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Sample records for f-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders

  1. Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders: Synthesis, thermal stability and sinterability

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, Alessandra Cacciotti, Ilaria; Lombardi, Mariangela Montanaro, Laura

    2009-02-04

    Synthetic hydroxyapatites incorporating small amounts of Si have shown improved biological performances in terms of enhanced bone apposition, bone in-growth and cell-mediated degradation. This paper reports a systematic investigation on Si-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si 1.40 wt%) nanopowders produced following two different conventional wet methodologies: (a) precipitation of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O and (b) titration of Ca(OH){sub 2}. The influence of the synthesis process on composition, thermal behaviour and sinterability of the resulting nanopowders is studied. Samples were characterised by electron microscopy, induced coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption measurements, X-ray diffraction and dilatometry. Semicrystalline Si-substituted hydroxyapatite powders made up of needle-like nanoparticles were obtained, the specific surface area ranged between 84 and 110 m{sup 2}/g. Pure and Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders derived from Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O decomposed around 1000 deg. C. Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders obtained from Ca(OH){sub 2} were thermally stable up to 1200 deg. C and showed a distinct decreased thermal stability with respect to the homologous pure sample. Si-substituted hydroxyapatites exhibited higher sintering temperature and increased total shrinkage with respect to pure powders. Nanostructured dense ceramics were obtained by sintering at 1100 deg. C Si-substituted hydroxyapatites derived from Ca(OH){sub 2}.

  2. Bio-nanoplatforms based on carbon dots conjugating with F-substituted nano-hydroxyapatite for cellular imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yafei; Shi, Liyi; Fang, Jianhui; Feng, Xin

    2015-12-21

    Carbon dots (CDs) have shown great promise in a wide range of bioapplications due to their tunable optical properties and noncytotoxicity. For the first time, a rational strategy was designed to construct new bio-nanoplatforms based on carboxylic acid terminated CDs (CDs-COOH) conjugating with amino terminated F-substituted nano-hydroxyapatite (NFAp) via EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. The monodisperse NFAp nanorods were functionalized with o-phosphoethanolamine (PEA) to provide them with amino groups and render them hydrophilic with respect to the ligand exchange process. The CDs-COOH@PEA-NFAp conjugates exhibits bright blue fluorescence under UV illumination, excellent photostability and colloidal stability. Due to their low cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility as determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, the CDs-COOH@PEA-NFAp conjugates were successfully applied as bio-nanoplatforms to MCF-7 breast cancer cells for cellular imaging in vitro. More importantly, the functional CDs conjugated to NFAp provide an extended and general approach to construct different water-soluble NFAp bio-nanoplatforms for other easily functionalised luminescent materials. Therefore, these green nanoplatforms may be a prospective candidate for applications in bioimaging or targeted biological therapy and drug delivery.

  3. Bio-nanoplatforms based on carbon dots conjugating with F-substituted nano-hydroxyapatite for cellular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yafei; Shi, Liyi; Fang, Jianhui; Feng, Xin

    2015-11-01

    Carbon dots (CDs) have shown great promise in a wide range of bioapplications due to their tunable optical properties and noncytotoxicity. For the first time, a rational strategy was designed to construct new bio-nanoplatforms based on carboxylic acid terminated CDs (CDs-COOH) conjugating with amino terminated F-substituted nano-hydroxyapatite (NFAp) via EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. The monodisperse NFAp nanorods were functionalized with o-phosphoethanolamine (PEA) to provide them with amino groups and render them hydrophilic with respect to the ligand exchange process. The CDs-COOH@PEA-NFAp conjugates exhibits bright blue fluorescence under UV illumination, excellent photostability and colloidal stability. Due to their low cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility as determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, the CDs-COOH@PEA-NFAp conjugates were successfully applied as bio-nanoplatforms to MCF-7 breast cancer cells for cellular imaging in vitro. More importantly, the functional CDs conjugated to NFAp provide an extended and general approach to construct different water-soluble NFAp bio-nanoplatforms for other easily functionalised luminescent materials. Therefore, these green nanoplatforms may be a prospective candidate for applications in bioimaging or targeted biological therapy and drug delivery.Carbon dots (CDs) have shown great promise in a wide range of bioapplications due to their tunable optical properties and noncytotoxicity. For the first time, a rational strategy was designed to construct new bio-nanoplatforms based on carboxylic acid terminated CDs (CDs-COOH) conjugating with amino terminated F-substituted nano-hydroxyapatite (NFAp) via EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. The monodisperse NFAp nanorods were functionalized with o-phosphoethanolamine (PEA) to provide them with amino groups and render them hydrophilic with respect to the ligand exchange process. The CDs-COOH@PEA-NFAp conjugates exhibits bright blue fluorescence under UV illumination

  4. Evaluation of Hydroxyapatite-Forsterite Glass Composite Nanopowder Prepared via Sol-Gel Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazrooei Sebdani, Maryam; Fathi, Mohammadhossein

    In spite of attractive bioactivity of bioactive ceramics i.e. hydroxyapatite and bioactive glasses, their poor mechanical properties have restricted their clinical applications. To overcome these limitations, an alternative approach suggested is preparation a composite including these bioactive ceramics with others. It is expected that a ceramic reinforcement with reduced grain size below 100 nm promotes theirs. The aim of this work was fabrication and characterization of hydroxyapatite-forsterite-bioglass composite nanopowder. Novel hydroxyapatite-forsterite-bioglass composite nanopowder was synthesized by incorporation of the forsterite and bioactive glass in hydroxyapatite matrix via a sol-gel process. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy techniques were utilized in order to evaluate the phase composition, agglomerates size distribution, morphology and particle size and functional groups of synthesized. The effects of sintering temperature and time were also investigated. Results showed that the appropriate temperature for calcination was 600°C and the particle size of composite nanopowder was about 60-70nm. The decomposition of hydroxyapatite was increased with the increase of the sintering temperature and sintering time. Obtained results indicate that prepared composite nanopowder could be a good candidate for medical applications.

  5. Antimicrobial properties of silver-doped hydroxyapatite nano-powders and thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sygnatowicz, Michael; Keyshar, Kunttal; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2010-07-01

    Silver-doped hydroxyapatite nanopowders were prepared using a solution based sol-gel method and thoroughly characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Antibacterial tests showed silver-doped HAP powders prevented the growth and reproduction of bacteria. Silver-doped HAP powders were pressed into pellets and on these pellets a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique was employed to grow amorphous and crystalline thin films on sapphire substrates. Crystalline films had silver nano-particles present within the HAP matrix. Film stability tests showed crystalline films to be far more stable in prolonged solution submersion than their amorphous counterparts.

  6. Reverse micelle mediated synthesis, processing, mechanical and biological characterization of hydroxyapatite nanopowders for bone graft application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Ashis

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is the most widely used bioceramic material in bone graft applications because of its compositional similarity with natural bone. However, synthetic HA does not show similar mechanical and biological properties to the inorganic component of bone. Properties of ceramic material depend on starting materials, processing techniques, densification and microstructure of the final product. The objective of this research was to process HA whisker reinforced HA composite using HA nanopowders and whiskers. HA nanopowders with different length scale and morphology were synthesized by reverse micelle system using NP5 and NP12 as surfactants and cyclohexane as organic solvent. The lowest average aspect ratio was 1.357+/-0.39 with average particle size of 66 nm and the highest average aspect ratio was 7.277+/-3.227 with average length of 150 nm and width of 20 nm, were synthesized. Micron sized HA whiskers with aspect ratio between 20 and 50, average particle length of 15 mum and width of 400 nm was synthesized using urea as a precipitating agent. Desired microstructure was obtained after sintering with spherical HA nanopowder and whiskers along with dopants. Addition of whiskers decreased density of the sintered compacts. However, at 10 wt% whisker content sample showed microhardness and fracture toughness of 3.6 GPa and 1.5 MPa.m1/2, respectively, and a compressive strength of 80 MPa was obtained. Mineralization study in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed formation of apatite layer on the dense HA compacts indicating a good tendency of bond formation with natural bone. Cytotoxicity results showed excellent cell attachment on the HA surface. In the Appendices, 3 journal articles have been attached which describe synthesis, processing and characterization of undoped and doped PZT nanopowders. Free standing and agglomerated PZT nanopowders were synthesized by the sucrose templated method and the citrate nitrate autocombustion method. Particle size in the range

  7. Porous hydroxyapatite-TiO2 nanocomposites from natural phosphates and their decolorization properties. Photoactive hydroxyapatite-TiO2 nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouyarmane, H.; Saoiabi, S.; El Hanbali, I.; El Karbane, M.; Rami, A.; Masse, S.; Laghzizil, A.; Coradin, T.

    2015-07-01

    Titanium dioxide-hydroxyapatite nanopowders were prepared by the simultaneous gelation of a titanium alkoxide and precipitation of a redisolved natural phosphate mineral. Evolution of the crystallinity, porous features and surface reactivity of these powders as a function of Ti content and heating was studied. Optimal conditions were found for the preparation of a low-cost nanocomposite powder that was as effective as pure titania for the decolorization of methylene blue solutions.

  8. Synthesis of antimicrobial monophase silver-doped hydroxyapatite nanopowders for bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanić, Vojislav; Janaćković, Djordje; Dimitrijević, Suzana; Tanasković, Sladjana B.; Mitrić, Miodrag; Pavlović, Mirjana S.; Krstić, Aleksandra; Jovanović, Dragoljub; Raičević, Slavica

    2011-02-01

    Monophase silver-doped hydroxyapatite (AgxCa10-x(PO4)6(OH)2; 0.002 ≤ x ≤ 0.04) nanoparticles were prepared using a neutralization method and investigated with respect to potential medical applications. This method consists of dissolving Ag2O in solution of H3PO4, and the slow addition to suspension of Ca(OH)2 was applied for the purpose of homogenous distribution of silver ions. Characterization studies from XRD, TEM and FTIR spectra showed that obtained crystals are monophase hydroxyapatites and that particles of all samples are of nano size, with average length of 70 nm and about 15-25 nm in diameter. Antimicrobial studies have demonstrated that all silver-doped hydroxyapatite samples exhibit excellent antimicrobial activity in vitro against the following pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The hydroxyapatite sample with the highest content of silver has shown the highest antimicrobial activity; killed all cells of E. coli and brought to more than 99% reduction in viable counts of S. aureus and C. albicans. The atomic force microscopic studies illustrate that silver-doped hydroxyapatite sample causes considerable morphological changes of microorganism cells which might be the cause of cells' death. Hemolysis ratios of the silver-doped hydroxyapatite samples were below 3%, indicating good blood compatibility and that are promising as biomaterials.

  9. In vitro characterisation of a sol-gel derived in situ silica-coated silicate and carbonate co-doped hydroxyapatite nanopowder for bone grafting.

    PubMed

    Latifi, Seyed Mohsen; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Sharifnabi, Ali; Varshosaz, Jaleh

    2017-06-01

    Design and synthesis of materials with better properties and performance are essential requirements in the field of biomaterials science that would directly improve patient quality of life. For this purpose, in situ silica-coated silicate and carbonate co-doped hydroxyapatite (Sc/S.C.HA) nanopowder was synthesized via the sol-gel method. Characterisation of the prepared nanopowder was carried out by XRD, FTIR, TEM, SEM, EDX, ICP, zeta potential, acid dissolution test, and cell culture test. The substitution of the silicate and carbonate ions into hydroxyapatite structure was confirmed by FTIR analysis. XRD analysis showed that silica is an amorphous phase, which played a role in covering the surface of the S.C.HA nanoparticles as confirmed by acid dissolution test. Low thickness and low integrity of the amorphous silica surface layer facilitated ions release from S.C.HA nanoparticles into physiological saline solution. Zeta potential of the prepared nanopowder suspended in physiological saline solution was -27.3±0.2mV at pH7.4. This negatively charged surface, due to the presence of amorphous silica layer upon the S.C.HA nanoparticles, not only had an accelerating effect on in vitro biomineralization of apatite, but also had a positive effect on cell attachment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermal stability of a modified sol-gel derived hydroxyapatite nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herradi, S.; El Bali, B.; Khaldi, M.; Lachkar, M.

    2017-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 (HA) powder was successfully synthesized by a modified sol-gel method using a solution of calcium nitrate in ethanol, along with a solution of diammonium hydrogen phosphate in water and NH4OH as starting materials. The Ca/P molar ratio was maintained at 1.67. The powder was subjected to furnace and microwave heating to compare the decomposition of HA and study the crystallite sizes. It was found that microwave heated powders were pure HAP up to 230°C with absence of secondary phases. However, XRD patterns show that furnace heated powders convert completely to β-TCP when treated at 750°C and 1000°C. This result was confirmed by the absence of hydroxyl bands in the FT-IR spectra for these temperatures.

  11. Development of multi-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders as biomedical materials for bone tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Baba Ismail, Yanny M; Wimpenny, Ian; Bretcanu, Oana; Dalgarno, Kenneth; El Haj, Alicia J

    2017-02-15

    Ionic substitutions have been proposed as a tool to control the functional behavior of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA), particularly for Bone Tissue Engineering (BTE) applications. The effect of simultaneous substitution of different levels of carbonate (CO3 ) and silicon (Si) ions in the HA lattice was investigated. Furthermore, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured on multi-substituted HA (SiCHA) to determine if biomimetic chemical compositions were osteoconductive. Of the four different compositions investigates, SiCHA-1 (0.58wt% Si) and SiCHA-2 (0.45wt% Si) showed missing bands for CO3 and Si using FTIR analysis, indicating competition for occupation of the phosphate site in the HA lattice. 500°C was considered the most favourable calcination temperature as: (i) the powders produced possessed a similar amount of CO3 (2-8wt%) and Si (<1.0wt%) as present in native bone; and (ii) there was a minimal loss of CO3 and Si from the HA structure to the surroundings during calcination. Higher Si content in SiCHA-1 led to lower cell viability and at most hindered proliferation, but no toxicity effect occurred. While, lower Si content in SiCHA-2 showed the highest ALP/DNA ratio after 21 days culture with hMSCs, indicating that the powder may stimulate osteogenic behaviour to a greater extent than other powders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis of fluorine substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders and application of the central composite design for determination of its antimicrobial effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanić, Vojislav; Dimitrijević, Suzana; Antonović, Dušan G.; Jokić, Bojan M.; Zec, Slavica P.; Tanasković, Sladjana T.; Raičević, Slavica

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biomaterials based on fluorine substituted hydroxyapatite are potentially attractive for orthopedic and dental implant applications. The new synthesis of fluorine substituted hydroxyapatite samples were done by neutralization, which consists of adding the solution of HF and H3PO4 in suspension of Ca(OH)2. Characterization studies from XRD, SEM and FTIR spectra showed that crystals are obtained with apatite structure and those particles of all samples are nano size, with an average length of 80 nm and about 15-25 nm in diameter. The central composite design was used in order to determine the optimal conditions for the antimicrobial activity of the synthesized samples. In order to evaluate the influence of operating parameters on the percent of viable cell reduction of Streptococcus mutans, three independent variables were chosen: exposure time, pH of saline and floride concentration in apatite samples. The experimental and predicted antimicrobial activities were in close agreement. Antimicrobial activity of the samples increases with the increase of fluoride concentration and the decreased pH of saline. The maximum antimicrobial activity was achieved at the initial pH of 4.

  13. Electric explosion nickel nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partizan, G.; Mansurov, B. Z.; Medyanova, B. S.; Koshanova, A. B.; Aliev, B. A.

    2016-11-01

    The structure and the morphology of the nickel nanopowders synthesized by an electric explosion of a metallic wire are comprehensively studied. The results of scanning and transmission electron microscopies show that the nickel nanoclusters have a spherical shape with an average diameter of 50 nm. An analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns demonstrates that the lattice parameter of the electric explosion nanopowder particles is larger than the standard parameter. The results of computer experiments agree well with the conclusions drawn from X-ray diffraction data. However, the causes of the lattice distortion in the nickel nanoclusters are still debatable.

  14. Fugitive emissions from nanopowder manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trompetter, W. J.; Ancelet, T.; Davy, P. K.; Kennedy, J.

    2016-07-01

    In response to health and safety questions and concerns regarding particulate matter emissions from equipment used for synthesizing NiFe and TiO2 nanopowders, a study was undertaken to assess their impact on the air quality inside and outside a laboratory where the manufacturing equipment is operated. Elemental concentrations determined by ion beam analysis (IBA) of air particulate matter (PM) samples collected hourly with a StreakerTM sampler were used to identify possible sources and estimate contributions from nanopowder production and other sources. The fugitive nanopowder emissions were the highest at the indoor sampling location when powders were being manufactured. Average fugitive emissions of 210 ng m-3 (1-h average) (maximum 2163 ng m-3 1-h average) represented 2 % (maximum 20 %) of the average PM collected (9359 ng m-3 1-h average). The measured NiFe alloy or TiO2 PM concentrations were much smaller than the 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) workplace exposure standards (WES) for these materials (≥1,000,000 ng m-3). Most PM was found to be from infiltrated outdoor ambient sources. This suggests that nanopowder production in the laboratory is not likely to have adverse health effects on individuals using the equipment, although further improvements can be made to further limit exposure.

  15. Fluidization of nanopowders: a review.

    PubMed

    van Ommen, J Ruud; Valverde, Jose Manuel; Pfeffer, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are applied in a wide range of processes, and their use continues to increase. Fluidization is one of the best techniques available to disperse and process NPs. NPs cannot be fluidized individually; they fluidize as very porous agglomerates. The objective of this article is to review the developments in nanopowder fluidization. Often, it is needed to apply an assistance method, such as vibration or microjets, to obtain proper fluidization. These methods can greatly improve the fluidization characteristics, strongly increase the bed expansion, and lead to a better mixing of the bed material. Several approaches have been applied to model the behavior of fluidized nanopowders. The average size of fluidized NP agglomerates can be estimated using a force balance or by a modified Richardson and Zaki equation. Some first attempts have been made to apply computational fluid dynamics. Fluidization can also be used to provide individual NPs with a thin coating of another material and to mix two different species of nanopowder. The application of nanopowder fluidization in practice is still limited, but a wide range of potential applications is foreseen. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11051-012-0737-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  16. Porous hydroxyapatite-gelatin composites with functions of bone substitutes and drug releasing agents: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sopyan, I.; Sulaiman, N. S.; Gustiono, D.; Herdianto, N.

    2006-01-01

    Biomedical composites made of porous hydroxyapatite (HA) bonded with a biodegradable polymeric matrix gelatin have been prepared. This device is expected to be useful as an excellent bone graft with bioactive hydroxyapatite which will facilitate new bone formation and at the same time it could functions as drug delivery with a controlled release rate. In this preliminary report, we wish to present preparation and physical characterization of the biomedical composite and the non-biodegradable porous hydroxyapatite composing the matrix of the composite. Porous hydroxyapatite was prepared via polymeric sponge method using hydroxyapatite nanopowders which were prepared via sol-gel procedure. Suspensions of the sol-gel derived hydroxyapatite powder was prepared with an adjusted loading of hydroxyapatite, using a dispersant. After soaking cellulosic sponges into the suspension, the sponges were dried and then subjected to heat-treatment at 600°C, followed by sintering at 1250°C for 1h. Three types of porous hydroxyapatite samples have been prepared in various composition of hydroxyapatite suspension. Porous hydroxyapatite bodies produced from slurry with less hydroxyapatite powder content and more dispersant amount yielded higher porosity and thus causing weaker compressive strength. Compressive strengths varied between 0.67 and 1.94 MPa depending on the porosity of the sample. Porosity plays important role in gelatin loading; the amount of gelatin coated on the porous hydroxyapatite bodies depend on porosity and the gelatin concentration in water solution. The higher porosity the more gelatin can be absorbed by the porous body.

  17. Nanopowder Metal Oxide for Photoluminescent Gas Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhyrovetsky, V. M.; Popovych, D. I.; Savka, S. S.; Serednytski, A. S.

    2017-02-01

    Gas sensing properties of metal oxide nanopowders (ZnO, TiO2, WO3, SnO2) with average diameters of 40-60 nm were analyzed by room-temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy. The influence of gas environment (O2, N2, H2, CO, CO2) on the emission intensity was investigated for metal oxide nanopowders with surface doped by impurities (Pt, Ag, Au, Sn, Ni or Cu). Established physicochemical regularities of modification of surface electronic states of initial and doped nanopowders during gas adsorption. The nature of metal oxide nanopowder gas-sensing properties (adsorption capacity, sensitivity, selectivity) has been established and the design and optimal materials for the construction of the multi-component sensing matrix have been selected.

  18. Method for forming energetic nanopowders

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Kien-Yin; Asay, Blaine W.; Kennedy, James E.

