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Sample records for f-18 fdg positron

  1. Isolated thymic Langerhans cell histiocytosis discovered on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT).

    PubMed

    Turpin, Sophie; Carret, Anne-Sophie; Dubois, Josée; Buteau, Chantal; Patey, Natalie

    2015-11-01

    The thymic infiltration in young patients with multisystemic Langerhans cell histiocytosis and its radiologic features are well known. However, isolated thymic disease has seldom been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 10-month-old child admitted for fever of unknown origin. Whole-body F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) was performed to identify a focus of infection. It demonstrated an unusual aspect of the thymus, which led to further investigation and revealed isolated infiltration of the thymus by Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The patient was treated accordingly and is now disease free. As evaluation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis patients with F-18 FDG PET/CT is becoming more frequent, it is important to be aware of the scintigraphical characteristics of thymic Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

  2. Uterine Epithelioid Angiosarcoma on F-18 FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae Pil; Lim, Sang Moo

    2013-06-01

    Uterine epithelioid angiosarcoma can have conventional imaging characteristics similar to those of other uterine tumors, such as leiomyoma, leiomyosarcomas or hemangioendothelioma. Uterine epithelioid angiosarcoma exhibiting increased fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) activity can be misdiagnosed. A 61-year-old woman who was diagnosed with uterine epithelioid angiosarcoma underwent F-18 FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) as a part of the pretreatment work up for surgery. F-18 FDG PET/CT showed an intense F-18 FDG uptake in the uterus in addition to increased F-18 FDG uptake at the paraaortic and aortocaval lymph nodes. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of intense F-18 FDG uptake in uterine epithelioid angiosarcoma in Korea.

  3. Solitary sternal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma detected by F-18 FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Kashyap, Raghava; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2013-01-01

    Fluorine-18 fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET) is not sensitive modality for the diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, FDG-PET imaging may be useful in the identification of extrahepatic metastases. We report an interesting image of HCC with solitary metastasis to sternum detected by F-18 FDG PET/CT.

  4. Imaging Keratitis-Icthyosis-Deafness (KID) syndrome with FDG-PET (F18-fluorodeoxiglucose-Positron Emission Tomography).

    PubMed

    Aparici, Carina Mari; Arcienega, Daniela; Cho, Eric; Hawkins, Randy

    2010-01-01

    Keratitis-Icthyosis-Deafness (KID) syndrome is a rare dysplasia characterized by vascularizing keratitis, congenital sensorineural hearing-loss, and progressive erythrokeratoderma. To our knowledge, this is the first KID syndrome imaged with FDG-PET in the literature. This paper is intended to help familiarize with the FDG abnormalities related to this rare entity.

  5. Clinical implication of F-18 FDG PET/CT in patients with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jahae; Yoo, Su Woong; Kang, Sae-Ryung; Bom, Hee-Seung; Song, Ho-Chun; Min, Jung-Joon

    2014-04-01

    The contribution that F-18 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG) PET/CT makes to the diagnosis of malignancy in patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is still uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of F-18 FDG PET/CT for the detection of underlying malignancy, to investigate the correlation between PET and laboratory parameters, and to identify prognosis-related factors in patients with secondary HLH. We enrolled 14 patients who were diagnosed with HLH and referred for F-18 FDG PET/CT to exclude malignancy. The diagnostic performance of F-18 FDG PET/CT for malignancy detection was assessed. The correlations between PET and laboratory parameters were determined. The prognostic significance of the following factors was evaluated: PET and laboratory parameters, age in years, presence of underlying malignancy, and fever and splenomegaly. Six of the 14 patients had malignancies (four with lymphoma, one with multiple myeloma, and one with colonic malignancy). Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of F-18 FDG PET/CT for malignancy detection were 83, 62.5, and 71.4 %, respectively. F-18 FDG uptake in the bone marrow and spleen was positively correlated with neutrophil count and C-reactive protein. All of the PET parameters, but none of the clinical or laboratory parameters, were significantly associated with patient outcome, as determined by univariate analysis. Given the small sample size, F-18 FDG PET/CT was useful for detecting underlying malignancy, and PET parameters correlated with laboratory parameters that reflected inflammatory status. F-18 FDG PET/CT might provide prognostic information for the management of patients with secondary HLH.

  6. [The clinical value of F-18 FDG PET/CT in patients with secondary hemophagocytic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-Bing; Zhu, Yun-Xia; Liu, Xin; Pan, Bo; Zhang, Liang; Han, Yong-Sheng; Cai, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, Wei-Bo; Wu, Jing-Sheng; Sun, Zi-Min

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of F-18 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) in diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of secondary hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS). A total of 11 secondary HPS patients examined with 18F-FDG-PET/CT were retrospectively analyzed. The diagnostic value of F-18 FDG PET/CT for malignancy detection was assessed. The values of maximum standardized uptake value (SUV(max)) in spleen (SUVS(p)) and in bone marrow (SUVBM) were measured to analyze their relationship with various laboratorial parameters and clinical outcome of secondary HPS patients. The results showed that 4 out of the 11 patients had malignancies, the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of F-18 FDG PET/CT for malignancy detection were 100%, 66.7% and 75% respectively, the SUV(max) of spleen and bone marrow showed no significant correlation with laboratorial parameters, a maximum SUVS(p) of 3.10 and a maximum SUVBM of 3.47 were the optimal cutoffs for predicting patients' outcome, the increased uptake of F-18 FDG in the BM and spleen were significantly associated with shorter survival time according to univariate analysis. It is concluded that 18F-FDG PET/CT may especially play an important role in diagnosis and predicting outcome of secondary HPS for the small sample size.

  7. Comparison of F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose and F-18 Fluorothymidine Positron Emission Tomography in Differentiating Radiation Necrosis from Recurrent Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Enslow, Michael S.; Zollinger, Lauren V.; Morton, Kathryn A.; Kadrmas, Dan J.; Butterfield, Regan I.; Christian, Paul E.; Boucher, Kenneth M.; Heilbrun, Marta E.; Jensen, Randy L.; Hoffman, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Report The objective was to compare F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and F-18 fluorothymidine (FLT) positron emission tomography (PET) in differentiating radiation necrosis from recurrent glioma. Materials and methods Visual and quantitative analyses were derived from static FDG PET and static and dynamic FLT PET in 15 patients with suspected recurrence of treated ≥ grade II glioma with a new focus of Gd-contrast enhancement on MRI. For FDG PET, SUVmax and the ratio of lesion SUVmax to the SUVmean of contralateral white matter were measured. For FLT PET, SUVmax and Patlak-derived metabolic flux parameter Kimax were measured for the same locus. A 5-point visual confidence scale was applied to FDG PET and FLT PET. ROC analysis was applied to visual and quantitative results. Differences between recurrent tumor and radiation necrosis were tested by Kruskal-Wallis analysis. Based on follow-up Gd-MRI imaging, lesion-specific recurrent tumor was defined as a definitive increase in size of the lesion, and radiation necrosis as stability or regression. Results For FDG SUVmax, FDG ratio lesion:white matter and FLT Kimax, there was a significant difference between mean values for recurrent tumor and radiation necrosis. Recurrent tumor was best identified by FDG ratio of lesion:contralateral normal white matter (AUC 0.98, CI 0.91–1.00, sens. 100%, spec. 75% for an optimized cut-off value of 1.82). Conclusion Both quantitative and visual determinations allow accurate differentiation between recurrent glioma and radiation necrosis by both FDG and FLT PET. In this small series, FLT PET offers no advantage over FDG PET. PMID:22889774

  8. Ictal onset zone and seizure propagation delineated on ictal F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Madhavi; Tripathi, Manjari; Garg, Ajay; Damle, Nishikant; Bal, Chandrasekhar

    2016-01-01

    The present case highlights the utility of ictal F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in delineating the seizure onset zone in a child with complex partial seizures. Although F-18 FDG PET has been successfully used to delineate interictal hypometabolism, planned ictal FDG PET, in cases with prolonged seizure activity, can provide better spatial resolution than single-photon emission CT by delineating the seizure onset zone and propagation pathway.

  9. Oncocytic carcinoid tumor of the lung with intense F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT).

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Yuki; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Nishimura, Rieko; Hosokawa, Kohei; Kajihara, Makoto; Shimizu, Teruhiko; Takahashi, Tadaaki; Sakai, Shinya; Sawada, Shigeki; Yamashita, Motohiro; Ohtani, Haruhiko

    2013-10-01

    The present report describes a case of typical carcinoid tumor with intense fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake. The most of tumor cells were characterized by eosinophilic cytoplasm resulting from accumulation of mitochondria, which was called an oncocytic carcinoid tumor. Glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT-1) was expressed in a membranous pattern in the oncocytic component. Oncocytic carcinoid tumors could show intense FDG uptake due to the numerous intracellular mitochondria and the membranous overexpression of GLUT-1. Thus, it could be a potential pitfall of interpreting FDG-PET/CT image.

  10. Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in a Patient with AIDS on F-18 FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyoung Sook; Choi, Byung Wook; Zeon, Seok Kil

    2010-04-01

    The distinction between primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma and nonmalignant lesions due to opportunistic infections, in particular cerebral toxoplasmosis, is important because of the different treatments involved. A 32-year-old patient with AIDS was hospitalized for intermittent headaches. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a small well-enhanced nodular lesion in the right frontal lobe. A fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scan showed moderate FDG uptake in the nodular lesion of the right frontal lobe. We present a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the differential diagnosis of the cerebral toxoplasmosis will be discussed.

  11. Cholangiolocellular Carcinoma of the Liver Exhibiting High F-18 FDG Uptake.

    PubMed

    Mori, Naoko; Ichikawa, Tamaki; Hashimoto, Jun; Yamashita, Tomohiro; Yamada, Misuzu; Hirabayashi, Kenichi; Imai, Yutaka

    2016-06-20

    Cholangiolocellular carcinoma (CoCC) is a rare primary liver cancer. It is considered to originate from hepatic progenitor or stem cells. We report a rare case of a 74-year-old male with CoCC of the liver and duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Both tumors manifested tracer uptakes on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT); however, the uptake in hepatic tumor was extremely higher than that in the duodenal tumor. This finding was helpful to exclude the metastasis of GIST.

  12. Benign Schwannoma Mimicking Metastatic Lesion on F-18 FDG PET/CT in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sungmin

    2013-06-01

    We report a case of benign schwannoma mimicking metastatic carcinoma. A 55-year-old female with papillary thyroid carcinoma underwent total thyroidectomy. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) demonstrated a focal hypermetabolic lesion with maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) 5.3 at the right chest wall. Conventional chest CT demonstrated a 5.4 cm ovoid mass lesion between the intercostal muscles and liver. Pathology revealed a schwannoma by tumor excision. This case demonstrates that benign schwannoma may demonstrate FDG uptake mimicking metastatic carcinoma.

  13. Usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma: disease extent and treatment response evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Suk; Jeong, Young Jin; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Dong Wook; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Yim, Chang-Yeol

    2012-12-01

    BACKGROUND.: Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL) is a rare form of cutaneous lymphomas, accounting for less than 1% of cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) findings of SPTCL before and after treatment were rarely reported. CASE REPORT.: We report a case of SPTCL in which F-18 FDG PET/CT showed increased FDG accumulations in numerous subcutaneous nodules without extracutaneous disease. Contrast-enhanced CT during F-18 FDG PET/CT showed multiple minimally enhancing nodules with an infiltrative pattern in the subcutaneous layer throughout the body. Follow-up F-18 FDG PET/CT after three cycles of CHOP chemotherapy showed a complete metabolic remission of the lesions. CONCLUSIONS.: F-18 FDG PET/CT is suggested to be useful in assessing the disease activity, extent and treatment response in SPTCL.

  14. Diagnostic performance of PET/CT with tracers other than F-18-FDG in oncology: an evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Treglia, G; Sadeghi, R; Del Sole, A; Giovanella, L

    2014-09-01

    Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18-FDG) is the most used positron emitter radiopharmaceutical worldwide. This glucose analogue allows to study the glucose metabolism which is often increased in many tumors. Nowadays the diagnostic performance of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) using F-18-FDG in different tumors is well known. On the other hand, to date, there is an increasing interest for the use of PET tracers other than F-18-FDG in oncology, because they allow to study different metabolic pathways or receptor expression. The aim of this review is to summarize the scientific literature about the diagnostic performance of PET/CT using tracers other than F-18-FDG in oncology through an evidence-based approach. In particular, the results of meta-analyses (representing the highest level of evidence) on the diagnostic performance of PET tracers other than F-18-FDG in different tumors are described. Furthermore, recommendations for the use of different PET tracers in oncology are provided based on existing literature data.

  15. Parametric dynamic F-18-FDG PET/CT breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Alphonso; Feiglin, David; Lipson, Edward; Mandel, James; McGraw, Wendy; Lee, Wei; Krol, Andrzej

    2008-03-01

    This study was undertaken to estimate metabolic tissue properties from dynamic breast F-18-FDG PET/CT image series and to display them as 3D parametric images. Each temporal PET series was obtained immediately after injection of 10 mCi of F-18-FDG and consisted of fifty 1- minute frames. Each consecutive frame was nonrigidly registered to the first frame using a finite element method (FEM) based model and fiducial skin markers. Nonlinear curve fitting of activity vs. time based on a realistic two-compartment model was performed for each voxel of the volume. Curve fitting was accomplished by application of the Levenburg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA) that minimized X2. We evaluated which parameters are most suitable to determine the spatial extent and malignancy in suspicious lesions. In addition, Patlak modeling was applied to the data. A mixture model was constructed and provided a classification system for the breast tissue. It produced unbiased estimation of the spatial extent of the lesions. We conclude that nonrigid registration followed by voxel-by-voxel based nonlinear fitting to a realistic two-compartment model yields better quality parametric images, as compared to unprocessed dynamic breast PET time series. By comparison with the mixture model, we established that the total cumulated activity and maximum activity parametric images provide the best delineation of suspicious breast tissue lesions and hyperactive subregions within the lesion that cannot be discerned in unprocessed images.

  16. A Rationale for the Use of F18-FDG PET/CT in Fever and Inflammation of Unknown Origin

    PubMed Central

    Balink, H.; Verberne, H. J.; Bennink, R. J.; van Eck-Smit, B. L. F.

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on the diagnostic value of hybrid F18-FDG Positron Emission Tomography/Computerized tomography (PET/CT) in fever of unknown origin (FUO) and inflammation of unknown origin (IUO). Due to the wide range of possible causes both FUO and IUO remain a clinical challenge for both patients and physicians. In addition, the aetiology of IUO shows the same variation in diseases as the FUO spectrum and probably requires the same diagnostic approach as FUO. There are numerous historically used diagnostic approaches incorporating invasive and non-invasive, and imaging techniques, all with relative high specificity but limited sensitivity. This hampers the generalization of these diagnostic approaches. However, recently published reports show that F18-FDG PET/CT in FUO and IUO has a high sensitivity and a relative non-specificity for malignancy, infection and inflammation. This makes F18-FDG PET/CT an ideal diagnostic tool to start the diagnostic process and to guide subsequent focused diagnostic approaches with higher specificity. In addition, F18-FDG PET/CT has a relative high negative predictive value. Therefore F18 FDG PET/CT should be incorporated in the routine diagnostic work-up of patients with FUO and IUO, preferably at an early stage in the diagnostic process. PMID:23316356

  17. Pilot study of F(18)-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/computerised tomography in Wilms' tumour: correlation with conventional imaging, pathology and immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Begent, Joanna; Sebire, Neil J; Levitt, Gill; Brock, Penelope; Jones, Kathy Pritchard; Ell, Peter; Gordon, Isky; Anderson, John

    2011-02-01

    Wilms' tumour is the second most common paediatric solid tumour. Prognosis is good although higher stage disease carries significant mortality and treatment related morbidity. In the UK, risk stratification is based on histological response to pre-operative chemotherapy. F(18)-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (F(18)FDG-PET) is an emerging functional imaging technique in paediatric oncology. Little is known about the relationship between F(18)FDG-PET images and the disease process of Wilms' tumour. We performed F(18)FDG-PET/CT scans in seven children with Wilms' tumour after induction chemotherapy, immediately before surgery. The standard uptake values (SUV) of F(18)FDG-PET/CT images were related to conventional imaging and histopathological findings. In total seven children were studied. F(18)FDG-PET/CT was consistently safely performed. All tumours showed F(18)FDG activity. Four tumours had activity with SUV/bw max >5 g/ml. Histological examination of these active areas revealed viable anaplastic Wilms' tumour. Furthermore, in these four tumours GLUT-1 and Ki67 immunostaining was strongly positive. Three further tumours demonstrated lower uptake (SUV/bw max <5 g/ml), which represented areas of microscopic foci of residual viable tumour mixed with post chemotherapy change. Metastatic disease was F(18)FDG avid in two of four children with stage four diseases. In conclusion, following chemotherapy, active Wilms' tumour is F(18)FDG avid and higher SUV was seen in histologically high risk disease.

  18. Differential Diagnosis of Neurodegenerative Dementias Using Metabolic Phenotypes on F-18 FDG PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Madhavi; Tripathi, Manjari; Damle, Nishikant; Kushwaha, Suman; Jaimini, Abhinav; D’Souza, Maria M.; Sharma, Rajnish; Saw, Sanjiv; Mondal, Anupam

    2014-01-01

    Summary Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) can be used as a downstream marker of neuronal injury, a hallmark of neurodegenerative dementias. Characteristic patterns of regional glucose metabolism have been used to classify the dementia subtypes, namely Alzheimer's dementia (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), diffuse Lewy body (DLBD) and vascular dementia (VD). We undertook this study to assess the utility of FDG-PET in the differential diagnosis of dementia subtypes. One hundred and twenty-five patients diagnosed with dementia were referred from cognitive disorders and memory clinics of speciality neurology centres for the FDG-PET study. Imaging-based diagnosis of dementia type was established in 101 patients by visual assessment of individual scans by a PET physician blinded to the clinical diagnosis. The results were compared with an 18-month follow-up clinical assessment made by the specialist neurologist. Concordance of visual evaluation of FDG-PET scans with clinical diagnosis of the dementia type was achieved in 90% of patients scanned. This concordance was 93.4% for AD, 88.8% for FTD, 66.6% for DLBD and 92.3% for the other dementia syndromes. FDG-PET performed after the initial work-up of dementias is useful for supporting the clinical diagnosis of dementia subtype. PMID:24571830

  19. Relation Between Metabolic Activity of the Broca Region and F-18 FDG Uptake in Vocal Cords

    PubMed Central

    Eren, Mine Şencan; Durak, Hatice

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to investigate if increased F-18 Fluoro Deoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) uptake observed in vocal cords (VC) of the patients on Positron Emission Tomography/Computarize Tomography (PET/CT) scans is connected to speaking of the patients or not. If so, we expected to detect an increased metabolic activity in Broca's area. In this study, we have retrospectively searched for a correlation between the activity in the Broca's area and vocal cords of patients who had undergone FDG PET for different indications. Material and Methods: FDG PET/CT scans of 30 patients with (VC [+]) and 30 patients without (VC [-]) bilateral F-18 FDG uptake on their vocal cords were retrospectively evaluated. Brain quantification was carried out on NeuroQ software with 20 iterations using patients' transaxial brain cross sections. On the 20th-23rd-26th-29th cross sections, area/whole brain ratios of the right (R) and left (L) for Broca’s area were calculated. VC (+) and VC (-) patients' R and L Broca's areas were compared using Student's t-test. Results: There was no significant difference between the Broca's areas of VC (+) and VC (-) patients. L Broca's areas of both VC (+) and VC (-) patients were more active than R Broca's areas (p<0.05). There was a negative correlation between VC (+) patients' SUVmax values in the vocal cords and the activity in their R Broca's region. Conclusion: In our study, we did not find a significant difference between Broca's areas of VC (+) patients and VC (-) patients, so the activity in their vocal cords does not seem to be related to increased metabolic activity in Broca's areas. We have concluded that the vocal cord activity is not related to speaking of the patients. The activity in the vocal cord might be due to inflammation or, as in the eye muscles, may be associated with high metabolism in laryngeal muscles. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23487345

  20. Relation Between Metabolic Activity of the Broca Region and F-18 FDG Uptake in Vocal Cords.

    PubMed

    Eren, Mine Şencan; Durak, Hatice

    2012-08-01

    We aimed to investigate if increased F-18 Fluoro Deoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) uptake observed in vocal cords (VC) of the patients on Positron Emission Tomography/Computarize Tomography (PET/CT) scans is connected to speaking of the patients or not. If so, we expected to detect an increased metabolic activity in Broca's area. In this study, we have retrospectively searched for a correlation between the activity in the Broca's area and vocal cords of patients who had undergone FDG PET for different indications. FDG PET/CT scans of 30 patients with (VC [+]) and 30 patients without (VC [-]) bilateral F-18 FDG uptake on their vocal cords were retrospectively evaluated. Brain quantification was carried out on NeuroQ software with 20 iterations using patients' transaxial brain cross sections. On the 20th-23rd-26th-29th cross sections, area/whole brain ratios of the right (R) and left (L) for Broca's area were calculated. VC (+) and VC (-) patients' R and L Broca's areas were compared using Student's t-test. There was no significant difference between the Broca's areas of VC (+) and VC (-) patients. L Broca's areas of both VC (+) and VC (-) patients were more active than R Broca's areas (p<0.05). There was a negative correlation between VC (+) patients' SUVmax values in the vocal cords and the activity in their R Broca's region. In our study, we did not find a significant difference between Broca's areas of VC (+) patients and VC (-) patients, so the activity in their vocal cords does not seem to be related to increased metabolic activity in Broca's areas. We have concluded that the vocal cord activity is not related to speaking of the patients. The activity in the vocal cord might be due to inflammation or, as in the eye muscles, may be associated with high metabolism in laryngeal muscles. None declared.

  1. C11-Acetate and F-18 FDG PET for Men With Prostate Cancer Bone Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Evan Y.; Muzi, Mark; Hackenbracht, Joy A.; Rezvani, Brian B.; Link, Jeanne M.; Montgomery, Robert Bruce; Higano, Celestia S.; Eary, Janet F.; Mankoff, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Report This study tested the feasibility of C11-acetate (acetate) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to assess response to therapy in men with bone metastatic prostate cancer and compared results for disease detection and response evaluation with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET. Materials and Methods Men with ≥3 prostate cancer bone metastases identified by Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scintigraphy and/or computed tomography were enrolled in a prospective study of serial acetate and FDG PET imaging. Patients were imaged before and 6 to 12 weeks after initial androgen deprivation therapy for new metastatic prostate cancer or first-line chemotherapy with docetaxel for castration-resistant prostate cancer. Qualitative assessment and changes in the tumor:normal uptake ratio were used to assess response by both acetate and FDG PET. In addition, the detection of bone metastases pretherapy was compared for acetate and FDG PET. Results A total of 8 patients with documented bone metastases were imaged, of which 6 were imaged both pre- and post-therapy. Acetate PET detected bone metastases in all 8 patients, whereas FDG PET detected lesions in 6 of the 7 imaged patients. Acetate PET generally detected more metastases with a higher tumor:normal uptake ratio. Qualitative and quantitative assessments of post-treatment response correlated with composite clinical designations of response, stable disease, or progression in 6 of 6 and 5 of 6 by acetate and 4 of 5 and 3 of 5 by FDG PET, respectively. Conclusions In this pilot study, results indicate that acetate PET holds promise for response assessment of prostate cancer bone metastases and is complementary to FDG PET in bone metastasis detection. PMID:21285676

  2. F18-FDG-PET for recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer: a systematic meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Haslerud, Torjan; Brauckhoff, Katrin; Reisæter, Lars; Küfner Lein, Regina; Heinecke, Achim; Varhaug, Jan Erik; Biermann, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with fluor-18-deoxy-glucose (FDG) is widely used for diagnosing recurrent or metastatic disease in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). To assess the diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET for DTC in patients after ablative therapy. A systematic search was conducted in Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Open Grey looking for all English-language original articles on the performance of FDG-PET in series of at least 20 patients with DTC having undergone ablative therapy including total thyroidectomy. Diagnostic performance measures were pooled using Reitsma's bivariate model. Thirty-four publications between 1996 and 2014 met the inclusion criteria. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were 79.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73.9-84.1) and 79.4% (95% CI, 71.2-85.4), respectively, with an area under the curve of 0.858. F18-FDG-PET is a useful method for detecting recurrent DTC in patients having undergone ablative therapy. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  3. F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-guided sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes in the diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Simonen, Piia; Lehtonen, Jukka; Kandolin, Riina; Schildt, Jukka; Marjasuo, Suvi; Miettinen, Heikki; Airaksinen, Juhani; Vihinen, Tapani; Tuohinen, Suvi; Haataja, Petri; Kupari, Markku

    2015-11-15

    Histologic proof of granulomatous inflammation is prerequisite for the diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS). Because of the limited sensitivity of endomyocardial biopsy (EMB), confirmation of sarcoidosis often has to be acquired from extracardiac biopsies. We set out to review our experience of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18-FDG PET) in guiding extracardiac tissue biopsies in suspected CS. We included in this work 68 consecutive patients with proved CS who had undergone cardiac F-18-FDG PET with (n = 57) or without whole-body imaging as part of initial diagnostic evaluation. Their hospital charts, imaging studies, and diagnostic biopsies were reviewed in retrospect. Whole-body PET images showed extracardiac foci of abnormally high F-18-FDG uptake in 39 of 57 patients, of whom 38 had involvement of mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN). Parallel F-18-FDG uptake was found in other lymph nodes (n = 10), lungs (n = 9), liver (n = 3), spleen (n = 2), and thyroid gland (n = 1). Adding the mediastinal findings at cardiac PET without whole-body imaging, abnormal F-18-FDG uptake in MLN was found in totally 43 of the 68 patients with CS (63%). Histology of systemic sarcoidosis was known at presentation of cardiac symptoms in 8 patients. Of the 60 patients with missing histology, 24 patients underwent mediastinoscopy for sampling of PET-positive MLN, most often (n = 20) after nondiagnostic EMB; microscopy revealed diagnostic noncaseating granulomatous inflammation in 24 of the 24 cases (sensitivity 100%). In the remaining 36 patients, sarcoidosis histology was confirmed by EMB (n = 30), by biopsy of lungs (n = 2) or peripheral lymph nodes (n = 2), or at autopsy (n = 1) or post-transplantation (n = 1). In conclusion, MLN accumulate F-18-FDG at PET in most patients with CS and provide a highly productive source for diagnostic biopsies either primarily or subsequent to nondiagnostic EMB.

  4. F18-FDG coincidence-PET in patients with suspected gynecological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Zor, E; Stokkel, M P; Ozalp, S; Vardareli, E; Yalçin, O Tarik; Ak, I

    2006-07-01

    To assess the role of F18-FDG imaging with a dual-head coincidence mode gamma camera (Co-PET) in identifying malignant tumors in patients with a suspicious adnexal mass depicted by conventional imaging methods. F18-FDG Co-PET was performed preoperatively in 18 women (mean age 56.38 years) with suspected malignant gynecologic tumors according to clinical and abdomino-pelvic/transvaginal ultrasound or computed tomography findings. Exploratory laparotomy was performed in all patients within the 10 days post-F18-FDG Co-PET study, and the definitive diagnosis of the adnexal masses was established by histopathological examination. Histopathological examinations of the surgically excised adnexal masses revealed eight malignant, one borderline, and nine benign neoplastic tumors. Four benign tumors had no F18-FDG uptake, while the remaining five tumors, all leiomyomas, showed mild FDG accumulation. Eight malignant tumors showed intense F18-FDG uptake. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of F18-FDG co-PET in differentiating benign from malign adnexal masses were 88%, 44%, 61%, and 80%, respectively. Tumor to background ratios (T/B) in benign lesions (2.04 +/- 0.27) were significantly lower than in malignant lesions (7.4 +/- 0.99). F18-FDG Co-PET is of clinical value when assessing suspicious malignant adnexal masses. False-negative F18-FDG results might arise from borderline disease. Moderate F18-FDG uptake in leiomyomas can result false-positive, but T/B ratios may be helpful in such cases.

  5. Visualization of Synthetic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells in Atherosclerotic Carotid Rat Arteries by F-18 FDG PET.

    PubMed

    Pahk, Kisoo; Joung, Chanmin; Jung, Se-Mi; Young Song, Hwa; Yong Park, Ji; Woo Byun, Jung; Lee, Yun-Sang; Chul Paeng, Jin; Kim, Chunsook; Kim, Sungeun; Kim, Won-Ki

    2017-08-01

    Synthetic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play important roles in atherosclerosis, in-stent restenosis, and transplant vasculopathy. We investigated the synthetic activity of VSMCs in the atherosclerotic carotid artery using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Atherosclerosis was induced in rats by partial ligation of the right carotid artery coupled with an atherogenic diet and vitamin D injections (2 consecutive days, 600,000 IU/day). One month later, rats were imaged by F-18 FDG PET. The atherosclerotic right carotid arteries showed prominent luminal narrowing with neointimal hyperplasia. The regions with neointimal hyperplasia were composed of α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells with decreased expression of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain. Surrogate markers of synthetic VSMCs such as collagen type III, cyclophilin A, and matrix metallopeptidase-9 were increased in neointima region. However, neither macrophages nor neutrophils were observed in regions with neointimal hyperplasia. F-18 FDG PET imaging and autoradiography showed elevated FDG uptake into the atherosclerotic carotid artery. The inner vessel layer showed higher tracer uptake than the outer layer. Consistently, the expression of glucose transporter 1 was highly increased in neointima. The present results indicate that F-18 FDG PET may be a useful tool for evaluating synthetic activities of VSMCs in vascular remodeling disorders.

  6. Pancreatic tuberculosis: Evaluation of therapeutic response using F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Sampath; Bhattacharya, Anish; Rana, Surinder Singh; Bhasin, Deepak Kumar; Srinivasan, Radhika; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2014-10-01

    F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) is a functional imaging technique that monitors glucose metabolism in tissues. Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) has been reported to show intense uptake of FDG, with a decrease in metabolism of the tuberculous lesions after successful anti-tubercular treatment (ATT). The authors present a patient with pancreatic TB and demonstrate the usefulness of FDG PET/CT in monitoring the response to ATT.

  7. Intracranial Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis in Three Cases from Breast Cancer Demonstrated on F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computerized Tomography.

    PubMed

    Ortapamuk, Hulya; Demir, Mustafa Kemal

    2017-01-01

    Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC) is an uncommon late manifestation of non-central nervous system (CNS) solid tumors. With prolonged survival in solid tumors, an increased frequency of metastases is noted in these tumors too. The detection of tumor cells in the cerebrospinal fluid remains the gold standard. Noninvasively, magnetic resonance imaging is frequently used for the diagnosis of LC. Although its low sensitivity of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) on demonstrating CNS lesions, it could be useful in identifying the possibility of LC of breast carcinoma by giving high attention to the meninges. We discuss here three cases all of them having intracranial LC; where (18)F-FDG PET/CT study helped us in the diagnosis of LC. To our knowledge, this is the second report about intracranial LC from breast cancer demonstrating on (18)F-FDG PET/CT.

  8. Intracranial Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis in Three Cases from Breast Cancer Demonstrated on F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computerized Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ortapamuk, Hulya; Demir, Mustafa Kemal

    2017-01-01

    Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC) is an uncommon late manifestation of non-central nervous system (CNS) solid tumors. With prolonged survival in solid tumors, an increased frequency of metastases is noted in these tumors too. The detection of tumor cells in the cerebrospinal fluid remains the gold standard. Noninvasively, magnetic resonance imaging is frequently used for the diagnosis of LC. Although its low sensitivity of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) on demonstrating CNS lesions, it could be useful in identifying the possibility of LC of breast carcinoma by giving high attention to the meninges. We discuss here three cases all of them having intracranial LC; where 18F-FDG PET/CT study helped us in the diagnosis of LC. To our knowledge, this is the second report about intracranial LC from breast cancer demonstrating on 18F-FDG PET/CT. PMID:28242978

  9. Relation Between F-18 FDG Uptake of PET/CT and BRAFV600E Mutation in Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seokho; An, Young-Sil; Lee, Su Jin; So, Eu Young; Kim, Jang-Hee; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Yoon, Joon-Kee

    2015-12-01

    BRAFV600E mutation and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake are potential prognostic factors of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the BRAFV600E mutation and F-18 FDG uptake in PTC.We retrospectively included 169 PTC patients who underwent F-18 FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) before thyroidectomy from May 2009 to August 2012. Subjects were classified into overt PTC (>1 cm, n = 76) and papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC, n = 93) groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the relationship between maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the primary tumors and clinicopathologic variables.The BRAFV600E mutation was detected in 82.2% (139/169). In all subjects, the BRAFV600E mutation and tumor size were independently related to SUVmax by multivariate analysis (P = 0.048 and P < 0.001, respectively). SUVmax was significantly higher in tumors with the BRAFV600E mutation than in those with wild-type BRAF (9.4 ± 10.9 vs 5.0 ± 4.1, P < 0.001). Similarly, in overt PTC group, the BRAFV600E mutation and tumor size were independently correlated with SUVmax (P = 0.032 and P = 0.001, respectively). By contrast, in PTMC group, only tumor size was significantly associated with SUVmax (P = 0.010). The presence of the BRAFV600E mutation is independently associated with high F-18 FDG uptake on preoperative PET/CT in patients with overt PTC, but this relationship was not evident in PTMC. This study provides a better understanding of the relationship between F-18 FDG uptake and BRAFV600E mutation in patients with PTC.

  10. Identification of ischemic and hibernating myocardium: feasibility of post-exercise F-18 deoxyglucose positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Marwick, T.H.; MacIntyre, W.J.; Salcedo, E.E.; Go, R.T.; Saha, G.; Beachler, A. )

    1991-02-01

    The identification of ischemic and hibernating myocardium facilitates the selection of patients most likely to benefit from revascularization. This study examined the feasibility of metabolic imaging, using post-exercise F-18 deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for the diagnosis of both ischemia and hibernation in 27 patients with known coronary anatomy. Normal post-exercise FDG uptake was defined in each patient by reference to normal resting perfusion and normal coronary supply. Abnormal elevation of FDG (ischemia or hibernation) was compared in 13 myocardial segments in each patient, with the results of dipyridamole stress perfusion imaging performed by rubidium-82 positron emission tomography (Rb-PET). Myocardial ischemia was diagnosed by either FDG-PET or Rb-PET in 34 segments subtended by significant local coronary stenoses. Increased FDG uptake was present in 32/34 (94%) and a reversible perfusion defect was identified by Rb-PET in 22/34 (65%, p less than .01). In 3 patients, ischemia was identified by metabolic imaging alone. In 16 patients with previous myocardial infarction, perfusion defects were present at rest in 89 regions, 30 of which (34%) demonstrated increased FDG uptake, consistent with the presence of hibernation. Increased post-exercise FDG uptake appears to be a sensitive indicator of ischemia and myocardial hibernation. Increased post-exercise FDG uptake, appears to be a sensitive indicator of ischemia and myocardial hibernation. This test may be useful in selecting post-infarction patients for revascularization.

  11. Correlation of Glut-1 and Glut-3 expression with F-18 FDG uptake in pulmonary inflammatory lesions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen Guang; Yu, Ming Ming; Han, Yu; Wu, Feng Yu; Yang, Guang Jie; Li, Da Cheng; Liu, Si Min

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation of glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1) and glucose transporter-3 (Glut-3) expression with F-18 FDG uptake in pulmonary inflammatory lesions.Twenty-two patients with pulmonary inflammatory lesions underwent positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) examination preoperatively, and Glut-1 and Glut-3 expression were detected by immunohistochemistry in these lesions. Correlations of Glut-1 and Glut-3 with F-FDG uptake were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation test.The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of pulmonary inflammatory lesions in 22 patients was 0.50 to 7.50, with a mean value of 3.66 ± 1.62. Immunohistochemical staining scores of Glut-1 and Glut-3 were 2.18 ± 0.96 and 2.82 ± 1.37, respectively. The expression of Glut-1 and Glut-3 was positively correlated with F-18 FDG uptake. Glut-3 expression was evidently higher than Glut-1 expression in 22 patients.Glut-1 and Glut-3 expressions are high in pulmonary inflammatory lesions, and Glut-3 plays a more important role in F-18 FDG uptake in pulmonary inflammatory lesions.

  12. False-positive F-18 FDG uptake in PET/CT studies in pediatric patients with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Riad, Raef; Omar, Walid; Sidhom, Iman; Zamzam, Manal; Zaky, Iman; Hafez, Magdy; Abdel-Dayem, Hussein M

    2010-03-01

    In pediatric patients with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma, the involvement of the gastrointestinal tract and abdominal lymph nodes are the main presenting feature of the disease. Chemotherapy is the main treatment modality and could be preceded by surgical excision of the abdominal masses. To achieve cure or long-term disease-free survival a balance has to be struck between aggressive chemotherapy and the probability of tumor necrosis secondary to treatment complicated by acute infections, perforation or intestinal bleeding. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) has been recommended over conventional imaging modalities for the follow-up of these patients and for monitoring treatment response. As the incidences of postchemotherapy complications are high, the positive predictive value of PET/CT studies in these patients is very low and the false-positive rate is high from acute infections and tumor necrosis. Accordingly, histopathological confirmation of positive lesions on F-18 FDG-PET/CT studies is essential. This is especially important as post-therapy complications might present with nonspecific and nonurgent symptoms. At the same time initiating a second course of salvage chemotherapy is risky. Retrospectively reviewed F-18 FDG-PET/CT studies for 28 pediatric patients with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma after their treatment with chemotherapy or surgery. Four positive studies were found. All had pathological verification and were because of acute inflammation and tumor necrosis and there was no evidence of viable tumor cells. One patient had multiple recurrent lesions in the abdomen after the initial surgical excision and before starting chemotherapy. The incidence of acute complications in this series is 10.7%. This study confirms the high incidence of tumor necrosis and inflammation after chemotherapy for the abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma and consequently, the incidence of true

  13. Advantages and disadvantages of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in carcinoma of unknown primary.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaozhou; Li, Xiaofeng; Song, Xiuyu; Dai, Dong; Zhu, Lei; Zhu, Yanjia; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Huiqin; Xu, Wengui

    2016-11-01

    Carcinoma of unknown primary is a type of malignant disease where the primary carcinoma cannot be identified by conventional examination, which presents challenges in diagnosis and therapy. This study aims to evaluate the detailed clinical value and indications of using fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) in a large sample. A total of 449 patients who were selected under strict standards were retrospectively included in this study. F-18 FDG PET/CT accurately detected the primary carcinoma in 115 of 449 patients whose primaries could not be detected by conventional examination (25.6%), with additional 27 false-positive patients. The most common primary site was the lung (34.8%). In addition, except for in metastatic melanoma (1/19, 5.3%) and axillary metastasis patients (2/49, 4.1%), F-18 FDG PET/CT had a comparative performance in detecting primary carcinoma in other pathological types and anatomical locations. The scan is able to guide treatment strategy modifications to some extent (130/449, 29.0%). We strongly recommend the use of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the early phase of examination. It is also recommended as a supplementary radiological method, and certain patients may benefit from its application in cases where regular examination is inconclusive. However, in metastatic melanoma or axillary metastasis patients where the primary site cannot be identified by routine examination, regular application of F-18 FDG PET/CT for the sole purpose of detecting the primary carcinoma should not be encouraged.

  14. Advantages and disadvantages of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in carcinoma of unknown primary

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaozhou; Li, Xiaofeng; Song, Xiuyu; Dai, Dong; Zhu, Lei; Zhu, Yanjia; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Huiqin; Xu, Wengui

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma of unknown primary is a type of malignant disease where the primary carcinoma cannot be identified by conventional examination, which presents challenges in diagnosis and therapy. This study aims to evaluate the detailed clinical value and indications of using fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) in a large sample. A total of 449 patients who were selected under strict standards were retrospectively included in this study. F-18 FDG PET/CT accurately detected the primary carcinoma in 115 of 449 patients whose primaries could not be detected by conventional examination (25.6%), with additional 27 false-positive patients. The most common primary site was the lung (34.8%). In addition, except for in metastatic melanoma (1/19, 5.3%) and axillary metastasis patients (2/49, 4.1%), F-18 FDG PET/CT had a comparative performance in detecting primary carcinoma in other pathological types and anatomical locations. The scan is able to guide treatment strategy modifications to some extent (130/449, 29.0%). We strongly recommend the use of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the early phase of examination. It is also recommended as a supplementary radiological method, and certain patients may benefit from its application in cases where regular examination is inconclusive. However, in metastatic melanoma or axillary metastasis patients where the primary site cannot be identified by routine examination, regular application of F-18 FDG PET/CT for the sole purpose of detecting the primary carcinoma should not be encouraged. PMID:27895731

  15. Added value of using a cocktail of F-18 sodium fluoride and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose in positron emission tomography/computed tomography for detecting bony metastasis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chan, Hung-Pin; Hu, Chin; Yu, Chang-Ching; Huang, Tsung-Chi; Peng, Nan-Jing

    2015-04-01

    Current nuclear imaging of the skeletal system is achieved using technetium-99m (Tc-99m) methylene diphosphonate (MDP), F-18 sodium fluoride (NaF), or F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). However, comparisons of these are rare in the literature. We present a case of a 51-year-old female with suspicious lung cancer due to main symptoms of dyspnea, nonproductive cough, and pleural pain. Tc-99m MDP whole-body bone scan (WBBS) showed multiple bony metastases. Five days later, positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) images using both F-18 NaF and a cocktail of F-18 NaF and F-18 FDG were obtained on the same day 2 hours apart. The former showed more foci and precisely showed bony lesions compared to those obtained using Tc-99m MDP WBBS. However, the latter demonstrated more extensive radiotracer uptake, especially in osteolytic lesions, and additional soft tissue lesions in the left axillary and surpraclavicular nodes as well as the left pleura. Surgical biopsy was performed in left axillary nodes, and the metastatic carcinoma was found to be of breast origin. This case demonstrated that a cocktail of F-18 NaF and F-18 FDG could be useful in PET/CT for not only detecting more skeletal lesions but also guiding biopsies accurately to the affected tissue.

  16. Performance of F-18 FDG PET/CT for Predicting Malignant Potential of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Jang; Lee, Sang-Woo

    2017-10-10

    We aimed to explore the role of the diagnostic accuracy of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET) or positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for prediction of malignant potential of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) through a systematic review and meta-analysis. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library database, from the earliest available date of indexing through May 31, 2017, were searched for studies evaluating the diagnostic performance of F-18 FDG PET or PET/CT for prediction of malignant potential of GIST. We determined the sensitivities and specificities across studies, calculated positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR-), and constructed summary receiver operating characteristic curves. Across 7 studies (188 patients), the pooled sensitivity for F-18 FDG PET or PET/CT was 0.88 (95% CI; 0.80-0.94) without heterogeneity (χ(2) =6.15, p=0.72) and a pooled specificity of 0.88 (95% CI; 0.75-0.94) with heterogeneity (χ(2) =23.2, p= 0.01). Likelihood ratio (LR) syntheses gave an overall positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 7.2 (95% CI; 3.3-15.3) and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) of 0.13 (95% CI; 0.07-0.24). The pooled DOR was 54 (95% CI; 16-181). F-18 FDG PET or PET/CT demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity for the prediction of malignant potential of GIST. At present, the literature regarding the use of F-18 FDG PET or PET/CT for the prediction of malignant potential of GIST remains still limited; thus, further large multicenter studies would be necessary to substantiate the diagnostic accuracy of F-18 FDG PET or PET/CT prediction of malignant potential of GIST. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Unexpected Second Primary Malignancies Detected by F-18 FDG PET/CT During Follow-up for Primary Malignancy: Two Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Bang, Ji-In; Lee, Eun Seong; Kim, Tae-Sung; Kim, Seok-Ki

    2015-03-01

    As the survival rate of cancer patients has increased over the last few decades, the risk of cancer survivors developing second primary malignancies has gained attention. We report two rare cases of second primary hematologic malignancy detected by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) during follow-up for primary solid malignancies. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed in a breast cancer patient and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in an anal cancer patient. F-18 FDG PET/CT findings led to the diagnosis of unexpected second primary hematologic malignancy in cancer survivors in these two cases.

  18. Dual-phase F-18 FDG PET-CT in staging and lymphoscintigraphy for detection of sentinel lymph nodes in oral cavity cancers.

    PubMed

    Sürücü, Erdem; Polack, Berna Degirmenci; Demir, Yusuf; Durmuşoğlu, Mehmet; Ekmekçi, Sümeyye; Sarıoğlu, Sülen; Çelik, Ahmet Orhan; Ada, Emel; İkiz, Ahmet Ömer

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the diagnostic role of dual-phase fluor-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and planar lymphoscintigraphy in patients with oral cavity cancer (OCC). We also investigated the combined impact of F-18 FDG PET-CT and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in decision making for patients with OCC. Sixteen patients (4 female, 12 male; age range, 29-81 years) were included in this prospective study. F-18 FDG PET-CT [1 (early) and 2 h (delayed) after injection] and planar lymphoscintigraphy (2h before the surgery) were performed for all the patients before surgery. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values in F-18 FDG PET-CT for the early and the delayed scans and tumor/liver uptake (T/L) in the lymph nodes were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic curves were obtained for standardized uptake value (SUV)max and T/L. Histopathological evaluations revealed that 5 patients had metastatic lymph nodes (pN+) whereas 11 patients had benign lymph nodes (pN-). Out of 43 lymph nodes visualized as cN(+) in F-18 FDG PET-CT, 14 were pathologically positive for malignancy, whereas 29 were pathologically benign. There was no statistical difference between the N(+) and N(-) patients in terms of age, depth of primary tumor, and the number of mitoses. However, there was a significant difference between the N(+) and N(-) patients (P=.011) in terms of early and delayed F-18 FDG uptake of primary tumors. There was a statistically significant difference in the value of SUVmax between the early and the delayed scans for the malignant lymph nodes (P=.00). This study indicates that F-18 FDG PET-CT is a reliable method for the correct evaluation of primary tumor and N staging in OCCs. Delayed phase of F-18 FDG imaging may increase primary lesion detectability due to higher FDG uptake in primary tumors compared to the early phase of imaging. F-18 FDG PET-CT might demonstrate skip

  19. F-18 FDG imaging of an asymptomatic sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus in a patient with malignant disease.

    PubMed

    Ak, Ilknur

    2007-10-01

    This case illustrates a pitfall associated with F-18 FDG imaging. We present the images of a 57-year-old woman with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that shows intense accumulation of F-18 FDG in a sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus that could indicate a lymphomatous involvement from a primary disease. MRI showed a well-defined sinus tract from skin to the sacrococcygeal region corresponding to the F-18 FDG uptake. She did not have any symptoms of a sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus such as discharge, swelling or pain. There was no visible opening of the sinus tract on the skin. Pilonidal sinus is commonly a hair-containing sinus or abscess in the sacrococcygeal area. Hair acts as a foreign body causing an inflammatory reaction.

  20. Differentiation of thoracic tumors from post-treatment changes using PET with F-18 FDG and C-11 methionine

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Garcia, J.R.; Wong, F.C.L.

    1994-05-01

    This study was undertaken to differentiate active residual or recurrent thoracic tumors from various post-treatment changes by utilizing PET with F-18 FDG and also to compare F-18 FDG and C-11 methionine (Met) in diagnostic accuracy. We have prospectively evaluated 77 FDG-PET studies in 61 patients with histologically proven lung (37) and other thoracic (24) malignant tumors. Eleven Met-PET studies were obtained in 10 patients (three lung, seven other cancers). All patients received surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy, and their routine follow-up radiographic exam including CT showed suspected recurrent or residual tumors. PET studies were performed using Posicam scanner (Positron Co.) transaxial as well as reconstructed coronal or sagittal images were obtained after injection of 5-10 mCi F-18 FDG or 15-20 mCi C-11 Met following at least four hour fasting and attenuating correction. All PET images were visually inspected and correlated with radiographic studies. Standard uptake values (SUVs) were generated and compared on serial studies. Fifty-one studies had histologic correlation and all patients had at least six month follow-ups. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for diagnosing active thoracic tumors with FDG-PET scans were 100% (52/52), 88% (22/25) and 96% (74/77), respectively. They were 100% (7/7), 100% (4/4) and 100% (11/11), respectively with Met-PET in selected patients. Three false positive (FP) FDG cases showed active inflammation histologically. SUVs of FDG-PET were 6.5{plus_minus}2.9 for true positives and 1.4{plus_minus}1.3 for true negatives, respectively. SUVs of Met-PET were 4.3{plus_minus}2.3 for TP and 1.2{plus_minus}0.5 for TN, respectively. In conclusion, PET with FDG or Met is useful in diagnosing active thoracic tumors after various treatments, and FDG showed greater SUV than Met.

  1. F18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and computed tomography is not accurate in preoperative staging of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Tae Kyung; Choi, Yun Young; Song, Soon Young

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinical benefits of F18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) over multi-detector row CT (MDCT) in preoperative staging of gastric cancer. Methods FDG-PET/CT and MDCT were performed on 78 patients with gastric cancer pathologically diagnosed by endoscopy. The accuracy of radiologic staging retrospectively was compared to pathologic result after curative resection. Results Primary tumors were detected in 51 (65.4%) patients with 18F-FDG-PET/CT, and 47 (60.3%) patients with MDCT. Regarding detection of lymph node metastasis, the sensitivity of FDG-PET/CT was 51.5% with an accuracy of 71.8%, whereas those of MDCT were 69.7% and 69.2%, respectively. The sensitivity of 18F-FDG-PET/CT for a primary tumor with signet ring cell carcinoma was lower than that of 18F-FDG-PET/CT for a primary tumor with non-signet ring cell carcinoma (35.3% vs. 73.8%, P < 0.01). Conclusion Due to its low sensitivity, 18F-FDG-PET/CT alone shows no definite clinical benefit for prediction of lymph node metastasis in preoperative staging of gastric cancer. PMID:22066108

  2. F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the context of other imaging techniques and prognostic factors in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Bartel, Twyla B.; Haessler, Jeff; Brown, Tracy L. Y.; Shaughnessy, John D.; van Rhee, Frits; Anaissie, Elias; Alpe, Terri; Angtuaco, Edgardo; Walker, Ronald; Epstein, Joshua; Crowley, John

    2009-01-01

    F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is a powerful tool to investigate the role of tumor metabolic activity and its suppression by therapy for cancer survival. As part of Total Therapy 3 for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, metastatic bone survey, magnetic resonance imaging, and FDG-PET scanning were evaluated in 239 untreated patients. All 3 imaging techniques showed correlations with prognostically relevant baseline parameters: the number of focal lesions (FLs), especially when FDG-avid by PET-computed tomography, was positively linked to high levels of β-2-microglobulin, C-reactive protein, and lactate dehydrogenase; among gene expression profiling parameters, high-risk and proliferation-related parameters were positively and low-bone-disease molecular subtype inversely correlated with FL. The presence of more than 3 FDG-avid FLs, related to fundamental features of myeloma biology and genomics, was the leading independent parameter associated with inferior overall and event-free survival. Complete FDG suppression in FL before first transplantation conferred significantly better outcomes and was only opposed by gene expression profiling-defined high-risk status, which together accounted for approximately 50% of survival variability (R2 test). Our results provide a rationale for testing the hypothesis that myeloma survival can be improved by altering treatment in patients in whom FDG suppression cannot be achieved after induction therapy. PMID:19443657

  3. Renal Cell Carcinoma with Paraneoplastic Manifestations: Imaging with CT and F-18 FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ba D; Roarke, Michael C

    2007-01-01

    We present a case of renal cell carcinoma with prominent inflammatory and paraneoplastic manifestations. The initial CT detection of renal malignancy and subsequent post-therapeutic F-18 FDG PET/CT diagnosis of occult osseous metastasis were based on the patient's anemia, thrombocytosis and abnormally increased levels of serum C-reactive protein.

  4. Calcified metastases from ovarian carcinoma highlighted by F-18 FDG PET/CT: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Hu, Si-Long; Zhou, Zheng-Rong; Zhang, Ying-Jian

    2012-08-01

    Two cases of postoperative female patients with ovarian serous papillary carcinoma were referred for F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) PET/CT to evaluate suspicious recurrence and/or metastasis. One patient presented with multiple extensive calcified lesions with increased FDG uptake in the abdominopelvic cavity and the series of PET/CT scans showed progression of disease after chemotherapy. The other patient presented with three calcified masses with intensive uptake of FDG located in the left pelvis, the right subphrenic region, and the right supradiaphragmatic area, respectively. These suggest that F-18 FDG PET/CT can be useful in identifying malignant calcification and assessing therapeutic response of calcified malignancy.

  5. Extensive invasive extramammary Paget disease evaluated by F-18 FDG PET/CT: a case report.

    PubMed

    Li, Zu-Gui; Qin, Xiao-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a rare cutaneous, intraepithelial adenocarcinoma. Because of its rarity, little is known about the value of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in evaluating this disease. Our case report aims to increase current knowledge of FDG PET/CT in EMPD as a noninvasive imaging tool for assessing the extension of the disease and detecting distant metastases.We reported a 64-year-old Chinese man who presented with a slowly progressive, ill-margined erythematous lesion with a crusted, eroded, and scaly surface involving multiple sites of penis, scrotum, left pelvic wall, hip, groin, and thigh for >4 years, which became extensive in the past 1 year. He was referred for an FDG PET/CT examination to further evaluate the lesions. A following skin biopsy was performed to obtain a definitive histological diagnosis.FDG PET/CT imaging revealed mild FDG uptake at the extensive cutaneous lesion with subcutaneous invasion, involvement of lymph nodes, and multiple intense FDG-avid of skeletal metastases. According to the appearance of FDG PET/CT, a provisional diagnosis of advanced cutaneous malignancy was made. Histopathology findings indicated characteristic of EMPD. The patient was treated with radiation therapy and died from complications 2 months after the last dose of radiotherapy.Our case highlighted that a whole-body FDG PET/CT should be incorporated into the diagnostic algorithm of EMPD to give a comprehensive assessment of this disease.

  6. Rapidly growing complex fibroadenoma with surrounding ductal hyperplasia mimics breast malignancy on serial F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Makis, William; Ciarallo, Anthony; Hickeson, Marc; Derbekyan, Vilma

    2011-07-01

    A 30-year-old woman was referred for an F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT to rule out lymphoma, and was found to have an incidental FDG-avid right breast nodule that grew significantly in size and FDG uptake on a subsequent scan, raising suspicion of a growing breast malignancy. Histologic evaluation showed a complex fibroadenoma with adenosis and surrounding ductal hyperplasia. Although variable F-18 FDG uptake in fibroadenomas has been described, a distinction between simple and complex fibroadenomas has not been made in the PET literature, even though complex fibroadenomas have a higher propensity to develop into malignancies. This case shows that a rapidly growing complex fibroadenoma can mimic a breast malignancy on serial F-18 FDG PET/CT scans, showing significant increase in both size and FDG-avidity on follow-up studies.

  7. 2-Deoxy-2[F-18]FDG-PET for Detection of Recurrent Laryngeal Carcinoma after Radiotherapy: Interobserver Variability in Reporting

    PubMed Central

    van der Putten, L.; Hoekstra, O. S.; Kuik, D. J.; Comans, E. F. I.; Langendijk, J. A.; Leemans, C. R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate accuracy and interobserver variability in the assessment of 2-deoxy-2[F-18]fluoro-d-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for detection of recurrent laryngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy. Procedures Eleven experienced nuclear physicians from eight centres assessed 30 FDG-PET scans on the appearance of local recurrence (negative/equivocal/positive). Conservative (equivocal analysed as negative) and sensitive (equivocal analysed as positive) assessment strategies were compared to the reference standard (recurrence within 6months after PET). Results Seven patients had proven recurrences. For the conservative and sensitive strategy, the mean sensitivity was 87% and 97%, specificity 81% and 63%, positive predictive values 61% and 46% and negative predictive values 96% and 99%, respectively. Interobserver variability showed a reasonable relation in comparison to the reference standard (kappa = 0.55). Conclusions FDG-PET has acceptable interobserver agreement and yields good negative predictive value for detection of recurrent laryngeal carcinoma. It could therefore be used as first diagnostic step and may reduce futile invasive diagnostics. PMID:18622649

  8. Tumor characteristics of ductal carcinoma in situ of breast visualized on [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography: Results from a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Tomoyuki; Kubota, Kazunori; Toriihara, Akira; Machida, Youichi; Okazawa, Kaori; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Saida, Yukihisa; Tateishi, Ukihide

    2016-08-28

    To clarify clinicopathological features of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) visualized on [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT). This study retrospectively reviewed 52 consecutive tumors in 50 patients with pathologically proven pure DCIS who underwent [F-18] FDG-PET/CT before surgery. [F-18] FDG-PET/CT was performed after biopsy in all patients. The mean interval from biopsy to [F-18] FDG-PET/CT was 29.2 d. [F-18] FDG uptake by visual analysis and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was compared with clinicopathological characteristics. [F-18] FDG uptake was visualized in 28 lesions (53.8%) and the mean and standard deviation of SUVmax was 1.63 and 0.90. On univariate analysis, visual analysis and the SUVmax were associated with symptomatic presentation (P = 0.012 and 0.002, respectively), palpability (P = 0.030 and 0.024, respectively), use of core-needle biopsy (CNB) (P = 0.023 and 0.012, respectively), ultrasound-guided biopsy (P = 0.040 and 0.006, respectively), enhancing lesion ≥ 20 mm on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (P = 0.001 and 0.010, respectively), tumor size ≥ 20 mm on histopathology (P = 0.002 and 0.008, respectively). However, [F-18] FDG uptake parameters were not significantly associated with age, presence of calcification on mammography, mass formation on MRI, presence of comedo necrosis, hormone status (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2), and nuclear grade. The factors significantly associated with visual analysis and SUVmax were symptomatic presentation (P = 0.019 and 0.001, respectively), use of CNB (P = 0.001 and 0.031, respectively), and enhancing lesion ≥ 20 mm on MRI (P = 0.001 and 0.049, respectively) on multivariate analysis. Although DCIS of breast is generally non-avid tumor, symptomatic and large tumors (≥ 20 mm) tend to be visualized on [F-18] FDG-PET/CT.

  9. F-18 Fluoride Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography for Detecting Atherosclerotic Plaques.

    PubMed

    Kang, Won Jun

    2015-01-01

    A large number of major cardiovascular events occur in patients due to minimal or some lumen narrowing of the coronary artery. Recent biological studies have shown that the biological composition or vulnerability of the plaque is more critical for plaque rupture compared to the degree of stenosis. To overcome the limitations of anatomical images, molecular imaging techniques have been suggested as promising imaging tools in various fields. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), which is widely used in the field of oncology, is an example of molecular probes used in atherosclerotic plaque evaluation. FDG is a marker of plaque macrophage glucose utilization and inflammation, which is a prominent characteristic of vulnerable plaque. Recently, F-18 fluoride has been used to visualize vulnerable plaque in clinical studies. F-18 fluoride accumulates in regions of active microcalcification, which is normally observed during the early stages of plaque formation. More studies are warranted on the accumulation of F-18 fluoride and plaque formation/vulnerability; however, due to high specific accumulation, low background activity, and easy accessibility, F-18 fluoride is emerging as a promising non-invasive imaging probe to detect vulnerable plaque.

  10. Skeletal muscle metastases as the initial manifestation of an unknown primary lung cancer detected on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Bhattacharya, Anish; Singh, Navneet; Harisankar, Chidambaram Natarajan Balasubramanian; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle metastasis as the initial presentation of the unknown primary lung cancer is unusual. A 65-year-old male patient presented with pain and swelling of the right forearm. Fine needle aspiration of the swelling revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. The patient underwent whole body F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to identify the site of the primary malignancy. The authors present PET/CT images showing FDG-avid metastases to the skeletal muscles along with a previously unknown primary tumor in the right lung, in a patient presenting with initial muscular symptoms without any pulmonary manifestations.

  11. A Case of Dedifferentiated Liposarcoma Showing a Biphasic Pattern on 2-Deoxy-2-F18-Fluoro-D-Glucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hoshi, Manabu; Oebisu, Naoto; Takada, Jun; Wakasa, Kenichi; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Integrated 2-deoxy-2-F18-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) has been used in the field of soft tissue sarcoma. We report an 81-year-old man with dedifferentiated liposarcoma in the left thigh, which was composed of well-differentiated liposarcoma and pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma. As well as other radiological modalities, FDG-PET was able to demonstrate a biphasic signal pattern composed of well-differentiated liposarcoma and dedifferentiated area, being consistent with the histological grade of malignancy. PMID:23888226

  12. Muscular Sarcoidosis Detected by F-18 FDG PET/CT in a Hypercalcemic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Han, Eun Ji; Jang, Yi Sun; Lee, In Suk; Lee, Jong Min; Kang, Siwon

    2013-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology that involves many organs, occasionally mimicking malignancy. We herein report a 50-yr-old woman of muscular sarcoidosis of chronic myopathic type, manifested by hypercalcemia and muscle wasting. Besides insignificant hilar lymphadenopathy, her sarcoidosis was confined to generalized atrophic muscles and therefore, F-18 FDG PET/CT alone among conventional imaging studies provided diagnostic clues for the non-parathyroid-related hypercalcemia. On follow-up PET/CT during low-dose steroid treatment, FDG uptake in the muscles disappeared whereas that in the hilar lymph nodes remained. PET/CT may be useful in the evaluation of unexpected disease extent and monitoring treatment response in suspected or known sarcoidosis patients. PMID:24015050

  13. Bitemporal hypometabolism in Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease measured by positron emission tomography with (F-18)2-fluorodeoxyglucose

    SciTech Connect

    Friedland, R.P.; Budinger, T.F.; Prusiner, S.B.; Jagust, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    It is well established that Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) is caused by a slow infectious agent similar to the scrapie prion. However, the pathogenesis of this infection is poorly understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed on a 54 year old male subject with autopsy confirmed CJD using (F-18)2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and the Donner 280-crystal tomograph. An x-ray computed tomographic study of the brain performed 4 days prior to PET was normal. In the PET study the frontal to temporal cortex difference of activity densities was 30% on the left and 12% on the right, reflecting temporal hypometabolism. The left-right temporal cortex difference of activity density was 25%, documenting marked hemispheric asymmetry. These findings are similar to those previously obtained in PET-FDG studies of patients with clinically defined Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and are distinctly different from PET-FDG finding in patients with other dementing illnesses or in healthy aged subjects. Recent work has demonstrated extensive biological similarities between CJD, scrapie and AD. The similarities in the regional metabolic alterations between CJD and AD provide additional evidence for the hypothesis that AD is caused by a slow infectious (prion-like) pathogen.

  14. Current concepts in F18 FDG PET/CT-based radiation therapy planning for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Percy; Kupelian, Patrick; Czernin, Johannes; Ghosh, Partha

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an important component of cancer therapy for early stage as well as locally advanced lung cancer. The use of F18 FDG PET/CT has come to the forefront of lung cancer staging and overall treatment decision-making. FDG PET/CT parameters such as standard uptake value and metabolic tumor volume provide important prognostic and predictive information in lung cancer. Importantly, FDG PET/CT for radiation planning has added biological information in defining the gross tumor volume as well as involved nodal disease. For example, accurate target delineation between tumor and atelectasis is facilitated by utilizing PET and CT imaging. Furthermore, there has been meaningful progress in incorporating metabolic information from FDG PET/CT imaging in radiation treatment planning strategies such as radiation dose escalation based on standard uptake value thresholds as well as using respiratory-gated PET and CT planning for improved target delineation of moving targets. In addition, PET/CT-based follow-up after radiation therapy has provided the possibility of early detection of local as well as distant recurrences after treatment. More research is needed to incorporate other biomarkers such as proliferative and hypoxia biomarkers in PET as well as integrating metabolic information in adaptive, patient-centered, tailored radiation therapy.

  15. Functional neuroimaging using F-18 FDG PET/CT in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Madhavi; Tripathi, Manjari; Sharma, Rajnish; Jaimini, Abhinav; MD’Souza, Maria; Saw, Sanjiv; Mondal, Anupam; Kushwaha, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: People with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are at a higher risk of developing Alzheimers Dementia (AD) than their cognitively normal peers. Decreased glucose metabolism with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is a downstream marker of neuronal injury and neurodegeneration. The risk of developing AD is higher in patients with aMCI who have a pattern of AD related glucose metabolic changes on FDG-PET than those who do not have these changes. We evaluated the utility of visual and ‘statistical parametric mapping (SPM)-supported reading’ of the FDG-PET scans of patients clinically classified as aMCI for identification of predementia patterns and for prediction of their progression to AD (PTAD). Patients and Methods: A total of 35 patients diagnosed as aMCI (mini mental state examination (MMSE) score ≥ 25) at the cognitive disorders and memory (CDM) clinic of speciality neurology centers were referred for a resting FDG-PET study. All patients had a detailed neurological, neuropsychological, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation prior to referral. Mean age of patients was 67.9 ± 8.7 (standard deviation (SD)) years, male: female (M: F) =26:9. Twenty healthy age-matched controls were included in the study for SPM (http://www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm/). Scans were interpreted visually and using SPM. Each scan was classified as high, intermediate, or low likelihood for PTAD. Results: On visual analysis, four scans were classified as high likelihood of PTAD and reveled hypometabolism in AD related territories. Seven patients had hypometabolism in at least one AD related territory and were classified as intermediate likelihood for PTAD. Two patients had hypometabolism in other than AD territories, while 22 patients did not show any significant hypometabolism on their FDG-PET scans and were classified as low likelihood for PTAD. SPM analysis of these cases confirmed the areas hypometabolism in all

  16. [Investigations of radiation exposure of the medical personnel during F-18-FDG PET studies].

    PubMed

    Linemann, H; Will, E; Beuthien-Baumann, B

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was the identification of those working steps with the highest radiation exposure for the medical personnel during F-18-FDG-PET studies and to evaluate the effectiveness of radiation protection devices and instructions developed in our PET-center. The personal dose and hand dose were measured for each working procedure during F-18-FDG-PET studies using electronic personal dosimeters and thermoluminescent dosimeters respectively. Additionally, measurements of the radiation level near the patient were taken. The mean personal dose resulting from syringe preparation was 1 microSv/syringe, from injection 3 microSv/patient, from blood sampling during quantitative studies 6 microSv/study, and from positioning and handling of the patient 6 microSv/study. The mean hand dose per syringe preparation was 710 microSv for each hand. The mean hand dose during injection was 13 microSv for the right hand and 27 microSv for the left hand. All above mentioned values were measured applying the routine radiation shielding in use in our PET center. With the developed radiation shielding and means to reduce radiation exposure applied the allowed annual dose for medical personnel are not exceeded. One exception is the hand dose resulting from syringe preparation. An automatic or remote filling device should be used at this working step.

  17. Differential diagnosis of adrenal mass using imaging modality: special emphasis on f-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong Je; Lee, Jaetae

    2014-03-01

    Adrenal incidentalomas are adrenal masses serendipitously detected during an imaging study performed for reasons unrelated to suspicion of adrenal disease. The incidence of adrenal incidentalomas has increased because of the widespread use of various imaging modalities. In oncology patients with adrenal incidentalomas, the characterization of the adrenal masses is challenging because nearly 50% of incidental adrenal masses are metastatic lesions that need special medical attention. Although unenhanced computed tomography (CT) densitometry, chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), delayed contrast-enhanced CT and CT histogram analysis have been used as sensitive and specific modalities for differentiating benign from malignant adrenal masses, F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET)/CT is a highly accurate imaging modality compared to CT or MRI, especially when these two imaging modalities are combined. In addition, a semiquantitative analysis using standardized uptake value ratio further improves the diagnostic accuracy of F-18 FDG PET/CT in differentiating benign from malignant adrenal masses. Thus, F-18 FDG PET/CT is very helpful for determining the best therapeutic management, especially for assessing the need for surgery.

  18. Defining risk groups of patients with cancer of unknown primary site and cervical nodal metastases by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Su, Yung-Yueh; Chen, Shih-Shin; Hsieh, Chia-Hsun; Liao, Chun-Ta; Lin, Chien-Yu; Kang, Chung-Jan; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2016-08-01

    We sought to investigate the clinical utility of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) in Taiwanese patients with cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) and cervical nodal metastases. We also aimed to study the impact of F-18 FDG PET/CT on clinical treatment priority in this patient group. Between September 2006 and May 2014, patients with CUP and cervical nodal metastases who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging study were retrospectively identified. The clinicopathological risk factors and PET parameters were analyzed in relation to 2-year overall survival (OS) rates using univariate and multivariate analyses. Two-year OS curves were plotted with the Kaplan-Meier method. Of the eligible patients (n = 54), 12 (22.2%) had distant metastases (DM) at presentation. A total of 13 (24.1%) and 15 (27.8%) primary tumors were identified by FDG PET/CT imaging and an additional triple biopsy, respectively. The results of multivariate analysis identified smoking [p = 0.033, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.197-40.342], a maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of cervical nodes ≥ 14.2 (p = 0.035, 95% CI = 1.134-28.029), and DM at presentation (p = 0.031, 95% CI = 1.257-114.854) as independent predictors of 2-year OS. Specifically, patients who carried ≥ 2 risk factors showed poorer outcomes (70.3% vs. 11.8%, p < 0.001). Fifteen study patients (27.8%) had their treatment modified by FDG PET/CT findings. We conclude that FDG PET/CT is clinically useful in CUP patients not only for tumor staging, but also for modifying treatment regimens.

  19. A Study on the Basic Criteria for Selecting Heterogeneity Parameters of F18-FDG PET Images.

    PubMed

    Forgacs, Attila; Pall Jonsson, Hermann; Dahlbom, Magnus; Daver, Freddie; D DiFranco, Matthew; Opposits, Gabor; K Krizsan, Aron; Garai, Ildiko; Czernin, Johannes; Varga, Jozsef; Tron, Lajos; Balkay, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Textural analysis might give new insights into the quantitative characterization of metabolically active tumors. More than thirty textural parameters have been investigated in former F18-FDG studies already. The purpose of the paper is to declare basic requirements as a selection strategy to identify the most appropriate heterogeneity parameters to measure textural features. Our predefined requirements were: a reliable heterogeneity parameter has to be volume independent, reproducible, and suitable for expressing quantitatively the degree of heterogeneity. Based on this criteria, we compared various suggested measures of homogeneity. A homogeneous cylindrical phantom was measured on three different PET/CT scanners using the commonly used protocol. In addition, a custom-made inhomogeneous tumor insert placed into the NEMA image quality phantom was imaged with a set of acquisition times and several different reconstruction protocols. PET data of 65 patients with proven lung lesions were retrospectively analyzed as well. Four heterogeneity parameters out of 27 were found as the most attractive ones to characterize the textural properties of metabolically active tumors in FDG PET images. These four parameters included Entropy, Contrast, Correlation, and Coefficient of Variation. These parameters were independent of delineated tumor volume (bigger than 25-30 ml), provided reproducible values (relative standard deviation< 10%), and showed high sensitivity to changes in heterogeneity. Phantom measurements are a viable way to test the reliability of heterogeneity parameters that would be of interest to nuclear imaging clinicians.

