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Sample records for f-35 lightning ii

  1. F-35 Lightning II Program Quality Assurance and Corrective Action Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-11

    No. DODIG-2015-092 M A R C H 1 1 , 2 0 1 5 F ‑ 35 Lightning II Program Quality Assurance and Corrective Action Evaluation Report Documentation...3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE F - 35 Lightning II Program Quality Assurance and Corrective Action Evaluation... F ‑ 35 Lightning II Program Quality Assurance and Corrective Action Evaluation Objective We inspected the F - 35 Lightning II Program ( F - 35 Program) at

  2. Quality Assurance Assessment of the F-35 Lightning II Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Defense Contract Management Agency should: • Provide a comprehensive quality assurance oversight plan for Joint Program Office approval to be...included in the memorandum of agreement. • Audit the execution of the quality assurance oversight plan throughout the F-35 supply chain. Management... plans deferred the procurement of 410 aircraft until 2017. In March 2012, JPO established a new acquisition program baseline for the F-35 program

  3. Intelligence Support for the F-35A Lightning II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    analyzable and digestible as quickly as possible. All of these disciplines will prove instrumental in F-35 exploitation; therefore, fifth-generation...Additionally, security consider- ations with regard to information digestible by the distributed ground station and within the fifth-generation community

  4. F-35 Lightning II Technology Transition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-10

    OT  Stabilized URF Estimates Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...business case, i.e. REDUCED URF (Unit Recurring Flyaway Cost), Total Ownership Cost, and ROI (Return on Investment)?  JSF S&T Planning Document  Provides...Emerging Threats  Basic Capabilities  Net Centric Capabilities  Sustainment  Enduring Themes (Weight, URF , Production, Thermal)  Technology Push

  5. F-35 Sustainment: Need for Affordable Strategy, Greater Attention to Risks, and Improved Cost Estimates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    national security mission. One such weapon system is the F-35 Lightning II—also known as the Joint Strike Fighter—which is intended to replace a...The F-35 Lightning II program is a joint, multinational acquisition intended to develop and field an affordable family of next-generation strike ...GAO Did This Study The F-35 Lightning II is intended to replace a variety of existing aircraft in the Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps, while

  6. Noise Attenuation Performance of the Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) - Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) with the Lightning II Generation II Helmet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    1 Figure 2. a. F-35 Lightning II Gen II HMD b. Original ANR Earcups...Integrated System Ltd (HISL) active noise reduction ( ANR ) earcups (part number JS02591, Figure 2b), and a MBU-23/P oxygen mask with customized...F-35 Lightning II Gen II HMD b. Original ANR Earcups Table 1. JSAM-JSF Requirement (baseline Gen II HMD total attenuation data collected in

  7. F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter "JSF" Program: Background, Status, and Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-25

    procurement year for the United States). 44 Quadrennial Defense Review Cuts Procurement in FY1999, 2000, Aerospace Daily, May 20, 1997, p. 280. 45 Vago ...Backgrounder, October 3, 1996, pp. 4-5. 64 Vago Muradian and John Robinson, “Public Confidence at Odds with Private Concerns about Tacair,” Defense Daily...by Christopher Bolkcom. 85 Vago Muradian, “Coffman: JSF Critical to Preserving U.S. Leadership in World Fighter (continued...) manned combat aircraft

  8. F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background, Status, and Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-29

    Program: Background, Status, and Issues 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Congressional Research Service,The Library of Congress,101 Independence...Ave SE,Washington,DC,20540-7500 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR

  9. F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background, Status, and Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-17

    Program: Background, Status, and Issues 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Congressional Research Service,The Library of Congress,101...Independence Ave, SE,Washington,DC,20540 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S

  10. Lightning Tracking Tool for Assessment of Total Cloud Lightning within AWIPS II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burks, Jason E.; Stano, Geoffrey T.; Sperow, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Total lightning (intra-cloud and cloud-to-ground) has been widely researched and shown to be a valuable tool to aid real-time warning forecasters in the assessment of severe weather potential of convective storms. The trend of total lightning has been related to the strength of a storm's updraft. Therefore a rapid increase in total lightning signifies the strengthening of the parent thunderstorm. The assessment of severe weather potential occurs in a time limited environment and therefore constrains the use of total lightning. A tool has been developed at NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center to assist in quickly analyzing the total lightning signature of multiple storms. The development of this tool comes as a direct result of forecaster feedback from numerous assessments requesting a real-time display of the time series of total lightning. This tool also takes advantage of the new architecture available within the AWIPS II environment. SPoRT's lightning tracking tool has been tested in the Hazardous Weather Testbed (HWT) Spring Program and significant changes have been made based on the feedback. In addition to the updates in response to the HWT assessment, the lightning tracking tool may also be extended to incorporate other requested displays, such as the intra-cloud to cloud-to-ground ratio as well as incorporate the lightning jump algorithm.

  11. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Aircraft (F-35)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-198 F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Aircraft (F-35) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined TY

  12. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Aircraft (F-35)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    of Defense DSN - Defense Switched Network Econ - Economic Eng - Engineering Est - Estimating FMS - Foreign Military Sales FY - Fiscal Year IOC...March 26, 2012 Approved APB Defense Acquisition Executive (DAE) Approved Acquisition Program Baseline (APB) dated March 26, 2012 F-35 Engine SAR...Maintainability (R&M), cracks found during F-35B durability testing and F135 engine blade issues. These are typical challenges faced during a development program

  13. Lightning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pampe, William R.

    1970-01-01

    Presents basic physical theory for movement of electric charges in clouds, earth, and air during production of lightning and thunder. Amount of electrical energy produced and heating effects during typical thunderstorms is described. Generalized safety practices are given. (JM)

  14. Lightning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pampe, William R.

    1970-01-01

    Presents basic physical theory for movement of electric charges in clouds, earth, and air during production of lightning and thunder. Amount of electrical energy produced and heating effects during typical thunderstorms is described. Generalized safety practices are given. (JM)

  15. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-16

    Operational Test and Evaluation ( IOT &E), a subset of SDD.61 The eight partner countries are expected to purchase hundreds of F-35s, with the United...Netherlands have agreed to participate in the IOT &E program. UK, the senior F-35 partner, will have the strongest participation in the IOT &E phase...testing. (Telephone conversation with OSD/AT&L, October 3, 2007.) Other partner nations are still weighing their option to participate in the IOT &E

  16. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: Observations on Program Progress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-14

    F - 35 JOINT STRIKE FIGHTER Observations on Program Progress Statement of Michael J. Sullivan, Director Acquisition...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE F - 35 Joint Strike Fighter: Observations on Program Progress 5a...15-429T Chairman Turner, Ranking Member Sanchez, and Members of the Subcommittee: Thank you for the opportunity to discuss our work on the F - 35

  17. F-35 Alternate Engine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-22

    funding, forcing cuts in future capabilities and force structure . An official from the F-35 program office stated that the reduction in F- 35 procurement... structural failure of an F-15C. The fleet was returned to service on November 21, 2007. (“Entire F-15 Fleet Returning to Flight”, Air Combat Command...fund a second engine.16 Also in July, 2009, DOD created a Joint Assessment Team (JAT) “to investigate and understand Pratt & Whitney’s cost structure

  18. F-35 Alternate Engine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-10

    forcing cuts in future capabilities and force structure . An official from the F-35 program office stated that the reduction in F- 35 procurement over...Defense Report, June 1, 2009, p. 3. 5 For example, the Air Force grounded all of its F-15 aircraft on November 3, 2007, following midair structural ...and understand Pratt & Whitney’s cost structure and help the JSF office in its assessment of the company’s latest … bid. The JAT also will look at

  19. F-35 Alternate Engine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-10

    procured within a given total amount of F-35 acquisition funding, forcing cuts in future capabilities and force structure . An official from the F-35...its F-15 aircraft on November 3, 2007, following midair structural failure of an F-15C. The fleet was returned to service on November 21, 2007...understand Pratt & Whitney’s cost structure and help the JSF office in its assessment of the company’s latest … bid. The JAT also will look at

  20. F-35 Alternate Engine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-17

    in future capabilities and force structure . An official from the F-35 program office stated that the reduction in F- 35 procurement over the next...Report, June 1, 2009, p. 3. 5 For example, the Air Force grounded all of its F-15 aircraft on November 3, 2007, following midair structural failure...DOD created a Joint Assessment Team (JAT) “to investigate and understand Pratt & Whitney’s cost structure and help the JSF office in its assessment

  1. The remotely piloted Altus II aircraft probed lightning development with a variety of specialized in

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The remotely piloted Altus II aircraft probed lightning development with a variety of specialized instruments and cameras during a month-long study over Florida during the summer of 2002, including one sensor mounted on a boom extending from Altus' nose. The Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES), led by Dr. Richard Blakeslee of NASA Marshall Space Flight center, focused on the collection of electrical, magnetic and optical measurements of thunderstorms. Data collected will help scientists understand the development and life cycles of thunderstorms, which in turn may allow meteorologists to more accurately predict when destructive storms may hit. The Altus II, built by General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., is one of several remotely operated aircraft developed and matured under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. The program focused on developing airframe, propulsion, control system and communications technologies to allow unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to operate at very high altitudes for long durations while carrying a variety of sensors, cameras or other instruments for science experiments, surveillance or telecommunications relay missions.

  2. F-35 Alternate Engine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-20

    in future capabilities and force structure . An official from the F-35 program office stated that the reduction in F- 35 procurement over the next five...Report, June 1, 2009, p. 3. 5 For example, the Air Force grounded all of its F-15 aircraft on November 3, 2007, following midair structural failure of...Assessment Team (JAT) “to investigate and understand Pratt & Whitney’s cost structure and help the JSF office in its assessment of the company’s latest

  3. United States Air Force F-35A Operational Basing Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2, Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Initial F-35A Operational Basing EIS Volume II Final, September 2013 iii Appendix C Figures Figure C-1 Typical A-Weighted Sound Levels of Common ...actions. The Umbagog NWR supports one of the largest populations of common loons and ospreys in New Hampshire. Umbagog NWR also supports large numbers...analysis of the wildlife impacts described in the draft EIS. Section BR 3 .6.2.1 lists common species, but Umbagog NWR and the Pondicherry Division are

  4. Lightning NOx Production in CMAQ: Part II - Parameterization Based on Relationship between Observed NLDN Lightning Strikes and Modeled Convective Precipitation Rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lightning-produced nitrogen oxides (NOX=NO+NO2) in the middle and upper troposphere play an essential role in the production of ozone (O3) and influence the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. Despite much effort in both observing and modeling lightning NOX during the past dec...

  5. Lightning NOx Production in CMAQ: Part II - Parameterization Based on Relationship between Observed NLDN Lightning Strikes and Modeled Convective Precipitation Rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lightning-produced nitrogen oxides (NOX=NO+NO2) in the middle and upper troposphere play an essential role in the production of ozone (O3) and influence the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. Despite much effort in both observing and modeling lightning NOX during the past dec...

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for F-35 (Fluorine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope F-35 (Fluorine, atomic number Z = 9, mass number A = 35).

  7. Lightning Protection against Winter Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Hitoshi

    Winter lightning, which occurs along the Sea of Japan coast, often damages transmission lines and distribution lines with the conventional lightning protection. These lines in mountainous areas suffer extensive damage from winter lightning. It is very important to investigate the features of lightning outages in detail to improve the lightning protection measures against winter lightning, therefore observations of lightning strokes to transmission lines and distribution lines as well as measurements of lightning surges on these lines have been carried out. And then the lightning performance of various protection methods has studied by experiments and analyses. Taking into account these studies, the effective methods have been adopted. This paper presents the lightning protection of transmission lines and distribution lines against winter lightning.

  8. Planetary lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.; Clayton, R. N.; Buseck, P. R.; Hua, X.; Holsapple, K. A.; Esposito, L. W.; Aherns, T. J.; Hecht, J.

    The present state of knowledge concerning lightning on the planets is reviewed. Voyager data have clearly established the presence of lightning discharges at each of the four Jovian planets. In situ data for lightning on Venus are discussed in some detail, including reported quantitative occurrence rates and hypotheses concerning the relationship of Venusian lightning to VLF bursts observed in the Venus atmosphere.

  9. Lightning injuries.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe Gatewood, Medley; Zane, Richard D

    2004-05-01

    Lightning is persistently one of the leading causes of death caused by environmental or natural disaster. To understand the pathophysiology and treatment of lightning injuries one must first discount the innumerable myths, superstitions, and misconceptions surrounding lightning. The fundamental difference between high voltage electrical injury and lightning is the duration of exposure to current. Reverse triage should be instituted in lightning strike victims because victims in cardiopulmonary arrest might gain the greatest benefit from resuscitation efforts, although there is no good evidence suggesting that lightning strike victims might benefit from longer than usual resuscitation times. Many of the injuries suffered by lightning strike victims are unique to lightning, and long-term sequelae should be anticipated and addressed in the lightning victim.

  10. Advances in lightning research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Vernon; Rachidi, Farhad

    2017-02-01

    This is the part II of a special issue dedicated to lightning research, consisting of papers presented at the 32nd International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP), held in Shanghai, China, in 2014, and several contributions invited by the guest editors to complement the subject matter of the papers selected from the ICLP. The papers from the ICLP were selected by the session chairmen of the ICLP and passed through the rigorous review process of the Journal of Solar Terrestrial and Atmospheric Physics (JASTP). The papers presented in this special issue contain subject matter pertinent to all aspects of lightning research both theoretical and experimental.

  11. Lightning Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Lightning causes an estimated $50 million annually in damages to power lines, transformers and other electric utility equipment. Lightning strikes are not yet predictable, but U.S. East Coast Lightning Detection Network (LDN) is providing utilities and other clients data on lightning characteristics, flash frequency and location, and the general direction in which lightning associated storms are heading. Monitoring stations are equipped with direction finding antennas that detect lightning strikes reaching the ground by measuring fluctuations in the magnetic field. Stations relay strike information to SUNY-Albany-LDN operations center which is manned around the clock. Computers process data, count strikes, spot their locations, and note other characteristics of lightning, LDN's data is beamed to a satellite for broadcast to client's receiving stations. By utilizing real-time lightning strike information, managers are now more able to effectively manage their resources. This reduces outage time for utility customers.

  12. Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An airplane's wingtip tank is being struck by simulated lightning in a test conducted by Lightning Technologies, Inc., a firm specializing in design features to protect aircraft from the hazard of electrical phenomena. Much of the technology employed in tests originated in NASA - sponsored studies focusing on effects of lightning on aircraft structures, electrical systems, and fuel tanks, and on means of protecting against hazardous effects.

  13. Ball lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenhoff, Mark

    Ball lightning is alleged by some to be a rare atmospheric phenomenon usually associated with thunderstorms, while others hold that it does not exist. This controversy has continued for centuries. This study comprises a critical evaluation of evidence for the existence of ball lightning. An historical review of the controversy is first presented, giving a chronological account of developments in ball lightning theories and of important observations alleged to be of the phenomenon. Other phenomena which might be mistaken for ball lightning are then subjected to a more detailed study than has hitherto been published, and the means by which such misidentifications could be recognized areestablished. A discussion of psychological and perceptual aspects indicates that descriptions could not always be taken at face value, and that many accounts of alleged ball lightning would be expected to contain substantial inaccuracies. The original intention to evaluate cases of alleged ball lightning already published in scientific journals was abandoned because there was no standardisation of information content, and because the majority of reports contained insufficient information for evaluation. Many reports had been written in a style which indicated an assumption that ball lightning was the cause of the event. Approximately 200 unpublished reports were therefore collected and subjected to evaluation. It was found that the majority of reports of alleged ball lightning could be explained by other means, and there was only a very small residue of reports which could not easily be thus explained. A large proportion of the reports could be attributed to corona discharge effects such as St Elmo's fire, or by familiar effects of conventional linear lightning. The validity of many previously published statistical studies of ball lightning was shown to be doubtful. The thesis concludes with a comparitive discussion of the merits and demerits of some of the diverse physical models

  14. Objective Lightning Probability Forecasting for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred; Wheeler, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the work done by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to update the lightning probability forecast equations developed in Phase I. In the time since the Phase I equations were developed, new ideas regarding certain predictors were formulated and a desire to make the tool more automated was expressed by 45 WS forecasters. Five modifications were made to the data: 1) increased the period of record from 15 to 17 years, 2) modified the valid area to match the lighting warning areas, 3) added the 1000 UTC CCAFS sounding to the other soundings in determining the flow regime, 4) used a different smoothing function for the daily climatology, and 5) determined the optimal relative humidity (RH) layer to use as a predictor. The new equations outperformed the Phase I equations in several tests, and improved the skill of the forecast over the Phase I equations by 8%. A graphical user interface (GUI) was created in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) that gathers the predictor values for the equations automatically. The GUI was transitioned to operations in May 2007 for the 2007 warm season.

  15. Lightning Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Zen

    This paper presents a phenomenological idea about lightning flash to share the back ground understanding for this special issue. Lightning discharges are one of the terrible phenomena, and Benjamin Franklin has led this natural phenomenon to the stage of scientific investigation. Technical aspects like monitoring and location are also summarized in this article.

  16. Absorption of gamma-ray photons in a vacuum neutron star magnetosphere: II. The formation of 'lightnings'

    SciTech Connect

    Istomin, Ya. N. Sob'yanin, D. N.

    2011-10-15

    The absorption of a high-energy photon from the external cosmic gamma-ray background in the inner neutron star magnetosphere triggers the generation of a secondary electron-positron plasma and gives rise to a lightning-a lengthening and simultaneously expanding plasma tube. It propagates along magnetic fields lines with a velocity close to the speed of light. The high electron-positron plasma generation rate leads to dynamical screening of the longitudinal electric field that is provided not by charge separation but by electric current growth in the lightning. The lightning radius is comparable to the polar cap radius of a radio pulsar. The number of electron-positron pairs produced in the lightning in its lifetime reaches 10{sup 28}. The density of the forming plasma is comparable to or even higher than that in the polar cap regions of ordinary pulsars. This suggests that the radio emission from individual lightnings can be observed. Since the formation time of the radio emission is limited by the lightning lifetime, the possible single short radio bursts may be associated with rotating radio transients (RRATs).

  17. Lightning Science: Five Ways Lightning Strikes People

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products and Services Careers Contact Us Glossary Lightning Science: Five Ways Lightning Strikes People It is not ... of a streamer injury. For more on the science of lightning: National Severe Storms Laboratory NWS Colorado ...

  18. Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Kit-built airplanes are more affordable because they are assembled by the owner and do not require Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification. The Glasair III, is an advanced technology homebuilt, constructed of a fiberglass and graphite fiber composite material, and equipped with digital instruments. Both technologies make the airplane more susceptible to lightning effects. When Glasair manufacturer, Stoddard-Hamilton, decided that lightning protection would enable more extensive instrument flight and make the plane more marketable, they proposed a joint development program to NASA Langley Research Center (LAR). Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Langley contractors designed and tested a lightning protection system, and the Glasair III-LP became the first kit-built composite aircraft to be lightning tested and protection-verified under FAA guidelines for general aviation aircraft.

  19. United States Air Force F-35A Operational Basing Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix E: Comments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Report totals 2440 pages 14. ABSTRACT Development and fielding of...concentration, increasi ng anxiety and blood pressure. SAFTY 1 . NEW aircraft crash du ring their initial development period. Bringi ng the F-35 to...negatively impacted by the noise] SAFTY ALL NEW military aircraft designs suffer crashes during their initial development peri~ Bringing the F-35

  20. The F-35 JSF: Beginning of the End for Blue-Water Ops?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-06

    program to be funded for another year. Major General David Heinz, former Director Joint Strike Fighter Program, said that he favors continuing production...30Sweetman, 48. 31Timothy Staley and Jeffrey Johnson, "F-35: First~Ever Fixed Wing Full-Up System Level," Aircraft Survivability, Fall2007, 28...in the Twentieth Century. New York, NY: Penguin Group, 2001. Staley , Timothy and Johnson, Jeffrey. "F-35: First-Ever Fixed Wing Full-Up System

  1. United States Air Force F-35A Operational Basing Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix E: Comments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    environmental advocacy organization, with a 50-year history of advocating for Vennont’s environment , sustainable communities, and a strong economy. We are...affects minorities and low-income people J 6 . It will pollute our environment ~ 7 . The AF says the F-35 will bring environmental harm to our...minorities and low-income people] 6. It will pollute our environment ~ 7. The AF says the F-35 will bring environmental harm to our communities 8. The AF

  2. Lightning Current Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Lightning Current Detector (LCD) was developed to monitor the magnitude of lightning strikes. Information it supplies is useful in evaluating lightning protection designs for such systems as telephone cables, radio broadcast towers, power transmission equipment and oil well towers.

  3. Lightning Detection in a Flash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    In a joint project with NASA's Kennedy Space Center, Global Atmospherics, Inc. (GAI), participated in the upgrade and commercialization of the Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) System. Under a Space Act Agreement, GAI and Kennedy agreed to the joint development of a new LDAR system that meets the needs of both NASA and private industry. The resulting development was a volumetric lightning mapping system. NASA operates a three- dimensional LDAR system capable of determining the exact location and altitude of in-cloud and cloud-to-cloud lightning. Under the Space Act Agreement, GAI contributed its wealth of experience and resources to update and improve the current lightning mapping system used by NASA. Previously, commercial systems were only capable of locating cloud-to-ground lightning. The resulting innovations allowed GAI to position the LDAR system for commercial applications. The upgraded product has the ability to measure in-cloud and cloud-to-cloud lightning. Notable improvements have also been made in the system's location accuracy and signal detection. The new product, known as LDAR II, is targeted for use by utility providers, aviation companies, airports, and commercial space vehicle launch facilities. Presently, forecasting services, research facilities, and a utility company are using the system.

  4. An Integrated 0-1 Hour First-Flash Lightning Nowcasting, Lightning Amount and Lightning Jump Warning Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mecikalski, John; Jewett, Chris; Carey, Larry; Zavodsky, Brad; Stano, Geoffrey; Chronis, Themis

    2015-01-01

    Using satellite-based methods that provide accurate 0-1 hour convective initiation (CI) nowcasts, and rely on proven success coupling satellite and radar fields in the Corridor Integrated Weather System (CIWS; operated and developed at MIT-Lincoln Laboratory), to subsequently monitor for first-flash lightning initiation (LI) and later period lightning trends as storms evolve. Enhance IR-based methods within the GOES-R CI Algorithm (that must meet specific thresholds for a given cumulus cloud before the cloud is considered to have an increased likelihood of producing lightning next 90 min) that forecast LI. Integrate GOES-R CI and LI fields with radar thresholds (e.g., first greater than or equal to 40 dBZ echo at the -10 C altitude) and NWP model data within the WDSS-II system for LI-events from new convective storms. Track ongoing lightning using Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) and pseudo-Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) data to assess per-storm lightning trends (e.g., as tied to lightning jumps) and outline threat regions. Evaluate the ability to produce LI nowcasts through a "lightning threat" product, and obtain feedback from National Weather Service forecasters on its value as a decision support tool.

  5. United States Air Force F-35A Operational Basing Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    04/10/2013 2. REPORT TYPE Final Environmental Impact Statement 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 30/12/2009-2/12/2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE F-35A...available. Must cite at least the year and be Year 2000 compliant, e.g. 30-06-1998; xx-06-1998; xx-xx-1998. 2. REPORT TYPE . State the type of report...the alternatives and associated scenarios. Beddown of the F-35A would change noise conditions and the type of land uses affected by aircraft noise at

  6. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-18

    separate tactical aircraft designs to meet their similar but not identical operational needs.3 DOD states that the F-35 program “was structured from the...avionics, and major airframe structural components— are common. 3 Secretary of Defense William Cohen stated in 2000 that the JSF’s joint approach...legacy aircraft. 14 Engine The F-35 is powered by the Pratt and Whitney F135 engine, which was derived from the F-22’s Pratt and Whitney F119 engine

  7. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-16

    that the F-35 program “was structured from the beginning to be a model of acquisition reform, with an emphasis on jointness, technology maturation...avionics, and major airframe structural components— are common. Secretary of Defense William Cohen stated in 2000 that the JSF’s joint approach...Engine Program The F-35 is powered by the Pratt and Whitney F135 engine, which was derived from the F-22’s Pratt and Whitney F119 engine. The F135 is

  8. Lightning Physics,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-03

    Subsequent Lightning Return Strokes in the 1-200 km Range," Radio Science, 15, 1089-1094, 1980, G.I. Serhan , M.A. Uman, D.G. Childers, and Y.T. Lin. "Errors...Spectrum of First and Subsequent Liqhtning Return Strokes in the 1-200 km Ranqe," (Abstract), Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 60, 270, (1979), G.I. Serhan

  9. Lightning superbolts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A rare type of lightning bolt previously not thought to occur in flatlands has been identified in Oklahoma prairie storms and could pose a danger to structures not built to withstand it. Researchers at NOAA say the discovery could indicate that buildings or power plants designed on the assumption that such destructive bolts do not occur in flatland might not be safe. The positive charge cloud-to-ground flashes once were thought to strike only when triggered by a tall structure or mountaintop, or, on rare occasions, at the end of a storm.‘Most storms never produce this kind of lightning. In a few storms, there may be one positive bolt, just as the storm is dissipating—sort of the last gasp of the storm,’ according to David Rust of the National Severe Storms Laboratory. Rust added that the triggered bolts often are very high current, making them especially destructive. ‘We know these bolts don't occur in garden variety storms. We are trying to find if the occurrence of this kind of lightning is linked with storm severity,’ Rust said

  10. Preparing Specialized Undergraduate Pilot Training Graduates for F-35A Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    fly most aircraft, but lacks the complexity to prepare potential F-35A student pilots for managing sensors. Lastly, the formation phase introduces...complementary computer simulators. Some major issues 5 addressed will be information management , sensor fusion and management , flying with might...

  11. United States Air Force F-35A Operational Basing Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix E: Comments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    appeared or sent representatives - not Democratic Senator Patrick Leahy who says he wants the F-35 in Burlington, not independent Senator Bernie Sanders...Cc: Subject: William A Wood Friday, July 12,2013 2:1 0PM Germanos, Nicholas M Civ USAF HQ ACC/A7NS bernie _sanders@ sanders.senate.gov

  12. Lightning safety guidelines.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Christoph; Cooper, Mary Ann; Holle, Ronald L

    2002-06-01

    On average, lightning causes more casualties annually in the United States than any other storm-related phenomenon except floods. Although 90% of those injured survive, they may have permanent sequelae and disability. Many of these people incur injuries or are killed by lightning because of misinformation and inappropriate behavior during thunderstorms. A few simple precautions can reduce lightning injury risk. To standardize recommended actions during thunderstorms, the Lightning Safety Group (LSG), composed of lightning experts from many lightning-related backgrounds, met at the American Meteorological Society meeting Phoenix, AZ, in January 1998 to collectively address personal lightning safety. This paper is a summary of the recommendations developed by the LSG.

  13. Lightning Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    33-38, 1975. 6. Schonland, B.F.J., The Lightning Discharge, Handbuch der Physik , 22, 576-628, Springer-Verlag, OHG, Berlin, 1956. 25 (K,z) R GROUND o... Dictionary of Electrical and Electronic Terms, IEEE Std 100-1977, New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1977. 313 cc C 0J 0J o -4 0$4j 4j)4J 0 1.4 >- ~ o 0 0 .,.C...Electric Power Research Institute) EL-1140, Project 1141 Final Report, Sept. 1979. 8. IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms, Wiley

  14. A Modeling Framework for Optimizing F 35A Strategic Basing Decisions to Meet Training Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    Chuck Stelzner, William W. Taylor, Joseph V. Vesely A Modeling Framework for Optimizing F-35A Strategic Basing Decisions to Meet Training Requirements...www.rand.org/pubs/permissions. The RAND Corporation is a research organization that develops solutions to public policy challenges to help make...decision (Samaras et al., 2016). To begin to address this gap, PAF developed a methodology in FY 2014 to assess the cost, effectiveness, and risk

  15. F-35 Sustainment: DOD Needs a Plan to Address Risks Related to Its Central Logistics System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    Significant breaches occur when the program acquisition unit cost or procurement unit cost increases by at least 15 percent over the current baseline...unit costs increase at least 25 percent over the current baseline estimate or at least 50 percent over the original, DOD is required to take additional...critical breaches, as was the case with the F-35 in 2010, when these unit costs increase at least 25 percent over the current baseline estimate or at

  16. AlumiPlate Electroplated Aluminum Performance and Usage on F-35 & F-22

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-27

    amortizing to URF too expensive Unit Recurring Flyaway ( URF ) & MRO Cost $ - Must be equal or less than existing technology Supply Chain...DLAroven – es a a - oc ee , oo r c , , o NRE Tooling & Part Process Validation Unit Recurring Flyaway ( URF ) & MRO Cost Supply Chain Availability 3/4...validation on F22 MLG piston & pins 2007 / 2008 AFRL contract for NRE on F35 LG Unit Recurring Flyaway ( URF ) & MRO Cost Supply Chain

  17. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: Development of New Capabilities Requires Continued Oversight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-26

    Expected at 10:00 a.m. ET Tuesday, April 26, 2016 GAO-16-634T United States Government Accountability Office Letter Page 1 GAO-16-634T F-35...difficult for Congress to hold it accountable for achieving its cost, schedule, and performance requirements. Given that congressional oversight... Accountability Office, the audit, evaluation, and investigative arm of Congress, exists to support Congress in meeting its constitutional

  18. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: Assessment Needed to Address Affordability Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE APR 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015...systems and flight sciences . Mission systems testing is done to verify that the software and systems that provide warfighting capabilities function...properly and meet requirements, while flight science testing is done to verify the aircraft’s basic flying capabilities. For the F-35 program, DOD is

  19. F-35 Joint Striker Fighter (JSF) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-13

    not identical operational needs.2 DOD states that the F-35 program “was structured from the beginning to be a model of acquisition reform, with an...including their engines, avionics, and major airframe structural components— are common. Secretary of Defense William Cohen stated in 2000 that the JSF’s...Whitney F119 engine. Consistent with congressional direction in 1996, DOD established an alternative engine program with the General Electric/Rolls

  20. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-13

    identical operational needs.2 DOD states that the F-35 program “was structured from the beginning to be a model of acquisition reform, with an...their engines, avionics, and major airframe structural components— are common. Secretary of Defense William Cohen stated in 2000 that the JSF’s joint...Whitney F119 engine. Consistent with congressional direction in 1996, DOD established an alternative engine program with the General Electric/Rolls-Royce

  1. Record of Decision for the First Air National Guard F-35A Operational Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-02

    with local fire departments on F-35A crash response procedures. Soils and Water • Sequence construction activities to limit the soil exposure for...CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Larry H. Dryden a. REPORT Unclassified...mandated availability statements to indicate the public availability or distribution limitations of the report. If additional limitations / restrictions

  2. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-23

    International partners are also assisting with Initial Operational Test and Evaluation ( IOT &E), a subset of...40 Currently, the UK, Italy, and the Netherlands have agreed to participate in the IOT &E program. UK, the senior F-35 partner, will...have the strongest participation in the IOT &E phase. Italy and the Netherlands are contributing a far smaller amount and will take part only in the

  3. Lightning Instrumentation at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colon, Jose L.; Eng, D.

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes lightning phenomena with a brief explanation of lightning generation and lightning activity as related to KSC. An analysis of the instrumentation used at launching Pads 39 A&B for measurements of lightning effects is included with alternatives and recommendations to improve the protection system and upgrade the actual instrumentation system. An architecture for a new data collection system to replace the present one is also included. A novel architecture to obtain lightning current information from several sensors using only one high speed recording channel while monitoring all sensors to replace the actual manual lightning current recorders and a novel device for the protection system are described.

  4. The Unit of Lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Boeck, William L.; Christian, Hugh J.

    1999-01-01

    For the past century, scientists have made quantitative measurements of lightning discharges. In the process, they refined the definition of a lightning unit, or basic quantum of lightning, in order to base it on observable parameters. Although many components of a lightning discharge have been identified, lightning usually occur in groups of discharges or pulses that, although complex, can be organized into units of flashes. This unit definition is based mainly on measurements of lightning from electric field, video, and ground flash lightning locating networks. More recent instrumentation with various combinations of high sensitivity, high temporal, or high spatial resolution often measure signals produced by lightning that do not cleanly divide into flashes. The data from these systems indicate the need or a more fundamental unit for lightning. Such a unit would be of benefit for both basic understanding of lightning and comparing lightning information between instruments. Without a common lightning unit definition, intercomparisons are difficult. For an example, the Lightning Detection And Ranging system (LDAR) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have detected ,flash' rates as high as 600 per minute while analysis based on the Advanced Ground Based Field Mill network (AGBFM) detect only 33 "flashes" per minute in the same area and time periods. The satellite based Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) sometimes see single "flashes" that last longer than 10 seconds. Such long duration flashes are not found in electric field records or ground strike location system data sets. The unit of lightning should be based on the fundamental components of the lightning discharge. This should make the unit as generally applicable as possible. For example, studies of NO(x) production by lightning depend on parameters of the individual lightning channels and not the summary flash characteristics. For such studies, the best unit of lightning may be

  5. Lightning Physics and Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orville, Richard E.

    2004-03-01

    Lightning Physics and Effects is not a lightning book; it is a lightning encyclopedia. Rarely in the history of science has one contribution covered a subject with such depth and thoroughness as to set the enduring standard for years, perhaps even decades, to come. This contribution covers all aspects of lightning, including lightning physics, lightning protection, and the interaction of lightning with a variety of objects and systems as well as the environment. The style of writing is well within the ability of the technical non-expert and anyone interested in lightning and its effects. Potential readers will include physicists; engineers working in the power industry, communications, computer, and aviation industries; atmospheric scientists; geophysicists; meteorologists; atmospheric chemists; foresters; ecologists; physicians working in the area of electrical trauma; and, lastly, architects. This comprehensive reference volume contains over 300 illustrations, 70 tables with quantitative information, and over 6000 reference and bibliography entries.

  6. Updated Lightning Safety Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrek, R. James; Holle, Ronald L.; Lopez, Raul E.

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes the recommendations of the Lightning Safety Group (LSG), which was first convened during the 1998 American Meteorological Society Conference. Findings outline appropriate actions under various circumstances when lightning threatens. (WRM)

  7. The Lightning Discharge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orville, Richard E.

    1976-01-01

    Correspondence of Benjamin Franklin provides authenticity to a historical account of early work in the field of lightning. Present-day theories concerning the formation and propagation of lightning are expressed and photographic evidence provided. (CP)

  8. The Lightning Discharge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orville, Richard E.

    1976-01-01

    Correspondence of Benjamin Franklin provides authenticity to a historical account of early work in the field of lightning. Present-day theories concerning the formation and propagation of lightning are expressed and photographic evidence provided. (CP)

  9. Updated Lightning Safety Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrek, R. James; Holle, Ronald L.; Lopez, Raul E.

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes the recommendations of the Lightning Safety Group (LSG), which was first convened during the 1998 American Meteorological Society Conference. Findings outline appropriate actions under various circumstances when lightning threatens. (WRM)

  10. Global Lightning Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Hugh J.

    2004-01-01

    Our knowledge of the global distribution of lightning has improved dramatically since the advent of spacebased lightning observations. Of major importance was the 1995 launch of the Optical Transient Detector (OTD), followed in 1997 by the launch of the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). Together, these instruments have generated a continuous eight-year record of global lightning activity. These lightning observations have provided a new global perspective on total lightning activity. For the first time, total lightning activity (cloud-to-ground and intra-cloud) has been observed over large regions with high detection efficiency and accurate geographic location. This has produced new insights into lightning distributions, times of occurrence and variability. It has produced a revised global flash rate estimate (44 flashes per second) and has lead to a new realization of the significance of total lightning activity in severe weather. Accurate flash rate estimates are now available over large areas of the earth (+/- 72 deg. latitude). Ocean-land contrasts as a function of season are clearly reveled, as are orographic effects and seasonal and interannual variability. The space-based observations indicate that air mass thunderstorms, not large storm system dominate global activity. The ability of LIS and OTD to detect total lightning has lead to improved insight into the correlation between lightning and storm development. The relationship between updraft development and lightning activity is now well established and presents an opportunity for providing a new mechanism for remotely monitoring storm development. In this concept, lightning would serve as a surrogate for updraft velocity. It is anticipated that this capability could lead to significantly improved severe weather warning times and reduced false warning rates. This talk will summarize our space-based lightning measurements, will discuss how lightning observations can be used to monitor severe weather, and

  11. Lightning safety of animals.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed.

  12. Thunderclouds and Lightning Conductors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, P. F.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the historical background of the development of lightning conductors, describes the nature of thunderclouds and the lightning flash, and provides a calculation of the electric field under a thundercloud. Also discussed are point discharge currents and the attraction theory of the lightning conductor. (JR)

  13. Thunderclouds and Lightning Conductors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, P. F.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the historical background of the development of lightning conductors, describes the nature of thunderclouds and the lightning flash, and provides a calculation of the electric field under a thundercloud. Also discussed are point discharge currents and the attraction theory of the lightning conductor. (JR)

  14. United States Air Force F-35A Operational Basing Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix E: Comments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    help protect our region and country. Additionally, I also support it for the economic benefit the base provides of our area because of the large...participation . There is wor l d hunger, overdevelopment, government corruption, poverty, storm water, deforestation . . ..... Don’t make i t so that people...I feel they have had an amazing record of service for our State. However) I don’t f eel that the benefits offered to the ANG by bringing the F35’s

  15. An f/35 submillimeter photometer for the NASA infrared telescope facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitcomb, S. E.; Hildebrand, R. H.; Keene, J.

    1981-01-01

    The design and performance of an f/35 submillimeter photometer are discussed. It is noted that the instrument provides for both broad- and medium-width passbands between 350 microns and 2 mm and for beam sizes between 28 arcsec and 100 arcsec FWHM. Under good atmospheric conditions, a broad-band 400 micron sensitivity of approximately 1.5 Jy is found to be obtainable in one hour. A description is given of the photometer's support housing, submillimeter radiometer, and electronics and data-handling system. In evaluating the performance, attention is given to sensitivity, beam profiles, and the effect of changes in the aperture on the signal.

  16. United States Air Force F-35A Operational Basing Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix E: Comments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    t he Audubon Society of Vermont: bee~ "Bald Eagle numbers have inc reased substantially during t he past 2 decades , and Vermont is now host to 13...ACC/A7NS From: Sent: To: Subject: Dear Mr Germanos, Doherty, John Monday, July 15, 2013 8:47PM Germanos, Nicholas M Civ USAF HQ ACC/A7NS F35...Airshow l Prove it is awesome and people will come out to support it. John T. Doherty ROMS, RVT E-819 Germanos, Nicholas M Civ USAF HQ ACC/A7NS From

  17. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-16

    aircraft designs to meet their similar but not identical operational needs.2 DOD states that the F-35 program “was structured from the beginning to be...versions. Many of the three versions’ high-cost components—including their engines, avionics, and major airframe structural components— are common...engine, which was derived from the F-22’s Pratt and Whitney F119 engine. The F135 is produced in Pratt and Whitney’s facilities in East Hartford

  18. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-25

    35 program “was structured from the beginning to be a model of acquisition reform, with an emphasis on jointness, technology maturation and concept...major airframe structural components— are common. Secretary of Defense William Cohen stated in 2000 that the JSF’s joint approach “avoids the three...The F-35 is powered by the Pratt and Whitney F135 engine, which was derived from the F-22’s Pratt and Whitney F119 engine. The F135 is produced in

  19. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background, Status, and Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-19

    team was an almost tailless aircraft , powered by separate lift and lift/cruise engines. The use of separate engines was reportedly a factor in the...Issues Summary The Defense Department’s F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) is one of three aircraft programs at the center of current debate over tactical...landing (CTOL), carrier-capable (CV), and short take-off vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft for the U.S. Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps and the UK Royal

  20. United States Air Force F-35A Operational Basing Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix E: Comments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    inform the final decision. Calvert Cliffs Coordinating Comm., Inc. v. U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 449 F.2d 1109, 1123 (D.C. Cir. 197l)(Intent ofNEPA is...James A. Dumont, Esq. R0252 E-503 Comments of Richard Joseph et al on F-35A Operational Basing DEIS July 15, 2013 Page 27 (e) Energy requirements...is justi lied on the prin- ciple that a 3 dB increase is a doubling of the energy received by the car. and therefore exposure time ought to be cut

  1. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-07

    otherwise been necessary, saving at least $15 billion.” ( Letter from Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen to Rep. Jerry Lewis, June 22, 2000. The text of... letter made available by Inside the Air Force on June 23, 2000.) 3 Department of Defense. Selected Acquisition Report (SAR)[for] F-35 (JSF...the Air Force, July 31, 2009; Antonie Boessenkool, “Pratt & Whitney’s Costs Parts-Reject Rate Too High: JSF Official,” Defense News, August 3, 2009: 14

  2. F-35 Force Development Evaluation and Weapons School Beddown Environmental Impact Statement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Escuela de Armas y la Evaluación de Desarrollo de la Fuerza al probar los sistemas de los aviones, desarrollar y refinar las tácticas y maniobras que...de un hangar F-35 y unidades de mantenimiento, así como una instalación de equipo aeroespacial de tierra; una rampa/estacionamiento para los aviones...deficiencias encontradas después del despliegue del sistema ; ♦ explora medios no materiales (por ejemplo, tácticas) para satisfacer requisitos

  3. MSFC shuttle lightning research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Otha H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The shuttle mesoscale lightning experiment (MLE), flown on earlier shuttle flights, and most recently flown on the following space transportation systems (STS's), STS-31, -32, -35, -37, -38, -40, -41, and -48, has continued to focus on obtaining additional quantitative measurements of lightning characteristics and to create a data base for use in demonstrating observation simulations for future spaceborne lightning mapping systems. These flights are also providing design criteria data for the design of a proposed shuttle MLE-type lightning research instrument called mesoscale lightning observational sensors (MELOS), which are currently under development here at MSFC.

  4. MSFC shuttle lightning research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Otha H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The shuttle mesoscale lightning experiment (MLE), flown on earlier shuttle flights, and most recently flown on the following space transportation systems (STS's), STS-31, -32, -35, -37, -38, -40, -41, and -48, has continued to focus on obtaining additional quantitative measurements of lightning characteristics and to create a data base for use in demonstrating observation simulations for future spaceborne lightning mapping systems. These flights are also providing design criteria data for the design of a proposed shuttle MLE-type lightning research instrument called mesoscale lightning observational sensors (MELOS), which are currently under development here at MSFC.

  5. Lightning in superconductors.

    PubMed

    Vestgården, J I; Shantsev, D V; Galperin, Y M; Johansen, T H

    2012-01-01

    Crucially important for application of type-II superconductor films is the stability of the vortex matter--magnetic flux lines penetrating the material. If some vortices get detached from pinning centres, the energy dissipated by their motion will facilitate further depinning, and may trigger a massive electromagnetic breakdown. Up to now, the time-resolved behaviour of these ultra-fast events was essentially unknown. We report numerical simulation results revealing the detailed dynamics during breakdown as within nanoseconds it develops branching structures in the electromagnetic fields and temperature, with striking resemblance of atmospheric lightning. During a dendritic avalanche the superconductor is locally heated above its critical temperature, while electrical fields rise to several kV/m as the front propagates at instant speeds near up to 100 km/s. The numerical approach provides an efficient framework for understanding the ultra-fast coupled non-local dynamics of electromagnetic fields and dissipation in superconductor films.

  6. A Lightning Safety Primer for Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attarian, Aram

    1992-01-01

    Provides the following information about lightning, which is necessary for camp administrators and staff: (1) warning signs of lightning; (2) dangers of lightning; (3) types of lightning injuries; (4) prevention of lightning injury; and (5) helpful training tips. (KS)

  7. A Lightning Safety Primer for Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attarian, Aram

    1992-01-01

    Provides the following information about lightning, which is necessary for camp administrators and staff: (1) warning signs of lightning; (2) dangers of lightning; (3) types of lightning injuries; (4) prevention of lightning injury; and (5) helpful training tips. (KS)

  8. An Integrated 0-1 Hour First-Flash Lightning Nowcasting, Lightning Amount and Lightning Jump Warning Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mecikalski, John; Jewett, Chris; Carey, Larry; Zavodsky, Brad; Stano, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    . 2011) to monitor lightning trends and to anticipate/forecast severe weather (hail > or =2.5 cm, winds > or =25 m/s, tornadoes). The result will be a time-continuous algorithm that uses GOES satellite, radar fields, and HRRR model fields to nowcast first-flash LI and QL, and subsequently monitors lightning trends on a perstorm basis within the LJ algorithm for possible severe weather occurrence out to > or =3 hours. The LI-QL-LJ product will also help prepare the operational forecast community for Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) data expected in late 2015, as these data are monitored for ongoing convective storms. The LI-QL-LJ product will first predict where new lightning is highly probable using GOES imagery of developing cumulus clouds, followed by n analysis of NWS (dual-polarization) radar indicators (reflectivity at the -10 C altitude) of lightning occurrence, to increase confidence that LI is immanent. Once lightning is observed, time-continuous lightning mapping array and Pseudo-GLM observations will be analyzed to assess trends and the severe weather threat as identified by trends in lightning (i.e. LJs). Additionally, 5- and 15-min GOES imagery will then be evaluated on a per-storm basis for overshooting and other cloud-top features known to be associated with severe storms. For the processing framework, the GOES-R 0-1 hour convective initiation algorithm's output will be developed within the Warning Decision Support System - Integrated Information (WDSS-II) tracking tool, and merged with radar and lightning (LMA/Psuedo-GLM) datasets for active storms. The initial focus of system development will be over North Alabama for select lightning-active days in summer 2014, yet will be formed in an expandable manner. The lightning alert tool will also be developed in concert with National Weather Service (NWS) forecasters to meet their needs for real-time, accurate first-flash LI and timing, as well as anticipated lightning trends, amounts, continuation and

  9. First Lightning Flashes on Saturn

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-14

    NASA Cassini spacecraft captured the first lightning flashes on Saturn. The storm that generated the lightning lasted from January to October 2009, making it the longest-lasting lightning storm known in the solar system.

  10. Global Lightning Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Hugh

    2003-01-01

    Our knowledge of the global distribution of lightning has improved dramatically since the 1995 launch of the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) followed in 1997 by the launch of the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). Together, these instruments have generated a continuous seven-year record of global lightning activity. These lightning observations have provided a new global perspective on total lightning activity. For the first time, total lightning activity (CG and IC) has been observed over large regions with high detection efficiencies and accurate geographic location. This has produced new insights into lightning distributions, times of occurrence and variability. It has produced a revised global flash rate estimate (46 flashes per second) and has lead to a new realization of the significance of total lightning activity in severe weather. Accurate flash rate estimates are now available for large areas of the earth (+/- 72deg latitude) Ocean-land contrasts as a function of season are clearly revealed, as are orographic effects and seasonal and interannual variability. The data set indicates that air mass thunderstorms, not large storm systems dominate global activity. The ability of LIS and OTD to detect total lightning has lead to improved insight into the correlation between lightning and storm development. The relationship between updraft development and lightning activity is now well established and presents an opportunity for providing a new mechanism for remotely monitoring storm development. In this concept, lightning would serve as a surrogate for updraft velocity. It is anticipated hat this capability could lead to significantly improved severe weather warning times and reduced false warning rates.

  11. Tortuosity of lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, R. D.

    Characteristics of lightning tortuosity from a number of investigations are studied, and the tentative conclusion reached is that tortuosity stems primarily from a lack of electric field directivity at the head of the lightning flash leader. There is strong evidence that the tortuosity of a lightning flash is polarity-dependent, and the influence of an induced junction leader on the initial oncoming leader is indicated.

  12. Lightning Injury: A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    who do not arrest) by hypertension , tachycardia, non-specific EKG changes, and contraction-band myocardial necrosis. Myocardial infarction, however, is...aspects, pathophysiology, and treatment. Adv Trauma 1989;4:241–88. [35] Cherington M, Yarnell PR. Ball lightning encephalopathy . J Burn Care Rehab...D. MRI in lightning encephalopathy . Neurology 1993;43(7): 1437–8. [88] Milton WJ, Hal O’Dell R, Warner EG. MRI of lightning injury: early white

  13. Polar Lightning on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Images taken by the New Horizons Long-Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) of Jupiter's night side showed lightning strikes. Each 'strike' is probably the cumulative brightness of multiple strikes. This is the first lightning seen at high latitudes on Jupiter; it demonstrates that convection is not confined to lower latitudes, implying an internal driving heat source. Their power is consistent with previous lightning measurements at Jupiter's lower latitudes, equivalent to extremely bright terrestrial 'super bolts.'

  14. Lightning frequency over the Italian peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turoldo, F.; Stel, F.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Bernardi, M.; Adamo, C.; Rovelli, C.; Dietrich, S.; Goi, D.