    2013-10-15

    A method for the preparation of neat energetic powders, having nanometer dimensions, is described herein. For these neat powder, a solution of a chosen energetic material is prepared in an aprotic solvent and later combined with liquid hexane that is miscible with such solvent. The energetic material chosen is less soluble in the liquid hexane than in the aprotic solvent and the liquid hexane is cooled to a temperature that is below that of the solvent solution. In order to form a precipitate of said neat powders, the solvent solution is rapidly combined with the liquid hexane. When the resulting precipitate is collected, it may be dried and filtered to yield an energetic nanopowder material.

  19. Rheological behavior of oxide nanopowder suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinar, Simge

    Ceramic nanopowders offer great potential in advanced ceramic materials and many other technologically important applications. Because a material's rheological properties are crucial for most processing routes, control of the rheological behavior has drawn significant attention in the recent past. The control of rheological behavior relies on an understanding of how different parameters affect the suspension viscosities. Even though the suspension stabilization mechanisms are relatively well understood for sub-micron and micron size particle systems, this knowledge cannot be directly transferred to nanopowder suspensions. Nanopowder suspensions exhibit unexpectedly high viscosities that cannot be explained with conventional mechanisms and are still a topic of investigation. This dissertation aims to establish the critical parameters governing the rheological behavior of concentrated oxide nanopowder suspensions, and to elucidate the mechanisms by which these parameters control the rheology of these suspensions. Aqueous alumina nanopowders were chosen as a model system, and the findings were extrapolated to other oxide nanopowder systems such as zirconia, yttria stabilized zirconia, and titania. Processing additives such as fructose, NaCl, HCl, NaOH, and ascorbic acid were used in this study. The effect of solids content and addition of fructose on the viscosity of alumina nanopowder suspensions was investigated by low temperature differential scanning calorimetry (LT-DSC), rheological, and zeta potential measurements. The analysis of bound water events observed in LT-DSC revealed useful information regarding the rheological behavior of nanopowder suspensions. Because of the significance of interparticle interactions in nanopowder suspensions, the electrostatic stabilization was investigated using indifferent and potential determining ions. Different mechanisms, e.g., the effect of the change in effective volume fraction caused by fructose addition and electrostatic

  20. Microwave hybrid synthesis of silicon carbide nanopowders

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadzadeh, Touradj Marzban-Rad, Ehsan

    2009-01-15

    Nanosized silicon carbide powders were synthesised from a mixture of silica gel and carbon through both the conventional and microwave heating methods. Reaction kinetics of SiC formation were found to exhibit notable differences for the samples heated in microwave field and furnace. In the conventional method SiC nanopowders can be synthesised after 105 min heating at 1500 deg. C in a coke-bed using an electrical tube furnace. Electron microscopy studies of these powders showed the existence of equiaxed SiC nanopowders with an average particle size of 8.2 nm. In the microwave heating process, SiC powders formed after 60 min; the powder consisted of a mixture of SiC nanopowders (with two average particle sizes of 13.6 and 58.2 nm) and particles in the shape of long strands (with an average diameter of 330 nm)

  1. Improvement of mechanical and thermal properties of high energy electron beam irradiated HDPE/hydroxyapatite nano-composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, M.; Ziaie, F.; Majdabadi, A.; Akhavan, A.; Shafaei, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this research work, the nano-composites of high density polyethylene/hydroxyapatite samples were manufactured via two methods: In the first method, the granules of high density polyethylene and nano-structure hydroxyapatite were processed in an internal mixer to prepare the nano-composite samples with a different weight percentage of the reinforcement phase. As for the second one, high density polyethylene was prepared in nano-powder form in boiling xylene. During this procedure, the hydroxyapatite nano-powder was added with different weight percentages to the solvent to obtain the nano-composite. In both of the procedures, the used hydroxyapatite nano-powder was synthesized via hydrolysis methods. The samples were irradiated under 10 MeV electron beam in 70-200 kGy of doses. Mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of the samples were investigated and compared. The results demonstrate that the nano-composites which we have prepared using nano-polyethylene, show better mechanical and thermal properties than the composites prepared from normal polyethylene granules, due to the better dispersion of nano-particles in the polymer matrix.

  2. Synthesis of carbon nanostructures on iron nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshanova, A.; Partizan, G.; Mansurov, B.; Medyanova, B.; Mansurova, M.; Aliev, B.; Jiang, Xin

    2016-08-01

    This work presents the results of experiments on synthesis of carbon nanostructures (CNs) by the method of thermal chemical vapor deposition using iron nanopowders obtained by the method of electrical explosion of wires as catalysts. To study the process of nucleation and growth of individual carbon nanostructures, experiments were conducted not only on nanopowders, but also on the separated clusters. To determine the optimum conditions of the carbon nanostructures synthesis and lower temperature limit, experiments were performed at different temperatures (300-700°C) and pressures (100-400 mbar). The experiments have shown that the lower temperature limit for carbon nanostructures synthesis on the iron nanopowders is 350°C and in this process the growth of carbon nanostructures is not so massive. Stable growth of carbon nanostructures for nanopowders began from 400°C during the entire range of pressures. The analysis of Raman spectroscopy showed that the most optimum conditions for obtaining nanotubes of high quality are P = 100 mbar and T = 425°C.

  3. Plasmadynamic synthesis of Ti-B nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, D.; Sivkov, A.; Gerasimov, D.; Evdokimov, A.

    2017-05-01

    Ti-B nanopowders were produced by plasmadynamic synthesis. This method was implemented by the synthesis in an electrodischarge plasma jet generated by a high-current pulsed coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator. Two experiments were carried out using copper and titanium conductors for initiating the plasma jet. The synthesized products were analyzed by several modern techniques including X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. The variety of crystalline phases in the products of both Ti-B and Ti-O systems were identified. The most successful results were obtained using titanium conductors. In this case, the product mainly contains titanium boride and titanium diboride. Synthesized powder consists of hexagonal and cubic particles, which were identified as titanium boride and titanium diboride particles, respectively. The method using titanium conductors for initiating the plasma jet is more efficient and simple way for obtaining TiB/TiB2 nanopowders.

  4. A silver ion-doped calcium phosphate-based ceramic nanopowder-coated prosthesis increased infection resistance.

    PubMed

    Kose, Nusret; Otuzbir, Ali; Pekşen, Ceren; Kiremitçi, Abdurrahman; Doğan, Aydin

    2013-08-01

    Despite progress in surgical techniques, 1% to 2% of joint arthroplasties become complicated by infection. Coating implant surfaces with antimicrobial agents have been attempted to prevent initial bacterial adhesion to implants with varying success rates. We developed a silver ion-containing calcium phosphate-based ceramic nanopowder coating to provide antibacterial activity for orthopaedic implants. We asked whether titanium prostheses coated with this nanopowder would show resistance to bacterial colonization as compared with uncoated prostheses. We inserted titanium implants (uncoated [n = 9], hydroxyapatite-coated [n = 9], silver-coated [n = 9]) simulating knee prostheses into 27 rabbits' knees. Before implantation, 5 × 10(2) colony-forming units of Staphylococcus aureus were inoculated into the femoral canal. Radiology, microbiology, and histology findings were quantified at Week 6 to define the infection, microbiologically by increased rate of implant colonization/positive cultures, histologically by leukocyte infiltration, necrosis, foreign-body granuloma, and devitalized bone, and radiographically by periosteal reaction, osteolysis, or sequestrum formation. Swab samples taken from medullary canals and implants revealed a lower proportion of positive culture in silver-coated implants (one of nine) than in uncoated (eight of nine) or hydroxyapatite-coated (five of nine) implants. Silver-coated implants also had a lower rate of colonization. No cellular inflammation or foreign-body granuloma was observed around the silver-coated prostheses. Silver ion-doped ceramic nanopowder coating of titanium implants led to an increase in resistance to bacterial colonization compared to uncoated implants. Silver-coated orthopaedic implants may be useful for resistance to local infection but will require in vivo confirmation.

  5. Production and properties of electrosprayed sericin nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazeri, Najmeh; Tavanai, Hossein; Moradi, Ali Reza

    2012-06-01

    Sericin is a proteinous substrate that envelops fibroin (silk) fiber, and its recovery provides significant economical and social benefits. Sericin is an antibacterial agent that resists oxidation and absorbs moisture and UV light. In powder form, sericin has a wide range of applications in food, cosmetics and drug delivery. Asides from other techniques of producing powder, such as precipitation and spray drying, electrospraying can yield solid nanoparticles, particularly in the submicron range. Here, we report the production of sericin nanopowder by electrospraying. Sericin sponge was recovered from Bombyx mori cocoons through a high-temperature, high-pressure process, followed by centrifugation and freeze drying of the sericin solution. The electrospraying solution was prepared by dissolving the sericin sponge in dimethyl sulfoxide. We demonstrate that electrospraying is capable of producing sericin nanopowder with an average particle size of 25 nm, which is by far smaller than the particles produced by other techniques. The electrosprayed sericin nanopowder consists of small crystallites and exhibits a high moisture absorbance.

  6. Spray freeze drying of YSZ nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghupathy, Bala P. C.; Binner, J. G. P.

    2012-07-01

    Spray freeze drying of yttria stabilised zirconia nanopowders with a primary particle size of 16 nm has been undertaken using different solids content starting suspensions, with the effect of the latter on the flowability and crushability of the granules being investigated. The flowability and fill density of the granules increased with an increase in the solid content of the starting suspension, whilst the crushability decreased. The powder flowability, measured using a Hall flowmeter and model shoe-die filling tests, showed that the flowability of otherwise poorly flowable nanopowders can be improved to match that of the commercial spray dried submicron powder. The 5.5 vol.% solid content based suspension yielded soft agglomerates whilst a 28 vol.% solid content suspension formed hard agglomerates on spray freeze drying; the granule relics were visible in the fracture surface of the die pressed green compact in the latter case. The increase in granule strength is explained by the reduction in inter-particle distance based on the theories developed by Rumpf and Kendall. The flaw sizes computed using the Kendall model are comparable with those seen in the micrographs of the granule. With an optimum solid content, it is possible to have a granulated nanopowder with reasonable flowability and compactability resulting in homogeneous green bodies with 54 % of theoretical density.

  7. Production and properties of electrosprayed sericin nanopowder

    PubMed Central

    Hazeri, Najmeh; Tavanai, Hossein; Moradi, Ali Reza

    2012-01-01

    Sericin is a proteinous substrate that envelops fibroin (silk) fiber, and its recovery provides significant economical and social benefits. Sericin is an antibacterial agent that resists oxidation and absorbs moisture and UV light. In powder form, sericin has a wide range of applications in food, cosmetics and drug delivery. Asides from other techniques of producing powder, such as precipitation and spray drying, electrospraying can yield solid nanoparticles, particularly in the submicron range. Here, we report the production of sericin nanopowder by electrospraying. Sericin sponge was recovered from Bombyx mori cocoons through a high-temperature, high-pressure process, followed by centrifugation and freeze drying of the sericin solution. The electrospraying solution was prepared by dissolving the sericin sponge in dimethyl sulfoxide. We demonstrate that electrospraying is capable of producing sericin nanopowder with an average particle size of 25 nm, which is by far smaller than the particles produced by other techniques. The electrosprayed sericin nanopowder consists of small crystallites and exhibits a high moisture absorbance. PMID:27877498

  8. Preparation of hydroxyapatite/zirconia bioceramic nanocomposites for orthopaedic and dental prosthesis applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Yun-Mo; Shin, Young-Keun; Ryu, Jae-Jun

    2007-02-01

    Homogeneous mixtures of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using chemical co-precipitation and subsequent calcination. For the synthesis of HAp/YSZ nanopowder, the Ca/P atomic ratio was 1.73 to obtain high-content stoichiometric hydroxyapatite phase and to suppress β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) formation. The agglomerated crystalline powders were milled using YSZ ball media to obtain well-separated nanoparticles. The final particle size of the HAp and YSZ was ~50-70 and ~15-30 nm, respectively. The crystallinity and morphological feature of the nanopowder was analysed using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analyses. The ball-milled nanopowder mixture was hot pressed at 1100 °C for 1 h under 20 MPa in vacuum atmosphere. The sintered HAp/YSZ nanocomposites exhibited approximately 99% of the theoretical density, due not only to the fine nanoscale of the particles, but also to the homogeneous distribution of the nanoparticle mixture. They also showed fine grain structures of the HAp phase due to the suppressed grain growth by YSZ particles. The nanocomposites showed improved mechanical properties, flexural strength of ~155 MPa and fracture toughness of ~2.1 MP m1/2, due to the YSZ contribution to the HAp matrix.

  9. Characterization of aluminum nanopowders after long-term storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarenko, O. B.; Amelkovich, Yu. A.; Sechin, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    The characteristics of aluminum nanopowders obtained by electrical explosion of wires, passivated by air and stored for a long time under natural conditions are analyzed. The aluminum nanopowder produced in hydrogen had been stored for 27 years; the nanopowders produced in argon and nitrogen had been stored for 10 years. The powders were studied using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The influence of the obtaining conditions and storage period of nanopowders on their thermal stability under heating in air is shown. The aluminum nanopowders after long-term storage in air under ambient conditions are found to be extremely active.

  10. Characterization of spark plasma sintered Ag nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Fu, Y Q; Shearwood, C; Xu, B; Yu, L G; Khor, K A

    2010-03-19

    The low temperature sintering behaviour of nanocrystalline Ag powder (with an average size of 70 nm) was characterized. Using spark plasma sintering (SPS), the Ag nanopowders can be successfully sintered at low pressure for only 5 min without external heating, and the sintering density increases and porosity decreases significantly with increase in the sintering temperature. Nanoindentation has been used to characterize the SPS sintered Ag samples. The mechanisms of the low sintering temperature behaviour of the nano-Ag powder and the nanoscale mechanical performance have been discussed. Compression tests were also used to characterize the mechanical properties of the sintered Ag sample with a maximum strain up to 15%.

  11. Effect of modification substrate on the microstructure of hydroxyapatite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Realpe-Jaramillo, J.; Morales-Morales, J. A.; González-Sánchez, J. A.; Cabanzo, R.; Mejía-Ospino, E.; Rodríguez-Pereira, J.

    2017-01-01

    Bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings were fabricated by a precipitation, sol-gel and dip-coating method. The effects of the aging time and the base used to adjust pH and substrate materials on the phases and microstructures of HA coatings were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy FESEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy EDS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS, and the vibrations of the phosphate groups were determined by Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that all the films were composed of the phases of TiO2 and HA. With coated titanium substrate with TiO2, the crystallinity of the HA coating increases, the structure became more compact and the Ca/P ratio increased because of the loss of P in the films. The addition of sodium hydroxide (adjusting the pH level to about 10) can increase the HA content in the coating. XPS and EDS results for steel substrate and titanium showed poor calcium content as obtained with a Ca/P ratio of 1.38 and 1.58, respectively, composition is similar to that of natural apatite. However, spectroscopic results suggest the presence of a mixture of hydroxyapatite and octacalcium phosphate. The different substrate materials have a high influence on the microstructure of the separated double films. However, hydroxyapatite nanopowders coatings were obtained using a simple method, with potential biomedical applications.

  12. Compaction and flow rule of oxide nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltachev, G. Sh.; Lukyashin, K. E.; Maximenko, A. L.; Maksimov, R. N.; Shitov, V. A.; Shtern, M. B.

    2017-09-01

    Transparent Al2O3 ceramics have attracted considerable interest for use in a wide range of optical, electronic and structural applications. The fabrication of these ceramics using powder metallurgy processes requires the development of theoretical approaches to the compaction of nanopowders. In this work, we investigate the compaction processes of two model granular systems imitating Al2O3 nanosized powders. System I is a loosely aggregated powder, and system II is a powder strongly inclined to agglomeration (for instance, calcined powder). The processes of isostatical (uniform), biaxial, and uniaxial compaction as well as uniaxial compaction with simultaneous shear deformation are studied. The energy parameters of compaction such as the energy change of elastic interparticle interactions and dispersion interactions, dissipative energy losses related to the processes of interparticle friction, and the total work of compaction are calculated for all the processes. The nonapplicability of the associated flow rule to the description of deformation processes of oxide nanopowders is shown and an alternative plastic flow rule is suggested. A complete system of determining the relationship of the flow including analytical approximations of yield surfaces is obtained.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Frasnelli, Matteo; Cristofaro, Francesco; Sglavo, Vincenzo M; Dirè, Sandra; Callone, Emanuela; Ceccato, Riccardo; Bruni, Giovanna; Cornaglia, Antonia Icaro; Visai, Livia

    2017-02-01

    The production of stable suspensions of strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) nanopowders, as Sr ions vector for bone tissue regeneration, was carried out in the present work. Sr-HA nanopowders were synthesized via aqueous precipitation methods using Sr(2+) amount from 0 to 100mol% and were characterized by several complementary techniques such as solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Infrared spectroscopy, N2 physisorption and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The substitution of Ca(2+) with Sr(2+) in HA is always isomorphic with gradual evolution between the two limit compositions (containing 100% Ca and 100% Sr), this pointing out the homogeneity of the synthesized nanopowders and the complete solubility of strontium in HA lattice. Strontium addition is responsible for an increasing c/a ratio in the triclinic unit cell. A significant variation of the nanopowders shape and dimension is also observed, a preferential growth along the c-axis direction being evident at higher strontium loads. Modifications in the local chemical environment of phosphate and hydroxyl groups in the apatite lattice are also observed. Stable suspensions were produced by dispersing the synthesized nanopowders in bovine serum albumin. Characterization by Dynamic Light Scattering and ζ-potential determination allowed to show that Ca(2+)→Sr(2+) substitution influences the hydrodynamic diameter, which is always twice the particles size determined by TEM, the nanoparticles being always negatively charged as a result from the albumin rearrangement upon the interaction with nanoparticles surface. The biocompatibility of the suspensions was studied in terms of cell viability, apoptosis, proliferation and morphology, using osteosarcoma cell line SAOS-2. The data pointed out an increased cell proliferation for HA nanoparticles containing larger Sr(2+) load, the cells morphology remaining essentially unaffected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  14. Growth model of binary alloy nanopowders for thermal plasma synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shigeta, Masaya; Watanabe, Takayuki

    2010-08-15

    A new model is developed for numerical analysis of the entire growth process of binary alloy nanopowders in thermal plasma synthesis. The model can express any nanopowder profile in the particle size-composition distribution (PSCD). Moreover, its numerical solution algorithm is arithmetic and straightforward so that the model is easy to use. By virtue of these features, the model effectively simulates the collective and simultaneous combined process of binary homogeneous nucleation, binary heterogeneous cocondensation, and coagulation among nanoparticles. The effect of the freezing point depression due to nanoscale particle diameters is also considered in the model. In this study, the metal-silicon systems are particularly chosen as representative binary systems involving cocondensation processes. In consequence, the numerical calculation with the present model reveals the growth mechanisms of the Mo-Si and Ti-Si nanopowders by exhibiting their PSCD evolutions. The difference of the materials' saturation pressures strongly affects the growth behaviors and mature states of the binary alloy nanopowder.

  15. Antiferromagnetism and high- Tc superconductivity in F-substituted four-layered cuprates probed by Cu-NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, S.; Mukuda, H.; Matoba, K.; Kitaoka, Y.; Tokiwa, K.; Watanabe, T.; Iyo, A.; Tanaka, Y.; Kito, H.

    2007-03-01

    We report on the onset of antiferromagnetism in F-substituted four-layered high- Tc compounds Ba2Ca3Cu4O8(O1-yFy)2 ( 2y=1.2,1.4,1.6 and 2.0) which are composed of two types of CuO2 planes in a unit cell; three inner planes (IPs) and two outer planes (OPs). The Cu-NMR study has revealed that the hole density at the OPs are slightly larger than that at the IPs, and a total carrier density decreases as F content increases. The observation of zero-field Cu-NMR spectra over a broad frequency range has demonstrated that antiferromagnetically ordered phases emerges at low temperatures for all compounds. This result is similar to the case for the five-layered cuprates HgBa2Ca4Cu5Oy where the optimally doped OP undergoes a superconducting (SC) transition, whereas the three underdoped IPs do an antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition [H. Kotegawa, et al., Phys. Rev. B 64 (2001) 064515; H. Mukuda, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 087001]. The present result gives evidence for a coexistence of antiferromagnetism and superconductivity in four-layered high- Tc cuprates.

  16. Microemulsion synthesis and magnetic properties of hydroxyapatite-encapsulated nano CoFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foroughi, Firoozeh; Hassanzadeh-Tabrizi, S. A.; Amighian, Jamshid

    2015-05-01

    Hydroxyapatite-encapsulated cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanopowders were synthesized by one step microemulsion method. The powders were characterized by X-ray Diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. TEM results showed that nanoparticles calcined at 700 °C have core-shell morphology. It was found that the resultant phases, morphology and magnetic properties of the samples depend on calcining temperature. The synthesized nanoparticles showed a maximum saturation magnetization of 7.8 emu/g with a wasp-waisted hysteresis loop. The magnetion was reduced by increasing calcining temperature to 900 °C. This reduction is due to the reaction of cobalt ferrite with hydroxyapatite which leads to CaFe12(PO4)8(OH)12 phase.