  20. A Study on the Basic Criteria for Selecting Heterogeneity Parameters of F18-FDG PET Images

    PubMed Central

    Forgacs, Attila; Pall Jonsson, Hermann; Dahlbom, Magnus; Daver, Freddie; D. DiFranco, Matthew; Opposits, Gabor; K. Krizsan, Aron; Garai, Ildiko; Czernin, Johannes; Varga, Jozsef; Tron, Lajos; Balkay, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Textural analysis might give new insights into the quantitative characterization of metabolically active tumors. More than thirty textural parameters have been investigated in former F18-FDG studies already. The purpose of the paper is to declare basic requirements as a selection strategy to identify the most appropriate heterogeneity parameters to measure textural features. Our predefined requirements were: a reliable heterogeneity parameter has to be volume independent, reproducible, and suitable for expressing quantitatively the degree of heterogeneity. Based on this criteria, we compared various suggested measures of homogeneity. A homogeneous cylindrical phantom was measured on three different PET/CT scanners using the commonly used protocol. In addition, a custom-made inhomogeneous tumor insert placed into the NEMA image quality phantom was imaged with a set of acquisition times and several different reconstruction protocols. PET data of 65 patients with proven lung lesions were retrospectively analyzed as well. Four heterogeneity parameters out of 27 were found as the most attractive ones to characterize the textural properties of metabolically active tumors in FDG PET images. These four parameters included Entropy, Contrast, Correlation, and Coefficient of Variation. These parameters were independent of delineated tumor volume (bigger than 25–30 ml), provided reproducible values (relative standard deviation< 10%), and showed high sensitivity to changes in heterogeneity. Phantom measurements are a viable way to test the reliability of heterogeneity parameters that would be of interest to nuclear imaging clinicians. PMID:27736888

  1. Evaluation of cancer detection with whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) and 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoh, Carl K.; Hawkins, Randall A.; Glaspy, John A.; Dahlbom, Magnus; Tse, Nielson Y.; Hoffman, Edward T.; Schiepers, Christiaan; Choi, Yong; Rege, Sheila; Nitzsche, Egbert U.; Maddahi, Jamshid; Phelps, Michael E.

    1993-08-01

    Until recently, positron emission tomography (PET) has been acquired and displayed in a standard transaxial image format. The development of whole body PET has allowed biochemical and physiologic imaging of the entire body, expanding the limited axial field of view of the conventional PET scanner. In this study, the application of whole body PET studies with 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) for tumor imaging was evaluated. Whole body PET studies were positive (presence of focal FDG uptake relative to surrounding tissue activity) in 61 of 70 patients (87%) with biopsy confirmed malignant tumors. PET images failed to reveal focal hypermetabolism in 9 of the 70 patients. Of the 17 patients with benign biopsies lesions, 13 patients had whole body PET studies without focal areas of FDG uptake. Because of the high glycolytic rate of malignant tissue, the whole body PET FDG technique has promise in the detection of a wide variety of both primary and metastatic malignancies. The presence of FDG uptake in benign inflammatory conditions may limit the specificity of the technique. The true positive rates for the characterization of known lesions was 87% in this series, and the PET FDG method is promising both in determining both the nature of a localized lesion, and in defining the systemic extent of malignant disease.

  2. Haematogenous muscular metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer in F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Savas, Karyagar; Pinar, Koc Zehra; Sevda, Karyagar Saglampinar; Ugur, Kesici; Evrim, Savli; Halit, Cinarka; Sevdegul, Mungan; Ansal, Balci Tansel

    2015-01-01

    F-18 FDG PET/CT is the most effective method for demonstrating extrapulmonary metastases of lung cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the level of muscular metastasis of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) in F-18 FDG PET/CT and to demonstrate the characteristics of this special group of patients. A total of 1150 patients with the diagnosis of NSCLC, who were referred for F-18 FDG PET/CT, were included into the study. Among these patients, the findings of 13 who were shown to have muscle metastases were studied. In the retrospective analysis of the patients, 13 patients (12 male, 1 female; mean: 59 ±7 years old) were found to have haematogenous (excluding local invasion) muscular metastases of NSCLC using F-18 FDG PET/CT. Two of the 13 patients had only muscular metastases (one patient isolated, one patient two foci). The other 11 patients had additional distant metastases in six metastatic sites (bone in 7 patients, distant lymph node in 6, adrenal gland in 5, contralateral lung in 3, liver in 1, and brain metastasis in 1 patient). Five patients died during the mean 11 ±8 months follow up. Muscular metastasis is not a rare condition, especially in F-18 FDG PET/CT examinations, and is frequently associated with additional distant metastases.

  3. Haematogenous muscular metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer in F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Savas, Karyagar; Pinar, Koc Zehra; Sevda, Karyagar Saglampinar; Evrim, Savli; Halit, Cinarka; Sevdegul, Mungan; Ansal, Balci Tansel

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study F-18 FDG PET/CT is the most effective method for demonstrating extrapulmonary metastases of lung cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the level of muscular metastasis of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) in F-18 FDG PET/CT and to demonstrate the characteristics of this special group of patients. Material and methods A total of 1150 patients with the diagnosis of NSCLC, who were referred for F-18 FDG PET/CT, were included into the study. Among these patients, the findings of 13 who were shown to have muscle metastases were studied. Results In the retrospective analysis of the patients, 13 patients (12 male, 1 female; mean: 59 ±7 years old) were found to have haematogenous (excluding local invasion) muscular metastases of NSCLC using F-18 FDG PET/CT. Two of the 13 patients had only muscular metastases (one patient isolated, one patient two foci). The other 11 patients had additional distant metastases in six metastatic sites (bone in 7 patients, distant lymph node in 6, adrenal gland in 5, contralateral lung in 3, liver in 1, and brain metastasis in 1 patient). Five patients died during the mean 11 ±8 months follow up. Conclusions Muscular metastasis is not a rare condition, especially in F-18 FDG PET/CT examinations, and is frequently associated with additional distant metastases. PMID:26557766

  4. Rare case of primary inferior vena cava leiomyosarcoma on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan: Differentiation from nontumor thrombus in a background of procoagulant state.

    PubMed

    Singh, Natasha; Shivdasani, Divya; Karangutkar, Sanket

    2014-10-01

    We report a rare case of leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava (IVC) in which F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan provided vital evidence, which led to its diagnosis, in a background of procoagulant state of the patient, where previous ultrasound-Doppler and echocardiography studies were nonspecific and revealed bilateral lower limb deep vein thrombosis with thrombus in IVC. The whole body F-18 FDG PET-CT scan was done in view of no significant improvement in clinical status of the patient over few months in spite of appropriate medical management. FDG PET-CT scan revealed high grade uptake in a large mass lesion occupying the right atrium, extending superiorly into terminal superior vena cava, inferiorly into dilated IVC and probably into hepatic veins. CT guided biopsy of this F-18 FDG avid mass was consistent with the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma, which however was not amenable to surgery at this stage. F-18 FDG PET-CT accurately differentiated tumor mass from bland thrombus and further had a significant impact on the management, since aggressive surgery combined with adjuvant therapy offers the best outcome for patients with leiomyosarcoma of the IVC.

  5. Very low-dose adult whole-body tumor imaging with F-18 FDG PET/CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krol, Andrzej; Naveed, Muhammad; McGrath, Mary; Lisi, Michele; Lavalley, Cathy; Feiglin, David

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if effective radiation dose due to PET component in adult whole-body tumor imaging with time-of-flight F-18 FDG PET/CT could be significantly reduced. We retrospectively analyzed data for 10 patients with the body mass index ranging from 25 to 50. We simulated F-18 FDG dose reduction to 25% of the ACR recommended dose via reconstruction of simulated shorter acquisition time per bed position scans from the acquired list data. F-18 FDG whole-body scans were reconstructed using time-of-flight OSEM algorithm and advanced system modeling. Two groups of images were obtained: group A with a standard dose of F-18 FDG and standard reconstruction parameters and group B with simulated 25% dose and modified reconstruction parameters, respectively. Three nuclear medicine physicians blinded to the simulated activity independently reviewed the images and compared diagnostic quality of images. Based on the input from the physicians, we selected optimal modified reconstruction parameters for group B. In so obtained images, all the lesions observed in the group A were visible in the group B. The tumor SUV values were different in the group A, as compared to group B, respectively. However, no significant differences were reported in the final interpretation of the images from A and B groups. In conclusion, for a small number of patients, we have demonstrated that F-18 FDG dose reduction to 25% of the ACR recommended dose, accompanied by appropriate modification of the reconstruction parameters provided adequate diagnostic quality of PET images acquired on time-of-flight PET/CT.

  6. C11-acetate and F-18 FDG PET for men with prostate cancer bone metastases: relative findings and response to therapy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Evan Y; Muzi, Mark; Hackenbracht, Joy A; Rezvani, Brian B; Link, Jeanne M; Montgomery, Robert Bruce; Higano, Celestia S; Eary, Janet F; Mankoff, David A

    2011-03-01

    This study tested the feasibility of C11-acetate (acetate) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to assess response to therapy in men with bone metastatic prostate cancer and compared results for disease detection and response evaluation with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET. Men with ≥3 prostate cancer bone metastases identified by Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scintigraphy and/or computed tomography were enrolled in a prospective study of serial acetate and FDG PET imaging. Patients were imaged before and 6 to 12 weeks after initial androgen deprivation therapy for new metastatic prostate cancer or first-line chemotherapy with docetaxel for castration-resistant prostate cancer. Qualitative assessment and changes in the tumor:normal uptake ratio were used to assess response by both acetate and FDG PET. In addition, the detection of bone metastases pretherapy was compared for acetate and FDG PET. A total of 8 patients with documented bone metastases were imaged, of which 6 were imaged both pre- and post-therapy. Acetate PET detected bone metastases in all 8 patients, whereas FDG PET detected lesions in 6 of the 7 imaged patients. Acetate PET generally detected more metastases with a higher tumor:normal uptake ratio. Qualitative and quantitative assessments of post-treatment response correlated with composite clinical designations of response, stable disease, or progression in 6 of 6 and 5 of 6 by acetate and 4 of 5 and 3 of 5 by FDG PET, respectively. In this pilot study, results indicate that acetate PET holds promise for response assessment of prostate cancer bone metastases and is complementary to FDG PET in bone metastasis detection.

  7. An intra-operative positron probe with background rejection capability for FDG-guided surgery.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Matsumoto, Keiichi; Sakamoto, Setsu; Tarutani, Kazumasa; Minato, Kotaro; Senda, Michio

    2005-02-01

    For radio-guided surgery on tumors using F-18-FDG, detection of annihilation gamma photons emanating from other parts of the body produces background radiation counts and limits its use in clinical situations. To overcome this limitation, we have developed an intra-operative positron probe with background-rejection capability. The positron probe uses a phoswich detector composed of a plastic scintillator and a bismuth germinate (BGO). A positron from a positron emitter such as F-18 is detected by the plastic scintillator and emits annihilation photons. The BGO detects one of the annihilation photons while a photo-multiplier tube (PMT) detects scintillation photons from both scintillators. The decay time differences of these two scintillators are used to distinguish whether the event is a true event where a positron and a following annihilation photon are detected simultaneously, or a background event. In this configuration, only positrons can be selectively detected, even in an environment of high background gamma photon flux. Spatial resolution was 11-mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) 5 mm from the detector surface. Measured sensitivity for the F-18 point source was 2.6 cps/kBq 5 mm from the detector surface. The background count rate was less than 0.5 cps for a 20-cm diameter cylindrical phantom containing 37 MBq of F-18 solution measured on the phantom surface, while the positron count rate was almost linear over a range of approximately 6 kcps. These results indicate that our developed intra-operative positron probe is valuable for radio-guided surgery on tumors using F-18-FDG in a high flux of background annihilation gamma photons.

  8. Radiation assessment to paediatric with F-18-FDG undergo whole-body PET/CT examination

    SciTech Connect

    Dhalisa, H. Rafidah, Z.; Mohamad, A. S.

    2016-01-22

    This study was carried out on wholebody radiation dose assessment to paediatrics patient who undergo PET/CT scanner at Institut Kanser Negara. Consist of 68 patients with varies of malignancies and epilepsy disease case covering age between 2 years to 12 years old. This is a retrospective study from 2010-2014. The use of PET/CT scanner as an advanced tool has been proven to give an extra radiation dose to the patient. It is because of the radiation exposure from the combination of both CT and PET scans rather than a single CT or PET scan. Furthermore, a study on radiation dose to paediatric patient undergoing PET/CT is rare in Malaysia. So, the aim of this study is to estimate the wholebody effective dose to paediatric patient in Malaysia. Effective dose from PET scan was calculated based on the activity of F18 FDG and dose coefficient reported in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 106. Effective dose from CT was determined using k coefficient as reported in ICRP publication 102 and Dose Length Product (DLP) value. The average effective dose from PET and CT were found to be 7.05mSv and 5.77mSv respectively. The mean wholebody effective dose received by a patient with combined PETCT examination was 12.78mSv. These results could be used as reference for dosimetry of a patient undergoing PETCT examination in Malaysia.

  9. Radiation assessment to paediatric with F-18-FDG undergo whole-body PET/CT examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhalisa, H.; Mohamad, A. S.; Rafidah, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out on wholebody radiation dose assessment to paediatrics patient who undergo PET/CT scanner at Institut Kanser Negara. Consist of 68 patients with varies of malignancies and epilepsy disease case covering age between 2 years to 12 years old. This is a retrospective study from 2010-2014. The use of PET/CT scanner as an advanced tool has been proven to give an extra radiation dose to the patient. It is because of the radiation exposure from the combination of both CT and PET scans rather than a single CT or PET scan. Furthermore, a study on radiation dose to paediatric patient undergoing PET/CT is rare in Malaysia. So, the aim of this study is to estimate the wholebody effective dose to paediatric patient in Malaysia. Effective dose from PET scan was calculated based on the activity of F18 FDG and dose coefficient reported in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 106. Effective dose from CT was determined using k coefficient as reported in ICRP publication 102 and Dose Length Product (DLP) value. The average effective dose from PET and CT were found to be 7.05mSv and 5.77mSv respectively. The mean wholebody effective dose received by a patient with combined PETCT examination was 12.78mSv. These results could be used as reference for dosimetry of a patient undergoing PETCT examination in Malaysia.

  10. Metformin discontinuation less than 72 h is suboptimal for F-18 FDG PET/CT interpretation of the bowel.

    PubMed

    Lee, Suk Hyun; Jin, Soyoung; Lee, Hyo Sang; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Lee, Jong Jin

    2016-11-01

    Metformin-induced [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) bowel uptake can hinder positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) evaluation of the bowel. This study aimed to investigate the segmental bowel uptake of FDG according to metformin discontinuation times up to 72 h. We retrospectively divided 240 diabetic patients into four groups: metformin discontinuation <24 h (group A; n = 86), 24-48 h (group B; n = 40), 48-72 h (group C; n = 12), and no metformin (control group; n = 102). Segmental FDG bowel uptakes were measured visually (four-point scale) and semi-quantitatively (maximum standardized uptake value). Compared with the control group, FDG uptake increased significantly from the ileum to the rectosigmoid colon in group A, from the transverse to the rectosigmoid colon in group B, and from the descending colon to the rectosigmoid colon in group C in both visual and semi-quantitative analyses. Metformin discontinuation for <72 h is likely suboptimal for PET/CT image interpretation, especially with respect to the distal segments of the colon.

  11. Predictive value of F-18 FDG PET/CT quantization parameters in diffuse large B cell lymphoma: a meta-analysis with 702 participants.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mixue; Wu, Kefei; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Qi; Xie, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT) is considered to be the most beneficial imaging method for staging patients with lymphoma. Whether maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) acquired from F-18 FDG PET/CT are predictors of prognosis of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is controversial, with some studies concluding that it is and others concluding the opposite. Therefore, a systematic review was performed to explore the relationship of F-18 FDG PET/CT quantization parameters with the prognosis of DLBCL. Seven trials with a total of 703 DLBCL patients were included for analysis. Hazard ratios (HRs) for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), and odds ratios (ORs) for 3-year PFS and OS were pooled using the STATA package. Combined results suggested a strong link between the high SUVmax, MTV and TLG values and the poor 3-year PFS with ORs of 2.59, 3.69 and 2.29, respectively. Similarly, high MTV and TLG values unfavorably influenced the 3-year OS with ORs of 5.40 and 2.19, respectively. The pooled results also showed that high SUVmax and MTV were negative predictors of PFS with HRs of 1.61 (p = 0.038) and 2.18 (p = 0.000), respectively. The TLG value was not predictive of PFS. And for OS, only high MTV was a strong predictor of poor prognosis in DLBCL with HR 2.99 (p = 0.000). Our results suggested that SUVmax and MTV may be significant prognostic markers for PFS and MTV may be the only predictor for OS in DLBCL.

  12. Role of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the detection of recurrence in patients with cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Bhoil, Amit; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Bhattacharya, Anish; Santhosh, Sampath; Patel, Firuza

    2013-10-01

    Treatment of cervical cancer is usually surgery in the early stages and radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy in more advanced stages of the disease. Recurrence may occur in multiple sites following primary treatment. Although recurrent metastatic disease is not curable, surgical treatment may be of great help if locoregional recurrence is detected early. Fluorine-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography - computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) forms an important part of investigations in the diagnosis of clinically suspicious recurrent cervical cancer. To assess the role of F-18 FDG PET/CT in diagnosing recurrence in patients with clinical suspicion of recurrent cervical cancer. We retrospectively evaluated 53 histopathologically proved patients of cervical cancer. All the patients had been treated with either surgery/radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. The standard PET/CT acquisition protocol, with delayed post void static pelvic images, wherever required, was followed in all patients. Significant uptake of FDG in the lymph nodes was considered to be a recurrence suggestive of metastasis. Para-aortic lymph nodal involvement was considered to be distant metastasis. Any significant uptake in the lung nodule on FDG PET was evaluated either by histological confirmation, by taking fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), or by a follow-up chest CT done after three months. Of the 53 patients with clinically equivocal recurrence, FDG PET/CT suggested recurrence in 41 patients (local recurrence in 14 patients and distant recurrence/metastasis with or without local recurrence in 27 patients). It had a sensitivity of 97.5%, a specificity of 63.6%, positive predictive value of 90.9%, and negative predictive value of 87.5%. PET/CT appears to have an important role in detecting recurrence following primary treatment of cervical cancer. The high positive and negative predictive values of PET/CT may be helpful in planning management of recurrent cervical cancer.

  13. F18-FDG-PET/CT for evaluation of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN): a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bertagna, Francesco; Treglia, Giorgio; Baiocchi, Gian Luca; Giubbini, Raffaele

    2013-04-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) are intraductal mucin-producing neoplasms with tall columnar, mucin-containing epithelium, with or without papillary projections, involving the main pancreatic duct and/or major side branches. They account for approximately 25 % of all cystic neoplasms and can be subdivided into benign lesions, borderline lesions, and carcinoma. In this clinical scenario accurate preoperative diagnosis can eliminate unnecessary surgery, which is risky and potentially harmful, yet enable effective selection of patients who are candidates for surgery. In this review we try to provide a complete evaluation of the use of F18-FDG-PET/CT for diagnosis of this neoplasm on the basis of published papers. F18-FDG-PET/CT seems to be an useful technique for preoperative work-up of patients with suspected IPMN and is an improvement over conventional imaging in distinguishing benign from malignant lesions, especially for selecting patients for surgical treatment or for long-term follow-up.

  14. Prognostic value of pre-treatment F-18-FDG PET-CT in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing radioembolization

    PubMed Central

    Abuodeh, Yazan; Naghavi, Arash O; Ahmed, Kamran A; Venkat, Puja S; Kim, Youngchul; Kis, Bela; Choi, Junsung; Biebel, Benjamin; Sweeney, Jennifer; Anaya, Daniel A; Kim, Richard; Malafa, Mokenge; Frakes, Jessica M; Hoffe, Sarah E; El-Haddad, Ghassan

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the value of pre-treatment 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with HCC following liver radioembolization. METHODS We identified 34 patients with HCC who underwent an FDG PET/CT scan prior to hepatic radioembolization at our institution between 2009 and 2013. Patients were seen in clinic one month after radioembolization and then at 2-3 mo intervals. We assessed the influence of FDG tumor uptake on outcomes including local liver control (LLC), distant liver control (DLC), time to distant metastases (DM), progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS The majority of patients were males (n = 25, 74%), and had Child Pugh Class A (n = 31, 91%), with a median age of 68 years (46-84 years). FDG-avid disease was found in 19 (56%) patients with SUVmax ranging from 3 to 20. Female patients were more likely to have an FDG-avid HCC (P = 0.02). Median follow up of patients following radioembolization was 12 months (1.2-62.8 mo). FDG-avid disease was associated with a decreased 1 year LLC, DLC, DM and PFS (P < 0.05). Using multivariate analysis, FDG avidity predicted for LLC, DLC, and PFS (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION In this retrospective study, pre-treatment HCC FDG-avidity was found to be associated with worse LLC, DLC, and PFS following radioembolization. Larger studies are needed to validate our initial findings to assess the role of F-18-FDG PET/CT scans as biomarker for patients with HCC following radioembolization. PMID:28058021

  15. [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for targeting radiation dose escalation for patients with glioblastoma multiforme: Clinical outcomes and patterns of failure

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, James G. . E-mail: drjay@u.washington.edu; Stelzer, Keith J.; Mankoff, David A.; Tralins, Kevin S.; Krohn, Kenneth A.; Muzi, Mark; Silbergeld, Daniel L.; Rostomily, Robert C.; Scharnhorst, Jeffrey B.S.; Spence, Alexander M.

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging for brain tumors has been shown to identify areas of active disease. Radiation dose escalation in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme may lead to improved disease control. Based on these premises, we initiated a prospective study of FDG-PET for the treatment planning of radiation dose escalation for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. Methods and Materials: Forty patients were enrolled. Patients were treated with standard conformal fractionated radiotherapy with volumes defined by MRI imaging. When patients reached a dose of 45-50.4 Gy, they underwent FDG-PET imaging for boost target delineation, for an additional 20 Gy (2 Gy per fraction) to a total dose of 79.4 Gy (n = 30). Results: The estimated 1-year and 2-year overall survival (OS) for the entire group was 70% and 17%, respectively, with a median overall survival of 70 weeks. The estimated 1-year and 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 18% and 3%, respectively, with a median of 24 weeks. No significant improvements in OS or PFS were observed for the study group in comparison to institutional historical controls. Conclusions: Radiation dose escalation to 79.4 Gy based on FDG-PET imaging demonstrated no improvement in OS or PFS. This study establishes the feasibility of integrating PET metabolic imaging into radiotherapy treatment planning.

  16. An evaluation of [F-18]-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography, bone scan, and bone marrow aspiration/biopsy as staging investigations in Ewing sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Newman, Erik N; Jones, Robin L; Hawkins, Douglas S

    2013-07-01

    Staging investigations following the diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma may include chest computerized tomography (CT), technetium bone scintigraphy (bone scan), [F-18]-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scan, and bone marrow biopsy and aspiration (BMA/Bx). Each of these staging investigations provides complementary prognostic information, however the optimal combination of staging investigations is not clear. We conducted a retrospective study of 91 patients diagnosed with Ewing sarcoma and consecutively treated at our medical facilities between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2011. We compared the radiologist's interpretations of staging FDG-PET and bone scans. We additionally compared the results of imaging evaluations to bilateral and unilateral BMA/Bx. We found FDG-PET and bone scan to have an examination-based concordance rate of 98% (one discordant case with a positive FDG-PET and negative bone scan). The region-based concordance rate for the imaging modalities was 97% for all cases and 63% for metastatic cases. The ipsilateral concordance rate for BMA/Bx was 98% with BMBx detecting metastases in seven cases and BMA detecting metastases in four cases. The left versus right concordance rates for BMBx and BMA were 98% and 97%, respectively. In all cases where bone marrow metastases were detected by BMA or BMBx, FDG-PET and bone scan detected osseous metastases. Our study indicates FDG-PET may be sufficient for initial screening for osseous metastases and identified all patients who also have bone marrow metastases. If osseous metastases are detected, a bone scan can detect additional osseous lesions and BMBx may indicate prognostic bone marrow metastases. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Response Assessment and Prediction in Esophageal Cancer Patients via F-18 FDG PET/CT Scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Kyle J.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to utilize F-18 FDG PET/CT scans to determine an indicator for the response of esophageal cancer patients during radiation therapy. There is a need for such an indicator since local failures are quite common in esophageal cancer patients despite modern treatment techniques. If an indicator is found, a patient's treatment strategy may be altered to possibly improve the outcome. This is investigated with various standard uptake volume (SUV) metrics along with image texture features. The metrics and features showing the most promise and indicating response are used in logistic regression analysis to find an equation for the prediction of response. Materials and Methods: 28 patients underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT scans prior to the start of radiation therapy (RT). A second PET/CT scan was administered following the delivery of ~32 Gray (Gy) of dose. A physician contoured gross tumor volume (GTV) was used to delineate a PET based GTV (GTV-pre-PET) based on a threshold of >40% and >20% of the maximum SUV value in the GTV. Deformable registration was used in VelocityAI software to register the pre-treatment and intra-treatment CT scans so that the GTV-pre-PET contours could be transferred from the pre to intra scans (GTV-intra-PET). The fractional decrease in the maximum, mean, volume to the highest intensity 10%-90%, and combination SUV metrics of the significant previous SUV metrics were compared to post-treatment pathologic response for an indication of response. Next for the >40% threshold, texture features based on a neighborhood gray-tone dimension matrix (NGTDM) were analyzed. The fractional decrease in coarseness, contrast, busyness, complexity, and texture strength were compared to the pathologic response of the patients. From these previous two types of analysis, SUV and texture features, the two most significant results were used in logistic regression analysis to find an equation to predict the probability of a non

  18. Is there any complimentary role of F-18 NaF PET/CT in detecting of osseous involvement of multiple myeloma? A comparative study for F-18 FDG PET/CT and F-18 FDG NaF PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Ak, İlknur; Onner, Hasan; Akay, Olga Meltem

    2015-09-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a disease characterized by a monoclonal plasma cell population in the bone marrow whereby osseous involvement is a predominant feature. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the combined use of F-18 FDG and F-18 NaF PET/CT in the skeletal assessment of patients with MM and to compare the efficacy of these two PET tracers regarding detection of myeloma-indicative osseous lesions. A total of 26 patients (14 females and 12 males, mean age 61.8 ± 1.8 years (range 40-81 years)) with MM diagnosed according to standard criteria. All patients underwent both F-18 FDG PET/CT and F-18 NaF PET/CT scans within 1 week after the completion of the usual staging workup for MM. In total, approximately 128 focal F-18 FDG avid skeletal lesions were detected; the stage I (n = 5) patients had 10 bone lesions, the stage II (n = 11) patients had 43 lesions, and the stage III (n = 10) patients demonstrated 75 focal bone lesions. F-18 NaF PET/CTs demonstrated fewer myeloma indicative lesions than F-18 FDG PET/CTs. Totally, 57 focal bone lesions were detected with whole body F-18 NaF PET/CT (mean 2.19 ± 0.34, between 1 and 9 lesions); the five stage I patients had 6 bone lesions, the 11 stage II pts had 18 lesions, and the ten stage III patients demonstrated 33 focal bone lesions. On the other hand, F-18 NaF PET/CT demonstrated additional 135 bone lesions defined as rib fractures and other findings due to degenerative changes. In conclusion, our study implies that F-18 NaF PET/CT scan did not actually aid for assessing the myelomatous bone lesions in patients with MM. Therefore, a complementary F-18 NaF PET/CT may be an accurate modality for detecting of bone fracture in patients with MM.

  19. F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography study of Impaired Emotion Processing in First Episode Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Mona; Kumar, Arvind; Tripathi, Madhavi; Bhatia, Triptish; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Beniwal, Ram Pratap; Gur, Ruben C.; Gur, Raquel E.; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia cases have consistently shown to have behavioural and neurofunctional abnormalities but studies during early course are scarce. The present work assesses the performance of acute first episode schizophrenia cases on correlation of a facial emotion perception task with brain function using Fluorine-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Methods Twenty First episode schizophrenia cases and 20 matched healthy controls living in the community were enrolled. For cases, longest duration of illness was one year and treatment with neuroleptic did not exceed two weeks on the day of scan. To measure facial emotion perception (FEP) both groups were administered the Emotion battery from the Penn Computerized Battery followed by PET acquisition. SPM 8 analysis for group differences at p<0.001 was performed. Results Schizophrenia subjects showed hypoactivation of bilateral prefrontal cortices and fusiform gyrii, with significant hyperactivation of bilateral basal ganglia and left precuneus. Positive correlation of metabolism in prefrontal cortex and performance indices on emotions domain was seen. No correlation of CPZ equivalent days with metabolism in basal ganglia was observed. Conclusions The performance of schizophrenia cases on FEP task was significantly impaired in comparison to the control group. Brain regions implicated in emotion processing showed hypometabolism in cases as compared to controls. Failure of schizophrenia cases to optimally recruit brain circuitry may be contributing to deficits on FEP task. These findings suggest inherent deficits in neural circuitry of emotion processing in schizophrenia; devoid of confounding effects of neuroleptics and duration of illness. PMID:25655909

  20. Pulmonary artery sarcoma detected on F-18 FDG PET/CT as origin of multiple spinal metastases.

    PubMed

    Chun, In Kook; Eo, Jae Seon; Paeng, Jin Chul; Kim, Dong Wan; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    2011-08-01

    A 67-year-old man with back pain was diagnosed as having multiple spinal metastases on MRI. On CT scan, only a filling defect in the right pulmonary artery was observed and suspected as venous thromboembolism. On F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT, intense hypermetabolism was observed in the right pulmonary artery in addition to the metastatic spine lesions. Biopsy confirmed the lesion as a primary pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS), and the spine lesions as metastases of PAS. Although PAS is rare and its bone metastasis presenting initial symptom is extremely rare, FDG PET/CT is an effective diagnostic modality for PAS, not only in discrimination from venous thromboembolism, but also in workup of metastatic origin.

  1. Usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in a case of Kaposi sarcoma with an unexpected bone lesion.

    PubMed

    Morooka, Miyako; Ito, Kimiteru; Kubota, Kazuo; Yanagisawa, Kunio; Teruya, Katsuji; Hasuo, Kahehiro; Shida, Yoshitaka; Minamimoto, Rhogo; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi

    2011-03-01

    Bone lesions of Kaposi sarcoma are rare. A 56-year-old man who was HIV positive and was diagnosed with Kaposi sarcoma on the basis of the results of a biopsy of skin lesions, underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT scan for detecting Kaposi sarcoma lesions and other AIDS-related diseases. An abnormal uptake was observed in the lumbar spine. MRI showed a diffuse enhanced spine lesion, and Ga-67 and ²⁰¹Tl scanning were negative. As a result, the lesion was considered to be a Kaposi sarcoma, and the shrinkage of the lesion was noted after the therapy for Kaposi sarcoma.

  2. F-18 deoxyglucose and stress N-13 ammonia positron emission tomography in anterior wall healed myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Fudo, T.; Kambara, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayashi, M.; Nohara, R.; Tamaki, N.; Yonekura, Y.; Senda, M.; Konishi, J.; Kawai, C.

    1988-06-01

    To evaluate myocardial blood flow and glucose utilization, N-13 ammonia (NH3) and F-18 deoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning was performed in 22 patients with previous anterior wall myocardial infarction, using a high-resolution, multi-slice, whole-body scanner. The N-13 ammonia study was performed at rest and after exercise. The F-18 deoxyglucose study was performed at rest after fasting greater than 5 hours. The N-13 ammonia study revealed a hypoperfused area in 19 of the 22 patients (86%), that corresponded to the infarcted regions as diagnosed by electrocardiography, coronary arteriography and left ventriculography (21 patients). The hypoperfused areas expanded after exercise in 16 of 22 patients (73%). F-18 deoxyglucose uptake was observed in these hypoperfused areas, especially in patients with hypokinetic wall motion on left ventriculography and in exercise-induced hypoperfused areas. However, positron emission tomography demonstrated diffuse uptake of F-18 deoxyglucose in 3 of 8 patients with dyskinetic wall motion. Thus, metabolically active myocardium in infarcted areas or periinfarct ischemia can be visualized with F-18 deoxyglucose and stress N-13 ammonia studies.

  3. Three-dimensional texture analysis of contrast enhanced CT images for treatment response assessment in Hodgkin lymphoma: Comparison with F-18-FDG PET

    SciTech Connect

    Knogler, Thomas; El-Rabadi, Karem; Weber, Michael; Karanikas, Georgios; Mayerhoefer, Marius E.

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: To determine the diagnostic performance of three-dimensional (3D) texture analysis (TA) of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) images for treatment response assessment in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), compared with F-18-fludeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/CT. Methods: 3D TA of 48 lymph nodes in 29 patients was performed on venous-phase CE-CT images before and after chemotherapy. All lymph nodes showed pathologically elevated FDG uptake at baseline. A stepwise logistic regression with forward selection was performed to identify classic CT parameters and texture features (TF) that enable the separation of complete response (CR) and persistent disease. Results: The TF fraction of image in runs, calculated for the 45° direction, was able to correctly identify CR with an accuracy of 75%, a sensitivity of 79.3%, and a specificity of 68.4%. Classical CT features achieved an accuracy of 75%, a sensitivity of 86.2%, and a specificity of 57.9%, whereas the combination of TF and CT imaging achieved an accuracy of 83.3%, a sensitivity of 86.2%, and a specificity of 78.9%. Conclusions: 3D TA of CE-CT images is potentially useful to identify nodal residual disease in HL, with a performance comparable to that of classical CT parameters. Best results are achieved when TA and classical CT features are combined.

  4. Predictive value of intratumoral heterogeneity of F-18 FDG uptake for characterization of thyroid nodules according to Bethesda categories of fine needle aspiration biopsy results.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Jang; Chang, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    The current study was aimed to investigate the clinical value of intratumoral heterogeneity of F-18 FDG uptake for characterization of thyroid nodule (TN) with inconclusive fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) results. The current study enrolled 200 patients who showed F-18 FDG incidentaloma and were performed FNAB. The intratumoral heterogeneity of F-18 FDG uptake was represented as the heterogeneity factor (HF), defined as the derivative (dV/dT) of a volume-threshold function for a primary tumor. The diagnostic and predictive values of HF and F-18 FDG PET/CT parameters were evaluated for characterization of inconclusive FNAB results. Among F-18 FDG PET/CT parameters, SUVmax, MTV, and TLG of malignant group were statistically higher than those of Bethesda category of suspicious malignant group. However, HF values were not statistically different between the groups of Bethesda categories (Kruskal-Wallis statistics, 9.924; p = 0.0774). In ROC analysis, when HF > 2.751 was used as cut-off value, the sensitivity and specificity for prediction of malignant TN were 100 % (95 % CI 69.2-100 %) and 60 % (95 % CI 42.1-76.1 %), respectively. The AUC was 0.826 (95 % CI 0.684-0.922) and standard error was 0.0648 (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the intratumoral heterogeneity of F-18 FDG uptake represented by HF could be a predictor for characterization of TN with inconclusive FNAB results. Additional large population-based prospective studies are needed to validate the diagnostic utility of HF of F-18 FDG PET/CT.

  5. Validating novel tau positron emission tomography tracer [F-18]-AV-1451 (T807) on postmortem brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Marquié, Marta; Normandin, Marc D; Vanderburg, Charles R; Costantino, Isabel M; Bien, Elizabeth A; Rycyna, Lisa G; Klunk, William E; Mathis, Chester A; Ikonomovic, Milos D; Debnath, Manik L; Vasdev, Neil; Dickerson, Bradford C; Gomperts, Stephen N; Growdon, John H; Johnson, Keith A; Frosch, Matthew P; Hyman, Bradley T; Gómez-Isla, Teresa

    2015-11-01

    To examine region- and substrate-specific autoradiographic and in vitro binding patterns of positron emission tomography tracer [F-18]-AV-1451 (previously known as T807), tailored to allow in vivo detection of paired helical filament-tau-containing lesions, and to determine whether there is off-target binding to other amyloid/non-amyloid proteins. We applied [F-18]-AV-1451 phosphor screen autoradiography, [F-18]-AV-1451 nuclear emulsion autoradiography, and [H-3]-AV-1451 in vitro binding assays to the study of postmortem samples from patients with a definite pathological diagnosis of Alzheimer disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration-tau, frontotemporal lobar degeneration-transactive response DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43), progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, cerebral amyloid angiopathy and elderly controls free of pathology. Our data suggest that [F-18]-AV-1451 strongly binds to tau lesions primarily made of paired helical filaments in Alzheimer brains (eg, intraneuronal and extraneuronal tangles and dystrophic neurites), but does not seem to bind to a significant extent to neuronal and glial inclusions mainly composed of straight tau filaments in non-Alzheimer tauopathy brains or to lesions containing β-amyloid, α-synuclein, or TDP-43. [F-18]-AV-1451 off-target binding to neuromelanin- and melanin-containing cells and, to a lesser extent, to brain hemorrhagic lesions was identified. Our data suggest that [F-18]-AV-1451 holds promise as a surrogate marker for the detection of brain tau pathology in the form of tangles and paired helical filament-tau-containing neurites in Alzheimer brains but also point to its relatively lower affinity for lesions primarily made of straight tau filaments in non-Alzheimer tauopathy cases and to the existence of some [F-18]-AV-1451 off-target binding. These findings provide important insights for interpreting in vivo patterns of [F-18]-AV-1451 retention

  6. Diagnosis of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection using [F-18]-FDG PET: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rehman, T; Chohan, M O; Yonas, H

    2011-06-01

    Infection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunts is a common occurrence and can often be difficult to diagnose using standard analysis of shunt fluid. This article presents the first case report on the diagnosis of a CSF shunt infection on FDG PET scan. A 26-year-old female underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement after developing a pseudomeningocele subsequent to a suboccipital craniectomy for Chiari malformation. Two months later, the patient presented with abdominal pain and non-specific symptoms and was found to have a perisplenic abscess for which she was adequately treated. Failure of her symptoms to solve and an initial negative shunt CSF analysis prompted the search for other sources of infection. An FDG PET scan performed a week later found evidence of increase tracer uptake around the distal tip of the catheter and a repeat shunt CSF analysis showed evidence of CSF infection. FDG PET may be useful in diagnosing shunt related infections in case of high clinical suspicion when standard diagnostic modalities fail to diagnose hardware infection.

  7. Quantification of F-18 FDG PET images in temporal lobe epilepsy patients using probabilistic brain atlas.

    PubMed

    Kang, K W; Lee, D S; Cho, J H; Lee, J S; Yeo, J S; Lee, S K; Chung, J K; Lee, M C

    2001-07-01

    A probabilistic atlas of the human brain (Statistical Probabilistic Anatomical Maps: SPAM) was developed by the international consortium for brain mapping (ICBM). It is a good frame for calculating volume of interest (VOI) in many fields of brain images. After calculating the counts in VOI using the product of probability of SPAM images and counts in FDG images, asymmetric indices (AI) were calculated and used for finding epileptogenic zones in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). FDG PET images from 18 surgically confirmed mTLE patients and 22 age-matched controls were spatially normalized to the average brain MRI template of ICBM. Counts from normalized PET images were multiplied with the probability of 12 VOIs from SPAM images in both temporal lobes. Finally AI were calculated on each pair of VOIs, and compared with visual assessment. If AI of mTLE patients were not within 2.9 standard deviation from those of normal control group (P < 0.008; Bonferroni correction for P < 0.05), epileptogenic zones were considered to be found successfully. The counts of VOIs in the normal control group were symmetric (AI < 4.3%, paired t test P > 0.05) except for those of the inferior temporal gyrus (P < 0.001). By AIs in six pairs of VOIs, PET in mTLE had deficit on one side (P < 0.05). Lateralization was correct in only 14/18 of patients by AI, but 17/18 were consistent with visual inspection. In three patients with normal AI, PET images were symmetric on visual inspection. The asymmetric indices obtained by taking the product of the statistical probability anatomical map and FDG PET, correlated well with visual assessment in mTLE patients. SPAM is useful for the quantification of VOIs in functional images.

  8. Radiation Dose from Whole-Body F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography: Nationwide Survey in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate average radiation exposure from 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) examinations and to analyze possible factors affecting the radiation dose. A nation-wide questionnaire survey was conducted involving all institutions that operate PET/CT scanners in Korea. From the response, radiation doses from injected FDG and CT examination were calculated. A total of 105 PET/CT scanners in 73 institutions were included in the analysis (response rate of 62.4%). The average FDG injected activity was 310 ± 77 MBq and 5.11 ± 1.19 MBq/kg. The average effective dose from FDG was estimated to be 5.89 ± 1.46 mSv. The average CT dose index and dose-length product were 4.60 ± 2.47 mGy and 429.2 ± 227.6 mGy∙cm, which corresponded to 6.26 ± 3.06 mSv. The radiation doses from FDG and CT were significantly lower in case of newer scanners than older ones (P < 0.001). Advanced PET technologies such as time-of-flight acquisition and point-spread function recovery were also related to low radiation dose (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the average radiation dose from FDG PET/CT is estimated to be 12.2 mSv. The radiation dose from FDG PET/CT is reduced with more recent scanners equipped with image-enhancing algorithms. PMID:26908992

  9. Nonrigid registration of dynamic breast F-18-FDG PET/CT images using deformable FEM model and CT image warping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Alphonso; Krol, Andrzej; Unlu, Mehmet; Lipson, Edward; Mandel, James; McGraw, Wendy; Lee, Wei; Coman, Ioana; Feiglin, David

    2007-03-01

    This study was undertaken to correct for motion artifacts in dynamic breast F-18-FDG PET/CT images, to improve differential-image quality, and to increase accuracy of time-activity curves. Dynamic PET studies, with subjects prone, and breast suspended freely employed a protocol with 50 frames, each 1-minute long. A 30 s long CT scan was acquired immediately before the first PET frame. F-18-FDG was administered during the first PET time frame. Fiducial skin markers (FSMs) each containing ~0.5 μCi of Ge-68 were taped to each breast. In our PET/PET registration method we utilized CT data. For corresponding FSMs visible on the 1 st and n th frames, the geometrical centroids of FSMs were found and their displacement vectors were estimated and used to deform the finite element method (FEM) mesh of the CT image (registered with 1 st PET frame) to match the consecutive dynamic PET time frames. Each mesh was then deformed to match the 1 st PET frame using known FSM displacement vectors as FEM loads, and the warped PET timeframe volume was created. All PET time frames were thus nonrigidly registered with the first frame. An analogy between orthogonal components of the displacement field and the temperature distribution in steady-state heat transfer in solids is used, via standard heat-conduction FEM software with "conductivity" of surface elements set arbitrarily significantly higher than that of volume elements. Consequently, the surface reaches steady state before the volume. This prevents creation of concentrated FEM loads at the locations of FSMs and reaching incorrect FEM solution. We observe improved similarity between the 1 st and n th frames. The contrast and the spatial definition of metabolically hyperactive regions are superior in the registered 3D images compared to unregistered 3D images. Additional work is needed to eliminate small image artifacts due to FSMs.

  10. Role of F18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography in the management of Askin's tumor.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Sampath; Kashyap, Raghava; Bhattacharya, Anish; Kumar Jindal, Surinder; Rai Mittal, Bhagwant

    2013-07-01

    A primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of the thoraco-abdominal region is one of a group of small round cell tumors usually found in children and young adults, originally described by Askin et al. Most cases arise in the soft-tissues of the thorax, but may rarely occur within the lung with the symptoms of chest wall pain, pleural effusion and dyspnea. The authors present two cases demonstrating the utility of F18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography in the staging and prognosis of PNET of the chest wall.

  11. Quantitative assessment of simultaneous F-18 FDG PET/MRI in patients with various types of hepatic tumors: Correlation between glucose metabolism and apparent diffusion coefficient.

    PubMed

    Kong, Eunjung; Chun, Kyung Ah; Cho, Ihn Ho

    2017-01-01

    Metabolism and water diffusion may have a relationship or an effect on each other in the same tumor. Knowledge of their relationship could expand the understanding of tumor biology and serve the field of oncologic imaging. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between metabolism and water diffusivity in hepatic tumors using a simultaneous positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) system with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and to reveal the metabolic and diffusional characteristics of each type of hepatic tumor. Forty-one patients (mean age 63 ± 13 years, 31 male) with hepatic tumors (18 hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC], six cholangiocarcinoma [CCC], 10 metastatic tumors, one neuroendocrine malignancy, and six benign lesions) underwent FDG PET/MRI before treatment. Maximum standard uptake (SUVmax) values from FDG PET and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from the diffusion-weighted images were obtained for the tumor and their relationships were examined. We also investigated the difference in SUVmax and ADC for each type of tumor. SUVmax showed a negative correlation with ADC (r = -0.404, p = 0.009). The median of SUVmax was 3.22 in HCC, 6.99 in CCC, 6.30 in metastatic tumors, and 1.82 in benign lesions. The median of ADC was 1.039 × 10-3 mm/s2 in HCC, 1.148 × 10-3 mm/s2 in CCC, 0.876 × 10-3 mm/s2 in metastatic tumors, and 1.323 × 10-3 mm/s2 in benign lesions. SUVmax was higher in metastatic tumors than in benign lesions (p = 0.023). Metastatic tumors had a lower ADC than CCC (p = 0.039) and benign lesions (p = 0.004). HCC had a lower ADC than benign lesions, with a suggestive trend (p = 0.06). Our results indicate that SUVmax is negatively correlated with ADC in hepatic tumors, and each group of tumors has different metabolic and water diffusivity characteristics. Evaluation of hepatic tumors by PET/MRI could be helpful in understanding tumor characteristics.

  12. F-18 FDG PET/CT metabolic tumor volume predicts overall survival in patients with disseminated epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Gallicchio, Rosj; Nardelli, Anna; Venetucci, Angela; Capacchione, Daniela; Pelagalli, Alessandra; Sirignano, Cesare; Mainenti, Pierpaolo; Pedicini, Piernicola; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Storto, Giovanni

    2017-08-01

    We evaluated the prognostic impact of quantitative assessment by maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and tumour lesion glycolysis (TLG) on [F-18] FDG PET/CT for patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Thirty-one patients with EOC underwent PET/CT for an early restaging after cytoreductive surgery, having been diagnosed with carcinomatosis (before chemotherapy). The SUVmax, MTV (cm(3); 42% threshold) and TLG (g) were registered on residual peritoneal lesions. The patients were followed up 20±12months thereafter. The PET/CT results were compared to overall survival (OS). The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for the SUVmax did not reveal significant differences in OS (p=0.48). The MTV survival analysis showed a significant higher OS in patients presenting with a higher tumour burden than those with less tumour burden (p=0.01; 26 vs. 14 months), whereas TLG exhibited a similar trend though not significant (p=0.06). Apart from chemo-resistance, the higher the MTV, the better will be the response to chemotherapy. Quantitative assessment by MTV rather than by SUVmax and TLG on PET/CT may be helpful for stratifying patients who present with peritoneal carcinomatosis from EOC, in order to implement the appropriate therapeutic regimen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Registration of parametric dynamic F-18-FDG PET/CT breast images with parametric dynamic Gd-DTPA breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Alphonso; Krol, Andrzej; Lipson, Edward; Mandel, James; McGraw, Wendy; Lee, Wei; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Feiglin, David

    2009-02-01

    This study was undertaken to register 3D parametric breast images derived from Gd-DTPA MR and F-18-FDG PET/CT dynamic image series. Nonlinear curve fitting (Levenburg-Marquardt algorithm) based on realistic two-compartment models was performed voxel-by-voxel separately for MR (Brix) and PET (Patlak). PET dynamic series consists of 50 frames of 1-minute duration. Each consecutive PET image was nonrigidly registered to the first frame using a finite element method and fiducial skin markers. The 12 post-contrast MR images were nonrigidly registered to the precontrast frame using a free-form deformation (FFD) method. Parametric MR images were registered to parametric PET images via CT using FFD because the first PET time frame was acquired immediately after the CT image on a PET/CT scanner and is considered registered to the CT image. We conclude that nonrigid registration of PET and MR parametric images using CT data acquired during PET/CT scan and the FFD method resulted in their improved spatial coregistration. The success of this procedure was limited due to relatively large target registration error, TRE = 15.1+/-7.7 mm, as compared to spatial resolution of PET (6-7 mm), and swirling image artifacts created in MR parametric images by the FFD. Further refinement of nonrigid registration of PET and MR parametric images is necessary to enhance visualization and integration of complex diagnostic information provided by both modalities that will lead to improved diagnostic performance.

  14. Cerebral metabolic rates for glucose in mood disorders. Studies with positron emission tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose F 18

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.R. Jr.; Phelps, M.E.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Schwartz, J.M.; Gerner, R.H.; Selin, C.E.; Sumida, R.M.

    1985-05-01

    Cerebral metabolic rates for glucose were examined in patients with unipolar depression (N = 11), bipolar depression (N = 5), mania (N = 5), bipolar mixed states (N = 3), and in normal controls (N = 9) using positron emission tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose F 18. All subjects were studied supine under ambient room conditions with eyes open. Bipolar depressed and mixed patients had supratentorial whole brain glucose metabolic rates that were significantly lower than those of the other comparison groups. The whole brain metabolic rates for patients with bipolar depression increased going from depression or a mixed state to a euthymic or manic state. Patients with unipolar depression showed a significantly lower ratio of the metabolic rate of the caudate nucleus, divided by that of the hemisphere as a whole, when compared with normal controls and patients with bipolar depression.

  15. Calcified peritoneal metastasis identified on 18F-fluoride positron emission tomography/computed tomography: Importance of extraosseous uptake of F-18 fluoride.

    PubMed

    Verma, Priyanka; Chandra, Piyush; Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    F-18 NaF positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is used for the evaluation of malignant and nonmalignant osseous disease. Extraosseous uptake of 18 fluoride-NaF has been observed in the arterial vasculature, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract. We describe a case of a woman with carcinoma of unknown primary in whom F-18 NaF PET/CT showed tracer uptake in the calcified peritoneal metastasis. Extraosseous findings on F-18 NaF PET/CT, though rare, may be visualized and may result in important management changes.

  16. FDG positron emission computed tomography in a study of aphasia

    SciTech Connect

    Metter, E.J.; Wasterlain, C.G.; Kuhl, D.E.; Hanson, W.R.; Phelps, M.E.

    1981-08-01

    Positron emission computed tomography (PECT) using 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) was used to investigate the correlations between clinical status, anatomy (as described by CT), and metabolism in five patients with stable aphasia resulting from ischemic cerebral infarction. Local cerebral metabolic activity was diminished in an area larger than the area of infarction demonstrated by CT. In one patient, FDG PECT revealed a metabolic lesion that probably caused the aphasic syndrome and was not apparent by CT. The data suggest that reliance on CT in delineating the extent of the brain lesion in aphasia or other neuropsychological defects can be misleading; FDG PECT may provide important additional information. Two patients with similar metabolic lesions had very different clinical syndromes, showing that even when currently available methods are combined, major gaps remain in clinicoanatomical correlations in aphasia.

  17. Can brain thallium 201 SPECT substitute for F-18-FDG PET in detecting recurrent brain tumor in the presence of radiation necrosis; correlation with biopsy/surgery results

    SciTech Connect

    Antar, M.A.; Barnett, G.H.; McIntyre, W.J.

    1994-05-01

    F-18-FDG PET man has been largely successful in differentiating between radiation necrosis and recurrent brain tumors. Because of the expense and unavailability of PET scanners in most clinical centers, Tl-201 SPECT scan may offer an alternative. Therefore, we have evaluated both techniques in 18 patients (13 men and 5 women) whose ages range from 28 to 74 year old. Eleven patients had glioblastoma multiformi and 4 patients high grade astrocytoma and 3 patient meningiosarcoma. All patients received radiation therapy (5500-6000 Rad) and 13 patients received also chemotherapy. PET scan was performed 40-60 min. after 5-10 mCi of F-18 FDG (i.v.) and SPECT 30 min. after 4.6 mCi of Tl-201 chloride (i.v.). Severe FDG hypometabolism was evident in the irradiated regions, in all patients. Evidence of tumor recurrence was seen in 15 patients by both FDG PET and Thallium 201 SPECT. The ratio of peak pixel uptake of suspected tumor to that of normal cortex for FDG ranged from 0.67 to 1.5 with a mean of 1.02. The ratio of peak pixel uptake of thallium 201 in the suspected lesion to that of the contralateral scalp area ranges from 0.8 to 1.9 with mean of 1.1. There was concordance between the findings of PET and SPECT in 16/18 patients. However, the volume of involvement differs in these patients; most likely secondary to different mechanisms of uptake and both studies may complement each other. Subsequent biopsy/surgery in 11 patients confirmed tumor recurrence in 10 out of 11 patients. The findings suggest that thallium 201 brain SPECT scan can provide similar (but not identical) information regarding brain tumor recurrence in these patients.

  18. Insufficiency of bone scintigraphy in vertebral lesions of langerhans cell histiocytosis compared to f-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography and diagnostic computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Koç, Zehra Pınar; Şimşek, Selçuk; Akarsu, Saadet; Balcı, Tansel Ansal; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Kepenek, Ferat

    2015-02-05

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a benign disorder related to the histiocytes which can infiltrate bone tissue. The most effective method for demonstrating severity of this disease is PET/CT and bone scintigraphy might show bone lesions. We present a seventeen year old male patient with disseminated LCH presented with exophtalmos and having multiple vertebral lesions which were identified by F-18 FDG PET/CT scan and diagnostic CT but not in the bone scintigraphy.

  19. Wilson's disease studied with FDG and positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, R.A.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Phelps, M.E.

    1987-11-01

    Four patients with Wilson's disease and eight normal controls were studied with 2-deoxy-2-(/sup 18/F)fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET). The patients had diffusely reduced glucose metabolism in all brain regions evaluated compared with controls, with the exception of the thalamus. The ratio of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose in the lenticular nuclei to hemispheres declined from 1.23 (+/- 0.14 SD) in controls to 1.03 (+/- 0.06) (p less than 0.025) in Wilson's disease patients. Compared with Huntington's disease, the PET FDG results in Wilson's disease indicate relatively less focal involvement of the caudate nucleus, more severe focal changes in the lenticular nuclei, and more significant global changes in glucose metabolism.

  20. Cognition and amyloid load in Alzheimer disease imaged with florbetapir F 18(AV-45) positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Paul B; Wong, D F; Edell, S L; Ross, J S; Joshi, A D; Brašić, J R; Zhou, Y; Raymont, V; Kumar, A; Ravert, H T; Dannals, R F; Pontecorvo, M J; Skovronsky, D M; Lyketsos, C G

    2013-03-01

    To examine the association between regional brain uptake of a novel amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) tracer florbetapir F 18 ([(18)F]-AV-45) and cognitive performance in a pilot study. Cross-sectional comparison of [(18)F]-AV-45 in AD patients versus controls. Three specialty memory clinics. Eleven participants with probable Alzheimer disease (AD) by NINDS/ADRDA criteria and 15 healthy comparison (HC) participants. Participants underwent PET imaging following a 370 MBq (10 mCi) intravenous administration of [(18)F]-AV-45. Regional/cerebellar standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) were calculated. Cognition was assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination, Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog), Wechsler Logical Memory IA (immediate recall) test (LMIA), and verbal category fluency. Greater [(18)F]-AV-45 SUVR was associated with poorer performance on all cognitive tests. In the HC group, occipital, parietal, precuneus, temporal, and cortical average SUVR was associated with greater ADAS-Cog, and greater anterior cingulate SUVR was associated with lower LMIA. Two HC participants had [(18)F]-AV-45 cortical/cerebellar SUVR greater than 1.5, one of whom had deficits in episodic recall and on follow-up met criteria for amnestic mild cognitive impairment. [(18)F]-AV-45 SUVR in several brain regions was associated with worse global cognitive performance particularly in HC, suggesting its potential as a marker of preclinical AD. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. F-18-FDG-PET Confined Radiotherapy of Locally Advanced NSCLC With Concomitant Chemotherapy: Results of the PET-PLAN Pilot Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Fleckenstein, Jochen; Hellwig, Dirk; Kremp, Stephanie; Grgic, Aleksandar; Groeschel, Andreas; Kirsch, Carl-Martin; Nestle, Ursula; Ruebe, Christian

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The integration of fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the process of radiotherapy (RT) planning of locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may improve diagnostic accuracy and minimize interobserver variability compared with target volume definition solely based on computed tomography. Furthermore, irradiating only FDG-PET-positive findings and omitting elective nodal regions may allow dose escalation by treating smaller volumes. The aim of this prospective pilot trial was to evaluate the therapeutic safety of FDG-PET-based RT treatment planning with an autocontour-derived delineation of the primary tumor. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had Stages II-III inoperable NSCLC, and simultaneous, platinum-based radiochemotherapy was indicated. FDG-PET and computed tomography acquisitions in RT treatment planning position were coregistered. The clinical target volume (CTV) included the FDG-PET-defined primary tumor, which was autodelineated with a source-to-background algorithm, plus FDG-PET-positive lymph node stations. Limited by dose restrictions for normal tissues, prescribed total doses were in the range of 66.6 to 73.8 Gy. The primary endpoint was the rate of out-of-field isolated nodal recurrences (INR). Results: As per intent to treat, 32 patients received radiochemotherapy. In 15 of these patients, dose escalation above 66.6 Gy was achieved. No Grade 4 toxicities occurred. After a median follow-up time of 27.2 months, the estimated median survival time was 19.3 months. During the observation period, one INR was observed in 23 evaluable patients. Conclusions: FDG-PET-confined target volume definition in radiochemotherapy of NSCLC, based on a contrast-oriented source-to-background algorithm, was associated with a low risk of INR. It might provide improved tumor control because of dose escalation.

  2. Comparison of Visual and Quantitative Florbetapir F 18 Positron Emission Tomography Analysis in Predicting Mild Cognitive Impairment Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Stefanie; Landau, Susan M; Fero, Allison; Schreiber, Frank; Jagust, William J

    2015-10-01

    The applicability of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) positron emission tomography (PET) as a biomarker in clinical settings to aid in selection of individuals at preclinical and prodromal Alzheimer disease (AD) will depend on the practicality of PET image analysis. In this context, visual-based Aβ PET assessment seems to be the most feasible approach. To determine the agreement between visual and quantitative Aβ PET analysis and to assess the ability of both techniques to predict conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD. A longitudinal study was conducted among the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) sites in the United States and Canada during a 1.6-year mean follow-up period. The study was performed from September 21, 2010, to August 11, 2014; data analysis was conducted from September 21, 2014, to May 26, 2015. Participants included 401 individuals with MCI receiving care at a specialty clinic (219 [54.6%] men; mean [SD] age, 71.6 [7.5] years; 16.2 [2.7] years of education). All participants were studied with florbetapir F 18 [18F] PET. The standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) positivity threshold was 1.11, and one reader rated all images, with a subset of 125 scans rated by a second reader. Sensitivity and specificity of positive and negative [18F] florbetapir PET categorization, which was estimated with cerebrospinal fluid Aβ1-42 as the reference standard. Risk for conversion to AD was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. The frequency of Aβ positivity was 48.9% (196 patients; visual analysis), 55.1% (221 patients; SUVR), and 64.8% (166 patients; cerebrospinal fluid), yielding substantial agreement between visual and SUVR data (κ = 0.74) and between all methods (Fleiss κ = 0.71). For approximately 10% of the 401 participants in whom visual and SUVR data disagreed, interrater reliability was moderate (κ = 0.44), but it was very high if visual and quantitative results agreed (κ = 0.92). Visual

  3. Assessment of myocardial injury after reperfusion with T1-201, Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PPi) and F-18 deoxyglucose (FDG)

    SciTech Connect

    Sochor, H.; Schwaiger, M.; Hansen, H.W.; Parodi, O.; Selin, C.; Huang, S.C.; Ellison, D.; Grover, M.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    The authors previously demonstrated that enhanced glucose utilization assessed by FDG and Positron-CT in reperfused myocardium predicts functional recovery. This study compared segmental uptake of FDG with T1-201 and PPi as conventional indicators of tissue viability in 5 dogs, submitted to a 3 hr LAD occlusion followed by 24 hrs of reperfusion (R). Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was then determined by microspheres and T1-201, PPi and FDG administered i.v. Regional tracer concentrations were determined by well counting of tissue samples and grouped according to MBF (% of control). Severe flow reductions were associated with PPi uptake increase, T1-201 decrease and depressed glucose utilization representing mainly irreversible injury. Moderately reduced MBF areas showed the highest PPi uptake with T1-201 similar to MBF, but preserved FDG uptake not different from control, indicating partially viable tissue. Areas with MBF >60% had significantly increased PPi despite normal T1-201 uptake and enhanced glucose utilization and thus, preserved viability. Thus, assessment of tissue injury by conventional tracers such as T1-201 and PPi is limited. By contrast, quantification of residual glucose metabolism by PCT appears more accurate for evaluating myocardial viability and predicting potential functional recovery.

  4. Etiopathologies associated with intercostal muscle hypermetabolism and prominent right ventricle visualization on 2-deoxy-2[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography: significance of an incidental finding and in the setting of a known pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sandip; Alzeair, Saad; Li, Geming; Dadparvar, Simin; Alavi, Abass

    2007-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the significance of 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) uptake in the intercostal muscles (ICM) and prominent visualization of right ventricle (RV) in FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) scans and its implications. Patients identified to have FDG uptake in the ICM with or without prominent visualization of the RV either incidentally or in the background of an existing explanatory cause at the time of FDG-PET studies were included in this retrospective study. These patients had undergone FDG-PET either for ruling out malignancy or for disease monitoring purposes in setting a proven malignancy. We reviewed the clinical and investigational records (including computed tomography [CT] thorax, chest X-ray, 2-D echo and pulmonary function tests, and arterial blood gas analysis) of the group with incidental FDG uptake for revelation of a pathology explaining such uptake. A total of 14 cases with 16 FDG-PET studies were identified from the retrospective examination of case records. One patient had three FDG-PET at different time points of his disease course. The patient population included 13 males and one female with age range 46-88 years. The patients were classified into two groups: (1) cases with isolated ICM uptake (n=10); (2) cases with both ICM and RV uptake (n=4). Among 10 patients with isolated ICM uptake, in six patients it was a serendipitous observation, whereas four patients had existing explanatory cause at the time of FDG-PET. The causes found to be associated included COPD, asthma, recent heart failure, interstitial lung disease (post external radiotherapy) and pulmonary embolism, atelectasis with pleural effusion. In all four cases with associated RV uptake, there was evidence of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Among these, in one patient this was a serendipitous observation. He had evidence of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in CT thorax, and 2-D echo showed moderate PH. The remaining three patients had

  5. Effect of furosemide administration before F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography on urine radioactivity and detection of uterine cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    d'Amico, Andrea; Gorczewska, Izabela; Gorczewski, Kamil; Turska-d'Amico, Maria; Di Pietro, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In evaluating uterine cervical cancer with ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), there may be overlap between the FDG activity at tumor sites and nonspecific radioactivity in the urine. We evaluated the efficacy of furosemide premedication with routine hydration to obtain better contrast and less overlap between cervical cancer and the urinary bladder. We retrospectively evaluated 166 patients who had primary or relapsed cervical cancer and underwent FDG PET/CT scanning with (133 patients) or without (33 patients) furosemide premedication (10 mg intravenous, slowly injected 30 min before the scan). We calculated bladder and tumor maximum and median standardized uptake value (SUVmax and SUVmed), and overlap between tumor and urinary activity was detected visually. Overlap between urinary and tumor radioactivity was observed in 8 of 133 scans (6%) in patients who receive furosemide and in 3 of 33 scans (9%) in patients who did not receive furosemide. The SUVmax and SUVmed for the bladder were significantly lower in patients who were pretreated with furosemide (SUVmax, 6.3; SUVmed, 4.6) than patients who were not pretreated with furosemide (SUVmax, 8.8 [P ≤ 0.008]; SUVmed, 6.5 [P ≤ 0.002]). The tumor SUVmax and SUVmed were similar between the patient groups. Furosemide premedication before FDG PET/CT scanning may enable improved evaluation of activity and extension of cervical cancer.

  6. Monitoring liver tumor therapy with ( sup 18 F)FDG positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Hiraoka, M.; Abe, M.; Takahashi, M.; Akuta, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Jo, S.; Masunaga, S.; Kubo, S. )

    1990-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with (18F)-2-flurodeoxy-glucose (FDG) can be utilized as a functional imaging modality for monitoring liver tumor therapy. We report three cases in which PET-FDG was more useful for this purpose than other imaging methods and tumor markers.

  7. Primary Epstein-Barr virus infection diffusing F18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography response monitoring of Hodgkin's disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Balink, Hans; Hoogendoorn, Mels

    2014-06-20

    Hodgkin's disease is highly curable by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, but refractory disease or early relapses are rarely cured by conventional salvage therapy. We report a case of a 20-year-old Caucasian man, with a biopsy-proven intrapulmonary relapse of Hodgkin's disease, for whom salvage chemotherapy was administered. During salvage chemotherapy intense increased F18-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake was noticed in multiple lymph nodes and diffuse increased splenic uptake, suggesting chemotherapy-refractory disease. However, additional information obtained from the patient revealed he recently had met his first girlfriend. An asymptomatic primary Epstein-Barr virus infection was considered proven. Interim F18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography is a strong prognostic factor for advanced Hodgkin's and may better identify those patients needing intensified chemotherapy. Related to the nonspecificity of F18-fluorodeoxyglucose, clinical awareness of the potential interference of intercurrent asymptomatic viral infections with treatment and remission status monitoring continues to be important in the interpretation of equivocal medical imaging results.

  8. F-18 fluoride positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the diagnosis of avascular necrosis of the femoral head: Comparison with magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gayana, Shankaramurthy; Bhattacharya, Anish; Sen, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Paramjeet; Prakash, Mahesh; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Femoral head avascular necrosis (FHAVN) is one of the increasingly common causes of musculoskeletal disability and poses a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Although radiography, scintigraphy, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been widely used in the diagnosis of FHAVN, positron emission tomography (PET) has recently been evaluated to assess vascularity of the femoral head. In this study, the authors compared F-18 fluoride PET/CT with MRI in the initial diagnosis of FHAVN. Patients and Methods: We prospectively studied 51 consecutive patients with a high clinical suspicion of FHAVN. All patients underwent MRI and F-18 fluoride PET/CT, the time interval between the two scans being 4–10 (mean 8) days. Two nuclear medicine physicians blinded to the MRI report read the PET/CT scans. Clinical assessment was also done. Final diagnoses were made by surgical pathology or clinical and radiologic follow-up. Results: A final diagnosis of avascular necrosis (AVN) was made in 40 patients. MRI was 96.5% sensitive, 100% specific, and 98.03% accurate while PET/CT was 100% sensitive, specific, and accurate in diagnosing FHAVN. The agreement between the two imaging modalities for the diagnosis of AVN was 96.07%. Conclusion: F-18 fluoride PET/CT showed good agreement with MRI in the initial diagnosis of FHAVN and can be better than MRI in detecting early disease. PMID:26917886

  9. Effect of Donepezil on Wernicke Aphasia After Bilateral Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction: Subtraction Analysis of Brain F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomographic Images.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seo Yeon; Kim, Je-Kyung; An, Young-Sil; Kim, Yong Wook

    2015-01-01

    Aphasia is one of the most common neurologic deficits occurring after stroke. Although the speech-language therapy is a mainstream option for poststroke aphasia, pharmacotherapy is recently being tried to modulate different neurotransmitter systems. However, the efficacy of those treatments is still controversial. We present a case of a 53-year-old female patient with Wernicke aphasia, after the old infarction in the territory of left middle cerebral artery for 8 years and the recent infarction in the right middle cerebral artery for 4 months. On the initial evaluation, the Aphasia Quotient in Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery was 25.6 of 100. Baseline brain F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic images demonstrated a decreased cerebral metabolism in the left temporoparietal area and right temporal lobe. Donepezil hydrochloride, a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, was orally administered 5 mg/d for 6 weeks after the initial evaluation and was increased to 10 mg/d for the following 6 weeks. After the donepezil treatment, the patient showed improvement in language function, scoring 51.0 of 100 on Aphasia Quotient. A subtraction analysis of the brain F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic images after donepezil medication demonstrated increased uptake in both middle temporal gyri, extended to the occipital area and the left cerebellum. Thus, we suggest that donepezil can be an effective therapeutic choice for the treatment of Wernicke aphasia.

  10. Non-invasive breast biopsy method using GD-DTPA contrast enhanced MRI series and F-18-FDG PET/CT dynamic image series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Alphonso William

    This study was undertaken to develop a nonsurgical breast biopsy from Gd-DTPA Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance (CE-MR) images and F-18-FDG PET/CT dynamic image series. A five-step process was developed to accomplish this. (1) Dynamic PET series were nonrigidly registered to the initial frame using a finite element method (FEM) based registration that requires fiducial skin markers to sample the displacement field between image frames. A commercial FEM package (ANSYS) was used for meshing and FEM calculations. Dynamic PET image series registrations were evaluated using similarity measurements SAVD and NCC. (2) Dynamic CE-MR series were nonrigidly registered to the initial frame using two registration methods: a multi-resolution free-form deformation (FFD) registration driven by normalized mutual information, and a FEM-based registration method. Dynamic CE-MR image series registrations were evaluated using similarity measurements, localization measurements, and qualitative comparison of motion artifacts. FFD registration was found to be superior to FEM-based registration. (3) Nonlinear curve fitting was performed for each voxel of the PET/CT volume of activity versus time, based on a realistic two-compartmental Patlak model. Three parameters for this model were fitted; two of them describe the activity levels in the blood and in the cellular compartment, while the third characterizes the washout rate of F-18-FDG from the cellular compartment. (4) Nonlinear curve fitting was performed for each voxel of the MR volume of signal intensity versus time, based on a realistic two-compartment Brix model. Three parameters for this model were fitted: rate of Gd exiting the compartment, representing the extracellular space of a lesion; rate of Gd exiting a blood compartment; and a parameter that characterizes the strength of signal intensities. Curve fitting used for PET/CT and MR series was accomplished by application of the Levenburg-Marquardt nonlinear regression

  11. Multiphase CT scanning and different intravenous contrast media concentrations in combined F-18-FDG PET/CT: Effect on quantitative and clinical assessment.

