDG-PET/CT (2-[F-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography), a noninvasive technique for the diagnosis and staging of malignancies, could be useful in this setting. Consecutive patients ≥ 50 years with a first unprovoked VTE episode were prospectively included. Screening with FDG-PET/CT was performed 3-4 weeks after the index event. If positive, appropriate diagnostic work-up was programmed. Clinical follow-up continued for 2 years. Blood samples were collected to assess coagulation biomarkers. FDG-PET/CT was negative in 68/99 patients (68.7%), while suspicious FDG uptake was detected in 31/99 patients (31.3%). Additional diagnostic work-up confirmed a malignancy in 7/31 patients (22.6%), with six of them at early stage. During follow-up, two patients with negative FDG-PET/CT were diagnosed with cancer. Sensitivity (S), positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of FDG-PET/CT as single tool for the detection of occult malignancy were 77.8% (95% CI: 0.51-1), 22.6% (95% CI: 0.08-0.37) and 97.1% (95% CI: 0.93-1), respectively. Median tissue factor (TF) activity in patients with occult cancer was 5.38 pM vs. 2.40 pM in those without cancer (p = 0.03). Limitation of FDG-PET/CT screening to patients with TF activity > 2.8 pM would improve the PPV to 37.5% and reduce the costs of a single cancer diagnosis from 20,711€ to 11,670€. FDG-PET/CT is feasible for the screening of occult cancer in patients with unprovoked VTE, showing high S and NPV. The addition of TF activity determination may be useful for patient selection.

  18. Flight-Determined, Subsonic, Lateral-Directional Stability and Control Derivatives of the Thrust-Vectoring F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV), and Comparisons to the Basic F-18 and Predicted Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles

    1999-01-01

    The subsonic, lateral-directional, stability and control derivatives of the thrust-vectoring F-1 8 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) are extracted from flight data using a maximum likelihood parameter identification technique. State noise is accounted for in the identification formulation and is used to model the uncommanded forcing functions caused by unsteady aerodynamics. Preprogrammed maneuvers provided independent control surface inputs, eliminating problems of identifiability related to correlations between the aircraft controls and states. The HARV derivatives are plotted as functions of angles of attack between 10deg and 70deg and compared to flight estimates from the basic F-18 aircraft and to predictions from ground and wind tunnel tests. Unlike maneuvers of the basic F-18 aircraft, the HARV maneuvers were very precise and repeatable, resulting in tightly clustered estimates with small uncertainty levels. Significant differences were found between flight and prediction; however, some of these differences may be attributed to differences in the range of sideslip or input amplitude over which a given derivative was evaluated, and to differences between the HARV external configuration and that of the basic F-18 aircraft, upon which most of the prediction was based. Some HARV derivative fairings have been adjusted using basic F-18 derivatives (with low uncertainties) to help account for differences in variable ranges and the lack of HARV maneuvers at certain angles of attack.

  19. Genome Sequences and Phylogenetic Analysis of K88- and F18-Positive Porcine Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Sara M.; Danzeisen, Jessica L.; Isaacson, Richard E.; Seemann, Torsten; Achtman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) continues to result in major morbidity and mortality in the swine industry via postweaning diarrhea. The key virulence factors of ETEC strains, their serotypes, and their fimbrial components have been well studied. However, most studies to date have focused on plasmid-encoded traits related to colonization and toxin production, and the chromosomal backgrounds of these strains have been largely understudied. Here, we generated the genomic sequences of K88-positive and F18-positive porcine ETEC strains and examined the phylogenetic distribution of clinical porcine ETEC strains and their plasmid-associated genetic content. The genomes of porcine ETEC strains UMNK88 and UMNF18 were both found to contain remarkable plasmid complements containing known virulence factors, potential novel virulence factors, and antimicrobial resistance-associated elements. The chromosomes of these strains also possessed several unique genomic islands containing hypothetical genes with similarity to classical virulence factors, although phage-associated genomic islands dominated the accessory genomes of these strains. Phylogenetic analysis of 78 clinical isolates associated with neonatal and porcine diarrhea revealed that a limited subset of porcine ETEC lineages exist that generally contain common toxin and fimbrial profiles, with many of the isolates belonging to the ST10, ST23, and ST169 multilocus sequencing types. These lineages were generally distinct from existing human ETEC database isolates. Overall, most porcine ETEC strains appear to have emerged from a limited subset of E. coli lineages that either have an increased propensity to carry plasmid-encoded virulence factors or have the appropriate ETEC core genome required for virulence. PMID:22081385

  20. 1/48-scale model of an F-18 aircraft in Flow Visualization Facility (FVF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This image shows a plastic 1/48-scale model of an F-18 aircraft inside the 'Water Tunnel' more formally known as the NASA Dryden Flow Visualization Facility. Water is pumped through the tunnel in the direction of normal airflow over the aircraft; then, colored dyes are pumped through tubes with needle valves. The dyes flow back along the airframe and over the airfoils highlighting their aerodynamic characteristics. The aircraft can also be moved through its pitch axis to observe airflow disruptions while simulating actual flight at high angles of attack. The Water Tunnel at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, became operational in 1983 when Dryden was a Flight Research Facility under the management of the Ames Research Center in Mountain View, CA. As a medium for visualizing fluid flow, water has played a significant role. Its use dates back to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), the Renaissance Italian engineer, architect, painter, and sculptor. In more recent times, water tunnels have assisted the study of complex flows and flow-field interactions on aircraft shapes that generate strong vortex flows. Flow visualization in water tunnels assists in determining the strength of vortices, their location, and possible methods of controlling them. The design of the Dryden Water Tunnel imitated that of the Northrop Corporation's tunnel in Hawthorne, CA. Called the Flow Visualization Facility, the Dryden tunnel was built to assist researchers in understanding the aerodynamics of aircraft configured in such a way that they create strong vortex flows, particularly at high angles of attack. The tunnel provides results that compare well with data from aircraft in actual flight in another fluid-air. Other uses of the tunnel have included study of how such flight hardware as antennas, probes, pylons, parachutes, and experimental fixtures affect airflow. The facility has also been helpful in finding the best locations for emitting smoke from flight vehicles for flow

  1. 1/48-scale model of an F-18 aircraft in Flow Visualization Facility (FVF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This short movie clip shows a plastic 1/48-scale model of an F-18 aircraft inside the 'Water Tunnel' more formally known as the NASA Dryden Flow Visualization Facility. Water is pumped through the tunnel in the direction of normal airflow over the aircraft; then, colored dyes are pumped through tubes with needle valves. The dyes flow back along the airframe and over the airfoils highlighting their aerodynamic characteristics. The aircraft can also be moved through its pitch axis to observe airflow disruptions while simulating actual flight at high angles of attack. The Water Tunnel at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, became operational in 1983 when Dryden was a Flight Research Facility under the management of the Ames Research Center in Mountain View, CA. As a medium for visualizing fluid flow, water has played a significant role. Its use dates back to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), the Renaissance Italian engineer, architect, painter, and sculptor. In more recent times, water tunnels have assisted the study of complex flows and flow-field interactions on aircraft shapes that generate strong vortex flows. Flow visualization in water tunnels assists in determining the strength of vortices, their location, and possible methods of controlling them. The design of the Dryden Water Tunnel imitated that of the Northrop Corporation's tunnel in Hawthorne, CA. Called the Flow Visualization Facility, the Dryden tunnel was built to assist researchers in understanding the aerodynamics of aircraft configured in such a way that they create strong vortex flows, particularly at high angles of attack. The tunnel provides results that compare well with data from aircraft in actual flight in another fluid-air. Other uses of the tunnel have included study of how such flight hardware as antennas, probes, pylons, parachutes, and experimental fixtures affect airflow. The facility has also been helpful in finding the best locations for emitting smoke from flight vehicles

  2. Oral administration of citrus pulp reduces gastrointestinal recovery of orally dosed Escherichia coli F18 in weaned pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of citrus pulp (CTP) on the immune and cortisol responses to E. coli F18 inoculation and subsequent E. coli recovery were evaluated in newly weaned pigs (23.3 + 1.8 d of age). Barrows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups; with (CTP; n = 15) and without (Control; n = 15) the in-feed i...

  3. Oral administration of citrus pulp reduces gasrointestinal recovery of orally dosed Escherichia coli F18 in weaned pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of citrus pulp (CTP), on the immune and cortisol responses to E. coli F18 inoculation and subsequent E. coli recovery were evaluated in newly weaned pigs (23.3 + 1.8 d of age). Barrows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups; with (CTP; n = 15) and without (Control; n = 15) the in-feed ...

  4. [(18)F]FDG Uptake in the Aortic Wall Smooth Muscle of Atherosclerotic Plaques in the Simian Atherosclerosis Model.

    PubMed

    Iwaki, Takayuki; Mizuma, Hiroshi; Hokamura, Kazuya; Onoe, Hirotaka; Umemura, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a self-sustaining inflammatory fibroproliferative disease that progresses in discrete stages and involves a number of cell types and effector molecules. Recently, [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose- ([(18)F]FDG-) positron emission tomography (PET) has been suggested as a tool to evaluate atherosclerotic plaques by detecting accumulated macrophages associated with inflammation progress. However, at the cellular level, it remains unknown whether only macrophages exhibit high uptake of [(18)F]FDG. To identify the cellular origin of [(18)F]FDG uptake in atherosclerotic plaques, we developed a simian atherosclerosis model and performed PET and ex vivo macro- and micro-autoradiography (ARG). Increased [(18)F]FDG uptake in the aortic wall was observed in high-cholesterol diet-treated monkeys and WHHL rabbits. Macro-ARG of [(18)F]FDG in aortic sections showed that [(18)F]FDG was accumulated in the media and intima in the simian model as similar to that in WHHL rabbits. Combined analysis of micro-ARG with immunohistochemistry in the simian atherosclerosis model revealed that most cellular [(18)F]FDG uptake observed in the media was derived not only from the infiltrated macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques but also from the smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of the aortic wall in atherosclerotic lesions.

  5. [18F]FDG Uptake in the Aortic Wall Smooth Muscle of Atherosclerotic Plaques in the Simian Atherosclerosis Model

    PubMed Central

    Mizuma, Hiroshi; Hokamura, Kazuya; Onoe, Hirotaka; Umemura, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a self-sustaining inflammatory fibroproliferative disease that progresses in discrete stages and involves a number of cell types and effector molecules. Recently, [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose- ([18F]FDG-) positron emission tomography (PET) has been suggested as a tool to evaluate atherosclerotic plaques by detecting accumulated macrophages associated with inflammation progress. However, at the cellular level, it remains unknown whether only macrophages exhibit high uptake of [18F]FDG. To identify the cellular origin of [18F]FDG uptake in atherosclerotic plaques, we developed a simian atherosclerosis model and performed PET and ex vivo macro- and micro-autoradiography (ARG). Increased [18F]FDG uptake in the aortic wall was observed in high-cholesterol diet-treated monkeys and WHHL rabbits. Macro-ARG of [18F]FDG in aortic sections showed that [18F]FDG was accumulated in the media and intima in the simian model as similar to that in WHHL rabbits. Combined analysis of micro-ARG with immunohistochemistry in the simian atherosclerosis model revealed that most cellular [18F]FDG uptake observed in the media was derived not only from the infiltrated macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques but also from the smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of the aortic wall in atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:28101514

  6. PET/CT imaging in polymyalgia rheumatica: praepubic 18F-FDG uptake correlates with pectineus and adductor longus muscles enthesitis and with tenosynovitis

    PubMed Central

    Sprlakova-Pukova, Andrea; Bortlicek, Zbynek; Fojtik, Zdenek; Kazda, Tomas; Joukal, Marek; Koukalova, Renata; Vasina, Jiri; Eremiasova, Jana; Nemec, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) is increasing in the diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR), one of the most common inflammatory rheumatic diseases. In addition to other locations, increased 18F-FDG accumulation has been detected in the praepubic region in some patients. However, a deeper description and pathophysiological explanation of this increased praepubic accumulation has been lacking. The aim of the presented study is to confirm a decrease in praepubic 18F-FDG accumulation in response to therapy and to describe potential correlations to other 18F-FDG PET/CT scan characteristics during the course of disease. As a secondary objective, we describe the pathological aspects of the observed praepubic 18F-FDG uptake. Patients and methods A retrospective review of patients with newly suspected PMR undergoing baseline and follow up 18F-FDG PET/CT between February 2010 and March 2016 is given. Those with a visually detected presence of praepubic 18F-FDG accumulation were further analysed. The uptake was assessed visually and also semi-quantitatively in the defined region of interest by calculation of target-to-liver ratios. Other regions typical for PMR were systematically described as well (shoulders, hips, sternoclavicular joints, ischiogluteal bursae, spinous interspaces). Results Twenty-three out of 89 screened patients (26%) presented with initial praepubic 18F-FDG PET/CT positivity, 15 of whom also underwent follow up 18F-FDG PET/CT examination. Five out of 15 patients presented with increased 18F-FDG accumulation in large arteries as a sign of giant cell arteritis. During follow up examination, decrease in 18F-FDG accumulation caused by therapeutic intervention was observed in all evaluated locations in all analysed patients and no new positivity was indicated, including periarticular, extraarticular tissues or target large vessels. Praepubical accumulation of 18F-FDG was

  7. F-18 HARV yaw rate expansion flight #125 with Inverted Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, used an F-18 Hornet fighter aircraft as its High Angle-of-Attack (Alpha) Research Vehicle (HARV) in a three-phased flight research program lasting from April 1987 until September 1996. The aircraft completed 385 research flights and demonstrated stabilized flight at angles of attack between 65 and 70 degrees using thrust vectoring vanes, a research flight control system, and (eventually) forebody strakes (hinged structures on the forward side of the fuselage to provide control by interacting with vortices, generated at high angles of attack, to create side forces). This combination of technologies provided carefree handling of a fighter aircraft in a part of the flight regime that was otherwise very dangerous. Flight research with the HARV increased our understanding of flight at high angles of attack (angle of the wings with respect to the direction in which the aircraft was heading), enabling designers of U.S. fighter aircraft to design airplanes that will fly safely in portions of the flight envelope that pilots previously had to avoid. Flight 125 with the HARV involved yaw rate expansion up to 50 degrees per second (moving the nose to the left or right at that rate). NASA research pilot Ed Schneider was the pilot, and the purpose of the flight was to look at the spin characteristics of the HARV. The sequence in this particular video clip includes the first and second maneuvers in the flight. On the first maneuver, the pilot attempted to achieve a yaw rate of 40 degrees per second and actually went to 47 degrees. The spin was oscillatory in pitch (up and down) and roll (rotating around the longitudinal axis). Recovery was normal. On the second maneuver of the flight in which Schneider tried to achieve a yaw rate of 40 degrees per second, the aircraft overshot to 54 degrees per second during an oscillatory spin. In the course of the recovery, the aircraft rolled after a large sideslip buildup. Moderate aft stick

  8. Discussion on the alteration of FDG uptake by the breast according to the menstrual cycle in 18F-FDG PET/CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H. H.; Park, M. S.; Lee, C. H.; Cho, J. H.; Dong, K. R.; Chung, W. K.

    2012-09-01

    18F-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) PET (positron emission tomography)/CT (computed tomography) is a useful modality for identifying high-glucose-consuming cells, such as cancer cells, by the glucose metabolism of FDG. FDG is taken up by cancer and inflammatory cells, but occasionally there is also some FDG uptake by normal tissues as a result of their individual physiological characteristics. In particular, in fertile females, unusual FDG uptake in the breast changes according to the stages in the menstrual cycle, which can adversely affect a diagnosis. Therefore, this study examined the change in breast FDG uptake in the menstrual cycle on 18F-FDG PET/CT. One hundred and sixty females (34±3.5 years old), who had not undergone a gynecologic anamnesis and had a regular menstrual cycle over the previous 6 months, were examined from March 2010 to February 2011. The subjects were divided into the following four groups (each with 40 patients): flow phase, proliferative phase, ovulatory phase and secretory phase using Pregnancy Calculator Ver. 0.14 and history taking. Discovery Ste was used as the PET/CT. The standardized uptake values (SUVs) on the accumulated region on the breast were analyzed, and three nuclear medicine specialists performed a blind test. The SUVs on the breast were the flow phase (1.64±0.25), proliferative phase (0.93±0.28), ovulatory phase (1.66±0.26) and secretory phase (1.77±0.28). A high uptake value was observed in the secretory, flow and ovulatory phases. The FDG accumulation of the breast was divided into the following three grades compared with the lung and liver by gross analysis: the breast uptake was equal to the lung (Grade I), between the lung and liver (Grade II) and equal to or greater than the liver (Grade III). These results showed a high uptake value in the secretory, flow and ovulatory phases. In fertile females, the FDG uptake of the breast showed changes according to the menstrual cycle, which can be used to improve the diagnosis

  9. Flutter Clearance of the F-18 High-angle-of-attack Research Vehicle with Experimental Wingtip Instrumentation Pods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    1989-01-01

    An F-18 aircraft was modified with wingtip instrumentation pods for use in NASA's high-angle-of-attack research program. Ground vibration and flight flutter testing were performed to clear an acceptable flight envelope for the aircraft. Flight test utilized atmospheric turbulence for structural excitation; the aircraft displayed no adverse aeroelastic trends within the envelope tested. The data presented in this report include mode shapes from the ground vibration and estimates of frequency and damping as a function of Mach number.

  10. Surface flow visualization of separated flows on the forebody of an F-18 aircraft and wind-tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.; Richwine, David M.; Banks, Daniel W.

    1988-01-01

    A method of in-flight surface flow visualization similar to wind-tunnel-model oil flows is described for cases where photo-chase planes or onboard photography are not practical. This method, used on an F-18 aircraft in flight at high angles of attack, clearly showed surface flow streamlines in the fuselage forebody. Vortex separation and reattachment lines were identified with this method and documented using postflight photography. Surface flow angles measured at the 90 and 270 degrees meridians show excellent agreement with the wind tunnel data for a pointed tangent ogive with an aspect ratio of 3.5. The separation and reattachment line locations were qualitatively similar to the F-18 wind-tunnel-model oil flows but neither the laminar separation bubble nor the boundary-layer transition on the wind tunnel model were evident in the flight surface flows. The separation and reattachment line locations were in fair agreement with the wind tunnel data for the 3.5 ogive. The elliptical forebody shape of the F-18 caused the primary separation lines to move toward the leeward meridian. Little effect of angle of attack on the separation locations was noted for the range reported.

  11. High 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake in microscopic peritoneal tumors requires physiological hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Feng; Ma, Yuanyuan; Sun, Xiaorong; Humm, John L.; Ling, C. Clifton; O’Donoghue, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake in microscopic tumors grown intraperitoneally in nude mice and to relate this to physiological hypoxia and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) expression. Methods Human colon cancer HT29 and HCT-8 cells were injected intraperitoneally into nude mice to generate disseminated tumors of varying sizes. Following overnight fasting, animals, either breathing air or carbogen (95% O2+ 5% CO2), were intravenously administered 18F-FDG together with the hypoxia marker pimonidazole (PIMO) and the cellular proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) one hour before sacrifice. Hoechst 33342, a perfusion marker, was administered one minute before sacrifice. Following sacrifice, the intratumoral distribution of 18F-FDG was assessed by digital autoradiography of frozen tissue sections. This was compared with the distributions of PIMO, GLUT-1 expression, BrdUrd and Hoechst 33342 as visualized by immunofluorescent microscopy. Results Small tumors (< 1 mm diameter) had high 18F-FDG accumulation and were severely hypoxic with high GLUT-1 expression. Larger tumors (1–4 mm diameter) generally had low 18F-FDG accumulation and were not significantly hypoxic with low GLUT1 expression. Carbogen breathing significantly decreased 18F-FDG accumulation and tumor hypoxia in microscopic tumors but had little effect on GLUT1 expression. Conclusion There was high 18F-FDG uptake in microscopic tumors which was spatially associated with physiological hypoxia and high GLUT-1 expression. This enhanced uptake was abrogated by carbogen breathing, indicating that in the absence of physiological hypoxia, high GLUT1 expression, by itself, was insufficient to ensure high 18F-FDG uptake. PMID:20351353

  12. KEY COMPARISON: Comparisons CCRI(II)-K3.F-18 and APMP.RI(II)-K3.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F and links to the key comparison reference value of the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; Woods, M. J.

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, the CCRI(II) decided that an indirect comparison of 18F measurements piloted by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), UK in 2001 was sufficiently well constructed that it could be converted into a CCRI(II) comparison, with comparison identifier CCRI(II)-K3.F-18. At the same time, the pilot laboratory made a bilateral comparison with the institute in Chinese Taipei, comparison identifier APMP.RI(II)-K3.F-18. The results of the comparisons have been reported and the key comparison working group (KCWG) of the CCRI(II) has approved the mechanism to link all the results to the key comparison reference value (KCRV) of 18F. The KCRV has been determined through the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18. These comparisons have enabled a further four results to be added to the matrix of degrees of equivalence for 18F activity measurements. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by Section II of the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI(II)), according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  13. SR-71B - in Flight with F-18 Chase Aircraft - View from Air Force Tanker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA 831, an SR-71B operated by the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, cruises over the Mojave Desert with an F/A-18 Hornet flying safety chase. They were photographed on a 1996 mission from an Air Force refueling tanker The F/A-18 Hornet is used primarily as a safety chase and support aircraft at Dryden. As support aircraft, the F-18s are used for safety chase, pilot proficiency and aerial photography. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used

  14. SR-71B - in Flight with F-18 Chase Aircraft - View from Air Force Tanker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA 831, an SR-71B operated by the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, cruises over the Mojave Desert with an F/A-18 Hornet flying safety chase. They were photographed on a 1996 mission from an Air Force refueling tanker The F/A-18 Hornet is used primarily as a safety chase and support aircraft at Dryden. As support aircraft, the F-18s are used for safety chase, pilot proficiency and aerial photography. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used

  15. Designations F18ab and F18ac for the related fimbrial types F107, 2134P and 8813 of Escherichia coli isolated from porcine postweaning diarrhoea and from oedema disease.

    PubMed

    Rippinger, P; Bertschinger, H U; Imberechts, H; Nagy, B; Sorg, I; Stamm, M; Wild, P; Wittig, W

    1995-08-01

    The relatedness of the fimbriae produced by eight E. coli strains including type strains with F107 fimbriae, 2134P pili and colonization factor 8813 (preliminary F18), was examined. These strains had been isolated principally from pigs which were affected with postweaning diarrhoea or with oedema disease. The fimbriae were analyzed by means of electron microscopy, slide agglutination, immunofluorescence, immunogold labelling, immuno-diffusion, immunoelectrophoresis and western blot, molecular genetic techniques, and in vitro adhesion. The fimbriae of all the strains were long flexible filaments with a diameter not larger than 4.6 nm showing a zig-zag pattern. Results obtained by the serological techniques confirmed that the fimbriae possessed a common antigenic determinant designated 'a' in addition to a variant-specific determinant designated 'b' or 'c'. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that the determinants 'a' and 'b' or 'a' and 'c' were localized along the same fimbrium. In immunoelectrophoresis, fimbrial extracts of selected strains yielded a single precipitation line towards the cathode. One single major subunit of approximately 15 kDa was recognised in western blots by antisera against the common antigenic determinant and the variant specific determinants. All strains possessed sequences related to gene fedA, coding for the major subunit of fimbriae F107. Two types of fedA-related subunit genes were differentiated, corresponding to the 'ab' and 'ac' types of fimbriae as defined by serological methods. The results demonstrated that F107 fimbriae, 2134P pili and colonization factor 8813 are related, and that two serological variants can be distinguished. We propose designations F18ab (for F107), and F18ac (for 2134P and 8813) in analogy to the nomenclature of F4 fimbriae.

  16. Recurrent tumor vs radiation effects after Gamma Knife radiosurgery of intracerebral metastases: Diagnosis with PET-FDG

    SciTech Connect

    Mogard, J.; Kihlstroem, L.; Ericson, K. |

    1994-03-01

    Our objective was to differentiate radiation effects from tumor progression in metastases stereotaxically irradiated with the multicobalt unit (Gamma Knife). Eleven patients with stereotaxically irradiated cerebral metastases were examined with PET using [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to differentiate recurrent tumor from radiation effects. Six patients had increased uptake of FDG, and clinical, radiological, and pathological findings confirmed the diagnosis of recurrent metastases. These patients had an unfavorable prognosis and were all dead within 54 weeks after radiosurgery. Five patients had lesions without an increased accumulation of FDG. Four of these patients were alive after a total follow-up of 1.7 years, while one patient died of a peptic ulcer 56 weeks after radiosurgery. Positron emission tomography with FDG was of obvious prognostic value in this small series of patients and was clearly superior to CT and MR in the distinction between tumor recurrence and radiation effects (verified necrosis in one case). 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. CD14 in the TLRs signaling pathway is associated with the resistance to E. coli F18 in Chinese domestic weaned piglets

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhengchang; Liu, Ying; Dong, Wenhua; Zhu, Guo-qiang; Wu, Shenglong; Bao, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli F18 (E. coli F18) is mainly responsible for post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) in piglets. The genetic basis and regulatory mechanism of E. coli F18 resistance in Chinese domestic weaned piglets remain unclear. Meishan piglets were used as model animals to test their susceptibility to E. coli F18. By performing a comparative transcriptome study on duodenum tissues of sensitive and resistant pigs, we identified 198 differentially expressed genes (DEGs; 125 upregulated and 73 downregulated) in the resistant pigs. DEGs were predominately involved in immune system pathways, including the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway. qPCR and western blot showed CD14, IFN-α, TLR4 and IL-1β, etc. in the TLR signaling pathway had significantly higher expression levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced small intestinal epithelial cell lines (IPEC-J2) than those in normal IPEC-J2 cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the increased expression of CD14 gene in the E. coli F18-resistant individuals. After CD14 knockdown, the levels of cytokines IL-6 and IL-12 were significantly reduced in IPEC-J2 cell supernatants. The adhesion ability of F18ab strain with IPEC-J2 cells was significantly increased (p < 0.01). This study revealed the TLR signaling pathway, and especially CD14, probably plays an important role in resistance to E. coli F18 infection in Chinese domestic piglets. PMID:27098998

  18. Mechanisms underlying 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kawada, Kenji; Iwamoto, Masayoshi; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is a diagnostic tool to evaluate metabolic activity by measuring accumulation of FDG, an analogue of glucose, and has been widely used for detecting small tumors, monitoring treatment response and predicting patients’ prognosis in a variety of cancers. However, the molecular mechanism of FDG accumulation into tumors remains to be investigated. It is well-known that most cancers are metabolically active with elevated glucose metabolism, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. The underlying mechanisms for elevated glucose metabolism in cancer tissues are complex. Recent reports have indicated the potential of FDG-PET/CT scans in predicting mutational status (e.g., KRAS gene mutation) of colorectal cancer (CRC), which suggests that FDG-PET/CT scans may play a key role in determining therapeutic strategies by non-invasively predicting treatment response to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy. In this review, we summarize the current findings investigating the molecular mechanism of 18F-FDG accumulation in CRC. PMID:27928469

  19. Free-to-roll tests of X-31 and F-18 subscale models with correlation to flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David L., II; Nelson, Robert C.; Fisher, David F.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation will concentrate on a series of low-speed wind tunnel tests conducted on a 2.5 percent subscale F-18 model and a 2 percent subscale X-31 model. The model's control surfaces were unaugmented; and for the most part, were deflected at a constant angle throughout the tests. The tests consisted mostly of free-to-roll experiments conducted with the use of an air-bearing, surface pressure measurements, off-surface flow visualization, and force-balance tests. Where possible the results of the subscale tests have been compared to flight test data, or to other wind tunnel data taken at higher Reynolds numbers.

  20. Parameter Identification Flight Test Maneuvers for Closed Loop Modeling of the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterson, James G. (Technical Monitor); Morelli, E. A.

    1996-01-01

    Flight test maneuvers are specified for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The maneuvers were designed for closed loop parameter identification purposes, specifically for longitudinal and lateral linear model parameter estimation at 5,20,30,45, and 60 degrees angle of attack, using the Actuated Nose Strakes for Enhanced Rolling (ANSER) control law in Thrust Vectoring (TV) mode. Each maneuver is to be realized by applying square wave inputs to specific pilot station controls using the On-Board Excitation System (OBES). Maneuver descriptions and complete specifications of the time / amplitude points defining each input are included, along with plots of the input time histories.

  1. Piloted Parameter Identification Flight Test Maneuvers for Closed Loop Modeling of the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1996-01-01

    Flight test maneuvers are specified for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The maneuvers were designed for closed loop parameter identification purposes, specifically for longitudinal and lateral linear model parameter estimation at 5, 20, 30, 45, and 60 degrees angle of attack, using the NASA 1A control law. Each maneuver is to be realized by the pilot applying square wave inputs to specific pilot station controls. Maneuver descriptions and complete specifications of the time/amplitude points defining each input are included, along with plots of the input time histories.

  2. Role of F18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography in the management of Askin's tumor.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Sampath; Kashyap, Raghava; Bhattacharya, Anish; Kumar Jindal, Surinder; Rai Mittal, Bhagwant

    2013-07-01

    A primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of the thoraco-abdominal region is one of a group of small round cell tumors usually found in children and young adults, originally described by Askin et al. Most cases arise in the soft-tissues of the thorax, but may rarely occur within the lung with the symptoms of chest wall pain, pleural effusion and dyspnea. The authors present two cases demonstrating the utility of F18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography in the staging and prognosis of PNET of the chest wall.

  3. Calcified peritoneal metastasis identified on 18F-fluoride positron emission tomography/computed tomography: Importance of extraosseous uptake of F-18 fluoride.

    PubMed

    Verma, Priyanka; Chandra, Piyush; Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    F-18 NaF positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is used for the evaluation of malignant and nonmalignant osseous disease. Extraosseous uptake of 18 fluoride-NaF has been observed in the arterial vasculature, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract. We describe a case of a woman with carcinoma of unknown primary in whom F-18 NaF PET/CT showed tracer uptake in the calcified peritoneal metastasis. Extraosseous findings on F-18 NaF PET/CT, though rare, may be visualized and may result in important management changes.

  4. F-18 Labeled Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Analogue in the PET Imaging of Colon Carcinoma in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuxia; Shen, Hua; Pang, Lifang; Yin, Duanzhi; Wang, Yongxian; Li, Shanqun; Shi, Hongcheng

    2013-01-01

    As large amount of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors are expressed in various tumors and VIP-related diseases, radiolabeled VIP provides a potential PET imaging agent for VIP receptor. However, structural modification of VIP is required before being radiolabeled and used for VIP receptor imaging due to its poor in vivo stability. As a VIP analogue, [R8, 15, 21, L17]-VIP exhibited improved stability and receptor specificity in preliminary studies. In this study, F-18 labeled [R8,15,21, L17]-VIP was produced with the radiochemical yield being as high as 33.6% ± 3% (decay-for-corrected, n = 5) achieved within 100 min, a specific activity of 255 GBq/μmol, and a radiochemical purity as high as 99% as characterized by radioactive HPLC, TLC, and SDS-Page radioautography. A biodistribution study in normal mice also demonstrated fast elimination of F-18 labeled [R8,15,21, L17]-VIP in the blood, liver, and gastrointestinal tracts. A further micro-PET imaging study in C26 colon carcinoma bearing mice confirmed the high tumor specificity, with the tumor/muscle radioactivity uptake ratio being as high as 3.03 at 60 min following injection, and no apparent radioactivity concentration in the intestinal tracts. In addition, blocking experiment and Western Blot test further confirmed its potential in PET imaging of VIP receptor-positive tumor. PMID:24459669

  5. (18)F-FLT and (18)F-FDG PET-CT imaging in the evaluation of early therapeutic effects of chemotherapy on Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weina; Yu, Shupeng; Xin, Jun; Guo, Qiyong

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the early therapeutic effects of chemotherapy on Walker 256 tumor-bearing Wistar rats via F-18-fluoro-3'-deoxy-3'-L-fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT) and F-18-fluoro-deoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) imaging. Walker 256 tumor-bearing Wistar rats were subjected to (18)F-FLT and (18)F-FDG PET-CT imaging prior to and 24 and 48 h after epirubicin chemotherapy. (18)F-FLT and (18)F-FDG uptake [tumor/muscle (T/M)], the percentage of injected dose per gram (% ID/g), and the Ki-67 labeling index (LI-Ki-67) were quantitatively determined for each rat prior to and following epirubicin chemotherapy. The correlation between % ID/g and tumor LI-Ki-67 was analyzed. Both (18)F-FLT and (18)F-FDG tumor uptake decreased significantly at 24 and 48 h after chemotherapy (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). LI-Ki-67 also significantly reduced 24 and 48 h after chemotherapy (P<0.001). Furthermore, (18)F-FLT and (18)F-FDG T/M tumor uptake correlated positively with LI-Ki-67 before and after chemotherapy (r=0.842 and 0.813, respectively). During the early post-chemotherapy stage, (18)F-FLT and (18)F-FDG uptake in Walker 256 tumors reduced significantly, which correlated positively with the tumor cell proliferative activity.

  6. 18F-FLT and 18F-FDG PET-CT imaging in the evaluation of early therapeutic effects of chemotherapy on Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weina; Yu, Shupeng; Xin, Jun; Guo, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the early therapeutic effects of chemotherapy on Walker 256 tumor-bearing Wistar rats via F-18-fluoro-3′-deoxy-3′-L-fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) and F-18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) imaging. Walker 256 tumor-bearing Wistar rats were subjected to 18F-FLT and 18F-FDG PET-CT imaging prior to and 24 and 48 h after epirubicin chemotherapy. 18F-FLT and 18F-FDG uptake [tumor/muscle (T/M)], the percentage of injected dose per gram (% ID/g), and the Ki-67 labeling index (LI-Ki-67) were quantitatively determined for each rat prior to and following epirubicin chemotherapy. The correlation between % ID/g and tumor LI-Ki-67 was analyzed. Both 18F-FLT and 18F-FDG tumor uptake decreased significantly at 24 and 48 h after chemotherapy (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). LI-Ki-67 also significantly reduced 24 and 48 h after chemotherapy (P<0.001). Furthermore, 18F-FLT and 18F-FDG T/M tumor uptake correlated positively with LI-Ki-67 before and after chemotherapy (r=0.842 and 0.813, respectively). During the early post-chemotherapy stage, 18F-FLT and 18F-FDG uptake in Walker 256 tumors reduced significantly, which correlated positively with the tumor cell proliferative activity. PMID:28101193

  7. 18-FDG in diabetes mellitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fares, Y.; Itoh, M.; Watabe, H.; Ghista, D. N.

    1993-06-01

    The intravenous glucose tolerance test, IVGTT, has been used to evaluate patients in whom abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism and diabetes mellitus are suspected. IVGTT, if analyzed using "minimal models", or discrete-time methods, provides information on the sensitivity of glucose disappearance to insulin and on pancreatic sensitivity to glucose, information that cannot be obtained from direct analysis of the dynamic response alone. In a preliminary study, data obtained by intravenously injecting 18-FDG in four subjects was analyzed using a discrete-time model. The experimental details, the results and their implications will be discussed.

  8. Structure/Function Analysis of the Vaccinia Virus F18 Phosphoprotein, an Abundant Core Component Required for Virion Maturation and Infectivity▿

    PubMed Central

    Wickramasekera, Nadi T.; Traktman, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Poxvirus virions, whose outer membrane surrounds two lateral bodies and a core, contain at least 70 different proteins. The F18 phosphoprotein is one of the most abundant core components and is essential for the assembly of mature virions. We report here the results of a structure/function analysis in which the role of conserved cysteine residues, clusters of charged amino acids and clusters of hydrophobic/aromatic amino acids have been assessed. Taking advantage of a recombinant virus in which F18 expression is IPTG (isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside) dependent, we developed a transient complementation assay to evaluate the ability of mutant alleles of F18 to support virion morphogenesis and/or to restore the production of infectious virus. We have also examined protein-protein interactions, comparing the ability of mutant and WT F18 proteins to interact with WT F18 and to interact with the viral A30 protein, another essential core component. We show that F18 associates with an A30-containing multiprotein complex in vivo in a manner that depends upon clusters of hydrophobic/aromatic residues in the N′ terminus of the F18 protein but that it is not required for the assembly of this complex. Finally, we confirmed that two PSSP motifs within F18 are the sites of phosphorylation by cellular proline-directed kinases in vitro and in vivo. Mutation of both of these phosphorylation sites has no apparent impact on virion morphogenesis but leads to the assembly of virions with significantly reduced infectivity. PMID:20392848

  9. Electronic structures and nonlinear optical properties of highly deformed halofullerenes C(3v) C60F18 and D(3d) C60Cl30.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shu-Wei; Feng, Jing-Dong; Qiu, Yong-Qing; Sun, Hao; Wang, Feng-Di; Chang, Ying-Fei; Wang, Rong-Shun

    2010-11-15

    Electronic structures and nonlinear optical properties of two highly deformed halofullerenes C(3v) C(60)F(18) and D(3d) C(60)Cl(30) have been systematically studied by means of density functional theory. The large energy gaps (3.62 and 2.61 eV) between the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs and LUMOs) and the strong aromatic character (with nucleus-independent chemical shifts varying from -15.08 to -23.71 ppm) of C(60)F(18) and C(60)Cl(30) indicate their high stabilities. Further investigations of electronic property show that C(60)F(18) and C(60)Cl(30) could be excellent electron acceptors for potential photonic/photovoltaic applications in consequence of their large vertical electron affinities. The density of states and frontier molecular orbitals are also calculated, which present that HOMOs and LUMOs are mainly distributed in the tortoise shell subunit of C(60)F(18) and the aromatic [18] trannulene ring of C(60)Cl(30), and the influence from halogen atoms is secondary. In addition, the static linear polarizability and second-order hyperpolarizability of C(60)F(18) and C(60)Cl(30) are calculated using finite-field approach. The values of and for C(60)F(18) and C(60)Cl(30) molecules are significantly larger than those of C(60) because of their lower symmetric structures and high delocalization of pi electrons.

  10. Caged [(18)F]FDG Glycosylamines for Imaging Acidic Tumor Microenvironments Using Positron Emission Tomography.

    PubMed

    Flavell, Robert R; Truillet, Charles; Regan, Melanie K; Ganguly, Tanushree; Blecha, Joseph E; Kurhanewicz, John; VanBrocklin, Henry F; Keshari, Kayvan R; Chang, Christopher J; Evans, Michael J; Wilson, David M

    2016-01-20

    Solid tumors are hypoxic with altered metabolism, resulting in secretion of acids into the extracellular matrix and lower relative pH, a feature associated with local invasion and metastasis. Therapeutic and diagnostic agents responsive to this microenvironment may improve tumor-specific delivery. Therefore, we pursued a general strategy whereby caged small-molecule drugs or imaging agents liberate their parent compounds in regions of low interstitial pH. In this manuscript, we present a new acid-labile prodrug method based on the glycosylamine linkage, and its application to a class of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging tracers, termed [(18)F]FDG amines. [(18)F]FDG amines operate via a proposed two-step mechanism, in which an acid-labile precursor decomposes to form the common radiotracer 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-d-glucose, which is subsequently accumulated by glucose avid cells. The rate of decomposition of [(18)F]FDG amines is tunable in a systematic fashion, tracking the pKa of the parent amine. In vivo, a 4-phenylbenzylamine [(18)F]FDG amine congener showed greater relative accumulation in tumors over benign tissue, which could be attenuated upon tumor alkalinization using previously validated models, including sodium bicarbonate treatment, or overexpression of carbonic anhydrase. This new class of PET tracer represents a viable approach for imaging acidic interstitial pH with potential for clinical translation.

  11. FDG PET Imaging in Pneumocystis Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Kono, Masanori; Yamashita, Hiroyuki; Kubota, Kazuo; Kano, Toshikazu; Mimori, Akio

    2015-08-01

    A 69-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis and pleuritis presented with dyspnea. On admission, she was afebrile and had an oxygen saturation of 97% on ambient air. Chest radiography and CT revealed only subtle ground-glass opacities. However, FDG PET revealed pathological uptake in both lungs. A diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia was made based on a positive β-D-glucan assay and polymerase chain reaction amplification of Pneumocystis jirovecii from the sputum. Posttreatment FDG PET revealed resolution of the previously noted uptake. This case illustrates that FDG PET can be used to diagnose Pneumocystis pneumonia when the CT findings are equivocal.

  12. In-flight flow visualization with pressure measurements at low speeds on the NASA F-18 high alpha research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delfrate, John H.; Fisher, David F.; Zuniga, Fanny A.

    1990-01-01

    In-flight results from surface and off-surface flow visualizations and from extensive pressure distributions document the vortical flow on the leading edge extensions (LEX) and forebody of the NASA F-18 high alpha research vehicle for low speeds and angles of attack up to 50 degs. Surface flow visualization data, obtained using the emitted fluid technique, were used to define separation lines and laminar separation bubbles. Off-surface flow visualization data, obtained by smoke injection, were used to document both the path of the vortex cores and the location of vortex core breakdown. The location of vortex core breakdown correlated well with the loss of suction pressure on the LEX and with the flow visualization results from ground facilities. Surface flow separation lines on the LEX and forebody corresponded well with the end of pressure recovery under the vortical flows. Correlation of the pressures with wind tunnel results show fair to good correlation.

  13. Lockheed L-1011 TriStar to support Adaptive Performance Optimization study with NASA F-18 chase plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This Lockheed L-1011 Tristar, seen here June 1995, is currently the subject of a new flight research experiment developed by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to improve the effiecency of large transport aircraft. Shown with a NASA F-18 chase plane over California's Sierra Nevada mountains during an earlier baseline flight, the jetliner operated by Oribtal Sciences Corp., recently flew its first data-gathering mission in the Adaptive Performance Optimization project. The experiment seeks to reduce fuel comsumption of large jetliners by improving the aerodynamic efficiency of their wings at cruise conditions. A research computer employing a sophisticated software program adapts to changing flight conditions by commanding small movements of the L-1011's outboard ailerons to give its wings the most efficient - or optimal - airfoil. Up to a dozen research flights will be flown in the current and follow-on phases of the project over the next couple years.

  14. F-18 SRA closeup of nose cap showing L-Probe experiment and standard air data sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This under-the-nose view of a modified F-18 Systems Research Aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, shows three critical components of the aircraft's air data systems which are mounted on both sides of the forward fuselage. Furthest forward are two L-probes that were the focus of the recent Advanced L-probe Air Data Integration (ALADIN) experiment. Behind the L-probes are angle-of-attack vanes, while below them are the aircraft's standard pitot-static air data probes. The ALADIN experiment focused on providing pilots with angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip air data as well as traditional airspeed and altitude information, all from a single system. Once fully developed, the new L-probes have the potential to give pilots more accurate air data information with less hardware.

  15. In-flight flow visualization characteristics of the NASA F-18 high alpha research vehicle at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.; Delfrate, John H.; Richwine, David M.

    1991-01-01

    Surface and off-surface flow visualization techniques were used to visualize the 3-D separated flows on the NASA F-18 high alpha research vehicle at high angles of attack. Results near the alpha = 25 to 26 deg and alpha = 45 to 49 deg are presented. Both the forebody and leading edge extension (LEX) vortex cores and breakdown locations were visualized using smoke. Forebody and LEX vortex separation lines on the surface were defined using an emitted fluid technique. A laminar separation bubble was also detected on the nose cone using the emitted fluid technique and was similar to that observed in the wind tunnel test, but not as extensive. Regions of attached, separated, and vortical flow were noted on the wing and the leading edge flap using tufts and flow cones, and compared well with limited wind tunnel results.

  16. Auditory adaptation to sound intensity in conscious rats: 2-[F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose PET study.