  17. Hydrogen generation by reaction of Si nanopowder with neutral water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Matsuda, Shinsuke; Imamura, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Hikaru

    2017-05-01

    Si and its oxide are nonpoisonous materials, and thus, it can be taken for medical effects. We have developed a method of generation of hydrogen by use of reactions of Si nanopowder with water in the neutral pH region. Si nanopowder is fabricated by the simple bead milling method. Si nanopowder reacts with water to generate hydrogen even in cases where pH is set at the neutral region between 7.0 and 8.6. The hydrogen generation rate strongly depends on pH and in the case of pH 8.0, ˜55 ml/g hydrogen which corresponds to that contained in approximately 3 L saturated hydrogen-rich water is generated in 1 h. The reaction rate for hydrogen generation greatly increases with pH, indicating that the reacting species is hydroxide ions. The change of pH after the hydrogen generation reaction is negligibly low compared with that estimated assuming that hydroxide ions are consumed by the reaction. From these results, we conclude the following reaction mechanism: Si nanopowder reacts with hydroxide ions in the rate-determining reaction to form hydrogen molecules, SiO2, and electrons in the conduction band. Then, generated electrons are accepted by water molecules, resulting in production of hydrogen molecules and hydroxide ions. The hydrogen generation rate strongly depends on the crystallite size of Si nanopowder, but not on the size of aggregates of Si nanopowder. The present study shows a possibility to use Si nanopowder for hydrogen generation in the body in order to eliminate hydroxyl radicals which cause various diseases.

  18. Hydrogen generation by reaction of Si nanopowder with neutral water.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Matsuda, Shinsuke; Imamura, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Hikaru

    2017-01-01

    Si and its oxide are nonpoisonous materials, and thus, it can be taken for medical effects. We have developed a method of generation of hydrogen by use of reactions of Si nanopowder with water in the neutral pH region. Si nanopowder is fabricated by the simple bead milling method. Si nanopowder reacts with water to generate hydrogen even in cases where pH is set at the neutral region between 7.0 and 8.6. The hydrogen generation rate strongly depends on pH and in the case of pH 8.0, ∼55 ml/g hydrogen which corresponds to that contained in approximately 3 L saturated hydrogen-rich water is generated in 1 h. The reaction rate for hydrogen generation greatly increases with pH, indicating that the reacting species is hydroxide ions. The change of pH after the hydrogen generation reaction is negligibly low compared with that estimated assuming that hydroxide ions are consumed by the reaction. From these results, we conclude the following reaction mechanism: Si nanopowder reacts with hydroxide ions in the rate-determining reaction to form hydrogen molecules, SiO2, and electrons in the conduction band. Then, generated electrons are accepted by water molecules, resulting in production of hydrogen molecules and hydroxide ions. The hydrogen generation rate strongly depends on the crystallite size of Si nanopowder, but not on the size of aggregates of Si nanopowder. The present study shows a possibility to use Si nanopowder for hydrogen generation in the body in order to eliminate hydroxyl radicals which cause various diseases.

  19. Hydroxyapatite with environmental applications

    SciTech Connect

    Popa, C. L.; Ciobanu, C. S.; Predoi, D.; Petre, C. C.; Jiga, G.; Motelica-Heino, M.; Iconaru, S. L.

    2014-05-15

    The aim of this study was to synthetize new nanoparticles based on methyltrimethoxysilane coated hydroxyapatite (MTHAp) for lead removal in aqueous solutions. The morphological and compositional analysis of MTHAp was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). Removal experiments of Pb{sup 2+} ions were carried out in aqueous solutions with controlled concentration of Pb{sup 2+} and at fixed pH of 5. After the removal experiment of Pb{sup 2+} ions from solutions, porous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were transformed into PbMTHAp-5 via the adsorption of Pb{sup 2+} ions followed by a cation exchange reaction. Our results demonstrate that the porous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles can be used as an adsorbent for removing Pb{sup 2+} ions from aqueous solution.

  20. Hydroxyapatite synthesis using EDTA.

    PubMed

    Kang, Nak Heon; Kim, Soon Je; Song, Seung Han; Choi, Sang mun; Choi, Sik Young; Kim, Youn Jung

    2013-05-01

    Bone comprises structure of the body and consisted of inorganic substances. It exists in an organic structure in the body. Even though it is firm and has self-healing mechanism, it can be damaged by trauma, cancer, or bone diseases. Allograft can be an alternative solution for autologous bone graft. Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), an excellent candidate for allograft, can be applied to bone defect area. There are several methods to produce hydroxyapatite; however, economical cost and being time consuming make the production difficult. In this study, we synthesized hydroxyapatite with EDTA. Freeze-dried bone allograft (Hans Biomed) was used as the control group. Synthesized hydroxyapatite was a rod-shaped, white powdery substance with 2- to 5-μm length and 0.5- to 1-μm width. X-ray diffraction showed the highest sharp peak at 32°C and high peaks at 25.8°C, 39.8°C, 46.8°C, 49.5°C, and 64.0°C, indicating a similar substance to the freeze-dried bone allograft. After 3 days, the cell growth of synthesized hydroxyapatite showed 1.5-fold more than did the bone allograft. Cellular and media alkaline phosphate activity increased similar to the bone allograft. In this study, we came up with a new method to produce the hydroxyapatite. It is a convenient method that can be held in room temperature and low pressure. Also, the product can be manufactured in large quantity. It can be also transformed into scaffold structure, which will perform a stronger configuration. The manufacturing method will help the bony defect patients and make future medical products.

  1. Synthesis and in vitro investigation of sol-gel derived bioglass-58S nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joughehdoust, S.; Manafi, S.

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this research is the synthesis of bioglass-58S nanopowders by sol-gel method. Also, the effect of aging time of parent sols on the morphology, structure and particle size was investigated. Bioglass-58S powders were analyzed by X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), zetasizer instrument, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD results showed that the powder is amorphous and glassy. According to FTIR spectroscopy, silicate bonds were formed in all powders. Zetasizer curves proved that the particle sizes of the powders and agglomerates have increased with aging time. The SEM images confirmed these results, too. Additionally, the TEM observations revealed that the increase of aging time caused the growth of grains with the size between 50-200 nm. The in vitro biological behavior of bioglass-58S powders were investigated by immersing the bioglass discs (made from the powders) in the simulated body fluid (SBF). The XRD patterns and SEM images confirmed the formation of the hydroxyapatite (HA) phase.

  2. Transformations in Sol-Gel Synthesized Nanoscale Hydroxyapatite Calcined Under Different Temperatures and Time Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seema, Kapoor; Uma, Batra; Suchita, Kohli

    2012-08-01

    Nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP) has been synthesized using sol-gel technique. Calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate were used as precursors for calcium and phosphorus, respectively. A detailed study on its transformation during calcination at two crucial temperatures has been undertaken. The synthesized nanopowder was calcined at 600 and 800 °C for different time periods. The results revealed that the obtained powders after calcining at 600 and 800 °C are composed of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. The nano-HAP powders were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and BET surface area analyzer techniques. The results indicate that crystallite size as well as crystallinity of synthesized HAP nanopowders increase with increase in calcination temperature as well as calcination time, but the effect of temperature is more prominent as compared to that of calcination time. TEM micrograph revealed the presence of majority of HAP powder particles as agglomerates and a few as individual particles. It also revealed that HAP produced after sintering at 600 °C is 26-45 nm in size, which is well in agreement with the crystallite size calculated using XRD data. TGA study showed the thermal stability of the as-synthesized nano-HAP powder. The BET surface area decreased with increase in calcination temperature and time. The results clearly demonstrate the significant role of calcination parameters on the characteristics of nano-HAP powders.

  3. Alumina lightweight ceramics modified with plasma synthesized nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zake, I.; Svinka, R.; Svinka, V.; Palcevskis, E.

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify possibilities of using plasma synthesized Al2O3 and SiC nanopowders as additives in alumina lightweight ceramics prepared by slip casting. Each plasma synthesized nanopowder (PSNP) was incorporated in the material by a different method, because of their diverse influence on the properties of slip. Al2O3 PSNP was introduced in the matrix in form of aqueous suspension. SiC nanopowder was added directly to raw materials. Bending strength, bulk density, apparent porosity and thermal shock resistance were determined to evaluate the influence of these additives. The effect of Al2O3 PSNP addition on the properties of material depends on the initial sintering temperature. SiC particles during sintering oxidize into SiO2 and then in the reaction with alumina form mullite. Addition of SiC considerably improves bending strength and thermal shock resistance.

  4. Hydroxyapatite Deposition Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    calcific tendinitis or calcific periarthritis, is characterized by the deposition of calcium phosphate crystals (predominantly hydroxyapatite) in...site of HADD is the hip, where calcifications are usually found in the gluteus medius tendon or along the femur at various sites of tendinous ...posterolateral femoral diaphysis, as well as in various other tendinous attachments to the femur. Computed tomography is also helpful in the demonstration

  5. Adsorption capacity study of carbon nanopowder produced by laser pyrolisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonu, Marcel; Savu, Ion; Pastean, Laurentiu; Voicu, Ion N.; Soare, Iuliana; Morjan, Ion G.; Grigoriu, Constantin

    2004-10-01

    The paper presents the experimental results on adsorption properties of carbon nanopowders which have been obtained by laser pyrolysis of hydrocarbon-based mixtures. We have investigated the adsorption of benzene, n-hexane and ciclohexane. The influence of the nanocarbon morphology (which depends on gaseous precursors and synthesis conditions) on adsorption characteristics is reported.

  6. Influence of particle size distribution on nanopowder cold compaction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltachev, G.; Volkov, N.; Lukyashin, K.; Markov, V.; Chingina, E.

    2017-06-01

    Nanopowder uniform and uniaxial cold compaction processes are simulated by 2D granular dynamics method. The interaction of particles in addition to wide-known contact laws involves the dispersion forces of attraction and possibility of interparticle solid bridges formation, which have a large importance for nanopowders. Different model systems are investigated: monosized systems with particle diameter of 10, 20 and 30 nm; bidisperse systems with different content of small (diameter is 10 nm) and large (30 nm) particles; polydisperse systems corresponding to the log-normal size distribution law with different width. Non-monotone dependence of compact density on powder content is revealed in bidisperse systems. The deviations of compact density in polydisperse systems from the density of corresponding monosized system are found to be minor, less than 1 per cent.

  7. Laser transfer of diamond nanopowder induced by metal film blistering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononenko, T. V.; Alloncle, P.; Konov, V. I.; Sentis, M.

    2009-03-01

    Blister-based laser induced forward transfer (BB-LIFT) is a promising technique to produce surface microstructures of various advanced materials including inorganic and organic micro/nanopowders, suspensions and biological micro-objects embedded in life sustaining medium. The transferred material is spread over a thin metal film irradiated from the far side by single laser pulses through a transparent support. Interaction of the laser pulse with the metal-support interface under optimized conditions causes formation of a quickly expanding blister. Fast movement of the free metal surface provides efficient material transfer, which has been investigated for the case of diamond nanopowder and diamond-containing suspension. The unique features of the given technique are universality, simplicity and efficient isolation of the transferred material from the ablation products and laser heating.

  8. Low-temperature synthesis of carbon nanotubes on iron nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partizan, G.; Mansurov, B. Z.; Medyanova, B. S.; Koshanova, А B.; Mansurova, M. E.; Aliyev, B. А; Jiang, Xin

    2016-11-01

    This work presents the results of experiments on synthesis of carbon nanostructures by the method of thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using iron nanopowders obtained by the method of electrical explosion of wires as catalysts. The process parameters that are optimal for low-temperature growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been identified during performed experiments. Results of Raman spectroscopy and x-ray analysis showed that samples grown at temperatures below the normally used have the highest crystallinity. Studies by scanning electron microscopy using SE2 mode and results of transmission electron microscopy indicate that the synthesized structures are multi-walled CNTs with the metal clusters inside the channel of the tube. The experimental modes of synthesis of CNTs by low-temperature CVD using iron nanopowders as catalyst have been found for the first time.

  9. Raman scattering and luminescence of yttria nanopowders and ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, V. V.; Solomonov, V. I.; Spirina, A. V.; Vovkotrub, E. G.; Strekalovskii, V. N.

    2014-06-01

    We have studied Raman scattering in yttria nanopowders and ceramics that was excited by radiation at wavelengths of 514.5 and 632.8 nm. We show that, in undoped nanopowders and cubic phase of doped yttria ceramics, only the Raman scattering by phonons is observed, with no other Raman scattering centers having been revealed. In nanopowders of the monoclinic phase, we have observed an additional Raman line with a Raman shift of 1093 ± 4 cm-1. If all the objects under investigation are excited by the radiation at a wavelength of 514.5 nm, their spectra exhibit four series of photoluminescence lines, two of which (at λ = 521-523 and 538-564 nm) are emitted by Er3+ ions, "impurity" dopants, while the other two lines (at λ = 607-635 and 644-684 nm) are emitted by intrinsic centers. Under excitation by the radiation at a wavelength of 632.8 nm, only a series of bands at λ = 644-684 nm is emitted. In addition to these photoluminescence bands, neodymium-doped ceramics show photoluminescence bands of Nd3+ ions. We have shown that intrinsic luminescence centers, which occur in all the examined specimens, are capable of acting as acceptors with respect to neodymium ions excited to the upper laser level.

  10. Silicon nanopowder as diffuse rear reflector for silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, S.; Haase, F.; Peibst, R.; Brendel, R.

    2017-08-01

    Highly efficient solar cells require minimized recombination and maximized optical absorption. We apply Si nanopowder with a median particle size of 500 nm to the rear side of poly-Si on oxide (POLO) passivated Si wafers that have a planar front side. The enhanced optical absorption consists of a useful component from the wafer and useless absorption by the Si pigments and the poly-Si layer. We derive and successfully apply an analytical model that accounts for both contributions and for the light trapping that is caused by light scattering at the nanopowder layer. We measure and model that this rear side increases the photogenerated current density by 1.3 mA/cm2 for a 140 μm-thick planar cell. We compare the performance of the Si-pigmented diffuse rear side reflectors (PDR) with reflectors using random pyramids (RPs) and POLO junctions. We find that for full surface coverage by Si nanopowder, the better surface passivation compensates for an inferior optical performance of a PDR when compared to RP.

  11. Functionalized diamond nanopowder for phosphopeptides enrichment from complex biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Dilshad; Najam-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Jabeen, Fahmida; Ashiq, Muhammad N; Athar, Muhammad; Rainer, Matthias; Huck, Christian W; Bonn, Guenther K

    2013-05-02

    Diamond is known for its high affinity and biocompatibility towards biomolecules and is used exclusively in separation sciences and life science research. In present study, diamond nanopowder is derivatized as Immobilized Metal Ion Affinity Chromatographic (IMAC) material for the phosphopeptides enrichment and as Reversed Phase (C-18) media for the desalting of complex mixtures and human serum profiling through MALDI-TOF-MS. Functionalized diamond nanopowder is characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Diamond-IMAC is applied to the standard protein (β-casein), spiked human serum, egg yolk and non-fat milk for the phosphopeptides enrichment. Results show the selectivity of synthesized IMAC-diamond immobilized with Fe(3+) and La(3+) ions. To comprehend the elaborated use, diamond-IMAC is also applied to the serum samples from gall bladder carcinoma for the potential biomarkers. Database search is carried out by the Mascot program (www.matrixscience.com) for the assignment of phosphorylation sites. Diamond nanopowder is thus a separation media with multifunctional use and can be applied to cancer protein profiling for the diagnosis and biomarker identification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Silver ion doped ceramic nano-powder coated nails prevent infection in open fractures: In vivo study.

    PubMed

    Kose, Nusret; Çaylak, Remzi; Pekşen, Ceren; Kiremitçi, Abdurrahman; Burukoglu, Dilek; Koparal, Savaş; Doğan, Aydın

    2016-02-01

    Despite improvement in operative techniques and antibiotic therapy, septic complications still occur in open fractures. We developed silver ion containing ceramic nano powder for implant coating to provide not only biocompatibility but also antibacterial activity to the orthopaedic implants. We hypothesised silver ion doped calcium phosphate based ceramic nano-powder coated titanium nails may prevents bacterial colonisation and infection in open fractures as compared with uncoated nails. 33 rabbits divided into three groups. In the first group uncoated, in the second group hydroxyapatite coated, and in the third group silver doped hydroxyapatite coated titanium nails were inserted left femurs of animals from knee regions with retrograde fashion. Before implantation of nails 50 μl solution containing 10(6)CFU/ml methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) injected intramedullary canal. Rabbits were monitored for 10 weeks. Blood was taken from rabbits before surgery and on 2nd, 6th and 10th weeks. Blood was analysed for biochemical parameters, blood count, C-reactive protein and silver levels. At the end of the 10 weeks animals were sacrificed and rods were extracted in a sterile fashion. Swab cultures were taken from intramedullary canal. Bacteria on titanium rods were counted. Liver, heart, spleen, kidney and central nervous tissues samples were taken for determining silver levels. Histopathological evaluation of bone surrounding implants was also performed. No significant difference was detected between the groups from hematologic, biochemical, and toxicological aspect. Microbiological results showed that less bacterial growth was detected with the use of silver doped ceramic coated implants compared to the other two groups (p=0.003). Accumulation of silver was not detected. No cellular inflammation was observed around the silver coated prostheses. No toxic effect of silver on bone cells was seen. Silver ion doped calcium phosphate based ceramic nano

  13. Hydroxyapatite for Keratoprosthesis Biointegration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liqiang; Jeong, Kyung Jae; Chiang, Homer H.; Zurakowski, David; Behlau, Irmgard; Chodosh, James; Dohlman, Claes H.; Langer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Integration of keratoprosthesis with the surrounding cornea is very important in preventing bacterial invasion, which may cause ocular injury. Here the authors investigated whether hydroxyapatite (HAp) coating can improve keratoprosthesis (KPro) biointegration, using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)—the principal component of the Boston KPro—as a model polymer. Methods. HAp coatings were induced on PMMA discs after treatment with concentrated NaOH and coating with poly-dopamine (PDA) or polydopamine and then with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA). Coatings were characterized chemically (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy [FTIR], energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy [EDX]) and morphologically (SEM) and were used as substrates for keratocyte growth in vitro. Cylinders of coated PMMA were implanted in porcine corneas ex vivo for 2 weeks, and the force required to pull them out was measured. The inflammatory reaction to coated discs was assessed in the rabbit cornea in vivo. Results. FTIR of the coatings showed absorption bands characteristic of phosphate groups, and EDX showed that the Ca/P ratios were close to those of HAp. By SEM, each method resulted in morphologically distinct HAp films; the 11-MUA group had the most uniform coating. The hydroxyapatite coatings caused comparable enhancement of keratocyte proliferation compared with unmodified PMMA surfaces. HAp coating significantly increased the force and work required to pull PMMA cylinders out of porcine corneas ex vivo. HAp coating of implants reduced the inflammatory response around the PMMA implants in vivo. Conclusions. These results are encouraging for the potential of HAp-coated surfaces for use in keratoprostheses. PMID:21849419

  14. Fabrication of nano-hydroxyapatite using a novel ultrasonic atomization precipitation method.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yang; Xia, Haiping; Jiang, Haochuan

    2010-03-01

    A novel technique to synthesize hydroxyapatite (HAP) with nanocrystalline structure was developed in this study. Nanocrystalline HAP was prepared by a precipitation method with aid of ultrasonic atomization using Ca(NO3)2 x 4H2O and (NH4)2HPO4 as raw materials. The crystallization and the morphology of the prepared nanopowder were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained powder was 30-40 nm in size and homogenous. The effect of some surfactants on the crystallization and morphology of HAP nanoparticles was also investigated. The results showed that the synthesis method used in this study can effectively shorten the reaction time while improving the homogeneity of the powder when compared to other published methods. It was also found that the addition of a small amount of surfactant glycine during the precipitation synthesis can reduce the agglomeration of the HAP nanoparticles.