    PubMed

    Rebière, Marilou; Verburg, Frederik A; Palmowski, Moritz; Krohn, Thomas; Pietsch, Hubertus; Kuhl, Christiane K; Mottaghy, Felix M; Behrendt, Florian F

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the influence of multiphase CT scanning and different intravenous contrast media on contrast enhancement, attenuation correction and image quality in combined PET/CT. 140 patients were prospectively enrolled for F-18-FDG-PET/CT including a low-dose unenhanced, arterial and venous contrast enhanced CT. The first (second) 70 patients, received contrast medium with 370 (300) mg iodine/ml. The iodine delivery rate (1.3mg/s) and total iodine load (44.4g) were identical for both groups. Contrast enhancement and maximum and mean standardized FDG uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmean) were determined for the un-enhanced, arterial and venous PET/CT at multiple anatomic sites and PET reconstructions were visually evaluated. Arterial contrast enhancement was significantly higher for the 300mg/ml contrast medium compared to 370mgI/ml at all anatomic sites. Venous enhancement was not different between the two contrast media. SUVmean and SUVmax were significantly higher for the contrast enhanced compared to the non-enhanced PET/CT at all anatomic sites (all P<0.001). Tracer uptake was significantly higher in the arterial than in the venous PET/CT in the arteries using both contrast media (all P<0.001). No differences in tracer uptake were found between the contrast media (all P>0.05). Visual assessment revealed no relevant differences between the different PET reconstructions. There is no relevant qualitative influence on the PET scan from the use of different intravenous contrast media in its various phases in combined multiphase PET/CT. For quantitative analysis of tracer uptake it is required to use an identical PET/CT protocol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prognostic significance and predictive performance of volume-based parameters of F-18 FDG PET/CT in squamous cell head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Sager, Sait; Asa, Sertaç; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Uslu, Lebriz; Vatankulu, Betul; Halaç, Metin; Sönmezoglu, Kerim; Kanmaz, Bedii

    2014-01-01

    It has been previously reported that metabolic tumor volume on positron emission tomography-computed tomography predicts disease recurrence and death in head-and-neck cancer. In this study, we assessed the prognostic value of metabolic tumor volume measured using F18-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. We analyzed the imaging findings of 74 patients (age 57±16) retrospectively, with head and neck cancer who underwent PET/CT scan for staging and after treatment. Forty-tree patients had nasopharynx, 15 patients had hypopharynx, 9 patients had larynx, and 7 patients had oropharynx cancer. The MTVs of primary sites with or without lymph nodes were measured, and outcomes were assessed using the treatment response evaluation by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors and recurrence events during follow-up. A total of 48 patients had complete response or no recurrence was detected as of in the last follow-up. Of the first PET/CT scan, the median primary tumor SUVmax was 18.8 and the median nodal SUVmax was 13.4. The median primary tumor MTV% 50s ranged from 11.12 cm3 to 16.28 cm3, and the MTV after the therapy ranged from 1.18 cm3 to 3.51 cm3. Metabolic tumor volume (MTV) represents tumor burden, which shows F18-Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and has a potential value in predicting short-term outcome and disease-free survival in patients with head and neck cancer.

  13. Challenges and Approaches to Quantitative Therapy Response Assessment in Glioblastoma Multiforme Using the Novel Apoptosis Positron Emission Tomography Tracer F-18 ML-10.

    PubMed

    Oborski, Matthew J; Laymon, Charles M; Qian, Yongxian; Lieberman, Frank S; Nelson, Arden D; Mountz, James M

    2014-02-01

    Evaluation of cancer-therapy efficacy at early time points is necessary for realizing the goal of delivering maximally effective treatment. Molecular imaging with carefully selected tracers and methodologies can provide the means for realizing this ability. Many therapies are aimed at inducing apoptosis in malignant tissue; thus, the ability to quantify apoptosis in vivo may be a fruitful approach. Apoptosis rate changes occur on a fast time scale, potentially allowing correspondingly rapid decisions regarding therapy value. However, quantification of tissue status based on apoptosis imaging is complicated by this time scale and by the spatial heterogeneity of the process. Using the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer 2-(5-fluoro-pentyl)-2-methyl-malonic acid (F-18 ML-10), we present methods of voxelwise analysis yielding quantitative measures of apoptosis changes, parametric apoptosis change images, and graphical representation of apoptotic features. A method of deformable registration to account for anatomic changes between scan time points is also demonstrated. Overall apoptotic rates deduced from imaging depend on tumor density and the specific rate of apoptosis, a situation resulting in an ambiguity in the source of observed image-based changes. The ambiguity may be resolved through multimodality imaging. An example of intracellular sodium magnetic resonance imaging coupled with F-18 ML-10 PET is provided.

  14. Effects of Tianmagouteng particles on brain cognitive function in spontaneously hypertensive rats with hyperactivity of liver-yang: A [F-18] FDG micro-PET imaging study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiu-Jing; Sun, Tian-Cai; Liu, Zi-Wang; Wang, Feng-Jiao; Wang, Yong-De; Liu, Jing

    2017-09-26

    To collect visualized proof of Tianmagouteng particles (TMGTP) in alleviating cognitive dysfunction and to explore its effects on brain activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with hyperactivity of liver-yang (Gan Yang Shang Kang, GYSK). Sixteen SHRs were randomized into treatment group and non-treatment. The SHR with GYSK was induced by gavaging aconite decoction (10mL/kg at 0.2g/mL). After the SHR models were prepared, the rats in the treatment group were administered TMGTP (10mL/kg) once a day for 14days.The rats in the non-treatment group or normal rats (control group) received an equivalent volume of saline. Morris water maze test was conducted before and after the treatment to observe cognitive function. Fluorine 18-deoxy glucose [F-18]FDG micro-PET brain imaging scans was performed after treatment. Data were analyzed with two-sample t-test (P<0. 001) using SPM2 image analysis software. Compared with the non-treatment group, the escape latency significantly decreased but the frequency of entrance into the target zone significantly increased in the treatment group. Consistent with the alteration of cognitive functions, TMGTP induced strong brain activity in the following sites: right dorsolateral nucleus and ventrolateral nucleus of thalamus, amygdala, left met thalamus, cerebellum leaflets, original crack, front cone crack, loop-shaped leaflets; but deactivation of right medial frontal gyrus, bilateral corpus callosum, hippocampus, and left dentate gyrus. TMGTP could alleviate cognitive dysfunction in SHRs with GYSK, which was possibly by inducing alteration of glucose metabolism in different brain regions with corresponding functions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Breath-hold and free-breathing F-18-FDG-PET/CT in malignant melanoma—detection of additional tumoral foci and effects on quantitative parameters

    PubMed Central

    Bärwolf, Robert; Zirnsak, Mariana; Freesmeyer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract During PET/CT acquisition, respiratory motion generates artifacts in the form of breath-related blurring, which may impair lesion detectability and diagnostic accuracy. This observational study was undertaken to verify whether breath-hold F-18-FDG-PET/CT (bhPET) detects additional foci compared to free-breathing PET/CT (fbPET) in cases of malignant melanoma, and to assess the impact of breath-holding on standard uptake values (SUV) and metabolic isocontoured volume (mVic40). Thirty-four patients with melanoma were examined. BhPET and fbPET findings of 117 lesions were compared and correlated with standard contrast-enhanced (ce) CT and MRI for lesion verification. Quantitative parameters (SUVmax, SUVmean, and mVic40) were assessed for both methods and evaluated by linear regression and Spearman correlation. The impact of lesion size and time interval between investigations was analyzed. In 1 patient, a CT-confirmed liver metastasis was seen only on bhPET but not on fbPET. At bhPET, SUVmax, and SUVmean proved significantly higher and mVic40 significantly lower than at fbPET. The positive effect on SUVmax and SUVmean was more pronounced in smaller lesions, whereas the time interval between bhPET and fbPET did not influence SUV or mVic40. In our patient cohort, bhPET yielded significantly higher SUV and provided improved volumetric lesion definition, particularly of smaller lesions. Also one additional liver lesion was identified. Breath-hold PET/CT is technically feasible, and may become clinically useful when fine quantitative evaluations are needed. PMID:28079829

  16. Phase II safety and clinical comparison with single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging for detection of coronary artery disease: flurpiridaz F 18 positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Berman, Daniel S; Maddahi, Jamshid; Tamarappoo, B K; Czernin, Johannes; Taillefer, Raymond; Udelson, James E; Gibson, C Michael; Devine, Marybeth; Lazewatsky, Joel; Bhat, Gajanan; Washburn, Dana

    2013-01-29

    This was a phase II trial to assess flurpiridaz F 18 for safety and compare its diagnostic performance for positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with Tc-99m single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) MPI with regard to image quality, interpretative certainty, defect magnitude, and detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) (≥50% stenosis) on invasive coronary angiography (ICA). In pre-clinical and phase I studies, flurpiridaz F 18 has shown characteristics of an essentially ideal MPI tracer. One hundred forty-three patients from 21 centers underwent rest-stress PET and Tc-99m SPECT MPI. Eighty-six patients underwent ICA, and 39 had low-likelihood of CAD. Images were scored by 3 independent, blinded readers. A higher percentage of images were rated as excellent/good on PET versus SPECT on stress (99.2% vs. 88.5%, p < 0.01) and rest (96.9% vs. 66.4, p < 0.01) images. Diagnostic certainty of interpretation (percentage of cases with definitely abnormal/normal interpretation) was higher for PET versus SPECT (90.8% vs. 70.9%, p < 0.01). In 86 patients who underwent ICA, sensitivity of PET was higher than SPECT (78.8% vs. 61.5%, respectively, p = 0.02). Specificity was not significantly different (PET: 76.5% vs. SPECT: 73.5%). Receiver-operating characteristic curve area was 0.82 ± 0.05 for PET and 0.70 ± 0.06 for SPECT (p = 0.04). Normalcy rate was 89.7% with PET and 97.4% with SPECT (p = NS). In patients with CAD on ICA, the magnitude of reversible defects was greater with PET than SPECT (p = 0.008). Extensive safety assessment revealed that flurpiridaz F 18 was safe in this cohort. In this phase 2 trial, PET MPI with flurpiridaz F 18 was safe and superior to SPECT MPI for image quality, interpretative certainty, and overall CAD diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for monitoring lymphadenopathy in the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS).

    PubMed

    Rao, V Koneti; Carrasquillo, Jorge A; Dale, Janet K; Bacharach, Stephen L; Whatley, Millie; Dugan, Faith; Tretler, Jean; Fleisher, Thomas; Puck, Jennifer M; Wilson, Wyndham; Jaffe, Elaine S; Avila, Nilo; Chen, Clara C; Straus, Stephen E

    2006-02-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is associated with mutations that impair the activity of lymphocyte apoptosis proteins, leading to chronic lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, autoimmunity, and an increased risk of lymphoma. We investigated the utility of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in discriminating benign from malignant lymphadenopathy in ALPS. We report that FDG avidity of benign lymph nodes in ALPS can be high and, hence, by itself does not imply presence of lymphoma; but FDG-PET can help guide the decision for selecting which of many enlarged nodes in ALPS patients to biopsy when lymphoma is suspected.

  18. Monte Carlo estimation of radiation dose in organs of female and male adult phantoms due to FDG-F18 absorbed in the lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belinato, Walmir; Santos, William S.; Silva, Rogério M. V.; Souza, Divanizia N.

    2014-03-01

    The determination of dose conversion factors (S values) for the radionuclide fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) absorbed in the lungs during a positron emission tomography (PET) procedure was calculated using the Monte Carlo method (MCNPX version 2.7.0). For the obtained dose conversion factors of interest, it was considered a uniform absorption of radiopharmaceutical by the lung of a healthy adult human. The spectrum of fluorine was introduced in the input data file for the simulation. The simulation took place in two adult phantoms of both sexes, based on polygon mesh surfaces called FASH and MASH with anatomy and posture according to ICRP 89. The S values for the 22 internal organs/tissues, chosen from ICRP No. 110, for the FASH and MASH phantoms were compared with the results obtained from a MIRD V phantoms called ADAM and EVA used by the Committee on Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD). We observed variation of more than 100% in S values due to structural anatomical differences in the internal organs of the MASH and FASH phantoms compared to the mathematical phantom.

  19. Syndrome-specific patterns of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in posterior cortical atrophy in comparison to dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease--a [F-18]-FDG pet study.

    PubMed

    Spehl, Timo S; Hellwig, Sabine; Amtage, Florian; Weiller, Cornelius; Bormann, Tobias; Weber, Wolfgang A; Hüll, Michael; Meyer, Philipp T; Frings, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a rare neurodegenerative syndrome with visuospatial deficits. PET studies have identified hypometabolism of the occipital cortex in PCA. There is, however, a huge overlap in clinical presentation and involvement of the occipital cortex between PCA, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Syndrome-specific patterns of metabolism have not yet been demonstrated that allow for a reliable differentiation with [F-18]-FDG-PET. A total of 33 dementia patients (PCA n = 6, DLB n = 12, AD n = 15) who underwent [F-18]-FDG-PET imaging and a neuropsychological examination were retrospectively analyzed. Group comparisons of regional cerebral glucose metabolism were calculated with statistical parametric mapping. Extracted clusters were used to evaluate discrimination accuracy by logistic regression. PCA patients showed a syndrome-specific area of hypometabolism in the right lateral temporooccipital cortex. DLB patients showed specific hypometabolism predominantly in the left occipital cortex. Logistic regression based on these two regions correctly separated patients with a sensitivity/specificity of 83/93% for PCA, 75/86% for DLB and 67/78% for AD. Overall accuracy was 73%. [F-18]-FDG-PET could reveal syndrome-specific patterns of glucose metabolism in PCA and DLB. Accurate group discrimination in the differential diagnosis of dementia with visuospatial impairment is feasible. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  20. Comparison of the Intraperitoneal, Retroorbital and per Oral Routes for F-18 FDG Administration as Effective Alternatives to Intravenous Administration in Mouse Tumor Models Using Small Animal PET/CT Studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chulhan; Kim, In Hye; Kim, Seo-Il; Kim, Young Sang; Kang, Se Hun; Moon, Seung Hwan; Kim, Tae-Sung; Kim, Seok-Ki

    2011-09-01

    We compared alternative routes for (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) administration, such as the retroorbital (RO), intraperitoneal (IP) and per oral (PO) routes, with the intravenous (IV) route in normal tissues and tumors of mice. CRL-1642 (ATCC, Lewis lung carcinoma) cells were inoculated in female BALB/c-nu/nu mice 6 to 10 weeks old. When the tumor grew to about 9 mm in diameter, positron emission tomography (PET) scans were performed after FDG administration via the RO, IP, PO or IV route. Additional serial PET scans were performed using the RO, IV or IP route alternatively from 5 to 29 days after the tumor cell injection. There was no significant difference in the FDG uptake in normal tissues at 60 min after FDG administration via RO, IP and IV routes. PO administration, however, showed delayed distribution and unwanted high gastrointestinal uptake. Tumoral uptake of FDG showed a similar temporal pattern and increased until 60 min after FDG administration in the RO, IP and IV injection groups. In the PO administration group, tumoral uptake was delayed and reduced. There was no statistical difference among the RO, IP and IV administration groups for additional serial PET scans. RO administration is an effective alternative route to IV administration for mouse FDG PET scans using normal mice and tumor models. In addition, IP administration can be a practical alternative in the late phase, although the initial uptake is lower than those in the IV and RO groups.

  1. Radiolabeling of Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) Nanoparticles with Biotinylated F-18 Prosthetic Groups and Imaging of Their Delivery to the Brain with Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The avidin–biotin interaction permits rapid and nearly irreversible noncovalent linkage between biotinylated molecules and avidin-modified substrates. We designed a biotinylated radioligand intended for use in the detection of avidin-modified polymer nanoparticles in tissue with positron emission tomography (PET). Using an F-18 labeled prosthetic group, [18F]4-fluorobenzylamine, and a commercially available biotin derivate, NHS-PEG4-biotin, [18F]-fluorobenzylamide-poly(ethylene glycol)4-biotin ([18F]NPB4) was prepared with high purity and specific activity. The attachment of the [18F]NPB4 radioligand to avidin-modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles was tested by using PET imaging to measure the kinetics of convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of nanoparticles of varying size to the rat brain. PET imaging enabled the direct observation of nanoparticle delivery by measurement of the spatial volume of distribution of radiolabeled nanoparticles as a function of time, both during and after the infusion. This work thus validates new methods for radiolabeling PEG-biotin derivatives and also provides insight into the fate of nanoparticles that have been infused directly into the brain. PMID:25322194

  2. The significance of pre-therapeutic F-18-FDG PET-CT in lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis when pathological evidence is unavailable.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jujuan; Wang, Dongjiao; Zhang, Qingbo; Duan, Limin; Tian, Tian; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Li, Jianyong; Qiu, Hongxia

    2016-04-01

    The significance of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT) in identifying patients with lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (LAHLH) when pathological evidence is unavailable remains uncertain. In this retrospective study, 44 HLH patients who underwent PET-CT before clinical treatment were enrolled, and 18 of them were highly suspected as LAHLH by PET-CT. We compared the PET-CT parameters between confirmed LAHLH and non-LAHLH patients. The efficacy of initial therapies for highly suspected LAHLH patients was analyzed as well. We found that the SUVSp, SUVBM, SUVLN, SUVmax, SUVLN/Li, and SUVmax/Li in LAHLH group were significantly higher than those in non-LAHLH group (p = 0.003, p = 0.034, p = 0.003, p < 0.001, p = 0.039, and p = 0.035, respectively). HLH patients with an SUVmax value >5.5, an SUVLN value >3.3, and an SUVSp value >4.8 were more likely to be LAHLH (p < 0.001, p = 0.003, and p = 0.003, respectively). And the incidence of multiple lymphadenopathy with increased FDG uptake or the incidence of multiple bone lesions in LAHLH patients was significantly higher than those in non-LAHLH group (92.9 vs. 35.7 %, p = 0.004; 42.9 vs. 0 %, p = 0.016, respectively). Furthermore, by comparing the efficacy of initial therapies for highly suspected LAHLH patients (n = 18), we indicated that the CR rate was significantly higher in lymphoma-chemotherapy group than in immunosuppressive therapy group (90 and 25 %, respectively; p = 0.013). OS analysis revealed that highly suspected LAHLH patients treated with lymphoma-chemotherapy had better prognosis (264 days) than those treated with immunosuppressive therapy (15 days) (p < 0.0001). When pathological evidence is absent, PET-CT may play an important role in identifying HLH patients underlying lymphoma. Once highly suspected as LAHLH by PET-CT, lymphoma-chemotherapies that directly treat the underling lymphoma may have a relatively favorable effect and better clinical outcomes than

  3. Semi-Quantitative Calculations of Primary Tumor Metabolic Activity Using F-18 FDG PET/CT as a Predictor of Survival in 92 Patients With High-Grade Bone or Soft Tissue Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Kim Francis; Fuglo, Hanna Maria; Rasmussen, Sine Hvid; Petersen, Michael Mork; Loft, Annika

    2015-07-01

    To assess the prognostic value of primary tumor metabolic activity in patients with high-grade bone sarcomas (BS) or soft tissue sarcomas (STS) using F-18 FDG PET/CT. A single-site, retrospective study including 92 patients with high-grade BS or STS. Pretreatment F-18 FDG PET/CT scan was performed. Clinical data were registered. Accuracy of maximum standardized uptake value of primary tumor (SUVmax) and tumor-to-background (T/B) uptake ratio as prognostic variables and identification of cut-off values to group patients were determined. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and log-rank test were used to compare survival distributions. Prognostic variables were assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Forty-one of 92 patients died during follow-up (45%). Average survival was 6.5 years (95% CI 5.8-7.3 years) and probability of 5-year survival was 52%. Accuracy of SUVmax and T/B uptake ratio as prognostic variables in all patients and during subgroup analysis of patients with STS was significant. No significant results for AUCs were registered in patients with BS. Surgery was independently prognostic for survival throughout multivariate regression analysis of all patients (P = 0.001, HR 3.84) and subgroup analysis (BS: P = 0.02, HR 11.62; STS: P = 0.005, HR 4.13). SUVmax was significant as prognostic variable in all patients (P = 0.02, HR 3.66) and in patients with STS (P = 0.007, HR 3.75). No significant results were demonstrated for T/B uptake ratio. Estimation of primary tumor metabolic activity with pretherapeutic SUVmax using F-18 FDG PET/CT demonstrates independent properties beyond histologic grading for prediction of survival in patients with high-grade STS, but not with high-grade BS.

  4. Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) Correlation of Histopathology and MRI in Prion Disease.

    PubMed

    Mente, Karin P; O'Donnell, James K; Jones, Stephen E; Cohen, Mark L; Thompson, Nicolas R; Bizzi, Alberto; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Safar, Jiri G; Appleby, Brian S

    2017-01-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and other prion diseases are rapidly progressive spongiform encephalopathies that are invariably fatal. Clinical features and magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalogram, and cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities may suggest prion disease, but a definitive diagnosis can only be made by means of neuropathologic examination. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is not routinely used to evaluate patients with suspected prion disease. This study includes 11 cases of definite prion disease in which FDG-PET scans were obtained. There were 8 sporadic CJD cases, 2 genetic CJD cases, and 1 fatal familial insomnia case. Automated FDG-PET analysis revealed parietal region hypometabolism in all cases. Surprisingly, limbic and mesolimbic hypermetabolism were also present in the majority of cases. When FDG-PET hypometabolism was compared with neuropathologic changes (neuronal loss, astrocytosis, spongiosis), hypometabolism was predictive of neuropathology in 80.6% of cortical regions versus 17.6% of subcortical regions. The odds of neuropathologic changes were 2.1 times higher in cortical regions than subcortical regions (P=0.0265). A similar discordance between cortical and subcortical regions was observed between FDG-PET hypometabolism and magnetic resonance imaging diffusion weighted imaging hyperintensity. This study shows that there may be a relationship between FDG-PET hypometabolism and neuropathology in cortical regions in prion disease but it is unlikely to be helpful for diagnosis.

  5. Comparison of F-18 FDG-PET/CT and Tc-99m MIBI in the preoperative evaluation of cold thyroid nodules in the same patient group.

    PubMed

    Sager, Sait; Vatankulu, Betul; Erdogan, Ezgi; Mut, Sanem; Teksoz, Serkan; Ozturk, Tulin; Sonmezoglu, Kerim; Kanmaz, Bedii

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have reported that standardized uptake values of FDG-PET imaging might predict malignant thyroid nodules and can be used in the preoperative evaluation of thyroid lesions. The aim of our study was to evaluate FDG-PET imaging in patients with cold thyroid nodules and to compare the imaging findings with Tc-99m MIBI scans and with post-op histopathology results. Twenty-three patients (18F, 5M) with 24 nodules that were suspicious in ultrasound and cold in Tc-99m pertechnetate scan, were included in the study. Each nodule underwent sonographically guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. FDG-PET and MIBI scans were performed with an interval of 3-5 days. All patients underwent thyroidectomy and their FDG-PET, and MIBI thyroid scan results were compared with post-thyroidectomy pathology results. Post-op histopathology results found 7 malignant and 17 benign nodules. Six of the seven malignant nodules had increased uptake, which were positive for malignancy in both PET and MIBI scans. Each imaging method used different radiopharmaceuticals but showed one false-negative result in two different patients. FDG-PET produced false positives in eight nodules and MIBI scans found false positives in four nodules. FDG-PET imaging and MIBI scan showed the same sensitivity in malignant nodule evaluation, but their specificity differed. As a result, we suggest that FDG-PET imaging is not superior to MIBI scanning in differentiating malignant from benign thyroid nodules. MIBI imaging should be the first choice in the preoperative evaluation of patients with cold thyroid nodules as an adjunct procedure to FNAB because of its low cost and availability. This imaging technique can be used routinely in patients who are reluctant to undergo FNAB.

  6. Active transport of C-11-Methyl-D-Glucose and 3-F-18-Deoxyglucose in acute ischemic brain disease and Huntington's chorea, studied by positron-emission-tomography (PET)

    SciTech Connect

    Vyska, K.; Magloire, R.; Schuier, F.; Machulla, H.J.; Knust, E.J.; Lange, W.; Becker, V.; Spohr, G.; Notohamiprodjo, G.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    C-11-Methyl-D-Glucose (CMG) and 3-F-18-Deoxyglucose (3FDG) were demonstrated to be non-metabolizable glucose analogues which are transported across the blood-brain-barrier into and out of tissue via the glucose carrier system (GCS). These two substances were used as indicators for determining the perfusion-independent rate constant of GCS in the brain. Five normals with informed consent, 12 patients with acute ischemic brain disease and 9 patients with initial and advanced Huntington's chorea were examined by PET after i.v. application of 5 mCi of GMG or 3FDG. In each patient 30 transaxial images were registered in 1 selected plane, image collection time being 1 min. Time-activity curves were created from different regions of interest. The slope to tracer steady state between tissue and blood yields the perfusion-independent rate constant of GCS from tissue to blood (k/sub 2/). In normals k/sub 2/ for CMG was 0.235 +- 0.03/min, as expected, and for 3FDG 0.47 +- 0.07/min indicating a higher affinity to GCS for 3FDG than CMG. In acute ischemic brain disease k/sub 2/ was normal or reduced at the site of insult for both CMG and 3FDG. In Huntington's chorea, k/sub 2/ was reduced in the basal ganglia but normal or occasionally significantly increased in frontal or occipital cortical areas, for CMG and 3FDG. The authors conclude that CMG permits noninvasive analysis of the perfusion-independent rate constant of CCS. 3FDG shows a higher affinity for CCS than CMC but gives comparable information.

  7. A strategy for obtaining both resting and psychologically activated state metabolic data from a single PET study using (F-18)-fluorodeoxyglucose(FDG)

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.; Duara, R.; Barker, W.; Apicella, A.; Gilson, A.

    1985-05-01

    When psychological activation is studied with PET using the deoxyglucose method, a stable and specific psychological state for at least 30 minutes is required before commencing the scan. At this time, if the subject reverts to the testing state, a progressive degradation of the activated pattern occurs. However, a strategy could be used to obtain corrected activation state data and resting state data in a single study using a tracer such as FDG. The amount of tracer FDG and FDG-6P in the tissue at the time of study completion, t, will be the sum of the remaining quantity (R) of tracer accumulated in the tissue at the time T, when activation ceases, and the uptake during the subsequent period t-T when resting state glucose transport kinetics apply.

  8. 18F-FDG positron autoradiography with a particle counting silicon pixel detector.

    PubMed

    Russo, P; Lauria, A; Mettivier, G; Montesi, M C; Marotta, M; Aloj, L; Lastoria, S

    2008-11-07

    We report on tests of a room-temperature particle counting silicon pixel detector of the Medipix2 series as the detector unit of a positron autoradiography (AR) system, for samples labelled with (18)F-FDG radiopharmaceutical used in PET studies. The silicon detector (1.98 cm(2) sensitive area, 300 microm thick) has high intrinsic resolution (55 microm pitch) and works by counting all hits in a pixel above a certain energy threshold. The present work extends the detector characterization with (18)F-FDG of a previous paper. We analysed the system's linearity, dynamic range, sensitivity, background count rate, noise, and its imaging performance on biological samples. Tests have been performed in the laboratory with (18)F-FDG drops (37-37 000 Bq initial activity) and ex vivo in a rat injected with 88.8 MBq of (18)F-FDG. Particles interacting in the detector volume produced a hit in a cluster of pixels whose mean size was 4.3 pixels/event at 11 keV threshold and 2.2 pixels/event at 37 keV threshold. Results show a sensitivity for beta(+) of 0.377 cps Bq(-1), a dynamic range of at least five orders of magnitude and a lower detection limit of 0.0015 Bq mm(-2). Real-time (18)F-FDG positron AR images have been obtained in 500-1000 s exposure time of thin (10-20 microm) slices of a rat brain and compared with 20 h film autoradiography of adjacent slices. The analysis of the image contrast and signal-to-noise ratio in a rat brain slice indicated that Poisson noise-limited imaging can be approached in short (e.g. 100 s) exposures, with approximately 100 Bq slice activity, and that the silicon pixel detector produced a higher image quality than film-based AR.

  9. Potential of F-18 PET/CT in the Detection of Leptomeningeal Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Short, Ryan G; Bal, Susan; German, John P; Poelstra, Raymond J; Kardan, Arash

    2014-12-01

    Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) is a rare but increasingly common condition in which malignant cells migrate to the meninges. The gold standard for diagnosing LM is detection of cancer cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) is also used to diagnose LM. We describe a case of LM in which CE-MRI of the neuroaxis was initially negative for meningeal enhancement but F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) revealed hypermetabolism within the lumbar spinal canal. Positive F-18 FDG PET findings have rarely been reported in LM and, to our knowledge, have never been reported in the context of initially negative CE-MRI scanning of the neuroaxis. F-18 FDG PET/CT may represent an alternative modality for diagnosing LM in patients who are unable to undergo CE-MRI and/or LP or in patients for whom initial CE-MRI and/or LP are negative for LM.

  10. Volume-Based F-18 FDG PET/CT Imaging Markers Provide Supplemental Prognostic Information to Histologic Grading in Patients With High-Grade Bone or Soft Tissue Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Kim Francis; Fuglo, Hanna Maria; Rasmussen, Sine Hvid; Petersen, Michael Mork; Loft, Annika

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the prognostic value of different volume-based calculations of tumor metabolic activity in the initial assessment of patients with high-grade bone sarcomas (BS) and soft tissue sarcomas (STS) using F-18 FDG PET/CT.A single-site, retrospective study from 2002 to 2012 including 92 patients with histologically verified high-grade BS (N = 37) or STS (N = 55). All patients underwent a pretreatment F-18 FDG PET/CT scan. Clinical data were registered. Measurements of the accuracy of metabolic tumor volume with a preset threshold of 40% of the maximum standardized uptake value of primary tumor (MTV40%) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) as prognostic variables and identification of optimal discriminating cut-off values were performed through ROC curve analysis. Patients were grouped according to the cut-off values. All deaths were considered an event in survival analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and log-rank test were used to compare the degree of equality of survival distributions. Prognostic variables with related hazard ratios (HR) were assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis.Forty-one of 92 patients died during follow-up (45%; 12 BS and 29 STS). Average survival for included patients was 6.5 years (95% CI 5.8-7.3 years) and probability of 5-year survival was 52%. There was a high-significant accuracy of TLG and MTV40% as prognostic variables when looking on all patients and during subgroup analysis. AUCs were higher for TLG than for MTV40%. TLG above optimal cut-off value was the only variable which was independently prognostic for survival throughout multivariate regression analysis of all included patients (P = 0.01, HR 4.78 [95% CI 1.45-15.87]) and subgroup analysis (BS: P = 0.04, HR 11.11 [95% CI 1.09-111.11]; STS: P < 0.05, HR 3.37 [95% CI 1.02-11.11]). No significant results were demonstrated for MTV40%.Volume-based F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging markers in terms of pretreatment estimation

  11. Caged [(18)F]FDG Glycosylamines for Imaging Acidic Tumor Microenvironments Using Positron Emission Tomography.

    PubMed

    Flavell, Robert R; Truillet, Charles; Regan, Melanie K; Ganguly, Tanushree; Blecha, Joseph E; Kurhanewicz, John; VanBrocklin, Henry F; Keshari, Kayvan R; Chang, Christopher J; Evans, Michael J; Wilson, David M

    2016-01-20

    Solid tumors are hypoxic with altered metabolism, resulting in secretion of acids into the extracellular matrix and lower relative pH, a feature associated with local invasion and metastasis. Therapeutic and diagnostic agents responsive to this microenvironment may improve tumor-specific delivery. Therefore, we pursued a general strategy whereby caged small-molecule drugs or imaging agents liberate their parent compounds in regions of low interstitial pH. In this manuscript, we present a new acid-labile prodrug method based on the glycosylamine linkage, and its application to a class of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging tracers, termed [(18)F]FDG amines. [(18)F]FDG amines operate via a proposed two-step mechanism, in which an acid-labile precursor decomposes to form the common radiotracer 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-d-glucose, which is subsequently accumulated by glucose avid cells. The rate of decomposition of [(18)F]FDG amines is tunable in a systematic fashion, tracking the pKa of the parent amine. In vivo, a 4-phenylbenzylamine [(18)F]FDG amine congener showed greater relative accumulation in tumors over benign tissue, which could be attenuated upon tumor alkalinization using previously validated models, including sodium bicarbonate treatment, or overexpression of carbonic anhydrase. This new class of PET tracer represents a viable approach for imaging acidic interstitial pH with potential for clinical translation.

  12. [An approach for comparative quantification of myocardial blood flow (O-15-H2O-PET), perfusion (Tc-99m-tetrofosmin-SPECT) and metabolism (F-18-FDG-PET)].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, W M; Nowak, B; Kaiser, H J; Block, S; Koch, K C; vom Dahl, J; Büll, U

    2001-10-01

    In the present study a new approach has been developed for comparative quantification of absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF), myocardial perfusion, and myocardial metabolism in short-axis slices. 42 patients with severe CAD, referred for myocardial viability diagnostics, were studied consecutively with 0-15-H2O PET (H2O-PET) (twice), Tc-99m-Tetrofosmin SPECT (TT-SPECT) and F-18-FDG PET (FDG-PET). All data sets were reconstructed using attenuation correction and reoriented into short axis slices. Each heart was divided into three representative slices (base, midventricular, apex) and 18 ROIs were defined on the FDG PET images and transferred to the corresponding H2O-PET and TT-SPECT slices. TT-SPECT and FDG-PET data were normalized to the ROI showing maximum perfusion. MBF was calculated for all left-ventricular ROIs using a single-compartment-model fitting the dynamic H2O-PET studies. Microsphere equivalent MBF (MBF_micr) was calculated by multiplying MBF and tissue-fraction, a parameter which was obtained by fitting the dynamic H2O-PET studies. To reduce influence of viability only well perfused areas (> 70% TT-SPECT) were used for comparative quantification. First and second mean global MBF values were 0.85 ml x min-1 x g-1 and 0.84 ml x min-1 x g-1, respectively, with a repeatability coefficient of 0.30 ml x min-1 x g-1. After sectorization mean MBF_micr was between 0.58 ml x min-1 x ml-1 and 0.68 ml x min-1 x ml-1 in well perfused areas. Corresponding TT-SPECT values ranged from 83% to 91%, and FDG-PET values from 91% to 103%. All procedures yielded higher values for the lateral than the septal regions. Comparative quantification of MBF, MBF_micr, TT-SPECT perfusion and FDG-PET metabolism can be done with the introduced method in short axis slices. The obtained values agree well with experimentally validated values of MBF and MBF_micr.

  13. Organizing Hematoma of the Maxillary Sinus Mimicking Malignancy Diagnosed by Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron-Emission Tomography (FDG PET/CT): A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong Kyun; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Organizing hematoma of the paranasal sinuses is a diagnostic dilemma clinically and radiographically, mimicking benign or malignant neoplastic processes. Although the diagnostic rate of this disease has increased as characteristic imaging findings are somewhat elucidated, endoscopic examination, preoperative biopsy, and computed tomography (CT) imaging do not give helpful information in differentiating these lesions from malignant neoplastic processes. A 55-year-old man presented with a 4-month history of recurrent nasal bleeding. He also complained of a left-sided nasal obstruction. CT findings were highly suggestive of a malignant tumor of the maxillary sinus. However, based on fluorodeoxyglucose F18 positron-emission tomography (PET/CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the provisional diagnosis of benign tumor rather than malignancy was made. Complete resection of the mass was achieved by simple transnasal endoscopic surgery using the Caldwell-Luc approach. Organizing hematoma of the maxillary sinus was diagnosed by histopathologic evaluation. The clinical, radiological, and histopathologic findings of the patient are presented. In this report, we have presented 18FDG-PET findings of organized hematoma of the maxillary sinus (OHMS) that showed an increased FDG uptake in the peripheral rim of the mass with central photopenia. To our knowledge, this is the first case report in the literature reporting FDG-PET/CT findings of OHMS. Careful interpretation of metabolic (FDG-PET/CT) and anatomic (CT and MRI) images should be performed to accurately characterize the expansile lesion of the maxillary sinus in order to increase specificity and reduce equivocal findings significantly. PMID:26587203

  14. Altered myocardial glucose utilization and the reverse mismatch pattern on rubidium-82 perfusion/F-18-FDG PET during the sub-acute phase following reperfusion of acute anterior myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Anselm, Daniel D; Anselm, Anjali H; Renaud, Jennifer; Atkins, Harold L; de Kemp, Robert; Burwash, Ian G; Williams, Kathryn A; Guo, Ann; Kelly, Cathy; Dasilva, Jean; Beanlands, Rob S B; Glover, Christopher A

    2011-08-01

    Reperfused myocardium post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may have altered metabolism with implications for therapy response and function recovery. We explored glucose utilization and the "reverse mismatch" (RMM) pattern (decreased F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake relative to perfusion) in patients who underwent mechanical reperfusion with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for AMI. Thirty-one patients with anterior wall AMI treated with acute reperfusion, with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤45%, underwent rest rubidium-82 (Rb-82) and FDG PET 2-10 days post-AMI. Resting echocardiograms were used to assess wall motion abnormalities. Significant RMM occurred in 15 (48%) patients and was associated with a shorter time to PCI of 2.9 hours (2.2, 13.3 hours) compared to patients without significant RMM: 11.4 hours (3.9, 22.4 hours) (P = .03). Within the peri-infarct regions, segments with significant RMM were more likely to have wall motion abnormalities (OR = 2.3 (1.1, 4.7), P = .02) compared to segments without significant RMM. RMM is a common pattern on perfusion/FDG PET during the sub-acute phase following reperfusion of AMI and is associated with shorter times to PCI. Within the peri-infarct region, RMM occurs frequently and is more often associated with wall motion abnormalities than segments without RMM. Whether this represents a myocardial metabolic shift during the sub-acute phase of recovery warrants further study.

  15. Potential impact of atelectasis and primary tumor glycolysis on F-18 FDG PET/CT on survival in lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hasbek, Zekiye; Yucel, Birsen; Salk, Ismail; Turgut, Bulent; Erselcan, Taner; Babacan, Nalan Akgul; Kacan, Turgut

    2014-01-01

    Atelectasis is an important prognostic factor that can cause pleuritic chest pain, coughing or dyspnea, and even may be a cause of death. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential impact of atelectasis and PET parameters on survival and the relation between atelectasis and PET parameters. The study consisted of patients with lung cancer with or without atelectasis who underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT examination before receiving any treatment. (18)F-FDG PET/CT derived parameters including tumor size, SUVmax, SUVmean, MTV, total lesion glycosis (TLG), SUV mean of atelectasis area, atelectasis volume, and histological and TNM stage were considered as potential prognostic factors for overall survival. Fifty consecutive lung cancer patients (22 patients with atelectasis and 28 patients without atelectasis, median age of 65 years) were evaluated in the present study. There was no relationship between tumor size and presence or absence of atelectasis, nor between presence/absence of atelectasis and TLG of primary tumors. The overall one-year survival rate was 83% and median survival was 20 months (n=22) in the presence of atelectasis; the overall one-year survival rate was 65.7% (n=28) and median survival was 16 months (p=0.138) in the absence of atelectasis. With respect to PFS; the one-year survival rate of AT+ patients was 81.8% and median survival was 19 months; the one-year survival rate of AT- patients was 64.3% and median survival was 16 months (p=0.159). According to univariate analysis, MTV, TLG and tumor size were significant risk factors for PFS and OS (p<0.05). However, SUVmax was not a significant factor for PFS and OS (p>0.05). The present study suggested that total lesion glycolysis and metabolic tumor volume were important predictors of survival in lung cancer patients, in contrast to SUVmax. In addition, having a segmental lung atelectasis seems not to be a significant factor on survival.

  16. Guidelines for brain radionuclide imaging. Perfusion single photon computed tomography (SPECT) using Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals and brain metabolism positron emission tomography (PET) using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose. The Belgian Society for Nuclear Medicine.

    PubMed

    Vander Borght, T; Laloux, P; Maes, A; Salmon, E; Goethals, I; Goldman, S

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of these guidelines is to assist nuclear medicine practitioners in recommending, performing, interpreting, and reporting the results of brain perfusion SPECT studies using Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals and brain metabolism PET studies using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). These guidelines have been adapted and extended from those produced by the Society of Nuclear Medicine (Juni et al., 1998) and the European Association of Nuclear Medicine by a Belgian group of experts in the field trained in neurology and/or nuclear medicine. Some indications are not universally approved (e.g. brain death), but largely supported by the literature. They have been included in these guidelines in order to provide recommendations and a standardised protocol.

  17. SU-D-9A-02: Relative Effects of Threshold Choice and Spatial Resolution Modeling On SUV and Volume Quantification in F18-FDG PET Imaging of Anal Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, F; Bowsher, J; Palta, M; Czito, B; Willett, C; Yin, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: PET imaging with F18-FDG is utilized for treatment planning, treatment assessment, and prognosis. A region of interest (ROI) encompassing the tumor may be determined on the PET image, often by a threshold T on the PET standard uptake values (SUVs). Several studies have shown prognostic value for relevant ROI properties including maximum SUV value (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total glycolytic activity (TGA). The choice of threshold T may affect mean SUV value (SUVmean), MTV, and TGA. Recently spatial resolution modeling (SRM) has been introduced on many PET systems. SRM may also affect these ROI properties. The purpose of this work is to investigate the relative influence of SRM and threshold choice T on SUVmean, MTV, TGA, and SUVmax. Methods: For 9 anal cancer patients, 18F-FDG PET scans were performed prior to treatment. PET images were reconstructed by 2 iterations of Ordered Subsets Expectation Maximization (OSEM), with and without SRM. ROI contours were generated by 5 different SUV threshold values T: 2.5, 3.0, 30%, 40%, and 50% of SUVmax. Paired-samples t tests were used to compare SUVmean, MTV, and TGA (a) for SRM on versus off and (b) between each pair of threshold values T. SUVmax was also compared for SRM on versus off. Results: For almost all (57/60) comparisons of 2 different threshold values, SUVmean, MTV, and TGA showed statistically significant variation. For comparison of SRM on versus off, there were no statistically significant changes in SUVmax and TGA, but there were statistically significant changes in MTV for T=2.5 and T=3.0 and in SUVmean for all T. Conclusion: The near-universal statistical significance of threshold choice T suggests that, regarding harmonization across sites, threshold choice may be a greater concern than choice of SRM. However, broader study is warranted, e.g. other iterations of OSEM should be considered.

  18. Reliability of Post-Chemoradiotherapy F-18-FDG PET/CT for Prediction of Locoregional Failure in Human Papillomavirus-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vainshtein, Jeffrey M.; Spector, Matthew E.; Stenmark, Matthew H.; Bradford, Carol R.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Worden, Francis P.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Carey, Thomas; Wong, Ka Kit; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although widely adopted, the accuracy of post-chemoradiotherapy (CRT) 18F-fluorodeoxygluocose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for predicting locoregional failure (LRF) in human papillomavirus-related (HPV+) oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) remains poorly characterized. We assessed the predictive value of 3-month PET/CT response for LRF in this population. Materials and Methods 101 consecutive patients with stage III-IV HPV+ OPC who underwent definitive CRT with pre-treatment and 3-month post-CRT PET/CT at our institution from 3/2005–3/2011 were included. 3-month PET/CT response was re-classified as complete-response (CR), near-CR, or incomplete-response (

  19. Flourodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan may be helpful in the case of ductal variant prostate cancer when prostate specific membrane antigen ligand positron emission tomography scan is negative.

    PubMed

    McEwan, Louise M; Wong, David; Yaxley, John

    2017-03-28

    Gallium-68 prostate specific membrane antigen ligand (Ga-68 PSMA) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanning is emerging as a useful imaging modality for the staging of suspected and known recurrent or metastatic prostate cancer and in staging of newly diagnosed higher grade prostate cancer. However, we have observed at our institution that in some cases of the more aggressive ductal variant, Ga-68 PSMA uptake has sometimes been poor compared with prominent 18-flourodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) avidity seen in F-18 FDG PET/CT, which would suggest that FDG PET/CT scans are important in staging of ductal pattern prostate cancer.

  20. Evidence for a caudate role in aphasia from FDG positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Metter, E.J.; Riege, W.H.; Hanson, W.R.; Phelps, M.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    In a recent study correlations between language function and regional glucose metabolism from FDG positron computed tomography were examined. Caudate metabolism correlated with PICA speaking and comprehension factors, as well as BDAE mean writing and reading scores. To identify the language function implicated with caudate metabolism in these eleven patients, twenty subtests making up these two PICA factors and mean BDAE scores were correlated to caudate metabolism. Also a principle components analysis on the twenty subtests identified three factors, only one of which correlated with caudate metabolism. Evidence was found that the caudate has a functional relationship to recognition or motor planning of simple and overlearned materials. This involved simple syntax, low levels of abstraction, identification or sequencing of phonetic and semantic material. This role appeared related to but independent of Broca and frontal lobe function, and may involve the focusing of cortical functions, by allowing two or more regions to interact together.

  1. Long-Term Follow-Up of Outcomes With F-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Imaging-Assisted Management of Patients With Severe Left Ventricular Dysfunction Secondary to Coronary Disease.

    PubMed

    Mc Ardle, Brian; Shukla, Tushar; Nichol, Graham; deKemp, Robert A; Bernick, Jordan; Guo, Ann; Lim, Siok Ping; Davies, Ross A; Haddad, Haissam; Duchesne, Lloyd; Hendry, Paul; Masters, Roy; Ross, Heather; Freeman, Michael; Gulenchyn, Karen; Racine, Normand; Humen, Dennis; Benard, Francois; Ruddy, Terrence D; Chow, Benjamin J; Mielniczuk, Lisa; DaSilva, Jean N; Garrard, Linda; Wells, George A; Beanlands, Rob S B

    2016-09-01

    Whether viability imaging can impact long-term patient outcomes is uncertain. The PARR-2 study (Positron Emission Tomography and Recovery Following Revascularization) showed a nonsignificant trend toward improved outcomes at 1 year using an F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET)-assisted strategy in patients with suspected ischemic cardiomyopathy. When patients adhered to F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET recommendations, outcome benefit was observed. Long-term outcomes of viability imaging-assisted management have not previously been evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. PARR-2 randomized patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction and suspected CAD being considered for revascularization or transplantation to standard care (n= 195) versus PET-assisted management (n=197) at sites participating in long-term follow-up. The predefined primary outcome was time to composite event (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or cardiac hospitalization). After 5 years, 105 (53%) patients in the PET arm and 111 (57%) in the standard care arm experienced the composite event (hazard ratio for time to composite event =0.82 [95% confidence interval 0.62-1.07]; P=0.15). When only patients who adhered to PET recommendations were included, the hazard ratio for the time to primary outcome was 0.73 (95% confidence interval 0.54-0.99; P=0.042). After a 5-year follow-up in patients with left ventricular dysfunction and suspected CAD, overall, PET-assisted management did not significantly reduce cardiac events compared with standard care. However, significant benefits were observed when there was adherence to PET recommendations. PET viability imaging may be best applied when there is likely to be adherence to imaging-based recommendations. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00385242. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. F-18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/computed tomography imaging in primary staging of patients with malignant melanoma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this systematic review was to systematically assess the potential patient-relevant benefit (primary aim) and diagnostic and prognostic accuracy (secondary aim) of positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/computed tomography (CT) in primary staging of malignant melanoma. This systematic review updates the previous evidence for PET(/CT) in malignant melanoma. Materials and methods For the first aim, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating patient-relevant outcomes and comparing PET and PET(/CT) with each other or with conventional imaging were considered. For the secondary aim, a review of reviews was conducted, which was amended by an update search for primary studies. MEDLINE, EMBASE and four databases of the Cochrane Library were searched. The risk of bias was assessed using a modified QUADAS tool. Results No RCTs investigating the patient-relevant benefit of PET(/CT) and no prognostic accuracy studies were found. Seventeen diagnostic accuracy studies of varying quality were identified. For patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stages I and II, sensitivity mostly ranged from 0 to 67%. Specificity ranged from 77 to 100%. For AJCC stages III and IV, sensitivity ranged from 68 to 87% and specificity from 92 to 98%. Conclusion There is currently no evidence of a patient-relevant benefit of PET(/CT) in the primary staging of malignant melanoma. RCTs investigating patient-relevant outcomes are therefore required. The diagnostic accuracy of PET(/CT) appears to increase with higher AJCC stages. PMID:23237499

  3. Impact of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography on oncologic patient management: first 2 years' experience at a single Canadian cancer center.

    PubMed

    Worsley, Daniel F; Wilson, Don C; Powe, John E; Benard, Francois

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) results on patient management from a single Canadian oncology center during its first 2 years of operation. A total of 3,779 consecutive patients, 18 years of age and older, who were referred for PET-CT imaging at the British Columbia Cancer Agency between July 1, 2005 and June 30, 2007, were included in this analysis. Results were tabulated from a standard questionnaire, which was given to referring physicians following completion of their patient's PET-CT study. From July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2007, 3,779 consecutive fluoro-2-deoxyglucose PET-CT examinations were performed in patients aged 18 years or older. A total of 3,429 referring-physician surveys (90.7%) were returned. The results of the PET-CT study resulted in a change in treatment decision in 49.8% of the studies and resulted in improved decision making in 83.2% of the studies. This series demonstrated that the results from PET-CT studies performed at a single Canadian oncology center during the first 2 years of its operation altered patient management in 50% of cases and resulted in improved decision making in the majority of cases. 2010 Canadian Association of Radiologists. All rights reserved.

  4. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance for Evaluating Catheter Related FDG Avidity

    PubMed Central

    Gage, Kenneth L.; Berman, Claudia G.; Montilla-Soler, Jaime L.

    2016-01-01

    A 53-year-old female with a history of metastatic left arm melanoma presented for F(18) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) which showed a moderately FDG avid focus at her port catheter tip near the cavoatrial junction. Although catheter tip related FDG avidity has previously been suggested to be bland thrombus or infection, melanoma can metastasize to unusual locations including the superior vena cava. In addition, the patient had an elevated risk of anticoagulation due to a history of hemorrhagic brain metastases. Therefore, confirmatory cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) was obtained and findings were consistent with bland catheter-related thrombus. PMID:27867676

  5. F-18 SRA landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A highly-modified F-18 Hornet being flown by the Dryden Flight Research Center in a joint NASA/DOD/industry research program touches down on the main runway at Edwards Air Force Base following another research flight. The two-seat 'B' model F-18, formerly a support aircraft at DFRC, has been converted into a Sytems Research Aircraft (SRA) to flight test a variety of experimental components and sub-sytems. Among the more than 20 experiments is the Advanced L-Probe Air Data Integration, or 'ALADIN,' scheduled to begin flight tests this fall. Similiar to a standard pitot tube, the fuselage-mounted ALADIN probe measures and integrates Mach speed, altitude, angle of attack and side-slip angle. The experiment also incorporates a neural network computer which will be 'trained' to compute air data measured by the probe.

  6. Staging and Functional Characterization of Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma by 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Timmers, Henri J. L. M.; Chen, Clara C.; Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Whatley, Millie; Ling, Alexander; Eisenhofer, Graeme; King, Kathryn S.; Rao, Jyotsna U.; Wesley, Robert A.; Adams, Karen T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare tumors of the adrenal medulla and extra-adrenal sympathetic chromaffin tissues; their anatomical and functional imaging are critical to guiding treatment decisions. This study aimed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) for tumor localization and staging of PPGLs with that of conventional imaging by [123I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine single photon emission CT (123I-MIBG SPECT), CT, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods A total of 216 patients (106 men, 110 women, aged 45.2 ± 14.9 years) with suspected PPGL underwent CT or MRI, 18F-FDG PET/CT, and 123I-MIBG SPECT/CT. Sensitivity and specificity were measured as endpoints and compared by the McNemar test, using two-sided P values only. Results Sixty (28%) of patients had nonmetastatic PPGL, 95 (44%) had metastatic PPGL, and 61 (28%) were PPGL negative. For nonmetastatic tumors, the sensitivity of 18F-FDG was similar to that of 123I-MIBG but less than that of CT/MRI (sensitivity of 18F-FDG = 76.8%; of 123I-MIBG = 75.0%; of CT/MRI = 95.7%; 18F-FDG vs 123I-MIBG: difference = 1.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −14.8% to 14.8%, P = .210; 18F-FDG vs CT/MRI: difference = 18.9%, 95% CI = 9.4% to 28.3%, P < .001). The specificity was 90.2% for 18F-FDG, 91.8% for 123I-MIBG, and 90.2% for CT/MRI. 18F-FDG uptake was higher in succinate dehydrogenase complex– and von Hippel–Lindau syndrome–related tumors than in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) related tumors. For metastases, sensitivity was greater for 18F-FDG and CT/MRI than for 123I-MIBG (sensitivity of 18F-FDG = 82.5%; of 123I-MIBG = 50.0%; of CT/MRI = 74.4%; 18F-FDG vs 123I-MIBG: difference = 32.5%, 95% CI = 22.3% to 42.5%, P < .001; CT/MRI vs 123I-MIBG: difference = 24.4%, 95% CI = 11.3% to 31.6%, P < .001). For bone metastases, 18F-FDG was more sensitive than CT/MRI (sensitivity of 18

  7. Relationship between Tl-201, Tc-99m (Sn) pyrophosphate and F-18 2-deoxyglucose uptake in ischemically injured dog myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Sochor, H.; Schwaiger, M.; Schelbert, H.R.; Huang, S.C.; Ellison, D.; Hansen, H.; Selin, C.; Parodi, O.; Phelps, M.E.

    1987-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated that enhanced glucose utilization in reperfused myocardium as assessed by F-18 2-deoxyglucose (FDG) and positron tomography predicts functional recovery. In this study, we compared segmental uptake of F-18 FDG with that of Tl-201 and Tc-99m (Sn) pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PPi) as conventional markers of tissue viability in seven dogs after a 3-hour intracoronary balloon occlusion and 20 hours of reperfusion. Myocardial blood flow was determined with microspheres. Regional retention fractions were calculated from tracer tissue concentrations, the arterial input function, and blood flow. Ischemic injury was assessed by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and histologic analysis. At 24 hours, blood flow was 22% lower in reperfused than in control myocardium (p less than 0.05). Uptake of Tl-201 was related linearly to blood flow (r = 0.92), while glucose utilization and Tc-99m PPi were 2.9 (p less than 0.01) and 4.7 (p less than 0.05) times higher in reperfused than in control myocardium. Retention fractions of Tc-99m PPi increased with the degree of ischemic injury, while F-18 FDG uptake was highest in segments with mild cell injury. Thus, in ischemically injured myocardium, Tl-201 primarily reflects blood flow. F-18 FDG as a marker of glucose utilization identifies ischemically injured but viable tissue. The admixture of necrotic cells can be determined with Tc-99m PPi. Our results indicate that a dual tracer approach might best characterize the presence and extent of reversibly and of irreversibly injured tissue in a given myocardial region.

  8. Incidental abnormal FDG uptake in the prostate on 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans.

    PubMed

    Kang, Pil Moon; Seo, Won Ik; Lee, Sun Seong; Bae, Sang Kyun; Kwak, Ho Sup; Min, Kweonsik; Kim, Wansuk; Kang, Dong Il

    2014-01-01

    18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) scans are commonly used for the staging and restaging of various malignancies, such as head and neck, breast, colorectal and gynecological cancers. However, the value of FDG PET/CT for detecting prostate cancer is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of incidental prostate 18F-FDG uptake on PET/CT scans. We reviewed 18F-FDG PET/CT scan reports from September 2009 to September 2013, and selected cases that reported focal/diffuse FDG uptake in the prostate. We analyzed the correlation between 18F-FDG PET/CT scan findings and data collected during evaluations such as serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, digital rectal examination (DRE), transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), and/or biopsy to confirm prostate cancer. Of a total of 18,393 cases, 106 (0.6%) exhibited abnormal hypermetabolism in the prostate. Additional evaluations were performed in 66 patients. Serum PSA levels were not significantly correlated with maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) in all patients (rho 0.483, p=0.132). Prostate biopsies were performed in 15 patients, and prostate cancer was confirmed in 11. The median serum PSA level was 4.8 (0.55-7.06) ng/mL and 127.4 (1.06-495) ng/mL in the benign and prostate cancer groups, respectively. The median SUVmax was higher in the prostate cancer group (mean 10.1, range 3.8-24.5) than in the benign group (mean 4.3, range 3.1-8.8), but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.078). There was no significant correlation between SUVmax and serum PSA, prostatic volume, or Gleason score. 18F-FDG PET/CT scans did not reliably differentiate malignant or benign from abnormal uptake lesions in the prostate, and routine prostate biopsy was not usually recommended in patients with abnormal FDG uptake. Nevertheless, patients with incidental prostate uptake on 18F-FDG PET/ CT scans should not be ignored and should be undergo

  9. [18F]-FDG positron emission tomography--an established clinical tool opening a new window into exercise physiology.

    PubMed

    Rudroff, Thorsten; Kindred, John H; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2015-05-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is an established clinical tool primarily used to diagnose and evaluate disease status in patients with cancer. PET imaging using FDG can be a highly valuable tool to investigate normal human physiology by providing a noninvasive, quantitative measure of glucose uptake into various cell types. Over the past years it has also been increasingly used in exercise physiology studies to identify changes in glucose uptake, metabolism, and muscle activity during different exercise modalities. Metabolically active cells transport FDG, an (18)fluorine-labeled glucose analog tracer, from the blood into the cells where it is then phosphorylated but not further metabolized. This metabolic trapping process forms the basis of this method's use during exercise. The tracer is given to a participant during an exercise task, and the actual PET imaging is performed immediately after the exercise. Provided the uptake period is of sufficient duration, and the imaging is performed shortly after the exercise; the captured image strongly reflects the metabolic activity of the cells used during the task. When combined with repeated blood sampling to determine tracer blood concentration over time, also known as the input function, glucose uptake rate of the tissues can be quantitatively calculated. This synthesis provides an accounting of studies using FDG-PET to measure acute exercise-induced skeletal muscle activity, describes the advantages and limitations of this imaging technique, and discusses its applications to the field of exercise physiology. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Subcutaneous fatty tissue metastasis from renal cell carcinoma detected with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tatoğlu, Mehmet Tarιk; Özülker, Tamer; Değirmenci, Hülya; Sayιlgan, Ayşe Tülay

    2011-01-01

    A patient who had undergone left radical nephrectomy 11 years ago for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) was referred to our clinic for restaging. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F18-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F18-FDG PET/CT) showed hypometabolic area in left frontal region of the brain and increased FDG uptake in the subcutaneous fatty tissues of the right thigh. Histopathological examination of the biopsy material from the left frontal region and right gluteal region revealed metastasis of clear cell type RCC. Seven months later, a magnetic resonance ımaging (MRI) of right cruris showed a contrast-enhancing lesion with a diameter of 3.5 cm, located at the subcutaneous area of posterior part of right cruris. A concomitant F18-FDG PET/CT detected an increased FDG uptake focus in the proximal third of right cruris adjacent to the muscle planes and this finding was consistent with metastasis of RCC. PMID:21969776

  11. F-18 SRA landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A highly modified F-18B Hornet fighter being flown by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center settles towards the runway at Edwards Air Force Base following another research flight. Known as the Systems Research Aircraft (SRA), the two-seat F-18 is currently engaged in a multi-year project to evaluate a variety of advanced control subsystems and sensors. Among the more than 20 experiments being researched in the joint NASA/DOD/industry program is the Electrical-Powered Actuation Design (EPAD), which is testing prototype aileron actuators which operate independently of the aircraft's hydraulic system. One experimental electrohydrostatic actuator (EHA) generates hydraulic force to move the aileron via a compact electric-driven hydraulic pump incorporated in the actuator itself. Another 'smart' actuator uses actuator-mounted electronics while a third electro-mechanical actuator is electrically operated and moves the aileron mechanically. Such actuators could eliminate much of the need for complex central hydraulic systems on future aircraft, with signifigant savings in weight and cost. They are also being evaluated for use on the planned Reusable Launch Vehicle.

  12. Primary Tumor Standardized Uptake Value Measured on F18-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Is of Prediction Value for Survival and Local Control in Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Receiving Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Na, Feifei; Wang, Jingwen; Li, Cong; Deng, Lei; Xue, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The 2-[18F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET/CT) has become an imaging tool for clinical assessment of tumor, node, metastasis in non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Primary tumor maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on 18F-FDG PET/CT before and after radiation therapy (RT) has been studied as a potential prognostic factor for NSCLC patients receiving radiotherapy. However, the sample sizes of most studies were small, and the results of the prediction value of SUVmax remained undetermined, which lead us to perform a meta-analysis to improve the precision in estimating its effect. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of published literature for primary tumor SUVmax-based biomarkers of the outcome of NSCLC receiving radiotherapy. The required data for estimation of individual hazard ratios (HRs) to compare patients with a low and a high SUVmax were extracted from each publication. A combined HR was calculated by Stata statistical software (Version 11). All of the results were verified by two persons to ensure its accuracy. Results: Thirteen studies were finally included into this meta-analysis; data are available in 13 studies for pre-RT primary tumor SUVmax and in five studies for post-RT. For overall survival, the combined HR estimate was 1.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–1.08) and 1.32 (95% CI, 1.15–1.51) for pre-RT SUVmax and post-RT SUVmax, respectively; 1.26 (95% CI, 1.05–1.52) and 2.01 (95% CI, 1.16–3.46) for local control (LC). In stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) group, HR for LC was 1.11 (95% CI, 1.06–1.18) and 2.19 (95% CI, 1.34–3.60) for pre-SBRT SUVmax and post-SBRT SUVmax, respectively. Conclusion: Both pre-RT and post-RT primary tumor SUVmax can predict the outcome of patients with NSCLC treated with radiotherapy. Patients with high levels of pre-RT SUVmax seemed to have poorer overall survival and LC. PMID:24787963

  13. Clinical implications of defining the gross tumor volume with combination of CT and {sup 18}FDG-positron emission tomography in non-small-cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Grills, Inga S. . E-mail: igrills@beaumont.edu; Yan Di; Black, Quinten C.; Wong, Ching-Yee O.; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Kestin, Larry L.

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To compare the planning target volume (PTV) definitions for computed tomography (CT) vs. positron emission tomography (PET) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: A total of 21 patients with NSCLC underwent three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy planning. All underwent a staging F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-position emission tomography ({sup 18}FDG-PET) scan and underwent treatment simulation using CT plus a separate planning {sup 18}FDG-PET scan. Three sets of target volumes were defined: Set 1, CT volumes (CT tumor + staging PET nodal disease); Set 2, PET volumes (planning PET tumor {l_brace}gross tumor volume (GTV) = [(0.3069 x mean standardized uptake value) + 0.5853]){r_brace}; Set 3, composite CT-PET volumes (fused CT-PET tumor). Sets 1 and 2 were compared using a matching index. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans were created using the Set 1 (CT) volumes; and coverage of the Set 3 (composite) volumes was evaluated. Separate three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans were designed for the Set 3 volumes. Results: For the primary tumor GTV, the Set 1 (CT) volume was larger than the Set 2 (PET) volume in 48%, smaller in 33%, and equal in 19%. The mean matching index was 0.65 (35% CT-PET mismatch). Although quantitatively similar, the volumes differed qualitatively. The Set 3 (composite) volume was larger than either CT or PET alone in 62%, smaller in 24%, and equal in 14%. The dose-volume histogram parameters did not differ among the plans for Set 1 (CT) vs. Set 3 (composite) volumes. Small portions of the Set 3 PTV were significantly underdosed in 40% of cases using the CT-only plan. Conclusion: Computed tomography and PET are complementary and should be obtained in the treatment position and fused to define the GTV for NSCLC. Although the quantitative absolute target volume is sometimes similar, the qualitative target locations can be substantially different, leading to underdosage of the target when planning is

  14. F-18 FDG PET/CT and Tc-99m sulfur colloid SPECT imaging in the diagnosis and treatment of a case of dual solitary fibrous tumors of the retroperitoneum and pancreas.

    PubMed

    Azadi, Javad; Subhawong, Andrea; Durand, Daniel James

    2012-03-01

    Although FDG PET is increasingly used for the staging of many types of sarcoma, little has been written regarding the FDG PET imaging characteristics of solitary fibrous tumor. We report a patient undergoing FDG PET/CT surveillance for squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue who was incidentally found to have two soft tissue masses in the retroperitoneum and pancreatic tail. Due to their low degree of FDG avidity, they were followed conservatively for approximately one year as they gradually increased in size. Technetium-99m sulfur colloid SPECT helped confirm that the pancreatic tail mass was not a splenule, after which both lesions were surgically resected and found to be extrathoracic solitary fibrous tumors without malignant features. These findings suggest that, as with other low-grade sarcomas, benign extrathoracic solitary fibrous tumors exhibit relatively little glycolytic metabolism in vivo.

  15. FDG uptake in cervical facet subchondral cysts demonstrated by PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Lin, Eugene; Sicuro, Paul

    2008-04-01

    F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in facet joints related to degenerative disease has been previously described. However, FDG uptake in subchondral cysts is the subject of this report. We describe 2 cases of intense focal FDG uptake in subchondral cysts in the cervical facets seen on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) exams. The location of these cysts immediately adjacent to the facet joints and the presence of associated facet joint degenerative changes are helpful in distinguishing this uptake from metastatic disease or other bone lesions.

  16. Unilateral thalamic hypometabolism on FDG brain PET in patient with temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Sager, Sait; Asa, Sertac; Uslu, Lebriz; Halac, Metin

    2011-01-01

    Interictal Brain F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging has been widely used for localizing the focus of a seizure. Hypometabolism in the extratemporal cortex on FDG-PET study is an important finding to localize seizure focus, which might be seen as ipsilateral, contralateral or bilateral thalamus hypometabolism in epileptic patients. In this case report, it is aimed to show ipsilateral thalamus hypomethabolism on FDG PET brain study of a 24-year-old male patient with temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:22174515

  17. A Restless Leg Syndrome Incidentally Detected by an 18F-FDG Positron Emission Tomography.

    PubMed

    Ohnona, Jessica; Metlaine, Arnaud; Leger, Damien; Talbot, Jean-Noël

    2017-05-01

    A case of a restless leg syndrome (RLS) was incidentally detected in a 49-year-old woman referred for an F-FDG PET/CT in monitoring her breast cancer. She was treated with chemotherapy and on long-term hormone therapy. Diffuse F-FDG uptake of calf muscles was visualized. Medical history revealed that the patient felt leg cramps in supine position, suggesting RLS. The diagnosis was confirmed using clinical rating scales and polysomnography. RLS being underdiagnosed, this type of FDG PET/CT incidental finding should prompt to check the presence of evocative symptoms and refer the patient to a physician specialized in sleep disorders.

  18. Extramedullary Plasmacytoma of the Gallbladder Detected on Fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Asif Ali; Rodrigue, Paul David; Fakhri, Amena Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma is rare in patients with diagnosed multiple myeloma. Soft tissue plasmacytoma of the gallbladder is particularly uncommon and has been described in only a handful of cases. Diagnosis of gallbladder plasmacytoma with fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F18-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has not previously been reported. We present a 65-year-old female with a history of multiple myeloma who underwent a restaging F18-FDG-PET/CT which showed a focal area of hypermetabolic activity, corresponding to a nodular lesion within the posterior gallbladder wall. The patient underwent successful cholecystectomy, with surgical pathology revealing gallbladder plasmacytoma. A follow-up scan was negative for active malignancy. This is a novel case of gallbladder plasmacytoma diagnosed on whole-body F18-FDG PET/CT – thus demonstrating the clinical value of this imaging modality in staging, restaging, and surveillance for patients with multiple myeloma. PMID:27761300

  19. Prognostic Importance of Bone Marrow Uptake on Baseline (18)F-FDG Positron Emission Tomography in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Soydal, Cigdem; Koksoy, Elif Berna; Yasar, Arzu; Turgal, Ebru; Erdogan, Beyza Doganay; Akbulut, Hakan; Kucuk, Nuriye Ozlem

    2016-12-01

    To define the role of (18)F-flourodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in the detection of bone marrow (BM) involvement in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Fifty-four (mean age: 55.5 ± 18.3 years, 20 female and 34 male) DLBCL patients who underwent pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET/CT were included to the study. Focal or diffuse BM (18)F-FDG uptake that is higher than mediastinal blood pool uptake was accepted as positive. After staging of disease by CT and (18)F-FDG PET/CT, all the patients received R-CHOP treatment after diagnostic blinded bone marrow biopsy (BMB). Presence of positive BM uptake in (18)F-FDG PET/CT and histopathological examination results of BMBs were analyzed by Chi-square test. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of BM involvement were calculated. Prognostic importance of the presence of BM (18)F-FDG uptake was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. BM (18)F-FDG uptake was detected in 8 patients. Histopathological examination of BMB revealed BM involvement in 6 out of 8 patients. BMB was negative in all patients who have no (18)F-FDG uptake in the evaluation of PET/CT images. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV, and NPV of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of BM involvement were calculated as 100%, 96%, 96%, 75%, and 100%, respectively. In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, we found that presence of pretreatment (18)F-FDG uptake in BM has a prognostic importance. Whereas mean time to progression (TTP) in patients with BM uptake was 32.25 ± 10.9 months and mean TTP in those without was 51.69 ± 3.6 months (p = 0.013). BM uptake in pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET/CT is an important prognostic factor in DLBCL patients. Moreover, in consideration of high NPV, (18)F-FDG PET/CT could eliminate unnecessary BMB in FDG-negative patients.

  20. Cerebral metabolic rate for glucose during the first six months of life: an FDG positron emission tomography study.

    PubMed Central

    Kinnala, A.; Suhonen-Polvi, H.; Aärimaa, T.; Kero, P.; Korvenranta, H.; Ruotsalainen, U.; Bergman, J.; Haaparanta, M.; Solin, O.; Nuutila, P.; Wegelius, U.

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To measure the local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (LCMRGlc) in neonatal brains during maturation using positron emission tomography (PET) and 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). METHODS: Twenty infants were studied using PET during the neonatal period. The postconceptional age ranged from 32.7 to 60.3 weeks. All infants had normal neurodevelopment and were normoglycaemic. The development of the infants was carefully evaluated (follow up 12-36 months) clinically, and by using a method based on Gesell Amatruda's developmental diagnosis. LCMRGlc was quantitated using PET derived from FDG kinetics and calculated in the whole brain and for regional brain structures. RESULTS: LCMRGlc for various cortical brain regions and the basal ganglia was low at birth (from 4 to 16 mumol/100 g/minute). In infants 2 months of age and younger LCMRGlc was highest in the sensorimotor cortex, thalamus, and brain stem. By 5 months, LCMRGlc had increased in the frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital and cerebellar cortical regions. In general, the whole brain LCMRGlc correlated with postconceptional age (r = 0.90; P < 0.001). The change in the glucose metabolic pattern observed in the neonatal brain reflects the functional maturation of these brain regions. CONCLUSION: These findings show that LCMRGlc in infants increases with maturation. Accordingly, when LCMRGlc is measured during infancy, the postconceptional age has to be taken into account when interpretating the results. Images Figure 1 PMID:8777676

  1. Validation of FDG uptake in the arterial wall as an imaging biomarker of atherosclerotic plaques with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT).