    PubMed

    Jang, Dong Pyo; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Oh, Jin-Hwan; Park, Chan-Woong; Kim, In Young; Kim, Young-Bo; Cho, Zang-Hee

    2012-03-07

    Despite the importance of the adaptive process for discriminating the broad range of sound intensity, there have been few systemic investigations targeting the auditory mechanisms. In this study, the adaptation effect of sound intensity on the change in glucose metabolism in rat brains was examined using a PET technique. In the first experiment, broadband white noise sound (40, 60, 80, or 100 dB sound pressure level) was given for 30 min after an 2-[F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose injection in an awake condition. In the second experiment, sound stimuli with an intensity modulation of 0, 0.5, and 5.0 Hz in frequency and at three intensity levels were used for examining the metabolism change according to the short time scale variation of the sound intensity. As a result, the metabolic activities in the bilateral cochlear nucleus, superior olivary complexes, and inferior colliculus were proportional to the sound intensity level, whereas the bilateral auditory cortical areas unexpectedly decreased as the sound intensity level increased in the first experiment. In the second experiment, the glucose metabolism in the auditory cortex was higher at 0.5 and 5.0 Hz modulation frequency than the 0.0 Hz modulation frequency, while retaining an inverse relationship with the sound intensity. The metabolism in inferior colliculus was higher at 5.0 Hz modulation frequency than 0.0 and 0.5 Hz modulation frequencies. Taken together, the auditory cortex metabolism seemed to be actively adapted to the average sound intensity, which indicates that it plays an important role in processing the broad range to sound intensity more than the other nucleus of the auditory pathway. Especially, this study demonstrated that the sound intensity-dependent glucose metabolism can be seen in a small rodent's brain stem level using 2-[F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose PET functional neuroimaging.

  17. Suture Granuloma With False-Positive Findings on FDG-PET/CT Resected via Laparoscopic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Nobuyoshi; Tohma, Takayuki; Miyauchi, Hideaki; Suzuki, Kazufumi; Nishimori, Takanori; Ohira, Gaku; Narushima, Kazuo; Imanishi, Shunsuke; Toyozumi, Takeshi; Matsubara, Hisahiro

    2015-04-01

    A 61-year-old woman who had undergone total hysterectomy 16 years previously exhibited a pelvic tumor on computed tomography (CT). F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) combined positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging revealed a solitary small focus of increased FDG activity in the pelvis. A gastrointestinal stromal tumor originating in the small intestine or another type of tumor originating in the mesentery (desmoid, schwannoma, or foreign body granuloma) was suspected; therefore, laparoscopic resection was conducted. A white, hard tumor was found to originate from the mesentery of the sigmoid colon and adhered slightly to the small intestine. The tumor was resected with a negative margin, and the pathologic diagnosis was suture granuloma. The possibility of suture granuloma should be kept in mind in cases of tumors with positive PET findings and a history of surgery close to the lesion. However, it is difficult to preoperatively diagnose pelvic tumors using a biopsy. Therefore, considering the possibility of malignancy, it is necessary to achieve complete resection without exposing the tumor.

  18. (99m)Tc-DMSA (V) in Evaluation of Osteosarcoma: Comparative Studies with (18)F-FDG PET/CT in Detection of Primary and Malignant Lesions.

    PubMed

    Bandopadhyaya, G P; Gupta, Priyanka; Singh, Archana; Shukla, Jaya; Rastogi, S; Kumar, Rakesh; Malhotra, Arun

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the role of (99m)Tc-DMSA (V) and [(18)F]FDG PET-CT in management of patients with osteosarcoma, 22 patients were included in our study. All patients underwent both (99m)Tc-DMSA (V) and whole-body [(18)F]FDG PET-CT scans within an interval of 1 week. 555-740 MBq of (99m)Tc-DMSA (V) was injected i.v. the whole-body planar, SPECT images of primary site and chest were performed after 3-4 hours. [(18)F]FDG PET-CT images were obtained 60 minutes after i.v. injection of 370 MBq of F-18 FDG. Both FDG PET-CT (mean SUV(max) = 7.1) and DMSA (V) scans showed abnormal uptake at primary site in all the 22 patients (100% sensitivity for both). Whole-body PET-CT detected metastasis in 11 pts (lung mets in 10 and lung + bone mets in 1 patient). Whole-body planar DMSA (V) and SPECT detected bone metastasis in one patient, lung mets in 7 patients and LN in 1 patient. HRCT of chest confirmed lung mets in 10 patients and inflammatory lesion in one patient. 7 patients positive for mets on DMSA (V) scan had higher uptake in lung lesions as compared to FDG uptake on PET-CT. Three patients who did not show any DMSA uptake had subcentimeter lung nodule. Resuts of both (99m)Tc-DMSA (V) (whole-body planar and SPECT imaging) and [(18)F]FDG PET-CT were comparable in evaluation of primary site lesions and metastatic lesions greater than 1 cm. Though (99m)Tc-DMSA (V) had higher uptake in the lesions as compared to [(18)F]FDG PET-CT, the only advantage [(18)F]FDG PET-CT had was that it could also detect subcentimeter lesions.

  19. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  20. FDG-PET/CT Limited to the Thorax and Upper Abdomen for Staging and Management of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Postema, Jan W. A.; Schreurs, Wendy M. J.; Lafeber, Albert; Hendrickx, Baudewijn W.; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Vogel, Wouter V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) of the chest/upper abdomen compared to the generally performed scan from head to upper thighs, for staging and management of (suspected) lung cancer in patients with no history of malignancy or complaints outside the thorax. Methods FDG-PET/CT scans of 1059 patients with suspected or recently proven lung cancer, with no history of malignancy or complaints outside the thorax, were analysed in a retrospective multi-centre trial. Suspect FDG-avid lesions in the chest and upper abdomen, the head and neck area above the shoulder line and in the abdomen and pelvis below the caudal tip of the liver were noted. The impact of lesions detected in the head and neck area and abdomen and pelvis on additional diagnostic procedures, staging and treatment decisions was evaluated. Results The head and neck area revealed additional suspect lesions in 7.2%, and the abdomen and pelvis in 15.8% of patients. Imaging of the head and neck area and the abdomen and pelvic area showed additional lesions in 19.5%, inducing additional diagnostic procedures in 7.8%. This resulted in discovery of additional lesions considered malignant in 10.7%, changing patient management for lung cancer in 1.2%. In (suspected) lung cancer, PET/CT limited to the chest and upper abdomen resulted in correct staging in 98.7% of patients, which led to the identical management as full field of view PET in 98.8% of patients. Conclusion High value of FDG-PET/CT for staging and correct patient management is already achieved with chest and upper abdomen. Findings in head and neck area and abdomen and pelvis generally induce investigations with limited or no impact on staging and treatment of NSCLC, and can be interpreted accordingly. PMID:27556809

  1. Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder of the Thorax: CT and FDG-PET Features in a Single Tertiary Referral Center

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ga Young; Kim, Mi Young; Huh, Joo Rryung; Jo, Kyung-Wook; Shim, Tae Sun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the chest computed tomography (CT) and F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomographic (FDG-PET) findings of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in the thorax. From November 2004 to February 2013, the cases of 12 adult patients (3 female and 9 male, age range 34–68, and median age 46 years) with proven PTLD were retrospectively reviewed. The transplanted organs included the kidney (5/12), liver (4/12), heart (1/12), combined kidney and pancreas (1/12), and hematopoietic stem cell (1/12). We investigated the relationship of the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) to the patients’ long-term follow-up, and evaluated the characteristics of the lesions on the chest CT and FDG-PET. The lesions were classified into 2 patterns: that of lymph node and lung involvement. The interval between the transplantation and the onset of PTLD was 2 to 128 months (median, 49). Positive EBV-encoded RNA in the pathologic specimens was found in 10 patients (83.3%). Eight patients were positive for EBV PCR in their blood, and 3 patients showed seroconversion without antiviral therapy. The responses to treatment were complete in 7 cases (58.3%), partial remission in 4 cases (33.3%), and undetermined in 1 case (8.3%). The more common chest CT patterns showed lymph node involvement (10/12) rather than lung involvement (3/12). The median maximum-standardized uptake value on the FDG-PET scans was 7.7 (range, 2.7–25.5). In patients with PTLD involving the thorax, lymphadenopathy was the more common manifestation on the chest CT rather than lung involvement. The lesions showed hypermetabolism on FDG-PET. PMID:26252295

  2. Synthesis, biological evaluation, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies of three novel F-18 labeled and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) targeted 5-bromo pyrimidines as radiotracers for tumor.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yu; Wang, Dawei; Xu, Xingyu; Liu, Jianping; Wu, Aiqin; Li, Xiang; Xue, Qianqian; Wang, Huan; Wang, Hang; Zhang, Huabei

    2017-02-15

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is considered as an attractive target for oncology. A series of F-18 labeled 5-bromo-N(2)-(4-(2-fluoro-pegylated (FPEG))-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N(4)-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine derivatives were prepared and evaluated as the FAK targeted radiotracers for the early diagnoses of tumor. For the study of the FAK targeted drug molecules, this was the first attempt to develop the tumor diagnostic imaging agents on the radiopharmaceutical level. They inhibited the activity of FAK with IC50 in the range of 91.4-425.7 nM, and among which the result of the [(19)F]2 was relatively good and had a modest IC50 of 91.4 nM. The [(19)F]2 was also profiled in vitro against some other kinds of cancer-related kinases (including two kinds of non-receptor tyrosine kinase: PYK2 and JAK2, and three kinds of receptor tyrosine kinase: IGF-1R, EGFR and PDGFRβ). It displayed 25.2 folds selectivity against PYK2, 35.1 folds selectivity against EGFR, and more than 100 folds selectivity against IGF-1R, JAK2 and PDGFRβ. For the biodistribution in S180 bearing mice, the corresponding [(18)F]2 were also relatively good, with modest tumor uptake of 5.47 ± 0.19 and 5.80 ± 0.06 %ID/g at 15 and 30 min post-injection, respectively. Furthermore, its tumor/muscle, tumor/bone and tumor/blood ratio at 15 min post-injection were 3.16, 2.53 and 4.52, respectively. And its tumor/muscle, tumor/bone and tumor/blood ratio at 30 min post-injection were 3.14, 2.76 and 4.43, respectively. In addition, coronal micro-PET/CT images of a mouse bearing S180 tumor clearly confirmed that [(18)F]2 could be accumulated in tumor, especially at 30 min post-injection. Besides, for the [(18)F]2, both the biodistribution data and the micro-PET/CT imaging study showed significantly reduced uptake of the radiotracer in the tumor tissue at 30 min post-injection in mice that received PF-562,271 (one of the reported best selective FAK inhibitor which was developed by Pfitzer Inc. and

  3. Radioactive by-products of a self-shielded cyclotron and the liquid target system for F-18 routine production.

    PubMed

    Kambali, I; Suryanto, H; Parwanto

    2016-06-01

    Routine production of F-18 radionuclide using proton beams accelerated in a cyclotron could potentially generate residual radioisotopes in the cyclotron vicinity which eventually become major safety concerns over radiation exposure to the workers. In this investigation, a typical 11-MeV proton, self-shielded cyclotron has been assessed for its residual radiation sources in the cyclotron's shielding, tank/chamber, cave wall as well as target system. Using a portable gamma ray spectroscopy system, the radiation measurement in the cyclotron environment has been carried out. Experimental results indicate that relatively long-lived radioisotopes such as Mn-54, Zn-65 and Eu-152 are detected in the inner and outer surface of the cyclotron shielding respectively while Mn-54 spectrum is observed around the cyclotron chamber. Weak intensity of Eu-152 radioisotope is again spotted in the inner and outer surface of the cyclotron cave wall. Angular distribution measurement of the Eu-152 shows that the intensity slightly drops with increasing observation angle relative to the proton beam incoming angle. In the target system, gamma rays from Co-56, Mn-52, Co-60, Mn-54, Ag-110 m are identified. TALYS-calculated nuclear cross-section data are used to study the origins of the radioactive by-products.

  4. Extraction of Lateral-Directional Stability and Control Derivatives for the Basic F-18 Aircraft at High Angles of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles

    1997-01-01

    The results of parameter identification to determine the lateral-directional stability and control derivatives of an F-18 research aircraft in its basic hardware and software configuration are presented. The derivatives are estimated from dynamic flight data using a specialized identification program developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The formulation uses the linearized aircraft equations of motions in their continuous/discrete form and a maximum likelihood estimator that accounts for both state and measurement noise. State noise is used to model the uncommanded forcing function caused by unsteady aerodynamics, such as separated and vortical flows, over the aircraft. The derivatives are plotted as functions of angle of attack between 3 deg and 47 deg and compared with wind-tunnel predictions. The quality of the derivative estimates obtained by parameter identification is somewhat degraded because the maneuvers were flown with the aircraft's control augmentation system engaged, which introduced relatively high correlations between the control variables and response variables as a result of control motions from the feedback control system.

  5. Computational fluid dynamics simulation of the air/suppressant flow in an uncluttered F18 engine nacelle

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.R.; Gritzo, L.A.; Hassan, B.

    1997-06-01

    For the purposes of designing improved Halon-alternative fire suppression strategies for aircraft applications, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of the air flow, suppressant transport, and air-suppressant mixing within an uncluttered F18 engine nacelle were performed. The release of inert gases from a Solid Propellant Gas Generator (SPGG) was analyzed at two different injection locations in order to understand the effect of injection position on the flow patterns and the mixing of air and suppression agent. An uncluttered engine nacelle was simulated to provide insight into the global flow features as well as to promote comparisons with previous nacelle fire tests and recent water tunnel tests which included little or no clutter. Oxygen concentration levels, fuel/air residence times that would exist if a small fuel leak were present, velocity contours, and streamline patterns are presented inside the engine nacelle. The numerical results show the influence of the gent release location on regions of potential flame extinction due to oxygen inerting and high flame strain. The occurrence of inflow through the exhaust ducts on the aft end of the nacelle is also predicted. As expected, the predicted oxygen concentration levels were consistently higher than the measured levels since a fire was not modeled in this analysis. Despite differences in the conditions of these simulations and the experiments, good agreement was obtained between the CFD predictions and the experimental measurements.

  6. FDG uptake, a surrogate of tumour hypoxia?

    PubMed Central

    Van de Wiele, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Tumour hyperglycolysis is driven by activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) through tumour hypoxia. Accordingly, the degree of 2-fluro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) uptake by tumours might indirectly reflect the level of hypoxia, obviating the need for more specific radiopharmaceuticals for hypoxia imaging. Discussion In this paper, available data on the relationship between hypoxia and FDG uptake by tumour tissue in vitro and in vivo are reviewed. In pre-clinical in vitro studies, acute hypoxia was consistently shown to increase FDG uptake by normal and tumour cells within a couple of hours after onset with mobilisation or modification of glucose transporters optimising glucose uptake, followed by a delayed response with increased rates of transcription of GLUT mRNA. In pre-clinical imaging studies on chronic hypoxia that compared FDG uptake by tumours grown in rat or mice to uptake by FMISO, the pattern of normoxic and hypoxic regions within the human tumour xenografts, as imaged by FMISO, largely correlated with glucose metabolism although minor locoregional differences could not be excluded. In the clinical setting, data are limited and discordant. Conclusion Further evaluation of FDG uptake by various tumour types in relation to intrinsic and bioreductive markers of hypoxia and response to radiotherapy or hypoxia-dependent drugs is needed to fully assess its application as a marker of hypoxia in the clinical setting. PMID:18509637

  7. PREPARATION OF ANHYDROUS F-18 FLUORIDE, T. Tewson. Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals S165; 52, Supplement 1 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Tewson, T.

    2009-07-01

    The original specific aims of the grant where cut back considerably as the study section reduced both the time and the budget for the project. The objective of the grant was to show that fluorine-18 fluoride could be prepared completely anhydrous and thus substantially more reactive than conventionally dried fluoride using the method of Sun and DiMagno. This method involved using conventionally dried fluoride to prepare an aromatic fluoride in which the aromatic ring is substituted with electron withdrawing groups. The aryl fluoride is then dried and purified and the fluoride is displaced with an anhydrous nucleophile. Using fluorine-19 and macroscopic scale reactions the reactions work well and give anhydrous fluoride salts that are both more reactive and more selective in their reactions than conventionally dried fluoride. The original substrate chosen for the reaction was bromopentacyanobenzene (1). This compound proved to be easy to make but very hard to purify. As an alternative hexabromobenzene, which is commercially available in high purity, was tried. This reacted cleanly with conventionally dried F-18 fluoride in acetonitrile to give [{sup 18}F]-fluoropentabromobenzene (2), which could be dried by passage of the solution over alumina, which also removed any unreacted fluoride. The fluorine-18 fluoride could be liberated from (2) by displacement with an anhydrous nucleophilic tetra-alkylammonium salt but the anion had to be chosen with considerable care. The reaction is potentially reversible especially as, on the no carrier added scale, there is inevitably an excess of hexabromobenzene and so the displacing nucleophile is chosen to deactivate the aromatic compound to further nucleophilic displacement reactions. To this end tetrabutylammonium azide and tetrabutylammonium phenolate have been tried. Both work but the phenolate is probably the better choice. The F-18 fluoride produced by this process is substantially more reactive than conventionally dried

  8. Synthesis of no carrier added F-18 16-fluorohexadecanoic acid (FHDA) and investigation of its labeled metabolites and its kinetics in the heart

    SciTech Connect

    DeGrado, T.R.; Bernstein, D.R.; Gatley, S.J.; Ng, C.K.; Holden, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    No carrier added FHDA was prepared via saponification of the product of silver oxide assisted reaction of near-anhydrous tetraethylammonium fluoride with methyl 16-iodohexadecanoate. The labeled fatty acid was injected into isolated perfused rat hearts. Coronary perfusate was collected for 4-9 minutes, when hearts were chilled and homogenized. F-18 in perfusate was analysed by HPLC (NH column; 50mM amm. acetate in 50% acetonitrile). Material with the same retention time as F-18 fluoroacetate (prepared by F-for-I exchange with ethyl iodoacetate) was found. Some F-18 stuck permanently to the column and was assigned as fluoride since the same fraction of label in perfusate was retained on alumina columns eluted with water. Anion exchange HPLC (SAX column; 20mM pot. phosphate, pH 7) of homogenates gave peaks corresponding to fluoroacetate plus fluoride and minor peaks which could be fluoroacetylCoA and fluorocitrate. The authors interpret their data as follows. Beta-oxidation of FHDA results in fluoroacetylCoA which either undergoes ''lethal synthesis'' to fluorocitrate or is hydrolysed to fluoroacetate which diffuses out of the heart. The source of the fluoride is not yet clear, but could complicate interpretation of FHDA kinetics measured in vivo with positron tomography. Clearance of label from FHDA in isolated perfused hearts was faster than for labeled 16-iodohexadecanoic acid, indicating that the F-18 tracer may be a more sensitive probe of myocardial fatty acid metabolism.

  9. FDG-PET in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    de Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee; Ruers, Theo J M; Punt, Cornelis J A; Leer, Jan Willem; Corstens, Frans H M; Oyen, Wim J G

    2006-10-31

    [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is a useful imaging tool in the evolving management of patients with colorectal carcinoma. This technique is able to measure and visualize metabolic changes in cancer cells. This feature results in the ability to distinguish viable tumor from scar tissue, in the detection of tumor foci at an earlier stage than possible by conventional anatomic imaging and in the measurement of alterations in tumor metabolism, indicative of tumor response to therapy. Nowadays, FDG-PET plays a pivotal role in staging patients before surgical resection of recurrence and metastases, in the localization of recurrence in patients with an unexplained rise in serum carcinoembryonic antigen and in assessment of residual masses after treatment. In the presurgical evaluation, FDG-PET may be best used in conjunction with anatomic imaging in order to combine the benefits of both anatomical (CT) and functional (PET) information, which leads to significant improvements in preoperative liver staging and preoperative judgment on the feasibility of resection. Integration of FDG-PET into the management algorithm of these categories of patients alters and improves therapeutic management, reduces morbidity due to futile surgery, leads to substantial cost savings and probably also to a better patient outcome. FDG-PET also appears to have great potential in monitoring the success of local ablative therapies soon after intervention and in the prediction and evaluation of response to radiotherapy, systemic therapy, and combinations thereof. This review aims to outline the current and future role of FDG-PET in the field of colorectal cancer.

  10. 18F-FDG PET/CT in Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tagliabue, Luca; Russo, Giovanna; Lucignani, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Urinary clearance of F-FDG and variability in bladder wall FDG uptake may hamper the interpretation and limit the use of FDG-PET/CT for imaging bladder tumors. Nevertheless, careful combined evaluation of both CT and FDG-PET images of the urinary tract can provide useful findings. We present 2 cases of bladder cancer detected by FDG-PET/CT. These cases suggest that FDG uptake can be indicative of malignancy in bladder cancer when viewed in conjunction with CT scans and that whole-body FDG-PET/CT scans should always be reviewed with particular attention to the urinary tract because abnormalities suggestive of bladder cancer can be found unexpectedly.

  11. The flagella of F18ab Escherichia coli is a virulence factor that contributes to infection in a IPEC-J2 cell model in vitro.

    PubMed

    Duan, Qiangde; Zhou, Mingxu; Zhu, Xiaofang; Bao, Wenbin; Wu, Shenglong; Ruan, Xiaosai; Zhang, Weiping; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Jun; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2012-11-09

    Bacterial flagella contribute to pathogen virulence; however, the role of flagella in the pathogenesis of F18ab E. coli-mediated swine edema disease (ED) is not currently known. We therefore evaluated the role of flagella in F18ab E. coli adhesion, invasion, biofilm formation, and IL-8 production using an in vitro cell infection model approach with gene-deletion mutant and complemented bacterial strains. We demonstrated that the flagellin-deficient fliC mutant had a marked decrease in the ability to adhere to and invade porcine epithelial IPEC-J2 cells. Surprisingly, there was no difference in adhesion between the F18 fimbriae-deficient ΔfedA mutant and its parent strain. In addition, both the ΔfedA and double ΔfliCΔfedA mutants exhibited an increased ability to invade IPEC-J2 cells compared to the wild-type strain, although this may be due to increased expression of other adhesins following the loss of F18ab fimbriae and flagella. Compared to the wild-type strain, the ΔfliC mutant showed significantly reduced ability to form biofilm, whereas the ΔfedA mutant increased biofilm formation. Although ΔfliC, ΔfedA, and ΔfliCΔfedA mutants had a reduced ability to stimulate IL-8 production from infected Caco-2 cells, the ΔfliC mutant impaired this ability to a greater extent than the ΔfedA mutant. The results from this study clearly demonstrate that flagella are required for efficient F18ab E. coli adhesion, invasion, biofilm formation, and IL-8 production in vitro.

  12. Production of the PET bone agent (18)F-fluoride ion, simultaneously with (18)F-FDG by a single run of the medical cyclotron with minimal radiation exposure- a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajeev; Sonkawade, Rajendra G; Tripathi, Madhavi; Sharma, Punit; Gupta, Priyanka; Kumar, Praveen; Pandey, Anil K; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Damle, Nishikant Avinash; Bandopadhayaya, Gurupad

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to establish an easy and convenient procedure for the preparation of fluorine-18-sodium fluoride ((18)F-NaF) for bone positron emission tomography (PET) during routine (18)F-FDG production using the Explora FDG4 radiochemistry module (EFRM) by single run of Cyclotron with negligible radiation exposure. We compared three techniques for (18)F-NaF production during routine PET radiochemistry at our setup. In one method we used synthesis module and in other two methods we did not. In the first and third method, F-18 was directly extracted from the V-vial and in the second method, (18)F-NaF was extracted by post processing from the EFRM. In the first method, F-18 was extracted directly from V-vial manually by opening the V-vial cap. In the second method, Explora FDG-4 Module was used. First, F-18 was transferred from the V-vial. Then, after post processing in EFRM, pure F-18 was obtained in the product vial. In the third method, pure F-18 was obtained in the product vial with the help of a mechanical robotic arm. The above were followed by routine quality control of (18)F-NaF produced by each method. Results of quality control of the (18)F-NaF obtained by all three methods satisfied all parameters prescribed by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and the British Pharmacopeia (BP) including biological, physical and chemical specifications. The radiochemical purity was 98.5±1.5% with Rf 0.006. The level of Kryptofix-222 (K222) in (18)F-NaF was within the prescribed limit. Mean pH of (18)F-NaF was 6.0±1.5. The exposure rate around the hot cell was negligible. In conclusion, from the results it was obvious that by our method number three (18)F-NaF was directly obtained from the V-vial using mechanical robotic arms. This method was the most appropriate with minimized radiation exposure to the handling Radiochemist and was also saving time as compared to the other two methods.

  13. Brain MRI, Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and F-18 FP-CIT PET/CT Findings in a Patient with Wilson Disease: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungyoo; Song, In Uk; Chung, Yong An; Choi, Eun Kyung; Oh, Jin Kyoung

    2014-12-01

    A 34-year-old female had experienced head and hand tremors with a dystonic component for 8 months. Brain MRI showed T2 high signal intensity in the periaqueductal region, dorsal midbrain and dorsal upper pons. No abnormal uptake was noted on Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT or F-18 FP-CIT PET/CT. Wilson disease was diagnosed according to the 2008 consensus guideline from the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease and 2012 guideline from the European Association for the Study of the Liver. This case demonstrates T2 signal change in the basal ganglia, excluding the putamen, in a Wilson disease patient with relatively severe clinical findings, but normal Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and F-18 FP-CIT PET/CT.

  14. A summary of the forebody high-angle-of-attack aerodynamics research on the F-18 and the X-29A aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjarke, Lisa J.; Delfrate, John H.; Fisher, David F.

    1992-01-01

    High-angle-of-attack aerodynamic studies have been conducted on both the F18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) and the X-29A aircraft. Data obtained include on- and off-surface flow visualization and static pressure measurements on the forebody. Comparisons of similar results are made between the two aircraft where possible. The forebody shapes of the two aircraft are different and the X-29A forebody flow is affected by the addition of nose strakes and a flight test noseboom. The forebody flow field of the F-18 HARV is fairly symmetric at zero sideslip and has distinct, well-defined vortices. The X-29A forebody vortices are more diffuse and are sometimes asymmetric at zero sideslip. These asymmetries correlate with observed zero-sideslip aircraft yawing moments.

  15. Molecular imaging of therapy response with 18F-FLT and 18F-FDG following cyclophosphamide and mTOR inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Hubert, Marijke De; Brepoels, Lieselot; Devos, Ellen; Vermaelen, Peter; Groot, Tjibe De; Tousseyn, Thomas; Mortelmans, Luc; Mottaghy, Felix M

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Evaluation and comparison of 3’-[18F]-fluoro-3’-deoxy-L-thymidine (FLT) and 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG)-PET to monitor early response following both cyclophosphamide and temsirolimus treatment in a mouse model of Burkitt lymphoma. Methods Daudi xenograft mice were treated with either cyclophosphamide or temsirolimus and imaged with FLT-PET and FDG-PET on appropriate days post therapy inititiation. Immunohistochemical (IHC) studies (H&E, TUNEL, CD20, PCNA and ki-67) and DNA flow cytometry studies were performed. Results FDG tumor uptake decreased immediately after cyclophosphamide treatment while FLT-PET showed only a late and less pronounced decrease. A fast induction of apoptosis was observed together with an early accumulation of cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle, suggesting DNA repair. Temsirolimus treatment reduced both FDG and FLT tumor uptake immediately after therapy and resulted in a fast induction of apoptosis and G0-G1 phase accumulation. Conclusion FLT response was less distinct than FDG response and may be controlled by DNA repair early after cyclophosphamide. Nevertheless, FLT-PET was able to reflect decreased proliferation following temsirolimus. PMID:23133806

  16. Flurpiridaz F 18 PET: Phase II Safety and Clinical Comparison with SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging for Detection of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Daniel S.; Maddahi, Jamshid; Tamarappoo, B. K.; Czernin, Johannes; Taillefer, Raymond; Udelson, James E.; Gibson, C. Michael; Devine, Marybeth; Lazewatsky, Joel; Bhat, Gajanan; Washburn, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Phase II trial to assess flurpiridaz F 18 for safety and compare its diagnostic performance for PET myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) to Tc-99m SPECT-MPI regarding image quality, interpretative certainty, defect magnitude and detection of coronary artery disease (CAD)(≥ 50% stenosis) on invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Background In preclinical and phase I studies, flurpiridaz F 18 has shown characteristics of an essentially ideal MPI tracer. Methods 143 patients from 21 centers underwent rest-stress PET and Tc-99m SPECT-MPI. Eighty-six patients underwent ICA, and 39 had low-likelihood of CAD. Images were scored by 3 independent, blinded readers. Results A higher % of images were rated as excellent/good on PET vs. SPECT on stress (99.2% vs. 88.5%, p<0.01) and rest (96.9% vs. 66.4, p<0.01) images. Diagnostic certainty of interpretation (% cases with definitely abnormal/normal interpretation) was higher for PET vs. SPECT (90.8% vs. 70.9%, p<0.01). In 86 patients who underwent ICA, sensitivity of PET was higher than SPECT [78.8% vs. 61.5%, respectively (p=0.02)]. Specificity was not significantly different (PET:76.5% vs. SPECT:73.5%). Receiver operating characteristic curve area was 0.82±0.05 for PET and 0.70±0.06 for SPECT (p=0.04). Normalcy rate was 89.7% with PET and 97.4% with SPECT (p=NS). In patients with CAD on ICA, the magnitude of reversible defects was greater with PET than SPECT (p=0.008). Extensive safety assessment revealed that flurpiridaz F 18 was safe in this cohort. Conclusions In this Phase 2 trial, PET MPI using flurpiridaz F 18 was safe and superior to SPECT MPI for image quality, interpretative certainty, and overall CAD diagnosis. PMID:23265345

  17. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  18. F-18 fluoride positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the diagnosis of avascular necrosis of the femoral head: Comparison with magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gayana, Shankaramurthy; Bhattacharya, Anish; Sen, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Paramjeet; Prakash, Mahesh; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Femoral head avascular necrosis (FHAVN) is one of the increasingly common causes of musculoskeletal disability and poses a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Although radiography, scintigraphy, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been widely used in the diagnosis of FHAVN, positron emission tomography (PET) has recently been evaluated to assess vascularity of the femoral head. In this study, the authors compared F-18 fluoride PET/CT with MRI in the initial diagnosis of FHAVN. Patients and Methods: We prospectively studied 51 consecutive patients with a high clinical suspicion of FHAVN. All patients underwent MRI and F-18 fluoride PET/CT, the time interval between the two scans being 4–10 (mean 8) days. Two nuclear medicine physicians blinded to the MRI report read the PET/CT scans. Clinical assessment was also done. Final diagnoses were made by surgical pathology or clinical and radiologic follow-up. Results: A final diagnosis of avascular necrosis (AVN) was made in 40 patients. MRI was 96.5% sensitive, 100% specific, and 98.03% accurate while PET/CT was 100% sensitive, specific, and accurate in diagnosing FHAVN. The agreement between the two imaging modalities for the diagnosis of AVN was 96.07%. Conclusion: F-18 fluoride PET/CT showed good agreement with MRI in the initial diagnosis of FHAVN and can be better than MRI in detecting early disease. PMID:26917886

  19. Is γ-Ray Emission from Novae Affected by Interference Effects in the F18(p,α)O15 Reaction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, A. M.; Parikh, A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Wimmer, K.; Chen, A. A.; Deibel, C. M.; Faestermann, T.; Fox, S. P.; Fulton, B. R.; Hertenberger, R.; Irvine, D.; José, J.; Longland, R.; Mountford, D. J.; Sambrook, B.; Seiler, D.; Wirth, H.-F.

    2013-01-01

    The F18(p,α)O15 reaction rate is crucial for constraining model predictions of the γ-ray observable radioisotope F18 produced in novae. The determination of this rate is challenging due to particular features of the level scheme of the compound nucleus, Ne19, which result in interference effects potentially playing a significant role. The dominant uncertainty in this rate arises from interference between Jπ=3/2+ states near the proton threshold (Sp=6.411MeV) and a broad Jπ=3/2+ state at 665 keV above threshold. This unknown interference term results in up to a factor of 40 uncertainty in the astrophysical S-factor at nova temperatures. Here we report a new measurement of states in this energy region using the F19(He3,t)Ne19 reaction. In stark contrast to previous assumptions we find at least 3 resonances between the proton threshold and Ecm=50keV, all with different angular distributions. None of these are consistent with Jπ=3/2+ angular distributions. We find that the main uncertainty now arises from the unknown proton width of the 48 keV resonance, not from possible interference effects. Hydrodynamic nova model calculations performed indicate that this unknown width affects F18 production by at least a factor of two in the model considered.

  20. Predictors of Pathologic Outcome of Focal FDG Uptake in the Parotid Gland Identified on Whole Body FDG PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mabray, Marc C.; Behr, Spencer C.; Naeger, David M.; Flavell, Robert R.; Glastonbury, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To test whether patient's primary malignancy type and presence of FDG-avid cervical lymph node(s) are predictors of pathologic outcome of incidental focal FDG-avid parotid lesions. Basic Procedures Retrospective cohort study of pathologically proven incidental cases. Main Findings Focal parotid FDG uptake in the setting of head and neck cancer/melanoma(OR=24.6,p<0.01), lymphoma(OR=7.2,p=0.02), or FDG-avid cervical lymph node(s)(OR=3.6,p=0.07) has a higher odds of representing metastases. No malignant primary parotid tumors were incidentally discovered. Principal Conclusions In patients with head and neck cancer/melanoma, lymphoma, or FDG-avid cervical lymph node(s) there was a higher odds that focal parotid FDG uptake was a metastasis. PMID:26324219

  1. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  2. Organizing Hematoma of the Maxillary Sinus Mimicking Malignancy Diagnosed by Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron-Emission Tomography (FDG PET/CT): A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong Kyun; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Organizing hematoma of the paranasal sinuses is a diagnostic dilemma clinically and radiographically, mimicking benign or malignant neoplastic processes. Although the diagnostic rate of this disease has increased as characteristic imaging findings are somewhat elucidated, endoscopic examination, preoperative biopsy, and computed tomography (CT) imaging do not give helpful information in differentiating these lesions from malignant neoplastic processes. A 55-year-old man presented with a 4-month history of recurrent nasal bleeding. He also complained of a left-sided nasal obstruction. CT findings were highly suggestive of a malignant tumor of the maxillary sinus. However, based on fluorodeoxyglucose F18 positron-emission tomography (PET/CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the provisional diagnosis of benign tumor rather than malignancy was made. Complete resection of the mass was achieved by simple transnasal endoscopic surgery using the Caldwell-Luc approach. Organizing hematoma of the maxillary sinus was diagnosed by histopathologic evaluation. The clinical, radiological, and histopathologic findings of the patient are presented. In this report, we have presented 18FDG-PET findings of organized hematoma of the maxillary sinus (OHMS) that showed an increased FDG uptake in the peripheral rim of the mass with central photopenia. To our knowledge, this is the first case report in the literature reporting FDG-PET/CT findings of OHMS. Careful interpretation of metabolic (FDG-PET/CT) and anatomic (CT and MRI) images should be performed to accurately characterize the expansile lesion of the maxillary sinus in order to increase specificity and reduce equivocal findings significantly. PMID:26587203

  3. Pineal gland involvement in Erdheim-Chester disease detected on (18)F-FDG PET-CT imaging: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Anirban; Dhull, Varun Singh; Karunanithi, Sellam; Sharma, Punit; Durgapal, Prashant; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhan's cell histiocytosis affecting multiple organ systems. The most common systemic manifestations are bone lesions, infiltration of the pituitary stalk sometimes leading to diabetes insipidus, pulmonary fibrosis, cardiac failure and exophthalmus. Neurological symptoms as the first clinical manifestations of ECD have been reported in less than one third of cases. We report a rare presentation of a patient of ECD on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography which revealed abnormal (18)F-FDG accumulation in the region of pineal gland, pericardium and bilateral distal tibiae.

  4. Pulmonary intravascular lymphoma detected by FDG PET-CT: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kohan, A A; Paganini, L; Biedak, P; Arma, J I; Dalurzo, M C L; Garcia-Monaco, R D

    2013-01-01

    Intravascular lymphoma is a rare subtype of extranodal Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Its prognosis is poor in a high percentage of cases due to its insidious appearance and low clinical suspicion. Its diagnosis is usually only reached after an autopsy. It may affect different organs as a whole or only one organ. It is extremely rare that the lung is the only damaged organ. Its diagnosis depends of the clinician's suspicion and proper evaluation with imaging studies as well as correct selection of the organ to be biopsied. When detected on time, the treatment of choice is a combination of a series of chemotherapy associated to a monoclonal antibody (anti-CD20). We present the case of a male patient who underwent a positron emission tomography-computed tomography with 2-[F-18]-fluoro-2 deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) due to symptoms suggestive of a lymphoproliferative disease with no clear structural abnormalities. The images led to a diagnosis of pulmonary intravascular large B cell lymphoma.

  5. Global emission estimates and radiative impact of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivy, D. J.; Rigby, M.; Baasandorj, M.; Burkholder, J. B.; Prinn, R. G.

    2012-05-01

    Global emission estimates based on new atmospheric observations are presented for the acylic high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs): decafluorobutane (C4F10), dodecafluoropentane (C5F12), tetradecafluorohexane (C6F14), hexadecafluoroheptane (C7F16) and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18). Emissions are estimated using a 3-dimensional chemical transport model and an inverse method that includes a growth constraint on emissions. The observations used in the inversion are based on newly measured archived air samples that cover a 39-yr period, from 1973 to 2011, and include 36 Northern Hemispheric and 46 Southern Hemispheric samples (Ivy et al., 2012). The derived emission estimates show that global emission rates were largest in the 1980s and 1990s for C4F10 and C5F12, and in the 1990s for C6F14,C7F16 and C8F18. After a subsequent decline, emissions have remained relatively stable, within 20%, for the last 5 yr. Bottom-up emission estimates are available from the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research version 4.2 (EDGARv4.2) for C4F10, C5F12, C6F14 and C7F16, and inventories of C4F10, C5F12 andC6F14 are reported to the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) by Annex 1 countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The atmospheric measurement based emission estimates are 20 times larger than EDGARv4.2 for C4F10 and over three orders of magnitude for C5F12. The derived emission estimates for C6F14 largely agree with the bottom-up estimates from EDGARv4.2. Moreover, the C7F16 emission estimates are comparable to those of EDGARv4.2 at their peak in the 1990s, albeit significant underestimation for the other time periods. There are no bottom-up emission estimates for C8F18, thus the emission rates reported here are the first for C8F18. The reported inventories for C4F10, C5F12 and C6F14 to UNFCCC are five to ten times lower than those estimated in this study. In addition, we present measured infrared absorption spectra for C7F16 and C8

  6. Global emission estimates and radiative impact of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivy, D. J.; Rigby, M.; Baasandorj, M.; Burkholder, J. B.; Prinn, R. G.

    2012-08-01

    Global emission estimates based on new atmospheric observations are presented for the acylic high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs): decafluorobutane (C4F10), dodecafluoropentane (C5F12), tetradecafluorohexane (C6F14), hexadecafluoroheptane (C7F16) and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18). Emissions are estimated using a 3-dimensional chemical transport model and an inverse method that includes a growth constraint on emissions. The observations used in the inversion are based on newly measured archived air samples that cover a 39-yr period, from 1973 to 2011, and include 36 Northern Hemispheric and 46 Southern Hemispheric samples. The derived emission estimates show that global emission rates were largest in the 1980s and 1990s for C4F10 and C5F12, and in the 1990s for C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18. After a subsequent decline, emissions have remained relatively stable, within 20%, for the last 5 yr. Bottom-up emission estimates are available from the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research version 4.2 (EDGARv4.2) for C4F10, C5F12, C6F14 and C7F16, and inventories of C4F10, C5F12 and C6F14 are reported to the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) by Annex 1 countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The atmospheric measurement-based emission estimates are 20 times larger than EDGARv4.2 for C4F10 and over three orders of magnitude larger for C5F12 (with 2008 EDGARv4.2 estimates for C5F12 at 9.6 kg yr-1, as compared to 67±53 t yr-1 as derived in this study). The derived emission estimates for C6F14 largely agree with the bottom-up estimates from EDGARv4.2. Moreover, the C7F16 emission estimates are comparable to those of EDGARv4.2 at their peak in the 1990s, albeit significant underestimation for the other time periods. There are no bottom-up emission estimates for C8F18, thus the emission rates reported here are the first for C8F18. The reported inventories for C4F10, C5F12 and C6F14 to UNFCCC are five to ten times lower than those

  7. Flight test maneuvers for closed loop lateral-directional modeling of the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) using forebody strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, E. A.

    1996-01-01

    Flight test maneuvers are specified for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The maneuvers were designed for closed loop parameter identification purposes, specifically for lateral linear model parameter estimation at 30, 45, and 60 degrees angle of attack, using the Actuated Nose Strakes for Enhanced Rolling (ANSER) control law in Strake (S) model and Strake/Thrust Vectoring (STV) mode. Each maneuver is to be realized by applying square wave inputs to specific pilot station controls using the On-Board Excitation System (OBES). Maneuver descriptions and complete specification of the time/amplitude points defining each input are included, along with plots of the input time histories.

  8. F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) parameter identification flight test maneuvers for optimal input design validation and lateral control effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1995-01-01

    Flight test maneuvers are specified for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The maneuvers were designed for open loop parameter identification purposes, specifically for optimal input design validation at 5 degrees angle of attack, identification of individual strake effectiveness at 40 and 50 degrees angle of attack, and study of lateral dynamics and lateral control effectiveness at 40 and 50 degrees angle of attack. Each maneuver is to be realized by applying square wave inputs to specific control effectors using the On-Board Excitation System (OBES). Maneuver descriptions and complete specifications of the time/amplitude points define each input are included, along with plots of the input time histories.

  9. FDG-PET Assessment of the Effect of Head and Neck Radiotherapy on Parotid Gland Glucose Metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Michael C.; Turkington, Timothy G.; Higgins, Kristin A.; Hawk, Thomas C.; Hoang, Jenny K.; Brizel, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Functional imaging with [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) provides the opportunity to define the physiology of the major salivary glands before and after radiation therapy. The goal of this retrospective study was to identify the radiation dose-response relationship of parotid gland glucose metabolism in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Materials and Methods: Forty-nine adults with HNSCC were identified who had curative intent intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and FDG-PET imaging before and after treatment. Using a graphical user interface, contours were delineated for the parotid glands on axial CT slices while all authors were blinded to paired PET slices. Average and maximal standard uptake values (SUV) were measured within these anatomic regions. Changes in SUV and volume after radiation therapy were correlated with parotid gland dose-volume histograms from IMRT plans. Results: The average parotid gland volume was 30.7 mL and contracted 3.9 {+-} 1.9% with every increase of 10 Gy in mean dose (p = 0.04). However, within the first 3 months after treatment, there was a uniform reduction of 16.5% {+-} 7.3% regardless of dose. The average SUV{sub mean} of the glands was 1.63 {+-} 0.48 pretreatment and declined by 5.2% {+-} 2.5% for every increase of 10 Gy in mean dose (p = 0.04). The average SUV{sub max} was 4.07 {+-} 2.85 pretreatment and decreased in a sigmoid manner with mean dose. A threshold of 32 Gy for mean dose existed, after which SUV{sub max} declined rapidly. Conclusion: Radiation dose responses of the parotid glands can be measured by integrated CT/FDG-PET scans. Retrospective analysis showed sigmoidal declines in the maximum metabolism but linear declines in the average metabolism of the glands with dose. Future studies should correlate this decline in FDG uptake with saliva production to improve treatment planning.

  10. The Role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the Evaluation of Gastric Cancer Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Cayvarlı, Hakan; Bekiş, Recep; Akman, Tülay; Altun, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    Objective: F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) has been widely used for staging, re-staging and for monitoring therapy-induced changes and response to therapy in patients with various types of cancer, but its utilization for gastric cancer has been limited. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT for detecting recurrence in gastric cancer patients with radiologic or clinical suspicion of recurrence and its clinical impact on making decision. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 130 consecutive patients who underwent PET/CT scans for post-treatment surveillance of gastric cancer between January 2008 and March 2012. The mean time between the initial diagnosis of gastric cancer and PET/CT studies was 44 weeks with a median of 18 weeks. The number and site of positive FDG uptake were analyzed and correlated with the final diagnosis by calculating the diagnostic values. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT for detecting the recurrence in terms of whether or not histology had been SRC/musinous adenocarcinoma. The changes in the clinical management of patients were also evaluated according to the results of PET/CT. Results: Of all 130 patients, 91 patients were confirmed to have true recurrence. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and the accuracy of PET/CT for diagnosing true recurrence on a per-person basis were 91.2%, 61.5%, 84.6%, 75.0% and 82.3% respectively. Final diagnoses were confirmed histopathologically in 59 (45.4%) of 130 patients and by clinical and radiological follow-up in the remaining 71 (54.6%) patients. In the subgroup with SRC/mucinous adenocarcinoma differentiation of the primary tumor, there was no statistically significant difference in terms of diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT on a per-person basis. In addition, PET/CT results changed the patients’ management in 20 (15%) cases. Conclusions: 18F-FDG

  11. Systemic Immune Response to Vaccination on FDG-PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Mingos, Mark; Howard, Stephanie; Giacalone, Nicholas; Kozono, David; Jacene, Heather

    2016-12-01

    A patient with newly diagnosed right lung cancer had transient (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid left axillary lymph nodes and intense splenic FDG uptake on positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). History revealed that the patient received a left-sided influenza vaccine 2-3 days before the examination. Although inflammatory FDG uptake in ipsilateral axillary nodes is reported, to our knowledge, this is the first report of visualization of the systemic immune response in the spleen related to the influenza vaccination on FDG-PET/CT. The history, splenic uptake and time course on serial FDG-PET/CT helped to avoid a false-positive interpretation for progressing lung cancer and alteration of the radiation therapy plan.