  15. Mechanochemical?hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite from nonionic surfactant emulsion precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Wei; Riman, Richard E.; TenHuisen, Kevor S.; Brown, Kelly

    2004-10-01

    Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite [HA, Ca10 (PO4)6 (OH)2] powders were synthesized by the mechanochemical-hydrothermal method using emulsion systems consisting of aqueous phase, petroleum ether (PE) as the oil phase and biodegradable Tomadol 23-6.5 as the nonionic surfactant. (NH4)2HPO4 and Ca (NO3)2 or Ca (OH)2 were used as the phosphorus and calcium sources, respectively. The calcium source and emulsion composition had significant effects on the stoichiometry, crystallinity, thermal stability, particle size and morphology of final products. Disperse HA crystals with a 160 nm length and aspect ratio of ca. 6 were formed in an emulsion system containing 10 wt% PE, 60 wt% water and 30 wt% surfactant. The HA particles had needle morphology with a specific surface area of 190m2 / g. With this technique, HA nanopowders with specific surface areas in the range of 72- 231m2 / g were produced.

  16. Zirconia nanoceramic via redispersion of highly agglomerated nanopowder and spark plasma sintering.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Gustavo; Borodianska, Hanna; Sakka, Yoshio; Aglietti, Esteban F; Vasylkiv, Oleg

    2010-10-01

    A 2.7 mol% yttria stabilizing tetragonal zirconia (2.7Y-TZP) nanopowder was synthesized and stored for five years. Humidity and unsatisfactory storage conditions gradually caused heavy agglomeration. Within a few months, 2.7Y-TZP nanopowder became useless for any technological application. A bead-milling deagglomeration technique was applied to recover the heavily agglomerated yttria-stabilized zirconia nanopowder. Low-temperature sintering and spark plasma sintering (SPS) were performed, resulting in fully dense nanostructured ceramics. Compacts formed with heavily agglomerated powder present low sinterability and poor mechanical properties. Bead-milling suspension formed compacts exhibit mechanical properties in the range of the values reported for nanostructured zirconia. This observation confirms the effectiveness of bead-milling in the deagglomeration of highly agglomerated nanopowders. The high value of Vickers hardness of 13.6 GPa demonstrates the success of the processing technique for recovering long-time-stored oxide nanopowders.

  17. Synthesis of AlNiCo core/shell nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genc, A. M.; Akdeniz, M. V.; Ozturk, T.; Kalay, Y. E.

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic core/shell nanostructures have been recently received much interest owing to their utmost potential in permanent magnetic applications. In the present work, AlNiCo permanent magnet powders were synthesized by ball milling and a core/shell nanostructure was obtained using RF induced plasma. The effects of particle size and nanoshell structure on the magnetic properties were investigated in details. The coercivity of AlNiCo powders was found to increase with decreasing particle size, exclusively nanopowders encapsulated with Fe3O4 shell showed the highest coercivity values. The shell structure produced during plasma reaction was found to form a resistant layer against oxidation of metallic nanoparticles.

  18. Nanopowder Synthesis & Associated Safety Precautions at ARDEC: Partnering with NIOSH

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-28

    Lightweight materials & composites Increased survivability •Toughness  Nanocomposite materials •Chemical •Increased reactivity due to surface area...Nanopowder Powder liquid Gas of powder Nano Aluminum 11 Applications: Propellants Energetics Primers Explosives  Pyrotechnics  Nano Iron...play a role in  Tunable  Pyrotechnics program 12 Nano Tungsten (MMA Coated)  Applications: Primarily being developed as  a replacement for Depleted

  19. Injection moulded hydroxyapatite ceramics.

    PubMed

    Cihlár, J; Trunec, M

    1996-10-01

    The injection moulding of hydroxyapatite (HA) and properties (relative density, shrinkage, microstructure, thermal strength and phase composition) of HA ceramics sintered at temperatures of 1373-1773 K were studied. Particles of oval shape and size of 0.5 microns were most suitable for injection moulding. Polymer/HA mixture contained 63 vol% of the HA powder. Maximum relative density (98.7%) and shrinkage (16%) of HA ceramics were obtained at a sintering temperature of 1523 K. Maximum flexural strength (60 MPa) of HA ceramics occurred at a sintering temperature of 1473 K. The strength of these ceramics decreased at sintering temperatures higher than 1473 K. Loss in strength was owing to the grain growth and decomposition of HA ceramics. The relationship between grain size and strength is described by the equation: sigma = 53.3d1/2. The calculated activation energy of grain growth obtained was 215kJ mol-1 K-1. The decomposition of HA to alpha-tricalcium phosphate was important at temperatures greater than 1573 K.

  20. Thermal Plasma Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanopowder from Gallium Nitrate Hydrate and Melamine

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Choi, Sooseok; Park, Dong-Wha

    2016-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanopowder used as a blue fluorescent material was synthesized by using a direct current (DC) non-transferred arc plasma. Gallium nitrate hydrate (Ga(NO3)3∙xH2O) was used as a raw material and NH3 gas was used as a nitridation source. Additionally, melamine (C3H6N6) powder was injected into the plasma flame to prevent the oxidation of gallium to gallium oxide (Ga2O3). Argon thermal plasma was applied to synthesize GaN nanopowder. The synthesized GaN nanopowder by thermal plasma has low crystallinity and purity. It was improved to relatively high crystallinity and purity by annealing. The crystallinity is enhanced by the thermal treatment and the purity was increased by the elimination of residual C3H6N6. The combined process of thermal plasma and annealing was appropriate for synthesizing crystalline GaN nanopowder. The annealing process after the plasma synthesis of GaN nanopowder eliminated residual contamination and enhanced the crystallinity of GaN nanopowder. As a result, crystalline GaN nanopowder which has an average particle size of 30 nm was synthesized by the combination of thermal plasma treatment and annealing.

  1. Thermal Plasma Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanopowder from Gallium Nitrate Hydrate and Melamine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Choi, Sooseok; Park, Dong-Wha

    2016-02-24

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanopowder used as a blue fluorescent material was synthesized by using a direct current (DC) non-transferred arc plasma. Gallium nitrate hydrate (Ga(NO₃)₃∙xH₂O) was used as a raw material and NH₃ gas was used as a nitridation source. Additionally, melamine (C₃H₆N₆) powder was injected into the plasma flame to prevent the oxidation of gallium to gallium oxide (Ga₂O₃). Argon thermal plasma was applied to synthesize GaN nanopowder. The synthesized GaN nanopowder by thermal plasma has low crystallinity and purity. It was improved to relatively high crystallinity and purity by annealing. The crystallinity is enhanced by the thermal treatment and the purity was increased by the elimination of residual C₃H₆N₆. The combined process of thermal plasma and annealing was appropriate for synthesizing crystalline GaN nanopowder. The annealing process after the plasma synthesis of GaN nanopowder eliminated residual contamination and enhanced the crystallinity of GaN nanopowder. As a result, crystalline GaN nanopowder which has an average particle size of 30 nm was synthesized by the combination of thermal plasma treatment and annealing.

  2. Incorporation of chromium into TiO{sub 2} nanopowders

    SciTech Connect

    Kollbek, Kamila; Sikora, Marcin; Kapusta, Czesław; Szlachetko, Jakub; Radecka, Marta; Lyson-Sypien, Barbara; Zakrzewska, Katarzyna

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Nanopowders of TiO{sub 2}:Cr with different amount of Cr dopant were obtained by flame spray synthesis, FSS. • Increase in the optical absorption and a shift of the absorption edge were observed upon Cr doping. • HERFD-XANES measurements indicated that the average valence state of titanium ions was preserved. • Increasing magnetic susceptibility of a paramagnetic character was observed upon Cr doping. - Abstract: The paper reports on the results of a study of optical, electronic and magnetic properties of TiO{sub 2} nanopowders doped with Cr ions. Diffused reflectance spectra reveal an increase in the optical absorption and a shift of the absorption edge towards lower energies upon Cr doping. Direct information on the Ti electronic state and the symmetry of its nearest environment is obtained from XANES Ti K-edge spectra. Magnetic behaviour is probed by means of the temperature dependence of DC magnetic susceptibility. Increasing magnetic susceptibility of a paramagnetic character is observed upon increasing chromium doping. The Curie constant of TiO{sub 2}:10 at.% Cr sample (0.12 emu K/mol Oe) is lower than that expected for Cr{sup 3+} (0.1875 emu K/mol Oe) possibly due to the appearance of Cr{sup 4+} or the presence of the orbital contribution to the magnetic moment.

  3. Magnetic anisotropy of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radelytskyi, I.; Dłużewski, P.; Dyakonov, V.; Aleshkevych, P.; Kowalski, W.; Jarocki, P.; Szymczak, H.

    2013-06-01

    The magnetic anisotropy of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 nanopowders was measured as a function of temperature by the modified singular point detection technique. In this method singularities indicating the anisotropy field were determined analyzing ac susceptibility data. The observed relationship between temperature dependence of anisotropy constant and temperature dependence of magnetization was used to deduce the origin of magnetic anisotropy in the nanopowders. It was shown that magnetic anisotropy of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 nanopowder is determined by the two-ion (dipolar or pseudodipolar) and single-ion mechanisms.

  4. Spark plasma sintering of alumina nanopowders produced by electrical explosion of wires.

    PubMed

    An, Vladimir; Khasanov, Alexey; de Izarra, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Alumina nanopowders produced by electrical explosion of wires were sintered using the spark plasma sintering technique. The results of XRD analysis show that the main phase in the compacted nanopowders is α-Al2O3. According to the SEM observations, the sintered alumina nanopowder consists of micron-sized faceted grains and nano-sized necked grains. The increase in sintering temperature resulted in a higher density of the sintered powders: from 78.44 to 98.21 % of theoretical density.

  5. Influence of hydrothermal synthesis parameters on the properties of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kuśnieruk, Sylwia; Wojnarowicz, Jacek; Chodara, Agnieszka; Chudoba, Tadeusz; Gierlotka, Stanislaw; Lojkowski, Witold

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles of tunable diameter were obtained by the precipitation method at room temperature and by microwave hydrothermal synthesis (MHS). The following parameters of the obtained nanostructured HAp were determined: pycnometric density, specific surface area, phase purity, lattice parameters, particle size, particle size distribution, water content, and structure. HAp nanoparticle morphology and structure were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed crystalline HAp was synthesized, which was pure in terms of phase. It was shown that by changing the synthesis parameters, the diameter of HAp nanoparticles could be controlled. The average diameter of the HAp nanoparticles was determined by Scherrer's equation via the Nanopowder XRD Processor Demo web application, which interprets the results of specific surface area and TEM measurements using the dark-field technique. The obtained nanoparticles with average particle diameter ranging from 8-39 nm were characterized by having homogeneous morphology with a needle shape and a narrow particle size distribution. Strong similarities were found when comparing the properties of some types of nanostructured hydroxyapatite with natural occurring apatite found in animal bones and teeth.

  6. Influence of hydrothermal synthesis parameters on the properties of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Wojnarowicz, Jacek; Chodara, Agnieszka; Chudoba, Tadeusz; Gierlotka, Stanislaw; Lojkowski, Witold

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles of tunable diameter were obtained by the precipitation method at room temperature and by microwave hydrothermal synthesis (MHS). The following parameters of the obtained nanostructured HAp were determined: pycnometric density, specific surface area, phase purity, lattice parameters, particle size, particle size distribution, water content, and structure. HAp nanoparticle morphology and structure were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed crystalline HAp was synthesized, which was pure in terms of phase. It was shown that by changing the synthesis parameters, the diameter of HAp nanoparticles could be controlled. The average diameter of the HAp nanoparticles was determined by Scherrer’s equation via the Nanopowder XRD Processor Demo web application, which interprets the results of specific surface area and TEM measurements using the dark-field technique. The obtained nanoparticles with average particle diameter ranging from 8–39 nm were characterized by having homogeneous morphology with a needle shape and a narrow particle size distribution. Strong similarities were found when comparing the properties of some types of nanostructured hydroxyapatite with natural occurring apatite found in animal bones and teeth. PMID:28144510

  7. Hydroxyapatite degradation and biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haibo

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is widely used as a bioactive ceramics since it forms a chemical bonding to bone. The disadvantage of this material is its poor mechanical properties. HA can be degraded in body, which is the reason for its bioactivity, but too fast degradation rate could cause negative effects, such as macrophage present, particle generation, and even implant clinical failure. HA degradation rate will be greatly changed under many conditions: purity, HA form (i.e. bulk form, porous form, coating, or HA/polymer composites), microstructure, implant site, body conditions, etc. Although much work has been done in HA properties and application areas, the HA degradation behavior and mechanism under these different conditions are still not clear. In this research, three aspects of HA degradation have been studied: (1) Two very common impurities---Tri-Calcium Phosphate (TCP) and Calcium Oxide and their influences on HA degradation in vitro and in vivo, (2) influence of HA/polymer composite form on HA degradation, (3) HA material particle generation and related mechanism. From the in vitro and in vivo tests on bulk HA disks with various Ca/P ratios, HA degradation can clearly be found. The degradation level is different in different Ca/P ratio samples as well as in different test environments. In same test environment, non-stoichiometric HA samples have higher degradation rate than stoichiometric HA. HA/PMMA composite design successfully intensifies HA degradation both in vitro and in vivo. Grain boundary damage can be found on in vivo test samples, which has not been clearly seen on bulk HA degraded surface. HA particle generation is found in in vitro and in vivo HA/PMMA composite surface and in vivo bulk HA surface. Sintering temperature and time does affect HA grain size, and this affect HA degradation rate. Intergranular fracture is found in a several micron zone close to the Ca/P ratio 1.62 and 1.67 sample degraded surfaces. At Ca/P ratio greater than 1.667, after

  8. Effect of Saturation Pressure Difference on Metal–Silicide Nanopowder Formation in Thermal Plasma Fabrication

    PubMed Central

    Shigeta, Masaya; Watanabe, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    A computational investigation using a unique model and a solution algorithm was conducted, changing only the saturation pressure of one material artificially during nanopowder formation in thermal plasma fabrication, to highlight the effects of the saturation pressure difference between a metal and silicon. The model can not only express any profile of particle size–composition distribution for a metal–silicide nanopowder even with widely ranging sizes from sub-nanometers to a few hundred nanometers, but it can also simulate the entire growth process involving binary homogeneous nucleation, binary heterogeneous co-condensation, and coagulation among nanoparticles with different compositions. Greater differences in saturation pressures cause a greater time lag for co-condensation of two material vapors during the collective growth of the metal–silicide nanopowder. The greater time lag for co-condensation results in a wider range of composition of the mature nanopowder.

  9. Influence of long-term storage on fire hazard properties of metal nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyrmakova, O. S.; Sechin, A. I.; Nazarenko, O. B.

    2017-08-01

    The production and application of nanomaterials is rapidly expanding. Therefore the problem of their properties change during long-term storage becomes essential. The properties of metal nanopowders after long-term storage under ambient conditions were studied and the results are presented in this work. The aluminum, iron, zinc, and copper nanopowders produced by the method of electrical explosion of wires were investigated in this work. The investigation was carried out by X-ray and thermal analysis. The estimation of the flame propagation velocity in the bulk layer of nanopowders was carried out. The characteristics of the nanopowders of nanometals studied are given in terms of their fire hazard. The results can be used for diagnostic of fire hazard of nanomaterials and protection of the enterprises against fire and explosion.

  10. Effect of gamma radiation on morphological & optical properties of ZnO nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qindeel, Rabia

    Gamma radiation is the most energetic, highly penetrating electromagnetic radiation with extremely high frequency. In this light, the influence of gamma irradiation on the morphological and the optical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanopowder is investigated for different applications. In particular, the zinc oxide (ZnO) nanopowder is prepared by the homogenous precipitation method with the post-oxidation annealing taking place in air atmosphere. The optical properties of the ZnO nanopowder are observed using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 200-800 nm, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used for surface analysis. Samples are irradiated using a Co60 gamma source with high and low dose. The energy band gap of ZnO nanopowder is calculated before and after gamma radiation.

  11. YBa2Cu3O7-δ-based ceramic materials manufactured from nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadzhimagomedov, S. Kh.; Palchaev, D. K.; Rabadanov, M. Kh.; Murlieva, Zh. Kh.; Shabanov, N. S.; Palchaev, N. A.; Murliev, E. K.; Emirov, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    The results of studying the structure and electrical resistance of nanostructured YBa2Cu3O7-δ-based superconducting ceramics of various density optimally saturated by oxygen and fabricated from nanopowders are given.

  12. Chemical vapor synthesis and characterization of aluminum nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin Won; Sohn, Hong Yong; Choi, Young Joon; Fang, Zhigang Zak

    Aluminum is a component in many promising hydrogen storage materials such as aluminum hydride and complex aluminum hydrides. In this research, Al and TiAl 3-containing Al nanopowders were prepared by a chemical vapor synthesis (CVS) process using Mg as the reducing agent. XRD and EDS results indicated that the produced powder was composed of Al or Al with TiAl 3. The shape of the powder was spherical with the average size in the range of 10-50 nm measured by SEM, TEM, BET and ZetaPALS compared with the typically larger than 100 nm for commercially available fine Al powders. In addition, the effects of the operating conditions such as Ar flow rate, precursor feed rate and reaction temperature on the properties of the product powder were investigated.

  13. Surface Defect States in Nanopowder ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzhemechny, Yuri M.; Peters, Raul M.; Shafer, Jacob; Schulman, James; Paramo, J. Antonio

    2010-10-01

    In our work we employed surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy on a number of commercially available ZnO nanopowders to probe surface defect energies within the band gap, conduction vs. valence band nature of the defect-related transitions, as well as the surface photoresponse dynamics. SPV characterization was performed in ultra-high vacuum in situ with remote oxygen plasma treatments. Our experiments revealed a number of common spectral features related to surface states in the as-received and plasma-processed samples. Furthermore, we observed significant plasma-induced changes in the surface defect properties. Complementary ex situ photoluminescence measurements performed on the studied samples were correlated with the SPV results and demonstrated that our approach is efficient in detecting specific surface states in nanoscale ZnO specimens and in elucidating their nature.

  14. Development of SHS azide technology of silicon carbide nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titova, Y. V.; Illarionov, A. Yu; Amosov, A. P.; Maidan, D. A.; Smetanin, K. S.

    2017-02-01

    The possibility of increasing the purity and yield of the SiC nanopowder using an intermediate synthesis of silicon nitride (Si3N4) by azide technology of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis based on the use of a powder of sodium azide (NaN3) as a nitriding reagent was investigated. As a result of combustion of the initial mixture of powders ‘19Si + 6NaN3 + (NH4)2SiF6 + 20’, a powdery product was obtained, consisting almost entirely of SiC (about 90%) with an admixture of Si3N4 and Si (about 5% each), and representing nanoparticles (80-150 nm) combined into agglomerates with the size up to 50 µm.

  15. Effect of deposition parameters on the structural properties of ZnO nanopowders prepared by microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis.

    PubMed

    Caglar, Yasemin; Gorgun, Kamuran; Aksoy, Seval

    2015-03-05

    ZnO nanopowders were synthesized via microwave-assisted hydrothermal method at different deposition (microwave irradiation) times and pH values. The effects of pH and deposition (microwave irradiation) time on the crystalline structure and orientation of the ZnO nanopowders have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. XRD observations showed that the crystalline quality of ZnO nanopowders increased with increasing pH value. The crystallite size and texture coefficient values of ZnO nanopowders were calculated. The structural quality of ZnO nanopowder was improved by deposition parameters. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was used to analyze the surface morphology of the ZnO nanopowders. Microwave irradiation time and pH value showed a significant effect on the surface morphology.

  16. Effect of deposition parameters on the structural properties of ZnO nanopowders prepared by microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caglar, Yasemin; Gorgun, Kamuran; Aksoy, Seval

    2015-03-01

    ZnO nanopowders were synthesized via microwave-assisted hydrothermal method at different deposition (microwave irradiation) times and pH values. The effects of pH and deposition (microwave irradiation) time on the crystalline structure and orientation of the ZnO nanopowders have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. XRD observations showed that the crystalline quality of ZnO nanopowders increased with increasing pH value. The crystallite size and texture coefficient values of ZnO nanopowders were calculated. The structural quality of ZnO nanopowder was improved by deposition parameters. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was used to analyze the surface morphology of the ZnO nanopowders. Microwave irradiation time and pH value showed a significant effect on the surface morphology.

  17. Antibacterial activity evaluation of bioactive glass and biphasic calcium phosphate nanopowders mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazemi, Zahra; Mehdikhani-Nahrkhalaji, Mehdi; Haghbin-Nazarpak, Masoumeh; Staji, Hamid; Kalani, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of bioactive glass (BG) and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) nanopowders mixtures for the first time. 37S BG and BCP (50% HA-50% β-TCP) nanopowders were prepared via sol-gel technique. Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transition electron microscopy, and X-ray fluorescent. The antibacterial activity was studied using Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi as gram-negative, and Staphylococcus aureus as gram-positive bacteria. The antibacterial effect of BG, BCP nanopowders, and their mixtures was evaluated at different concentrations. The 37S BG nanopowders showed minimum bactericidal concentration at 25 mg/ml. At broth concentrations below 300 mg/ml, BCP showed no antibacterial activity. BCP and BG nanopowders mixture (M2) with 60/40 ratio of BCP/BG showed noticeable antibacterial effect. It was concluded that BCP and 37S BG nanopowders mixture could be used as a good candidate for dental and orthopedic applications.