    PubMed

    Bucci, Monica; Aparici, Carina Mari; Hawkins, Randy; Bacharach, Steve; Schrek, Carole; Cheng, Suchun; Tong, Elizabeth; Arora, Sandeep; Parati, Eugenio; Wintermark, Max

    2014-01-01

    From the literature, the prevalence of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in large artery atherosclerotic plaques shows great heterogeneity. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive patients who underwent FDG-positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging of their whole body, to evaluate FDG uptake in the arterial wall. We retrospectively evaluated 100 whole-body PET-CT scans. The PET images coregistered with CT were reviewed for abnormal 18F-FDG uptake. The mean standard uptake value (SUV) was measured in regions of interest (ROIs). The prevalence of PET+ plaques was determined based on the qualitative PET review, used as the gold standard in a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to determine an optimal threshold for the quantitative PET analysis. The qualitative, visual assessment demonstrated FDG uptake in the arterial walls of 26 patients. A total of 85 slices exhibited FDG uptake within the arterial wall of 37 artery locations. 11, 17, and 2 patients exhibited FDG uptake within the wall of carotid arteries, of the aorta, and of the iliac arteries, respectively. Only 4 of the 26 patients had positive FDG uptake in more than one artery location. In terms of quantitative analysis, a threshold of 2.8 SUV was associated with a negative predictive value of 99.4% and a positive predictive value of 100% to predict qualitative PET+ plaques. A threshold of 1.8 SUV was associated with a negative predictive value of 100% and a positive predictive value of 99.4%. Area under the ROC curve was .839. The prevalence of PET uptake in arterial walls in a consecutive population of asymptomatic patients is low and usually confined to one type of artery, and its clinical relevance in terms of vulnerability to ischemic events remains to be determined. Copyright © 2012 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  2. Correlation between 18F-FDG Positron-Emission Tomography 18F-FDG Uptake Levels at Diagnosis and Histopathologic and Immunohistochemical Factors in Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Uğurluer, Gamze; Yavuz, Sinan; Çalıkuşu, Züleyha; Seyrek, Ertuğrul; Kibar, Mustafa; Serin, Meltem; Ersöz, Canan; Demircan, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Objective In this study, we aimed to determine the correlation between pretreatment-staging 18F-FDG total body positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) levels and histopathologic and immunohistochemical predictive and prognostic factors in patients with breast cancer. Materials and Methods One hundred thirty-nine women with breast cancer who were treated between 2009 and 2015 at our hospital and who had pretreatment-staging PET/CT were included in the study. SUVmax levels and histopathologic and immunohistochemical results were compared. Results The median age was 48 years (range, 29–79 years). The mean tumor diameter was 33.4 mm (range, 7–120 mm). The histology was invasive ductal carcinoma in 80.6% of the patients. In the univariate analysis, SUVmax levels were significantly higher in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma; in patients with a maximum tumor diameter more than 2 cm; patients who were estrogen, progesterone, and combined hormone receptor-negative, triple-negative patients, and in tumors with higher grades (p<0.05). In HER2-positive patients, SUVmax levels were higher even if it was not statistically significant. There was no correlation between lymph node metastases and pathologic stage. In multivariate analysis, tumor diameter was an independent factor. Conclusion SUVmax levels are correlated with known histopathologic and immunohistochemical prognostic factors. PET/CT could be useful in preoperative evaluation of patients with breast cancer to predict biologic characteristics of tumors and prognosis.

  3. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A new ray of hope!

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Unnati; Karkhanis, Vinaya S.; Basu, Sandip; Joshi, Jyotsna M.

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive interstitial lung disease with median survival of 2–3 years. It is described as fibroproliferative rather than pro-inflammatory disorder with limited treatment options. IPF diagnostics and therapeutics are a hot topic of current research. We describe a case elaborating the utility of the whole body positron emission tomography with 2-deoxy-2-(fluorine-18) fluoro-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) integrated with computed tomography technique in IPF. The area of most intense pulmonary F--18 FDG uptake corresponded to regions of honeycombing suggesting metabolically active disease amenable to pharmacologic intervention. Additional F--18 FDG uptake was seen in mediastinal nodes implying an extrapulmonary component of disease. PMID:27833314

  4. The influence of tumor oxygenation on 18F-FDG (Fluorine-18 Deoxyglucose) uptake: A mouse study using positron emission tomography (PET)

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Linda W; Hapdey, Sebastien; English, Sean; Seidel, Jurgen; Carson, Joann; Sowers, Anastasia L; Krishna, Murali C; Green, Michael V; Mitchell, James B; Bacharach, Stephen L

    2006-01-01

    Background This study investigated whether changing a tumor's oxygenation would alter tumor metabolism, and thus uptake of 18F-FDG (fluorine-18 deoxyglucose), a marker for glucose metabolism using positron emission tomography (PET). Results Tumor-bearing mice (squamous cell carcinoma) maintained at 37°C were studied while breathing either normal air or carbogen (95% O2, 5% CO2), known to significantly oxygenate tumors. Tumor activity was measured within an automatically determined volume of interest (VOI). Activity was corrected for the arterial input function as estimated from image and blood-derived data. Tumor FDG uptake was initially evaluated for tumor-bearing animals breathing only air (2 animals) or only carbogen (2 animals). Subsequently, 5 animals were studied using two sequential 18F-FDG injections administered to the same tumor-bearing mouse, 60 min apart; the first injection on one gas (air or carbogen) and the second on the other gas. When examining the entire tumor VOI, there was no significant difference of 18F-FDG uptake between mice breathing either air or carbogen (i.e. air/carbogen ratio near unity). However, when only the highest 18F-FDG uptake regions of the tumor were considered (small VOIs), there was a modest (21%), but significant increase in the air/carbogen ratio suggesting that in these potentially most hypoxic regions of the tumor, 18F-FDG uptake and hence glucose metabolism, may be reduced by increasing tumor oxygenation. Conclusion Tumor 18F-FDG uptake may be reduced by increases in tumor oxygenation and thus may provide a means to further enhance 18F-FDG functional imaging. PMID:16722588

  5. FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography studies of Wilms' tumor.

    PubMed

    Moinul Hossain, A K M; Shulkin, Barry L; Gelfand, Michael J; Bashir, Humayun; Daw, Najat C; Sharp, Susan E; Nadel, Helen R; Dome, Jeffrey S

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the utility of FDG PET/CT scanning in patients with Wilms' tumors. A total of 58 scans were performed in 27 patients (14 male, 13 female; ages: 1.9-23 years, median: 7 years) with proven Wilms' tumor. Twenty-six patients (56 scans) were studied at the time of suspected relapse, progressive disease, persistent disease, or for monitoring of therapy. In the 27 patients with Wilms' tumor, 34 scans showed areas of abnormal uptake consistent with metabolically active tumors. Of the patients, 8 (24 scans) had pulmonary metastases larger than 10 mm in diameter, 10 (12 scans) had hepatic metastases, 11 (11 scans) had regional nodal involvement, 3 (3 scans) had bone metastases, 1 (1 scan) had chest wall involvement, 2 (2 scans) had pancreatic metastasis, and 5 (5 scans) had abdominal and pelvic soft tissue involvement. Two of eight patients with lung metastases had variable uptakes. Lung lesions 10 mm or smaller were not consistently visualized on PET scans. One patient with a liver metastasis showed no uptake on PET scan after treatment (size decreased from 45 to 15 mm). Most Wilms' tumors concentrate FDG. However, small pulmonary metastases may be better visualized with CT. FDG PET/CT appears useful for defining the extent of involvement and assessing the response to treatment.

  6. FDG-PET response-adapted therapy: is 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography a safe predictor for a change of therapy?

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is the most accurate tool for staging, treatment monitoring, and response evaluation in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Early determination of treatment sensitivity by FDG-PET is the best tool to guide individualized, response-adapted treatment. Several ongoing or recently completed trials have investigated the use of FDG-PET/CT for early response-adapted HL therapy. The results are encouraging, but the data are immature, and PET response-adapted HL therapy is discouraged outside the setting of clinical trials. PET/CT looks promising for selection of therapy in relapsed and refractory disease, but the role in this setting is still unclear.

  7. Asymmetrical F-18 Flurorodeoxyglucose uptake in the breasts: A dilemma solved by patient history.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ravi Kant; Tripathi, Madhavi; Sahoo, Manas Kumar; Nazar, Aftab Hasan; Agarwal, Krishankant; Kumar, Kunal; Damle, Nishikant; Bal, Chandrasekhar

    2016-01-01

    The present case highlights the importance of history taking in solving the dilemmas of variant F-18 FDG uptake on PET/CT. Asymmetrically increased, abnormal looking, FDG uptake in the right breast of our patient was related to her breast feeding practice. Because of personal preference the patient suckled her child from the right breast only. This resulted in asymmetry of size, increase in glandular breast parenchyma and FDG uptake in the breast that was suckled.

  8. Adjusted scaling of FDG positron emission tomography images for statistical evaluation in patients with suspected Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Buchert, Ralph; Wilke, Florian; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Martin, Brigitte; Brenner, Winfried; Mester, Janos; Clausen, Malte

    2005-10-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) gained increasing acceptance for the voxel-based statistical evaluation of brain positron emission tomography (PET) with the glucose analog 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) in patients with suspected Alzheimer's disease (AD). To increase the sensitivity for detection of local changes, individual differences of total brain FDG uptake are usually compensated for by proportional scaling. However, in cases of extensive hypometabolic areas, proportional scaling overestimates scaled uptake. This may cause significant underestimation of the extent of hypometabolic areas by the statistical test. To detect this problem, the authors tested for hypermetabolism. In patients with no visual evidence of true focal hypermetabolism, significant clusters of hypermetabolism in the presence of extended hypometabolism were interpreted as false-positive findings, indicating relevant overestimation of scaled uptake. In this case, scaled uptake was reduced step by step until there were no more significant clusters of hypermetabolism. In 22 consecutive patients with suspected AD, proportional scaling resulted in relevant overestimation of scaled uptake in 9 patients. Scaled uptake had to be reduced by 11.1% +/- 5.3% in these cases to eliminate the artifacts. Adjusted scaling resulted in extension of existing and appearance of new clusters of hypometabolism. Total volume of the additional voxels with significant hypometabolism depended linearly on the extent of the additional scaling and was 202 +/- 118 mL on average. Adjusted scaling helps to identify characteristic metabolic patterns in patients with suspected AD. It is expected to increase specificity of FDGPET in this group of patients.

  9. Analysis of predictability of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT in the recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suk Kyeong; So, Young; Chung, Hyun Woo; Yoo, Young Bum; Park, Kyung Sik; Hwang, Tae Sook; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Won Woo

    2016-10-01

    Whether preoperative F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) can predict recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) remains unclear. Herein, we evaluated the potential of primary tumor FDG avidity for the prediction of tumor recurrence in PTC patients. A total of 412 PTC patients (72 males, 340 females; age: 47.2 ± 12.2 years; range: 17-84 years) who underwent FDG-PET/CT prior to total thyroidectomy (n = 350), subtotal thyroidectomy (n = 2), or lobectomy (n = 60) from 2007 to 2011 were analyzed. The predictive ability for recurrence was investigated among various clinicopathological factors, BRAF(V)(600E) mutation, and preoperative FDG avidity of the primary tumor using Kaplan-Meier (univariate) and Cox proportional hazards regression (multivariate) analyses. Of the 412 patients, 19 (4.6%) experienced recurrence, which was confirmed either by pathology (n = 17) or high serum thyroglobulin level (n = 2), during a mean follow-up period of 43.9 ± 16.6 months. Of the 412 patients, 237 (57.5%) had FDG-avid tumors (maximum standardized uptake value, 7.1 ± 7.0; range: 1.6-50.5). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that tumor size (P = 0.0054), FDG avidity of the tumor (P = 0.0049), extrathyroidal extension (P = 0.0212), and lymph node (LN) stage (P < 0.0001) were significant predictors for recurrence. However, only LN stage remained a significant predictor in the multivariate analysis (P < 0.0001). Patients with FDG-avid tumors had higher LN stage (P < 0.0001), larger tumor size (P < 0.0001), and more frequent extrathyroidal extension (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, FDG avidity of the primary tumor in preoperative FDG-PET/CT could not predict the recurrence of PTC. LN stage was the only identified predictor of PTC recurrence.

  10. Diffuse increased splenic F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose uptake may be an indirect sign of acute pyogenic cause rather than tuberculous in patients with infectious spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keunyoung; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, In Joo; Kim, Bum Soo; Pak, Kyoungjune; Kim, Heeyoung

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether diffuse increased splenic fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake may be an indirect sign of an acute pyogenic cause of infectious spondylitis (IS). A retrospective review identified consecutive records of patients with IS who underwent F-18 FDG positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans between January 2007 and July 2008 and recruited 23 patients (57.8 ± 15.6 years, range: 20-81 years, eight men, 15 women) and their hematological laboratory data. The regions of interest were used to measure the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) for the bone marrow (BM), liver, and spleen in each patient. We calculated the spleen/liver ratio (S/L ratio) by dividing the spleen SUVmax by liver SUVmax and the spleen/BM ratio (S/B ratio) by dividing spleen SUVmax by BM SUVmax as a parameter to assess the splenic FDG uptake. The acute pyogenic cause of the IS group showed statistically significantly higher values of spleen SUVmax (median, 1.71 vs. 1.16, P=0.0108), S/L ratio (median, 1.08 vs. 0.88, P=0.0454), and S/B ratio (median, 1.30 vs. 0.94, P=0.0055) than the chronic tuberculous cause of the IS. The optimal cut-off values for the quantitative indices were spleen SUVmax>1.49, S/B ratio>0.957, and S/L ratio>0.889. On the basis of the results presented, this study demonstrated that some quantitative indices from F-18 FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography images could be indirect signs of an acute pyogenic cause of the IS. Among the various quantitative indices, spleen SUVmax, S/B ratio, and S/L ratio were potent indicators for an acute pyogenic cause of the IS.

  11. Comparability of [(18)F]THK5317 and [(11)C]PIB blood flow proxy images with [(18)F]FDG positron emission tomography in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Vieitez, Elena; Leuzy, Antoine; Chiotis, Konstantinos; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Wall, Anders; Nordberg, Agneta

    2017-02-01

    For amyloid positron emission tomography tracers, the simplified reference tissue model derived ratio of influx rate in target relative to reference region (R1) has been shown to serve as a marker of brain perfusion, and, due to the strong coupling between perfusion and metabolism, as a proxy for glucose metabolism. In the present study, 11 prodromal Alzheimer's disease and nine Alzheimer's disease dementia patients underwent [(18)F]THK5317, carbon-11 Pittsburgh Compound-B ([(11)C]PIB), and 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) positron emission tomography to assess the possible use of early-phase [(18)F]THK5317 and R1 as proxies for brain perfusion, and thus, for glucose metabolism. Discriminative performance (prodromal vs Alzheimer's disease dementia) of [(18)F]THK5317 (early-phase SUVr and R1) was compared with that of [(11)C]PIB (early-phase SUVr and R1) and [(18)F]FDG. Strong positive correlations were found between [(18)F]THK5317 (early-phase, R1) and [(18)F]FDG, particularly in frontal and temporoparietal regions. Differences in correlations between early-phase and R1 ([(18)F]THK5317 and [(11)C]PIB) and [(18)F]FDG, were not statistically significant, nor were differences in area under the curve values in the discriminative analysis. Our findings suggest that early-phase [(18)F]THK5317 and R1 provide information on brain perfusion, closely related to glucose metabolism. As such, a single positron emission tomography study with [(18)F]THK5317 may provide information about both tau pathology and brain perfusion in Alzheimer's disease, with potential clinical applications.

  12. Functional neuroimaging in epilepsy: FDG PET and ictal SPECT.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, D. S.; Lee, S. K.; Lee, M. C.

    2001-01-01

    Epileptogenic zones can be localized by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) and ictal single-photon emission computed tomography(SPECT). In medial temporal lobe epilepsy, the diagnostic sensitivity of FDG PET or ictal SPECT is excellent, however, the sensitivity of MRI is so high that the incremental sensitivity by FDG PET or ictal SPECT has yet to be proven. When MRI findings are ambiguous or normal, or discordant with those of ictal EEG, FDG PET and ictal SPECT are helpful for localization without the need for invasive ictal EEG. In neocortical epilepsy, the sensitivities of FDG PET or ictal SPECT are fair. However, because almost a half of the patients are normal on MRI, FDG PET and ictal SPECT are helpful for localization or at least for lateralization in these non-lesional epilepsies in order to guide the subdural insertion of electrodes. Interpretation of FDG PET has been recently advanced by voxel-based analysis and automatic volume of interest analysis based on a population template. Both analytical methods confirmed the performance of previous visual interpretation results. Ictal SPECT was analyzed using subtraction methods(coregistered to MRI) and voxel-based analysis. Rapidity of injection of tracers, HMPAO versus ECD, and repeated ictal SPECT, which remain the technical issues of ictal SPECT, are detailed. PMID:11748346

  13. Image findings of monomorphic non-hogdkin lymphoproliferative disorder in a post renal transplant patient diagnosed with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Rajasekar, Thirugnanam; Shibu, Deepu; Radhakrishnan, Edathurthy Kalarikal; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2014-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a heterogeneous group of lymphoid proliferations caused by immunosuppression after solid organ or bone marrow transplantation. PTLD is categorized by early lesion, polymorphic PTLD and monomorphic PTLD. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) scans have clinical significance in the evaluation of PTLD following renal transplantation. We report imaging findings of a monomorphic non-Hodgkin lymphoma, post renal transplant seen on FDG PET/CT in a 32-year-old lactating woman. Whole body FDG- ET/CT demonstrated uptake in right external iliac and inguinal lymph nodes. PMID:25210292

  14. Intra-tumour 18F-FDG uptake heterogeneity decreases the reliability on target volume definition with positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xinzhe; Wu, Peipei; Sun, Xiaorong; Li, Wenwu; Wan, Honglin; Yu, Jinming; Xing, Ligang

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to explore whether the intra-tumour (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake heterogeneity affects the reliability of target volume definition with FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and squamous cell oesophageal cancer (SCEC). Patients with NSCLC (n = 50) or SCEC (n = 50) who received (18)F-FDG PET/CT scanning before treatments were included in this retrospective study. Intra-tumour FDG uptake heterogeneity was assessed by visual scoring, the coefficient of variation (COV) of the standardised uptake value (SUV) and the image texture feature (entropy). Tumour volumes (gross tumour volume (GTV)) were delineated on the CT images (GTV(CT)), the fused PET/CT images (GTV(PET-CT)) and the PET images, using a threshold at 40% SUV(max) (GTV(PET40%)) or the SUV cut-off value of 2.5 (GTV(PET2.5)). The correlation between the FDG uptake heterogeneity parameters and the differences in tumour volumes among GTV(CT), GTV(PET-CT), GTV(PET40%) and GTV(PET2.5) was analysed. For both NSCLC and SCEC, obvious correlations were found between uptake heterogeneity, SUV or tumour volumes. Three types of heterogeneity parameters were consistent and closely related to each other. Substantial differences between the four methods of GTV definition were found. The differences between the GTV correlated significantly with PET heterogeneity defined with the visual score, the COV or the textural feature-entropy for NSCLC and SCEC. In tumours with a high FDG uptake heterogeneity, a larger GTV delineation difference was found. Advance image segmentation algorithms dealing with tracer uptake heterogeneity should be incorporated into the treatment planning system. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  15. MO-G-17A-07: Improved Image Quality in Brain F-18 FDG PET Using Penalized-Likelihood Image Reconstruction Via a Generalized Preconditioned Alternating Projection Algorithm: The First Patient Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidtlein, CR; Beattie, B; Humm, J; Li, S; Wu, Z; Xu, Y; Zhang, J; Shen, L; Vogelsang, L; Feiglin, D; Krol, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the performance of a new penalized-likelihood PET image reconstruction algorithm using the 1{sub 1}-norm total-variation (TV) sum of the 1st through 4th-order gradients as the penalty. Simulated and brain patient data sets were analyzed. Methods: This work represents an extension of the preconditioned alternating projection algorithm (PAPA) for emission-computed tomography. In this new generalized algorithm (GPAPA), the penalty term is expanded to allow multiple components, in this case the sum of the 1st to 4th order gradients, to reduce artificial piece-wise constant regions (“staircase” artifacts typical for TV) seen in PAPA images penalized with only the 1st order gradient. Simulated data were used to test for “staircase” artifacts and to optimize the penalty hyper-parameter in the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) sense. Patient FDG brain scans were acquired on a GE D690 PET/CT (370 MBq at 1-hour post-injection for 10 minutes) in time-of-flight mode and in all cases were reconstructed using resolution recovery projectors. GPAPA images were compared PAPA and RMSE-optimally filtered OSEM (fully converged) in simulations and to clinical OSEM reconstructions (3 iterations, 32 subsets) with 2.6 mm XYGaussian and standard 3-point axial smoothing post-filters. Results: The results from the simulated data show a significant reduction in the 'staircase' artifact for GPAPA compared to PAPA and lower RMSE (up to 35%) compared to optimally filtered OSEM. A simple power-law relationship between the RMSE-optimal hyper-parameters and the noise equivalent counts (NEC) per voxel is revealed. Qualitatively, the patient images appear much sharper and with less noise than standard clinical images. The convergence rate is similar to OSEM. Conclusions: GPAPA reconstructions using the 1{sub 1}-norm total-variation sum of the 1st through 4th-order gradients as the penalty show great promise for the improvement of image quality over that currently achieved

  16. Diffuse FDG renal uptake in lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Navalkissoor, Shaunak; Szyszko, Teresa; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Nunan, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    In patients presenting with acute renal failure and known/suspected lymphoma, the diagnosis of diffuse renal involvement is important, as there is potential for rapid resolution with chemotherapy. Although FDG is excreted through the kidneys and focal renal disease may be difficult to identify, diffuse renal FDG is more easily recognized and is always abnormal. We report a patient presenting with acute renal failure and suspected lymphoma. F-18 FDG PET/CT study demonstrated diffuse increased FDG uptake in bilaterally enlarged kidneys. Following 1 cycle of chemotherapy, the renal function normalized. An interim F-18 FDG PET/CT demonstrated normal size and FDG uptake within both kidneys.

  17. Extrapulmonary Small Cell Carcinoma of the Seminal Vesicles and Prostate Demonstrated on 18F-FDG Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Tabrizipour, Amir Iravani; Shen, Lily; Mansberg, Robert; Chuong, Bui

    2016-02-05

    Extrapulmonary primary small cell carcinomas arising from the urogenital tract is infrequent. It can rarely arise from the prostate and even more rarely from the seminal vesicles. We present a 79-year-old male who was admitted due to acute renal failure with a history of radical radiotherapy for prostate adenocarcinoma 13 years ago. The prostate specific antigen level was not elevated. An abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scan showed markedly enlarged seminal vesicles causing bilateral ureteral obstruction and a mildly enlarged prostate. Further evaluation with fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/CT demonstrated extensive 18F-FDG uptake in the pelvis with diffuse involvement of both seminal vesicles and the prostate without pathologic uptake in the lungs or elsewhere in the body. Core biopsies of the prostate and both seminal vesicles revealed diffuse involvement by small cell carcinoma. Therapy could not be instituted due to a rapid deterioration in the patient's clinical condition.

  18. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT and post hoc PET/MRI in a case of primary meningeal melanomatosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong Je; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Hwang, Seong Wook; Cho, Suk Kyong; Kim, Hae Won; Lee, Sang-Woo; Hwang, Jeong-Hyun; Lee, Jaetae

    2013-01-01

    Primary meningeal melanomatosis is a rare, aggressive variant of primary malignant melanoma of the central nervous system, which arises from melanocytes within the leptomeninges and carries a poor prognosis. We report a case of primary meningeal melanomatosis in a 17-year-old man, which was diagnosed with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) PET/CT, and post hoc F-18 FDG PET/MRI fusion images. Whole-body F-18 FDG PET/CT was helpful in ruling out the extracranial origin of melanoma lesions, and in assessing the therapeutic response. Post hoc PET/MRI fusion images facilitated the correlation between PET and MRI images and demonstrated the hypermetabolic lesions more accurately than the unenhanced PET/CT images. Whole body F-18 FDG PET/CT and post hoc PET/MRI images might help clinicians determine the best therapeutic strategy for patients with primary meningeal melanomatosis.

  19. Ferret Thoracic Anatomy by 2-Deoxy-2-(18F)Fluoro-D-Glucose (18F-FDG) Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Albert; Zheng, Huaiyu; Kraenzle, Jennifer; Biller, Ashley; Vanover, Carol D.; Proctor, Mary; Sherwood, Leslie; Steffen, Marlene; Ng, Chin; Mollura, Daniel J.; Jonsson, Colleen B.

    2013-01-01

    The domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) has been a long-standing animal model used in the evaluation and treatment of human diseases. Molecular imaging techniques such as 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) would be an invaluable method of tracking disease in vivo, but this technique has not been reported in the literature. Thus, the aim of this study was to establish baseline imaging characteristics of PET/computed tomography (CT) with 18F-FDG in the ferret model. Twelve healthy female ferrets were anesthetized and underwent combined PET/CT scanning. After the images were fused, volumes of interest (VOIs) were generated in the liver, heart, thymus, and bilateral lung fields. For each VOI, standardized uptake values (SUVs) were calculated. Additional comparisons were made between radiotracer uptake periods (60, 90, and >90 minutes), intravenous and intraperitoneal injections of 18F-FDG, and respiratory gated and ungated acquisitions. Pulmonary structures and the surrounding thoracic and upper abdominal anatomy were readily identified on the CT scans of all ferrets and were successfully fused with PET. VOIs were created in various tissues with the following SUV calculations: heart (maximum standardized uptake value [SUVMax] 8.60, mean standardized uptake value [SUVMean] 5.42), thymus (SUVMax 3.86, SUVMean 2.59), liver (SUVMax 1.37, SUVMean 0.99), right lung (SUVMax 0.92, SUVMean 0.56), and left lung (SUVMax 0.88, SUVMean 0.51). Sixty- to 90-minute uptake periods were sufficient to separate tissues based on background SUV activity. No gross differences in image quality were seen between intraperitoneal and intravenous injections of 18F-FDG. Respiratory gating also did not have a significant impact on image quality of lung parenchyma. The authors concluded that 18F-FDG PET and CT imaging can be performed successfully in normal healthy ferrets with the parameters identified in this study. They obtained similar imaging

  20. Ferret thoracic anatomy by 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Albert; Zheng, Huaiyu; Kraenzle, Jennifer; Biller, Ashley; Vanover, Carol D; Proctor, Mary; Sherwood, Leslie; Steffen, Marlene; Ng, Chin; Mollura, Daniel J; Jonsson, Colleen B

    2012-01-01

    The domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) has been a long-standing animal model used in the evaluation and treatment of human diseases. Molecular imaging techniques such as 2-deoxy-2-((18)F)fluoro-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) would be an invaluable method of tracking disease in vivo, but this technique has not been reported in the literature. Thus, the aim of this study was to establish baseline imaging characteristics of PET/computed tomography (CT) with (18)F-FDG in the ferret model. Twelve healthy female ferrets were anesthetized and underwent combined PET/CT scanning. After the images were fused, volumes of interest (VOIs) were generated in the liver, heart, thymus, and bilateral lung fields. For each VOI, standardized uptake values (SUVs) were calculated. Additional comparisons were made between radiotracer uptake periods (60, 90, and >90 minutes), intravenous and intraperitoneal injections of (18)F-FDG, and respiratory gated and ungated acquisitions. Pulmonary structures and the surrounding thoracic and upper abdominal anatomy were readily identified on the CT scans of all ferrets and were successfully fused with PET. VOIs were created in various tissues with the following SUV calculations: heart (maximum standardized uptake value [SUV(Max)] 8.60, mean standardized uptake value [SUV(Mean)] 5.42), thymus (SUV(Max) 3.86, SUV(Mean) 2.59), liver (SUV(Max) 1.37, SUV(Mean) 0.99), right lung (SUV(Max) 0.92, SUV(Mean) 0.56), and left lung (SUV(Max) 0.88, SUV(Mean) 0.51). Sixty- to 90-minute uptake periods were sufficient to separate tissues based on background SUV activity. No gross differences in image quality were seen between intraperitoneal and intravenous injections of (18)F-FDG. Respiratory gating also did not have a significant impact on image quality of lung parenchyma. The authors concluded that (18)F-FDG PET and CT imaging can be performed successfully in normal healthy ferrets with the parameters identified in this study. They

  1. 18F-FDG positron emission tomography in oncology: main indications.

    PubMed

    Vercher-Conejero, J L; Gámez Cenzano, C

    2016-01-01

    The development of molecular and functional imaging with new imaging techniques such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography (PET) among others, has greatly improved the detection of tumors, tumor staging, and the detection of possible recurrences. Furthermore, the combination of these different imaging modalities and the continual development of radiotracers for PET have advanced our understanding and knowledge of the different pathophysiological processes in cancer, thereby helping to make treatment more efficacious, improving patients' quality of life, and increasing survival. PET is one of the imaging techniques that has attracted the most interest in recent years for its diagnostic capabilities. Its ability to anatomically locate pathologic foci of metabolic activity has revolutionized the detection and staging of many tumors, exponentially broadening its potential indications not only in oncology but also in other fields such as cardiology, neurology, and inflammatory and infectious diseases. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. 11C-Choline-Avid but 18F-FDG-Nonavid Prostate Cancer with Lymph Node Metastases on Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Fukushima, Kazuhito; Yamamoto, Shingo; Yamano, Toshiko; Takaki, Haruyuki; Yamakado, Koichiro; Nakanishi, Yukako; Kanematsu, Akihiro; Nojima, Michio; Hirota, Shozo

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a new positron emission tomography (PET) tracer useful for detection of prostate cancer and metastatic lesions. We report a 70-year-old man with prostate cancer and multiple abdominal, pelvic, and inguinal node metastases. PET scans demonstrated accumulation of 11C-choline in the primary tumor and lymph node metastases but no accumulation of 18F-FDG. Choline PET/computed tomography may be useful for diagnosis of advanced prostate cancer with suspected metastatic lesions and treatment planning. PMID:27920703

  3. F-18 SRA in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is using this early-model F-18 Hornet as a flying research platform to evaluate a number of emerging technologies in aircraft control and information systems. The Systems Research Aircraft, a pre-production two-seat version of the twin-engine tactical fighter aircraft, has been extensively modified for its research role. Among projects flown on the plane are experiments to evaluate fiber optics for flight-critical control systems, advanced air data acquisition systems, and electrically-powered flight control actuators which do not require connection to the aircraft central hydraulic system. The new technologies could lead to lighter and more efficient aircraft designs with higher performance and greater safety.

  4. Clinicopathological Features of Cases with Primary Breast Cancer not Identified by 18F-FDG-PET.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takaaki; Yajima, Reina; Tsuboi, Miki; Higuchi, Toru; Obayashi, Sayaka; Tokiniwa, Hideaki; Nagaoka, Rin; Takata, Daisuke; Horiguchi, Jun; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have reported that high F18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake is predictive of poor prognosis and aggressive features in patients with breast cancer. While these studies evaluated the prognostic value for cases with high FDG uptake, they did not elucidate the meaning of FDG negativity in primary breast cancer. In this study, we evaluated the clinicopathological features of breast cancer cases without FDG uptake. We retrospectively investigated the cases of 219 consecutive patients with primary breast cancer who underwent FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) preoperatively. Among the 219 patients, 25 (11.4%) did not have FDG uptake in the tumor. The 219 cases with breast cancer were divided into two groups based on the presence of FDG uptake in the primary tumor. The present univariate analysis revealed that histology, small invasive tumor size, high estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PgR) expression, low nuclear grade and absence of lymph node metastasis were significantly associated with negative FDG uptake in the primary tumor. On the other hand, the size of ductal spread was not significantly different between the two groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that small-size tumor invasion and lower nuclear grade were statistically significant. Among the 25 cases without FDG uptake, there was no recurrent disease in spite of there being no case that underwent chemotherapy, while 4 cases among the 194 cases with FDG uptake had disease recurrence. Our findings imply that preoperative FDG negativity in primary breast cancer is effective in predicting better prognosis, but is less effective in predicting ductal spread. Cases without FDG uptake in the primary tumor may have a lower risk of recurrent disease and may be able to safely avoid adjuvant chemotherapy. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. Sinonasal oncocytic Schneiderian papilloma accompanied by intravascular lymphoma: A case report on FDG-PET/CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Masamichi; Terauchi, Takashi; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Tanaka, Hiroko; Takeuchi, Kengo

    2016-08-01

    F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is useful for the staging and assessment of treatment response in patients with lymphoma. Occasionally, benign lesions demonstrate avid FDG uptake and result in false positive findings. We report the case of an 82-year-old man presenting with cutaneous lesions, which were histopathologically diagnosed as intravascular lymphoma. FDG-PET/CT for staging demonstrated an FDG-avid mass extending from the right maxillary sinus to the nasal cavity, moderate uptake in the adrenal glands, mild uptake in the knee and the foot, and faint uptake in the skin and subcutaneous tissue of the legs. He subsequently underwent biopsy of the paranasal mass, which was diagnosed as oncocytic Schneiderian papilloma without lymphoma invasion. Glucose transporter (GLUT) 1 staining was highly positive in the papilloma cells, resulting in high FDG avidity. After completion of chemotherapy, the abnormal FDG uptakes in the skin, soft tissue, and adrenal glands disappeared on PET/CT. However, avid FDG uptake persisted in the sinonasal Schneiderian papilloma for 15 months before regression. Benign tumors with oncocytic components may show avid FDG uptake. Therefore, correct diagnosis of oncocytic Schneiderian papilloma on FDG images is difficult when other accompanying malignant tumors, especially lymphoma, are present. If post-therapeutic PET/CT images show a discordant lesion, oncocytic tumors, albeit uncommon, should be considered in the differential diagnoses.

  6. Increased fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake in childhood CNS tumors is correlated with malignancy grade: a study with FDG positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging coregistration and image fusion.

    PubMed

    Borgwardt, Lise; Højgaard, Liselotte; Carstensen, Henrik; Laursen, Henning; Nowak, Markus; Thomsen, Carsten; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2005-05-01

    PURPOSE Positron emission tomography (PET) has been used in grading of CNS tumors in adults, whereas studies of children have been limited. PATIENTS AND METHODS Nineteen boys and 19 girls (median age, 8 years) with primary CNS tumors were studied prospectively by fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET with (n = 16) or without (n = 22) H(2)(15)O-PET before therapy. Image processing included coregistration to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in all patients. The FDG uptake in tumors was semiquantitatively calculated by a region-of-interest-based tumor hotspot/brain index. Eight tumors without histologic confirmation were classified as WHO grade 1 based on location, MRI, and clinical course (22 to 42 months). Results Four grade 4 tumors had a mean index of 4.27 +/- 0.5, four grade 3 tumors had a mean index of 2.47 +/- 1.07, 10 grade 2 tumors had a mean index of 1.34 +/- 0.73, and eight of 12 grade 1 tumors had a mean index of -0.31 +/- 0.59. Eight patients with no histologic confirmation had a mean index of 1.04. For these 34 tumors, FDG uptake was positively correlated with malignancy grading (n = 34; r = 0.72; P < .01), as for the 26 histologically classified tumors (n = 26; r = 0.89; P < .01). The choroid plexus papilloma (n = 1) and the pilocytic astrocytomas (n = 3) had a mean index of 3.26 (n = 38; r = 0.57; P < .01). H(2)(15)O-uptake showed no correlation with malignancy. Digitally performed PET/MRI coregistration increased information on tumor characterization in 90% of cases. CONCLUSION FDG PET of the brain with MRI coregistration can be used to obtain a more specific diagnosis with respect to malignancy grading. Improved PET/MRI imaging of the benign hypermetabolic tumors is needed to optimize clinical use.

  7. Symmetric increased skeletal muscular uptake of F-18 fluoro-deoxyglucose: A clue for the diagnosis of Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Sampath; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Kashyap, Raghava; Bhattacharya, Anish; Singh, Baljinder

    2011-07-01

    F-18 fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the thyroid and thymus is well reported in patients with Graves' disease. Incidental skeletal muscle uptake has also been reported in other non-musculoskeletal (benign and malignant) pathologies. We report a patient of Graves' disease showing symmetrical skeletal muscle uptake but no thyroidal or thymus uptake of FDG.

  8. Early post transplant (F-18) 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography does not predict outcome for patients undergoing auto-SCT in non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Palmer, J; Goggins, T; Broadwater, G; Chao, N; Horwitz, M; Beaven, A; Sullivan, K; Coleman, R E; Rizzieri, D

    2011-06-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) in conjunction with computed tomography is a frequently used modality for staging patients with lymphoma. Utility of PET-computed tomography before or early following auto-SCT has not been as rigorously evaluated. We retrospectively analyzed patients who received auto-SCT for treatment of relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkins lymphoma or Hodgkins disease between the years of 1996 and 2007. Patients who had either a PET scan following salvage chemotherapy within 14 weeks of transplantation (pre-PET), and/or a PET scan 6-14 weeks following transplantation (post-PET) were included. A total of 90 patients were identified for analysis. The median follow-up time is 3.3 years, with a range of 0.13-12.0 years. The median PFS was 4.6 years, and median OS was 5.1 years. At the time of this analysis, 34 patients (37%) experienced disease relapse, and 25 (27%) of the patients died from disease progression. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis, post-PET did not predict for outcome, pre-PET positivity predicted for decrease in PFS. In conclusion, post-PET scan did not predict for PFS or OS in multivariate analysis. Positive pre-PET scan did predict for PFS as seen in previous studies, and may help identify patients who would benefit from innovative post transplant therapies.

  9. Early post transplant (F-18) 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography does not predict outcome for patients undergoing auto-SCT in non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, J; Goggins, T; Broadwater, G; Chao, N; Horwitz, M; Beaven, A; Sullivan, K; Coleman, RE; Rizzieri, D

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) in conjunction with computed tomography is a frequently used modality for staging patients with lymphoma. Utility of PET-computed tomography before or early following auto-SCT has not been as rigorously evaluated. We retrospectively analyzed patients who received auto-SCT for treatment of relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkins lymphoma or Hodgkins disease between the years of 1996 and 2007. Patients who had either a PET scan following salvage chemotherapy within 14 weeks of transplantation (pre-PET), and/or a PET scan 6–14 weeks following transplantation (post-PET) were included. A total of 90 patients were identified for analysis. The median follow-up time is 3.3 years, with a range of 0.13–12.0 years. The median PFS was 4.6 years, and median OS was 5.1 years. At the time of this analysis, 34 patients (37%) experienced disease relapse, and 25 (27%) of the patients died from disease progression. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis, post-PET did not predict for outcome, pre-PET positivity predicted for decrease in PFS. In conclusion, post-PET scan did not predict for PFS or OS in multivariate analysis. Positive pre-PET scan did predict for PFS as seen in previous studies, and may help identify patients who would benefit from innovative post transplant therapies. PMID:20856212

  10. The diagnostic possibilities of positron emission tomography (PET): applications in oral and maxillofacial buccal oncology.

    PubMed

    Carranza-Pelegrina, Daniela; Lomeña-Caballero, Francisco; Soler-Peter, Marina; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2005-01-01

    The principles of positron emission tomography (PET), recently introduced as a diagnostic procedure into the health sciences, are described. The principle clinical applications apply to a particular group of specialties: cardiology, neurology, psychiatry, and above all oncology. Positron emission tomography is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique with clinical applications. It is an excellent tool for the study of the stage and possible malignancy of tumors of head and neck, the detection of otherwise clinically indeterminate metastases and lymphadenopathies, and likewise for the diagnosis of relapses. The only tracer with any practical clinical application is fluor-desoxyglucosa-F18 (FDG). PET detects the intense accumulation of FDG produced in malignant tumors due to the increased glycolytic rate of the neoplastic cells. With the introduction of hybrid systems that combine computerized tomography or magnetic resonance with positron emission tomography, important advances are being made in the diagnosis and follow-up of oncologic pathology of head and neck.

  11. F-18 SRA during flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This bright blue-and-white twin-jet aircraft may look like an ordinary F/A-18 Hornet fighter, but inside its a different bird. Currently being flown by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in a multi-year, joint NASA/DOD/industry program, the former Navy fighter has been modified into a unique Systems Research Aircraft (SRA) to investigate a host of new technologies in the areas of flight controls, airdata sensing and advanced computing. One of the more than 20 experiments being tested aboard the SRA F-18 is an advanced air data sensing system which uses a group of pressure taps flush-mounted on the forward fuselage to measure both altitude and wind speed and direction--critical data for flight control and research investigations. The Real-Time Flush Air Data Sensing system concept is being evaluated for possible use on the X-33 resuable space-launch vehicle. The primary goal of the SRA program is to validate through flight research cutting-edge technologies which could benefit future aircraft and spacecraft by improving efficiency and performance, reducing weight and complexity, with a resultant reduction on development and operational costs.

  12. F-18 SRA during flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Systems Research Aircraft (SRA), a highly modified F-18 jet fighter, is seen here during a recent research flight. The former Navy aircraft is being flown by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, California, to evaluate a number of experimental aerospace technologies in a multi-year, joint NASA/DOD/industry program. Among the more than 20 experiments being flight-tested were several involving fiber optic sensor systems. Experiments developed by McDonnell-Douglas and Lockheed-Martin centered on installation and maintenace techniques for various types of fiber-optic hardware proposed for use in military and commercial aircraft, while a Parker-Hannifin experiment focused in alternative fiber-optic designs for position measurement sensors as well as operational experience in handling optical sensor systems. Other experiments being flown on this testbed aircraft include electronically-controlled control surface actuators, flush air data collection systems, 'smart' skin antennae and laser-based systems. Incorporation of one or more of these technologies in future aircraft and spacecraft could result in signifigant savings in weight, maintenance and overall cost.

  13. [{sup 18}F]FDG-Positron Emission Tomography Coregistration With Computed Tomography Scans for Radiation Treatment Planning of Lymphoma and Hematologic Malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Terezakis, Stephanie A.; Hunt, Margie A.; Kowalski, Alexander; McCann, Patrick; Schmidtlein, C. Ross; Reiner, Anne; Goenen, Mithat; Kirov, Assen S.; Gonzales, Anne Marie; Schoeder, Heiko; Yahalom, Joachim

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: Positron emission-tomography (PET) using 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG-PET) increases sensitivity and specificity of disease detection in lymphoma and thus is standard in lymphoma management. This study examines the effects of coregistering FDG-PET and computed tomography (CT) (PET/CT) scans on treatment planning for lymphoma patients. Methods and Materials: Twenty-nine patients (30 positive PET scans) underwent PET/CT treatment planning from July 2004 to February 2007 and were retrospectively studied. For each patient, gross tumor volume was blindly contoured on the CT-only and PET/CT studies by a radiation oncologist. Treatment plans were generated for both the CT-only and PET/CT planning target volumes (PTVs) for all patients. Normal tissue doses and PTV coverage were evaluated using dose--volume histograms for all sites. Results: Thirty-two treatment sites were evaluated. Twenty-one patients had non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 5 patients had Hodgkin lymphoma, and 3 patients had plasma cell neoplasms. Previously undetected FDG-avid sites were identified in 3 patients during PET/CT simulation, resulting in one additional treatment field. Due to unexpected PET/CT simulation findings, 2 patients did not proceed with radiation treatment. The addition of PET changed the volume of 23 sites (72%). The PTV was increased in 15 sites (47%) by a median of 11% (range, 6-40%) and reduced in 8 sites (25%) by a median of 20% (range, 6%-75%). In six (19%) replanned sites, the CT-based treatment plan would not have adequately covered the PTV defined by PET/CT. Conclusions: Incorporation of FDG-PET into CT-based treatment planning for lymphoma patients resulted in considerable changes in management, volume definition, and normal tissue dosimetry for a significant number of patients.

  14. Comparison of the Prognostic Value of F-18 Pet Metabolic Parameters of Primary Tumors and Regional Lymph Nodes in Patients with Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Who Are Treated with Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Gun Oh; Jeong, Shin Young; Park, Shin-Hyung; Lee, Yoon Hee; Lee, Sang-Woo; Hong, Dae Gy; Kim, Jae-Chul; Lee, Yoon Soon; Cho, Young Lae

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the metabolic parameters of primary tumors and regional lymph nodes, as measured by pre-treatment F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) to compare the prognostic value for the prediction of tumor recurrence. This study also identified the most powerful parameter in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Methods Fifty-six patients who were diagnosed with cervical cancer with pelvic and/or paraaortic lymph node metastasis were enrolled in this study. Metabolic parameters including the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), the metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) of the primary tumors and lymph nodes were measured by pre-treatment F-18 FDG PET/CT. Univariate and multivariate analyses for disease-free survival (DFS) were performed using the clinical and metabolic parameters. Results The metabolic parameters of the primary tumors were not associated with DFS. However, DFS was significantly longer in patients with low values of nodal metabolic parameters than in those with high values of nodal metabolic parameters. A univariate analysis revealed that nodal metabolic parameters (SUVmax, MTV and TLG), paraaortic lymph node metastasis, and post-treatment response correlated significantly with DFS. Among these parameters, nodal SUVmax (hazard ratio [HR], 4.158; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–22.7; p = 0.041) and post-treatment response (HR, 7.162; 95% CI, 1.5–11.3; p = 0.007) were found to be determinants of DFS according to a multivariate analysis. Only nodal SUVmax was an independent pre-treatment prognostic factor for DFS, and the optimal cutoff for nodal SUVmax to predict progression was 4.7. Conclusion Nodal SUVmax according to pre-treatment F-18 FDG PET/CT may be a prognostic biomarker for the prediction of disease recurrence in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. PMID:26368542

  15. Diagnostic utility of FDG-PET in neurolymphomatosis: report of five cases.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Hisanori; Yamakado, Hodaka; Kitano, Toshiyuki; Kitamura, Akihiro; Yamashita, Hirofumi; Miyamoto, Masakazu; Hitomi, Takefumi; Okada, Tomohisa; Nakamoto, Yuji; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Takahashi, Ryosuke

    2016-09-01

    Neurolymphomatosis (NL) is a rare condition involving the infiltration of lymphoma cells into the peripheral nervous system. NL can be primary or secondary in the setting of an unknown or known hematologic malignancy, respectively. Here, we report five cases in which F-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) had great value for diagnosing NL. Two cases were rare primary NL, and the other three were secondary NL. Clinical presentations were asymmetric sensorimotor disturbances in the extremities with or without involvement of cranial nerves. Furthermore, all patients experienced spontaneous pain in the face or affected extremities. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was cytologically negative in two of five cases. Gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected abnormalities in the cranial nerves, nerve roots, and cauda equina in all cases except case 1 and the recurrent stage of case 2. F-18 FDG-PET/CT showed clear visualization of almost all the lymphomatous involvement of peripheral nerves and other tissues in all patients. Furthermore, F-18 FDG-PET/CT detected abnormalities including asymptomatic lesions that were not detected with MRI, and also identified the appropriate lesion for diagnostic biopsy. However, as in case 3, the lesions in the left oculomotor nerve and the cauda equina were detected only with Gd-enhanced MRI, which has superior spatial resolution. In conclusion, F-18 FDG-PET/CT is a sensitive modality that can suggest the presence of malignancy and identify appropriate places for diagnostic biopsies. It is especially useful when combined with Gd-enhanced MRI, even in patients with primary NL that is usually difficult to diagnose.

  16. Synthesis of F-18 labeled resazurin by direct electrophilic fluorination.

    PubMed

    Kachur, Alexander V; Arroyo, Alejandro D; Popov, Anatoliy V; Saylor, Sarah J; Delikatny, E James

    2015-10-01

    We present the synthesis and characterization of F18-labeled fluorinated derivatives of resazurin, a probe for cell viability. The compounds were prepared by direct fluorination of resazurin with diluted [F18]-F2 gas under acidic conditions. The fluorination occurs into the ortho-positions to the hydroxyl group producing various mono-, di-, and trifluorinated derivatives. The properties of the fluorinated resazurins are similar to the parent compound with the addition of fluorine leading to decreased pKa values and a bathochromic shift of the absorption maxima. The fluorinated resazurin derivatives can be used as probes for observation of cell viability in various cells, tissues and organs using a combination of positron emission tomography and direct optical imaging of Cerenkov luminescence.

  17. Synthesis of F-18 labeled resazurin by direct electrophilic fluorination

    PubMed Central

    Kachur, Alexander V.; Arroyo, Alejandro D.; Popov, Anatoliy V.; Saylor, Sarah J.; Delikatny, E. James

    2015-01-01

    We present the synthesis and characterization of F18-labeled fluorinated derivatives of resazurin, a probe for cell viability. The compounds were prepared by direct fluorination of resazurin with diluted [F18]-F2 gas under acidic conditions. The fluorination occurs into the ortho-positions to the hydroxyl group producing various mono-, di-, and trifluorinated derivatives. The properties of the fluorinated resazurins are similar to the parent compound with the addition of fluorine leading to decreased pKa values and a bathochromic shift of the absorption maxima. The fluorinated resazurin derivatives can be used as probes for observation of cell viability in various cells, tissues and organs using a combination of positron emission tomography and direct optical imaging of Cerenkov luminescence. PMID:26504251

  18. Discordant findings in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer: absolutely normal bone scans versus disseminated bone metastases on positron-emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Ak, Ilknur; Sivrikoz, Muammer Cumhur; Entok, Emre; Vardareli, Erkan

    2010-04-01

    At present, metastatic bone involvement is usually assessed using bone scintigraphy, which has a high sensitivity but a poor specificity. The objective of our study was to compare the sensibility of the 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) for the detection of bone metastasis in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose technetium 99m methylenediphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP) bone scans were absolutely normal. This study based on the retrospective analysis of 95 consecutive patients with histologically proven NSCLC who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT and Tc-99m MDP bone scan at the Eskişehir Osmangazi University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine between November 2006 and October 2008. Nineteen patients (19 of 95, 20%) with absolutely normal Tc-99m bone scan versus multiple high-grade F-18 FDG avid bony metastases on F-18 FDG PET/CT were selected for the review. Their ages ranged from 46 to 73 years (15 males and four females; mean: 57.2 years). Nine patients had squamous cell carcinoma, six had adenocarcinoma, three had large cell carcinoma and one had adenosquamous cell carcinoma. Tc-99m MDP bone scan that did not reveal bony abnormalities or radiotracer uptake was characteristic of benign disease (defined as absolutely normal) in these patients. Whereas, F-18 FDG PET/CT not only showed extremely disseminated heterogeneous nest-like high-grade FDG avid metastatic foci within the marrow cavity of the upper and lower thoracic spine, lumbar spine, pelvis, rib cages and bilateral proximal long bones, but also showed disseminated osteolytic bony metastases in these areas. Discordant findings of skeletal metastasis between Tc-99m MDP bone scans and F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging may be seen in 20% of the patients with NSCLC. F-18 FDG PET/CT could detect metastatic bone involvement more accurately than bone scintigraphy. Bone scans are insensitive to early bone marrow neoplastic infiltration

  19. A Novel Method to Evaluate Local Control of Lung Cancer in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) Treatment Using 18F-FDG Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathriarachchi, Vindu Wathsala

    An improved method is introduced for prediction of local tumor control following lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET). A normalized background-corrected tumor maximum Standard Uptake Value (SUVcmax) is introduced using the mean uptake of adjacent aorta (SUVref), instead of the maximum uptake of lung tumor (SUVmax). This method minimizes the variations associated with SUVmax and objectively demonstrates a strong correlation between the low SUVcmax (< 2.5-3.0) and local control of post lung SBRT. The false positive rates of both SUVmax and SUVcmax increase with inclusion of early (<6 months) PET scans, therefore such inclusion is not recommended for assessing local tumor control of post lung SBRT.

  20. Disease activity and 18F-FDG uptake in organising pneumonia: semi-quantitative evaluation using computed tomography and positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Tateishi, Ukihide; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Seki, Kunihiko; Terauchi, Takashi; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Arai, Yasuaki

    2006-08-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate whether( 18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in combination with computed tomography (CT) reflects disease activity in patients with organising pneumonia. Eighty-eight subjects who were normal (n=66) or who had proven organising pneumonia (n=22) underwent FDG-PET and CT imaging. The subjects included 55 men and 33 women, ranging in age from 24 to 63 years (mean 47 years). PET and CT data sets were digitally fused using a conformational PET/CT fusion algorithm. All scans were evaluated independently by two chest radiologists who were unaware of other clinical data. The visual score, maximal and mean standardised uptake value (SUV), and maximal and mean lesion-to-normal tissue ratio (LNR) were calculated. The imaging results were compared with the laboratory and pulmonary function test results. The inflammatory cells in the lesions were quantified immunohistochemically. The visual score, maximal and mean SUV, and maximal and mean LNR of the patients with organising pneumonia were significantly higher than those of the normal subjects. The patients with air-space consolidation had a significantly higher SUV than those without air-space consolidation (mean+/-SD 3.08+/-0.39 vs 2.35+/-0.56; p<0.05). The number of CD45(+) cells was positively correlated with the maximal SUV (r=0.632, p<0.01) and the maximal LNR (r=0.453, p<0.05). The number of CD8(+) T lymphocytes also showed positive correlations with the maximal SUV (r=0.540, p<0.01) and the maximal LNR (r=0.547, p<0.01). Patients with organising pneumonia have an enhanced FDG accumulation which reflects the degree of disease activity.

  1. Prospective use of serial questionnaires to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in suspected lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Herder, G; van Tinteren, H; Comans, E; Hoekstra, O; Teule, G; Postmus, P; Joshi, U; Smit, E

    2003-01-01

    Background: A study was undertaken to study the effect of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) on the diagnosis and management of clinically problematic patients with suspected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A prospective before-after study was performed in a cohort of all 164 patients (university/community settings) referred for PET between August 1997 and July 1999. PET was restricted to cases where non-invasive tests had failed to solve clinical problems. The impact on diagnostic understanding and management was assessed using questionnaires (intended treatment without PET, actual treatment choice after PET, post hoc clinical assessment). Results: Diagnostic problems especially pertained to unclear radiological findings (n=112; 63%), mediastinal staging (n=36; 20%), and distant staging issues (n=16; 9%). PET findings were validated by reviewing medical records. PET had a positive influence on diagnostic understanding in 84%. Improved diagnostic understanding solely based on PET was reported in 26%. According to referring physicians, PET resulted in beneficial change of treatment in 50%. Cancelled surgery was the most frequent change in treatment after PET (35%). Conclusion: FDG PET applied as "add on" technology in patients with these clinical problems appears to be a clinically useful tool, directly improving treatment choice in 25% of patients. The value of increased confidence induced by PET scanning requires further evaluation. PMID:12511720

  2. 18F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for the planning of radiotherapy in lung cancer: high impact in patients with atelectasis.

    PubMed

    Nestle, U; Walter, K; Schmidt, S; Licht, N; Nieder, C; Motaref, B; Hellwig, D; Niewald, M; Ukena, D; Kirsch, C M; Sybrecht, G W; Schnabel, K

    1999-06-01

    18F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is increasingly applied in the staging of lung cancer (LC). This study analyzes the potential contribution of PET in radiotherapy planning for LC with special respect to tumor-associated atelectasis. Thirty-four patients with histologically confirmed LC, who had been examined by PET during pretreatment staging, were included. All were irradiated after CT-based therapy planning with anterior/posterior (AP) portals encompassing the primary tumor and the mediastinum (CT portals, CP). The result of the PET examination was unknown in treatment planning. In retrospect, a PET portal (PP) was delineated and compared with the CP. In 12/34 cases, the shape and/or size of the portals were changed, primarily (n = 10) the size of the fields was reduced. The median area of CP was 182 cm2 versus 167 cm2 of PP. Seventeen of 34 patients had dys- or atelectasis caused by a central primary tumor. In these cases, differences between CP and PP were significantly more frequent than in the other patients (8/17 vs. 3/17, p = 0.03). In this retrospective analysis, the information provided by FDG-PET would have contributed to a substantial reduction of the size of radiotherapy portals. This applies particularly for patients with tumor-associated dys- or atelectasis.

  3. FDG-PET-positive ovarian thecoma with GLUT5 expression: Five cases.

    PubMed

    Bono, Yukiko; Mizumoto, Yasunari; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Iwadare, Jyunpei; Obata, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorodeoxyglucose F18 ((18) F-FDG) is useful for detecting malignancies, but benign lesions occasionally have false-positive (18) F-FDG uptake. Here, we report the cases of five postmenopausal women with solid ovarian tumors suspected to be ovarian cancer on magnetic resonance imaging and (18) F-FDG uptake. Mean age of the five patients was 57 years (range, 53-65 years). Average early standardized uptake value (SUV) of (18) F-FDG was 5.76 (range, 2.2-12.0) and delayed SUV was 6.56 (range, 2.4-13.8). In all five patients, frozen section diagnosis at surgery was thecoma, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. On immunohistochemistry, immunoreactive glucose transporter 5 (GLUT5) expression was detected in thecoma tissues. This case shows that thecoma sometimes has positive (18) F-FDG uptake on positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), indicating the need for caution regarding false-positive PET-CT in patients with benign solid ovarian tumor.

  4. Progressive osteoblastic bone metastases in breast cancer negative on FDG-PET.

    PubMed

    Huyge, Valérie; Garcia, Camilo; Vanderstappen, Anja; Alexiou, Jean; Gil, Thierry; Flamen, Patrick

    2009-07-01

    Positron emission tomography using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is increasingly used in breast cancer. The new generation cameras integrate PET and CT within the same camera, allowing the simultaneous assessment of the structural and metabolic aspects of disease. There is presently a controversy on the clinical significance of osteoblastic bone metastases in breast cancer which are not detected on FDG-PET. It has been suggested that these radiologically dense lesions represent the result of successful treatment of initially osteolytic lesions. We report a case of a 65-year-old woman with a suspicion of recurrent breast cancer based on an increasing serum tumor marker. Serial PET/CT showed progressive blastic bone metastases on the CT without FDG uptake. These lesions were confirmed by bone single photon emission computed tomography. This case report shows: first, that progressive osteoblastic lesions can lack FDG-avidity, leading to a false-negative PET; and secondly, that bone scintigraphy should not be replaced by FDG-PET/CT for the detection of bone metastases in breast cancer.

  5. Utility of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose posıtron emıssıon tomography/computed ın carcınoma of unknown primary.

    PubMed

    Elboga, Umut; Kervancioğlu, Selim; Sahin, Ertan; Basibuyuk, Mustafa; Celen, Y Zeki; Aktolun, Cumali

    2014-01-01

    Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is a heterogeneous group of tumors with various clinical features causing diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of F-18 FDG PET/CT for localizing the primary tumor, disclosing additional metastases, and changing the treatment in patients with CUP. One hundred and twelve metastatic patients (female = 40, male = 72, median age = 60.5 years) in whom conventional diagnostic work-up failed to disclose the primary tumor were included in the study. F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging was performed in a standard protocol (patient supine, arms on patient's side, vertex to thigh, 369.3 MBq (296-444 MBq) F-18 FDG, a 60-minute uptake period, 6-7 bed position). Histopathology was taken as the only reference standard. F-18 FDG PET/CT correctly detected primary tumor in 37 of 112 (33.03%) patients. The most common site of primary tumor detected by F-18 FDG PET/CT was lung (n = 18), which was followed by nasopharynx (n = 7), pancreas (n = 5), tonsil (n = 2), breast (n = 2), thyroid (n = 1), uterus (n = 1) and colon/rectum (n = 1). F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging disclosed additional previously undetected metastases in 32 (28.5%) and changed the treatment in 33 (29.4%) of 112 patients. There were false positive F-18 FDG PET/CT results in 21 (18.5%) patients. F-18 FDG PET/CT is able to disclose the primary tumor, disclose new metatases and change the treatment in about one third of patients with CUP.

  6. [Utility of positron emission tomography with 18F-FDG in a case of juvenile recurrent respiratory papillomatosis].

    PubMed

    Navales, I; Paredes, P; Cols, M; Perissinotti, A; Vancells, M; Pons, F

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JRRP) is an infectious disease caused by the growth of papillomas in the airway. Up to 4% of these cases degenerate into squamous cell carcinoma. We present the case of a 17-year-old female patient with JRRP in which the utility of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT in the characterization of suspicious papillomatous lesions of malignancy is evaluated. Morphometabolic techniques, CT scan and PET/CT scans were suggestive of malignancy. However, this was not confirmed in the histopathological analysis after its resection. The (18)F-FDG-PET/CT does not seem to be a useful tool for early detection of malignancy in JRRP. However, it does increase the diagnostic accuracy of the biopsy as it identifies the most active lesions and, therefore, those most likely to be malignant.

  7. Clinical impact of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) on treatment choice in recurrent cancer of the cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Bjurberg, Maria; Brun, Eva

    2013-11-01

    The superiority of positron emission tomography (PET) with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) over computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in detecting recurrent cervical cancer and determining the extent of the disease has been demonstrated in several clinical trials. However, there is a lack of data concerning the clinical impact of the extra findings. We report here a prospective clinical study aimed at investigating the clinical impact of FDG-PET findings on the treatment plans in recurrent cervical cancer. Thirty-six patients with suspected recurrent cervical cancer underwent FDG-PET. Relapses were confirmed in 26 cases, and one case of primary lung cancer was found. The clinical impact of the FDG-PET results was assessed using a systematic scoring system with a 4-grade scale. Median follow-up time after FDG-PET was 33.1 months (range, 5-83 months) for all patients and 22.4 months (range, 5-83 months) for patients with positive PET results. More sites of metastases were detected with FDG-PET in 56% of the patients compared to the findings by conventional imaging. The results of FDG-PET led to a change in treatment modality for 33% of the patients; and for 22%, a change in dose or deliverance of treatment was recorded. Treatment intention was changed in 30%, in all but one patient, from curative to palliative. In 48% of the patients, the initially planned treatment was reduced regarding dose or extent, or was withheld. In recurrent cervical cancer, FDG-PET provides clinically valuable information with a high impact on treatment decisions.

  8. (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography and (99m)Tc-MDP skeletal scintigraphy in a case of Erdheim-Chester disease.

    PubMed

    Asabella, Artor Niccoli; Cimmino, Antonietta; Altini, Corinna; Notaristefano, Antonio; Rubini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD), first described by Jakob Erdheim and William Chester in 1930, is a rare form of non-Langerhan's cell histiocytosis with unknown aetiology, is charaterized by systemic xanthogranulomatous infiltrative disease. To date, about 350 cases of ECD have been described in the medical literature. The typical ECD diagnostic triad is bone pain, diabetes insipidus and bilateral exophthalmos. A 24 years old man came at our attention for polydipsia with nocturnal and diurnal polyuria, anorexia, febrile episodes (38(o)C), and arthromyalgia especially in the knees. Physical examination showed bilateral periorbital xanthelasma. Blood exams showed increase of plasma osmolarity, haematocrit, sodium and urea and decrease of potassium. Urine exams showed just decreased urine specific gravity, (1.001;normal range: 1.010-1.030) suggestive for central diabetes insipidus (CDI). Brain magnetic resonance with gadolinium enhancement showed the presence of multiple hyperintense lesions expecially in neurohypophysis (swollen and with markedly contrast enhancement). All these data raised the suspision of neurosarcoidosis, so a chest and abdomen contrast enhancement computed tomography was performed, which didn't show abnormalities, making less possible the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Two weeks later, whole-body (from head to pelvis) plus lower limbs 18-fluorine-labelled 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) was performed. Uptake of (18)F-FDG was observed in the upper portion of the midbrain area (SUV(max) 7.1) and the pituitary gland (SUV(max) 7.3), and diffuse bone marrow uptake of (18)F-FDG in the proximal epiphysis and metaphysis of both humeri and thigh bones (SUV(max) 6.5), shoulder blades, pelvis bones and the L2 vertebral body (SUV(max) 3.9). This (18)F-FDG PET/CT confirmed the presence of brain lesion seen in MRI , the absence of visceral lesions, but also showed the presence of an atypical bone uptake

  9. Comparison of FDG PET and positron coincidence detection imaging using a dual-head gamma camera with 5/8-inch NaI(Tl) crystals in patients with suspected body malignancies.

    PubMed

    Boren, E L; Delbeke, D; Patton, J A; Sandler, M P

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) images obtained with (a) a dual-head coincidence gamma camera (DHC) equipped with 5/8-inch-thick NaI(Tl) crystals and parallel slit collimators and (b) a dedicated positron emission tomograph (PET) in a series of 28 patients with known or suspected malignancies. Twenty-eight patients with known or suspected malignancies underwent whole-body FDG PET imaging (Siemens, ECAT 933) after injection of approximately 10 mCi of 18F-FDG. FDG DHC images were then acquired for 30 min over the regions of interest using a dual-head gamma camera (VariCam, Elscint). The images were reconstructed in the normal mode, using photopeak/photopeak, photopeak/Compton, and Compton/photopeak coincidence events. FDG PET imaging found 45 lesions ranging in size from 1 cm to 7 cm in 28 patients. FDG DHC imaging detected 35/45 (78%) of these lesions. Among the ten lesions not seen with FDG DHC imaging, eight were less than 1.5 cm in size, and two were located centrally within the abdomen suffering from marked attenuation effects. The lesions were classified into three categories: thorax (n=24), liver (n=12), and extrahepatic abdominal (n=9). FDG DHC imaging identified 100% of lesions above 1.5 cm in the thorax group and 78% of those below 1.5 cm, for an overall total of 83%. FDG DHC imaging identified 100% of lesions above 1.5 cm, in the liver and 43% of lesions below 1.5 cm, for an overall total of 67%. FDG DHC imaging identified 78% of lesions above 1.5 cm in the extrahepatic abdominal group. There were no lesions below 1.5 cm in this group. FDG coincidence imaging using a dual-head gamma camera detected 90% of lesions greater than 1.5 cm. These data suggest that DHC imaging can be used clinically in well-defined diagnostic situations to differentiate benign from malignant lesions.

  10. Evaluation of 18-F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) as a staging and monitoring tool for dogs with stage-2 splenic hemangiosarcoma – A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Amber L.; Stuebner, Kathleen; Scott, Ruth; Ober, Christopher P.; Anderson, Kari L.; Feeney, Daniel A.; Vallera, Daniel A.; Koopmeiners, Joseph S.; Modiano, Jaime F.; Froelich, Jerry

    2017-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography (PET-CT) is routinely used for staging and monitoring of human cancer patients and is becoming increasingly available in veterinary medicine. In this study, 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG)-PET-CT was used in dogs with naturally occurring splenic hemangiosarcoma (HSA) to assess its utility as a staging and monitoring modality as compared to standard radiography and ultrasonography. Nine dogs with stage-2 HSA underwent 18FDG-PET-CT following splenectomy and prior to commencement of chemotherapy. Routine staging (thoracic radiography and abdominal ultrasonography) was performed prior to 18FDG-PET-CT in all dogs. When abnormalities not identified on routine tests were noted on 18FDG-PET-CT, owners were given the option to repeat a PET-CT following treatment with eBAT. A PET-CT scan was repeated on Day 21 in three dogs. Abnormalities not observed on conventional staging tools, and most consistent with malignant disease based on location, appearance, and outcome, were detected in two dogs and included a right atrial mass and a hepatic nodule, respectively. These lesions were larger and had higher metabolic activity on the second scans. 18FDG-PET-CT has potential to provide important prognostic information and influence treatment recommendations for dogs with stage-2 HSA. Additional studies will be needed to precisely define the value of this imaging tool for staging and therapy monitoring in dogs with this and other cancers. PMID:28222142

  11. Outcome of Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients With a Posttreatment 18F-Fluoro-2-Deoxy-d-Glucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET)-Negative Residual Mass: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Adams, Hugo J A; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Kwee, Thomas C

    2015-01-01

    To systematically review and meta-analyze the outcome of Hodgkin lymphoma patients with a posttreatment (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)-negative residual mass. A systematic PubMed/MEDLINE database search was performed. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed. The number of patients with a posttreatment non-FDG-avid residual mass and the number of these patients who developed disease relapse during follow-up were extracted from each included study. Heterogeneity in disease relapse proportions across individual studies was assessed using the I2 test, with heterogeneity defined as I(2) > 50%. Using a Freeman-Tukey transformation, the disease relapse proportions from each individual study were then meta-analyzed with either a fixed-effects model (if I2 ≤ 50 %) or a random-effects model (if I2 > 50 %). A total of 5 studies comprising a total of 727 Hodgkin lymphoma patients with an FDG-PET-negative residual mass after first-line therapy were included. The overall quality of included studies was moderate. The proportion of patients with a posttreatment non-FDG-avid residual mass who experienced disease relapse during follow-up ranged between 0% and 13.8%. There was heterogeneity in disease relapse proportions across individual studies (I2 = 61.4%). Pooled disease relapse proportion (random effects) was 6.8% (95% confidence interval: 2.6%-12.5%). The disease relapse rate in Hodgkin lymphoma patients with a FDG-PET-negative residual mass after first-line therapy is approximately 6.8%. Considering the existing literature, the presence of a non-FDG-avid residual mass has not been proven yet to be associated with a worse outcome than a posttreatment FDG-PET-based complete remission status without a residual mass.

  12. PET with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose measures of local brain activity and memory in schizophrenia and in depression

    SciTech Connect

    Riege, W.H.; Metter, E.J.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.; Kling, A.

    1984-01-01

    Positron emission tomography with (F-18) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) scan has provided non-invasive measures of regional cerebral glucose utilization which are directly related with levels of functional activity in regions of the brain. The FDG technique was applied to the study of brain activity thought to be impaired in 6 chronic schizophrenics (SCH) and 6 depressed (D) patients in comparison with 6 healthy age-matched controls (C). Local cerebral metabolic rates of glucose utilization LCMRglc were determined for 8 regions in both left and right hemispheres and were expressed in reference to a person's mean CMRglc. Multivariate comparisons of the 16 measures showed no significant differences between the 3 groups; follow-up step-down analyses and t-tests failed to specify any regional or global LCMRglc reliable to separate patients from controls. They also did not differ in any of 18 multidimensional tests of memory and decision, except for lower delayed verbal recall in D patients. When both SCH and D were classified into those with CT large and those with CT small ventricles, there were no multivariate differences. Only partial LCMRglc separated large from small ventricle patients (F(1,7) = 6.12, p<0.042), but finding no multivariate significance makes this result questionable. The ventricular grouping of SCH alone may reveal a marginal difference in global CMRglc t(4) = 2.58, p<0.06, given a larger patient sample. In contrast to recent reports, indices to brain activity in schizophrenic and depressed patients do not seem to be abnormal.