  12. Effect of Donepezil on Wernicke Aphasia After Bilateral Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction: Subtraction Analysis of Brain F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomographic Images.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seo Yeon; Kim, Je-Kyung; An, Young-Sil; Kim, Yong Wook

    2015-01-01

    Aphasia is one of the most common neurologic deficits occurring after stroke. Although the speech-language therapy is a mainstream option for poststroke aphasia, pharmacotherapy is recently being tried to modulate different neurotransmitter systems. However, the efficacy of those treatments is still controversial. We present a case of a 53-year-old female patient with Wernicke aphasia, after the old infarction in the territory of left middle cerebral artery for 8 years and the recent infarction in the right middle cerebral artery for 4 months. On the initial evaluation, the Aphasia Quotient in Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery was 25.6 of 100. Baseline brain F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic images demonstrated a decreased cerebral metabolism in the left temporoparietal area and right temporal lobe. Donepezil hydrochloride, a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, was orally administered 5 mg/d for 6 weeks after the initial evaluation and was increased to 10 mg/d for the following 6 weeks. After the donepezil treatment, the patient showed improvement in language function, scoring 51.0 of 100 on Aphasia Quotient. A subtraction analysis of the brain F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic images after donepezil medication demonstrated increased uptake in both middle temporal gyri, extended to the occipital area and the left cerebellum. Thus, we suggest that donepezil can be an effective therapeutic choice for the treatment of Wernicke aphasia.

  13. Challenges and Approaches to Quantitative Therapy Response Assessment in Glioblastoma Multiforme Using the Novel Apoptosis Positron Emission Tomography Tracer F-18 ML-10.

    PubMed

    Oborski, Matthew J; Laymon, Charles M; Qian, Yongxian; Lieberman, Frank S; Nelson, Arden D; Mountz, James M

    2014-02-01

    Evaluation of cancer-therapy efficacy at early time points is necessary for realizing the goal of delivering maximally effective treatment. Molecular imaging with carefully selected tracers and methodologies can provide the means for realizing this ability. Many therapies are aimed at inducing apoptosis in malignant tissue; thus, the ability to quantify apoptosis in vivo may be a fruitful approach. Apoptosis rate changes occur on a fast time scale, potentially allowing correspondingly rapid decisions regarding therapy value. However, quantification of tissue status based on apoptosis imaging is complicated by this time scale and by the spatial heterogeneity of the process. Using the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer 2-(5-fluoro-pentyl)-2-methyl-malonic acid (F-18 ML-10), we present methods of voxelwise analysis yielding quantitative measures of apoptosis changes, parametric apoptosis change images, and graphical representation of apoptotic features. A method of deformable registration to account for anatomic changes between scan time points is also demonstrated. Overall apoptotic rates deduced from imaging depend on tumor density and the specific rate of apoptosis, a situation resulting in an ambiguity in the source of observed image-based changes. The ambiguity may be resolved through multimodality imaging. An example of intracellular sodium magnetic resonance imaging coupled with F-18 ML-10 PET is provided.

  14. Multiaxis Thrust-Vectoring Characteristics of a Model Representative of the F-18 High-Alpha Research Vehicle at Angles of Attack From 0 deg to 70 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Scott C.; Capone, Francis J.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the multiaxis thrust-vectoring characteristics of the F-18 High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). A wingtip supported, partially metric, 0.10-scale jet-effects model of an F-18 prototype aircraft was modified with hardware to simulate the thrust-vectoring control system of the HARV. Testing was conducted at free-stream Mach numbers ranging from 0.30 to 0.70, at angles of attack from O' to 70', and at nozzle pressure ratios from 1.0 to approximately 5.0. Results indicate that the thrust-vectoring control system of the HARV can successfully generate multiaxis thrust-vectoring forces and moments. During vectoring, resultant thrust vector angles were always less than the corresponding geometric vane deflection angle and were accompanied by large thrust losses. Significant external flow effects that were dependent on Mach number and angle of attack were noted during vectoring operation. Comparisons of the aerodynamic and propulsive control capabilities of the HARV configuration indicate that substantial gains in controllability are provided by the multiaxis thrust-vectoring control system.

  15. Fluorination of aromatic compounds by cleavage of aryl-tin bonds with F-18 F/sub 2/ and CH/sub 3/COOF

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, M.J.; Abeysekera, B.F.; Ruth, T.J.; Jivan, S.; Pate, B.D.

    1984-01-01

    Direct fluorination of aromatic nuclei is difficult since the reaction is usually accompanied by unselective, partial, or total replacement of hydrogen. By attaching the tri-n-butyltin moiety to one position of the ring one can achieve an enhanced reactivity and site selectivity toward electrophilic fluorination. The intent of this study was to demonstrate the utility of the fluorodestannylation reaction for fluorine labelling of aromatic compounds and to compare F/sub 2/ and acetyl hypofluorite as the fluorinating agents. Thus, eight stannylated aromatic compounds (1-8) were synthesized via lithium halogen exchange of the bromo precursor and subsequent transmetallation using tri-n-butyltin chloride. The stannylated substrates were treated with F-18 F/sub 2/ and -78/sup 0/C and CH/sub 3/COOF at room temperature. Both reagents gave good yields of labelled aryl fluorides. Overall, acetyl hypofluorite gave more consistent yields (approx. =70%), while F/sub 2/ gave more variable yields (54-95%). This method is currently being extended to label more complex systems such as L-Dopa with F-18 for brain studies with positron emission tomography. The authors have successfully stannylated Dopa on the ring and fluorination studies of this substrate are underway.

  16. F-18 high alpha research vehicle surface pressures: Initial in-flight results and correlation with flow visualization and wind-tunnel data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.; Banks, Daniel W.; Richwine, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Pressure distributions measured on the forebody and the leading-edge extensions (LEX's) of the NASA F-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV) were reported at 10 and 50 degree angles of attack and at Mach 0.20 to 0.60. The results were correlated with HARV flow visualization and 6-percent scale F-18 wind-tunnel-model test results. The general trend in the data from the forebody was for the maximum suction pressure peaks to first appear at an angle of attack (alpha) of approximately 19 degrees and increase in magnitude with angle of attack. The LEX pressure distribution general trend was the inward progression and increase in magnitude of the maximum suction peaks up to vortex core breakdown and then the decrease and general flattening of the pressure distribution beyond that. No significant effect of Mach number was noted for the forebody results. However, a substantial compressibility effect on the LEX's resulted in a significant reduction in vortex-induced suction pressure as Mach number increased. The forebody primary and the LEX secondary vortex separation lines, from surface flow visualization, correlated well with the end of pressure recovery, leeward and windward, respectively, of maximum suction pressure peaks. The flight to wind-tunnel correlations were generally good with some exceptions.

  17. 18F-FDG Uptake in Lung, Breast, and Colon Cancers: Molecular Biology Correlates and Disease Characterization*

    PubMed Central

    Jadvar, Hossein; Alavi, Abass; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2009-01-01

    It is hoped that in the not too distant future, noninvasive imaging–based molecular interrogation and characterization of tumors can improve our fundamental understanding of the dynamic biologic behavior of cancer. For example, the new dimension of diagnostic information that is provided by 18F-FDG PET has led to improved clinical decision making and management changes in a substantial number of patients with cancer. In this context, the aim of this review is to bring together and summarize the current data on the correlation between the underlying molecular biology and the clinical observations of tumor 18F-FDG accumulation in 3 major human cancers: lung, breast, and colon. PMID:19837767

  18. Effects of the −791(C→T) mutation in the promoter for tumor necrosis factor alpha on gene expression and resistance of Large White pigs to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F18

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Dai, Chaohui; Sun, Li; Zhu, Guoqiang; Wu, Shenglong; Bao, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plays an important role in the immune system. In this study, TNF-α expression was analyzed in 11 tissues of 8 piglets resistant to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) F18 and 8 ETEC F18-susceptible piglets from the Large White breed. The expression levels of TNF-α were high in immune organs (spleen, lung, thymus, and lymph nodes). The levels were higher in ETEC F18-resistant piglets than in ETEC F18-susceptible piglets, with significant differences in spleen, kidney, thymus, lymph node, and duodenum (P < 0.05). The mutation TNF-α −791(C→T) and 3 genotypes (CC, CT, and TT) were identified. The TNF-α expression levels in the spleen, kidney, lymph nodes, and duodenum were significantly higher in the TT pigs than in the CC pigs (P < 0.05). Thus, TNF-α −791(C→T) has significant effects on mRNA expression and may regulate ETEC F18 resistance of weaning piglets. Therefore, the −791(C→T) mutation of the TNF-α gene could be considered an important potential genetic marker of ETEC F18 resistance. PMID:27408333

  19. Predictive and prognostic value of FDG-PET

    PubMed Central

    Oyen, Wim J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The predictive and prognostic value of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) in non-small-cell lung carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma and lymphoma is discussed. The degree of FDG uptake is of prognostic value at initial presentation, after induction treatment prior to resection and in the case of relapse of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In locally advanced and advanced stages of NSCLC, FDG-PET has been shown to be predictive for clinical outcome at an early stage of treatment. In colorectal carcinoma, limited studies are available on the prognostic value of FDG-PET, however, the technique appears to have great potential in monitoring the success of local ablative therapies soon after intervention and in the prediction and evaluation of response to radiotherapy, systemic therapy, and combinations thereof. The prognostic value of end-of treatment FDG-PET for FDG-avid lymphomas has been established, and the next step is to define how to use this information to optimize patient outcome. In Hodgkin's lymphoma, FDG-PET has a high negative predictive value, however, histological confirmation of positive findings should be sought where possible. For non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, the opposite applies. The newly published standardized guidelines for interpretation formulates specific criteria for visual interpretation and for defining PET positivity in the liver, spleen, lung, bone marrow and small residual lesions. The introduction of these guidelines should reduce variability among studies. Interim PET offers a reliable method for early prediction of long-term remission, however it should only be performed in prospective randomized controlled trials. Many of the diagnostic and management questions considered in this review are relevant to other tumour types. Further research in this field is of great importance, since it may lead to a change in the therapeutic concept of cancer. The preliminary findings call for systematic inclusion of FDG

  20. F-18 high alpha research vehicle surface pressures - Initial in-flight results and correlation with flow visualization and wind-tunnel data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.; Banks, Daniel W.; Richwine, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Flight tests with the NASA F-18 high-alpha research vehicle (HARV) have yielded pressure distributions at angles of attack from 10 to 50 deg, at Mach 0.23 to 0.6, at five fuselage forebody stations and three on the leading-edge extensions (LEXs). Correlations are made between these data and both previously obtained HARV flow visualizations and wind tunnel model test results. The general trend is one in which the forebody's maximum suction pressure peaks increase in magnitude, after their first appearance at alpha of about 19 deg, with increasing alpha. LEX pressure-distribution trends involve the inward progression of the maximum suction peaks, an increase in the magnitude of the maximum pressure peaks up to pressure core breakdown, and the decrease and general flattening of the pressure distribution beyond the LEX primary vortex breakdown.

  1. Quorum-sensing gene luxS regulates flagella expression and Shiga-like toxin production in F18ab Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Zhou, Mingxu; Hou, Huayan; Zhu, Jun; Yao, Fenghua; Zhang, Xinjun; Zhu, Xiaofang; Hardwidge, Philip R; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the effect of the luxS gene on the expression of virulence factors in Shiga-like toxin producing and verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli, the luxS gene from E. coli 107/86 (wild type, O139:H1:F18ab, Stx2e) was deleted. The successful deletion of luxS was confirmed by bioluminescence assays. The luxS deletion mutant exhibited changed flagella-related phenotypes, like impaired expression of flagella, decreased flagella motility, reduced biofilm formation, and reduced ability to induce pro-immunity response in host cells, which were restored after complementation with the intact luxS gene. The mutant strain also displayed attenuated production of Stx2e. This study provides new information to the crucial function of luxS in regulating Shiga-like toxin producing E. coli virulence.

  2. Stereotactic Comparison Study of 18F-Alfatide and 18F-FDG PET Imaging in an LLC Tumor-Bearing C57BL/6 Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yu-Chun; Gao, Yongsheng; Zhang, Jianbo; Fu, Zheng; Zheng, Jinsong; Liu, Ning; Hu, Xudong; Hou, Wenhong; Yu, Jinming; Yuan, Shuanghu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to stereotactically compare the PET imaging performance of 18F-Alfatide (18F-ALF-NOTA-PRGD2, denoted as 18F-Alfatide) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining in Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mouse model. 18F-FDG standard uptake values (SUVs) were higher than 18F-Alfatide SUVs in tumors, most of the normal tissues and organs except for the bladder. Tumor-to-brain, tumor-to-lung, and tumor-to-heart ratios of 18F-Alfatide PET were significantly higher than those of 18F-FDG PET (P < 0.001). The spatial heterogeneity of the tumors was detected, and the tracer accumulation enhanced from the outer layer to the inner layer consistently using the two tracers. The parameters of the tumors were significantly correlated with each other between 18F-FDG SUV and GLUT-1 (R = 0.895, P < 0.001), 18F-Alfatide SUV and αvβ3 (R = 0.595, P = 0.019), 18F-FDG SUV and 18F-Alfatide SUV (R = 0.917, P < 0.001), and GLUT-1 and αvβ3 (R = 0.637, P = 0.011). Therefore, 18F-Alfatide PET may be an effective tracer for tumor detection, spatial heterogeneity imaging and an alternative supplement to 18F-FDG PET, particularly for patients with enhanced characteristics in the brain, chest tumors or diabetes, meriting further study. PMID:27350554

  3. Post-Surgical Atypical FDG-PET Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Dubroff, Jacob G.; Alavi, Abass; Friedberg, Joseph S.; Cengel, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    False positive recognition is crucial for proper interpretation of FDG-PET studies. The authors present a case of a woman who underwent surgery over a month prior to PET/CT imaging which revealed significant tracer uptake within muscles and soft tissue in several sites contralateral to the location of surgery. The FDG-PET images of this case illustrate the importance of communication between physicians ordering and physicians reading FDG-PET/CT scans as well as atypical FDG-PET findings that could be interpreted as concerning but are, in fact, innocuous. This study also demonstrates the unusual glucose metabolic patterns which may arise following treatment be it surgical, chemotherapeutic or radiation. PMID:19851183

  4. 18F-FDG-avid brunner gland hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Park, Seol Hoon; Park, Kwang-Min; Kim, Jae Seung

    2014-08-01

    Brunner gland hyperplasia, a rare duodenal tumor, usually presents with benign features. A 68-year-old man with a history of anemia presented with a polypoid duodenal mass that was detected by CT and esophagogastroduodenoscopy. This mass showed high F-FDG avidity on PET/CT and was histopathologically confirmed as Brunner gland hyperplasia. We suggest that Brunner gland hyperplasia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of F-FDG-avid duodenal tumors.

  5. Estimated radiation dose to the newborn in FDG-PET studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ruotsalainen, U.; Suhonen-Polvi, H.; Eronen, E.; Kinnala, A.

    1996-02-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the radiation dose due to intravenous injection of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) for infants studied with PET. The radioactivity concentration in the brain and bladder content was measured with PET to determine the cumulated activity in these organs in 21 infant FDG studies. The individual organ masses were estimated according to the whole-body and brain masses, and they were used to calculate the absorbed dose per unit cumulated activity (S values). For organs other than brain and bladder, the cumulated activity was defined from adult studies. For each individual patient, the absorbed dose to the brain, bladder wall and selected organs were calculated. An estimation of the effective dose was determined. Whole-body distribution of FDG in the infants differed from adults: a greater proportion of the injected activity accumulated into the brain (9% versus 7%) and less was excreted to urine (7% versus 20% respectively). The measured cumulated activity in the brain was 0.25 MBq {center_dot} h/MBq and in the bladder content 0.04 MBq {center_dot}h/MBq with a large individual variation in latter. The calculated absorbed dose was 0.24 mGy/MBq to the brain and 1.03 mGy/MBq to the bladder wall. The estimated effective dose was 0.43 mSv/MBq. The dose to the bladder wall was lower in infants as compared to adults with ordinary amounts of injected activity. The greater amount of activity remaining in the body may increase the dose to other organs. The effective dose was lower compared to adults and conventional nuclear medicine studies of infants. PET can be a valuable tool in pediatric nuclear medicine because of good resolution images, sensitive radiation measurement and a variety of tracers labeled with short-lived isotopes. 27 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. F-18 labeled 3-fluorodiazepam

    SciTech Connect

    Luxen, A.; Barrio, J.R.; Bida, G.T.; Satyamurthy, N.; Phelps, M.E.

    1985-05-01

    3-Fluorodiazepam is a new and potent antianxiety agent with prolonged action. The authors found that molecular fluorine (0.5% in Ne) reacts cleanly with diazepam in freon or chloroform at room temperature to produce 3-fluorodiazepam in good yields. Successful syntheses have employed 2:1 to 5:1 molar ratios diazepam: fluorine to minimize the formation of byproducts. (/sup 18/F) 3-Fluorodiazepam, a potential candidate for PET studies, (specific activity 3-5 Ci/mmol) has been synthesized from /sup 18/F-F/sub 2/ using the same procedure, followed by column chromatographic purification (Silicagel, dichloromethane: ethyl acetate, 5:1) with a radiochemical yield of 12-20% (50% maximum) and a chemical and radiochemical purity >99% as judged by reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography analysis (Ultrasyl octyl column, 10 ..mu.. m, 4.6 x 250 mm i.d., 60% MeOH 40% water; flow rate, 1.0 ml/min; retention time for (/sup 18/F) fluorodiazepam, 11.4 min; for diazepam, 13.5 min; radioactivity and ultraviolet detectors). Lower radiochemical yields (5-7%), and significant formation of by-products were observed when (/sup 18/F)acetylhypofluorite, prepared in the gasphase, was used as the reagent. Readily accessible routes to /sup 18/F-labeled benzodiazepines of higher specific activity were also investigated. Approaches to the synthesis of high specific activity (>200 Ci/mmol) (/sup 18/F)3-fluorodiazepam involve nucleophilic displacement at carbon-3 (e.g. from 3-chlorodiazepam) with (/sup 18/F)fluoride ion. The results presented here demonstrate the synthetic accessibility of /sup 18/F-labeled benzodiazepines for application in neurotransmitter ligand studies with PET.

  7. Synthesis of Fluorine-Containing Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) Inhibitors and the In Vivo Evaluation of F-18 Labeled PDE10A PET Tracers in Rodent and Nonhuman Primate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junfeng; Zhang, Xiang; Jin, Hongjun; Fan, Jinda; Flores, Hubert; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Tu, Zhude

    2015-01-01

    A series of fluorine-containing PDE10A inhibitors were designed and synthesized to improve the metabolic stability of [11C]MP-10. Twenty of the 22 new analogues had high potency and selectivity for PDE10A: 18a–j, 19d–j, 20a–b, and 21b had IC50 values <5 nM for PDE10A. Seven F-18 labeled compounds [18F]18a–e, [18F]18g, and [18F]20a were radiosynthesized by 18F-introduction onto the quinoline rather than the pyrazole moiety of the MP-10 pharmacophore and performed in vivo evaluation. Biodistribution studies in rats showed ~2-fold higher activity in the PDE10A-enriched striatum than nontarget brain regions; this ratio increased from 5 to 30 min postinjection, particularly for [18F]18a–d and [18F]20a. Micro-PET studies of [18F]18d and [18F]20a in nonhuman primates provided clear visualization of striatum with suitable equilibrium kinetics and favorable metabolic stability. These results suggest this strategy may identify a 18F-labeled PET tracer for quantifying the levels of PDE10A in patients with CNS disorders including Huntington’s disease and schizophrenia. PMID:26430878

  8. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  9. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with low fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in PET/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Günay, Ersin; Ozcan, Aysenaz; Günay, Sibel; Tatci, Ebru; Keyf, Atila Ihsan; Simsek, Cebrail

    2011-10-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is an uncommon lung disease characterized by accumulation of intraalveolar calcifications. The disease can be diagnosed based on the radiological findings. We present a 27-year-old women with five-year history of shortness of breath. She was diagnosed with PAM due to the presence of the characteristic chest X-ray and thorax computed tomography (CT) findings. We performed (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/CT imaging in order to detect any evidence of inflamation in the lung before deciding an anti-inflammatory treatment. The lung regions with dense calcifications revealed low FDG uptakes (SUVmax: 2.7) and the lung regions without calcifications showed lower FDG uptakes. No further treatment modality was planned besides inhaler salbutamol. Herein, we discuss this rare entity with literature search.

  10. Comparative Analysis between [(18)F]Fludarabine-PET and [(18)F]FDG-PET in a Murine Model of Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Hovhannisyan, Narinée; Dhilly, Martine; Guillouet, Stéphane; Leporrier, Michel; Barré, Louisa

    2016-06-06

    Lymphoma research has advanced thanks to introduction of [(18)F]fludarabine, a positron-emitting tool. This novel radiotracer has been shown to display a great specificity for lymphoid tissues. However, in a benign process such as inflammation, the uptake of this tracer has not been questioned. Indeed, in inflammatory zones, elevated glucose metabolism rate may result in false-positives with [(18)F]FDG-PET Imaging. In the present investigation, it has been argued that cells, involved in inflammation, might be less avid of [(18)F]fludarabine. To generate inflammation, Swiss mice were intramuscularly injected with 0.1 mL of turpentine oil into the right front paw. Imaging sessions with (18)F-labeled tracers named above were conducted on days 5 and 25 after inoculation. For each animal, volumes of interest (VOI), delineating the muscle of the inflamed (IP) and normal paws (NP), were determined on PET scans. For characterization of inflammation, muscle samples from IP and NP were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). In early (day 5) inflammation, [(18)F]FDG accumulation was 4.00 ± 1.65 times greater in the IP than in the contralateral NP; for [(18)F]fludarabine, this IP/NP ratio was 1.31 ± 0.28, resulting in a significant difference between radiotracer groups (p < 0.01). In late (day 25) inflammation, the IP/NP ratios were 2.07 ± 0.49 and 1.03 ± 0.07, for [(18)F]FDG and [(18)F]fludarabine, respectively (p < 0.001). [(18)F]Fludarabine showed significantly weaker uptake in inflammation when compared with [(18)F]FDG. This encouraging finding suggests that [(18)F]fludarabine-PET might well be a robust approach for distinguishing tumor from inflammatory tissue, avoiding false-positive PET results and thus enabling an accurate imaging of lymphoma.

  11. Spin-Tunnel Investigation of a 1/28-Scale Model of the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) with and without Vertical Tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fremaux, C. Michael

    1997-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the NASA Langley 20-Foot Vertical Spin Tunnel to determine the developed spin and spin-recovery characteristics of a 1/28-scale, free-spinning model of the NASA F-18 HARV (High Alpha Research Vehicle) airplane that can configured with and without the vertical tails installed. The purpose of the test was to determine what effects, if any, the absence of vertical tails (and rudders) had on the spin and spin-recovery capabilities of the HARV. The model was ballasted to dynamically represent the full-scale airplane at an altitude of 25,000 feet. Erect and inverted spin tests with symmetric mass loadings were conducted with the free-spinning model. The model results indicate that the basic airplane with vertical tails installed (with unaugmented control system) will exhibit fast, flat erect and inverted spins from which acceptable recoveries can be made. Removing the vertical tails had little effect on the erect spin mode, but did degrade recoveries from erect spins. In contrast, inverted spins without the vertical tails were significantly more severe than those with the tails installed.

  12. Radiolabeling of Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) Nanoparticles with Biotinylated F-18 Prosthetic Groups and Imaging of Their Delivery to the Brain with Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The avidin–biotin interaction permits rapid and nearly irreversible noncovalent linkage between biotinylated molecules and avidin-modified substrates. We designed a biotinylated radioligand intended for use in the detection of avidin-modified polymer nanoparticles in tissue with positron emission tomography (PET). Using an F-18 labeled prosthetic group, [18F]4-fluorobenzylamine, and a commercially available biotin derivate, NHS-PEG4-biotin, [18F]-fluorobenzylamide-poly(ethylene glycol)4-biotin ([18F]NPB4) was prepared with high purity and specific activity. The attachment of the [18F]NPB4 radioligand to avidin-modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles was tested by using PET imaging to measure the kinetics of convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of nanoparticles of varying size to the rat brain. PET imaging enabled the direct observation of nanoparticle delivery by measurement of the spatial volume of distribution of radiolabeled nanoparticles as a function of time, both during and after the infusion. This work thus validates new methods for radiolabeling PEG-biotin derivatives and also provides insight into the fate of nanoparticles that have been infused directly into the brain. PMID:25322194

  13. KEY COMPARISON: Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the NPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; Woods, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Since 2001, four national metrology institutes (NMIs) have submitted four samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, the most recent being that of the NPL (UK). The activities ranged from about 1 MBq to 8 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the latest value and the degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the key comparison reference value (KCRV) have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by Section II of the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI(II)), comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  14. KEY COMPARISON: Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the CIEMAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; García-Toraño, E.; Los Arcos, J.-M.

    2004-01-01

    Since 2001, five national metrology institutes (NMIs) have submitted five samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), the most recent being that of the CIEMAT (Spain). The activities ranged from about 1 MBq to 18 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the latest value and the degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix. A graphical presentation is also given for this key comparison with identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by Section II of the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI(II)), according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  15. Flight-Determined Subsonic Longitudinal Stability and Control Derivatives of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) with Thrust Vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles

    1997-01-01

    The subsonic longitudinal stability and control derivatives of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) are extracted from dynamic flight data using a maximum likelihood parameter identification technique. The technique uses the linearized aircraft equations of motion in their continuous/discrete form and accounts for state and measurement noise as well as thrust-vectoring effects. State noise is used to model the uncommanded forcing function caused by unsteady aerodynamics over the aircraft, particularly at high angles of attack. Thrust vectoring was implemented using electrohydraulically-actuated nozzle postexit vanes and a specialized research flight control system. During maneuvers, a control system feature provided independent aerodynamic control surface inputs and independent thrust-vectoring vane inputs, thereby eliminating correlations between the aircraft states and controls. Substantial variations in control excitation and dynamic response were exhibited for maneuvers conducted at different angles of attack. Opposing vane interactions caused most thrust-vectoring inputs to experience some exhaust plume interference and thus reduced effectiveness. The estimated stability and control derivatives are plotted, and a discussion relates them to predicted values and maneuver quality.

  16. KEY COMPARISON: Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the PTB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; Kossert, K.; Janßen, H.

    2006-01-01

    Since 2001, six national metrology institutes (NMIs) have submitted six samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), the most recent being that of the PTB (Germany). The activities ranged from about 1 MBq to 18 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the latest value, with the agreement of the CCRI(II). The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR have been recalculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix. A graphical presentation is also given for this key comparison with identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by Section II of the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI(II)), according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  17. In-flight leading-edge extension vortex flow-field survey measurements on a F-18 aircraft at high angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richwine, David M.; Fisher, David F.

    1992-01-01

    Flow-field measurements on the leading-edge extension (LEX) of the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) were obtained using a rotating rake with 16 hemispherical-tipped five-hole probes. Detailed pressure, velocity, and flow direction data were obtained through the LEX vortex core. Data were gathered during 1-g quasi-stabilized flight conditions at angles of attack alpha from 10 degrees to 52 degrees and at Reynolds numbers based on mean aerodynamic cord up to 16 x 10(exp 6). Normalized dynamic pressures and crossflow velocities clearly showed the primary vortex above the LEX and formation of a secondary vortex at higher angles of attack. The vortex was characterized by a ring of high dynamic pressure surrounding a region of low dynamic pressure at the vortex core center. The vortex core, subcore diameter, and vertical location of the core above the LEX increased with angle of attack. Minimum values for static pressure were obtained in the vortex subcore and decreased nearly linearly with increasing angle of attack until vortex breakdown. Rake-measured static pressures were consistent with previously documented surface pressures and showed good agreement with flow visualization flight test results. Comparison of the LEX vortex flight test data to computational solutions at alpha approximately equals 19 degrees and 30 degrees showed fair correlation.

  18. An atypical sarcoidosis involvement in FDG PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Philippe; Benigni, Paolo; Feger, Benoit; Salaun, Pierre-Yves; Abgral, Ronan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis which involve various organs. Laryngeal involvement is extremely rare, with a prevalence of about 0.5 to 1%. Diagnoses: Here we present a case of laryngeal involvement of sarcoidosis demonstrated on 18F-Fluorodesoxyglucose Positron-Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG PET/CT). Patient concerns: A 63 year-old man suffering from dysphonia was referred to our department for characterization of laryngeal lesion suspicious for cancer with non-informative biopsy, the sample was not sufficient for diagnosis. Interventions: FDG PET/CT showed a pathological uptake on the right vocal cord, but also highlighted a bilateral uptake in intrathoracic hilar lymphadenopathy areas, typically found in several inflammatory diseases. Outcomes: New laryngeal targeted biopsies revealed non-caseating epithelioid granulomas suggesting sarcoidosis involvement. After 6 months of systemic steroid treatment, FDG PET/CT showed a significant decrease of the laryngeal uptake. Lessons: This case shows the usefulness of FDG PET/CT to accurately assess inflammatory activity in rare extra-pulmonary sarcoidosis involvement. Moreover, this case emphasizes that FDG PET/CT is an interesting tool for assessing therapeutic efficacy of inflammatory diseases such as sarcoidosis. PMID:28033265

  19. FDG-PET evaluation of indeterminate pancreatic masses

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Chi-Lai; Dehdashti, Farrokh; Griffeth, L.K.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the-ability of PET with 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) to differentiate benign from malignant pancreatic masses in patients with indeterminate findings on CT. We performed FDG-PET on 12 patients with indeterminate mass lesions and 2 patients with CT findings typical for malignancy. Eight were found to have pancreatic carcinoma and six had benign lesions. The final diagnosis was histopathologically confirmed in all patients but two with a presumed diagnosis of focal pancreatitis based on stable clinical follow-up for at least 12 months. Lesion uptake of FDG was evaluated qualitatively and semi-quantitatively by determination of the standardized uptake value (SUV). With use of a 2.5 cutoff value for SUV, all eight malignant and four of six benign lesions were correctly categorized. Qualitative evaluation gave the same results. The two false-positive lesions had elevated SUV values of 3.4 and 3.8, respectively. Our results indicate that FDG-PET has potential value for assessing patients with CT findings that are indeterminate for pancreatic carcinoma. FDG-PET may obviate invasive diagnostic procedures in many patients with benign disease. 36 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Analysis of Pretreatment FDG-PET SUV Parameters in Head-and-Neck Cancer: Tumor SUV{sub mean} Has Superior Prognostic Value

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, Kristin A.; Hoang, Jenny K.; Roach, Michael C.; Chino, Junzo; Yoo, David S.; Turkington, Timothy G.; Brizel, David M.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic significance of different descriptive parameters in head-and-neck cancer patients undergoing pretreatment [F-18] fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging. Patients and Methods: Head-and-neck cancer patients who underwent FDG-PET before a course of curative intent radiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. FDG-PET imaging parameters included maximum (SUV{sub max}), and mean (SUV{sub mean}) standard uptake values, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). Tumors and lymph nodes were defined on co-registered axial computed tomography (CT) slices. SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean} were measured within these anatomic regions. The relationships between pretreatment SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub mean}, and TLG for the primary site and lymph nodes were assessed using a univariate analysis for disease-free survival (DFS), locoregional control (LRC), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated and compared via the log-rank method. SUV data were analyzed as continuous variables. Results: A total of 88 patients was assessed. Two-year OS, LRC, DMFS, and DFS for the entire cohort were 85%, 78%, 81%, and 70%, respectively. Median SUV{sub max} for the primary tumor and lymph nodes was 15.4 and 12.2, respectively. Median SUV{sub mean} for the primary tumor and lymph nodes was 7 and 5.2, respectively. Median TLG was 770. Increasing pretreatment SUV{sub mean} of the primary tumor was associated with decreased disease-free survival (p = 0.01). Neither SUV{sub max} in the primary tumor or lymph nodes nor TLG was prognostic for any of the clinical endpoints. Patients with pretreatment tumor SUV{sub mean} that exceeded the median value (7) of the cohort demonstrated inferior 2-year DFS relative to patients with SUV{sub mean} {<=} the median value of the cohort, 58% vs. 82%, respectively, p = 0.03. Conclusion: Increasing SUV{sub mean} in the primary tumor was associated with inferior DFS. Although not

  1. FDG positron emission computed tomography in a study of aphasia

    SciTech Connect

    Metter, E.J.; Wasterlain, C.G.; Kuhl, D.E.; Hanson, W.R.; Phelps, M.E.

    1981-08-01

    Positron emission computed tomography (PECT) using 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) was used to investigate the correlations between clinical status, anatomy (as described by CT), and metabolism in five patients with stable aphasia resulting from ischemic cerebral infarction. Local cerebral metabolic activity was diminished in an area larger than the area of infarction demonstrated by CT. In one patient, FDG PECT revealed a metabolic lesion that probably caused the aphasic syndrome and was not apparent by CT. The data suggest that reliance on CT in delineating the extent of the brain lesion in aphasia or other neuropsychological defects can be misleading; FDG PECT may provide important additional information. Two patients with similar metabolic lesions had very different clinical syndromes, showing that even when currently available methods are combined, major gaps remain in clinicoanatomical correlations in aphasia.

  2. 11C-Choline-Avid but 18F-FDG-Nonavid Prostate Cancer with Lymph Node Metastases on Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Fukushima, Kazuhito; Yamamoto, Shingo; Yamano, Toshiko; Takaki, Haruyuki; Yamakado, Koichiro; Nakanishi, Yukako; Kanematsu, Akihiro; Nojima, Michio; Hirota, Shozo

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a new positron emission tomography (PET) tracer useful for detection of prostate cancer and metastatic lesions. We report a 70-year-old man with prostate cancer and multiple abdominal, pelvic, and inguinal node metastases. PET scans demonstrated accumulation of 11C-choline in the primary tumor and lymph node metastases but no accumulation of 18F-FDG. Choline PET/computed tomography may be useful for diagnosis of advanced prostate cancer with suspected metastatic lesions and treatment planning. PMID:27920703

  3. Quantitative techniques in 18FDG PET scanning in oncology.

    PubMed

    Castell, F; Cook, G J R

    2008-05-20

    The clinical applications of (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ((18)FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in oncology are becoming established. While simple static scanning techniques are used for the majority of routine clinical examinations, increasing use of PET in clinical trials to monitor treatment response with (18)FDG and novel tracers reflecting different pharmacodynamic end points, often necessitates a more complex and quantitative analysis of radiopharmaceutical kinetics. A wide range of PET analysis techniques exist, ranging from simple visual analysis and semiquantitative methods to full dynamic studies with kinetic analysis. These methods are discussed, focusing particularly on the available methodologies that can be utilised in clinical trials.

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Torso FDG-PET Scans by Using Anatomical Standardization of Normal Cases from Thorough Physical Examinations.

    PubMed

    Hara, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Tatsunori; Ito, Satoshi; Zhou, Xiangrong; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of standardized uptake value (SUV) of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) depends on the background accumulations of glucose because the SUV often varies the status of patients. The purpose of this study was to develop a new method for quantitative analysis of SUV of FDG-PET scan images. The method included an anatomical standardization and a statistical comparison with normal cases by using Z-score that are often used in SPM or 3D-SSP approach for brain function analysis. Our scheme consisted of two approaches, which included the construction of a normal model and the determination of the SUV scores as Z-score index for measuring the abnormality of an FDG-PET scan image. To construct the normal torso model, all of the normal images were registered into one shape, which indicated the normal range of SUV at all voxels. The image deformation process consisted of a whole body rigid registration of shoulder to bladder region and liver registration and a non-linear registration of body surface by using the thin-plate spline technique. In order to validate usefulness of our method, we segment suspicious regions on FDG-PET images manually, and obtained the Z-scores of the regions based on the corresponding voxels that stores the mean and the standard deviations from the normal model. We collected 243 (143 males and 100 females) normal cases to construct the normal model. We also extracted 432 abnormal spots from 63 abnormal cases (73 cancer lesions) to validate the Z-scores. The Z-scores of 417 out of 432 abnormal spots were higher than 2.0, which statistically indicated the severity of the spots. In conclusions, the Z-scores obtained by our computerized scheme with anatomical standardization of torso region would be useful for visualization and detection of subtle lesions on FDG-PET scan images even when the SUV may not clearly show an abnormality.

  5. A Novel Method for Direct site-specific Radiolabeling of Peptides Using [18F]FDG

    PubMed Central

    Namavari, Mohammad; Cheng, Zhen; Zhang, Rong; De, Abhijit; Levi, Jelena; Hoerner, Joshua K.; Yaghoubi, Shahriar S.; Syud, Faisal A.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2009-01-01

    We have used the well-accepted and easily available 2-[18F]Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) tracer as a prosthetic group for synthesis of 18F-labeled peptides. We herein report the synthesis of [18F]FDG-RGD (18F labeled linear RGD) and [18F]FDG-cyclo(RGDDYK) (18F labeled cyclic RGD) as examples of the use of [18F]FDG. We have successfully prepared [18F]FDG-RGD and [18F]FDG-cyclo(RGDDYK) in 27.5% and 41% radiochemical yields (decay corrected) respectively. The receptor binding affinity study of FDG-cyclo(RGDDYK) for integrin αvβ3 , using αvβ3 positive U87MG cells confirmed a competitive displacement with 125I-echistatin as a radioligand. The IC50 value for FDG-cyclo(RGDDYK) was determined to be 0.67 ± 0.19µM. High contrast small animal PET images with relatively moderate tumor uptake were observed for [18F]FDG-RGD and [18F]FDG-cyclo(RGDDYK) as PET probes in xenografts models expressing αvβ3 integrin. In conclusion, we have successfully used [18F]FDG as a prosthetic group to prepare 18F]FDG-RGD and [18F]FDG-cyclic[RGDDYK] based on a simple one step radiosynthesis. The one step radiosynthesis methodology consists of chemoselective oxime formation between an aminooxy functionalized peptide and [18F]FDG. The results have implications for radiolabeling of other macromolecules and would lead to a very simple strategy for routine pre-clinical and clinical use. PMID:19226160

  6. 123I-Mibg scintigraphy and 18F-Fdg-Pet imaging for diagnosing neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bleeker, Gitta; Tytgat, Godelieve Am; Adam, Judit A; Caron, Huib N; Kremer, Leontien Cm; Hooft, Lotty; van Dalen, Elvira C

    2015-01-01

    Background Neuroblastoma is an embryonic tumour of childhood that originates in the neural crest. It is the second most common extracranial malignant solid tumour of childhood. Neuroblastoma cells have the unique capacity to accumulate Iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG), which can be used for imaging the tumour. Moreover, 123I-MIBG scintigraphy is not only important for the diagnosis of neuroblastoma, but also for staging and localization of skeletal lesions. If these are present, MIBG follow-up scans are used to assess the patient's response to therapy. However, the sensitivity and specificity of 123I-MIBG scintigraphy to detect neuroblastoma varies according to the literature. Prognosis, treatment and response to therapy of patients with neuroblastoma are currently based on extension scoring of 123I-MIBG scans. Due to its clinical use and importance, it is necessary to determine the exact diagnostic accuracy of 123I-MIBG scintigraphy. In case the tumour is not MIBG avid, fluorine-18-fluorodeoxy-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is often used and the diagnostic accuracy of this test should also be assessed. Objectives Primary objectives: 1.1 To determine the diagnostic accuracy of 123I-MIBG (single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), with or without computed tomography (CT)) scintigraphy for detecting a neuroblastoma and its metastases at first diagnosis or at recurrence in children from 0 to 18 years old. 1.2 To determine the diagnostic accuracy of negative 123I-MIBG scintigraphy in combination with 18F-FDG-PET(-CT) imaging for detecting a neuroblastoma and its metastases at first diagnosis or at recurrence in children from 0 to 18 years old, i.e. an add-on test. Secondary objectives: 2.1 To determine the diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG-PET(-CT) imaging for detecting a neuroblastoma and its metastases at first diagnosis or at recurrence in children from 0 to 18 years old. 2.2 To compare the diagnostic accuracy of 123I

  7. TU-G-BRA-07: Characterization of Tumor Proliferation During Successive Cycles of Anti-Angiogenic Therapy Using [F-18]FLT PET/CT

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpelli, M; Perlman, S; Harmon, S; Perk, T; Scully, P; Bruce, J; Liu, G; Jeraj, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Studies have shown cessation of anti-angiogenic treatment during the first cycle of therapy resulted in rebound of tumor proliferation (flare). This study characterized proliferation dynamics during the first and third cycle of anti-angiogenic treatment using [F-18]FLT PET. Methods: Thirteen patients with various solid cancers were treated with Axitinib (Pfizer, Inc) at a dose of 5mg orally, twice daily, on contiguous three-week cycles with intermittent dosing (two-weeks-on/one-week-off). All patients received three FLT PET/CT scans during cycle 1 (C1): at baseline (C1D0), peak Axitinib concentration (C1D14), and the end of washout (C1D21). Ten patients received up to an additional three scans at corresponding time points during cycle 3 (C3). Lesions were identified by a nuclear medicine physician and manually contoured. Tumor burden was quantified using standard SUV metrics. Correlations between imaging metrics across C1 and C3 were calculated using the Spearman correlation. Results: At C1 peak drug concentration 11/13 patients had decreases in SUVtotal, with median decrease of 50% (change from C1D0 to C1D14). At C3 peak drug concentration 7/7 patients had decreases in SUVtotal, with median decrease of 20% (C3D0 to C3D14). Proliferative flare during C1 washout (>20% increase from C1D14 to C1D21) occurred in 9/13 patients, with median SUVtotal increase of 190%. Flare was also seen in C3 for 5/5 patients, with median SUVtotal increase of 70% (change from C3D14 to C3D21). Correlations were found between changes in imaging metrics across C1 and C3, notably the change in SUVtotal from C1D0 to C1D21 and the change in SUVtotal from C1D0 to C3D0 (ρ = 0.80). Conclusion: Measurements of SUVtotal showed that both patient response to treatment and flare were evident in both cycles of treatment. Correlation between changes in SUVtotal across C1 and C3 suggest early time points could be used to characterize patient response in later cycles. Research funded in part by

  8. FDG-PET Contributions to the Pathophysiology of Memory Impairment.

    PubMed

    Segobin, Shailendra; La Joie, Renaud; Ritz, Ludivine; Beaunieux, Hélène; Desgranges, Béatrice; Chételat, Gaël; Pitel, Anne Lise; Eustache, Francis

    2015-09-01

    Measurement of synaptic activity by Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and its relation to cognitive functions such as episodic memory, working memory and executive functions in healthy humans and patients with neurocognitive disorders have been well documented. In this review, we introduce the concept of PET imaging that allows the observation of a particular biological process in vivo through the use of radio-labelled compounds, its general use to the medical world and its contributions to the understanding of memory systems. We then focus on [(18)F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG-PET), the radiotracer that is used to measure local cerebral metabolic rate of glucose that is indicative of synaptic activity in the brain. FDG-PET at rest has been at the forefront of functional neuroimaging over the past 3 decades, contributing to the understanding of cognitive functions in healthy humans and how these functional patterns change with cognitive alterations. We discuss methodological considerations that are important for optimizing FDG-PET imaging data prior to analysis. We then highlight the contribution of FDG-PET to the understanding of the patterns of functional differences in non-degenerative pathologies, normal ageing, and age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Through reasonable temporal and spatial resolution, its ability to measure synaptic activity in the whole brain, independently of any specific network and disease, makes it ideal to observe regional functional changes associated with memory impairment.

  9. [18F FDG PET-Applications in Oncology].