  18. A comparative study of morphology and composition on oxide nanopowders elaborated by SPVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bârcă, E. S.; Rizea, V.; Abrudeanu, M.; Plaiasu, A. G.; Istrate, B.; Munteanu, C.

    2015-11-01

    The paper proposes a method of obtaining oxide nanopowders in a solar reactor using the solar energy (solar physical vapor deposition). The proposed method is a new method of obtaining nanopowders. Taking into consideration that the properties of the materials change once they get to nanodimensions it is desirable to obtain nanomaterials starting from base materials. Because of the properties that nanomaterials provide, the demand has grown in the last period of time. Also the last few years provided a various number of nanomaterials used in different fields of research. Among the materials that were obtained by SPVD there can be reminded the MoS2, the MoS2 doped with Zn, CeO2 doped with Zr. The CeO2 is used in applications such as catalysis, gas sensor, fuell cell as well as optical additives. All of the obtained nanopowders were analyzed and characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to acquire the information about the crystallography and morphology considering the reactions parameters that were used in obtaining the nanopowders. From the X-Ray diffraction can be concluded in the case of the CeO2 that doping occurred. By controlling the reactions parameters the end result is different in therms of obtained morphology of the nanopowders. All of the above elaborated nanopowders can be deposited in the form of thin films by laser ablation method in order to obtain better properties of the base material.

  19. Nanofiber generation of hydroxyapatite and fluor-hydroxyapatite bioceramics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hae-Won; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

    2006-05-01

    In this study, we produced hydroxyapatite (HA) and fluor-hydroxyapatite (FHA) bioceramics as a novel geometrical form, the nanoscale fiber, for the biomedical applications. Based on the sol-gel precursors of the apatites, an electrospinning technique was introduced to generate nanoscale fibers. The diameter of the fibers was exploited in the range of a few micrometers to hundreds of nanometers (1.55 microm-240 nm) by means of adjusting the concentration of the sols. Through the fluoridation of apatite, the solubility of the fiber was tailored and the fluorine ions were well released from the FHA. The HA and FHA nanofibers produced in this study are considered to find potential applications in the biomaterials and tissue engineering fields.

  20. Microstructural and antibacterial properties of zinc-substituted cobalt ferrite nanopowders synthesized by sol-gel methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanpo, Noppakun; Berndt, Christopher C.; Wang, James

    2012-10-01

    Zinc-substituted cobalt ferrite nanopowders were prepared via a sol-gel route using citric acid as a chelating agent. The influence of zinc concentration on the microstructure, crystal structure, surface wettability, surface roughness, and antibacterial property of zinc-substituted cobalt ferrite nanopowders was investigated systematically. The substitution of zinc influences slightly the microstructure, surface wettability, surface roughness, and crystal structure but strongly affects the antibacterial property of the cobalt ferrite nanopowders.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of porous hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Nieh, T G; Choi, B W; Jankowski, A F

    2000-10-25

    A technique is developed to construct bulk hydroxyapatite (HAp) with different cellular structures. The technique involves the initial synthesis of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite powder from an aqueous solution using water-soluble compounds and then followed by spray drying into agglomerated granules. The granules were further cold pressed and sintered into bulks at elevated temperatures. The sintering behavior of the HAp granules was characterized and compared with those previously reported. Resulting from the fact that the starting HAp powders were extremely fine, a relatively low activation energy for sintering was obtained. In the present study, both porous and dense structures were produced by varying powder morphology and sintering parameters. Porous structures consisting of open cells were constructed. Sintered structures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray tomography. In the present paper, hydroxyapatite coatings produced by magnetron sputtering on silicon and titanium substrates will also be presented. The mechanical properties of the coatings were measured using nanoindentation techniques and microstructures examined using transmission electron microscopy.

  2. The effect of nanobioceramic reinforcement on mechanical and biological properties of Co-base alloy/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, M; Fathi, M H; Ahmadian, M

    2015-03-01

    The goal of the present research was to fabricate, characterize, and evaluate mechanical and biological properties of Co-base alloy composites with different amounts of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopowder reinforcement. The powder of Co-Cr-Mo alloy was mixed with different amounts of HA by ball milling and it was then cold pressed and sintered. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were used. Microhardness measurement and compressive tests were also carried out. Bioactivity behavior was evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF). A significant decrease in modulus elasticity and an increase in microhardness of the sintered composites were observed. Apatite formation on the surface of the composites showed that it could successfully convert bioinert Co-Cr-Mo alloy to bioactive type by adding 10, 15, and 20wt.% HA which have lower modulus elasticity and higher microhardness.

  3. Crystallization of modified hydroxyapatite on titanium implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovanova, O. A.; Izmailov, R. R.; Ghyngazov, S. A.; Zaits, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    Carbonated-hydroxyapatite (CHA) and Si-hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) precipitation have been synthesized from the model bioliquid solutions (synovial fluid and SBF). It is found that all the samples synthesized from the model solutions are single-phase and represent hydroxyapatite. The crystallization of the modified hydroxyapatite on alloys of different composition, roughness and subjected to different treatment techniques was investigated. Irradiation of the titanium substrates with the deposited biomimetic coating can facilitate further growth of the crystal and regeneration of the surface.

  4. Cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil-Albarova, Jorge; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Ibarz, Elena; Gabarre, Sergio; Más, Yolanda; Gracia, Luis

    2015-01-01

    More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA), calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality.

  5. Cementless Hydroxyapatite Coated Hip Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil-Albarova, Jorge; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Ibarz, Elena; Gabarre, Sergio; Más, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA), calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality. PMID:25802848

  6. Structural and physical properties of antibacterial Ag-doped nano-hydroxyapatite synthesized at 100°C

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Synthesis of nanosized particle of Ag-doped hydroxyapatite with antibacterial properties is in the great interest in the development of new biomedical applications. In this article, we propose a method for synthesized the Ag-doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite. A silver-doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite was synthesized at 100°C in deionized water. Other phase or impurities were not observed. Silver-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (Ag:HAp) were performed by setting the atomic ratio of Ag/[Ag + Ca] at 20% and [Ca + Ag]/P as 1.67. The X-ray diffraction studies demonstrate that powders made by co-precipitation at 100°C exhibit the apatite characteristics with good crystal structure and no new phase or impurity is found. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations suggest that these materials present a little different morphology, which reveals a homogeneous aspect of the synthesized particles for all samples. The presence of calcium (Ca), phosphor (P), oxygen (O), and silver (Ag) in the Ag:HAp is confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopies revealed that the presence of the various vibrational modes corresponds to phosphates and hydroxyl groups. The strain of Staphylococcus aureus was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the Ca10-xAgx(PO4)6(OH)2 (x = 0 and 0.2). In vitro bacterial adhesion study indicated a significant difference between HAp (x = 0) and Ag:HAp (x = 0.2). The Ag:Hap nanopowder showed higher inhibition. PMID:22136671

  7. Mechanical and cytotoxicity evaluation of nanostructured hydroxyapatite-bredigite scaffolds for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Eilbagi, Marjan; Emadi, Rahmatollah; Raeissi, Keyvan; Kharaziha, Mahshid; Valiani, Ali

    2016-11-01

    Despite the attractive characteristics of three-dimensional pure hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds, due to their weak mechanical properties, researches have focused on the development of composite scaffolds via introducing suitable secondary components. The aim of this study was to develop, for the first time, three-dimensional HA-bredigite (Ca7MgSi4O16) scaffolds containing various amounts of bredigite nanopowder (0, 5, 10 and 15wt.%) using space holder technique. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy were applied in order to study the morphology, fracture surface and phase compositions of nanopowders and scaffolds. Furthermore, the effects of scaffold composition on the mechanical properties, bioactivity, biodegradability, and cytotoxicity were also evaluated. Results showed that the composite scaffolds with average pore size in the range of 220-310μm, appearance porosity of 63.1-75.9% and appearance density of 1.1±0.04g/cm(3) were successfully developed, depending on bredigite content. Indeed, the micropore size of the scaffolds reduced with increasing bredigite content confirming that the sinterability of the scaffolds was improved. Furthermore, the compression strength and modulus of the scaffolds significantly enhanced via incorporation of bredigite content from 0 to 15wt.%. The composite scaffolds revealed superior bioactivity and biodegradability with increasing bredigite content. Moreover, MTT assay confirmed that HA-15wt.% bredigite scaffold significantly promoted cell proliferation compared to tissue culture plate (control) and HA scaffold. Based on these results, three-dimensional HA-bredigite scaffolds could be promising replacements for HA scaffolds in bone regeneration.

  8. Nanostructure of biocompatible titania/hydroxyapatite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, Aleksandr A.; Rodionov, Igor V.; Steinhauer, Aleksey B.; Fomina, Marina A.; Petrova, Natalia V.; Zakharevich, Andrey M.; Skaptsov, Aleksandr A.; Gribov, Andrey N.; Atkin, Vsevolod S.

    2014-01-01

    The article describes prospective composite biocompatible titania coatings modified with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and obtained on intraosseous implants fabricated from commercially pure titanium VT1-00. Consistency changes of morphological characteristics, crystalline structure, physical and mechanical properties and biocompatibility of experimental titanium implant coatings obtained by the combination of oxidation and surface modification with hydroxyapatite during induction heat treatment are defined.

  9. Template synthesis of ordered macroporous hydroxyapatite bioceramics.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lijun; Jell, Gavin; Dong, Yixiang; Jones, Julian R; Stevens, Molly M

    2011-08-28

    Hydroxyapatite has found wide application in bone tissue engineering. Here we use a macroporous carbon template to generate highly ordered macroporous hydroxyapatite bioceramics composed of close-packed hollow spherical pores with interconnected channels. The template has advantages for the preparation of ordered materials.

  10. Structural analysis of hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium.

    PubMed

    Ducheyne, P; Van Raemdonck, W; Heughebaert, J C; Heughebaert, M

    1986-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite from two sources was electrophoretically deposited onto flat titanium plate material. Depending upon the deposition conditions various changes in the structure of the ceramic were identified. A well-adhering Ti-P compound was present at the interface. Hydroxyapatite oxygenated to various degrees and tetracalcium phosphate were reproducibly formed in the coating.

  11. Intersectant Microstructure of Hydroxyapatite Sheets of Shankbone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B.; Luo, J.; Wang, J. G.; Yuan, Q.; Fan, J. H.

    Bone possesses excellent mechanical properties, which are closely related to its favorable microstructures optimized by nature through millions of years. In this work, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the microstructures of a shankbone. It showed that the bone is a kind of bioceramic composite consisting of hydroxyapatite layers and collagen protein matrix. The hydroxyapatite layers are further composed of long and thin hydroxyapatite sheets. The hydroxyapatite sheets in different hydroxyapatite layers distribute along different orientations, which composes a kind of intersectant microstructure. The maximum pullout force of the intersectant microstructure was investigated and compared with that of 0° microstructure with their representative models. The result indicated that the maximum pullout force of the intersectant microstructure is markedly larger than that of the 0° microstructure, which was experimentally verified.

  12. Electron microscopy of biomaterials based on hydroxyapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Suvorova, E. I. Klechkovskaya, V. V.; Komarov, V. F.; Severin, A. V.; Melikhov, I. V.; Buffat, P. A.

    2006-10-15

    Three types of biomaterials based on hydroxyapatite are synthesized and investigated. Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals or microcrystals precipitated from low-temperature aqueous solutions serve as the initial material used for preparing spherical porous granules approximately 300-500 {mu}m in diameter. Sintering of hydroxyapatite crystals at a temperature of 870 deg. C for 2 h or at 1000 deg. C (for 3 h) + 1200 deg. C (for 2 h) brings about the formation of solid ceramics with different internal structures. According to the electron microscopic data, the ceramic material prepared at 870 deg. C is formed by agglomerated hydroxyapatite nanocrystals, whereas the ceramics sintered at 1200 deg. C (with a bending strength of the order of 100 MPa) are composed of crystal blocks as large as 2 {mu}m. It is established that all the biomaterials have a single-phase composition and consist of the hydroxyapatite with a structure retained up to a temperature of 1200 deg. C.

  13. Synthesis and spectral characterizations of trivalent ions (Cr3+, Fe3+) doped CdO nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Aswani, T; Babu, B; Manjari, V Pushpa; Stella, R Joyce; Rao, G Thirumala; Krishna, Ch Rama; Ravikumar, R V S S N

    2014-01-01

    Trivalent transition metal ions (Cr(3+), Fe(3+)) doped CdO nanopowders via sonication in the presence of Sodium lauryl sulfate as stabilizing agent were synthesized and characterized. Powder XRD studies indicate that the obtained CdO has a cubic phase and concluded that the trivalent ions doping induced the lattice constants to change some extent. Optical absorption spectra exhibited the characteristic bands of Cr(3+) and Fe(3+) ions in octahedral site symmetry. Crystal field (Dq) and inter-electronic repulsion (B and C) parameters are evaluated for Cr(3+) doped CdO nanopowders as Dq=1540, B=619 and C=3327 cm(-1) and for Fe(3+) doped CdO nanopowders Dq=920, B=690, C=2750 cm(-1). EPR spectra of the Cr(3+) and Fe(3+) doped CdO nanopowders exhibited resonances at g=1.973 and g=2 respectively which indicate distorted octahedral site for both ions with the host. Photoluminescence spectra shows the emission bands in violet and bluish green regions for Cr(3+) doped CdO, ultraviolet and blue emissions for Fe(3+) doped CdO nanopowders. The CIE chromaticity coordinates were also evaluated from the emission spectrum. FT-IR spectra indicate the presence of various functional groups of host lattice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of different ions doping on the antibacterial properties of MgO nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Wei; Tan, Fatang; Cai, Yuncheng; Lu, Junwen; Qiao, Xueliang

    2013-11-01

    Compared with other inorganic antibacterial agents, magnesium oxide (MgO) nanopowders exhibit a unique antibacterial mechanism and various advantages in applications, having attracted extensive attention. In this study, MgO nanopowders doped with different ions (Li+, Zn2+ and Ti4+) were synthesized by a sol-gel method, respectively. The structures and morphologies of the as-obtained precursors and nanopowders were characterized and confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The influence of three metal ions doping on the antibacterial properties of MgO nanopowders was also investigated by their bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli, ATCC 25922) using the broth microdilution method and the agar method. The results show that Li-doped MgO exhibits better antibacterial activity, Zn-doped and Ti-doped MgO display poorer antibacterial activity than pure MgO. It can be concluded that the influence of different ions doping on the antibacterial properties of MgO mainly lies on oxygen vacancies and basicity of nanopowders.

  15. Preparation, structural and linear optical properties of Zn doped CdS nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekhar, H.; Rakesh Kumar, Y.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2015-02-01

    A series of Zn doped cadmium sulfide (CdS:Zn) nanopowders were prepared by a simple co-precipitation method at room temperature by mixing the stoichiometric amount of reactants in a Milli Q water solvent. The composition of nanopowders was accurately adjusted by controlling the molar ratio of Cd, Zn acetate in the mixed reactants. Spectroscopic studies on as prepared nanopowders were investigated by using XRD, Raman, UV-Vis absorption, FE- SEM-EDAX and photoluminescence. Extremely broad reflections of XRD peaks of as prepared powders establish the nanometer scale dimensions and cubic structure. Doping with Zn in CdS does not lead to any structural phase transformation but introduces a decrease in the lattice constants. Two characteristics of LO phonon peaks were observed in pure and Zn doped CdS samples. Raman peaks of Zn doped CdS nanopowders shifts slightly towards higher energy side compared to the pure CdS nanopowders. Exciton-phonon confinement factor (S) varies in between 0.3-0.4. At lower wavelength excitation we observed a broad emission peak maximum centered at 404 nm is attributed to localized band edge emission.

  16. Synthesis and spectral characterizations of trivalent ions (Cr3+, Fe3+) doped CdO nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswani, T.; Babu, B.; Pushpa Manjari, V.; Joyce Stella, R.; Thirumala Rao, G.; Rama Krishna, Ch.; Ravikumar, R. V. S. S. N.

    2014-03-01

    Trivalent transition metal ions (Cr3+, Fe3+) doped CdO nanopowders via sonication in the presence of Sodium lauryl sulfate as stabilizing agent were synthesized and characterized. Powder XRD studies indicate that the obtained CdO has a cubic phase and concluded that the trivalent ions doping induced the lattice constants to change some extent. Optical absorption spectra exhibited the characteristic bands of Cr3+ and Fe3+ ions in octahedral site symmetry. Crystal field (Dq) and inter-electronic repulsion (B and C) parameters are evaluated for Cr3+ doped CdO nanopowders as Dq = 1540, B = 619 and C = 3327 cm-1 and for Fe3+ doped CdO nanopowders Dq = 920, B = 690, C = 2750 cm-1. EPR spectra of the Cr3+ and Fe3+ doped CdO nanopowders exhibited resonances at g = 1.973 and g = 2 respectively which indicate distorted octahedral site for both ions with the host. Photoluminescence spectra shows the emission bands in violet and bluish green regions for Cr3+ doped CdO, ultraviolet and blue emissions for Fe3+ doped CdO nanopowders. The CIE chromaticity coordinates were also evaluated from the emission spectrum. FT-IR spectra indicate the presence of various functional groups of host lattice.

  17. Plasma-chemical reactor based on a low-pressure pulsed arc discharge for synthesis of nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, I. V.; Ushakov, A. V.; Lepeshev, A. A.; Fedorov, L. Yu.

    2017-01-01

    A reactor for producing nanopowders in the plasma of a low-pressure arc discharge has been developed. As a plasma source, a pulsed cold-cathode arc evaporator has been applied. The design and operating principle of the reactor have been described. Experimental data on how the movement of a gaseous mixture in the reactor influences the properties of nanopowders have been presented.

  18. Role of Rare Earth Ions on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanopowder: A Case of Ce3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, N. R.; Acharya, B. S.

    2011-07-01

    ZnO nanopowder doped with cerium prepared by the method of ultrasonication is reported. The structural and optical properties of the nanopowders were investigated by different characterization techniques like X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical absorption studies (OAS), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL).

  19. Nanopowder production by gas-embedded electrical explosion of wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiao-Bing; Mao, Zhi-Guo; Wang, Xin-Xin; Jiang, Wei-Hua

    2013-04-01

    A small electrical explosion of wire (EEW) setup for nanopowder production is constructed. It consists of a low inductance capacitor bank of 2 μF-4 μF typically charged to 8 kV-30 kV, a triggered gas switch, and a production chamber housing the exploding wire load and ambient gas. With the EEW device, nanosize powders of titanium oxides, titanium nitrides, copper oxides, and zinc oxides are successfully synthesized. The average particle size of synthesized powders under different experimental conditions is in a range of 20 nm-80 nm. The pressure of ambient gas or wire vapor can strongly affect the average particle size. The lower the pressure, the smaller the particle size is. For wire material with relatively high resistivity, such as titanium, whose deposited energy Wd is often less than sublimation energy Ws due to the flashover breakdown along the wire prematurely ending the Joule heating process, the synthesized particle size of titanium oxides or titanium nitrides increases with overheat coefficient k (k = Wd/Ws) increasing.

  20. A System to Create Stable Nanoparticle Aerosols from Nanopowders

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yaobo; Riediker, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticle aerosols released from nanopowders in workplaces are associated with human exposure and health risks. We developed a novel system, requiring minimal amounts of test materials (min. 200 mg), for studying powder aerosolization behavior and aerosol properties. The aerosolization procedure follows the concept of the fluidized-bed process, but occurs in the modified volume of a V-shaped aerosol generator. The airborne particle number concentration is adjustable by controlling the air flow rate. The system supplied stable aerosol generation rates and particle size distributions over long periods (0.5-2 hr and possibly longer), which are important, for example, to study aerosol behavior, but also for toxicological studies. Strict adherence to the operating procedures during the aerosolization experiments ensures the generation of reproducible test results. The critical steps in the standard protocol are the preparation of the material and setup, and the aerosolization operations themselves. The system can be used for experiments requiring stable aerosol concentrations and may also be an alternative method for testing dustiness. The controlled aerosolization made possible with this setup occurs using energy inputs (may be characterized by aerosolization air velocity) that are within the ranges commonly found in occupational environments where nanomaterial powders are handled. This setup and its operating protocol are thus helpful for human exposure and risk assessment. PMID:27501179

  1. Nd:Y 2O 3 nanopowders for laser ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylov, Yu. L.; Kravchenko, V. B.; Komarov, A. A.; Lebedeva, Z. M.; Shemet, V. V.