  13. Radiosynthesis of F-18-3-acetylcyclofoxy: A high affinity opiate antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Channing, M.A.; Eckelman, W.C.; Bennett, J.M.; Burke, T.R. Jr.; Rice, K.C.; Larson, S.M.

    1985-05-01

    A convenient method for the preparation of F-18-3-acetylcyclofoxy (3-acetyl-6-deoxy-6-beta-F-18-fluoronaltrexone was developed. The method uses reactor-produced F-18-fluoride as its tetraethylammonium salt. F-18 fluoride is produced at the National Bureau of Standards nuclear reactor by the Li-6(n,..cap alpha..)H-3, 0-16(H-3,n) F-18 nuclear reaction. A sealed quartz tube containing enriched lithium carbonate (0.4 g) was irradiated in a neutron flux of 1.1 x 10/sup 14/ n/cm/sup 2//s for 2h to produce 80 mCi. The lithium is removed by cation exchange resin. The fluoride is then adsorbed on a strong anion exchange column which is rinsed to remove H-3 and any remaining cations. The F-18 is then eluted with tetraethylammonium hydroxide to produce tetraethylammonium fluoride (TEAF). The triflate of 3-acetyl-6-alpha-naltrexol, synthesized by reaction of the alcohol with trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride was added in anhydrous acetonitrile to the dry F-18 TEAF containing 0.2 ..mu..mol F-19 TEAF. The mixture was refluxed for 15 minutes after which the product was purified by reversed phase chromatography. F-18-acetylcyclofoxy was prepared in 35% radiochemical yield. About 55% of the F-18 was lost by decay (36%) and by incomplete transfer (19%). The specific activity of the final product was approximately 50 Ci/mmol but the effective specific activity was approximately 25 Ci/mmol. Visualization of the basal ganglia in baboons was possible using PET. F-18 3-acetylcyclofoxy is the first positron-emitting opiate for which the active and inactive forms of naloxone were used to unequivocially demonstrate stereospecific displacement from opiate receptor-rich regions.

  14. Systemic and vascular inflammation in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis as measured by [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT): a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Nehal N; Yu, YiDing; Saboury, Babak; Foroughi, Negar; Krishnamoorthy, Parasuram; Raper, Anna; Baer, Amanda; Antigua, Jules; Van Voorhees, Abby S; Torigian, Drew A; Alavi, Abass; Gelfand, Joel M

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) to detect and quantify systemic inflammation in patients with psoriasis. Case series with a nested case-control study. Referral dermatology and preventive cardiology practices. Six patients with psoriasis affecting more than 10% of their body surface area and 4 controls age and sex matched to 4 of the patients with psoriasis for a nested case-control study. The FDG uptake in the liver, musculoskeletal structures, and aorta measured by mean standardized uptake value, a measure of FDG tracer uptake by macrophages and other inflammatory cells. FDG-PET/CT identified numerous foci of inflammation in 6 patients with psoriasis within the skin, liver, joints, tendons, and aorta. Inflammation in the joints was observed in a patient with psoriatic arthritis as well as in 1 patient with no history of joint disease or joint symptoms. In a nested case-control study, FDG-PET/CT imaging demonstrated increased vascular inflammation in multiple segments of the aorta compared with controls. These findings persisted after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors in multivariate analysis (mean β = 0.33; P < .001). Patients with psoriasis further demonstrated increased hepatic inflammation after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors (β = 0.18; P < .001), but the association was no longer significant when adjusted for alcohol intake (β = -0.25; P = .07). FDG-PET/CT is a sensitive tool for identifying inflammation and can be used to identify clinically observed inflammation in the skin and subclinical inflammation in the blood vessels, joints, and liver of patients with psoriasis.

  15. Metabolism of human gliomas: Assessment with H-1 MR spectroscopy and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET

    SciTech Connect

    Alger, J.R.; Frank, J.A.; Bizzi, A.; Fulham, M.J.; DeSouza, B.X.; Duhaney, M.O.; Inscoe, S.W.; Black, J.L.; van Zijl, P.C.; Moonen, C.T. , Bethesda, MD )

    1990-12-01

    Localized hydrogen-1 magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) were employed to obtain metabolic information from intracranial gliomas. Advantages and difficulties associated with comparison of results from the two modalities were realized. Forty patients were studied with H-1 MR spectroscopy. MR signal intensities from lactate, N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline, and creatine from a volume of interest containing the tumor and a contralateral volume were obtained and evaluated. NAA signal intensities were generally decreased in the tumor spectra, and choline signal intensities were elevated. H-1 MR spectroscopy was unsuccessful in eight patients, and FDG PET scans were not obtained in four of the patients with successful MR spectroscopic examinations. Lactate signal intensity was detected in 10 of the 28 patients who had successful H-1 MR spectroscopic and FDG PET studies. Lactate signal intensities were observed in lesions shown at FDG PET to be hypermetabolic, as well as in lesions found to be hypometabolic.

  16. F-18 HARV research pilot Jim Smolka

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    James W. 'Smoke' Smolka, a research pilot at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, since 1985, was co-project pilot on the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) aircraft. Before joining NASA, Smolka was an F-16 experimental test pilot with General Dynamics Corporation for two years at Edwards. He was also a project pilot with the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI) F-16 Joint Test Force located at Dryden. In addition to his work with the F-18 program, Smolka also flies as a pilot on the NASA B-52 launch aircraft, and as a co-project pilot on the F-16XL Supersonic Laminar Flow aircraft. He also participated in F-15 HIDEC flight and engine control system programs, and the AFTI F-111 Mission Adaptive Wing, and F-104 Aeronautical Research Aircraft programs. Smolka has accumulated 5000 hours of flight time since he became a pilot in 1973. NASA used an F-18 Hornet fighter aircraft as its High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The aircraft is on loan from the U.S. Navy. The high angle of attack technology program is a joint effort of NASA's Dryden, Ames, Langley, and Lewis Research Centers. Its flight operations were based at Dryden.

  17. F-18 HARV research pilot Jim Smolka

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    James W. 'Smoke' Smolka, a research pilot at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, since 1985, was co-project pilot on the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) aircraft. Before joining NASA, Smolka was an F-16 experimental test pilot with General Dynamics Corporation for two years at Edwards. He was also a project pilot with the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI) F-16 Joint Test Force located at Dryden. In addition to his work with the F-18 program, Smolka also flies as a pilot on the NASA B-52 launch aircraft, and as a co-project pilot on the F-16XL Supersonic Laminar Flow aircraft. He also participated in F-15 HIDEC flight and engine control system programs, and the AFTI F-111 Mission Adaptive Wing, and F-104 Aeronautical Research Aircraft programs. Smolka has accumulated 5000 hours of flight time since he became a pilot in 1973. NASA used an F-18 Hornet fighter aircraft as its High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The aircraft is on loan from the U.S. Navy. The high angle of attack technology program is a joint effort of NASA's Dryden, Ames, Langley, and Lewis Research Centers. Its flight operations were based at Dryden.

  18. Metabolic Activity of the Tongue in Obstructive Sleep Apnea. A Novel Application of FDG Positron Emission Tomography Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Andrew M.; Keenan, Brendan T.; Jackson, Nicholas; Chan, Eugenia L.; Staley, Bethany; Torigian, Drew A.; Alavi, Abass

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: The metabolic activity of the tongue is unknown in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Tongue electromyographic (EMG) activity is increased in patients with OSA. This increase in tongue EMG activity is thought to be related to either increased neuromuscular compensation or denervation with subsequent reinnervation of the muscle fibers. Increased glucose uptake in the tongue would support increased neuromuscular compensation, whereas decreased glucose uptake in the tongue would support denervation with subsequent reinnervation of the muscle fibers. Objectives: To investigate the metabolic activity of the genioglossus and control upper airway muscles in obese patients with sleep apnea compared with obese control subjects. Methods: Obese subjects with and without OSA underwent a standard overnight sleep study to determine an apnea–hypopnea index. Each subject had a positron emission tomography with [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose scan in addition to noncontrast computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Glucose uptake was quantified within upper airway tissues with the standardized uptake value. Measurements and Main Results: We recruited 30 obese control subjects (apnea–hypopnea index, 4.7 ± 3.1 events per hour) and 72 obese patients with sleep apnea (apnea–hypopnea index, 43.5 ± 28.0 events per hour). Independent of age, body mass index, sex, and race, patients with OSA had significantly reduced glucose uptake in the genioglossus (P = 0.03) in comparison with obese normal subjects. No differences in standardized uptake value were found in the control muscles (masseter [P = 0.38] and pterygoid [P = 0.70]) and subcutaneous fat deposits (neck [P = 0.44] and submental [P = 0.95]) between patients with OSA and control subjects. Conclusions: There was significantly reduced glucose uptake in the genioglossus of patients with sleep apnea in comparison with obese normal subjects with [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission

  19. Metabolic activity of the tongue in obstructive sleep apnea. A novel application of FDG positron emission tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Andrew M; Keenan, Brendan T; Jackson, Nicholas; Chan, Eugenia L; Staley, Bethany; Torigian, Drew A; Alavi, Abass; Schwab, Richard J

    2014-06-01

    The metabolic activity of the tongue is unknown in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Tongue electromyographic (EMG) activity is increased in patients with OSA. This increase in tongue EMG activity is thought to be related to either increased neuromuscular compensation or denervation with subsequent reinnervation of the muscle fibers. Increased glucose uptake in the tongue would support increased neuromuscular compensation, whereas decreased glucose uptake in the tongue would support denervation with subsequent reinnervation of the muscle fibers. To investigate the metabolic activity of the genioglossus and control upper airway muscles in obese patients with sleep apnea compared with obese control subjects. Obese subjects with and without OSA underwent a standard overnight sleep study to determine an apnea-hypopnea index. Each subject had a positron emission tomography with [(18)F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose scan in addition to noncontrast computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Glucose uptake was quantified within upper airway tissues with the standardized uptake value. We recruited 30 obese control subjects (apnea-hypopnea index, 4.7 ± 3.1 events per hour) and 72 obese patients with sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index, 43.5 ± 28.0 events per hour). Independent of age, body mass index, sex, and race, patients with OSA had significantly reduced glucose uptake in the genioglossus (P = 0.03) in comparison with obese normal subjects. No differences in standardized uptake value were found in the control muscles (masseter [P = 0.38] and pterygoid [P = 0.70]) and subcutaneous fat deposits (neck [P = 0.44] and submental [P = 0.95]) between patients with OSA and control subjects. There was significantly reduced glucose uptake in the genioglossus of patients with sleep apnea in comparison with obese normal subjects with [(18)F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography imaging. The reduction in glucose uptake was likely secondary to

  20. 76 FR 37129 - Determination That SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 (Sodium Fluoride F-18) Injection, 10 to 200 Millicuries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 (Sodium Fluoride F... Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 (sodium fluoride F-18) injection, 10... FLUORIDE F 18 injection, 10 to 200 mCi/mL, if all other legal and regulatory requirements are met. FOR...

  1. Whole-body 18F FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography evaluation of patients with uveal metastasis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Payal; Finger, Paul T

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the value of whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) as a screening tool for patients with uveal metastasis. Retrospective observational case series. setting: Clinical practice. study population: Eighteen patients with uveal metastatic tumors were evaluated. Patients had no history of malignancy or a past medical history of malignancy without known active metastasis or known systemic cancer. intervention: Whole-body PET/CT was used as a screening tool to evaluate the intraocular tumor, to evaluate for multi-organ metastatic disease, and for cancer staging. main outcome measures: Detection and PET/CT uptake of primary tumors and metastatic disease. PET/CT imaging uncovered previously occult primary nonocular cancers (11/18, 61%), revealed progression of known primary systemic cancer (7/18, 39%), and confirmed multi-organ metastases in all cases (18/18, 100%). PET/CT findings were used to direct nonocular, confirmatory biopsy in 67% of cases (12/18). No uveal biopsies were required. PET/CT revealed lymph nodes and bone as the most common metastatic sites. The intraocular tumor was detectable in 28% of cases. Small, non-avid tumors and those within the hypermetabolic, PET-avid brain were falsely negative. This study suggests that whole-body PET/CT can be useful for clinical evaluation of patients with uveal metastases. It allowed for screening of the entire body and directed extraocular biopsy. Commonly used for tumor staging, PET/CT aided in the detection of the primary cancer in patients with metastatic uveal tumors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. F-18 SRA taxi at dawn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    One of NASA's F/A-18 Hornets is seen here sitting on the ramp at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, at dawn August 6, 1993. F-18 aircraft, on loan to NASA by the U.S. Navy, are currently being flown at Dryden as support aircraft and as research testbeds. As support aircraft, they are used primarily for safety chase, pilot proficiency and aerial photography. As research aircraft, they are involved in thrust vectoring and high angle of attack research, as well as numerous smaller scale experiments.

  3. F-18 SRA taxi at dawn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    One of NASA's F/A-18 Hornets is seen here sitting on the ramp at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, at dawn August 6, 1993. F-18 aircraft, on loan to NASA by the U.S. Navy, are currently being flown at Dryden as support aircraft and as research testbeds. As support aircraft, they are used primarily for safety chase, pilot proficiency and aerial photography. As research aircraft, they are involved in thrust vectoring and high angle of attack research, as well as numerous smaller scale experiments.

  4. Investigation of an F-18 oxytocin receptor selective ligand via PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Smith, Aaron L; Freeman, Sara M; Voll, Ronald J; Young, Larry J; Goodman, Mark M

    2013-10-01

    The compound 1-(1-(2-(2-(2-fluoroethoxy)-4-(piperidin-4-yloxy)phenyl)acetyl)piperidin-4-yl)-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one (1) was synthesized and positively evaluated in vitro for high potency and selectivity with human oxytocin receptors. The positron emitting analogue, [F-18]1, was synthesized and investigated in vivo via PET imaging using rat and cynomolgus monkey models. PET imaging studies in female Sprague-Dawley rats suggested [F-18]1 reached the brain and accumulated in various regions of the brain, but washed out too rapidly for adequate quantification and localization. In vivo PET imaging studies in a male cynomolgus monkey suggested [F-18]1 had limited brain penetration while specific uptake of radioactivity significantly accumulated within the vasculature of the cerebral ventricles in areas representative of the choroid plexus. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. F-18 cockpit and instrument panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center's F/A-18 chase and support aircraft retains the basic fighter plane cockpit controls with some exceptions. The pilot's center control stick is relatively typical of a modern fighter aircraft. This F-18 has no weapons delivery capability. The primary cockpit displays include a left- and right-side cathode-ray tube display, referred to as the DDIs, and the heads-up display (HUD). The DDIs and HUD are generally used to display primary flight condition information such as airspeed, altitude, altitude rate, attitude, heading, etc. Other flight conditions displayed include angle of attack (AOA), Mach number, and load factor. The HUD also provides primary flight condition information to the pilot without having to refer to the DDIs. Select flight controls information also can be presented on the HUD. The twenty pushbuttons located on the periphery of each DDI are used to select a variety of displays for pilot interrogation of F-18 systems. These displays are pilot selectable and menu driven.

  6. Changes in Cervical Cancer FDG Uptake During Chemoradiation and Association With Response

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, Elizabeth A.; Thomas, Maria; Siegel, Barry A.; Dehdashti, Farrokh; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research showed that pretreatment uptake of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), as assessed by the maximal standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) and the variability of uptake (FDG{sub hetero}), predicted for posttreatment response in cervical cancer. In this pilot study, we evaluated the changes in SUV{sub max} and FDG{sub hetero} during concurrent chemoradiation for cervical cancer and their association with post-treatment response. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients with stage Ib1-IVa cervical cancer were enrolled. SUV{sub max}, FDG{sub hetero}, and metabolic tumor volume (MTV) were recorded from FDG-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scans performed pretreatment and during weeks 2 and 4 of treatment and were evaluated for changes and association with response assessed on 3-month post-treatment FDG-PET/CT. Results: For all patients, the average pretreatment SUV{sub max} was 17.8, MTV was 55.4 cm{sup 3}, and FDG{sub hetero} was -1.33. A similar decline in SUV{sub max} was seen at week 2 compared with baseline and week 4 compared with week 2 (34%). The areas of highest FDG uptake in the tumor remained relatively consistent on serial scans. Mean FDG{sub hetero} decreased during treatment. For all patients, MTV decreased more from week 2 to week 4 than from pretreatment to week 2. By week 4, the average SUV{sub max} had decreased by 57% and the MTV had decreased by 30%. Five patients showed persistent or new disease on 3-month post-treatment PET. These poor responders showed a higher average SUV{sub max}, larger MTV, and greater heterogeneity at all 3 times. Week 4 SUV{sub max} (P=.037), week 4 FDG{sub hetero} (P=.005), pretreatment MTV (P=.008), and pretreatment FDG{sub hetero} (P=.008) were all significantly associated with post-treatment PET response. Conclusions: SUV{sub max} shows a consistent rate of decline during treatment and declines at a faster rate than MTV regresses. Based on this pilot study

  7. Synthesis of 6-(F-18)L-fluoro-dopa using F-18 labelled acetyl hypofluorite

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, M.J.; Abeysekera, B.; Ruth, T.J.; Grierson, J.R.; Pate, B.D.

    1985-05-01

    The synthesis of (F-18)6-fluoro-dopa via acetyl hypofluorite has recently been reported. The authors have modified this procedure by adding an acetate protecting group on the dopa ring and have treated this new starting material with either solution or gas phase F-18 acetyl hypofluorite. Using this starting material the yield has been significantly increased over the published method. The authors routinely prepare 4-5 mCi of pure (F-18)6-fluoro-dopa (3-4% radiochemical yield, at EOS) in an overall synthesis time of 2 hours. Both 2 and 6 fluoro-dopa are produced in nearly equivalent amounts by this method as determined by /sup 19/F nmr. These are easily separated by HPLC after deblocking with HI. The final isolated product is >99% in the L-isomer form and fluorinated in >97% in the 6 position.

  8. Comparison of FDG-PET findings of brain metastasis from non-small-cell lung cancer and small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Young; Chung, June-Key; Jeong, Jae Min; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Dong Gyu; Jung, Hee Won; Lee, Myung Chul

    2008-05-01

    We compared the F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) findings of brain metastasis between patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). A whole-body FDG and a brain PET were performed in 48 patients (31 men, 17 women; 57 +/- 9 years, 42 NSCLC, 6 SCLC), who had brain metastasis on magnetic resonance (MR). All primary lung lesions were detected by FDG-PET and confirmed pathologically. We analyzed the PET findings, lesion sizes, and the pathological result of primary lung cancer. Of the 48 patients, 31 (64.6%) showed hypermetabolic lesions on FDG-PET of the brain image, and 14 (29.2%) showed hypometabolic lesions. Three patients (6.3%) had both hypermetabolic and hypometabolic lesions. On the lesion-based analysis, 74 lesions (67.3%) showed hypermetabolism on FDG-PET, and 36 lesions (32.7%) showed hypometabolism. All primary lung lesions were hypermetabolic on FDG-PET. When the FDG findings of metastatic brain lesions were analyzed with the pathological types of primary lung cancer, NSCLC was more frequently associated with hypermetabolic metastatic brain lesions than SCLC (80% and 26.7%, respectively, P < 0.01). On comparing the sizes of metastatic lesions between SCLC (1.3 +/- 1.2 cm) and NSCLC (1.8 +/- 1.2 cm), lesions of <1 cm were more frequent in SCLC than in NSCLC (P = 0.012). But no significant relationship was found between the size and PET finding of metastatic lesion (P = 0.412). Even when the primary lesion of lung cancer showed hypermetabolism in FDG-PET, FDG accumulation in metastatic brain lesions was variable. One-third of brain metastases from lung cancer showed hypometabolism. NSCLC was more frequently associated with hypermetabolic metastatic brain lesions than SCLC. The PET findings of brain lesions were affected not only by the size of lesion but also by its biological characteristics.

  9. Diagnostic Ability of FDG-PET/CT in the Detection of Malignant Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Reiko; Abe, Koichiro; Sakai, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the role of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for the differential diagnosis of malignant and benign pleural effusion. We studied 36 consecutive patients with histologically proven cancer (excluding malignant mesothelioma) who underwent FDG-PET/CT for suspected malignant pleural effusion. Fourteen patients had cytologically proven malignant pleural effusion and the other 22 patients had either negative cytology or clinical follow-up, which confirmed the benign etiology. We examined the maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of pleural effusion and the target-to-normal tissue ratio (TNR), calculated as the ratio of the pleural effusion SUVmax to the SUVmean of the normal tissues (liver, spleen, 12th thoracic vertebrae [Th12], thoracic aorta, and spinalis muscle). We also examined the size and density (in Hounsfield units) of the pleural effusion and pleural abnormalities on CT images. TNR (Th12) and increased pleural FDG uptake compared to background blood pool were significantly more frequent in cases with malignant pleural effusion (P < 0.05 for both). The cutoff TNR (Th12) value of >0.95 was the most accurate; the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for this value were 93%, 68%, and 75%, respectively. FDG-PET/CT can be a useful method for the differential diagnosis of malignant and benign pleural effusion. PMID:26200610

  10. Intelligent [F-18] fluoride target system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hichwa, R. D.; Aykac, M.; Bilgen, D.; Watkins, G. L.

    1999-06-01

    An automated target filling system has been developed for [F-18]F- production from [O-18]water. The system consists of a pair of standard syringe dispensing pumps, valve manifolds, pressure and flow sensors, RS-232 serial I/O modules, high pressure silver targets and X-windows software. Operations are controlled through a graphical interface and can be manipulated individually, in groups for specific functions, or as complex processes either manually or automatically. Major functional operations include: 1) system test, 2) target fill, 3) target empty, and 4) target clean up. Fault conditions if present are identified and flagged. Alternate (duplicate) pathways are automatically used if a nonfatal failure mode is detected. Results from the testing procedures are logged to a file for documented adherence to SOPs and trend assessment of performance.

  11. F-18 SRA in flight from below

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is using this early-model F-18 Hornet as a flying research platform to evaluate a number of emerging technologies in aircraft control and information systems. The Systems Research Aircraft, a pre-production two-seat version of the twin-engine tactical fighter aircraft, has been extensively modified for its research role. Among projects flown on the plane are experiments to evaluate fiber optics for flight-critical control systems, advanced air data acquisition systems, and electrically-powered flight control actuators which do not require connection to the aircraft central hydraulic system. The new technologies could lead to lighter and more efficient aircraft designs with higher performance and greater safety.

  12. F-18 HARV research pilot Dana Purifoy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Dana D. Purifoy is an aerospace research pilot at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. He joined NASA in August 1994. Purifoy is a former Air Force test pilot who served as a project pilot in the joint NASA/Air Force X-29 Forward Swept Wing research program conducted at Dryden from 1984 to 1991. His most recent assignment in the Air Force was flying U-2 aircraft as a test pilot at Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, CA. In addition to flying the X-29 at Dryden as an Air Force pilot, Purifoy also served as project pilot and joint test force director with the AFTI F-16 (Advanced Fighter Technology Integration/F-16) program, also located at Dryden. Before his assignments as project pilot on the X-29 and AFTI/F-16 aircraft, Purifoy was chief of the Academics Systems Branch at the Air Force Test Pilot School at Edwards. Prior to becoming a test pilot, he flew F-111 and F-16 aircraft in Great Britain and Germany. He has accumulated 3800 hours of flying time in his career. The final flight for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) took place at NASA Dryden on May 29, 1996. The highly modified F-18 airplane flew 383 flights over a nine year period and demonstrated concepts that greatly increase fighter maneuverability. Among concepts proven in the aircraft is the use of paddles to direct jet engine exhaust in cases of extreme altitudes where conventional control surfaces lose effectiveness. Another concept, developed by NASA Langley Research Center, is a deployable wing-like surface installed on the nose of the aircraft for increased right and left (yaw) control on nose-high flight angles.

  13. F-18 HARV research pilot Dana Purifoy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Dana D. Purifoy is an aerospace research pilot at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. He joined NASA in August 1994. Purifoy is a former Air Force test pilot who served as a project pilot in the joint NASA/Air Force X-29 Forward Swept Wing research program conducted at Dryden from 1984 to 1991. His most recent assignment in the Air Force was flying U-2 aircraft as a test pilot at Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, CA. In addition to flying the X-29 at Dryden as an Air Force pilot, Purifoy also served as project pilot and joint test force director with the AFTI F-16 (Advanced Fighter Technology Integration/F-16) program, also located at Dryden. Before his assignments as project pilot on the X-29 and AFTI/F-16 aircraft, Purifoy was chief of the Academics Systems Branch at the Air Force Test Pilot School at Edwards. Prior to becoming a test pilot, he flew F-111 and F-16 aircraft in Great Britain and Germany. He has accumulated 3800 hours of flying time in his career. The final flight for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) took place at NASA Dryden on May 29, 1996. The highly modified F-18 airplane flew 383 flights over a nine year period and demonstrated concepts that greatly increase fighter maneuverability. Among concepts proven in the aircraft is the use of paddles to direct jet engine exhaust in cases of extreme altitudes where conventional control surfaces lose effectiveness. Another concept, developed by NASA Langley Research Center, is a deployable wing-like surface installed on the nose of the aircraft for increased right and left (yaw) control on nose-high flight angles.

  14. F-18 production with the TOP linac injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cianfarani, Cesidio; Cisbani, Evaristo; Orlandi, Gianluca; Frullani, Salvatore; Picardi, Luigi; Ronsivalle, Concetta

    2006-06-01

    ENEA and ISS (Italian National Institute of Health), are collaborating to develop a dedicated proton medical accelerator, TOP (Oncological Therapy with Protons) linac, consisting of a sequence of three pulsed linear accelerators. The 7 MeV injector can be used in three operating modes: Protontherapy and Radiobiology Mode—injecting low current proton beam into the TOP linac accelerating sections; Radioisotope Mode—generating an intense proton beam (8-10 mA, 50-100 μs, 30-100 Hz) to produce the positron-emitting radionuclide F18 for PET analyses. In the high current mode, at the exit of the injector the beam is guided through a magnetic quadrupoles channel to a target composed by a thin chamber (0.5 mm thick and 1 in. diameter) containing water enriched with O18. Production yield as well as total activity similar to these achieved with higher energy cyclotrons have been obtained. Environmental doses measured give indications on the shielding required for operation under current radioprotection regulations. Improvements are foreseen to optimize the production yield, the useful beam current and to better characterize gamma and neutron dose rates in the different operational modes.

  15. Degree of tumor FDG uptake correlates with proliferation index in triple negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tchou, Julia; Sonnad, Seema S; Bergey, Meredith R; Basu, Sandip; Tomaszewski, John; Alavi, Abass; Schnall, Mitchell

    2010-12-01

    2-Deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) uptake may be a useful surrogate marker for proliferation index, but the correlation has not always been clear-cut. Previous research by our group suggests that FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) is sensitive in detecting triple negative breast cancer. We therefore performed a pilot study to test if FDG uptake correlated with proliferation index in women with triple negative cancer. To determine whether proliferation index correlates with metabolic uptake of FDG in women with triple negative breast cancer, we performed a retrospective analysis correlating %Ki67 nuclear stain with tumor maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) in a group of 41 women, 22 with triple negative and 19 with non-triple negative breast cancer. As expected, [18F]-PET imaging was significantly more sensitive in detecting triple negative breast cancer than non-triple negative breast cancer, 95.5% vs 68.4% (p = 0.036). In general, SUVmax and %Ki67 nuclear stain values rise as histologic grade worsens. Histologic grade of triple negative breast cancer was more often poorly differentiated than non-triple negative cancer (p = 0.001). SUVmax correlated with %Ki67 nuclear staining in our entire cohort (spearman correlation = 0.485, p = 0.002). Moreover, this significant correlation appeared to be driven primarily by a subset of women with triple negative cancer (spearman correlation = 0.497, p = 0.019). Degree of tumor FDG uptake correlated significantly with proliferation index in women with triple negative breast cancer suggesting a potential role of FDG-PET in treatment response monitoring for this group of women. Future studies are necessary to define the role of PET imaging as a non-invasive means to monitor breast cancer treatment response in the neoadjuvant setting.

  16. Tumor Response and Survival Predicted by Post-Therapy FDG-PET/CT in Anal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Julie K.; Siegel, Barry A.; Dehdashti, Farrokh; Myerson, Robert J.; Fleshman, James W.; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the response to therapy for anal carcinoma using post-therapy imaging with positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and to compare the metabolic response with patient outcome. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of 53 consecutive patients with anal cancer. All patients underwent pre- and post-treatment whole-body FDG-PET/computed tomography. Patients had been treated with external beam radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy. Whole-body FDG-PET was performed 0.9-5.4 months (mean, 2.1) after therapy completion. Results: The post-therapy PET scan did not show any abnormal FDG uptake (complete metabolic response) in 44 patients. Persistent abnormal FDG uptake (partial metabolic response) was found in the anal tumor in 9 patients. The 2-year cause-specific survival rate was 94% for patients with a complete vs. 39% for patients with a partial metabolic response in the anal tumor (p = 0.0008). The 2-year progression-free survival rate was 95% for patients with a complete vs. 22% for patients with a partial metabolic response in the anal tumor (p < 0.0001). A Cox proportional hazards model of survival outcome indicated that a complete metabolic response was the most significant predictor of progression-free survival in our patient population (p = 0.0003). Conclusions: A partial metabolic response in the anal tumor as determined by post-therapy FDG-PET is predictive of significantly decreased progression-free and cause-specific survival after chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer.

  17. The F18 fimbrial adhesin FedF is highly conserved among F18+Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Tiels, P; Verdonck, F; Smet, A; Goddeeris, B; Cox, E

    2005-10-31

    F18+Escherichia coli cause postweaning diarrhoea and oedema disease in newly weaned piglets. Protection against these diseases can be established by preventing the fimbrial adhesion of these bacteria to the enterocytes of the porcine intestine. To test a vaccine against F18+E. coli consisting of the adhesin of F18 fimbriae, FedF, the conservation of the FedF subunit had to be examined. Therefore, the fedF sequence of 37 F18+E. coli isolates from different countries was determined and compared to the fedF gene of the F18ab reference strain F107/86. The amino acid sequence of the mature FedF from the individual F18+E. coli isolates was 96-100% identical to that from E. coli F107/86, but the overall homology was 90.4%. Hyper variable regions were not found in the FedF sequence. The FedF sequence was conserved over the different countries and between the two antigenic variants, F18ab and F18ac, suggesting that F18ab and F18ac strains have the same receptor. Furthermore, the conserved C-terminal region in the FedF adhesin suggests that the F18 fimbriae, in analogy with type 1 and P pili, are assembled by a donor strand mechanism. In conclusion, the reported conservation of FedF supports the usefulness of the fimbrial adhesin as a subunit vaccine against F18+E. coli infection.

  18. F-18 SRA during flight from below

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Systems Research Aircraft (SRA), a highly modified F-18 jet fighter, shows its colors during a recent research flight. The former Navy aircraft is being flown by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, California, to evaluate a number of experimental aerospace technologies in a multi-year, joint NASA/DOD/industry program. Among the more than 20 experiments being flight-tested were several involving fiber optic sensor systems. Experiments developed by McDonnell-Douglas and Lockheed-Martin centered on installation and maintenace techniques for various types of fiber-optic hardware proposed for use in military and commercial aircraft, while a Parker-Hannifin experiment focused in alternative fiber-optic designs for postion measurement sensors as well as operational experience in handling optical sensor systems. Other experiments being flown on this testbed aircraft include electronically-controlled control surface actuators, flush air data collection systems, 'smart' skin antennae and laser-based systems. Incorporation of one or more of these technologies in future aircraft and spacecraft could result in signifigant savings in weight, maintenance and overall cost.

  19. F-18 SRA in flight over lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Systems Research Aircraft (SRA), a highly modified F-18 jet fighter, on an early research flight over Rogers Dry Lake. The former Navy aircraft is being flown by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, California, to evaluate a number of experimental aerospace technologies in a multi-year, joint NASA/DOD/industry program. Among the more than 20 experiments being flight-tested were several involving fiber optic sensor systems. Experiments developed by McDonnell-Douglas and Lockheed-Martin centered on installation and maintenace techniques for various types of fiber-optic hardware proposed for use in military and commercial aircraft, while a Parker-Hannifin experiment focused in alternative fiber-optic designs for postion measurement sensors as well as operational experience in handling optical sensor systems. Other experiments being flown on this testbed aircraft include electronically-controlled control surface actuators, flush air data collection systems, 'smart' skin antennae and laser-based systems. Incorporation of one or more of these technologies in future aircraft and spacecraft could result in signifigant savings in weight, maintenance and overall cost.

  20. Evaluation of treatment response and resistance in metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) using integrated (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI); The REMAP study.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Morland, Christian; Rudman, Sarah; Nathan, Paul; Mallett, Susan; Montana, Giovanni; Cook, Gary; Goh, Vicky

    2017-06-02

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are the first line standard of care for treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Accurate response assessment in the setting of antiangiogenic therapies remains suboptimal as standard size-related response criteria do not necessarily accurately reflect clinical benefit, as they may be less pronounced or occur later in therapy than devascularisation. The challenge for imaging is providing timely assessment of disease status allowing therapies to be tailored to ensure ongoing clinical benefit. We propose that combined assessment of morphological, physiological and metabolic imaging parameters using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging ((18)F-FDG PET/MRI) will better reflect disease behaviour, improving assessment of response/non-response/relapse. The REMAP study is a single-centre prospective observational study. Eligible patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, planned for systemic therapy, with at least 2 lesions will undergo an integrated (18)F-FDG PET and MRI whole body imaging with diffusion weighted and contrast-enhanced multiphasic as well as standard anatomical MRI sequences at baseline, 12 weeks and 24 weeks of systemic therapy allowing (18)F-FDG standardised uptake value (SUV), apparent diffusion co-efficient (ADC) and normalised signal intensity (SI) parameters to be obtained. Standard of care contrast-enhanced computed tomography CT scans will be performed at equivalent time-points. CT response categorisation will be performed using RECIST 1.1 and alternative (modified)Choi and MASS criteria. The reference standard for disease status will be by consensus panel taking into account clinical, biochemical and conventional imaging parameters. Intra- and inter-tumoural heterogeneity in vascular, diffusion and metabolic response/non-response will be assessed by image texture analysis. Imaging will also inform the development of computational methods for automated disease

  1. Evaluation of focus laterality in temporal lobe epilepsy: a quantitative study comparing double inversion-recovery MR imaging at 3T with FDG-PET.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Emiko; Okada, Tomohisa; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Yamamoto, Akira; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Matsumoto, Riki; Takaya, Shigetoshi; Ikeda, Akio; Kunieda, Takeharu; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Paul, Dominik; Miyamoto, Susumu; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Togashi, Kaori

    2013-12-01

    To quantitatively compare the diagnostic capability of double inversion-recovery (DIR) with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for detection of seizure focus laterality in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). This study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained. Fifteen patients with TLE and 38 healthy volunteers were enrolled. All magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired using a 3T-MRI system. Voxel-based analysis (VBA) was conducted for FDG-PET images and white matter segments of DIR images (DIR-WM) focused on the whole temporal lobe (TL) and the anterior part of the temporal lobe (ATL). Distribution of hypometabolic areas on FDG-PET and increased signal intensity areas on DIR-WM were evaluated, and their laterality was compared with clinically determined seizure focus laterality. Correct diagnostic rates of laterality were evaluated, and agreement between DIR-WM and FDG-PET was assessed using κ statistics. Increased signal intensity areas on DIR-WM were located at the vicinity of the hypometabolic areas on FDG-PET, especially in the ATL. Correct diagnostic rates of seizure focus laterality for DIR-WM (0.80 and 0.67 for the TL and the ATL, respectively) were slightly higher than those for FDG-PET (0.67 and 0.60 for the TL and the ATL, respectively). Agreement of laterality between DIR-WM and FDG-PET was substantial for the TL and almost perfect for the ATL (κ = 0.67 and 0.86, respectively). High agreement in localization between DIR-WM and FDG-PET and nearly equivalent detectability of them show us an additional role of MRI in TLE. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  2. Gastric distension by ingesting food is useful in the evaluation of primary gastric cancer by FDG PET.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhaohui; Li, Fang; Zhuang, Hongming

    2007-02-01

    Gastric carcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Detection and surgical resection of gastric cancer in the early stage provides the only hope for improved survival in patients with gastric cancer. Positron emission tomography (PET) with F-18 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) has been shown to be essential in the evaluation of a variety of malignancies. However, conventional FDG PET has limited value for detecting a primary tumor of the stomach, mostly because of the relatively high levels of physiological uptake by the contracted stomach. We report 3 cases of primary gastric carcinomas detected successfully by FDG PET after the ingestion of food. The PET images of the stomach after ingesting food were compared with the routine fasting-state whole-body PET images for each patient. When the stomach was distended by food, the malignant lesions were more discernible. These cases indicate that gastric distension by ingesting food may be a simple method that can help to detect a primary gastric malignancy by FDG PET.

  3. Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography (FDG PET/CT) Findings in an Unusual Case of Multiple Myeloma Presenting with a Large Extra-Axial Intracranial Mass

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Sevin; Ayaz, Ümit Yaşar

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background We aimed to present unusual cranial FDG PET/CT findings of a 56-year-old female with multiple myeloma (MM). Case Report Plain CT images revealed a lytic lesion in the right parietal bone, filled with an oval-shaped, large, extra-axial, extradural, intracranial mass which measured 75×75×40 mm and had smooth borders. The right parietal lobe was compressed by the mass. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the mass lesion was 8.94 on FDG PET/CT images. Multiple lytic lesions with an increased uptake were also detected in other calvarial bones, in several vertebras and in the proximal left femur. After seven months, a control FDG PET/CT following radiotherapy and chemotherapy revealed almost complete regression of the right parietal extra-axial mass lesion. The number, size and metabolism of lytic lesions in other bones also decreased. Conclusions FDG PET/CT was useful for an initial evaluation of MM lesions and was effective in monitoring the response of these lesions to therapy. PMID:28058074

  4. [Positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]-FDG in bronchopulmonary cancer and its impact on medical decision at the time of diagnosis, staging, or recurrence evaluation].

    PubMed

    Grahek, D; Montravers, F; Mayaud, C; Regnard, J F; Kerrou, K; Younsi, N; Talbot, J N

    2001-12-01

    Clinical usefulness of [18F]-FDG imaging, performed by means of a dedicated or a "hybrid" PET machine, has been recognised in France since November 1998. Among the clinical indications, three major clinical settings of lung cancer have been included: characterisation, staging and detection of recurrences. After a brief presentation of the PET scintigraphic imaging modality, authors report on the experience of the nuclear medicine team of Hôspital Tenon and summarise the results in literature. For tumour characterisation, a recent meta-analysis obtained a 96% sensitivity, a 73% specificity, a 91% positive predictive value and a 90% negative predictive value, the performances being better for lesions greater than 1 cm. For staging, an increase greater than 15% both in sensitivity and specificity has been observed with dedicated or "hybrid" PET versus CT for N staging. Detection of distant metastases was also more accurate using [18F]-FDG. A similar increase was observed in the detection of recurrence, in accordance with our study; some authors described even better results. A better anatomical delineation of the lesions detected with FDG can be achieved by means of image fusion with CT; this technique is likely to develop as a routine tool in the near future. Finally, FDG imaging led to modification of patient's management in 37% of the cases according to a recent meta-analysis versus 53% of the cases in our retrospective survey concerning the first year of installation of a dedicated PET machine. This rate was equal with dedicated PET and with CDET. In 46% of the cases an inter-modality change occurred, and in 7% an intra-modality change consisting mainly in adaptation of the surgical procedure. As soon as the FDG examination became available, its clinical impact, in the French medical context, appeared to reach the highest values that were published internationally.

  5. Functional evaluation of myocardial viability by 99mTc tetrofosmin gated SPECT--a quantitative comparison with 18F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission CT (18F FDG PET).

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Y; Watanabe, S; Nakaya, J; Fujiwara, M; Hasegawa, R; Matsuno, K; Kuroda, T; Mikami, Y; Fujii, K; Himi, T; Masuda, Y

    1999-06-01

    To validate functional analysis of gated SPECT in detecting myocardial viability, seventeen patients (male 15, female 2, mean age 58) with angiographically proven chronic ischemic heart disease (RCA 6, LAD 10, LCX 1) and eight normal volunteers (all male) were studied. All patients underwent 18F FDG PET and 99mTc tetrofosmin (TF) gated SPECT within a week. After being displayed in a polar map, myocardial perfusion was regionally determined by the mean count in 9 segments at end diastole (ED) and end systole (ES) in gated SPECT. Systolic function was determined by the count increase ratio from ED to ES (WTI: ES - ED/ED). Glucose metabolism was assessed by 18F FDG PET in the segments correspondent to those defined for SPECT. TF %uptake of < 60% was defined as hypoperfusion, and FDG %uptake of < 50% was defined as reduced glucose metabolism. The myocardial segments were classified into 3 categories: "normal" perfusion (n = 85), "mismatch" (reduced perfusion with reserved FDG uptake, n = 25) and "matched" reduced perfusion and metabolic reduction (n = 26). Mean WTI in "mismatch" segment was 0.38 +/- 0.21, and was significantly greater than that in "matched reduced" segments, 0.15 +/- 0.20 (p < 0.001). It was also greater than that in "normal" segments, 0.27 +/- 0.16. Regression analysis showed that association between WTI and FDG %uptake was significant (r = 0.57, p < 0.0005) for the ischemic segments ("mismatch" + "matched", n = 51), but the association was weak for the entire segments although it was statistically significant (r = 0.26, p = 0.02, n = 136). For the segments determined as infarct by perfusion image, systolic functional analysis by gated SPECT is helpful in differentiation of a viable myocardial region or artifact from a scar. Nevertheless, further clinical and technical assessment is required for ECG gating to eliminate overestimation of viability and to warrant clinical use.

  6. Pathological correlations of [F-18]-AV-1451 imaging in non-alzheimer tauopathies.

    PubMed

    Marquié, Marta; Normandin, Marc D; Meltzer, Avery C; Siao Tick Chong, Michael; Andrea, Nicolas V; Antón-Fernández, Alejandro; Klunk, William E; Mathis, Chester A; Ikonomovic, Milos D; Debnath, Manik; Bien, Elizabeth A; Vanderburg, Charles R; Costantino, Isabel; Makaretz, Sara; DeVos, Sarah L; Oakley, Derek H; Gomperts, Stephen N; Growdon, John H; Domoto-Reilly, Kimiko; Lucente, Diane; Dickerson, Bradford C; Frosch, Matthew P; Hyman, Bradley T; Johnson, Keith A; Gómez-Isla, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that positron emission tomography (PET) tracer AV-1451 exhibits high binding affinity for paired helical filament (PHF)-tau pathology in Alzheimer's brains. However, the ability of this ligand to bind to tau lesions in other tauopathies remains controversial. Our goal was to examine the correlation of in vivo and postmortem AV-1451 binding patterns in three autopsy-confirmed non-Alzheimer tauopathy cases. We quantified in vivo retention of [F-18]-AV-1451 and performed autoradiography, [H-3]-AV-1451 binding assays, and quantitative tau measurements in postmortem brain samples from two progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) cases and a MAPT P301L mutation carrier. They all underwent [F-18]-AV-1451 PET imaging before death. The three subjects exhibited [F-18]-AV-1451 in vivo retention predominantly in basal ganglia and midbrain. Neuropathological examination confirmed the PSP diagnosis in the first two subjects; the MAPT P301L mutation carrier had an atypical tauopathy characterized by grain-like tau-containing neurites in gray and white matter with heaviest burden in basal ganglia. In all three cases, autoradiography failed to show detectable [F-18]-AV-1451 binding in multiple brain regions examined, with the exception of entorhinal cortex (reflecting incidental age-related neurofibrillary tangles) and neuromelanin-containing neurons in the substantia nigra (off-target binding). The lack of a consistent significant correlation between in vivo [F-18]-AV-1541 retention and postmortem in vitro binding and tau measures in these cases suggests that this ligand has low affinity for tau lesions primarily made of straight tau filaments. AV-1451 may have limited utility for in vivo selective and reliable detection of tau aggregates in these non-Alzheimer tauopathies. ANN NEUROL 2017;81:117-128. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  7. New Cyclotron Targetry to Enhance F-18 clinical Position Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    J. Michael Doster

    2008-12-19

    This project proposes to develop cyclotron targets that produce F-18 for clinical Positron Emission Tomography (PET) at significantly higher rates than that available from current targetry. This production rate of 18F is directly proportional to the beam current. Higher beam currents would result in increased 18F production but would be accompanied by higher heat loads to the target. The beam power available in most commercial cyclotrons exceeds the heat removal capacity of current target technology by a factor of two to four, significantly limiting the production rate of Fluorine-18.

  8. 18F-FLT and 18F-FDG PET-CT imaging in the evaluation of early therapeutic effects of chemotherapy on Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weina; Yu, Shupeng; Xin, Jun; Guo, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the early therapeutic effects of chemotherapy on Walker 256 tumor-bearing Wistar rats via F-18-fluoro-3′-deoxy-3′-L-fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) and F-18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) imaging. Walker 256 tumor-bearing Wistar rats were subjected to 18F-FLT and 18F-FDG PET-CT imaging prior to and 24 and 48 h after epirubicin chemotherapy. 18F-FLT and 18F-FDG uptake [tumor/muscle (T/M)], the percentage of injected dose per gram (% ID/g), and the Ki-67 labeling index (LI-Ki-67) were quantitatively determined for each rat prior to and following epirubicin chemotherapy. The correlation between % ID/g and tumor LI-Ki-67 was analyzed. Both 18F-FLT and 18F-FDG tumor uptake decreased significantly at 24 and 48 h after chemotherapy (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). LI-Ki-67 also significantly reduced 24 and 48 h after chemotherapy (P<0.001). Furthermore, 18F-FLT and 18F-FDG T/M tumor uptake correlated positively with LI-Ki-67 before and after chemotherapy (r=0.842 and 0.813, respectively). During the early post-chemotherapy stage, 18F-FLT and 18F-FDG uptake in Walker 256 tumors reduced significantly, which correlated positively with the tumor cell proliferative activity. PMID:28101193

  9. (18)F-FLT and (18)F-FDG PET-CT imaging in the evaluation of early therapeutic effects of chemotherapy on Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weina; Yu, Shupeng; Xin, Jun; Guo, Qiyong

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the early therapeutic effects of chemotherapy on Walker 256 tumor-bearing Wistar rats via F-18-fluoro-3'-deoxy-3'-L-fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT) and F-18-fluoro-deoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) imaging. Walker 256 tumor-bearing Wistar rats were subjected to (18)F-FLT and (18)F-FDG PET-CT imaging prior to and 24 and 48 h after epirubicin chemotherapy. (18)F-FLT and (18)F-FDG uptake [tumor/muscle (T/M)], the percentage of injected dose per gram (% ID/g), and the Ki-67 labeling index (LI-Ki-67) were quantitatively determined for each rat prior to and following epirubicin chemotherapy. The correlation between % ID/g and tumor LI-Ki-67 was analyzed. Both (18)F-FLT and (18)F-FDG tumor uptake decreased significantly at 24 and 48 h after chemotherapy (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). LI-Ki-67 also significantly reduced 24 and 48 h after chemotherapy (P<0.001). Furthermore, (18)F-FLT and (18)F-FDG T/M tumor uptake correlated positively with LI-Ki-67 before and after chemotherapy (r=0.842 and 0.813, respectively). During the early post-chemotherapy stage, (18)F-FLT and (18)F-FDG uptake in Walker 256 tumors reduced significantly, which correlated positively with the tumor cell proliferative activity.

  10. The value of ultrasound-guided biopsy of fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)-positive supraclavicular lymph nodes in patients with suspected lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Werner, Lennart; Keller, Franziska Aebersold; Bhure, Ujwal; Roos, Justus Egidius; Tornquist, Katharina; Del Sol Pèrez-Lago, Maria; Gautschi, Oliver; Strobel, Klaus

    2017-07-11

    Accurate lymph node staging is essential for adequate prognostication and therapy planning in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). FDG-PET/CT is a sensitive tool for the detection of metastases, including non-palpable supraclavicular lymph node (SCLN) metastases. Histological proof of metastatic spread and mutation analysis is crucial for optimal staging and therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core biopsy (CB) of FDG active, non-palpable SCLN's in patients with suspicion for lung cancer. Twelve consecutive patients with suspected lung cancer and FDG-positive SCLN underwent FNAC (n = 11) and/or CB (n = 10) and were included and evaluated retrospectively in this study. Cytologic and/or histologic evaluation was performed to confirm initially suspected diagnosis (lung cancer), to confirm N3 stage, and to screen for driver mutations in lung adenocarcinoma. FNAC alone showed diagnostic success in 11/11 cases (100%), CB alone in 9/10 patients (90%), and the combination of both procedures was successful in 12/12 cases (100%). Lymph node metastases from NSCLC (7 adenocarcinoma, 2 squamous cell carcinoma) could be confirmed in 9 patients. Other diagnoses were small cell lung cancer (SCLC), breast cancer and sarcoidosis. There was enough material for immunhistochemistry in all patients. For molecular testing, material from this lymph node biopsies and lung biopsy was used. In two patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung driver mutations were detected (EGFR Exon 19 deletion and ALK rearrangement) out of the lymph node metastasis. US-guided combined FNAC and CB of FDG positive supraclavicular lymph nodes in patients with suspected lung cancer is a safe and effective procedure to confirm N3-stage and to obtain representative material for molecular testing.

  11. Screening for occult malignancy with FDG-PET/CT in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Ana; Redondo, Margarita; Rubio, Tomás; Del Olmo, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Wilhelmi, Pablo; García-Velloso, María J; Richter, José A; Páramo, José A; Lecumberri, Ramón

    2013-11-01

    Extensive screening strategies to detect occult cancer in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) are complex and no benefit in terms of survival has been reported. FDG-PET/CT (2-[F-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography), a noninvasive technique for the diagnosis and staging of malignancies, could be useful in this setting. Consecutive patients ≥ 50 years with a first unprovoked VTE episode were prospectively included. Screening with FDG-PET/CT was performed 3-4 weeks after the index event. If positive, appropriate diagnostic work-up was programmed. Clinical follow-up continued for 2 years. Blood samples were collected to assess coagulation biomarkers. FDG-PET/CT was negative in 68/99 patients (68.7%), while suspicious FDG uptake was detected in 31/99 patients (31.3%). Additional diagnostic work-up confirmed a malignancy in 7/31 patients (22.6%), with six of them at early stage. During follow-up, two patients with negative FDG-PET/CT were diagnosed with cancer. Sensitivity (S), positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of FDG-PET/CT as single tool for the detection of occult malignancy were 77.8% (95% CI: 0.51-1), 22.6% (95% CI: 0.08-0.37) and 97.1% (95% CI: 0.93-1), respectively. Median tissue factor (TF) activity in patients with occult cancer was 5.38 pM vs. 2.40 pM in those without cancer (p = 0.03). Limitation of FDG-PET/CT screening to patients with TF activity > 2.8 pM would improve the PPV to 37.5% and reduce the costs of a single cancer diagnosis from 20,711€ to 11,670€. FDG-PET/CT is feasible for the screening of occult cancer in patients with unprovoked VTE, showing high S and NPV. The addition of TF activity determination may be useful for patient selection. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  12. Using positron emission tomography (PET) response criteria in solid tumours (PERCIST) 1.0 for evaluation of 2'-deoxy-2'-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose-PET/CT scans to predict survival early during treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    PubMed

    Fledelius, Joan; Khalil, Azza Ahmed; Hjorthaug, Karin; Frøkiaer, Jørgen

    2016-04-01

    The demand for early-response evaluation with 2'-deoxy-2'-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose (F-18-FDG) positron emission tomography combined with whole body CT (PET/CT) is rapidly growing. This study was initiated to evaluate the applicability of the PET response criteria in solid tumours (PERCIST 1.0) for response evaluation. We performed a retrospective study of 21 patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), who had undergone both a baseline and a follow-up F-18-FDG-PET/CT scan during their treatments. The scans were performed at our institution in the period September 2009 and March 2011 and were analysed visually and according to PERCIST 1.0 by one board-certified nuclear medicine physician. The response was compared with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). The variation in key parameters affecting the F-18-FDG uptake was assessed. A kappa of 0.94 corresponding to an almost perfect agreement was found for the comparison of the visual evaluation with PERCIST. Patients with partial metabolic response and stable metabolic disease (as evaluated by PERCIST 1.0) had statistically significant longer median time to progression: 8.4 months (confidence interval (CI) 5.1-11.8 months) as compared with 2.7 months (CI 0-5.6 months) in patients classified with progression. The variation in uptake time between baseline and follow-up scans was more than the recommended 15 min in 48% of patients. PERCIST 1.0 is readily implementable and highly comparable with visual evaluation of response using early F-18-FDG-PET/CT scanning for locally advanced NSCLC patients. In spite of variations in parameters affecting F-18-FDG uptake, evaluation of F-18-FDG-PET/CT during treatment with PERCIST 1.0 is shown to separate non-responders from responders, each with statistically significant differences in both OS and PFS. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  13. [18F]FDG-PET reveals temporal hypometabolism in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy even when quantitative MRI and histopathological analysis show only mild hippocampal damage.

    PubMed

    Lamusuo, S; Jutila, L; Ylinen, A; Kälviäinen, R; Mervaala, E; Haaparanta, M; Jääskeläinen, S; Partanen, K; Vapalahti, M; Rinne, J

    2001-06-01

    The relationship between reduced glucose metabolism in positron emission tomography with fludeoxyglucose F 18 ([(18)F]FDG-PET) and hippocampal damage (HD) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy is still unclear. To determine whether the presence and severity of HD verified by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (QMRI) and histopathological analysis affect the degree of hypometabolism. Sixteen patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy underwent [(18)F]FDG-PET and QMRI (hippocampal volumetry and T2 relaxometry) before surgery. Histopathological analysis of the hippocampus included measurements of neuronal loss, proliferation of glial cells, and mossy fiber sprouting. The asymmetry in glucose metabolism described the degree of hypometabolism. Temporal hypometabolism was not related to severity of HD as measured by QMRI or histopathological analysis. The degree of hypometabolism did not differ in patients with mild, moderate, or severe HD. In addition, [(18)F]FDG-PET revealed significant temporal hypometabolism even though hippocampal QMRI findings were normal or showed only mild HD. Thus, glucose consumption was reduced over and above the histopathological changes. [(18)F]FDG-PET is sensitive for localizing the epileptogenic region in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. However, it is insensitive to reflect the severity of HD.

  14. Interim (18)F-FDG PET/CT During Chemoradiation Therapy in the Management of Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Garibaldi, Cristina; Ronchi, Sara; Cremonesi, Marta; Gilardi, Laura; Travaini, Laura; Ferrari, Mahila; Alterio, Daniela; Kaanders, Johannes H A M; Ciardo, Delia; Orecchia, Roberto; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja; Grana, Chiara Maria

    2017-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is an imaging modality widely applied in oncology for tumor staging, volume delineation in radiation therapy planning, and therapy response assessment. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET combined with computed tomography plays a significant role in the management of locally advanced head and neck cancer patients in the pretreatment setting to predict outcome and prognosis and after chemoradiation therapy (CRT) to assess tumor response. This review aims to evaluate the use of FDG PET acquired during CRT, ad interim FDG (FDGint), to identify tumor response at an early stage, modify the treatment plan if necessary, or set up alternative strategies to enhance the therapeutic ratio. Most of the studies confirmed the value of FDGint in predicting the response to CRT, whereas a few highlighted the poor predictive value of FDGint compared with FDG acquired 2 to 4 months after the end of CRT, which was well correlated with local and regional control and survival. Such findings deserve to be further analyzed in more homogeneous series with greater patient numbers according to the tumor site and CRT schedules. The best time to assess tumor response during radiation therapy remains a matter of debate, although 2 weeks seems most favorable, still providing the opportunity to adapt the treatment strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. F18 Life Support: APECS and EDOX Cockpit Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrick, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Two systems are currently being integrated into the F18 Hornet support aircraft at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC). The first system is the Aircrew Personal Environmental Control System (APECS). The system is designed to increase aircrew performance by combating heat stress in the cockpit. The second system is the Extended Duration Oxygen System (EDOX). This system will provide additional redundancy and oxygen system duration to the F18 without extensive modification to the current system.

  16. Targeting Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) with F-18-Labeled Compounds: the Influence of Prosthetic Groups on Tumor Uptake and Clearance Profile.

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Vincent; Wuest, Melinda; Bailey, Justin J; Bergman, Cody; Janzen, Nancy; Valliant, John F; Wuest, Frank

    2017-06-21

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is an important biomarker expressed in the majority of prostate cancers. The favorable positron emission tomography (PET) imaging profile of the PSMA imaging agent 2-(3-(1-carboxy-5-[(6-[(18)F]fluoro-pyridine-3-carbonyl)-amino]-pentyl)-ureido)-pentane-dioic acid [(18)F]DCFPyL in preclinical prostate cancer models and in prostate cancer patients stimulated the development and validation of other fluorine-containing PSMA inhibitors to further enhance pharmacokinetics and simplify production methods. Here, we describe the synthesis and radiopharmacological evaluation of various F-18-labeled PSMA inhibitors which were prepared through different prosthetic group chemistry strategies. Prosthetic groups N-succinimidyl-4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoate ([(18)F]SFB), 4-[(18)F]fluorobenzaldehyde, and 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) were used for bioconjugation reactions to PSMA-binding lysine-urea-glutamate scaffold via acylation and oxime formation. All fluorine-containing PSMA inhibitors were tested for their PSMA inhibitory potency in an in vitro competitive binding assay in comparison to an established reference compound [(125)I]TAAG-PSMA. Tumor uptake and clearance profiles of three F-18-labeled PSMA inhibitors ([(18)F]4, [(18)F]7, and [(18)F]8) were studied with dynamic PET imaging using LNCaP tumor-bearing mice. F-18-labeled PSMA inhibitors were synthesized in 32-69 % radiochemical yields using (1) acylation reaction at the primary amino group of the lysine residue with [(18)F]SFB and (2) oxime formation with 4-[(18)F]fluorobenzaldehyde and [(18)F]FDG using the respective aminooxy-functionalized lysine residue. Compound 7 displayed an IC50 value of 6 nM reflecting very high affinity for PSMA. Compounds 4 and 8 showed IC50 values of 13 and 62 nM, respectively. The IC50 value of reference compound DCFPyL was 13 nM. Dynamic PET imaging revealed the following SUV60min for radiotracer uptake in PSMA(+) LNCaP tumors: 0

  17. Concept of an upright wearable positron emission tomography imager in humans.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Christopher E; Brefczynski-Lewis, Julie; Marano, Gary; Mandich, Mary-Beth; Stolin, Alexander; Martone, Peter; Lewis, James W; Jaliparthi, Gangadhar; Raylman, Raymond R; Majewski, Stan

    2016-09-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is traditionally used to image patients in restrictive positions, with few devices allowing for upright, brain-dedicated imaging. Our team has explored the concept of wearable PET imagers which could provide functional brain imaging of freely moving subjects. To test feasibility and determine future considerations for development, we built a rudimentary proof-of-concept prototype (Helmet_PET) and conducted tests in phantoms and four human volunteers. Twelve Silicon Photomultiplier-based detectors were assembled in a ring with exterior weight support and an interior mechanism that could be adjustably fitted to the head. We conducted brain phantom tests as well as scanned four patients scheduled for diagnostic F(18-) FDG PET/CT imaging. For human subjects the imager was angled such that field of view included basal ganglia and visual cortex to test for typical resting-state pattern. Imaging in two subjects was performed ~4 hr after PET/CT imaging to simulate lower injected F(18-) FDG dose by taking advantage of the natural radioactive decay of the tracer (F(18) half-life of 110 min), with an estimated imaging dosage of 25% of the standard. We found that imaging with a simple lightweight ring of detectors was feasible using a fraction of the standard radioligand dose. Activity levels in the human participants were quantitatively similar to standard PET in a set of anatomical ROIs. Typical resting-state brain pattern activation was demonstrated even in a 1 min scan of active head rotation. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of imaging a human subject with a novel wearable PET imager that moves with robust head movements. We discuss potential research and clinical applications that will drive the design of a fully functional device. Designs will need to consider trade-offs between a low weight device with high mobility and a heavier device with greater sensitivity and larger field of view.

  18. Mapping the Binding Domain of the F18 Fimbrial Adhesin

    PubMed Central

    Smeds, A.; Pertovaara, M.; Timonen, T.; Pohjanvirta, T.; Pelkonen, S.; Palva, A.

    2003-01-01

    F18 fimbrial Esherichia coli strains are associated with porcine postweaning diarrhea and pig edema disease. Recently, the FedF subunit was identified as the adhesin of the F18 fimbriae. In this study, adhesion domains of FedF were further studied by constructing deletions within the fedF gene and expressing FedF proteins with deletions either together with the other F18 fimbrial subunits or as fusion proteins tagged with maltose binding protein. The region essential for adhesion to porcine intestinal epithelial cells was mapped between amino acid residues 60 and 109 of FedF. To map the binding domain even more closely, all eight charged amino acid residues within this region were independently replaced by alanine. Three of these single point mutants expressing F18 fimbriae exhibited significantly diminished capabilities to adhere to porcine epithelial cells in vitro. In addition, a triple point mutation and a double point mutation completely abolished receptor adhesiveness. The result further confirmed that the region between amino acid residues 60 and 109 is essential for the binding of F18 fimbriae to their receptor. In addition, the adhesion capability of the binding domain was eliminated after treatment with iodoacetamide, suggesting the formation of a disulfide bridge between Cys-63 and Cys-83, whereas Cys-111 and Cys-116 could be deleted without affecting the binding ability of FedF. PMID:12654838

  19. Prediction of Central Nervous System Relapse of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Using Pretherapeutic [18F]2-Fluoro-2-Deoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yoo Sung; Lee, Won Woo; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Sang Eun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Central nervous system (CNS) relapse of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a rare complication, but has a poor prognosis with unknown pathophysiology. Recent trials of CNS prophylaxis have shown to be ineffective, despite patient's selection using several known clinical risk factors. In this study, the authors evaluated the value of pretreatment [18F]2-Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography in predicting CNS relapse in DLBCL patients. The authors analyzed 180 pathologically confirmed DLBCL patients, retrospectively. Patients underwent [18F]2-Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography before first line rituximab to cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone therapy. Clinical characteristics were evaluated and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) with a threshold margin of 50% was calculated. Among age, sex, Ann Arbor stage, International Prognostic Index, revised International Prognostic Index, high serum lactate dehydrogenase level, presence of B symptoms, bulky disease (≥10 cm), extranodal lesion involvement, bone marrow involvement, high metabolic tumor volume ( >450 mL), and high TLG50 (>2000), the high TLG50 was the only significant prognostic factor for predicting CNS relapse in a multivariate analysis (P = 0.04). Kaplan–Meir survival analysis between high TLG50 (>2000) and low TLG50 (≤2000) groups revealed significantly different mean progression free survival (PFS) of 1317.2 ± 134.3 days and 1968.6 ± 18.3 days, respectively (P < 0.001). High TLG50 on [18F]2-Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography is the most significant predictor of CNS relapse in un-treated DLBCL patients. PMID:26554808

  20. A quantitative analysis of the F18 flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Stacy A.; Dugan, Joanne B.; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an informal quantitative analysis of the F18 flight control system (FCS). The analysis technique combines a coverage model with a fault tree model. To demonstrate the method's extensive capabilities, we replace the fault tree with a digraph model of the F18 FCS, the only model available to us. The substitution shows that while digraphs have primarily been used for qualitative analysis, they can also be used for quantitative analysis. Based on our assumptions and the particular failure rates assigned to the F18 FCS components, we show that coverage does have a significant effect on the system's reliability and thus it is important to include coverage in the reliability analysis.

  1. A quantitative analysis of the F18 flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Stacy A.; Dugan, Joanne B.; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an informal quantitative analysis of the F18 flight control system (FCS). The analysis technique combines a coverage model with a fault tree model. To demonstrate the method's extensive capabilities, we replace the fault tree with a digraph model of the F18 FCS, the only model available to us. The substitution shows that while digraphs have primarily been used for qualitative analysis, they can also be used for quantitative analysis. Based on our assumptions and the particular failure rates assigned to the F18 FCS components, we show that coverage does have a significant effect on the system's reliability and thus it is important to include coverage in the reliability analysis.

  2. Positron emission tomography (PET) and macromolecular delivery in vivo.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Ludwig G; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia

    2009-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) examinations with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) provide detailed information about the glucose-like metabolism in tissue. It is generally accepted that FDG reflects the viability of tumour cells. The kinetics of FDG is modulated by several genes, besides the glucose transporters and hexokinases. Additional specific information can be obtained non-invasively by using other tracers specific for cell membrane receptors. PET studies with radiolabelled peptides have emerged as a new diagnostic tool for imaging of certain tumour entities, like neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) and gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs). This application is based on certain properties of these tumours, like the overexpression of somatostatin receptors, which can be visualised by somatostatin analogues, like 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N, N', N'', N'''-tetraacetic-acid-D: -Phe1-Tyr3 octreotide (DOTATOC) in NET. The overexpression of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptors can be visualised in GIST by using bombesin analogues. These peptides can be labelled by (68)Ga, which is a generator product and therefore more cost-effective than cyclotron products. (68)Ga-DOTATOC is a peptide that binds primarily to somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2). PET studies with (68)Ga-DOTATOC are performed in patients with NET and some other tumours. (68)Ga-BZH3 ((68)Ga-Bombesin) is a peptide that binds to at least three bombesin receptor subtypes: the BB1 (also known as neuromedin B), the BB2 (also known as GRP), and the BB3 (bombesin receptor subtype 3). This bombesin analogue, (68)Ga-BZH3, is used in patients with GIST.

  3. Falsely Negative F-18 FDG PET of Osteosarcoma Arising In Paget Disease.

    PubMed

    Bush, Lisabeth Ann; Toresdahl, Brett; Hoch, Benjamin; Chew, Felix S

    2009-01-01

    We present the case of a large, painful pelvic bone tumor in a 53-year-old woman with severe Paget disease. Her presentation was complicated with bilateral total hip arthroplasty, history of spinal stenosis, and multiple lucent lesions in the spine and pelvis in severely affected pagetoid bone. This case features the rare but dreaded complication of osteosarcomatous transformation in Paget disease. A variety of imaging modalities including PET/CT were utilized in the evaluation of these lesions. The PET/CT findings were counter-intuitive with regard to the intense uptake of the underlying chronic disease process and the near-absence of uptake in the tumors. The histology of the pelvic mass is also intriguing, as it demonstrated a sarcoma with giant cell features. Conservative, non-operative management was chosen, due to the patient's poor medical condition, so we may never know the nature of the spinal lesion in this case, but will discuss the differential diagnosis for a lytic spinal lesion in a patient with severe Paget disease complicated by osteosarcoma with giant cell features.

  4. Preparation and biodistribution of F-18 labeled FQNPe

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, H.; Beets, K.; McPherson, D.W.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1996-05-01

    1-Azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-(1-fluoropentan-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetate (FQNPe) is an attractive candidate for the in vivo imaging of muscarinic receptors (mAChR) by PET. Initial studies with this new agent demonstrated a high binding affinity and ability to bind to regions of the brain containing mAChR. Fluorine-18 (F-18) labeling of racemic 1 was performed using X = tosyl, triflate, or mesylate group and a decay corrected radiolabeling yields of 2.6, 33, 75%, respectively, were obtained. F-18-3 in 11 % yield (decay corrected to beginning of synthesis). Initial biodistribution studies in rats (n=5) showed F-18-3 had high cerebral uptake of 0.72 ({plus_minus}0.26) and 0.83 ({plus_minus} 0.12) injected dose/gram at 15 and 30 minutes, respectively. The F-18 labeling and biodistribution study of the (-)-quinuclidinyl (-)-acetate and (-)-quinuclidinyl (+)-acetate isomers of FQNPe are currently being pursued.

  5. F-18 HARV With Nose Strakes For Forebody Vortex Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    1996-01-01

    Nose of F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) modified with conformal, mechanically actuated nose strakes for enhanced rolling (ANSER). Forebody vortex control effected by use of actuated strakes and/or other flow-control devices. System provides means to evaluate design tradeoffs.

  6. Two F-18s in Autonomous Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This 32 second video clip shows two F-18s in NASA's Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) program. The aircraft use smoke contrails to gather data on wingtip vortices. Flight research attempts to utilize the energy in the vortices for more efficient flight.

  7. Suture Granuloma With False-Positive Findings on FDG-PET/CT Resected via Laparoscopic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Nobuyoshi; Tohma, Takayuki; Miyauchi, Hideaki; Suzuki, Kazufumi; Nishimori, Takanori; Ohira, Gaku; Narushima, Kazuo; Imanishi, Shunsuke; Toyozumi, Takeshi; Matsubara, Hisahiro

    2015-04-01

    A 61-year-old woman who had undergone total hysterectomy 16 years previously exhibited a pelvic tumor on computed tomography (CT). F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) combined positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging revealed a solitary small focus of increased FDG activity in the pelvis. A gastrointestinal stromal tumor originating in the small intestine or another type of tumor originating in the mesentery (desmoid, schwannoma, or foreign body granuloma) was suspected; therefore, laparoscopic resection was conducted. A white, hard tumor was found to originate from the mesentery of the sigmoid colon and adhered slightly to the small intestine. The tumor was resected with a negative margin, and the pathologic diagnosis was suture granuloma. The possibility of suture granuloma should be kept in mind in cases of tumors with positive PET findings and a history of surgery close to the lesion. However, it is difficult to preoperatively diagnose pelvic tumors using a biopsy. Therefore, considering the possibility of malignancy, it is necessary to achieve complete resection without exposing the tumor.