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this work is to analize the spatial frequency of lightning over Italy and to interpret the observed features in relationship with topography and with the climatic characteristics of the area. The data used to perform this analysis are : i) cloud to ground measurem ents (CG) from 1995 to 2000 given by CESI/SIRF (Sistem a Italiano Rilevamento Fulmini); ii) total flash measurements from 1995 to 2000 obtained trough the OTD system (Optical Transient Detector) given by NASA; iii) topography measurements obtained trough the ETOPO -2 database downloaded from NOAA. Both the yearly number of positive and negative CG lightning decrease with the increasing of topographic height. The number of positive and negative CG lightning decreases with the same derivative even if it seems that only below 1000 m it is possible to reach ratios between positive over negative CG lightning higher than 1. These values are observed only in the North African area present in the ranges of our analysis , that is from longitude 5 to 11 °E and from latitude 36 to 37 °N. Future studies will confirm if this is a real effect or an observational bias. The behavior of total lightning activity (IC and CG) in relationship with CG lightning activity and with topography is studied by means of OTD data. Being OTD data retrieved trough satellites, the analysis is done making us e of the flash rate per squared kilometer and per year instead of the number of lightning. Flash rate is computed using data on a re solution of 0.5°x0.5° and keping into account the changes in the surface due to the changes in latitude and longitude. This work confirms the observation (made even by other authors) that CG lightning frequency decreases as topographic height increases. A similar trend is found in total lightning flash rate, which is essentially due to the contribution of IC lightning. These observations are explained assuming that thunderstorm activity decreases with the increasing of topographic height

  15. Lightning and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, E.

    2012-12-01

    Lightning is of interest in the domain of climate change for several reasons: (1) thunderstorms are extreme forms of moist convection, and lightning flash rate is a sensitive measure of that extremity, (2) thunderstorms are deep conduits for delivering water substance from the boundary layer to the upper troposphere and stratosphere, and (3) global lightning can be monitored continuously and inexpensively within a natural framework (the Earth-ionosphere waveguide and Schumann resonances). Lightning and temperature, and lightning and upper tropospheric water vapor, are positively correlated on weather-related time scales (diurnal, semiannual, and annual) with a lightning temperature sensitivity of order 10% per oC. Lightning also follows temperature variations on the ENSO time scale, both locally and globally. The response of lightning in some of its extreme forms (exceptional flash rates and the prevalence of sprite-producing mesoscale lightning, for example) to temperature variations will be addressed. Consistently obtained records of lightning activity on longer time scales are scarce as stable detection networks are uncommon. As a consequence, thunder day data have been used to extend the lightning record for climate studies, with evidence for increases over decades in urban areas. Global records of lightning following Schumann resonance intensity and from space-based optical sensors (OTD and LIS) are consistent with the record of ionospheric potential representing the global electrical circuit in showing flat behavior over the few decades. This flatness is not well understood, though the majority of all lightning flashes are found in the tropics, the most closely regulated portion of the atmosphere. Other analysis of frequency variations of Schumann resonances in recent decades shows increased lightning in the northern hemisphere, where the global warming is most pronounced. The quantity more fundamental than temperature for lightning control is cloud buoyancy

  16. Influence of cell physiological state on gene delivery to T lymphocytes by chimeric adenovirus Ad5F35

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-feng; Shao, Hong-wei; Wu, Feng-lin; Xie, Xin; Li, Zhu-Ming; Bo, Hua-Ben; Shen, Han; Wang, Teng; Huang, Shu-lin

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of genetically-modified T cells is a promising approach for treatment of both human malignancies and viral infections. Due to its ability to efficiently infect lymphocytes, the chimeric adenovirus Ad5F35 is potentially useful as an immunotherapeutic for the genetic modification of T cells. In previous studies, it was found that the infection efficiency of Ad5F35 was significantly increased without enhanced expression of the viral receptor after T cell stimulation; however, little is known about the underlying mechanism. Nonetheless, cell physiology has long been thought to affect viral infection. Therefore, we aimed to uncover the physiologic changes responsible for the increased infection efficiency of Ad5F35 following T cell stimulation. Given the complexity of intracellular transport we analyzed viral binding, entry, and escape using a Jurkat T cell model and found that both cell membrane fluidity and endosomal escape of Ad5F35 were altered under different physiological states. This, in turn, resulted in differences in the amount of virus entering cells and reaching the cytoplasm. These results provide additional insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying Ad5F35 infection of T cells and consequently, will help further the clinical application of genetically-modified T cells for immunotherapy. PMID:26972139

  17. [Neurological diseases after lightning strike : Lightning strikes twice].

    PubMed

    Gruhn, K M; Knossalla, Frauke; Schwenkreis, Peter; Hamsen, Uwe; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Tegenthoff, Martin; Sczesny-Kaiser, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Lightning strikes rarely occur but 85 % of patients have lightning-related neurological complications. This report provides an overview about different modes of energy transfer and neurological conditions related to lightning strikes. Moreover, two case reports demonstrate the importance of interdisciplinary treatment and the spectrum of neurological complications after lightning strikes.

  18. Birth of ball lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowke, J. J.; Smith, D.; Nelson, K. E.; Crompton, R. W.; Murphy, A. B.

    2012-10-01

    Many observations of ball lightning report a ball of light, about 10 cm in diameter, moving at about walking speed, lasting up to 20 s and frequently existing inside of houses and even aeroplanes. The present paper reports detailed observations of the initiation or birth of ball lightning. In two cases, navigation crew of aircraft saw ball lightning form at the windscreen inside the cockpit of their planes. In the first case, the ball lightning occurred during a thunderstorm, with much lightning activity outside of the plane. In the second case, large "horns" of electrical corona were seen outside of the plane at the surface of the radome, just prior to the formation of the ball lightning. A third case reports ball lightning formed inside of a house, during a thunderstorm, at a closed glass window. It is proposed, based on two-dimensional calculations of electron and ion transport, that ball lightning in these cases is driven and formed by atmospheric ions impinging and collecting on the insulating surface of the glass or Perspex windows. This surface charge can produce electric fields inside of the cockpit or room sufficient to sustain an electric discharge. Charges of opposite sign to those outside of the window accumulate on the inside surface of the glass, leaving a ball of net charge moving inside of the cockpit or room to produce a pulsed discharge on a microsecond time scale.

  19. Lightning-Transient Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grumm, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Battery-powered system operates for more than one year. Recorder digitizes and records up to 146 current samples at selected intervals during lightning stroke. System continues to store time tags of lightning strokes even if transient current memory is full.

  20. Lightning injury: a review.

    PubMed

    Ritenour, Amber E; Morton, Melinda J; McManus, John G; Barillo, David J; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2008-08-01

    Lightning is an uncommon but potentially devastating cause of injury in patients presenting to burn centers. These injuries feature unusual symptoms, high mortality, and significant long-term morbidity. This paper will review the epidemiology, physics, clinical presentation, management principles, and prevention of lightning injuries.

  1. Lightning Often Strikes Twice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Contrary to popular misconception, lightning often strikes the same place twice. Certain conditions are just ripe for a bolt of electricity to come zapping down; and a lightning strike is powerful enough to do a lot of damage wherever it hits. NASA created the Accurate Location of Lightning Strikes technology to determine the ground strike point of lightning and prevent electrical damage in the immediate vicinity of the Space Shuttle launch pads at Kennedy Space Center. The area surrounding the launch pads is enmeshed in a network of electrical wires and components, and electronic equipment is highly susceptible to lightning strike damage. The accurate knowledge of the striking point is important so that crews can determine which equipment or system needs to be retested following a strike. Accurate to within a few yards, this technology can locate a lightning strike in the perimeter of the launch pad. As an added bonus, the engineers, then knowing where the lightning struck, can adjust the variables that may be attracting the lightning, to create a zone that will be less susceptible to future strikes.

  2. Future Jet Technologies. Part B. F-35 Future Risks v. JS-Education of Pilots & Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal-Or, Benjamin

    2011-09-01

    Design of “Next-Generation” airframes based on supermarket-jet-engine-components is nowadays passé. A novel integration methodology [Gal-Or, “Editorial-Review, Part A”, 2011, Gal-Or, “Vectored Propulsion, Supermaneuverability and Robot Aircraft”, Springer Verlag, Gal-Or, Int'l. J. of Thermal and Fluid Sciences 7: 1-6, 1998, “Introduction”, 2011] is nowadays in. For advanced fighter aircraft it begins with JS-based powerplant, which takes up to three times longer to mature vis-à-vis the airframe, unless “committee's design” enforces a dormant catastrophe. Jet Steering (JS) or Thrust Vectoring Flight Control, is a classified, integrated engine-airframe technology aimed at maximizing post-stall-maneuverability, flight safety, efficiency and flight envelopes of manned and unmanned air vehicles, especially in the “impossible-to-fly”, post-stall flight domains where the 100+ years old, stall-spin-limited, Conventional Flight Control fails. Worldwide success in adopting the post-stall, JS-revolution, opens a new era in aviation, with unprecedented design variables identified here for a critical review of F-35 future risks v. future fleets of jet-steered, pilotless vehicles, like the X-47B/C. From the educational point of view, it is also instructive to comprehend the causes of long, intensive opposition to adopt post-stall, JS ideas. A review of such debates may also curb a future opposition to adopt more advanced, JS-based technologies, tests, strategies, tactics and missions within the evolving air, marine and land applications of JS. Most important, re-education of pilots and engineers requires adding post-stall, JS-based studies to curriculum & R&D.

  3. Lightning in aeronautics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lago, F.

    2014-11-01

    It is generally accepted that a civilian aircraft is struck, on average, once or twice per year. This number tends to indicate that a lightning strike risk is far from being marginal and so requires that aircraft manufacturers have to demonstrate that their aircraft is protected against lightning. The first generation of aircrafts, which were manufactured mainly in aluminium alloy and had electromechanical and pneumatic controls, had a natural immunity to the effects of lightning. Nowadays, aircraft structures are made primarily with composite materials and flight controls are mostly electronic. This aspect of the "more composite and more electric" aircraft demands to aircraft manufacturers to pay a particular attention to the lightning protection and to its certification by testing and/or analysis. It is therefore essential to take this risk into account when designing the aircraft. Nevertheless, it is currently impossible to reproduce the entire lightning phenomenon in testing laboratories and the best way to analyse the lightning protection is to reproduce its effects. In this context, a number of standards and guides are produced by standards committees to help laboratories and aircraft manufacturers to perform realistic tests. Although the environment of a laboratory is quite different from those of a storm cloud, the rules of aircraft design, the know-how of aircraft manufacturers, the existence of international work leading to a better understanding of the lightning phenomenon and standards more precise, permit, today, to consider the risk as properly controlled.

  4. Infrasound Observations from Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Johnson, J. B.; Edens, H. E.; Thomas, R. J.; Jones, K. R.

    2008-12-01

    To provide additional insight into the nature of lightning, we have investigated its infrasound manifestations. An array of three stations in a triangular configuration, with three sensors each, was deployed during the Summer of 2008 (July 24 to July 28) in the Magdalena mountains of New Mexico, to monitor infrasound (below 20 Hz) sources due to lightning. Hyperbolic formulations of time of arrival (TOA) measurements and interferometric techniques were used to locate lightning sources occurring over and outside the network. A comparative analysis of simultaneous Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) data and infrasound measurements operating in the same area was made. The LMA locates the sources of impulsive RF radiation produced by lightning flashes in three spatial dimensions and time, operating in the 60 - 66 MHz television band. The comparison showed strong evidence that lightning does produce infrasound. This work is a continuation of the study of the frequency spectrum of thunder conducted by Holmes et al., who reported measurements of infrasound frequencies. The integration of infrasound measurements with RF source localization by the LMA shows great potential for improved understanding of lightning processes.

  5. Using the VAHIRR Radar Algorithm to Investigate Lightning Cessation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Schultz, Elise V.; Petersen, Walter A.

    2012-01-01

    Accurately determining the threat posed by lightning is a major area for improved operational forecasts. Most efforts have focused on the initiation of lightning within a storm, with far less effort spent investigating lightning cessation. Understanding both components, initiation and cessation, are vital to improving lightning safety. Few organizations actively forecast lightning onset or cessation. One such organization is the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45WS has identified that charged anvil clouds remain a major threat of continued lightning and can greatly extend the window of a potential lightning strike. Furthermore, no discernable trend of total lightning activity has been observed consistently for all storms. This highlights the need for more research to find a robust method of knowing when a storm will cease producing lightning. Previous lightning cessation work has primarily focused on forecasting the cessation of cloud-to -ground lightning only. A more recent, statistical study involved total lightning (both cloud-to-ground and intracloud). Each of these previous works has helped the 45WS take steps forward in creating improved and ultimately safer lightning cessation forecasts. Each study has either relied on radar data or recommended increased use of radar data to improve cessation forecasts. The reasoning is that radar data is able to either directly or by proxy infer more about dynamical environment leading to cloud electrification and eventually lightning cessation. The authors of this project are focusing on a two ]step approach to better incorporate radar data and total lightning to improve cessation forecasts. This project will utilize the Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR) algorithm originally developed during the Airborne Field Mill II (ABFM II) research project. During the project, the VAHIRR product showed a trend of increasing

  6. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: Continued Oversight Needed as Program Plans to Begin Development of New Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    Report to Congressional Committees April 2016 GAO-16-390 United States Government Accountability Office United States Government... Accountability Office Highlights of GAO-16-390, a report to congressional committees April 2016 F-35 JOINT STRIKE FIGHTER Continued Oversight...program, transparency will be limited. Therefore, it will be difficult for Congress to hold it accountable for achieving its cost, schedule, and

  7. 75 FR 3715 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Basing F-35a Operational Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Basing F-35a Operational Aircraft AGENCY: United States Air Force, Air Combat Command and Air National Guard, DOD....

  8. 77 FR 30509 - Notice To Extend Public Comment Period for United States Air Force F-35A Operational Basing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Department of the Air Force Notice To Extend Public Comment Period for United States Air Force F-35A Operational Basing Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: The United States Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Notification of Extension of Public Comment Period. SUMMARY: The U.S. Air Force is issuing this notice...

  9. The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in Properly Estimating Program Costs: F-35 Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in Properly Estimating Program Costs : F-35 Case Study Stanley Horowitz, Assistant Division...Graduate School of Engineering and Management, Air Force Institute of Technology Cost and Price Collaboration Venkat Rao, Professor, Defense...Acquisition University David Holm, Director, Cost and Systems Analysis, TACOM LCMC Patrick Watkins, Chief, Stryker/Armaments Pricing Group, Army

  10. Lightning mapping system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennon, C.; Maier, L.

    1991-01-01

    A Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) System is being implemented at KSC in Florida. The first operational use is expected in the late summer of 1991. The system is designed to map the location of in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning based on the time of arrival (TOA) of electromagnetic radiation. The system detects very high frequency (VHF) radiation and designed to map the volumetric extent of lightning. The system implements two independent antenna arrays to provide a fast data quality check, as necessary for a real-time warning system. The system performance goals and a comparison with a similar system implemented in the mid-1970's is made.

  11. Note on lightning temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanakyan, Yu. R.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, some features of the dynamics of a lightning channel that emerges after the leader-streamer process, are theoretically studied. It is shown that the dynamic pinch effect in the channel becomes possible if a discharge current before the main (quasi-steady) stage of a lightning discharge increases rapidly. The ensuing magnetic compression of the channel increases plasma temperature to several million degrees leading to a soft x-ray flash within the highly ionized plasma. The relation between the plasma temperature and the channel radius during the main stage of a lightning discharge is derived.

  12. Note on lightning temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Alanakyan, Yu. R.

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, some features of the dynamics of a lightning channel that emerges after the leader-streamer process, are theoretically studied. It is shown that the dynamic pinch effect in the channel becomes possible if a discharge current before the main (quasi-steady) stage of a lightning discharge increases rapidly. The ensuing magnetic compression of the channel increases plasma temperature to several million degrees leading to a soft x-ray flash within the highly ionized plasma. The relation between the plasma temperature and the channel radius during the main stage of a lightning discharge is derived.

  13. Lightning Technology: Proceedings of a Technical Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Several facets of lightning technology are considered including phenomenology, measurement, detection, protection, interaction, and testing. Lightning electromagnetics, protection of ground systems, and simulated lightning testing are emphasized. The lightning-instrumented F-106 aircraft is described.

  14. Lightning detection from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orville, R. E.

    Efforts to detect the frequency of terrestrial lightning using spaceborne instrumentation are reviewed. Lightning occurs in intracloud, cloud-to-ground first return strokes, and cloud-to-ground subsequent strokes. Satellite detection of the strokes can be through sensing of HF radio waves and optical techniques. Currently, the radio detection offers no reliable spatial distribution data, while further perfection of a VHF interferometer might. Optical remote sensing has been performed with the OSO-5, -2, the Vela, and the DMSP satellites. The detectors were photometers, which have a simplistic operation and good spatial resolution. It has been found that more lightning occurs over land than over water, and strikes are globally present at a frequency near 100 strokes/sec. A CCD device for optically detecting lightning from space with a 10 x 10 sq km resolution is presented.

  15. Lightning effects on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.

  16. Lightning Initiation and Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-22

    of in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning on the regions of the atmosphere (a) between thundercloud tops and the ionosphere and (b) in the ionosphere ...resolution 8 channel telescopic photometer array (presently under construction by Dr. Moore) (e) Additions to ionospheric high-speed photometer arrays...24 (e) Observed sub-microsecond properties of elves from correlated triggered and natural lightning measurements at close range (f) Ionospheric

  17. The Sandia Lightning Simulator.

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Leonard E.; Caldwell, Michele

    2005-01-01

    The Sandia Lightning Simulator at Sandia National Laboratories can provide up to 200 kA for a simulated single lightning stroke, 100 kA for a subsequent stroke, and hundreds of Amperes of continuing current. It has recently been recommissioned after a decade of inactivity and the single-stroke capability demonstrated. The simulator capabilities, basic design components, upgrades, and diagnostic capabilities are discussed in this paper.

  18. Upward Lightning in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, C.; Saba, M. M.; Alves, J.; Warner, T. A.; Albrecht, R. I.; Bie, L. L.

    2012-12-01

    Observations of upward lightning from tall objects have been reported since 1939. Interest in this subject has grown recently, some of it because of the rapid expansion of wind power generation. Also, with the increasing number of tall buildings and towers, there will be a corresponding increase in the number of upward lightning flashes from these structures. Reports from recent field observations are beginning to address the nature of upward lightning initiation, but much still needs to be learned. Examples are studies of upward lightning from towers in winter thunderstorms in Japan (Wang and Takagi, 2010; and Lu et al., 2009) and summer thunderstorms in Europe (Miki et al., 2005; Flache et al., 2008; and Diendorfer et al., 2009; Zhou et al., 2011) and in North America (Mazur and Ruhnke, 2011; Hussein et al., 2011; Warner, 2011, and Warner et al., 2011). Up to January 2012, no upward flash had ever been registered in Brazil. With the help of some video cameras, we recorded 15 upward lightning which started from one of the towers located on Peak Jaraguá in the city of São Paulo. This paper describes the first results of this field campaign. A combination of high-speed video and standard definition video were used to record upward lightning flashes from multiple towers in Sao Paulo, Brazil, a city located in southeastern Brazil with a population over 10 million people, an average elevation of around 800 meters above sea level, and a flash density of 15 flashes/km2/year. Observations of 15 upward flashes made with these assets were analyzed along with BrasilDAT Lightning Detection Network and a lightning mapping array (LMA) and electric field sensors.

  19. Lightning Protection for Explosive Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, M

    2001-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory funds construction of lightning protection systems to protect explosive processing and storage facilities. This paper provides an intuitive understanding of the lighting risks and types of lightning protection available. Managers can use this information to decide if limited funds should be spent constructing a lightning protection system for their own facilities. This paper answers the following questions: (1) Why do you need lightning protection systems? (2) How do lightning protection systems work? and (3) Why are there no documented cases of lightning problems at existing explosive facilities?

  20. Situational Lightning Climatologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred

    2010-01-01

    Research has revealed distinct spatial and temporal distributions of lightning occurrence that are strongly influenced by large-scale atmospheric flow regimes. It was believed there were two flow systems, but it has been discovered that actually there are seven distinct flow regimes. The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) has recalculated the lightning climatologies for the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF), and the eight airfields in the National Weather Service in Melbourne (NWS MLB) County Warning Area (CWA) using individual lightning strike data to improve the accuracy of the climatologies. The software determines the location of each CG lightning strike with 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-nmi (.9.3-, 18.5-, 37-, 55.6-km) radii from each airfield. Each CG lightning strike is binned at 1-, 3-, and 6-hour intervals at each specified radius. The software merges the CG lightning strike time intervals and distance with each wind flow regime and creates probability statistics for each time interval, radii, and flow regime, and stratifies them by month and warm season. The AMU also updated the graphical user interface (GUI) with the new data.

  1. The physics of lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Joseph R.; Uman, Martin A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite being one of the most familiar and widely recognized natural phenomena, lightning remains relatively poorly understood. Even the most basic questions of how lightning is initiated inside thunderclouds and how it then propagates for many tens of kilometers have only begun to be addressed. In the past, progress was hampered by the unpredictable and transient nature of lightning and the difficulties in making direct measurements inside thunderstorms, but advances in instrumentation, remote sensing methods, and rocket-triggered lightning experiments are now providing new insights into the physics of lightning. Furthermore, the recent discoveries of intense bursts of X-rays and gamma-rays associated with thunderstorms and lightning illustrate that new and interesting physics is still being discovered in our atmosphere. The study of lightning and related phenomena involves the synthesis of many branches of physics, from atmospheric physics to plasma physics to quantum electrodynamics, and provides a plethora of challenging unsolved problems. In this review, we provide an introduction to the physics of lightning with the goal of providing interested researchers a useful resource for starting work in this fascinating field. By what physical mechanism or mechanisms is lightning initiated in the thundercloud? What is the maximum cloud electric field magnitude and over what volume of the cloud? What, if any, high energy processes (runaway electrons, X-rays, gamma rays) are involved in lightning initiation and how? What is the role of various forms of ice and water in lightning initiation? What physical mechanisms govern the propagation of the different types of lightning leaders (negative stepped, first positive, negative dart, negative dart-stepped, negative dart-chaotic) between cloud and ground and the leaders inside the cloud? What is the physical mechanism of leader attachment to elevated objects on the ground and to the flat ground? What are the characteristics

  2. The Physics of Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakov, V. A.

    2013-11-01

    An overview of the physics of cloud-to-ground lightning is given, including its initiation, propagation, and attachment to ground. Discharges artificially initiated (triggered) from natural thunderclouds using the rocket-and-wire technique are discussed with a view toward studying properties of natural lightning. Both conventional and runaway breakdown mechanisms of lightning initiation in thunderclouds are reviewed, as is the role of the lower positive charge region in facilitating different types of lightning. New observations of negative-leader stepping and its attachment to ground are compared to similar processes in long laboratory sparks. The mechanism and parameters of compact intracloud lightning discharges that are thought to be the most intense natural producers of HF-VHF (3-300 MHz) radiation on Earth are reviewed. The M-component mode of charge transfer to ground and its difference from the leader/return-stroke mode are discussed. Lightning interaction with the ionosphere and the production of energetic radiation (X-rays and gamma radiation) by cloud-to-ground leaders are considered.

  3. The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in Properly Estimating Program Costs: F-35 Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    DFARS 252.227-7013 (a)(16) [Jun 2013]. The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in Properly Estimating Program Costs : F-35 Case Study...Background The application of price indexes presents a substantial challenge in estimating the costs of new defense systems. The problem is twofold...First, the analyst must use a price index when normalizing historical cost data to a common point in time (where the normalized costs are referred to

  4. User's Guide - WRF Lightning Assimilation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes how to run WRF with the lightning assimilation technique described in Heath et al. (2016). The assimilation method uses gridded lightning data to trigger and suppress sub-grid deep convection in Kain-Fritsch.

  5. Lightning medicine in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Ryan; Trengrove, Estelle; Jandrell, Ian R; Saayman, Gert

    2012-06-06

    South Africa has a rich history of lightning research; however, research on the clinical and pathological effects and features of lightning-related injury (keraunomedicine or lightning medicine) remains neglected locally. By providing an overview of keraunomedicine and focussing on South African perspectives, we hope to raise awareness and propose that a concerted and co-ordinated attempt be made to report and collate data regarding lightning strike victims in South Africa.

  6. Plotting Lightning-Stroke Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatom, F. B.; Garst, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Data on lightning-stroke locations become easier to correlate with cloudcover maps with aid of new graphical treatment. Geographic region divided by grid into array of cells. Number of lightning strokes in each cell tabulated, and value representing density of lightning strokes assigned to each cell. With contour-plotting routine, computer draws contours of lightning-stroke density for region. Shapes of contours compared directly with shapes of storm cells.

  7. Lightning fires in southwestern forests

    Treesearch

    Jack S. Barrows

    1978-01-01

    Lightning is the leading cause of fires in southwestern forests. On all protected private, state and federal lands in Arizona and New Mexico, nearly 80 percent of the forest, brush and range fires are ignited by lightning. The Southwestern region leads all other regions of the United States both in total number of lightning fires and in the area burned by these fires...

  8. Faraday Cage Protects Against Lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jafferis, W.; Hasbrouck, R. T.; Johnson, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    Faraday cage protects electronic and electronically actuated equipment from lightning. Follows standard lightning-protection principles. Whether lightning strikes cage or cables running to equipment, current canceled or minimized in equipment and discharged into ground. Applicable to protection of scientific instruments, computers, radio transmitters and receivers, and power-switching equipment.

  9. Exploring Lightning Jump Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chronis, Themis; Carey, Larry D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Schultz, Elise; Calhoun, Kristin; Goodman, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    This study is concerned with the characteristics of storms exhibiting an abrupt temporal increase in the total lightning flash rate (i.e., lightning jump, LJ). An automated storm tracking method is used to identify storm "clusters" and total lightning activity from three different lightning detection systems over Oklahoma, northern Alabama and Washington, D.C. On average and for different employed thresholds, the clusters that encompass at least one LJ (LJ1) last longer, relate to higher Maximum Expected Size of Hail, Vertical Integrated Liquid and lightning flash rates (area-normalized) than the clusters that did not exhibit any LJ (LJ0). The respective mean values for LJ1 (LJ0) clusters are 80 min (35 min), 14 mm (8 mm), 25 kg per square meter (18 kg per square meter) and 0.05 flash per min per square kilometer (0.01 flash per min per square kilometer). Furthermore, the LJ1 clusters are also characterized by slower decaying autocorrelation functions, a result that implies a less "random" behavior in the temporal flash rate evolution. In addition, the temporal occurrence of the last LJ provides an estimate of the time remaining to the storm's dissipation. Depending of the LJ strength (i.e., varying thresholds), these values typically range between 20-60 min, with stronger jumps indicating more time until storm decay. This study's results support the hypothesis that the LJ is a proxy for the storm's kinematic and microphysical state rather than a coincidental value.

  10. The start of lightning: Evidence of bidirectional lightning initiation

    PubMed Central

    Montanyà, Joan; van der Velde, Oscar; Williams, Earle R.

    2015-01-01

    Lightning flashes are known to initiate in regions of strong electric fields inside thunderstorms, between layers of positively and negatively charged precipitation particles. For that reason, lightning inception is typically hidden from sight of camera systems used in research. Other technology such as lightning mapping systems based on radio waves can typically detect only some aspects of the lightning initiation process and subsequent development of positive and negative leaders. We report here a serendipitous recording of bidirectional lightning initiation in virgin air under the cloud base at ~11,000 images per second, and the differences in characteristics of opposite polarity leader sections during the earliest stages of the discharge. This case reveals natural lightning initiation, propagation and a return stroke as in negative cloud-to-ground flashes, upon connection to another lightning channel – without any masking by cloud. PMID:26471123

  11. The start of lightning: Evidence of bidirectional lightning initiation.

    PubMed

    Montanyà, Joan; van der Velde, Oscar; Williams, Earle R

    2015-10-16

    Lightning flashes are known to initiate in regions of strong electric fields inside thunderstorms, between layers of positively and negatively charged precipitation particles. For that reason, lightning inception is typically hidden from sight of camera systems used in research. Other technology such as lightning mapping systems based on radio waves can typically detect only some aspects of the lightning initiation process and subsequent development of positive and negative leaders. We report here a serendipitous recording of bidirectional lightning initiation in virgin air under the cloud base at ~11,000 images per second, and the differences in characteristics of opposite polarity leader sections during the earliest stages of the discharge. This case reveals natural lightning initiation, propagation and a return stroke as in negative cloud-to-ground flashes, upon connection to another lightning channel - without any masking by cloud.

  12. Lightning mapping sensor study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norwood, V.

    1983-01-01

    A technology assessment to determine how a world-wide, continuous measurement of lightning could be achieved from a geostationary platform is provided. Various approaches to the detector sensors are presented. It was first determined that any existing detector chips would require some degree of modification in order to meet the lightning mapper sensor requirements. The elements of the system were then analyzed, categorized, and graded for study emphasis. The recommended approach for the lightning mapper sensor is to develop a monolithic array in which each detector cell has circuitry that implements a two-step photon-collecting method for a very high dynamic range with good measurement accuracy. The efficiency of the array is compatible with the use of a conventional refractive optics design having an aperture in the neighborhood of 7 to 10 cm.

  13. Lightning activity on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, W. J.; Bar-Nun, A.; Scarf, F. L.; Look, A. F.; Hunt, G. E.

    1982-01-01

    Photographic observations of the nightside of Jupiter by the Voyager 1 spacecraft show the presence of extensive lightning activity. Detection of whistlers by the plasma wave analyzer confirms the optical observations and implies that many flashes were not recorded by the Voyager camera because the intensity of the flashes was below the threshold sensitivity of the camera. Measurements of the optical energy radiated per flash indicate that the observed flashes had energies similar to that for terrestrial superbolts. The best estimate of the lightning energy dissipation rate of 0.0004 W/sq m was derived from a consideration of the optical and radiofrequency measurements. The ratio of the energy dissipated by lightning compared to the convective energy flux is estimated to be between 0.000027 and 0.00005. The terrestrial value is 0.0001.

  14. Examination of Height of Transmission Line and Lightning Striking Distance concerning Lightning Shielding Effect Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Sekioka, Shozo; Yokoyama, Shigeru

    We examined the lightning frequency reported by Eriksson and the lightning current distribution shown in IEC 62305-1. The lightning striking coefficient is assumed to be related to height of structures. The lightning current distribution to ground which was applicable to the electro-geometric model is estimated. Using the assumption of lightning striking distance coefficient and the estimated lightning current distribution, we calculated the lightning frequency and the lightning current distribution, concerning lightning shielding effect in transmission lines. The calculation results of the lightning frequency and the lightning current distributions were compared with the observation results, and agree satisfactorily with them.

  15. Natural and artificially initiated lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uman, Martin A.; Krider, E. Philip

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the development status of theories and experimental results concerning both natural and artificially triggered lightning, with a view to prospective research efforts able to deepen understanding of these phenomena. Over the last decade, great progress has been made in methods for identifying and locating natural cloud-to-ground lightning; nationwide lightning-sensor networks employing wideband magnetic direction-finding technology to yield lightning locations in real time are currently operational in the U.S., France, Japan, and Sweden. Triggered lightning, which is the primary atmospheric electricity hazard to aircraft and launch vehicles, research must be done on meteorological and electrical environments associated with the threat.

  16. Natural and artificially initiated lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uman, Martin A.; Krider, E. Philip

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the development status of theories and experimental results concerning both natural and artificially triggered lightning, with a view to prospective research efforts able to deepen understanding of these phenomena. Over the last decade, great progress has been made in methods for identifying and locating natural cloud-to-ground lightning; nationwide lightning-sensor networks employing wideband magnetic direction-finding technology to yield lightning locations in real time are currently operational in the U.S., France, Japan, and Sweden. Triggered lightning, which is the primary atmospheric electricity hazard to aircraft and launch vehicles, research must be done on meteorological and electrical environments associated with the threat.

  17. Der f 35: An MD-2-like house dust mite allergen that cross-reacts with Der f 2 and Pso o 2.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, T; Aki, T; Isobe, T; Matsuoka, A; Hayashi, T; Ono, K; Kawamoto, S

    2017-04-25

    Dermatophagoides farinae is a source of airborne house dust mite (HDM) allergens. We elucidated IgE-reactive allergens from D. farinae by two-dimensional immunoblotting-based allergenome analysis, and identified one new allergen, named Der f 35, that possesses IgE-binding capacity comparable to that of Der f 2. The aim of this study was to clarify the allergenic capacity of new HDM allergen Der f 35. We cloned der f 35 from D. farinae mRNA and produced recombinant Der f 35 in Escherichia coli. The IgE-binding capacity of Der f 35 and its cross-reactivity with group 2 allergens from D. farinae and Psoroptes ovis were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and ELISA inhibition assays, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence for der f 35, which possesses the MD-2-related lipid-recognition domain, showed higher identity with group 2 allergens from P. ovis (61.5%) and Blomia tropicalis (50.7%) than with Der f 2 (40.8%). Der f 35 showed IgE-binding frequencies of 77.5% (31/40) for the native form upon allergenome analysis and 51.4% (18/35) for recombinant structure by ELISA. Der f 35 showed cross-reactivity with Der f 2 and Pso o 2 in reaction with HDM-allergic patients' IgE by ELISA inhibition assay. Der f 35 is a candidate major allergen from D. farinae, which is more similar to group 2 allergens from sheep scab mite and storage mites. Der f 35 could be responsible for the cross-reactivity among group 2 mite allergens. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  18. First images of thunder: Acoustic imaging of triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayeh, M. A.; Evans, N. D.; Fuselier, S. A.; Trevino, J.; Ramaekers, J.; Dwyer, J. R.; Lucia, R.; Rassoul, H. K.; Kotovsky, D. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Uman, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    An acoustic camera comprising a linear microphone array is used to image the thunder signature of triggered lightning. Measurements were taken at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing in Camp Blanding, FL, during the summer of 2014. The array was positioned in an end-fire orientation thus enabling the peak acoustic reception pattern to be steered vertically with a frequency-dependent spatial resolution. On 14 July 2014, a lightning event with nine return strokes was successfully triggered. We present the first acoustic images of individual return strokes at high frequencies (>1 kHz) and compare the acoustically inferred profile with optical images. We find (i) a strong correlation between the return stroke peak current and the radiated acoustic pressure and (ii) an acoustic signature from an M component current pulse with an unusual fast rise time. These results show that acoustic imaging enables clear identification and quantification of thunder sources as a function of lightning channel altitude.

  19. Lightning protection technology for small general aviation composite material aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumer, J. A.; Setzer, T. E.; Siddiqi, S.

    1993-01-01

    An on going NASA (Small Business Innovative Research) SBIR Phase II design and development program will produce the first lightning protected, fiberglass, General Aviation aircraft that is available as a kit. The results obtained so far in development testing of typical components of the aircraft kit, such as the wing and fuselage panels indicate that the lightning protection design methodology and materials chosen are capable of protecting such small composite airframes from lightning puncture and structural damage associated with severe threat lightning strikes. The primary objective of the program has been to develop a lightening protection design for full scale test airframe and verify its adequacy with full scale laboratory testing, thus enabling production and sale of owner-built, lightning-protected, Stoddard-Hamilton Aircraft, Inc. Glasair II airplanes. A second objective has been to provide lightning protection design guidelines for the General Aviation industry, and to enable these airplanes to meet lightening protection requirements for certification of small airplanes. This paper describes the protection design approaches and development testing results obtained thus far in the program, together with design methodology which can achieve the design goals listed above. The presentation of this paper will also include results of some of the full scale verification tests, which will have been completed by the time of this conference.

  20. Produce documents and media information. [on lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alzmann, Melanie A.; Miller, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    Lightning data and information were collected from the United States, Germany, France, Brazil, China, and Australia for the dual purposes of compiling a global lightning data base and producing publications on the Marshall Space Flight Center's lightning program. Research covers the history of lightning, the characteristics of a storm, types of lightningdischarges, observations from airplanes and spacecraft, the future fole of planes and spacecraft in lightning studies, lightning detection networks, and the relationships between lightning and rainfall. Descriptions of the Optical Transient Dectector, the Lightning Imaging Sensor, and the Lightning Mapper Sensor are included.

  1. Development of a lightning activity nowcasting tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiannidis, Athanassios; Lagouvardos, Kostas; Kotroni, Vassiliki

    2015-04-01

    Electrical phenomena inside thunderstorm clouds are a significant threat to numerous activities. Summertime convective activity is usually associated to local thermal instability, which is hard to predict using numerical weather prediction models. Despite their relatively small areal extend, these thunderstorms can be violent, resulting to infrastructure damage and loss of life. In the frame of TALOS project the National Observatory of Athens has developed a lightning activity nowcasting tool. This tool uses as sole inputs: (i) real time infrared Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) imagery and (ii) real time flashes provided by the VLF lightning detection system ZEUS, which is operated by the National Observatory of Athens. The MSG SEVIRI 10.8 and 6.2μm channels data are utilized to produce 3 Interest Fields (IFs). These fields are the TB10.8 brightness temperature (indicative of the cloud top glaciation), the TB6.2-TB10.8 difference (indicative of the cloud depth) and the TB10.8 15 minute trend, which will be referenced as "TB10.8trend" (indicative of the cloud growth rate). The latter is defined as the difference between two successive 15 minutes images of the TB10.8. When a predefined threshold value is surpassed, the delimited area is considered to be favorable for lightning activity. A statistical procedure is employed to identify the optimum threshold values for the three IFs, based on the performance of each one. The assessment of their efficiency showed that these three IFs can be used independently as predictors of lightning activity. However, in an effort to improve the tool's efficiency a combined estimation is performed. When all three IFs agree that lightning activity is expected over an area, then a Warning Level 3 (WL3) is issued. When 2 or 1 IFs indicate upcoming activity then a WL2 or WL1 is issued. The assessment of the efficiency of the combined IF tool showed that the combined estimation is more skillful than the individual IFs estimations. In a

  2. Optical characteristics of lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    A study of the optical characteristics of cloud-to-ground dischargers and how they compare with intracloud flashes was completed. Time resolved optical (7774A) and electric field-change waveforms were measured above clouds from a U2 airplane coincident with ground-based measurements of lightning. The optical pulse trains are studied for within and between flash variability. Specifically, for each flash researchers examine the 10, 50 (full width half maximum), and 90 percent pulse widths; the 10-10, 10-50, 10-90, and 10-peak percent amplitude rise times; the radiances (optical power densities); radiant energy densities; and pulse intervals. The optical pulse characteristics of first strokes, subsequent strokes, the intracloud components of cloud-to-ground flashes and intracloud flashes as viewed from above cloud are shown to exhibit very similar waveshapes, radiances and radiant energy densities. Descriptive statistics on these pulse categories were tabulated for 25 visually confirmed cloud-to-ground flashes (229 optical pulses) and 232 intracloud flashes (3126 optical pulses). A companion study of lightning observations above and below cloud in storms, storm complexes, and mesoscale convective systems has also been completed. Researchers compared the mapping of total lightning activity from above clouds with ground-based measurements and storm evolution. Although the total (IC + CG) lightning activity is the more representative indication of thunderstorm growth and decay, the ground strike data can be used to locate, diagnose, and track storm evolution in a number of instances.

  3. Lightning control by lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    Powerful lightning strikes pose a significant threat to buildings and people, but imagine if it were possible to control and direct them with a laser beam. Nature Photonics spoke to Jérôme Kasparian, a researcher from the University of Geneva and co-ordinator of the Teramobile project, about the idea.

  4. Lightning protection of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and the means that are available to designers and operators to protect against these effects are summarized. The increased use of nonmetallic materials in the structure of aircraft and the constant trend toward using electronic equipment to handle flight-critical control and navigation functions have served as impetus for this study.

  5. The Origin of Lightning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weewish Tree, 1979

    1979-01-01

    A heavenly source gives an orphaned Cherokee boy 12 silver arrows and directs him to kill the chief of the cruel Manitos (spirits). When the boy fails in his mission, the angry Manitos turn him into lightning, condemning him to flash like his silver arrows across the skies forever. (DS)

  6. Science of Ball Lightning (Fire Ball)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsuki, Yoshi-Hiko

    1989-08-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Organizing Committee * Preface * Ball Lightning -- The Continuing Challenge * Hungarian Ball Lightning Observations in 1987 * Nature of Ball Lightning in Japan * Phenomenological and Psychological Analysis of 150 Austrian Ball Lightning Reports * Physical Problems and Physical Properties of Ball Lightning * Statistical Analysis of the Ball Lightning Properties * A Fluid-Dynamical Model for Ball Lightning and Bead Lightning * The Lifetime of Hill's Vortex * Electrical and Radiative Properties of Ball Lightning * The Candle Flame as a Model of Ball Lightning * A Model for Ball Lightning * The High-Temperature Physico-Chemical Processes in the Lightning Storm Atmosphere (A Physico-Chemical Model of Ball Lightning) * New Approach to Ball Lightning * A Calculation of Electric Field of Ball Lightning * The Physical Explanation to the UFO over Xinjiang, Northern West China * Electric Reconnection, Critical Ionization Velocity, Ponderomotive Force, and Their Applications to Triggered and Ball Lightning * The PLASMAK™ Configuration and Ball Lightning * Experimental Research on Ball Lightning * Performance of High-Voltage Test Facility Designed for Investigation of Ball Lightning * List of Participants

  7. A simple lightning parameterization for calculating global lightning distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Colin; Rind, David

    1992-01-01

    A simple parameterization has been developed to simulate global lightning distributions. Convective cloud top height is used as the variable in the parameterization, with different formulations for continental and marine thunderstorms. The parameterization has been validated using two lightning data sets: one global and one regional. In both cases the simulated lightning distributions and frequencies are in very good agreement with the observed lightning data. This parameterization could be used for global studies of lightning climatology; the earth's electric circuit; in general circulation models for modeling global lightning activity, atmospheric NO(x) concentrations, and perhaps forest fire distributions for both the present and future climate; and, possibly, even as a short-term forecasting aid.

  8. Transonic Free-To-Roll Analysis of the F/A-18E and F-35 Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, D. Bruce; McConnell, Jeffrey K.; Brandon, Jay M.; Hall, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    The free-to-roll technique is used as a tool for predicting areas of uncommanded lateral motions. Recently, the NASA/Navy/Air Force Abrupt Wing Stall Program extended the use of this technique to the transonic speed regime. Using this technique, this paper evaluates various wing configurations on the pre-production F/A-18E aircraft and the Joint Strike Fighter (F-35) aircraft. The configurations investigated include leading and trailing edge flap deflections, fences, leading edge flap gap seals, and vortex generators. These tests were conducted in the NASA Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The analysis used a modification of a figure-of-merit developed during the Abrupt Wing Stall Program to discern configuration effects. The results showed how the figure-of-merit can be used to schedule wing flap deflections to avoid areas of uncommanded lateral motion. The analysis also used both static and dynamic wind tunnel data to provide insight into the uncommanded lateral behavior. The dynamic data was extracted from the time history data using parameter identification techniques. In general, modifications to the pre-production F/A-18E resulted in shifts in angle-of-attack where uncommanded lateral activity occurred. Sealing the gap between the inboard and outboard leading-edge flaps on the Navy version of the F-35 eliminated uncommanded lateral activity or delayed the activity to a higher angle-of-attack.

  9. Investigation of Lightning Rod Shielding Angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayel, Mohamed

    This paper studies those parameters affecting the shielding angle of the lightning rod (Franklin Rod) above very tall buildings. It was recommended that the shielding angle of the lightning rod is about 45°∼60°. The downward lightning leader is modeled by using discrete line charges to consider the exponential distribution of charges through the downward leader. The voltage condition used by Rizk is used to investigate the inception of the upward lightning leader. Different air conditions (relative air density and air humidity) are considered for more practical simulation. The influences of lightning parameters and lightning rod height on the shielding angle are studied. The results shows that, lightning leader parameters, lightning rod height and ground slope have series effects on the lightning rod shielding angle. Based on the results, a lightning rod shielding angle for shielding design is recommended to decrease the lightning stroke to the lightning rod.

  10. Lightning fire research in the Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    J. S. Barrows

    1954-01-01

    Lightning is the major cause of fires in Rocky Mountain forests. The lightning fire problem is the prime target of a broad research program now known as Project Skyfire. KEYWORDS: lightning, fire research

  11. Attempts to Create Ball Lightning with Triggered Lightning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    or to meteors . Since ball lightning and meteors are both referred to in the literature from that time period as "fireballs", it is not surprising...that some reports of the effects of fireballs that actually refer to meteors have been misinterpreted as being due to ball lightning. Ball lightning...212 ms after the full ignition of the triggering wire. However, the primary silicon particle shower did not begin until around 520 ms after the

  12. Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida: Phase IV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2009-01-01

    The threat of lightning is a daily concern during the warm season in Florida. Research has revealed distinct spatial and temporal distributions of lightning occurrence that are strongly influenced by large-scale atmospheric flow regimes. Previously, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) calculated the gridded lightning climatologies based on seven flow regimes over Florida for 1-, 3- and 6-hr intervals in 5-, 10-,20-, and 30-NM diameter range rings around the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) and eight other airfields in the National Weather Service in Melbourne (NWS MLB) county warning area (CWA). In this update to the work, the AMU recalculated the lightning climatologies for using individual lightning strike data to improve the accuracy of the climatologies. The AMU included all data regardless of flow regime as one of the stratifications, added monthly stratifications, added three years of data to the period of record and used modified flow regimes based work from the AMU's Objective Lightning Probability Forecast Tool, Phase II. The AMU made changes so the 5- and 10-NM radius range rings are consistent with the aviation forecast requirements at NWS MLB, while the 20- and 30-NM radius range rings at the SLF assist the Spaceflight Meteorology Group in making forecasts for weather Flight Rule violations during Shuttle landings. The AMU also updated the graphical user interface with the new data.

  13. Oceanic Lightning versus Continental Lightning: VLF Peak Current Discrepancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, N. A., Jr.; Moore, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Recent analysis of the Vaisala global lightning data set GLD360 suggests that oceanic lightning tends to exhibit larger peak currents than continental lightning (lightning occurring over land). The GLD360 peak current measurement is derived from distant measurements of the electromagnetic fields emanated during the lightning flash. Because the GLD360 peak current measurement is a derived quantity, it is not clear whether the actual peak currents of oceanic lightning tend to be larger, or whether the resulting electromagnetic field strengths tend to be larger. In this paper, we present simulations of VLF signal propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide to demonstrate that the peak field values for oceanic lightning can be significantly stronger than for continental lightning. Modeling simulations are performed using the Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) code to directly evaluate the effect of ground conductivity on VLF signal propagation in the 5-15 kHz band. LWPC is an inherently narrowband propagation code that has been modified to predict the broadband response of the Earth-Ionosphere waveguide to an impulsive lightning flash while preserving the ability of LWPC to account for an inhomogeneous waveguide. Furthermore, we evaluate the effect of return stroke speed on these results.

  14. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    PubMed

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents.

  15. ASTP simulated lightning test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blount, R. L.; Gadbois, R. D.; Suiter, D. L.; Zill, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    A simulated lightning test was conducted on the backup spacecraft for the Apollo Soyuz Test Project mission (CSM-119) to determine the susceptibility of the Apollo spacecraft to damage from the indirect effects of lightning. It is demonstrated that induced lightning effects from low-level injected currents can be scaled linearly to those which are obtained in a full threat lightning stroke. Test results indicate that: (1) many of the power and signal critical circuits would fail if subjected to full-threat lightning, (2) pyrotechnic circuits are safe for full-threat lightning, and (3) common-mode voltages exceeded the failure criteria level for all but three of the circuits tested.

  16. Lightning hazards overview: Aviation requirements and interests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corn, P. B.

    1979-01-01

    A ten-year history of USAF lightning incidents is presented along with a discussion of the problems posed by lightning to current aircraft, and the hazards it constitutes to the electrical and electronic subsystems of new technology aircraft. Lightning technical protection technical needs, both engineering and operational, include: (1) in-flight data on lightning electrical parameters; (2) tech base and guidelines for protection of advanced systems and structures; (3) improved laboratory test techniques; (4) analysis techniques for predicting induced effects; (5) lightning strike incident data from general aviation; (6) lightning detection systems; (7) pilot reports on lightning strikes; and (8) better training in lightning awareness.

  17. Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida: Phase IV: Central Florida Flow Regime Based Climatologies of Lightning Probabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2009-01-01

    The threat of lightning is a daily concern during the warm season in Florida. Research has revealed distinct spatial and temporal distributions of lightning occurrence that are strongly influenced by large-scale atmospheric flow regimes. Previously, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) calculated the gridded lightning climatologies based on seven flow regimes over Florida for 1-, 3- and 6-hr intervals in 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-NM diameter range rings around the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) and eight other airfields in the National Weather Service in Melbourne (NWS MLB) county warning area (CWA). In this update to the work, the AMU recalculated the lightning climatologies for using individual lightning strike data to improve the accuracy of the climatologies. The AMU included all data regardless of flow regime as one of the stratifications, added monthly stratifications, added three years of data to the period of record and used modified flow regimes based work from the AMU's Objective Lightning Probability Forecast Tool, Phase II. The AMU made changes so the 5- and 10-NM radius range rings are consistent with the aviation forecast requirements at NWS MLB, while the 20- and 30-NM radius range rings at the SLF assist the Spaceflight Meteorology Group in making forecasts for weather Flight Rule violations during Shuttle landings. The AMU also updated the graphical user interface with the new data.

  18. Lightning mapper sensor design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L. R.; Poon, C. W.; Shelton, J. C.; Laverty, N. P.; Cook, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    World-wide continuous measurement of lightning location, intensity, and time during both day and night is to be provided by the Lightning Mapper (LITMAP) instrument. A technology assessment to determine if the LITMAP requirements can be met using existing sensor and electronic technologies is presented. The baseline concept discussed in this report is a compromise among a number of opposing requirements (e.g., ground resolution versus array size; large field of view versus narrow bandpass filter). The concept provides coverage for more than 80 percent of the lightning events as based on recent above-cloud NASA/U2 lightning measurements.