    2007-06-01

    Nanopowders of Nd-doped yttrium oxide were obtained by chemical co-precipitation method using nitrate salts solutions and different precipitant agents - urea, ammonium carbonate and oxalic acid. Precursor and oxide particles agglomeration, particle form, particle size and specific surface area depend critically upon experimental conditions. Plates and rods were formed with hydroxycarbonate and oxalates precipitation correspondingly, whereas hydroxynitrates gave more uniform spherical particles' shapes. Calcination at 900-1200 °C gave oxide powders with specific area in the range 15-50 m 2/g. High energy ball milling was used to decrease grain agglomeration. Powders with around 100 nm size were used to prepare pellets by slip casting into porous moulds using PMMA or PAA additives to reduce viscosity of the slurries with high powder contents. The pellets density around 0.48-0.52 of the theoretical value was obtained. Vacuum sintering of the pellets at 1700-1800 °C gave transparent ceramic samples with grain size between 10 and 50 μm. The most serious defects in the ceramics are closed pores which reduce their transparency.

  2. Enhanced colloidal stability of hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borum, La Rhonda Terese

    Hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH) 2 is the most thermodynamically stable calcium phosphate in physiological environments. Hence, it is the main inorganic mineral found in bone and teeth. Its colloidal stability, however, is poor because hydroxyapatite (HAp) particles exhibit sediment formation upon standing at short time periods, where agglomerates form and lead to non-homogeneous suspensions. Surface modification is a promising method to tailor the colloidal stability of hydroxyapatite for biomaterial applications. Three techniques to modify the HAp surface and enhance the colloidal stability of HAp were investigated. Modified particles were characterized by methods sensitive to surface chemistry changes, such as sedimentation studies, diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFT), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, and electrophoresis. Sedimentation studies demonstrated how effective each technique was in improving the colloidal stability of hydroxyapatite particles. Electrophoresis provided information on electrostatic interactions within each system. The first technique entailed an esterification reaction of the HAp surface with dodecyl alcohol at elevated temperatures. DRIFT results showed that dodecyl groups from the alcohol replaced acidic hydroxyl and phosphate sites on the HAp surface, giving rise to enhanced colloidal stability through steric interactions in ethanol suspensions. TGA curves gave insight to the degree of esterification for the esterified particles. Higher reaction temperatures give rise to a higher degree of esterification resulting in better colloidal stability. The second technique applied a silica coating on the HAp surface by the hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate in ethanol. Silica was coated onto the HAp surface at 5--75 wt% loading amounts. A combination of acid dissolution and x-ray diffraction (XRD), along with BET showed that the silica coating is complete at 50 wt% silica loading. The silica coating

  3. Bio-ecological consequences of crop seeds treatment with metal nano-powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churilov, G.

    2015-11-01

    As a result of our investigations we have determined the optimal concentrations of ferrum, cobalt and cuprum nano-powders recommended to be used as micro-fertilizers increasing the yield and feed value of crops at the expense of accumulating biologically active combinations by 25-35%. In unfavorable climate conditions, for example in a case of excess moisture or heat and drought, the plants development and ripening suffer. Our investigations have shown that the stimulating effect of nano-powders has lowered the effect of stress situations on plants development and simultaneously increased the rape seeds yield and quality. Treating the seeds with the drugs being studied has provided the high crop protection. If consider that the maximum efficiency of protectants Chinuk, SK (20 kg/t of seeds) and Cruiser, KS (10 kg/t of seeds) then for the same effect one needs nano-powders 0.1 g per hectare norm of seeds planting.

  4. Photocatalytic reduction of nitrate in wastewater using ZnO nanopowder synthesized by solution combustion method.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung; Kim, Hee-Joon; Kim, Jong Soo; Yoo, Kang; Lee, Jae Chun; Anderson, W A; Lee, Ju-Hyeon

    2007-11-01

    ZnO nanopowder was synthesized by a unique method which is called solution combustion method (SCM). This nanopowder was used for a photocatalyst to decompose nitrate that is a toxic pollutant in wastewater. It has been known that TiO2, the most popular photocatalyst, does not decompose the nitrate. In this paper, however, the SCM ZnO nanopowder decomposed about 13% of nitrate. Furthermore, adding methanol as a hole scavenger, the decomposition rate was enhanced by about 5 times. On the other hand, it has been reported that the photocatalytic reduction reaction of nitrate produces ammonia as a final product. The present results, however, suggest that the final product is non-toxic nitrogen gas rather than the toxic ammonia. These results would be very valuable for drinking water purification.

  5. Copper and Graphene activated ZnO nanopowders for enhanced photocatalytic and antibacterial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, K.; Chidhambaram, N.; Gobalakrishnan, S.

    2016-06-01

    ZnO, ZnO:Cu and ZnO:Cu:Graphene nanopowders were synthesized via a facile wet chemical method. The XRD studies show that the synthesized samples have hexagonal wurtzite structure. It is found that graphene addition induces a decrease in crystallite size. UV-vis absorption spectra of the samples show sharp absorption edges around 380 nm. Photoluminescence studies reveal that the incorporation of copper and graphene in ZnO facilitates the efficient photo generated electron-hole pair separation. It is found that the ZnO:Cu and ZnO:Cu:Graphene nanopowder exhibit improved photocatalytic efficiency for the photodegradation of Methylene Blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. Moreover, improved antibacterial activity of ZnO:Cu:Graphene nanopowder against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria is observed.

  6. Tailoring the magnetic properties of FexCo(1-x) nanopowders prepared by a polyol process.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Dustin M; Castano, Carlos E; Tsui, Melissa H M; Rojas, Jessika V; Carpenter, Everett E

    2017-08-08

    Precise control over the magnetic properties of FeCo alloys is of scientific significance, due to their high Curie points and saturation magnetizations, and of broad interest for applications such as transformer cores, induction motors, switching devices, and hyperthermia. The magnetic properties of FexCo(1-x) alloy-based nanopowders prepared by polyol synthesis and their relationship with morphological features and the evolution of the microstructure were investigated using a design of experiments (DoE) approach. Proportionalities related to the magnetic properties, saturation magnetization (Ms) and coercivity (Hc), were identified where Ms ∝ (110) crystallite size of FeCo (bcc) and Hc ∝ particle diameter for the as-synthesized FexCo(1-x) nanopowders. Adjusting the reaction composition allows for control of the FeCo (bcc) (110) crystallite size from 20-45 nm represented by a response surface model. Morphological features of the as-synthesized nanopowders include particles interlinked as chains, and particles either in the form of cuboids or spheroids, all with diameters ranging from 75-175 nm. FexCo(1-x) alloy was confirmed by XRD in each nanopowder while few contained a combination of phases which include Co (fcc), or ferrite (CoFe2O4), or both. Depending on composition, particle dimension, and microstructure, the Ms ranged from 90-215 emu g(-1) with Hc from 90-400 Oe for all nanopowders synthesized by the sub-reflux, isothermal condition (150 °C). Tailoring the magnetic properties of FexCo(1-x) alloy-based nanopowders is accomplished chemically by identifying and regulating significant reaction parameters and conditions.

  7. [Fracture of macroporous hydroxyapatite prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Adetchessi, A T; Pech-Gourg, G; Metellus, P; Fuentes, S

    2012-12-01

    Different prosthesis implants are offered to perform a cranioplasty after a decompressive craniectomy when autologous bone graft cannot be used. The authors report the case of a 25-year-old man who benefited a unilateral decompressive craniectomy after a severe head trauma. Seven months later, a cranioplasty using custom macroporous hydroxyapatite prosthesis was performed. The postoperative course was marked by a generalized seizure leading to a traumatic head injury. The CT-scan showed a comminutive fracture of the prosthesis and an extradural hematoma. The patient underwent a removal of the fractured prosthesis and an evacuation of the extradural clot. The postoperative course was uneventful with a Glasgow outcome scale score at 5. A second cranioplasty using a polyether ether ketone (PEEK) implant was performed. Among cranioplasty prosthesis solutions, hydroxyapatite implants seem to have similar property to the bone. However, its weak mechanic resistance is an actual problem in patients susceptible to present generalized seizures with consecutive head impact. Hence, in patients with decompressive craniectomy who are exposed to potential brain injury, we favor the use of more resistant implant as PEEK prosthesis.

  8. Substituted Hydroxyapatites with Antibacterial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Kolmas, Joanna; Groszyk, Ewa; Kwiatkowska-Różycka, Dagmara

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructive surgery is presently struggling with the problem of infections located within implantation biomaterials. Of course, the best antibacterial protection is antibiotic therapy. However, oral antibiotic therapy is sometimes ineffective, while administering an antibiotic at the location of infection is often associated with an unfavourable ratio of dosage efficiency and toxic effect. Thus, the present study aims to find a new factor which may improve antibacterial activity while also presenting low toxicity to the human cells. Such factors are usually implemented along with the implant itself and may be an integral part of it. Many recent studies have focused on inorganic factors, such as metal nanoparticles, salts, and metal oxides. The advantages of inorganic factors include the ease with which they can be combined with ceramic and polymeric biomaterials. The following review focuses on hydroxyapatites substituted with ions with antibacterial properties. It considers materials that have already been applied in regenerative medicine (e.g., hydroxyapatites with silver ions) and those that are only at the preliminary stage of research and which could potentially be used in implantology or dentistry. We present methods for the synthesis of modified apatites and the antibacterial mechanisms of various ions as well as their antibacterial efficiency. PMID:24949423

  9. Cement from magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Lilley, K J; Gbureck, U; Knowles, J C; Farrar, D F; Barralet, J E

    2005-05-01

    Brushite cement may be used as a bone graft material and is more soluble than apatite in physiological conditions. Consequently it is considerably more resorbable in vivo than apatite forming cements. Brushite cement formation has previously been reported by our group following the mixture of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and phosphoric acid. In this study, brushite cement was formed from the reaction of nanocrystalline magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite with phosphoric acid in an attempt to produce a magnesium substituted brushite cement. The presence of magnesium was shown to have a strong effect on cement composition and strength. Additionally the presence of magnesium in brushite cement was found to reduce the extent of brushite hydrolysis resulting in the formation of HA. By incorporating magnesium ions in the apatite reactant structure the concentration of magnesium ions in the liquid phase of the cement was controlled by the dissolution rate of the apatite. This approach may be used to supply other ions to cement systems during setting as a means to manipulate the clinical performance and characteristics of brushite cements.

  10. Metalated nucleotide chemisorption on hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Michele; Antonucci, Daniela; De Castro, Federica; Girelli, Chiara R; Lelli, Marco; Roveri, Norberto; Fanizzi, Francesco P

    2015-12-01

    The experiments here reported evidence on the importance of the residual charge of a nucleotide derivative, for the adsorption on nHAP (hydroxyapatite nanocrystals), in water solution. We found that the simple presence of phosphates on the nucleotide derivative does not guarantee adsorption on nHAP. On the other hand, we demonstrated that a cationic or neutral charge on a nucleotide derivative produces a strongly reduced chemical adsorption (chemisorption) whereas, in the presence of a net negative charge, relevant adsorption on nHAP is observed. The number of phosphates can only modulate the adsorption efficiency of a molecule provided that this latter bears an overall negative charge. The neutral zwitterionic nucleotide Pt(II) complexes, bearing negatively charged phosphates, are unable to give stable chemisorption. Previous considerations are important to model the binding ability of phosphate bearing nucleotide derivatives or molecules on hydroxyapatite. The findings reported in the present paper could be relevant in bone tissue targeting or nHAP mediated drug delivery.

  11. Substituted hydroxyapatites with antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Kolmas, Joanna; Groszyk, Ewa; Kwiatkowska-Różycka, Dagmara

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructive surgery is presently struggling with the problem of infections located within implantation biomaterials. Of course, the best antibacterial protection is antibiotic therapy. However, oral antibiotic therapy is sometimes ineffective, while administering an antibiotic at the location of infection is often associated with an unfavourable ratio of dosage efficiency and toxic effect. Thus, the present study aims to find a new factor which may improve antibacterial activity while also presenting low toxicity to the human cells. Such factors are usually implemented along with the implant itself and may be an integral part of it. Many recent studies have focused on inorganic factors, such as metal nanoparticles, salts, and metal oxides. The advantages of inorganic factors include the ease with which they can be combined with ceramic and polymeric biomaterials. The following review focuses on hydroxyapatites substituted with ions with antibacterial properties. It considers materials that have already been applied in regenerative medicine (e.g., hydroxyapatites with silver ions) and those that are only at the preliminary stage of research and which could potentially be used in implantology or dentistry. We present methods for the synthesis of modified apatites and the antibacterial mechanisms of various ions as well as their antibacterial efficiency.

  12. Radiation stability of SiO2 micro- and nanopowders under electron and proton exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chundong; Mikhailov, M. M.; Neshchimenko, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of proton and electron (E = 100 keV, F = 5 × 1015 сm-2) exposure on the reflective spectra of SiO2 micro- and nanopowders in wavelength range from 250 to 2500 nm have been investigated. It has been established that the reflectance and radiation stability of nanopowders is less than that of micropowders. This effect is caused by the high concentration of radiation defects, which act as surface absorption centers (Es‧ centers) near the energies 5.47 and 4.45 eV, and peroxide silicon defects (tbnd Sisbnd Osbnd Osbnd Sitbnd) near the energy 3.84 eV.

  13. Optical property degradation of titanium dioxide micro- and nanopowders under irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, M. M.; Li, Chundong; Neshchimenko, V. V.

    2014-08-01

    Diffuse reflection spectra and absorption spectra of titanium dioxide (anatase) micro- and nanopowders induced by exposure to 100 keV protons and electrons were analyzed at wavelengths between 250 and 2500 nm. It is established that the radiation stability of the nanopowders is higher than the micropowders in the absorption region λ > 500 nm for proton and electron exposure. This effect is caused by the high concentration of radiation defects in micropowders, which is associated with defects of interstitial titanium ions (Tiirad rad rad , Tiirad rad rad rad ), titanium vacancies (VTi⁗, VTi‴ ) and oxygen vacancies VOX.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Rutile TiO2Nanopowders Doped with Iron Ions

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanopowders doped with different amounts of Fe ions were prepared by coprecipitation method. Obtained materials were characterized by structural (XRD), morphological (TEM and SEM), optical (UV/vis reflection and photoluminescence, and Raman), and analytical techniques (XPS and ICP-OES). XRD analysis revealed rutile crystalline phase for doped and undoped titanium dioxide obtained in the same manner. Diameter of the particles was 5–7 nm. The presence of iron ions was confirmed by XPS and ICP-OES. Doping process moved absorption threshold of TiO2into visible spectrum range. Photocatalytic activity was also checked. Doped nanopowders showed normal and up-converted photoluminescence. PMID:20596442

  15. Corundum ceramic materials modified with silica nanopowders: structure and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostytsyn, M. A.; Muratov, D. S.; Lysov, D. V.; Chuprunov, K. O.; Yudin, A. G.; Leybo, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    Filtering elements are often used in the metallurgy of rare earth metals. Corundum ceramic is one of the most suitable materials for this purpose. The process of formation and the properties of nanomodified ceramic materials, which are proposed as filtering materials with tunable effective porosity, are described. A silica nanopowder is used as a porosity-increasing agent. Vortex layer apparatus is used for mixing of precursor materials. The obtained results show that nanomodification with the vortex layer apparatus using 0.04 wt. % silica nanopowder as a modifying agent leads to an increase in the compression strength of corundum ceramic by the factor of 1.5.

  16. Sintering Effects on Morphology, Thermal Stability and Surface Area of Sol-Gel Derived Nano-Hydroxyapatite Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapoor, Seema; Batra, Uma; Kohli, Suchita

    2011-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) ceramics have been recognized as substitute materials for bone and teeth in orthopedic and dentistry field due to their chemical and biological similarity to human hard tissue. The nanosized and nanocrystalline forms of HAP have great potential to revolutionize the hard tissue-engineering field, starting from bone repair and augmentation to controlled drug delivery systems. This paper reports the synthesis of biomimetic nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP) by sol-gel method using calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (CNT) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) as calcium and phosphorus precursors, respectively to obtain a desired Ca/P ratio of 1.67. Deionized water was used as a diluting media for HAP sol preparation and ammonia was used to adjust the pH to 11. After aging, the HAP gel was dried at 55 °C and sintered to different temperatures (200 °C, 400 °C, 600 °C, 800 °C, 1000 °C and 1200 °C). The dried and sintered powders were characterized for phase composition using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The particle size and morphology was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The thermal behavior of the dried HAP nanopowder was studied in the temperature range of 55 °C to 1000 °C using thermal gravimetric analyser (TGA). The BET surface area of absorbance was determined by Nitrogen adsorption using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The presence of characteristic peaks of the phosphate and OH groups in FTIR spectrums confirmed the formation of pure HAP in dried as well as sintered powders. XRD results also confirmed the formation of stoichiometric nano-HAP. Sintering revealed that with increase in temperature, both the crystallinity and crystallite size of nano-HAP particles increased. The synthesized nano-HAP powder was found to be stable upto 1000 °C without any additional phase other than HAP, whereas peak of β-TCP (tricalcium phosphate) was observed at 1200 °C. Photomicrograph of

  17. Sintering Effects on Morphology, Thermal Stability and Surface Area of Sol-Gel Derived Nano-Hydroxyapatite Powder

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, Seema; Batra, Uma; Kohli, Suchita

    2011-12-12

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) ceramics have been recognized as substitute materials for bone and teeth in orthopedic and dentistry field due to their chemical and biological similarity to human hard tissue. The nanosized and nanocrystalline forms of HAP have great potential to revolutionize the hard tissue-engineering field, starting from bone repair and augmentation to controlled drug delivery systems. This paper reports the synthesis of biomimetic nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP) by sol-gel method using calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (CNT) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) as calcium and phosphorus precursors, respectively to obtain a desired Ca/P ratio of 1.67. Deionized water was used as a diluting media for HAP sol preparation and ammonia was used to adjust the pH to 11. After aging, the HAP gel was dried at 55 deg. C and sintered to different temperatures (200 deg. C, 400 deg. C, 600 deg. C, 800 deg. C, 1000 deg. C and 1200 deg. C). The dried and sintered powders were characterized for phase composition using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The particle size and morphology was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The thermal behavior of the dried HAP nanopowder was studied in the temperature range of 55 deg. C to 1000 deg. C using thermal gravimetric analyser (TGA). The BET surface area of absorbance was determined by Nitrogen adsorption using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The presence of characteristic peaks of the phosphate and OH groups in FTIR spectrums confirmed the formation of pure HAP in dried as well as sintered powders. XRD results also confirmed the formation of stoichiometric nano-HAP. Sintering revealed that with increase in temperature, both the crystallinity and crystallite size of nano-HAP particles increased. The synthesized nano-HAP powder was found to be stable upto 1000 deg. C without any additional phase other than HAP, whereas peak of {beta}-TCP (tricalcium phosphate) was observed

  18. Enhanced osteoconductivity of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite by system instability.

    PubMed

    Sang Cho, Jung; Um, Seung-Hoon; Su Yoo, Dong; Chung, Yong-Chae; Hye Chung, Shin; Lee, Jeong-Cheol; Rhee, Sang-Hoon

    2014-07-01

    The effect of substituting sodium for calcium on enhanced osteoconductivity of hydroxyapatite was newly investigated. Sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was synthesized by reacting calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid with sodium nitrate followed by sintering. As a control, pure hydroxyapatite was prepared under identical conditions, but without the addition of sodium nitrate. Substitution of calcium with sodium in hydroxyapatite produced the structural vacancies for carbonate ion from phosphate site and hydrogen ion from hydroxide site of hydroxyapatite after sintering. The total system energy of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects calculated by ab initio methods based on quantum mechanics was much higher than that of hydroxyapatite, suggesting that the sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was energetically less stable compared with hydroxyapatite. Indeed, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited higher dissolution behavior of constituent elements of hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid (SBF) and Tris-buffered deionized water compared with hydroxyapatite, which directly affected low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity by increasing the degree of apatite supersaturation in SBF. Actually, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited markedly improved low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity in SBF and noticeably higher osteoconductivity 4 weeks after implantation in calvarial defects of New Zealand white rabbits compared with hydroxyapatite. In addition, there were no statistically significant differences between hydroxyapatite and sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite on cytotoxicity as determined by BCA assay. Taken together, these results indicate that sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects has promising potential for use as a bone grafting material due to its enhanced osteoconductivity compared with hydroxyapatite.