  8. Role of FDG-PET/CT for monitoring soft tissue tumors

    PubMed Central

    HOSHI, MANABU; OEBISU, NAOTO; TAKADA, JUN; IEGUCHI, MAKOTO; WAKASA, KENICHI; NAKAMURA, HIROAKI

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the limitations of 2-deoxy-2-F18-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) when monitoring soft tissue tumors. The diagnostic criteria of malignancy was defined as the tumor having a maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) ≥2.0 and a maximum diameter ≥5 cm as measured using FDG-PET/CT. One-hundred-and-thirteen patients, that were either included in the criteria or not, were compared. In addition, the values of SUVmax of the primary tumor and relapse in 12 patients were evaluated. The Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that patients with tumors measuring ≥5 cm size and ≥2.0 SUVmax were associated with a worse survival rate. Among the 12 patients with relapse, statistical significances were detected in the tumor diameters, however, not in the SUVmax values. Thus, the criteria identified patients that were associated with a poor prognosis, and the SUVmax of distant metastases and local recurrences were identified to be significantly affected by tumor size. PMID:24660036

  9. Method for combined FDG-PET and radiographic imaging of primary breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Adler, Lee P; Weinberg, Irving N; Bradbury, Michelle S; Levine, Edward A; Lesko, Nadine M; Geisinger, Kim R; Berg, Wendie A; Freimanis, Rita I

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a hybrid functional/anatomic breast imaging platform with biopsy capability for facilitating lesion detection and diagnosis. This platform consists of an investigative dedicated positron emission mammography (PEM) device mounted on a stereotactic X-ray mammography system, permitting sequential acquisition of mammographic and emission images during a single breast compression. There is automatic coregistration of images from both modalities, and these results can be successfully correlated with histopathologic findings. The potential utility of functional images correlated to anatomic images would include noninvasively detecting clinically and radiographically occult cancers, assessing response to therapy, discriminating between benign and malignant breast masses, and ultimately reducing the number of invasive and costly surgical interventions. A spot-digital mammogram and subsequent PEM image, collected over a 4-minute period, were obtained in a single patient with the breast in compression after intravenous injection of (F-18)-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) at the time of stereotactic biopsy. The authors conclude that FDG-based lesion localization information may be combined with the lesion X-ray attenuation characteristics using this common imaging platform.

  10. The functional neuroanatomy of verbal memory in Alzheimer's disease: [(18)F]-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) correlates of recency and recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Staffaroni, Adam M; Melrose, Rebecca J; Leskin, Lorraine P; Riskin-Jones, Hannah; Harwood, Dylan; Mandelkern, Mark; Sultzer, David L

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to distinguish the functional neuroanatomy of verbal learning and recognition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) Word Learning task. In 81 Veterans diagnosed with dementia due to AD, we conducted a cluster-based correlation analysis to assess the relationships between recency and recognition memory scores from the CERAD Word Learning Task and cortical metabolic activity measured using [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). AD patients (Mini-Mental State Examination, MMSE mean = 20.2) performed significantly better on the recall of recency items during learning trials than of primacy and middle items. Recency memory was associated with cerebral metabolism in the left middle and inferior temporal gyri and left fusiform gyrus (p < .05 at the corrected cluster level). In contrast, recognition memory was correlated with metabolic activity in two clusters: (a) a large cluster that included the left hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, entorhinal cortex, anterior temporal lobe, and inferior and middle temporal gyri; (b) the bilateral orbitofrontal cortices (OFC). The present study further informs our understanding of the disparate functional neuroanatomy of recency memory and recognition memory in AD. We anticipated that the recency effect would be relatively preserved and associated with temporoparietal brain regions implicated in short-term verbal memory, while recognition memory would be associated with the medial temporal lobe and possibly the OFC. Consistent with our a priori hypotheses, list learning in our AD sample was characterized by a reduced primacy effect and a relatively spared recency effect; however, recency memory was associated with cerebral metabolism in inferior and lateral temporal regions associated with the semantic memory network, rather than regions associated with short-term verbal memory. The correlates of

  11. Role of Combined 68Ga-DOTATOC and 18F-FDG Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in the Diagnostic Workup of Pancreas Neuroendocrine Tumors: Implications for Managing Surgical Decisions.

    PubMed

    Cingarlini, Sara; Ortolani, Silvia; Salgarello, Matteo; Butturini, Giovanni; Malpaga, Anna; Malfatti, Veronica; DʼOnofrio, Mirko; Davì, Maria Vittoria; Vallerio, Paola; Ruzzenente, Andrea; Capelli, Paola; Citton, Elia; Grego, Elisabetta; Trentin, Chiara; De Robertis, Riccardo; Scarpa, Aldo; Bassi, Claudio; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2017-01-01

    Ga-DOTATOC (Ga) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is recommended in the workup of pancreas neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs); evidence suggests that F-FDG (F) PET/CT can also provide prognostic information. Aims of this study were to assess the role of combined Ga- and F-PET/CT in the evaluation of grade (G) 1-2 PanNETs and to test the correlation between F-PET/CT positivity and tumor grade. Preoperative Ga- and F-PET/CT of 35 patients with surgically resected G1-2 PanNETs were evaluated. For grading, the 2010 World Health Organization Classification was used; an ancillary analysis with Ki67 cutoffs at 5% to 20% was conducted. Correlation between F-PET/CT positivity (SUVmax > 3.5) and grade was assessed. Of 35 PanNETs, 28.6% and 71.4% were G1 and G2 as per World Health Organization. Ga-PET/CT showed high sensitivity (94.3%) in detecting G1-2 PanNETs. F-PET/CT was positive in 20% and 76% G1 and G2 tumors (P = 0.002). F-PET/CT identified G2 PanNETs with high positive predictive value (PPV, 90.5%). F-PET/CT correlated with tumor grade also in the ancillary analysis (P = 0.009). The high sensitivity of Ga-PET/CT in NET detection is known. The high PPV of F-PET/CT in the identification of G2 forms suggests its potential role in PanNETs prognostication and risk stratification.

  12. Pharmacologic perturbation as a potential tool to increase the sensitivity of FDG-PET in the evaluation of brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, F.C.L.; Kim, E.E.; Yung, W.K.A.

    1994-05-01

    The usefulness of F-18 FDG PET in the study of brain tumors is limited by the high baseline cortical uptake which decreases the contrast of the tumor. Two alternatives to increase the tumor/background contrast have been reported: barbiturate-induced coma and postprandial state. This project evaluates the effects of sedation with diazepam or of oral glucose intake on the brain tumor/background contrast during F-18 FDG PET studies.

  13. Numerical investigation of tail buffet on F-18 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizk, Yehia M.; Guruswamy, Guru P.; Gee, Ken

    1992-01-01

    Numerical investigation of vortex induced tail buffet is conducted on the F-18 aircraft at high angles of attack. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are integrated using a time-accurate, implicit procedure. A generalized overset zonal grid scheme is used to decompose the computational space around the complete aircraft with faired-over inlet. A weak coupling between the aerodynamics and structures is assumed to compute the structural oscillation of the flexible vertical tail. Time-accurate computations of the turbulent flow around the F-18 aircraft at 30 degrees angle of attack show the surface and off-surface flowfield details, including the unsteadiness created by the vortex burst and its interaction with the vertical twin tail which causes the tail buffet. The effect of installing a LEX fence on modifying the vortex structure upstream of the tail is also examined.

  14. F-18 HARV final flight over Edwards AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The final flight for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) took place at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on May 29, 1996 and was flown by NASA pilot Ed Schneider. The highly modified F-18 airplane flew 383 flights over a nine year period and demonstrated concepts that greatly increase fighter maneuverability. Among concepts proven in the aircraft is the use of paddles to direct jet engine exhaust in cases of extreme altitudes where conventional control surfaces lose effectiveness. Another concept, developed by NASA Langley Research Center, is a deployable wing-like surface installed on the nose of the aircraft for increased right and left (yaw) control on nose-high flight angles.

  15. F-18 HARV final flight over Dryden FRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The final flight for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) took place at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on May 29, 1996 and was flown by NASA pilot Ed Schneider. The highly modified F-18 airplane flew 383 flights over a nine year period and demonstrated concepts that greatly increase fighter maneuverability. Among concepts proven in the aircraft is the use of paddles to direct jet engine exhaust in cases of extreme altitudes where conventional control surfaces lose effectiveness. Another concept, developed by NASA Langley Research Center, is a deployable wing-like surface installed on the nose of the aircraft for increased right and left (yaw) control on nose-high flight angles.

  16. F-18 high alpha research vehicle: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.; Regenie, Victoria A.; Flick, Bradley C.

    1994-01-01

    The F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle has proven to be a useful research tool with many unique capabilities. Many of these capabilities are to assist in characterizing flight at high angles of attack, while some provide significant research in their own right. Of these, the thrust vectoring system, the unique ability to rapidly reprogram flight controls, the reprogrammable mission computer, and a reprogrammable onboard excitation system have allowed an increased utility and versatility of the research being conducted. Because of this multifaceted approach to research in the high angle of attack regime, the capabilities of the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle were designed to cover as many high alpha technology bases as the program would allow. These areas include aerodynamics, controls, handling qualities, and propulsion.

  17. F-18 HARV in flight refueling with KC-135 tanker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A thrust vectoring system can be seen mounted on the aft end of this NASA F-18 research aircraft at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, during an inflight refueling stop with a KC-135A (Serial #55-3135) tanker. The system was used to enhance its maneuverability and control at high angles of attack (high alpha) when conventional aerodynamic controls - ailerons, rudders, and elevators - are ineffective. The system features three spoon-shaped paddles mounted around the exhaust nozzles of each engine. The system, linked to the aircraft's flight control system, moves the paddles into the exhaust flow to redirect thrust for directional control and increased maneuverability at angles of attack near 70 degrees. First research flights with the system operating began during the spring of 1991. Data from the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) program produced information to validate computer codes and wind tunnel results and led to design methods providing better performance in future aircraft.

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for F-18 (Fluorine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope F-18 (Fluorine, atomic number Z = 9, mass number A = 18).

  19. Biological relationship between F18ab and F18ac fimbriae of enterotoxigenic and verotoxigenic Escherichia coli from weaned pigs with oedema disease or diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Nagy, B; Whipp, S C; Imberechts, H; Bertschinger, H U; Dean-Nystrom, E A; Casey, T A; Salajka, E

    1997-01-01

    Comparative fimbrial expression and adhesion studies were made on enterotoxigenic and verotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC and VTEC) strains isolated from cases of porcine postweaning diarrhoea or oedema disease. F107(F18ab) fimbriae--monitored by polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies and by electron microscopy--were poorly expressed on most VTEC strains. In contrast, 2134P(F18ac) fimbriae were more readily detected on most ETEC strains. The F18ac strains adhered in vivo to ligated intestinal loops in weaned pigs while the F18ab strains did not adhere or adhered weakly. Similarly, the F18ac strains adhered to isolated intestinal brush borders in weaned pigs but the F18ab strains (except for the F107 reference E. coli) did not adhere or adhered weakly in vitro. Neither the F18ab nor F18ac strains adhered to brush borders from newborn pigs. In vitro adhesion of F18ab and F18ac strains was mannose resistant and receptors for F18 seemed to differ from receptors for K88(F4). It is concluded that the antigenic variants of F18 fimbriae (F18ab and F18ac) are biologically distinct. F18ab fimbriae are expressed poorly both in vitro and in vivo and are frequently linked with the production of SLT-IIv and serogroup O139, while F18ac are more efficiently expressed in vitro and in vivo and most often are linked with enterotoxin (STa, STb) production, and serogroups O141, O157.

  20. Appropriateness criteria of FDG PET/CT in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Archi; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    18Fluorine-2-fluoro-2-Deoxy-d-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT) is a well-established functional imaging method widely used in oncology. In this article, we have incorporated the various indications for 18FDG PET/CT in oncology based on available evidence and current guidelines. Growing body of evidence for use of 18FDG PET/CT in select tumors is also discussed. This article attempts to give the reader an overview of the appropriateness of using 18F-FDG PET/CT in various malignancies. PMID:25969632

  1. Cancer Localization in the Prostate with F-18 Fluorocholine Positron Emission Tomography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    calculated for both 2D and 3D . After correcting for both random and attenuation, the projection data was reconstructed with filtered back projection using...Marc N. Coel, M.D., Isabel A. Sesterhenn, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION : The Queen’s...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER The Queen’s Medical Center

  2. Cancer Localization in the Prostate with F-18 Fluorocholine Positron Emission Tomography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-15

    cancer sextant localization based on measured fluorocholine uptake. Recruitment of human subjects for this project was completed in 2008. A final one... sextants of the prostate gland. The rationale for evaluating fluorocholine as an oncologic tracer applicable to prostate cancer is based on observations...method of sextant localization of primary prostate cancer through a collaboration with Phillips Research (Phillips Medical Systems, N.A.). A proposal

  3. Cancer Localization in the Prostate with F-18 Fluorocholine Positron Emission Tomography. Addendum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    accuracy of prostate cancer sextant localization based on measured fluorocholine uptake. Recruitment of human subjects for this project was completed...of malignancy in anatomical sextants of the prostate gland. The rationale for evaluating fluorocholine as an oncologic tracer applicable to...potential means to further improve the sextant localization of primary prostate cancer. The rationale for this study is based on observations of rapid

  4. FDG-PET/CT Limited to the Thorax and Upper Abdomen for Staging and Management of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Postema, Jan W. A.; Schreurs, Wendy M. J.; Lafeber, Albert; Hendrickx, Baudewijn W.; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Vogel, Wouter V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) of the chest/upper abdomen compared to the generally performed scan from head to upper thighs, for staging and management of (suspected) lung cancer in patients with no history of malignancy or complaints outside the thorax. Methods FDG-PET/CT scans of 1059 patients with suspected or recently proven lung cancer, with no history of malignancy or complaints outside the thorax, were analysed in a retrospective multi-centre trial. Suspect FDG-avid lesions in the chest and upper abdomen, the head and neck area above the shoulder line and in the abdomen and pelvis below the caudal tip of the liver were noted. The impact of lesions detected in the head and neck area and abdomen and pelvis on additional diagnostic procedures, staging and treatment decisions was evaluated. Results The head and neck area revealed additional suspect lesions in 7.2%, and the abdomen and pelvis in 15.8% of patients. Imaging of the head and neck area and the abdomen and pelvic area showed additional lesions in 19.5%, inducing additional diagnostic procedures in 7.8%. This resulted in discovery of additional lesions considered malignant in 10.7%, changing patient management for lung cancer in 1.2%. In (suspected) lung cancer, PET/CT limited to the chest and upper abdomen resulted in correct staging in 98.7% of patients, which led to the identical management as full field of view PET in 98.8% of patients. Conclusion High value of FDG-PET/CT for staging and correct patient management is already achieved with chest and upper abdomen. Findings in head and neck area and abdomen and pelvis generally induce investigations with limited or no impact on staging and treatment of NSCLC, and can be interpreted accordingly. PMID:27556809

  5. FDG-PET/CT Limited to the Thorax and Upper Abdomen for Staging and Management of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Arens, Anne I J; Postema, Jan W A; Schreurs, Wendy M J; Lafeber, Albert; Hendrickx, Baudewijn W; Oyen, Wim J G; Vogel, Wouter V

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) of the chest/upper abdomen compared to the generally performed scan from head to upper thighs, for staging and management of (suspected) lung cancer in patients with no history of malignancy or complaints outside the thorax. FDG-PET/CT scans of 1059 patients with suspected or recently proven lung cancer, with no history of malignancy or complaints outside the thorax, were analysed in a retrospective multi-centre trial. Suspect FDG-avid lesions in the chest and upper abdomen, the head and neck area above the shoulder line and in the abdomen and pelvis below the caudal tip of the liver were noted. The impact of lesions detected in the head and neck area and abdomen and pelvis on additional diagnostic procedures, staging and treatment decisions was evaluated. The head and neck area revealed additional suspect lesions in 7.2%, and the abdomen and pelvis in 15.8% of patients. Imaging of the head and neck area and the abdomen and pelvic area showed additional lesions in 19.5%, inducing additional diagnostic procedures in 7.8%. This resulted in discovery of additional lesions considered malignant in 10.7%, changing patient management for lung cancer in 1.2%. In (suspected) lung cancer, PET/CT limited to the chest and upper abdomen resulted in correct staging in 98.7% of patients, which led to the identical management as full field of view PET in 98.8% of patients. High value of FDG-PET/CT for staging and correct patient management is already achieved with chest and upper abdomen. Findings in head and neck area and abdomen and pelvis generally induce investigations with limited or no impact on staging and treatment of NSCLC, and can be interpreted accordingly.

  6. Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder of the Thorax: CT and FDG-PET Features in a Single Tertiary Referral Center.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ga Young; Kim, Mi Young; Huh, Joo Rryung; Jo, Kyung-Wook; Shim, Tae Sun

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the chest computed tomography (CT) and F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomographic (FDG-PET) findings of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in the thorax.From November 2004 to February 2013, the cases of 12 adult patients (3 female and 9 male, age range 34-68, and median age 46 years) with proven PTLD were retrospectively reviewed. The transplanted organs included the kidney (5/12), liver (4/12), heart (1/12), combined kidney and pancreas (1/12), and hematopoietic stem cell (1/12). We investigated the relationship of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) to the patients' long-term follow-up, and evaluated the characteristics of the lesions on the chest CT and FDG-PET. The lesions were classified into 2 patterns: that of lymph node and lung involvement.The interval between the transplantation and the onset of PTLD was 2 to 128 months (median, 49). Positive EBV-encoded RNA in the pathologic specimens was found in 10 patients (83.3%). Eight patients were positive for EBV PCR in their blood, and 3 patients showed seroconversion without antiviral therapy. The responses to treatment were complete in 7 cases (58.3%), partial remission in 4 cases (33.3%), and undetermined in 1 case (8.3%). The more common chest CT patterns showed lymph node involvement (10/12) rather than lung involvement (3/12). The median maximum-standardized uptake value on the FDG-PET scans was 7.7 (range, 2.7-25.5).In patients with PTLD involving the thorax, lymphadenopathy was the more common manifestation on the chest CT rather than lung involvement. The lesions showed hypermetabolism on FDG-PET.

  7. Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder of the Thorax: CT and FDG-PET Features in a Single Tertiary Referral Center

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ga Young; Kim, Mi Young; Huh, Joo Rryung; Jo, Kyung-Wook; Shim, Tae Sun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the chest computed tomography (CT) and F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomographic (FDG-PET) findings of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in the thorax. From November 2004 to February 2013, the cases of 12 adult patients (3 female and 9 male, age range 34–68, and median age 46 years) with proven PTLD were retrospectively reviewed. The transplanted organs included the kidney (5/12), liver (4/12), heart (1/12), combined kidney and pancreas (1/12), and hematopoietic stem cell (1/12). We investigated the relationship of the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) to the patients’ long-term follow-up, and evaluated the characteristics of the lesions on the chest CT and FDG-PET. The lesions were classified into 2 patterns: that of lymph node and lung involvement. The interval between the transplantation and the onset of PTLD was 2 to 128 months (median, 49). Positive EBV-encoded RNA in the pathologic specimens was found in 10 patients (83.3%). Eight patients were positive for EBV PCR in their blood, and 3 patients showed seroconversion without antiviral therapy. The responses to treatment were complete in 7 cases (58.3%), partial remission in 4 cases (33.3%), and undetermined in 1 case (8.3%). The more common chest CT patterns showed lymph node involvement (10/12) rather than lung involvement (3/12). The median maximum-standardized uptake value on the FDG-PET scans was 7.7 (range, 2.7–25.5). In patients with PTLD involving the thorax, lymphadenopathy was the more common manifestation on the chest CT rather than lung involvement. The lesions showed hypermetabolism on FDG-PET. PMID:26252295

  8. Vasovagal-related stress immediately before FDG injection may increase bilateral adrenal FDG uptake

    PubMed Central

    Nakajo, Masatoyo; Nakajo, Masayuki; Nakabeppu, Yoshiaki; Yoshiura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between vasovagal-related stress on positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and adrenal fludeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 1358 consecutive patients who underwent FDG PET/CT examinations and selected those who presented with vasovagal-related symptoms and acute hypotension immediately before FDG injection (vasovagal reflex group). Patients who underwent FDG PET/CT examinations on the same days as the vasovagal reflex group without new complaints or any adrenal lesion were used as controls. We evaluated adrenal FDG uptake visually and by means of adrenal maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and adrenal/liver (A/L) SUVmax ratio. Next, we reviewed the FDG PET/CT images of the same 1358 patients and selected the cases presenting with bilateral avid FDG uptake. Results: 4 patients were included in the vasovagal reflex group, and all of them showed bilateral avid adrenal FDG uptake visually, while 19 patients in the control group did not. The mean adrenal SUVmax and the mean A/L SUVmax ratio were significantly higher in the vasovagal reflex group than in the control group (p < 0.001). 10 (0.74%) patients, including 4 patients from the vasovagal reflex group, showed bilateral avid FDG uptake with normal adrenal configuration on CT. Conclusion: Vasovagal-related stress immediately before FDG injection may increase bilateral adrenal FDG uptake. Advances in knowledge: Vasovagal-related stress may be included in the differential diagnosis of the cause of bilateral avid adrenal FDG uptake. PMID:26943003

  9. [Positron-emission tomography/computed tomography: artifacts and pitfalls in cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Gorospe Sarasúa, L; Echeveste Aizpurúa, J; Raman, S

    2006-01-01

    Diagnostic accuracy and correct initial staging (or restaging) are fundamental in the management of oncological patients and can directly influence therapeutic decisions. The combination of positron-emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) in a single scanner (PET/TC) represents an important achievement in the fields of oncology, nuclear medicine, and radiology. These scanners allow morphologic images (obtained by CT) to be fused and correlated with metabolic images (obtained by PET) to a high degree of accuracy. In addition to an understanding of the physiopathology of cancer and the behavior of the different types of neoplasms, the correct interpretation of PET/CT images requires in-depth knowledge of the physiological distribution of the F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose molecule (FDG, currently the most widely used marker in oncology), of the frequent physiological variations in its distribution, and of the possible causes of non-malignant pathological FDG uptake. Furthermore, the use of CT data to correct attenuation and reconstruct PET images in PET/CT scanners can generate some characteristic artifacts specific to this new diagnostic tool, and these can lead to misinterpretation with potential therapeutic implications. This article reviews and illustrates some of the most common artifacts and pitfalls that can appear in PET/CT studies. The detection and correct interpretation of these findings are essential for the appropriate management of oncologic patients.

  10. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in a rare case of carcinoma stomach with concomitant silicosis

    PubMed Central

    Sasikumar, Arun; Joy, Ajith; Unni, Madhavan; Madhavan, Jayaprakash

    2016-01-01

    The role of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose. (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography. (PET)/computed tomography. (CT) in the initial staging of various malignancies is now well established. However, nonspecificity of FDG occasionally results in tracer uptake in benign lung lesions. The authors describe a complicated case of carcinoma stomach with multiple nodules and a cavitary lesion in lungs where 18F-FDG PET CT done for initial staging revealed FDG avid mass in stomach, FDG avid multiple mediastinal lymph nodes and multiple intensely FDG avid bilateral lung lesions. The FDG avid lung lesions turned out to be due to silicosis as confirmed by histopathology. PMID:27833322

  11. Metabolomics of Breast Cancer Using High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Correlations with 18F-FDG Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography, Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging MRI.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Haesung; Yoon, Dahye; Yun, Mijin; Choi, Ji Soo; Park, Vivian Youngjean; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Jeong, Joon; Koo, Ja Seung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Suhkmann; Kim, Min Jung

    2016-01-01

    Our goal in this study was to find correlations between breast cancer metabolites and conventional quantitative imaging parameters using high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and to find breast cancer subgroups that show high correlations between metabolites and imaging parameters. Between August 2010 and December 2013, we included 53 female patients (mean age 49.6 years; age range 32-75 years) with a total of 53 breast lesions assessed by the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. They were enrolled under the following criteria: breast lesions larger than 1 cm in diameter which 1) were suspicious for malignancy on mammography or ultrasound (US), 2) were pathologically confirmed to be breast cancer with US-guided core-needle biopsy (CNB) 3) underwent 3 Tesla MRI with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), and 4) had an attainable immunohistochemistry profile from CNB. We acquired spectral data by HR-MAS MRS with CNB specimens and expressed the data as relative metabolite concentrations. We compared the metabolites with the signal enhancement ratio (SER), maximum standardized FDG uptake value (SUV max), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and histopathologic prognostic factors for correlation. We calculated Spearman correlations and performed a partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to further classify patient groups into subgroups to find correlation differences between HR-MAS spectroscopic values and conventional imaging parameters. In a multivariate analysis, the PLS-DA models built with HR-MAS MRS metabolic profiles showed visible discrimination between high and low SER, SUV, and ADC. In luminal subtype breast cancer, compared to all cases, high SER, ADV, and SUV were more closely clustered by visual assessment. Multiple metabolites were correlated with SER and SUV in all cases. Multiple metabolites showed

  12. Production of the PET bone agent (18)F-fluoride ion, simultaneously with (18)F-FDG by a single run of the medical cyclotron with minimal radiation exposure- a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajeev; Sonkawade, Rajendra G; Tripathi, Madhavi; Sharma, Punit; Gupta, Priyanka; Kumar, Praveen; Pandey, Anil K; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Damle, Nishikant Avinash; Bandopadhayaya, Gurupad

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to establish an easy and convenient procedure for the preparation of fluorine-18-sodium fluoride ((18)F-NaF) for bone positron emission tomography (PET) during routine (18)F-FDG production using the Explora FDG4 radiochemistry module (EFRM) by single run of Cyclotron with negligible radiation exposure. We compared three techniques for (18)F-NaF production during routine PET radiochemistry at our setup. In one method we used synthesis module and in other two methods we did not. In the first and third method, F-18 was directly extracted from the V-vial and in the second method, (18)F-NaF was extracted by post processing from the EFRM. In the first method, F-18 was extracted directly from V-vial manually by opening the V-vial cap. In the second method, Explora FDG-4 Module was used. First, F-18 was transferred from the V-vial. Then, after post processing in EFRM, pure F-18 was obtained in the product vial. In the third method, pure F-18 was obtained in the product vial with the help of a mechanical robotic arm. The above were followed by routine quality control of (18)F-NaF produced by each method. Results of quality control of the (18)F-NaF obtained by all three methods satisfied all parameters prescribed by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and the British Pharmacopeia (BP) including biological, physical and chemical specifications. The radiochemical purity was 98.5±1.5% with Rf 0.006. The level of Kryptofix-222 (K222) in (18)F-NaF was within the prescribed limit. Mean pH of (18)F-NaF was 6.0±1.5. The exposure rate around the hot cell was negligible. In conclusion, from the results it was obvious that by our method number three (18)F-NaF was directly obtained from the V-vial using mechanical robotic arms. This method was the most appropriate with minimized radiation exposure to the handling Radiochemist and was also saving time as compared to the other two methods.

  13. Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography: A Guide for the General Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Beadsmoore, Clare; Newman, David; MacIver, Duncan; Pawaroo, Davina

    2015-11-01

    Cancer remains a leading cause of death in Canada and worldwide. Whilst advances in anatomical imaging to detect and monitor malignant disease have continued over the last few decades, limitations remain. Functional imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), has improved the sensitivity and specificity in detecting malignant disease. In combination with computed tomography (CT), PET is now commonly used in the oncology setting and is an integral part of many cancer patients' pathways. Although initially the CT component of the study was purely for attenuation of the PET imaging and to provide anatomical coregistration, many centers now combine the PET study with a diagnostic quality contrast enhanced CT to provide one stop staging, thus refining the patient's pathway. The commonest tracer used in everyday practice is FDG (F18-fluorodeoxyglucose). There are many more tracers in routine clinical practice and those with emerging roles, such as 11C-choline, useful in the imaging of prostate cancer; 11C-methionine, useful in imaging brain tumours; C11-acetate, used in imaging hepatocellular carcinomas; 18F-FLT, which can be used as a marker of cellular proliferation in various malignancies; and F18-DOPA and various 68Ga-somatostatin analogues, used in patients with neuroendocrine tumours. In this article we concentrate on FDG PETCT as this is the most commonly available and widely utilised tracer now used to routinely stage a number of cancers. PETCT alters the stage in approximately one-third of patients compared to anatomical imaging alone. Increasingly, PETCT is being used to assess early metabolic response to treatment. Metabolic response can be seen much earlier than a change in the size/volume of the disease which is measured by standard CT imaging. This can aid treatment decisions in both in terms of modifying therapy and in addition to providing important prognostic information. Furthermore, it is helpful in patients with distorted anatomy from surgery

  14. Positron Emission Mammography with Multiple Angle Acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Mark F. Smith; Stan Majewski; Raymond R. Raylman

    2002-11-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in breast tumors with dedicated detectors typically has been accomplished with two planar detectors in a fixed position with the breast under compression. The potential use of PEM imaging at two detector positions to guide stereotactic breast biopsy has motivated us to use PEM coincidence data acquired at two or more detector positions together in a single image reconstruction. Multiple angle PEM acquisition and iterative image reconstruction were investigated using point source and compressed breast phantom acquisitions with 5, 9, 12 and 15 mm diameter spheres and a simulated tumor:background activity concentration ratio of 6:1. Image reconstruction was performed with an iterative MLEM algorithm that used coincidence events between any two detector pixels on opposed detector heads at each detector position. This present study compared two acquisition protocols: 2 angle acquisition with detector angular positions of -15 and +15 degrees and 11 angle acquisition with detector positions spaced at 3 degree increments over the range -15 to +15 degrees. Three- dimensional image resolution was assessed for the point source acquisitions, and contrast and signal-to-noise metrics were evaluated for the compressed breast phantom with different simulated tumor sizes. Radial and tangential resolutions were similar for the two protocols, while normal resolution was better for the 2 angle acquisition. Analysis is complicated by the asymmetric point spread functions. Signal- to-noise vs. contrast tradeoffs were better for 11 angle acquisition for the smallest visible 9 mm sphere, while tradeoff results were mixed for the larger and more easily visible 12 mm and 15 mm diameter spheres. Additional study is needed to better understand the performance of limited angle tomography for PEM. PEM tomography experiments with complete angular sampling are planned.

  15. Unusual Soft Tissue Uptake of F-18 Sodium Fluoride in Three Patients Undergoing F-18 NaF PET/CT Bone Scans for Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Andrew S; Howard, Brandon A

    2017-09-01

    Three males aged 71 to 80 years with known stage IV metastatic prostate cancer underwent F-18 sodium fluoride (NaF) PET/CT to assess osseous metastatic disease burden and stability. In addition to F-18 NaF avid known osseous metastases, each patient also exhibited increased F-18 NaF activity in soft tissues. The first patient exhibited multiple F-18 NaF avid enlarged retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph nodes on consecutive PET/CT scans. The second patient demonstrated an F-18 NaF avid thyroid nodule on consecutive PET/CT scans. The third patient exhibited increased F-18 NaF activity in a hepatic metastasis.

  16. Perirenal (18)F-FDG Uptake in a Patient with a Pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Jihyun; Byun, Byung Hyun; Jung, Chang Won; Moon, Hansol; Chang, Kyoung Jin; Lim, Ilhan; Kim, Byung Il; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo

    2014-09-01

    Increased (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake of brown fat on (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) originating from physiological activation is a common incidental finding and is usually located in the neck, shoulder, and supraclavicular areas. We present a case of an incidental pheochromocytoma showing diffusely increased (18)F-FDG uptake in bilateral perirenal fat tissue as well as supraclavicular and paravertebral fat tissue on (18)F-FDG PET/CT. The patient had no clinical symptoms except hypertension, and a pheochromocytoma was confirmed in a postsurgical specimen. A pheochromocytoma should be considered a cause in cases of increased (18)F-FDG uptake of perirenal brown fat.

  17. F-18 HARV in flight with actuated nose strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's F-18 from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, soars over the Mojave Desert while flying the third and final phase of the HARV (High Alpha Research Vehicle) program. A set of control surfaces called strakes were installed in the nose of the aircraft. The strakes, outlined in gold and white, provided improved yaw control at steep angles of attack. Normally folded flush, the units -- four feet long and six inches wide -- can be opened independently to interact with the nose vortices to produce large side forces for control. Testing involved evaluation of the strakes by themselves as well as combined with the aircraft's Thrust Vectoring System. The strakes were designed by NASA's Langley Research Center, then installed and flight tested at Dryden.

  18. F-18 HARV in flight with actuated nose strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's F-18 from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, soars over the Mojave Desert while flying the current phase of the HARV (High Alpha Research Vehicle) program. A set of control surfaces called strakes were installed in the nose of the aircraft. The strakes, outlined in gold and white, provided improved yaw control at steep angles of attack. Normally folded flush, the units -- four feet long and six inches wide -- can be opened independently to interact with the nose vortices to produce large side forces for control. Testing involved evaluation of the strakes by themselves as well as combined with the aircraft's Thrust Vectoring System. The strakes were designed by NASA's Langley Research Center, then installed and flight tested at Dryden.

  19. Experiments With Recirculating Target for F-18 Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, M. Y.

    2003-08-01

    Approximately 10 ml of O-18 water was loaded in an apparatus containing a 5 ml storage vessel, pump, silver target attached to a cyclotron, filter, backpressure regulator, conductivity meter, several valves and ion exchange cartridges. The water was continuously pumped through the target during proton bombardment at a rate 5 ml/min. Continuous irradiation with beam current ranging from 10 to 50 uA was conducted while pressure, temperature and conductivity were continuously monitored. The results indicate that recirculating of the target water can increase production of F-18 in relation to consumed O-18 water material. It can also increase productivity by eliminating idle periods for re-filling the target. A backpressure regulator can precisely control target pressure. This method also allows for continuous monitoring of the target material temperature, pressure, conductivity and accumulated radioactivity. Results of these observations provide important information about target performance and physical processes taking place inside the target.

  20. Positron Emission Tomography for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    ventricular (LV) viability is, therefore, critical in deciding whether a patient with coronary artery disease and severe LV dysfunction should undergo revascularization, receive a heart transplant, or remain on medical therapy. Assessment of Left Ventricular Viability Techniques for assessing myocardial viability depend on the measurement of a specific characteristic of viable myocytes such as cell membrane integrity, preserved metabolism, mitochondria integrity, and preserved contractile reserve. In Ontario, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using radioactive 201thallium is the most commonly used technique followed by dobutamine echocardiography. Newer techniques include SPECT using technetium tracers, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and PET, the subject of this review. Positron Emission Tomography PET is a nuclear imaging technique based on the metabolism of radioactive analogs of normal substrates such as glucose and water. The radiopharmaceutical used most frequently in myocardial viability assessment is F18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a glucose analog. The procedure involves the intravenous administration of FDG under controlled glycemic conditions, and imaging with a PET scanner. The images are reconstructed using computer software and analyzed visually or semi-quantitatively, often in conjunction with perfusion images. Dysfunctional but stunned myocardium is characterized by normal perfusion and normal FDG uptake; hibernating myocardium exhibits reduced perfusion and normal/enhanced FDG uptake (perfusion/metabolism mismatch), whereas scar tissue is characterized by reduction in both perfusion and FDG uptake (perfusion/metabolism match). Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat used a search strategy similar to that used in the 2001 ICES review to identify English language reports of health technology assessments and primary studies in selected databases, published from January 1, 2001 to April 20, 2005. Patients of interest were those with

  1. Imaging cardiac SCN5A using the novel F-18 radiotracer radiocaine

    PubMed Central

    Hooker, Jacob M.; Strebl, Martin G.; Schroeder, Frederick A.; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Ambardekar, Amrut V.; McKinsey, Timothy A.; Schoenberger, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The key function of the heart, a well-orchestrated series of contractions, is controlled by cardiac action potentials. These action potentials are initiated and propagated by a single isoform of voltage gated sodium channels – SCN5A. However, linking changes in SCN5A expression levels to human disease in vivo has not yet been possible. Radiocaine, an F-18 radiotracer for positron emission tomography (PET), is the first SCN5A imaging agent in the heart. Explants from healthy and failing human hearts were compared using radiocaine autoradiography to determine that the failing heart has ~30% lower SCN5A levels - the first evidence of changes in SCN5A expression in humans as a function of disease. Paving the way for translational imaging, radiocaine proved to exhibit high in vivo specific binding to the myocardium of non-human primates. We envision that SCN5A measurements using PET imaging may serve as a novel diagnostic tool to stratify arrhythmia risk and assess for progression of heart failure in patients with a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:28205593

  2. Pleuroperitoneal Mesothelioma: A Rare Entity on 18F-FDG PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Manas Kumar; Mukherjee, Anirban; Girish; Parida, Kumar; Agarwal, Krishan Kant; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Tripathi, Madhavi; Das, Chandan Jyoti; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Pleuroperitoneal mesothelioma is an extremely rare entity. Only few cases are reported worldwide. We hereby represent a case of pleural mesothelioma referred for F-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography for response evaluation. Diffuse F-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose avid peritoneal and omental thickening noted which subsequently turned out to be mesothelial involvement on peritoneal biopsy. This case demonstrates the role of F-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in detecting other sites of involvement in case of malignant mesothelioma. PMID:28242997

  3. F-18 SRA in banked flight over lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's F/A-18 Hornet is seen here in a banked turn over Rogers Dry Lake in the Mojave desert on an early research flight. Currently being flown by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in a multi-year, joint NASA/DOD/industry program, the former Navy fighter has been modified into a unique Systems Research Aircraft (SRA) to investigate a host of new technologies in the areas of flight controls, airdata sensing and advanced computing. One of the more than 20 experiments being tested aboard the SRA F-18 is an advanced air data sensing system which uses a group of pressure taps flush-mounted on the forward fuselage to measure both altitude and wind speed and direction--critical data for flight control and research investigations. The Real-Time Flush Air Data Sensing system concept is being evaluated for possible use on the X-33 and X-34 resuable space-launch vehicles. The primary goal of the SRA program is to validate through flight research cutting-edge technologies which could benefit future aircraft and spacecraft by improving efficiency and performance, reducing weight and complexity, with a resultant reduction on development and operational costs.

  4. [(18)F]FDG PET signal is driven by astroglial glutamate transport.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Eduardo R; Parent, Maxime J; Souza, Débora G; Leuzy, Antoine; Lecrux, Clotilde; Kim, Hyoung-Ihl; Gauthier, Serge; Pellerin, Luc; Hamel, Edith; Rosa-Neto, Pedro

    2017-03-01

    Contributions of glial cells to neuroenergetics have been the focus of extensive debate. Here we provide positron emission tomography evidence that activation of astrocytic glutamate transport via the excitatory amino acid transporter GLT-1 triggers widespread but graded glucose uptake in the rodent brain. Our results highlight the need for a reevaluation of the interpretation of [(18)F]FDG positron emission tomography data, whereby astrocytes would be recognized as contributing to the [(18)F]FDG signal.

  5. Systemic Immune Response to Vaccination on FDG-PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Mingos, Mark; Howard, Stephanie; Giacalone, Nicholas; Kozono, David; Jacene, Heather

    2016-12-01

    A patient with newly diagnosed right lung cancer had transient (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid left axillary lymph nodes and intense splenic FDG uptake on positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). History revealed that the patient received a left-sided influenza vaccine 2-3 days before the examination. Although inflammatory FDG uptake in ipsilateral axillary nodes is reported, to our knowledge, this is the first report of visualization of the systemic immune response in the spleen related to the influenza vaccination on FDG-PET/CT. The history, splenic uptake and time course on serial FDG-PET/CT helped to avoid a false-positive interpretation for progressing lung cancer and alteration of the radiation therapy plan.

  6. Use of micro-positron emission tomography with 18F-fallypride to measure the levels of dopamine receptor-D2 and 18F-FDG as molecular imaging tracer in the pituitary glands and prolactinomas of Fischer-344 rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Gui, Songbai; Cao, Lei; Gao, Hua; Bai, Jiwei; Li, Chuzhong; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine receptor-D2 (DRD2) is the most important drug target in prolactinoma. The aim of this current study was to investigate the role of using micro-positron emission tomography (micro-PET) with 18F-fallypride and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) as molecular imaging tracer in the pituitary glands and prolactinomas of Fischer-344 (F344) rats and detect the difference of the levels of DRD2 in the pituitary glands and prolactinomas of F344 rat prolactinoma models. Female F344 rat prolactinoma models were established by subcutaneous administration of 15 mg 17β-estradiol for 8 weeks. The growth of tumors was monitored by the small-animal magnetic resonance imaging and micro-PET. A series of molecular biological experiments were also performed 4 and 6 weeks after pump implantation. The micro-PET molecular imaging with 18F-fallypride revealed a decreased expression of DRD2 in F344 rat prolactinoma models, but the micro-PET molecular imaging with 18F-FDG presented an increased uptake in the prolactinoma compared with the pituitary gland. A decreasing trend of levels of DRD2 in F344 rat prolactinoma models was also detected by molecular biological experiments. From this, we can conclude that micro-PET with 18F-fallypride and 18F-FDG can be used to assess tumorigenesis of the prolactinomas in vivo and molecular imaging detection of DRD2 level in prolactinoma may be an indication of treatment effect in the animal experiment. PMID:27103832

  7. In Vivo Kinetics of [F-18]MEFWAY: A comparison with [C-11]WAY100635 and [F-18]MPPF in the nonhuman primate

    PubMed Central

    Wooten, DW; Moraino, JD; Hillmer, AT; Engle, JW; DeJesus, OJ; Murali, D; Barnhart, TE; Nickles, RJ; Davidson, RJ; Schneider, ML; Mukherjee, J; Christian, BT

    2010-01-01

    [F-18]Mefway was developed to provide an F-18 labeled PET neuroligand with high affinity for the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor to improve the in vivo assessment of the 5-HT1A system. The goal of this work was to compare the in vivo kinetics of [F-18]mefway, [F-18]MPPF, and [C-11]WAY100635 in the rhesus monkey. Methods Each of four monkeys were given bolus injections of [F-18]mefway, [C-11]WAY100635, and [F-18]MPPF and scans were acquired with a microPET P4 scanner. Arterial blood was sampled to assay parent compound throughout the time course of the PET experiment. Time activity curves were extracted in the high 5-HT1A binding areas of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACG), mesial temporal cortex (MTC), raphe nuclei (RN) and insula cortex (IC). Time activity curves were also extracted in the cerebellum (CB) which was used as a reference region. The in vivo kinetics of the radiotracers were compared based upon the nondisplaceable distribution volume (VND) and binding potential (BPND). Results At 30 minutes, the fraction of radioactivity in the plasma due to parent compound was 19%, 28%, and 29% and cleared from the arterial plasma at rates of 0.0031, 0.0078, and 0.0069 (min-1) ([F-18]mefway, [F-18]MPPF, [C-11]WAY100635). The BPND in the brain regions were; MTC: 7.4±0.6, 3.1±0.4, 7.0±1.2, ACG: 7.2±1.2, 2.1±0.2, 7.9±1.2; RN: 3.7±0.6, 1.3±0.3, 3.3±0.7 and IC: 4.2±0.6, 1.2±0.1, 4.7±1.0 for [F-18]mefway, [F-18]MPPF, and [C-11]WAY100635 respectively. Conclusions In the rhesus monkey, [F-18]mefway has similar in vivo kinetics to [C-11]WAY100635 and yields greater than 2-fold higher BPND than [F-18]MPPF. These properties make [F-18]mefway a promising radiotracer for 5-HT1A assay, providing higher counting statistics and a greater dynamic range in BPND. PMID:21484878

  8. Positron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hulett, L.D. Jr.; Xu, J.

    1995-02-01

    The negative work function property that some materials have for positrons make possible the development of positron reemission microscopy (PRM). Because of the low energies with which the positrons are emitted, some unique applications, such as the imaging of defects, can be made. The history of the concept of PRM, and its present state of development will be reviewed. The potential of positron microprobe techniques will be discussed also.

  9. Development of [F-18]-Labeled Amyloid Imaging Agents for PET

    SciTech Connect

    Mathis, CA

    2007-05-09

    The applicant proposes to design and synthesize a series of fluorine-18-labeled radiopharmaceuticals to be used as amyloid imaging agents for positron emission tomography (PET). The investigators will conduct comprehensive iterative in vitro and in vivo studies based upon well defined acceptance criteria in order to identify lead agents suitable for human studies. The long term goals are to apply the selected radiotracers as potential diagnostic agents of Alzheimer's disease (AD), as surrogate markers of amyloid in the brain to determine the efficacy of anti-amyloid therapeutic drugs, and as tools to help address basic scientific questions regarding the progression of the neuropathology of AD, such as testing the "amyloid cascade hypothesis" which holds that amyloid accumulation is the primary cause of AD.

  10. F-15B and F-18 SRA in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA's F-15B (upper right), later used for aerodynaic flight research, is seen here with the F/A-18B Systems Research Aircraft, on a flight from the Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California. Currently being flown by Dryden in a multi-year, joint NASA/DOD/industry program, the F/A-18B has been modified into a unique Systems Research Aircraft (SRA) to investigate a host of new technologies in the areas of flight controls, airdata sensing and advanced computing. One of the more than 20 experiments being tested aboard the SRA F-18 is an advanced air data sensing system which uses a group of pressure taps flush-mounted on the forward fuselage to measure both altitude and wind speed and direction--critical data for flight control and research investigations. The Real-Time Flush Air Data Sensing system concept is being evaluated for possible use on the X-33 and X-34 resuable space-launch vehicles. The primary goal of the SRA program is to validate through flight research cutting-edge technologies which could benefit future aircraft and spacecraft by improving effeciency and performance, reducing weight and complexity, with a resultant reduction on development and operational costs. NASA's F-15B aircraft is being used by Dryden as an aerospace research aircraft. Certain experiments can be placed on the Flight Test Fixture, which is mounted under the fuselage. The research projects can then be subjected to different aerodynamic loads, speeds and temperatures. The F-15B, No. 836, was acquired in 1993 and is also used at Dryden as a research support aircraft.

  11. Value of sequential 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) in prediction of the overall survival of esophageal cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Yimin; Lin, Qin; Luo, Zuoming; Zhao, Long; Zhu, Luchao; Sun, Long; Wu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    This study is to investigate the value of the metabolic parameters measured by sequential FDG PET/CT in predicting the overall survival of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). A total of 160 patients who were newly diagnosed as ESCC patients and treated with chemoradiotherapy were included in this study. The FDG PET/CT was carried out prior to radiotherapy (PET1), when the cumulative dose of radiotherapy reached 50 Gy (PET2), at the end of radiotherapy (PET3) and 1 month after radiotherapy (PET4). The max of the standard uptake value (SUVmax) of the primary tumor, the metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and the total lesion glycolisis (TLG) prior to treatment were measured. The correlation of the measured parameters and the derived parameters of SUVmax with the overall survival was analyzed. The relatively reduced percentage of the SUVmax of PET3 and PET4 to the SUVmax of PET1 and PET2, had predictive value for the overall survival. The area under researcher operation curve (ROC) was between 0.62 and 0.73 (P < 0.01). The MTV and TLG prior to treatment might be used to predict the overall survival, and the area under ROC were both 0.69 (P < 0.001). Sequential FDG PET/CT scanning is useful to predict the overall survival of chemoradiotherapy for ESCC. The metabolic parameters and the derived parameters of FDG PET/CT have predictive values for overall survival.

  12. Value of sequential 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) in prediction of the overall survival of esophageal cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yimin; Lin, Qin; Luo, Zuoming; Zhao, Long; Zhu, Luchao; Sun, Long; Wu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    This study is to investigate the value of the metabolic parameters measured by sequential FDG PET/CT in predicting the overall survival of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). A total of 160 patients who were newly diagnosed as ESCC patients and treated with chemoradiotherapy were included in this study. The FDG PET/CT was carried out prior to radiotherapy (PET1), when the cumulative dose of radiotherapy reached 50 Gy (PET2), at the end of radiotherapy (PET3) and 1 month after radiotherapy (PET4). The max of the standard uptake value (SUVmax) of the primary tumor, the metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and the total lesion glycolisis (TLG) prior to treatment were measured. The correlation of the measured parameters and the derived parameters of SUVmax with the overall survival was analyzed. The relatively reduced percentage of the SUVmax of PET3 and PET4 to the SUVmax of PET1 and PET2, had predictive value for the overall survival. The area under researcher operation curve (ROC) was between 0.62 and 0.73 (P < 0.01). The MTV and TLG prior to treatment might be used to predict the overall survival, and the area under ROC were both 0.69 (P < 0.001). Sequential FDG PET/CT scanning is useful to predict the overall survival of chemoradiotherapy for ESCC. The metabolic parameters and the derived parameters of FDG PET/CT have predictive values for overall survival. PMID:26379889

  13. Clinical utility of (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan vs. (99m)Tc-HMPAO white blood cell single-photon emission computed tomography in extra-cardiac work-up of infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Lauridsen, Trine K; Iversen, Kasper K; Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Hasbak, Philip; Loft, Annika; Berthelsen, Anne K; Dahl, Anders; Dejanovic, Danijela; Albrecht-Beste, Elisabeth; Mortensen, Jann; Kjær, Andreas; Bundgaard, Henning; Bruun, Niels Eske

    2017-01-03

    The extra-cardiac work-up in infective endocarditis (IE) comprises a search for primary and secondary infective foci. Whether (18)FDG-PET/CT or WBC-SPECT/CT is superior in detection of clinically relevant extra-cardiac manifestations in IE is unexplored. The objectives of this study were to identify the numbers of positive findings detected by each imaging modality, to evaluate the clinical relevance of these findings and to define the reproducibility for extra-cardiac foci in patients with definite IE. Each modality was evaluated for numbers and location of positive extra-cardiac foci in patients with definite IE. A team of 2 × 2 cardiologists evaluated each finding to determine clinical relevance. Clinical utility was determined by 4 criteria converted into an ordinal scale. Using the manifestation with highest clinical utility rating in each patient, the clinical impact of the two imaging modalities was expressed in a clinical utility score. To evaluate reproducibility for each modality, an imaging core laboratory reviewed all findings. In 55 IE patients, 91 pathological foci were found by FDG-PET/CT and 37 foci were identified by WBC-SPECT/CT (p < 0.001). The clinical utility of FDG-PET/CT was significantly higher than that of WBC-SPECT/CT when comparing clinical utility score (2.06 vs. 1.17; p = 0.01). In assessment of extra-cardiac diagnostics in IE, inter-observer reproducibility was substantial for WBC-SPECT/CT (k 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.89) and substantial to excellent for FDG-PET/CT (k 0.79, 95% CI 0.61-0.98). FDG-PET/CT has a significantly higher clinical utility score than WBC SPECT/CT and is potentially superior to WBC-SPECT/CT in detection of extra-cardiac pathology in patients with IE.

  14. A comparison study of 11C-methionine and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans in evaluation of patients with recurrent brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajnish; D’Souza, Maria; Jaimini, Abhinav; Hazari, Puja Panwar; Saw, Sanjeev; Pandey, Santosh; Singh, Dinesh; Solanki, Yachna; Kumar, Nitin; Mishra, Anil K.; Mondal, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: 11C-methonine ([11C]-MET) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is a well-established technique for evaluation of tumor for diagnosis and treatment planning in neurooncology. [11C]-MET reflects amino acid transport and has been shown to be more sensitive than magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in stereotactic biopsy planning. This study compared fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET-CT and MET PET-CT in the detection of various brain tumors. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four subjects of brain tumor treated by surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy were subjected to [18F]-FDG, [11C]-MET, and MRI scan. The lesion was analyzed semiquantitatively using tumor to normal contralateral ratio. The diagnosis was confirmed by surgery, stereotactic biopsy, clinical follow-up, MRI, or CT scans. Results: Tumor recurrence was found in 5 out of 22 patients on [F-18] FDG scan while [11C]-MET was able to detect recurrence in 18 out of 22 patients in low-grade gliomas. Two of these patients were false positive for the presence of recurrence of tumor and later found to be harboring necrosis. Among oligodendroglioma, medulloblastoma and high-grade glioma out of 42 patients 39 were found to be concordant MET and FDG scans. On semiquantitative analysis, mean T/NT ratio was found to be 2.96 ± 0.94 for lesions positive for recurrence of tumors and 1.18 ± 0.74 for lesions negative for recurrence of tumor on [11C]-MET scan. While the ratio for FDG scan on semiquantitative analysis was found to be 2.05 ± 1.04 for lesions positive for recurrence of tumors and 0.52 ± 0.15 for lesions negative for recurrence of tumors. Conclusion: The study highlight that [11C]-MET is superior to [18F]-FDG PET scans to detect recurrence in low-grade glioma. A cut-off value of target to nontarget value of 1.47 is a useful parameter to distinguish benign from malignant lesion on an [11C]-MET Scan. Both [18F]-FDG and [11C]-MET scans were found to be useful in high-grade astrocytoma

  15. Pulmonary intravascular lymphoma detected by FDG PET-CT: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kohan, A A; Paganini, L; Biedak, P; Arma, J I; Dalurzo, M C L; Garcia-Monaco, R D

    2013-01-01

    Intravascular lymphoma is a rare subtype of extranodal Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Its prognosis is poor in a high percentage of cases due to its insidious appearance and low clinical suspicion. Its diagnosis is usually only reached after an autopsy. It may affect different organs as a whole or only one organ. It is extremely rare that the lung is the only damaged organ. Its diagnosis depends of the clinician's suspicion and proper evaluation with imaging studies as well as correct selection of the organ to be biopsied. When detected on time, the treatment of choice is a combination of a series of chemotherapy associated to a monoclonal antibody (anti-CD20). We present the case of a male patient who underwent a positron emission tomography-computed tomography with 2-[F-18]-fluoro-2 deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) due to symptoms suggestive of a lymphoproliferative disease with no clear structural abnormalities. The images led to a diagnosis of pulmonary intravascular large B cell lymphoma.

  16. Synthesis of no carrier added F-18 16-fluorohexadecanoic acid (FHDA) and investigation of its labeled metabolites and its kinetics in the heart

    SciTech Connect

    DeGrado, T.R.; Bernstein, D.R.; Gatley, S.J.; Ng, C.K.; Holden, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    No carrier added FHDA was prepared via saponification of the product of silver oxide assisted reaction of near-anhydrous tetraethylammonium fluoride with methyl 16-iodohexadecanoate. The labeled fatty acid was injected into isolated perfused rat hearts. Coronary perfusate was collected for 4-9 minutes, when hearts were chilled and homogenized. F-18 in perfusate was analysed by HPLC (NH column; 50mM amm. acetate in 50% acetonitrile). Material with the same retention time as F-18 fluoroacetate (prepared by F-for-I exchange with ethyl iodoacetate) was found. Some F-18 stuck permanently to the column and was assigned as fluoride since the same fraction of label in perfusate was retained on alumina columns eluted with water. Anion exchange HPLC (SAX column; 20mM pot. phosphate, pH 7) of homogenates gave peaks corresponding to fluoroacetate plus fluoride and minor peaks which could be fluoroacetylCoA and fluorocitrate. The authors interpret their data as follows. Beta-oxidation of FHDA results in fluoroacetylCoA which either undergoes ''lethal synthesis'' to fluorocitrate or is hydrolysed to fluoroacetate which diffuses out of the heart. The source of the fluoride is not yet clear, but could complicate interpretation of FHDA kinetics measured in vivo with positron tomography. Clearance of label from FHDA in isolated perfused hearts was faster than for labeled 16-iodohexadecanoic acid, indicating that the F-18 tracer may be a more sensitive probe of myocardial fatty acid metabolism.

  17. A case of gouty arthritis to tophi on 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kimiteru; Minamimoto, Ryogo; Morooka, Miyako; Kubota, Kazuo

    2012-06-01

    We report a case of gouty arthritis with tophi that was evaluated using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography. A 77-year-old man with a history of gouty attacks was admitted with severe polyarticular pain and fever. 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/CT demonstrated focal uptake at multiple joints, including the juxta-articular soft-tissue-density masses of the elbows, and the bases of bilateral large toes. Gouty arthritis should be considered with focal 18F-FDG uptake in juxta-articular soft-tissue-density masses (tophi) with or without associated erosions.

  18. The F-18 simulator at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-04

    The F-18 simulator at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Simulators offer a safe and economical alternative to actual flights to gather data, as well as being excellent facilities for pilot practice and training. The F-18 Hornet is used primarily as a safety chase and mission support aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. As support aircraft, the F-18's are used for safety chase, pilot proficiency, aerial photography and other mission support functions.

  19. Beyond the lymph nodes: FDG-PET/CT in primary extranodal lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Sin, Kin Man; Ho, Stanton King Dat; Wong, Brian Yung Kong; Gill, Harry; Khong, Pek-Lan; Lee, Elaine Yuen Phin

    Extranodal lymphoma can be the primary presentation or secondary to systemic involvement of lymphoma. 2-(fluorine-18) fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography with computer tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is useful in detecting extranodal sites during staging, treatment response assessment or recurrence detection in patients with lymphoma. In this article, we reviewed the imaging features and FDG avidity of primary extranodal lymphoma of various organs and systems on FDG-PET/CT, demonstrating the pearls and pitfalls of FDG-PET/CT in evaluating this disease entity and cross-referencing to other imaging modalities that aid in diagnosis and management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [F-18]FDDNP microPET imaging correlates with brain Aβ burden in a transgenic rat model of Alzheimer disease: effects of aging, in vivo blockade, and anti-Aβ antibody treatment.

    PubMed

    Teng, Edmond; Kepe, Vladimir; Frautschy, Sally A; Liu, Jie; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Yang, Fusheng; Chen, Ping-Ping; Cole, Graham B; Jones, Mychica R; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Flood, Dorothy G; Trusko, Stephen P; Small, Gary W; Cole, Gregory M; Barrio, Jorge R

    2011-09-01

    In vivo detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology in living patients using positron emission tomography (PET) in conjunction with high affinity molecular imaging probes for β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau has the potential to assist with early diagnosis, evaluation of disease progression, and assessment of therapeutic interventions. Animal models of AD are valuable for exploring the in vivo binding of these probes, particularly their selectivity for specific neuropathologies, but prior PET experiments in transgenic mice have yielded conflicting results. In this work, we utilized microPET imaging in a transgenic rat model of brain Aβ deposition to assess [F-18]FDDNP binding profiles in relation to age-associated accumulation of neuropathology. Cross-sectional and longitudinal imaging demonstrated that [F-18]FDDNP binding in the hippocampus and frontal cortex progressively increases from 9 to 18months of age and parallels age-associated Aβ accumulation. Specificity of in vivo [F-18]FDDNP binding was assessed by naproxen pretreatment, which reversibly blocked [F-18]FDDNP binding to Aβ aggregrates. Both [F-18]FDDNP microPET imaging and neuropathological analyses revealed decreased Aβ burden after intracranial anti-Aβ antibody administration. The combination of this non-invasive imaging method and robust animal model of brain Aβ accumulation allows for future longitudinal in vivo assessments of potential therapeutics for AD that target Aβ production, aggregation, and/or clearance. These results corroborate previous analyses of [F-18]FDDNP PET imaging in clinical populations.

  1. Role of fimbriae F18 for actively acquired immunity against porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, E; Bertschinger, H U

    1997-02-01

    Enterotoxigenic (ETEC) and enterotoxaemic (ETEEC) Escherichia (E.) coli that express F18 (F107) fimbriate colonize the small intestine and cause diarrhoea and/or oedema disease in weaned pigs. So far, two antigenic variants of F18 can be distinguished with a common antigenic factor designated 'a' and two specific factors called 'b' and 'c'. In this study the existence of crosswise anti-colonization immunity between E. coli strains that express F18ab or F18ac fimbrial variants, respectively, was demonstrated. Weaned pigs of susceptible genotype with respect to susceptibility to adhesion of E. coli with fimbriae F18 were inoculated with E. coli strains 3064STM (0157:K-:H-:F18ab; resistant to streptomycin) and 8199RIF (0141ab:K-:H4:F18ac; resistant to rifampicin). The faecal shedding was compared subsequent to immunization and homologous or heterologous challenge. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to measure IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies against the F18ab and F18ac antigens in saliva, faeces, serum and intestinal wash samples. About 8 log CFU/g of the inoculated strains were found in faeces of all pigs following immunization as well as in non-immunized controls after challenge. Bacterial counts of the inoculated strains after challenge were between 2 and 5 log lower, without any difference between homologous and heterologous challenge. Intestinal colonization with fimbriated E. coli resulted in production of significantly increased levels of anti-fimbrial antibodies, especially IgA, in serum and intestinal wash samples. There were higher levels of homologous than of heterologous anti-fimbrial antibodies. Production of antibodies against F18a or against another common fimbrial antigen is probably responsible for crosswise anti-colonization immunity between E. coli strains with F18ab and F18ac fimbrial variants. Serum F18-specific IgA may be a useful indicator of a mucosal immune response directed against F18 fimbriae.

  2. Delineation of Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) for Radiation Treatment Planning of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Using Information From MRI or FDG-PET/CT: A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Braendengen, Morten; Hansson, Karl; Radu, Calin; Siegbahn, Albert; Jacobsson, Hans; Glimelius, Bengt

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Accurate delineation of target volumes is important to maximize radiation dose to the tumor and minimize it to nontumor tissue. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are standard imaging modalities in rectal cancer. The aim was to explore whether functional imaging with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), combined with CT (FDG-PET/CT) gives additional information to standard pretreatment evaluation and changes the shape and size of the gross tumor volume (GTV). Methods and Materials: From 2007 to 2009, 77 consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were prospectively screened for inclusion in the study at two university hospitals in Sweden, and 68 patients were eligible. Standard GTV was delineated using information from clinical examination, CT, and MRI (GTV-MRI). Thereafter, a GTV-PET was defined in the fused PET-CT, and the target volume delineations were compared for total volume, overlap, and mismatch. Pathologic uptake suspect of metastases was also registered. Results: The median volume of GTV-MRI was larger than that of GTV-PET: 111 cm{sup 3} vs. 87 cm{sup 3} (p < 0.001). In many cases, the GTV-MRI contained the GTV defined on the PET/CT images as subvolumes, but when a GTV total was calculated after the addition of GTV-PET to GTV-MRI, the volume increased, with median 11% (range, 0.5-72%). New lesions were seen in 15% of the patients for whom PET/CT was used. Conclusions: FDG-PET/CT facilitates and adds important information to the standard delineation procedure of locally advanced rectal cancer, mostly resulting in a smaller GTV, but a larger total GTV using the union of GTV-MRI and GTV-PET. New lesions were sometimes seen, potentially changing the treatment strategy.

  3. FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation of anal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Cotter, Shane E.; Grigsby, Perry W. . E-mail: pgrigsby@wustl.edu; Siegel, Barry A.

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: Surgical staging and treatment of anal carcinoma has been replaced by noninvasive staging studies and combined modality therapy. In this study, we compare computed tomography (CT) and physical examination to [{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in the staging of carcinoma of the anal canal, with special emphasis on determination of spread to inguinal lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: Between July 2003 and July 2005, 41 consecutive patients with biopsy-proved anal carcinoma underwent a complete staging evaluation including physical examination, CT, and 2-FDG-PET/CT. Patients ranged in age from 30 to 89 years. Nine men were HIV-positive. Treatment was with standard Nigro regimen. Results: [{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) detected 91% of nonexcised primary tumors, whereas CT visualized 59%. FDG-PET/CT detected abnormal uptake in pelvic nodes of 5 patients with normal pelvic CT scans. FDG-PET/CT detected abnormal nodes in 20% of groins that were normal by CT, and in 23% without abnormality on physical examination. Furthermore, 17% of groins negative by both CT and physical examination showed abnormal uptake on FDG-PET/CT. HIV-positive patients had an increased frequency of PET-positive lymph nodes. Conclusion: [{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography detects the primary tumor more often than CT. FDG-PET/CT detects substantially more abnormal inguinal lymph nodes than are identified by standard clinical staging with CT and physical examination.

  4. Contrast-enhanced [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography as an initial imaging modality in patients presenting with metastatic malignancy of undefined primary origin.

    PubMed

    Jain, Avani; Srivastava, Madhur Kumar; Pawaskar, Alok Suresh; Shelley, Simon; Elangovan, Indirani; Jain, Hasmukh; Pandey, Somnath; Kalal, Shilpa; Amalachandran, Jaykanth

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the advantages of contrast enhanced F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-contrast enhanced CT [CECT]) when used as an initial imaging modality in patients presenting with metastatic malignancy of undefined primary origin (MUO). A total of 243 patients with fine needle aspiration cytology/biopsy proven MUO were included in this prospective study. Patients who were thoroughly evaluated for primary or primary tumor was detected by any other investigation were excluded from the analysis. Totally, 163 patients with pathological diagnosis of malignancy but no apparent sites of the primary tumor were finally selected for analysis. The site of probable primary malignancy suggested by PET-CECT was confirmed by biopsy/follow-up. PET-CECT suggested probable site of primary in 128/163 (78.52%) patients. In 30/35 remaining patients, primary tumor was not detected even after extensive work-up. In 5 patients, where PET-CECT was negative, primary was found on further extensive investigations or follow-up. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the study were 95.76%, 66.67%, 88.28% and 85.71% respectively. F-18 FDG PET-CECT aptly serves the purpose of initial imaging modality owing to high sensitivity, negative and positive predictive value. PET-CECT not only surveys the whole body for the primary malignancy but also stages the disease accurately. Use of contrast improves the diagnostic utility of modality as well as help in staging of the primary tumor. Although benefits of using PET-CECT as initial diagnostic modality are obvious from this study, there is a need for a larger study comparing conventional methods for diagnosing primary in patients with MUO versus PET-CECT.

  5. Defining PET / CT Protocols With Optimized F18-FDG (Fluorodeoxyglucose) Dose, Focusing on Reduced Radiation Dose and Improved Image Quality

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-19

    Malignant Neoplasm of Breast.; Hodgkin's Disease.; Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Follicular (Nodular).; Malignant Neoplasm of Bronchus and Lung.; Malignant Neoplasm of Colon.; Secondary Neoplasm Malignant and Unspecified Lymph Nodes.; Malignant Melanoma of the Skin.; Malignant Neoplasm of Small Intestine.

  6. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) for benign and malignant disease

    PubMed Central

    Visioni, Anthony; Kim, Julian

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis Functional imaging using radiolabeled probes which specifically bind and accumulate in target tissues has improved the sensitivity and specificity of conventional imaging. Positron Emission Tomography using modified glucose probes (FDG-PET) has demonstrated improved diagnostic accuracy in differentiating benign from malignant lesions in the setting of solitary pulmonary nodules. In addition, FDG-PET has become a useful modality in pre-operative staging of patients with lung cancer and is being tested with many other malignancies for its ability to change patient management. This article provides an overview of the current status of FDG-PET and presents the challenges of moving towards routine use. PMID:21184913

  7. Comparative Oncology: Evaluation of 2-Deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) for the Staging of Dogs with Malignant Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Beer, Ambros J.; Brühschwein, Andreas; Kreutzmann, Nina; Laberke, Silja; Wergin, Melanie C.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andrea; Brandl, Johanna; von Thaden, Anne-Kathrin; Farrell, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    Introduction 2-Deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose PET/CT is a well-established imaging method for staging, restaging and therapy-control in human medicine. In veterinary medicine, this imaging method could prove to be an attractive and innovative alternative to conventional imaging in order to improve staging and restaging. The aim of this study was both to evaluate the effectiveness of this image-guided method in canine patients with spontaneously occurring cancer as well as to illustrate the dog as a well-suited animal model for comparative oncology. Methods Ten dogs with various malignant tumors were included in the study and underwent a whole body FDG PET/CT. One patient has a second PET-CT 5 months after the first study. Patients were diagnosed with histiocytic sarcoma (n = 1), malignant lymphoma (n = 2), mammary carcinoma (n = 4), sertoli cell tumor (n = 1), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) (n = 1) and lung tumor (n = 1). PET/CT data were analyzed with the help of a 5-point scale in consideration of the patients’ medical histories. Results In seven of the ten dogs, the treatment protocol and prognosis were significantly changed due to the results of FDG PET/CT. In the patients with lymphoma (n = 2) tumor extent could be defined on PET/CT because of increased FDG uptake in multiple lymph nodes. This led to the recommendation for a therapeutic polychemotherapy as a treatment. In one of the dogs with mammary carcinoma (n = 4) and in the patient with the lung tumor (n = 1), surgery was cancelled due to the discovery of multiple metastasis. Consequently no treatment was recommended. Conclusion FDG PET/CT offers additional information in canine patients with malignant disease with a potential improvement of staging and restaging. The encouraging data of this clinical study highlights the possibility to further improve innovative diagnostic and staging methods with regard to comparative oncology. In the future, performing PET/CT not only for staging but also in

  8. Positron emission tomographic imaging of tumors using monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Zalutsky, M.R.

    1992-08-01

    This research project is developing methods for utilizing positron emission tomography (PET) to increase the clinical potential of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). This report describes the development of methods for labeling MAbs and their fragments with positron-emitting halogen nuclides, fluorine-18 and iodine-124. These nulides were selected because of the widespread availability of F-18 and because of our extensive experience in the development of new protein radiohalogenation methods.

  9. FDG-PET Assessment of the Effect of Head and Neck Radiotherapy on Parotid Gland Glucose Metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Michael C.; Turkington, Timothy G.; Higgins, Kristin A.; Hawk, Thomas C.; Hoang, Jenny K.; Brizel, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Functional imaging with [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) provides the opportunity to define the physiology of the major salivary glands before and after radiation therapy. The goal of this retrospective study was to identify the radiation dose-response relationship of parotid gland glucose metabolism in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Materials and Methods: Forty-nine adults with HNSCC were identified who had curative intent intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and FDG-PET imaging before and after treatment. Using a graphical user interface, contours were delineated for the parotid glands on axial CT slices while all authors were blinded to paired PET slices. Average and maximal standard uptake values (SUV) were measured within these anatomic regions. Changes in SUV and volume after radiation therapy were correlated with parotid gland dose-volume histograms from IMRT plans. Results: The average parotid gland volume was 30.7 mL and contracted 3.9 {+-} 1.9% with every increase of 10 Gy in mean dose (p = 0.04). However, within the first 3 months after treatment, there was a uniform reduction of 16.5% {+-} 7.3% regardless of dose. The average SUV{sub mean} of the glands was 1.63 {+-} 0.48 pretreatment and declined by 5.2% {+-} 2.5% for every increase of 10 Gy in mean dose (p = 0.04). The average SUV{sub max} was 4.07 {+-} 2.85 pretreatment and decreased in a sigmoid manner with mean dose. A threshold of 32 Gy for mean dose existed, after which SUV{sub max} declined rapidly. Conclusion: Radiation dose responses of the parotid glands can be measured by integrated CT/FDG-PET scans. Retrospective analysis showed sigmoidal declines in the maximum metabolism but linear declines in the average metabolism of the glands with dose. Future studies should correlate this decline in FDG uptake with saliva production to improve treatment planning.