    PubMed

    Răileanu, Irena; Rusu, V; Stefănescu, Cipriana; Cinotti, L; Hountis, D

    2002-01-01

    In the first part our intention was, essentially, to present the particularities of glucose tumoral cells metabolism, PET components, the synthesis of 18F FDG and the detection of unknown cancers. This second part makes reference about mainly types of tumors who benefit by FDG-PET indications. Clinical PET has a rapid growth because of its use in cancer diagnosis and management. According with published studies all over the world, the sensibility and specificity of FDG-PET, noninvasive method, is higher than that of the conventional methods like CT, IRM, ultrasonography. PET is en excellent detection method of most of common cancer types and depends not on the histological neoplasm type; the more aggressive is the tumor, more it will uptake the radiotracer. The cost is significant, so the indications must be very precise: evaluating the malignity of solitary pulmonary nodules, evaluating the recurrences of melanoma, colon cancer diagnosis, differentiation between recurrent brain tumor and radiation injury, differential diagnosis of the benign lymph and malign lymph nodes, staging of Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, evaluation the response to therapy. Because the PET images are difficult to interpret, appears the necessity of correlation with anatomic images: this was the fusion images beginnings (the PET and CT images combination); now the physiologic information has precise anatomic localization. The growing of this method is very probably, both using 18F FDG -thanks to its highly favorable physical characteristics- and other new radiopharmaceuticals. The clinical cases that illustrate the applications are investigated at CERMEP, Lyon, France.

  10. Effectiveness of infliximab in refractory FDG PET-positive sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Vorselaars, Adriane D M; Crommelin, Heleen A; Deneer, Vera H M; Meek, Bob; Claessen, Anke M E; Keijsers, Ruth G M; van Moorsel, Coline H M; Grutters, Jan C

    2015-07-01

    Inconclusive evidence for the efficacy of infliximab in sarcoidosis hinders the global use of this potentially beneficial drug. To study infliximab efficacy in a clinical setting, we performed a prospective open-label trial in patients refractory to conventional treatment. Patients (n=56) received eight infusions of 5 mg·kg(-1) infliximab. Pulmonary function, disease activity measured by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) by positron emission tomography (PET) and quality of life were part of the clinical work-up. Infliximab levels were measured before every infusion. After 26 weeks of infliximab treatment, mean improvement in forced vital capacity (FVC) was 6.6% predicted (p=0.0007), whereas in the 6 months before start of treatment, lung function decreased. Maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) of pulmonary parenchyma on (18)F-FDG PET decreased by 3.93 (p<0.0001). High SUVmax of pulmonary parenchyma at baseline predicted FVC improvement (R=0.62, p=0.0004). An overall beneficial response was seen in 79% of patients and a partial response was seen in 17% of patients. No correlation between infliximab trough level (mean 18.0 µg·mL(-1)) and initial response was found. In conclusion, infliximab causes significant improvement in FVC in refractory (18)F-FDG PET positive sarcoidosis. Especially in pulmonary disease, high (18)F-FDG PET SUVmax values at treatment initiation predict clinically relevant lung function improvement. These results suggest that inclusion of (18)F-FDG PET is useful in therapeutic decision-making in complex sarcoidosis.

  11. Whole Body FDG-PET and FDG-PET/CT in Patients with Suspected Paraneoplastic Syndrome: A Systematic review and Meta-analysis of Diagnostic Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Marcus, Charles; Fragomeni, Roberto S; Rowe, Steven P; Javadi, Mehrbod S; Solnes, Lilja B

    2016-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of whole body (18)F-FDG-PET or (18)F-FDG-PET/CT for detection of underlying malignancy in patients with clinically suspected neurological and non-neurological paraneoplastic syndromes.

  12. Predicting Future Morphological Changes of Lesions from Radiotracer Uptake in 18F-FDG-PET Images

    PubMed Central

    Bagci, Ulas; Yao, Jianhua; Miller-Jaster, Kirsten; Chen, Xinjian; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a novel computational framework to enable automated identification of texture and shape features of lesions on 18F-FDG-PET images through a graph-based image segmentation method. The proposed framework predicts future morphological changes of lesions with high accuracy. The presented methodology has several benefits over conventional qualitative and semi-quantitative methods, due to its fully quantitative nature and high accuracy in each step of (i) detection, (ii) segmentation, and (iii) feature extraction. To evaluate our proposed computational framework, thirty patients received 2 18F-FDG-PET scans (60 scans total), at two different time points. Metastatic papillary renal cell carcinoma, cerebellar hemongioblastoma, non-small cell lung cancer, neurofibroma, lymphomatoid granulomatosis, lung neoplasm, neuroendocrine tumor, soft tissue thoracic mass, nonnecrotizing granulomatous inflammation, renal cell carcinoma with papillary and cystic features, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, metastatic alveolar soft part sarcoma, and small cell lung cancer were included in this analysis. The radiotracer accumulation in patients' scans was automatically detected and segmented by the proposed segmentation algorithm. Delineated regions were used to extract shape and textural features, with the proposed adaptive feature extraction framework, as well as standardized uptake values (SUV) of uptake regions, to conduct a broad quantitative analysis. Evaluation of segmentation results indicates that our proposed segmentation algorithm has a mean dice similarity coefficient of 85.75±1.75%. We found that 28 of 68 extracted imaging features were correlated well with SUVmax (p<0.05), and some of the textural features (such as entropy and maximum probability) were superior in predicting morphological changes of radiotracer uptake regions longitudinally, compared to single intensity feature such as SUVmax. We also found that integrating textural features with SUV measurements

  13. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the 2010 result of the LNE-LNHB (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Cassette, P.; Moune, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2001, six national metrology institutes (NMI) have submitted seven samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18. The values of the activity submitted were between about 1 MBq and 18 MBq. The primary standardization result for the LNE-LNHB, France, replaces their earlier result of 2002 and the key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated. In the frame of the BIPM.RI(II)-K4.F18 comparison, the NPL updated their result in the KCDB. Consequently there are now five results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 comparison. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the updated KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  14. Incidental Detection of Femoral Pseudoaneurysm at 18F-FDG PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Nougaret, Stephanie; Ragucci, Monica; Bach, Ariadne M.; Carollo, Gabriella; Mannelli, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    A 72-year-old man with history of lung cancer and melanoma was referred for routine follow-up with 18F-FDG PET/CT. CT images showed a new mass in the right groin associated with mild FDG activity on 18F-FDG PET images. Subsequent ultrasound obtained the same day demonstrated flow within the lesion to be a pseudoaneurysm of the right femoral artery. PMID:26462043

  15. Increased 18F-FDG Uptake in Multiple Muscles in a Patient With Violent Cough.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Shao, Fuqiang; Zhang, Li; Luo, Xiufang; Chen, Yue

    2017-03-31

    Increased muscular FDG uptake could be due to various causes. Detailed analysis combined with history might be helpful for image interpretation. We present FDG PET/CT findings of a 69-year-old woman with lung cancer. The images demonstrated intense FDG uptake in multiple muscles, likely due to cough before the PET/CT study. To relieve the patient's cough, codeine was administrated. The second F-FDG PET/CT was performed 2 days later. The images showed that the abnormal muscular activity had become decreased, which was slightly lower than hepatic activity.

  16. Normal variations and benign findings in pediatric 18F-FDG-PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Grant, Frederick D

    2014-04-01

    (18)F-FDG PET and PET/CT have a wide variety of indications in children and young adults. Oncologic indications are the most common, but others include neurology, sports medicine, cardiology, and infection imaging. Accurate interpretation of pediatric (18)F-FDG PET and PET/CT requires a technically adequate study and knowledgeable interpretation of the images. A successful pediatric (18)F-FDG PET requires age-appropriate patient preparation and consideration of patient age and developmental stage. Accurate interpretation of the study requires familiarity with normal patterns of physiologic (18)F-FDG uptake in children at all stages of development.

  17. Multi-modality PET-CT imaging of breast cancer in an animal model using nanoparticle x-ray contrast agent and 18F-FDG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badea, C. T.; Ghaghada, K.; Espinosa, G.; Strong, L.; Annapragada, A.

    2011-03-01

    Multi-modality PET-CT imaging is playing an important role in the field of oncology. While PET imaging facilitates functional interrogation of tumor status, the use of CT imaging is primarily limited to anatomical reference. In an attempt to extract comprehensive information about tumor cells and its microenvironment, we used a nanoparticle xray contrast agent to image tumor vasculature and vessel 'leakiness' and 18F-FDG to investigate the metabolic status of tumor cells. In vivo PET/CT studies were performed in mice implanted with 4T1 mammary breast cancer cells.Early-phase micro-CT imaging enabled visualization 3D vascular architecture of the tumors whereas delayedphase micro-CT demonstrated highly permeable vessels as evident by nanoparticle accumulation within the tumor. Both imaging modalities demonstrated the presence of a necrotic core as indicated by a hypo-enhanced region in the center of the tumor. At early time-points, the CT-derived fractional blood volume did not correlate with 18F-FDG uptake. At delayed time-points, the tumor enhancement in 18F-FDG micro-PET images correlated with the delayed signal enhanced due to nanoparticle extravasation seen in CT images. The proposed hybrid imaging approach could be used to better understand tumor angiogenesis and to be the basis for monitoring and evaluating anti-angiogenic and nano-chemotherapies.

  18. Wilson's disease studied with FDG and positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, R.A.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Phelps, M.E.

    1987-11-01

    Four patients with Wilson's disease and eight normal controls were studied with 2-deoxy-2-(/sup 18/F)fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET). The patients had diffusely reduced glucose metabolism in all brain regions evaluated compared with controls, with the exception of the thalamus. The ratio of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose in the lenticular nuclei to hemispheres declined from 1.23 (+/- 0.14 SD) in controls to 1.03 (+/- 0.06) (p less than 0.025) in Wilson's disease patients. Compared with Huntington's disease, the PET FDG results in Wilson's disease indicate relatively less focal involvement of the caudate nucleus, more severe focal changes in the lenticular nuclei, and more significant global changes in glucose metabolism.

  19. Purulent lupus panniculitis unmasked by FDG-PET/CT scan

    PubMed Central

    van der Geest, Kornelis S.M.; Moerman, Rada V.; Koopmans, Klaas P.; Holman, Nicole D.; Janssen, Wilbert M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Lupus panniculitis (LP) is a unique variant of cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Clinical manifestations are typically mild and include erythema, nodules, and small ulcers. In certain cases, diagnosing LP may be challenging. Skin overlying the typical subcutaneous inflammation may appear normal, and bacterial superinfections of the skin sometimes mask the underlying LP. It has been suggested that a computed tomography (CT) scan may help to identify obscure LP lesions. Here, we report a case of a 54-year-old woman with an unusually severe form of LP, in which the full disease extent was only revealed by a fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/CT scan. Patient concerns/Diagnoses/Interventions/Outcomes: Our patient initially presented with a bacterial infection of the skin. After initial improvement with antibiotic treatment, new erythematous lesions and sterile subcutaneous pus collections developed. An FDG-PET/CT scan revealed extensive subcutaneous inflammation at sites that had appeared normal during physical examination and on CT scan. As the subcutaneous lesions showed a remarkably linear pattern on FDG-PET/CT scan, the patient was suspected of having LP. After confirmation of this diagnosis by a deep-skin biopsy, our patient was treated with systemic glucocorticoids. Eventually, our patient succumbed to complications of LP and its treatment. Lessons: Our case demonstrates that clinical manifestations of LP are not always mild and that timely diagnosis is needed. Furthermore, we show that obscure LP lesions are more readily identified on an FDG-PET/CT scan than CT scan. PMID:27902603

  20. FDG-PET findings in the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reed, Laurence J; Lasserson, Dan; Marsden, Paul; Stanhope, Nicola; Stevens, Tom; Bello, Fernando; Kingsley, Derek; Colchester, Alan; Kopelman, Michael D

    2003-01-01

    This study reports FDG-PET findings in Wernicke-Korsakoff patients. Twelve patients suffering amnesia arising from the Korsakoff syndrome were compared with 10 control subjects without alcohol-related disability. Subjects received [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) imaging as well as neuropsychological assessment and high-resolution MR imaging with volumetric analysis. Volumetric MRI analysis had revealed thalamic and mamillary body atrophy in the patient group as well as frontal lobe atrophy with relative sparing of medial temporal lobe structures. Differences in regional metabolism were identified using complementary region of interest (ROI) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) approaches employing either absolute methods or a reference region approach to increase statistical power. In general, we found relative hypermetabolism in white matter and hypometabolism in subcortical grey matter in Korsakoff patients. When FDG uptake ratios were examined with occipital lobe metabolism as covariate reference region, Korsakoff patients showed widespread bilateral white matter hypermetabolism on both SPM and ROI analysis. When white matter metabolism was the reference covariate; Korsakoff patients showed relative hypometabolism in the diencephalic grey matter, consistent with their known underlying neuropathology, and medial temporal and retrosplenial hypometabolism, interpreted as secondary metabolic effects within the diencephalic-limbic memory circuits. There was also evidence of a variable degree of more general frontotemporal neocortical hypometabolism on some, but not all, analyses.

  1. Increased (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in benign, nonphysiologic lesions found on whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT): accumulated data from four years of experience with PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Metser, Ur; Even-Sapir, Einat

    2007-05-01

    The use of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET) in the field of oncology is rapidly evolving; however, (18)F-FDG is not tumor specific. Aside from physiological uptake (18)F-FDG also may accumulate in benign processes. Knowledge of these (18)F-FDG-avid nonmalignant lesions is essential for accurate PET interpretation in oncologic patients to avoid a false-positive interpretation. Through the systematic review of the reports of PET/computed tomography (CT) studies performed in oncologic patients during a 6-month period, we found benign nonphysiological uptake of (18)F-FDG in more than 25% of studies. In half of these, (18)F-FDG uptake was moderate or marked in intensity, similar to that of malignant sites. A total of 73% of benign lesions were inflammatory in nature, with post-traumatic bone and soft-tissue abnormalities (including iatrogenic injury) and benign tumors accounting for the remainder. The differentiation of benign from malignant uptake of (18)F-FDG on PET alone may be particularly challenging as a result of the low anatomical resolution of PET and paucity of anatomical landmarks. Fusion imaging, namely PET/CT, has been shown to improve not only the sensitivity of PET interpretation but also its specificity. Aside from better anatomical localization of lesions on PET/CT, morphological characterization of lesions on CT often may improve the diagnostic accuracy of nonspecific (18)F-FDG uptake. Correlation with CT on fused PET/CT data may obviate the need for further evaluation or biopsy in more than one-third of scintigraphic equivocal lesions. Familiarity with (18)F-FDG-avid nonmalignant lesions also may extend the use of (18)F-FDG-PET imaging beyond the field of oncology. We have tabulated our experience with benign entities associated with increased (18)F-FDG uptake on whole-body PET/CT from 12,000 whole-body (18)F-FDG-PET/CT studies performed during a 4-year period.

  2. 18F-FDG super bone marrow uptake

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Mohammed Shah; Fu, Lilan; Ren, Yun-Yan; Wu, Hu-Bing; Wang, Quan-Shi; Han, Yan-Jiang; Zhou, Wen-Lan; Li, Hong-Sheng; Wang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study was performed to investigate whether the markedly 2-deoxy-2-(fluorine-18) fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) uptake in the bone marrow (BM) is a presentation of malignant infiltration (MI). Super bone marrow uptake (super BMU) was used to name the markedly 18F-FDG uptake on BM, which was similar to or higher than that of the brain. From April 2008 to December 2015, 31 patients with such presentation were retrospectively reviewed. The 18F-FDG uptake was semiquantified using SUVmax and BM to cerebellum (BM/C) ratio. The origin of super BMU was diagnosed by pathology. Some blood parameters, as well as fever, were also collected and analyzed. For comparison, 106 patients with mildly and moderately uptake in BM and 20 healthy subjects were selected as the control group. Bone marrow MI was diagnosed in 93.5% (29/31) patients with super BMU, which mostly originated from acute leukemia and highly aggressive lymphoma. The super BMU group had markedly higher 18F-FDG uptake in the BM than those of mildly and moderately uptake, and the control subjects (all P = 0.000) and the BM/C ratio reached a high of 1.24 ± 0.36. The incidence of bone marrow MI in the super BMU group was markedly higher than that of mildly and moderately uptake (93.5% vs 36.8%, P = 0.000). Based on the receiver operating characteristic analysis, when cut-off values of BM/C and SUVmax were set at 0.835 and 6.560, the diagnostic specificity for bone marrow MI reached the high levels of 91.4% and 95.7%, respectively. In 15 patients with bone marrow MI, the extra-BM malignant lesions were simultaneously detected by 18F-FDG PET/CT. The liver and the nasal cavity involvements were only found in the patients with lymphoma, but not in those with leukemia. A decrease of leukocyte, hemoglobin, and platelet counts was noted in 48.4%, 86.2%, and 51.5% of patients with bone marrow MI, respectively. The present study revealed that super BMU was a highly potent indicator for the bone

  3. Candida Esophagitis Incidentally Detected by 18F-FDG PET/CT in Metastatic Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Amador, N; Martínez-Rodríguez, I; Quirce, R; Jiménez-Bonilla, J; Banzo, I

    2017-01-01

    The diagnostic significance of esophageal 18F-FDG uptake in oncologic patient is challenging. It may represent normal physiological uptake, inflammation, infection, or neoplasia. We present a patient with a recent diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer stage IV and esophageal mild uptake on 18F-FDG PET/CT scan. Biopsy of esophageal mucosa demonstrated Candida esophagitis.

  4. Plasmacytoma of the ovary: additional role of 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Sampath; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Raveendran, Ainharan; Jain, Vanita; Nijhawan, Raje; Kumar, Ritesh; Bhattacharya, Anish; Sharma, Suresh C

    2013-05-01

    We report a case of ovarian plasmacytomas where 18F-FDG PET/CT helped in staging by demonstrating increased FDG uptake limited to the ovary, and hence, surgical treatment was carried out as the disease was localized to the ovary.

  5. Effect of simulated in-flight thrust reversing on vertical-tail loads of F-18 and F-15 airplane models. [conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bare, E. A.; Berrier, B. L.; Capone, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    Investigations were conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to provide data on a 0.10-scale model of the prototype F-18 airplane and a 0.047-scale model of the F-15 three-surface configuration (canard, wing, and horizontal tails). Test data were obtained at static conditions and at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.2 over an angle-of-attack range from 2 deg to 15 deg. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from jet off to about 8.0.

  6. Spectrum of the Breast Lesions With Increased 18F-FDG Uptake on PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Aisheng; Wang, Yang; Lu, Jianping; Zuo, Changjing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Interpretation of 18F-FDG PET/CT studies in breast is challenging owing to nonspecific FDG uptake in various benign and malignant conditions. Benign conditions include breast changes in pregnancy and lactation, gynecomastia, mastitis, fat necrosis, fibroadenoma, intraductal papilloma, and atypical ductal hyperplasia. Among malignancies, invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma are common histological types of breast carcinoma. Rarely, other unusual histological types of breast carcinomas (eg, intraductal papillary carcinoma, invasive micropapillary carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, and metaplastic carcinoma), lymphoma, and metastasis can be the causes. Knowledge of a wide spectrum of hypermetabolic breast lesions on FDG PET/CT is essential in accurate reading of FDG PET/CT. The purpose of this atlas article is to demonstrate features of various breast lesions encountered at our institution, both benign and malignant, which can result in hypermetabolism on FDG PET/CT imaging. PMID:26975010

  7. Comparison of autologous 111In-leukocytes, 18F-FDG, 11C-methionine, 11C-PK11195 and 68Ga-citrate for diagnostic nuclear imaging in a juvenile porcine haematogenous staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis model

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Ole L; Afzelius, Pia; Bender, Dirk; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Leifsson, Páll S; Nielsen, Karin M; Larsen, Jytte O; Jensen, Svend B; Alstrup, Aage KO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 111In-labeled leukocyte single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to PET with tracers that potentially could improve detection of osteomyelitis. We chose 11C-methionine, 11C-PK11195 and 68Ga-citrate and validated their diagnostic utility in a porcine haematogenous osteomyelitis model. Four juvenile 14-15 weeks old female pigs were scanned seven days after intra-arterial inoculation in the right femoral artery with a porcine strain of Staphylococcus aureus using a sequential scan protocol with 18F-FDG, 68Ga-citrate, 11C-methionine, 11C-PK11195, 99mTc-Nanocoll and 111In-labelled autologous leukocytes. This was followed by necropsy of the pigs and gross pathology, histopathology and microbial examination. The pigs developed a total of five osteomyelitis lesions, five lesions characterized as abscesses/cellulitis, arthritis in three joints and five enlarged lymph nodes. None of the tracers accumulated in joints with arthritis. By comparing the 10 infectious lesions, 18F-FDG accumulated in nine, 111In-leukocytes in eight, 11C-methionine in six, 68Ga-citrate in four and 11C-PK11195 accumulated in only one lesion. Overall, 18F-FDG PET was superior to 111In-leukocyte SPECT in marking infectious and proliferative, i.e. hyperplastic, lesions. However, leukocyte SPECT was performed as early scans, approximately 6 h after injection of the leukocytes, to match the requirements of the 18 h long scan protocol. 11C-methionine and possibly 68Ga-citrate may be useful for diagnosis of soft issue lesions. PMID:25973338

  8. Accuracy of FDG-PET to diagnose lung cancer in a region of endemic granulomatous disease

    PubMed Central

    Deppen, Stephen; Putnam, Joe B.; Andrade, Gabriela; Speroff, Theodore; Nesbitt, Jonathan C.; Lambright, Eric S.; Massion, Pierre P.; Walker, Ron; Grogan, Eric L.

    2011-01-01

    Background 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is used to evaluate suspicious pulmonary lesions due to its diagnostic accuracy. The southeastern United States has a high prevalence of infectious granulomatous lung disease, and the accuracy of FDGPET may be reduced in this population. We examined the diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET in patients with known or suspected NSCLC treated at our institution. Methods 279 patients identified through our prospective database, underwent an operation for known or suspected lung cancer. Preoperative FDG-PET in 211 eligible patients was defined by standardized uptake value, SUV > 2.5 or by description (“moderate” or “intense”) as avid. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood ratios, and decision diagrams were calculated for FDG-PET in all patients and in patients with indeterminate nodules. Results In all eligible patients (n=211), sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET were 92% and 40%. Positive and negative predictive values were 86% and 55%. Overall FDG-PET accuracy to diagnose lung cancer was 81%. Preoperative positive likelihood ratio for FDG-PET diagnosis of lung cancer in this population was 1.5 compared to previously published values of 7.1. In 113 indeterminate lesions, 65% had lung cancer and the sensitivity and specificity were 89% and 40% respectively. 24 benign nodules (60%) had false positive FDG-PET scans. 22 of 43 benign nodules (51%) were granulomas. Conclusions In a region with endemic granulomatous diseases, the specificity of FDG-PET for diagnosis of lung cancer was 40%. Clinical decisions and future clinical predictive models for lung cancer must accommodate regional variation of FDG-PET scan results. PMID:21592456

  9. [(18)F]FDG PET monitoring of tumour response to chemotherapy: does [(18)F]FDG uptake correlate with the viable tumour cell fraction?

    PubMed

    Spaepen, Karoline; Stroobants, Sigrid; Dupont, Patrick; Bormans, Guy; Balzarini, Jan; Verhoef, Gregor; Mortelmans, Luc; Vandenberghe, Peter; De Wolf-Peeters, Christine

    2003-05-01

    Because metabolic changes induced by chemotherapy precede the morphological changes, fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([(18)F]FDG PET) is thought to predict response to therapy earlier and more accurately than other modalities. To be a reliable predictor of response, changes in tumour [(18)F]FDG uptake should reflect changes in viable cell fraction, but little is known about the contribution of apoptotic and necrotic cancer cells and inflammatory tissue to the [(18)F]FDG signal. In a tumour mouse model we investigated the relation between chemotherapy-induced changes in various tumoral components and tumour uptake and size. SCID mice were subcutaneously inoculated in the right thigh with 5 x 10(6) Daudi cells. When the tumour measured 15-20 mm, Endoxan was given intravenously. At different time points [1-15 days (d1-d15) after the injection of Endoxan], ex vivo autoradiography and histopathology were performed in two mice and [(18)F]FDG uptake in the tumour and tumour size were correlated with the different cell fractions measured with flow cytometry in five mice. At d1/d3, similar reductions in [(18)F]FDG uptake and viable tumoral cell fraction were observed and these reductions preceded changes in tumour size. By d8/d10, [(18)F]FDG uptake had stabilised despite a further reduction in viable tumoral cell fraction. At these time points a major inflammatory response was observed. At d15, an increase in viable tumour cells was again observed and this was accurately predicted by an increase in [(18)F]FDG uptake, while the tumour volume remained unchanged. In contrast with variations in tumour volume, [(18)F]FDG is a good marker for chemotherapy response monitoring. However, optimal timing seems crucial since a transient increase in stromal reaction may result in overestimation of the fraction of viable cells.

  10. Influence of hypoxia on tracer accumulation in squamous-cell carcinoma: in vitro evaluation for PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Minn, H; Clavo, A C; Wahl, R L

    1996-11-01

    Hypoxic accumulation of 2-[5,6-3H]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([3H]FDG),L-[methyl-3H] methionine ([3H]MET), and L-[1-3H]leucine ([3H]LEU) was evaluated in two cell lines (UT-SCC-5 and UT-SCC-20) obtained from patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Both cell lines were exposed to decreasing oxygen atmosphere (20%, 1.5%, or 0% O2) for 6 h, after which they were incubated for a further 1 h with tritiated FDG, MET, or LEU. An anoxic atmosphere resulted in a mean increase of [3H]FDG uptake of 120% and 46% over a baseline 20% oxygen atmosphere for UT-SCC-5 and UT-SCC-20A, respectively. Both total and acid-precipitable [3H]MET uptake remained unchanged at 0% versus baseline, whereas acid-precipitable [3H]LEU uptake decreased by 46% for UT-SCC-5 and by 34% for UT-SCC-20A at 0% O2. Our findings demonstrate that [3H]FDG accumulation is increased in hypoxic UT-SCC cell lines probably through activation of the metabolic steps associated with the glycolytic pathway. The decrease in acid-precipitable [3H]LEU uptake in hypoxia may indicate a decline in protein synthesis, whereas the unchanged [3H]MET uptake probably reflects the unaffected amino acid transport and slow incorporation of radiolabeled methyl group of MET in tumor proteins and nucleic acids. FDG and LEU, but probably not MET, warrant additional study as hypoxia-avid or hypoxia-reduced tracers for assessment of treatment effects designed to modify hypoxia.

  11. Activity measurements of the radionuclides 18F and 99mTc for the NMISA, South Africa in the ongoing comparisons BIPM.RI(II)-K4.F-18 and BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Nonis, M.; Van Rooy, M. W.; Van Staden, M. J.; Lubbe, J.

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, comparisons of activity measurements of 18F and 99mTc using the Transfer Instrument of the International Reference System (SIRTI) took place at the National Metrology Institute of South Africa (NMISA, South Africa). Ampoules containing about 25 kBq of 18F and 99mTc solutions were measured in the SIRTI for more than two half-lives. The NMISA standardized the activity in the ampoules by ionization chamber measurements traceable to 4π(LS)β-γ coincidence measurements. The comparisons, identifiers BIPM.RI(II)-K4.F-18 and BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m, are linked to the corresponding BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 and BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparisons and degrees of equivalence with the respective key comparison reference values have been evaluated. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  12. Pleuroperitoneal Mesothelioma: A Rare Entity on 18F-FDG PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Manas Kumar; Mukherjee, Anirban; Girish; Parida, Kumar; Agarwal, Krishan Kant; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Tripathi, Madhavi; Das, Chandan Jyoti; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Pleuroperitoneal mesothelioma is an extremely rare entity. Only few cases are reported worldwide. We hereby represent a case of pleural mesothelioma referred for F-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography for response evaluation. Diffuse F-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose avid peritoneal and omental thickening noted which subsequently turned out to be mesothelial involvement on peritoneal biopsy. This case demonstrates the role of F-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in detecting other sites of involvement in case of malignant mesothelioma. PMID:28242997

  13. Human radiation dosimetry of 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG predicted from preclinical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Muzic, Raymond F.; Chandramouli, Visvanathan; Hatami, Ahmad; Huang, Hsuan-Ming; Wu, Chunying; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The authors are developing 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-6-deoxy-D-glucose (6-[{sup 18}F]FDG) as an in vivo tracer of glucose transport. While 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG has the same radionuclide half-life as 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-[{sup 18}F]FDG) which is ubiquitously used for PET imaging, 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG has special biologic properties and different biodistributions that make it preferable to 2-[{sup 18}F]FDG for assessing glucose transport. In preparation for 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG use in human PET scanning, the authors would like to determine the amount of 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG to inject while maintaining radiation doses in a safe range. Methods: Rats were injected with 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG, euthanized at specified times, and tissues were collected and assayed for activity content. For each tissue sample, the percent of injected dose per gram was calculated and extrapolated to that for humans in order to construct predicted time-courses. Residence times were calculated as areas under the curves and were used as inputs to OLINDA/EXM in order to calculate the radiation doses. Results: Unlike with 2-[{sup 18}F]FDG for which the urinary bladder wall receives the highest absorbed dose due to urinary excretion, with 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG there is little urinary excretion and osteogenic cells and the liver are predicted to receive the highest absorbed doses: 0.027 mGy/MBq (0.100 rad/mCi) and 0.018 mGy/MBq (0.066 rad/mCi), respectively. Also, the effective dose from 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG, i.e., 0.013 mSv/MBq (0.046 rem/mCi), is predicted to be approximately 30% lower than that from 2-[{sup 18}F]FDG. Conclusions: 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG will be safe for use in the PET scanning of humans.

  14. Longitudinal assessment of a transgenic animal model of tauopathy by FDG-PET imaging.

    PubMed

    de Cristóbal, Javier; García-García, Luis; Delgado, Mercedes; Pérez, Mar; Pozo, Miguel A; Medina, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal levels and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein have been proposed as the underlying cause of a group of neurodegenerative disorders collectively known as 'tauopathies'. The detrimental consequence is the loss of affinity between this protein and the microtubules, increased production of fibrillary aggregates, and the accumulation of insoluble intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. A similar phenotype can be observed in various preclinical models, which have been generated to study the role of tau protein in neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we have analyzed the brain metabolic activity in an animal model of tauopathy (tauVLW transgenic mice), which has been previously reported to mimic some of the phenotypic features of these disorders. By using a non-invasive technique, positron emission tomography (PET), a longitudinal non-clinical follow up study was carried out during most of the lifespan of these transgenic mice, from the youth to the senescence stages. The results obtained point out to an aging-dependent decrease in 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the cerebral areas analyzed, which was already significant at the adult age, i.e., 11 months, and became much more prominent in the oldest animals (19 months old). This observation correlates well with the histopathological observation of neurodegeneration in brain areas where there is overexpression of tau protein.

  15. Association between osteogenesis and inflammation during the progression of calcified plaque as evaluated by combined (18)F-NaF and (18)F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Heber, Daniel; Cal-Gonzales, Jacobo; Karanikas, Georgios; Mayerhoefer, Marius E; Rasul, Sazan; Beitzke, Dietrich; Zhang, Xiaoli; Agis, Hermine; Mitterhauser, Markus; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Beyer, Thomas; Loewe, Christian; Hacker, Marcus

    2017-02-23

    Background and Aim:(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) is the most widely validated positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for the evaluation of atherosclerotic inflammation. (18)F-sodium fluoride ((18)F-NaF) has also been recently considered a potential novel biomarker of osteogenesis in atherosclerosis. We aimed to analyze the association between inflammation and osteogenesis at different stages of atherosclerosis, as well as the interrelationship between these two processes during disease progression. Methods: Thirty-four myeloma patients underwent (18)F-NaF and (18)F-FDG PET/computed tomography (CT) examinations. Three groups (non-calcified; mildly calcified; and severely calcified lesions) were divided based on the calcium density as measured in Hounsfield units (HU) by CT. Tissue-to-background ratios (TBR) were determined from PET for both tracers. The association between inflammation and the osteogenesis during atherosclerosis progression was evaluated in 19 patients who had at least two examinations with both tracers. Results: There were significant correlations between the TBRmax values of the two tracers (Spearman's r = 0.5, P < 0.01, Pearson r = 0.4, P < 0.01) in the 221 lesions at baseline. In non-calcified lesions, highest uptake of both tracers was observed, but without any correlation between both tracers (Pearson r = 0.06, P = 0.76). Compared to non-calcified plaques, concordant significantly lower accumulation was found in mildly calcified plaques, with good correlation between the tracers (Pearson r = 0.7, P < 0.01). In addition, there was enhanced osteogenesis-derived (18)F-NaF uptake, and regressive inflammation-derived (18)F-FDG uptake in severely calcified lesions (Pearson r = 0.4, P < 0.01). During follow-up, there was an increased calcium density and an increased mean (18)F-NaF uptake observed, while the mean (18)F-FDG uptake decreased. The majority of non-calcified (86%) and mildly calcified (81%) lesions and 47% of severely calcified

  16. Controversies on the prognostic value of interim FDG-PET in advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Adams, Hugo J A; Kwee, Thomas C

    2016-12-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma, even in advanced-stage, is a highly curable malignancy, but treatment is associated with short-term toxicity and long-term side effects. Early predictive markers are required to identify those patients who do not require the full-length standard therapy (and thus qualify for therapy de-escalation) and those patients who will not be cured by standard therapy (and thus qualify for therapy escalation). Multiple trials have assessed the value of (18) F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) after a few cycles of chemotherapy (also known as 'interim FDG-PET') in predicting outcome in advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma. Furthermore, multiple interim FDG-PET-adapted trials, in which patients with positive interim FDG-PET scans are assigned to escalated therapies, and patients with negative interim FDG-PET scans are assigned to de-escalated therapies, have recently been published or are currently ongoing, with generally heterogeneous results. The present article reports the currently available evidence (and controversies) on the prognostic value of interim FDG-PET in advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma in patients with positive and negative interim FDG-PET findings following continuation of standard chemotherapy or escalated/de-escalated therapy.

  17. Dynamic functional imaging of brain glucose utilization using fPET-FDG

    SciTech Connect

    Villien, Marjorie; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Catana, Ciprian; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Sander, Christin Y.; Zürcher, Nicole R.; Chonde, Daniel B.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Hooker, Jacob M.

    2014-06-14

    We report that glucose is the principal source of energy for the brain and yet the dynamic response of glucose utilization to changes in brain activity is still not fully understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows quantitative measurement of glucose metabolism using 2-[18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). However, FDG PET in its current form provides an integral (or average) of glucose consumption over tens of minutes and lacks the temporal information to capture physiological alterations associated with changes in brain activity induced by tasks or drug challenges. Traditionally, changes in glucose utilization are inferred by comparing two separate scans, which significantly limits the utility of the method. We report a novel method to track changes in FDG metabolism dynamically, with higher temporal resolution than exists to date and within a single session. Using a constant infusion of FDG, we demonstrate that our technique (termed fPET-FDG) can be used in an analysis pipeline similar to fMRI to define within-session differential metabolic responses. We use visual stimulation to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. Ultimately, this new method has a great potential to be used in research protocols and clinical settings since fPET-FDG imaging can be performed with most PET scanners and data acquisition and analysis are straightforward. fPET-FDG is a highly complementary technique to MRI and provides a rich new way to observe functional changes in brain metabolism.

  18. Dynamic functional imaging of brain glucose utilization using fPET-FDG

    DOE PAGES

    Villien, Marjorie; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Mandeville, Joseph B.; ...

    2014-06-14

    We report that glucose is the principal source of energy for the brain and yet the dynamic response of glucose utilization to changes in brain activity is still not fully understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows quantitative measurement of glucose metabolism using 2-[18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). However, FDG PET in its current form provides an integral (or average) of glucose consumption over tens of minutes and lacks the temporal information to capture physiological alterations associated with changes in brain activity induced by tasks or drug challenges. Traditionally, changes in glucose utilization are inferred by comparing two separate scans, which significantly limits themore » utility of the method. We report a novel method to track changes in FDG metabolism dynamically, with higher temporal resolution than exists to date and within a single session. Using a constant infusion of FDG, we demonstrate that our technique (termed fPET-FDG) can be used in an analysis pipeline similar to fMRI to define within-session differential metabolic responses. We use visual stimulation to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. Ultimately, this new method has a great potential to be used in research protocols and clinical settings since fPET-FDG imaging can be performed with most PET scanners and data acquisition and analysis are straightforward. fPET-FDG is a highly complementary technique to MRI and provides a rich new way to observe functional changes in brain metabolism.« less

  19. Dynamic Functional Imaging of Brain Glucose Utilization using fPET-FDG

    PubMed Central

    Villien, Marjorie; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Catana, Ciprian; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Sander, Christin Y.; Zürcher, Nicole R.; Chonde, Daniel B.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Hooker, Jacob M.

    2014-01-01

    Glucose is the principal source of energy for the brain and yet the dynamic response of glucose utilization to changes in brain activity is still not fully understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows quantitative measurement of glucose metabolism using 2-[18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). However, FDG PET in its current form provides an integral (or average) of glucose consumption over tens of minutes and lacks the temporal information to capture physiological alterations associated with changes in brain activity induced by tasks or drug challenges. Traditionally, changes in glucose utilization are inferred by comparing two separate scans, which significantly limits the utility of the method. We report a novel method to track changes in FDG metabolism dynamically, with higher temporal resolution than exists to date and within a single session. Using a constant infusion of FDG, we demonstrate that our technique (termed fPET-FDG) can be used in an analysis pipeline similar to fMRI to define within-session differential metabolic responses. We use visual stimulation to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. This new method has a great potential to be used in research protocols and clinical settings since fPET-FDG imaging can be performed with most PET scanners and data acquisition and analysis is straightforward. fPET-FDG is a highly complementary technique to MRI and provides a rich new way to observe functional changes in brain metabolism. PMID:24936683

  20. Dynamic functional imaging of brain glucose utilization using fPET-FDG.

    PubMed

    Villien, Marjorie; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Mandeville, Joseph B; Catana, Ciprian; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Sander, Christin Y; Zürcher, Nicole R; Chonde, Daniel B; Fowler, Joanna S; Rosen, Bruce R; Hooker, Jacob M

    2014-10-15

    Glucose is the principal source of energy for the brain and yet the dynamic response of glucose utilization to changes in brain activity is still not fully understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows quantitative measurement of glucose metabolism using 2-[(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). However, FDG PET in its current form provides an integral (or average) of glucose consumption over tens of minutes and lacks the temporal information to capture physiological alterations associated with changes in brain activity induced by tasks or drug challenges. Traditionally, changes in glucose utilization are inferred by comparing two separate scans, which significantly limits the utility of the method. We report a novel method to track changes in FDG metabolism dynamically, with higher temporal resolution than exists to date and within a single session. Using a constant infusion of FDG, we demonstrate that our technique (termed fPET-FDG) can be used in an analysis pipeline similar to fMRI to define within-session differential metabolic responses. We use visual stimulation to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. This new method has a great potential to be used in research protocols and clinical settings since fPET-FDG imaging can be performed with most PET scanners and data acquisition and analysis are straightforward. fPET-FDG is a highly complementary technique to MRI and provides a rich new way to observe functional changes in brain metabolism.

  1. Focal Colonic FDG Activity with PET/CT: Guidelines for Recommendation of Colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tianye; Behr, Spencer; Khan, Sana; Osterhoff, Robert; Aparici, Carina Mari

    2015-01-01

    Focal 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) colonic activity can be incidentally seen in positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans. Its clinical significance is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess the significance of focal FDG activity in PET/CT scans by correlating the imaging findings to colonoscopy results, and come up with some guidelines for recommendation of follow-up colonoscopy. A total of 133 patients who underwent both 18F-FDG PET/CT for different oncological indications and colonoscopy within 3 months were retrospectively studied. Imaging, colonoscopy and pathology results were analyzed. Of the 133 FDG-PET/CT scans, 109/133 (82%) did not show focal colonic FDG activity, and 24/133 (18%) did. Of the 109/133 PET/CTs without focal colonic FDG activity, 109/109 (100%) did not have evidence of colon cancer after colonoscopy and histology. Of the 24/133 PET/CTs with focal colonic FDG activity, 10/24 (42%) had pathologic confirmation of colon cancer and 14/24 (58%) did not have evidence of colon cancer after colonoscopy and histological analysis. Sensitivity was 10/10 (100%), specificity 109/123 (89%), positive predictive value (PPV) 10/24 (42%) and negative predictive value (NPV) 109/109 (100%). Incidental focal 18FDG activity in PET/CT imaging shows a high sensitivity, specificity and NPV for malignancy, with a not so high PPV of 42%. Although some people would argue that a 42% chance of malignancy justifies colonoscopy, this maybe is not possible in all cases. However, the high sensitivity of the test does not allow these studies to be overlooked. We provide our recommendations as per when to send patients with focal FDG colonic activity to have further characterization with colonoscopy. PMID:25709541

  2. Occipital Hypometabolism on FDG PET/CT Scan in a Child with Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Tatci, Ebru; Ozmen, Ozlem; Gokcek, Atila; Demir, Haci Ahmet; Gulleroglu, Nadide Basak

    2016-01-01

    It is known that Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) images may be helpful for evaluation of brain function in newborns. Here we described the fluorine-18 [18-F] FDG PET/CT imaging findings of encephalomalacia due to perinatal asphyxia in a child with refractory Hodgkin's Lymphoma (HL) who underwent PET/CT scan to stage the primary disease. Prominent hypometabolism was incidentally detected in the occipital regions bilaterally apart from the FDG uptakes in the malign lymphatic infiltrations. This case highlights the potential coexistence of a malignancy and a functional brain disorder. PMID:27965911

  3. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for monitoring lymphadenopathy in the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS).

    PubMed

    Rao, V Koneti; Carrasquillo, Jorge A; Dale, Janet K; Bacharach, Stephen L; Whatley, Millie; Dugan, Faith; Tretler, Jean; Fleisher, Thomas; Puck, Jennifer M; Wilson, Wyndham; Jaffe, Elaine S; Avila, Nilo; Chen, Clara C; Straus, Stephen E

    2006-02-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is associated with mutations that impair the activity of lymphocyte apoptosis proteins, leading to chronic lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, autoimmunity, and an increased risk of lymphoma. We investigated the utility of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in discriminating benign from malignant lymphadenopathy in ALPS. We report that FDG avidity of benign lymph nodes in ALPS can be high and, hence, by itself does not imply presence of lymphoma; but FDG-PET can help guide the decision for selecting which of many enlarged nodes in ALPS patients to biopsy when lymphoma is suspected.

  4. Cat-Scratch Disease: A Pitfall for Lymphoma Evaluation by FDG-PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Dubreuil, Julien; Dony, Arthur; Salles, Gilles; Traverse-Glehen, Alexandra; Giammarile, Francesco; Skanjeti, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    FDG-PET/CT is a standard of care in staging and response assessment of Hodgkin lymphoma. Hence, it is important to recognize pitfalls owing to the potential therapeutic impact. We report a case of a 29-year-old woman affected by stage III bulky Hodgkin lymphoma. The interim FDG-PET/CT showed a complete metabolic response. After three new cycles of chemotherapy, the patient showed fever and lymphadenopathy at clinic examination, PET/CT revealed several FDG uptakes at lymph nodes in inguinal and iliac region. Pathologic analyses, after biopsy and serologic examinations, led to the diagnosis of cat-scratch disease.

  5. Abdomen: normal variations and benign conditions resulting in uptake on FDG-PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Zukotynski, Katherine; Kim, Chun K

    2014-04-01

    The increasing use of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in oncology has led to: improved sensitivity and specificity in detecting localized and metastatic disease, increased ability to target biopsies to the site of most aggressive disease, and development of a noninvasive biomarker to assess prognosis and effects of therapy. However, for correct interpretation of FDG-PET/CT studies, an understanding of both normal and abnormal imaging appearances commonly encountered in oncology patients is important. This article discusses commonly seen normal variations and benign findings on FDG-PET/CT of the abdomen.

  6. Monitoring the Therapy of Extensive Osseous Sarcoidosis With FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Numani, Shah; Liu, Shuang

    2017-02-24

    FDG PET/CT was performed in a 47-year-old man to evaluate possible malignancy of the spine revealed by MRI. The PET images revealed numerous focal FDG activity throughout the skeletal system. In addition, multiple foci of the increased activity in the mediastinal and hilar nodes were noted, suggestive of sarcoidosis, which was proven following biopsy. Therapy for sarcoidosis was initiated. In the subsequent 4 follow-up FDG PET/CT scans, the activity in both the bones and mediastinal/hilar regions fluctuated. However, anatomical abnormality in the bones on the CT images was never visualized during the entire clinical course.