  19. Spectral analysis of allogeneic hydroxyapatite powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timchenko, P. E.; Timchenko, E. V.; Pisareva, E. V.; Vlasov, M. Yu; Red’kin, N. A.; Frolov, O. O.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the application of Raman spectroscopy to the in vitro analysis of the hydroxyapatite powder samples produced from different types of animal bone tissue during demineralization process at various acid concentrations and exposure durations. The derivation of the Raman spectrum of hydroxyapatite is attempted by the analysis of the pure powders of its known constituents. Were experimentally found spectral features of hydroxyapatite, based on analysis of the line amplitude at wave numbers 950-965 cm-1 ((PO4)3- (ν1) vibration) and 1065-1075 cm-1 ((CO3)2-(ν1) B-type replacement). Control of physicochemical properties of hydroxyapatite was carried out by Raman spectroscopy. Research results are compared with an infrared Fourier spectroscopy.

  20. On the anisotropic elastic properties of hydroxyapatite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J. L.; Ukraincik, K.

    1971-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the isotropic elastic moduli on polycrystalline specimens of hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite are compared with elastic constants measured directly from single crystals of fluorapatite in order to derive a set of pseudo single crystal elastic constants for hydroxyapatite. The stiffness coefficients thus derived are given. The anisotropic and isotropic elastic properties are then computed and compared with similar properties derived from experimental observations of the anisotropic behavior of bone.

  1. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite-polyaspartate composites.

    PubMed

    Bigi, A; Boanini, E; Gazzano, M; Rubini, K; Torricelli, P

    2004-01-01

    The direct synthesis of hydroxyapatite-poly-L-aspartic acid (HA-PASP) nanocrystals has been carried out in presence of increasing amounts of PASP in solution up to 56 mmol/l. WAXS, TEM, TGA, IR and chemical analyses were used to characterize the structure, morphology and composition of the products. PASP is quantitatively incorporated into HA crystals, provoking a reduction of the coherent length of the crystalline domains. Furthermore, composite crystals display a greater length/width ratio with respect to the control HA crystals, and show a remarkable trend towards aggregation. The broadening of the X-ray diffraction reflections indicate a reduction of the coherent length along the long dimension 002 and the cross section 310 of the apatite crystals. The comparison between the morphological and structural data allows to suggest a specific interaction between PASP and HA structure.

  2. Substituted hydroxyapatites for bone repair.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Jennifer H; Shepherd, David V; Best, Serena M

    2012-10-01

    Calcium phosphates such as hydroxyapatite have a wide range of applications both in bone grafts and for the coating of metallic implants, largely as a result of their chemical similarity to the mineral component of bone. However, to more accurately mirror the chemistry, various substitutions, both cationic (substituting for the calcium) and anionic (substituting for the phosphate or hydroxyl groups) have been produced. Significant research has been carried out in the field of substituted apatites and this paper aims to summarise some of the key effect of substitutions including magnesium, zinc, strontium, silicon and carbonate on physical and biological characteristics. Even small substitutions have been shown to have very significant effects on thermal stability, solubility, osteoclastic and osteoblastic response in vitro and degradation and bone regeneration in vivo.

  3. Passivation of the surface of aluminum nanopowders by protective coatings of the different chemical origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Young-Soon; Gromov, Alexander A.; Strokova, Julia I.

    2007-04-01

    The results of investigation and analysis of electro-exploded aluminum nanopowders, whose surface were passivated with the following substances: liquids - nitrocellulose (NC), oleic acid (C 17H 33COOH) and stearic acid (C 17H 35COOH), suspended in kerosene and ethanol, fluoropolymer; solids - boron and nickel; gases - N 2, CO 2 and air (for a comparison) are discussed. The surface protection for the aluminum nanopowders by coatings of different chemical origins leads to the some advantages of the powders properties for an application in energetic systems, e.g. solid propellants and "green" propellants (Al-H 2O). Aluminum nanopowders with a protected surface showed the increased stability to oxidation in air during the storage period and higher reactivity by heating. The TEM-visual diagram of the formation and stabilization of the coatings on the particles has been proposed on the basis of experimental results. The kinetics of the interaction of aluminum nanopowders with air has been discussed. The recommendations concerning an efficiency of the protective "non-Al 2O 3" layers on aluminum nanoparticles were proposed.

  4. Workplace Exposure to Titanium Dioxide Nanopowder Released from a Bag Filter System

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jun Ho; Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Gwangjae; Noh, Jung-Hun; Yook, Se-Jin; Cho, So-Hye; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers who use laboratory-scale synthesis systems to manufacture nanomaterials could be easily exposed to airborne nanomaterials during the research and development stage. This study used various real-time aerosol detectors to investigate the presence of nanoaerosols in a laboratory used to manufacture titanium dioxide (TiO2). The TiO2 nanopowders were produced via flame synthesis and collected by a bag filter system for subsequent harvesting. Highly concentrated nanopowders were released from the outlet of the bag filter system into the laboratory. The fractional particle collection efficiency of the bag filter system was only 20% at particle diameter of 100 nm, which is much lower than the performance of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. Furthermore, the laboratory hood system was inadequate to fully exhaust the air discharged from the bag filter system. Unbalanced air flow rates between bag filter and laboratory hood systems could result in high exposure to nanopowder in laboratory settings. Finally, we simulated behavior of nanopowders released in the laboratory using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). PMID:26125024

  5. High-performance field emission of carbon nanotube paste emitters fabricated using graphite nanopowder filler.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuning; Yun, Ki Nam; Leti, Guillaume; Lee, Sang Heon; Song, Yoon-Ho; Lee, Cheol Jin

    2017-02-10

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) paste emitters were fabricated using graphite nanopowder filler. The CNT paste emitters consist of CNTs as the emitting material, graphite nanopowder as the filler and a graphite rod as the cathode. Rather than metal or inorganic materials, graphite nanopowder was adapted as a filler material to make the CNT paste emitters. After fabricating the emitters, sandpaper treatment was applied to increase the density of emission sites. The CNT paste emitters showed a high field emission performance, for example a high emission current of 8.5 mA from a cylindrical emitter with a diameter of 0.7 mm (corresponding to a current density of 2.2 A cm(-2)) and an extremely stable emission current at 1 mA (260 mA cm(-2) for 20 h). Interestingly, after a number of electrical arcing events, the emitters still showed a high emission current of 5-8 mA (higher than 1 A cm(-2)). In addition to the sound electrical and thermal properties of the graphite filler, effective mechanical adhesion of the CNTs onto the graphite cathode induced by the use of the graphite nanopowder filler contributed the excellent field emission properties of the CNT paste emitters.

  6. High-performance field emission of carbon nanotube paste emitters fabricated using graphite nanopowder filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuning; Yun, Ki Nam; Leti, Guillaume; Lee, Sang Heon; Song, Yoon-Ho; Lee, Cheol Jin

    2017-02-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) paste emitters were fabricated using graphite nanopowder filler. The CNT paste emitters consist of CNTs as the emitting material, graphite nanopowder as the filler and a graphite rod as the cathode. Rather than metal or inorganic materials, graphite nanopowder was adapted as a filler material to make the CNT paste emitters. After fabricating the emitters, sandpaper treatment was applied to increase the density of emission sites. The CNT paste emitters showed a high field emission performance, for example a high emission current of 8.5 mA from a cylindrical emitter with a diameter of 0.7 mm (corresponding to a current density of 2.2 A cm-2) and an extremely stable emission current at 1 mA (260 mA cm-2 for 20 h). Interestingly, after a number of electrical arcing events, the emitters still showed a high emission current of 5-8 mA (higher than 1 A cm-2). In addition to the sound electrical and thermal properties of the graphite filler, effective mechanical adhesion of the CNTs onto the graphite cathode induced by the use of the graphite nanopowder filler contributed the excellent field emission properties of the CNT paste emitters.

  7. Workplace Exposure to Titanium Dioxide Nanopowder Released from a Bag Filter System.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jun Ho; Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Gwangjae; Noh, Jung-Hun; Yook, Se-Jin; Cho, So-Hye; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers who use laboratory-scale synthesis systems to manufacture nanomaterials could be easily exposed to airborne nanomaterials during the research and development stage. This study used various real-time aerosol detectors to investigate the presence of nanoaerosols in a laboratory used to manufacture titanium dioxide (TiO2). The TiO2 nanopowders were produced via flame synthesis and collected by a bag filter system for subsequent harvesting. Highly concentrated nanopowders were released from the outlet of the bag filter system into the laboratory. The fractional particle collection efficiency of the bag filter system was only 20% at particle diameter of 100 nm, which is much lower than the performance of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. Furthermore, the laboratory hood system was inadequate to fully exhaust the air discharged from the bag filter system. Unbalanced air flow rates between bag filter and laboratory hood systems could result in high exposure to nanopowder in laboratory settings. Finally, we simulated behavior of nanopowders released in the laboratory using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

  8. Study of micropart fabrication via 17-4 PH stainless nanopowder injection molding.

    PubMed

    Tirta, Andy; Prasetyo, Yus; Baek, Eung-Ryul; Choi, Chul-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Micropart fabrication via 17-4 PH stainless nanopowder injection molding was investigated. The nanopowder was mixed with a binder that was based on wax to produce a feedstock composed of 45% powder and binder (the powder load). Initially, the fit and proper test was done before the micropart was made by making some bars of green samples, which the properties were examined after the sintering process. The examination involved the mechanical properties such as the porosity, hardness, and some of metallurgical aspects, such as the second-phase formation and the final compound after the sintering. The results showed that utilizing 17-4 PH stainless nanopowder is promising for micropart fabrication since it can form a nearly full-density sintered sample with a low porosity and good toughness, and can provide a smooth surface finish. After this, the investigations followed with the injection of the feedstock into the PDMS micromold that was formed by the nickel pattern from the X-Ray LIGA process. The green samples successfully produced a high-aspect-ratio sample with a thickness of up to 1 mm and an aspect ratio of 15 in the microchannel part. Then the green samples were sintered at 1,300 degrees C for 2 h, since from the initial test, they showed optimum parameters with nearly full density, low porosity, and a high degree of hardness. The research shows the excellent results of the application of the 17-4 PH stainless nanopowder to micropart fabrication.

  9. The Study of Complex (Ti, Zr, Cs) Nanopowder Influencing the Effective Ionization Potential of Arc Discharge When Mma Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapozhkov, S. B.; Burakova, E. M.

    2016-08-01

    Strength is one of the most important characteristics of a weld joint. Mechanical properties of a weld metal can be improved in a variety of ways. One of the possibilities is to add a nanopowder to the weld metal. Authors of the paper suggest changing the production process of MMA welding electrodes via adding nanopowder Ti, Zr, Cs to electrode components through liquid glass. Theoretical research into the nanopowder influence on the effective ionization potential (Ueff) of welding arc discharge is also necessitated. These measures support arcing stability, improve strength of a weld joint, as the consequence, ensure quality enhancing of a weld joint and the structure on the whole.

  10. In situ transmission electron microscopy observations of lithiation of spherical silicon nanopowder produced by induced plasma atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, Dominic; Wang, Chongmin; He, Yang; Bélanger, Daniel; Zaghib, Karim

    2015-04-01

    Composite Li-ion anode can be fabricated using silicon nanopowders synthesized by induced plasma atomization. Properties of such nanopowder were characterized by physical and electrochemical methods. Primary particles were crystalline with spherical shape and the typical diameter ranging from 50 to 200 nm. The Si nanopowder showed a high gravimetric capacity (4900 mAh/g) at first discharge and around 12% irreversible loss of lithium. In addition, observations of a single silicon particle made by in situ TEM permitted to compare the volume change during lithiation with other silicon anode nanomaterials.

  11. Brushite-based calcium phosphate cement with multichannel hydroxyapatite granule loading for improved bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Swapan Kumar; Lee, Byung Yeol; Padalhin, Andrew Reyas; Sarker, Avik; Carpena, Nathaniel; Kim, Boram; Paul, Kallyanshish; Choi, Hwan Jun; Bae, Sang-Ho; Lee, Byong Taek

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report brushite-based calcium phosphate cement (CPC) system to enhance the in vivo biodegradation and tissue in-growth by incorporation of micro-channeled hydroxyapatite (HAp) granule and silicon and sodium addition in calcium phosphate precursor powder. Sodium- and silicon-rich calcium phosphate powder with predominantly tri calcium phosphate (TCP) phase was synthesized by an inexpensive wet chemical route to react with mono calcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) for making the CPC. TCP nanopowder also served as a packing filler and moderator of the reaction kinetics of the setting mechanism. Strong sintered cylindrical HAp granules were prepared by fibrous monolithic (FM) process, which is 800 µm in diameter and have seven micro-channels. Acid sodium pyrophosphate and sodium citrate solution was used as the liquid component which acted as a homogenizer and setting time retarder. The granules accelerated the degradation of the brushite cement matrix as well as improved the bone tissue in-growth by permitting an easy access to the interior of the CPC through the micro-channels. The addition of micro-channeled granule in the CPC introduced porosity without sacrificing much of its compressive strength. In vivo investigation by creating a critical size defect in the femur head of a rabbit model for 1 and 2 months showed excellent bone in-growth through the micro-channels. The granules enhanced the implant degradation behavior and bone regeneration in the implanted area was significantly improved after two months of implantation.

  12. Use of Hydroxyapatite Doping to Enhance Responsiveness of Heat-Inducible Gene Switches to Focused Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Fabiilli, Mario L; Phanse, Rahul A; Moncion, Alexander; Fowlkes, J Brian; Franceschi, Renny T

    2016-03-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that ultrasound-based hyperthermia can activate cells containing a heat-activated and ligand-inducible gene switch in a spatio-temporally controlled manner. These engineered cells can be incorporated into hydrogel scaffolds (e.g., fibrin) for in vivo implantation, where ultrasound can be used to non-invasively pattern transgene expression. Due to their high water content, the acoustic attenuation of fibrin scaffolds is low. Thus, long ultrasound exposures and high acoustic intensities are needed to generate sufficient hyperthermia for gene activation. Here, we demonstrate that the attenuation of fibrin scaffolds and the resulting hyperthermia achievable with ultrasound can be increased significantly by doping the fibrin with hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopowder. The attenuation of a 1% (w/v) fibrin scaffold with 5% (w/v) HA was similar to soft tissue. Transgene activation of cells harboring the gene switch occurred at lower acoustic intensities and shorter exposures when the cells were encapsulated in HA-doped fibrin scaffolds versus undoped scaffolds. Inclusion of HA in the fibrin scaffold did not affect the viability of the encapsulated cells.

  13. Microwave processed nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite: Simultaneous enhancement of mechanical and biological properties

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Susmita; Dasgupta, Sudip; Tarafder, Solaiman; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Despite excellent bioactivity of hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics, poor mechanical strength has limited its applications primarily to coatings and other non-load bearing areas as bone grafts. Using synthesized HA nanopowder, dense compacts with grain sizes in nanometers to micrometers were processed via microwave sintering between 1000 and 1150 °C for 20 minutes. Here we demonstrate that mechanical properties, such as compressive strength, hardness and indentation fracture toughness of HA compacts increased with a decrease in grain size. HA with 168± 86 nm grain size showed the highest compressive strength of 395±42 MPa, hardness of 8.4±0.4 GPa and indentation fracture toughness of 1.9 ±0.2 MPam1/2. To study the in vitro biological properties, HA compacts with grain size between 168 nm and 1.16 µm were assessed for in vitro bone cell-materials interactions with human osteoblast cell line. Vinculin protein expression for cell attachment and bone cell proliferation using MTT assay showed surfaces with finer grains provided better bone cell-materials interactions than coarse grained samples. Our results indicate simultaneous improvements in mechanical and biological properties in microwave sintered HA compacts with nanoscale grain size. PMID:20230922

  14. Bioactive, nanostructured Si-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium prepared by pulsed laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Rau, Julietta V; Cacciotti, Ilaria; Laureti, Sara; Fosca, Marco; Varvaro, Gaspare; Latini, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to deposit silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si-HAp) coatings on titanium for biomedical applications, since it is known that Si-HAp is able to promote osteoblastic cells activity, resulting in the enhanced bone ingrowth. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method was used for coatings preparation. For depositions, Si-HAp targets (1.4 wt % of Si), made up from nanopowders synthesized by wet method, were used. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the produced coatings, as a function of substrate temperature, were investigated by scanning electron and atomic force microscopies, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Vickers microhardness. In the temperature range of 400-600°C, 1.4-1.5 µm thick Si-HAp films, presenting composition similar to that of the used target, were deposited. The prepared coatings were dense, crystalline, and nanostructured, characterized by nanotopography of surface and enhanced hardness. Whereas the substrate temperature of 750°C was too high and led to the HAp decomposition. Moreover, the bioactivity of coatings was evaluated by in vitro tests in an osteoblastic/osteoclastic culture medium (α-Modified Eagle's Medium). The prepared bioactive Si-HAp coatings could be considered for applications in orthopedics and dentistry to improve the osteointegration of bone implants. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite powders by a chitosan-polymer complex solution route: Synthesis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkaewnarong, Jutharatana; Swatsitang, Ekaphan; Maensiri, Santi

    2009-05-01

    Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HAp) powders were successfully synthesized by a simple method using chitosan-polymer complex solution. To obtain HAp nanopowders, the prepared precursor was calcined in air at 400-800 °C for 2 h. The phase composition of the calcined samples was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The XRD results confirmed the formation of HAp phase with a small trace of monotite phase. With increasing calcination temperature, the crystallinity of the HAp increased, showing the hexagonal structure of HAp with the lattice parameter a in a range of 0.94030-0.94308 nm and c of 0.68817-0.68948 nm. The particle sizes of the powder were found to be 55.02-73.36 nm as evaluated by the XRD line broadening method. The chemical composition of the calcined powders was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. The peaks of the phosphate carbonate and hydroxyl vibration modes were observed in the FTIR spectra for all the calcined powders. TEM investigation revealed that the prepared HAP samples consisted of rod-like nanoparticles having the particle size in the range of 100-300 nm. The corresponding selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis further confirmed the formation of hexagonal structure of HAp.