  19. Ball lightning risk to aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doe, R.; Keul, A.

    2009-04-01

    Lightning is a rare but regular phenomenon for air traffic. Aircraft are designed to withstand lightning strikes. Research on lightning and aircraft can be called detailed and effective. In the last 57 years, 18 reported lightning aviation disasters with a fatality figure of at least 714 persons occurred. For comparison, the last JACDEC ten-year average fatality figure was 857. The majority encountered lightning in the climb, descent, approach and/or landing phase. Ball lightning, a metastable, rare lightning type, is also seen from and even within aircraft, but former research only reported individual incidents and did not generate a more detailed picture to ascertain whether it constitutes a significant threat to passenger and aircraft safety. Lacking established incident report channels, observations were often only passed on as "air-travel lore". In an effort to change this unsatisfactory condition, the authors have collected a first international dataset of 38 documented ball lightning aircraft incidents from 1938 to 2001 involving 13 reports over Europe, 13 over USA/Canada, and 7 over Russia. 18 (47%) reported ball lightning outside the aircraft, 18 (47%) inside, 2 cases lacked data. 8 objects caused minor damage, 8 major damage (total: 42%), only one a crash. No damage was reported in 18 cases. 3 objects caused minor crew injury. In most cases, ball lightning lasted several seconds. 11 (29%) incidents ended with an explosion of the object. A cloud-aircraft lightning flash was seen in only 9 cases (24%) of the data set. From the detailed accounts of air personnel in the last 70 years, it is evident that ball lightning is rarely, but consistently observed in connection with aircraft and can also occur inside the airframe. Reports often came from multiple professional witnesses and in several cases, damages were investigated by civil or military authorities. Although ball lightning is no main air traffic risk, the authors suggest that incident and accident

  20. LSZ-850 lightning sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Ernest W.

    1988-04-01

    The design and summary of test results of a new Honeywell Wideband Lightning Sensor System (LSZ-850) is presented. The unique method for identifying, direction-finding and ranging to a lightning stroke is discussed. The LSZ-850 Lightning Sensor System senses electrostatic and electromagnetic disturbances caused by lightning discharge activity. When a discharge occurs, the system carefully analyzes the lightning discharge and creates the proper symbol for display on the radar indicator. The system's computer determines the rate of lightning in a fixed geographical area and then displays the centroid of that area with the unique lightning rate symbol. Wide bandwidth, extensive signal processing and lightning stroke recognition algorithms are used. Tests on a number of lightning storms at distances to 100 nm indicate the angular resolution to be better than plus or minus 10 degrees, and may be in the range of less than 3 degrees with little or no systematic dependence on the number of active thunderstorm cells which are at different angles. Test results are presented which show the accuracy of the system in locating severe weather.

  1. Theoretical design of lightning panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emetere, M. E.; Olawole, O. F.; Sanni, S. E.

    2016-02-01

    The light trapping device (LTD) was theoretically designed to suggests the best way of harvesting the energy derived from natural lightning. The Maxwell's equation was expanded using a virtual experimentation via a MATLAB environment. Several parameters like lightning flash and temperature distribution were consider to investigate the ability of the theoretical lightning panel to convert electricity efficiently. The results of the lighting strike angle on the surface of the LTD shows the maximum power expected per time. The results of the microscopic thermal distribution shows that if the LTD casing controls the transmission of the heat energy, then the thermal energy storage (TES) can be introduced to the lightning farm.

  2. Lightning protection of distribution lines

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, T.E. ); Short, T.A. ); Anderson, J.G. , Pittsfield, MA )

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports a study of distribution line lightning performance, using computer simulations of lightning overvoltages. The results of previous investigations are extended with a detailed model of induced voltages from nearby strokes, coupled into a realistic power system model. The paper also considers the energy duty of distribution-class surge arresters exposed to direct strokes. The principal result is that widely separated pole-top arresters can effectively protect a distribution line from induced-voltage flashovers. This means that nearby lightning strokes need not be a significant lightning performance problem for most distribution lines.

  3. Broadband interferometry of lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Michael

    A lightning interferometer is an instrument which determines the direction to a lightning-produced radio point source by correlating the signal received at two or more antennas. Such instruments have been used with great success for several decades in the study of the physical processes present in a lightning flash. However, previous instruments have either been sensitive to only a narrow radio bandwidth so that the correlation can be done using analog hardware, or have been sensitive to a wide bandwidth but only recorded a short duration of the radiation produced by a lightning flash. In this dissertation, a broad bandwidth interferometer is developed which is capable of recording the VHF radio emission over the entire duration of a lightning flash. In order to best utilize the additional data, the standard processing techniques have been redeveloped from scratch using a digital cross correlation algorithm. This algorithm can and does locate sources as faint as the noise level of the antennas, typically producing 100,000 or more point source locations over the course of a lightning flash. At very low received power levels, the likelihood that a signal received at the antenna will be affected by the environmental noise is substantially higher. For this reason, the processing allows for the integration windows of the cross correlation to be heavily overlapped. In this way, the location of each event can be based on a distribution of windows. Further, noise identification techniques which leverage the heavily overlapped windows have been developed based on: the closure delay, the standard deviation, the correlation amplitude, and the number of contributing windows. The filtration techniques have proven to be very successful at identifying and removing mis-located sources, while removing the minimum number of low amplitude sources which are well located. In the past, lightning interferometers have been limited to using only two perpendicular baselines to determine the

  4. RF radiation from lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation from lightning in the RF band from 3-300 MHz were monitored. Radiation in this frequency range is of interest as a potential vehicle for monitoring severe storms and for studying the lightning itself. Simultaneous measurements were made of RF radiation and fast and slow field changes. Continuous analogue recordings with a system having 300 kHz of bandwidth were made together with digital records of selected events (principally return strokes) at greater temporal resolution. The data reveal patterns in the RF radiation for the entire flash which are characteristic of flash type and independent of the frequency of observation. Individual events within the flash also have characteristic RF patterns. Strong radiation occurs during the first return strokes, but delayed about 20 micron sec with respect to the begining of the return stroke; whereas, RF radiation from subsequent return strokes tends to be associated with cloud processes preceding the flash with comparatively little radiation occurring during the return stroke itself.

  5. Lightning flash characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Orville, R.E.; Henderson, R.W.; Pyle, R.B.

    1986-08-01

    A magnetic direction finding network for the detection of lightning cloud-to-ground strikes has been installed along the East Coast of the United States. Most of the lightning occurring from Maine to Florida and as far west as Ohio, Kentucky, and Alabame is detected. Time, location, flash polarity, stroke count, and magnetic field initial peak amplitude are recorded in real time. Flash locations, time, and polarity are displayed routinely for research and operational purposes. The data are being compiled into a data base to provide statistical information necassary for the prediction of the surge performance of electric power lines and the improvement of surge protection practices. Preliminary results are presented in this report.

  6. Remote lightning monitor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennon, C. L.; Britt, T. O. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for monitoring, analyzing and accurately determining the value of peak current, the peak rate of change in current with respect to time and the rise time of the electrical currents generated in an electrical conductive mast that is located in the vicinity where lightning is to be monitored is described. The apparatus includes an electrical coil for sensing the change in current flowing through the mast and generating a voltage responsive. An on-site recorder and a recorder control system records the voltages produced responsive to lightning strikes and converts the voltage to digital signals for being transmitted back to the remote command station responsive to command signals. The recorder and the recorder control system are carried within an RFI proof environmental housing into which the command signals are fed by means of a fiber optic cable so as to minimize electrical interference.

  7. FNAS lightning detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, George P.; Alzmann, Melanie A.

    1993-01-01

    A review of past and future investigations into lightning detection from space was incorporated into a brochure. Following the collection of background information, a meeting was held to discuss the format and contents of the proposed documentation. An initial outline was produced and decided upon. Photographs to be included in the brochure were selected. Quotations with respect to printing the document were requested. In the period between 28 March and June 1993, work continued on compiling the text. Towards the end of this contract, a review of the brochure was undertaken by the technical monitor. Photographs were being revised and additional areas of lightning research were being considered for inclusion into the brochure. Included is a copy of the draft (and photographs) which is still being edited by the technical monitor at the time of this report.

  8. Ball Lightning Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychkov, V. L.; Nikitin, A. I.; Dijkhuis, G. C.

    Ball lightning (BL) researches' review and theoretical models of three different authors are presented. The general review covers investigations from 1838 until the present day, and includes a discussion on observation data, experimental modeling, and theoretical approaches. Section 6.1 is written by Bychkov and Nikitin; authors of the sections 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4 are, respectively, Bychkov, Nikitin and Dijkhuis.

  9. Lightning Scaling Laws Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccippio, D. J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Scaling laws relating storm electrical generator power (and hence lightning flash rate) to charge transport velocity and storm geometry were originally posed by Vonnegut (1963). These laws were later simplified to yield simple parameterizations for lightning based upon cloud top height, with separate parameterizations derived over land and ocean. It is demonstrated that the most recent ocean parameterization: (1) yields predictions of storm updraft velocity which appear inconsistent with observation, and (2) is formally inconsistent with the theory from which it purports to derive. Revised formulations consistent with Vonnegut's original framework are presented. These demonstrate that Vonnegut's theory is, to first order, consistent with observation. The implications of assuming that flash rate is set by the electrical generator power, rather than the electrical generator current, are examined. The two approaches yield significantly different predictions about the dependence of charge transfer per flash on storm dimensions, which should be empirically testable. The two approaches also differ significantly in their explanation of regional variability in lightning observations.

  10. TRIP illumines lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, R. D.

    It is 8 yr since important measurements of lightning in single-cell thunderstorms were made during the Thunderstorm Research International Project (TRIP), yet no theoretical interpretation of the lightning generation mechanism from the data has been made. This tardiness in interpreting the data is undoubtedly related to the existing confusion in lightning generation theories.According to Chalmers [1967], there are two classes of thunderstorm charge separation theories: those that rely on gravitation and those that do not involve gravitation. In the gravitational class, Chalmers again distinguished two types of processes: those in which ions are naturally generated (e.g., by cosmic rays, etc.) and are then attached to particles in the cloud and those in which some process (e.g., collision, coagulation, etc.) generates positive and negatively charged particles from neutrals in the cloud. Some of these two process types, cited in Chalmers' work, are given in Table 1, together with some of the scientists who originally proposed these processes.

  11. F-35 Embedded Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    from the pilot vehicle interface ( PVI ), which enables weapon and expendable countermeasures employment simulations. From TRAIN mode the pilot can...Scenario Debrief Data Aircraft Data Transfer Device ET Scenarios controlled via TRAIN Mode PVI TRAIN Mode Infrastructure JSF OMS VT Scenario...TRAIN mode from the pilot vehicle interface ( PVI ), which enables weapon and expendable countermeasures employment simulations. From TRAIN mode the

  12. Update Direct-Strike Lightning Environment for Stockpile-to-Target Sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Uman, M A; Rakov, V A; Elisme, J O; Jordan, D M; Biagi, C J; Hill, J D

    2008-10-01

    The University of Florida has surveyed all relevant publications reporting lightning characteristics and presents here an up-to-date version of the direct-strike lightning environment specifications for nuclear weapons published in 1989 by R. J. Fisher and M. A. Uman. Further, we present functional expressions for current vs. time, current derivative vs. time, second current derivative vs. time, charge transfer vs. time, and action integral (specific energy) vs. time for first return strokes, for subsequent return strokes, and for continuing currents; and we give sets of constants for these expressions so that they yield approximately the median and extreme negative lightning parameters presented in this report. Expressions for the median negative lightning waveforms are plotted. Finally, we provide information on direct-strike lightning damage to metals such as stainless steel, which could be used as components of storage containers for nuclear waste materials; and we describe UF's new experimental research program to add to the sparse data base on the properties of positive lightning. Our literature survey, referred to above, is included in four Appendices. The following four sections (II, III, IV, and V) of this final report deal with related aspects of the research: Section II. Recommended Direct-Strike Median and Extreme Parameters; Section III. Time-Domain Waveforms for First Strokes, Subsequent Strokes, and Continuing Currents; Section IV. Damage to Metal Surfaces by Lightning Currents; and Section V. Measurement of the Characteristics of Positive Lightning. Results of the literature search used to derive the material in Section II and Section IV are found in the Appendices: Appendix 1. Return Stroke Current, Appendix 2. Continuing Current, Appendix 3. Positive Lightning, and Appendix 4. Lightning Damage to Metal Surfaces.

  13. Lightning research: A user's lament

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, C. N.

    1984-01-01

    As a user of devices and procedures for lightning protection, the author is asking the lightning research community for cookbook recipes to help him solve his problems. He is lamenting that realistic devices are scarce and that his mission does not allow him the time nor the wherewithal to bridge the gap between research and applications. A few case histories are presented. In return for their help he is offering researchers a key to lightning technology--the use of the Eastern Test Range and its extensive resources as a proving ground for their experiment in the lightning capital of the United States. A current example is given--a joint lightning characterization project to take place there. Typical resources are listed.

  14. 14 CFR 25.581 - Lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lightning protection. 25.581 Section 25.581... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Lightning Protection § 25.581 Lightning protection. (a) The airplane must be protected against catastrophic effects from lightning. (b) For...

  15. 14 CFR 25.581 - Lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning protection. 25.581 Section 25.581... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Lightning Protection § 25.581 Lightning protection. (a) The airplane must be protected against catastrophic effects from lightning. (b) For...

  16. 14 CFR 25.581 - Lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lightning protection. 25.581 Section 25.581... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Lightning Protection § 25.581 Lightning protection. (a) The airplane must be protected against catastrophic effects from lightning. (b) For...

  17. 14 CFR 25.581 - Lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lightning protection. 25.581 Section 25.581... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Lightning Protection § 25.581 Lightning protection. (a) The airplane must be protected against catastrophic effects from lightning. (b) For...

  18. 14 CFR 25.581 - Lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lightning protection. 25.581 Section 25.581... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Lightning Protection § 25.581 Lightning protection. (a) The airplane must be protected against catastrophic effects from lightning. (b) For...

  19. Research on Winter Lightning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Masaru

    Winter lightning in Japan is known for such characteristics as frequent occurrence of upward lightning and of positive ground flashes. On the engineering side, higher frequencies of troubles at transmission lines or wind turbines in winter due to lightning than those in summer have been experienced in the winter thunderstorm area of Japan, despite the much smaller number of lightning strokes in winter observed by lightning location systems (LLS). Such frequent troubles by lightning in the cold season are unique in Japan, which have promoted intensive research on winter lightning in Japan since 1980s.

  20. Correlation of satellite lightning observations with ground-based lightning experiments in Florida, Texas and Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgar, B. C.; Turman, B. N.

    1982-01-01

    Satellite observations of lightning were correlated with ground-based measurements of lightning from data bases obtained at three separate sites. The percentage of ground-based observations of lightning that would be seen by an orbiting satellite was determined.

  1. Lightning return stroke models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y. T.; Uman, M. A.; Standler, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    We test the two most commonly used lightning return stroke models, Bruce-Golde and transmission line, against subsequent stroke electric and magnetic field wave forms measured simultaneously at near and distant stations and show that these models are inadequate to describe the experimental data. We then propose a new return stroke model that is physically plausible and that yields good approximations to the measured two-station fields. Using the new model, we derive return stroke charge and current statistics for about 100 subsequent strokes.

  2. The CHUVA Lightning Mapping Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, S. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Hoeller, H.; Albrecht, R. I.; Machado, L. A.; Morales, C.; Pinto, O.; Saba, M. M.; Naccarato, K.; Hembury, N.; Nag, A.; Heckman, S.; Holzworth, R. H.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Betz, H.; Said, R.; Rauenzahn, K.

    2011-12-01

    The primary science objective for the CHUVA lightning mapping campaign is to combine measurements of total lightning activity, lightning channel mapping, and detailed information on the locations of cloud charge regions of thunderstorms with the planned observations of the CHUVA (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement) field campaign. The lightning campaign takes place during the CHUVA intensive observation period October-December 2011 in the vicinity of São Luiz do Paraitinga with Brazilian, US, and European government, university and industry participants. Total lightning measurements that can be provided by ground-based regional 2-D and 3-D total lightning mapping networks coincident with overpasses of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) on the Meteosat Second Generation satellite in geostationary earth orbit will be used to generate proxy data sets for the next generation US and European geostationary satellites. Proxy data, which play an important role in the pre-launch mission development and in user readiness preparation, are used to develop and validate algorithms so that they will be ready for operational use quickly following the planned launch of the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in 2015 and the Meteosat Third Generation Lightning Imager (LI) in 2017. To date there is no well-characterized total lightning data set coincident with the imagers. Therefore, to take the greatest advantage of this opportunity to collect detailed and comprehensive total lightning data sets, test and validate multi-sensor nowcasting applications for the monitoring, tracking, warning, and prediction of severe and high impact weather, and to advance our knowledge of thunderstorm physics, extensive measurements from lightning mapping networks will be

  3. The CHUVA Lightning Mapping Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Hoeller, Hartmut; Albrecht, Rachel I.; Morales, Carlos; Pinto, Osmar; Saba, Marcelo M.; Naccarato, Kleber; Hembury, Nikki; Nag, Amitabh; Heckman, Stan; Holzworth, Robert H.; Rudlosky, Scott D.; Betz, Hans-Dieter; Said, Ryan; Rauenzahn, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The primary science objective for the CHUVA lightning mapping campaign is to combine measurements of total lightning activity, lightning channel mapping, and detailed information on the locations of cloud charge regions of thunderstorms with the planned observations of the CHUVA (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement) field campaign. The lightning campaign takes place during the CHUVA intensive observation period October-December 2011 in the vicinity of S o Luiz do Paraitinga with Brazilian, US, and European government, university and industry participants. Total lightning measurements that can be provided by ground-based regional 2-D and 3-D total lightning mapping networks coincident with overpasses of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) on the Meteosat Second Generation satellite in geostationary earth orbit will be used to generate proxy data sets for the next generation US and European geostationary satellites. Proxy data, which play an important role in the pre-launch mission development and in user readiness preparation, are used to develop and validate algorithms so that they will be ready for operational use quickly following the planned launch of the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in 2015 and the Meteosat Third Generation Lightning Imager (LI) in 2017. To date there is no well-characterized total lightning data set coincident with the imagers. Therefore, to take the greatest advantage of this opportunity to collect detailed and comprehensive total lightning data sets, test and validate multi-sensor nowcasting applications for the monitoring, tracking, warning, and prediction of severe and high impact weather, and to advance our knowledge of thunderstorm physics, extensive measurements from lightning mapping networks will be collected

  4. Using Total Lightning Observations to Enhance Lightning Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Lightning is often the underrated threat faced by the public when it comes to dangerous weather phenomena. Typically, larger scale events such as floods, hurricanes, and tornadoes receive the vast majority of attention by both the general population and the media. This comes from the fact that these phenomena are large, longer lasting, can impact a large swath of society at one time, and are dangerous events. The threat of lightning is far more isolated on a case by case basis, although millions of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes hit this United States each year. While attention is given to larger meteorological events, lightning is the second leading cause of weather related deaths in the United States. This information raises the question of what steps can be taken to improve lightning safety. Already, the meteorological community s understanding of lightning has increased over the last 20 years. Lightning safety is now better addressed with the National Weather Service s access to the National Lightning Detection Network data and enhanced wording in their severe weather warnings. Also, local groups and organizations are working to improve public awareness of lightning safety with easy phrases to remember, such as "When Thunder Roars, Go Indoors." The impacts can be seen in the greater array of contingency plans, from airports to sports stadiums, addressing the threat of lightning. Improvements can still be made and newer technologies may offer new tools as we look towards the future. One of these tools is a network of sensors called a lightning mapping array (LMA). Several of these networks exist across the United States. NASA s Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT), part of the Marshall Spaceflight Center, has access to three of these networks from Huntsville, Alabama, the Kennedy Space Center, and Washington D.C. The SPoRT program s mission is to help transition unique products and observations into the operational forecast environment

  5. Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium bifidum F-35 in whey protein-based microcapsules by transglutaminase-induced gelation.

    PubMed

    Zou, Qiang; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jianxin; Tian, Fengwei; Zhang, He-ping; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2012-05-01

    Bifidobacterium bifidum F-35 was microencapsulated into whey protein microcapsules (WPMs) by a transglutaminase (TGase)-induced method after optimization of gelation conditions. The performance of these WPMs was compared with that produced by a spray drying method (WPMs-A). WPMs produced by the TGase-induced gelation method (WPMs-B) had larger and denser structures in morphological examinations. Native gel and SDS-PAGE analyses showed that most of the polymerization observed in WPMs-B was due to stable covalent crosslinks catalyzed by TGase. The degradation properties of these WPMs were investigated in simulated gastric juice (SGJ) with or without pepsin. In the presence of pepsin, WPMs-A degraded more quickly than did WPMs-B. Finally, survival rates of the microencapsulated cells in both WPMs were significantly better than that of free cells and varied with the microencapsulation method. However, WPMs-B produced by TGase-induced gelation could provide better protection for microencapsulated cells in low pH conditions and during 1 mo of storage at 4 °C or at ambient temperature. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Observations of volcanic Lightning (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Behnke, S. A.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.; Edens, H. E.; McNutt, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    We have made detailed observations of lightning during four volcanic eruptions using lightning mapping array (LMA) stations. In January 2006 we observed several explosive eruptions from Augustine Volcano in Alaska with two LMA stations. While two stations only gave us the direction to the lightning it gave a detailed time history of the lightning in relationship to the eruption as measured by seismic and acoustic instruments. We inferred that there were two phases (explosive and plume) and three types of lightning (small discharges near the vent, larger discharges in the volcanic column, thunderstorm like lightning in the plume). In May 2008 we mapped lightning in the plume of Chaitan (Chile) three weeks after the initial eruption. In 2009 we observed the entire sequence of explosive eruptions of Redoubt Volcano in Alaska with 4 distant stations. This provided good 2-D locations of the electrical activity. In 2010 we mapped much of the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull using 6 LMA stations that provided 3-D locations. All the observations have reinforced the basic conclusions that we found at the Augustine eruption, and let us expand and refine the these ideas.

  7. Understanding the Lightning Leader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, Richard

    2011-10-01

    Before the flash and the bang that lay-people think of as lightning, it is necessary to break down a channel of air several kilometers long through what is known as the leader process. We have been studying the growth of lightning leaders for nearly a decade through a combination of balloon-borne electric field measurements on balloons and on the ground, time of arrival radio-measurements, and high-speed video cameras. Our combination of techniques can penetrate clouds and shows the development of both positive and negative leader channels growing at about 0.001c and carrying net-charge around the sky as they try to minimize electrostatic energy. Recent analysis has revealed the existence of step-recoil waves that propagate away from the tip of a growing leader as well as K-changes that propagate toward the leader tip. These waves probably help keep the leader hot and conductive enough to allow it to persist over the several hundred milliseconds it needs to reach ground.[4pt] In collaboration with William Winn, Ken Eack, Jeff LaPierre, New Mexico Tech, Langmuir Lab; William Hager, University of Florida; and Gaopeng Lu, Duke University, ECE Dept.

  8. Lightning flash characteristics, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Orville, R.E.; Henderson, R.W.; Pyle, R.B.

    1989-08-01

    A magnetic direction finding system for the detection of lightning flashes to ground has operated in the eastern part of the United States since 1982 and has now expanded to cover over 80 percent of the contiguous United States. Complete coverage is planned for the end of 1988. Time, location, flash polarity, multiplicity (the number of strokes per flash) and the initial peak magnetic radiation field amplitude are recorded in real time. Flash locations, time, polarity, peak current, and multiplicity are displayed routinely for research and operational uses. New results for 1987 include the flash density for strikes to ground in the peak current ranges 0--35 kA, 35--65 kA, 65--100 kA and greater than 100 kA. The lightning information is available to utilities through a satellite communication link for real time access or by phone lines for access to historical data, where the last five million flashes are available. The flash information is being compiled into a data base to provide statistical information necessary for the prediction of the surge performance of electric power lines and the improvement of surge protection practices. Results for the year 1987 are presented in this report. 13 refs., 25 figs.

  9. Editorial - Advances in lightning research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-12-01

    This is the part I of a special issue dedicated to lightning research, consisting of papers presented at the 32nd International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP), held in Shanghai, China, in 2014, and several contributions invited by the guest editors to complement the subject matter of the papers selected from the ICLP. The papers from the ICLP were selected by the session chairmen of the ICLP and passed through the rigorous review process of the Journal of Solar Terrestrial and Atmospheric Physics (JASTP). The papers presented in this special issue contain subject matter pertinent to all aspects of lightning research both theoretical and experimental.

  10. Lightning Current Parameters of Upward Lightning Flashes Observed at the 200-m Fukui Chimney in Winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, A.; Asakawa, A.; Miki, M.; Shindo, T.

    2003-12-01

    For over twenty years we have been observing the lightning flashes at the 200-m-tall chimney in the Fukui thermal power plant in winter in Japan. The local IKL (thunderstorm days) is about 40 in this area and the lightning flashes at the chimney are recorded about 40 times in a winter season. When the lightning strikes the 5-m lightning rod on top of the chimney, lightning currents are measured by using coaxial shunt-resistors installed at the base of the lightning rod. Lightning progressing features was measured by the 40X40 pin photodiode array system. The system records luminosity changes in the lightning channel by measuring the differences between signals from different photodiodes. At a distance of 630 m from the chimney, a vertical lightning channel of 1000 m is divided by using 40 diode elements. Electromagnetic field changes that accompany lightning flashes are also measured by using several types of antennas. These simultaneous measurements classified the behavior of winter lightning flashes. All recorded lightning flash was the lightning discharge initiated by the upward leader from the chimney. Most lightning (about 90 percent) was the lightning discharge initiated by the upward-moving positively charged leader. The lightning initiated by the upward-moving negatively charged leader was only about 10 percent. Some of the lightning produced the subsequent discharge processes following the upward leader development. There are many differences between the lightning current parameters of upward lightning flashes and the downward lightning flashes. Interestingly, the upward leader currents observed at the chimney are big compared to the downward leader currents estimated by the several methods. We will report the properties of lightning current parameters based on the data collected at the 200-m-tall chimney in winter. These statistical data of lightning current parameters are classified especially from the point of view of lightning discharge types.

  11. Lightning Observations with the Upgraded Lanmguir Lab Lightning Mapping Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rison, W.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Hunyady, S.; Edens, H. E.; Aulich, G. D.

    2010-12-01

    The Langmuir Lab Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) is located on and around the Magdalena Mountains in central New Mexico. Recently there have been several improvements to the LMA which have dramatically increased its sensitivity. By switching most stations to solar power (which allows us to place them far from buildings and power lines) and reducing the noise of the power supply, the station-generated and local environmental noise has been reduced to levels near the theoretical thermal value. Because of the recent switch to digital television, the LMA is no longer degraded by the anthropogenic noise of distant VHF television transmitters, due to the stations mostly being switched to UHF. The distant interference was a particularly bad problem for the stations located high in the Magdalena Mountains. The combination of lower threshold values and increasing the number of stations to 16 enables lower-power sources to be detected above the local noise levels and hence located by the system. We are now able to observe the positive leaders (which produce a much lower level of VHF radiation than negative leaders) which propagate upward from a triggering rocket. Lightning channels in natural lightning discharges are also much more clearly defined than in the past. Minor discharges (with one or a few LMA-detected sources) between larger lightning flashes are routinely observed. Much more detail is observed from distant lightning discharges. (However, the increased sensitivity does not reduce the vertical and radial errors for lightning observed outside the array.) In addition to the more sensitive LMA, we continue to improve our array of high-resolution electrostatic field change stations, which provides considerable information on lightning-induced charge transfer. We will present examples of observations of natural and triggered lightning, showing the increased detail now available from the recent improvements to the Langmuir Lab LMA.

  12. Multifractal analysis of lightning channel for different categories of lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, F. J.; Sharma, S. R.

    2016-07-01

    A study from the point of view of complex systems is done for lightning occurred at Diamantina, Sete Lagoas and São José dos Campos, during the summer from September 2009 to April 2010. For the first time, multifractal analyses were performed for different lightning categories: two-dimensional, three-dimensional, non-branched, branched, cloud, cloud-to-ground, single and multiple. We found that when using two-dimensional images of natural lightning embedded in three dimensions to perform multifractal analysis, the interpretation of the multifractal spectrum must be restricted to identification of the multi (mono) fractal character of lightning channel and to estimation of fractal dimension. We have also observed that, on the average, each category has a specific value of fractal dimension. Categories in which branches and tortuosity are more usual, like branched and cloud categories, exhibited largest fractal dimensions due to more complexity of lightning channels. The results suggest that single and multiple lightning have similar complexities in their channels, leading to the same average values of fractal, information and correlation dimensions for both categories.

  13. Magnetic tape lightning current detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, K. E.; Jafferis, W.

    1980-01-01

    Development and application tests of a low cost, passive, peak lightning current detector (LCD) found it to provide measurements with accuracies of + or - 5 percent to + or - 10 percent depending on the readout method employed. The LCD uses magnetic audio recording tape to sense the magnitude of the peak magnetic field around a conductor carrying lightning currents. The test results showed that the length of audio tape erased was linearly related to the peak simulated lightning currents in a round conductor. Accuracies of + or - 10 percent were shown for measurements made using a stopwatch readout technique to determine the amount of tape erased by the lightning current. Where more accurate data are desired, the tape is played and the output recorded on a strip chart, oscilloscope, or some other means so that measurements can be made on that recording. Conductor dimensions, tape holder dimensions, and tape formulation must also be considered to obtain a more accurate result.

  14. Lightning strike protection of composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagné, Martin; Therriault, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft structures are being redesigned to use fiber-reinforced composites mainly due to their high specific stiffness and strength. One of the main drawbacks from changing from electrically conductive metals to insulating or semi-conducting composites is the higher vulnerability of the aircraft to lightning strike damage. The current protection approach consists of bonding a metal mesh to the surface of the composite structure, but this weight increase negatively impact the fuel efficiency. This review paper presents an overview of the lightning strike problematic, the regulations, the lightning damage to composite, the current protection solutions and other material or technology alternatives. Advanced materials such as polymer-based nanocomposites and carbon nanotube buckypapers are promising candidates for lightweight lightning strike protection technology.

  15. Camp Blanding Lightning Mapping Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee,Richard; Christian, Hugh; Bailey, Jeffrey; Hall, John; Uman, Martin; Jordan, Doug; Krehbiel, Paul; Rison, William; Edens, Harald

    2011-01-01

    A seven station, short base-line Lightning Mapping Array was installed at the Camp Blanding International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) during April 2011. This network will support science investigations of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs) and lightning initiation using rocket triggered lightning at the ICLRT. The network operations and data processing will be carried out through a close collaboration between several organizations, including the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, University of Alabama in Huntsville, University of Florida, and New Mexico Tech. The deployment was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The network does not have real-time data dissemination. Description, status and plans will be discussed.

  16. 2016 T Division Lightning Talks

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, Marilyn Leann; Adams, Luke Clyde; Ferre, Gregoire Robing; Grantcharov, Vesselin; Iaroshenko, Oleksandr; Krishnapriyan, Aditi; Kurtakoti, Prajvala Kishore; Le Thien, Minh Quan; Lim, Jonathan Ng; Low, Thaddeus Song En; Lystrom, Levi Aaron; Ma, Xiaoyu; Nguyen, Hong T.; Pogue, Sabine Silvia; Orandle, Zoe Ann; Reisner, Andrew Ray; Revard, Benjamin Charles; Roy, Julien; Sandor, Csanad; Slavkova, Kalina Polet; Weichman, Kathleen Joy; Wu, Fei; Yang, Yang

    2016-11-29

    These are the slides for all of the 2016 T Division lightning talks. There are 350 pages worth of slides from different presentations, all of which cover different topics within the theoretical division at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  17. Lightning in the Protoplanetary Nebula?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Stanley G.

    1997-01-01

    Lightning in the protoplanetary nebula has been proposed as a mechanism for creating meteoritic chondrules: enigmatic mm-sized silicate spheres formed in the nebula by the brief melting of cold precursors.

  18. Lightning protection of wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodd, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    Possible damages to wind turbine components due to lightning strikes are discussed and means to prevent the damage are presented. A low resistance path to the ground is noted to be essential for any turbine system, including metal paths on nonmetal blades to conduct the strike. Surge arrestors are necessary to protect against overvoltages both from utility lines in normal operation and against lightning damage to control equipment and contactors in the generator. MOS structures are susceptible to static discharge injury, as are other semiconductor devices, and must be protected by the presence of static protection circuitry. It is recommended that the electronics be analyzed for the circuit transient response to a lightning waveform, to induced and dc current injection, that input/output leads be shielded, everything be grounded, and lightning-resistant components be chosen early in the design phase.

  19. Lightning in the Protoplanetary Nebula?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Stanley G.

    1997-01-01

    Lightning in the protoplanetary nebula has been proposed as a mechanism for creating meteoritic chondrules: enigmatic mm-sized silicate spheres formed in the nebula by the brief melting of cold precursors.

  20. Fatal lightning strikes in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Murty, O P; Kian, Chong Kah; Ari Husin, Mohammed Husrul; Nanta Kumar, Ranjeev Kumar; Mohammed Yusuf, Wan Yuhana W

    2009-09-01

    Lightning strike is a natural phenomenon with potentially devastating effects and represents one of the important causes of deaths from environmental phenomena. Almost every organ system may be affected as lightning current passes through the human body taking the shortest pathways between the contact points. A 10 years retrospective study (1996-2005) was conducted at University Hospital Kuala Lumpur (20 cases) also including cases during last 3 years from Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah, Klang (7 cases) from the autopsy reports at Forensic Pathology Units of these 2 hospitals. Both these hospitals are attached to University of Malaya. There were 27 fatal cases of lightning strike with male preponderance(92.59%) and male to female ratio of 12.5:1. Majority of victims of lightning strike were from the age group between 30 and 39 years old. Most of the victims were foreign workers. Indonesians workers contributed to 59.26% of overall cases. Majority of them were construction workers who attributed i.e.11 of 27 cases (40.74%). Most of the victims were brought in dead (37.04%). In majority of the cases the lightning incidence occurred in the evenings, with the frequency of 15 of 27 cases (62.5%). The month of December represented with the highest number of cases (5 cases of 23 cases); 2004 had the highest incidence of lightning strike which was 5 (19.23%). Lightning strike incidence occurred when victims had taken shelter (25.9%) under trees or shades. Lightning strike in open areas occurred in 10 of 27 cases (37.0%). Head and neck were the most commonly affected sites with the incidence of 77.78% and 74% respectively in all the victims. Only 29.63% of the cases presented with ear bleeding.

  1. Lightning instrumentation for warning and measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtasinski, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    A presentation of instrumentation techniques used at Kennedy Space Center for assessing the hazards of lightning, measure lightning currents, induced voltage effects and assess the probability of lightning strikes to launch structures. The electric field and sferics are measured to determine the lightning hazard from the clouds. Measurements are made on launch structures to determine the magnitude of lightning currents and the induced voltages. Photographs are taken to ascertain the location of lightning strikes. Data is analyzed and presented on operations personnel and the Weather Office for assessment of impact on launch critical electromechanical systems and industrial operations.

  2. Lightning and thermal injuries.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Arthur; Gamelli, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    Electrical burns are classified as either high voltage (1000 volts and higher) or low voltage (<1000 volts). The typical injury with a high-voltage electrical contact is one where subcutaneous fat, muscles, and even bones are injured. Lower voltages may have lesser injuries. The electrical current has the potential to injure via three mechanisms: injury caused by current flow, an arc injury as the current passes from source to an object, and a flame injury caused by ignition of material in the local environment. Different tissues also have different resistance to the conduction of electricity. Voltage, current (amperage), type of current (alternating or direct), path of current flow across the body, duration of contact, and individual susceptibility all determine what final injury will occur. Devitalized tissue must be evaluated and debrided. Ocular cataracts may develop over time following electrical injury. Lightning strikes may conduct millions of volts of electricity, yet the effects can range from minimal cutaneous injuries to significant injury comparable to a high-voltage industrial accident. Lightning strikes commonly result in cardiorespiratory arrest, for which CPR is effective when begun promptly. Neurologic complications from electrical and lightning injuries are highly variable and may present early or late (up to 2 years) after the injury. The prognosis for electricity-related neurologic injuries is generally better than for other types of traumatic causes, suggesting a conservative approach with serial neurologic examinations after an initial CT scan to rule out correctable causes. One of the most common complications of electrical injury is a cardiac dysrhythmia. Because of the potential for large volumes of muscle loss and the release of myoglobin, the presence of heme pigments in the urine must be evaluated promptly. Presence of these products of breakdown of myoglobin and hemoglobin puts the injured at risk for acute renal failure and must be

  3. Lightning Imaging via VHF Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Osaka University has been developing interferometric lightning mapping systems for some time, first with narrow band VHF interferometers, and then with broadband digital VHF interferometers (DITF). Recently, a collaboration between New Mexico Tech and Osaka University resulted in the development of the NMT INTF. All of these interferometric lightning mapping systems have added greatly to our understanding of lightning physics. The next generation of digital broadband VHF interferometer is now being developed in Osaka, called the Lightning Imaging via VHF Emission (LIVE) interferometer. LIVE is capable of mapping lightning in real-time with sub-millisecond time resolution, or through post processing with sub-microsecond time resolution. Near-field corrections have been developed, so that sources very close to the array can be located accurately, and so that the baselines can lengthened for improved angular resolution. LIVE is capable of locating lighting over more than a 75 dB range of brightnesses, allowing the system to be extremely sensitive, and the long baselines allow for location uncertainties as low as tens of meters. Presented are observations of lightning recorded in the Kasai area of Japan, as well as the Pengerang region of Malaysia showing the capabilities of the LIVE interferometer.

  4. 75 FR 78229 - Record of Decision for the U.S. Marine Corps East Coast Basing of the F-35B Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... Department of the Navy Record of Decision for the U.S. Marine Corps East Coast Basing of the F-35B Aircraft...) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 United States Code (U.S.C.) Section 4332... regulations (32 CFR part 775), and the Marine Corps Environmental Compliance and Protection Manual, which is...

  5. 75 FR 78229 - Record of Decision for the U.S. Marine Corps West Coast Basing of the F-35B Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... Department of the Navy Record of Decision for the U.S. Marine Corps West Coast Basing of the F-35B Aircraft...) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 United States Code (U.S.C.) Section 4332... regulations (32 CFR part 775), and the Marine Corps Environmental Compliance and Protection Manual, which is...

  6. The North Alabama Lightning Warning Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buechler, Dennis E.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Stano, G. T.

    2009-01-01

    The North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array NALMA has been collecting total lightning data on storms in the Tennessee Valley region since 2001. Forecasters from nearby National Weather Service (NWS) offices have been ingesting this data for display with other AWIPS products. The current lightning product used by the offices is the lightning source density plot. The new product provides a probabalistic, short-term, graphical forecast of the probability of lightning activity occurring at 5 min intervals over the next 30 minutes . One of the uses of the current lightning source density product by the Huntsville National Weather Service Office is to identify areas of potential for cloud-to-ground flashes based on where LMA total lightning is occurring. This product quantifies that observation. The Lightning Warning Product is derived from total lightning observations from the Washington, D.C. (DCLMA) and North Alabama Lightning Mapping Arrays and cloud-to-ground lightning flashes detected by the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). Probability predictions are provided for both intracloud and cloud-to-ground flashes. The gridded product can be displayed on AWIPS workstations in a manner similar to that of the lightning source density product.

  7. Lightning NOx and Impacts on Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Lee T.

    2016-01-01

    Lightning generates relatively large but uncertain quantities of nitrogen oxides, critical precursors for ozone and hydroxyl radical (OH), the primary tropospheric oxidants. Lightning nitrogen oxide strongly influences background ozone and OH due to high ozone production efficiencies in the free troposphere, effecting small but non-negligible contributions to surface pollutant concentrations. Lightning globally contributes 3-4 ppbv of simulated annual-mean policy-relevant background (PRB) surface ozone, comprised of local, regional, and hemispheric components, and up to 18 ppbv during individual events. Feedbacks via methane may counter some of these effects on decadal time scales. Lightning contributes approximately 1 percent to annual-mean surface particulate matter, as a direct precursor and by promoting faster oxidation of other precursors. Lightning also ignites wildfires and contributes to nitrogen deposition. Urban pollution influences lightning itself, with implications for regional lightning-nitrogen oxide production and feedbacks on downwind surface pollution. How lightning emissions will change in a warming world remains uncertain.

  8. Measuring Method for Lightning Channel Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Li, X.; Zhang, J.; Chen, L.; Xue, Q.; Zhu, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the temperature of lightning channel utilizing the theory of lightning spectra and the model of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The impulse current generator platform (ICGS) was used to simulate the lightning discharge channel, and the spectral energy of infrared spectroscopy (930 nm) and the visible spectroscopy (648.2 nm) of the simulated lightning has been calculated. Results indicate that the peaks of luminous intensity of both infrared and visible spectra increase with the lightning current intensity in range of 5–50 kA. Based on the results, the temperature of the lightning channel is derived to be 6140.8–10424 K. Moreover, the temperature of the channel is approximately exponential to the lightning current intensity, which shows good agreement with that of the natural lightning cases. PMID:27665937

  9. Measuring Method for Lightning Channel Temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Zhang, J; Chen, L; Xue, Q; Zhu, R

    2016-09-26

    In this paper, we demonstrate the temperature of lightning channel utilizing the theory of lightning spectra and the model of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The impulse current generator platform (ICGS) was used to simulate the lightning discharge channel, and the spectral energy of infrared spectroscopy (930 nm) and the visible spectroscopy (648.2 nm) of the simulated lightning has been calculated. Results indicate that the peaks of luminous intensity of both infrared and visible spectra increase with the lightning current intensity in range of 5-50 kA. Based on the results, the temperature of the lightning channel is derived to be 6140.8-10424 K. Moreover, the temperature of the channel is approximately exponential to the lightning current intensity, which shows good agreement with that of the natural lightning cases.

  10. Lightning NOx and Impacts on Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Lee T.

    2016-01-01

    Lightning generates relatively large but uncertain quantities of nitrogen oxides, critical precursors for ozone and hydroxyl radical (OH), the primary tropospheric oxidants. Lightning nitrogen oxide strongly influences background ozone and OH due to high ozone production efficiencies in the free troposphere, effecting small but non-negligible contributions to surface pollutant concentrations. Lightning globally contributes 3-4 ppbv of simulated annual-mean policy-relevant background (PRB) surface ozone, comprised of local, regional, and hemispheric components, and up to 18 ppbv during individual events. Feedbacks via methane may counter some of these effects on decadal time scales. Lightning contributes approximately 1 percent to annual-mean surface particulate matter, as a direct precursor and by promoting faster oxidation of other precursors. Lightning also ignites wildfires and contributes to nitrogen deposition. Urban pollution influences lightning itself, with implications for regional lightning-nitrogen oxide production and feedbacks on downwind surface pollution. How lightning emissions will change in a warming world remains uncertain.

  11. ScienceCast 88: Dark Lightning

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-07

    Researchers studying thunderstorms have made a surprising discovery: The lightning we see with our eyes has a dark competitor that discharges storm clouds and flings antimatter into space. Scientists are scrambling to understand "dark lightning."

  12. 49 CFR 176.120 - Lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Stowage § 176.120 Lightning protection. A lightning...

  13. Multivariate Statistical Inference of Lightning Occurrence, and Using Lightning Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccippio, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    Two classes of multivariate statistical inference using TRMM Lightning Imaging Sensor, Precipitation Radar, and Microwave Imager observation are studied, using nonlinear classification neural networks as inferential tools. The very large and globally representative data sample provided by TRMM allows both training and validation (without overfitting) of neural networks with many degrees of freedom. In the first study, the flashing / or flashing condition of storm complexes is diagnosed using radar, passive microwave and/or environmental observations as neural network inputs. The diagnostic skill of these simple lightning/no-lightning classifiers can be quite high, over land (above 80% Probability of Detection; below 20% False Alarm Rate). In the second, passive microwave and lightning observations are used to diagnose radar reflectivity vertical structure. A priori diagnosis of hydrometeor vertical structure is highly important for improved rainfall retrieval from either orbital radars (e.g., the future Global Precipitation Mission "mothership") or radiometers (e.g., operational SSM/I and future Global Precipitation Mission passive microwave constellation platforms), we explore the incremental benefit to such diagnosis provided by lightning observations.

  14. Multivariate Statistical Inference of Lightning Occurrence, and Using Lightning Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccippio, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    Two classes of multivariate statistical inference using TRMM Lightning Imaging Sensor, Precipitation Radar, and Microwave Imager observation are studied, using nonlinear classification neural networks as inferential tools. The very large and globally representative data sample provided by TRMM allows both training and validation (without overfitting) of neural networks with many degrees of freedom. In the first study, the flashing / or flashing condition of storm complexes is diagnosed using radar, passive microwave and/or environmental observations as neural network inputs. The diagnostic skill of these simple lightning/no-lightning classifiers can be quite high, over land (above 80% Probability of Detection; below 20% False Alarm Rate). In the second, passive microwave and lightning observations are used to diagnose radar reflectivity vertical structure. A priori diagnosis of hydrometeor vertical structure is highly important for improved rainfall retrieval from either orbital radars (e.g., the future Global Precipitation Mission "mothership") or radiometers (e.g., operational SSM/I and future Global Precipitation Mission passive microwave constellation platforms), we explore the incremental benefit to such diagnosis provided by lightning observations.

  15. Infrasonic Observations from Triggered Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Johnson, J. B.; Edens, H. E.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.; Eack, K.; Eastvedt, E. M.

    2009-12-01

    We measured acoustic signals during both triggered and natural lightning. A comparative analysis of simultaneous data from the Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), acoustic measurements and digital high-speed photography operating in the same area was made. Acoustic emissions, providing quantitative estimates of acoustic power and spectral content, will complement coincident investigations, such as X-ray emissions. Most cloud-to-ground lightning flashes lower negative charge to ground, but flashes that lower positive charge to ground are often unusually destructive and are less understood. The New Mexico Tech Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) locates the sources of impulsive RF radiation produced by lightning flashes in three spatial dimensions and time, operating in the 60 - 66 MHz television band. However, positive breakdown is rarely detected by the LMA and positive leader channels are outlined only by recoil events. Positive cloud-to-ground (CG) channels are usually not mapped (or partially mapped because they may have recoil events). Acoustic and electric field instruments are a good complement to the LMA, since they can detect both negative and positive leaders. An array of five stations was deployed during the Summer of 2009 (July 20 to August 13) in the Magdalena mountains of New Mexico, to monitor infrasound (below 20 Hz) and audio range sources due to natural and triggered lightning. The stations were located at close (57 m), medium (303 and 537 m) and far (1403 and 2556 m) distances surrounding the triggering site. Each station consisted of five sensors, one infrasonic and one in the audio range at the center, and three infrasonic in a triangular configuration. This research will provide a more complete picture, and provide further insight into the nature of lightning.

  16. Volcanic Lightning: in nature and in the lab.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimarelli, Corrado; Alatorre-Ibargüengoitia, Miguel A.; Aizawa, Koki; Díaz Marina, Ana I.; Yokoo, Akihiko; Kueppers, Ulrich; Mueller, Sebastian; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-04-01

    Ash-rich volcanic plumes that are responsible for injecting large quantities of aerosols into the atmosphere are often associated with intense electrical activity and the generation of volcanic lightning. Although the hazard of volcanic lightning is mostly confined to the area proximal to the vent, monitoring electrical discharges associated with explosive eruptions can provide crucial information on the dynamics and structure of the plume as well as on the mass eruption rate and cargo of erupted fine ash. Nevertheless, our understanding of volcanic lightning is still limited due to lacking of both i) systematic instrumental observation of electric activity in volcanic plumes and ii) the limited number of experimental investigations on the electrical properties of volcanic materials and the opportunity of replicating volcanic plume conditions in the lab. We recently contributed to the understanding of both these aspects by performing multi-parametric observation of volcanic lightning at Sakurajima volcano in Japan and by achieving volcanic lightning in particle-laden jets generated in the lab. At Sakurajima volcano we combined high-speed imaging with magnetotelluric and acoustic measurements of ash-rich plumes generating electrical discharges and compare our observation with maximum plume height measurement and atmospheric soundings. Our observations at Sakurajima allow the measurement of flash properties with respect to the plume evolution as well as magnetic and electric field variation and associated transferred current. In addition, weather-balloon soundings rule out the contribution of hydrometeors in the electrification of the plume. We complement the field observation by performing rapid decompression experiments of well-constrained (composition and granulometry) ash samples and analogue materials (micrometric glass beads). The experiments have a similar character to the cannon-like vulcanian explosions observed at Sakurajima and show many similarities with

  17. The 1982 direct strike lightning data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, M. E.; Pitts, F. L.

    1983-01-01

    Wideband waveforms data which were obtained during the 1982 direct-strike lightning tests utilizing the NASA F106-B aircraft specially instrumented for lightning electromagnetic measurements. The aircraft was operated in a thunderstorm environment to elicit strikes to the aircraft during this testing period. Electromagnetic field data were recorded to both attached lightning and free field excitation of the aircraft.

  18. 49 CFR 176.120 - Lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lightning protection. 176.120 Section 176.120 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Stowage § 176.120 Lightning protection. A lightning...

  19. 14 CFR 35.38 - Lightning strike.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lightning strike. 35.38 Section 35.38... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 Lightning strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by... lightning strike without causing a major or hazardous propeller effect. The limit to which the propeller...

  20. 49 CFR 176.120 - Lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lightning protection. 176.120 Section 176.120 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Stowage § 176.120 Lightning protection. A lightning...

  1. 49 CFR 176.120 - Lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lightning protection. 176.120 Section 176.120 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Stowage § 176.120 Lightning protection. A lightning...

  2. 14 CFR 35.38 - Lightning strike.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lightning strike. 35.38 Section 35.38... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 Lightning strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by... lightning strike without causing a major or hazardous propeller effect. The limit to which the propeller...

  3. 14 CFR 35.38 - Lightning strike.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lightning strike. 35.38 Section 35.38... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 Lightning strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by... lightning strike without causing a major or hazardous propeller effect. The limit to which the propeller...

  4. 49 CFR 176.120 - Lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lightning protection. 176.120 Section 176.120 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Stowage § 176.120 Lightning protection. A lightning...

  5. 14 CFR 35.38 - Lightning strike.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lightning strike. 35.38 Section 35.38... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 Lightning strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by... lightning strike without causing a major or hazardous propeller effect. The limit to which the propeller...