  7. A case of gouty arthritis to tophi on 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kimiteru; Minamimoto, Ryogo; Morooka, Miyako; Kubota, Kazuo

    2012-06-01

    We report a case of gouty arthritis with tophi that was evaluated using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography. A 77-year-old man with a history of gouty attacks was admitted with severe polyarticular pain and fever. 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/CT demonstrated focal uptake at multiple joints, including the juxta-articular soft-tissue-density masses of the elbows, and the bases of bilateral large toes. Gouty arthritis should be considered with focal 18F-FDG uptake in juxta-articular soft-tissue-density masses (tophi) with or without associated erosions.

  8. Abnormal 18 F-FDG and 82 Rb PET Findings in Chagas Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Salimy, Medhi S; Parwani, Purvi J; Mukai, Kanae; Pampaloni, Miguel Hernandez; Flavell, Robert R

    2017-03-03

    Uptake of the radiopharmaceutical F-FDG visualized by PET imaging can reflect abnormal myocardial inflammation. When utilized in conjunction with other imaging modalities, such as echocardiography, PET F-FDG imaging can help distinguish between active cardiac sarcoidosis and other etiologies of nonischemic cardiomyopathy. We present a case of a 46-year-old man with nonischemic cardiomyopathy and ventricular tachycardia who underwent an echocardiogram suggestive of cardiac Chagas disease. A subsequent F-FDG PET demonstrated abnormal hypermetabolism. The diagnosis was confirmed by positive serologic examination results.

  9. Gapless spin liquid ground state in the S = 1/2 vanadium oxyfluoride kagome antiferromagnet [NH4]2[C7H14N][V7O6F18].

    PubMed

    Clark, L; Orain, J C; Bert, F; De Vries, M A; Aidoudi, F H; Morris, R E; Lightfoot, P; Lord, J S; Telling, M T F; Bonville, P; Attfield, J P; Mendels, P; Harrison, A

    2013-05-17

    The vanadium oxyfluoride [NH(4)](2)[C(7)H(14)N][V(7)O(6)F(18)] (DQVOF) is a geometrically frustrated magnetic bilayer material. The structure consists of S = 1/2 kagome planes of V(4+) d(1) ions with S = 1 V(3+) d(2) ions located between the kagome layers. Muon spin relaxation measurements demonstrate the absence of spin freezing down to 40 mK despite an energy scale of 60 K for antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. From magnetization and heat capacity measurements we conclude that the S = 1 spins of the interplane V(3+) ions are weakly coupled to the kagome layers, such that DQVOF can be viewed as an experimental model for S = 1/2 kagome physics, and that it displays a gapless spin liquid ground state.

  10. Clinical implications of defining the gross tumor volume with combination of CT and {sup 18}FDG-positron emission tomography in non-small-cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Grills, Inga S. . E-mail: igrills@beaumont.edu; Yan Di; Black, Quinten C.; Wong, Ching-Yee O.; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Kestin, Larry L.

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To compare the planning target volume (PTV) definitions for computed tomography (CT) vs. positron emission tomography (PET) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: A total of 21 patients with NSCLC underwent three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy planning. All underwent a staging F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-position emission tomography ({sup 18}FDG-PET) scan and underwent treatment simulation using CT plus a separate planning {sup 18}FDG-PET scan. Three sets of target volumes were defined: Set 1, CT volumes (CT tumor + staging PET nodal disease); Set 2, PET volumes (planning PET tumor {l_brace}gross tumor volume (GTV) = [(0.3069 x mean standardized uptake value) + 0.5853]){r_brace}; Set 3, composite CT-PET volumes (fused CT-PET tumor). Sets 1 and 2 were compared using a matching index. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans were created using the Set 1 (CT) volumes; and coverage of the Set 3 (composite) volumes was evaluated. Separate three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans were designed for the Set 3 volumes. Results: For the primary tumor GTV, the Set 1 (CT) volume was larger than the Set 2 (PET) volume in 48%, smaller in 33%, and equal in 19%. The mean matching index was 0.65 (35% CT-PET mismatch). Although quantitatively similar, the volumes differed qualitatively. The Set 3 (composite) volume was larger than either CT or PET alone in 62%, smaller in 24%, and equal in 14%. The dose-volume histogram parameters did not differ among the plans for Set 1 (CT) vs. Set 3 (composite) volumes. Small portions of the Set 3 PTV were significantly underdosed in 40% of cases using the CT-only plan. Conclusion: Computed tomography and PET are complementary and should be obtained in the treatment position and fused to define the GTV for NSCLC. Although the quantitative absolute target volume is sometimes similar, the qualitative target locations can be substantially different, leading to underdosage of the target when planning is

  11. A Pilot Study Treatment of Malignant Tumors Using [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-18

    Radiosensitive Stage IV Solid and Hematological Tumors With High FDG Uptake Not Responding to Standard of Care; Lung Cancer, Head and Neck Cancer, Breast Cancer, Gastric Cancer, Pancreatic Cancer, Colon Cancer, Lymphomas, Sarcomas, Etc

  12. Unusual Horner's Syndrome in Recurrent Breast Cancer: Evaluation Using (18)F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Seok-Ki

    2017-03-01

    (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is a widely used imaging modality in the initial diagnosis of cancer, treatment response evaluation and detection of recurrence. Herein, we present the case of a 39-year-old female who presented right ptosis on the follow-up of breast cancer after surgery. Clinicians suspected Horner's syndrome, and the patient underwent FDG PET/CT for the evaluation of recurrence that could cause Horner's syndrome. FDG PET/CT demonstrated a focal hypermetabolic lesion in the right cervicothoracic junction area, corresponding to the preganglionic cervical sympathetic trunk. A subsequent needle biopsy was done, and the lesion was confirmed as metastatic ductal carcinoma. In this case, we could detect the exact location of the recurring lesion that caused Horner's syndrome using FDG PET/CT.

  13. Long-term effects of 'ecstasy' abuse on the human brain studied by FDG PET.

    PubMed

    Buchert, R; Obrocki, J; Thomasius, R; Väterlein, O; Petersen, K; Jenicke, L; Bohuslavizki, K H; Clausen, M

    2001-08-01

    The popular recreational drug, 'ecstasy', mainly contains 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) as the psychotropic agent. MDMA is suspected of causing neurotoxic lesions to the serotonergic system as demonstrated by animal studies, examinations of human cerebrospinal fluid, and the first positron emission tomography (PET) studies using the serotonin transporter ligand [11C]-McN5652. Damage of serotonergic afferents might mediate long-lasting alterations of cerebral glucose metabolism as a secondary effect. To study a relationship between ecstasy use and long-lasting alterations, PET using 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) was performed in 93 ecstasy users and 27 subjects without any known history of illicit-drug abuse. As an index of glucose metabolism, mean normalized FDG uptake was determined in both groups using a computerized brain atlas, and was compared for a selected number of brain regions. FDG uptake was normalized in each individual by dividing local FDG uptake by the maximum FDG uptake in the individual's brain. Within the group of ecstasy users we examined the relationship between FDG uptake and cumulative ecstasy dose, time since last ecstasy ingestion at the time of PET scanning, and age at first ecstasy use, respectively. Normalized FDG uptake was reduced within the striatum and amygdala of ecstasy users when compared to controls. No statistically significant correlation of the FDG uptake and the cumulative dose of ecstasy was detected. A positive correlation was found in the cingulate between FDG uptake and the time since last ecstasy ingestion. As compared to the control group, normalized FDG uptake in the cingulate was reduced in ecstasy users who took ecstasy during the last 6 months, while it was elevated in former ecstasy users who did not consume ecstasy for more than 1 year. FDG uptake was significantly more affected in ecstasy users who started to consume ecstasy before the age of 18 years. In conclusion, ecstasy abuse causes long

  14. Clinical significance of incidental FDG uptake in the prostate gland detected by PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Ertan; Elboga, Umut; Kalender, Ebuzer; Basıbuyuk, Mustafa; Demir, Hasan Deniz; Celen, Yusuf Zeki

    2015-01-01

    The value of FDG-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for detecting prostate cancer is unknown. We aimed to investigate the clinical value of incidental prostate FDG uptake on PET/CT scans. We reviewed 6128 male patients who underwent FDG-PET/CT scans and selected cases that reported hypermetabolic lesion in the prostate. The patients who have prior history of prostate carcinoma or prostate surgery were excluded from the study. We have analyzed the correlation between PET/CT findings and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, imaging (USG), urological examinations and biopsy. Incidental 18F-FDG uptake of the prostate gland was observed in 79 patients (1.3%). While sixteen of them were excluded due to inadequate clinical data, the remaining 63 patients were included for further analysis. The patients were divided into two groups; 8 patients (12.7%) in the malignant group and 55 patients (87.3%) in the benign group. The SUVmax values were not significantly different between the two groups. In 6 (75%) patients with prostate cancer, FDG uptake was observed focally in the peripheral zone of the prostate glands. There was no significant correlation between the SUVmax and the PSA levels. Incidental 18F-FDG uptake in the prostate gland is a rare condition, but a substantial portion of it is associated with the cancer. Benign and malignant lesions of the prostate gland in FDG-PET/CT imaging could not be reliably distinguished. The peripheral focally FDG uptake of prostate glands should be further examined with the clinical and labaratory evaluations. PMID:26379847

  15. A Monte Carlo studies of the entrance foil material in a target assembly for FDG production

    SciTech Connect

    Merouani, A.; El Khayati, N.; EL Ghayour, A.; El Alamy, H.; Zoubir, B.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a Monte Carlo simulation was performed for different entrance foil Materials in the target assembly for [{sup 18}F] FDG production, to investigate the neutron generations in the entrance foil. However, the objective is to study a materials that has the more or less similar mechanical properties as the Havar{sup R} foil with less generation of secondary particles and without affecting, the yield of FDG production. (authors)

  16. FDG PET/CT Evidence of Effective Treatment of Cardiac Sarcoidosis With Adalimumab.

    PubMed

    Miller, Christina T; Sweiss, Nadera J; Lu, Yang

    2016-05-01

    A 53-year-old man with mediastinal lymph node biopsy and cardiac MRI-proven cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) received treatment with pacemaker and steroids. FDG PET/CT showed active CS despite treatment with prednisone and methotrexate. Addition of weekly adalimumab (Humira) injections was introduced for 3 months. Follow-up FDG PET/CT showed complete resolution of CS as well as improvement of other sarcoid lesions in the thoracic lymph nodes.

  17. [(18)F]FDG PET signal is driven by astroglial glutamate transport.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Eduardo R; Parent, Maxime J; Souza, Débora G; Leuzy, Antoine; Lecrux, Clotilde; Kim, Hyoung-Ihl; Gauthier, Serge; Pellerin, Luc; Hamel, Edith; Rosa-Neto, Pedro

    2017-03-01

    Contributions of glial cells to neuroenergetics have been the focus of extensive debate. Here we provide positron emission tomography evidence that activation of astrocytic glutamate transport via the excitatory amino acid transporter GLT-1 triggers widespread but graded glucose uptake in the rodent brain. Our results highlight the need for a reevaluation of the interpretation of [(18)F]FDG positron emission tomography data, whereby astrocytes would be recognized as contributing to the [(18)F]FDG signal.

  18. Askin tumor: CT and FDG-PET/CT imaging findings and follow-up.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tingting; Guan, Yubao; Chen, Yongxin; Li, Jingxu

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the imaging findings of Askin tumors on computed tomography (CT) and fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET/CT).Seventeen cases of Askin tumors confirmed by histopathology were retrospectively analyzed in terms of CT (17 cases) and FDG-PET/CT data (6 cases).Fifteen of the tumors were located in the chest wall and the other 2 were in the anterior middle mediastinum. Of the 15 chest wall cases, 13 demonstrated irregular, heterogeneous soft tissue masses with cystic degeneration and necrosis, and 2 demonstrated homogeneous soft tissue masses on unenhanced CT scans. Two mediastinal tumors demonstrated the irregular, heterogeneous soft tissue masses. Calcifications were found in 2 tumors. The tumors demonstrated heterogeneously enhancement in 16 cases and homogeneous enhancement in 1 case on contrast-enhanced scans. FDG-PET/CT images revealed increased metabolic activity in all 6 cases undergone FDG-PET/CT scan, and the lesion SUVmax ranged from 4.0 to 18.6. At initial diagnosis, CT and FDG-PET/CT scans revealed rib destruction in 9 cases, pleural effusion in 9 cases, and lung metastasis in 1 case. At follow-up, 12 cases showed recurrence and/or metastases, 4 cases showed improvement or remained stable, and 1 was lost to follow-up.In summary, CT and FDG-PET/CT images of Askin tumors showed heterogeneous soft tissue masses in the chest wall and the mediastinum, accompanied by rib destruction, pleural effusion, and increased FDG uptake. CT and FDG-PET/CT imaging play important roles in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with Askin tumors.

  19. Impact of PET-FDG in the diagnosis and therapeutic care of patients presenting with metastases of unknown primary.

    PubMed

    Garin, Etienne; Prigent-Lejeune, Florence; Lesimple, Thierry; Barge, Marie-Luce; Rousseau, Caroline; Devillers, Anne; Bouriel, Catherine; Habiba, Mesbah T; Bernard, Anne-Marie; Bridji, Boumédienne; Resche, Isabelle

    2007-06-01

    We carried out a study to evaluate the contribution of positron emission tomography with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-FDG) in the diagnosis and therapeutic care of patients presenting with metastases of unknown primary. PET-FDG was prospectively performed in 51 patients. The PET-FDG data were confirmed histologically or by a follow-up on average at 13 months. PET-FDG identified the primary in 24 percent of cases, and detected the presence of additional metastases in 41 percent of cases. PET-FDG led to a therapeutic modification for 12 patients (24 percent). Furthermore, the therapeutic impact seems more marked in localized forms than in the multifocal. This broad exploratory study confirms the important role of PET-FDG in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of patients with metastases of unknown primary.

  20. FDG-PET/CT for Monitoring Response of Melanoma to the Novel Oncolytic Viral Therapy Talimogene Laherparepvec.

    PubMed

    Covington, Matthew F; Curiel, Clara N; Lattimore, Lois; Avery, Ryan J; Kuo, Phillip H

    2017-02-01

    61-year-old woman with stage IIIa (T3a N1a M0) left lower leg melanoma with lesions suggestive of in-transit metastases 8 months following wide local excision and femoral nodal dissection. FDG-PET/CT demonstrated 5 FDG-avid in-transit nodal metastases in the distal left leg, confirmed on biopsy. Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) oncolytic immunotherapy consisting of intralesional injections of modified herpes simplex virus-expressing granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor was completed over 6 months. Subsequent FDG-PET/CT demonstrated reduced or resolved FDG activity in the treated in-transit metastases and a new FDG-avid left thigh in-transit metastasis. FDG-PET/CT can monitor response to T-VEC and potentially other novel viral immunotherapies.

  1. Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) Correlation of Histopathology and MRI in Prion Disease.

    PubMed

    Mente, Karin P; O'Donnell, James K; Jones, Stephen E; Cohen, Mark L; Thompson, Nicolas R; Bizzi, Alberto; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Safar, Jiri G; Appleby, Brian S

    2017-01-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and other prion diseases are rapidly progressive spongiform encephalopathies that are invariably fatal. Clinical features and magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalogram, and cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities may suggest prion disease, but a definitive diagnosis can only be made by means of neuropathologic examination. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is not routinely used to evaluate patients with suspected prion disease. This study includes 11 cases of definite prion disease in which FDG-PET scans were obtained. There were 8 sporadic CJD cases, 2 genetic CJD cases, and 1 fatal familial insomnia case. Automated FDG-PET analysis revealed parietal region hypometabolism in all cases. Surprisingly, limbic and mesolimbic hypermetabolism were also present in the majority of cases. When FDG-PET hypometabolism was compared with neuropathologic changes (neuronal loss, astrocytosis, spongiosis), hypometabolism was predictive of neuropathology in 80.6% of cortical regions versus 17.6% of subcortical regions. The odds of neuropathologic changes were 2.1 times higher in cortical regions than subcortical regions (P=0.0265). A similar discordance between cortical and subcortical regions was observed between FDG-PET hypometabolism and magnetic resonance imaging diffusion weighted imaging hyperintensity. This study shows that there may be a relationship between FDG-PET hypometabolism and neuropathology in cortical regions in prion disease but it is unlikely to be helpful for diagnosis.

  2. Two years of experience with the [ 18F]FDG production module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Wook; Hur, Min Goo; Chai, Jong-Seo; Park, Jeong Hoon; Yu, Kook Hyun; Jeong, Cheol Ki; Lee, Goung Jin; Min, Young Don; Yang, Seung Dae

    2007-08-01

    Chemistry module for a conventional [18F]FDG production by using tetrabutylammonium bicarbonate (TBA) and an acidic hydrolysis has been manufactured and evaluated. In this experiment, 75 mM (pH 7.5-7.8) of TBA solution and a ca. 2-curies order of [18F]-fluoride have been used for the evaluation. The commercial acidic purification cartridge was purchased from GE or UKE. The operation system (OS) was programmed with Lab-View which was selected because of its easy customization of the OS. Small sized solenoid valves (Burkert; type 6124) were selected to reduce the module dimensions (W 350 × D 270 × H 250). The total time for the synthesis of [18F]FDG was 30 ± 3 min. The production yield of [18F]FDG was 60 ± 2% on an average at EOS, with the decay uncorrected. This experimental data show that the traditional chemistry module can provide a good [18F]FDG production yield by optimizing the operational conditions. The radiochemical purity, radionuclidic purity, acidity, residual solvent, osmolality and endotoxin were determined to assess the quality of [18F]FDG. The examined contents for the quality control of [18F]FDG were found to be suitable for a clinical application.

  3. Science to Practice: Does FDG Differentiate Morphologically Unstable from Stable Atherosclerotic Plaque?

    PubMed

    Dilsizian, Vasken; Jadvar, Hossein

    2017-04-01

    It has been reported that fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) may detect the inflammatory state and macrophage burden of atherosclerotic plaques and potentially identify vulnerable plaques. However, published reports have been inconsistent in this area. Tavakoli et al ( 1 ) hypothesized that differential regulation of macrophage glucose metabolism by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF; inflammation resolving) and granulocyte-M-CSF (GM-CSF; proinflammatory) may contribute to the inconsistency of FDG vessel wall inflammation. After the induction of inflammatory and metabolic profiles, both M-CSF and GM-CSF generated comparable levels of glucose uptake in cultured macrophages and murine atherosclerotic plaques. These findings suggest that although FDG uptake is an indicator of vascular macrophage burden (total number of macrophages), it may not necessarily differentiate morphologically unstable (inflammatory) from stable (noninflammatory) atherosclerotic plaque. Moreover, although atherosclerosis is characterized by macrophage-predominated inflammation, there is a wide range of other vascular diseases in which macrophages and inflammation play an important role in the absence of atherosclerosis. FDG uptake will be indistinguishable in atherosclerosis from large-artery inflammatory vascular disease, such as Takayasu arteritis, chemotherapy- or radiation-induced vascular inflammation, or foreign-body reaction, such as synthetic arterial graft. Because of the nonspecific nature of FDG uptake by any cell (upregulated under hypoxic conditions or other microenvironmental factors), this work calls for a more cautious approach to interpreting vascular FDG uptake as indicative of inflammatory atherosclerosis in the clinical setting.

  4. Diabetes and Elevated HbA1c levels are Associated with Brain Hypometabolism but not Amyloid Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Rosebud O.; Knopman, David S.; Cha, Ruth H.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Boeve, Bradley F.; Kantarci, Kejal; Geda, Yonas E.; Jack, Clifford R.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Lowe, Val J.

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunctional insulin signaling may affect brain metabolism or amyloid deposition. We investigated the associations of type 2 diabetes with amyloid accumulation measured using 11C-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) and brain hypometabolism measured using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Methods We studied a sample of non-demented participants from the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. All subjects underwent MRI, amyloid PET and FDG PET. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) signature and region of interest (ROI) measures for PiB retention ratio and FDG ratio were measured. Diabetes was assessed from the Rochester Epidemiology Project medical records-linkage system. Results Among 749 participants (median age 79.0 years; 56.5% male, 81.0% cognitively normal; 20.6% diabetics), FDG hypometabolism (FDG ratio < 1.31) in the AD signature meta-ROI was more common in diabetics (48.1%) than in non-diabetics (28.9%; p <0.001). The median FDG ratio was lower in diabetics vs. non-diabetics in the AD signature meta-ROI (1.32 vs. 1.40, p < 0.001), and in the angular (1.40 vs. 1.48, p < 0.001) and posterior cingulate gyri ROIs (1.63 vs. 1.72, p < 0.001). The odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval]) for abnormal AD signature FDG hypometabolism was elevated (OR, 2.28 [1.56, 3.33]) in diabetics vs. non-diabetics after adjustment for age, sex, and education, and after additional adjustment for Apolipoprotein ε4 allele, glycemic level, and cognitive status (OR, 1.69 [1.10, 2.60]). However, AD signature PiB retention ratio was similar in diabetics vs. non-diabetics (OR, 1.03 [0.71, 1.51]; p = 0.87). In post-hoc analyses in non-diabetics, a 1% increase in HBA1c was associated with greater AD signature hypometabolism in cognitively normal subjects (OR, 1.93 [1.03, 3.62; p = 0.04]) and in the total cohort (OR 1.59 [0.92, 2.75; p = 0.10). Conclusion Diabetes and poor glycemic control in non-diabetics may enhance glucose hypometabolism in AD signature regions

  5. Prognostic value of interim and end-of-treatment FDG-PET in follicular lymphoma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Adams, Hugo J A; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Kwee, Thomas C

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to systematically review the prognostic value of interim and end-of-treatment (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in follicular lymphoma during and after first-line therapy. The PubMed/MEDLINE database was searched for relevant original studies. Included studies were methodologically assessed, and their results were extracted and descriptively analyzed. Three studies on the prognostic value of interim FDG-PET and eight studies on the prognostic value of end-of-treatment FDG-PET were included. Overall, studies were of poor methodological quality. In addition, there was incomplete reporting of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) data by several studies, and none of the studies incorporated the Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) in the OS analyses. Two studies reported no significant difference in PFS between interim FDG-PET positive and negative patients, whereas one study reported a significant difference in PFS between the two groups. Two studies reported no significant difference in OS between interim FDG-PET positive and negative patients. Five studies reported end-of-treatment FDG-PET positive patients to have a significantly worse PFS than end-of-treatment FDG-PET negative patients, and one study reported a non-significant trend towards a worse PFS for end-of-treatment FDG-PET positive patients. Three studies reported end-of-treatment FDG-PET positive patients to have a significantly worse OS than end-of-treatment FDG-PET negative patients. In conclusion, the available evidence does not support the use of interim FDG-PET in follicular lymphoma. Although published studies suggest end-of-treatment FDG-PET to be predictive of PFS and OS, they suffer from numerous biases and failure to correct OS prediction for the FLIPI.

  6. FDG PET brain scan demonstrated glucose hypometabolism of bilateral caudate nuclei and putamina in a patient with chorea-acanthocytosis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ruixue; You, Hui; Niu, Na; Li, Fang

    2015-12-01

    Chorea-acanthocytosis is 1 type of neuroacanthocytosis that is a group of rare, hereditary neurodegenerative disorders. We presented a brain FDG PET finding of a 31-year-old woman with chorea-acanthocytosis. The images demonstrated significant hypometabolism in bilateral caudate nuclei and putamina. The finding of FDG PET is more prominent than that of MRI. Another interesting observation is the mildly increased FDG uptake in pituitary gland, although its relationship with the disease is unclear.

  7. The F-18 systems research aircraft facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitz, Joel R.

    1992-01-01

    To help ensure that new aerospace initiatives rapidly transition to competitive U.S. technologies, NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility has dedicated a systems research aircraft facility. The primary goal is to accelerate the transition of new aerospace technologies to commercial, military, and space vehicles. Key technologies include more-electric aircraft concepts, fly-by-light systems, flush airdata systems, and advanced computer architectures. Future aircraft that will benefit are the high-speed civil transport and the National AeroSpace Plane. This paper describes the systems research aircraft flight research vehicle and outlines near-term programs.

  8. Repeatability of quantitative FDG-PET/CT and contrast enhanced CT in recurrent ovarian carcinoma: test retest measurements for tumor FDG uptake, diameter and volume

    PubMed Central

    Rockall, Andrea G.; Avril, Norbert; Lam, Raymond; Iannone, Robert; Mozley, P. David; Parkinson, Christine; Bergstrom, Donald; Sala, Evis; Sarker, Shah-Jalal; McNeish, Iain A.; Brenton, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Repeatability of baseline FDG-PET/CT measurements has not been tested in ovarian cancer. This dual-center, prospective study assessed variation in tumor FDG uptake, tumor diameter (TD) and tumor volume (TV) from sequential FDG-PET/CT and contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) in patients with recurrent platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer. Methods Patients underwent two pre-treatment baseline FDG-PET/CT (n=21) and CECT (n=20) at 2 clinical sites with different PET/CT instruments. Patients were included if they had at least one target lesion (TL) in the abdomen with an SUV maximum (SUVmax) of ≥2.5 and a long axis diameter of ≥15mm. Two independent reading methods were used to evaluate repeatability of TD and SUV uptake: on site and at an imaging clinical research organization (CRO). TV reads were only performed by CRO. In each reading set, TLs were independently measured on sequential imaging. Results Median time between FDG-PET/CT was 2 days (range 1-7). For site reads, concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) for SUVmean, SUVmax and TD were 0.95, 0.94 and 0.99 respectively. Repeatability coefficients were 16.3%, 17.3% and 8.8% for SUVmean, SUVmax and TD respectively. Similar results were observed for CRO reads. TV CCC was 0.99 with a repeatability coefficient of 28.1%. Conclusions There was excellent test/retest repeatability for FDG-PET/CT quantitative measurements across two sites and two independent reading methods. Cut-off values for determining change in SUVmean, SUVmax and TV establish limits to determine metabolic and/or volumetric response to treatment in platinum-sensitive relapsed ovarian cancer. PMID:24573555

  9. Correlation of 18F-FDG Avid Volumes on Pre–Radiation Therapy and Post–Radiation Therapy FDG PET Scans in Recurrent Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shusharina, Nadya; Cho, Joseph; Sharp, Gregory C.; Choi, Noah C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the spatial correlation between high uptake regions of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) before and after therapy in recurrent lung cancer. Methods and Materials We enrolled 106 patients with inoperable lung cancer into a prospective study whose primary objectives were to determine first, the earliest time point when the maximum decrease in FDG uptake representing the maximum metabolic response (MMR) is attainable and second, the optimum cutoff value of MMR based on its predicted tumor control probability, sensitivity, and specificity. Of those patients, 61 completed the required 4 serial 18F-FDG PET examinations after therapy. Nineteen of 61 patients experienced local recurrence at the primary tumor and underwent analysis. The volumes of interest (VOI) on pretherapy FDG-PET were defined by use of an isocontour at ≥50% of maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) (≥50% of SUVmax) with correction for heterogeneity. The VOI on posttherapy images were defined at ≥80% of SUVmax. The VOI of pretherapy and posttherapy 18F-FDG PET images were correlated for the extent of overlap. Results The size of VOI at pretherapy images was on average 25.7% (range, 8.8%-56.3%) of the pretherapy primary gross tumor volume (GTV), and their overlap fractions were 0.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.7-0.9), 0.63 (95% CI: 0.49-0.77), and 0.38 (95% CI: 0.19-0.57) of VOI of posttherapy FDG PET images at 10 days, 3 months, and 6 months, respectively. The residual uptake originated from the pretherapy VOI in 15 of 17 cases. Conclusions VOI defined by the SUVmax- ≥50% isocontour may be a biological target volume for escalated radiation dose. PMID:24725696

  10. Correlation of {sup 18}F-FDG Avid Volumes on Pre–Radiation Therapy and Post–Radiation Therapy FDG PET Scans in Recurrent Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shusharina, Nadya Cho, Joseph; Sharp, Gregory C.; Choi, Noah C.

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the spatial correlation between high uptake regions of 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET) before and after therapy in recurrent lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We enrolled 106 patients with inoperable lung cancer into a prospective study whose primary objectives were to determine first, the earliest time point when the maximum decrease in FDG uptake representing the maximum metabolic response (MMR) is attainable and second, the optimum cutoff value of MMR based on its predicted tumor control probability, sensitivity, and specificity. Of those patients, 61 completed the required 4 serial {sup 18}F-FDG PET examinations after therapy. Nineteen of 61 patients experienced local recurrence at the primary tumor and underwent analysis. The volumes of interest (VOI) on pretherapy FDG-PET were defined by use of an isocontour at ≥50% of maximum standard uptake value (SUV{sub max}) (≥50% of SUV{sub max}) with correction for heterogeneity. The VOI on posttherapy images were defined at ≥80% of SUV{sub max}. The VOI of pretherapy and posttherapy {sup 18}F-FDG PET images were correlated for the extent of overlap. Results: The size of VOI at pretherapy images was on average 25.7% (range, 8.8%-56.3%) of the pretherapy primary gross tumor volume (GTV), and their overlap fractions were 0.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.7-0.9), 0.63 (95% CI: 0.49-0.77), and 0.38 (95% CI: 0.19-0.57) of VOI of posttherapy FDG PET images at 10 days, 3 months, and 6 months, respectively. The residual uptake originated from the pretherapy VOI in 15 of 17 cases. Conclusions: VOI defined by the SUV{sub max}-≥50% isocontour may be a biological target volume for escalated radiation dose.

  11. Applications of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) in Plant Imaging: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Fatangare, Amol; Svatoš, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review article is to explore and establish the current status of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) applications in plant imaging. In the present article, we review the previous literature on its experimental merits to formulate a consistent and inclusive picture of FDG applications in plant-imaging research. 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose is a [18F]fluorine-labeled glucose analog in which C-2 hydroxyl group has been replaced by a positron-emitting [18F] radioisotope. As FDG is a positron-emitting radiotracer, it could be used in in vivo imaging studies. FDG mimics glucose chemically and structurally. Its uptake and distribution are found to be similar to those of glucose in animal models. FDG is commonly used as a radiotracer for glucose in medical diagnostics and in vivo animal imaging studies but rarely in plant imaging. Tsuji et al. (2002) first reported FDG uptake and distribution in tomato plants. Later, Hattori et al. (2008) described FDG translocation in intact sorghum plants and suggested that it could be used as a tracer for photoassimilate translocation in plants. These findings raised interest among other plant scientists, which has resulted in a recent surge of articles involving the use of FDG as a tracer in plants. There have been seven studies describing FDG-imaging applications in plants. These studies describe FDG applications ranging from monitoring radiotracer translocation to analyzing solute transport, root uptake, photoassimilate tracing, carbon allocation, and glycoside biosynthesis. Fatangare et al. (2015) recently characterized FDG metabolism in plants; such knowledge is crucial to understanding and validating the application of FDG in plant imaging research. Recent FDG studies significantly advance our understanding of FDG translocation and metabolism in plants but also raise new questions. Here, we take a look at all the previous results to form a comprehensive picture of FDG translocation, metabolism, and applications in

  12. Concurrent Diffuse Pyelonephritis and Prostatitis: Discordant Findings on Sequential FDG PET/CT and 67Ga SPECT/CT Imaging.

    PubMed

    Lucaj, Robert; Achong, Dwight M

    2017-01-01

    A 45-year-old man underwent FDG PET/CT for initial imaging evaluation of recurrent Escherichia coli urinary tract infections, which demonstrated no significant FDG uptake in either kidney and subtle FDG uptake in the right prostate lobe. Subsequent Ga SPECT/CT demonstrated abnormal intense gallium uptake throughout the right kidney and entire prostate gland, clearly discordant with PET/CT findings and consistent with unexpected concurrent pyelonephritis and prostatitis. Although FDG has effectively replaced Ga in everyday clinical practice, the current case serves as a reminder that there is still a role for Ga in the evaluation of genitourinary infections.

  13. Radiation Changes Do Not Interfere With Postchemoradiation Restaging of Patients With Rectal Cancer by FDG PET/CT Before Curative Surgical Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kalff, Victor; Ware, Robert; Heriot, Alexander; Chao, Michael; Drummond, Elizabeth; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: Changes in F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in normal tissues after chemoradiation therapy (CRT) potentially limit the ability of positron emission tomography (PET) to provide early assessment of therapeutic response. This study evaluated whether such changes negatively impact interpretation of posttherapy PET performed within 6 weeks of CRT completion and before definitive surgery in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. The positive predictive value (PPV) and specificity of post-CRT PET, read clinically, was determined in 63 consecutive rectal cancer patients who had undergone preoperative CRT. Methods and Materials: A schema for identifying and scoring postradiation effects on PET was prospectively defined and applied in a blinded manner. This was compared with initial clinical reporting of response. Histologic assessment of the operative specimens was used as the reference standard. Correlation between clinical proctitis during CRT and radiation changes on subsequent PET was also assessed. Results: Clinical reporting of post-CRT PET yielded a high PPV (94%; 95% confidence interval, 89--100%) but may have been exaggerated by the low prevalence of complete tumor clearance (16%). The specificity was 80% with only two false-positive results. On blinded reading, significant post-CRT effects on PET were recorded in 4 of 63 patients (6% 95% confidence interval, 0-13%), but pattern recognition converted both false-positive PET results to a complete metabolic response. Clinical CRT proctitis was not correlated with PET findings. Conclusion: Postradiation effects do not appear to significantly compromise the interpretation of PET for therapeutic response assessment. The proposed PET pattern of response may further improve the specificity of PET.

  14. 18F-FDG PET imaging for identifying the dynamics of intestinal disease caused by SFTSV infection in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Hayasaka, Daisuke; Nishi, Kodai; Fuchigami, Takeshi; Shiogama, Kazuya; Onouchi, Takanori; Shimada, Satoshi; Tsutsumi, Yutaka; Morita, Kouichi

    2016-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging disease that causes fever, enteritis, thrombocytopenia, and leucopenia and can be fatal in up to 30% of cases. However, the mechanism of severe disease is not fully understood. Molecular imaging approaches, such as positron-emission tomography (PET), are functional in vivo imaging techniques that provide real-time dynamics of disease progression, assessments of pharmacokinetics, and diagnoses for disease progression. Molecular imaging also potentially provides useful approaches to explore the pathogenesis of viral infections. Thus, the purpose of this study was to image the pathological features of SFTSV infection in vivo by PET imaging. In a mouse model, we showed that 18F-FDG accumulations clearly identified the intestinal tract site as a pathological site. We also demonstrated that 18F-FDG PET imaging can assess disease progression and response to antiserum therapy within the same individual. This is the first report demonstrating a molecular imaging strategy for SFTSV infection. Our results provide potentially useful information for preclinical studies such as the elucidation of the mechanism of SFTSV infection in vivo and the assessment of drugs for SFTS treatment. PMID:26700962

  15. Utility of 11C-methionine and 11C-donepezil for imaging of Staphylococcus aureus induced osteomyelitis in a juvenile porcine model: comparison to autologous 111In-labelled leukocytes, 99mTc-DPD, and 18F-FDG

    PubMed Central

    Afzelius, Pia; Alstrup, Aage KO; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Borghammer, Per; Jensen, Svend B; Bender, Dirk; Nielsen, Ole L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 11C-methionine and 11C-donepezil positron emission tomography (PET) with 111In-labeled leukocyte and 99mTc-DPD (Tc-99m 3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanedicarboxylic acid) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET to improve detection of osteomyelitis. The tracers’ diagnostic utility where tested in a juvenile porcine hematogenously induced osteomyelitis model comparable to osteomyelitis in children. Five 8-9 weeks old female domestic pigs were scanned seven days after intra-arterial inoculation in the right femoral artery with a porcine strain of Staphylococcus aureus. The sequential scan protocol included Computed Tomography, 11C-methionine and 11C-donepezil PET, 99mTc-DPD and 111In-labelled leukocytes scintigraphy, and 18F-FDG PET. This was followed by necropsy of the pigs and gross pathology, histopathology, and microbial examination. The pigs developed a total of 24 osteomyelitic lesions, 4 lesions characterized as contiguous abscesses and pulmonary abscesses (in two pigs). By comparing the 24 osteomyelitic lesions, 18F-FDG accumulated in 100%, 111In-leukocytes in 79%, 11C-methionine in 79%, 11C-donepezil in 58%, and 99mTc-DPD in none. Overall, 18F-FDG PET was superior to 111In-leukocyte SPECT and 11C-methionine in marking infectious lesions. PMID:28078182

  16. Utility of (11)C-methionine and (11)C-donepezil for imaging of Staphylococcus aureus induced osteomyelitis in a juvenile porcine model: comparison to autologous (111)In-labelled leukocytes, (99m) Tc-DPD, and (18)F-FDG.

    PubMed

    Afzelius, Pia; Alstrup, Aage Ko; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Borghammer, Per; Jensen, Svend B; Bender, Dirk; Nielsen, Ole L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare (11)C-methionine and (11)C-donepezil positron emission tomography (PET) with (111)In-labeled leukocyte and (99m) Tc-DPD (Tc-99m 3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanedicarboxylic acid) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET to improve detection of osteomyelitis. The tracers' diagnostic utility where tested in a juvenile porcine hematogenously induced osteomyelitis model comparable to osteomyelitis in children. Five 8-9 weeks old female domestic pigs were scanned seven days after intra-arterial inoculation in the right femoral artery with a porcine strain of Staphylococcus aureus. The sequential scan protocol included Computed Tomography, (11)C-methionine and (11)C-donepezil PET, (99m) Tc-DPD and (111)In-labelled leukocytes scintigraphy, and (18)F-FDG PET. This was followed by necropsy of the pigs and gross pathology, histopathology, and microbial examination. The pigs developed a total of 24 osteomyelitic lesions, 4 lesions characterized as contiguous abscesses and pulmonary abscesses (in two pigs). By comparing the 24 osteomyelitic lesions, (18)F-FDG accumulated in 100%, (111)In-leukocytes in 79%, (11)C-methionine in 79%, (11)C-donepezil in 58%, and (99m) Tc-DPD in none. Overall, (18)F-FDG PET was superior to (111)In-leukocyte SPECT and (11)C-methionine in marking infectious lesions.

  17. Neurometabolic effects of psilocybin, 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDE) and d-methamphetamine in healthy volunteers. A double-blind, placebo-controlled PET study with [18F]FDG.

    PubMed

    Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E; Schreckenberger, M; Sabri, O; Arning, C; Thelen, B; Spitzer, M; Kovar, K A; Hermle, L; Büll, U; Sass, H

    1999-06-01

    The neurometabolic effects of the hallucinogen psilocybin (PSI; 0.2 mg/kg), the entactogen 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDE; 2 mg/kg) and the stimulant d-methamphetamine (METH; 0.2-0.4 mg/kg) and the drugs' interactions with a prefrontal activation task were investigated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled human [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucoseFDG-positron emission tomographicPET study (each group: n = 8). Subjects underwent two scans (control: word repetition; activation word association) within 2-4 weeks. Psilocybin increased rMRGlu in distinct right hemispheric frontotemporal cortical regions, particularly in the anterior cingulate and decreased rMRGlu in the thalamus. Both MDE and METH induced cortical hypometabolism and cerebellar hypermetabolism. In the MDE group, cortical hypometabolism was more pronounced in frontal regions, with the exception of the right anterior cingulate, which tended to be hyperactive. Cognitive activation-related increases in left frontocortical regions were attenuated under all three psychoactive substances, but less so under MDE. Taking into account performance data and subjective reports on task difficulty, these effects may result from different mechanisms across the three groups. Our PSI data are in line with studies on acute schizophrenic patients suggesting frontal overactivity at rest, but diminished capacity to activate prefrontal regions upon cognitive demand. The MDE data support the hypothesis that entactogens constitute a distinct psychoactive substance class, which takes an intermediate position between stimulants and hallucinogens.

  18. HPLC and TLC methods for analysis of [(18)F]FDG and its metabolites from biological samples.

    PubMed

    Rokka, Johanna; Grönroos, Tove J; Viljanen, Tapio; Solin, Olof; Haaparanta-Solin, Merja

    2017-03-24

    The most used positron emission tomography (PET) tracer, 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([(18)F]FDG), is a glucose analogue that is used to measure tissue glucose consumption. Traditionally, the Sokoloff model is the basis for [(18)F]FDG modeling. According to this model, [(18)F]FDG is expected to be trapped in a cell in the form of [(18)F]FDG-6-phosphate ([(18)F]FDG-6-P). However, several studies have shown that in tissues, [(18)F]FDG metabolism goes beyond [(18)F]FDG-6-P. Our aim was to develop radioHPLC and radioTLC methods for analysis of [(18)F]FDG metabolites from tissue samples. The radioHPLC method uses a sensitive on-line scintillation detector to detect radioactivity, and the radioTLC method employs digital autoradiography to detect the radioactivity distribution on a TLC plate. The HPLC and TLC methods were developed using enzymatically in vitro-produced metabolites of [(18)F]FDG as reference standards. For this purpose, three [(18)F]FDG metabolites were synthesized: [(18)F]FDG-6-P, [(18)F]FD-PGL, and [(18)F]FDG-1,6-P2. The two methods were evaluated by analyzing the [(18)F]FDG metabolic profile from rodent ex vivo tissue homogenates. The HPLC method with an on-line scintillation detector had a wide linearity in a range of 5Bq-5kBq (LOD 46Bq, LOQ 139Bq) and a good resolution (Rs ≥1.9), and separated [(18)F]FDG and its metabolites clearly. The TLC method combined with digital autoradiography had a high sensitivity in a wide range of radioactivity (0.1Bq-2kBq, LOD 0.24Bq, LOQ 0.31Bq), and multiple samples could be analyzed simultaneously. As our test and the method validation with ex vivo samples showed, both methods are useful, and at best they complement each other in analysis of [(18)F]FDG and its radioactive metabolites from biological samples.

  19. Concurrent Low Brain and High Liver Uptake on FDG PET Are Associated with Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyun-Yeol; Jun, Sungmin; Pak, Kyoungjune

    2017-01-01

    Objective Concurrent low brain and high liver uptake are sometimes observed on fluorine-18-labeled fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). We investigated the potential clinical significance of this uptake pattern related to metabolic syndrome (MS). Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed data from 264 consecutive males who had undergone general health check-ups, including FDG PET/CT scans. After an overnight fast, the men had their peripheral blood drawn and the levels of various laboratory parameters measured; an FDG PET/CT scan was performed on the same day. We measured the maximum standardized uptake values of the brain and liver from regions of interest manually placed over the frontal cortex at the level of the centrum semiovale and the right lobe of the liver parenchyma, respectively. Results Fasting blood glucose (FBG; odds ratio [OR] = 1.063, p < 0.001) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; OR = 3.634, p = 0.010) were the strongest predictive factors for low brain FDG uptake, whereas waist circumference (OR = 1.200, p < 0.001) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (OR = 1.012, p = 0.001) were the strongest predictive factors for high liver uptake. Eleven subjects (4.2%) showed concurrent low brain and high liver FDG uptake, and all but one of these subjects (90.9%) had MS. Systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, FBG, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase, insulin resistance (measured by homeostasis model assessment), insulin, HbA1c, and body mass index were higher in subjects with this FDG uptake pattern than in those without (all, p < 0.001). Conclusion Concurrent low brain and high liver FDG uptake were closely associated with MS. Moreover, subjects with this pattern had higher values for various cardiovascular risk factors than did those without. PMID:28246520

  20. FDG-PET scan shows increased cerebral blood flow in rat after sublingual glycine application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagosklonov, Oleg; Podoprigora, Guennady I.; Davani, Siamak; Nartsissov, Yaroslav R.; Comas, Laurent; Boulahdour, Hatem; Cardot, Jean-Claude

    2007-02-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]-2-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) is being increasingly used in research. Isotope studies may be of help in an assessment of vasoactive potential of newly developed therapeutic preparations, including natural metabolites, like glycine. As a medicine, glycine was recently shown to have a positive therapeutic effect in the treatment of patients with neurological disorders based on vascular disturbances. By previous direct biomicroscopic investigations of pial microvessels in laboratory rats, an expressed vasodilatory effect of topically applied glycine was proved. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of glycine on the rat cerebral blood flow (CBF) using FDG-PET scan. A baseline study was started immediately after intravenous injection of 19 MBq of FDG in anesthetized rat. The PET images were acquired twice, one by one during 20 min. Two hours later, after sublingual application of glycine and the second FDG injection, the pair of PET scan was performed during 20 min as well. Finally, 4 days after the first studies, we repeated the PET scans in the same conditions after sublingual application of glycine. The quantitative analysis of FDG volume concentration (Bq/ml) in the rat brain demonstrated that in both studies after glycine administration, the FDG uptake increased at least 1.5 times in comparison with the baseline data. Moreover, the peak of the concentration was coming in more rapidly. These results confirm the enhancing effect of glycine on the rat CBF possibly because of its vasodilatory effect on brain microvessels. Therefore, FDG-PET technique contributes to better understanding of glycine pharmacokinetics.