  10. Influence of FDG-PET on Computed Tomography-Based Radiotherapy Planning for Locally Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Xiaokang Chen Longhua; Wang Quanshi; Wu Hubing; Wang Hongmei; Chen Yongqin; Yan Weipin; Li Qisheng; Xu Yikai

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: Assuming F-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) to be more accurate in representing the true disease extent than CT alone, we prospectively designed this study to evaluate how the addition of FDG-PET influences CT-based radiotherapy planning for locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Patients and Methods: All patients underwent FDG-PET/CT simulation scans. For each patient, the gross tumor volume (GTV) was separately delineated with or without the addition of PET information and defined as GTV{sub PET/CT} and GTV{sub CT}, respectively. Corresponding planning target volumes (PTV) were generated for the GTV{sub CT} (PTV{sub CT}) and GTV{sub PET/CT} (PTV{sub PET/CT}). Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans were separately created for PTV{sub CT} and PTV{sub PET/CT}. To assess the potential geographic miss of the PET/CT-based disease in CT-based treatment planning, the size and location of the GTV{sub PET/CT}, PTV{sub PET/CT}, and PTV{sub CT} were analyzed, and the three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans created using the PTV{sub CT} were evaluated with the GTV{sub PET/CT} and PTV{sub PET/CT} information. Results: A total of 43 patients were enrolled in this study. Distant metastasis was found in 4 patients with the addition of the PET information. The 39 patients without distant metastasis proceeded to three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy planning. Inadequate coverage of the GTV{sub PET/CT} and PTV{sub PET/CT} by the PTV{sub CT} occurred in 7 (18%) and 20 (51%) patients, respectively. This resulted in <95% of the GTV{sub PET/CT} and PTV{sub PET/CT} receiving {>=}95% of the prescribed dose in 4 (10%) and 13 (33%) patients, respectively. Conclusions: The addition of FDG-PET information might influence CT-based radiotherapy planning for locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma by altering the definition of the target volume, with the potential to avoid a geographic miss of true

  11. The Role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the Evaluation of Gastric Cancer Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Cayvarlı, Hakan; Bekiş, Recep; Akman, Tülay; Altun, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    Objective: F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) has been widely used for staging, re-staging and for monitoring therapy-induced changes and response to therapy in patients with various types of cancer, but its utilization for gastric cancer has been limited. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT for detecting recurrence in gastric cancer patients with radiologic or clinical suspicion of recurrence and its clinical impact on making decision. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 130 consecutive patients who underwent PET/CT scans for post-treatment surveillance of gastric cancer between January 2008 and March 2012. The mean time between the initial diagnosis of gastric cancer and PET/CT studies was 44 weeks with a median of 18 weeks. The number and site of positive FDG uptake were analyzed and correlated with the final diagnosis by calculating the diagnostic values. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT for detecting the recurrence in terms of whether or not histology had been SRC/musinous adenocarcinoma. The changes in the clinical management of patients were also evaluated according to the results of PET/CT. Results: Of all 130 patients, 91 patients were confirmed to have true recurrence. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and the accuracy of PET/CT for diagnosing true recurrence on a per-person basis were 91.2%, 61.5%, 84.6%, 75.0% and 82.3% respectively. Final diagnoses were confirmed histopathologically in 59 (45.4%) of 130 patients and by clinical and radiological follow-up in the remaining 71 (54.6%) patients. In the subgroup with SRC/mucinous adenocarcinoma differentiation of the primary tumor, there was no statistically significant difference in terms of diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT on a per-person basis. In addition, PET/CT results changed the patients’ management in 20 (15%) cases. Conclusions: 18F-FDG

  12. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of PET/MRI to PET/CT-acquired FDG brain exams for seizure focus detection: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Paldino, Michael J; Yang, Erica; Jones, Jeremy Y; Mahmood, Nadia; Sher, Andrew; Zhang, Wei; Hayatghaibi, Shireen; Krishnamurthy, Ramkumar; Seghers, Victor

    2017-05-16

    There is great interest in positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) as a clinical tool due to its capacity to provide diverse diagnostic information in a single exam. The goal of this exam is to compare the diagnostic accuracy of PET/MR-acquired [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) brain exams to that of PET/CT with respect to identifying seizure foci in children with localization-related epilepsy. Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent were obtained for this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, prospective study. All patients referred for clinical FDG-PET/CT exams of the brain at our institution for a diagnosis of localization-related epilepsy were prospectively recruited to undergo an additional FDG-PET acquisition on a tandem PET/MR system. Attenuation-corrected FDG images acquired at PET/MR and PET/CT were interpreted independently by five expert readers. Readers were blinded to the scanner used for acquisition and attenuation correction as well as all other clinical and imaging data. A Likert scale scoring system (1-5) was used to assess image quality. The locale of seizure origin determined at multidisciplinary epilepsy surgery work rounds was considered the reference standard. Non-inferiority testing for paired data was used to compare the diagnostic accuracy of PET/MR to that of PET/CT. The final study population comprised 35 patients referred for a diagnosis of localization-related epilepsy (age range: 2-19 years; median: 11 years; 21 males, 14 females). Image quality did not differ significantly between the two modalities. The accuracy of PET/MR was not inferior to that of PET/CT for localization of a seizure focus (P=0.017). The diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET images acquired on a PET/MR scanner and generated using MR-based attenuation correction was not inferior to that of PET images processed by traditional CT-based correction.

  13. A Novel Method for Direct site-specific Radiolabeling of Peptides Using [18F]FDG

    PubMed Central

    Namavari, Mohammad; Cheng, Zhen; Zhang, Rong; De, Abhijit; Levi, Jelena; Hoerner, Joshua K.; Yaghoubi, Shahriar S.; Syud, Faisal A.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2009-01-01

    We have used the well-accepted and easily available 2-[18F]Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) tracer as a prosthetic group for synthesis of 18F-labeled peptides. We herein report the synthesis of [18F]FDG-RGD (18F labeled linear RGD) and [18F]FDG-cyclo(RGDDYK) (18F labeled cyclic RGD) as examples of the use of [18F]FDG. We have successfully prepared [18F]FDG-RGD and [18F]FDG-cyclo(RGDDYK) in 27.5% and 41% radiochemical yields (decay corrected) respectively. The receptor binding affinity study of FDG-cyclo(RGDDYK) for integrin αvβ3 , using αvβ3 positive U87MG cells confirmed a competitive displacement with 125I-echistatin as a radioligand. The IC50 value for FDG-cyclo(RGDDYK) was determined to be 0.67 ± 0.19µM. High contrast small animal PET images with relatively moderate tumor uptake were observed for [18F]FDG-RGD and [18F]FDG-cyclo(RGDDYK) as PET probes in xenografts models expressing αvβ3 integrin. In conclusion, we have successfully used [18F]FDG as a prosthetic group to prepare 18F]FDG-RGD and [18F]FDG-cyclic[RGDDYK] based on a simple one step radiosynthesis. The one step radiosynthesis methodology consists of chemoselective oxime formation between an aminooxy functionalized peptide and [18F]FDG. The results have implications for radiolabeling of other macromolecules and would lead to a very simple strategy for routine pre-clinical and clinical use. PMID:19226160

  14. Combined correction of recovery effect and motion blur for SUV quantification of solitary pulmonary nodules in FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Apostolova, Ivayla; Wiemker, Rafael; Paulus, Timo; Kabus, Sven; Dreilich, Thomas; van den Hoff, Jörg; Plotkin, Michail; Mester, Janos; Brenner, Winfried; Buchert, Ralph; Klutmann, Susanne

    2010-08-01

    We evaluate a fully data-driven method for the combined recovery and motion blur correction of small solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) in F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). The SPN was segmented in the low-dose CT using a variable Hounsfield threshold and morphological constraints. The combined effect of limited spatial resolution and motion blur in the SPN's PET image was then modelled by an effective Gaussian point-spread function (psf). Both isotropic and non-isotropic psfs were used. To validate the method, PET/CT measurements of the NEMA/IEC spheres phantom were performed. The method was applied to 50 unselected SPNs or=30%) SUV increase in 47 SPNs (94%). Correction of both recovery and motion blur is mandatory for accurate SUV quantification of SPNs.

  15. Utility of [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG PET/CT) in the Initial Staging and Response Assessment of Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hulikal, Narendra; Gajjala, Sivanath Reddy; Kalawat, Teck Chand; Kottu, Radhika; Amancharla Yadagiri, Lakshmi

    2015-12-01

    In India up to 50 % of breast cancer patients still present as locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). The conventional methods of metastatic work up include physical examination, bone scan, chest & abdominal imaging, and biochemical tests. It is likely that the conventional staging underestimates the extent of initial spread and there is a need for more sophisticated staging procedure. The PET/CT can detect extra-axillary and occult distant metastases and also aid in predicting response to chemotherapy at an early point in time. To evaluate the utility of FDG PET/CT in initial staging and response assessment of patients with LABC receiving NACT. A prospective study of all biopsy confirmed female patients diagnosed with LABC receiving NACT from April 2013 to May 2014. The conventional work up included serum chemistry, CECT chest and abdomen and bone scan. A baseline whole body PET/CT was done in all patients. A repeat staging evaluation and a whole body PET/CT was done after 2/3rd cycle of NACT in non-responders and after 3/4 cycles in clinical responders. The histopathology report of the operative specimen was used to document the pathological response. The FDG PET/CT reported distant metastases in 11 of 38 patients, where as conventional imaging revealed metastases in only 6. Almost all the distant lesions detected by conventional imaging were detected with PET/CT, which showed additional sites of metastasis in 3 patients. In 2 patients, PET/CT detected osteolytic bone metastasis which were not detected by bone scan. In 5 patients PET CT detected N3 disease which were missed on conventional imaging. A total of 14 patients had second PET/CT done to assess the response to NACT and 11 patients underwent surgery. Two patients had complete pathological response. Of these 1 patient had complete metabolic and morphologic response and other had complete metabolic and partial morphologic response on second PET/CT scan. The 18 FDG PET/CT can detect more number of

  16. High susceptibility prevalence for F4(+) and F18(+)Escherichia coli in Flemish pigs.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ut V; Coddens, Annelies; Melkebeek, Vesna; Devriendt, Bert; Goetstouwers, Tiphanie; Poucke, Mario Van; Peelman, Luc; Cox, Eric

    2017-04-01

    F4 and/or F18 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (F4(+)/F18(+) ETEC) are responsible for diarrhea while F18(+) verotoxigenic E. coli (F18(+) VTEC) cause edema disease in pigs. Both infections can result in severe economic losses, which are mainly the result of the medication, growth retardation and mortality. The susceptibility of piglets to these pathogens is determined by the presence of F4 and F18 receptors (F4R and F18R). Understanding the composition of the susceptibility phenotypes of pigs is useful for animal health and breeding management. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of the F4 ETEC susceptibility phenotypes and F18(+)E. coli susceptibility among Flemish pig breeds by using the in vitro villous adhesion assay. In this study, seven F4 ETEC susceptibility phenotypes were found, namely A (F4abR(+),acR(+),adR(+); 59.16%), B (F4abR(+),acR(+),adR(-); 6.28%), C (F4abR(+),acR(-),adR(+); 2.62%), D (F4abR(-),acR(-),adR(+); 6.28%), E (F4abR(-),acR(-),adR(-); 24.08%), F (F4abR(+),acR(-),adR(-); 1.05%) and G (F4abR(-),acR(+),adR(-); 0.52%). F4ab and F4ac E. coli showed a stronger degree of adhesion to the intestinal villi (53.40% and 52.88% strong adhesion, respectively), compared to F4ad E. coli (43.46% strong adhesion). Furthermore, the correlation between F4ac and F4ab adhesion was higher (r=0.78) than between F4ac and F4ad adhesion (r=0.41) and between F4ab and F4ad adhesion (r=0.57). For F18(+)E. coli susceptibility, seven out of 82 pigs were F18R negative (8.54%), but only two of these seven pigs (2.44%) were also negative for F4R. As such, the chance to identify a pig that is positive for a F4 ETEC variant or F18(+)E. coli is 97.56%. Therefore, significant economic losses will arise due to F4(+) and/or F18(+)E. coli infections in the Flemish pig population due to the high susceptibility prevalence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [F-18]-AV-1451 binding correlates with postmortem neurofibrillary tangle Braak staging.

    PubMed

    Marquié, Marta; Siao Tick Chong, Michael; Antón-Fernández, Alejandro; Verwer, Eline E; Sáez-Calveras, Nil; Meltzer, Avery C; Ramanan, Prianca; Amaral, Ana C; Gonzalez, Jose; Normandin, Marc D; Frosch, Matthew P; Gómez-Isla, Teresa

    2017-06-13

    [F-18]-AV-1451, a PET tracer specifically developed to detect brain neurofibrillary tau pathology, has the potential to facilitate accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), staging of brain tau burden and monitoring disease progression. Recent PET studies show that patients with mild cognitive impairment and AD dementia exhibit significantly higher in vivo [F-18]-AV-1451 retention than cognitively normal controls. Importantly, PET patterns of [F-18]-AV-1451 correlate well with disease severity and seem to match the predicted topographic Braak staging of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in AD, although this awaits confirmation. We studied the correlation of autoradiographic binding patterns of [F-18]-AV-1451 and the stereotypical spatiotemporal pattern of progression of NFTs using legacy postmortem brain samples representing different Braak NFT stages (I-VI). We performed [F-18]-AV-1451 phosphor-screen autoradiography and quantitative tau measurements (stereologically based NFT counts and biochemical analysis of tau pathology) in three brain regions (entorhinal cortex, superior temporal sulcus and visual cortex) in a total of 22 cases: low Braak (I-II, n = 6), intermediate Braak (III-IV, n = 7) and high Braak (V-VI, n = 9). Strong and selective [F-18]-AV-1451 binding was detected in all tangle-containing regions matching precisely the observed pattern of PHF-tau immunostaining across the different Braak stages. As expected, no signal was detected in the white matter or other non-tangle containing regions. Quantification of [F-18]-AV-1451 binding was very significantly correlated with the number of NFTs present in each brain region and with the total tau and phospho-tau content as reported by Western blot and ELISA. [F-18]-AV-1451 is a promising biomarker for in vivo quantification of brain tau burden in AD. Neuroimaging-pathologic studies conducted on postmortem material from individuals imaged while alive are now needed to confirm these observations.

  18. Prognostic significance of metabolic tumor burden by positron emission tomography/computed tomography in patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Tateishi, Ukihide; Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Terauchi, Takashi; Ando, Kiyoshi; Niitsu, Nozomi; Kim, Won Seog; Suh, Cheolwon; Ogura, Michinori; Tobinai, Kensei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of measuring metabolic tumor burden using [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with bendamustine–rituximab. Because the standardized uptake value is a critical parameter of tumor characterization, we carried out a phantom study of 18F-FDG PET/CT to ensure quality control for 28 machines in the 24 institutions (Japan, 17 institutions; Korea, 7 institutions) participating in our clinical study. Fifty-five patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL were enrolled. The 18F-FDG PET/CT was acquired before treatment, after two cycles, and after the last treatment cycle. Treatment response was assessed after two cycles and after the last cycle using the Lugano classification. Using this classification, remission was complete in 15 patients (27%) and incomplete in 40 patients (73%) after two cycles of therapy, and remission was complete in 32 patients (58%) and incomplete in 23 patients (42%) after the last treatment cycle. The percentage change in all PET/CT parameters except for the area under the curve of the cumulative standardized uptake value–volume histogram was significantly greater in complete response patients than in non-complete response patients after two cycles and the last cycle. The Cox proportional hazard model and best subset selection method revealed that the percentage change of the sum of total lesion glycolysis after the last cycle (relative risk, 5.24; P = 0.003) was an independent predictor of progression-free survival. The percent change of sum of total lesion glycolysis, calculated from PET/CT, can be used to quantify the response to treatment and can predict progression-free survival after the last treatment cycle in patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL treated with bendamustine–rituximab. PMID:25495273

  19. Predictive and prognostic value of FDG-PET

    PubMed Central

    Oyen, Wim J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The predictive and prognostic value of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) in non-small-cell lung carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma and lymphoma is discussed. The degree of FDG uptake is of prognostic value at initial presentation, after induction treatment prior to resection and in the case of relapse of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In locally advanced and advanced stages of NSCLC, FDG-PET has been shown to be predictive for clinical outcome at an early stage of treatment. In colorectal carcinoma, limited studies are available on the prognostic value of FDG-PET, however, the technique appears to have great potential in monitoring the success of local ablative therapies soon after intervention and in the prediction and evaluation of response to radiotherapy, systemic therapy, and combinations thereof. The prognostic value of end-of treatment FDG-PET for FDG-avid lymphomas has been established, and the next step is to define how to use this information to optimize patient outcome. In Hodgkin's lymphoma, FDG-PET has a high negative predictive value, however, histological confirmation of positive findings should be sought where possible. For non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, the opposite applies. The newly published standardized guidelines for interpretation formulates specific criteria for visual interpretation and for defining PET positivity in the liver, spleen, lung, bone marrow and small residual lesions. The introduction of these guidelines should reduce variability among studies. Interim PET offers a reliable method for early prediction of long-term remission, however it should only be performed in prospective randomized controlled trials. Many of the diagnostic and management questions considered in this review are relevant to other tumour types. Further research in this field is of great importance, since it may lead to a change in the therapeutic concept of cancer. The preliminary findings call for systematic inclusion of FDG

  20. Numerical simulation of the flow about the F-18 HARV at high angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murman, Scott M.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes research done over the past two years as part of NASA Grant NCC 2-729. This research has been aimed at validating numerical methods for computing the flow about the complete F-18 HARV at alpha = 30 deg and alpha = 45 deg. At 30 deg angle of attack, the flow about the F-18 is dominated by the formation, and subsequent breakdown, of strong vortices over the wing leading-edge extensions (LEX). As the angle of attack is increased to alpha = 45 deg, the fuselage forebody of the F-18 contains significant laminar and transitional regions which are not present at alpha = 30 deg. Further, the flow over the LEX at alpha = 45 deg is dominated by an unsteady shedding in time, rather than strong coherent vortices. This complex physics, combined with the complex geometry of a full aircraft configuration, provides a challenge for current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. The following sections present the numerical method and grid generation scheme that was used, a review of prior research done to numerically model the F-18 HARV, and a discussion of the current research. The current research is broken into two main topics: the effect of engine-inlet mass-flow rate on the F-18 vortex breakdown position, and the results using a refined F-18 computational model to compute the flow at alpha = 30 deg and alpha = 45 deg.

  1. Numerical simulation of the flow about the F-18 HARV at high angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murman, Scott M.

    1995-01-01

    This research has been aimed at validating numerical methods for computing the flow about the complete F-18 HARV at alpha = 30 deg and alpha = 45 deg. At 30 deg angle of attack, the flow about the F-18 is dominated by the formation, and subsequent breakdown, of strong vortices over the wing leading-edge extensions (LEX). As the angle of attack is increased to alpha = 45 deg, the fuselage forebody of the F-18 contains significant laminar and transitional regions which are not present at alpha = 30 deg. Further, the flow over the LEX at alpha = 45 deg is dominated by an unsteady shedding in time, rather than strong coherent vortices. This complex physics, combined with the complex geometry of a full-aircraft configuration, provides a challenge for current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. The following sections present the numerical method and grid generation scheme that was used, a review of prior research done to numerically model the F-18 HARV, and a discussion of the current research. The current research is broken into three main topics; the effect of engine-inlet mass-flow rate on the F-18 vortex breakdown position, the results using a refined F-18 computational model to compute the flow at alpha = 30 deg and alpha = 45 deg, and research done using the simplified geometry of an ogive-cylinder configuration to investigate the physics of unsteady shear-layer shedding. The last section briefly summarizes the discussion.

  2. Quantitative techniques in 18FDG PET scanning in oncology.

    PubMed

    Castell, F; Cook, G J R

    2008-05-20

    The clinical applications of (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ((18)FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in oncology are becoming established. While simple static scanning techniques are used for the majority of routine clinical examinations, increasing use of PET in clinical trials to monitor treatment response with (18)FDG and novel tracers reflecting different pharmacodynamic end points, often necessitates a more complex and quantitative analysis of radiopharmaceutical kinetics. A wide range of PET analysis techniques exist, ranging from simple visual analysis and semiquantitative methods to full dynamic studies with kinetic analysis. These methods are discussed, focusing particularly on the available methodologies that can be utilised in clinical trials.

  3. The Basic Principles of FDG-PET/CT Imaging.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sandip; Hess, Søren; Nielsen Braad, Poul-Erik; Olsen, Birgitte Brinkmann; Inglev, Signe; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming

    2014-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) forms the basis of molecular imaging. FDG-PET imaging is a multidisciplinary undertaking that requires close interdisciplinary collaboration in a broad team comprising physicians, technologists, secretaries, radio-chemists, hospital physicists, molecular biologists, engineers, and cyclotron technicians. The aim of this review is to provide a brief overview of important basic issues and considerations pivotal to successful patient examinations, including basic physics, instrumentation, radiochemistry, molecular and cell biology, patient preparation, normal distribution of tracer, and potential interpretive pitfalls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Applications of Beta Particle Detection for Synthesis and Usage of Radiotracers Developed for Positron Emission Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooraghi, Alex Abreu

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a noninvasive molecular imaging tool that requires the use of a radioactive compound or radiotracer which targets a molecular pathway of interest. We have developed and employed three beta particle radiation detection systems to advance PET. Specifically, the goals of these systems are to: 1. Automate dispensing of solutions containing a positron emitting isotope. 2. Monitor radioactivity on-chip during synthesis of a positron emitting radiotracer. 3. Assay cellular uptake on-chip of a positron emitting radiotracer. Automated protocols for measuring and dispensing solutions containing radioisotopes are essential not only for providing an optimum environment for radiation workers, but also to ensure a quantitatively accurate workflow. For the first project, we describe the development and performance of a system for automated radioactivity distribution of beta particle emitting radioisotopes such as fluorine-18 (F-18). Key to the system is a radiation detector in-line with a peristaltic pump. The system demonstrates volume accuracy within 5 % for volumes of 20 muL or greater. When considering volumes of 20 muL or greater, delivered radioactivity is in agreement with the requested radioactivity as measured with the dose calibrator. The integration of the detector and pump leads to a flexible system that can accurately dispense solutions containing F-18 in radioactivity concentrations directly produced from a cyclotron (~ 0.1-1 mCi/muL), to low activity concentrations intended for preclinical mouse scans (~ 1-10 muCi/muL), and anywhere in between. Electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) is an attractive microfluidic platform for batch synthesis of PET radiotracers. Visualization of radioisotopes on-chip is critical for synthesis optimization and technological development. For the second project, we describe the development and performance of a Cerenkov/real-time imaging system for PET radiotracer synthesis on EWOD. We also investigate

  5. FDG PET/CT appearance of local osteosarcoma recurrences in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Susan E; Shulkin, Barry L; Gelfand, Michael J; McCarville, M Beth

    2017-09-08

    Osteosarcoma is the most common pediatric malignant bone tumor, frequently surgically managed with limb salvage rather than amputation. Local recurrences are seen in up to 9% of osteosarcoma patients, with CT and MRI imaging often limited by metal artifacts. To describe the [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT appearance of local osteosarcoma recurrences with correlation to findings on other imaging modalities. A retrospective review of pediatric osteosarcoma patients imaged with FDG PET/CT was performed in patients with pathologically proven local recurrences. FDG PET/CT findings were reviewed and correlated with available comparison imaging studies. Ten local osteosarcoma recurrences in eight pediatric osteosarcoma patients were imaged with FDG PET/CT. All eight patients had a local recurrence after limb salvage; two patients had a second local recurrence after amputation. All local recurrences were seen with FDG PET/CT, demonstrating solid (n=5) or peripheral/nodular (n=5) FDG uptake patterns. Maximum standard uptake values (SUVs) ranged from 3.0 to 15.7. In five recurrences imaged with FDG PET/CT and MRI, MRI was limited or nondiagnostic in three. In four recurrences imaged with FDG PET/CT and bone scan, the bone scan was negative in three. Local osteosarcoma recurrences are well visualized by FDG PET/CT, demonstrating either solid or peripheral/nodular FDG uptake with a wide range of maximum SUVs. FDG PET/CT demonstrates the full extent of local recurrences, while MRI can be limited by artifact from metallic hardware. PET/CT appears to be more sensitive than bone scan in detecting local osteosarcoma recurrences.

  6. Positron autoradiography for intravascular imaging: feasibility evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikhaliev, Polad M.; Xu, Tong; Ducote, Justin L.; Easwaramoorthy, Balasubramaniam; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Molloi, Sabee

    2006-02-01

    Approximately 70% of acute coronary artery disease is caused by unstable (vulnerable) plaques with an inflammation of the overlying cap and high lipid content. A rupturing of the inflamed cap of the plaque results in propagation of the thrombus into the lumen, blockage of the artery and acute ischaemic syndrome or sudden death. Morphological imaging such as angiography or intravascular ultrasound cannot determine inflammation status of the plaque. A radiotracer such as 18F-FDG is accumulated in vulnerable plaques due to higher metabolic activity of the inflamed cap and could be used to detect a vulnerable plaque. However, positron emission tomography (PET) cannot detect the FDG-labelled plaques because of respiratory and heart motions, small size and low activity of the plaques. Plaques can be detected using a miniature particle (positron) detector inserted into the artery. In this work, a new detector concept is investigated for intravascular imaging of the plaques. The detector consists of a storage phosphor tip bound to the end of an intravascular catheter. It can be inserted into an artery, absorb the 18F-FDG positrons from the plaques, withdrawn from the artery and read out. Length and diameter of the storage phosphor tip can be matched to the length and the diameter of the artery. Monte Carlo simulations and experimental evaluations of coronary plaque imaging with the proposed detector were performed. It was shown that the sensitivity of the storage phosphor detector to the positrons of 18F-FDG is sufficient to detect coronary plaques with 1 mm and 2 mm sizes and 590 Bq and 1180 Bq activities in the arteries with 2 mm and 3 mm diameters, respectively. An experimental study was performed using plastic tubes with 2 mm diameter filled with an FDG solution, which simulates blood. FDG spots simulating plaques were placed over the surface of the tube. A phosphor tip was inserted into the tube and imaged the plaques. Exposure time was 1 min in all simulations and

  7. Positron autoradiography for intravascular imaging: feasibility evaluation.

    PubMed

    Shikhaliev, Polad M; Xu, Tong; Ducote, Justin L; Easwaramoorthy, Balasubramaniam; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Molloi, Sabee

    2006-02-21

    Approximately 70% of acute coronary artery disease is caused by unstable (vulnerable) plaques with an inflammation of the overlying cap and high lipid content. A rupturing of the inflamed cap of the plaque results in propagation of the thrombus into the lumen, blockage of the artery and acute ischaemic syndrome or sudden death. Morphological imaging such as angiography or intravascular ultrasound cannot determine inflammation status of the plaque. A radiotracer such as 18F-FDG is accumulated in vulnerable plaques due to higher metabolic activity of the inflamed cap and could be used to detect a vulnerable plaque. However, positron emission tomography (PET) cannot detect the FDG-labelled plaques because of respiratory and heart motions, small size and low activity of the plaques. Plaques can be detected using a miniature particle (positron) detector inserted into the artery. In this work, a new detector concept is investigated for intravascular imaging of the plaques. The detector consists of a storage phosphor tip bound to the end of an intravascular catheter. It can be inserted into an artery, absorb the 18F-FDG positrons from the plaques, withdrawn from the artery and read out. Length and diameter of the storage phosphor tip can be matched to the length and the diameter of the artery. Monte Carlo simulations and experimental evaluations of coronary plaque imaging with the proposed detector were performed. It was shown that the sensitivity of the storage phosphor detector to the positrons of 18F-FDG is sufficient to detect coronary plaques with 1 mm and 2 mm sizes and 590 Bq and 1180 Bq activities in the arteries with 2 mm and 3 mm diameters, respectively. An experimental study was performed using plastic tubes with 2 mm diameter filled with an FDG solution, which simulates blood. FDG spots simulating plaques were placed over the surface of the tube. A phosphor tip was inserted into the tube and imaged the plaques. Exposure time was 1 min in all simulations and

  8. Effectiveness of F18+ Fimbrial Antigens Released by a Novel Autolyzed Salmonella Expression System as a Vaccine Candidate against Lethal F18+ STEC Infection

    PubMed Central

    Won, Gayeon; Lee, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Porcine edema disease (ED) caused by Shiga toxin 2e producing Escherichia coli expressing F18ab+ fimbriae (F18ab+STEC) frequently occurs in post-weaned piglets, resulting in a significant economic loss in swine industries worldwide. In the present study, we proposed an efficient prevention scheme against ED in which the attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium inactivated by the E-mediated cell lysis to deliver target antigens, FedF and FedA, which function in fimbrial-mediated adhesion and as a major subunit of F18ab+fimbriae, respectively. The co-expression of FedA and FedF protein with outer membrane protein A signal peptide was confirmed in the resultant strains JOL1460 and JOL1464 by immunoblot analysis. Immunization with the candidate strains in mice led to the significant generation of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, specific to both antigens and secretory IgA specific to FedF (P < 0.05). The titers of IgG isotypes, IgG1 and IgG2a, used as markers for T-helpers (Th)-2 and Th-1lymphocytes, respectively, also significantly increased in the immunized group (P < 0.05). The increase in CD3+CD4+ T lymphocyte subpopulation and in vitro proliferative activity was observed in in vivo stimulated splenocytes, which indicated the immunostimulatory effect of the candidate strains. Moreover, the immunized mice were completely protected from a lethal challenge against wild-type F18+STEC whereas 28% of mice died in the non-immunized group. This study demonstrated that the inactivated Salmonella system could efficiently release FedF and FedA and induce robust immune responses specific to the target antigens, which is sufficient to protect the mice from the lethal challenge. PMID:27920758

  9. Expression of key glycosphingolipid biosynthesis-globo series pathway genes in Escherichia coli F18-resistant and Escherichia coli F18-sensitive piglets.

    PubMed

    Dong, W H; Dai, C H; Sun, L; Wang, J; Sun, S Y; Zhu, G Q; Wu, S L; Bao, W B

    2016-08-01

    A pioneering study showed that the glycosphingolipid biosynthesis-globo series pathway genes (FUT1, FUT2, ST3GAL1, HEXA, HEXB, B3GALNT1 and NAGA) may play an important regulatory role in resistance to Escherichia coli F18 in piglets. Therefore, we analysed differential gene expression in 11 tissues of two populations of piglets sensitive and resistant respectively to E. coli F18 and the correlation of differential gene expression in duodenal and jejunal tissues. We found that the mRNA expression of the seven genes was relatively high in spleen, liver, lung, kidney, stomach and intestinal tract; the levels in thymus and lymph nodes were lower, with the lowest levels in heart and muscle. FUT2 gene expression in the duodenum and jejunum of the resistant population was significantly lower than that in the sensitive group (P < 0.01). ST3GAL1 gene expression was also significantly lower in the duodenum of the resistant population than in the sensitive group (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed among the remaining genes. The expression level of FUT1 was extremely significantly positively correlated with FUT2 and B3GALNT1 expression (P < 0.01) and also had a significant positive correlation with NAGA expression (P < 0.05). The expression level of FUT2 had extremely significant positive correlations with FUT1, ST3GAL1 and B3GALNT1 (P < 0.01). These results suggest that FUT2 plays an important role in E. coli F18 resistance in piglets. FUT1, ST3GAL1, B3GALNT1 and NAGA may also participate in the mechanism of resistance to E. coli F18.

  10. Positron Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drachman, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    I will give a review of the history of low-energy positron physics, experimental and theoretical, concentrating on the type of work pioneered by John Humberston and the positronics group at University College. This subject became a legitimate subfield of atomic physics under the enthusiastic direction of the late Sir Harrie Massey, and it attracted a diverse following throughout the world. At first purely theoretical, the subject has now expanded to include high brightness beams of low-energy positrons, positronium beams, and, lately, experiments involving anti-hydrogen atoms. The theory requires a certain type of persistence in its practitioners, as well as an eagerness to try new mathematical and numerical techniques. I will conclude with a short summary of some of the most interesting recent advances.

  11. Positron Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drachman, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    I will give a review of the history of low-energy positron physics, experimental and theoretical, concentrating on the type of work pioneered by John Humberston and the positronics group at University College. This subject became a legitimate subfield of atomic physics under the enthusiastic direction of the late Sir Harrie Massey, and it attracted a diverse following throughout the world. At first purely theoretical, the subject has now expanded to include high brightness beams of low-energy positrons, positronium beams, and, lately, experiments involving anti-hydrogen atoms. The theory requires a certain type of persistence in its practitioners, as well as an eagerness to try new mathematical and numerical techniques. I will conclude with a short summary of some of the most interesting recent advances.

  12. Journey in evolution of nuclear cardiology: will there be another quantum leap with the F-18-labeled myocardial perfusion tracers?

    PubMed

    Dilsizian, Vasken; Taillefer, Raymond

    2012-12-01

    The field of nuclear cardiac imaging has evolved from being rather subjective, more "art than a science," to a more objective, digital-based quantitative technique, providing insight into the physiological processes of cardiovascular disorders and predicting patient outcome. In a mere 4 decades of its clinical use, the technology used to image myocardial perfusion has made quantum leaps from planar to single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and now to a more contemporary rapid SPECT, positron emission tomography (PET), and hybrid SPECT-computed tomography (CT) and PET-CT techniques. Meanwhile, radiotracers have flourished from potassium-43 and red blood cell-tagged blood pool imaging to thallium-201 and technetium-99m-labeled SPECT perfusion tracers along with rubidium-82, ammonia N-13, and more recently F-18 fluorine-labeled PET perfusion tracers. Concurrent with this expansion is the introduction of new quantitative methods and software for image processing, evaluation, and data interpretation. Technical advances, particularly in obtaining quantitative data, have led to a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying cardiovascular diseases beyond discrete epicardial coronary artery disease to coronary vasomotor function in the early stages of the development of coronary atherosclerosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and dilated nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Progress in the areas of molecular and hybrid imaging are equally important areas of growth in nuclear cardiology. However, this paper focuses on the past and future of nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging and particularly perfusion tracers. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Results From F-18B Stability and Control Parameter Estimation Flight Tests at High Dynamic Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moes, Timothy R.; Noffz, Gregory K.; Iliff, Kenneth W.

    2000-01-01

    A maximum-likelihood output-error parameter estimation technique has been used to obtain stability and control derivatives for the NASA F-18B Systems Research Aircraft. This work has been performed to support flight testing of the active aeroelastic wing (AAW) F-18A project. The goal of this research is to obtain baseline F-18 stability and control derivatives that will form the foundation of the aerodynamic model for the AAW aircraft configuration. Flight data have been obtained at Mach numbers between 0.85 and 1.30 and at dynamic pressures ranging between 600 and 1500 lbf/sq ft. At each test condition, longitudinal and lateral-directional doublets have been performed using an automated onboard excitation system. The doublet maneuver consists of a series of single-surface inputs so that individual control-surface motions cannot be correlated with other control-surface motions. Flight test results have shown that several stability and control derivatives are significantly different than prescribed by the F-18B aerodynamic model. This report defines the parameter estimation technique used, presents stability and control derivative results, compares the results with predictions based on the current F-18B aerodynamic model, and shows improvements to the nonlinear simulation using updated derivatives from this research.

  14. Ground-Recorded Sonic Boom Signatures of F-18 Aircraft in Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahm, Catherine M.; Haering, Edward A., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Two F-18 aircraft were flown, one above the other, in two formations, in order for the shock systems of the two aircraft to merge and propagate to the ground. The first formation had the canopy of the lower F-18 in the tail shock of the upper F-18 (called tail-canopy). The second formation had the canopy of the lower F- 18 in the inlet shock of the upper F-18 (called inlet-canopy). The flight conditions were Mach 1.22 and an altitude of 23,500 ft . An array of five sonic boom recorders was used on the ground to record the sonic boom signatures. This paper describes the flight test technique and the ground level sonic boom signatures. The tail-canopy formation resulted in two, separated, N-wave signatures. Such signatures probably resulted from aircraft positioning error. The inlet-canopy formation yielded a single modified signature; two recorders measured an approximate flattop signature. Loudness calculations indicated that the single inlet-canopy signatures were quieter than the two, separated tail-canopy signatures. Significant loudness occurs after a sonic boom signature. Such loudness probably comes from the aircraft engines.

  15. STM study of C60F18 high dipole moment molecules on Au(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairagi, K.; Bellec, A.; Chumakov, R. G.; Menshikov, K. A.; Lagoute, J.; Chacon, C.; Girard, Y.; Rousset, S.; Repain, V.; Lebedev, A. M.; Sukhanov, L. P.; Svechnikov, N. Yu.; Stankevich, V. G.

    2015-11-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy studies of C60F18 molecules deposited on Au(111) are reported and compared to C60 molecules both at liquid helium temperature and room temperature (RT). Whereas adsorption and electronic properties of C60F18 single molecules were studied at low temperature (LT), self-assemblies were investigated at RT. In both cases, the fluorine atoms of the C60F18 molecules are pointed towards the surface. Individual C60F18 molecules on Au(111) have a HOMO-LUMO gap of 2.9 eV. The self-assembled islands exhibit a close-packed hexagonal lattice with amorphous borders. The comparison with C60 molecules clearly demonstrates the influence of the C60F18 electric dipole moment (EDM) on the electronic properties of single molecules and on the thermodynamics of self-assembled islands. Besides, the apparent height value of a separate molecule increases in a self-assembly environment as a result of a depolarization phenomenon.

  16. Methods and applications of positron-based medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, H.

    2007-02-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a diagnostic imaging method to examine metabolic functions and their disorders. Dedicated ring systems of scintillation detectors measure the 511 keV γ-radiation produced in the course of the positron emission from radiolabelled metabolically active molecules. A great number of radiopharmaceuticals labelled with 11C, 13N, 15O, or 18F positron emitters have been applied both for research and clinical purposes in neurology, cardiology and oncology. The recent success of PET with rapidly increasing installations is mainly based on the use of [ 18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in oncology where it is most useful to localize primary tumours and their metastases.

  17. Influence of FDG-PET on primary nodal target volume definition for head and neck carcinomas.

    PubMed

    van Egmond, Sylvia L; Piscaer, Vera; Janssen, Luuk M; Stegeman, Inge; Hobbelink, Monique G; Grolman, Wilko; Terhaard, Chris H

    The role of 2-[(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in routine diagnostic staging remains controversial. In case of discordance between FDG-PET and CT, a compromise has to be made between the risk of false positive FDG-PET and the risk of delaying appropriate salvage intervention. Second, with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), smaller radiation fields allow tissue sparing, but could also lead to more marginal failures. We retrospectively studied 283 patients with head and neck carcinoma scheduled for radiotherapy between 2002 and 2010. We analyzed the influence of FDG-PET/CT versus CT alone on defining nodal target volume definition and evaluated its long-term clinical results. Second, the location of nodal recurrences was related to the radiation regional dose distribution. In 92 patients, CT and FDG-PET, performed in mold, showed discordant results. In 33%, nodal staging was altered by FDG-PET. In 24%, FDG-PET also led to an alteration in nodal treatment, including a nodal upstage of 18% and downstage of 6%. In eight of these 92 patients, a regional recurrence occurred. Only two patients had a recurrence in the discordant node on FDG-PET and CT and both received a boost (high dose radiation). These results support the complementary value of FDG-PET/CT compared to CT alone in defining nodal target volume definition for radiotherapy of head and neck cancer.

  18. Positron emission tomographic findings in a tuberculous brain abscess.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyusik; Lim, Ilhan; Roh, Jae-Kyu

    2007-07-01

    Several case reports and studies have described the positron emission tomographic (PET) findings of intracranial tuberculomas and bacterial brain abscesses. However, to our knowledge, the PET pattern of a tuberculous brain abscess has not been previously described. We report the case of a diabetic heavy drinker with a left parietal tuberculous abscess. (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG)-PET scans showed intense FDG uptake at the abscess periphery, where contrast enhancement was observed on a magnetic resonance image. FDG uptake was reduced within the abscess cavity and in the adjacent cerebral cortex. The possibility of a tuberculous brain abscess should be considered when FDG accumulates at the periphery of a ring-enhancing lesion in a chronically ill or immunocompromised patient.

  19. Improving 18F-Fluoro-D-Glucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Imaging in Alzheimer's Disease Studies

    PubMed Central

    Knešaurek, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The goal was to improve Alzheimer's 2-deoxy-2-18F-fluoro-D-glucose (18F FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging through application of a novel, hybrid Fourier-wavelet windowed Fourier transform (WFT) restoration technique, in order to provide earlier and more accurate clinical results. General Electric Medical Systems downward-looking sonar PET/CT 16 slice system was used to acquire studies. Patient data were acquired according the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) protocol. Here, we implemented Fourier-wavelet regularized restoration, with a Butterworth low-pass filter, order n = 6 and a cut-off frequency f = 0.35 cycles/pixel and wavelet (Daubechies, order 2) noise suppression. The original (PET-O) and restored (PET-R) ADNI subject PET images were compared using the Alzheimer's discrimination analysis by dedicated software. Forty-two PET/CT scans were used in the study. They were performed on eleven ADNI subjects at intervals of approximately 6 months. The final clinical diagnosis was used as a gold standard. For three subjects, the final clinical diagnosis was mild cognitive impairment and those 13 PET/CT studies were not included in the final comparison, as the result was considered as inconclusive. Using the reminding 29 PET/CT studies (23 AD and 6 normal), the sensitivity and specificity of the PET-O and PET-R were calculated. The sensitivity was 0.65 and 0.96 for PET-O and PET-R, respectively, and the specificity was 0.67 and 0.50 for PET-O and PET-R. The accuracy was 0.66 and 0.86 for PET-O and PET-R, respectively. The results of the study demonstrated that the accuracy of three-dimensional brain F-18 FDG PET images was significantly improved by Fourier-wavelet restoration filtering. PMID:26420987

  20. Purification and characterization of the fimbria F18ac (2134P) isolated from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC).

    PubMed

    Amorim, C R; Matsuura, M S; Rosa, J C; Greene, L J; Leite, D S; Yano, T

    2000-09-15

    The adhesin F18ac purified on Sepharose CL 4B column chromatography and SDS-PAGE stained with Coomassie Blue and Western blotting using specific anti-F18ac serum presented one band of approximately 17kDa. Gold immunolabeling revealed that the adhesin F18ac has a fimbrial structure on the bacterial surface. The first 27 amino acid residues of the N-terminal portion of the adhesin F18ac, showed 92.5% homology (25 amino acids) with the F107 (F18ab) fimbriae.

  1. FDG-Avid Portal Vein Tumor Thrombosis from Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Contrast-Enhanced FDG PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Xuan Canh; Nguyen, Dinh Song Huy; Ngo, Van Tan; Maurea, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): In this study, we aimed to describe the characteristics of portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT), complicating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in contrast-enhanced FDG PET/CT scan. Methods: In this retrospective study, 9 HCC patients with FDG-avid PVTT were diagnosed by contrast-enhanced fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT), which is a combination of dynamic liver CT scan, multiphase imaging, and whole-body PET scan. PET and CT DICOM images of patients were imported into the PET/CT imaging system for the re-analysis of contrast enhancement and FDG uptake in thrombus, the diameter of the involved portal vein, and characteristics of liver tumors and metastasis. Results: Two patients with previously untreated HCC and 7 cases with previously treated HCC had FDG-avid PVTT in contrast-enhanced FDG PET/CT scan. During the arterial phase of CT scan, portal vein thrombus showed contrast enhancement in 8 out of 9 patients (88.9%). PET scan showed an increased linear FDG uptake along the thrombosed portal vein in all patients. The mean greatest diameter of thrombosed portal veins was 1.8 ± 0.2 cm, which was significantly greater than that observed in normal portal veins (P<0.001). FDG uptake level in portal vein thrombus was significantly higher than that of blood pool in the reference normal portal vein (P=0.001). PVTT was caused by the direct extension of liver tumors. All patients had visible FDG-avid liver tumors in contrast-enhanced images. Five out of 9 patients (55.6%) had no extrahepatic metastasis, 3 cases (33.3%) had metastasis of regional lymph nodes, and 1 case (11.1%) presented with distant metastasis. The median estimated survival time of patients was 5 months. Conclusion: The intraluminal filling defect consistent with thrombous within the portal vein, expansion of the involved portal vein, contrast enhancement, and linear increased FDG uptake of the thrombus extended from liver tumor are findings of FDG

  2. Abdomen: normal variations and benign conditions resulting in uptake on FDG-PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Zukotynski, Katherine; Kim, Chun K

    2014-04-01

    The increasing use of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in oncology has led to: improved sensitivity and specificity in detecting localized and metastatic disease, increased ability to target biopsies to the site of most aggressive disease, and development of a noninvasive biomarker to assess prognosis and effects of therapy. However, for correct interpretation of FDG-PET/CT studies, an understanding of both normal and abnormal imaging appearances commonly encountered in oncology patients is important. This article discusses commonly seen normal variations and benign findings on FDG-PET/CT of the abdomen.

  3. Impact of PET-FDG in the diagnosis and therapeutic care of patients presenting with metastases of unknown primary.

    PubMed

    Garin, Etienne; Prigent-Lejeune, Florence; Lesimple, Thierry; Barge, Marie-Luce; Rousseau, Caroline; Devillers, Anne; Bouriel, Catherine; Habiba, Mesbah T; Bernard, Anne-Marie; Bridji, Boumédienne; Resche, Isabelle

    2007-06-01

    We carried out a study to evaluate the contribution of positron emission tomography with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-FDG) in the diagnosis and therapeutic care of patients presenting with metastases of unknown primary. PET-FDG was prospectively performed in 51 patients. The PET-FDG data were confirmed histologically or by a follow-up on average at 13 months. PET-FDG identified the primary in 24 percent of cases, and detected the presence of additional metastases in 41 percent of cases. PET-FDG led to a therapeutic modification for 12 patients (24 percent). Furthermore, the therapeutic impact seems more marked in localized forms than in the multifocal. This broad exploratory study confirms the important role of PET-FDG in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of patients with metastases of unknown primary.

  4. Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of the spleen: a case report with FDG-PET findings and literature review.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Yumi; Nakajima, Reiko; Hatta, Kazuha; Seshimo, Akiyoshi; Sawada, Tatsuo; Abe, Koichiro; Sakai, Shuji

    2016-08-01

    We report the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) findings of sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of the spleen. The patient was a 37-year-old woman with a splenic mass incidentally found on abdominal ultrasound. FDG-PET/CT showed weak FDG accumulation (maximum standardized uptake value = 3.65). An unenhanced CT scan showed a low density and well-circumscribed splenic tumor that demonstrated weak enhancement from the arterial to delayed phase. Although hemangioma or hamartoma of the spleen was preoperatively diagnosed, histopathological examination revealed SANT. Therefore, when a splenic tumor with weak contrast medium enhancement and low FDG accumulation is observed, SANT should be considered as a differential diagnosis. Although CT and magnetic resonance imaging features of SANT have been reported, there are few reports on FDG-PET/CT findings. We report the radiological features of SANT, including FDG-PET/CT, and review the literature on SANT.

  5. Positron emission tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose to evaluate tumor response and control after radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiken, L.; Juillard, G.; Rege, S.; Hoh, C.; Choi, Y.; Jabour, B.; Hawkins, R.; Parker, R. )

    1993-09-20

    Following radiation therapy, evaluation of viable tumor can often be difficult with anatomic imaging criteria (tumor size alone). In this study, the utility of biochemical imaging with the glucose analog 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose and positron emission tomography was investigated in patients with radiation therapy. Post-radiation positron emission tomography with 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose studies were done in all patients, with 9 head and neck patients receiving pre-radiation positron emission tomography with 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose scans as well. Results were correlated with other imaging techniques and pathology. Positron emission tomography with 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose detected head and neck primary tumors and lymph node metastases in all nine pre-radiation scans, while magnetic resonance imaging failed to detect two primary tumors. Serial positron emission tomography with 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose showed a significant decrease in tumor activity after radiation therapy, compared to pre-radiation levels, (p < 0.05), except for two patients with increased uptake at the primary site. Biopsies of these two patients showed persistent/recurrent disease after radiation therapy, which was not detected by magnetic resonance imaging. Six additional head and neck patients, with suspicious examination and inconclusive magnetic resonance imaging, were imaged with positron emission tomography after radiation therapy only. Five patients had increased positron emission tomography activity, with corresponding biopsies positive in four patients, and negative in one patient with clinically worsening symptoms. The remaining sixth patient had minimal and stable positron emission tomography uptake, and is improving clinically. Four patients had mammogram findings suspicious for recurrence after conservation treatment for breast cancer. 40 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. (18) F-FDG-PET/CT as adjunctive diagnostic modalities in canine fever of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Grobman, Megan; Cohn, Leah; Knapp, Stephanie; Bryan, Jeffrey N; Reinero, Carol

    2017-09-18

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is a persistent or recurrent fever for which the underlying source has not been identified despite diagnostic investigation. In people, (18) F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18) F-FDG-PET) alone or in combination with computed tomography (CT) is often beneficial in detecting the source of fever when other diagnostics have failed. Veterinary reports describing use of these modalities in animals with fever of unknown origin are currently lacking. Aims of this retrospective case series were to describe (18) F-FDG-PET or (18) F-FDG-PET/CT findings in a group of dogs with fever of unknown origin. Dogs presenting to a single center between April 2012 and August 2015 were included. A total of four dogs met inclusion criteria and underwent either positron emission tomography (n = 2) or positron emission tomography/CT (n = 2) as a part of their diagnostic investigation. All subjects underwent extensive diagnostic testing prior to (18) F-FDG-PET/CT. Initial diagnostic evaluation failed to identify either a cause of fever or an anatomic location of disease in these four dogs. In each dog, positron emission tomography or positron emission tomography/CT was either able to localize or rule out the presence of focal lesion thereby allowing for directed sampling and/or informed disease treatment. Follow up (18) F-FDG-PET/CT scans performed in two patients showed improvement of observed abnormalities (n = 1) or detected recurrence of disease allowing for repeated treatment before clinical signs recurred (n = 1). Fever resolved after specific treatment in each dog. Findings from the current study supported the use of positron emission tomography or positron emission tomography/CT as adjunctive imaging modalities for diagnosis and gauging response to therapy in dogs with fever of unknown origin. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  7. Research flight-control system development for the F-18 high alpha research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahle, Joseph W.; Powers, Bruce; Regenie, Victoria; Chacon, Vince; Degroote, Steve; Murnyak, Steven

    1991-01-01

    The F-18 high alpha research vehicle was recently modified by adding a thrust vectoring control system. A key element in the modification was the development of a research flight control system integrated with the basic F-18 flight control system. Discussed here are design requirements, system development, and research utility of the resulting configuration as an embedded system for flight research in the high angle of attack regime. Particular emphasis is given to control system modifications and control law features required for high angle of attack flight. Simulation results are used to illustrate some of the thrust vectoring control system capabilities and predicted maneuvering improvements.

  8. F-18 SRA closeup of nose cap showing Advanced L-Probe Air Data Integration experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This L-shaped probe mounted on the forward fuselage of a modified F-18 Systems Research Aircraft was the focus of an air data collection experiment flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Advanced L-Probe Air Data Integration (ALADIN) experiment focused on providing pilots with angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip information as well as traditional airspeed and altitude data from a single system. For the experiment, the probes--one mounted on either side of the F-18's forward fuselage--were hooked to a series of four transducers, which relayed pressure measurements to an on-board research computer.

  9. Analysis of Pretreatment FDG-PET SUV Parameters in Head-and-Neck Cancer: Tumor SUV{sub mean} Has Superior Prognostic Value

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, Kristin A.; Hoang, Jenny K.; Roach, Michael C.; Chino, Junzo; Yoo, David S.; Turkington, Timothy G.; Brizel, David M.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic significance of different descriptive parameters in head-and-neck cancer patients undergoing pretreatment [F-18] fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging. Patients and Methods: Head-and-neck cancer patients who underwent FDG-PET before a course of curative intent radiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. FDG-PET imaging parameters included maximum (SUV{sub max}), and mean (SUV{sub mean}) standard uptake values, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). Tumors and lymph nodes were defined on co-registered axial computed tomography (CT) slices. SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean} were measured within these anatomic regions. The relationships between pretreatment SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub mean}, and TLG for the primary site and lymph nodes were assessed using a univariate analysis for disease-free survival (DFS), locoregional control (LRC), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated and compared via the log-rank method. SUV data were analyzed as continuous variables. Results: A total of 88 patients was assessed. Two-year OS, LRC, DMFS, and DFS for the entire cohort were 85%, 78%, 81%, and 70%, respectively. Median SUV{sub max} for the primary tumor and lymph nodes was 15.4 and 12.2, respectively. Median SUV{sub mean} for the primary tumor and lymph nodes was 7 and 5.2, respectively. Median TLG was 770. Increasing pretreatment SUV{sub mean} of the primary tumor was associated with decreased disease-free survival (p = 0.01). Neither SUV{sub max} in the primary tumor or lymph nodes nor TLG was prognostic for any of the clinical endpoints. Patients with pretreatment tumor SUV{sub mean} that exceeded the median value (7) of the cohort demonstrated inferior 2-year DFS relative to patients with SUV{sub mean} {<=} the median value of the cohort, 58% vs. 82%, respectively, p = 0.03. Conclusion: Increasing SUV{sub mean} in the primary tumor was associated with inferior DFS. Although not

  10. Semi-quantitative metabolic values on FDG PET/CT including extracardiac sites of disease as a predictor of treatment course in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Ishiyama, Mitsutomi; Soine, Laurie A; Vesselle, Hubert J

    2017-08-18

    Cardiac sarcoidosis is associated with major adverse cardiac events including cardiac arrest, for which anti-inflammatory treatment is indicated. Oral corticosteroid is the mainstay among treatment options; however, adverse effects are a major concern with long-term use. It would be beneficial for providers to predict treatment response and prognosis for proper management strategy of sarcoidosis, though it remains challenging. Fluorine (F)-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography(PET)/computed tomography(CT) has an advantage over anatomical imaging in providing semi-quantitative functional parameters such as standard uptake value (SUV), metabolic volume, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), which are well-established biomarkers in oncology. However, the relationship between these parameters and treatment response has not been fully investigated in cardiac sarcoidosis. Also, the prognostic value of extracardiac active inflammation noted on FDG-PET/CT in the setting of cardiac sarcoidosis is unclear. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the prognostic value of semi-quantitative values of both cardiac and extracardiac disease sites derived from FDG-PET/CT in predicting treatment course in cardiac sarcoidosis. Sixteen consecutive patients with suspected cardiac sarcoidosis, who demonstrated abnormal myocardial activity on cardiac-inflammation FDG-PET/CT encompassing the entire chest/upper abdomen and subsequently underwent corticosteroid therapy for diagnosis of active cardiac sarcoidosis, were included. Semi-quantitative values of hypermetabolic lesions were derived from all visualized organ system and were compared to daily corticosteroid dose at 6 months.  Of the 16 patients, 81.3% (13/16) of the patients showed extracardiac involvement. The lesion with the greatest SUV was identified in the heart in 11 patients (68.7%), in the liver in 1 patient (6.3%), and in lymph nodes in 4 patients (25%). The maximum SUV across all visualized

  11. Clinicopathological Features of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ from (18)F-FDG-PET Findings.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takaaki; Yanai, Keiko; Tokuda, Shoko; Nakazawa, Yuko; Kurozumi, Sasagu; Obayashi, Sayaka; Yajima, Reina; Hirakata, Tomoko; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-01

    The presence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) can increase the risk of developing an invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), but it is difficult to predict what will occur if a DCIS is left untreated. We reported the usefulness of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for DCIS, and that the presence of FDG uptake in the tumor could be considered a predictor of invasive potential in patients with DCIS. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the clinicopathological features of DCIS by using FDG-PET findings, and we evaluated the possibility of using FDG-PET in DCIS cases as a biomarker of which lesions will go on to become invasive. We investigated the cases of 185 consecutive patients with primary breast cancer who were diagnosed as having DCIS or IDC and underwent FDG-PET preoperatively. We divided the cases into two groups on the basis of histology; DCIS vs. IDC (n=171). The DCIS cases were divided into two groups on the basis of FDG uptake in the primary tumor. Fourteen of the 185 patients (7.4%) were revealed to have a DCIS. The analysis revealed that the SUVmax and the number of cases not detected by FDG-PET were significantly different between the DICS and IDC groups. The extent of the primary tumor was not significantly different between the two groups. In six cases (42.9%) of the 14 DCIS cases, no FDG uptake was detected by FDG-PET. The extent of tumor did not significantly differ between the two groups. In addition, all six cases without FDG uptake were of the diffuse-spread type, without mass formation. All eight cases with mass formation had FDG uptake. Our present findings suggest that the FDG-PET uptake reflects tumor burden or tumor density, which should be considered to be associated with the presence of invasion. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of extraprostatic disease in the staging of prostate cancer by F-18 choline PET/CT: can PSA and PSA density help in patient selection?

    PubMed

    Calabria, Ferdinando; Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Tavolozza, Mario; Ragano-Caracciolo, Cristiana; Schillaci, Orazio

    2013-08-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the accuracy of F-18 choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in assessing the presence of extraprostatic disease during staging of prostate cancer, in relation to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA density, a PSA derivative that is useful for improving risk stratification in prostate cancer patients. F-18 choline PET/CT was performed in 45 patients for early staging of biopsy-proven prostate cancer. None of the examined patients had received therapy before the examination. In all of them a transrectal ultrasonography had been performed earlier to calculate the prostate volume and PSA density. The mean PSA value was 25.5 (±38.1) ng/ml, whereas the mean PSA density was 0.70 (±0.88). Results of F-18 choline PET/CT were related to PSA and PSA density. PET/CT was positive for extraprostatic disease in 18/45 patients (40%) (mean PSA and PSA density were, respectively, 44.08 ng/ml and 1.08); PET/CT was negative for extraprostatic disease in 27/45 patients (60%) (mean PSA and PSA density were, respectively, 13.12 ng/ml and 0.4). PET/CT was positive in 13/18 patients (72%) with a PSA cutoff value greater than or equal to 18 ng/ml and in 5/21 (24%) with a PSA value less than 18 ng/ml (P=0.0017). PET/CT was positive in 16/18 patients (89%) with PSA density greater than or equal to 0.31 and in 2/18 (11%) with PSA density lower than 0.31 (P=0.0234). The possibility of detecting extraprostatic disease of prostate cancer with F-18 choline PET/CT is related to PSA and PSA density. In particular, F-18 choline PET/CT should be recommended only in patients with a PSA value of at least 18 ng/ml, whereas a PSA density of at least 0.31 ng/ml is more probably associated with distant metastases.

  13. The poststall nonlinear dynamics and control of an F-18: A preliminary investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patten, William N.

    1988-01-01

    The successful high angle of attack (HAOA) operation of fighter aircraft will necessarily require the introduction of a new onboard control methodology that address the nonlinearity of the system when flown at the stall/poststall limits of the craft's flight envelope. As a precursor to this task, a researcher endeavored to familarize himself with the dynamics of one specific aircraft, the F-18, when it is flown at HAOA. This was accomplished by conducting a number of real time flight sorties using the NASA-Langley Research Center's F-18 simulator, which was operated with a pilot in the loop. In addition to developing a first hand familarity with the aircraft's dynamic characteristic at HAOA, work was also performed to identify the input/output operational footprint of the F-18's control surfaces. This investigator proposes to employ the nonlinear models of the plant identified this summer in a subsequent research effort that will make it possible to fly the F-18 effectively at poststall angles of attack. The controller design used there will rely on a new technique proposed by this investigator that provides for the automatic generation of online optimal control solutions for nonlinear dynamic systems.

  14. CYP4F18-Deficient Neutrophils Exhibit Increased Chemotaxis to Complement Component C5a.

    PubMed

    Vaivoda, Rachel; Vaine, Christine; Boerstler, Cassandra; Galloway, Kristy; Christmas, Peter

    2015-01-01

    CYP4Fs were first identified as enzymes that catalyze hydroxylation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4). CYP4F18 has an unusual expression in neutrophils and was predicted to play a role in regulating LTB4-dependent inflammation. We compared chemotaxis of wild-type and Cyp4f18 knockout neutrophils using an in vitro assay. There was no significant difference in the chemotactic response to LTB4, but the response to complement component C5a increased 1.9-2.25-fold in knockout cells compared to wild-type (P < 0.01). This increase was still observed when neutrophils were treated with inhibitors of eicosanoid synthesis. There were no changes in expression of other CYP4 enzymes in knockout neutrophils that might compensate for loss of CYP4F18 or lead to differences in activity. A mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate colitis was used to investigate the consequences of increased C5a-dependent chemotaxis in vivo, but there was no significant difference in weight loss, disease activity, or colonic tissue myeloperoxidase between wild-type and Cyp4f18 knockout mice. This study demonstrates the limitations of inferring CYP4F function based on an ability to use LTB4 as a substrate, points to expanding roles for CYP4F enzymes in immune regulation, and underscores the in vivo challenges of CYP knockout studies.

  15. CYP4F18-Deficient Neutrophils Exhibit Increased Chemotaxis to Complement Component C5a

    PubMed Central

    Vaivoda, Rachel; Vaine, Christine; Boerstler, Cassandra; Galloway, Kristy; Christmas, Peter

    2015-01-01

    CYP4Fs were first identified as enzymes that catalyze hydroxylation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4). CYP4F18 has an unusual expression in neutrophils and was predicted to play a role in regulating LTB4-dependent inflammation. We compared chemotaxis of wild-type and Cyp4f18 knockout neutrophils using an in vitro assay. There was no significant difference in the chemotactic response to LTB4, but the response to complement component C5a increased 1.9–2.25-fold in knockout cells compared to wild-type (P < 0.01). This increase was still observed when neutrophils were treated with inhibitors of eicosanoid synthesis. There were no changes in expression of other CYP4 enzymes in knockout neutrophils that might compensate for loss of CYP4F18 or lead to differences in activity. A mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate colitis was used to investigate the consequences of increased C5a-dependent chemotaxis in vivo, but there was no significant difference in weight loss, disease activity, or colonic tissue myeloperoxidase between wild-type and Cyp4f18 knockout mice. This study demonstrates the limitations of inferring CYP4F function based on an ability to use LTB4 as a substrate, points to expanding roles for CYP4F enzymes in immune regulation, and underscores the in vivo challenges of CYP knockout studies. PMID:26613087

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Bacteriophage f18SE, Isolated in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Segovia, Cristopher; Vasquez, Ignacio; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Robeson, James

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophage f18SE was isolated from poultry sewage in Olmue, Chile, and lytic activity was demonstrated against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and serovar Pullorum strains. This bacteriophage has a 41,868-bp double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) genome encoding 53 coding sequences (CDSs) and belongs to the family Siphoviridae, subfamily Jerseyvirinae. PMID:26450716

  17. Measurement of Radiative Proton Capture on F18 and Implications for Oxygen-Neon Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akers, C.; Laird, A. M.; Fulton, B. R.; Ruiz, C.; Bardayan, D. W.; Buchmann, L.; Christian, G.; Davids, B.; Erikson, L.; Fallis, J.; Hager, U.; Hutcheon, D.; Martin, L.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nelson, K.; Spyrou, A.; Stanford, C.; Ottewell, D.; Rojas, A.

    2013-06-01

    The rate of the F18(p,γ)Ne19 reaction affects the final abundance of the γ-ray observable radioisotope F18, produced in novae. However, no successful measurement of this reaction exists and the rate used is calculated from incomplete information on the contributing resonances. Of the two resonances thought to play a significant role, one has a radiative width estimated from the assumed analogue state in the mirror nucleus, F19. The second does not have an analogue state assignment at all, resulting in an arbitrary radiative width being assumed. Here, we report the first successful direct measurement of the F18(p,γ)Ne19 reaction. The strength of the 665 keV resonance (Ex=7.076MeV) is found to be over an order of magnitude weaker than currently assumed in nova models. Reaction rate calculations show that this resonance therefore plays no significant role in the destruction of F18 at any astrophysical energy.

  18. Targeting Pod Effects on Weapons Release from F-18C Hornet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    70 L I S T O F T A B L E S Table 1. Number of surface patches used on models ...from the F-18C Hornet 6. AUTHOR( S ) - Godiksen III, William H. 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ...AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10

  19. Imaging the pharmacokinetics of [F-18]FAU in patients with tumors: PET studies.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haihao; Collins, Jerry M; Mangner, Thomas J; Muzik, Otto; Shields, Anthony F

    2006-02-01

    FAU (1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D: -arabinofuranosyl) uracil) can be phosphorylated by thymidine kinase, methylated by thymidylate synthase, followed by DNA incorporation and thus functions as a DNA synthesis inhibitor. This first-in-human study of [F-18]FAU was conducted in cancer patients to determine its suitability for imaging and also to understand its pharmacokinetics as a potential antineoplastic agent. Six patients with colorectal (n = 3) or breast cancer (n = 3) were imaged with [F-18]FAU. Serial blood and urine samples were analyzed using HPLC to determine the clearance and metabolites. Imaging showed that [F-18]FAU was concentrated in breast tumors and a lymph node metastasis (tumor-to-normal-breast-tissue-ratio 3.7-4.7). FAU retention in breast tumors was significantly higher than in normal breast tissues at 60 min and retained in tumor over 2.5 h post-injection. FAU was not retained above background in colorectal tumors. Increased activity was seen in the kidney and urinary bladder due to excretion. Decreased activity was seen in the bone marrow with a mean SUV 0.6. Over 95% of activity in the blood and urine was present as intact [F-18]FAU at the end of the study. Increased [F-18]FAU retention was shown in the breast tumors but not in colorectal tumors. The increased retention of FAU in the breast compared to bone marrow indicates that FAU may be useful as an unlabeled antineoplastic agent. The low retention in the marrow indicates that unlabeled FAU might lead to little marrow toxicity; however, the images were not of high contrast to consider FAU for diagnostic clinical imaging.

  20. Combined imaging biomarkers for therapy evaluation in glioblastoma multiforme: correlating sodium MRI and F-18 FLT PET on a voxel-wise basis.

    PubMed

    Laymon, Charles M; Oborski, Matthew J; Lee, Vincent K; Davis, Denise K; Wiener, Erik C; Lieberman, Frank S; Boada, Fernando E; Mountz, James M

    2012-11-01

    We evaluate novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) quantitative imaging biomarkers and associated multimodality, serial-time-point analysis methodologies, with the ultimate aim of providing clinically feasible, predictive measures for early assessment of response to cancer therapy. A focus of this work is method development and an investigation of the relationship between the information content of the two modalities. Imaging studies were conducted on subjects who were enrolled in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) therapeutic clinical trials. Data were acquired, analyzed and displayed using methods that could be adapted for clinical use. Subjects underwent dynamic [(18)F]fluorothymidine (F-18 FLT) PET, sodium ((23)Na) MRI and 3-T structural MRI scans at baseline (before initiation of therapy), at an early time point after beginning therapy and at a late follow-up time point after therapy. Sodium MRI and F-18 FLT PET images were registered to the structural MRI. F-18 FLT PET tracer distribution volumes and sodium MRI concentrations were calculated on a voxel-wise basis to address the heterogeneity of tumor physiology. Changes in, and differences between, these quantities as a function of scan timing were tracked. While both modalities independently show a change in tissue status as a function of scan time point, results illustrate that the two modalities may provide complementary information regarding tumor progression and response. Additionally, tumor status changes were found to vary in different regions of tumor. The degree to which these methods are useful for GBM therapy response assessment and particularly for differentiating true progression from pseudoprogression requires additional patient data and correlation of these imaging biomarker changes with clinical outcome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fluorination of aromatic compounds by cleavage of aryl-tin bonds with F-18 F/sub 2/ and CH/sub 3/COOF

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, M.J.; Abeysekera, B.F.; Ruth, T.J.; Jivan, S.; Pate, B.D.

    1984-01-01

    Direct fluorination of aromatic nuclei is difficult since the reaction is usually accompanied by unselective, partial, or total replacement of hydrogen. By attaching the tri-n-butyltin moiety to one position of the ring one can achieve an enhanced reactivity and site selectivity toward electrophilic fluorination. The intent of this study was to demonstrate the utility of the fluorodestannylation reaction for fluorine labelling of aromatic compounds and to compare F/sub 2/ and acetyl hypofluorite as the fluorinating agents. Thus, eight stannylated aromatic compounds (1-8) were synthesized via lithium halogen exchange of the bromo precursor and subsequent transmetallation using tri-n-butyltin chloride. The stannylated substrates were treated with F-18 F/sub 2/ and -78/sup 0/C and CH/sub 3/COOF at room temperature. Both reagents gave good yields of labelled aryl fluorides. Overall, acetyl hypofluorite gave more consistent yields (approx. =70%), while F/sub 2/ gave more variable yields (54-95%). This method is currently being extended to label more complex systems such as L-Dopa with F-18 for brain studies with positron emission tomography. The authors have successfully stannylated Dopa on the ring and fluorination studies of this substrate are underway.

  2. An atypical sarcoidosis involvement in FDG PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Philippe; Benigni, Paolo; Feger, Benoit; Salaun, Pierre-Yves; Abgral, Ronan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis which involve various organs. Laryngeal involvement is extremely rare, with a prevalence of about 0.5 to 1%. Diagnoses: Here we present a case of laryngeal involvement of sarcoidosis demonstrated on 18F-Fluorodesoxyglucose Positron-Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG PET/CT). Patient concerns: A 63 year-old man suffering from dysphonia was referred to our department for characterization of laryngeal lesion suspicious for cancer with non-informative biopsy, the sample was not sufficient for diagnosis. Interventions: FDG PET/CT showed a pathological uptake on the right vocal cord, but also highlighted a bilateral uptake in intrathoracic hilar lymphadenopathy areas, typically found in several inflammatory diseases. Outcomes: New laryngeal targeted biopsies revealed non-caseating epithelioid granulomas suggesting sarcoidosis involvement. After 6 months of systemic steroid treatment, FDG PET/CT showed a significant decrease of the laryngeal uptake. Lessons: This case shows the usefulness of FDG PET/CT to accurately assess inflammatory activity in rare extra-pulmonary sarcoidosis involvement. Moreover, this case emphasizes that FDG PET/CT is an interesting tool for assessing therapeutic efficacy of inflammatory diseases such as sarcoidosis. PMID:28033265

  3. Comparison between 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Regional Lymph Nodal Staging in Patients with Melanoma: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mirk, Paoletta; Treglia, Giorgio; Salsano, Marco; Basile, Pietro; Giordano, Alessandro; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Aim. to compare 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for regional lymph nodal staging in patients with melanoma. Methods. We performed a literature review discussing original articles which compared FDG-PET to SLNB for regional lymph nodal staging in patients with melanoma. Results and Conclusions. There is consensus in the literature that FDG-PET cannot replace SLNB for regional lymph nodal staging in patients with melanoma. PMID:22242204

  4. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance in Lymphoma: Comparison With 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and With the Addition of Magnetic Resonance Diffusion-Weighted Imaging.