  6. Lightning activity and aerosols over the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proestakis, Emmanouil; Kazadzis, Stelios; Kotroni, Vassiliki; Lagouvardos, Kostas; Kazantzidis, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Lightning activity has received extended scientific attention over the past decades. Several international studies on lightning activity and initiation mechanisms have related the increased aerosol concentrations to lightning enhancement. In the frame of TALOS project, we investigated the effect of aerosols on lightning activity over the Mediterranean Sea. Cloud to ground lightning activity data from ZEUS lightning detection network operated and maintained by the National Observatory of Athens, were used along with atmospheric optical depth (AOD) data retrieved by MODIS, on board Aqua satellite. The analysis covers a period of nine years, spanning from 2005 up to 2013. The results show the importance of aerosols in lightning initiation and enhancement. It is shown that the mean AOD of the days with lightning activity per season is larger than the mean seasonal AOD in 90% of the under study domain. Furthermore, lightning activity increase with increasing aerosol loading was found to be more pronounced during summertime and for atmospheric optical depth values up to 0.4. Additionally, during summertime, the spatial analysis showed that the percentage of days with lightning activity is increasing with increasing aerosol loading. Finally, time series for the period 2005-2013 of the days with lightning activity and AOD differences showed similar temporal behavior. Overall, both the spatial and temporal analysis showed that lightning activity is correlated to aerosol loading and that this characteristic is consistent for all seasons.

  7. Detection of VHF lightning from GPS orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Suszcynsky, D. M.

    2003-01-01

    Satellite-based VHF' lightning detection is characterized at GPS orbit by using a VHF receiver system recently launched on the GPS SVN 54 satellite. Collected lightning triggers consist of Narrow Bipolar Events (80%) and strong negative return strokes (20%). The results are used to evaluate the performance of a future GPS-satellite-based VHF global lightning monitor.

  8. Lightning Protection for Composite Aircraft Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, G. O.

    1985-01-01

    Lightning protection system consisting of two layers of aluminum foil separated by layer of dielectric material protects graphite/epoxy composite structures on aircraft. Protective layer is secondarily applied lightning protection system, prime advantage of which is nullification of thermal and right angle effect of lightning arc attachment to graphite/epoxy laminate.

  9. Experimental generation of volcanic lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimarelli, Corrado; Alatorre-Ibargüengoitia, Miguel; Kueppers, Ulrich; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2014-05-01

    Ash-rich volcanic plumes that are responsible for injecting large quantities of aerosols into the atmosphere are often associated with intense electrical activity. Direct measurement of the electric potential at the crater, where the electric activity in the volcanic plume is first observed, is severely impeded, limiting progress in its investigation. We have achieved volcanic lightning in the laboratory during rapid decompression experiments of gas-particle mixtures under controlled conditions. Upon decompression (from ~100 bar argon pressure to atmospheric pressure), loose particles are vertically accelerated and ejected through a nozzle of 2.8 cm diameter into a large tank filled with air at atmospheric conditions. Because of their impulsive character, our experiments most closely represent the conditions encountered in the gas-thrust region of the plume, when ash is first ejected from the crater. We used sieved natural ash with different grain sizes from Popocatépetl (Mexico), Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland), and Soufrière Hills (Montserrat) volcanoes, as well as micrometric glass beads to constrain the influence of material properties on lightning. We monitored the dynamics of the particle-laden jets with a high-speed camera and the pressure and electric potential at the nozzle using a pressure transducer and two copper ring antennas connected to a high-impedance data acquisition system, respectively. We find that lightning is controlled by the dynamics of the particle-laden jet and by the abundance of fine particles. Two main conditions are required to generate lightning: 1) self-electrification of the particles and 2) clustering of the particles driven by the jet fluid dynamics. The relative movement of clusters of charged particles within the plume generates the gradient in electrical potential, which is necessary for lightning. In this manner it is the gas-particle dynamics together with the evolving particle-density distribution within different regions of

  10. Lightning at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, W. C.; Boyd, B. F.; Jafferis, W.

    1986-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is situated in an area that experiences one of the world's highest rates of cloud-ground lightning strikes, about 600-2000 strikes per summer. Two lightning detection systems have been implemented, the Launch Pad Lightning Warning System (LPLWS) and the Lightning Location and Protection system (LLP). The LPLWS consists of field mills of eight vertically oriented stator sections mounted 10 in. above ground and alternately covered and uncovered as the rotor turns. Differential voltages between covered and uncovered sections furnish electric field amplitude and polarity data. Ten samples per second are telemetered to a central processing facility. The system is used during launch and landing. The LLP has high and low gain components, the former being two direction finder antennas with 100 m strike position finding accuracy, the latter featuring medium gain antennas for 500 m accuracy in locating strikes. The LLP system is used primarily to warn personnel of strike conditions and to lift warnings to avoid lost work time. Several experimental programs have been initiated for triggering lightning strikes and controlling their locations.

  11. Tropic lightning: myth or menace?

    PubMed

    McCarthy, John

    2014-11-01

    Lightning is one of the leading causes of death related to environmental disaster. Of all lightning fatalities documented between 2006 and 2012, leisure activities contributed the largest proportion of deaths, with water-associated, sports, and camping being the most common. Despite the prevalence of these activities throughout the islands, Hawai'i has had zero documented lightning fatalities since weather data tracking was initiated in 1959. There is a common misconception that lightning does not strike the ground in Hawai'i. This myth may contribute to a potentially dangerous false sense of security, and recognition of warning signs and risk factor modification remain the most important prevention strategies. Lightning damage occurs on a spectrum, from minor burns to multi-organ dysfunction. After injury, initial treatment should focus on "reverse triage" and immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation when indicated, followed by transfer to a healthcare facility. Definitive treatment entails monitoring and management of potential sequelae, to include cardiovascular, neurologic, dermatologic, ophthalmologic, audiovestibular, and psychiatric complications.

  12. Modern Protection Against Lightning Strikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C.

    2005-05-01

    The application of science to provide protection against lightning strikes began around 1750 when Benjamin Franklin who invented the lightning rod in an effort to discharge thunderclouds. Instead of preventing lightning as he expected, his rods have been quite successful as strike receptors, intercepting cloud-to ground discharges and conducting them to Earth without damage to the structures on which they are mounted. In the years since Franklin's invention there has been little attention paid to the rod configuration that best serves as a strike receptor but Franklin's original ideas continue to be rediscovered and promoted. Recent measurements of the responses of variously configured rods to nearby strikes indicate that sharp-tipped rods are not the optimum configuration to serve as strike receptors since the ionization of the air around their tips limits the strength of the local electric fields created by an approaching lightning leader. In these experiments, fourteen blunt-tipped rods exposed in strike-reception competitions with nearby sharp-tipped rods were struck by lightning but none of the sharp-tipped rods were struck.

  13. Tropic Lightning: Myth or Menace?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lightning is one of the leading causes of death related to environmental disaster. Of all lightning fatalities documented between 2006 and 2012, leisure activities contributed the largest proportion of deaths, with water-associated, sports, and camping being the most common. Despite the prevalence of these activities throughout the islands, Hawai‘i has had zero documented lightning fatalities since weather data tracking was initiated in 1959. There is a common misconception that lightning does not strike the ground in Hawai‘i. This myth may contribute to a potentially dangerous false sense of security, and recognition of warning signs and risk factor modification remain the most important prevention strategies. Lightning damage occurs on a spectrum, from minor burns to multi-organ dysfunction. After injury, initial treatment should focus on “reverse triage” and immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation when indicated, followed by transfer to a healthcare facility. Definitive treatment entails monitoring and management of potential sequelae, to include cardiovascular, neurologic, dermatologic, ophthalmologic, audiovestibular, and psychiatric complications. PMID:25478304

  14. Lightning at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, W. C.; Boyd, B. F.; Jafferis, W.

    1986-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is situated in an area that experiences one of the world's highest rates of cloud-ground lightning strikes, about 600-2000 strikes per summer. Two lightning detection systems have been implemented, the Launch Pad Lightning Warning System (LPLWS) and the Lightning Location and Protection system (LLP). The LPLWS consists of field mills of eight vertically oriented stator sections mounted 10 in. above ground and alternately covered and uncovered as the rotor turns. Differential voltages between covered and uncovered sections furnish electric field amplitude and polarity data. Ten samples per second are telemetered to a central processing facility. The system is used during launch and landing. The LLP has high and low gain components, the former being two direction finder antennas with 100 m strike position finding accuracy, the latter featuring medium gain antennas for 500 m accuracy in locating strikes. The LLP system is used primarily to warn personnel of strike conditions and to lift warnings to avoid lost work time. Several experimental programs have been initiated for triggering lightning strikes and controlling their locations.

  15. Positive lightning and severe weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, C.; Murphy, B.

    2003-04-01

    In recent years researchers have noticed that severe weather (tornados, hail and damaging winds) are closely related to the amount of positive lightning occurring in thunderstorms. On 4 July 1999, a severe derecho (wind storm) caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators for short-term forecasts of severe weather.

  16. Artificial lightning data as proxy data for the algorithm development for the geostationary lightning imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finke, U.

    2009-12-01

    The geostationary Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) will carry the Lightning Imager (LI) for the detection and location of the total lightning by optical means. The Lightning Imager will continuously observe the full visible disk and provide lightning data with high uniformity over land and ocean during day and night. Its main operational applications are the nowcasting of severe storms and the warning of lightning strike threat. For the development of the data processor prototype a proxy data set is necessary as a reference data set in order to prove the function of the algorithms under the expected observation conditions. Additionally, a set of proxy data simulating the optical pulses originating from lightning can be used to optimize the performance of the detecting instrument. This contribution presents the methodology and the results of the generation of artificial lightning data. The artificial data set is created by random number generators which produces data obeying the same statistical distribution characteristics as real data. The generator bases on the empirical distribution density functions of the lightning characteristics which were derived from optical lightning observations by low orbit satellites (LIS) and ground based observations of lightning. The resulting artificial data represent optical lightning pulses as seen on the upper cloud surface. They are characterized by their distribution on three scales: the distribution of photons in a single lightning pulse, the distribution of lightning flashes in a single storm and the distribution of storms on the globe. The artificial data are used as input for the data processing and product generating algorithms. The elementary product of the lightning imager are the detected lightning pulses with their time, location and optical energy. These data are the basis for the generation of the various meteorological products such as lightning densities in geographical areas, storm cells with their motion

  17. Recent Lightning Experiments at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing: From Ball Lightning to Gamma Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uman, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    Recent lightning data and the instrumentation used to acquire it at the UF-FIT International Center for Lightning Research and Testing, located on about 1 square kilometer of flat ground at the Camp Blanding Army National Guard Base in north-central Florida, are discussed. The progress of several on-going studies is reviewed: (1) understanding the physics of the "classical" rocket-and-wire triggering of lightning from natural overhead thunderclouds, (2) attempting to generate ball lightning by allowing triggered-lightning to strike various materials and objects (e.g., tree-trunk sections, pools of salt water, silicon powder), (3) measuring the very close (100 m to 1 km) electric and magnetic fields of natural cloud-to-ground lightning, and (4) probing the relationship between lightning processes and the x-rays and gamma-rays associated with them.

  18. Electro-optic Lightning Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.; Solakiewicz, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    The design, alignment, calibration, and field deployment of a solid-state lightning detector is described. The primary sensing component of the detector is a potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) electro-optic crystal that is attached in series to a flat plate aluminum antenna; the antenna is exposed to the ambient thundercloud electric field. A semiconductor laser diode (lambda = 685 nm), polarizing optics, and the crystal are arranged in a Pockels cell configuration. Lightning-caused electric field changes are related to small changes in the transmission of laser light through the optical cell. Several hundred lightning electric field change excursions were recorded during five thunderstorms that occurred in the summer of 1998 at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in northern Alabama.

  19. The Anthropogenic/Lightning Effects Around Houston: The Houston Environmental Aerosol Thunderstorm (HEAT) Project - 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orville, R. E.

    2004-12-01

    A major field program will occur in summer 2005 to determine the sources and causes for the enhanced cloud-to-ground lightning over Houston, Texas. This program will be in association with simultaneous experiments supported by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), formally the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC). Recent studies covering the period 1989-2002 document a 60 percent increase of cloud-to-ground lightning in the Houston area as compared to surrounding background values, which is second in flash density only to the Tampa Bay, Florida area. We suggest that the elevated flash densities could result from several factors, including 1) the convergence due to the urban heat island effect and complex sea breeze (thermal hypothesis), and 2) the increasing levels of air pollution from anthropogenic sources producing numerous small cloud droplets and thereby suppressing mean droplet size (aerosol hypothesis). The latter effect would enable more cloud water to reach the mixed phase region where it is involved in the formation of precipitation and the separation of electric charge, leading to an enhancement of lightning. The primary goals of HEAT are to examine the effects of (1) pollution, (2) the urban heat island, and (3) the complex coastline on storms and lightning characteristics in the Houston area. The transport of air pollutants by Houston thunderstorms will be investigated. In particular, the relative amounts of lightning-produced and convectively transported NOx into the upper troposphere will be determined, and a comparison of the different NOx sources in the urban area of Houston will be developed. The HEAT project is based on the observation that there is an enhancement in cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning. Total lightning (intracloud (IC) and CG) will be measured using a lightning mapping system (LDAR II) to observe if there is an enhancement in intracloud lightning as well.

  20. Lightning Effects in the Payload Changeout Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Garland L.; Fisher, Franklin A.; Collier, Richard S.; Medelius, Pedro J.

    1997-01-01

    Analytical and empirical studies have been performed to provide better understanding of the electromagnetic environment inside the Payload Changeout Room and Orbiter payload bay resulting from lightning strikes to the launch pad lightning protection system. The analytical studies consisted of physical and mathematical modeling of the pad structure and the Payload Changeout Room. Empirical testing was performed using a lightning simulator to simulate controlled (8 kA) lightning strikes to the catenary wire lightning protection system. In addition to the analyses and testing listed above, an analysis of the configuration with the vehicle present was conducted, in lieu of testing, by the Finite Difference, Time Domain method.

  1. Filigree burn of lightning: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra

    2007-04-01

    Lightning is a powerful natural electrostatic discharge produced during a thunderstorm. The electric current passing through the discharge channels is direct with a potential of 1000 million volts or more. Lightning can kill or injure a person by a direct strike, a side-flash, or conduction through another object. Lightning can cause a variety of injuries in the skin and the cardiovascular, neurological and ophthalmic systems. Filigree burn of lightning is a superficial burn and very rare. Two cases of death from lightning which have this rare finding are reported and discussed.

  2. Electromagnetic sensors for general lightning application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, C. E.; Breen, E. L.; Onell, J. P.; Moore, C. B.; Sower, G. D.

    1980-01-01

    Electromagnetic sensors for general lightning applications in measuring environment are discussed as well as system response to the environment. This includes electric and magnetic fields, surface current and charge densities, and currents on conductors. Many EMP sensors are directly applicable to lightning measurements, but there are some special cases of lightning measurements involving direct strikes which require special design considerations for the sensors. The sensors and instrumentation used by NMIMT in collecting data on lightning at South Baldy peak in central New Mexico during the 1978 and 1979 lightning seasons are also discussed. The Langmuir Laboratory facilities and details of the underground shielded instrumentation room and recording equipment are presented.

  3. NASA Manned Launch Vehicle Lightning Protection Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCollum, Matthew B.; Jones, Steven R.; Mack, Jonathan D.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) relied heavily on lightning avoidance to protect launch vehicles and crew from lightning effects. As NASA transitions from the Space Shuttle to the new Constellation family of launch vehicles and spacecraft, NASA engineers are imposing design and construction standards on the spacecraft and launch vehicles to withstand both the direct and indirect effects of lightning. A review of current Space Shuttle lightning constraints and protection methodology will be presented, as well as a historical review of Space Shuttle lightning requirements and design. The Space Shuttle lightning requirements document, NSTS 07636, Lightning Protection, Test and Analysis Requirements, (originally published as document number JSC 07636, Lightning Protection Criteria Document) was developed in response to the Apollo 12 lightning event and other experiences with NASA and the Department of Defense launch vehicles. This document defined the lightning environment, vehicle protection requirements, and design guidelines for meeting the requirements. The criteria developed in JSC 07636 were a precursor to the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) lightning standards. These SAE standards, along with Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) DO-160, Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment, are the basis for the current Constellation lightning design requirements. The development and derivation of these requirements will be presented. As budget and schedule constraints hampered lightning protection design and verification efforts, the Space Shuttle elements waived the design requirements and relied on lightning avoidance in the form of launch commit criteria (LCC) constraints and a catenary wire system for lightning protection at the launch pads. A better understanding of the lightning environment has highlighted the vulnerability of the protection schemes and associated risk to the vehicle

  4. The Cloud Effects Phase of the Laser Induced Lightning Investigation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    PROJECT, TASK I - & TAREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERSNew Mexico Institute 9qIA1 ing & echnology 6110 F 1’eohyia1 -esearchtCenterY & DD 21A ocofrb-, -erMxt6878DI II...1013Cm/sec2 . We plan to report on these results at the FAA, NASA and Florida Institute of Technology Symposium on Lightning Technology on 22 April

  5. Lightning and Life on Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmer, Paul; Ardaseva, Aleksandra; Hodosan, Gabriella; Helling, Christiane

    2016-07-01

    Miller and Urey performed a ground-breaking experiment, in which they discovered that electric discharges through a low redox ratio gas of methane, ammonia, water vapor and hydrogen produced a variety of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. Since this experiment, there has been significant interest on the connection between lightning chemistry and the origin of life. Investigation into the atmosphere of the Early Earth has generated a serious challenge for this project, as it has been determined both that Earth's early atmosphere was likely dominated by carbon dioxide and molecular nitrogen with only small amounts of hydrogen, having a very high redox ratio, and that discharges in gases with high redox ratios fail to yield more than trace amounts of biologically relevant products. This challenge has motivated several origin of life researchers to abandon lightning chemistry, and to concentrate on other pathways for prebiotic synthesis. The discovery of over 2000 exoplanets includes a handful of rocky planets within the habitable zones around their host stars. These planets can be viewed as remote laboratories in which efficient lightning driven prebiotic synthesis may take place. This is because many of these rocky exoplanets, called super-Earths, have masses significantly greater than that of Earth. This higher mass would allow them to more retain greater amounts hydrogen within their atmosphere, reducing the redox ratio. Discharges in super-Earth atmospheres can therefore result in a significant yield of amino acids. In this talk, I will discuss new work on what lightning might look like on exoplanets, and on lightning driven chemistry on super-Earths. Using a chemical kinetics model for a super-Earth atmosphere with smaller redox ratios, I will show that in the presence of lightning, the production of the amino acid glycine is enhanced up to a certain point, but with very low redox ratios, the production of glycine is again inhibited. I will conclude

  6. Inflight lightning characteristics measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, F. L.; Thomas, M. E.; Campbell, R. E.; Thomas, R. M.; Zaepfel, K. P.

    1979-01-01

    A research data-gathering system being developed for inflight measurement of direct and nearby lightning strike characteristics is described. Wideband analog recorders used to record the lightning scenario are supplemented with high-sample-rate digital transient recorders with augmented memory capacity for increased time resolution of specific times of interest. The endless-loop data storage technique employed by the transient recorders circumvents problems associated with oscilloscopic techniques and allows unattended operation. System integrity and immunity from induced effects is accomplished by fiber-optics signal-transmission links, shielded system enclosures, and the use of a dynamotor for power system isolation.

  7. Mathematical and physical scaling of triggered lightning

    SciTech Connect

    Ziolkowski, R.W.; Grant, J.B.

    1982-12-01

    As the aircraft industry incorporates current technology in airborne systems, electromagnetic compatibility can decrease. Composite fuselages can be more transparent to EMP, whether nuclear or lightning generated, than metal ones. Solid-state circuitry is sensitive to intense EM fluctuations whereas mechanical controls generally are not. With this increased vulnerability comes increased concern for these dangers. Recently the anxiety over lightning has risen. Answers are sought to such questions as: how do the lightning EM effects couple into the aircraft's interior. Do aircraft trigger lightning, and if so, can the triggering be minimized. An understanding, at least to some extent, of lightning would provide a needed foundation to examine the interaction of aircraft with lightning. A review of the literature on lightning and lightning-aircraft investigations, including triggered lightning, was conducted and is briefly summarized in this paper. In addition to this brief literature review, scaling the lightning event to laboratory size is also discussed. The ability to scale would allow accurate investigation of lightning effects, as well as the triggering phenomena, in scaled experiments.

  8. Lightning hazard reduction at wind farms

    SciTech Connect

    Kithil, R.

    1997-12-31

    The USA wind farm industry (WFI) largely is centered in low-lightning areas of the State of California. While some evidence of lightning incidents is reported here, the problem is not regarded as serious by most participants. The USA WFI now is moving eastward, into higher areas of lightning activity. The European WFI has had many years experience with lightning problems. One 1995 German study estimated that 80% of wind turbine insurance claims paid for damage compensation were caused by lightning strikes. The European and USA WFI have not adopted site criteria, design fundamentals, or certification techniques aimed at lightning safety. Sufficient evidence about lightning at wind farms is available to confirm that serious potential problems exist.

  9. LRAT: Lightning Radiative Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phanord, Dieudonne D.

    1993-01-01

    In this report, we extend to cloud physics the work done for single and multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves. We consider the scattering of light, visible or infrared, by a spherical cloud represented by a statistically homogeneous ensemble of configurations of N identical spherical water droplets whose centers are uniformly distributed in its volume V. The ensemble is specified by the average number rho of scatterers in unit volume and by rho f(R) with f(R) as the distribution function for separations R of pairs. The incident light, vector-phi(sub 0) a plane electromagnetic wave with harmonic time dependence, is from outside the cloud. The propagation parameter kappa(sub 0) and the index of refraction eta(sub 0) determine physically the medium outside the distribution of scatterers. We solve the interior problem separately to obtain the bulk parameters for the scatterer equivalent to the ensemble of spherical droplets. With the interior solution or the equivalent medium approach, the multiple scattering problem is reduced to that of an equivalent single scatterer excited from outside illumination. A dispersion relation which determines the bulk propagation parameter K and the bulk index of refraction eta of the cloud is given in terms of the vector equivalent scattering amplitude vector-G and the dyadic scattering amplitude tilde-g of the single object in isolation. Based on this transfer model we will have the ability to consider clouds composed of inhomogeneous distribution of water and/or ice particles and we will be able to take into account particle size distributions within the cloud. We will also be able to study the effects of cloud composition (i.e., particle shape, size, composition, orientation, location) on the polarization of the single or the multiple scattered waves. Finally, this study will provide a new starting point for studying the problem of lightning radiative transfer.

  10. Total Lightning as an Indicator of Mesocyclone Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, Sarah M.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Apparent relationship between total lightning (in-cloud and cloud to ground) and severe weather suggests its operational utility. Goal of fusion of total lightning with proven tools (i.e., radar lightning algorithms. Preliminary work here investigates circulation from Weather Suveilance Radar- 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) coupled with total lightning data from Lightning Mapping Arrays.

  11. 76 FR 5144 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for U.S. Navy F-35C West Coast...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ...Pursuant to Section 102(2)(c) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as implemented by the Council on Environmental Quality regulations (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] parts 1500- 1508), the Department of the Navy (Navy) announces its intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to identify and evaluate the potential environmental consequences associated with providing facilities and functions to homebase the F-35C Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) aircraft on the West Coast of the United States. Under this proposal, a total of seven active-duty F/A-18C Hornet aircraft squadrons and one fleet replacement squadron (FRS) will progressively transition from F/A-18C Hornet aircraft to the more advanced F-35C JSF beginning in 2015. This transition will occur as a one-for-one replacement. The aging FA-18C Hornet aircraft are expected to be replaced with F-35C aircraft by 2025. The Navy will evaluate two basing options (plus a no action alternative) to efficiently and economically transition the F-35C aircraft into the fleet. This basing action is consistent with past Navy strike-fighter homebasing actions. Dates and Addresses: Public scoping meetings are scheduled to receive oral and/or written comments on environmental concerns that should be addressed in the EIS, as follows: 1. Tuesday, February 15, 2011, at the Southwest High School, 2001 Ocotillo Drive, El Centro, CA 92243 (located in Imperial County, California). 2. Thursday, February 17, 2011, at Lemoore Senior Center, 789 South Lemoore Avenue (18th Avenue), Lemoore, CA (located in Kings County, California). Each meeting will occur from 5 p.m. to 8 p.m. The meetings will be an open house format with informational displays and materials available for public review. The public will have an opportunity to submit written comments on environmental concerns that should be addressed in the U.S. Navy F-35C West Coast Homebasing EIS. Navy staff will be present at these open houses to answer

  12. Future Expansion of the Lightning Surveillance System at the Kennedy Space Center and the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mata, C. T.; Wilson, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Eastern Range (ER) use data from two cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning detection networks, the Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) and the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), and a volumetric mapping array, the lightning detection and ranging II (LDAR II) system: These systems are used to monitor and characterize lightning that is potentially hazardous to launch or ground operations and hardware. These systems are not perfect and both have documented missed lightning events when compared to the existing lightning surveillance system at Launch Complex 39B (LC39B). Because of this finding it is NASA's plan to install a lightning surveillance system around each of the active launch pads sharing site locations and triggering capabilities when possible. This paper shows how the existing lightning surveillance system at LC39B has performed in 2011 as well as the plan for the expansion around all active pads.

  13. Volcanic Lightning: in nature and in the lab.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimarelli, C.

    2015-12-01

    Ash-rich volcanic plumes are often associated with intense electrical activity and the generation of volcanic lightning. Monitoring electrical discharges associated with explosive eruptions can provide crucial information on the dynamics and structure of the plume as well as on the mass eruption rate and cargo of erupted fine ash. Nevertheless, our understanding of volcanic lightning is still limited due to lacking of i) systematic instrumental observations and ii) the limited number of experimental investigations on the electrical properties of volcanic materials and the opportunity of replicating volcanic plume conditions in the lab.We recently contributed to the understanding of both these aspects by performing multi-parametric observation of volcanic lightning at Sakurajima volcano in Japan and by achieving volcanic lightning in particle-laden jets generated in the lab.At Sakurajima volcano we combined high-speed imaging with magnetotelluric and acoustic measurements of ash-rich plumes and compared our observation with maximum plume height measurement and atmospheric soundings. Our observations at Sakurajima allow the measurement of flash properties with respect to the plume evolution as well as magnetic and electric field variation and associated transferred current. In addition, weather-balloon soundings rule out the contribution of hydrometeors in the electrification of the plume.We complement the field observation by performing rapid decompression experiments of well-constrained (composition and granulometry) ash samples and analogue materials. The experiments show many similarities with the vulcanian explosions at Sakurajima and, most importantly, they highlight how lightning is controlled by the dynamics of the rapidly expanding particle-laden jet. Two main conditions are required to generate lightning: 1) triboelectrification of the particles and 2) clustering of the particles driven by the jet fluid dynamics. As observed in nature, the size of the

  14. Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

  15. Laboratory-produced ball lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golka, Robert K., Jr.

    1994-05-01

    For 25 years I have actively been searching for the true nature of ball lightning and attempting to reproduce it at will in the laboratory. As one might expect, many unidentified lights in the atmosphere have been called ball lightning, including Texas Maffa lights (automobile headlights), flying saucers (UFOs), swamp gas in Ann Arbor, Michigan, etc. For 15 years I thought ball lightning was strictly a high-voltage phenomenon. It was not until 1984 when I was short-circuiting the electrical output of a diesel electric railroad locomotive that I realized that the phenomenon was related more to a high current. Although I am hoping for some other types of ball lightning to emerge such as strictly electrostatic-electromagnetic manifestations, I have been unlucky in finding laboratory provable evidence. Cavity-formed plasmodes can be made by putting a 2-inch burning candle in a home kitchen microwave oven. The plasmodes float around for as long as the microwave energy is present.

  16. Jovian Lightning and Moonlit Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jovian lightning and moonlit clouds. These two images, taken 75 minutes apart, show lightning storms on the night side of Jupiter along with clouds dimly lit by moonlight from Io, Jupiter's closest moon. The images were taken in visible light and are displayed in shades of red. The images used an exposure time of about one minute, and were taken when the spacecraft was on the opposite side of Jupiter from the Earth and Sun. Bright storms are present at two latitudes in the left image, and at three latitudes in the right image. Each storm was made visible by multiple lightning strikes during the exposure. Other Galileo images were deliberately scanned from east to west in order to separate individual flashes. The images show that Jovian and terrestrial lightning storms have similar flash rates, but that Jovian lightning strikes are a few orders of magnitude brighter in visible light.

    The moonlight from Io allows the lightning storms to be correlated with visible cloud features. The latitude bands where the storms are seen seem to coincide with the 'disturbed regions' in daylight images, where short-lived chaotic motions push clouds to high altitudes, much like thunderstorms on Earth. The storms in these images are roughly one to two thousand kilometers across, while individual flashes appear hundreds of kilometer across. The lightning probably originates from the deep water cloud layer and illuminates a large region of the visible ammonia cloud layer from 100 kilometers below it.

    There are several small light and dark patches that are artifacts of data compression. North is at the top of the picture. The images span approximately 50 degrees in latitude and longitude. The lower edges of the images are aligned with the equator. The images were taken on October 5th and 6th, 1997 at a range of 6.6 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for

  17. Jovian Lightning and Moonlit Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jovian lightning and moonlit clouds. These two images, taken 75 minutes apart, show lightning storms on the night side of Jupiter along with clouds dimly lit by moonlight from Io, Jupiter's closest moon. The images were taken in visible light and are displayed in shades of red. The images used an exposure time of about one minute, and were taken when the spacecraft was on the opposite side of Jupiter from the Earth and Sun. Bright storms are present at two latitudes in the left image, and at three latitudes in the right image. Each storm was made visible by multiple lightning strikes during the exposure. Other Galileo images were deliberately scanned from east to west in order to separate individual flashes. The images show that Jovian and terrestrial lightning storms have similar flash rates, but that Jovian lightning strikes are a few orders of magnitude brighter in visible light.

    The moonlight from Io allows the lightning storms to be correlated with visible cloud features. The latitude bands where the storms are seen seem to coincide with the 'disturbed regions' in daylight images, where short-lived chaotic motions push clouds to high altitudes, much like thunderstorms on Earth. The storms in these images are roughly one to two thousand kilometers across, while individual flashes appear hundreds of kilometer across. The lightning probably originates from the deep water cloud layer and illuminates a large region of the visible ammonia cloud layer from 100 kilometers below it.

    There are several small light and dark patches that are artifacts of data compression. North is at the top of the picture. The images span approximately 50 degrees in latitude and longitude. The lower edges of the images are aligned with the equator. The images were taken on October 5th and 6th, 1997 at a range of 6.6 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for

  18. The Colorado Lightning Mapping Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rison, W.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Thomas, R. J.; Rodeheffer, D.; Fuchs, B.

    2012-12-01

    A fifteen station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) was installed in northern Colorado in the spring of 2012. While the driving force for the array was to produce 3-dimensional lightning data to support the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) Experiment (Barth, this conference), data from the array are being used for several other projects. These include: electrification studies in conjunction with the CSU CHILL radar (Lang et al, this conference); observations of the parent lightning discharges of sprites (Lyons et al, this conference); trying to detect upward discharges triggered by wind turbines, characterizing conditions in which aircraft flying through clouds produce discharges which can be detected by the LMA, and other opportunities, such as observations of lightning in pyrocumulus clouds produced by the High Park Fire west of Fort Collins, CO. All the COLMA stations are solar-powered, and use broadband cellular modems for data communications. This makes the stations completely self-contained and autonomous, allowing a station to be installed anywhere a cellular signal is available. Because most of the stations were installed well away from anthropogenic noise sources, the COLMA is very sensitive. This is evidenced by the numerous plane tracks detected in its the vicinity. The diameter, D, of the COLMA is about 100 km, significantly larger than other LMAs. Because the error in the radial distance r is proportional to (r/D)2, and the error in the altitude z is proportional to (z/D)2, the larger array diameter greatly expands the usable range of the COLMA. The COLMA is able to detect and characterize lighting flashes to a distance of about 350 km from the array center. In addition to a web-based display (lightning.nmt.edu/colma), geo-referenced images are produced and updated at one-minute intervals. These geo-referenced images can be used to overlay the real-time lightning data on Google Earth and other mapping software. These displays were used by the DC3

  19. TRMM-Based Lightning Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Daniel J.; Buechler, Dennis E.; Blakeslee, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Gridded climatologies of total lightning flash rates seen by the spaceborne Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) have been updated. OTD collected data from May 1995 to March 2000. LIS data (equatorward of about 38 deg) has been added for 1998-2010. Flash counts from each instrument are scaled by the best available estimates of detection efficiency. The long LIS record makes the merged climatology most robust in the tropics and subtropics, while the high latitude data is entirely from OTD. The mean global flash rate from the merged climatology is 46 flashes per second. The peak annual flash rate at 0.5 deg scale is 160 fl/square km/yr in eastern Congo. The peak monthly average flash rate at 2.5 scale is 18 fl/square km/mo, from early April to early May in the Brahmaputra Valley of far eastern India. Lightning decreases in this region during the monsoon season, but increases further north and west. A monthly average peak from early August to early September in northern Pakistan also exceeds any monthly averages from Africa, despite central Africa having the greatest yearly average. Most continental regions away from the equator have an annual cycle with lightning flash rates peaking in late spring or summer. The main exceptions are India and southeast Asia, with springtime peaks in April and May. For landmasses near the equator, flash rates peak near the equinoxes. For many oceanic regions, the peak flash rates occur in autumn. This is particularly noticeable for the Mediterranean and North Atlantic. Landmasses have a strong diurnal cycle of lightning, with flash rates generally peaking between 3-5 pm local solar time. The central United States flash rates peak later, in late evening or early night. Flash rates peak after midnight in northern Argentina. These regions are known for large, intense, long-lived mesoscale convective systems.

  20. Thunderstorm classification for airport lightning avoidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Yoshikawa, E.; Stock, M.; Shimamura, S.; Ushio, T.

    2016-12-01

    Aircraft initiated or intercepted lightning is a significant issue for civilian flight operation in Japan. Lightning strikes seldom cause fatal aircraft accidents thanks to both certifications of aircraft designs for lightning resilience and extensive weather support during aircraft operation. However, hundreds of lightning strikes to aircrafts are still reported each year in Japan, which can cause flights to be delayed or cancelled, and causes several hundred millions of yen each year in damagesTherefore, our research group, consisting of MRI, JAXA, and Osaka University, has started developing a new tactical weather support for airport operation aiming at lightning avoidance. Although lightning location systems are already utilized in airports, it is slow to detect thunderstorms because these systems only identify lightning hazards after the associated thunderstorm is mature. Our group is combining the data from a lightning mapping system called the Broadband Observation network for Lightning and Thunderstorms (BOLT) with a high time resolution phased array weather radar (PAWR). The PAWR can complete a full volume scan in as little as 10 or 30 seconds. In order to estimate the potential for lightning, we will operate a campaign to collect high resolution data from BOLT and the PAWR until 2018. At the same time, we are developing algorithms which can identify storm cells, and tabulating measurements such as reflectivity, wind, and temperature. In this presentation, details of the observation campaign and the progress of the analyses will be presented.

  1. On the Relationship between Observed NLDN Lightning ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Lightning-produced nitrogen oxides (NOX=NO+NO2) in the middle and upper troposphere play an essential role in the production of ozone (O3) and influence the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. Despite much effort in both observing and modeling lightning NOX during the past decade, considerable uncertainties still exist with the quantification of lightning NOX production and distribution in the troposphere. It is even more challenging for regional chemistry and transport models to accurately parameterize lightning NOX production and distribution in time and space. The Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) parameterizes the lightning NO emissions using local scaling factors adjusted by the convective precipitation rate that is predicted by the upstream meteorological model; the adjustment is based on the observed lightning strikes from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). For this parameterization to be valid, the existence of an a priori reasonable relationship between the observed lightning strikes and the modeled convective precipitation rates is needed. In this study, we will present an analysis leveraged on the observed NLDN lightning strikes and CMAQ model simulations over the continental United States for a time period spanning over a decade. Based on the analysis, new parameterization scheme for lightning NOX will be proposed and the results will be evaluated. The proposed scheme will be beneficial to modeling exercises where the obs

  2. Lightning climatology over the eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanaki, Elissavet; Lagouvardos, Kostas; Kotroni, Vassiliki; Argyriou, Athanassios

    2015-04-01

    In the frame of TALOS project, the lightning activity for a 10-year period (2005-2014) over the eastern Mediterranean (16-320E, 34-460N) is analysed. The study is based on the use of cloud-to-ground lightning activity data from ZEUS system, a Very-Low-Frequency Lightning detection network operated by the National Observatory of Athens. The spatial and temporal (seasonal and diurnal) variability of the lightning activity is examined. Lightning is modulated by the diurnal cycle of insolation and the underlying topographic features of the region. CG lightning activity is dominant over land and coastal areas during summer and spring, while during the cold period of the year is dominant over the sea and is significantly stronger over the mainland than over the sea. The maximum of the lightning activity is observed in June and mostly in the afternoon. The CG variability is consistent with the global lightning activity observations. The effect of elevation, terrain slope and vegetation on the distribution of the CG flashes is also investigated. The orography and the terrain slope favour the lightning activity. Throughout the year, the potential of producing CG flashes ("lightning yield") over bareground is low while during the warm period of the year, the forested areas have increased "lightning yield". Additional analysis focuses on the links of CG lightning with indices related with the atmospheric instability such as the Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE). CAPE is known as the driving force for thunderstorm development. The analysis showed that the lightning density increases with increasing values of CAPE.

  3. Modern concepts of treatment and prevention of lightning injuries.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Farinholt, Heidi-Marie A; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D; Long, William B

    2005-01-01

    Lightning is the second most common cause of weather-related death in the United States. Lightning is a natural atmospheric discharge that occurs between regions of net positive and net negative electric charges. There are several types of lightning, including streak lightning, sheet lightning, ribbon lightning, bead lightning, and ball lightning. Lightning causes injury through five basic mechanisms: direct strike, flash discharge (splash), contact, ground current (step voltage), and blunt trauma. While persons struck by lightning show evidence of multisystem derangement, the most dramatic effects involve the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Cardiopulmonary arrest is the most common cause of death in lightning victims. Immediate resuscitation of people struck by lightning greatly affects the prognosis. Electrocardiographic changes observed following lightning accidents are probably from primary electric injury or burns of the myocardium without coronary artery occlusion. Lightning induces vasomotor spasm from direct sympathetic stimulation resulting in severe loss of pulses in the extremities. This vasoconstriction may be associated with transient paralysis. Damage to the central nervous system accounts for the second most debilitating group of injuries. Central nervous system injuries from lightning include amnesia and confusion, immediate loss of consciousness, weakness, intracranial injuries, and even brief aphasia. Other organ systems injured by lightning include the eye, ear, gastrointestinal system, skin, and musculoskeletal system. The best treatment of lightning injuries is prevention. The Lightning Safety Guidelines devised by the Lightning Safety Group should be instituted in the United States and other nations to prevent these devastating injuries.

  4. A Comparison of Lightning Flashes as Observed by the Lightning Imaging Sensor and the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bateman, M. G.; Mach, D. M.; McCaul, M. G.; Bailey, J. C.; Christian, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) aboard the TRMM satellite has been collecting optical lightning data since November 1997. A Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) that senses VHF impulses from lightning was installed in North Alabama in the Fall of 2001. A dataset has been compiled to compare data from both instruments for all times when the LIS was passing over the domain of our LMA. We have algorithms for both instruments to group pixels or point sources into lightning flashes. This study presents the comparison statistics of the flash data output (flash duration, size, and amplitude) from both algorithms. We will present the results of this comparison study and show "point-level" data to explain the differences. AS we head closer to realizing a Global Lightning Mapper (GLM) on GOES-R, better understanding and ground truth of each of these instruments and their respective flash algorithms is needed.

  5. A Comparison of Lightning Flashes as Observed by the Lightning Imaging Sensor and the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bateman, M. G.; Mach, D. M.; McCaul, M. G.; Bailey, J. C.; Christian, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) aboard the TRMM satellite has been collecting optical lightning data since November 1997. A Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) that senses VHF impulses from lightning was installed in North Alabama in the Fall of 2001. A dataset has been compiled to compare data from both instruments for all times when the LIS was passing over the domain of our LMA. We have algorithms for both instruments to group pixels or point sources into lightning flashes. This study presents the comparison statistics of the flash data output (flash duration, size, and amplitude) from both algorithms. We will present the results of this comparison study and show "point-level" data to explain the differences. AS we head closer to realizing a Global Lightning Mapper (GLM) on GOES-R, better understanding and ground truth of each of these instruments and their respective flash algorithms is needed.

  6. Where are the lightning hotspots on Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, R. I.; Goodman, S. J.; Buechler, D. E.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    The first lightning observations from space date from the early 1960s and more than a dozen spacecraft orbiting the Earth have flown instruments that recorded lightning signals from thunderstorms over the past 45 years. In this respect, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS), having just completed its mission (1997-2015), provides the longest and best total (intracloud and cloud-to-ground) lightning data base over the tropics.We present a 16 year (1998-2013) reprocessed data set to create very high resolution (0.1°) TRMM LIS total lightning climatology. This detailed very high resolution climatology is used to identify the Earth's lightning hotspots and other regional features. Earlier studies located the lightning hotspot within the Congo Basin in Africa, but our very high resolution lightning climatology found that the highest lightning flash rate on Earth actually occurs in Venezuela over Lake Maracaibo, with a distinct maximum during the night. The higher resolution dataset clearly shows that similar phenomenon also occurs over other inland lakes with similar conditions, i.e., locally forced convergent flow over a warm lake surface which drives deep nocturnal convection. Although Africa does not have the top lightning hotspot, it comes in a close second and it is the continent with the highest number of lightning hotspots, followed by Asia, South America, North America, and Oceania. We also present climatological maps for local hour and month of lightning maxima, along with a ranking of the highest five hundred lightning maxima, focusing discussion on each continent's 10 highest lightning maxima. Most of the highest continental maxima are located near major mountain ranges, revealing the importance of local topography in thunderstorm development. These results are especially relevant in anticipation of the upcoming availability of continuous total lightning observations from the Geostationary Lightning Mapping (GLM

  7. Lightning attachment process to common buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saba, M. M. F.; Paiva, A. R.; Schumann, C.; Ferro, M. A. S.; Naccarato, K. P.; Silva, J. C. O.; Siqueira, F. V. C.; Custódio, D. M.