  1. Primary Tumor Standardized Uptake Value Measured on F18-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Is of Prediction Value for Survival and Local Control in Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Receiving Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Na, Feifei; Wang, Jingwen; Li, Cong; Deng, Lei; Xue, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The 2-[18F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET/CT) has become an imaging tool for clinical assessment of tumor, node, metastasis in non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Primary tumor maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on 18F-FDG PET/CT before and after radiation therapy (RT) has been studied as a potential prognostic factor for NSCLC patients receiving radiotherapy. However, the sample sizes of most studies were small, and the results of the prediction value of SUVmax remained undetermined, which lead us to perform a meta-analysis to improve the precision in estimating its effect. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of published literature for primary tumor SUVmax-based biomarkers of the outcome of NSCLC receiving radiotherapy. The required data for estimation of individual hazard ratios (HRs) to compare patients with a low and a high SUVmax were extracted from each publication. A combined HR was calculated by Stata statistical software (Version 11). All of the results were verified by two persons to ensure its accuracy. Results: Thirteen studies were finally included into this meta-analysis; data are available in 13 studies for pre-RT primary tumor SUVmax and in five studies for post-RT. For overall survival, the combined HR estimate was 1.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–1.08) and 1.32 (95% CI, 1.15–1.51) for pre-RT SUVmax and post-RT SUVmax, respectively; 1.26 (95% CI, 1.05–1.52) and 2.01 (95% CI, 1.16–3.46) for local control (LC). In stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) group, HR for LC was 1.11 (95% CI, 1.06–1.18) and 2.19 (95% CI, 1.34–3.60) for pre-SBRT SUVmax and post-SBRT SUVmax, respectively. Conclusion: Both pre-RT and post-RT primary tumor SUVmax can predict the outcome of patients with NSCLC treated with radiotherapy. Patients with high levels of pre-RT SUVmax seemed to have poorer overall survival and LC. PMID:24787963

  2. Flight and full-scale wind-tunnel comparison of pressure distributions from an F-18 aircraft at high angles of attack. [Conducted in NASA Ames Research Center's 80 by 120 ft wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.; Lanser, Wendy R.

    1994-01-01

    Pressure distributions were obtained at nearly identical fuselage stations and wing chord butt lines in flight on the F-18 HARV at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and in the NASA Ames Research Center's 80 by 120 ft wind tunnel on a full-scale F/A-18 aircraft. The static pressures were measured at the identical five stations on the forebody, three stations on the left and right leading-edge extensions, and three spanwise stations on the wing. Comparisons of the flight and wind-tunnel pressure distributions were made at alpha = 30 deg, 45 deg, and 60 deg/59 deg. In general, very good agreement was found. Minor differences were noted at the forebody at alpha = 45 deg and 60 deg in the magnitude of the vortex footprints and a Mach number effect was noted at the leading-edge extension at alpha = 30 deg. The inboard leading edge flap data from the wind tunnel at alpha = 59 deg showed a suction peak that did not appear in the flight data. This was the result of a vortex from the corner of the leading edge flap whose path was altered by the lack of an engine simulation in the wind tunnel.

  3. The Role of 18F-FDG PET/CT Integrated Imaging in Distinguishing Malignant from Benign Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yajuan; Yu, Hongjuan; Ma, Jingquan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT integrated imaging in differentiating malignant from benign pleural effusion. Methods A total of 176 patients with pleural effusion who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT examination to differentiate malignancy from benignancy were retrospectively researched. The images of CT imaging, 18F-FDG PET imaging and 18F-FDG PET/CT integrated imaging were visually analyzed. The suspected malignant effusion was characterized by the presence of nodular or irregular pleural thickening on CT imaging. Whereas on PET imaging, pleural 18F-FDG uptake higher than mediastinal activity was interpreted as malignant effusion. Images of 18F-FDG PET/CT integrated imaging were interpreted by combining the morphologic feature of pleura on CT imaging with the degree and form of pleural 18F-FDG uptake on PET imaging. Results One hundred and eight patients had malignant effusion, including 86 with pleural metastasis and 22 with pleural mesothelioma, whereas 68 patients had benign effusion. The sensitivities of CT imaging, 18F-FDG PET imaging and 18F-FDG PET/CT integrated imaging in detecting malignant effusion were 75.0%, 91.7% and 93.5%, respectively, which were 69.8%, 91.9% and 93.0% in distinguishing metastatic effusion. The sensitivity of 18F-FDG PET/CT integrated imaging in detecting malignant effusion was higher than that of CT imaging (p = 0.000). For metastatic effusion, 18F-FDG PET imaging had higher sensitivity (p = 0.000) and better diagnostic consistency with 18F-FDG PET/CT integrated imaging compared with CT imaging (Kappa = 0.917 and Kappa = 0.295, respectively). The specificities of CT imaging, 18F-FDG PET imaging and 18F-FDG PET/CT integrated imaging were 94.1%, 63.2% and 92.6% in detecting benign effusion. The specificities of CT imaging and 18F-FDG PET/CT integrated imaging were higher than that of 18F-FDG PET imaging (p = 0.000 and p = 0.000, respectively), and CT imaging had better diagnostic consistency with

  4. Correlation of PET and AMS analyses for early kinetics of 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamimoto, Ryogo; Hamabe, Yoshimi; Miyaoka, Teiji; Theeraladanon, Chumpol; Oka, Takashi; Matsui, Takao; Inoue, Tomio

    2010-04-01

    The draft of the guidelines for microdosing in clinical trials was published in Japan in 2008 following the guidelines of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It recommends utilizing accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), and positron emission tomography (PET) for monitoring drug metabolites in preclinical studies. In this study, we clarified the correlation in measuring result between PET and AMS. The AMS measurement was undergone by using AMS system of Institute of Accelerator Analysis Ltd. (IAA, Kawasaki, Japan). First the back ground 14C level of blood in mice was measured by AMS. Second, we clarified the relationship between AMS and PET by using 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG). The correlation coefficient ( r) of the measurements using PET ( 18F-FDG) and AMS ( 14C-FDG) were quite high at 0.97 ( Y = 7.54 E - 05 X + 0.02, p < 0.001). The blood clearance profile of 18F-FDG was nearly identical with that of 14C-FDG. These results indicate that the AMS analysis has excellent correlation with the PET method.

  5. Optimal feature selection for automated classification of FDG-PET in patients with suspected dementia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serag, Ahmed; Wenzel, Fabian; Thiele, Frank; Buchert, Ralph; Young, Stewart

    2009-02-01

    FDG-PET is increasingly used for the evaluation of dementia patients, as major neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Lewy body dementia (LBD), and Frontotemporal dementia (FTD), have been shown to induce specific patterns of regional hypo-metabolism. However, the interpretation of FDG-PET images of patients with suspected dementia is not straightforward, since patients are imaged at different stages of progression of neurodegenerative disease, and the indications of reduced metabolism due to neurodegenerative disease appear slowly over time. Furthermore, different diseases can cause rather similar patterns of hypo-metabolism. Therefore, classification of FDG-PET images of patients with suspected dementia may lead to misdiagnosis. This work aims to find an optimal subset of features for automated classification, in order to improve classification accuracy of FDG-PET images in patients with suspected dementia. A novel feature selection method is proposed, and performance is compared to existing methods. The proposed approach adopts a combination of balanced class distributions and feature selection methods. This is demonstrated to provide high classification accuracy for classification of FDG-PET brain images of normal controls and dementia patients, comparable with alternative approaches, and provides a compact set of features selected.

  6. Selection of patients for resection of hepatic metastases: improved detection of extrahepatic disease with FDG pet.

    PubMed

    Zealley, I A; Skehan, S J; Rawlinson, J; Coates, G; Nahmias, C; Somers, S

    2001-10-01

    A rapidly emerging clinical application of positron emission tomography (PET) is the detection of tumor tissue at whole-body studies performed with the glucose analogue 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). High rates of recurrence after partial hepatic resection in patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases indicate that current presurgical imaging strategies are failing to show extrahepatic tumor deposits. Although FDG PET cannot match the anatomic resolution of conventional imaging techniques in the liver and the lungs, it is particularly useful for identification and characterization of extrahepatic disease. FDG PET can show foci of metastatic disease that may not be apparent at conventional anatomic imaging and can aid in the characterization of indeterminate soft-tissue masses. Several sources of benign and physiologic increased activity at FDG PET emphasize the need for careful correlation with findings of other imaging studies and clinical findings. FDG PET can improve the selection of patients for partial hepatic resection and thereby reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with inappropriate surgery.

  7. FDG-PET predicts survival in recurrent high-grade gliomas treated with bevacizumab and irinotecan

    PubMed Central

    Colavolpe, Cécile; Chinot, Olivier; Metellus, Philippe; Mancini, Julien; Barrie, Maryline; Bequet-Boucard, Céline; Tabouret, Emeline; Mundler, Olivier; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Guedj, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Prognosis of recurrent high-grade glioma (HGG) is poor, although bevacizumab has been documented in that context. This study aimed to determine the independent prognostic value of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of recurrent HGG after combined treatment with bevacizumab and irinotecan, compared with other documented prognostic variables. Twenty-five adult patients with histologically proven HGG were included at recurrence. Brain FDG-PET imaging was performed within 6 weeks of starting chemotherapy with bevacizumab and irinotecan. Response based on MRI was assessed every 2 months according to revised assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria. Median PFS and OS were 4 months (range, 0.9–10.4 months) and 7.2 months (range, 1.2–41.7 months), respectively. At 6 months, PFS and OS rate were 16.0% and 72.0%. FDG uptake was the most powerful predictor of both PFS and OS, using either univariate or multivariate analysis, among all variables tested: histological grade, Karnofsky performance status, steroid intake, and number of previous treatments. Moreover, FDG uptake was also prognostic of response to bevacizumab-based therapy. This study provides the first evidence that pretreatment FDG-PET can serve as an imaging biomarker in recurrent HGG for predicting survival following anti-angiogenic therapy with bevacizumab. PMID:22379188

  8. FDG PET/CT dataset for navigation on femoral bone: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Militz, Matthias; Uhde, Jörg; Christian, Georg; Linke, Rainer; Morgenstern, Mario; Hungerer, Sven

    2015-12-01

    FDG PET/CT has become a valuable tool in the diagnosis of the activity of chronic osteomyelitis. The surgical strategy in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis is the identification of the bone focus and radical debridement of sequesters. The aim of the current study was the registration and use of the FDG PET/CT imaging datasets on a navigation system to provide diagnostic imaging based feedback during surgical procedures. For the present study, FDG PET/CT scans were acquired from artificial bones and cadaver bones with a local focus of activity. The DICOM data sets were merged using a navigation system. The referenced regions of interest were matched with fluoroscopic pictures to register the PET/CT DICOM datasets to the bone and direct visual control. Navigated targeting led to accurate results when verified with fluoroscopic images by targeting previously inserted reference points in artificial and cadaver bone. FDG PET/CT datasets are suitable for navigation and compatible with conventional planning and navigation software. The combination of diagnostic FDG PET/CT imaging with surgical navigation techniques could be a valuable tool for the accurate treatment of chronic osteomyelitis.

  9. FDG-PET findings in patients with galactosaemia.

    PubMed

    Dubroff, J G; Ficicioglu, C; Segal, S; Wintering, N A; Alavi, A; Newberg, A B

    2008-08-01

    Despite treatment with a galactose-restricted diet, many galactosaemia patients develop lifelong cognitive impairment, speech abnormalities and a gamut of neurological problems including cognitive impairment and tremors. No study has explored changes in cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with galactosaemia. Five patients with galactosaemia had ages ranging from 20 to 40 years (mean age 28 years) and eight similarly aged controls received brain [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scans. PET scans were analysed using a previously validated template methodology of regions of interest (ROIs). Count ratios for each anatomical ROI were compared between the galactosaemic patients and the healthy controls. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) software was also used to further analyse the data. ROI analysis showed that galactosaemic patients had significant bilateral decreases in cerebral glucose metabolism in the superior temporal gyrus, medial occipital lobe, parietal lobe, cerebellum, calcarine cortex, superior frontal cortex, and superior parietal cortex when compared with controls. Significant increases were seen in the cingulate gyrus and temporal poles, bilaterally. SPM analysis revealed foci of decreased glucose metabolism in the caudate, cerebellum, precentral gyrus and cerebellar tonsils of galactosaemic patients. SPM also showed increased glucose metabolism in the subcallosal gyrus and claustrum. The results show significant abnormalities in cerebral function in patients with galactosaemia, particularly with widespread decreases in cortical metabolism. These abnormalities appear to be in brain regions that may be associated with the neuropsychological deficits in these patients. PET brain scans may be of value in galactosaemia patients to evaluate for dysfunction.

  10. Complimentary role of FDG-PET imaging and skeletal scintigraphy in the evaluation of patients of prostate carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, B P; Jangra, S; Nair, N; Tongaonkar, H B; Basu, S

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignancies of elderly males. Management depends on the accurate estimation of disease both at initial diagnosis and in its subsequent course. In the present study, we evaluated the diagnostic utility of positron emission tomography with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) in patients having prostate cancer. The findings were compared with the results of bone scan (BS) for the detection of bone metastases. Sixteen patients (age range, 55-83 years) with confirmed diagnosis of prostate cancer were included in the prospective study. Three patients had undergone bilateral orchidectomy, 1 had hormonal therapy, 9 had undergone both, and 3 had no therapy. All the patients underwent wholebody BS and FDG-PET within 1 week. Interpretation of BS and FDG-PET were performed qualitatively. Osseous abnormalities detected by both methods were compared. Involvement of the disease in other sites as seen on FDG-PET was also noted. BS detected 197 osseous lesions, whereas FDG-PET could detect 97 (49%) bone lesions. However, in 3 patients without any prior therapeutic intervention, FDG-PET results were superior or equivalent to that of BS. FDG-PET also detected extensive involvement of the disease in the bone marrow in 4 patients, lymph node metastases at various sites in 8, liver metastases in 2, and lung metastases in 1 patient. FDG-PET could demonstrate less number of osseous metastases in comparison with BSs, but the results have to be interpreted in the background of prior treatment administered and the tumor biology of the lesion. It is evident that FDG-PET could detect the unknown soft tissue involvement of the disease with good sensitivity, which might play an important role in the management of prostate cancer. Overall, in the absence of novel PET tracers, both skeletal scintigraphy and FDG-PET imaging can play a complimentary role in the management of prostate cancer.

  11. FDG PET/CT images demonstrating epididymo-orchitis in a patient with HIV, acute kidney injury and known epididymo-orchitis on scrotal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Sameer; Dharmaraja, Arjuna; Mehta, Pareen; Colletti, Patrick M; Wassef, Heidi

    2015-02-01

    A 52-year-old man with HIV was referred for an F-FDG PET/CT scan for the cause of kidney injury. FDG PET/CT scan revealed increased renal cortical FDG activity, which can be seen in HIV nephropathy or acute interstitial nephritis. Diffuse increased FDG uptake was demonstrated within the right testicle and epididymis, consistent with the patient's known right epididymo-orchitis, as diagnosed on ultrasound 1 week before admission. Multiple enlarged lymph nodes with increased FDG activity were also found within the right inguinal and external iliac nodal chains, which were presumed to be reactive. The patient was treated with ciprofloxacin with symptomatic improvement.

  12. Growing applications of FDG PET-CT imaging in non-oncologic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Hongming; Codreanu, Ion

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As the number of clinical applications of 2-[fluorine 18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT) grows, familiarity with the conditions that can be diagnosed by this modality and when relevant pieces of additional information can be obtained becomes increasingly important for both requesting physicians and nuclear medicine physicians or radiologists who interpret the findings. Apart from its heavy use in clinical oncology, FDG PET-CT is widely used in a variety of non-oncologic conditions interconnecting to such disciplines as general internal medicine, infectious diseases, cardiology, neurology, surgery, traumatology, orthopedics, pediatrics, endocrinology, rheumatology, psychiatry, neuropsychology, and cognitive neuroscience. The aim of this review was to summarize the current evidence of FDG PET-CT applications in evaluating non-oncologic pathologies and the relevant information it can add to achieve a final diagnosis. PMID:26060443

  13. 18F-FDG PET in the Evaluation of Acuity of Deep Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Rondina, Matthew T.; Lam, Uyen T.; Pendleton, Robert C.; Kraiss, Larry W.; Wanner, Nathan; Zimmerman, Guy A.; Hoffman, John M.; Hanrahan, Christopher; Boucher, Kenneth; Christian, Paul E.; Butterfield, Regan I.; Morton, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose 18F-FDG PET has been used for vascular disease, but its role in deep vein thrombosis (DVT) remains prospectively unexplored. Patients and Methods Whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT scans were performed in patients 1 to 10 weeks after onset of symptomatic DVT (n = 12) and in control subjects without DVT (n = 24). The metabolic activity (SUVmax) of thrombosed and contralateral nonthrombosed vein segments was determined. The sensitivity and specificity of 18F-FDG PET/CT for the diagnosis of DVT were determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. In 2 patients with DVT, changes in the metabolic activity of thrombosed vein segments in serial 18F-FDG PET scans. Results The metabolic activity in thrombosed veins [SUVmax, 2.41 (0.75)] was visually appreciable and significantly higher than in nonthrombosed veins in either the contralateral extremity of patients with DVT [SUVmax, 1.09 (0.25), P = 0.007] or control subjects [1.21 (0.22), P < 001]. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for SUVmax was 0.9773 (P < 001), indicating excellent accuracy. An SUVmax threshold of greater than 1.645 was 87.5% sensitive and 100% specific for DVT. Metabolic activity in thrombosed veins correlated significantly with time from DVT symptom onset (decrease in SUVmax of 0.02/d, P < 0.05). Best-fit-line analyses suggested that approximately 84 to 91 days after acute DVT, the maximum metabolic activity of thrombosed veins would return to normal levels. Conclusions 18F-FDG PET/CT is accurate for detecting acute symptomatic, proximal DVT. Metabolic activity in thrombosed veins decreases with time, suggesting that 18F-FDG PET may be helpful in assessing the age of the clot. PMID:23154470

  14. The extent of resection of FDG-PET hypometabolism relates to outcome of temporal lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Vinton, Anita B; Carne, Ross; Hicks, Rodney J; Desmond, Patricia M; Kilpatrick, Christine; Kaye, Andrew H; O'Brien, Terence J

    2007-02-01

    A significant minority of patients undergoing surgery for medically refractory non-lesional temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) continue to have seizures, but the reasons for this are uncertain. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET shows hypometabolism in a majority of patients with non-lesional TLE, even in the absence of hippocampal atrophy. We examined whether the extent of resection of the area of FDG-PET hypometabolism influenced outcome following surgery for non-lesional TLE. Twenty-six patients who underwent temporal lobectomy for medically refractory TLE with at least 12 months follow-up were studied. The preoperative FDG-PET was compared with 20 non-epileptic controls using SPM99 to identify regions of significant hypometabolism (P < 0.0005, cluster > 200). This image was then co-registered to the postoperative MRI scan. The volume of the FDG-PET hypometabolism that lay within the area of the resected temporal lobe was calculated. The volume of temporal lobe resected was also calculated. Patients with a good outcome had a greater proportion of the total FDG-PET hypometabolism volume resected than those with a poor outcome (24.1% versus 11.8%, P = 0.02). There was no significant difference between the groups in the volume of temporal lobe resected (P = 0.86). Multivariate regression demonstrated that the extent of resection of the hypometabolism significantly correlated with outcome (P = 0.03), independent of the presence of hippocampal sclerosis (P = 0.03) and total brain volume of hypometabolism (P = 0.45). The extent of resection of the region of hypometabolism on the preoperative FDG-PET is predictive of outcome following surgery for non-lesional TLE. Strategies that tailor resection extent to regional hypometabolism may warrant further evaluation.

  15. Sequential FDG-PET brachytherapy treatment planning in carcinoma of the cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lilie L.; Mutic, Sasa M.S.; Malyapa, Robert S.; Low, Daniel A.; Miller, Tom R.; Vicic, Milos; LaForest, Richard; Zoberi, Imran; Grigsby, Perry W. . E-mail: pgrigsby@wustl.edu

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of sequential {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging for brachytherapy treatment planning in patients with carcinoma of the cervix. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients with carcinoma of the cervix were included in this prospective study. The clinical stage of their disease was Ib (7), IIa (1), IIb (7), and IIIb (9). Patients were treated with irradiation and brachytherapy, with the majority receiving concurrent weekly cisplatin chemotherapy. Patients underwent diagnostic FDG-PET imaging before treatment, sequential FDG-PET brachytherapy imaging during treatment, and diagnostic FDG-PET 3 months after treatment completion. Delineation of the gross tumor volume, bladder, and rectum was performed for all scans using a commercially available treatment-planning system. Actual treatment delivery was based on two-dimensional orthogonal planning. Results: The mean gross tumor volume and percent coverage by the target isodose surface for the initial, mid, and last implant were 37 cm{sup 3}, 17 cm{sup 3}, and 10 cm{sup 3} and 68%, 76%, and 79%, respectively. Nine of 11 patients were found to have continued decrease in tumor volume as measured by FDG-PET, with 3 patients having complete regression of their tumor before treatment was completed. The maximal bladder and rectal doses obtained from three-dimensional dose-volume histograms were significantly higher than the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 38 bladder and rectal points obtained by two-dimensional treatment-planning. Conclusions: Sequential FDG-PET brachytherapy imaging identifies the tumor response in individual patients, potentially making patient-specific brachytherapy treatment planning possible.

  16. Conjunctival Melanoma on 18F-FDG PET/CT as a Second Primary Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Szu-Ying; Shiau, Yu-Chien; Wang, Shan-Ying; Wu, Yen-Wen

    2016-03-01

    Herein we present the F-FDG PET/CT findings in conjunctival melanoma as a second primary cancer in a 56-year-old Taiwanese man with a history of small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia and nasal cavity carcinoma under remission. The right eye lesion slowly progressed since noted by the patient himself 2 years ago, but he refused biopsy and further treatment including surgery. Either small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia or conjunctival melanoma is extremely rare in Asians, left alone in combination with a third malignancy of nasal cavity carcinoma. FDG PET/CT could effectively evaluate malignancies with multiple primary origins.

  17. Increased 18F-FDG Uptake Associated With Gastric Banding Surgical Mesh on PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Chism, Charles B; Somcio, Ray; Chasen, Beth A; Ravizzini, Gregory C

    2016-05-01

    Surgical mesh was used in the 1980s and early 1990s for vertical banded gastroplasty as treatment for morbid obesity. This procedure was replaced by the more popular laparoscopic gastric banding in the mid-1990s. Surgical mesh, commonly used in hernioplasty, has been associated with increased F-FDG uptake related to an inflammatory foreign body reaction and is a known cause of false-positive PET scans. We present a case of increased F-FDG uptake related to surgical mesh in a patient who had undergone vertical banded gastroplasty.

  18. 18F-FDG PET/CT diagnosis of vagus nerve neurolymphomatosis.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Hailey Hoi Ching; Lee, Elaine Yuen Phin; Anthony, Marina-Portia; Khong, Pek-Lan

    2012-09-01

    A 62-year-old woman was in remission from previously treated stage IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with cranial involvement. She presented with new-onset hoarseness of voice and choking; MRI of the brain showed disease recurrence in the left cavernous sinus. She was subsequently referred for F-FDG PET/CT with contrast for further evaluation of lymphomatous recurrence. F-FDG PET/CT not only revealed hypermetabolic activity in the left cavernous sinus correlating to the MRI findings but also showed an interesting manifestation explaining the patient's hoarseness of voice, being neurolymphomatosis along the left vagus nerve.

  19. Uterine leiomyosarcoma metastatic to thyroid shown by (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Gauthé, M; Testart Dardel, N; Nascimento, C; Trassard, M; Banal, A; Alberini, J-L

    About one third of focal thyroid uptakes in a fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT) study are malignant, the most frequent histological type being papillary carcinoma. Metastases to the thyroid account for approximately 7.5% of thyroid malignancies and come mainly from kidney, lung, head and neck, and breast cancers. We report the case of a 64-year-old woman presenting a fast growing thyroid nodule whose primitive or metastatic origin was not obvious, for which (18)F-FDG PET/CT helped in the diagnostic process and in the later management of the patient. Histopathologic findings finally revealed a metastasis of uterine leiomyosarcoma.

  20. Breast implant foreign body reaction mimicking breast cancer recurrence on FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Ulaner, Gary A; D'Andrea, Gabriella; Cody, Hiram S

    2013-06-01

    A woman with bilateral breast cancer treated with bilateral mastectomies, implant reconstructions, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy underwent FDG PET/CT imaging. Imaging demonstrated sternal, nodal, and lung lesions which were stable or slowly increasing, as well as a parasternal chest wall mass which was enlarging much more rapidly and was excised. Pathology of the chest wall mass demonstrated only benign soft tissue with fat necrosis and foreign body giant cell reaction, without evidence of malignancy or implant rupture. This case demonstrates how a benign FDG-avid foreign body reaction, induced by an intact breast prosthesis, could easily be mistaken for malignancy.

  1. Sphenoid wing meningioma behavior on 11C-PiB and 18F-FDG PET.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Hernan; Bergamo, Yanina; Paz, Santiago; Sanchez, Flavio; Vazquez, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Two patients with mild cognitive impairment underwent C-PiB and F-FDG brain PET. Both patients had previously gone through a contrast-enhanced MRI scan that revealed extra-axial tumors next to the sphenoid wing, suggestive of meningiomas. C-PiB PET images showed a highly increased uptake by the extra-axial masses. These 2 cases represent 1.2% of our C-PiB population (n = 163). No meningioma was found with negative C-PiB uptake. The F-FDG concentration was not increased within the lesions. C-PiB could be used as a meningioma marker.

  2. Early detection of encephalitis with (18)F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Gaeta, M C; Godani, M; Nunziata, R; Capellini, C; Ciarmiello, A

    2015-01-01

    Encephalitis is a relatively rare condition for which making an accurate diagnosis can be challenging. In fact, clinical features are not specific and structural imaging can be normal in a considerable number of cases. However, an early diagnosis is important as many forms of treatment are effective if started promptly. Even though recent guidelines do not recommend (18)F-FDG PET/CT for patients with suspected encephalitis, the case presented suggests that (18)F-FDG PET/CT may play a relevant role for the early diagnosis of this clinical condition.

  3. (18)F-FDG PET/CT in bilateral primary adrenal T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Sampath; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Shankar, Praveen; Kashyap, Raghava; Bhattacharya, Anish; Singh, Baljinder; Das, Ashim; Bhansali, Anil

    2011-01-01

    Primary adrenal lymphoma is extremely rare. We report a young patient who presented with non- specific symptoms of fever and abdominal pain. Conventional imaging modalities demonstrated bilateral bulky adrenal masses, and whole-body fluorine-18-fluorodesoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography showed intense (18)F-FDG-avid bilateral adrenal masses with no evidence of extra-adrenal spread. A pathological diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma of peripheral T-cell type was made. The present case indicates that primary adrenal lymphoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of bilateral adrenal masses.

  4. IgG4-Related Tubulointerstitial Nephritis Pattern in 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Bélissant, Ophélie; Guernou, Mohamed; Rouvier, Philippe; Compain, Caroline; Bonardel, Gérald

    2015-10-01

    A 17-year-old adolescent girl was admitted with chronic arthralgia, Raynaud phenomenon, pericarditis, and evidences of chronic diffuse inflammation. F-FDG PET/CT scan was performed to search systemic vasculitis and showed diffuse moderate uptake in the kidneys. We suggested the existence of a nephritis, but the ultrasonography result was normal, and no treatment was introduced. Another F-FDG PET/CT scan was performed 7 months later to explore abdominal pain. It showed again diffuse intense uptake in both kidneys. A proteinuria was highlighted, and renal biopsy allowed to diagnose IgG4-related disease.

  5. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-02-29

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites.

  6. Accumulation of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1987-01-01

    In modeling the accumulation of planetesimals into planets, it is appropriate to distinguish between two stages: an early stage, during which approximately 10 km diameter planetesimals accumulate locally to form bodies approximate 10 to the 25th g in mass; and a later stage in which the approximately 10 to the 25th g planetesimals accumulate into the final planets. In the terrestrial planet region, an initial planetesimal swarm corresponding to the critical mass of dust layer gravitational instabilities is considered. In order to better understand the accumulation history of Mercury-sized bodies, 19 Monte-Carlo simulations of terrestrial planet growth were calculated. A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the orbital evolution of asteroidal collision debris produced interior to 2.6 AU. It was found that there are two regions primarily responsible for production of Earth-crossing meteoritic material and Apollo objects. The same techniques were extended to include the origin of Earth-approaching asteroidal bodies. It is found that these same two resonant mechanisms predict a steady-state number of Apollo-Amor about 1/2 that estimated based on astronomical observations.

  7. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  8. Voxel-based analysis of Alzheimer's disease PET imaging using a triplet of radiotracers: PIB, FDDNP, and FDG.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jonghan; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Seog Ju; Kim, So-Hee; Cho, Seong-Jin; Kim, Young-Bo

    2010-08-15

    Beta amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and impaired glucose metabolism are among the most prevalent pathological characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, separate visualization of these three AD-related pathologies in living humans has not been conducted. Here, we show that positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using the three radiotracers (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B (PIB), 2-(1-{6-[(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)(methyl)amino]-2-naphthyl}ethylidene) malononitrile (FDDNP), and 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG), in the same subjects, with and without AD, can provide valuable information on the pathological patterns of the distribution of tracers for amyloid plaque, neurofibrillary tangle, and glucose hypometabolism in AD. Voxel-based analysis of PIB-PET in patients with AD compared with normal control subjects showed that patients with AD have highly significant PIB retention in brain regions known to have high amyloid plaque deposition (e.g., frontal, parietal, temporal, and posterior cingulate/precuneus cortices). In contrast, voxel-based analysis of FDDNP-PET showed significantly high FDDNP binding in some brain regions known to have high tangle accumulation in patients with AD compared with age-matched normal subjects (e.g., entorhinal cortex, inferior temporal gyrus, and secondary visual cortex). In addition, because FDDNP binds both plaques and tangles but PIB binds plaques specifically, we examined subtracted PET data (FDDNP minus PIB) acquired from the same patients with AD using an SPM analysis. We found that the hippocampal formation was the most significant brain region in the voxel mapping of FDDNP minus PIB in the same patients with AD. Voxel-based analysis of FDG-PET in the same subjects revealed that brain regions with glucose hypometabolism in patients with AD overlap with regions of high PIB binding. In conclusion, PET imaging using these three radiotracers in the same subjects may contribute toward developing and testing disease

  9. Is the Glut expression related to FDG uptake in PET/CT of non-small cell lung cancer patients?

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo Hee; Yoo, Ie Ryung; O, Joo Hyun; Kim, Tae Jung; Lee, Kyo Young; Kim, Young Kyoon

    2015-01-01

    Though 18F-FDG PET/CT scans are widely used in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the mechanism of FDG uptake by lung cancer cells has not yet been fully elucidated. This study evaluated the relationship between FDG uptake and the expression of glucose transporters in NSCLC. Sixty-four NSCLC patients who underwent both preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT scanning and thoracotomy were included. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the primary lung cancer was compared to the immunohistochemistry results for Glut expression and tumor size. In all the NSCLC cases, degree of FDG uptake significantly correlated with both Glut-1 and Glut-3 expression. When stratified by the histology, squamous cell carcinomas showed higher mean SUVmax, Glut-1 expression intensity, and percentage of area positive for Glut-1 expression than adenocarcinomas. Glut-1 and Glut-3 expressions correlated with SUVmax in adenocarcinomas, but there was no significant correlation in squamous cell carcinomas. No significant correlation was observed between tumor size and FDG uptake or Glut expression. These results show that Glut expression was significantly correlated with SUVmax in NSCLC, especially in adenocarcinomas, and that neither FDG uptake nor the expression of Glut was associated with tumor size.

  10. 18F-FDG PET/CT and extragastric MALT lymphoma: role of Ki-67 score and plasmacytic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Albano, Domenico; Bosio, Giovanni; Giubbini, Raffaele; Bertagna, Francesco

    2017-03-07

    The detection rate of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in extragastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is under debate and the reason is not clear. Our aim was to investigate the metabolic behavior of extragastric MALT lymphoma and whether the histological features (Ki-67 index and plasmacytic differentiation, PD) might explain it. PET/CT images were analyzed visually and semi-quantitatively and compared with Ki-67 index and PD. Seventy-two patients were included. Twelve of 18 patients with PD showed intense 18F-FDG uptake; on the contrary, 42 of 54 patients without PD had positive 18F-FDG PET/CT. Twenty-six of 27 patients with Ki-67 > 15% had 18F-FDG-avid lesions; 28 of 45 patients with Ki-67 ≤ 15% had positive 18F-FDG PET/CT. 18F-FDG avidity was significantly associated with Ki-67 index (p < .001) and not correlated with PD (p = .352). Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), lesion-to-liver SUVmax ratio and lesion-to-blood pool SUVmax ratio were not correlated with Ki-67 index or PD. 18F-FDG avidity was noted in 75% and is correlated only with Ki-67.

  11. Corticosteroid Responsive Sarcoidosis with Multisystemic Involvement Years after Initial Diagnosis: A Lymphoma Mimicker on 18-FDG PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Turker; Savas, Recep; Kocacelebi, Kenan; Ucan, Eyup Sabri

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystemic inflammatory disease characterized by noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas. 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computer tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is increasingly used in routine clinical practice to assess active sarcoidosis because it can detect active inflammatory granulomatous disease. However, active sarcoidosis lesions are observed to be hypermetabolic on FDG-PET/CT much like malignancies, which may lead to misinterpretation on imaging. In this case report, we present a rare case of sarcoidosis with multisystem involvement including lung, lymph nodes, bone, pleura, and soft tissue that mimicked lymphoma on FDG-PET/CT and responded to corticosteroid treatment. PMID:26312138

  12. Historic images in nuclear medicine: 1976: the first issue of clinical nuclear medicine and the first human FDG study.

    PubMed

    Hess, Søren; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Alavi, Abass

    2014-08-01

    In 1976, 2 major molecular imaging events coincidentally took place: Clinical Nuclear Medicine was first published in June, and in August researchers at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania created the first images in humans with F-FDG. FDG was initially developed as part of an evolution set in motion by fundamental research studies with positron-emitting tracers in the 1950s by Michel Ter-Pegossian and coworkers at the Washington University. Today, Clinical Nuclear Medicine is a valued scientific contributor to the molecular imaging community, and FDG PET is considered the backbone of this evolving and exciting discipline.

  13. Radiation-induced DNA damage and the relative biological effectiveness of 18F-FDG in wild-type mice

    DOE PAGES

    Taylor, Kristina; Lemon, Jennifer A.; Boreham, Douglas R.

    2014-05-28

    Clinically, the most commonly used positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer is the glucose analog 2-[18F] fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (18F-FDG), however little research has been conducted on the biological effects of 18F-FDG injections. The induction and repair of DNA damage and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of radiation from 18F-FDG relative to 662 keV γ-rays were investigated. The study also assessed whether low-dose radiation exposure from 18F-FDG was capable of inducing an adaptive response. DNA damage to the bone marrow erythroblast population was measured using micronucleus formation and lymphocyte γH2A.X levels. To test the RBE of 18F-FDG, mice were injected with a rangemore » of activities of 18F-FDG (0–14.80 MBq) or irradiated with Cs-137 γ-rays (0–100 mGy). The adaptive response was investigated 24 h after the 18F-FDG injection by 1 Gy in vivo challenge doses for micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) formation or 1, 2 and 4 Gy in vitro challenges doses for γH2A.X formation. A significant increase in MN-RET formation above controls occurred following injection activities of 3.70, 7.40 or 14.80 MBq (P < 0.001) which correspond to bone marrow doses of ~35, 75 and 150 mGy, respectively. Per unit dose, the Cs-137 radiation exposure induced significantly more damage than the 18F-FDG injections (RBE = 0.79 ± 0.04). A 20% reduction in γH2A.X fluorescence was observed in mice injected with a prior adapting low dose of 14.80 MBq 18F-FDG relative to controls (P < 0.019). A 0.74 MBq 18F-FDG injection, which gives mice a dose approximately equal to a typical human PET scan, did not cause a significant increase in DNA damage nor did it generate an adaptive response. Typical 18F-FDG injection activities used in small animal imaging (14.80 MBq) resulted in a decrease in DNA damage, as measured by γH2A.X formation, below spontaneous levels observed in control mice. Lastly, the 18F-FDG RBE was <1.0, indicating that the mixed radiation quality

  14. 18F-FDG PET imaging in a patient with late omental infarction after treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chassagnon, Guillaume; Metrard, Gilles; Besse, Hélène; Gauvain, Sabine

    2014-06-01

    We report a case of late omental infarction visualized by F-FDG PET/CT during follow-up for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The 65-year-old patient was referred for imaging 8 months after pancreaticoduodenectomy and 2 months after completion of a course of chemotherapy. PET/CT showed an FDG-avid omental lesion that suggested peritoneal carcinomatosis. The appearance and evolution at follow-up studies confirmed the diagnosis of omental infarction, a rare complication of pancreatic surgery. This case revealed the possibility of late FDG uptake in omental infarction.

  15. FDG PET/CT images demonstrating Fournier gangrene with bilateral pelvic muscle extension in a patient with recurrent rectosigmoid cancer.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Tien; Kao, Pan-Fu; Huang, Chi-Chou; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Lee, Jong-Kang

    2014-01-01

    A 71-year-old male patient with Parkinsonism was referred for an F-FDG PET/CT scan for suspicious recurrence of rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma. The FDG PET/CT scan revealed increased FDG uptakes in the lower pelvic region around the wall of the rectal stump, with extension to the bilateral pelvic sidewalls and the right gluteous minimus muscle. In addition, multiple small air bubbles were noted in the lesions on the attenuation CT images. Fournier gangrene was diagnosed. After treatment with intravenous antibiotics and debridement with sigmoidoscopic irrigation, the patient was discharged and remained uneventful during clinical follow-up for 50 days.

  16. Lymphoma and tuberculosis: temporal evolution of dual pathology on sequential 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Anirban; Sharma, Punit; Karunanithi, Sellam; Dhull, Varun Singh; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-08-01

    Tuberculosis can often be seen in patients undergoing chemotherapy for lymphoma, especially in endemic countries. As both tuberculosis and lymphoma can lead to hypermetabolic lesions of F-FDG PET/CT, a diagnostic dilemma often ensues. We present the sequential F-FDG PET/CT images of a 22-year-old female patient with Hodgkin lymphoma who developed tuberculosis and later relapse of lymphoma. These images present the temporal evaluation of the dual pathology on F-FDG PET/CT.

  17. Biodistribution of the radionuclides 18F-FDG, 11C-methionine, 11C-PK11195, and 68Ga-citrate in domestic juvenile female pigs and morphological and molecular imaging of the tracers in hematogenously disseminated Staphylococcus aureus lesions

    PubMed Central

    Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ole L; Alstrup, Aage KO; Bender, Dirk; Leifsson, Páll S; Jensen, Svend B; Schønheyder, Henrik C

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 5-7% of acute-care patients suffer from bacteremia. Bacteremia may give rise to bacterial spread to different tissues. Conventional imaging procedures as X-ray, Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and ultrasound are often first-line imaging methods for identification and localization of infection. These methods are, however, not always successful. Early identification and localization of infection is critical for the appropriate and timely selection of therapy. The aim of this study was thus; a head to head comparison of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to PET with tracers that potentially could improve uncovering of infectious lesions in soft tissues. We chose 11C-methionine, 11C-PK11195, and 68Ga-citrate as tracers and besides presenting their bio-distribution we validated their diagnostic utility in pigs with experimental bacterial infection. Four juvenile 14-15 weeks old female domestic pigs were scanned seven days after intra-arterial inoculation in the right femoral artery with a porcine strain of S. aureus using a sequential scanning protocol with 18F-FDG, 11C-methionine, 11C-PK11195 and 68Ga-citrate. This was followed by necropsy of the pigs consisting of gross pathology, histopathology and microbial examination. The pigs primarily developed lesions in lungs and neck muscles. 18F-FDG had higher infection to background ratios and accumulated in most infectious foci caused by S. aureus, while 11C-methionine and particularly 11C-PK11195 and 68Ga-citrate accumulated to a lesser extent in infectious foci. 18F-FDG-uptake was seen in the areas of inflammatory cells and to a much lesser extent in reparative infiltration surrounding necrotic regions. PMID:27069765

  18. Granulocytic sarcoma of the pancreas on 18F-FDG PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Akira; Kondo, Tadakazu; Oka, Tomomi; Nakamoto, Yuji; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Granulocytic sarcoma (GS) is defined as leukemia infiltration in any organ other than the bone marrow. GS rarely occurs in the pancreas. Here, we present the first report of GS in the pancreas on 18F-fluorodexyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT). Patient concerns: A 19-year-old male patient with acute myeloid leukemia received a human leukocyte antigen-haploidentical stem cell transplant as a second transplant while in second complete remission. Interventions: After a second stem cell transplant, obstructive pancreatitis accompanied by a mass in the pancreatic head was observed. FDG-PET/CT revealed abnormal activity in the head of the pancreas and the skin in the patient's left breast area. Diagnoses: Pathological examination demonstrated relapsed acute myeloid leukemia in both the lesions. Outcomes: This is the first report showing the 18F-FDG PET/CT findings of GS in the pancreas. Lessons: 18F-FDG PET/CT may help determine the stage of GS. PMID:27930567

  19. Comparison of FDG-PET/CT images between chronic renal failure patients on hemodialysis and controls.

    PubMed

    Toriihara, Akira; Kitazume, Yoshio; Nishida, Hidenori; Kubota, Kazunori; Nakadate, Masashi; Tateishi, Ukihide

    2015-01-01

    The whole-body 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) distribution in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients on hemodialysis would be different from that in subjects with normal renal function, because they lack urinary FDG excretion and remain in a constant volume overload. We evaluated the difference in the physiological uptake pattern of FDG between chronic renal failure patients on hemodialysis and control subjects. The subjects for this retrospective study consisted of 24 chronic renal failure patients on hemodialysis (HD group) and 24 age- and sex-matched control subjects (NC group). Standardized uptake values normalized by the body weight (SUVbw), ideal body weight (SUVibw), lean body mass (SUVlbm), and body surface area (SUVbsa) in the cerebellum, lungs, liver, gluteal muscles and subcutaneous fat, spleen, thoracolumbar spine, thoracic and abdominal aorta, and right atrium were calculated in positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) images. SUVbw in the gluteal muscles, subcutaneous fat, spleen and right atrium was significantly higher in the HD group as compared to that in the NC group (p < 0.05; unpaired t test). In addition, SUVibm, SUVlbm, as well as SUVbsa in the abdominal aorta were significantly higher in the HD group as compared to those in the NC group (p < 0.05; unpaired t test). In conclusion, as compared to normal subjects, chronic renal failure patients on hemodialysis show significantly higher physiological FDG uptake in the soft tissues, spleen and blood pool.

  20. Intracranial Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis from Breast Cancer Detected on 18F-FDG PET.

    PubMed

    Carra, Bradley J; Clemenshaw, Michael N

    2015-09-01

    Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis is an uncommon manifestation of non-central nervous system (CNS) metastatic disease. Diagnosis, however, has important prognostic and treatment implications. We present a case in which intracranial leptomeningeal carcinomatosis from a primary breast cancer was detected with (18)F-FDG PET/CT, despite its low sensitivity for detection of CNS metastases from non-CNS primary tumors.