    PubMed

    Giraudo, Chiara; Raderer, Markus; Karanikas, Georgios; Weber, Michael; Kiesewetter, Barbara; Dolak, Werner; Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid; Mayerhoefer, Marius E

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) (with and without diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI]) to F-FDG PET/computed tomography (CT), with regard to the assessment of nodal and extranodal involvement, in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, without restriction to FDG-avid subytpes. Patients with histologically proven lymphoma were enrolled in this prospective, institutional review board-approved study. After a single F-FDG injection, patients consecutively underwent F-FDG PET[Fraction Slash]CT and F-FDG PET/MR on the same day for staging or restaging. Three sets of images were analyzed separately: F-FDG PET/CT, F-FDG PET/MR without DWI, and F-FDG PET/MR with DWI. Region-based agreement and examination-based sensitivity and specificity were calculated for F-FDG PET/CT, F-FDG PET/MR without DWI, and F-FDG PET/MR DWI. Maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmax, SUVmean) on F-FDG PET/CT and F-FDG PET/MR were compared and correlated with minimum and mean apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCmin, ADCmean). Thirty-four patients with a total of 40 examinations were included. Examination-based sensitivities for F-FDG PET/CT, F-FDG PET/MR, and F-FDG PET/MR DWI were 82.1%, 85.7%, and 100%, respectively; specificities were 100% for all 3 techniques; and accuracies were 87.5%, 90%, and 100%, respectively. F-FDG PET/CT was false negative in 5 of 40 examinations (all with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma), and F-FDG PET/MR (without DWI) was false negative in 4 of 40 examinations. Region-based percentages of agreement were 99% (κ, 0.95) between F-FDG PET/MR DWI and F-FDG PET/CT, 99.2% (κ, 0.96) between F-FDG PET/MR and F-FDG PET/CT, and 99.4% (κ, 0.97) between F-FDG PET/MR DWI and F-FDG PET/MR. There was a strong correlation between F-FDG PET/CT and F-FDG PET/MR for SUVmax (r = 0.83) and SUVmean (r = 0.81) but no significant correlation between ADCmin and SUVmax

  5. The impact of systemic chemotherapy on testicular FDG activity in young men with Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Burger, Irene A; Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Goldman, Debra A; Gonen, Mithat; Kumar, Anita; Zelenetz, Andrew D; Schöder, Heiko; Hricak, Hedvig

    2013-05-01

    Based on prior reports suggesting a positive correlation between fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake on positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and total sperm count and concentration, we sought to identify changes in testicular FDG uptake over the course of chemotherapy in young men with Hodgkin's lymphoma. Fifty-two patients with a mean age of 24.2 years (range 15.5-44.4) at diagnosis monitored with FDG PET/CT to assess treatment response for Hodgkin's lymphoma were selected for this retrospective analysis under an Institutional Review Board waiver. Of the patients, 26 were treated with a chemotherapy regimen known to cause prolonged and sometimes permanent azoospermia (BEACOPP--bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisolone) and 26 with a regimen known to have a much milder effect on gonadal function (ABVD--doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine, and dacarbazine). Each patient underwent one FDG PET/CT before treatment and at least one FDG PET/CT after start of chemotherapy. In all examinations, FDG activity was measured in the testes with different quantification metrics: maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), SUVmean, functional volume (FV) and total testicular glycolysis (TTG), and blood pool activity determined (SUVmean). Testicular FDG uptake (SUVmax) was significantly associated with blood pool activity (p < 0.001). Furthermore, testicular FDG uptake metrics incorporating volume (e.g., FV and TTG) were associated with age. There was no significant change in SUVmax, SUVmean, FV, and TTG from the PET/CT at baseline to the PET/CTs over the course of chemotherapy either for patients treated with BEACOPP or for patients treated with ABVD. For patients undergoing chemotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma, there is a significant association between testicular FDG uptake and blood pool activity, but no significant changes in FDG uptake over the course of chemotherapy. Therefore, FDG uptake may not be a feasible surrogate

  6. Accuracy of FDG-PET to diagnose lung cancer in a region of endemic granulomatous disease.

    PubMed

    Deppen, Stephen; Putnam, Joe B; Andrade, Gabriela; Speroff, Theodore; Nesbitt, Jonathan C; Lambright, Eric S; Massion, Pierre P; Walker, Ron; Grogan, Eric L

    2011-08-01

    The 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is used to evaluate suspicious pulmonary lesions due to its diagnostic accuracy. The southeastern United States has a high prevalence of infectious granulomatous lung disease, and the accuracy of FDG-PET may be reduced in this population. We examined the diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET in patients with known or suspected non-small cell lung cancer treated at our institution. A total of 279 patients, identified through our prospective database, underwent an operation for known or suspected lung cancer. Preoperative FDG-PET in 211 eligible patients was defined by standardized uptake value greater than 2.5 or by description ("moderate" or "intense") as avid. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood ratios, and decision diagrams were calculated for FDG-PET in all patients and in patients with indeterminate nodules. In all eligible patients (n=211), sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET were 92% and 40%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 86% and 55%. Overall FDG-PET accuracy to diagnose lung cancer was 81%. Preoperative positive likelihood ratio for FDG-PET diagnosis of lung cancer in this population was 1.5 compared with previously published values of 7.1. In 113 indeterminate lesions, 65% had lung cancer and the sensitivity and specificity were 89% and 40%, respectively. Twenty-four benign nodules (60%) had false positive FDG-PET scans. Twenty-two of 43 benign nodules (51%) were granulomas. In a region with endemic granulomatous diseases, the specificity of FDG-PET for diagnosis of lung cancer was 40%. Clinical decisions and future clinical predictive models for lung cancer must accommodate regional variation of FDG-PET scan results. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical significance of FDG-PET/CT at the postoperative surveillance in the breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Jung, Na Young; Yoo, Ie Ryung; Kang, Bong Joo; Kim, Sung Hun; Chae, Byung Joo; Seo, Ye Young

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical role of [(18)F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) compared with conventional imaging (CI) to detect locoregional recurrence or distant metastasis during postoperative surveillance of patients with breast cancer. We included 1,819 examinations of 1,161 patients, who underwent FDG-PET/CT and CI, including mammography, breast ultrasound, whole-body bone scintigraphy, and chest radiography for postoperative surveillance. All patients had a history of surgery with or without adjuvant treatment due to more than stage II breast cancer between November 2003 and November 2009. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of CI, FDG-PET/CT, and combined CI and FDG-PET/CT for detecting locoregional recurrence, distant metastasis, and incidental cancer. We also analyzed false-positive and false-negative results in both FDG-PET/CT and CI. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of CI were 75.4, 98.7, 93.4, and 94.3 %. Those of FDG-PET/CT were 97.5, 98.8, 95.4, and 99.4 %. Those of the combined results were 98.6, 98.2, 96.7, and 99.7 %. Sensitivity of FDG-PET/CT was significantly higher than that of CI (P < 0.05). Sensitivity of combined CI and FDG-PET/CT results improved, but they were not significantly different from those of FDG-PET/CT alone (P = 0.43). Seventeen false-positive and nine false-negative cases were detected with FDG-PET/CT, and 19 false-positive and 88 false-negative cases were detected with CI. FDG-PET/CT is considered as an acceptable diagnostic imaging modality for postoperative surveillance of patients with breast cancer.

  8. Structural loads testing on the Active Aeroelastic Wing F-18 in the Flight Loads Laboratory at NASA'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Structural loads testing on the Active Aeroelastic Wing F-18 in the Flight Loads Laboratory at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The heavily modified and instrumented F-18A entered the Loads Lab in mid-March, 2001, for fit checks of loads hardware and instrumentation checkout prior to initiation of actual structural loads testing. The F-18A underwent loads testing on its modified wings for almost six months, followed by extensive systems tests and simulation before flight tests began.

  9. Positron emission tomography image on evaluating intraperitoneal dissemination of malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Nakao, Makoto; Konishi, Masayshi; Urawa, Naohito; Iwasa, Motoh; Kaito, Masahiko; Adachi, Yukihiko

    2008-01-01

    Herein is a report of a patient with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) possibly arising from greater omentum accompanying diffuse peritoneal disseminatation. Positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) revealed that 18F-FDG uptake was widely spreading in the abdomen. In this case, the PET image was more useful than computed tomography (CT) for understanding tumor distribution rather. PET provides important information on tumor distribution and has an impact on evaluating clinical stage in GIST patients.

  10. Distinguishing tumor recurrence from irradiation sequelae with positron emission tomography in patients treated for larynx cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Greven, K.M.; Williams, D.W. III; Keyes, J.W. Jr.; McGuirt, W.F.; Harkness, B.A.; Watson, N.E. Jr.; Raben, M.; Frazier, L.C.; Geisinger, K.R.; Capellari, J.O.

    1994-07-01

    Distinguishing persistent or recurrent tumor from postradiation edema, or soft tissue/cartilage necrosis in patients treated for carcinoma of the larynx can be difficult. Because recurrent tumor is often submucosal, multiple deep biopsies may be necessary before a diagnosis can be established. Positron emission tomography with 18F-2-fluro-2-deoxglucose (FDG) was studied for its ability to aid in this problem. Positron emission tomography (18FDG) scans were performed on 11 patients who were suspected of having persistent or recurrent tumor after radiation treatment for carcinoma of the larynx. Patients underwent thorough history and physical examinations, scans with computerized tomography, and pathologic evaluation when indicated. Standard uptake values were used to quantitate the FDG uptake in the larynx. The time between completion of radiation treatment and positron emission tomography examination ranged from 2 to 26 months with a median of 6 months. Ten patients underwent computed tomography (CT) of the larynx, which revealed edema of the larynx (six patients), glottic mass (four patients), and cervical nodes (one patient). Positron emission tomography scans revealed increased FDG uptake in the larynx in five patients and laryngectomy confirmed the presence of carcinoma in these patients. Five patients had positron emission tomography results consistent with normal tissue changes in the larynx, and one patient had increased FDG uptake in neck nodes. This patient underwent laryngectomy, and no cancer was found in the primary site, but nodes were pathologically positive. One patient had slightly elevated FDG uptake and negative biopsy results. The remaining patients have been followed for 11 to 14 months since their positron emission studies and their examinations have remained stable. In patients without tumor, average standard uptake values of the larynx ranged from 2.4 to 4.7, and in patients with tumor, the range was 4.9 to 10.7. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. The measurement and improvement of the lateral agility of the F-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggold, David P.; Valasek, John; Downing, David R.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of vehicle configuration and flight control system performance on the roll agility of a modern fighter aircraft has been investigated. A batch simulation of a generic F-18 Hornet was used to study the roll agility as measured by the time to roll through 90 deg metric. Problems discussed include definition of agility, factors affecting the agility of a vehicle, the development of the time to roll through 90 deg agility metric, and a simulation experiment. It is concluded that the integral of stability or wind axis roll rate should be used as a measure of the roll measure traversed. The time through roll angle 90 deg metric is considered to be a good metric for measuring the transient performance aspect of agility. Roll agility of the F-18, as measured by 90 deg metric, can be improved by 10 to 30 percent. Compatible roll and rudder actuator rates can significantly affect 90 deg agility metric.

  12. F-18 simulation with Simulation Group Lead Martha Evans at the controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Simulation Group Leader Martha Evans is seen here at the controls of the F-18 aircraft simulator at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Simulators offer a safe and economical alternative to actual flights to gather data, as well as being excellent facilities for pilot practice and training. The highly modified F-18 airplane flew 383 flights over a nine year period and demonstrated concepts that greatly increase fighter maneuverability. Among concepts proven in the aircraft is the use of paddles to direct jet engine exhaust in cases of extreme altitudes where conventional control surfaces lose effectiveness. Another concept, developed by NASA Langley Research Center, is a deployable wing-like surface installed on the nose of the aircraft for increased right and left (yaw) control on nose-high flight angles.

  13. F-18 SRA closeup of nose cap showing new flush air data system sensor holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The small numbers on the nose of this F-18 aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, show the locations of 11 tiny holes which are an integral part of a new air data system installed on the aircraft. The Real-Time Flush Air Data Sensing system measures the speed and direction of the airflow past the aircraft and its altitude, similar to standard air data systems. It incorporates flush-mounted pressure taps, miniature transducers and an advanced research computer to give pilots more accurate information than standard systems employing external probes can provide. Developed by Dryden researchers in cooperation with Honeywell's Research and Technology Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota, the system was flight tested on Dryden's Systems Research Aircraft (SRA) last year, and is now being used as a precise reference for other air data systems currently being evaluated on the modified F-18.

  14. The measurement and improvement of the lateral agility of the F-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggold, David P.; Valasek, John; Downing, David R.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of vehicle configuration and flight control system performance on the roll agility of a modern fighter aircraft has been investigated. A batch simulation of a generic F-18 Hornet was used to study the roll agility as measured by the time to roll through 90 deg metric. Problems discussed include definition of agility, factors affecting the agility of a vehicle, the development of the time to roll through 90 deg agility metric, and a simulation experiment. It is concluded that the integral of stability or wind axis roll rate should be used as a measure of the roll measure traversed. The time through roll angle 90 deg metric is considered to be a good metric for measuring the transient performance aspect of agility. Roll agility of the F-18, as measured by 90 deg metric, can be improved by 10 to 30 percent. Compatible roll and rudder actuator rates can significantly affect 90 deg agility metric.

  15. Applications of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) in Plant Imaging: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Fatangare, Amol; Svatoš, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review article is to explore and establish the current status of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) applications in plant imaging. In the present article, we review the previous literature on its experimental merits to formulate a consistent and inclusive picture of FDG applications in plant-imaging research. 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose is a [18F]fluorine-labeled glucose analog in which C-2 hydroxyl group has been replaced by a positron-emitting [18F] radioisotope. As FDG is a positron-emitting radiotracer, it could be used in in vivo imaging studies. FDG mimics glucose chemically and structurally. Its uptake and distribution are found to be similar to those of glucose in animal models. FDG is commonly used as a radiotracer for glucose in medical diagnostics and in vivo animal imaging studies but rarely in plant imaging. Tsuji et al. (2002) first reported FDG uptake and distribution in tomato plants. Later, Hattori et al. (2008) described FDG translocation in intact sorghum plants and suggested that it could be used as a tracer for photoassimilate translocation in plants. These findings raised interest among other plant scientists, which has resulted in a recent surge of articles involving the use of FDG as a tracer in plants. There have been seven studies describing FDG-imaging applications in plants. These studies describe FDG applications ranging from monitoring radiotracer translocation to analyzing solute transport, root uptake, photoassimilate tracing, carbon allocation, and glycoside biosynthesis. Fatangare et al. (2015) recently characterized FDG metabolism in plants; such knowledge is crucial to understanding and validating the application of FDG in plant imaging research. Recent FDG studies significantly advance our understanding of FDG translocation and metabolism in plants but also raise new questions. Here, we take a look at all the previous results to form a comprehensive picture of FDG translocation, metabolism, and applications in

  16. Applications of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) in Plant Imaging: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Fatangare, Amol; Svatoš, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review article is to explore and establish the current status of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) applications in plant imaging. In the present article, we review the previous literature on its experimental merits to formulate a consistent and inclusive picture of FDG applications in plant-imaging research. 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose is a [(18)F]fluorine-labeled glucose analog in which C-2 hydroxyl group has been replaced by a positron-emitting [(18)F] radioisotope. As FDG is a positron-emitting radiotracer, it could be used in in vivo imaging studies. FDG mimics glucose chemically and structurally. Its uptake and distribution are found to be similar to those of glucose in animal models. FDG is commonly used as a radiotracer for glucose in medical diagnostics and in vivo animal imaging studies but rarely in plant imaging. Tsuji et al. (2002) first reported FDG uptake and distribution in tomato plants. Later, Hattori et al. (2008) described FDG translocation in intact sorghum plants and suggested that it could be used as a tracer for photoassimilate translocation in plants. These findings raised interest among other plant scientists, which has resulted in a recent surge of articles involving the use of FDG as a tracer in plants. There have been seven studies describing FDG-imaging applications in plants. These studies describe FDG applications ranging from monitoring radiotracer translocation to analyzing solute transport, root uptake, photoassimilate tracing, carbon allocation, and glycoside biosynthesis. Fatangare et al. (2015) recently characterized FDG metabolism in plants; such knowledge is crucial to understanding and validating the application of FDG in plant imaging research. Recent FDG studies significantly advance our understanding of FDG translocation and metabolism in plants but also raise new questions. Here, we take a look at all the previous results to form a comprehensive picture of FDG translocation, metabolism, and applications in

  17. [F-18]-(-,-)-FQNPe - an attractive ligand for evaluation of muscarinic-cholinergic neuron activity by PET

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Beets, A.L.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1997-05-01

    The stereoisomers of 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-{alpha}-(1-fluoropentan-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetate ({open_quotes}FQNPe{close_quotes}) have been resolved. (-,-)- receptors (K{sub i}, nM; ml, 0.3; m2, 0.1). [F-18]-(-,-)-FQNPe demonstrated high cerebral and myocardial uptake in rats in vivo. We now report significant blocking of [F-18]-(-.-)-FQNPe uptake in receptor-rich tissues in rats in vivo after (R)-QNB pretreatment and the absence of any TLC detectable FQNPe metabolites in tissue extracts. Rats were injected with (R)-QNB (3 mg/kg) 1 h prior to [F-18]-FQNPe injection (370-629 KBq). After 1 h, rats were sacrificed and tissues removed and counted. (R)-QNB significantly decreased FQNPe uptake in heart and all receptor-rich regions but not blood (Table; Mean % ID/g, n=5); C, control; Q, (R)-QNB; Hrt, heart; Cer, cerebellum; Pon, pons; Med, medulla; Cor, cortex; Stri, striatum; Hip, hippocampus; Th, thallamus; SuC, superior colliculi; InC, inferior colliculi. Tissues from untreated rats were Folch-extracted and 71-77% of activity was in organic extracts from brain and heart. TLC of organic extracts indicated a single radioactive component with R{sub f} of FQNPe. These combined results demonstrate that [F-18]-(-,-)-FQNPe does not appear to be metabolized in heart and brain, shows good receptor localization and is thus an attractive ligand for evaluation as a potential imaging agent by PET.

  18. Validating novel tau PET tracer [F-18]-AV-1451 (T807) on postmortem brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Marquie, Marta; Normandin, Marc D.; Vanderburg, Charles R.; Costantino, Isabel; Bien, Elizabeth A.; Rycyna, Lisa G.; Klunk, William E.; Mathis, Chester A.; Ikonomovic, Milos D.; Debnath, Manik L.; Vasdev, Neil; Dickerson, Bradford C.; Gomperts, Stephen N.; Growdon, John H.; Johnson, Keith A.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Gomez-Isla, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine region and substrate-specific autoradiographic and in vitro binding patterns of PET tracer [F-18]-AV-1451 (previously known as T807), tailored to allow in vivo detection of paired helical filament tau-containing lesions, and to determine whether there is off-target binding to other amyloid/non-amyloid proteins. Methods We applied [F-18]-AV-1451 phosphor screen autoradiography, [F-18]-AV-1451 nuclear emulsion autoradiography and [H-3]-AV-1451 in vitro binding assays to the study of postmortem samples from patients with a definite pathological diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration-tau, frontotemporal lobar degeneration-TDP-43, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, cerebral amyloid angiopathy and elderly controls free of pathology. Results Our data suggest that AV-1451 strongly binds to tau lesions primarily made of paired helical filaments in Alzheimer’s brains e.g. intra and extraneuronal tangles and dystrophic neurites, but does not seem to bind to a significant extent to neuronal and glial inclusions mainly composed of straight tau filaments in non-Alzheimer tauopathy brains or to β-amyloid, α-synuclein or TDP-43-containing lesions. AV-1451 off-target binding to neuromelanin- and melanin-containing cells and, to a lesser extent, to brain hemorrhagic lesions was identified. Interpretation Our data suggest that AV-1451 holds promise as surrogate marker for the detection of brain tau pathology in the form of tangles and paired helical filament-tau-containing neurites in Alzheimer’s brains but also point to its relatively lower affinity for lesions primarily made of straight tau filaments in non-Alzheimer tauopathy cases and to the existence of some AV-1451 off-target binding. These findings provide important insights for interpreting in vivo patterns of [F-18]-AV-1451 retention. PMID:26344059

  19. Pet imaging of human pituitary 5-HT2 receptors with F-18 setoperone

    SciTech Connect

    Fischman, A.J.; Bonab, A.A.; Babich, J.W.

    1995-05-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) receptors play an important role in the regulation of pituitary function. In particular, 5HT agonists stimulate ACTH, {beta}-endorphin, prolactin and growth hormone secretion but inhibit TSH release. 5-HT binding sites have been identified by autoradiographic studies of rat and human pituitary. In the present investigation, we used PET with F-18 setoperone to image 5-HT2 receptors in normal humans. Setoperone, a piperidine derivative with potent 5-HT2 receptor blocking properties was labelled with F-18 by nucleophilic substitution on the nitro derivative. After HPLC purification, specific activity was between 10,000 and 15,000 mCi/{mu} mole and radiochemical purity was >98%. Six healthy male volunteers were injected with 5-7 mCi of F-18. Setoperone and serial PET images and arterial blood samples were collected over 2 hrs. Specific binding to 5-HT2 receptors in the frontal cortex (FC), striatum (ST) and pituitary (P) was quantitated using the cerebellum (C) as reference. The tracer showed clear retention in FC, ST and P (known to contain a high density of 5-HT2 receptors) relative to C (known to be devoid of 5-HT2 receptors). In all subjects, FC/C, ST/C and P/C ratios increased during the first hr. and remained stable thereafter. For FC and ST, the ratios reached similar values; 3.92{plus_minus}0.73 and 3.53{plus_minus}0.32. For pituitary, a significantly higher ratio, was measured at all times; 6.53{plus_minus}1.82 (p<0.01). These results indicate that F-18 setoperone is an effective PET radiopharmaceutical for imaging 5-HT2 receptors in the human pituitary. Future applications of this agent could provide important new insights into neuroendocrine function.

  20. Ground-recorded sonic boom signatures of F-18 aircraft formation flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahm, Catherine M.; Haering, Edward A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Two F-18 aircraft were flown, one above the other, in two formations, in order for the shock systems of the two aircraft to merge and propagate to the ground. The first formation had the canopy of the lower F-18 in the inlet shock of the upper F-18 (called inlet-canopy). The flight conditions were Mach 1.22 and an altitude of 23,500 ft. An array of five sonic boom recorders was used on the ground to record the sonic boom signatures. This paper describes the flight test technique and the ground level sonic boom signatures. The tail-canopy formation resulted in two, separated, N-wave signatures. Such signatures probably resulted from aircraft positioning error. The inlet-canopy formation yielded a single modified signature; two recorders measured an approximate flattop signature. Loudness calculations indicated that the single inlet-canopy signatures were quieter than the two, separated tail-canopy signatures. Significant loudness occurs after a sonic boom signature. Such loudness probably comes from the aircraft engines.

  1. In vivo characterization of chronic traumatic encephalopathy using [F-18]FDDNP PET brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Barrio, Jorge R; Small, Gary W; Wong, Koon-Pong; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Liu, Jie; Merrill, David A; Giza, Christopher C; Fitzsimmons, Robert P; Omalu, Bennet; Bailes, Julian; Kepe, Vladimir

    2015-04-21

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is an acquired primary tauopathy with a variety of cognitive, behavioral, and motor symptoms linked to cumulative brain damage sustained from single, episodic, or repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI). No definitive clinical diagnosis for this condition exists. In this work, we used [F-18]FDDNP PET to detect brain patterns of neuropathology distribution in retired professional American football players with suspected CTE (n = 14) and compared results with those of cognitively intact controls (n = 28) and patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD) (n = 24), a disease that has been cognitively associated with CTE. [F-18]FDDNP PET imaging results in the retired players suggested the presence of neuropathological patterns consistent with models of concussion wherein brainstem white matter tracts undergo early axonal damage and cumulative axonal injuries along subcortical, limbic, and cortical brain circuitries supporting mood, emotions, and behavior. This deposition pattern is distinctively different from the progressive pattern of neuropathology [paired helical filament (PHF)-tau and amyloid-β] in AD, which typically begins in the medial temporal lobe progressing along the cortical default mode network, with no or minimal involvement of subcortical structures. This particular [F-18]FDDNP PET imaging pattern in cases of suspected CTE also is primarily consistent with PHF-tau distribution observed at autopsy in subjects with a history of mild TBI and autopsy-confirmed diagnosis of CTE.

  2. In vivo characterization of chronic traumatic encephalopathy using [F-18]FDDNP PET brain imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barrio, Jorge R.; Small, Gary W.; Wong, Koon-Pong; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Liu, Jie; Merrill, David A.; Giza, Christopher C.; Fitzsimmons, Robert P.; Omalu, Bennet; Bailes, Julian; Kepe, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is an acquired primary tauopathy with a variety of cognitive, behavioral, and motor symptoms linked to cumulative brain damage sustained from single, episodic, or repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI). No definitive clinical diagnosis for this condition exists. In this work, we used [F-18]FDDNP PET to detect brain patterns of neuropathology distribution in retired professional American football players with suspected CTE (n = 14) and compared results with those of cognitively intact controls (n = 28) and patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) (n = 24), a disease that has been cognitively associated with CTE. [F-18]FDDNP PET imaging results in the retired players suggested the presence of neuropathological patterns consistent with models of concussion wherein brainstem white matter tracts undergo early axonal damage and cumulative axonal injuries along subcortical, limbic, and cortical brain circuitries supporting mood, emotions, and behavior. This deposition pattern is distinctively different from the progressive pattern of neuropathology [paired helical filament (PHF)-tau and amyloid-β] in AD, which typically begins in the medial temporal lobe progressing along the cortical default mode network, with no or minimal involvement of subcortical structures. This particular [F-18]FDDNP PET imaging pattern in cases of suspected CTE also is primarily consistent with PHF-tau distribution observed at autopsy in subjects with a history of mild TBI and autopsy-confirmed diagnosis of CTE. PMID:25848027

  3. Clinical oncologic positron emission tomography: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Turkington, Timothy G; Coleman, R Edward

    2002-04-01

    PET imaging is a molecular imaging technology that is diffusing into imaging departments quite rapidly. The unique characteristics of positron emitting radionuclides such as fluorine-18 provide high-quality images with reasonable acquisition times. The imaging instrumentation continues to improve with new detector materials and combinations of PET scanners and CT scanners. FDG is now readily available to most hospitals in the United States. Third-party payers now recognize the importance of PET imaging in multiple malignancies. The number of PET scans performed annually will continue to increase as the indications increase and the instrumentation is more available.

  4. F-18 chase craft with NASA test pilots Schneider and Fulton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ed Schneider, (left), is the project pilot for the F-18 High Angle of Attack program at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. He has been a NASA research pilot at Dryden since 1983. In addition to his assignment with the F-18 High Angle of Attack program, Schneider is a project pilot for the F-15B aeronautical research aircraft, the NASA NB-52B launch aircraft, and the SR-71 'Blackbird' aircraft. He is a Fellow and was the 1994 President of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots. In 1996 he was awarded the NASA Exceptional Service Medal. Schneider is seen here with Fitzhugh L. Fulton Jr., (right), who was a civilian research pilot at Dryden. from August 1, 1966, until July 3, 1986, following 23 years of service as a pilot in the U.S. Air Force. Fulton was the project pilot on all early tests of the 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) used to air launch the Space Shuttle prototype Enterprise in the Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) at Dryden in l977. For his work in the ALT program, Fulton received NASA's Exceptional Service Medal. He also received the Exceptional Service Medal again in 1983 for flying the 747 SCA during the European tour of the Space Shuttle Enterprise. During his career at Dryden, Fulton was project pilot on NASA's NB-52B launch aircraft used to air launch a variety of piloted and unpiloted research aircraft, including the X-15s and lifting bodies. He flew the XB-70 prototype supersonic bomber on both NASA-USAF tests and NASA research flights during the late 1960s, attaining speeds exceeding Mach 3. He was also a project pilot on the YF-12A and YF-12C research program from April 14, 1969, until September 25, 1978. The F/A-18 Hornet seen behind them is used primarily as a safety chase and support aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. As support aircraft, the F-18's are used for safety chase, pilot proficiency and aerial photography. As a safety chase aircraft, F-18's, flown by research pilots

  5. F-18 HARV in high-alpha flight with smoke generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, used an F-18 Hornet fighter aircraft as its High Angle-of-Attack (alpha) Research Vehicle (HARV) in a three-phased flight research program lasting from April 1987 until September 1996. The aircraft completed 385 research flights and demonstrated stabilized flight at angles of attack between 65 and 70 degrees using thrust vectoring vanes, a research flight control system, and (eventually) forebody strakes (hinged structures on the forward side of the fuselage to provide control by interacting with vortices that are generated at high angles of attack, and thus create side forces). This combination of technologies provided carefree handling of a fighter aircraft in a part of the flight regime that was otherwise very dangerous. Flight research with the HARV increased our understanding of flight at high angles of attack, enabling designers of U.S. fighter aircraft to design airplanes that will fly safely in portions of the flight envelope that pilots previously had to avoid. Angle of attack (alpha) is an aeronautical term that describes the angle of an aircraft body and wings relative to its actual flightpath. During maneuvers, pilots often fly at extreme angles of attack -- with the nose pitched up while the aircraft continues in its original direction. This can lead to conditions in which the airflow becomes separated over large regions of the lifting surfaces (airfoils). These conditions can result in insufficient lift to maintain altitude or control of the aircraft and a corresponding increase in drag -- a condition known as stall. (In an ideal situation, the airflow would remain attached to the airfoil surface from leading to trailing edge; this would reduce the drag that impedes the movement of the airfoil through the atmosphere. When the airflow separates from the surface, this increases the drag and can lead to a stall.) The HARV was developed from a pre-production model of the F-18, a single

  6. Unusual Horner's Syndrome in Recurrent Breast Cancer: Evaluation Using (18)F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Seok-Ki

    2017-03-01

    (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is a widely used imaging modality in the initial diagnosis of cancer, treatment response evaluation and detection of recurrence. Herein, we present the case of a 39-year-old female who presented right ptosis on the follow-up of breast cancer after surgery. Clinicians suspected Horner's syndrome, and the patient underwent FDG PET/CT for the evaluation of recurrence that could cause Horner's syndrome. FDG PET/CT demonstrated a focal hypermetabolic lesion in the right cervicothoracic junction area, corresponding to the preganglionic cervical sympathetic trunk. A subsequent needle biopsy was done, and the lesion was confirmed as metastatic ductal carcinoma. In this case, we could detect the exact location of the recurring lesion that caused Horner's syndrome using FDG PET/CT.

  7. Serial changes of (18)F-FDG PET/CT findings in ischiopubic synchondrosis: comparison with contrast-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Kazunobu; Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Tanizawa, Akihiko; Kimura, Hirohiko

    2015-01-01

    A 3 years old female patient underwent resection and chemotherapy for a yolk sac tumor of the retroperitoneum. Two years later, fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) showed high uptake in the right ischiopubic synchondrosis (IPS), which had a radiolucent structure on CT. The structure showed contrast enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which was a non-specific finding. Six weeks later, a follow-up (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan was performed which showed no abnormal uptake in the IPS. The disappearance of (18)F-FDG uptake preceded that of contrast enhancement on MRI, which was seen 7 months after the initial (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan. This is the first report showing serial changes of (18)F-FDG uptake in IPS, in comparison to MRI findings.

  8. Historic images in nuclear medicine: 1976: the first issue of clinical nuclear medicine and the first human FDG study.

    PubMed

    Hess, Søren; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Alavi, Abass

    2014-08-01

    In 1976, 2 major molecular imaging events coincidentally took place: Clinical Nuclear Medicine was first published in June, and in August researchers at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania created the first images in humans with F-FDG. FDG was initially developed as part of an evolution set in motion by fundamental research studies with positron-emitting tracers in the 1950s by Michel Ter-Pegossian and coworkers at the Washington University. Today, Clinical Nuclear Medicine is a valued scientific contributor to the molecular imaging community, and FDG PET is considered the backbone of this evolving and exciting discipline.

  9. FDG PET in the evaluation of phaeochromocytoma: a correlative study with MIBG scintigraphy and Ki-67 proliferative index.

    PubMed

    Lin, Michael; Wong, Vincent; Yap, June; Jin, Richard; Leong, Paul; Campbell, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To compare 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and [Fluorine-18]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in 22 patients with phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PGL) retrospectively and to evaluate the correlation between FDG uptake and Ki-67 proliferative index. Fourteen of 17 (82%) patients at initial diagnosis had positive FDG uptake, more intensely in PGL. Eleven of 12 (92%) patients had positive MIBG uptake. PET and MIBG scintigraphy were concordant in 10 patients, discordant in 6. Combined results yielded no false negative findings and are complementary. Neither maximum standardised uptake value nor visual scores on MIBG correlated with Ki-67. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Corticosteroid Responsive Sarcoidosis with Multisystemic Involvement Years after Initial Diagnosis: A Lymphoma Mimicker on 18-FDG PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Turker; Savas, Recep; Kocacelebi, Kenan; Ucan, Eyup Sabri

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystemic inflammatory disease characterized by noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas. 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computer tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is increasingly used in routine clinical practice to assess active sarcoidosis because it can detect active inflammatory granulomatous disease. However, active sarcoidosis lesions are observed to be hypermetabolic on FDG-PET/CT much like malignancies, which may lead to misinterpretation on imaging. In this case report, we present a rare case of sarcoidosis with multisystem involvement including lung, lymph nodes, bone, pleura, and soft tissue that mimicked lymphoma on FDG-PET/CT and responded to corticosteroid treatment. PMID:26312138

  11. Accuracy of FDG-PET to diagnose lung cancer in a region of endemic granulomatous disease

    PubMed Central

    Deppen, Stephen; Putnam, Joe B.; Andrade, Gabriela; Speroff, Theodore; Nesbitt, Jonathan C.; Lambright, Eric S.; Massion, Pierre P.; Walker, Ron; Grogan, Eric L.

    2011-01-01

    Background 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is used to evaluate suspicious pulmonary lesions due to its diagnostic accuracy. The southeastern United States has a high prevalence of infectious granulomatous lung disease, and the accuracy of FDGPET may be reduced in this population. We examined the diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET in patients with known or suspected NSCLC treated at our institution. Methods 279 patients identified through our prospective database, underwent an operation for known or suspected lung cancer. Preoperative FDG-PET in 211 eligible patients was defined by standardized uptake value, SUV > 2.5 or by description (“moderate” or “intense”) as avid. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood ratios, and decision diagrams were calculated for FDG-PET in all patients and in patients with indeterminate nodules. Results In all eligible patients (n=211), sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET were 92% and 40%. Positive and negative predictive values were 86% and 55%. Overall FDG-PET accuracy to diagnose lung cancer was 81%. Preoperative positive likelihood ratio for FDG-PET diagnosis of lung cancer in this population was 1.5 compared to previously published values of 7.1. In 113 indeterminate lesions, 65% had lung cancer and the sensitivity and specificity were 89% and 40% respectively. 24 benign nodules (60%) had false positive FDG-PET scans. 22 of 43 benign nodules (51%) were granulomas. Conclusions In a region with endemic granulomatous diseases, the specificity of FDG-PET for diagnosis of lung cancer was 40%. Clinical decisions and future clinical predictive models for lung cancer must accommodate regional variation of FDG-PET scan results. PMID:21592456

  12. Expression of GLUT-1 and GLUT-3 in xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis induced a positive result on ¹⁸F-FDG PET: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Shigeaki; Shimada, Yutaka; Sekine, Shinichi; Shibuya, Kazuto; Yoshioka, Isaku; Matsui, Koshi; Okumura, Tomoyuki; Yoshida, Toru; Nagata, Takuya; Uotani, Hideyuki; Tsukada, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Although several reports have revealed that fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) is useful for differentiating between benign and malignant lesions in the gallbladder, the positive results of (18)F-FDG PET are not specific for malignancy because (18)F-FDG is also accumulated in inflammatory lesions. It is known that the most important pathway for (18)F-FDG to enter the cell body is mediated by the facilitative glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) through GLUT-3. We herein present a case of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) with a positive result on (18)F-FDG PET. In this case, GLUT-1 and GLUT-3 were both positively expressed in inflammatory cells at the gallbladder wall of XGC and this is the first report to reveal GLUT expression in XGC. This report reveals that surgeons should carefully consider the appropriate treatment of gallbladder tumor, even with a positive result on (18)F-FDG PET.

  13. Dynamic functional imaging of brain glucose utilization using fPET-FDG

    DOE PAGES

    Villien, Marjorie; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Mandeville, Joseph B.; ...

    2014-06-14

    We report that glucose is the principal source of energy for the brain and yet the dynamic response of glucose utilization to changes in brain activity is still not fully understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows quantitative measurement of glucose metabolism using 2-[18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). However, FDG PET in its current form provides an integral (or average) of glucose consumption over tens of minutes and lacks the temporal information to capture physiological alterations associated with changes in brain activity induced by tasks or drug challenges. Traditionally, changes in glucose utilization are inferred by comparing two separate scans, which significantly limits themore » utility of the method. We report a novel method to track changes in FDG metabolism dynamically, with higher temporal resolution than exists to date and within a single session. Using a constant infusion of FDG, we demonstrate that our technique (termed fPET-FDG) can be used in an analysis pipeline similar to fMRI to define within-session differential metabolic responses. We use visual stimulation to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. Ultimately, this new method has a great potential to be used in research protocols and clinical settings since fPET-FDG imaging can be performed with most PET scanners and data acquisition and analysis are straightforward. fPET-FDG is a highly complementary technique to MRI and provides a rich new way to observe functional changes in brain metabolism.« less

  14. Dynamic Functional Imaging of Brain Glucose Utilization using fPET-FDG

    PubMed Central

    Villien, Marjorie; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Catana, Ciprian; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Sander, Christin Y.; Zürcher, Nicole R.; Chonde, Daniel B.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Hooker, Jacob M.

    2014-01-01

    Glucose is the principal source of energy for the brain and yet the dynamic response of glucose utilization to changes in brain activity is still not fully understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows quantitative measurement of glucose metabolism using 2-[18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). However, FDG PET in its current form provides an integral (or average) of glucose consumption over tens of minutes and lacks the temporal information to capture physiological alterations associated with changes in brain activity induced by tasks or drug challenges. Traditionally, changes in glucose utilization are inferred by comparing two separate scans, which significantly limits the utility of the method. We report a novel method to track changes in FDG metabolism dynamically, with higher temporal resolution than exists to date and within a single session. Using a constant infusion of FDG, we demonstrate that our technique (termed fPET-FDG) can be used in an analysis pipeline similar to fMRI to define within-session differential metabolic responses. We use visual stimulation to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. This new method has a great potential to be used in research protocols and clinical settings since fPET-FDG imaging can be performed with most PET scanners and data acquisition and analysis is straightforward. fPET-FDG is a highly complementary technique to MRI and provides a rich new way to observe functional changes in brain metabolism. PMID:24936683

  15. Dynamic functional imaging of brain glucose utilization using fPET-FDG.

    PubMed

    Villien, Marjorie; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Mandeville, Joseph B; Catana, Ciprian; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Sander, Christin Y; Zürcher, Nicole R; Chonde, Daniel B; Fowler, Joanna S; Rosen, Bruce R; Hooker, Jacob M

    2014-10-15

    Glucose is the principal source of energy for the brain and yet the dynamic response of glucose utilization to changes in brain activity is still not fully understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows quantitative measurement of glucose metabolism using 2-[(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). However, FDG PET in its current form provides an integral (or average) of glucose consumption over tens of minutes and lacks the temporal information to capture physiological alterations associated with changes in brain activity induced by tasks or drug challenges. Traditionally, changes in glucose utilization are inferred by comparing two separate scans, which significantly limits the utility of the method. We report a novel method to track changes in FDG metabolism dynamically, with higher temporal resolution than exists to date and within a single session. Using a constant infusion of FDG, we demonstrate that our technique (termed fPET-FDG) can be used in an analysis pipeline similar to fMRI to define within-session differential metabolic responses. We use visual stimulation to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. This new method has a great potential to be used in research protocols and clinical settings since fPET-FDG imaging can be performed with most PET scanners and data acquisition and analysis are straightforward. fPET-FDG is a highly complementary technique to MRI and provides a rich new way to observe functional changes in brain metabolism.

  16. The Effect of Endogenous Adenosine on Neuronal Activity in Rats: An FDG PET Study

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Soumen; Zhang, Dali; Mzengeza, Shadreck; Ko, Ji Hyun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT 2–18F‐fluorodeoxy‐D‐glucose (FDG) is a glucose analog that is taken up by cells and phosphorylated. The amount of FDG accumulated by cells is a measure of the rate of glycolysis, which reflects cellular activity. As the levels and actions of the neuromodulator adenosine are dynamically regulated by neuronal activity, this study was designed to test whether endogenous adenosine affects tissue accumulation of FDG as assessed by positron emission tomography (PET) or by postmortem analysis of tissue radioactivity. Rats were given an intraperitoneal injection of the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8‐cyclopentyl‐1,3‐dipropyl‐xanthine (DPCPX, 3 mg/kg), the adenosine kinase inhibitor ABT‐702 (3 mg/kg), or vehicle 10 minutes prior to an intravenous injection of FDG (15.4 ± 0.7 MBq per rat). Rats were then subjected to a 15 minute static PET scan. Reconstructed images were normalized to FDG PET template for rats and standard uptake values (SUVs) were calculated. To examine the regional effect of active treatment compared to vehicle, statistical parametric mapping analysis was performed. Whole‐brain FDG uptake was not affected by drug treatment. Significant regional hypometabolism was detected, particularly in cerebellum, of DPCPX‐ and ABT‐702 treated rats, relative to vehicle‐treated rats. Thus, endogenous adenosine can affect FDG accumulation although this effect is modest in quiescent rats. PMID:27082948

  17. Dynamic functional imaging of brain glucose utilization using fPET-FDG

    SciTech Connect

    Villien, Marjorie; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Catana, Ciprian; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Sander, Christin Y.; Zürcher, Nicole R.; Chonde, Daniel B.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Hooker, Jacob M.

    2014-06-14

    We report that glucose is the principal source of energy for the brain and yet the dynamic response of glucose utilization to changes in brain activity is still not fully understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows quantitative measurement of glucose metabolism using 2-[18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). However, FDG PET in its current form provides an integral (or average) of glucose consumption over tens of minutes and lacks the temporal information to capture physiological alterations associated with changes in brain activity induced by tasks or drug challenges. Traditionally, changes in glucose utilization are inferred by comparing two separate scans, which significantly limits the utility of the method. We report a novel method to track changes in FDG metabolism dynamically, with higher temporal resolution than exists to date and within a single session. Using a constant infusion of FDG, we demonstrate that our technique (termed fPET-FDG) can be used in an analysis pipeline similar to fMRI to define within-session differential metabolic responses. We use visual stimulation to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. Ultimately, this new method has a great potential to be used in research protocols and clinical settings since fPET-FDG imaging can be performed with most PET scanners and data acquisition and analysis are straightforward. fPET-FDG is a highly complementary technique to MRI and provides a rich new way to observe functional changes in brain metabolism.

  18. Controversies on the prognostic value of interim FDG-PET in advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Adams, Hugo J A; Kwee, Thomas C

    2016-12-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma, even in advanced-stage, is a highly curable malignancy, but treatment is associated with short-term toxicity and long-term side effects. Early predictive markers are required to identify those patients who do not require the full-length standard therapy (and thus qualify for therapy de-escalation) and those patients who will not be cured by standard therapy (and thus qualify for therapy escalation). Multiple trials have assessed the value of (18) F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) after a few cycles of chemotherapy (also known as 'interim FDG-PET') in predicting outcome in advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma. Furthermore, multiple interim FDG-PET-adapted trials, in which patients with positive interim FDG-PET scans are assigned to escalated therapies, and patients with negative interim FDG-PET scans are assigned to de-escalated therapies, have recently been published or are currently ongoing, with generally heterogeneous results. The present article reports the currently available evidence (and controversies) on the prognostic value of interim FDG-PET in advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma in patients with positive and negative interim FDG-PET findings following continuation of standard chemotherapy or escalated/de-escalated therapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Prognostic value of interim and end-of-treatment FDG-PET in follicular lymphoma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Adams, Hugo J A; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Kwee, Thomas C

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to systematically review the prognostic value of interim and end-of-treatment (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in follicular lymphoma during and after first-line therapy. The PubMed/MEDLINE database was searched for relevant original studies. Included studies were methodologically assessed, and their results were extracted and descriptively analyzed. Three studies on the prognostic value of interim FDG-PET and eight studies on the prognostic value of end-of-treatment FDG-PET were included. Overall, studies were of poor methodological quality. In addition, there was incomplete reporting of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) data by several studies, and none of the studies incorporated the Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) in the OS analyses. Two studies reported no significant difference in PFS between interim FDG-PET positive and negative patients, whereas one study reported a significant difference in PFS between the two groups. Two studies reported no significant difference in OS between interim FDG-PET positive and negative patients. Five studies reported end-of-treatment FDG-PET positive patients to have a significantly worse PFS than end-of-treatment FDG-PET negative patients, and one study reported a non-significant trend towards a worse PFS for end-of-treatment FDG-PET positive patients. Three studies reported end-of-treatment FDG-PET positive patients to have a significantly worse OS than end-of-treatment FDG-PET negative patients. In conclusion, the available evidence does not support the use of interim FDG-PET in follicular lymphoma. Although published studies suggest end-of-treatment FDG-PET to be predictive of PFS and OS, they suffer from numerous biases and failure to correct OS prediction for the FLIPI.

  20. FDG-PET/CT in lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    D'souza, Maria M; Jaimini, Abhinav; Bansal, Abhishek; Tripathi, Madhavi; Sharma, Rajnish; Mondal, Anupam; Tripathi, Rajendra Prashad

    2013-01-01

    Lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of diseases that arise from the constituent cells of the immune system or from their precursors. 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) is now the cornerstone of staging procedures in the state-of-the-art management of Hodgkin's disease and aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It plays an important role in staging, restaging, prognostication, planning appropriate treatment strategies, monitoring therapy, and detecting recurrence. However, its role in indolent lymphomas is still unclear and calls for further investigational trials. The protean PET/CT manifestations of lymphoma necessitate a familiarity with the spectrum of imaging findings to enable accurate diagnosis. A meticulous evaluation of PET/CT findings, an understanding of its role in the management of lymphomas, and knowledge of its limitations are mandatory for the optimal utilization of this technique. PMID:24604942

  1. 4-[F-18]fluoroproline: A potential tracer for collagen synthesis. Radiosynthesis and biological evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hamacher, K.; Herz, M.; Truckenbrodt, R.

    1996-05-01

    Proline is an important constituent of the structural protein collagen. It has been shown that its fluorinated analogs (2S,4S)- and particularly (2S,4R)-4-fluoroproline are also incorporated into collagen (Gottlieb et al., Biochemistry (1965), 4: 2507). 4-[F-18]fluoroproline is therefore a potential probe for studying abnormal collagen synthesis e. g. in tumors, lung fibrosis and liver cirrhosis. We have evaluated the two diastereomeric forms using a transplantable osteosarcoma in mice as an in vivo model for elevated collagen synthesis, and a MCF 7 mamma carcinoma cell line for monolayer incubation studies.

  2. Numerical simulation of the flow about an F-18 aircraft in the high-alpha regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murman, Scott M.; Rizk, Yehia M.

    1994-01-01

    The current research is aimed at developing and extending numerical methods to accurately predict the high Reynolds number flow about the NASA F-18 HARV at large angles of attack. The resulting codes are validated by comparison of the numerical results with in-flight aerodynamic measurements and flow visualization obtained on the HARV. Further, computations have been used to provide an analysis and numerical optimization of a pneumatic slot blowing concept, and a mechanical strake concept, for use as potential forebody flow control devices in improving high-alpha maneuverability.

  3. Potassium Chloride Infusion as the Cause of Altered Bio Distribution of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose on Whole-Body Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography Scan

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Shimpi Madhuri; Natasha, Singh; Sudeshna, Maitra; Pereira, Melvika

    2017-01-01

    18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography is a standard diagnostic imaging tool in many types of cancer. Its physiological in vivo distribution includes the brain, liver, heart, kidneys, and urinary tract at 1 h after tracer injection. Skeletal muscle is known to show variable amounts of 18F-FDG uptake because it has a relatively high-glucose metabolism. We report a case of a 20-year-old patient with gross 18F-FDG uptake involving multiple muscle groups and its likely correlation to potassium chloride infusion before 18F-FDG injection. PMID:28217028

  4. FDG-PET Contributions to the Pathophysiology of Memory Impairment.

    PubMed

    Segobin, Shailendra; La Joie, Renaud; Ritz, Ludivine; Beaunieux, Hélène; Desgranges, Béatrice; Chételat, Gaël; Pitel, Anne Lise; Eustache, Francis

    2015-09-01

    Measurement of synaptic activity by Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and its relation to cognitive functions such as episodic memory, working memory and executive functions in healthy humans and patients with neurocognitive disorders have been well documented. In this review, we introduce the concept of PET imaging that allows the observation of a particular biological process in vivo through the use of radio-labelled compounds, its general use to the medical world and its contributions to the understanding of memory systems. We then focus on [(18)F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG-PET), the radiotracer that is used to measure local cerebral metabolic rate of glucose that is indicative of synaptic activity in the brain. FDG-PET at rest has been at the forefront of functional neuroimaging over the past 3 decades, contributing to the understanding of cognitive functions in healthy humans and how these functional patterns change with cognitive alterations. We discuss methodological considerations that are important for optimizing FDG-PET imaging data prior to analysis. We then highlight the contribution of FDG-PET to the understanding of the patterns of functional differences in non-degenerative pathologies, normal ageing, and age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Through reasonable temporal and spatial resolution, its ability to measure synaptic activity in the whole brain, independently of any specific network and disease, makes it ideal to observe regional functional changes associated with memory impairment.

  5. Supplementation with Lactobacillus paracasei or Pediococcus pentosaceus does not prevent diarrhoea in neonatal pigs infected with Escherichia coli F18.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Anders D; Cilieborg, Malene S; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Mørkbak, Anne Louise; Sangild, Per Torp

    2017-07-01

    Infectious diarrhoea is a worldwide problem in newborns. Optimal bacterial colonisation may enhance gut maturation and protect against pathogenic bacteria after birth. We hypothesised that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) administration prevents pathogen-induced diarrhoea in formula-fed newborns. Newborn caesarean-delivered, colostrum-deprived term piglets on parenteral nutrition for the first 15 h, were used as models for sensitive newborn infants. A commercially available probiotic strain, Lactobacillus paracasei F19 (LAP, 2·6×108 colony-forming units (CFU)/kg per d) and a novel LAB isolate, Pediococcus pentosaceus (PEP, 1·3×1010 CFU/kg per d), were administered for 5 d with or without inoculation of the porcine pathogen, Escherichia coli F18 (F18, 1010 CFU/d). This resulted in six treatment groups: Controls (n 9), LAP (n 10), PEP (n 10), F18 (n 10), F18-LAP (n 10) and F18-PEP (n 10). The pathogen challenge increased diarrhoea and density of F18 in the intestinal mucosa (P<0·05). LAB supplementation further increased the diarrhoea score, relative to F18 alone (P<0·01). Intestinal structure and permeability were similar among groups, whereas brush border enzymes were affected in variable intestinal regions with decreased activities in most cases after F18 and LAB inoculation. Bacterial density in colon mucosa increased after F18 inoculation (P<0·05) but was unaffected by LAB supplementation. In colon contents, acetic and butyric acids were increased by PEP (P<0·05). The LAB used in this study failed to reduce E. coli-induced diarrhoea in sensitive newborn pigs. In vulnerable newborns there may be a delicate balance among bacterial composition and load, diet and the host. Caution may be required when administering LAB to compromised newborns suffering from enteric infections.

  6. Neurometabolic effects of psilocybin, 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDE) and d-methamphetamine in healthy volunteers. A double-blind, placebo-controlled PET study with [18F]FDG.

    PubMed

    Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E; Schreckenberger, M; Sabri, O; Arning, C; Thelen, B; Spitzer, M; Kovar, K A; Hermle, L; Büll, U; Sass, H

    1999-06-01

    The neurometabolic effects of the hallucinogen psilocybin (PSI; 0.2 mg/kg), the entactogen 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDE; 2 mg/kg) and the stimulant d-methamphetamine (METH; 0.2-0.4 mg/kg) and the drugs' interactions with a prefrontal activation task were investigated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled human [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucoseFDG-positron emission tomographicPET study (each group: n = 8). Subjects underwent two scans (control: word repetition; activation word association) within 2-4 weeks. Psilocybin increased rMRGlu in distinct right hemispheric frontotemporal cortical regions, particularly in the anterior cingulate and decreased rMRGlu in the thalamus. Both MDE and METH induced cortical hypometabolism and cerebellar hypermetabolism. In the MDE group, cortical hypometabolism was more pronounced in frontal regions, with the exception of the right anterior cingulate, which tended to be hyperactive. Cognitive activation-related increases in left frontocortical regions were attenuated under all three psychoactive substances, but less so under MDE. Taking into account performance data and subjective reports on task difficulty, these effects may result from different mechanisms across the three groups. Our PSI data are in line with studies on acute schizophrenic patients suggesting frontal overactivity at rest, but diminished capacity to activate prefrontal regions upon cognitive demand. The MDE data support the hypothesis that entactogens constitute a distinct psychoactive substance class, which takes an intermediate position between stimulants and hallucinogens.

  7. An Overview of the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.; Pahle, Joseph W.; Wilson, R. Joseph; Flick, Bradley C.; Rood, Richard L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle. The three flight phases of the program are introduced, along with the specific goals and data examples taken during each phase. The aircraft configuration and systems needed to perform the disciplinary and inter-disciplinary research are discussed. The specific disciplines involved with the flight research are introduced, including aerodynamics, controls, propulsion, systems, and structures. Decisions that were made early in the planning of the aircraft project and the results of those decisions are briefly discussed. Each of the three flight phases corresponds to a particular aircraft configuration, and the research dictated the configuration to be flown. The first phase gathered data with the baseline F-18 configuration. The second phase was the thrust-vectoring phase. The third phase used a modified forebody with deployable nose strakes. Aircraft systems supporting these flights included extensive instrumentation systems, integrated research flight controls using flight control hardware and corresponding software, analog interface boxes to control forebody strakes, a thrust-vectoring system using external post-exit vanes around axisymmetric nozzles, a forebody vortex control system with strakes, and backup systems using battery-powered emergency systems and a spin recovery parachute.

  8. Performance of an Electro-Hydrostatic Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    1997-01-01

    An electro-hydrostatic actuator was evaluated at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The primary goal of testing this actuator system was the flight demonstration of power-by-wire technology on a primary flight control surface. The electro-hydrostatic actuator uses an electric motor to drive a hydraulic pump and relies on local hydraulics for force transmission. This actuator replaced the F-18 standard left aileron actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft and was evaluated throughout the Systems Research Aircraft flight envelope. As of July 24, 1997 the electro-hydrostatic actuator had accumulated 23.5 hours of flight time. This paper presents the electro-hydrostatic actuator system configuration and component description, ground and flight test plans, ground and flight test results, and lessons learned. This actuator performs as well as the standard actuator and has more load capability than required by aileron actuator specifications of McDonnell- Douglas Aircraft, St. Louis, Missouri. The electro-hydrostatic actuator system passed all of its ground tests with the exception of one power-off test during unloaded dynamic cycling.

  9. Numerical prediction of the unsteady flowfield around the F-18 aircraft at large incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizk, Yehia M.; Gee, Ken

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical method capable of solving the steady and unsteady viscous flow around complete aircraft configurations at high angles of attack. This method is used to simulate the external flow around the F-18 aircraft, including deflected control surfaces. The current technique employs a generalized overset zonal grid scheme to decompose the computational space around the aircraft. The grid around various components of the aircraft are created numerically using a three-dimensional hyperbolic grid generation procedure. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are integrated using a time-accurate, implicit procedure. Results for the turbulent flow around the F-18 aircraft at 30 degrees angle of attack show the details of the flowfield structure, including the unsteadiness created by the vortex burst and the resulting fluctuating airloads exerted on the vertical tail. The computed results agree fairly well with flight data for surface pressure, surface flow pattern, vortex burst location, and the dominant frequency for tail load fluctuations.

  10. A New F-18 Labeled PET Agent For Imaging Alzheimer's Plaques

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, Padmakar V.; Hao Guiyang; Arora, Veera; Long, Michael; Slavine, Nikolai; Chiguru, Srinivas; Qu Baoxi; Sun Xiankai; Bennett, Michael; Antich, Peter P.; Bonte, Frederick J.; Vasdev, Neil

    2011-06-01

    Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Advances in development of imaging agents have focused on targeting amyloid plaques. Notable success has been the development of C-11 labeled PIB (Pittsburgh Compound) and a number of studies have demonstrated the utility of this agent. However, the short half life of C-11 (t1/2: 20 min), is a limitation, thus has prompted the development of F-18 labeled agents. Most of these agents are derivatives of amyloid binding dyes; Congo red and Thioflavin. Some of these agents are in clinical trials with encouraging results. We have been exploring new class of agents based on 8-hydroxy quinoline, a weak metal chelator, targeting elevated levels of metals in plaques. Iodine-123 labeled clioquinol showed affinity for amyloid plaques however, it had limited brain uptake and was not successful in imaging in intact animals and humans. We have been successful in synthesizing F-18 labeled 8-hydroxy quinoline. Small animal PET/CT imaging studies with this agent showed high (7-10% ID/g), rapid brain uptake and fast washout of the agent from normal mice brains and delayed washout from transgenic Alzheimer's mice. These promising results encouraged us in further evaluation of this class of compounds for imaging AD plaques.

  11. Thrust Vectoring on the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.; Pahle, Joseph W.

    1996-01-01

    Investigations into a multiaxis thrust-vectoring system have been conducted on an F-18 configuration. These investigations include ground-based scale-model tests, ground-based full-scale testing, and flight testing. This thrust-vectoring system has been tested on the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The system provides thrust vectoring in pitch and yaw axes. Ground-based subscale test data have been gathered as background to the flight phase of the program. Tests investigated aerodynamic interaction and vane control effectiveness. The ground-based full-scale data were gathered from static engine runs with image analysis to determine relative thrust-vectoring effectiveness. Flight tests have been conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Parameter identification input techniques have been developed. Individual vanes were not directly controlled because of a mixer-predictor function built into the flight control laws. Combined effects of the vanes have been measured in flight and compared to combined effects of the vanes as predicted by the cold-jet test data. Very good agreement has been found in the linearized effectiveness derivatives.

  12. A New F-18 Labeled PET Agent For Imaging Alzheimer's Plaques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Padmakar V.; Vasdev, Neil; Hao, Guiyang; Arora, Veera; Long, Michael; Slavine, Nikolai; Chiguru, Srinivas; Qu, Bao Xi; Sun, Xiankai; Bennett, Michael; Antich, Peter P.; Bonte, Frederick J.

    2011-06-01

    Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Advances in development of imaging agents have focused on targeting amyloid plaques. Notable success has been the development of C-11 labeled PIB (Pittsburgh Compound) and a number of studies have demonstrated the utility of this agent. However, the short half life of C-11 (t1/2: 20 min), is a limitation, thus has prompted the development of F-18 labeled agents. Most of these agents are derivatives of amyloid binding dyes; Congo red and Thioflavin. Some of these agents are in clinical trials with encouraging results. We have been exploring new class of agents based on 8-hydroxy quinoline, a weak metal chelator, targeting elevated levels of metals in plaques. Iodine-123 labeled clioquinol showed affinity for amyloid plaques however, it had limited brain uptake and was not successful in imaging in intact animals and humans. We have been successful in synthesizing F-18 labeled 8-hydroxy quinoline. Small animal PET/CT imaging studies with this agent showed high (7-10% ID/g), rapid brain uptake and fast washout of the agent from normal mice brains and delayed washout from transgenic Alzheimer's mice. These promising results encouraged us in further evaluation of this class of compounds for imaging AD plaques.

  13. F-18 SRA closeup of nose cap showing new flush air data system sensor holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Small numbers on the nose cap of this F-18 Systems Research Aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, show the locations of 11 tiny holes, which are an integral part of a new air data system installed on the aircraft. The Real-Time Flush Air Data Sensing system measures the speed and direction of the airflow past the aircraft and its altitude, similar to standard air data systems. It differs from those systems by incorporating flush-mounted pressure taps, miniature transducers and an advanced research computer to give the pilot more accurate information than systems employing external probes provide. Stephen A. Whitmore of Dryden's Aerodynamics Branch won NASA's Space Act Award for his development of the Real-Time Flush Air Data Sensing system. The award honors projects which are scientifically or technologically significant to the aeronautics and space community. The system was flight tested on the modified F-18 last year, and is now being used as a precise reference system for other air data systems currently being evaluated on the aircraft.

  14. Evaluation of ¹⁸F-FDG PET/MRI, ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT, MRI, and CT in whole-body staging of recurrent breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sawicki, Lino M; Grueneisen, Johannes; Schaarschmidt, Benedikt M; Buchbender, Christian; Nagarajah, James; Umutlu, Lale; Antoch, Gerald; Kinner, Sonja

    2016-02-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of (18)F-fluordesoxyglucose positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging ((18)F-FDG PET/MRI) with (18)F-FDG PET/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT), MRI, and CT in whole-body staging of recurrent breast cancer. Twenty-one consecutive patients (age 59.4 ± 11.5 years, range 38.5-76.9 years; 20 female, 1 male) with suspected breast cancer recurrence underwent a clinically indicated (18)F-FDG PET/CT and subsequently a (18)F-FDG PET/MRI examination in a single injection protocol (mean injected activity: 257 ± 44 MBq (18)F-FDG). Each (18)F-FDG PET/MRI, (18)F-FDG PET/CT, as well as the CT component of PET/CT (CTPET/CT) and MR images of PET/MRI (MRIPET/MRI) were separately evaluated by two radiologists regarding lesion count, lesion localization, and lesion categorization (benign/malignant). The reference standard was based on histopathological results as well as prior and follow-up imaging. A Wilcoxon test assessed differences in SUVmax between (18)F-FDG PET/MRI and (18)F-FDG PET/CT. Correlation of SUVmax between (18)F-FDG PET/MRI and (18)F-FDG PET/CT was calculated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Interobserver agreement on dignity ratings was evaluated using Cohen's kappa. According to the reference standard, 17 patients had breast cancer recurrence. (18)F-FDG PET/MRI, (18)F-FDG PET/CT, and MRIPET/MRI correctly identified each of the 17 patients, whereas CTPET/CT correctly identified 15 of the 17 patients. A total of 134 lesions were described (116 malignant, 18 benign). (18)F-FDG PET/MRI detected all 134 lesions, of which (18)F-FDG PET/CT, MRIPET/MRI, and CTPET/CT detected 97.0%, 96.2%, and 74.6%, respectively. (18)F-FDG PET/MRI yielded the highest proportion of correctly categorized lesions (98.5%) compared with (18)F-FDG PET/CT (94.8%), MRIPET/MRI (88.1%), and CTPET/CT (57.5%). SUVmax was strongly correlated (r=0.72) but measured significantly higher on (18)F-FDG PET/MRI than on (18)F-FDG PET/CT in

  15. Nonlinear Association Between Cerebrospinal Fluid and Florbetapir F-18 β-Amyloid Measures Across the Spectrum of Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Jon B; Bjerke, Maria; Da, Xiao; Landau, Susan M; Foster, Norman L; Jagust, William; Jack, Clifford; Weiner, Michael; Davatzikos, Christos; Shaw, Leslie M; Trojanowski, John Q

    2015-05-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and positron emission tomographic (PET) amyloid biomarkers have been proposed for the detection of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology in living patients and for the tracking of longitudinal changes, but the relation between biomarkers needs further study. To determine the association between CSF and PET amyloid biomarkers (cross-sectional and longitudinal measures) and compare the cutoffs for these measures. Longitudinal clinical cohort study from 2005 to 2014 including 820 participants with at least 1 florbetapir F-18 (hereafter referred to as simply florbetapir)-PET scan and at least 1 CSF β-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ1-42) sample obtained within 30 days of each other (501 participants had a second PET scan after 2 years, including 150 participants with CSF Aβ1-42 measurements). Data were obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. Four different PET scans processing pipelines from 2 different laboratories were compared. The PET cutoff values were established using a mixture-modeling approach, and different mathematical models were applied to define the association between CSF and PET amyloid measures. The values of the CSF Aβ1-42 samples and florbetapir-PET scans showed a nonlinear association (R2 = 0.48-0.66), with the strongest association for values in the middle range. The presence of a larger dynamic range of florbetapir-PET scan values in the higher range compared with the CSF Aβ1-42 plateau explained the differences in correlation with cognition (R2 = 0.36 and R2 = 0.25, respectively). The APOE genotype significantly modified the association between both biomarkers. The PET cutoff values derived from an unsupervised classifier converged with previous PET cutoff values and the established CSF Aβ1-42 cutoff levels. There was no association between longitudinal Aβ1-42 levels and standardized uptake value ratios during follow-up. The association between both biomarkers is limited to a middle range of values, is

  16. [Business administration of PET facilities: a cost analysis of three facilities utilizing delivery FDG].

    PubMed

    Mitsutake, Naohiro; Oku, Shinya; Fujii, Ryo; Furui, Yuji; Yasunaga, Hideo

    2008-05-01

    PET (positron emission tomography) has been proved to be a powerful imaging tool in clinical oncology. The number of PET facilities in Japan has remarkably increased over the last decade. Furthermore, the approval of delivery FDG in 2005 resulted in a tremendous expansion of the PET institutions without a cyclotron facility. The aim of this study was to conduct a cost analysis of PET institutions that utilized delivery FDG. Three PET facilities using delivery FDG were investigated about the costs for PET service. Fixed costs included depreciation costs for construction and medical equipments such as positron camera. Variable costs consisted of costs for medical materials including delivery FDG. The break-even point was analyzed in each of three institutions. In the three hospitals (A, B and C), the annual number of PET scan was 1,591, 1,637 and 914, while cost per scan was accounted as yen 110,262, yen 111,091, and yen 134,192, respectively. The break-even point was calculated to be 2,583, 2,679 and 2,081, respectively. PET facilities utilizing delivery FDG seemed to have difficulty in business administration. Such a situation suggests the possibility that the current supply of PET facilities might exceed actual demand for the service. The efficiency of resource allocation should be taken into consideration in the future health service researches on PET.

  17. Positron Emission Tomography for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    effectiveness and safety of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for the assessment of myocardial viability. To evaluate the effectiveness of FDG PET viability imaging, the following outcomes are examined: the diagnostic accuracy of FDG PET for predicting functional recovery; the impact of PET viability imaging on prognosis (mortality and other patient outcomes); and the contribution of PET viability imaging to treatment decision making and subsequent patient outcomes. Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction and Heart Failure Heart failure is a complex syndrome characterized by the heart’s inability to maintain adequate blood circulation through the body leading to multiorgan abnormalities and, eventually, death. Patients with heart failure experience poor functional capacity, decreased quality of life, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In 2005, more than 71,000 Canadians died from cardiovascular disease, of which, 54% were due to ischemic heart disease. Left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction due to coronary artery disease (CAD)1 is the primary cause of heart failure accounting for more than 70% of cases. The prevalence of heart failure was estimated at one percent of the Canadian population in 1989. Since then, the increase in the older population has undoubtedly resulted in a substantial increase in cases. Heart failure is associated with a poor prognosis: one-year mortality rates were 32.9% and 31.1% for men and women, respectively in Ontario between 1996 and 1997. Treatment Options In general, there are three options for the treatment of heart failure: medical treatment, heart transplantation, and revascularization for those with CAD as the underlying cause. Concerning medical treatment, despite recent advances, mortality remains high among treated patients, while, heart transplantation is affected by the limited availability of donor hearts and consequently has long

  18. Pneumococcal aortitis, report of a case with emphasis on the contribution to diagnosis of positron emission tomography using fluorinated deoxyglucose.

    PubMed

    Hoogendoorn, E H; Oyen, W J G; van Dijk, A P J; van der Meer, J W M

    2003-01-01

    We describe an 82-year-old male with pneumococcal aortitis of the descending aorta, visualized by echocardiography and positron emission tomography using fluorinated deoxyglucose (FDG-PET). Computed tomography is considered to be the best diagnostic imaging modality in infected aortic lesions; in this case, the use of FDG-PET, which gives the opportunity to distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory aortic aneurysms, made an important contribution to the diagnosis.

  19. Alterations in 18F-FDG accumulation into neck-related muscles after neck dissection for patients with oral cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kito, Shinji; Koga, Hirofumi; Kodama, Masaaki; Habu, Manabu; Kokuryo, Shinya; Oda, Masafumi; Matsuo, Kou; Nishino, Takanobu; Matsumoto-Takeda, Shinobu; Uehara, Masataka; Yoshiga, Daigo; Tanaka, Tatsurou; Nishimura, Shun; Miyamoto, Ikuya; Sasaguri, Masaaki; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Yoshioka, Izumi; Morimoto, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Background 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) accumulations are commonly seen in the neck-related muscles of the surgical and non-surgical sides after surgery with neck dissection (ND) for oral cancers, which leads to radiologists having difficulty in diagnosing the lesions. To examine the alterations in 18F-FDG accumulation in neck-related muscles of patients after ND for oral cancer. Material and Methods 18F-FDG accumulations on positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) in neck-related muscles were retrospectively analyzed after surgical dissection of cervical lymph nodes in oral cancers. Results According to the extent of ND of cervical lymph nodes, the rate of patients with 18F-FDG-PET-positive areas increased in the trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, and posterior neck muscles of the surgical and/or non-surgical sides. In addition, SUVmax of 18F-FDG-PET-positive areas in the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles were increased according to the extent of the ND. Conclusions In evaluating 18F-FDG accumulations after ND for oral cancers, we should pay attention to the 18F-FDG distributions in neck-related muscles including the non-surgical side as false-positive findings. Key words:18F-FDG, PET-CT, oral cancers, muscles. PMID:27031062

  20. Focal Colonic FDG Activity with PET/CT: Guidelines for Recommendation of Colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tianye; Behr, Spencer; Khan, Sana; Osterhoff, Robert; Aparici, Carina Mari

    2015-01-01

    Focal 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) colonic activity can be incidentally seen in positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans. Its clinical significance is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess the significance of focal FDG activity in PET/CT scans by correlating the imaging findings to colonoscopy results, and come up with some guidelines for recommendation of follow-up colonoscopy. A total of 133 patients who underwent both 18F-FDG PET/CT for different oncologica