    2017-05-01

    The physical mechanism of lightning attachment to grounded structures is one of the most important issues in lightning physics research, and it is the basis for the design of the lightning protection systems. Most of what is known about the attachment process comes from leader propagation models that are mostly based on laboratory observations of long electrical discharges or from observations of lightning attachment to tall structures. In this paper we use high-speed videos to analyze the attachment process of downward lightning flashes to an ordinary residential building. For the first time, we present characteristics of the attachment process to common structures that are present in almost every city (in this case, two buildings under 60 m in São Paulo City, Brazil). Parameters like striking distance and connecting leaders speed, largely used in lightning attachment models and in lightning protection standards, are revealed in this work.Plain Language SummarySince the time of Benjamin Franklin, no one has ever recorded high-speed video images of a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> connection to a common building. It is very difficult to do it. Cameras need to be very close to the structure chosen to be observed, and long observation time is required to register one <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike to that particular structure. Models and theories used to determine the zone of protection of a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rod have been developed, but they all suffer from the lack of field data. The submitted manuscript provides results from high-speed video observations of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> attachment to low buildings that are commonly found in almost every populated area around the world. The proximity of the camera and the high frame rate allowed us to see interesting details that will improve the understanding of the attachment process and, consequently, the models and theories used by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection standards. This paper also presents spectacular images and videos of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790010865','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790010865"><span>High current <span class="hlt">lightning</span> test of space shuttle external tank <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mumme, E.; Anderson, A.; Schulte, E. H.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>During lift-off, the shuttle launch vehicle (external tank, solid rocket booster and orbiter) may be subjected to a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike. Tests of a proposed <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection method for the external tank and development materials which were subjected to simulated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes are described. Results show that certain of the high resistant paint strips performed remarkably well in diverting the 50 kA <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27328835','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27328835"><span>Relativistic-microwave theory of ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, H-C</p> <p>2016-06-22</p> <p>Ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, a fireball sometimes observed during <span class="hlt">lightnings</span>, has remained unexplained. Here we present a comprehensive theory for the phenomenon: At the tip of a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroke reaching the ground, a relativistic electron bunch can be produced, which in turn excites intense microwave radiation. The latter ionizes the local air and the radiation pressure evacuates the resulting plasma, forming a spherical plasma bubble that stably traps the radiation. This mechanism is verified by particle simulations. The many known properties of ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, such as the occurrence site, relation to the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channels, appearance in aircraft, its shape, size, sound, spark, spectrum, motion, as well as the resulting injuries and damages, are also explained. Our theory suggests that ball lighting can be created in the laboratory or triggered during thunderstorms. Our results should be useful for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection and aviation safety, as well as stimulate research interest in the relativistic regime of microwave physics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950043435&hterms=marx&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmarx','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950043435&hterms=marx&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmarx"><span>Observations of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in the stratosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Boeck, William L.; Vaughan, Otha H., Jr.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Vonnegut, Bernard; Brook, Marx; Mckune, John</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>An examination and analysis of video images of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, captured by the payload bay TV cameras of the space shuttle, provided a variety of examples of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in the stratosphere above thunderstorms. These images were obtained on several recent shuttle flights while conducting the Mesoscale <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Experiment (MLE). The images of stratospheric <span class="hlt">lightning</span> illustrate the variety of filamentary and broad vertical discharges in the stratosphere that may accompany a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash. A typical event is imaged as a single or multiple filament extending 30 to 40 km above a thunderstorm that is illuminated by a series of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes. Examples are found in temperate and tropical areas, over the oceans, and over the land.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4916449','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4916449"><span>Relativistic-microwave theory of ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, H.-C.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, a fireball sometimes observed during <span class="hlt">lightnings</span>, has remained unexplained. Here we present a comprehensive theory for the phenomenon: At the tip of a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroke reaching the ground, a relativistic electron bunch can be produced, which in turn excites intense microwave radiation. The latter ionizes the local air and the radiation pressure evacuates the resulting plasma, forming a spherical plasma bubble that stably traps the radiation. This mechanism is verified by particle simulations. The many known properties of ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, such as the occurrence site, relation to the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channels, appearance in aircraft, its shape, size, sound, spark, spectrum, motion, as well as the resulting injuries and damages, are also explained. Our theory suggests that ball lighting can be created in the laboratory or triggered during thunderstorms. Our results should be useful for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection and aviation safety, as well as stimulate research interest in the relativistic regime of microwave physics. PMID:27328835</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...628263W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...628263W"><span>Relativistic-microwave theory of ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, H.-C.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, a fireball sometimes observed during <span class="hlt">lightnings</span>, has remained unexplained. Here we present a comprehensive theory for the phenomenon: At the tip of a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroke reaching the ground, a relativistic electron bunch can be produced, which in turn excites intense microwave radiation. The latter ionizes the local air and the radiation pressure evacuates the resulting plasma, forming a spherical plasma bubble that stably traps the radiation. This mechanism is verified by particle simulations. The many known properties of ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, such as the occurrence site, relation to the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channels, appearance in aircraft, its shape, size, sound, spark, spectrum, motion, as well as the resulting injuries and damages, are also explained. Our theory suggests that ball lighting can be created in the laboratory or triggered during thunderstorms. Our results should be useful for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection and aviation safety, as well as stimulate research interest in the relativistic regime of microwave physics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMAE13A3358F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMAE13A3358F"><span>Evaluation of Product Algorithm Strategies for the Future <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imager on MTG</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Finke, U.; Grandell, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The future European geostationary Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) will carry a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observation instrument - the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imager (LI), which will observe <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in thunderstorm for the whole visible Earth disk with high temporal and spatial resolution. Its data will be of great benefit for nowcasting of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> thread and severe weather, as well as for applications in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> physics, chemistry and climatology. Primary data output of the instrument are the '<span class="hlt">lightning</span> events' corresponding to triggered pixels of the detector matrix. These primary data are processed into a set of products: hierarchically organized point data - groups and flashes, and various products of data accumulated over time and space bins. The algorithm strategies for generation of these level-2 products are evaluated in this contribution.The clustering of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> event data consists of two steps: i) pixel events are clustered in a group representing the optical pulse, and <span class="hlt">ii</span>) the groups are clustered in a flash representing the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash. The algorithm strategies for clustering are discussed and evaluated for the various algorithm parameters. The distance function and linkage criteria are formulated in time and space. For groups the criterion is immediate adjacency in time and space. For flashes the gap to the nearest neighbor in time and space have to be lower a threshold value. Examples and statistics of the application of the clustering algorithms are presented for LIS data and for proxy data.The second group of products accumulate the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> point data in time (30s) and space (2km) intervals. The planned products are the accumulated flash number, flash area and flash radiance. All these products are created on a per flash bases using the pixel set for each flash. They are calculated on a grid which correspond cloud imager (FCI) grid on the same platform. The accumulated products represent an snapshot picture of the current <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity, valuable in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18814638','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18814638"><span>Beyond the basics: <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-strike injuries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mistovich, Joseph J; Krost, William S; Limmer, Daniel D</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>It is estimated that a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash occurs approximately 8 million times per day throughout the world. Most strikes are benign and cause little damage to property and physical structures; however, when <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes a person or group of people, it is a significant medical and potentially traumatic event that could lead to immediate death or permanent disability. By understanding some basic physics of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and pathophysiology of injuries associated with <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes, EMS providers will be better prepared to identify assessment findings, anticipate complications and provide effective emergency care.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970006848','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970006848"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Studies Using VHF Waveform Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Moldwin, Mark; Lennon, Carl</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Several atmospheric electricity studies were begun utilizing VHF <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data obtained with the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection and ranging system (LDAR) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The LDAR system uses differences in the time of arrival of electromagnetic noise generated by the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> process to seven antennas to calculate very accurate three dimensional locations of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. New software was developed to obtain the source location of multiple, simultaneous, and spatially separate <span class="hlt">lightning</span> signatures. Three studies utilizing these data were begun this summer: (1) VHF observations of simultaneous <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, (2) ground based VHF observations of transionospheric pulse pairs (TIPPs), and (3) properties of intra-cloud recoil streamers. The principal result of each of these studies are: (1) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> commonly occurs in well separated (2-50 km) regions simultaneously, (2) large amplitude pairs of VHF pulses are commonly observed on the ground but had not been previously identified due to the large number of signals usually observed in the VHF noise of close <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, and (3) the VHF Q-noise and pulse signatures associated with K-changes within intra-cloud <span class="hlt">lightning</span> propagate at velocities of more than 10(exp 8) m/s. The interim results of these three studies are reviewed in this brief report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990STIN...9124498M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990STIN...9124498M"><span>Application of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> arrester on transmission lines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matsubara, K.</p> <p>1990-05-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">lightning</span> arrester on transmission lines is expected to reduce <span class="hlt">lightning</span> incidents; however, the problems of the application guide to be established such as the method of application, the treating capacity for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> energy, and the coordination to an arc horn remain as they are. The method of application for a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> arrester on transmission lines and its effect are examined from the viewpoint of the generating incident on transmission lines by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and the operating viewpoint of a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> arrester for a 77kV system. The double circuit setup of an arrester is the best method to reduce the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> incidents and the single circuit setup can reduce the incident rate by 40 percent preventing the flashover of the circuit on which the arrester is not set up. For installing an arrester on a short section, the flashover point can transfer to the next steel tower where the arrester is not set up, only when <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes the last steel tower. Inflowing current into an arrester from a direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike is considerably large and the energy at that time becomes large but this energy can be reduced by the operation of the arrester set up on another steel tower.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940018765','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940018765"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> studies using LDAR and LLP data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Forbes, Gregory S.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>This study intercompared <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data from LDAR and LLP systems in order to learn more about the spatial relationships between thunderstorm electrical discharges aloft and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to the surface. The ultimate goal of the study is to provide information that can be used to improve the process of real-time detection and warning of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> by weather forecasters who issue <span class="hlt">lightning</span> advisories. The <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection and Ranging (LDAR) System provides data on electrical discharges from thunderstorms that includes cloud-ground flashes as well as <span class="hlt">lightning</span> aloft (within cloud, cloud-to-cloud, and sometimes emanating from cloud to clear air outside or above cloud). The <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Location and Protection (LLP) system detects primarily ground strikes from <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Thunderstorms typically produce LDAR signals aloft prior to the first ground strike, so that knowledge of preferred positions of ground strikes relative to the LDAR data pattern from a thunderstorm could allow advance estimates of enhanced ground strike threat. Studies described in the report examine the position of LLP-detected ground strikes relative to the LDAR data pattern from the thunderstorms. The report also describes other potential approaches to the use of LDAR data in the detection and forecasting of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> ground strikes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27116922','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27116922"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Strike in Pregnancy With Fetal Injury.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Galster, Kellen; Hodnick, Ryan; Berkeley, Ross P</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Injuries from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes are an infrequent occurrence, and are only rarely noted to involve pregnant victims. Only 13 cases of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike in pregnancy have been previously described in the medical literature, along with 7 additional cases discovered within news media reports. This case report presents a novel case of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-associated injury in a patient in the third trimester of pregnancy, resulting in fetal ischemic brain injury and long-term morbidity, and reviews the mechanics of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes along with common injury patterns of which emergency providers should be aware.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SGeo...34..755P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SGeo...34..755P"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Applications in Weather and Climate Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Price, Colin G.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Thunderstorms, and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in particular, are a major natural hazard to the public, aviation, power companies, and wildfire managers. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> causes great damage and death every year but also tells us about the inner working of storms. Since <span class="hlt">lightning</span> can be monitored from great distances from the storms themselves, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> may allow us to provide early warnings for severe weather phenomena such as hail storms, flash floods, tornadoes, and even hurricanes. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> itself may impact the climate of the Earth by producing nitrogen oxides (NOx), a precursor of tropospheric ozone, which is a powerful greenhouse gas. Thunderstorms themselves influence the climate system by the redistribution of heat, moisture, and momentum in the atmosphere. What about future changes in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and thunderstorm activity? Many studies show that higher surface temperatures produce more <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, but future changes will depend on what happens to the vertical temperature profile in the troposphere, as well as changes in water balance, and even aerosol loading of the atmosphere. Finally, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> itself may provide a useful tool for tracking climate change in the future, due to the nonlinear link between <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, temperature, upper tropospheric water vapor, and cloud cover.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000004589','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000004589"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Protection Guidelines for Aerospace Vehicles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goodloe, C. C.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This technical memorandum provides <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection engineering guidelines and technical procedures used by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch for aerospace vehicles. The overviews illustrate the technical support available to project managers, chief engineers, and design engineers to ensure that aerospace vehicles managed by MSFC are adequately protected from direct and indirect effects of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Generic descriptions of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> environment and vehicle protection technical processes are presented. More specific aerospace vehicle requirements for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection design, performance, and interface characteristics are available upon request to the MSFC Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch, mail code EL23.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730018655','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730018655"><span>A three-station <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ruhnke, L. H.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>A three-station network is described which senses magnetic and electric fields of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Directional and distance information derived from the data are used to redundantly determine <span class="hlt">lightning</span> position. This redundancy is used to correct consistent propagation errors. A comparison is made of the relative accuracy of VLF direction finders with a newer method to determine distance to and location of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> by the ratio of magnetic-to-electric field as observed at 400 Hz. It was found that VLF direction finders can determine <span class="hlt">lightning</span> positions with only one-half the accuracy of the method that uses the ratio of magnetic-to-electric field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170007231','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170007231"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Protection and Detection System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Szatkowski, George N. (Inventor); Woodard, Marie (Inventor); Nguyen, Truong X. (Inventor); Ely, Jay J. (Inventor); Wang, Chuantong (Inventor); Mielnik, John J. (Inventor); Koppen, Sandra V. (Inventor); Smith, Laura J. (Inventor)</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection and detection system includes a non-conductive substrate material of an apparatus; a sensor formed of a conductive material and deposited on the non-conductive substrate material of the apparatus. The sensor includes a conductive trace formed in a continuous spiral winding starting at a first end at a center region of the sensor and ending at a second end at an outer corner region of the sensor, the first and second ends being open and unconnected. An electrical measurement system is in communication with the sensor and receives a resonant response from the sensor, to perform detection, in real-time, of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike occurrences and damage therefrom to the sensor and the non-conductive substrate material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/959070','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/959070"><span>Indirect <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Safety Assessment Methodology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ong, M M; Perkins, M P; Brown, C G; Crull, E W; Streit, R D</p> <p>2009-04-24</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the However, the current flowing from the strike point through the rebar of the building The methodology for estimating the risk from indirect lighting effects will be presented. It has two parts: a method to determine the likelihood of a detonation given a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike, and an approach for estimating the likelihood of a strike. The results of these two parts produce an overall probability of a detonation. The probability calculations are complex for five reasons: (1) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes are stochastic and relatively rare, (2) the quality of the Faraday cage varies from one facility to the next, (3) RF coupling is inherently a complex subject, (4) performance data for abnormally stressed detonators is scarce, and (5) the arc plasma physics is not well understood. Therefore, a rigorous mathematical analysis would be too complex. Instead, our methodology takes a more practical approach combining rigorous mathematical calculations where possible with empirical data when necessary. Where there is uncertainty, we compensate with conservative approximations. The goal is to determine a conservative estimate of the odds of a detonation. In Section 2, the methodology will be explained. This report will discuss topics at a high-level. The reasons for selecting an approach will be justified. For those interested in technical details, references will be provided. In Section 3, a simple hypothetical example will be given to reinforce the concepts. While the methodology will touch on all the items shown in Figure 1, the focus of this report is the indirect effect, i.e., determining the odds of a detonation from given EM fields. Professor Martin Uman from the University of Florida has been characterizing and defining extreme <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes. Using Professor Uman's research, Dr. Kimball Merewether at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque calculated the EM fields inside a Faraday-cage type</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvL.111a5006F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvL.111a5006F"><span>Ion Runaway in <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Discharges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fülöp, T.; Landreman, M.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Runaway ions can be produced in plasmas with large electric fields, where the accelerating electric force is augmented by the low mean ionic charge due to the imbalance between the number of electrons and ions. Here we derive an expression for the high-energy tail of the ion distribution function in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges and investigate the energy range that the ions can reach. We also estimate the corresponding energetic proton and neutron production due to fusion reactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.8135S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.8135S"><span>Fast positive breakdown in <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stock, M. G.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Lapierre, J.; Wu, T.; Stanley, M. A.; Edens, H. E.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>VHF radiation sources produced by positive breakdown during <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges are generally considered to be both weak and slowly propagating. However, as VHF <span class="hlt">lightning</span> mapping systems have become more sensitive, even this weak radiation can be mapped. In addition to being a faint process, positive breakdown often produces bursts of energetic activity. During the bursts, the VHF emission is extremely bright, and the breakdown propagates at much higher speeds. Here we present VHF interferometric and time-of-arrival measurements of such fast positive breakdown events produced during three example flashes. Electric field change measurements show that the fast breakdown process carries positive charge. The extent and velocity of the breakdown is estimated by converting the angular source locations provided by the interferometer into Cartesian coordinates using three-dimensional <span class="hlt">lightning</span> mapping observations of the flash as a guide. Fast positive breakdown events are found to extend 100-2400 m into virgin air beyond the tip of the preceding positive leader, at speeds of 0.9-9 ×107 m s-1. The observations expand upon earlier observations of such breakdown and are similar to recently reported results that fast positive breakdown is the cause of high-power narrow bipolar events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMAE21A0297W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMAE21A0297W"><span>Optical Spectra of Triggered <span class="hlt">Lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walker, T. D.; Biagi, C. J.; Hill, J. D.; Jordan, D. M.; Uman, M. A.; Christian, H. J., Jr.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>In August 2009, the first optical spectra of triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes were acquired. Data from two triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes were obtained at the International Center for <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Research and Testing in north-central Florida. The spectrometer that was used has an average dispersion of 260 Å/mm resulting in an average resolution of 5 Å when mated to a Photron (SA1.1) high-speed camera. The spectra captured with this system had a free spectral range of 3800-8000 Å. The spectra were captured at 300,000 frames per second. The spectrometer's vertical field of view was 3 m at an altitude 50 m above the launch tower, intended to view the middle of the triggering wire. Preliminary results show that the copper spectrum dominated the earliest part of the flash and copper lines persisted during the total lifetime of the detectable spectrum. Animations over the lifetime of the stroke from the initial wire illumination to multiple return strokes show the evolution of the spectrum. In addition, coordinated high speed channel base current, electric field and imagery measurements of the exploding wire, downward leaders, and return strokes were recorded. Quantitative analysis of the spectral evolution will be discussed in the context of the overall flash development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023313','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023313"><span>Launch pad <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection effectiveness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stahmann, James R.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Using the striking distance theory that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> leaders will strike the nearest grounded point on their last jump to earth corresponding to the striking distance, the probability of striking a point on a structure in the presence of other points can be estimated. The <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes are divided into deciles having an average peak current and striking distance. The striking distances are used as radii from the points to generate windows of approach through which the leader must pass to reach a designated point. The projections of the windows on a horizontal plane as they are rotated through all possible angles of approach define an area that can be multiplied by the decile stroke density to arrive at the probability of strokes with the window average striking distance. The sum of all decile probabilities gives the cumulative probability for all strokes. The techniques can be applied to NASA-Kennedy launch pad structures to estimate the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection effectiveness for the crane, gaseous oxygen vent arm, and other points. Streamers from sharp points on the structure provide protection for surfaces having large radii of curvature. The effects of nearby structures can also be estimated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMAE12A..02F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMAE12A..02F"><span>Infrasound from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> measured in Ivory Coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farges, T.; Matoza, R. S.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>It is well established that more than 2,000 thunderstorms occur continuously around the world and that about 45 <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes are produced per second over the globe. More than two thirds (42) of the infrasound stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBTO (Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation) are now certified and routinely measure signals due to natural activity (e.g., airflow over mountains, aurora, microbaroms, surf, volcanoes, severe weather including <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes, ...). Some of the IMS stations are located where worldwide <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection networks (e.g. WWLLN) have a weak detection capability but <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity is high (e.g. Africa, South America). These infrasound stations are well localised to study <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash activity and its disparity, which is a good proxy for global warming. Progress in infrasound array data processing over the past ten years makes such <span class="hlt">lightning</span> studies possible. For example, Farges and Blanc (2010) show clearly that it is possible to measure <span class="hlt">lightning</span> infrasound from thunderstorms within a range of distances from the infrasound station. Infrasound from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> can be detected when the thunderstorm is within about 75 km from the station. The motion of the squall zone is very well measured inside this zone. Up to 25% of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes can be detected with this technique, giving better results locally than worldwide <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection networks. An IMS infrasound station has been installed in Ivory Coast for 8 years. The optical space-based instrument OTD measured a rate of 10-20 flashes/km^2/year in that country and showed strong seasonal variations (Christian et al., 2003). Ivory Coast is therefore a good place to study infrasound data associated with <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity and its temporal variation. First statistical results will be presented in this paper based on 3 years of data (2005-2008).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21909737','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21909737"><span>[<span class="hlt">Lightning</span> strikes and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> injuries in prehospital emergency medicine. Relevance, results, and practical implications].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hinkelbein, J; Spelten, O; Wetsch, W A</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Up to 32.2% of patients in a burn center suffer from electrical injuries. Of these patients, 2-4% present with <span class="hlt">lightning</span> injuries. In Germany, approximately 50 people per year are injured by a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike and 3-7 fatally. Typically, people involved in outdoor activities are endangered and affected. A <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike usually produces significantly higher energy doses as compared to those in common electrical injuries. Therefore, injury patterns vary significantly. Especially in high voltage injuries and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> injuries, internal injuries are of special importance. Mortality ranges between 10 and 30% after a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike. Emergency medical treatment is similar to common electrical injuries. Patients with <span class="hlt">lightning</span> injuries should be transported to a regional or supraregional trauma center. In 15% of all cases multiple people may be injured. Therefore, it is of outstanding importance to create emergency plans and evacuation plans in good time for mass gatherings endangered by possible <span class="hlt">lightning</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990084078&hterms=fiber+optics+work&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dfiber%2Boptics%2Bwork','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990084078&hterms=fiber+optics+work&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dfiber%2Boptics%2Bwork"><span>Electro-Optic <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koshak, William J.; Solakiewica, R. J.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Electric field measurements are fundamental to the study of thunderstorm electrification, thundercloud charge structure, and the determination of the locations and magnitudes of charges deposited by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Continuous field observations can also be used to warn of impending electrical hazards. For example, the USAF Eastern Range (ER) and NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida currently operate a ground-based network of electric field mill sensors to warn against <span class="hlt">lightning</span> hazards to space vehicle operations/launches. The sensors provide continuous recordings of the ambient field. Others investigators have employed flat-plate electric field antennas to detect changes In the ambient field due to <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. In each approach, electronic circuitry is used to directly detect and amplify the effects of the ambient field on an exposed metal conductor (antenna plate); in the case of continuous field recordings, the antenna plate is alternately shielded and unshielded by a grounded conductor. In this work effort, an alternate optical method for detecting <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-caused electric field changes is Introduced. The primary component in the detector is an anisotropic electro-optic crystal of potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (chemically written as KH2PO4 (KDP)). When a voltage Is placed across the electro-optic crystal, the refractive Indices of the crystal change. This change alters the polarization state of a laser light beam that is passed down the crystal optic axis. With suitable application of vertical and horizontal polarizers, a light transmission measurement is related to the applied crystal voltage (which in turn Is related to the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> caused electric field change). During the past two years, all critical optical components were procured, assembled, and aligned. An optical housing, calibration set-up, and data acquisition system was integrated for breadboard testing. The sensor was deployed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the summer of 1998 to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990084078&hterms=Fiber+optic+hydrogen+sensor+structure&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DFiber%2Boptic%2Bhydrogen%2Bsensor%2Bstructure','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990084078&hterms=Fiber+optic+hydrogen+sensor+structure&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DFiber%2Boptic%2Bhydrogen%2Bsensor%2Bstructure"><span>Electro-Optic <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koshak, William J.; Solakiewica, R. J.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Electric field measurements are fundamental to the study of thunderstorm electrification, thundercloud charge structure, and the determination of the locations and magnitudes of charges deposited by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Continuous field observations can also be used to warn of impending electrical hazards. For example, the USAF Eastern Range (ER) and NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida currently operate a ground-based network of electric field mill sensors to warn against <span class="hlt">lightning</span> hazards to space vehicle operations/launches. The sensors provide continuous recordings of the ambient field. Others investigators have employed flat-plate electric field antennas to detect changes In the ambient field due to <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. In each approach, electronic circuitry is used to directly detect and amplify the effects of the ambient field on an exposed metal conductor (antenna plate); in the case of continuous field recordings, the antenna plate is alternately shielded and unshielded by a grounded conductor. In this work effort, an alternate optical method for detecting <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-caused electric field changes is Introduced. The primary component in the detector is an anisotropic electro-optic crystal of potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (chemically written as KH2PO4 (KDP)). When a voltage Is placed across the electro-optic crystal, the refractive Indices of the crystal change. This change alters the polarization state of a laser light beam that is passed down the crystal optic axis. With suitable application of vertical and horizontal polarizers, a light transmission measurement is related to the applied crystal voltage (which in turn Is related to the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> caused electric field change). During the past two years, all critical optical components were procured, assembled, and aligned. An optical housing, calibration set-up, and data acquisition system was integrated for breadboard testing. The sensor was deployed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the summer of 1998 to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJTPE.126...65Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJTPE.126...65Y"><span>An Experimental Study of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Overvoltages in Wind Turbine Generation Systems Using a Reduced-Size Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamamoto, Kazuo; Noda, Taku; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Ametani, Akihiro</p> <p></p> <p>Wind turbine generation systems are built at locations where few tall structures are found nearby so as to obtain good wind conditions, and thus, they are often struck by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. To promote wind power generation, <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-protection methodologies for such wind turbine generation systems have to be established. This paper presents the result of an experimental study of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> overvoltages in wind turbine generation systems using a reduced-size wind turbine model. Overvoltages observed at wavefronts of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> surges are focused on in this study. In the experiments, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes to one of the blades and to the nacelle were considered, and voltages and currents at various positions of the wind turbine model were measured. The following points have been deduced from the results: (i) The voltage rise due to the tower footing resistance can cause a significant voltage difference between the tower foot and an incoming conductor led from a distant point. Also, a voltage difference between the bottom of down conductors installed inside the tower and an incoming conductor can be of significance. (<span class="hlt">ii</span>) The <span class="hlt">lightning</span> current flowing through the tower body induces voltages in main and control circuits which form loops, and the induced voltages can cause overvoltages and malfunctions. (iii) Traveling-wave phenomena in a wind turbine generation system for a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike to the tip of a blade and to the nacelle have been made clear from the measured waveforms. This information can be used for developing an EMTP simulation model of wind turbine generation systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMAE21A0300M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMAE21A0300M"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> interaction with launch facilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mata, C. T.; Rakov, V. A.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> is a major threat to launch facilities. In 2008 and 2009 there have been a significant number of strikes within 5 nautical miles of Launch Complexes 39A and 39B at the Kennedy Space Center. On several occasions, the Shuttle Space Vehicle (SSV) was at the pad. Fortunately, no accidents or damage to the flight hardware occurred, but these events resulted in many launch delays, one launch scrub, and many hours of retesting. For complex structures, such as launch facilities, the design of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection system (LPS) cannot be done using the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection standard guidelines. As a result, there are some “unprotected” or “exposed” areas. In order to quantify the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> threat to these areas, a Monte Carlo statistical tool has been developed. This statistical tool uses two random number generators: a uniform distribution to generate origins of downward propagating leaders and a lognormal distribution to generate returns stroke peak currents. Downward leaders propagate vertically downward and their striking distances are defined by the polarity and peak current. Following the electrogeometrical concept, we assume that the leader attaches to the closest object within its striking distance. The statistical analysis is run for a large number of years using a long term ground flash density that corresponds to the geographical region where the structures being analyzed are located or will be installed. The output of the program is the probability of direct attachment to objects of interest with its corresponding peak current distribution. This tool was used in designing the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection system of Launch Complex 39B at the Kennedy Space Center, FL, for NASA’s Constellation program. The tool allowed the designers to select the position of the towers and to design the catenary wire system to minimize the probability of direct strikes to the spacecraft and associated ground support equipment. This tool can be used to evaluate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994phil.reptR....K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994phil.reptR....K"><span>A brief history of laser guided <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge models and experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kozma, Matthew A.</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>Laser guided <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge uses lasers instead of rockets to trigger <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Artificially triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> has several important applications including aerospace vehicle launch protection and electrical power line transmission protection, among others. A brief history of the theoretical models used to predict triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, the experimentation completed with rocket triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, and the work completed on laser guided <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge is presented. A bibliography of work related to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> modeling, rocket-triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, and laser-triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is also included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/28599','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/28599"><span>Verification of the WFAS <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Efficiency Map</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Paul Sopko; Don Latham; Isaac Grenfell</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Ignition Efficiency map was added to the suite of daily maps offered by the Wildland Fire Assessment System (WFAS) in 1999. This map computes a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> probability of ignition (POI) based on the estimated fuel type, fuel depth, and 100-hour fuel moisture interpolated from the Remote Automated Weather Station (RAWS) network. An attempt to verify the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sky&pg=5&id=EJ1128438','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sky&pg=5&id=EJ1128438"><span>When <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Strikes a Second Time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Allen, Kent</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The chances of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> striking twice are infinitesimal, at best. What are the odds, in middle age, of being struck with a jarring bolt of figurative <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, then a few months later being an eyewitness as the same sizzle in the sky jolts a group of students--those decision-makers of tomorrow? The author describes two experiences that proved…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Lightning&pg=5&id=EJ351674','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Lightning&pg=5&id=EJ351674"><span>Protecting Your Park When <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Strikes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Frydenlund, Marvin M.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A formula for assessing specific risk of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes is provided. Recent legal cases are used to illustrate potential liability. Six actions park managers can take to minimize danger from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> are presented, and commonsense rules which should be publicly posted are listed. (MT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Washington+AND+DC&pg=2&id=EJ1128438','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Washington+AND+DC&pg=2&id=EJ1128438"><span>When <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Strikes a Second Time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Allen, Kent</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The chances of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> striking twice are infinitesimal, at best. What are the odds, in middle age, of being struck with a jarring bolt of figurative <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, then a few months later being an eyewitness as the same sizzle in the sky jolts a group of students--those decision-makers of tomorrow? The author describes two experiences that proved…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Lightning&pg=5&id=EJ351674','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Lightning&pg=5&id=EJ351674"><span>Protecting Your Park When <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Strikes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Frydenlund, Marvin M.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A formula for assessing specific risk of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes is provided. Recent legal cases are used to illustrate potential liability. Six actions park managers can take to minimize danger from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> are presented, and commonsense rules which should be publicly posted are listed. (MT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770026308','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770026308"><span>Space shuttle program: <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection criteria document</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">lightning</span> environment for space shuttle design is defined and requirements that the design must satisfy to insure protection of the vehicle system from direct and indirect effects of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> are imposed. Specifications, criteria, and guidelines included provide a practical and logical approach to protection problems.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7677044','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7677044"><span>Basal ganglia hemorrhage related to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ozgun, B; Castillo, M</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>We describe a case of bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage after a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike to the head documented by a CT scan. Review of the literature shows this to be the most common brain imaging finding that can be attributed to a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike. Several mechanistic theories are discussed, with the most plausible one being related to preferential conduction pathways through the brain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8295235','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8295235"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> strike to the head: case report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Steinbaum, S; Harviel, J D; Jaffin, J H; Jordan, M H</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A case is presented of a teen-aged athlete who sustained a direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike to the head while wearing a football helmet. The helmet, the presence of sweat, and aggressive resuscitation were instrumental in his survival and complete recovery. This appears to be the first documentation of a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike to an individual wearing protective headgear.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1960168','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1960168"><span>Intracranial haematoma resulting from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroke.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thomas, M; Pillai, M; Krishna Das, K V</p> <p>1991-05-01</p> <p>Intra-cerebral haemorrhage due to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroke is extremely rare. We report a 45 year old woman who developed intracranial haemorrhage due to a direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroke. This was proved by CT scan. The haematoma was evacuated surgically, resulting in full neurological recovery of the patient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810012139','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810012139"><span>The 1980 direct strike <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pitts, F. L.; Thomas, M. E.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Data waveforms are presented which were obtained utilizing the NASA F-106B aircraft specially instrumented for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> electromagnetic measurements. The aircraft was operated in a thunderstorm environment to elicit strikes. Concurrently recorded electric and magnetic field and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> current data were obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFMAE41A..02K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFMAE41A..02K"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Behaviour in the Northwest Territories, Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kochtubajda, B.; Flannigan, M. D.; Gyakum, J. R.; Stewart, R. E.; Way, A.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>Thunderstorms play an important role in the cycling of water and energy over the boreal ecosystem of the Northwest Territories (NWT) of Canada during the warm season. Associated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity can also initiate forest fires. Global distributions of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> derived from satellite observations indicate that this region experiences a relatively large amount of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, given its high latitude location. However, no previous work has been directly applied to the NWT. A variety of data sets have been used to study <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity, cloud and convective processes in the water cycle and their impacts on the forests of the NWT for the 1994-1999 fire seasons. These include the archived strike data from the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection network operating in the NWT, fire data from the Canadian Forest Service's national Large Fire Database, surface and upper-air station data, and historical gridded data from the Environment Canada and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) digital archives. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> activity over the NWT is linked with its geographic alignment, large scale flows, and diurnal heating cycle. The convective storm season and resultant <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity is characterized as short but intense with a strong peak in cloud-to-ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span> during June and July. The maximum area of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity varies in space and in time and is influenced by local moisture sources (such as wetland areas and small lakes) and by topography. The diurnal distribution of strikes indicates that most of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is linked with daytime-heating initiated thunderstorms. There was a relatively low amount of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity during the 1994-95 seasons but an unusually high fraction of positive <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes during 1995. The positive ground strikes may have been influenced by the presence of smoke from fires. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span>-initiated fire occurrence peaks during July, while much of the burned area occurs in June. Events with an especially large number of <span class="hlt">lightning</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040170489&hterms=LMA&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DLMA','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040170489&hterms=LMA&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DLMA"><span>The GOES-R <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper Sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buechler, Dennis; Christian, Hugh; Goodman, Steve</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper Sensor on GOES-R builds on previous measurements of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> from low earth orbit by the OTD (Optical Transient Detector) and LIS (<span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor) sensors. Unlike observations from low earth orbit, the GOES-R platform will allow continuous monitoring of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity over the Continental United States and southern Canada, Central and South America, and portions of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The LMS will detect total (cloud-to-ground and intracloud) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> at storm scale resolution (approx. 8 km) using a highly sensitive Charge Coupled Device (CCD) detector array. Discrimination between <span class="hlt">lightning</span> optical transients and a bright sunlit background scene is accomplished by employing spectral, spatial, and temporal filtering along with a background subtraction technique. The result is 24 hour detection capability of total <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. These total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observations can be made available to users within about 20 seconds. Research indicates a number of ways that total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observations from LMS could benefit operational activities, including 1) potential increases in lead times and reduced false alarms for severe thunderstorm and tornado Warnings, 2) improved routing of &rail around thunderstorms, 3) support for spacecraft launches and landings, 4) improved ability to monitor tropical cyclone intensity, 5) ability to monitor thunderstorm intensification/weakening during radar outages or where radar coverage is poor, 6) better identification of deep convection for the initialization of numerical prediction models, 7) improved forest fire forecasts, 8) identification of convective initiation, 9) identification of heavy convective snowfall, and 10) enhanced temporal resolution of storm evolution (1 minute) than is available from radar observations. Total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data has been used in an operational environment since July 2003 at the Huntsville, Alabama National Weather Service office. Total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> measurements are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040170489&hterms=tornado+forecast&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dtornado%2Bforecast','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040170489&hterms=tornado+forecast&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dtornado%2Bforecast"><span>The GOES-R <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper Sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buechler, Dennis; Christian, Hugh; Goodman, Steve</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper Sensor on GOES-R builds on previous measurements of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> from low earth orbit by the OTD (Optical Transient Detector) and LIS (<span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor) sensors. Unlike observations from low earth orbit, the GOES-R platform will allow continuous monitoring of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity over the Continental United States and southern Canada, Central and South America, and portions of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The LMS will detect total (cloud-to-ground and intracloud) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> at storm scale resolution (approx. 8 km) using a highly sensitive Charge Coupled Device (CCD) detector array. Discrimination between <span class="hlt">lightning</span> optical transients and a bright sunlit background scene is accomplished by employing spectral, spatial, and temporal filtering along with a background subtraction technique. The result is 24 hour detection capability of total <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. These total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observations can be made available to users within about 20 seconds. Research indicates a number of ways that total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observations from LMS could benefit operational activities, including 1) potential increases in lead times and reduced false alarms for severe thunderstorm and tornado Warnings, 2) improved routing of &rail around thunderstorms, 3) support for spacecraft launches and landings, 4) improved ability to monitor tropical cyclone intensity, 5) ability to monitor thunderstorm intensification/weakening during radar outages or where radar coverage is poor, 6) better identification of deep convection for the initialization of numerical prediction models, 7) improved forest fire forecasts, 8) identification of convective initiation, 9) identification of heavy convective snowfall, and 10) enhanced temporal resolution of storm evolution (1 minute) than is available from radar observations. Total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data has been used in an operational environment since July 2003 at the Huntsville, Alabama National Weather Service office. Total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> measurements are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850009173','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850009173"><span>Mathematical physics approaches to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kyrala, A.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Mathematical physics arguments useful for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge and generation problems are pursued. A soliton Ansatz for the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroke is treated including a charge generation term which is the ultimate source for the phenomena. Equations are established for a partially ionized plasma inding the effects of pressure, magnetic field, electric field, gravitation, viscosity, and temperature. From these equations is then derived the non-stationary generalized Ohm's Law essential for describing field/current density relationships in the horizon channel of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroke. The discharge initiation problem is discussed. It is argued that the ionization rate drives both the convective current and electric displacement current to increase exponentially. The statistical distributions of charge in the thundercloud preceding a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> dischage are considered. The stability of the pre-<span class="hlt">lightning</span> charge distributions and the use of Boltzmann relaxational equations to determine them are discussed along with a covered impedance path provided by the aircraft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23478564','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23478564"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> injuries in sports and recreation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thomson, Eric M; Howard, Thomas M</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The powers of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> have been worshiped and feared by all known human cultures. While the chance of being struck by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is statistically very low, that risk becomes much greater in those who frequently work or play outdoors. Over the past 2 yr, there have been nearly 50 <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-related deaths reported within the United States, with a majority of them associated with outdoor recreational activities. Recent publications primarily have been case studies, review articles, and a discussion of a sixth method of injury. The challenge in reducing <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-related injuries in organized sports has been addressed well by both the National Athletic Trainers' Association and the National Collegiate Athletic Association in their guidelines on <span class="hlt">lightning</span> safety. Challenges remain in educating the general population involved in recreational outdoor activities that do not fall under the guidelines of organized sports.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.9102T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.9102T"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> enhancement over major oceanic shipping lanes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thornton, Joel A.; Virts, Katrina S.; Holzworth, Robert H.; Mitchell, Todd P.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Using 12 years of high-resolution global <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroke data from the World Wide <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Location Network (WWLLN), we show that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> density is enhanced by up to a factor of 2 directly over shipping lanes in the northeastern Indian Ocean and the South China Sea as compared to adjacent areas with similar climatological characteristics. The <span class="hlt">lightning</span> enhancement is most prominent during the convectively active season, November-April for the Indian Ocean and April-December in the South China Sea, and has been detectable from at least 2005 to the present. We hypothesize that emissions of aerosol particles and precursors by maritime vessel traffic lead to a microphysical enhancement of convection and storm electrification in the region of the shipping lanes. These persistent localized anthropogenic perturbations to otherwise clean regions are a unique opportunity to more thoroughly understand the sensitivity of maritime deep convection and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> to aerosol particles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/39379','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/39379"><span>Progress towards a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> ignition model for the Northern Rockies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Paul Sopko; Don Latham</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We are in the process of constructing a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> ignition model specific to the Northern Rockies using fire occurrence, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike, ecoregion, and historical weather, NFDRS (National Fire Danger Rating System), <span class="hlt">lightning</span> efficiency and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> "possibility" data. Daily grids for each of these categories were reconstructed for the 2003 fire season (...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0603089','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0603089"><span>RELATIONS BETWEEN <span class="hlt">LIGHTNING</span> DISCHARGES AND DIFFERENT TYPES OF MUSICAL ATMOSPHERICS,</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Recording cathode-ray oscillographs were used for the analysis of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges whose relations to musical atmospherics were investigated...of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges investigated. Through comparative harmonic analyses it was shown that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges producing musical atmospherics...followed by multiple whistlers. An investigation was made of correlations between <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges and musical atmospherics of unusual and irregular</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/106809','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/106809"><span>Global <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity and climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Price, C.G.</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>The relationship between global <span class="hlt">lightning</span> frequencies and global climate change is examined in this thesis. In order to study global impacts of climate change, global climate models or General Circulations Models (GCMs) need to be utilized. Since these models have coarse resolutions many atmospheric phenomena that occur at subgrid scales, such as <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, need to be parameterized whenever possible. We begin with a simple parameterization used to Simulate total (intracloud and cloud-to-ground) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> frequencies. The parameterization uses convective cloud top height to approximate <span class="hlt">lightning</span> frequencies. Then we consider a parameterization for simulating cloud-to-ground (CG) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> around the globe. This parameterization uses the thickness of the cold cloud sector in thunderstorms (0{degrees}C to cloud top) to calculate the proportion of CG flashes in a particular thunderstorm. We model <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM. We present two climate change scenarios. One for a climate where the solar constant is reduced by 2% (5.9{degrees}C global cooling), and one for a climate with twice the present concentration of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere (4.2{degrees}C global warming). The results imply a 24%/30% decrease/increase in global <span class="hlt">lightning</span> frequencies for the cooler/warmer climate. The possibility of using the above findings to monitor future global warming is discussed. The earth`s ionospheric potential, which is regulated by global thunderstorm activity, could supply valuable information regarding global surface temperature fluctuations. Finally, we look at the implications of changes in both <span class="hlt">lightning</span> frequencies and the hydrological cycle, as a result of global warming, on natural forest fires. In the U.S. the annual mean number of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> fires could increase by 40% while the area burned may increase by 65% in a 2{times}CO{sub 2} climate. On a global scale the largest increase in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> fires can be expected in the tropics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/976609','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/976609"><span>Global optical <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash rates determined with the Forte satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Light, T.; Davis, S. M.; Boeck, W. L.; Jacobson, A. R.; Suszcynsky, D. M.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Using FORTE photodiode detector (PDD) observations of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, we have determined the geographic distribution of nighttime flash rate density. We estimate the PDD flash detection efficiency to be 62% for total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> through comparison to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observations by the TRMM satellite's <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor (LIS), using cases in which FORTE and TRMM viewed the same storm. We present here both seasonal and l,ot,al flash rate maps. We examine some characteristics of the optical emissions of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in both high and low flash rate environments, and find that while <span class="hlt">lightning</span> occurs less frequently over ocean, oceanic <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes are somewhat more powerful, on average, than those over land.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008654','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008654"><span>The <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM): Status and Recent Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koshak, William; Khan, Maudood; Peterson, Harold</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Improvements to the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM) are discussed. Recent results from an August 2006 run of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system that employs LNOM <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NOx (= NO + NO2) estimates are provided. The LNOM analyzes <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array (LMA) data to estimate the raw (i.e., unmixed and otherwise environmentally unmodified) vertical profile of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NOx. The latest LNOM estimates of (a) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel length distributions, (b) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> 1-m segment altitude distributions, and (c) the vertical profile of NOx are presented. The impact of including LNOM-estimates of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NOx on CMAQ output is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100021055','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100021055"><span>Estimates of the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> NOx Profile in the Vicinity of the North Alabama <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koshak, William J.; Peterson, Harold S.; McCaul, Eugene W.; Blazar, Arastoo</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM) is applied to August 2006 North Alabama <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array (NALMA) data to estimate the (unmixed and otherwise environmentally unmodified) vertical source profile of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> nitrogen oxides, NOx = NO + NO2. Data from the National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network (Trademark) (NLDN) is also employed. This is part of a larger effort aimed at building a more realistic <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NOx emissions inventory for use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Overall, special attention is given to several important <span class="hlt">lightning</span> variables including: the frequency and geographical distribution of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in the vicinity of the NALMA network, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> type (ground or cloud flash), <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel length, channel altitude, channel peak current, and the number of strokes per flash. Laboratory spark chamber results from the literature are used to convert 1-meter channel segments (that are located at a particular known altitude; i.e., air density) to NOx concentration. The resulting <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NOx source profiles are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760048519&hterms=crane+tower&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcrane%2Btower','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760048519&hterms=crane+tower&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcrane%2Btower"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> - Apollo to Shuttle. [case histories and spacecraft protection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Durrett, W. R.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The history of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> striking NASA spacecraft and the development of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection systems is reviewed from the Apollo 12 flight, involving a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike thirty six seconds after launch, to the present date. Particular attention is paid to problems that may arise in this field in the context of planning and implementing the Space Shuttle program. The <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection design for Apollo is described: a folding mast mounted on top of the hammerhead crane on top of the Launcher Umbilical Tower, with a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rod on top. The effect of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> storms on the launches of Apollos 12 through 17 is examined, as is the effect of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in the Skylab program. The <span class="hlt">lightning</span> problems encountered by the Apollo-Soyuz mission and by the two unmanned Viking launches to Mars are discussed. The <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection And Ranging system for detecting RF emission from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges is described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.8896H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.8896H"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> on exoplanets and brown dwarfs: modelling <span class="hlt">lightning</span> energies and radio powers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hodosán, Gabriella; Helling, Christiane; Vorgul, Irena</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> is a well studied though not fully understood phenomenon occurring not just on Earth but on other Solar System planets, such as Jupiter and Saturn, as well. Both observations and theoretical work suggest that the conditions in extrasolar planetary and brown dwarf atmospheres are good for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> to occur. However, due to the lack of exo-<span class="hlt">lightning</span> observations, we do not know how <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in extrasolar atmospheres is similar or different from what is known from the Solar System. The aim of this study is to apply our knowledge of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> production, derived mostly from Earth <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, to the potential <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge characteristics on extrasolar objects. In terms of observations, the power spectrum of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> carries information regarding radiated power densities. From the total radiated power it is also possible to determine the energy dissipated from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges. However, modelling the power spectrum involves several steps and various parameters, including a characterization of the electric field. As such, we built a model and conducted a parameter study in order to explore the possible <span class="hlt">lightning</span> powers and energies in different types of extrasolar atmospheres, such as giant planetary and brown dwarf atmospheres. We tested our model on Solar System cases based on previously published parameters in the literature, such as the duration of the discharge or the frequency at which the peak power is released. Our tests reproduce these published values for Earth, Jupiter and Saturn, and validate our model. When applying the model to extrasolar <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges, we found that in giant gas planet atmospheres of 1500 K < Teff < 2000 K and log(g) = 3.0 the dissipation energy of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> can reach as high as 1019 J, which is ten orders of magnitude larger than the average total energy of Earth <span class="hlt">lightning</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900004089','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900004089"><span>Cable coupling <span class="hlt">lightning</span> transient qualification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cook, M.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Simulated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike testing of instrumentation cabling on the redesigned solid rocket motor was performed. Testing consisted of subjecting the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> evaluation test article to simulated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes and evaluating the effects of instrumentation cable transients on cables within the system tunnel. The maximum short-circuit current induced onto a United Space Boosters, Inc., operational flight cable within the systems tunnel was 92 A, and the maximum induced open-circuit voltage was 316 V. These levels were extrapolated to the worst-case (200 kA) condition of NASA specification NSTS 07636 and were also scaled to full-scale redesigned solid rocket motor dimensions. Testing showed that voltage coupling to cables within the systems tunnel can be reduced 40 to 90 dB and that current coupling to cables within the systems tunnel can be reduced 30 to 70 dB with the use of braided metallic sock shields around cables that are external to the systems tunnel. Testing also showed that current and voltage levels induced onto cables within the systems tunnel are partially dependant on the cables' relative locations within the systems tunnel. Results of current injections to the systems tunnel indicate that the dominant coupling mode on cables within the systems tunnel is not from instrumentation cables but from coupling through the systems tunnel cover seam apertures. It is recommended that methods of improving the electrical bonding between individual sections of the systems tunnel covers be evaluated. Further testing to better characterize redesigned solid rocket motor cable coupling effects as an aid in developing methods to reduce coupling levels, particularly with respect to cable placement within the systems tunnel, is also recommended.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790002166','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790002166"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> current waveform measuring system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wojtasinski, R. J.; Fuchs, J. C.; Grove, C. H. (Inventor)</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>An apparatus is described for monitoring current waveforms produced by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes which generate currents in an elongated cable. These currents are converted to voltages and to light waves for being transmitted over an optical cable to a remote location. At the remote location, the waves are reconstructed back into electrical waves for being stored into a memory. The information is stored within the memory with a timing signal so that only different signals need be stored in order to reconstruct the wave form.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5065328','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5065328"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> strike at Bryan, Ohio</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nichols, B. E.