  1. Central Pontine Myelinolysis and Localized Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake Seen on 18F-FDG PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Rønne, Frederik; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer Carsten; Rørdam, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Case report describing the finding of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) using combined fluorine-18 ( 18F)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). The patient was a known alcoholic who, during admission was under treatment for hyponatremia, showed a significant decline in both motor and cognitive function. Combined 18F-FDG PET/CT showed localized FDG uptake in the pons, consistent with the finding of CPM observed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). CPM is a demyelinating lesion of the pons, resulting in several neurological symptoms. The exact cause of CPM is not clear, but a strong relations between loss of myelin and osmotic stress exists, especially during rapid correction of hyponatremia. The osmotic stress is thought to induce disruption of the blood-brain barrier, allowing access for inflammatory mediators in extravascular brain tissue, which most likely attracts glial cells of the brain, attracts macrophages and activates astocytes. We suggest that metabolism in these activated cells could be responsible for the localized FDG uptake during active CPM. PMID:28217021

  2. Usefulness of FDG, MET and FLT-PET Studies for the Management of Human Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Keisuke; Shinomiya, Aya; Okada, Masaki; Hatakeyama, Tetsuhiro; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Tamiya, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The use of positron imaging agents such as FDG, MET, and FLT is expected to lead the way for novel applications toward efficient malignancy grading and treatment of gliomas. In this study, the usefulness of FDG, MET and FLT-PET images was retrospectively reviewed by comparing their histopathological findings. FDG, MET, and FLT-PET were performed in 27 patients with WHO grade IV, 15 patients with WHO grade III, and 12 patients with WHO grade II during 5.5 years. The resulting PET images were compared by measuring SUVs and T/N ratios (tumor to normal tissue ratios). Although there were no significant differences in FDG-PET, there were significant differences in the T/N ratios in the MET-PET between WHO grades II and IV and in the FLT-PET between the WHO grades III and IV. In glioblastoma patients, the SUVs of the areas depicted by MRI in the MET-PET were different from those SUVs in the FLT-PET. Importantly, the areas with high SUVs in both MET-PET and FLT-PET were also high in Ki-67 index and were histologically highly malignant. PET imaging is a noninvasive modality that is useful in determining a tumor area for removal as well as improving preoperative diagnosis for gliomas. PMID:22577290

  3. An unusual orbital localization of wegener granulomatosis detected by 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Bertagna, Francesco; Treglia, Giorgio; Rossini, Pierluigi; Giubbini, Raffaele

    2014-08-01

    We report a case of a 61-year-old male patient affected by Wegener granulomatosis and left exophthalmos who underwent F-FDG PET/CT during follow-up for rectal cancer. The study was negative for secondary lesions but revealed high uptake at the left orbital mass consistent with Wegener granulomatosis.

  4. False-positive FDG PET uptake--the role of PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Sandra J; Lind, Thomas; Antoch, Gerald; Bockisch, Andreas

    2006-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a powerful molecular imaging technique for the human body-imaging applications currently available. As altered glucose metabolism is characteristic for many malignancies, FDG-PET is mostly used in oncology for staging and therapy control. Although PET is a sensitive tool for detecting malignancy, FDG uptake is not tumor specific. It can also be seen in healthy tissue or in benign disease as inflammation or posttraumatic repair and could be mistaken for cancer. The experienced nuclear medicine physician mostly manages to differentiate malignant from non-malignant FDG uptake, but some findings may remain ambiguous. In these cases, the difficulties in differentiating physiologic variants or benign causes of FDG uptake from tumor tissue can often be overcome by combined PET and CT (PET/CT) as anatomic information is added to the metabolic data. Thus, PET/CT improves the diagnostic accuracy compared to PET alone and helps to avoid unnecessary surgery/therapy. However, PET/CT involves other sources of artifacts that may occur when using CT for attenuation correction of PET or by patient motion caused by respiration or bowel movements.

  5. Sestamibi and FDG-PET scans to support diagnosis of jaw osteonecrosis.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Lucio; Del Vecchio, Silvana; Petruzziello, Fara; Fonti, Rosa; Salvatore, Barbara; Martorelli, Carmen; Califano, Catello; Caparrotti, Giuseppe; Segreto, Sabrina; Pace, Leonardo; Rotoli, Bruno

    2007-06-01

    Osteonecrosis of the maxillary or mandibular bone is an infrequent but often severe event occurring in patients who undergo prolonged treatment with bisphosphonates. Histology is in some cases mandatory to differentiate it from neoplastic osteolysis, but a biopsy can further contribute to bone damage. Functional imaging obtained by a tracer that shows oncotropic properties, such as Tc99m-sestamibi, in comparison to a non-tumor-specific substance such as FDG-PET, can support the differential diagnosis, thus avoiding invasive procedures. Four patients affected by multiple myeloma and jaw osteonecrosis were prospectively evaluated by sestamibi and FDG-PET scans. Local diagnosis was performed by clinical, radiological and, in some cases, histological evaluations. Each patient was studied by Tc99m-sestamibi, performed by planar anterior and posterior whole-body scans and SPECT of the head and neck, and by PET/CT. Two nuclear medicine physicians, unaware of the final diagnosis, reviewed the images. No sestamibi uptake was evident in the four patients with jaw osteonecrosis, while FDG-PET/CT showed focal uptake in all of them. Our study suggests that the combined use of sestamibi scintigraphy and FDG-PET/CT could support the clinical diagnosis of oral osteonecrosis avoiding the risks of a surgical biopsy. Studies on higher number of patients are necessary to validate these preliminary observations.

  6. FDG-PET imaging for the assessment of physiologic volume response during radiotherapy in cervix cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lilie L.; Yang Zhiyun; Mutic, Sasa; Miller, Tom R.; Grigsby, Perry W. . E-mail: pgrigsby@wustl.edu

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the physiologic tumor volume response during treatment in cervical cancer using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Patients and Methods: This was a prospective study of 32 patients. Physiologic tumor volume in cubic centimeters was determined from the FDG-PET images using the 40% threshold method. Results: The mean pretreatment tumor volume was 102 cm{sup 3}. The mean volume by clinical Stages I, II, and III were 54, 79, and 176 cm{sup 3}, respectively. After 19.8 Gy external irradiation to the pelvis, the reduction in tumor volume was 29% (72 cm{sup 3}). An additional 13 Gy from high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy reduced the mean volume to 15.4 cm{sup 3}, and this was subsequently reduced to 8.6 cm{sup 3} with 13 Gy additional HDR brachytherapy (26 Gy, HDR). Four patients had physiologic FDG uptake in the cervix at 3 months after the completion of therapy. The mean time to the 50% reduction in physiologic tumor volume was 19.9 days and after combined external irradiation and HDR to 24.9 Gy. Conclusion: These results indicate that physiologic tumor volume determination by FDG-PET is feasible and that a 50% physiologic tumor volume reduction occurs within 20 days of starting therapy.

  7. Control of helium accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Varadarajan, V.; Miley, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    The fishbone like oscillations in ignited tokamaks are addressed in an exploratory manner. The effects of the strong m = 1 oscillations and the weak high-frequency oscillations are examined in order to explore the feasibility of utilizing these oscillations for alpha accumulation control. The prospects of achieving small scale continuous alpha removal from the plasma center by mild fishbone-like oscillations are examined.

  8. 18F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis of prosthetic valve endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Fagman, Erika; van Essen, Martijn; Fredén Lindqvist, Johan; Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Bech-Hanssen, Odd; Svensson, Gunnar

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have shown promising results using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) in the diagnosis of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE). However, previous studies did not include negative controls. The aim of this study was to compare (18)F-FDG-uptake around prosthetic aortic valves in patients with and without PVE and to determine the diagnostic performance of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis of PVE. (18)F-FDG PET/CT examinations in patients with a prosthetic aortic valve performed 2008-2014 were retrieved. Eight patients with a final diagnosis of definite PVE were included in the analysis of the diagnostic performance of (18)F-FDG PET/CT. Examinations performed on suspicion of malignancy in patients without PVE (n = 19) were used as negative controls. Visual and semi-quantitative analysis was performed. Maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in the valve area was measured and SUVratio was calculated by dividing valve SUVmax by SUVmax in the descending aorta. The sensitivity was 75 %, specificity 84 %, positive likelihood ratio [LR(+)] 4.8 and negative likelihood ratio [LR(-)] 0.3 on visual analysis. Both SUVmax and SUVratio were significantly higher in PVE patients [5.8 (IQR 3.5-6.5) and 2.4 (IQR 1.7-3.0)] compared to non-PVE patients [3.2 (IQR 2.8-3.8) and 1.5 (IQR 1.3-1.6)] (p < 0.001). ROC-curve analysis of SUVratio yielded an area under the curve of 0.90 (95 % CI 0.74-1.0). (18)F-FDG-uptake around non-infected aortic prosthetic valves was low. The level of (18)F-FDG-uptake in the prosthetic valve area showed a good diagnostic performance in the diagnosis of PVE.

  9. A Tripartite Fusion, FaeG-FedF-LT192A2:B, of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Elicits Antibodies That Neutralize Cholera Toxin, Inhibit Adherence of K88 (F4) and F18 Fimbriae, and Protect Pigs against K88ac/Heat-Labile Toxin Infection ▿

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Liu, Mei; Casey, Thomas A.; Zhang, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains expressing K88 (F4) or F18 fimbriae and heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) toxins are the major cause of diarrhea in young pigs. Effective vaccines inducing antiadhesin (anti-K88 and anti-F18) and antitoxin (anti-LT and anti-ST) immunity would provide broad protection to young pigs against ETEC. In this study, we genetically fused nucleotides coding for peptides from K88ac major subunit FaeG, F18 minor subunit FedF, and LT toxoid (LT192) A2 and B subunits for a tripartite adhesin-adhesin-toxoid fusion (FaeG-FedF-LT192A2:B). This fusion was used for immunizations in mice and pigs to assess the induction of antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies. In addition, protection by the elicited antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies against a porcine ETEC strain was evaluated in a gnotobiotic piglet challenge model. The data showed that this FaeG-FedF-LT192A2:B fusion elicited anti-K88, anti-F18, and anti-LT antibodies in immunized mice and pigs. In addition, the anti-porcine antibodies elicited neutralized cholera toxin and inhibited adherence against both K88 and F18 fimbriae. Moreover, immunized piglets were protected when challenged with ETEC strain 30302 (K88ac/LT/STb) and did not develop clinical disease. In contrast, all control nonvaccinated piglets developed severe diarrhea and dehydration after being challenged with the same ETEC strain. This study clearly demonstrated that this FaeG-FedF-LT192A2:B fusion antigen elicited antibodies that neutralized LT toxin and inhibited the adherence of K88 and F18 fimbrial E. coli strains and that this fusion could serve as an antigen for vaccines against porcine ETEC diarrhea. In addition, the adhesin-toxoid fusion approach used in this study may provide important information for developing effective vaccines against human ETEC diarrhea. PMID:21813665

  10. Selenium accumulation by plants

    PubMed Central

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate <100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and cannot tolerate greater tissue Se concentrations. However, some plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated

  11. Validation of true low-dose (18)F-FDG PET of the brain.

    PubMed

    Fällmar, David; Lilja, Johan; Kilander, Lena; Danfors, Torsten; Lubberink, Mark; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Sörensen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The dosage of (18)F-FDG must be sufficient to ensure adequate PET image quality. For younger patients and research controls, the lowest possible radiation dose should be used. The purpose of this study was to find a protocol for FDG-PET of the brain with reduced radiation dose and preserved quantitative characteristics. Eight patients with neurodegenerative disorders and nine controls (n=17) underwent FDG-PET/CT twice on separate occasions, first with normal-dose (3 MBq/kg), and second with low-dose (0.75 MBq/kg, 25% of the original). Five additional controls (total n=22) underwent FDG-PET twice, using normal-dose and ultra-low-dose (0.3 MBq/kg, 10% of original). All subjects underwent MRI. Ten-minute summation images were spatially normalized and intensity normalized. Regional standard uptake value ratios (SUV-r) were calculated using an automated atlas. SUV-r values from the normal- and low-dose images were compared pairwise. No clinically significant bias was found in any of the three groups. The mean absolute difference in regional SUV-r values was 0.015 (1.32%) in controls and 0.019 (1.67%) in patients. The ultra-low-dose protocol produced a slightly higher mean difference of 0.023 (2.10%). The main conclusion is that 0.75 MBq/kg (56 MBq for a 75-kg subject) is a sufficient FDG dose for evaluating regional SUV-ratios in brain PET scans in adults with or without neurodegenerative disease, resulting in a reduction of total PET/CT effective dose from 4.54 to 1.15 mSv. The ultra-low-dose (0.5 mSv) could be useful in research studies requiring serial PET in healthy controls or children.

  12. 18F-FDG positron autoradiography with a particle counting silicon pixel detector.

    PubMed

    Russo, P; Lauria, A; Mettivier, G; Montesi, M C; Marotta, M; Aloj, L; Lastoria, S

    2008-11-07

    We report on tests of a room-temperature particle counting silicon pixel detector of the Medipix2 series as the detector unit of a positron autoradiography (AR) system, for samples labelled with (18)F-FDG radiopharmaceutical used in PET studies. The silicon detector (1.98 cm(2) sensitive area, 300 microm thick) has high intrinsic resolution (55 microm pitch) and works by counting all hits in a pixel above a certain energy threshold. The present work extends the detector characterization with (18)F-FDG of a previous paper. We analysed the system's linearity, dynamic range, sensitivity, background count rate, noise, and its imaging performance on biological samples. Tests have been performed in the laboratory with (18)F-FDG drops (37-37 000 Bq initial activity) and ex vivo in a rat injected with 88.8 MBq of (18)F-FDG. Particles interacting in the detector volume produced a hit in a cluster of pixels whose mean size was 4.3 pixels/event at 11 keV threshold and 2.2 pixels/event at 37 keV threshold. Results show a sensitivity for beta(+) of 0.377 cps Bq(-1), a dynamic range of at least five orders of magnitude and a lower detection limit of 0.0015 Bq mm(-2). Real-time (18)F-FDG positron AR images have been obtained in 500-1000 s exposure time of thin (10-20 microm) slices of a rat brain and compared with 20 h film autoradiography of adjacent slices. The analysis of the image contrast and signal-to-noise ratio in a rat brain slice indicated that Poisson noise-limited imaging can be approached in short (e.g. 100 s) exposures, with approximately 100 Bq slice activity, and that the silicon pixel detector produced a higher image quality than film-based AR.

  13. Prognostic value of interim FDG-PET in Hodgkin lymphoma: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Adams, Hugo J A; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Kwee, Thomas C

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse the value of interim (18) F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in predicting treatment failure in Hodgkin lymphoma. MEDLINE was systematically searched for original studies that used standardized international criteria for interim FDG-PET interpretation. Included studies were methodologically assessed. Summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC) analysis was performed, and pooled sensitivity and specificity were calculated using a random effects model. Heterogeneity in diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) across studies was assessed and potential sources for inter-study heterogeneity were explored using subgroup analyses. Ten studies, comprising a total of 1389 Hodgkin lymphoma patients, were included. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of interim FDG-PET for predicting treatment failure ranged between 0.0-81.5%, 72.2-96.6%, 0.0-86.0% and 84.4-98.6%, respectively. The area under the sROC curve was 0.877. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were 70.8% [95% confidence interval (CI): 64.7-76.4%] and 89.9% (95% CI: 88.0-91.6%). There was heterogeneity in DORs across individual studies (I2 = 72.7). The overall prognostic value of interim FDG-PET appears to be moderate for excluding and relatively high for identifying treatment failure in Hodgkin lymphoma. However, interim FDG-PET cannot yet be implemented in routine clinical practice due to moderate-quality evidence and inter-study heterogeneity that cannot be fully explained yet.

  14. Validation of true low-dose 18F-FDG PET of the brain

    PubMed Central

    Fällmar, David; Lilja, Johan; Kilander, Lena; Danfors, Torsten; Lubberink, Mark; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Sörensen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The dosage of 18F-FDG must be sufficient to ensure adequate PET image quality. For younger patients and research controls, the lowest possible radiation dose should be used. The purpose of this study was to find a protocol for FDG-PET of the brain with reduced radiation dose and preserved quantitative characteristics. Eight patients with neurodegenerative disorders and nine controls (n=17) underwent FDG-PET/CT twice on separate occasions, first with normal-dose (3 MBq/kg), and second with low-dose (0.75 MBq/kg, 25% of the original). Five additional controls (total n=22) underwent FDG-PET twice, using normal-dose and ultra-low-dose (0.3 MBq/kg, 10% of original). All subjects underwent MRI. Ten-minute summation images were spatially normalized and intensity normalized. Regional standard uptake value ratios (SUV-r) were calculated using an automated atlas. SUV-r values from the normal- and low-dose images were compared pairwise. No clinically significant bias was found in any of the three groups. The mean absolute difference in regional SUV-r values was 0.015 (1.32%) in controls and 0.019 (1.67%) in patients. The ultra-low-dose protocol produced a slightly higher mean difference of 0.023 (2.10%). The main conclusion is that 0.75 MBq/kg (56 MBq for a 75-kg subject) is a sufficient FDG dose for evaluating regional SUV-ratios in brain PET scans in adults with or without neurodegenerative disease, resulting in a reduction of total PET/CT effective dose from 4.54 to 1.15 mSv. The ultra-low-dose (0.5 mSv) could be useful in research studies requiring serial PET in healthy controls or children. PMID:27766185

  15. Patient-specific FDG dosimetry for adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niven, Erin

    Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.

  16. Dynamic FDG PET/CT imaging with diuresis demonstrates an enterovesical fistula in a lymphoma patient with repeated colon diverticulitis.

    PubMed

    Kao, Pan-Fu; Ting, Wen-Chien; Hsiao, Pei-Ching; Kao, Yu-Lin; Chang, Pai-Jung; Lee, Jong-Kang

    2013-04-01

    A 43-year-old male patient with follicular B-cell lymphoma was referred for a FDG PET/CT scan due to severe left lower abdominal pain to rule out recurrent cancer. These FDG PET/CT images and previous FDG PET/CT images 5 months ago both revealed an air bubble in the urinary bladder on the CT images. He had a recurrent urinary tract infection history for 6 months. A list-mode dynamic data acquisition with diuresis intravenous injection revealed linear FDG activity extending from the upper-left portion of the bladder to a soft tissue mass in the lower-left pelvic region. An enterovesical fistula was confirmed by surgery.

  17. Rheumatic fever: a forgotten but still existing cause of fever of unknown origin detected on FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Sathekge, Mike; Stoltz, Anton; Gheysens, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    We present a case of heterogeneous and strongly increased myocardial and valvular 18F-FDG uptake on 18F-FDG PET/CT in an HIV-positive patient with productive cough, fever, weight loss, and progressive dyspnea for 6 months. Contrast-enhanced CT did not reveal the cause of fever, but hyperechogenic valvular lesions on echocardiography in combination with PET/CT findings are suggestive of endocarditis/myocarditis. Postmortem histology 3 weeks after PET/CT showed Aschoff bodies with Anitschkow cells, pathognomonic for rheumatic carditis. This case illustrates that rheumatic heart disease can be detected on 18F-FDG PET/CT and demonstrates the value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with fever of unknown origin.

  18. [(18)F]FDG-PET Combined with MRI Elucidates the Pathophysiology of Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Brabazon, Fiona; Wilson, Colin M; Shukla, Dinesh K; Mathur, Sanjeev; Jaiswal, Shalini; Bermudez, Sara; Byrnes, Kimberly R; Selwyn, Reed

    2017-03-01

    Non-invasive measurements of brain metabolism using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) with positron emission tomography (PET) may provide important information about injury severity following traumatic brain injury (TBI). There is growing interest in the potential of combining functional PET imaging with anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of combining clinically available FDG-PET with T2 and diffusion MR imaging, with a particular focus on inflammation and the influence of glial alterations after injury. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats underwent a moderate controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury followed by FDG-PET, MRI, and histological evaluation. FDG uptake showed significant alterations in the corpus callosum, hippocampus, and amygdala after TBI, demonstrating that a relatively "focal" CCI injury can result in global alterations. Analysis of MRI T2 intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) also showed significant alterations in these regions to include cytotoxic and vasogenic edema. Histology showed increased glial activation in the corpus callosum and hippocampus that was associated with increased FDG uptake at sub-acute time-points. Glial activation was not detected in the amygdala but neuronal damage was evident, as the amygdala was the only region to show a reduction in both FDG uptake and ADC at sub-acute time-points. Overall, FDG-PET detected glial activation but was confounded by the presence of cell damage, whereas MRI consistently detected cell damage but was confounded by glial activation. These results demonstrate that FDG-PET and MRI can be used together to improve our understanding of the complex alterations in the brain after TBI.

  19. Condyloma acuminata induces focal intense FDG uptake mimicking vaginal stump recurrence from uterine cervical cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, T; Mabuchi, S; Kato, H; Kimura, T

    2013-01-01

    The 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose position emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) findings of condyloma acuminata in a patient with FIGO Stage IB1 cervical cancer who had previously been treated with radical hysterectomy, pelvic chemoradiotherapy, and consolidation chemotherapy is described in this article. This case highlights the importance of considering condyloma acuminata during the differential diagnosis of abnormal vaginal FDG uptake in patients who have been treated for gynecological cancer.

  20. Adrenal tuberculosis masquerading as disseminated malignancy: A pitfall of (18)F-FDG PET/CT Imaging.

    PubMed

    Gorla, A K R; Gupta, K; Sood, A; Biswal, C K; Bhansali, A; Mittal, B R

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive characterization of adrenal lesions is a commonly encountered diagnostic challenge. Characteristic clinical and correlative imaging findings may assist in only arriving at a probable diagnosis. Currently, (18)F-FDG PET/CT is considered to provide the most comprehensive imaging information. We here present a case of bilateral adrenal tuberculosis that highlights the need for caution during the interpretation of (18)F-FDG PET/CT and also the need to suggest histopathological correlation.

  1. Brentuximab vedotin administered to platinum-refractory, transplant-naïve Hodgkin lymphoma patients can increase the proportion achieving FDG PET negative status.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Maika; Graf, Solomon A; Holmberg, Leona; Behnia, Sanaz; Shustov, Andrei R; Schiavo, Karen; Philip, Mary; Libby, Edward N; Cassaday, Ryan D; Pagel, John M; Roden, Jennifer E; Maloney, David G; Green, Damian J; Till, Brian G; Press, Oliver W; Smith, Stephen D; Gopal, Ajay K

    2015-12-01

    Normalization of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) imaging prior to high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) improves outcomes in relapsed and refractory (RR) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), but many patients refractory to platinum-based salvage regimens are unable to achieve this goal. We therefore investigated whether brentuximab vedotin (BV) could normalize FDG PET in platinum-refractory HL prior to ASCT. Fifteen consecutive patients with RR HL and FDG PET positive disease after platinum-based salvage therapy were treated with a median of 4 cycles of BV. Normalization of FDG PET (Deauville ≤2) occurred in 8/15 (53%) patients but was only observed in patients that had achieved partial remission or stable disease after platinum-based salvage therapy. All patients eventually proceeded to ASCT, regardless of FDG PET status. Our data suggest that BV can normalize FDG PET in a subset of patients with platinum-refractory HL prior to ASCT.

  2. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  3. The role of FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation of residual disease in paediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bhojwani, Deepa; McCarville, Mary B; Choi, John K; Sawyer, Jennifer; Metzger, Monika L; Inaba, Hiroto; Davidoff, Andrew M; Gold, Robert; Shulkin, Barry L; Sandlund, John T

    2015-03-01

    (18) F-labelled-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) findings are challenging to interpret for residual disease versus complete response in paediatric patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). A biopsy is often warranted to confirm the presence or absence of viable tumour if there is clinical or radiographic evidence of residual disease. In this study, we compared conventional imaging and FDG-PET/computerized tomography (CT) findings with biopsy results in 18 children with NHL. Our goal was to provide additional data to establish more reliable criteria for response evaluation. Residual disease was suspected after conventional imaging alone in eight patients, after FDG-PET/CT alone in three and after both modalities in seven patients. Biopsy confirmed the presence of viable tumour in two patients. Two additional patients experienced progressive disease or relapse. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of FDG-PET/CT using the London criteria to indicate residual tumour detectable by biopsy were 100%, but specificity was low (60%), as was the positive predictive value (25%). Thus, in this study, a negative FDG-PET/CT finding was a good indicator of complete remission. However, because false-positive FDG-PET/CT findings are common, biopsy and close monitoring are required for accurate determination of residual disease in individual patients.

  4. Prognostic value of pretransplant FDG-PET in refractory/relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma treated with autologous stem cell transplantation: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Adams, Hugo J A; Kwee, Thomas C

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to systematically review the prognostic value of pretransplant (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in refractory/relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma treated with autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT). MEDLINE was systematically searched for appropriate studies. Included studies were methodologically appraised. Results of individual studies were meta-analyzed, if possible. Eleven studies, comprising a total of 745 refractory/relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma patients who underwent FDG-PET before autologous SCT, were included. The overall methodological quality of these studies was moderate. The proportion of pretransplant FDG-PET positive patients ranged between 25 and 65.2 %. Progression-free survival ranged between 0 and 52 % in pretransplant FDG-PET positive patients, and between 55 and 85 % in pretransplant FDG-PET negative patients. Overall survival ranged between 17 and 77 % in pretransplant FDG-PET positive patients, and between 78 and 100 % in FDG-PET negative patients. Based on five studies that provided sufficient data for meta-analysis, pooled sensitivity and specificity of pretransplant FDG-PET in predicting treatment failure (i.e., either progressive, residual, or relapsed disease) were 67.2 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 58.2-75.3 %) and 70.7 % (95 % CI 64.2-76.5 %), respectively. Based on two studies that provided sufficient data for meta-analysis, pooled sensitivity and specificity of pretransplant FDG-PET in predicting death during follow-up were 74.4 % (95 % CI 58.8-86.5 %) and 58.0 % (95 % CI 49.3-66.3 %), respectively. In conclusion, the moderate quality evidence suggests pretransplant FDG-PET to have value in predicting outcome in refractory/relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma patients treated with autologous SCT. Nevertheless, a considerable proportion of pretransplant FDG-PET positive patients remains disease free and a considerable proportion of pretransplant FDG-PET negative patients develops disease relapse

  5. FDG PET/CT in Early and Late Stages of SAPHO Syndrome: Two Case Reports With MRI and Bone Scintigraphy Correlation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Aisheng; Bai, Yushu; Cui, Yong; Zhang, Jian; Zuo, Changjing

    2016-04-01

    Synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome is a rare disease, which may be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed because of nonspecific clinical and imaging findings. We present 2 cases of SAPHO syndrome with MRI, bone scintigraphy, and FDG PET/CT findings. In case 1 with early-stage disease, the active osteitis showed osteolytic bone destruction with increased FDG uptake. In case 2 with late-stage disease, the inactive bone lesions presented as osteosclerosis with normal FDG uptake. Familiarity with the FDG PET/CT findings of SAPHO syndrome in different stages may be helpful for correct diagnosis.

  6. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  7. Influence of reconstruction settings on the performance of adaptive thresholding algorithms for FDG-PET image segmentation in radiotherapy planning.

    PubMed

    Matheoud, Roberta; Della Monica, Patrizia; Loi, Gianfranco; Vigna, Luca; Krengli, Marco; Inglese, Eugenio; Brambilla, Marco

    2011-01-30

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the behavior of a contouring algorithm for PET images based on adaptive thresholding depending on lesions size and target-to-background (TB) ratio under different conditions of image reconstruction parameters. Based on this analysis, the image reconstruction scheme able to maximize the goodness of fit of the thresholding algorithm has been selected. A phantom study employing spherical targets was designed to determine slice-specific threshold (TS) levels which produce accurate cross-sectional areas. A wide range of TB ratio was investigated. Multiple regression methods were used to fit the data and to construct algorithms depending both on target cross-sectional area and TB ratio, using various reconstruction schemes employing a wide range of iteration number and amount of postfiltering Gaussian smoothing. Analysis of covariance was used to test the influence of iteration number and smoothing on threshold determination. The degree of convergence of ordered-subset expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithms does not influence TS determination. Among these approaches, the OSEM at two iterations and eight subsets with a 6-8 mm post-reconstruction Gaussian three-dimensional filter provided the best fit with a coefficient of determination R² = 0.90 for cross-sectional areas ≤ 133 mm² and R² = 0.95 for cross-sectional areas > 133 mm². The amount of post-reconstruction smoothing has been directly incorporated in the adaptive thresholding algorithms. The feasibility of the method was tested in two patients with lymph node FDG accumulation and in five patients using the bladder to mimic an anatomical structure of large size and uniform uptake, with satisfactory results. Slice-specific adaptive thresholding algorithms look promising as a reproducible method for delineating PET target volumes with good accuracy.

  8. Age-related decrease in cold-activated brown adipose tissue and accumulation of body fat in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Yoneshiro, Takeshi; Aita, Sayuri; Matsushita, Mami; Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko; Kameya, Toshimitsu; Kawai, Yuko; Miyagawa, Masao; Tsujisaki, Masayuki; Saito, Masayuki

    2011-09-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) can be identified by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) combined with X-ray computed tomography (CT) in adult humans. The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between BAT and adiposity in healthy adult humans, particularly to test the idea that decreased BAT activity may be associated with body fat accumulation with age. One hundred and sixty-two healthy volunteers aged 20-73 years (103 males and 59 females) underwent FDG-PET/CT after 2-h cold exposure at 19 °C with light clothing. Cold-activated BAT was detected in 41% of the subjects (BAT-positive). Compared with the BAT-negative group, the BAT-positive group was younger (P < 0.01) and showed a lower BMI (P < 0.01), body fat content (P < 0.01), and abdominal fat (P < 0.01). The incidence of cold-activated BAT decreased with age (P < 0.01), being more than 50% in the twenties, but less than 10% in the fifties and sixties. The adiposity-related parameters showed some sex differences, but increased with age in the BAT-negative group (P < 0.01), while they remained unchanged from the twenties to forties in the BAT-positive group, in both sexes. These results suggest that decreased BAT activity may be associated with accumulation of body fat with age.

  9. In Vivo ¹⁸F-FDG-PET Imaging in Mouse Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Jesús; Bilbao, Izaskun; Vaquero, Juan José; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesús; España, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is an important technique in cardiovascular research. Vascular inflammation detected by fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET has been shown to predict cardiovascular (CV) events independent of traditional risk factors and is also highly associated with overall burden of atherosclerosis. The use of PET imaging in mouse models of atherosclerosis is challenged by the reduced size of the scanned organs. However, the last generation of dedicated PET scanners has an improved spatial resolution (<1 mm) and increased sensitivity allowing those studies to be performed. Here, we describe a procedure to perform FDG-PET experiments in atherosclerosis mouse models, the required equipment for animal handling and imaging, and the tools and procedures for image analysis and validation of the results.

  10. Short-Term Practice Effects and Brain Hypometabolism: Preliminary Data from an FDG PET Study.

    PubMed

    Duff, Kevin; Horn, Kevin P; Foster, Norman L; Hoffman, John M

    2015-05-01

    Practice effects are improvements in cognitive test scores due to repeated exposure to the same tests. Typically viewed as error, short-term practice effects have been shown to provide valuable clinical information about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment outcomes in older patients with mild cognitive impairments. This study examined short-term practice effects across one week and brain hypometabolism on fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in 25 older adults (15 intact, 10 Mild Cognitive Impairment). Averaged cerebral brain metabolism on FDG PET was correlated with multiple cognitive scores at baseline in those with Mild Cognitive Impairment, and short-term practice effects accounted for additional variance in these same subjects. The relationship between brain metabolism and cognition (either at baseline or practice effects) was minimal in the intact individuals. Although needing replication in larger samples, short-term practice effects on tests of executive functioning and memory may provide valuable information about biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

  11. A rare variant of Caffey's disease - X-rays, bone scan and FDG PET findings.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2011-04-01

    An 18-month-old boy with history of fever of 4 months duration and with swelling of the limbs was referred for a bone scan. There were multiple swellings over his upper and lower limbs, with bowing of the lower limbs. His radiological skeletal survey revealed marked periosteal new bone formation surrounding the diaphysis of long bones. A bone scan done with 99m Tc-MDP showed diffusely increased tracer uptake in all the long bones. A fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) scan done to assess the metabolic activity showed patchy FDG uptake in the long bones, ankle joint and anterior ends of few ribs. His clinical and imaging findings led to the diagnosis of Caffey's disease.

  12. Design Features Of Microfluidic Reactor For [18F]FDG Radiopharmaceutical Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, J. H.; Lee, B. N.; Nam, K. R.; Attla, G. A.; Lee, K. C.; Cjai, J. S.

    2011-06-01

    Microfluidic reactor exhibits advantages for radiopharmaceutical synthesis. Microfluidic chips can reduce the time for radiosynthesis using tiny quantities of chemical compounds. It also has a good heat transfer, performance and provides an integrated system including synthesis, separation, and purification. These advantages make FDG production. So we have designed a microreactor chip which included the whole chemical processing; water evaporation, solvent exchange, radiofluorination and so on. It was designed by using a commercial 3D CAD modeling program CATIA V5, heat transfer performance was analyzed by ANSYS, and CFX was used for analyzing fluid performance. This paper described the design of FDG synthesis system on a microchip, the relevant locations of its parts, both heat and fluid performance efficiency analysis.

  13. Cholecystokinin-Assisted Hydrodissection of the Gallbladder Fossa during FDG PET/CT-guided Liver Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, Sanjit O.; Petre, Elena N.; Osborne, Joseph; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.

    2013-12-15

    A 68-year-old female with colorectal cancer developed a metachronous isolated fluorodeoxyglucose-avid (FDG-avid) segment 5/6 gallbladder fossa hepatic lesion and was referred for percutaneous ablation. Pre-procedure computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated a distended gallbladder abutting the segment 5/6 hepatic metastasis. In order to perform ablation with clear margins and avoid direct puncture and aspiration of the gallbladder, cholecystokinin was administered intravenously to stimulate gallbladder contraction before hydrodissection. Subsequently, the lesion was ablated successfully with sufficient margins, of greater than 1.0 cm, using microwave with ultrasound and FDG PET/CT guidance. The patient tolerated the procedure very well and was discharged home the next day.

  14. [Role of FDG-PET in Staging and Therapy of Children with Hodgkin Lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Kluge, R; Körholz, D

    2011-11-01

    The paediatric Hodgkin lymphoma treatment optimisation concepts aim at reduction of treatment intensity with preservation of the high cure rates. A negative interim FDG-PET result after 2 cycles of chemotherapy is associated with a good prognosis. In the current EuroNet-PHL-C1 study radiotherapy is being omitted, if interim PET becomes negative. In addition to the early interim PET after 2 cycles of chemotherapy, all patients undergo an initial PET investigation which is part of the staging processs and plays an essential role for the interpretation of the interim PET. Skeletal involvement can be detected by a typical FDG-PET uptake pattern with high sensitivity and specifity. Therefore, in the forthcoming EuroNet-PHL-C2 study bone marrow biopsy and bone scintigraphy will no longer be part of the staging algorithm.

  15. FDG-PET imaging in mild traumatic brain injury: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Kimberly R; Wilson, Colin M; Brabazon, Fiona; von Leden, Ramona; Jurgens, Jennifer S; Oakes, Terrence R; Selwyn, Reed G

    2014-01-09

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects an estimated 1.7 million people in the United States and is a contributing factor to one third of all injury related deaths annually. According to the CDC, approximately 75% of all reported TBIs are concussions or considered mild in form, although the number of unreported mild TBIs (mTBI) and patients not seeking medical attention is unknown. Currently, classification of mTBI or concussion is a clinical assessment since diagnostic imaging is typically inconclusive due to subtle, obscure, or absent changes in anatomical or physiological parameters measured using standard magnetic resonance (MR) or computed tomography (CT) imaging protocols. Molecular imaging techniques that examine functional processes within the brain, such as measurement of glucose uptake and metabolism using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), have the ability to detect changes after mTBI. Recent technological improvements in the resolution of PET systems, the integration of PET with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the availability of normal healthy human databases and commercial image analysis software contribute to the growing use of molecular imaging in basic science research and advances in clinical imaging. This review will discuss the technological considerations and limitations of FDG-PET, including differentiation between glucose uptake and glucose metabolism and the significance of these measurements. In addition, the current state of FDG-PET imaging in assessing mTBI in clinical and preclinical research will be considered. Finally, this review will provide insight into potential critical data elements and recommended standardization to improve the application of FDG-PET to mTBI research and clinical practice.

  16. FDG-PET imaging in mild traumatic brain injury: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Kimberly R.; Wilson, Colin M.; Brabazon, Fiona; von Leden, Ramona; Jurgens, Jennifer S.; Oakes, Terrence R.; Selwyn, Reed G.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects an estimated 1.7 million people in the United States and is a contributing factor to one third of all injury related deaths annually. According to the CDC, approximately 75% of all reported TBIs are concussions or considered mild in form, although the number of unreported mild TBIs (mTBI) and patients not seeking medical attention is unknown. Currently, classification of mTBI or concussion is a clinical assessment since diagnostic imaging is typically inconclusive due to subtle, obscure, or absent changes in anatomical or physiological parameters measured using standard magnetic resonance (MR) or computed tomography (CT) imaging protocols. Molecular imaging techniques that examine functional processes within the brain, such as measurement of glucose uptake and metabolism using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), have the ability to detect changes after mTBI. Recent technological improvements in the resolution of PET systems, the integration of PET with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the availability of normal healthy human databases and commercial image analysis software contribute to the growing use of molecular imaging in basic science research and advances in clinical imaging. This review will discuss the technological considerations and limitations of FDG-PET, including differentiation between glucose uptake and glucose metabolism and the significance of these measurements. In addition, the current state of FDG-PET imaging in assessing mTBI in clinical and preclinical research will be considered. Finally, this review will provide insight into potential critical data elements and recommended standardization to improve the application of FDG-PET to mTBI research and clinical practice. PMID:24409143

  17. Long-term quality assurance of [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Ludovit; Reich, Michal; Kassai, Zoltan; Macasek, Fedor; Rodrigo, Luis; Kruzliak, Peter; Kovac, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Nine years of experience with 2286 commercial synthesis allowed us to deliver comprehensive information on the quality of 18F-FDG production. Semi-automated FDG production line using Cyclone 18/9 machine (IBA Belgium), TRACERLab MXFDG synthesiser (GE Health, USA) using alkalic hydrolysis, grade “A” isolator with dispensing robotic unit (Tema Sinergie, Italy), and automatic control system under GAMP5 (minus2, Slovakia) was assessed by TQM tools as highly reliable aseptic production line, fully compliant with Good Manufacturing Practice and just-in-time delivery of FDG radiopharmaceutical. Fluoride-18 is received in steady yield and of very high radioactive purity. Synthesis yields exhibited high variance connected probably with quality of disposable cassettes and chemicals sets. Most performance non-conformities within the manufacturing cycle occur at mechanical nodes of dispensing unit. The long-term monitoring of 2286 commercial synthesis indicated high reliability of automatic synthesizers. Shewhart chart and ANOVA analysis showed that minor non-compliances occurred were mostly caused by the declinations of less experienced staff from standard operation procedures, and also by quality of automatic cassettes. Only 15 syntheses were found unfinished and in 4 cases the product was out-of-specification of European Pharmacopoeia. Most vulnerable step of manufacturing was dispensing and filling in grade “A” isolator. Its cleanliness and sterility was fully controlled under the investigated period by applying hydrogen peroxide vapours (VHP). Our experience with quality assurance in the production of [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) at production facility of BIONT based on TRACERlab MXFDG production module can be used for bench-marking of the emerging manufacturing and automated manufacturing systems. PMID:27508102

  18. FDG-PET scans in patients with Kraepelinian and non-Kraepelinian schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bralet, Marie-Cécile; Buchsbaum, Monte S; DeCastro, Alex; Shihabuddin, Lina; Mitelman, Serge A

    2016-09-01

    We recruited 14 unmedicated patients with Kraepelinian schizophrenia (12 men and 2 women; mean age = 47 years old), 27 non-Kraepelinian patients (21 men and 6 women; mean age = 36.4 years old) and a group of 56 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. FDG positron emission tomography and MRI scans were coregistered for both voxel-by-voxel statistical mapping and stereotaxic regions of interest analysis. While both Kraepelinian and non-Kraepelinian patients showed equally lower uptake than healthy volunteers in the frontal lobe, the temporal lobes (Brodmann areas 20 and 21) showed significantly greater decreases in Kraepelinian than in non-Kraepelinian patients. Kraepelinian patients had lower FDG uptake in parietal regions 39 and 40, especially in the right hemisphere, while non-Kraepelinian patients had similar reductions in the left. Only non-Kraepelinian patients had lower caudate FDG uptake than healthy volunteers. While both patient groups had lower uptake than healthy volunteers in the medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus, Kraepelinian patients alone had higher uptake in the ventral nuclei of the thalamus. Kraepelinian patients also showed higher metabolic rates in white matter. Our results are consistent with other studies indicating that Kraepelinian schizophrenia is a subgroup of schizophrenia, characterized by temporal and right parietal deficits and normal rather than reduced caudate uptake. It suggests that Kraepelinian schizophrenia may be more primarily characterized by FDG uptake decreased in both the frontal and temporal lobes, while non-Kraepelinian schizophrenia may have deficits more limited to the frontal lobe. This is consistent with some neuropsychological and prognosis reports of disordered sensory information processing in Kraepelinian schizophrenia in addition to deficits in frontal lobe executive functions shared with the non-Kraepelinian subtype.

  19. Preoperative Evaluation of Renal Cell Carcinoma by Using 18F-FDG PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Miwako; Kume, Haruki; Koyama, Keitaro; Nakagawa, Tohru; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Morikawa, Teppei; Fukayama, Masashi; Homma, Yukio; Ohtomo, Kuni; Momose, Toshimitsu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to characterize the FDG uptake of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by the pathological subtype and nuclear grade. Patients and Methods We retrospectively identified patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET and subsequent partial or radical nephrectomy for renal tumors. The relationships of the SUV of renal tumor with subtypes, nuclear grade, and clinicopathological variables were investigated. Results Ninety-two tumors were analyzed, including 52 low-grade (G1 and G2) and 18 high-grade (G3 and G4) clear cell RCC; 7 chromophobe, 5 papillary, and 1 unclassified RCC; and 9 benign tumors (7 angiomyolipoma and 2 oncocytoma). The SUVs of high-grade clear cell RCC (mean ± SD, 6.8 ± 5.1) and papillary RCC (6.6 ± 3.7) were significantly higher than that of the controls (2.2 ± 0.3). The SUV of high-grade clear cell RCC was higher than that of low-grade tumors (median, 4.0 vs. 2.2; P < 0.001). The optimal SUV cutoff value of 3.0 helped to differentiate high-grade from low-grade clear cell RCC, with 89% sensitivity and 87% specificity. On multiple regression analysis, a high grade was the most significant predictor of SUV for clear cell RCC. Conclusions FDG uptake higher than that observed in normal kidney tissues suggests a high-grade clear cell RCC or papillary RCC subtype. FDG-PET using SUV may have a role in prediction of pathological grade of renal tumor. PMID:26164183

  20. Long-term quality assurance of [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Ludovit; Reich, Michal; Kassai, Zoltan; Macasek, Fedor; Rodrigo, Luis; Kruzliak, Peter; Kovac, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Nine years of experience with 2286 commercial synthesis allowed us to deliver comprehensive information on the quality of (18)F-FDG production. Semi-automated FDG production line using Cyclone 18/9 machine (IBA Belgium), TRACERLab MXFDG synthesiser (GE Health, USA) using alkalic hydrolysis, grade "A" isolator with dispensing robotic unit (Tema Sinergie, Italy), and automatic control system under GAMP5 (minus2, Slovakia) was assessed by TQM tools as highly reliable aseptic production line, fully compliant with Good Manufacturing Practice and just-in-time delivery of FDG radiopharmaceutical. Fluoride-18 is received in steady yield and of very high radioactive purity. Synthesis yields exhibited high variance connected probably with quality of disposable cassettes and chemicals sets. Most performance non-conformities within the manufacturing cycle occur at mechanical nodes of dispensing unit. The long-term monitoring of 2286 commercial synthesis indicated high reliability of automatic synthesizers. Shewhart chart and ANOVA analysis showed that minor non-compliances occurred were mostly caused by the declinations of less experienced staff from standard operation procedures, and also by quality of automatic cassettes. Only 15 syntheses were found unfinished and in 4 cases the product was out-of-specification of European Pharmacopoeia. Most vulnerable step of manufacturing was dispensing and filling in grade "A" isolator. Its cleanliness and sterility was fully controlled under the investigated period by applying hydrogen peroxide vapours (VHP). Our experience with quality assurance in the production of [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) at production facility of BIONT based on TRACERlab MXFDG production module can be used for bench-marking of the emerging manufacturing and automated manufacturing systems.