</p> <p>1980-02-01</p> <p>A week before the 29 August 1979 dedication of the photovoltaic power system at daytime AM radio station WBNO, in Bryan, Ohio, a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> superbolt struck the FM radio tower, one of two towers at the station. Minor damage to the station and to components of the photovoltaic system, the latter designed by MIT Lincoln Laboratory under US Department of Energy sponsorship, is described. This rare strike suggested the need for increased protection and more voltage-transient suppressors were added to those already in place as a preventive measure in the event that such a phenomenon reoccurs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8882110','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8882110"><span>Acoustic trauma caused by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mora-Magaña, I; Collado-Corona, M A; Toral-Martiñòn, R; Cano, A</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>Lesions produced by exposure to noise are frequent in everyday life. Injuries may be found in all systems of the human body, from the digestive to the endocrine, from the cardiovascular to the nervous system. Many organs may be damaged, the ear being one of them. It is known that noise produced by factories, airports, musical instruments and even toys can cause auditory loss. Noises in nature can also cause acoustic trauma. This report is the case history of acoustic trauma caused by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. The patient was studied with CAT scan, electroencephalogram, and brain mapping, impedance audiometry with tympanogram and acoustic reflex, audiometry and evoked otoacoustics emissions: distortion products and transients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMAE24A..05F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMAE24A..05F"><span>Monitoring <span class="hlt">lightning</span> from space with TARANIS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farges, T.; Blanc, E.; Pinçon, J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Some recent space experiments, e.g. OTD, LIS, show the large interest of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> monitoring from space and the efficiency of optical measurement. Future instrumentations are now defined for the next generation of geostationary meteorology satellites. Calibration of these instruments requires ground truth events provided by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location networks, as NLDN in US, and EUCLID or LINET in Europe, using electromagnetic observations at a regional scale. One of the most challenging objectives is the continuous monitoring of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity over the tropical zone (Africa, America, and Indonesia). However, one difficulty is the lack of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location networks at regional scale in these areas to validate the data quality. TARANIS (Tool for the Analysis of Radiations from <span class="hlt">lightNings</span> and Sprites) is a CNES micro satellite project. It is dedicated to the study of impulsive transfers of energy, between the Earth atmosphere and the space environment, from nadir observations of Transient Luminous Events (TLEs), Terrestrial Gamma ray Flashes (TGFs) and other possible associated emissions. Its orbit will be sun-synchronous at 10:30 local time; its altitude will be 700 km. Its lifetime will be nominally 2 years. Its payload is composed of several electromagnetic instruments in different wavelengths: X and gamma-ray detectors, optical cameras and photometers, electromagnetic wave sensors from DC to 30 MHz completed by high energy electron detectors. The optical instrument includes 2 cameras and 4 photometers. All sensors are equipped with filters for sprite and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> differentiation. The filters of cameras are designed for sprite and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observations at 762 nm and 777 nm respectively. However, differently from OTD or LIS instruments, the filter bandwidth and the exposure time (respectively 10 nm and 91 ms) prevent <span class="hlt">lightning</span> optical observations during daytime. The camera field of view is a square of 500 km at ground level with a spatial sampling frequency of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710618L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710618L"><span>Giant elves: <span class="hlt">Lightning</span>-generated electromagnetic pulses in giant planets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luque Estepa, Alejandro; Dubrovin, Daria; José Gordillo-Vázquez, Francisco; Ebert, Ute; Parra-Rojas, Francisco Carlos; Yair, Yoav; Price, Colin</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We currently have direct optical observations of atmospheric electricity in the two giant gaseous planets of our Solar System [1-5] as well as radio signatures that are possibly generated by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> from the two icy planets Uranus and Neptune [6,7]. On Earth, the electrical activity of the troposphere is associated with secondary electrical phenomena called Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) that occur in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere. This led some researchers to ask if similar processes may also exist in other planets, focusing first on the quasi-static coupling mechanism [8], which on Earth is responsible for halos and sprites and then including also the induction field, which is negligible in our planet but dominant in Saturn [9]. However, one can show that, according to the best available estimation for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> parameters, in giant planets such as Saturn and Jupiter the effect of the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) dominates the effect that a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge has on the lower ionosphere above it. Using a Finite-Differences, Time-Domain (FDTD) solver for the EMP we found [10] that electrically active storms may create a localized but long-lasting layer of enhanced ionization of up to 103 cm-3 free electrons below the ionosphere, thus extending the ionosphere downward. We also estimate that the electromagnetic pulse transports 107 J to 1010 J toward the ionosphere. There emissions of light of up to 108 J would create a transient luminous event analogous to a terrestrial elve. Although these emissions are about 10 times fainter than the emissions coming from the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> itself, it may be possible to target them for detection by filtering the appropiate wavelengths. [1] Cook, A. F., <span class="hlt">II</span>, T. C. Duxbury, and G. E. Hunt (1979), First results on Jovian <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, Nature, 280, 794, doi:10.1038/280794a0. [2] Little, B., C. D. Anger, A. P. Ingersoll, A. R. Vasavada, D. A. Senske, H. H. Breneman, W. J. Borucki, and The Galileo SSI Team (1999), Galileo images of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11102074','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11102074"><span>Ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span> as a force-free magnetic knot</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ranada; Soler; Trueba</p> <p>2000-11-01</p> <p>The stability of fireballs in a recent model of ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is studied. It is shown that the balls shine while relaxing in an almost quiescent expansion, and that three effects contribute to their stability: (i) the formation in each one during a process of Taylor relaxation of a force-free magnetic field, a concept introduced in 1954 in order to explain the existence of large magnetic fields and currents in stable configurations of astrophysical plasmas; (<span class="hlt">ii</span>) the so called Alfven conditions in magnetohydrodynamics; and (iii) the approximate conservation of the helicity integral. The force-free fields that appear are termed "knots" because their magnetic lines are closed and linked.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17260738','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17260738"><span>[Temperature study on <span class="hlt">lightning</span> return stroke in the coastal area of Guangdong].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ouyang, Yu-hua; Yuan, Ping; Qie, Xiu-shu; Wang, Huai-bin; Jia, Xiang-dong; Zhang, Hua-ming</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>In the coastal area of Guangdong, slit-less spectra for first return strokes of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> between the cloud and ground were obtained. After spectrum analysis and line identification were done by using multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method, parameters like wavelengths, oscillator strengths, transition probabilities, and excitation energies were calculated. According to the relative intensities of lines and transition parameters, temperatures for individual <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes and at different heights of the discharge channel were calculated by using multiple-line method. The result shows that the temperatures in return stroke channel varied from stroke to stroke. In general, the more intensive the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge, the higher the value of channel temperature. On the other hand, for a certain return stroke channel, the temperatures at different positions show signs of falling away with increasing height along the discharge channel. Compared with that of Qinghai plateau, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in Guangdong coastal area is more intensive, and the lines from higher excitation potential of N <span class="hlt">II</span> in these <span class="hlt">lightning</span> spectra are easier observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1285F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1285F"><span>Infrasound from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> measured in Ivory Coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farges, T.; Millet, C.; Matoza, R. S.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>It is well established that more than 2,000 thunderstorms occur continuously around the world and that about 45 <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes are produced per second over the globe. More than two thirds (42) of the infrasound stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBTO (Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation) are now certified and routinely measure signals due to natural activity (e.g., airflow over mountains, aurora, microbaroms, surf, volcanoes, severe weather including <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes, …). Some of the IMS stations are located where worldwide <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection networks (e.g. WWLLN) have a weak detection capability but <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity is high (e.g. Africa, South America). These infrasound stations are well localised to study <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash activity and its disparity, which is a good proxy for global warming. Progress in infrasound array data processing over the past ten years makes such <span class="hlt">lightning</span> studies possible. For example, Farges and Blanc (2010) show clearly that it is possible to measure <span class="hlt">lightning</span> infrasound from thunderstorms within a range of distances from the infrasound station. Infrasound from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> can be detected when the thunderstorm is within about 75 km from the station. The motion of the squall zone is very well measured inside this zone. Up to 25% of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes can be detected with this technique, giving better results locally than worldwide <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection networks. An IMS infrasound station has been installed in Ivory Coast for 9 years. The <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rate of this region is 10-20 flashes/km2/year from space-based instrument OTD (Christian et al., 2003). Ivory Coast is therefore a good place to study infrasound data associated with <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity and its temporal variation. First statistical results will be presented in this paper based on 4 years of data (2005-2009). For short <span class="hlt">lightning</span> distances (less than 20 km), up to 60 % of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detected by WWLLN has been one-to-one correlated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987spco.proc.....H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987spco.proc.....H"><span>Simulated and rocket-triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> testing of the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span>-Invulnerable Device System (LIDS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hasbrouck, Richard T.</p> <p></p> <p>A <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Invulnerable Device System (LIDS) has been developed to protect nuclear explosive test device systems at the U.S. Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site (NTS) against accidental detonation by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. In a series of full threat-level tests of a prototype LIDS canister, high-energy storage capacitor banks were used to generate high current rate of rise (di/dt = 200 kA/microsec) and high-peak-current (200 kA), simulated-<span class="hlt">lightning</span>, transient inputs to the LIDS. Subsequently, researchers participated in the NASA Rocket-Triggered <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Program (RTLP). In these experiments, a grounded wire is carried into a highly electrified cloud by a small rocket, causing the canister to be struck by actual <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Results indicate that the LIDS provides an extremely effective way to prevent threat-level <span class="hlt">lightning</span> transients from reaching the safety-critical components within the canister.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21143289','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21143289"><span>An Approach to the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Overvoltage Protection of Medium Voltage Lines in Severe <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Omidiora, M. A.; Lehtonen, M.</p> <p>2008-05-08</p> <p>This paper deals with the effect of shield wires on <span class="hlt">lightning</span> overvoltage reduction and the energy relief of MOV (Metal Oxide Varistor) arresters from direct strokes to distribution lines. The subject of discussion is the enhancement of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection in Finnish distribution networks where <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is most severe. The true index of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> severity in these areas is based on the ground flash densities and return stroke data collected from the Finnish meteorological institute. The presented test case is the IEEE 34-node test feeder injected with multiple <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes and simulated with the Alternative Transients Program/Electromagnetic Transients program (ATP/EMTP). The response of the distribution line to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes was modeled with three different cases: no protection, protection with surge arresters and protection with a combination of shield wire and arresters. Simulations were made to compare the resulting overvoltages on the line for all the analyzed cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMAE33B0300C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMAE33B0300C"><span>Some of the ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observations could be phosphenes induced by energetic radiation from thunderstorms and <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cooray, G. K.; Cooray, G. V.; Dwyer, J. R.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p> phosphenes. The study shows that: (i) X-rays and relativistic electrons generated by the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> leaders are strong enough to induce phosphenes in a person located indoors during a direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike to a building. (<span class="hlt">ii</span>) Strong gamma ray busts at ground level produced by thunderstorms could release sufficient energy in the eye to induce phosphenes. (iii) If an air plane encounters the source of an ongoing gamma ray burst in a cloud, the energetic electrons penetrating the airplane during the encounter is strong enough to induce phosphenes in the passengers. It is suggested that some of the ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observations are phosphenes induced by energetic radiation from thunderstorms and <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. [1] Lipetz, L. E. (1955), The X-ray and radium phosphenes, British Journal of Ophthalmology, 39, pp. 577-598. [2] Fuglesang, C. (2007), Using the human eye to image space radiation or the history and status of the light flash phenomena, Nuclear Instruments and Physics Research A, vol. 580, pp. 861 - 865.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990108710&hterms=matlin&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmatlin','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990108710&hterms=matlin&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmatlin"><span>Total <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Activity Associated with Tornadic Storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goodman, Steven J.; Buechler, Dennis; Hodanish, Stephen; Sharp, David; Williams, Earle; Boldi, Bob; Matlin, Anne; Weber, Mark</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Severe storms often have high flash rates (in excess of one flash per second) and are dominated by intracloud <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity. In addition to the extraordinary flash rates, there is a second distinguishing <span class="hlt">lightning</span> characteristic of severe storms that seems to be important. When the total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> history is examined, one finds sudden increases in the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rate, which we refer to as <span class="hlt">lightning</span> "jumps," that precede the occurrence of severe weather by ten or more minutes. These jumps are typically 30-60 flashes/min, and are easily identified as anomalously large derivatives in the flash rate. This relationship is associated with updraft intensification and updraft strength is an important factor in storm severity (through the accumulation of condensate aloft and the stretching of vorticity). In several cases, evidence for diminishment of midlevel rotation and the descent of angular momentum from aloft is present prior to the appearance of the surface tornado. Based on our experience with severe and tornadic storms in Central Florida, we believe the total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> may augment the more traditional use of NEXRAD radars and storm spotters. However, a more rigorous relation of these jumps to storm kinematics is needed if we are to apply total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in a decision tree that leads to improved warning lead times and decreased false alarm rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/362646','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/362646"><span>Grounding and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. Volume 5</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Robinson, M.D.</p> <p>1987-12-31</p> <p>Grounding systems protect personnel and equipment by isolating faulted systems and dissipating transient currents. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection systems minimize the possible consequences of a direct strike by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. This volume focuses on design requirements of the grounding system and on present-day concepts used in the design of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection systems. Various types of grounding designs are presented, and their advantages and disadvantages discussed. Safety, of course, is the primary concern of any grounding system. Methods are shown for grounding the non-current-carrying parts of electrical equipment to reduce shock hazards to personnel. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection systems are installed on tall structures (such as chimneys and cooling towers) to minimize the possibility of structural damage caused by direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes. These strokes may carry currents of 200,000 A or more. The volume examines the formation and characteristics of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes and the way stroke characteristics influence the design of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection systems. Because a large portion of the grounding system is buried in soil or concrete, it is not readily accessible for inspection or repair after its installation. The volume details the careful selection and sizing of materials needed to ensure a long, maintenance-free life for the system. Industry standards and procedures for testing the adequacy of the grounding system are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=325491&keyword=air&subject=air%20research&showcriteria=2&datebeginpublishedpresented=01/20/2012&dateendpublishedpresented=01/20/2017&sortby=pubdateyear&','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=325491&keyword=air&subject=air%20research&showcriteria=2&datebeginpublishedpresented=01/20/2012&dateendpublishedpresented=01/20/2017&sortby=pubdateyear&"><span>A Simple <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Assimilation Technique For Improving ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Convective rainfall is often a large source of error in retrospective modeling applications. In particular, positive rainfall biases commonly exist during summer months due to overactive convective parameterizations. In this study, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> assimilation was applied in the Kain-Fritsch (KF) convective scheme to improve retrospective simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The assimilation method has a straightforward approach: Force KF deep convection where <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is observed and, optionally, suppress deep convection where <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is absent. WRF simulations were made with and without <span class="hlt">lightning</span> assimilation over the continental United States for July 2012, July 2013, and January 2013. The simulations were evaluated against NCEP stage-IV precipitation data and MADIS near-surface meteorological observations. In general, the use of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> assimilation considerably improves the simulation of summertime rainfall. For example, the July 2012 monthly-averaged bias of 6-h accumulated rainfall is reduced from 0.54 mm to 0.07 mm and the spatial correlation is increased from 0.21 to 0.43 when <span class="hlt">lightning</span> assimilation is used. Statistical measures of near-surface meteorological variables also are improved. Consistent improvements also are seen for the July 2013 case. These results suggest that this <span class="hlt">lightning</span> assimilation technique has the potential to substantially improve simulation of warm-season rainfall in retrospective WRF appli</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=336118&keyword=air&subject=air%20research&showcriteria=2&fed_org_id=111&datebeginpublishedpresented=08/19/2012&dateendpublishedpresented=08/19/2017&sortby=pubdateyear','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=336118&keyword=air&subject=air%20research&showcriteria=2&fed_org_id=111&datebeginpublishedpresented=08/19/2012&dateendpublishedpresented=08/19/2017&sortby=pubdateyear"><span>A simple <span class="hlt">lightning</span> assimilation technique for improving ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Convective rainfall is often a large source of error in retrospective modeling applications. In particular, positive rainfall biases commonly exist during summer months due to overactive convective parameterizations. In this study, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> assimilation was applied in the Kain-Fritsch (KF) convective scheme to improve retrospective simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The assimilation method has a straightforward approach: force KF deep convection where <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is observed and, optionally, suppress deep convection where <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is absent. WRF simulations were made with and without <span class="hlt">lightning</span> assimilation over the continental United States for July 2012, July 2013, and January 2013. The simulations were evaluated against NCEP stage-IV precipitation data and MADIS near-surface meteorological observations. In general, the use of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> assimilation considerably improves the simulation of summertime rainfall. For example, the July 2012 monthly averaged bias of 6 h accumulated rainfall is reduced from 0.54 to 0.07 mm and the spatial correlation is increased from 0.21 to 0.43 when <span class="hlt">lightning</span> assimilation is used. Statistical measures of near-surface meteorological variables also are improved. Consistent improvements also are seen for the July 2013 case. These results suggest that this <span class="hlt">lightning</span> assimilation technique has the potential to substantially improve simulation of warm-season rainfall in retrospective WRF applications. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990008509','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990008509"><span>Optical Detection of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> from Space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Boccippio, Dennis J.; Christian, Hugh J.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Optical sensors have been developed to detect <span class="hlt">lightning</span> from space during both day and night. These sensors have been fielded in two existing satellite missions and may be included on a third mission in 2002. Satellite-hosted, optically-based <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection offers three unique capabilities: (1) the ability to reliably detect <span class="hlt">lightning</span> over large, often remote, spatial regions, (2) the ability to sample all (IC and CG) <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, and (3) the ability to detect <span class="hlt">lightning</span> with uniform (i.e., not range-dependent) sensitivity or detection efficiency. These represent significant departures from conventional RF-based detection techniques, which typically have strong range dependencies (biases) or range limitations in their detection capabilities. The atmospheric electricity team of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Global Hydrology and Climate Center has implemented a three-step satellite <span class="hlt">lightning</span> research program which includes three phases: proof-of-concept/climatology, science algorithm development, and operational application. The first instrument in the program, the Optical Transient Detector (OTD), is deployed on a low-earth orbit (LEO) satellite with near-polar inclination, yielding global coverage. The sensor has a 1300 x 1300 sq km field of view (FOV), moderate detection efficiency, moderate localization accuracy, and little data bias. The OTD is a proof-of-concept instrument and its mission is primarily a global <span class="hlt">lightning</span> climatology. The limited spatial accuracy of this instrument makes it suboptimal for use in case studies, although significant science knowledge has been gained from the instrument as deployed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815451H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815451H"><span>Structural and erosive Effects of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> on Sandstone: An Experimental Investigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haddad, Houssam; Ebert, Matthias; Kenkmann, Thomas; Thoma, Klaus; Nau, Siegfried; Schäfer, Frank</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Recent prognoses predict an average temperature increase of the world's climate of about 1.5 to 2 °C until the end of 21st century. This change leads not only to a rise of the sea level but also to an increase of thunderstorms and therefore to a ~25 percent increase of cloud-to-ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span> events (Romps et al., 2014). It is known that (i) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes are able to fragment surface rocks, which probably influences the erosion rates at exposed mountain areas (Knight and Grab, 2014), and (<span class="hlt">ii</span>) the efficiency of the process increases due to the predicted climate change. However, our knowledge about the electro-mechanical destruction of rocks caused by high energetic <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is incomplete. In this study, laboratory experiments of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes were performed in order to understand the fragmentation of rocks and changes to landforms by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. The artificial <span class="hlt">lightning</span> with known electric current was simulated by a high-current generator in the laboratories of the Fraunhofer Ernst-Mach Institute for High-Speed Dynamics (Freiburg, Germany). Different currents were transferred over a distance of ~2mm onto water-saturated sandstones by using a copper cathode (3 experiments; U, I, E, Δt: 6 kV, 200 kA, 0.1 MJ, 0.7 ms; 9 kV, 300 kA, 0.19 MJ, 0.9 ms; 12 kV, 400 kA, 0.35 MJ, 0.5 ms). The damaged sandstones were investigated by means of optical and electron-optical methods as well as by X-ray computed tomography to determine the modes and dimensions of melting and fragmentation. Digital elevation models of craters formed by ejection were obtained by white-light interferometry. The <span class="hlt">lightning</span> experiments produced small craters (~1 cm in diameter, ~0.5 cm depth) which surfaces and sub-surfaces consist of silicate melts (molten quartz and phyllosilicates). The silicate melts reach several hundred micrometers into the sub-surface and resemble the appearance of natural fulgurites. Melting of quartz indicate temperatures of at least 1650 °C. In addition, the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100026543','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100026543"><span>Recent Advancements in <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Jump Algorithm Work</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schultz, Christopher J.; Petersen, Walter A.; Carey, Lawrence D.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In the past year, the primary objectives were to show the usefulness of total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> as compared to traditional cloud-to-ground (CG) networks, test the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump algorithm configurations in other regions of the country, increase the number of thunderstorms within our thunderstorm database, and to pinpoint environments that could prove difficult for any <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump configuration. A total of 561 thunderstorms have been examined in the past year (409 non-severe, 152 severe) from four regions of the country (North Alabama, Washington D.C., High Plains of CO/KS, and Oklahoma). Results continue to indicate that the 2 <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump algorithm configuration holds the most promise in terms of prospective operational <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump algorithms, with a probability of detection (POD) at 81%, a false alarm rate (FAR) of 45%, a critical success index (CSI) of 49% and a Heidke Skill Score (HSS) of 0.66. The second best performing algorithm configuration was the Threshold 4 algorithm, which had a POD of 72%, FAR of 51%, a CSI of 41% and an HSS of 0.58. Because a more complex algorithm configuration shows the most promise in terms of prospective operational <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump algorithms, accurate thunderstorm cell tracking work must be undertaken to track <span class="hlt">lightning</span> trends on an individual thunderstorm basis over time. While these numbers for the 2 configuration are impressive, the algorithm does have its weaknesses. Specifically, low-topped and tropical cyclone thunderstorm environments are present issues for the 2 <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump algorithm, because of the suppressed vertical depth impact on overall flash counts (i.e., a relative dearth in <span class="hlt">lightning</span>). For example, in a sample of 120 thunderstorms from northern Alabama that contained 72 missed events by the 2 algorithm 36% of the misses were associated with these two environments (17 storms).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11710204W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11710204W"><span>Luminous pulses during triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Winn, W. P.; Eastvedt, E. M.; Trueblood, J. J.; Eack, K. B.; Edens, H. E.; Aulich, G. D.; Hunyady, S. J.; Murray, W. C.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>A triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash that transferred negative charge to ground in central New Mexico produced more than three levels of branching above the main channel to ground in a 1 km vertical field of view. A high-speed video recording shows that the main channel had about 50 brief luminous pulses, many of which were superimposed on a slowly changing persistent luminosity. In contrast, superposition was rare in the uppermost visible branches because luminous pulses first appeared on preexisting dark channels before merging into a luminous channel. This observation suggests that luminous pulses in triggered and natural <span class="hlt">lightning</span> originate only on dark branches and that the complexity of the main channel to ground is the result of multiple mergers of dark branches with pulses into luminous branches without pulses. This suggestion is contrary to an earlier conclusion that there are two kinds of luminous pulses. We also observe behavior characteristic of electromagnetic waves on transmission lines: when a downward propagating luminous pulse reaches a junction with another initially dark branch, it travels both upward and downward along that branch. Upon reaching the ground the downward propagating wave produces a bright reflection which also splits at the junctions, producing luminosity for a short distance upward in one direction while propagating much farther upward along the path charged by the downward propagating wave. However, when a downward moving luminous pulse reaches a junction with an initially luminous branch, splitting is not evident, probably due to the greater conductivity of the luminous channel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/380319','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/380319"><span>New mechanism for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> initiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Roussel-Dupre, R.; Buchwald, M.; Gurevich, A.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). To distinguish radio-frequency (rf) signals generated by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> from the electromagnetic pulse produced by a nuclear explosion, it is necessary to understand the fundamental nature of thunderstorm discharges. The recent debate surrounding the origin of transionospheric pulse pairs (TIPPs) detected by the BLACKBEARD experiment aboard the ALEXIS satellite illustrates this point. We have argued that TIPP events could originate from the upward propagating discharges recently identified by optical images taken from the ground, from airplanes, and from the space shuttle. In addition, the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) measurements of x-ray bursts originating from thunderstorms are almost certainly associated with these upward propagating discharges. When taken together, these three measurements point directly to the runaway electron mechanism as the source of the upward discharges. The primary goal of this research effort was to identify the specific role played by the runaway-air-breakdown mechanism in the general area of thunderstorm electricity and in so doing develop <span class="hlt">lightning</span> models that predict the optical, rf, and x-ray emissions that are observable from space.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4173241','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4173241"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> strike-induced brachial plexopathy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bhargava, Amita N.; Kasundra, Gaurav M.; Khichar, Subhakaran; Bhushan, Bharat S. K.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We describe a patient who presented with a history of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike injury. Following the injury, he sustained acute right upper limb weakness with pain. Clinically, the lesion was located to the upper and middle trunk of the right brachial plexus, and the same confirmed with electrophysiological studies. Nerve damage due to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> injuries is considered very rare, and a plexus damage has been described infrequently, if ever. Thus, the proposed hypothesis that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rarely causes neuropathy, as against high-voltage electric current, due to its shorter duration of exposure not causing severe burns which lead to nerve damage, needs to be reconsidered. PMID:25288846</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25288846','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25288846"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> strike-induced brachial plexopathy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bhargava, Amita N; Kasundra, Gaurav M; Khichar, Subhakaran; Bhushan, Bharat S K</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>We describe a patient who presented with a history of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike injury. Following the injury, he sustained acute right upper limb weakness with pain. Clinically, the lesion was located to the upper and middle trunk of the right brachial plexus, and the same confirmed with electrophysiological studies. Nerve damage due to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> injuries is considered very rare, and a plexus damage has been described infrequently, if ever. Thus, the proposed hypothesis that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rarely causes neuropathy, as against high-voltage electric current, due to its shorter duration of exposure not causing severe burns which lead to nerve damage, needs to be reconsidered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11521028','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11521028"><span>Physeal injury in a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike survivor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lim, J K; Lee, E H; Chhem, R K</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Electrical injuries resulting in physeal injury in children are an uncommon but well-recognized clinical entity. Almost all these injuries are sustained from man-made electrical sources. To date, there have been no published cases of growth arrest after <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike. The authors report the case of a 12-year-old girl who survived a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike 2 years ago and who presented with asymmetric growth arrest in both legs. The authors discuss the pathophysiology of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike and consider the evidence for direct electrical injury versus ischemic insult to the physis as explanations for the cause of the growth arrest observed in this patient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5362317','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5362317"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> induced brightening in the airglow layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boeck, W.L. ); Vaughan, O.H. Jr.; Blakeslee, R. ); Vonnegut, B. ); Brook, M. )</p> <p>1992-01-24</p> <p>This report describes a transient luminosity observed at the altitude of the airglow layer (about 95 km) in coincidence with a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash in a tropical oceanic thunderstorm directly beneath it. This event provides new evidence of direct coupling between <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and ionospheric events. This luminous event in the ionosphere was the only one of its kind observed during an examination of several thousand images of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> recorded under suitable viewing conditions with Space Shuttle cameras. Several possible mechanisms and interpretations are discussed briefly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990009077','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990009077"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Characteristics and <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Strike Peak Current Probabilities as Related to Aerospace Vehicle Operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, Dale L.; Vaughan, William W.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>A summary is presented of basic <span class="hlt">lightning</span> characteristics/criteria for current and future NASA aerospace vehicles. The paper estimates the probability of occurrence of a 200 kA peak <span class="hlt">lightning</span> return current, should <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike an aerospace vehicle in various operational phases, i.e., roll-out, on-pad, launch, reenter/land, and return-to-launch site. A literature search was conducted for previous work concerning occurrence and measurement of peak lighting currents, modeling, and estimating probabilities of launch vehicles/objects being struck by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. This paper presents these results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100020940&hterms=EPA&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DEPA','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100020940&hterms=EPA&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DEPA"><span>Estimates of the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> NOx Profile in the Vicinity of the North Alabama <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koshak, William J.; Peterson, Harold</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM) is applied to August 2006 North Alabama <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array (LMA) data to estimate the raw (i.e., unmixed and otherwise environmentally unmodified) vertical profile of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> nitrogen oxides, NOx = NO + NO 2 . This is part of a larger effort aimed at building a more realistic <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NOx emissions inventory for use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Data from the National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network TM (NLDN) is also employed. Overall, special attention is given to several important <span class="hlt">lightning</span> variables including: the frequency and geographical distribution of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in the vicinity of the LMA network, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> type (ground or cloud flash), <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel length, channel altitude, channel peak current, and the number of strokes per flash. Laboratory spark chamber results from the literature are used to convert 1-meter channel segments (that are located at a particular known altitude; i.e., air density) to NOx concentration. The resulting raw NOx profiles are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMAE12A..06B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMAE12A..06B"><span>Trends in <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Electrical Energy Derived from the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bitzer, P. M.; Koshak, W. J.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We present results detailing an emerging application of space-based measurement of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>: the electrical energy. This is a little-used attribute of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data which can have applications for severe weather, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> physics, and wildfires. In particular, we use data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor (TRMM/LIS) to find the temporal and spatial variations in the detected spectral energy density. This is used to estimate the total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> electrical energy, following established methodologies. Results showing the trend in time of the electrical energy, as well as the distribution around the globe, will be highlighted. While flashes have been typically used in most studies, the basic scientifically-relevant measured unit by LIS is the optical group data product. This generally corresponds to a return stroke or IC pulse. We explore how the electrical energy varies per LIS group, providing an extension and comparison with previous investigations. The result is an initial climatology of this new and important application of space-based optical measurements of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, which can provide a baseline for future applications using the Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper (GLM), the European <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imager (LI), and the International Space Station <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor (ISS/LIS) instruments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110007265','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110007265"><span>Combined Aircraft and Satellite-Derived Storm Electric Current and <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Rates Measurements and Implications for the Global Electric Circuit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bateman, Monte G.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Using rotating vane electric field mills and Gerdien capacitors, we measured the electric field profile and conductivity during 850 overflights of electrified shower clouds and thunderstorms spanning regions including the Southeastern United States, the Western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Central America and adjacent oceans, Central Brazil, and the South Pacific. The overflights include storms over land and ocean, with and without <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, and with positive and negative fields above the storms. The measurements were made with the NASA ER-2 and the Altus-<span class="hlt">II</span> high altitude aircrafts. Peak electric fields, with <span class="hlt">lightning</span> transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV/m to 16 kV/m, with a mean value of 0.9 kV/m. The median peak field was 0.29 kV/m. Integrating our electric field and conductivity data, we determined total conduction currents and flash rates for each overpass. With knowledge of the storm location (land or ocean) and type (with or without <span class="hlt">lightning</span>), we determine the mean currents by location and type. The mean current for ocean storms with <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is 1.6 A while the mean current for land storms with <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is 1.0 A. The mean current for oceanic storms without <span class="hlt">lightning</span> (i.e., electrified shower clouds) is 0.39 A and the mean current for land storms without <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is 0.13 A. Thus, on average, land storms with or without <span class="hlt">lightning</span> have about half the mean current as their corresponding oceanic storm counterparts. Over three-quarters (78%) of the land storms had detectable <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, while less than half (43%) of the oceanic storms had <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. We did not find any significant regional or latitudinal based patterns in our total conduction currents. By combining the aircraft derived storm currents and flash rates with diurnal <span class="hlt">lightning</span> statistics derived from the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) low Earth orbiting satellites, we reproduce the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit (i.e., the Carnegie</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140008756','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140008756"><span>Correlation of DIAL Ozone Observations with <span class="hlt">Lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Peterson, Harold S.; Kuang, Shi; Koshak, William J.; Newchurch, Mike</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this project is to see whether ozone maxima measured by the DIfferential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) instrument in Huntsville, AL may be traced back to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> events occurring 24-48 hours beforehand. The methodology is to start with lidar measurements of ozone from DIAL. The HYbrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model is then used to determine the origin of these ozone maxima 24-48 hours prior. Data from the National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network (NLDN) are used to examine the presence/absence of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> along the trajectory. This type of analysis suggests that <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-produced NOx may be responsible for some of the ozone maxima over Huntsville.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840040382&hterms=electronique&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Delectronique','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840040382&hterms=electronique&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Delectronique"><span>Correlated observations of three triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Idone, V. P.; Orville, R. E.; Hubert, P.; Barret, L.; Eybert-Berard, A.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Three triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes, initiated during the Thunderstorm Research International Program (1981) at Langmuir Laboratory, New Mexico, are examined on the basis of three-dimensional return stroke propagation speeds and peak currents. Nonlinear relationships result between return stroke propagation speed and stroke peak current for 56 strokes, and between return stroke propagation speed and dart leader propagation speed for 32 strokes. Calculated linear correlation coefficients include dart leader propagation speed and ensuing return stroke peak current (32 strokes; r = 0.84); and stroke peak current and interstroke interval (69 strokes; r = 0.57). Earlier natural <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data do not concur with the weak positive correlation between dart leader propagation speed and interstroke interval. Therefore, application of triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> results to natural <span class="hlt">lightning</span> phenomena must be made with certain caveats. Mean values are included for the three-dimensional return stroke propagation speed and for the three-dimensional dart leader propagation speed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=determination+AND+metal&pg=4&id=EJ415490','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=determination+AND+metal&pg=4&id=EJ415490"><span>A Simple <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Flash Polarity Discriminating Counter.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Devan, K. R. S.; Jayaratne, E. R.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Described are the apparatus and procedures needed for a demonstration of a determination of the polarity of charges carried by individual ground flashes of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Discussed are materials, apparatus construction, and experimental results. (CW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890038205&hterms=rust&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Drust','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890038205&hterms=rust&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Drust"><span>A solid state <span class="hlt">lightning</span> propagation speed sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mach, Douglas M.; Rust, W. David</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A device to measure the propagation speeds of cloud-to-ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span> has been developed. The <span class="hlt">lightning</span> propagation speed (LPS) device consists of eight solid state silicon photodetectors mounted behind precision horizontal slits in the focal plane of a 50-mm lens on a 35-mm camera. Although the LPS device produces results similar to those obtained from a streaking camera, the LPS device has the advantages of smaller size, lower cost, mobile use, and easier data collection and analysis. The maximum accuracy for the LPS is 0.2 microsec, compared with about 0.8 microsecs for the streaking camera. It is found that the return stroke propagation speed for triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is different than that for natural <span class="hlt">lightning</span> if measurements are taken over channel segments less than 500 m. It is suggested that there are no significant differences between the propagation speeds of positive and negative flashes. Also, differences between natural and triggered dart leaders are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3737249','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3737249"><span>Central Hyperadrenergic State After <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Strike</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Parsaik, Ajay K.; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Singer, Wolfgang; Gelfman, Russell; Sheldon, Seth H.; Seime, Richard J.; Craft, Jennifer M.; Staab, Jeffrey P.; Kantor, Birgit; Low, Phillip A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objective To describe and review autonomic complications of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike. Methods Case report and laboratory data including autonomic function tests in a subject who was struck by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Results A 24-year-old man was struck by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Following that, he developed dysautonomia, with persistent inappropriate sinus tachycardia and autonomic storms, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and functional neurologic problems. Interpretation The combination of persistent sinus tachycardia and episodic exacerbations associated with hypertension, diaphoresis, and agitation were highly suggestive of a central hyperadrenergic state with superimposed autonomic storms. Whether the additional PTSD and functional neurologic deficits were due to a direct effect of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike on the CNS or a secondary response is open to speculation. PMID:23761114</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870027237&hterms=ammonia+water&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dammonia%2Bwater','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870027237&hterms=ammonia+water&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dammonia%2Bwater"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> in the Jovian water cloud</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Borucki, W. J.; Williams, M. A.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The vertical location of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> superbolts seen on the Voyager images of Jupiter has been determined using a comparison between the measured spot sizes for single flashes with the intensity distributions calculated from various assumptions about the altitude of the flash. A Monte Carlo model was used to describe the light scattering in the clouds, aerosols, and gases of the Jupiter atmosphere. Best agreement between the measurements and the model predictions was obtained when the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity was assumed to occur in a lower cloud centered at the 5-bar pressure level, whereas the width predicted for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in the ammonia cloud was much smaller than the measured widths. The results imply that the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observed by the Voyager must be in a cloud much deeper than the ammonia cloud. The lower cloud is expected to be composed of water or a mixture of water and ammonium hydrosulfide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol4-sec420-71.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol4-sec420-71.pdf"><span>14 CFR 420.71 - <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... operations and withdrawal of the public to public area distance prior to an electrical storm, or for an... prior to an electrical storm. (4) Testing and inspection. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection systems shall be...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Lightning&pg=6&id=EJ415490','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Lightning&pg=6&id=EJ415490"><span>A Simple <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Flash Polarity Discriminating Counter.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Devan, K. R. S.; Jayaratne, E. R.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Described are the apparatus and procedures needed for a demonstration of a determination of the polarity of charges carried by individual ground flashes of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Discussed are materials, apparatus construction, and experimental results. (CW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7156499','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7156499"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> prevention systems for paper mills</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Carpenter, R.B. Jr. )</p> <p>1989-05-01</p> <p>Paper mills are increasingly relying on sensitive electronic equipment to control their operations. However, the sensitivity of these devices has made mills vulnerable to the effects of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes. An interruption in the power supply or the destruction of delicate microcircuits can have devastating effects on mill productivity. The authors discuss how <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes can be prevented by a Dissipation Array system (DAS). During the past 17 years, the concept has been applied to a host of applications in regions with a high incidence of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity. With nearly 700 systems now installed, more than 4000 system-years of history have been accumulated. Areas as large as 1 km{sup 2} and towers as high as 2000 ft have been protected and completely isolated from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes. There have been very few failures, and in every case, the cause of the failure was determined and corrected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140006512','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140006512"><span>Correlation of DIAL Ozone Observations with <span class="hlt">Lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Peterson, Harold S.; Kuang, Shi; Koshak, William J.; Newchurch, Mike</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this project is to see whether ozone maxima measured by the DIfferential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) instrument in Huntsville, AL may be traced back to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> events occurring 24- 48 hours beforehand. The methodology is to start with lidar measurements of ozone from DIAL as well as ozonesonde measurements. The HYbrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model is then used to determine the origin of these ozone maxima 24-48 hours prior. Data from the National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network (NLDN) are used to examine the presence/absence of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> along the trajectory. This type of analysis suggests that <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-produced NOx may be responsible for some of the ozone maxima over Huntsville.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8309767','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8309767"><span>Unilateral perihilar opacification caused by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hayashi, Y; Aihara, T; Takano, H; Nakashima, N; Nozaki, S</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The chest radiographs of two children struck by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> showed right perihilar opacification. The radiographs were taken 2 h and 5 h after the event respectively. To our knowledge no similar cases have been reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.A71B0092P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.A71B0092P"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Activity During the 1999 Superior Derecho</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Price, C. G.; Murphy, B. P.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>On 4 July 1999, a severe convective windstorm, known as a derecho, caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> measured by the Canadian <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators of severe weather.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002GeoRL..29.2142P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002GeoRL..29.2142P"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> activity during the 1999 Superior derecho</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Price, Colin G.; Murphy, Brian P.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>On 4 July 1999, a severe convective windstorm, known as a derecho, caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> measured by the Canadian <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators of severe weather.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMAE33D..01K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMAE33D..01K"><span>How <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Works Inside Thunderstorms: A Half-Century of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krehbiel, P. R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> is a fascinating and intriguing natural phenomenon, but the most interesting parts of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges are inside storms where they are obscured from view by the storm cloud. Although clouds are essentially opaque at optical frequencies, they are fully transparent at radio frequencies (RF). This, coupled with the fact that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> produces prodigious RF emissions, has allowed us to image and study <span class="hlt">lightning</span> inside storms using various RF and lower-frequency remote sensing techniques. As in all other scientific disciplines, the technology for conducting the studies has evolved to an incredible extent over the past 50 years. During this time, we have gone from having very little or no knowledge of how <span class="hlt">lightning</span> operates inside storms, to being able to 'see' its detailed structure and development with an increasing degree of spatial and temporal resolution. In addition to studying the discharge processes themselves, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> mapping observations provide valuable information on the electrical charge structure of storms, and on the mechanisms by which storms become strongly electrified. In this presentation we briefly review highlights of previous observations, focussing primarily on the long string of remote-sensing studies I have been involved in. We begin with the study of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> charge centers of cloud-to-ground discharges in central New Mexico in the late 1960s and continue up to the present day with interferometric and 3-dimensional time-of-arrival VHF mapping observations of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in normally- and anomalously electrified storms. A particularly important aspect of the investigations has been comparative studies of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in different climatological regimes. We conclude with observations being obtained by a high-speed broadband VHF interferometer, which show in unprecedented detail how individual <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges develop inside storms. From combined interferometer and 3-D mapping data, we are beginning to unlock nature's secrets</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA496692','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA496692"><span>Z-M in <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Forecasting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>reflectivity 20-25 dBZ which maintained their electric field for many tens of minutes well downstream of the 34 convective core. Dye and Willett (2007...concede that although the two anvils did not produce <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, the electric field was probably sufficient to trigger <span class="hlt">lightning</span> for many tens of minutes...online at: http://ghrc.msfc.nasa.gov/ uso /readme/ldar.html.] Greene, Douglas R. and Robert A. Clark, 1972: Vertically integrated liquid water—A new</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/981833','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/981833"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection system for a wind turbine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Costin, Daniel P.; Petter, Jeffrey K.</p> <p>2008-05-27</p> <p>In a wind turbine (104, 500, 704) having a plurality of blades (132, 404, 516, 744) and a blade rotor hub (120, 712), a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection system (100, 504, 700) for conducting <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to any one of the blades and the region surrounding the blade hub along a path around the blade hub and critical components of the wind turbine, such as the generator (112, 716), gearbox (708) and main turbine bearings (176, 724).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EOSTr..95s.360W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EOSTr..95s.360W"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> channel current persists between strokes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wendel, JoAnna</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The usual cloud-to-ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span> occurs when a large negative charge contained in a "stepped leader" travels down toward the Earth's surface. It then meets a positive charge that comes up tens of meters from the ground, resulting in a powerful neutralizing explosion that begins the first return stroke of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash. The entire flash lasts only a few hundred milliseconds, but during that time, multiple subsequent stroke-return stroke sequences usually occur.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/969544','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/969544"><span>The Sandia <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Simulator Recommissioning and upgrades.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Martinez, Leonard E.; Caldwell, Michele</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>The Sandia <span class="hlt">lightning</span> simulator at Sandia National Laboratories can provide up to 200 kA for a simulated single <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroke, 100 kA for a subsequent stroke, and hundreds of Amperes of continuing current. It has recently been recommissioned after a decade of inactivity and the single-stroke capability demonstrated. The simulator capabilities, basic design components, upgrades, and diagnostic capabilities are discussed in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811021E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811021E"><span>Volcanic <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> in Eruptions of Sakurajima Volcano</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Edens, Harald; Thomas, Ronald; Behnke, Sonja; McNutt, Stephen; Smith, Cassandra; Farrell, Alexandra; Van Eaton, Alexa; Cimarelli, Corrado; Cigala, Valeria; Eack, Ken; Aulich, Graydon; Michel, Christopher; Miki, Daisuke; Iguchi, Masato</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In May 2015 a field program was undertaken to study volcanic <span class="hlt">lightning</span> at the Sakurajima volcano in southern Japan. One of the main goals of the study was to gain a better understanding of small electrical discharges in volcanic eruptions, expanding on our earlier studies of volcanic <span class="hlt">lightning</span> at Augustine and Redoubt volcanoes in Alaska, USA, and Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland. In typical volcanic eruptions, electrical activity occurs at the onset of an eruption as a near-continual production of VHF emissions at or near to the volcanic vent. These emissions can occur at rates of up to tens of thousands of emissions per second, and are referred to as continuous RF. As the ash cloud expands, small-scale <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes of several hundred meters length begin to occur while the continuous RF ceases. Later on during the eruption larger-scale <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes may occur within the ash cloud that are reminiscent of regular atmospheric <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Whereas volcanic <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes are readily observed and reasonably well understood, the nature and morphology of the events producing continuous RF are unknown. During the 2015 field program we deployed a comprehensive set of instrumentation, including a 10-station 3-D <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array (LMA) that operated in 10 μs high time resolution mode, slow and fast ΔE antennas, a VHF flat-plate antenna operating in the 20-80 MHz band, log-RF waveforms within the 60-66 MHz band, an infra-red video camera, a high-sensitivity Watec video camera, two high-speed video cameras, and still cameras. We give an overview of the Sakurajima field program and present preliminary results using correlated LMA, waveforms, photographs and video recordings of volcanic <span class="hlt">lightning</span> at Sakurajima volcano.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMAE31B0430S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMAE31B0430S"><span>Scientific <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network for Kazakhstan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Streltsov, A. V.; Lozbin, A.; Inchin, A.; Shpadi, Y.; Inchin, P.; Shpadi, M.; Ayazbayev, G.; Bykayev, R.; Mailibayeva, L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In the frame of grant financing of the scientific research in 2015-2017 the project "To Develop Electromagnetic System for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location and atmosphere-lithosphere coupling research" was found. The project was start in January, 2015 and should be done during 3 years. The purpose is to create a system of electromagnetic measurements for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location and atmosphere-lithosphere coupling research consisting of a network of electric and magnetic sensors and the dedicated complex for data processing and transfer to the end user. The main tasks are to set several points for electromagnetic measurements with 100-200 km distance between them, to develop equipment for these points, to develop the techniques and software for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location (Time-of-arrival and Direction Finding (TOA+DF)) and provide a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity research in North Tien-Shan region with respect to seismicity and other natural and manmade activities. Also, it is planned to use <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data for Global Electric Circuit (GEC) investigation. Currently, there are <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection networks in many countries. In Kazakhstan we have only separate units in airports. So, we don't have full <span class="hlt">lightning</span> information for our region. It is planned, to setup 8-10 measurement points with magnetic and electric filed antennas for VLF range. The final data set should be including each stroke location, time, type (CG+, CG-, CC+ or CC-) and waveform from each station. As the magnetic field <span class="hlt">lightning</span> antenna the ferrite rod VLF antenna will be used. As the electric field antenna the wide range antenna with specific frequencies filters will be used. For true event detection TOA and DF methods needs detected stroke from minimum 4 stations. In this case we can get location accuracy about 2-3 km and better.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6356663','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6356663"><span>A shielding theory for upward <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shindo, Takatoshi; Aihara, Yoshinori )</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A new shielding theory is proposed based on the assumption that the occurrence of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes on the Japan Sea coast in winter is due to the inception of upward leaders from tall structures. Ratios of the numbers of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes to high structures observed there in winter show reasonable agreement with values calculated by this theory. Shielding characteristics of a high structure in various conditions are predicted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010DPS....42.4104D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010DPS....42.4104D"><span>Detection of Visible <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> on Saturn</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dyudina, Ulyana A.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Ewald, S. P.; Porco, C. C.; Kurth, W. S.; Fischer, G.; West, R. A.</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Until now, evidence for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> on Saturn has been indirect - through radio emissions and cloud morphology. Here we report the first visible detection of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> (Dyudina et al., 2010), on the night side on August 17, 2009 at -36.4° ± 0.1° planetocentric latitude and 10.6° ± 0.9° west longitude. No other locations produced <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detectable by either imaging or radio. This is the same latitude band on the planet that the imaging team has called `storm alley' for the last 6 years: i.e., where we observe all of the major storms that are believed to produce <span class="hlt">lightning</span> because of the radio emissions and cloud morphology. The <span class="hlt">lightning</span> images are consistent with a single cloud flashing once per minute. The visible energy of a single flash is comparable to that on Earth and Jupiter, and ranges up to 1.7 X 109 Joules. The diameter of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes is ˜200 km, which suggests the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is 125-250 km below cloud tops. This depth is above the base of the liquid H2O-NH3 cloud and may be either in the NH4SH cloud or in the H2O ice cloud. Saturn's lower internal heat transport and likely 5-10 fold enrichment of water largely explain the lower occurrence rate of moist convection on Saturn relative to Jupiter. Dyudina, U. A., A. P. Ingersoll, S. P. Ewald, C. C. Porco, G. Fischer, W. S. Kurth, and R. A. West (2010), Detection of visible <span class="hlt">lightning</span> on Saturn, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37L09205</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790009256&hterms=Electricity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DElectricity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790009256&hterms=Electricity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DElectricity"><span>Summary report of the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and Static Electricity Committee</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Plumer, J. A.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection technology as applied to aviation and identifying these technology needs are presented. The flight areas of technical needs include; (1) the need for In-Flight data on <span class="hlt">lightning</span> electrical parameters; (2) technology base and guidelines for protection of advanced systems and structures; (3) improved laboratory test techniques; (4) analysis techniques for predicting induced effects; (5) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike incident data from General Aviation; (6) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection systems; (7) obtain pilot reports of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes; and (8) better training in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> awareness. The nature of each problem, timeliness, impact of solutions, degree of effort required, and the roles of government and industry in achieving solutions are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790009256&hterms=electricity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Delectricity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790009256&hterms=electricity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Delectricity"><span>Summary report of the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and Static Electricity Committee</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Plumer, J. A.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection technology as applied to aviation and identifying these technology needs are presented. The flight areas of technical needs include; (1) the need for In-Flight data on <span class="hlt">lightning</span> electrical parameters; (2) technology base and guidelines for protection of advanced systems and structures; (3) improved laboratory test techniques; (4) analysis techniques for predicting induced effects; (5) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike incident data from General Aviation; (6) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection systems; (7) obtain pilot reports of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes; and (8) better training in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> awareness. The nature of each problem, timeliness, impact of solutions, degree of effort required, and the roles of government and industry in achieving solutions are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19763520','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19763520"><span>[<span class="hlt">Lightning</span> strike to a vehicle causing acute acoustic trauma].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Angerer, F; Hoppe, U; Schick, B</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>The cochlea and vestibular organ is often affected in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes. A <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike to a motor vehicle with cochlear injury has not been described hitherto in the literature. We report the case of a 44-year-old male patient with sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus after his car was struck by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. While hearing loss recovered using intravenous therapy, tinnitus persisted 6 months after the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike. Cochlear injuries as an acute acoustic trauma have to be considered in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes and can occur when a car is struck by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JTePh..57.1733B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JTePh..57.1733B"><span>Fractal-geometry simulation of a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Balkhanov, V. K.; Bashkuev, Yu. B.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>It is suggested that a wideband <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge be approximated by a damped periodic oscillation. With such an approach, the oscillation frequency and relaxation time are introduced and it is found that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> radiates over a distance of several tens of kilometers. This length is much greater than the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> bolt's apparent length (several kilometers). The difference between the lengths is explained using fractal geometry. In terms of fractal geometry, the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge is so tortuous that an actually very long <span class="hlt">lightning</span> bolt is accommodated by a short straight line. An attempt is made to determine the fractal dimension of tortuous and intermittent <span class="hlt">lightning</span> bolts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/952468','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/952468"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Arrestor Connectors Production Readiness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Marten, Steve; Linder, Kim; Emmons, Jim; Gomez, Antonio; Hasam, Dawud; Maurer, Michelle</p> <p>2008-10-20</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Arrestor Connector (LAC), part “M”, presented opportunities to improve the processes used to fabricate LACs. The A## LACs were the first production LACs produced at the KCP, after the product was transferred from Pinnellas. The new LAC relied on the lessons learned from the A## LACs; however, additional improvements were needed to meet the required budget, yield, and schedule requirements. Improvement projects completed since 2001 include Hermetic Connector Sealing Improvement, Contact Assembly molding Improvement, development of a second vendor for LAC shells, general process improvement, tooling improvement, reduction of the LAC production cycle time, and documention of the LAC granule fabrication process. This report summarizes the accomplishments achieved in improving the LAC Production Readiness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900005214','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900005214"><span>JPS heater and sensor <span class="hlt">lightning</span> qualification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cook, M.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Simulated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike testing of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) field joint protection system heater assembly was performed at Thiokol Corp., Wendover <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Facility. Testing consisted of subjecting the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> evaluation test article to simulated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes and evaluating the effects of heater cable transients on cables within the systems tunnel. The maximum short circuit current coupled onto a United Space Boosters, Inc. operational flight cable within the systems tunnel, induced by transients from all cables external to the systems tunnel, was 92 amperes. The maximum open-circuit voltage coupled was 316 volts. The maximum short circuit current coupled onto a United Space Boosters, Inc. operational flight cable within the systems tunnel, induced by heater power cable transients only, was 2.7 amperes; the maximum open-circuit voltage coupled was 39 volts. All heater power cable induced coupling was due to simulated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges only, no heater operating power was applied during the test. The results showed that, for a worst-case <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge, the heater power cable is responsible for a 3.9 decibel increase in voltage coupling to operational flight cables within the systems tunnel. Testing also showed that current and voltage levels coupled onto cables within the systems tunnel are partially dependant on the relative locations of the cables within the systems tunnel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170001583','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170001583"><span>Rationales for the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Launch Commit Criteria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Willett, John C. (Editor); Merceret, Francis J. (Editor); Krider, E. Philip; O'Brien, T. Paul; Dye, James E.; Walterscheid, Richard L.; Stolzenburg, Maribeth; Cummins, Kenneth; Christian, Hugh J.; Madura, John T.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Since natural and triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> are demonstrated hazards to launch vehicles, payloads, and spacecraft, NASA and the Department of Defense (DoD) follow the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) for launches from Federal Ranges. The LLCC were developed to prevent future instances of a rocket intercepting natural <span class="hlt">lightning</span> or triggering a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash during launch from a Federal Range. NASA and DoD utilize the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Advisory Panel (LAP) to establish and develop robust rationale from which the criteria originate. The rationale document also contains appendices that provide additional scientific background, including detailed descriptions of the theory and observations behind the rationales. The LLCC in whole or part are used across the globe due to the rigor of the documented criteria and associated rationale. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) adopted the LLCC in 2006 for commercial space transportation and the criteria were codified in the FAA's Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for Safety of an Expendable Launch Vehicle (Appendix G to 14 CFR Part 417, (G417)) and renamed <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Flight Commit Criteria in G417.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8524392','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8524392"><span>Generation of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in Jupiter's water cloud.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gibbard, S; Levy, E H; Lunine, J I</p> <p>1995-12-07</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> is a familiar feature of storms on the Earth, and has also been seen on Jupiter and inferred indirectly to occur on Venus and Neptune. On Jupiter, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> may be important as a source of energy to drive chemical reactions in the atmosphere, perhaps determining the abundances of molecules such as CO, HCN and C2H2. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> may be generated in Jupiter's water clouds by a mechanism similar to that which operates in terrestrial thunderstorms. Here we investigate the development of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> by modelling the thunderstorm separation of electrical charge on precipitating ice particles at varying depths in Jupiter's atmosphere. We find that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> can indeed be generated in the jovian water clouds, and that--in agreement with estimates from the analysis of Voyager images--it is most likely to occur at the 3- or 4-bar pressure level. Our model also predicts that a condensed-water abundance in the range of at least 1-2 g m-3 is required for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> to occur in jovian thunderstorms--a prediction that may be tested when the Galileo probe arrives at Jupiter on 7 December 1995.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMAE12A..04S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMAE12A..04S"><span>Interferometic Observations of Japanese Winter <span class="hlt">Lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stock, M.; Kawasaki, Z. I.; Kudo, A.; Nakamura, Y.; Ushio, T.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Japanese winter <span class="hlt">lightning</span> happens along the northern coast of Japan, where storms occur because of warm air residing over the sea of Japan. Thunderstorms can occur over the Japanese Alps, and also along the coastal area between the mountains and the water. Because of the cold temperatures, the charge layers of the thunderstorm are very close to the ground. Perhaps because of their proximity to the ground, these winter storms produce strikes to ground of both positive and negative polarity, which can propagate in either the downward (from the cloud) and upward (from the ground) direction. Presented are the first observations made by the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Interferometer via VHF Emission (LIVE) of Japanese winter <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. LIVE was deployed in Uchinada for the 2015 winter season, and consisted of 4 flat plate VHF antennas (30-80 MHz) separated by about 25 meters, and recorded by a 180 MHz digitizer. Japanese winter <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is found to have extremely active negative breakdown regions. In cloud negative leaders in winter <span class="hlt">lightning</span> appear to step much more frequently than the in cloud negative leaders of summer <span class="hlt">lightning</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989thco.rept.....C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989thco.rept.....C"><span>JPS heater and sensor <span class="hlt">lightning</span> qualification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cook, M.</p> <p>1989-10-01</p> <p>Simulated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike testing of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) field joint protection system heater assembly was performed at Thiokol Corp., Wendover <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Facility. Testing consisted of subjecting the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> evaluation test article to simulated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes and evaluating the effects of heater cable transients on cables within the systems tunnel. The maximum short circuit current coupled onto a United Space Boosters, Inc. operational flight cable within the systems tunnel, induced by transients from all cables external to the systems tunnel, was 92 amperes. The maximum open-circuit voltage coupled was 316 volts. The maximum short circuit current coupled onto a United Space Boosters, Inc. operational flight cable within the systems tunnel, induced by heater power cable transients only, was 2.7 amperes; the maximum open-circuit voltage coupled was 39 volts. All heater power cable induced coupling was due to simulated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges only, no heater operating power was applied during the test. The results showed that, for a worst-case <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge, the heater power cable is responsible for a 3.9 decibel increase in voltage coupling to operational flight cables within the systems tunnel. Testing also showed that current and voltage levels coupled onto cables within the systems tunnel are partially dependant on the relative locations of the cables within the systems tunnel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27466230','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27466230"><span>A Fossilized Energy Distribution of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pasek, Matthew A; Hurst, Marc</p> <p>2016-07-28</p> <p>When <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes soil, it may generate a cylindrical tube of glass known as a fulgurite. The morphology of a fulgurite is ultimately a consequence of the energy of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike that formed it, and hence fulgurites may be useful in elucidating the energy distribution frequency of cloud-to-ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Fulgurites from sand mines in Polk County, Florida, USA were collected and analyzed to determine morphologic properties. Here we show that the energy per unit length of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes within quartz sand has a geometric mean of ~1.0 MJ/m, and that the distribution is lognormal with respect to energy per length and frequency. Energy per length is determined from fulgurites as a function of diameter, and frequency is determined both by cumulative number and by cumulative length. This distribution parallels those determined for a number of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> parameters measured in actual atmospheric discharge events, such as charge transferred, voltage, and action integral. This methodology suggests a potential useful pathway for elucidating <span class="hlt">lightning</span> energy and damage potential of strikes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4964350','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4964350"><span>A Fossilized Energy Distribution of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pasek, Matthew A.; Hurst, Marc</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>When <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes soil, it may generate a cylindrical tube of glass known as a fulgurite. The morphology of a fulgurite is ultimately a consequence of the energy of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike that formed it, and hence fulgurites may be useful in elucidating the energy distribution frequency of cloud-to-ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Fulgurites from sand mines in Polk County, Florida, USA were collected and analyzed to determine morphologic properties. Here we show that the energy per unit length of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes within quartz sand has a geometric mean of ~1.0 MJ/m, and that the distribution is lognormal with respect to energy per length and frequency. Energy per length is determined from fulgurites as a function of diameter, and frequency is determined both by cumulative number and by cumulative length. This distribution parallels those determined for a number of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> parameters measured in actual atmospheric discharge events, such as charge transferred, voltage, and action integral. This methodology suggests a potential useful pathway for elucidating <span class="hlt">lightning</span> energy and damage potential of strikes. PMID:27466230</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/278414','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/278414"><span>NO{sub x} production from <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chang, Britton, Grossman, A.S.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>This proposal requests funds to construct a theoretical model for the production of NO{sub x} from <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. NO{sub x} production can cause changes in the atmospheric ozone distribution which are biologically harmful. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> will also result in the production and/or destruction of other gases which can be used as observational tracers of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> process. These tracers can be used to provide an observational calibration of the production mechanism. A new and very interesting aspect of this work is to provide modeling support for the conjecture that the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> process will destroy CFC compounds in the disturbed air for long periods of time and this would provide a very good observational tracer. The ultimate product of this effort would be an accurate prediction of the amount of NO{sub x} produced per unit energy of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Use will be made of LLNL developed 1-D radiation-hydrodynamic models to predict the temporal and spatial behavior of the temperature and density in the air in the vicinity of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel as a function of altitude. A chemical kinetics model will be used to predict the time variation of the trace gas species in the disturbed air parcels as a function of the temperature and density profiles calculated by the hydrodynamics model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810029852&hterms=grounded+theory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dgrounded%2Btheory','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810029852&hterms=grounded+theory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dgrounded%2Btheory"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection design external tank /Space Shuttle/</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, A.; Mumme, E.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The possibility of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> striking the Space Shuttle during liftoff is considered and the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection system designed by the Martin Marietta Corporation for the external tank (ET) portion of the Shuttle is discussed. The protection system is based on diverting and/or directing a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike to an area of the spacecraft which can sustain the strike. The ET <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection theory and some test analyses of the system's design are reviewed including studies of conductivity and thermal/stress properties in materials, belly band feasibility, and burn-through plug grounding and puncture voltage. The ET <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection system design is shown to be comprised of the following: (1) a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rod on the forward most point of the ET, (2) a continually grounded, one inch wide conductive strip applied circumferentially at station 371 (belly band), (3) a three inch wide conductive belly band applied over the TPS (i.e. the insulating surface of the ET) and grounded to a structure with eight conductive plugs at station 536, and (4) a two inch thick TPS between the belly bands which are located over the weld lands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28465545','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28465545"><span>On the initiation of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in thunderclouds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chilingarian, Ashot; Chilingaryan, Suren; Karapetyan, Tigran; Kozliner, Lev; Khanikyants, Yeghia; Hovsepyan, Gagik; Pokhsraryan, David; Soghomonyan, Suren</p> <p>2017-05-02</p> <p>The relationship of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and elementary particle fluxes in the thunderclouds is not fully understood to date. Using the particle beams (the so-called Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements - TGEs) as a probe we investigate the characteristics of the interrelated atmospheric processes. The well-known effect of the TGE dynamics is the abrupt termination of the particle flux by the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash. With new precise electronics, we can see that particle flux decline occurred simultaneously with the rearranging of the charge centers in the cloud. The analysis of the TGE energy spectra before and after the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> demonstrates that the high-energy part of the TGE energy spectra disappeared just after <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. The decline of particle flux coincides on millisecond time scale with first atmospheric discharges and we can conclude that Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanches (RREA) in the thundercloud assist initiation of the negative cloud to ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Thus, RREA can provide enough ionization to play a significant role in the unleashing of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023316','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023316"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection for shuttle propulsion elements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goodloe, Carolyn C.; Giudici, Robert J.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The results of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection analyses and tests are weighed against the present set of waivers to the NASA <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection specification. The significant analyses and tests are contrasted with the release of a new and more realistic <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection specification, in September 1990, that resulted in an inordinate number of waivers. A variety of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection analyses and tests of the Shuttle propulsion elements, the Solid Rocket Booster, the External Tank, and the Space Shuttle Main Engine, were conducted. These tests range from the sensitivity of solid propellant during shipping to penetration of cryogenic tanks during flight. The Shuttle propulsion elements have the capability to survive certain levels of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes at certain times during transportation, launch site operations, and flight. Changes are being evaluated that may improve the odds of withstanding a major <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike. The Solid Rocket Booster is the most likely propulsion element to survive if systems tunnel bond straps are improved. Wiring improvements were already incorporated and major protection tests were conducted. The External Tank remains vulnerable to burn-through penetration of its skin. Proposed design improvements include the use of a composite nose cone and conductive or laminated thermal protection system coatings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=335488&keyword=space&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=335488&keyword=space&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> NOx Production in CMAQ Part I – Using Hourly NLDN <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Strike Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span>-produced nitrogen oxides (NOX=NO+NO2) in the middle and upper troposphere play an essential role in the production of ozone (O3) and influence the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. Despite much effort in both observing and modeling <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NOX during the past dec...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=335488&keyword=lighting&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91049195&CFTOKEN=52107039','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=335488&keyword=lighting&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91049195&CFTOKEN=52107039"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> NOx Production in CMAQ Part I – Using Hourly NLDN <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Strike Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span>-produced nitrogen oxides (NOX=NO+NO2) in the middle and upper troposphere play an essential role in the production of ozone (O3) and influence the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. Despite much effort in both observing and modeling <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NOX during the past dec...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070013782&hterms=LMA&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DLMA','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070013782&hterms=LMA&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DLMA"><span>Washington D.C. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array Demonstration Project Risk Reduction for GOES <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smith, Stephan B.; Goodman, Steven; Krehbiel, Paul</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>A 10-site, ground-based total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> mapping array (LMA) has been installed in the Washington D.C. metropolitan area in 2006. The total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data from DC LMA are being processed in real-time and derived products are being provided to the forecasters of the National Weather Service (NWS) forecast office in Sterling, Virginia. The NWS forecasters are using the products to monitor convective activity along with conventional radar and satellite products. Operational experience with these products is intended to inform decision making in how to best utilize in NWS operations similar data available from the GOES <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper. The paper will discuss specifics of the LMA as well as proposed research into use of total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data in predicting and warning for cloud-to-ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090017890&hterms=khan&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dkhan','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090017890&hterms=khan&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dkhan"><span>A NASA <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Parameterization for CMAQ</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koshak, William; Khan, Maudood; Biazar, Arastoo; Newchurch, Mike; McNider, Richard</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Many state and local air quality agencies use the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to determine compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Because emission reduction scenarios are tested using CMAQ with an aim of determining the most efficient and cost effective strategies for attaining the NAAQS, it is very important that trace gas concentrations derived by CMAQ are accurate. Overestimating concentrations can literally translate into billions of dollars lost by commercial and government industries forced to comply with the standards. Costly health, environmental and socioeconomic problems can result from concentration underestimates. Unfortunately, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> modeling for CMAQ is highly oversimplified. This leads to very poor estimates of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-produced nitrogen oxides "NOx" (= NO + NO2) which directly reduces the accuracy of the concentrations of important CMAQ trace gases linked to NOx concentrations such as ozone and methane. Today it is known that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is the most important NOx source in the upper troposphere with a global production rate estimated to vary between 2-20 Tg(N)/yr. In addition, NOx indirectly influences our climate since it controls the concentration of ozone and hydroxyl radicals (OH) in the atmosphere. Ozone is an important greenhouse gas and OH controls the oxidation of various greenhouse gases. We describe a robust NASA <span class="hlt">lightning</span> model, called the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM) that combines state-of-the-art <span class="hlt">lightning</span> measurements, empirical results from field studies, and beneficial laboratory results to arrive at a realistic representation of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NOx production for CMAQ. NASA satellite <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data is used in conjunction with ground-based <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection systems to assure that the best representation of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> frequency, geographic location, channel length, channel altitude, strength (i.e., channel peak current), and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090017890&hterms=EPA&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DEPA','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090017890&hterms=EPA&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DEPA"><span>A NASA <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Parameterization for CMAQ</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koshak, William; Khan, Maudood; Biazar, Arastoo; Newchurch, Mike; McNider, Richard</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Many state and local air quality agencies use the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to determine compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Because emission reduction scenarios are tested using CMAQ with an aim of determining the most efficient and cost effective strategies for attaining the NAAQS, it is very important that trace gas concentrations derived by CMAQ are accurate. Overestimating concentrations can literally translate into billions of dollars lost by commercial and government industries forced to comply with the standards. Costly health, environmental and socioeconomic problems can result from concentration underestimates. Unfortunately, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> modeling for CMAQ is highly oversimplified. This leads to very poor estimates of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-produced nitrogen oxides "NOx" (= NO + NO2) which directly reduces the accuracy of the concentrations of important CMAQ trace gases linked to NOx concentrations such as ozone and methane. Today it is known that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is the most important NOx source in the upper troposphere with a global production rate estimated to vary between 2-20 Tg(N)/yr. In addition, NOx indirectly influences our climate since it controls the concentration of ozone and hydroxyl radicals (OH) in the atmosphere. Ozone is an important greenhouse gas and OH controls the oxidation of various greenhouse gases. We describe a robust NASA <span class="hlt">lightning</span> model, called the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM) that combines state-of-the-art <span class="hlt">lightning</span> measurements, empirical results from field studies, and beneficial laboratory results to arrive at a realistic representation of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NOx production for CMAQ. NASA satellite <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data is used in conjunction with ground-based <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection systems to assure that the best representation of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> frequency, geographic location, channel length, channel altitude, strength (i.e., channel peak current), and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMAE31A..07S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMAE31A..07S"><span>Characteristics of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes generating sprites above thunderstorms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Soula, S.; Van Der Velde, O. A.; Montanya, J.; Fullekrug, M.; Mlynarczyk, J.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Sprites are Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) consisting of streamer discharges, in response to a strong transient electrostatic field that exceeds the threshold for dielectric breakdown in the mesosphere. A large panel of sprite observations have been made with several low-light video cameras located in southern France, especially at Pic du Midi (2877 m) in the Pyrénées mountain range. The optical detection of these luminous events allow to determine some of their characteristics as the timing, the duration, the location, the size, the shape, the luminosity. Other parameters describing the storm and the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity provided by different instruments are associated to the sprite observations to a better understanding of their conditions of production and their characteristic settings: (i) the sprites are essentially produced above the stratiform region of the Mesoscale Convective Systems during positive cloud-to-ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes that produce large Charge Moment Change (CMC) and with a delay of as much shorter than the current is large. (<span class="hlt">ii</span>) The long time delayed sprites are associated with continuing current and large CMC. (iii) The sprite elements can be shifted from the stroke location when their delay is long. (iv) Very luminous sprites can produce large current signatures visible in ELF radiation a few milliseconds (< 5 ms) after the positive strokes that generate them, but sometimes imbedded in that of the stroke pulse. (v) Several cases of "dancing sprites" show the successive light emissions reflect the timing and the location of the strokes of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes that generate them.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.9337S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.9337S"><span>Characteristics of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes generating dancing sprites above thunderstorms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Soula, Serge; Mlynarczyk, Janusz; Füllekrug, Martin; Pineda, Nicolau; Georgis, Jean-François; van der Velde, Oscar; Montanyà, Joan; Fabro, Ferran</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>During the night of October 29-30, 2013, a low-light video camera at Pic du Midi (2877 m) in the French Pyrénées, recorded TLEs above a very active storm over the Mediterranean Sea. The minimum cloud top temperature reached -73˚ C at ˜1600 UTC while its cloud to ground (CG) flash rate reached ˜30 fl min-1. Some sprite events with long duration are classified as dancing sprites. We analyze in detail the temporal evolution and estimated location of sprite elements for two cases of these events. They consist in series of sprite sequences with a duration that exceeds 1 second. By associating the cloud structure, the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity, the electric field radiated in a broad range of low frequencies and the current moment waveform of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes, some findings are highlighted: (i) In each series, successive sprite sequences reflect the occurrence time and location of individual positive <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes across the stratiform region. (<span class="hlt">ii</span>) The longer time-delayed (> 20 ms) sprite elements correspond to the lower impulsive charge moment changes (iCMC) of the parent stroke (< 200 C km) and they are shifted few tens of kilometres from their SP+CG stroke. However, both short and long time-delayed sprite elements also occur after strokes that produce a large iCMC and that are followed by a continuing current. (iii) The long time-delayed sprite elements produced during the continuing current correspond to surges in the current moment waveform. They occur sometimes at an altitude apparently lower than the previous short time-delayed sprite elements, possibly because of the lowered altitude of the ionosphere potential. (iv) The largest and brightest sprite elements produce significant current signatures, visible when their delay is not too short (˜3-5 ms).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MsT.........24L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MsT.........24L"><span>Magnetic paleointensities in fault pseudotachylytes and implications for earthquake <span class="hlt">lightnings</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leibovitz, Natalie Ruth</p> <p></p> <p>Fault pseudotachylytes commonly form by frictional melting due to seismic slip. These fine-grained clastic rocks result from melt quenching and may show a high concentration of fine ferromagnetic grains. These grains are potentially excellent recorders of the rock natural remanent magnetization (NRM). The magnetization processes of fault pseudotachylytes are complex and may include the following: i) near coseismic thermal remanent magnetization (TRM) acquired upon cooling of the melt; <span class="hlt">ii</span>) coseismic <span class="hlt">lightning</span> induced remanent magnetization (LIRM) caused by earthquake <span class="hlt">lightnings</span> (EQL); iii) post seismic chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) related to both devitrification and alteration. Deciphering these magnetization components is crucial to the interpretation of paleointensities to see if coseismic phenomena such as EQL's were recorded within these rocks. Hence the paleomagnetic record of fault pseudotachylytes provides an independent set of new constraints on coseismic events. Fault pseudotachylytes from the Santa Rosa Mountains, California host a magnetic assemblage dominated by stoichiometric magnetite, formed from the breakdown of ferromagnesian silicates and melt oxidation at high temperature. Magnetite grain size in these pseudotachylytes compares to that of magnetite formed in friction experiments. Paleomagnetic data on these 59 Ma-old fault rocks reveal not only anomalous magnetization directions, inconsistent with the coseismic geomagnetic field, but also anomalously high magnetization intensities. Here we discuss results of rock magnetism and paleointensity experiments designed to quantify the intensity of coseismic magnetizing fields. The REM' paleointensity method, previously tested on meteorites, is particularly well suited to investigate NRMs resulting from non-conventional and multiple magnetization processes. Overall findings indicate an isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) in some, but not all, specimens taken from four different Santa Rosa</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080002889&hterms=Nature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DNature','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080002889&hterms=Nature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DNature"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span>: Nature's Probe of Severe Weather for Research and Operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blakeslee, R.J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span>, the energetic and broadband electrical discharge produced by thunderstorms, provides a natural remote sensing signal for the study of severe storms and related phenomena on global, regional and local scales. Using this strong signal- one of nature's own probes of severe weather -<span class="hlt">lightning</span> measurements prove to be straightforward and take advantage of a variety of measurement techniques that have advanced considerably in recent years. We briefly review some of the leading <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection systems including satellite-based optical detectors such as the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor, and ground-based radio frequency systems such as Vaisala's National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network (NLDN), long range <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection systems, and the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array (LMA) networks. In addition, we examine some of the exciting new research results and operational capabilities (e.g., shortened tornado warning lead times) derived from these observations. Finally we look forward to the next measurement advance - <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observations from geostationary orbit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713577H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713577H"><span>Severe weather detection by using Japanese Total <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hobara, Yasuhide; Ishii, Hayato; Kumagai, Yuri; Liu, Charlie; Heckman, Stan; Price, Colin</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In this paper we demonstrate the preliminary results from the first Japanese Total <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Network. The University of Electro-Communications (UEC) recently deployed Earth Networks Total <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> System over Japan to conduct various <span class="hlt">lightning</span> research projects. Here we analyzed the total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data in relation with 10 severe events such as gust fronts and tornadoes occurred in 2014 in mainland Japan. For the analysis of these events, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump algorithm was used to identify the increase of the flash rate in prior to the severe weather events. We found that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jumps associated with significant increasing <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activities for total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and IC clearly indicate the severe weather occurrence than those for CGs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec29-954.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec29-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... within the system by— (a) Direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to areas having a high probability of stroke attachment; (b) Swept <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes to areas where swept strokes are highly probable; and (c) Corona...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec29-954.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec29-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... within the system by— (a) Direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to areas having a high probability of stroke attachment; (b) Swept <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes to areas where swept strokes are highly probable; and (c) Corona...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec25-954.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec25-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 25.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... within the system by— (a) Direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to areas having a high probability of stroke attachment; (b) Swept <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes to areas where swept strokes are highly probable; and (c) Corona...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec27-954.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec27-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 27.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... within the system by— (a) Direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to areas having a high probability of stroke attachment; (b) Swept <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes to areas where swept strokes are highly probable; or (c) Corona...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec27-954.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec27-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 27.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... within the system by— (a) Direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to areas having a high probability of stroke attachment; (b) Swept <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes to areas where swept strokes are highly probable; or (c) Corona...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec29-954.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec29-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... within the system by— (a) Direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to areas having a high probability of stroke attachment; (b) Swept <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes to areas where swept strokes are highly probable; and (c) Corona...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec25-954.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec25-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 25.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... within the system by— (a) Direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to areas having a high probability of stroke attachment; (b) Swept <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes to areas where swept strokes are highly probable; and (c) Corona...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec29-954.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec29-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... within the system by— (a) Direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to areas having a high probability of stroke attachment; (b) Swept <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes to areas where swept strokes are highly probable; and (c) Corona...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec27-954.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec27-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 27.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... within the system by— (a) Direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to areas having a high probability of stroke attachment; (b) Swept <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes to areas where swept strokes are highly probable; or (c) Corona...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec29-954.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec29-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... within the system by— (a) Direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to areas having a high probability of stroke attachment; (b) Swept <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes to areas where swept strokes are highly probable; and (c) Corona and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec25-954.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec25-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 25.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... within the system by— (a) Direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to areas having a high probability of stroke attachment; (b) Swept <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes to areas where swept strokes are highly probable; and (c) Corona and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec27-954.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec27-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 27.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... within the system by— (a) Direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to areas having a high probability of stroke attachment; (b) Swept <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes to areas where swept strokes are highly probable; or (c) Corona and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/949855','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/949855"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> vulnerability of fiber-optic cables.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Martinez, Leonard E.; Caldwell, Michele</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>One reason to use optical fibers to transmit data is for isolation from unintended electrical energy. Using fiber optics in an application where the fiber cable/system penetrates the aperture of a grounded enclosure serves two purposes: first, it allows for control signals to be transmitted where they are required, and second, the insulating properties of the fiber system help to electrically isolate the fiber terminations on the inside of the grounded enclosure. A fundamental question is whether fiber optic cables can allow electrical energy to pass through a grounded enclosure, with a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike representing an extreme but very important case. A DC test bed capable of producing voltages up to 200 kV was used to characterize electrical properties of a variety of fiber optic cable samples. Leakage current in the samples were measured with a micro-Ammeter. In addition to the leakage current measurements, samples were also tested to DC voltage breakdown. After the fiber optic cables samples were tested with DC methods, they were tested under representative <span class="hlt">lightning</span> conditions at the Sandia <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Simulator (SLS). Simulated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> currents of 30 kA and 200 kA were selected for this test series. This paper documents measurement methods and test results for DC high voltage and simulated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> tests performed at the Sandia <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Simulator on fiber optic cables. The tests performed at the SLS evaluated whether electrical energy can be conducted inside or along the surface of a fiber optic cable into a grounded enclosure under representative <span class="hlt">lightning</span> conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MNRAS.470..187A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MNRAS.470..187A"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> chemistry on Earth-like exoplanets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ardaseva, Aleksandra; Rimmer, Paul B.; Waldmann, Ingo; Rocchetto, Marco; Yurchenko, Sergey N.; Helling, Christiane; Tennyson, Jonathan</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>We present a model for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> shock-induced chemistry that can be applied to atmospheres of arbitrary H/C/N/O chemistry, hence for extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs. The model couples hydrodynamics and the STAND2015 kinetic gas-phase chemistry. For an exoplanet analogue to the contemporary Earth, our model predicts NO and NO2 yields in agreement with observation. We predict height-dependent mixing ratios during a storm soon after a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> shock of NO ≈10-3 at 40 km and NO2 ≈10-4 below 40 km, with O3 reduced to trace quantities (≪10-10). For an Earth-like exoplanet with a CO2/N2 dominated atmosphere and with an extremely intense <span class="hlt">lightning</span> storm over its entire surface, we predict significant changes in the amount of NO, NO2, O3, H2O, H2 and predict a significant abundance of C2N. We find that, for the Early Earth, O2 is formed in large quantities by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> but is rapidly processed by the photochemistry, consistent with previous work on <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. The chemical effect of persistent global <span class="hlt">lightning</span> storms are predicted to be significant, primarily due to NO2, with the largest spectral features present at ∼3.4 and ∼6.2 μm. The features within the transmission spectrum are on the order of 1 ppm and therefore are not likely detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope. Depending on its spectral properties, C2N could be a key tracer for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> on Earth-like exoplanets with a N2/CO2 bulk atmosphere, unless destroyed by yet unknown chemical reactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090017685&hterms=rate-of-change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Drate-of-change','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090017685&hterms=rate-of-change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Drate-of-change"><span>An Operational Perspective of Total <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Information</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nadler, David J.; Darden, Christopher B.; Stano, Geoffrey; Buechler, Dennis E.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The close and productive collaborations between the NWS Warning and Forecast Office, the Short Term Prediction and Research Transition Center at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville have provided a unique opportunity for science sharing and technology transfer. One significant technology transfer that has provided immediate benefits to NWS forecast and warning operations is the use of data from the North Alabama <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array. This network consists of ten VHF receivers deployed across northern Alabama and a base station located at the National Space Science and Technology Center. Preliminary investigations done at WFO Huntsville, along with other similar total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> networks across the country, have shown distinct correlations between the time rate-of-change of total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and trends in intensity/severity of the parent convective cell. Since May 2003 when WFO HUN began receiving these data - in conjunction with other more traditional remotely sensed data (radar, satellite, and surface observations) -- have improved the situational awareness of the WFO staff. The use of total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> information, either from current ground based systems or future space borne instrumentation, may substantially contribute to the NWS mission, by enhancing severe weather warning and decision-making processes. Operational use of the data has been maximized at WFO Huntsville through a process that includes forecaster training, product implementation, and post event analysis and assessments. Since receiving these data, over 50 surveys have been completed highlighting the use of total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> information during significant events across the Tennessee Valley. In addition, around 150 specific cases of interest have been archived for collaborative post storm analysis. From these datasets, detailed trending information from radar and total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> can be compared to corresponding damage reports. This presentation will emphasize</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090017685&hterms=productive&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dproductive','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090017685&hterms=productive&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dproductive"><span>An Operational Perspective of Total <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Information</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nadler, David J.; Darden, Christopher B.; Stano, Geoffrey; Buechler, Dennis E.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The close and productive collaborations between the NWS Warning and Forecast Office, the Short Term Prediction and Research Transition Center at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville have provided a unique opportunity for science sharing and technology transfer. One significant technology transfer that has provided immediate benefits to NWS forecast and warning operations is the use of data from the North Alabama <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array. This network consists of ten VHF receivers deployed across northern Alabama and a base station located at the National Space Science and Technology Center. Preliminary investigations done at WFO Huntsville, along with other similar total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> networks across the country, have shown distinct correlations between the time rate-of-change of total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and trends in intensity/severity of the parent convective cell. Since May 2003 when WFO HUN began receiving these data - in conjunction with other more traditional remotely sensed data (radar, satellite, and surface observations) -- have improved the situational awareness of the WFO staff. The use of total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> information, either from current ground based systems or future space borne instrumentation, may substantially contribute to the NWS mission, by enhancing severe weather warning and decision-making processes. Operational use of the data has been maximized at WFO Huntsville through a process that includes forecaster training, product implementation, and post event analysis and assessments. Since receiving these data, over 50 surveys have been completed highlighting the use of total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> information during significant events across the Tennessee Valley. In addition, around 150 specific cases of interest have been archived for collaborative post storm analysis. From these datasets, detailed trending information from radar and total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> can be compared to corresponding damage reports. This presentation will emphasize</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880019875','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880019875"><span>The 1983 direct strike <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data, part 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, Mitchel E.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Data waveforms are presented which were obtained during the 1983 direct strike <span class="hlt">lightning</span> tests utilizing the NASA F106-B aircraft specially instrumented for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> electromagnetic measurements. The aircraft was operated in the vicinity of the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, in a thunderstorm environment to elicit strikes. Electromagnetic field data and conduction currents on the aircraft were recorded for attached <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Part 1 contains 435 pages of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike data in chart form.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24054789','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24054789"><span>"Thunderstruck": penetrating thoracic injury from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Waes, Oscar J F; van de Woestijne, Pieter C; Halm, Jens A</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> strike victims are rarely presented at an emergency department. Burns are often the primary focus. This case report describes the improvised explosive device like-injury to the thorax due to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike and its treatment, which has not been described prior in (kerauno)medicine. Penetrating injury due to blast from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike is extremely rare. These "shrapnel" injuries should however be ruled out in all patients struck by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ResPh...6..161S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ResPh...6..161S"><span>Spatial variability of correlated color temperature of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shimoji, Nobuaki; Aoyama, Ryoma; Hasegawa, Wataru</p> <p></p> <p>In this paper, we present the spatial variability of the correlated color temperature of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel shown in a digital still image. In order to analyze the correlated color temperature, we calculated chromaticity coordinates of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channels in the digital still image. From results, the spatial variation of the correlated color temperature of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel was confirmed. Moreover, the results suggest that the correlated color temperature and peak current of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channels are related to each other.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880019876','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880019876"><span>The 1983 direct strike <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data, part 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, Mitchel E.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Data waveforms are presented which were obtained during the 1983 direct strike <span class="hlt">lightning</span> tests utilizing the NASA F106-B aircraft specially instrumented for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> electromagnetic measurements. The aircraft was operated in the vicinity of the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, in a thunderstorm environment to elicit strikes. Electromagnetic field data and conduction currents on the aircraft were recorded for attached <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Part 2 contains 443 pages of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike data in chart form.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMAE31C0453S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMAE31C0453S"><span>North Alabama Total <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Climatology in Support of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Safety Operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stano, G. T.; Schultz, C. J.; Koshak, W. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The North Alabama <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array (NALMA) was installed in 2001 to observe total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> (cloud-to-ground and intra-cloud) and study its relationship to convective activity. NALMA has served as ground-truth for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imager (TRMM-LIS) and will again for the GOES-R Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper (GLM). Also, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT) has transitioned these data to National Weather Service Weather Forecast Offices to evaluate the impact in operations since 2003. This study focuses on seasonal and diurnal observations from NALMA's 14 year history. This is initially intended to improve <span class="hlt">lightning</span> safety at Marshall Space Flight Center, but has other potential applications. Improvements will be made by creating a dataset to investigate temporal, spatial, and seasonal patterns in total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> over the Tennessee Valley, compare these observations to background environmental parameters and the TRMM-LIS climatology, and investigate applying these data to specific points of interest. Unique characteristics, such as flash extent density and length of flashes can be investigated, which are unavailable from other <span class="hlt">lightning</span> networks like the National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network (NLDN). The NALMA and NLDN data can be combined such that end users can use total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> to gain lead time on the initial cloud-to-ground flash of a storm and identify if <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is extending far from the storm's core. This spatial extent can be analyzed to determine how often intra-cloud activity may impinge on a region of interest and how often a cloud-to-ground strike may occur in the region. The seasonal and diurnal <span class="hlt">lightning</span> maps can aid with planning of various experiments or tests that often require some knowledge about future weather patterns months in advance. The main goal is to develop a protocol to enhance <span class="hlt">lightning</span> safety everywhere once the Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper (GLM) is on orbit</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec23-954.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec23-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 23.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 23.954... Fuel System § 23.954 Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor within the system by— (a) Direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to areas having...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec23-954.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec23-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 23.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 23.954... Fuel System § 23.954 Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor within the system by— (a) Direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to areas having...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec23-954.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec23-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 23.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 23.954... Fuel System § 23.954 Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor within the system by— (a) Direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to areas having...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840002593','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840002593"><span>How to protect a wind turbine from <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dodd, C. W.; Mccalla, T., Jr.; Smith, J. G.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Techniques for reducing the chances of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> damage to wind turbines are discussed. The methods of providing a ground for a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike are discussed. Then details are given on ways to protect electronic systems, generating and power equipment, blades, and mechanical components from direct and nearby <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol1-sec56-12065.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol1-sec56-12065.pdf"><span>30 CFR 56.12065 - Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 56... Electricity § 56.12065 Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title30-vol1-sec56-12065.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title30-vol1-sec56-12065.pdf"><span>30 CFR 56.12065 - Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 56... Electricity § 56.12065 Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title30-vol1-sec57-12065.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title30-vol1-sec57-12065.pdf"><span>30 CFR 57.12065 - Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 57... MINES Electricity Surface Only § 57.12065 Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title30-vol1-sec56-12065.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title30-vol1-sec56-12065.pdf"><span>30 CFR 56.12065 - Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 56... Electricity § 56.12065 Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title30-vol1-sec56-12065.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title30-vol1-sec56-12065.pdf"><span>30 CFR 56.12065 - Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 56... Electricity § 56.12065 Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title30-vol1-sec57-12065.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title30-vol1-sec57-12065.pdf"><span>30 CFR 57.12065 - Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 57... MINES Electricity Surface Only § 57.12065 Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol1-sec56-12065.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol1-sec56-12065.pdf"><span>30 CFR 56.12065 - Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 56... Electricity § 56.12065 Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol1-sec57-12065.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol1-sec57-12065.pdf"><span>30 CFR 57.12065 - Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 57... MINES Electricity Surface Only § 57.12065 Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title30-vol1-sec57-12065.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title30-vol1-sec57-12065.pdf"><span>30 CFR 57.12065 - Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 57... MINES Electricity Surface Only § 57.12065 Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol1-sec57-12065.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol1-sec57-12065.pdf"><span>30 CFR 57.12065 - Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 57... MINES Electricity Surface Only § 57.12065 Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5990343','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5990343"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span>: Understanding it and protecting systems from its effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hasbrouck, R.T.</p> <p>1989-04-10</p> <p>This tutorial will raise the reader's level of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> consciousness by providing an overview of the atmospheric electrification process and by discussing the development and characteristics of a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge. Next, techniques and instrumentation for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> threat warning, detection and tracking will be presented. Finally, the principles of protection will be discussed, along with several methods for testing that protection. 15 refs., 16 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983STIN...8410661D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983STIN...8410661D"><span>How to protect a wind turbine from <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dodd, C. W.; McCalla, T., Jr.; Smith, J. G.</p> <p>1983-09-01</p> <p>Techniques for reducing the chances of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> damage to wind turbines are discussed. The methods of providing a ground for a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike are discussed. Then details are given on ways to protect electronic systems, generating and power equipment, blades, and mechanical components from direct and nearby <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec23-954.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec23-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 23.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 23.954... Fuel System § 23.954 Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor within the system by— (a) Direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to areas having...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec23-954.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec23-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 23.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 23.954... Fuel System § 23.954 Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor within the system by— (a) Direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to areas having...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900033568&hterms=electromagnetic+effects&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Delectromagnetic%2Beffects','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900033568&hterms=electromagnetic+effects&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Delectromagnetic%2Beffects"><span>Explosive spread F caused by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-induced electromagnetic effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liao, C. P.; Freidberg, J. P.; Lee, M. C.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span>-produced electromagnetic effects may produce significant modifications in the ionospheric plasmas. An outstanding phenomenon investigated in this paper is the so-called explosive spread F, whose close link with <span class="hlt">lightning</span> has been identified (Woodman and Kudeki, 1984). Parametric instability excited by the <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-induced whistler waves is proposed as a potential source mechanism causing the explosive spread F.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=thunderstorm&pg=2&id=EJ244606','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=thunderstorm&pg=2&id=EJ244606"><span>Production of Artificial <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> in An Ordinary Clear Light Bulb.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zaffo, Peter Alfred</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Reported is a method of producing artificial <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in an ordinary clear lightbulb. The appearance of sparks produced is that of a miniature stroke of forked <span class="hlt">lightning</span> seen in natural thunderstorms. The sparks also show the intricate branching patterns often seen in natural <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. (JT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900033568&hterms=explosive&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dexplosive','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900033568&hterms=explosive&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dexplosive"><span>Explosive spread F caused by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-induced electromagnetic effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liao, C. P.; Freidberg, J. P.; Lee, M. C.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span>-produced electromagnetic effects may produce significant modifications in the ionospheric plasmas. An outstanding phenomenon investigated in this paper is the so-called explosive spread F, whose close link with <span class="hlt">lightning</span> has been identified (Woodman and Kudeki, 1984). Parametric instability excited by the <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-induced whistler waves is proposed as a potential source mechanism causing the explosive spread F.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/397869','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/397869"><span>Methodology for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection at petroleum exploration sites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Torres, H.; Barreto, L.; Casas, F.; Martinez, V.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>This paper presents the methodology and results of a study that includes designs and criteria for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection of sites for a petroleum exploration company in a zone of high <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity in Colombia (South America), a tropical country. An Integral <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Protection System (ILPS) concept is emphasized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=thunderstorm&pg=2&id=EJ244606','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=thunderstorm&pg=2&id=EJ244606"><span>Production of Artificial <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> in An Ordinary Clear Light Bulb.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zaffo, Peter Alfred</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Reported is a method of producing artificial <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in an ordinary clear lightbulb. The appearance of sparks produced is that of a miniature stroke of forked <span class="hlt">lightning</span> seen in natural thunderstorms. The sparks also show the intricate branching patterns often seen in natural <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. (JT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhDT........24M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhDT........24M"><span>Interaction of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> with power distribution lines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mata, Carlos Tomas</p> <p></p> <p>Triggered-<span class="hlt">lightning</span> experiments were conducted in 1996, 1999, and 2000 to study the responses of overhead power distribution lines to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> at the International Center for <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida. The <span class="hlt">lightning</span> was artificially initiated (triggered) from natural thunderclouds using the rocket-and-wire technique, and its current was directed to a phase conductor at midspan or at a pole near the center of the line. Experimental results and associated EMTP modeling are presented in this dissertation for the following line configurations: (1)a two-conductor, 740-m overhead distribution line with 2 arrester stations in 1996; (2)a four- conductor, 245-m overhead distribution line with 2 arrester stations in 1999; and (3)a four-conductor, 829-m overhead distribution line with 6 arrester stations in 2000. The three-phase lines tested in 1999 and 2000 were standard designs of a major Florida power company. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> peak currents injected into the lines ranged from 7 to 57 kA. Voltages and currents were measured at various locations along the line. Video and photographic cameras were used to image <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channels and detect line flashovers. The significant results of the research are (1)flashovers between conductors were observed, both accompanied and not accompanied by arrester failures, (2)an arrester failed on seven of eight direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to the line in 2000, (3)arcing between conductors may prevent failures of arresters connected to the struck phase, (4)the bulk of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> current flows from the struck phase to neutral through the arresters closest to the strike point, (5)the withstand energy of the arresters can be exceeded due to the contribution from multiple strokes and/or relatively low-level, long-lasting current components, (6)the distribution of charge transferred to ground among multiple neutral grounds, which is determined by low-frequency, low-current grounding resistances is different from the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMAE13A0368Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMAE13A0368Z"><span>Statistical Evolution of the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Flash</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zoghzoghy, F. G.; Cohen, M.; Said, R.; Inan, U. S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Natural <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is one of the most fascinating and powerful electrical processes on Earth. To date, the physics behind this natural phenomenon are not fully understood, due primarily to the difficulty of obtaining measurements inside thunderstorms and to the wide range of timescales involved (from nanoseconds to seconds). Our aim is to use accurate <span class="hlt">lightning</span> geo-location data from the National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network (NLDN) to study statistical patterns in <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, taking advantage of the fact that millions of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes occur around the globe every day. We present two sets of results, one involving the patterns of flashes in a storm, and a second involving the patterns of strokes in a flash. These patterns can provide a surrogate measure of the timescales and the spatial extents of the underlying physical processes. First, we study the timescales of charge buildup inside thunderstorms. We find that, following a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash, the probability of another neighboring flash decreases and takes tens of seconds to recover. We find that this suppression effect is a function of flash type, stroke peak current, cloud-to-ground (CG) stroke multiplicity, and other <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and geographical parameters. We find that the probabilities of subsequent flashes are more suppressed following oceanic <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, or following flashes with higher peak currents and/or higher multiplicities (for CG flashes). Second, we use NLDN data to study the evolution of the strokes within a CG flash. A CG flash typically includes multiple return strokes, which can occur in the same channel or in multiple channels within a few kilometers. We cluster NLDN stroke data into flashes and produce the probability density function of subsequent strokes as a function of distance and time-delays relative to the previous stroke. Using this technique, we investigate processes which occur during the CG <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash with nanosecond to millisecond timescales. For instance, our results suggest</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100002101&hterms=Facts+Climate+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DFacts%2BClimate%2Bchange','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100002101&hterms=Facts+Climate+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DFacts%2BClimate%2Bchange"><span>Climate Change and Tropical Total <span class="hlt">Lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Albrecht, R.; Petersen, W.; Buechler, D.; Goodman, S.; Blakeslee, R.; Christian, H.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>While global warming is regarded as a fact by many in the scientific community, its future impact remains a challenge to be determined and measured. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment report (IPCC, 2007) shows inconclusive answers on global rainfall trends and general agreement on a future drier climate with increased global warming. The relationship between temperature, humidity and convection is not linear and is strongly dependent on regional scale features, such as topography and land cover. Furthermore, the relationship between convective <span class="hlt">lightning</span> production (thunderstorms) and temperature is even more complicated, being subjected to the cloud dynamics and microphysics. Total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> (intracloud and cloud-to-ground) monitoring is a relatively new field of observation. Global and tropical total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> began to be more extensively measured by satellites in the mid 90s. In this scope, the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor (LIS) onboard of the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) has been operational for over 11 years. Here we address total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> trends observed by LIS from 1998 to 2008 in different temporal (annual and seasonal) and spatial (large and regional) scales. The observed 11-year trends are then associate to different predicted/hypothesized climate change scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100002101&hterms=global+warming+climate+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2528global%2Bwarming%2529%2B%2528climate%2Bchange%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100002101&hterms=global+warming+climate+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2528global%2Bwarming%2529%2B%2528climate%2Bchange%2529"><span>Climate Change and Tropical Total <span class="hlt">Lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Albrecht, R.; Petersen, W.; Buechler, D.; Goodman, S.; Blakeslee, R.; Christian, H.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>While global warming is regarded as a fact by many in the scientific community, its future impact remains a challenge to be determined and measured. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment report (IPCC, 2007) shows inconclusive answers on global rainfall trends and general agreement on a future drier climate with increased global warming. The relationship between temperature, humidity and convection is not linear and is strongly dependent on regional scale features, such as topography and land cover. Furthermore, the relationship between convective <span class="hlt">lightning</span> production (thunderstorms) and temperature is even more complicated, being subjected to the cloud dynamics and microphysics. Total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> (intracloud and cloud-to-ground) monitoring is a relatively new field of observation. Global and tropical total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> began to be more extensively measured by satellites in the mid 90s. In this scope, the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor (LIS) onboard of the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) has been operational for over 11 years. Here we address total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> trends observed by LIS from 1998 to 2008 in different temporal (annual and seasonal) and spatial (large and regional) scales. The observed 11-year trends are then associate to different predicted/hypothesized climate change scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023322','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023322"><span>The Sandia transportable triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> instrumentation facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schnetzer, George H.; Fisher, Richard J.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Development of the Sandia Transportable Triggered <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Instrumentation Facility (SATTLIF) was motivated by a requirement for the in situ testing of a munitions storage bunker. Transfer functions relating the incident flash currents to voltages, currents, and electromagnetic field values throughout the structure will be obtained for use in refining and validating a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> response computer model of this type of structure. A preliminary shakedown trial of the facility under actual operational conditions was performed during summer of 1990 at the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) rocket-triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> test site. A description is given of the SATTLIF, which is readily transportable on a single flatbed truck of by aircraft, and its instrumentation for measuring incident <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel currents and the responses of the systems under test. Measurements of return-stroke current peaks obtained with the SATTLIF are presented. Agreement with data acquired on the same flashes with existing KSC instrumentation is, on average, to within approximately 7 percent. Continuing currents were measured with a resolution of approximately 2.5 A. This field trial demonstrated the practicality of using a transportable triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> facility for specialized test applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15466589','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15466589"><span>Isolation of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-competent soil bacteria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cérémonie, Hélène; Buret, François; Simonet, Pascal; Vogel, Timothy M</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p>Artificial transformation is typically performed in the laboratory by using either a chemical (CaCl(2)) or an electrical (electroporation) method. However, laboratory-scale <span class="hlt">lightning</span> has been shown recently to electrotransform Escherichia coli strain DH10B in soil. In this paper, we report on the isolation of two "<span class="hlt">lightning</span>-competent" soil bacteria after direct electroporation of the Nycodenz bacterial ring extracted from prairie soil in the presence of the pBHCRec plasmid (Tc(r), Sp(r), Sm(r)). The electrotransformability of the isolated bacteria was measured both in vitro (by electroporation cuvette) and in situ (by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in soil microcosm) and then compared to those of E. coli DH10B and Pseudomonas fluorescens C7R12. The electrotransformation frequencies measured reached 10(-3) to 10(-4) by electroporation and 10(-4) to 10(-5) by simulated <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, while no transformation was observed in the absence of electrical current. Two of the isolated <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-competent soil bacteria were identified as Pseudomonas sp. strains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6294174','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6294174"><span>The Sandia Transportable Triggered <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Instrumentation Facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schnetzer, G.H.; Fisher, R.J.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Development of the Sandia Transportable Triggered <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Instrumentation Facility (SATTLIF) was motivated by a requirement for the in situ testing of munitions storage bunker. Transfer functions relating the incident flash currents to voltages, currents, and electromagnetic field values throughout the structure will be obtained for use in refining and validating a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> response computer model of this type of structure. A preliminary shakedown trial of the facility under actual operational conditions was performed during the summer of 1990 at the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) rocket-triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> test site in Florida. A description is given of the SATTLIF, which is readily transportable on a single flatbed truck or by aircraft, and its instrumentation for measuring incident <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel currents and the responses of systems under test. Measurements of return-stroke current peaks obtained with the SATLLIF are presented. Agreement with data acquired on the same flashes with existing KSC instrumentation is, on average, to within {approximately}7 percent. Continuing currents were measured with a resolution of {approximately}2.5 A. This field trial demonstrated the practicality of using a transportable triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> facility for specialized test applications. 5 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMAE31C0451L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMAE31C0451L"><span>Investigating the relationship between turbulence and <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lang, T. J.; Guy, N.; Bruning, E. C.; Berkseth, S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Thunderstorms commonly produce turbulent airflows, which can have important implications for cloud structure and evolution, the transport of chemical species, and the safety of aircraft. Recent studies have indicated that turbulence also may control <span class="hlt">lightning</span> characteristics, such as flash rate and size. Moreover, there are indications that the onset of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> may be related to rapid intensification of turbulence within a growing convective storm. This observation is consistent with the known good empirical correlation between eddy dissipation rate (EDR, a measure of the strength of turbulence) and updraft strength. An algorithm to estimate EDR for in-cloud turbulence from Doppler radar data has been incorporated into open source software developed at NASA. This software (called the Python Turbulence Detection Algorithm, or PyTDA), which can be applied to data from almost any Doppler radar, is in the process of being validated against in situ measurements , as well as compared with other turbulence algorithms. Early validation results will be reported in this presentation. Then, the application of the turbulence retrievals to specific thunderstorm case studies, which have available Doppler radar and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> mapping array (LMA) data, will be reported. Specific inquiries that will be addressed will include relationships between <span class="hlt">lightning</span> onset and turbulence, relationships between flash rate/size and turbulence, the ability of turbulence retrievals to serve as proxies for updraft strength/location, and the implications of all these relationships for satellite-based <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130014258','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130014258"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> NOx Statistics Derived by NASA <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM) Data Analyses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koshak, William; Peterson, Harold</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>What is the LNOM? The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM) [Koshak et al., 2009, 2010, 2011; Koshak and Peterson 2011, 2013] analyzes VHF <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array (LMA) and National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network(TradeMark) (NLDN) data to estimate the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> nitrogen oxides (LNOx) produced by individual flashes. Figure 1 provides an overview of LNOM functionality. Benefits of LNOM: (1) Does away with unrealistic "vertical stick" <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel models for estimating LNOx; (2) Uses ground-based VHF data that maps out the true channel in space and time to < 100 m accuracy; (3) Therefore, true channel segment height (ambient air density) is used to compute LNOx; (4) True channel length is used! (typically tens of kilometers since channel has many branches and "wiggles"); (5) Distinction between ground and cloud flashes are made; (6) For ground flashes, actual peak current from NLDN used to compute NOx from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> return stroke; (7) NOx computed for several other <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge processes (based on Cooray et al., 2009 theory): (a) Hot core of stepped leaders and dart leaders, (b) Corona sheath of stepped leader, (c) K-change, (d) Continuing Currents, and (e) M-components; and (8) LNOM statistics (see later) can be used to parameterize LNOx production for regional air quality models (like CMAQ), and for global chemical transport models (like GEOS-Chem).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMAE23A0417B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMAE23A0417B"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> flash sizes relative to storm structure and turbulence during the Kinematic Texture and <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bruning, E. C.; Salinas, V.; Berkseth, S.; Chmielewski, V.; Brothers, M.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Ongoing work as part of the Kinematic Texture and <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Experiment at Texas Tech University has quantified the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash size, rate, and energy alongside the turbulent structure of thunderclouds. 2016 was the final year of observations, which fielded two high-resolution mobile Ka-band radars and mobile environmental soundings. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> measurements were made by a VHF <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array. In order to enhance the detection of the smallest <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges in the turbulent portions of the thundercloud, a rapidly-deployable mobile <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array (LMA) station augmented a traditional fixed LMA. This capability of targeting particular storm complexes with LMA measurements will be described, and the improved detection capability quantified. The complete set of field measurements from 2014-16 sampled numerous individual cells and storm complexes, ranging in intensity from multicellular convection to supercells and mesoscale convective systems. Flash measurements coincident with radar observations included deep, highly turbulent convective cores and extensive anvil regions. Comparison of flash characteristics across these storm morphologies will be shown, with a focus on the dynamical organization of storms and the turbulent kinematics that drive differences in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash sizes and rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15...32P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15...32P"><span>Visual Analytics approach for <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> data analysis and cell nowcasting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peters, Stefan; Meng, Liqiu; Betz, Hans-Dieter</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Thunderstorms and their ground effects, such as flash floods, hail, <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, strong wind and tornadoes, are responsible for most weather damages (Bonelli & Marcacci 2008). Thus to understand, identify, track and predict <span class="hlt">lightning</span> cells is essential. An important aspect for decision makers is an appropriate visualization of weather analysis results including the representation of dynamic <span class="hlt">lightning</span> cells. This work focuses on the visual analysis of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> cell nowcasting which aim to detect and understanding spatial-temporal patterns of moving thunderstorms. <span class="hlt">Lightnings</span> are described by 3D coordinates and the exact occurrence time of <span class="hlt">lightnings</span>. The three-dimensionally resolved total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data used in our experiment are provided by the European <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection network LINET (Betz et al. 2009). In all previous works, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> point data, detected <span class="hlt">lightning</span> cells and derived cell tracks are visualized in 2D. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> cells are either displayed as 2D convex hulls with or without the underlying <span class="hlt">lightning</span> point data. Due to recent improvements of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data detection and accuracy, there is a growing demand on multidimensional and interactive visualization in particular for decision makers. In a first step <span class="hlt">lightning</span> cells are identified and tracked. Then an interactive graphic user interface (GUI) is developed to investigate the dynamics of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> cells: e.g. changes of cell density, location, extension as well as merging and splitting behavior in 3D over time. In particular a space time cube approach is highlighted along with statistical analysis. Furthermore a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> cell nowcasting is conducted and visualized. The idea thereby is to predict the following cell features for the next 10-60 minutes including location, centre, extension, density, area, volume, lifetime and cell feature probabilities. The main focus will be set to a suitable interactive visualization of the predicted featured within the GUI. The developed visual</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JGRD..110.2109M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JGRD..110.2109M"><span>Initial stage in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> initiated from tall objects and in rocket-triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miki, M.; Rakov, V. A.; Shindo, T.; Diendorfer, G.; Mair, M.; Heidler, F.; Zischank, W.; Uman, M. A.; Thottappillil, R.; Wang, D.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>We examine the characteristics of the initial stage (IS) in object-initiated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> derived from current measurements on the Gaisberg tower (100 m, Austria), the Peissenberg tower (160 m, Germany), and the Fukui chimney (200 m, Japan) and their counterparts in rocket-triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in Florida. All <span class="hlt">lightning</span> events analyzed here effectively transported negative charge to ground. For rocket-triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> the geometric mean (GM) values of the three overall characteristics of the initial stage, duration, charge transfer, and average current, are similar to their counterparts for the Gaisberg tower flashes and the Peissenberg tower flashes, while the Fukui chimney flashes are characterized by a shorter GM IS duration and a larger average current. The GM IS charge transfer for the Fukui chimney flashes is similar to that in the other three data sets. The GM values of the action integral differ considerably among the four data sets, with the Fukui action integral being the largest. The observed differences in the IS duration between the Fukui data set and all other data considered here are probably related to the differences in the lower current limits, while the differences in the action integral cannot be explained by the instrumental effects only. There appear to be two types of initial stage in upward <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. The first type exhibits pulsations (ringing) during the initial portion of the IS, and the second type does not. The occurrence of these types of IS appears to depend on geographical location. The characteristics of pulses superimposed on the initial continuous current (ICC pulses) in object-initiated (Gaisberg, Peissenberg, and Fukui) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> are similar within a factor of 2 but differ more significantly from their counterparts in rocket-triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Specifically, the ICC pulses in object-initiated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> exhibit larger peaks, shorter risetimes, and shorter half-peak widths than do the ICC pulses in rocket-triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15385151','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15385151"><span>Plant cytoplasm preserved by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, X</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p>Usually only an organism with hard parts may be preserved in the fossil record. Cytoplasm, which is a physiologically active part of a plant, is rarely seen in the fossil record. Two Cretaceous plant fossils older than 100 million years with exceptional preservation of cytoplasm are reported here. Some cytoplasm is well preserved with subcellular details while other cytoplasm is highly hydrolyzed in the cortex of the same fossil even though both of preservations may be less than 2 microm away. The unique preservation pattern, sharp contrast of preservation in adjacent cells and the exceptional preservation of cytoplasm in the cortex suggest that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> should play an important role in the preservation of cytoplasm and that cytoplasmic membranes may be more stable than the cell contents. Interpreting the preservation needs knowledge scattering in several formerly unrelated fields of science, including geophysics, botany, biophysics, cytology and microwave fixation technology. This new interpretation of fossilization will shed new light on preservation of cytoplasm and promote cytoplasm fossils from a position of rarity to a position of common research objects available for biological research. The importance of the identification of cytoplasm in fossil lies not in itself but in how much it influences the future research in paleobotany.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJTPE.126.1230Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJTPE.126.1230Y"><span>An Experimental Study of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Overvoltages in Wind Turbine Generation Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamamoto, Kazuo; Ohta, Tomokatsu; Noda, Taku; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Ametani, Akihiro</p> <p></p> <p>In order to obtain good wind conditions, wind turbine generation systems are built at places like hill countries and shorefronts where few tall structures are found. However, this increases the risk of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes. To promote wind power generation, <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-protection methodologies for such wind turbine generation systems have to be established. This paper presents the results of an experimental study which investigates the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> overvoltages in wind turbine generation systems. The experiments were carried out on actual ground soil using a reduced-size wind turbine model with its foundations. From the experiments, the following conclusions have been deduced: (i) Voltage rise due to the grounding impedance of the foundations can cause a significant overvoltage between the tower foot and an incoming cable like a power, a communication or a control line. (<span class="hlt">ii</span>) The voltage rise of the foundations and that of the surrounding ground soil may cause an overvoltage at the outermost insulation layer of an incoming cable, which can result in a breakdown or a deterioration of the insulation (iii) Voltage and current waveforms to understand the traveling-wave phenomenon on a wind power generation system with its foundations were obtained. The data will be useful for developing an EMTP simulation model of a wind turbine generation system for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> overvoltage studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017HESS...21..267G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017HESS...21..267G"><span>Improving the precipitation accumulation analysis using <span class="hlt">lightning</span> measurements and different integration periods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gregow, Erik; Pessi, Antti; Mäkelä, Antti; Saltikoff, Elena</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The focus of this article is to improve the precipitation accumulation analysis, with special focus on the intense precipitation events. Two main objectives are addressed: (i) the assimilation of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observations together with radar and gauge measurements, and (<span class="hlt">ii</span>) the analysis of the impact of different integration periods in the radar-gauge correction method. The article is a continuation of previous work by Gregow et al. (2013) in the same research field. A new <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data assimilation method has been implemented and validated within the Finnish Meteorological Institute - Local Analysis and Prediction System. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> data do improve the analysis when no radars are available, and even with radar data, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data have a positive impact on the results. The radar-gauge assimilation method is highly dependent on statistical relationships between radar and gauges, when performing the correction to the precipitation accumulation field. Here, we investigate the usage of different time integration intervals: 1, 6, 12, 24 h and 7 days. This will change the amount of data used and affect the statistical calculation of the radar-gauge relations. Verification shows that the real-time analysis using the 1 h integration time length gives the best results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880034919&hterms=opportunities+threats&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dopportunities%2Bthreats','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880034919&hterms=opportunities+threats&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dopportunities%2Bthreats"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> threat extent of a small thunderstorm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nicholson, James R.; Maier, Launa M.; Weems, John</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The concern for safety of the personnel at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has caused NASA to promulgate strict safety procedures requiring either termination or substantial curtailment when ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span> threat is believed to exist within 9.3 km of a covered operation. In cases where the threat is overestimated, in either space or time, an opportunity cost is accrued. This paper describes a small thunderstorm initiated over the KSC by terrain effects, that serves to exemplify the impact such an event may have on ground operations at the Center. Data from the Air Force <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Location and Protection System, the AF/NASA Launch Pad <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Warning System field mill network, radar, and satellite imagery are used to describe the thunderstorm and to discuss its impact.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4092020','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4092020"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span>-strike disaster among children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dollinger, S J</p> <p>1985-12-01</p> <p>Thirty-eight children playing or observing a soccer game were the victims of a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike which killed one other child. Interviews with the children and their families documented a number of emotional effects of this disaster, chiefly situational adjustment reactions. The most common reactions involved anxiety, particularly at times of storms. However, the most severely upset children exhibited sleep disturbances, separation anxiety, and nocturnal enuresis. One of two side-flash victims experienced depression for several months; the other experienced no significant emotional upset. Both suffered medical complications and had no memory for the incident. While all children reached at follow-up were doing quite well, those who were most upset by the incident were more likely to refuse to play soccer during the follow-up interval. Stories told to pictures of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> revealed projections of the children's emotional upset, various defensive reactions to the incident and an increased sense of subjective probability for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> injuries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023331','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023331"><span>A survey of laser <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rod techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barnes, Arnold A., Jr.; Berthel, Robert O.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The work done to create a laser <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rod (LLR) is discussed. Some ongoing research which has the potential for achieving an operational laser <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rod for use in the protection of missile launch sites, launch vehicles, and other property is discussed. Because of the ease with which a laser beam can be steered into any cloud overhead, an LLR could be used to ascertain if there exists enough charge in the clouds to discharge to the ground as triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. This leads to the possibility of using LLRs to test clouds prior to launching missiles through the clouds or prior to flying aircraft through the clouds. LLRs could also be used to probe and discharge clouds before or during any hazardous ground operations. Thus, an operational LLR may be able to both detect such sub-critical electrical fields and effectively neutralize them.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22580490','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22580490"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and severe thunderstorms in event management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Walsh, Katie M</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>There are a few national position stands/guidelines that address environmental conditions in athletics, yet they do not govern all outdoor sports. Extreme heat and cold, <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, and severe wind can all be fatal, yet the majority of outdoor sports have no published guidelines addressing these conditions in relation to activity. Available research on extreme heat and cold conditions in athletics provides prevention strategies, to include acclimatization. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and severe wind are two environmental conditions to which humans cannot accommodate, and they both can be deadly. There are strong positions on extreme heat/cold and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> safety in athletics, but none affiliated with severe winds. Medical personnel involved in planning large outdoor sporting events must know of the presence of nationally published weather-related documents and apply them to their event. In addition, research needs to be expanded in the realm of establishing guidelines for safety to participants and spectators in severe wind conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030061425&hterms=Forte&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DForte','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030061425&hterms=Forte&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DForte"><span>Multi-Satellite Observations of Oceanic <span class="hlt">Lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Boeck, W. L.; Jacobson, A. R.; Christian, H. J.; Goodman, S. J.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>This paper will present several case studies of active oceanic <span class="hlt">lightning</span> storms. Measurements by instruments on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Fast On-orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) platforms demonstrate that the two sets of sensors reinforce and complement one another. There is spatial and temporal coincidence between the optical data sets from <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor (LIS) on TRMM and the photo-diode detector on FORTE. The LIS flash analysis provides a framework to interpret the stroke level data from FORTE. For these cases, the VHF receiver on FORTE is slaved to the optical system to provide stroke level radio frequency (RF) diagnostics. The occasions when TRMM and FORTE simultaneously have a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> storm in their overlapping fields of view are extremely rare. One case study in the Gulf of Mexico is within range of land based sensor networks. These networks confirm the interpretation of satellite data and well as provide context for the storm conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JGR....9913059R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JGR....9913059R"><span>Observations of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> phenomena using radio interferometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rhodes, C. T.; Shao, X. M.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Thomas, R. J.; Hayenga, C. O.</p> <p>1994-06-01</p> <p>A radio interferometer system is described which utilizes multiple baselines to determine the direction of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> radiation sources with an angular resolution of a few degrees and with microsecond time resolution. An interactive graphics analysis procedure is used to remove fringe ambiguities from the data and to reveal the structure and development of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges inside the storm. Radiation source directions and electric field waveforms have been analyzed for different types of breakdown events for two <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes. Several modes of breakdown during and after return strokes have been documented and analyzed. Finally, a new type of breakdown event has been identified whose electric field change and source development resemble those of an initial negative leader but which progresses horizontally through the storm. An example is shown which spawned a dart leader to ground.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10163764','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10163764"><span>The response of aeroshells to <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Loescher, D.H.; Dinallo, M.A.</p> <p>1994-06-01</p> <p>Electrical discharges from a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> simulator were directed at Mk12 aeroshells. Buckling of the aluminum substrate was observed after some 100-kA shots, and severe damage consisting of tearing of the aluminum and the production of inward flying aluminum shrapnel was observed after some 200-kA peak-current shots. Some shots resulted in severe damage to both the aluminum and the carbon-phenolic ablative material. It is reasonable to conclude from the experimental results that a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroke with very high-peak current could, by itself, produce an opening in an Mk12 aeroshell. Because the aeroshell is part of the nuclear explosive safety exclusion region for the Mk12/W62 nuclear weapon, an opening would significantly reduce the assured safety of the weapon. It is unlikely that the observed interaction between <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and the aeroshells would have been predicted by any form of computer simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1157093','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1157093"><span>Augmenting Satellite Precipitation Estimation with <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Information</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mahrooghy, Majid; Anantharaj, Valentine G; Younan, Nicolas H.; Petersen, Walter A.; Hsu, Kuo-Lin; Behrangi, Ali; Aanstoos, James</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We have used <span class="hlt">lightning</span> information to augment the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Imagery using an Artificial Neural Network - Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS). Co-located <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data are used to segregate cloud patches, segmented from GOES-12 infrared data, into either electrified (EL) or non-electrified (NEL) patches. A set of features is extracted separately for the EL and NEL cloud patches. The features for the EL cloud patches include new features based on the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> information. The cloud patches are classified and clustered using self-organizing maps (SOM). Then brightness temperature and rain rate (T-R) relationships are derived for the different clusters. Rain rates are estimated for the cloud patches based on their representative T-R relationship. The Equitable Threat Score (ETS) for daily precipitation estimates is improved by almost 12% for the winter season. In the summer, no significant improvements in ETS are noted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920045362&hterms=global+warming+causes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bwarming%2Bcauses','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920045362&hterms=global+warming+causes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bwarming%2Bcauses"><span>The effect of global warming on <span class="hlt">lightning</span> frequencies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Price, Colin; Rind, David</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The first attempt to model global <span class="hlt">lightning</span> distributions by using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM is reported. Three sets of observations showing the relationship between <span class="hlt">lightning</span> frequency and cloud top height are shown. Zonally averaged <span class="hlt">lightning</span> frequency observed by satellite are compared with those calculated using the GISS GCM, and fair agreement is found. The change in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> frequency for a double CO2 climate is calculated and found to be nearly 2.23 x 10 exp 6 extra <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes per day.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920045362&hterms=global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bwarming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920045362&hterms=global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bwarming"><span>The effect of global warming on <span class="hlt">lightning</span> frequencies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Price, Colin; Rind, David</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The first attempt to model global <span class="hlt">lightning</span> distributions by using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM is reported. Three sets of observations showing the relationship between <span class="hlt">lightning</span> frequency and cloud top height are shown. Zonally averaged <span class="hlt">lightning</span> frequency observed by satellite are compared with those calculated using the GISS GCM, and fair agreement is found. The change in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> frequency for a double CO2 climate is calculated and found to be nearly 2.23 x 10 exp 6 extra <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes per day.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002BAMS...83.1809U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002BAMS...83.1809U"><span>a Critical Review of Nonconventional Approaches to <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uman, M. A.; Rakov, V. A.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>The conventional technique for the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection of structures is described in the U.S. National Standard, NFPA 780, and in many other national and international <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection standards. Two nonconventional techniques, known generically as "<span class="hlt">lightning</span> elimination" and "early streamer emission," are claimed by their proponents to be superior to the conventional <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection technique. We review the literature on these nonconventional approaches as well as the pertinent <span class="hlt">lightning</span> literature and conclude that the suggested superiority of the nonconventional techniques over the conventional method is not supported by the available experimental data or by theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990Natur.343..442D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990Natur.343..442D"><span>Upper limit set for level of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity on Titan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.</p> <p>1990-02-01</p> <p>Because optically thick cloud and haze layers prevent <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection at optical wavelength on Titan, a search was conducted for <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-radiated signals (spherics) at radio wavelengths using the planetary radioastronomy instrument aboard Voyager 1. Given the maximum ionosphere density of about 3000/cu cm, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> spherics should be detectable above an observing frequency of 500 kHz. Since no evidence for spherics is found, an upper limit to the total energy per flash in Titan <span class="hlt">lightning</span> of about 10 to the 6th J, or about 1000 times weaker than that of typical terrestrial <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, is inferred.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21532036','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21532036"><span>Study of the transport parameters of cloud <span class="hlt">lightning</span> plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chang, Z. S.; Yuan, P.; Zhao, N.</p> <p>2010-11-15</p> <p>Three spectra of cloud <span class="hlt">lightning</span> have been acquired in Tibet (China) using a slitless grating spectrograph. The electrical conductivity, the electron thermal conductivity, and the electron thermal diffusivity of the cloud <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, for the first time, are calculated by applying the transport theory of air plasma. In addition, we investigate the change behaviors of parameters (the temperature, the electron density, the electrical conductivity, the electron thermal conductivity, and the electron thermal diffusivity) in one of the cloud <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channels. The result shows that these parameters decrease slightly along developing direction of the cloud <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel. Moreover, they represent similar sudden change behavior in tortuous positions and the branch of the cloud <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999Icar..142..306L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999Icar..142..306L"><span>Galileo Images of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> on Jupiter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Little, Blane; Anger, Clifford D.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Senske, David A.; Breneman, H. Herbert; Borucki, William J.; The Galileo SSI Team</p> <p>1999-12-01</p> <p>In October and November of 1997 the Galileo Solid State Imager (SSI) detected <span class="hlt">lightning</span> from 26 storms on the night side of Jupiter. More than half the surface area of the planet was surveyed. The data include images of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> against moonlit clouds (illuminated by light from Io) and images of the same storm on the day and night sides. The spatial resolution ranged from 23 to 134 km per pixel, while the storms ranged in size up to ˜1500 km. Most storms were imaged more than once, and they typically exhibit many flashes per minute. The storms occur only in areas of cyclonic shear and near the centers of westward jets. Latitudes near 50° in both hemispheres are particularly active, although the northern hemisphere has more <span class="hlt">lightning</span> overall. The greatest optical energy observed in a single flash was 1.6×10 10 J, which is several times larger than terrestrial superbolts. The average optical power per unit area is 3× 10 -7 W m -2, which is close to the terrestrial value. The limited color information is consistent with line and continuum emission from atomic hydrogen and helium. The intensity profiles of resolved <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes are bell-shaped, with the half-width at half-maximum ranging from ˜45 to 80 km. We used these widths to infer the depth of the strikes, assuming that the appearance of each is the result of light scattering from a point source below the cloudtops. We conclude that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> must be occurring within or below the jovian water cloud. The occurrence of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in regions of cyclonic shear has important implications for the dynamics of Jupiter's atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SSRv..137..521B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SSRv..137..521B"><span>On ULF Signatures of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Discharges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bösinger, T.; Shalimov, S. L.</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>Recent works on magnetic signatures due to distant <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges are reviewed. Emphasis is laid on magnetic signatures in the ULF range (in the old definition from less than 1 mHz up to 1 Hz), that is in the frequency range below the Schumann resonance. These signatures are known to be of importance for the excitation of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR) which works only at night time conditions. This emphasizes the difference between night and day time ULF signatures of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. The IAR forms a link between the atmosphere and magnetosphere. Similarities and differences of this link in the VLF (Trimpi effect) and ULF range are worked out. A search for a unique signature of sprite-associated positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges ended with a negative result. In this context, however, a new model of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-associated induced mesospheric currents was built. Depending on mesospheric condition it can produce magnetic signatures in the entire frequency range from VLF, ELF to ULF. In the latter case it can explain signatures known as the Ultra Slow Tail of +CG <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges. A current problem on the magnetic background noise intensity has been solved by taking more seriously the contribution of +CG <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges to the overall background noise. Their low occurrence rate is more than compensated by their large and long lasting continuing currents. By superposed epoch analysis it could be shown that the ULF response to -CG is one to two orders smaller that in case of +CG with similar peak current values of the return stroke.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008pae..book..521B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008pae..book..521B"><span>On ULF Signatures of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Discharges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bösinger, T.; Shalimov, S. L.</p> <p></p> <p>Recent works on magnetic signatures due to distant <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges are reviewed. Emphasis is laid on magnetic signatures in the ULF range (in the old definition from less than 1 mHz up to 1 Hz), that is in the frequency range below the Schumann resonance. These signatures are known to be of importance for the excitation of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR) which works only at night time conditions. This emphasizes the difference between night and day time ULF signatures of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. The IAR forms a link between the atmosphere and magnetosphere. Similarities and differences of this link in the VLF (Trimpi effect) and ULF range are worked out. A search for a unique signature of sprite-associated positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges ended with a negative result. In this context, however, a new model of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-associated induced mesospheric currents was built. Depending on mesospheric condition it can produce magnetic signatures in the entire frequency range from VLF, ELF to ULF. In the latter case it can explain signatures known as the Ultra Slow Tail of +CG <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges. A current problem on the magnetic background noise intensity has been solved by taking more seriously the contribution of +CG <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges to the overall background noise. Their low occurrence rate is more than compensated by their large and long lasting continuing currents. By superposed epoch analysis it could be shown that the ULF response to -CG is one to two orders smaller that in case of +CG with similar peak current values of the return stroke.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3416K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3416K"><span>Signatures of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity in seismic records</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kiszely, Márta; Bór, József; Mónus, Péter; Betz, Hans-Dieter</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>A thunderstorm with intense <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity swept through Hungary on 28th August, 2013 between 00:00-09:00 UTC from the west towards north-east. Characteristic signal patterns could be observed in the time series recorded by seismometers in Hungary during the time the thunderstorm was close to a recording station. The signal patterns occurred coherently both in the vertical and in the horizontal seismic records. The patterns are composed of a sharp spike and a longer lasting disturbance which followed the spike after a gap of several seconds. This disturbance was of increased amplitude and lasted for up to a few tens of seconds. Detection times of spikes in the seismic records were compared to occurrence times of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes in the thunderstorm. Information on the occurrence time, polarity, type (CG or IC), peak current, and geographical location (including height estimation for IC events) of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes was provided by the LINET <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection network which uses magnetic loop antennas sensitive in the VLF-LF radio bands. A single <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroke could be unambiguously associated with each spike in the seismic records. This one-to-one correspondence suggests that the spike was caused by the electromagnetic shock wave from the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> return stroke. The longer lasting disturbance is, on the other hand, most probably the signature of the subsequent air pressure wave which induced ground waves, too. In more than half of the examined cases, the time between the spike and the detection of a wave packet (peak amplitude) in the disturbance matched the expected propagation time of sound waves between the source location given by LINET and the seismic station. The direct sound wave associated wave packet, however, was not always the first arriving one in the seismic disturbance which suggests that coupling of sound waves and ground waves may not only occur at the seismic detector. The poster shows case studies of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> associated seismic records</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750040828&hterms=magnetic+loop+antenna&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmagnetic%2Bloop%2Bantenna','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750040828&hterms=magnetic+loop+antenna&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmagnetic%2Bloop%2Bantenna"><span>Broadband antenna systems for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> magnetic fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Krider, E. P.; Noggle, R. C.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Broadband magnetic antenna systems suitable for recording submicrosecond field changes are described, and typical data from distant <span class="hlt">lightning</span> are presented. Two types of systems are described, one with a high-impedance antenna loop connected to the integrator by a twisted pair of coaxial cables and another with the antenna loop and twisted signal loops formed from a single piece of coaxial cable. Data for correlated magnetic and electric field waveforms from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> at a distance of 50 to 100 km are presented and are shown to be almost identical.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020078320','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020078320"><span>System and Method of Locating <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Strikes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>A system and method of determining locations of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes has been described. The system includes multiple receivers located around an area of interest, such as a space center or airport. Each receiver monitors both sound and electric fields. The detection of an electric field pulse and a sound wave are used to calculate an area around each receiver in which the lighting is detected. A processor is coupled to the receivers to accurately determine the location of the lighting strike. The processor can manipulate the receiver data to compensate for environmental variables such as wind, temperature, and humidity. Further, each receiver processor can discriminate between distant and local <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820030375&hterms=lightning+strikes+power&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dlightning%2Bstrikes%2Bpower','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820030375&hterms=lightning+strikes+power&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dlightning%2Bstrikes%2Bpower"><span>Direct strike <span class="hlt">lightning</span> measurement system. [for aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, M. E.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>A research data system developed for in-flight measurement of direct and nearby <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-strike characteristics is described. The measurement system consists of a wide-band analog recorder which records the continuous <span class="hlt">lightning</span> scenario and fast sample-rate digital transient recorders with augmented memory capacity for increased time resolution of specific times of interest. Electromagnetic sensors with bandwidths exceeding 100 MHz are used which respond to rates of change of the quantities being measured. Data system immunity from electromagnetic interference is accomplished by the use of a dynamotor for power isolation, shielded system enclosure and fiber-optic data links.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730023587','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730023587"><span>Automatic <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection and photographic system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wojtasinski, R. J.; Holley, L. D.; Gray, J. L.; Hoover, R. B. (Inventor)</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>A system is presented for monitoring and recording <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes within a predetermined area with a camera having an electrically operated shutter with means for advancing the film in the camera after activating the shutter. The system includes an antenna for sensing <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes which, in turn, generates a signal that is fed to an electronic circuit which generates signals for operating the shutter of the camera. Circuitry is provided for preventing activation of the shutter as the film in the camera is being advanced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMAE53A..05G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMAE53A..05G"><span>Artificial Neural Network applied to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gin, R. B.; Guedes, D.; Bianchi, R.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The development of video cameras enabled cientists to study <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges comportment with more precision. The main goal of this project is to create a system able to detect images of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges stored in videos and classify them using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN)using C Language and OpenCV libraries. The developed system, can be split in two different modules: detection module and classification module. The detection module uses OpenCV`s computer vision libraries and image processing techniques to detect if there are significant differences between frames in a sequence, indicating that something, still not classified, occurred. Whenever there is a significant difference between two consecutive frames, two main algorithms are used to analyze the frame image: brightness and shape algorithms. These algorithms detect both shape and brightness of the event, removing irrelevant events like birds, as well as detecting the relevant events exact position, allowing the system to track it over time. The classification module uses a neural network to classify the relevant events as horizontal or vertical <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, save the event`s images and calculates his number of discharges. The Neural Network was implemented using the backpropagation algorithm, and was trained with 42 training images , containing 57 <span class="hlt">lightning</span> events (one image can have more than one <span class="hlt">lightning</span>). TheANN was tested with one to five hidden layers, with up to 50 neurons each. The best configuration achieved a success rate of 95%, with one layer containing 20 neurons (33 test images with 42 events were used in this phase). This configuration was implemented in the developed system to analyze 20 video files, containing 63 <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges previously manually detected. Results showed that all the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges were detected, many irrelevant events were unconsidered, and the event's number of discharges was correctly computed. The neural network used in this project achieved a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890067440&hterms=paul+meyer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpaul%2Bmeyer','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890067440&hterms=paul+meyer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpaul%2Bmeyer"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> trends as a precursor to microbursts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buechler, Dennis E.; Goodman, Steven J.; Meyer, Paul J.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The feasibility of using <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-rate data to aid in the early warning of microburst occurrence in moist environments is illustrated. Convective tendency images were generated for a small microburst-producing storm that developed in northern Alabama on July 20, 1986 during the Cooperative Huntsville Meteorological Experiment. Radar observations were obtained from the NCAR CP2 10-cm dual-polarization Doppler radar, while the measurements of total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity were provided by the National Severe Storm Laboratory, a mobile laboratory that was located under the storm throughout its lifetime. The scenario for the evolution of wet microburst producing thunderstorms is described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890038873&hterms=Gang&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DGang','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890038873&hterms=Gang&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DGang"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> parameterization in a storm electrification model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Helsdon, John H., Jr.; Farley, Richard D.; Wu, Gang</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The parameterization of an intracloud <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge has been implemented in our Storm Electrification Model. The initiation, propagation direction, termination and charge redistribution of the discharge are approximated assuming overall charge neutrality. Various simulations involving differing amounts of charge transferred have been done. The effects of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-produced ions on the hydrometeor charges, electric field components and electrical energy depend strongly on the charge transferred. A comparison between the measured electric field change of an actual intracloud flash and the field change due to the simulated discharge show favorable agreement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890067440&hterms=cp2&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcp2','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890067440&hterms=cp2&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcp2"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> trends as a precursor to microbursts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buechler, Dennis E.; Goodman, Steven J.; Meyer, Paul J.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The feasibility of using <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-rate data to aid in the early warning of microburst occurrence in moist environments is illustrated. Convective tendency images were generated for a small microburst-producing storm that developed in northern Alabama on July 20, 1986 during the Cooperative Huntsville Meteorological Experiment. Radar observations were obtained from the NCAR CP2 10-cm dual-polarization Doppler radar, while the measurements of total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity were provided by the National Severe Storm Laboratory, a mobile laboratory that was located under the storm throughout its lifetime. The scenario for the evolution of wet microburst producing thunderstorms is described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.2128L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.2128L"><span>Nowcasting and forecasting of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity: the Talos project.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lagouvardos, Kostas; Kotroni, Vassiliki; Kazadzis, Stelios; Giannaros, Theodore; Karagiannidis, Athanassios; Galanaki, Elissavet; Proestakis, Emmanouil</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Thunder And <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Observing System (TALOS) is a research program funded by the Greek Ministry of Education with the aim to promote excellence in the field of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> meteorology. The study focuses on exploring the real-time observations provided by the ZEUS <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection system, operated by the National Observatory of Athens since 2005, as well as the 10-year long database of the same system. More precisely the main research issues explored are: - <span class="hlt">lightning</span> climatology over the Mediterranean focusing on <span class="hlt">lightning</span> spatial and temporal distribution, on the relation of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> with topographical features and instability and on the importance of aerosols in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> initiation and enhancement. - nowcasting of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity over Greece, with emphasis on the operational aspects of this endeavour. The nowcasting tool is based on the use of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data complemented by high-time resolution METEOSAT imagery. - forecasting of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity over Greece based on the use of WRF numerical weather prediction model. - assimilation of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> with the aim to improve the model precipitation forecast skill. In the frame of this presentation the main findings of each of the aforementioned issues are highlighted.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMSM13B2081A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMSM13B2081A"><span>Ionospheric effects of whistler waves from rocket-triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Agrawal, D.; Cotts, B.; Golkowski, M.; Moore, R. C.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span>-induced electron precipitation (LEP) is one of the primary mechanisms for energetic electron loss from Earth's radiation belts. The spatial and temporal structure of LEP are affected by parameters such as <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location and the return stroke peak current and spectral distribution. While previous works have emphasized <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location and return stroke peak current in quantifying <span class="hlt">lightning</span>'s role in radiation belt electron loss, the spectrum of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> return stroke has received far less attention. Rocket-triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> experiments performed at the International Center for <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida, provide a means to evaluate the spectral content of individual <span class="hlt">lightning</span> return strokes. Using an integrated set of numerical models we calculate the latitudinal dependence of the precipitation signature using observed rocket-triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel-base currents. Results indicate that return strokes with higher ELF (3 Hz - 3 kHz) content cause proportionally more ionospheric ionization and precipitate more electrons at higher latitudes than return strokes with higher VLF (3 kHz - 30 kHz) content. The ability to directly measure the channel-base current of the rocket-triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> return stroke enables us to determine the relationship between <span class="hlt">lightning</span> source spectrum and the removal of energetic electrons from the Earth's radiation belts and to predict the geographic location and magnitude of electron precipitation in both the northern and southern hemispheres.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..APR.B9008T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..APR.B9008T"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection at the Telescope Array Cosmic Ray Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takai, Helio; Belz, John; Thomson, Gordon; Hanlon, William; Rison, Bill; Thomas, Ron; Krehbiel, Paul; Okuda, Takeshi</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>It is known that the electric fields measured in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> clouds are an order of magnitude too small than the critical electric field required for dielectric breakdown of air, there are therefore unknown mechanisms at work which initiate <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. One theory is that cosmic ray air showers can initiate <span class="hlt">lightning</span> via a runaway breakdown process. To study this problem, 10 VHF <span class="hlt">lightning</span> monitoring stations built by New Mexico Tech were deployed at the Telescope Array site on September 2013. If cosmic rays act as <span class="hlt">lightning</span> initiators, then the TA surface detectors may be able to detect high energy particles from the associated air shower while the NMT <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detectors simultaneously measure VHF radio pulses of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges themselves. The Telescope Array is the largest cosmic ray observatory in the Northern hemisphere. Located in Millard County, Utah, it covers an area of 750 km2. The VHF monitoring stations can be used to produce 3D images of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes. Using both setups we hope to be able to investigate in detail the role of cosmic rays in <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, or if there is any gamma ray production from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity. We will discuss how a collaboration between TA, NMT and BNL can help in understanding of a long standing mysteries about <span class="hlt">lightning</span> formation. Results of data analysis for events that were observed in coincidence between our detectors will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APJAS..50..133S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APJAS..50..133S"><span>Statistical analysis of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> electric field measured under Malaysian condition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salimi, Behnam; Mehranzamir, Kamyar; Abdul-Malek, Zulkurnain</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> is an electrical discharge during thunderstorms that can be either within clouds (Inter-Cloud), or between clouds and ground (Cloud-Ground). The <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> characteristics and their statistical information are the foundation for the design of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection system as well as for the calculation of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> radiated fields. Nowadays, there are various techniques to detect <span class="hlt">lightning</span> signals and to determine various parameters produced by a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash. Each technique provides its own claimed performances. In this paper, the characteristics of captured broadband electric fields generated by cloud-to-ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges in South of Malaysia are analyzed. A total of 130 cloud-to-ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes from 3 separate thunderstorm events (each event lasts for about 4-5 hours) were examined. Statistical analyses of the following signal parameters were presented: preliminary breakdown pulse train time duration, time interval between preliminary breakdowns and return stroke, multiplicity of stroke, and percentages of single stroke only. The BIL model is also introduced to characterize the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> signature patterns. Observations on the statistical analyses show that about 79% of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> signals fit well with the BIL model. The maximum and minimum of preliminary breakdown time duration of the observed <span class="hlt">lightning</span> signals are 84 ms and 560 us, respectively. The findings of the statistical results show that 7.6% of the flashes were single stroke flashes, and the maximum number of strokes recorded was 14 multiple strokes per flash. A preliminary breakdown signature in more than 95% of the flashes can be identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004GeoRL..31.3102L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004GeoRL..31.3102L"><span>WWLL global <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection system: Regional validation study in Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lay, Erin H.; Holzworth, Robert H.; Rodger, Craig J.; Thomas, Jeremy N.; Pinto, Osmar; Dowden, Richard L.</p> <p>2004-02-01</p> <p>An experimental <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection network, the World Wide <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Location network (WWLL), is being developed to provide real time global coverage with 10 km location accuracy and at least 50% detection efficiency. This paper provides a ``worst case'' analysis of WWLL location accuracy in Brazil where the VLF <span class="hlt">lightning</span> receivers that make up the network are very distant (>7000 km). Through comparison to a local <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection network, we analyze the detection accuracy in Brazil with respect to time, location, and peak current of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes. In this study, we find that WWLL detection is highly dependent upon the peak return stroke current, resulting in detection of about 0.3% of the total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes. However, the detected strokes have a location accuracy of 20.25 +/- 13.5 km and a temporal accuracy of 0.06 +/- 0.2 ms, providing a good overview of regions of overall global <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity in real time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6343103','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6343103"><span>TVA's experience with the SUNYA <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Whitehead, J.; Driggans, R. )</p> <p>1990-10-01</p> <p>Since 1987 the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has had access to real-time data on cloud-to-ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes in its service area through the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network (LDN) operated by the State University of New York at Albany (SUNYA). <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> data are displayed in real-time on personal computer workstations connected to SUNYA via satellite link and are recorded for later analysis. TVA is using these data to analyze transmission line outages (real-time and historical), provide warning of approaching <span class="hlt">lightning</span> to line crews, develop ground flash density maps to replace isokeraunic maps previously used in designing transmission lines for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection, and to learn more about <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and its effect on TVA's transmission system. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> flashes that cause particular line outages have been identified and their current and multiplicity characteristics studied. This information may be used to allow more cost-effective transmission line design in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.168...57K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.168...57K"><span>The use of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data and Meteosat infrared imagery for the nowcasting of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karagiannidis, Athanasios; Lagouvardos, Konstantinos; Kotroni, Vassiliki</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The development and efficiency assessment of a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity nowcasting tool is presented. The tool employs MSG IR imagery and real-time <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data provided by ZEUS network to nowcast the manifestation of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity over the Greek mainland for a time span of 1 h. The efficiency of the tool is assessed for 20 days with widespread <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity observed during the warm period of the year through a verification procedure that computes a collection of appropriate statistics for selected areas. The analysis of these statistics shows that the tool estimates successfully almost 80% of the upcoming activity. The false alarm rate is close to 40%, while a small overestimation is evident. Since the adverse effects of a case of missed activity are much more than that of a false alarm, the tool is considered successful and fit for operational use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Freq...71..279F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Freq...71..279F"><span>The Effect of Direct <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Shielding Rod on <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Electromagnetic Fields Aboveground</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fu, Ya-Peng; Gao, Cheng; Yang, Bo</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>A practical new type direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> shielding rod is designed to reduce the electromagnetic radiation produced by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroking to Franklin <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rod in the paper. The Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method is adopted for analyzing. It is the shielding layer that affects the electromagnetic fields and the insulating medium make no difference. All the electromagnetic fields amplitude obtained decrease for the shielding layer existing, regardless of any condition, but the extent is different. That is, the effect on the horizontal electric field is most noticeable, the vertical electric field comes second, minimum the azimuthal magnetic field. All the field components are affected by shielding layer height and the distance between shielding layer and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel, but not significantly by the shielding layer grounding depth. The shielding effect is more obvious with lower ground conductivity, but the ground relative permittivity makes no difference.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.1123K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.1123K"><span>Simultaneous observations of optical <span class="hlt">lightning</span> from space and LF band <span class="hlt">lightning</span> waveforms from the ground</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Sato, Mitsuteru; Ushio, Tomoo; Morimoto, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Masayuki; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Suzuki, Makoto; Ishida, Ryohei; Sakamoto, Yuji; Wu, Ting; Kawasaki, Zen</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Observations of optical <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data with a photometer (PH4) at wavelengths of 599-900 nm on the International Space Station were conducted simultaneously with observations of low-frequency (LF) electromagnetic waves with a ground-based LF <span class="hlt">lightning</span> locating system. The relationship between the PH4 light curve and electromagnetic waveforms in the LF band was examined for 11 <span class="hlt">lightning</span> events. The PH4 sensor detected a small optical change even for weak light emitted from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges in clouds, including preliminary breakdown. Particularly, return strokes, including subsequent return strokes, showed a clear relationship between radiated LF waves and optical waveforms. For negative return strokes, we found a clear correlation between the absolute optical intensity and peak current. The slope of the regression line is 9.7 × 10-8 kA W-1 with an intercept of 9.9 kA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7428','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7428"><span>Thunderstorm and <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Studies using the FORTE Optical <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> System (FORTE/OLS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Argo, P.; Franz, R.; Green, J.; Guillen, J.L.; Jacobson, A.R.; Kirkland, M.; Knox, S.; Spalding, R.; Suszcynsky, D.M.</p> <p>1999-02-01</p> <p>Preliminary observations of simultaneous RF and optical emissions from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> as seen by the FORTE spacecraft are presented. RF/optical pairs of waveforms are routinely collected both as individual <span class="hlt">lightning</span> events and as sequences of events associated with cloud-to-ground (CG) and intra-cloud (IC) flashes. CG pulses can be distinguished from IC pulses based on the properties of the RF and optical waveforms, but mostly based on the associated RF spectrograms. The RF spectrograms are very similar to previous ground-based VHF observations of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and show signatures associated with return strokes, stepped and dart leaders, and attachment processes,. RF emissions are observed to precede the arrival of optical emissions at the satellite by a mean value of 280 microseconds. The dual phenomenology nature of these observations are discussed in terms of their ability to contribute to a satellite-based <span class="hlt">lightning</span> monitoring mission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990108787&hterms=RANGING&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DRANGING','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990108787&hterms=RANGING&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DRANGING"><span>Initial Comparison of the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor (LIS) with <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection and Ranging (LDAR)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ushio, Tomoo; Driscoll, Kevin; Heckman, Stan; Boccippio, Dennis; Koshak, William; Christian, Hugh</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The mapping of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> optical pulses detected by the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor (LIS) is compared with the radiation sources by <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection and Ranging (LDAR) and the National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network (NLDN) for three thunderstorms observed during and overpasses on 15 August 1998. The comparison involves 122 flashes including 42 ground and 80 cloud flashes. For ground flash, the LIS recorded the subsequent strokes and changes inside the cloud. For cloud flashes, LIS recorded those with higher sources in altitude and larger number of sources. The discrepancies between the LIS and LDAR flash locations are about 4.3 km for cloud flashes and 12.2 km for ground flashes. The reason for these differences remain a mystery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730002931','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730002931"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> criteria relative to space shuttles: Currents and electric field intensity in Florida <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Uman, M. A.; Mclain, D. K.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The measured electric field intensities of 161 <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes in 39 flashes which occurred between 1 and 35 km from an observation point at Kennedy Space Center, Florida during June and July of 1971 have been analyzed to determine the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel currents which produced the fields. In addition, typical channel currents are derived and from these typical electric fields at distances between 0.5 and 100 km are computed and presented. On the basis of the results recommendations are made for changes in the specification of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> properties relative to space vehicle design as given in NASA TMX-64589 (Daniels, 1971). The small sample of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> analyzed yielded several peak currents in the 100 kA range. Several current rise-times from zero to peak of 0.5 microsec or faster were found; and the fastest observed current rate-of-rise was near 200 kA/microsec. The various sources of error are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140008582','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140008582"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Jump Algorithm Development for the GOES·R Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schultz. E.; Schultz. C.; Chronis, T.; Stough, S.; Carey, L.; Calhoun, K.; Ortega, K.; Stano, G.; Cecil, D.; Bateman, M.; Goodman, S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Current work on the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump algorithm to be used in GOES-R Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper (GLM)'s data stream is multifaceted due to the intricate interplay between the storm tracking, GLM proxy data, and the performance of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump itself. This work outlines the progress of the last year, where analysis and performance of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump algorithm with automated storm tracking and GLM proxy data were assessed using over 700 storms from North Alabama. The cases analyzed coincide with previous semi-objective work performed using total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> mapping array (LMA) measurements in Schultz et al. (2011). Analysis shows that key components of the algorithm (flash rate and sigma thresholds) have the greatest influence on the performance of the algorithm when validating using severe storm reports. Automated objective analysis using the GLM proxy data has shown probability of detection (POD) values around 60% with false alarm rates (FAR) around 73% using similar methodology to Schultz et al. (2011). However, when applying verification methods similar to those employed by the National Weather Service, POD values increase slightly (69%) and FAR values decrease (63%). The relationship between storm tracking and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump has also been tested in a real-time framework at NSSL. This system includes fully automated tracking by radar alone, real-time LMA and radar observations and the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump. Results indicate that the POD is strong at 65%. However, the FAR is significantly higher than in Schultz et al. (2011) (50-80% depending on various tracking/<span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump parameters) when using storm reports for verification. Given known issues with Storm Data, the performance of the real-time jump algorithm is also being tested with high density radar and surface observations from the NSSL Severe Hazards Analysis & Verification Experiment (SHAVE).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Geomo.161..110W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Geomo.161..110W"><span>Does <span class="hlt">lightning</span> destroy rocks?: Results from a laboratory <span class="hlt">lightning</span> experiment using an impulse high-current generator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wakasa, Sachi A.; Nishimura, Seisuke; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Matsukura, Yukinori</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>To understand the destruction of rocks and changes to landforms by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes, laboratory experiments of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes were performed using three kinds of rock samples as targets. Artificial <span class="hlt">lightning</span> with known electric current was simulated by an impulse high-current generator in the laboratory. The artificial <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is different to natural <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. The high-current generator can generate up to 20 kA of electric current equal to 50% of the value of natural <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, but up to 50 kV of electric voltage which is a tenth to hundredth that of natural <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Experimental results showed that the rock samples with low mechanical resistance, tuff and rhyolite, were destroyed, while the rock sample with high mechanical resistance, i.e., granite, was not broken by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes. These results indicate that natural <span class="hlt">lightning</span> causes rocks and bedrock to break. These imply that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> might change landforms, for example gnammas and fractures on tors and mountain peaks where <span class="hlt">lightning</span> tends to strike.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21570915','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21570915"><span>Number of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges causing damage to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> arrester cables for aerial transmission lines in power systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nikiforov, E. P.</p> <p>2009-07-15</p> <p>Damage by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> arrester cables for 110-175 kV aerial transmission lines is analyzed using data from power systems on incidents with aerial transmission lines over a ten year operating period (1997-2006). It is found that failures of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> arrester cables occur when a tensile force acts on a cable heated to the melting point by a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> current. The <span class="hlt">lightning</span> currents required to heat a cable to this extent are greater for larger cable cross sections. The probability that a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge will develop decreases as the amplitude of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> current increases, which greatly reduces the number of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges which damage TK-70 cables compared to TK-50 cables. In order to increase the reliability of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> arrester cables for 110 kV aerial transmission lines, TK-70 cables should be used in place of TK-50 cables. The number of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges per year which damage <span class="hlt">lightning</span> arrester cables is lowered when the density of aerial transmission lines is reduced within the territory of electrical power systems. An approximate relationship between these two parameters is obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70039773','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70039773"><span>Combining satellite-based fire observations and ground-based <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detections to identify <span class="hlt">lightning</span> fires across the conterminous USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bar-Massada, A.; Hawbaker, T.J.; Stewart, S.I.; Radeloff, V.C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> fires are a common natural disturbance in North America, and account for the largest proportion of the area burned by wildfires each year. Yet, the spatiotemporal patterns of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> fires in the conterminous US are not well understood due to limitations of existing fire databases. Our goal here was to develop and test an algorithm that combined MODIS fire detections with <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detections from the National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network to identify <span class="hlt">lightning</span> fires across the conterminous US from 2000 to 2008. The algorithm searches for spatiotemporal conjunctions of MODIS fire clusters and NLDN detected <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes, given a spatiotemporal lag between <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike and fire ignition. The algorithm revealed distinctive spatial patterns of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> fires in the conterminous US While a sensitivity analysis revealed that the algorithm is highly sensitive to the two thresholds that are used to determine conjunction, the density of fires it detected was moderately correlated with ground based fire records. When only fires larger than 0.4 km2 were considered, correlations were higher and the root-mean-square error between datasets was less than five fires per 625 km2 for the entire study period. Our algorithm is thus suitable for detecting broad scale spatial patterns of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> fire occurrence, and especially <span class="hlt">lightning</span> fire hotspots, but has limited detection capability of smaller fires because these cannot be consistently detected by MODIS. These results may enhance our understanding of large scale patterns of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> fire activity, and can be used to identify the broad scale factors controlling fire occurrence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990108667&hterms=cell+atlas&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dcell%2Batlas','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990108667&hterms=cell+atlas&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dcell%2Batlas"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> First Pulses Used in the "Last" (Time-of-Arrival) and "Atlas" (Single Station) Total <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Markson, Ralph; Ruhnke, Lothar</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The first RF pulse from "total <span class="hlt">lightning</span>' discharges (cloud and ground flashes) has been used in different ways to locate the origin of flashes in two new types of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection systems. The multisensor LASI time-of-arrival (TOA) system uses GPS timing of the first pulse. The ATLAS single sensor system uses the amplitude of the first pulse, which is invariant in magnitude and polarization for all <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges, to determine distance from the sensor. It is significantly more accurate than past single sensor <span class="hlt">lightning</span> mapping systems. The polarity of the first pulse generally identifies <span class="hlt">lightning</span> type (IC or CG). Both systems utilize only the first pulse which makes signal processing much simpler than with previous <span class="hlt">lightning</span> locating systems. Knowing the position where <span class="hlt">lightning</span> begins (maximum electric fields, mixed phase hydrometeors and updrafts) is valuable for identifying convective cells producing the hazardous meteorological conditions caused by thunderstorms. It is also important for research studying thunderstorm electrification and associated microphysical problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRD..11213111L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRD..11213111L"><span>Local time variation in land/ocean <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash density as measured by the World Wide <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Location Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lay, Erin H.; Jacobson, Abram R.; Holzworth, Robert H.; Rodger, Craig J.; Dowden, Richard L.</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>We study local time variation in high peak current <span class="hlt">lightning</span> over land versus over ocean by using <span class="hlt">lightning</span> locations from the World Wide <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Location Network (WWLLN). Optical <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data from the photodiode detector on the Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) satellite are used to determine the relative detection efficiency of the WWLLN for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> events by region, as well as over land versus over ocean. We find that the peak <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash density varies for the different continents by up to 5 hours in local time. Because the WWLLN measures <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes with large peak currents, the variation in local time of WWLLN-detected strokes suggests a similar variation in local time of transient luminous events (e.g., elves) and their effects on the lower ionosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.172....1M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.172....1M"><span>The verification of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location accuracy in Finland deduced from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to trees</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mäkelä, Antti; Mäkelä, Jakke; Haapalainen, Jussi; Porjo, Niko</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We present a new method to determine the ground truth and accuracy of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location systems (LLS), using natural <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to trees. Observations of strikes to trees are being collected with a Web-based survey tool at the Finnish Meteorological Institute. Since the Finnish thunderstorms tend to have on average a low flash rate, it is often possible to identify from the LLS data unambiguously the stroke that caused damage to a given tree. The coordinates of the tree are then the ground truth for that stroke. The technique has clear advantages over other methods used to determine the ground truth. Instrumented towers and rocket launches measure upward-propagating <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Video and audio records, even with triangulation, are rarely capable of high accuracy. We present data for 36 quality-controlled tree strikes in the years 2007-2008. We show that the average inaccuracy of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location network for that period was 600 m. In addition, we show that the 50% confidence ellipse calculated by the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location network and used operationally for describing the location accuracy is physically meaningful: half of all the strikes were located within the uncertainty ellipse of the nearest recorded stroke. Using tree strike data thus allows not only the accuracy of the LLS to be estimated but also the reliability of the uncertainty ellipse. To our knowledge, this method has not been attempted before for natural <span class="hlt">lightning</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140007287','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140007287"><span>Assessment of the Pseudo Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper Products at the Spring Program and Summer Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stano, Geoffrey T.; Calhoun, Kristin K.; Terborg, Amanda M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Since 2010, the de facto Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper (GLM) demonstration product has been the Pseudo-Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper (PGLM) product suite. Originally prepared for the Hazardous Weather Testbed's Spring Program (specifically the Experimental Warning Program) when only four ground-based <span class="hlt">lightning</span> mapping arrays were available, the effort now spans collaborations with several institutions and eight collaborative networks. For 2013, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center and NOAA's National Severe Storms Laboratory have worked to collaborate with each network to obtain data in real-time. This has gone into producing the SPoRT variant of the PGLM that was demonstrated in AWIPS <span class="hlt">II</span> for the 2013 Spring Program. Alongside the PGLM products, the SPoRT / Meteorological Development Laboratory's total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> tracking tool also was evaluated to assess not just another visualization of future GLM data but how to best extract more information while in the operational environment. Specifically, this tool addressed the leading request by forecasters during evaluations; provide a time series trend of total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in real-time. In addition to the Spring Program, SPoRT is providing the PGLM "mosaic" to the Aviation Weather Center (AWC) and Storm Prediction Center. This is the same as what is used at the Hazardous Weather Testbed, but combines all available networks into one display for use at the national centers. This year, the mosaic was evaluated during the AWC's Summer Experiment. An important distinction between this and the Spring Program is that the Summer Experiment focuses on the national center perspective and not at the local forecast office level. Specifically, the Summer Experiment focuses on aviation needs and concerns and brings together operational forecaster, developers, and FAA representatives. This presentation will focus on the evaluation of SPoRT's pseudo-GLM products in these separate test beds. The emphasis</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec35-38.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec35-38.pdf"><span>14 CFR 35.38 - <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> strike.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by tests, analysis based on tests, or experience on similar designs, that the propeller can withstand...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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