  1. 18-FDG PET/CT assessment of basal cell carcinoma with vismodegib.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Curtis A; Weiss, Glen J; Tibes, Raoul; Blaydorn, Lisa; Downhour, Molly; White, Erica; Baldwin, Jason; Hoff, Daniel D; Korn, Ronald L

    2012-10-01

    The use of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) in subjects with advanced basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has not been fully explored due to the rarity of disease presentation. This study evaluated PET/CTs from subjects with advanced BCC participating in a phase I dose-escalation clinical trial of vismodegib. Fourteen subjects with BCC were imaged with 18-FDG PET/CT for lesion identification and response categorizing (European Organisation for Research and Treatment for Cancer [EORTC] and PET response criteria in solid tumors [PERCIST] 1.0). Several parameters including metabolic activity of target lesions, site of disease presentation and spread, treatment response, and prognostic significance of metabolic activity following therapy were evaluated. All subjects exhibited at least one hypermetabolic lesion. Most subjects had only four organ systems involved at study enrollment: skin-muscle (93%), lung (57%), lymph nodes (29%), and bone (21%). SUVmax measured across all lesions decreased (median 33%, SD ± 45%) following therapy with metabolic activity normalizing or disappearing in 42% of lesions. No significant difference was observed between EORTC and PERCIST 1.0. Subjects that demonstrated at least a 33% reduction in SUVmax from baseline had a significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) (median 17 months, 95% confidence interval [CI] ±4 months vs. 9 months, 95% CI ±5 months, P = 0.038) and overall survival (OS) (median 24 months, 95% CI ±4 months vs. 17 months, 95% CI ±13 months, P = 0.019). BCC lesions are hypermetabolic on 18-FDG PET/CT. A decrease in SUVmax was associated with improved PFS and OS. These results further support the incorporation of 18-FDG PET/CT scans in advanced BCC management.

  2. (18)F-FDG PET/CT findings in a case with HIV (-) Kaposi sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, E; Poyraz, N Y; Keskin, M; Kandemir, Z; Turkolmez, S

    2014-01-01

    Although mucocutaneous sites are the most frequently encountered sites of involvement, Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) may also occasionally involve the breast and the skeletal, endocrine, urinary and nervous systems.. Various imaging modalities may be used to delineate the extent of the disease by detecting unexpected sites of involvement. Herein, we report a case of classical type KS, in whom staging with (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging disclosed widespread disease and unexpected findings of bone and salivary gland involvement.

  3. Static and dynamic (18) FDG-PET in normal hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    PubMed

    Souza, Marcy J; Wall, Jonathan S; Stuckey, Alan; Daniel, Gregory B

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is often used to stage and monitor human cancer and has recently been used in a similar fashion in veterinary medicine. The most commonly used radiopharmaceutical is 2-Deoxy-2-[(18) F]-Fluoro-d-glucose ((18) F-FDG), which is concentrated and trapped within cells that use glucose as their energy substrate. We characterized the normal distribution of (18) F-FDG in 10 healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) by performing whole body PET scans at steady state, 60min after injection. Significant variability was found in the intestinal activity. Avian species are known to reflux fluid and electrolytes from their cloaca into their colon. To evaluate reflux as the cause of variability in intestinal distribution of (18) F-FDG, dynamic PET scans were performed on the coelomic cavity of six Hispaniolan Amazon parrots from time 0 to 60min postinjection of radiotracer. Reflux of radioactive material from the cloaca into the colon occurred in all birds to varying degrees and occurred before 60min. To evaluate the intestinal tract of clinical avian patients, dynamic scans must be performed starting immediately after injection so that increased radioactivity due to metabolism or hypermetabolic lesions such as cancer can be differentiated from increased radioactivity due to reflux of fluid from the cloaca.

  4. Managing Lymphoma with Non-FDG Radiotracers: Current Clinical and Preclinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Fan-Lin; Ford, Richard J.; Yang, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have played a prominent role in lymphoma management. PET with [18F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) is the most commonly used tool for lymphoma imaging. However, FDG-PET has several limitations that give the false positive or false negative diagnosis of lymphoma. Therefore, development of new radiotracers with higher sensitivity, specificity, and different uptake mechanism is in great demand in the management of lymphoma. This paper reviews non-FDG radiopharmaceuticals that have been applied for PET and SPECT imaging in patients with different types of lymphoma, with attention to diagnosis, staging, therapy response assessment, and surveillance for disease relapse. In addition, we introduce three radiolabeled anti-CD20 antibodies for radioimmunotherapy, which is another important arm for lymphoma treatment and management. Finally, the relatively promising radiotracers that are currently under preclinical development are also discussed in this paper. PMID:23841079

  5. FDG PET/CT of extranodal involvement in non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin disease.

    PubMed

    Paes, Fabio M; Kalkanis, Dimitrios G; Sideras, Panagiotis A; Serafini, Aldo N

    2010-01-01

    The term extranodal disease refers to lymphomatous infiltration of anatomic sites other than the lymph nodes. Almost any organ can be affected by lymphoma, with the most common extranodal sites of involvement being the stomach, spleen, Waldeyer ring, central nervous system, lung, bone, and skin. The prevalence of extranodal involvement in non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin disease has increased in the past decade. The imaging characteristics of extranodal involvement can be subtle or absent at conventional computed tomography (CT). Imaging of tumor metabolism with 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has facilitated the identification of affected extranodal sites, even when CT has demonstrated no lesions. More recently, hybrid PET/CT has become the standard imaging modality for initial staging, follow-up, and treatment response assessment in patients with lymphoma and has proved superior to CT in these settings. Certain PET/CT patterns are suggestive of extranodal disease and can help differentiate tumor from normal physiologic FDG activity, particularly in the mucosal tissues, bone marrow, and organs of the gastrointestinal tract. Familiarity with the different extranodal manifestations in various locations is critical for correct image interpretation. In addition, a knowledge of the differences in FDG avidity among the histologic subtypes of lymphoma, appropriate timing of scanning after therapeutic interventions, and use of techniques to prevent brown fat uptake are essential for providing the oncologist with accurate information.

  6. Adaptive brachytherapy treatment planning for cervical cancer using FDG-PET

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lilie L.; Mutic, Sasa; Low, Daniel A.; La Forest, Richard; Vicic, Milos; Zoberi, Imran; Miller, Tom R.; Grigsby, Perry W. . E-mail: pgrigsby@wustl.edu

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: A dosimetric study was conducted to compare intracavitary brachytherapy using both a conventional and a custom loading intended to cover a positron emission tomography (PET)-defined tumor volume in patients with cervix cancer. Methods and Materials: Eleven patients who underwent an [{sup 18}F]-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-PET in conjunction with their first, middle, or last brachytherapy treatment were included in this prospective study. A standard plan that delivers 6.5 Gy to point A under ideal conditions was compared with an optimized plan designed to conform the 6.5-Gy isodose surface to the PET defined volume. Results: A total of 31 intracavitary brachytherapy treatments in conjunction with an FDG-PET were performed. The percent coverage of the target isodose surface for the first implant with and without optimization was 73% and 68% (p = 0.21). The percent coverage of the target isodose surface for the mid/final implant was 83% and 70% (p = 0.02), respectively. The dose to point A was higher with the optimized plans for both the first implant (p = 0.02) and the mid/last implants (p = 0.008). The dose to 2 cm{sup 3} and 5 cm{sup 3} of both the bladder and rectum were not significantly different. Conclusions: FDG-PET based treatment planning allowed for improved dose coverage of the tumor without significantly increasing the dose to the bladder and rectum.

  7. Effectiveness of FDG-PET/CT for evaluating early response to induction chemotherapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    dos Anjos, Renata Fockink; dos Anjos, Dalton Alexandre; Vieira, Danielle Leal; Leite, André Ferreira; Figueiredo, Paulo Tadeu de Souza; de Melo, Nilce Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: 18F-Fluoro-Deoxy-Glucose Positron Emission Tomography with Computed Tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) may be a powerful tool to predict treatment outcome. We aimed to review the effectiveness of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the assessment of early response to induction chemotherapy (IC) in patients with advanced Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer (HNSCC) without previous treatment. Methods: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Science Direct and Web of Science were searched to May 2016. Reference lists of the included articles and additional studies identified by one nuclear medicine expert were screened for potential relevant studies that investigated the effectiveness of 18F-FDG PET/CT performed before and after IC. Three authors independently screened all retrieved articles, selected studies that met inclusion criteria and extracted data. The methodology of the selected studies was evaluated by using the risk of bias checklist of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Results: Seven out of 170 eligible studies met our inclusion criteria. A total of 207 advanced HNSCC patients were evaluated with 18F-FDG PET/CT at baseline and after IC in the selected articles. Six from seven studies concluded that 18F-FDG PET/CT allowed early evaluation response to IC and predicted survival outcomes. Conclusion: The present systematic review confirms the potential value of 18F-FDG PET/CT as a diagnostic tool for early IV response assessment in HNSCC patients. However, the lack of standard definitions for response criteria and heterogeneous IC protocols indicate the need to further studies in order to better define the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in these patients. PMID:27512861

  8. Validation of an optimized SPM procedure for FDG-PET in dementia diagnosis in a clinical setting

    PubMed Central

    Perani, Daniela; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Cerami, Chiara; Gallivanone, Francesca; Fallanca, Federico; Vanoli, Emilia Giovanna; Panzacchi, Andrea; Nobili, Flavio; Pappatà, Sabina; Marcone, Alessandra; Garibotto, Valentina; Castiglioni, Isabella; Magnani, Giuseppe; Cappa, Stefano F.; Gianolli, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic accuracy in FDG-PET imaging highly depends on the operating procedures. In this clinical study on dementia, we compared the diagnostic accuracy at a single-subject level of a) Clinical Scenarios, b) Standard FDG Images and c) Statistical Parametrical (SPM) Maps generated via a new optimized SPM procedure. We evaluated the added value of FDG-PET, either Standard FDG Images or SPM Maps, to Clinical Scenarios. In 88 patients with neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's Disease—AD, Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration—FTLD, Dementia with Lewy bodies—DLB and Mild Cognitive Impairment—MCI), 9 neuroimaging experts made a forced diagnostic decision on the basis of the evaluation of the three types of information. There was also the possibility of a decision of normality on the FDG-PET images. The clinical diagnosis confirmed at a long-term follow-up was used as the gold standard. SPM Maps showed higher sensitivity and specificity (96% and 84%), and better diagnostic positive (6.8) and negative (0.05) likelihood ratios compared to Clinical Scenarios and Standard FDG Images. SPM Maps increased diagnostic accuracy for differential diagnosis (AD vs. FTD; beta 1.414, p = 0.019). The AUC of the ROC curve was 0.67 for SPM Maps, 0.57 for Clinical Scenarios and 0.50 for Standard FDG Images. In the MCI group, SPM Maps showed the highest predictive prognostic value (mean LOC = 2.46), by identifying either normal brain metabolism (exclusionary role) or hypometabolic patterns typical of different neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:25389519

  9. Medial thalamic 18-FDG uptake following inescapable shock correlates with subsequent learned helpless behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Mirrione,M.M.; Mirrione, M.M.; Schulz, D.; Dewey, S.L.; Henn, F.A.

    2009-12-06

    The learned helplessness paradigm has been repeatedly shown to correlate with neurobiological aspects of depression in humans. In this model, rodents are exposed inescapable foot-shock in order to reveal susceptibility to escape deficit, defined as 'learned helplessness' (LH). Few methods are available to probe the neurobiological aspects underlying the differences in susceptibility in the living animal, thus far being limited to studies examining regional neurochemical changes with microdialysis. With the widespread implementation of small animal neuroimaging methods, including positron emission tomography (PET), it is now possible to explore the living brain on a systems level to define regional changes that may correlate with vulnerability to stress. In this study, 12 wild type Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 40 minutes of inescapable foot-shock followed by metabolic imaging using 2-deoxy-2[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D-glucose (18-FDG) 1 hour later. The escape test was performed on these rats 48 hours later (to accommodate radiotracer decay), where they were given the opportunity to press a lever to shut off the shock. A region of interest (ROI) analysis was used to investigate potential correlations (Pearson Regression Coefficients) between regional 18-FDG uptake following inescapable shock and subsequent learned helpless behavior (time to finish the test; number of successful lever presses within 20 seconds of shock onset). ROI analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between time to finish and 18-FDG uptake, and a negative correlation between lever presses and uptake, in the medial thalamic area (p=0.033, p=0.036). This ROI included the paraventricular thalamus, mediodorsal thalamus, and the habenula. In an effort to account for possible spillover artifact, the posterior thalamic area (including ventral medial and lateral portions) was also evaluated but did not reveal significant correlations (p=0.870, p=0.897). No other significant correlations were

  10. A new assessment model for tumor heterogeneity analysis with [18]F-FDG PET images.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Xu, Wengui; Sun, Jian; Yang, Chengwen; Wang, Gang; Sa, Yu; Hu, Xin-Hua; Feng, Yuanming

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that the intratumor heterogeneity can be characterized with quantitative analysis of the [18]F-FDG PET image data. The existing models employ multiple parameters for feature extraction which makes it difficult to implement in clinical settings for the quantitative characterization. This article reports an easy-to-use and differential SUV based model for quantitative assessment of the intratumor heterogeneity from 3D [18]F-FDG PET image data. An H index is defined to assess tumor heterogeneity by summing voxel-wise distribution of differential SUV from the [18]F-FDG PET image data. The summation is weighted by the distance of SUV difference among neighboring voxels from the center of the tumor and can thus yield increased values for tumors with peripheral sub-regions of high SUV that often serves as an indicator of augmented malignancy. Furthermore, the sign of H index is used to differentiate the rate of change for volume averaged SUV from its center to periphery. The new model with the H index has been compared with a widely-used model of gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) for image texture characterization with phantoms of different configurations and the [18]F-FDG PET image data of 6 lung cancer patients to evaluate its effectiveness and feasibility for clinical uses. The comparison of the H index and GLCM parameters with the phantoms demonstrate that the H index can characterize the SUV heterogeneity in all of 6 2D phantoms while only 1 GLCM parameter can do for 1 and fail to differentiate for other 2D phantoms. For the 8 3D phantoms, the H index can clearly differentiate all of them while the 4 GLCM parameters provide complicated patterns in the characterization. Feasibility study with the PET image data from 6 lung cancer patients show that the H index provides an effective single-parameter metric to characterize tumor heterogeneity in terms of the local SUV variation, and it has higher correlation with tumor volume change after

  11. A new assessment model for tumor heterogeneity analysis with [18]F-FDG PET images

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Xu, Wengui; Sun, Jian; Yang, Chengwen; Wang, Gang; Sa, Yu; Hu, Xin-Hua; Feng, Yuanming

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that the intratumor heterogeneity can be characterized with quantitative analysis of the [18]F-FDG PET image data. The existing models employ multiple parameters for feature extraction which makes it difficult to implement in clinical settings for the quantitative characterization. This article reports an easy-to-use and differential SUV based model for quantitative assessment of the intratumor heterogeneity from 3D [18]F-FDG PET image data. An H index is defined to assess tumor heterogeneity by summing voxel-wise distribution of differential SUV from the [18]F-FDG PET image data. The summation is weighted by the distance of SUV difference among neighboring voxels from the center of the tumor and can thus yield increased values for tumors with peripheral sub-regions of high SUV that often serves as an indicator of augmented malignancy. Furthermore, the sign of H index is used to differentiate the rate of change for volume averaged SUV from its center to periphery. The new model with the H index has been compared with a widely-used model of gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) for image texture characterization with phantoms of different configurations and the [18]F-FDG PET image data of 6 lung cancer patients to evaluate its effectiveness and feasibility for clinical uses. The comparison of the H index and GLCM parameters with the phantoms demonstrate that the H index can characterize the SUV heterogeneity in all of 6 2D phantoms while only 1 GLCM parameter can do for 1 and fail to differentiate for other 2D phantoms. For the 8 3D phantoms, the H index can clearly differentiate all of them while the 4 GLCM parameters provide complicated patterns in the characterization. Feasibility study with the PET image data from 6 lung cancer patients show that the H index provides an effective single-parameter metric to characterize tumor heterogeneity in terms of the local SUV variation, and it has higher correlation with tumor volume change after

  12. Single-scan dual-tracer FLT+FDG PET tumor characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadrmas, Dan J.; Rust, Thomas C.; Hoffman, John M.

    2013-02-01

    Rapid multi-tracer PET aims to image two or more tracers in a single scan, simultaneously characterizing multiple aspects of physiology and function without the need for repeat imaging visits. Using dynamic imaging with staggered injections, constraints on the kinetic behavior of each tracer are applied to recover individual-tracer measures from the multi-tracer PET signal. The ability to rapidly and reliably image both 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and 18F-fluorothymidine (FLT) would provide complementary measures of tumor metabolism and proliferative activity, with important applications in guiding oncologic treatment decisions and assessing response. However, this tracer combination presents one of the most challenging dual-tracer signal-separation problems—both tracers have the same radioactive half-life, and the injection delay is short relative to the half-life and tracer kinetics. This work investigates techniques for single-scan dual-tracer FLT+FDG PET tumor imaging, characterizing the performance of recovering static and dynamic imaging measures for each tracer from dual-tracer datasets. Simulation studies were performed to characterize dual-tracer signal-separation performance for imaging protocols with both injection orders and injection delays of 10-60 min. Better performance was observed when FLT was administered first, and longer delays before administration of FDG provided more robust signal-separation and recovery of the single-tracer imaging measures. An injection delay of 30 min led to good recovery (R > 0.96) of static image values (e.g. SUV), Knet, and K1 as compared to values from separate, single-tracer time-activity curves. Recovery of higher order rate parameters (k2, k3) was less robust, indicating that information regarding these parameters was harder to recover in the presence of statistical noise and dual-tracer effects. Performance of the dual-tracer FLT(0 min)+FDG(32 min) technique was further evaluated using PET/CT imaging studies in

  13. Incidental abnormal FDG uptake in the prostate on 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans.

    PubMed

    Kang, Pil Moon; Seo, Won Ik; Lee, Sun Seong; Bae, Sang Kyun; Kwak, Ho Sup; Min, Kweonsik; Kim, Wansuk; Kang, Dong Il

    2014-01-01

    18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) scans are commonly used for the staging and restaging of various malignancies, such as head and neck, breast, colorectal and gynecological cancers. However, the value of FDG PET/CT for detecting prostate cancer is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of incidental prostate 18F-FDG uptake on PET/CT scans. We reviewed 18F-FDG PET/CT scan reports from September 2009 to September 2013, and selected cases that reported focal/diffuse FDG uptake in the prostate. We analyzed the correlation between 18F-FDG PET/CT scan findings and data collected during evaluations such as serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, digital rectal examination (DRE), transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), and/or biopsy to confirm prostate cancer. Of a total of 18,393 cases, 106 (0.6%) exhibited abnormal hypermetabolism in the prostate. Additional evaluations were performed in 66 patients. Serum PSA levels were not significantly correlated with maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) in all patients (rho 0.483, p=0.132). Prostate biopsies were performed in 15 patients, and prostate cancer was confirmed in 11. The median serum PSA level was 4.8 (0.55-7.06) ng/mL and 127.4 (1.06-495) ng/mL in the benign and prostate cancer groups, respectively. The median SUVmax was higher in the prostate cancer group (mean 10.1, range 3.8-24.5) than in the benign group (mean 4.3, range 3.1-8.8), but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.078). There was no significant correlation between SUVmax and serum PSA, prostatic volume, or Gleason score. 18F-FDG PET/CT scans did not reliably differentiate malignant or benign from abnormal uptake lesions in the prostate, and routine prostate biopsy was not usually recommended in patients with abnormal FDG uptake. Nevertheless, patients with incidental prostate uptake on 18F-FDG PET/ CT scans should not be ignored and should be undergo

  14. FDG-PET/CT Imaging Predicts Histopathologic Treatment Responses after Neoadjuvant Therapy in Adult Primary Bone Sarcomas

    DOE PAGES

    Benz, Matthias R.; Czernin, Johannes; Tap, William D.; ...

    2010-01-01

    Purpose . Tmore » he aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate whether FDG-PET allows an accurate assessment of histopathologic response to neoadjuvant treatment in adult patients with primary bone sarcomas. Methods . Twelve consecutive patients with resectable, primary high grade bone sarcomas were enrolled prospectively. FDG-PET/CT imaging was performed prior to the initiation and after completion of neoadjuvant treatment. Imaging findings were correlated with histopathologic response. Results . Histopathologic responders showed significantly more pronounced decreases in tumor FDG-SUVmax from baseline to late follow up than non-responders ( 64 ± 19 % versus 29 ± 30 %, resp.; P = .03 ). Using a 60% decrease in tumor FDG-uptake as a threshold for metabolic response correctly classified 3 of 4 histopathologic responders and 7 of 8 histopathologic non-responders as metabolic responders and non-responders, respectively (sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 88%). Conclusion . These results suggest that changes in FDG-SUVmax at the end of neoadjuvant treatment can identify histopathologic responders and non-responders in adult primary bone sarcoma patients.« less

  15. Intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumors: CT and FDG-PET/CT findings with histopathological association.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingjing; Wu, Zengjie; Sun, Binbin; Li, Dacheng; Wang, Zhenguang; Liu, Fangjun; Hua, Hui

    2016-05-01

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumors (DSRCTs) are rare and aggressive malignant tumors. The aim of the present study was to analyze computed tomography (CT) and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/CT imaging features of intra-abdominal desmoplastic DSRCT, and investigate the association of these features with histopathological results. The present study was a retrospective investigation of 4 patients with DSRCT. All patients underwent CT and dynamic CT, and 1 additionally underwent FDG-PET/CT scanning. Following a tumor resection, routine hematoxylin and eosin staining, and immunostaining, were performed and evaluated. Multiple large abdominopelvic masses were identified in all 4 patients; however, no indications of their site of origin were demonstrated. CT revealed soft-tissue masses with patchy foci of hypodense lesions. Contrast-enhanced CT revealed slightly or moderately heterogeneous enhancement of the lesions. Other observations from these patients included calcification (n=2), peritoneal seeding (n=3), hepatic metastasis (n=3), retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy (n=3) and ascites (n=2). FDG-PET/CT revealed multiple nodular increased FDG uptake in the abdominopelvic masses, and in the liver and peritoneum in 1 case. Intra-abdominal DSRCT demonstrated significant diagnostic characteristics on plain and contrast-enhanced CT. Multiple, bulky soft-tissue masses inside the peritoneal cavity, particularly in male adolescents and young adults, should be considered as potential cases of DSRCT. FDG-PET/CT techniques may be utilized to aid the staging of tumors.

  16. Multicenter Standardized 18F-FDG PET Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer’s Disease, and Other Dementias

    PubMed Central

    Mosconi, Lisa; Tsui, Wai H.; Herholz, Karl; Pupi, Alberto; Drzezga, Alexander; Lucignani, Giovanni; Reiman, Eric M.; Holthoff, Vjera; Kalbe, Elke; Sorbi, Sandro; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Perneczky, Robert; Clerici, Francesca; Caselli, Richard; Beuthien-Baumann, Bettina; Kurz, Alexander; Minoshima, Satoshi; de Leon, Mony J.

    2013-01-01

    This multicenter study examined 18F-FDG PET measures in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from normal aging and from each other and the relation of disease-specific patterns to mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods We examined the 18F-FDG PET scans of 548 subjects, including 110 healthy elderly individuals (“normals” or NLs), 114 MCI, 199 AD,98FTD, and 27 DLB patients, collected at 7 participating centers. Individual PET scans were Z scored using automated voxel-based comparison with generation of disease-specific patterns of cortical and hippocampal 18F-FDG uptake that were then applied to characterize MCI. Results Standardized disease-specific PET patterns were developed that correctly classified 95%AD, 92% DLB,94%FTD,and 94%NL. MCI patients showed primarily posterior cingulate cortex and hippocampal hypometabolism (81%), whereas neocortical abnormalities varied according to neuropsychological profiles. An AD PET pattern was observed in 79% MCI with deficits in multiple cognitive domains and 31% amnesic MCI. 18F-FDG PET heterogeneity in MCI with nonmemory deficits ranged from absent hypometabolism to FTD and DLB PET patterns. Conclusion Standardized automated analysis of 18F-FDG PET scans may provide an objective and sensitive support to the clinical diagnosis in early dementia. PMID:18287270

  17. Characterization of brown adipose tissue ¹⁸F-FDG uptake in PET/CT imaging and its influencing factors in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xiaonan; Shao, Xiaoliang; Wang, Xiaosong; Wang, Yuetao

    2016-01-01

    (18)F-FDG PET/CT has been widely applied for tumor imaging. However, it is reported that many normal tissues, e.g., brown adipose tissue, can also uptake (18)F-FDG. The purpose of this study was to determine the imaging characteristics of (18)F-FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT) in PET/CT. A total of 2,944 patients who underwent PET/CT from September 2011 to March 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Imaging features of (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT were analyzed. Univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate the effect of age, gender, cancer status, body mass index (BMI), average daily maximum temperature of imaging month and fasting plasma glucose (Glu) on the positive rate of (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT. The results showed that 1.9% (57/2944) patients had (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT. (18)F-FDG, manifested as flaky, nodular and beaded shape, was symmetrically distributed in the adipose tissues of cervical and supraclavicular, mediastinal, paravertebral, and perirenal areas. Uptake of (18)F-FDG within cervical/supraclavicular area was most common (89.5%, 51/57) with an SUVmax ranging from 2.8 to 31.4. Univariate analysis showed that gender and cancer status were not significantly correlated with the BAT (18)F-FDG uptake rate. In contrast, age, BMI, Glu and average daily maximum temperature in the imaging month were significantly correlated with the BAT (18)F-FDG uptake rate (P<0.05). Further logistic regression analysis showed that only age, BMI and average daily maximum temperature were significant (OR<1, P<0.05). Based on the value of OR, the most significant factor that affects BAT (18)F-FDG uptake rate was age, followed by the average daily maximum temperature and BMI. We concluded that Chinese adult has low positive rate of (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT. Cervical/Supraclavicular is the most common area with BAT (18)F-FDG uptake. Age, average daily maximum temperature and BMI are independent factors affecting (18)F-FDG uptake.

  18. Noise Reduction by Signal Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the noise reduction by signal accumulation can be accomplished with a data acquisition system. This topic can be used for student projects. In many cases, the noise reduction is an unavoidable part of experimentation. Several techniques are known for this purpose, and among them the signal accumulation is the…

  19. FDG-PET/CT Enables the Detection of Recurrent Same-Site Deep Vein Thrombosis by Illuminating Recently Formed, Neutrophil-Rich Thrombus

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Tetsuya; Truelove, Jessica; Tawakol, Ahmed; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R.; Hucker, William J.; MacNabb, Megan H.; Brownell, Anna-Liisa; Jokivarsi, Kimmo; Kessinger, Chase W.; Jaff, Michael R.; Henke, Peter K.; Weissleder, Ralph; Jaffer, Farouc A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate detection of recurrent same-site deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a challenging clinical problem. As DVT formation and resolution are associated with a preponderance of inflammatory cells, we investigated whether noninvasive 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET imaging could identify inflamed, recently formed thrombi and thereby improve the diagnosis of recurrent DVT. Methods and Results We established a stasis-induced DVT model in murine jugular veins and also a novel model of recurrent stasis DVT in mice. C57BL/6 mice (n=35) underwent ligation of the jugular vein to induce stasis DVT. FDG-PET/CT was performed at DVT timepoints of day 2, 4, 7, 14, or 2+16 (same-site recurrent DVT at day 2 overlying a primary DVT at day 16). Antibody-based neutrophil depletion was performed in a subset of mice prior to DVT formation and FDG-PET/CT. In a clinical study, 38 patients with lower extremity DVT or controls undergoing FDG-PET were analyzed. Stasis DVT demonstrated that the highest FDG signal occurred at day 2, followed by a time-dependent decrease (p<0.05). Histological analyses demonstrated that thrombus neutrophils (p<0.01), but not macrophages, correlated with thrombus PET signal intensity. Neutrophil depletion decreased FDG signals in day 2 DVT compared to controls (p=0.03). Recurrent DVT demonstrated significantly higher FDG uptake than organized day 14 DVT (p=0.03). The FDG DVT signal in patients also exhibited a time-dependent decrease (p<0.01). Conclusions Noninvasive FDG-PET/CT identifies neutrophil-dependent thrombus inflammation in murine DVT, and demonstrates a time-dependent signal decrease in both murine and clinical DVT. FDG-PET/CT may offer a molecular imaging strategy to accurately diagnose recurrent DVT. PMID:25070665

  20. Conventional allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for lymphoma may overcome the poor prognosis associated with a positive FDG-PET scan before transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yoshimi, Akihide; Izutsu, Koji; Takahashi, Miwako; Kako, Shinichi; Oshima, Kumi; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Motokura, Toru; Chiba, Shigeru; Momose, Toshimitsu; Ohtomo, Kuni; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2008-06-01

    A positive scan in pretransplantation fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been shown to be associated with a poor prognosis in patients with lymphoma undergoing high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). For those with a positive FDG-PET scan, treatment that includes allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) may be an alternative. However, it is uncertain whether allo-SCT can overcome a poor prognosis. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective analysis of 14 patients with lymphoma who had undergone FDG-PET scan within one month before allo-SCT at our institution. Eleven patients were FDG-PET-positive and three were negative. With a median follow-up of 17 months (range: 6-44) after allo-SCT, the cumulative incidence of progression was 29.3% in FDG-PET-positive patients and 0% in the FDG-PET-negative patients. Four of the 11 patients who had post-transplantation FDG-PET showed FDG-avid lesions on the first post-transplantation scan. In two of the four, regression of the lesions was observed during the scheduled reduction of immunosuppressant without donor lymphocyte infusion and remained without progression at the last follow-up (34 and 8 months). Durable responses after allo-SCT, at least with conventional conditioning regimens, can be expected in patients with FDG-PET-positive lesions before transplantation. Thus, conventional allo-SCT could be an attractive modality compared to ASCT for patients with positive FDG-PET after the completion of conventional salvage chemotherapy, and particularly for patients with T and NK-cell lymphomas.

  1. FDG-PET and CSF phospho-tau for prediction of cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Fellgiebel, Andreas; Scheurich, Armin; Bartenstein, Peter; Müller, Matthias J

    2007-07-15

    Specific patterns of cortical glucose metabolism disturbances and increased CSF phospho-tau (p-tau(181)) concentrations could be demonstrated to predict cognitive decline and shift to dementia in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). But comparisons of both diagnostic tools have not been undertaken so far. The aim of the study was to compare (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) findings and CSF phospho-tau (p-tau(181)) measurements in the prediction of cognitive deterioration and conversion to dementia in MCI. During follow-up (mean 19 months) eight of 16 patients (50%) showed progressive cognitive decline, and four patients shifted to dementia. Pathological FDG-PET and elevated p-tau(181) levels both predicted deterioration. While p-tau(181) was highly sensitive for cognitive decline, FDG-PET was superior in predicting conversion to clinical dementia in MCI patients.

  2. Adrenal cryptococcosis in an immunosuppressed patient showing intensely increased metabolic activity on (18)F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Georgios Z; Holland, Steven M; Quezado, Martha; Patronas, Nicholas J

    2016-12-01

    Disseminated cryptococcosis most commonly occurs in immunosuppressed patients and can rarely affect the adrenal glands. We report on a patient with biopsy proven bilateral adrenal cryptococcosis resulting in primary adrenal insufficiency, which was evaluated with whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan using (18)F-FDG. Both enlarged adrenal glands presented intensely increased (18)F-FDG activity in the periphery, while central necrotic regions were photopenic. Although diagnosis was established by adrenal gland biopsy, (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan can significantly contribute to the assessment of disease activity and monitoring of treatment response. Furthermore, fungal infections should always be considered when encountering hypermetabolic adrenal masses, especially in the setting of immunodeficient patients.

  3. PET/CT in giant cell arteritis: High (18)F-FDG uptake in the temporal, occipital and vertebral arteries.

    PubMed

    Rehak, Z; Vasina, J; Ptacek, J; Kazda, T; Fojtik, Z; Nemec, P

    (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging is useful in patients with fever of unknown origin and can detect giant cell arteritis in extracranial large arteries. However, it is usually assumed that temporal arteries cannot be visualized with a PET/CT scanner due to their small diameter. Three patients with clinical symptoms of temporal arteritis were examined using a standard whole body PET/CT protocol (skull base - mid thighs) followed by a head PET/CT scan using the brain protocol. High (18)F-FDG uptake in the aorta and some arterial branches were detected in all 3 patients with the whole body protocol. Using the brain protocol, head imaging led to detection of high (18)F-FDG uptake in temporal arteries as well as in their branches (3 patients), in occipital arteries (2 patients) and also in vertebral arteries (3 patients).

  4. Relationship between pretreatment FDG-PET and diffusion-weighted MRI biomarkers in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Antoinette; Kwee, Thomas C; de Klerk, John MH; Adam, Judit A; de Keizer, Bart; Fijnheer, Rob; Kersten, Marie José; Ludwig, Inge; Jauw, Yvonne WS; Zijlstra, Josée M; den Bos, Indra C Pieters - Van; Stoker, Jaap; Hoekstra, Otto S; Nievelstein, Rutger AJ

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between the 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) standardized uptake value (SUV) and the diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Pretreatment FDG-PET and diffusion-weighted MRI of 21 patients with histologically proven DLBCL were prospectively analyzed. In each patient, maximum, mean and peak standardized uptake value (SUV) was measured in the lesion with visually highest FDG uptake and in the largest lesion. Mean ADC (ADCmean, calculated with b-values of 0 and 1000 s/mm2) was measured in the same lesions. Correlations between FDG-PET metrics (SUVmax, SUVmean, SUVpeak) and ADCmean were assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficients. In the lesions with visually highest FDG uptake, no significant correlations were found between the SUVmax, SUVmean, SUVpeak and the ADCmean (P=0.498, P=0.609 and P=0.595, respectively). In the largest lesions, there were no significant correlations either between the SUVmax, SUVmean, SUVpeak and the ADCmean (P=0.992, P=0.843 and P=0.894, respectively). The results of this study indicate that the glycolytic rate as measured by FDG-PET and changes in water compartmentalization and water diffusion as measured by the ADC are independent biological phenomena in newly diagnosed DLBCL. Further studies are warranted to assess the complementary roles of these different imaging biomarkers in the evaluation and follow-up of DLBCL. PMID:24795837

  5. Impact of FDG-PET/CT Imaging on Nodal Staging for Head-And-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Ryuji . E-mail: murakami@kaiju.medic.kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Uozumi, Hideaki; Hirai, Toshinori; Nishimura, Ryuichi; Shiraishi, Shinya; Ota, Kazutoshi D.D.S.; Murakami, Daizo; Tomiguchi, Seiji; Oya, Natsuo; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging on nodal staging for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 23 patients with head-and-neck SCC who were evaluated with FDG-PET/CT and went on to neck dissection. Two observers consensually determined the lesion size and maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) and compared the results with pathologic findings on nodal-level involvement. Two different observers (A and B) independently performed three protocols for clinical nodal staging. Methods 1, 2, and 3 were based on conventional modalities, additional visual information from FDG-PET/CT images, and FDG-PET/CT imaging alone with SUV data, respectively. Results: All primary tumors were visualized with FDG-PET/CT. Pathologically, 19 positive and 93 negative nodal levels were identified. The SUV{sub max} overlapped in negative and positive nodes <15 mm in diameter. According to receiver operating characteristics analysis, the size-based SUV{sub max} cutoff values were 1.9, 2.5, and 3.0 for lymph nodes <10 mm, 10-15 mm, and >15 mm, respectively. These cutoff values yielded 79% sensitivity and 99% specificity for nodal-level staging. For Observer A, the sensitivity and specificity in Methods 1, 2, and 3 were 68% and 94%, 68% and 99%, and 84% and 99%, respectively, and Method 3 yielded significantly higher accuracy than Method 1 (p = 0.0269). For Observer B, Method 3 yielded the highest sensitivity (84%) and specificity (99%); however, the difference among the three protocols was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Imaging with FDG-PET/CT with size-based SUV{sub max} cutoff values is an important modality for radiation therapy planning.

  6. [18F]FDG in recurrent breast cancer: diagnostic performances, clinical impact and relevance of induced changes in management.

    PubMed

    Grahek, Dany; Montravers, Françoise; Kerrou, Khaldoun; Aide, Nicolas; Lotz, Jean-Pierre; Talbot, Jean-Noël

    2004-02-01

    Prognosis and management of patients with recurrent breast cancer depend on the spread of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose gamma camera positron emission tomography (FDG-GPET) in detecting breast cancer recurrence, its clinical impact and the relevance of induced changes in management. Patients (n = 134) with suspicion of recurrence either clinically or on conventional imaging (suspected recurrence: SR) or with an isolated increase in tumour marker levels (occult recurrence: OR) underwent FDG-GPET on a coincidence gamma camera. The reference standard for evaluation of accuracy, either histology (n = 26) or follow-up for 1 year (n = 49), was available in 75 (56%) patients. A questionnaire was sent to the referring clinician to evaluate the impact of FDG on management. Responses were obtained for 75 patients. Information regarding both approaches was available for 46 patients (46/134 = 34%). At the patient level, the sensitivity of FDG-GPET was 84%, significantly higher than the 63% sensitivity for conventional modalities, and the specificity was 78% versus 61%. The values for FDG-GPET were 81% and 86% respectively in the SR group and 90% and 73% respectively in the OR group, without any significant difference between these settings. The rate of change in management was 44% overall, 43% in the SR group and 45% in the OR group. Within the two groups, intermodality (major) changes were more frequent than intramodality (minor) changes. In the 46 patients for whom both approaches were available, 93% of management modifications were relevant (validated by biopsy or clinical follow-up). The results of this retrospective study show that FDG-GPET has an important role to play in patient management by confirming and evaluating the extent of recurrence or by localising occult recurrence.

  7. FDG-PET and Neuropsychiatric Symptoms among Cognitively Normal Elderly Persons: The Mayo Clinic Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Krell-Roesch, Janina; Ruider, Hanna; Lowe, Val J.; Stokin, Gorazd B.; Pink, Anna; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Knopman, David S.; Christianson, Teresa J.; Machulda, Mary M.; Jack, Clifford R.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Geda, Yonas E.

    2016-01-01

    One of the key research agenda of the field of aging is investigation of presymptomatic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Furthermore, abnormalities in brain glucose metabolism (as measured by FDG-PET) have been reported among cognitively normal elderly persons. However, little is known about the association of FDG-PET abnormalities with neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in a population-based setting. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional study derived from the ongoing population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging in order to examine the association between brain glucose metabolism and NPS among cognitively normal (CN) persons aged > 70 years. Participants underwent FDG-PET and completed the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Cognitive classification was made by an expert consensus panel. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals after adjusting for age, sex, and education. For continuous variables, we used linear regression and Spearman rank-order correlations. Of 668 CN participants (median 78.1 years, 55.4% males), 205 had an abnormal FDG-PET (i.e., standardized uptake value ratio < 1.32 in AD-related regions). Abnormal FDG-PET was associated with depression as measured by NPI-Q (OR = 2.12; 1.23–3.64); the point estimate was further elevated for APOE ɛ4 carriers (OR = 2.59; 1.00–6.69), though marginally significant. Additionally, we observed a significant association between abnormal FDG-PET and depressive and anxiety symptoms when treated as continuous measures. These findings indicate that NPS, even in community-based samples, can be an important additional tool to the biomarker-based investigation of presymptomatic AD. PMID:27447426

  8. Endometriosis Under Estradiol Stimulation Imaged Using 18F-FDG and Its Control After Estradiol Cessation and Progesterone Hormonal Replacement.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Frédéric; Turcotte, Éric

    2016-03-01

    Endometriosis is a frequent and benign cause of disabling abdominal pain, for which a diagnosis suspicion is clinically raised, but its confirmation necessitates a surgical exploration by laparoscopy. Foci of endometriosis proliferate under estrogen stimulation, like normal endometrium. We present a patient under estradiol stimulation for a history of endometrial cancer who underwent a PET/CT scan to assess an abdominal lesion showing a high F-FDG uptake, which normalized under progesterone hormonal replacement and cessation of estradiol. Two consecutive biopsies confirmed endometriosis. F-FDG evaluation of endometriosis under estrogen stimulation could be a promising approach to refractory endometriosis assessment.

  9. 18F-FDG PET/CT demonstrating primary bone lymphoma of the extremities mimicking an inflammatory peripheral arthropathy.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Ayano; Robinson, Richard J; Patel, Chirag N

    2015-02-01

    A 66-year-old woman presents with progressive bilateral swelling of her fingers, elbows, and toes. Initially thought to represent an inflammatory peripheral arthropathy, the patient underwent rheumatology review, but subsequent tissue biopsy confirmed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Results of bone marrow biopsy and staging CT were negative. F-FDG PET/CT demonstrates FDG-avid bony and adjacent soft tissue disease limited to the extremities with an excellent metabolic response to primary chemotherapy. This is a rare case of primary bone lymphoma limited to the extremities mimicking an inflammatory peripheral arthropathy.

  10. Estimation of radiation dose to patients from 18FDG whole body PET/CT investigations using dynamic PET scan protocol

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Aruna; Jaimini, Abhinav; Tripathi, Madhavi; D’Souza, Maria; Sharma, Rajnish; Mondal, Anupam; Mishra, Anil K.; Dwarakanath, Bilikere S.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: There is a growing concern over the radiation exposure of patients from undergoing 18FDG PET/CT (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography) whole body investigations. The aim of the present study was to study the kinetics of 18FDG distributions and estimate the radiation dose received by patients undergoing 18FDG whole body PET/CT investigations. Methods: Dynamic PET scans in different regions of the body were performed in 49 patients so as to measure percentage uptake of 18FDG in brain, liver, spleen, adrenals, kidneys and stomach. The residence time in these organs was calculated and radiation dose was estimated using OLINDA software. The radiation dose from the CT component was computed using the software CT-Expo and measured using computed tomography dose index (CTDI) phantom and ionization chamber. As per the clinical protocol, the patients were refrained from eating and drinking for a minimum period of 4 h prior to the study. Results: The estimated residence time in males was 0.196 h (brain), 0.09 h (liver), 0.007 h (spleen), 0.0006 h (adrenals), 0.013 h (kidneys) and 0.005 h (stomach) whereas it was 0.189 h (brain), 0.11 h (liver), 0.01 h (spleen), 0.0007 h (adrenals), 0.02 h (kidneys) and 0.004 h (stomach) in females. The effective dose was found to be 0.020 mSv/MBq in males and 0.025 mSv/MBq in females from internally administered 18FDG and 6.8 mSv in males and 7.9 mSv in females from the CT component. For an administered activity of 370 MBq of 18FDG, the effective dose from PET/CT investigations was estimated to be 14.2 mSv in males and 17.2 mSv in females. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results did not demonstrate significant difference in the kinetics of 18FDG distribution in male and female patients. The estimated PET/CT doses were found to be higher than many other conventional diagnostic radiology examinations suggesting that all efforts should be made to clinically justify and

  11. Diagnostic Value of (18)F-FDG PET/CT versus MRI in the Setting of Antibody Specific Autoimmune Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Solnes, Lilja B; Jones, Krystyna M; Rowe, Steven P; Pattanayak, Puskar; Nalluri, Abhinav; Venkatesan, Arun; Probasco, John C; Javadi, Mehrbod Som

    2017-02-16

    Introduction: Diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis presents some challenges in the clinical setting due to varied clinical presentations and delay in obtaining antibody panel results. We examined the role of neuroimaging in the setting of autoimmune encephalitides comparing the utility (18)F-FDG PET/CT versus conventional brain imaging with MRI. Methods: A retrospective study was performed assessing the positivity rate of MRI versus (18)F-FDG PET/CT during the initial work-up of 23 patients proven to have antibody positive autoimmune encephalitis. (18)F-FDG PET/CT studies were analyzed qualitatively and using Cortex ID (GE Health systems). Areas of cortical lobar hypo (hyper) metabolism in the cerebrum that were 2 standard deviations from the mean were recorded as abnormal. Results: On visual inspection, all patients were identified to have abnormal pattern of (18)F-FDG uptake. In semi-quantitative analysis at least one region of interest with metabolic change was identified in 22/23 (95.6%) patients using discriminating Z-score of 2. O