  16. Use of Hydroxyapatite Doping to Enhance Responsiveness of Heat-Inducible Gene Switches to Focused Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Fabiilli, Mario L.; Phanse, Rahul A.; Moncion, Alexander; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Franceschi, Renny T.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that ultrasound-based hyperthermia can activate cells containing a heat-activated and ligand-inducible gene switch in a spatio-temporally controlled manner. These engineered cells can be incorporated into hydrogel scaffolds (e.g., fibrin) for in vivo implantation, where ultrasound can be used to non-invasively pattern transgene expression. Due to their high water content, the acoustic attenuation of fibrin scaffolds is low. Thus, long ultrasound exposures and high acoustic intensities are needed to generate sufficient hyperthermia for gene activation. Here, we demonstrate that the attenuation of fibrin scaffolds and the resulting hyperthermia achievable with ultrasound can be increased significantly by doping the fibrin with hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopowder. The attenuation of a 1% (w/v) fibrin scaffold with 5% (w/v) HA was similar to soft tissue. Transgene activation of cells harboring the gene switch occurred at lower acoustic intensities and shorter exposures when the cells were encapsulated in HA-doped fibrin scaffolds versus undoped scaffolds. Inclusion of HA in the fibrin scaffold did not affect the viability of the encapsulated cells. PMID:26712417

  17. Liquid-feed flame spray pyrolysis synthesis of oxide nanopowders for the processing of ceramic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Nathan John

    In the liquid-feed flame spray pyrolysis (LF-FSP) process, alcohol solutions of metalloorganic precursors are aerosolized by O2 and combusted. The metal oxide combustion products are rapidly quenched (< 10 ms) from flame temperatures of 1500°C to temperatures < 400° C, limiting particle growth. The resulting nanopowders are typically agglomerated but unaggregated. Here, we demonstrate two processing approaches to dense materials: nanopowders with the exact composition, and mixed single metal oxide nanopowders. The effect of the initial degree of phase separation on the final microstructures was determined by sintering studies. Our first studies included the production of yttrium aluminum garnet, Y3Al5O12 (YAG), tubes which we extruded from a thermoplastic/ceramic blend. At equivalent final densities, we found finer grain sizes in the from the mixed Y2O3 and Al2 O3 nanopowders, which was attributed to densification occurring before full transformation to the YAG phase. The enhanced densification in production of pure YAG from the reactive sintering process led us to produce composites in the YAG/alpha-Al 2O3 system. Finally, a third Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) phase was added to further refine grain sizes using the same two processing approaches. In a separate study, single-phase metastable Al2O3 rich spinels with the composition MO•3Al 2O3 where M = Mg, Ni, and Co were sintered to produce dense MAl2O4/alpha-Al2O3 composites. All of these studies provide a test of the bottom-up approach; that is, how the initial length scale of mixing affects the final composite microstructure. Overall, the length scale of mixing is highly dependent upon the specific oxide composites studied. This work provides a processing framework to be adopted by other researchers to further refine microstructural size. LF-FSP flame temperatures were mapped using different alcohols with different heats of combustion: methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and n-butanol. The effect of different

  18. High elastic modulus nanopowder reinforced resin composites for dental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yijun

    2007-12-01

    Dental restorations account for more than $3 billion dollars a year on the market. Among them, all-ceramic dental crowns draw more and more attention and their popularity has risen because of their superior aesthetics and biocompatibility. However, their relatively high failure rate and labor-intensive fabrication procedure still limit their application. In this thesis, a new family of high elastic modulus nanopowder reinforced resin composites and their mechanical properties are studied. Materials with higher elastic modulus, such as alumina and diamond, are used to replace the routine filler material, silica, in dental resin composites to achieve the desired properties. This class of composites is developed to serve (1) as a high stiffness support to all-ceramic crowns and (2) as a means of joining independently fabricated crown core and veneer layers. Most of the work focuses on nano-sized Al2O3 (average particle size 47 nm) reinforcement in a polymeric matrix with 50:50 Bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA): triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers. Surfactants, silanizing agents and primers are examined to obtain higher filler levels and enhance the bonding between filler and matrix. Silane agents work best. The elastic modulus of a 57.5 vol% alumina/resin composite is 31.5 GPa compared to current commercial resin composites with elastic modulus <15 GPa. Chemical additives can also effectively raise the hardness to as much as 1.34 GPa. Besides>alumina, diamond/resin composites are studied. An elastic modulus of about 45 GPa is obtained for a 57 vol% diamond/resin composite. Our results indicate that with a generally monodispersed nano-sized high modulus filler, relatively high elastic modulus resin-based composite cements are possible. Time-dependent behavior of our resin composites is also investigated. This is valuable for understanding the behavior of our material and possible fatigue testing in the future. Our results indicate that with

  19. TiO2-based nanopowders and thin films for photocatalytical applications.

    PubMed

    Radecka, M; Rekas, M; Kusior, E; Zakrzewska, K; Heel, A; Michalow, K A; Graule, T

    2010-02-01

    TiO2-based nanopowders are elaborated by flame spray synthesis, FSS from organic precursors of titanium and chromium with the Cr content changing from 0 to 15 at.%. Well-crystallized nanopowders with high specific surface area SSA reaching 107 m2/g for undoped TiO2 and 177 m2/g for TiO2 + 15 at.% Cr are obtained. Thin films are deposited by rf reactive sputtering from metallic Ti and Ti-Cr targets in Ar + O2 flow controlled atmosphere. The adjustable area of Cr/Ti allows to obtain up to 16 at.% Cr in TiO2 thin films. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron spectroscopy, TEM, atomic force microscopy, AFM and optical spectrophotometry over the ultraviolet UV and visible VIS range of the light spectrum have been performed in order to characterize the nanomaterials. The particle size of nanopowders is within the range of 5-42 nm. Anatase is the predominating polymorphic form while the amount of rutile increases with Cr content to reach of about 25 wt.% at 15 at.% Cr. The post-deposition annealing of thin films in air at temperatures from 770 K to 1280 K modifies the phase composition, leads to irreversible transformation from anatase to rutile and affects the surface roughness. Structural and optical properties of TiO2-based nanopowders and thin films are compared. The effect of grain size and the level of chromium doping on the band gap E(g) is discussed. Photocatalytic activity of the nanopowders is tested for degradation of methylene blue, MB.

  20. Novel route for rapid sol-gel synthesis of hydroxyapatite, avoiding ageing and using fast drying with a 50-fold to 200-fold reduction in process time.

    PubMed

    Ben-Arfa, Basam A E; Salvado, Isabel M Miranda; Ferreira, José M F; Pullar, Robert C

    2017-01-01

    We have developed an innovative, rapid sol-gel method of producing hydroxyapatite nanopowders that avoids the conventional lengthy ageing and drying processes (over a week), being 200 times quicker in comparison to conventional aqueous sol-gel preparation, and 50 times quicker than ethanol based sol-gel synthesis. Two different sets of experimental conditions, in terms of pH value (5.5 and 7.5), synthesis temperature (45 and 90°C), drying temperature (60 and 80°C) and calcination temperature (400 and 700°C) were explored. The products were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and specific surface area (SSA) measurements. Pure hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HAp) was obtained for the powders synthesised at pH7.5 and calcined at 400°C, while biphasic mixtures of HAp/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca3(PO4)2, TCP) were produced at pH5.5 and (pH7.5 at elevated temperature). The novel rapid drying was up to 200 times faster than conventional drying, only needing 1h with no prior ageing step, and favoured the formation of smaller/finer nanopowders, while producing pure HAp or phase mixtures virtually identical to those obtained from the slow conventional drying method, despite the absence of a slow ageing process. The products of this novel rapid process were actually shown to have smaller crystallite sizes and larger SSA, which should result in increased bioactivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite/Fullerenol Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Aleksandar; Ignjatovic, Nenad; Seke, Mariana; Jovic, Danica; Uskokovic, Dragan; Rakocevic, Zlatko

    2015-02-01

    Fullerenols are polyhydroxylated, water soluble derivatives of fullerene C60, with potential application in medicine as diagnostic agents, antioxidants or nano drug carriers. This paper describes synthesis and physical characterization of a new nanocomposite hydroxyapatite/fullerenol. Surface of the nanocomposite hydroxyapatite/fullerenol is inhomogeneous with the diameter of the particles in the range from 100 nm to 350 nm. The ζ potential of this nanocomposite is ten times lower when compared to hydroxyapatite. Surface phosphate groups of hydroxyapatite are prone to forming hydrogen bonds, when in close contact with hydroxyl groups, which could lead to formation of hydrogen bonds between hydroxyapatite and hydroxyl groups of fullerenol. The surface of hydroxyapatite particles (-2.5 mV) was modified by fullerenol particles, as confirmed by the obtained ζ potential value of the nanocomposite biomaterial hydroxyapatite/fullerenol (-25.0 mV). Keywords: Hydroxyapatite, Fullerenol, Nanocomposite, Surface Analysis.

  2. Trap state spectroscopy studies and wettability modification of hydroxyapatite nanobioceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronov, Daniel; Rosenman, Gil

    2007-02-01

    Sintered hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium-based implants demonstrate beneficial biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. It has been shown that charged surface states and bulk traps located in the vicinity of the surface of the hydroxyapatite coatings strongly influence wettability properties of the hydroxyapatite and may modify biocompatibility of these nanostructured bioceramics. Combination of high-resolution electron state spectroscopy methods, thermostimulated exoelectron emission, and thermoluminescence methods, applied in this work, have allowed studying electron trap energy spectrum of the hydroxyapatite bioceramics.

  3. Corrosion Resistance of Nanopowders of Borides and Carbides of IV-VIB Group Metals in the Nickeling Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhnin, Dmytro; Malyshev, Viktor; Kuschevskaya, Nina; Gab, Angelina

    2017-07-01

    The corrosion resistance of nanopowders of borides and carbides of metals of IV-VIB groups, as well as of silicon carbide, was studied in the standard nickeling electrolytes. As objects of study, nanopowders with the content of the main phase 91.8-97.6% and with the average particle size 32-78 nm were used. Their corrosion resistance was evaluated depending on the acidity of the electrolyte, temperature, and duration of the interaction. It was found that, by the corrosion resistance in the electrolytes solutions, nanopowders of borides and carbides within each group of compounds are similar and characterized by unlimited period of induction in alkaline media. An exception is the nanopowder of silicon carbide which is resistant to the solution of any acidity.

  4. Evolution of photoluminescence as a function of the structural order or disorder in CaMoO4 nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, A. P. A.; Motta, F. V.; Leite, E. R.; Pizani, P. S.; Varela, J. A.; Longo, E.; de Melo, D. M. A.

    2008-08-01

    CaMoO4 nanopowders were prepared by the complex polymerization method. The materials were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and by Fourier transform infrared, Raman, and optical reflectance spectroscopies. The data revealed the presence of crystalline scheelite-type phase CaMoO4 and the absence of additional phases. The surface morphology was monitored by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM). The HR-SEM and XRD characterizations both revealed a tendency for the particle size to increase with rising treatment temperatures. The disordered nanopowders showed strong emission of photoluminescence, which dropped to minimal levels in the ordered nanopowders. These differences in the photoluminescence of disordered and ordered nanopowders were attributed to complex cluster vacancies.

  5. Characterisation of Suspension Precipitated Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, P. K.; Swain, P. K.; Patnaik, S. C.

    2016-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a well-known biomaterial for coating on femoral implants, filling of dental cavity and scaffold for tissue replacement. Hydroxyapatite possess limited load bearing capacity due to their brittleness. In this paper, the synthesis of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite powders was prepared by dissolving calcium oxide in phosphoric acid, followed by addition of ammonia liquor in a beaker. The prepared solution was stirred by using magnetic stirrer operated at temperature of 80°C for an hour. This leads to the formation of hydroxyapatite precipitate. The precipitate was dried in oven for overnight at 100°C. The dried agglomerated precipitate was calcined at 800°C in conventional furnace for an hour. The influence of calcium oxide concentration and pH on the resulting precipitates was studied using BET, XRD and SEM. As result, a well-defined sub-rounded morphology of powders size of ∼41 nm was obtained with a salt concentration of 0.02 M. Finally, it can be concluded that small changes in the reaction conditions led to large changes in final size, shape and degree of aggregation of the hydroxyapatite particles.

  6. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanopowders prepared by a thermal plasma process for water oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dongeun; Choi, Yong-Wook; Na, Ye-Seul; Choi, Soo-Suk; Park, Dong-Wha; Choi, Jinsub

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Hematite nanopowders with a high purity were synthesized by a DC thermal plasma process. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} is formed during the formation of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by thermal plasma with iron and oxygen sources. • Hematite nanopowders with a high purity show higher PEC performance compared to mixed oxides. - Abstract: Hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanopowders were synthesized from commercially available micro-sized iron powders by a DC thermal plasma process at atmospheric pressure. The micro-sized iron powders were vaporized in the plasma region, after which the plasma processing equipment was rapidly quenched, resulting in the formation of iron nanopowders with a size of less than 100 nm. Subsequently, the iron nanopowders were heated to convert hematite with a high purity, which was then formed into a thin film with a binder for preparation of electrodes for photoelectrochemical water oxidation. Iron oxide nanopowders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis (PSA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photoelectrochemical properties of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} film were characterized in 1 M NaOH under AM 1.5 conditions.

  7. Permeability, drying, and sintering of pressure filtered ceramic nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Sean M.

    2002-01-01

    point of drying (when fracture is most likely during drying). Agreement between maximum safe drying stresses and measured sample strengths is found to be good (to within better than a factor of 2) for boehmite samples, but not very good (off by a factor of ˜7) for nanocrystalline 3Y-TZP samples. Sub-critical crack growth is indicated as the source of this deviation in nanocrystalline 3Y-TZP samples. Literature studies of the sintering of chloride-derived 3Y-TZP nanopowders have documented numerous sintering problems including inability to reach full density, desintering, cracking, and the formation of a dense shell with less dense interior. To explain the poor sintering behavior of samples of one nanocrystalline 3Y-TZP powder, the origin of such a dense shell microstructure is determined. Three possible reasons for a dense shell microstructure are examined and rejected: exothermic reactions with the sintering atmosphere, pre-existing density gradients in the green compact, and thermal gradients occurring during sintering. A combination of gas flow/diffusion, thermodynamic, and sintering calculations are used to show that the evolution of a structure-coarsening gas (hydrogen chloride) during sintering causes the formation of a dense shell microstructure, and explains the poor densification behavior of this system. Two solutions to the problem are compared: (1) a thermal treatment composed of an extended hold at 1000°C to allow HCl gas removal before the onset of closed porosity (at about 90-93% of theoretical density), and (2) a chemical treatment performed by washing pre-sintered (500°C/30 min) samples at room temperature using a concentrated ammonium hydroxide solution to remove chlorides. The thermal treatment is found to be superior for removing residual chlorine and allowing full density to be achieved during sintering.

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xing; Vecchio, Kenneth S.

    2007-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) rods were synthesized from dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (CaHPO 4, DCPA) and calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) by the hydrothermal method from 120 to 180 °C. Both cuttlebone (aragonite polymorph of CaCO 3) and CaCO 3 chemical (calcite polymorph of CaCO 3) were used as CaCO 3 sources. The nucleation and growth of HAP rods mainly occurred on DCPA particles, while some HAP rods also grew from aragonite particles. The nucleation and growth of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) particles on the surface of calcite particles were observed at the beginning of the reaction of DCPA and calcite, and some HAP rods were also found to grow out of β-TCP particles. After the hydrothermal reaction at 140 °C for 24 h, most products are HAP with a small amount of β-TCP synthesized as a byproduct. The HAP rods synthesized were ˜200 nm in width and several microns in length. The reaction mechanism and growth process of HAP rods are discussed.

  9. Finite Element Simulation of Diametral Strength Test of Hydroxyapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Ozturk, Fahrettin; Toros, Serkan; Evis, Zafer

    2011-01-17

    In this study, the diametral strength test of sintered hydroxyapatite was simulated by the finite element software, ABAQUS/Standard. Stress distributions on diametral test sample were determined. The effect of sintering temperature on stress distribution of hydroxyapatite was studied. It was concluded that high sintering temperatures did not reduce the stress on hydroxyapatite. It had a negative effect on stress distribution of hydroxyapatite after 1300 deg. C. In addition to the porosity, other factors (sintering temperature, presence of phases and the degree of crystallinity) affect the diametral strength of the hydroxyapatite.

  10. Polyelectrolyte multi-layers assembly of SiCHA nanopowders and collagen type I on aminolysed PLA films to enhance cell-material interactions.

    PubMed

    Baba Ismail, Yanny Marliana; Ferreira, Ana Marina; Bretcanu, Oana; Dalgarno, Kenneth; El Haj, Alicia J

    2017-08-14

    This paper presents a new approach in assembling bone extracellular matrix components onto PLA films, and investigates the most favourable environment which can be created using the technique for cell-material interactions. Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) films were chemically modified by covalently binding the poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) as to prepare the substrate for immobilization of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) coating. Negatively charged polyelectrolyte consists of well-dispersed silicon-carbonated hydroxyapatite (SiCHA) nanopowders in hyaluronic acid (Hya) was deposited onto the modified PLA films followed by SiCHA in collagen type I as the positively charged polyelectrolyte. The outermost layer was finally cross-linked by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrocholoride and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide sodium salt (EDC/NHS) solutions. The physicochemical features of the coated PLA films were monitored via X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The amounts of calcium and collagen deposited on the surface were qualitatively and quantitatively determined. The surface characterizations suggested that 5-BL has the optimum surface roughness and highest amounts of calcium and collagen depositions among tested films. In vitro human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on the coated PLA films confirmed that the coating materials greatly improved cell attachment and survival compared to unmodified PLA films. The cell viability, cell proliferation and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) expression on 5-BL were found to be the most favourable of the tested films. Hence, this newly developed coating materials assembly could contribute to the improvement of the bioactivity of polymeric materials and structures aimed to bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chromosome aberration test for hydroxyapatite in sheep.

    PubMed

    Kannan, T P; Nik Ahmad Shah, N L; Azlina, A; Samsudin, A R; Narazah, M Y; Salleh, Ma'arof

    2004-05-01

    The present study is aimed at finding the mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of dense form of synthetic hydroxyapatite (Source: School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia) in the blood of sheep. The biomaterial was implanted in the tibia of Malin, an indigenous sheep breed of Malaysia. Blood was collected from the sheep before implantation of the biomaterial, cultured and a karyological study was made. Six weeks after implantation, blood was collected from the same animal, cultured and screened for chromosome aberrations. The mitotic indices and karyological analysis indicated that the implantation of synthetic hydroxyapatite (dense form) did not produce any cytotoxicity or chromosome aberrations in the blood of sheep.

  12. Remote Plasma Driven Modifications in Luminescent Properties of ZnO Nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallejo, Henry; Paramo, Antonio; Peters, Raul; Kumar, Pankaj; Strzhemechny, Yuri

    2008-10-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of several commercially available ZnO nanopowders were investigated for as-received and remote-plasma treated samples. Sample-to-sample spectral discrepancies, even for materials from the same vendor, were observed at room temperatures as well as at 8 K. These differences, in both the near-band transitions and defect luminescence, are significant enough to obscure possible spectral dependence on the average nanocrystalline grain size and the grain size distribution (as measured by electron microscopy). Temperature-dependent PL spectra were analyzed in detail for the bound exciton range. Numerical fits of peak intensities and peak positions vs. temperature for a number of excitonic emissions using Arrhenius and Varshni approximations yielded activation energies and Debye temperatures. Significant spectral modifications were observed, at room and low temperatures, after the nanopowders were treated with remote O, N, and H plasmas. Different plasma species produced distinct signatures in the spectra.

  13. Multiple nano-blast synthesis of PT/8Y-ZP composite nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Vasylkiv, Oleg; Sakka, Yoshio; Skorokhod, Valeriy V

    2006-06-01

    We demonstrate a processing technique based on the synthesis of ceramic nanopowders and simultaneous impregnation with metallic nanoparticles by multiple 'nano-blasts' of embeded cyclotrimethylene trinitramine in preliminary engineered multi-component nano-reactors. 'Nano-blasts' of impregnated cyclotrimethylene trinitramine deagglomerate the nanopowder due to the high energetic impacts of the blast waves, while the decomposition of compounds and their solid-solubility is enhanced by the extremely high local temperature generated during the nano-explosions. We applied this technique to produce nanosized agglomerate-free 8 mol% yttria-doped cubic zirconia aggregates with an average size of 53 nm impregnated with 10 mass% of platinum particles of 2-14 nm.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of VO2+ doped ZnO-CdS composite nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirumala Rao, G.; Babu, B.; Joyce Stella, R.; Pushpa Manjari, V.; Venkata Reddy, Ch.; Shim, Jaesool; Ravikumar, R. V. S. S. N.

    2015-02-01

    VO2+ doped ZnO-CdS composite nanopowder has been synthesized by chemical precipitation method. The prepared sample has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR, photoluminescence (PL), optical absorption and EPR spectroscopy. From XRD pattern, average crystallite size is about 18 nm. SEM and TEM images showed sphere like structures. FT-IR spectrum indicates the presence of fundamental modes of ZnO, CdS and other functional groups. The PL spectrum of VO2+ doped ZnO-CdS composite nanopowder exhibits UV, blue and green emissions. Optical and EPR studies revealed the tetragonal compressed octahedral site symmetry for VO2+ ions. The bonding between VO2+ and its ligands is ionic.

  15. Thermal and Mechanical Characteristics of Polymer Composites Based on Epoxy Resin, Aluminium Nanopowders and Boric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarenko, O. B.; Melnikova, T. V.; Visakh, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The epoxy polymers are characterized by low thermal stability and high flammability. Nanoparticles are considered to be effective fillers of polymer composites for improving their thermal and functional properties. In this work, the epoxy composites were prepared using epoxy resin ED-20, polyethylene polyamine as a hardener, aluminum nanopowder and boric acid fine powder as flame-retardant filler. The thermal characteristics of the obtained samples were studied using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical characteristics of epoxy composites were also studied. It was found that an addition of all fillers enhances the thermal stability and mechanical characteristics of the epoxy composites. The best thermal stability showed the epoxy composite filled with boric acid. The highest flexural properties showed the epoxy composite based on the combination of boric acid and aluminum nanopowder.

  16. Computational fluid dynamic modeling of the flame spray pyrolysis process for silica nanopowder synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivas-Martinez, Miguel; Sohn, Hong Yong; Jang, Hee Dong; Rhee, Kang-In

    2015-07-01

    A computational fluid dynamic model that couples the fluid dynamics with various processes involving precursor droplets and product particles during the flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) synthesis of silica nanopowder from volatile precursors is presented. The synthesis of silica nanopowder from tetraethylorthosilicate and tetramethylorthosilicate in bench- and pilot-scale FSP reactors, with the ultimate purpose of industrial-scale production, was simulated. The transport and evaporation of liquid droplets are simulated from the Lagrangian viewpoint. The quadrature method of moments is used to solve the population balance equation for particles undergoing homogeneous nucleation and Brownian collision. The nucleation rate is computed based on the rates of thermal decomposition and oxidation of the precursor with no adjustable parameters. The computed results show that the model is capable of reproducing the magnitude as well as the variations of the average particle diameter with different experimental conditions using a single value of the collision efficiency factor α for a given reactor size.

  17. Structural and Optical Characterization of Synthesized TiO2 Nanopowder Using Sol-Gel Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lourduraj, S.; Williams, R. Victor

    2016-02-01

    The nanocrystalline TiO2 powder was synthesized by sol-gel method. The XRD analysis reveals that TiO2 powder was highly crystalline (anatase phase) and nanostructured with tetragonal system. The average crystallite size after calcined at 673K is found to be 7.7nm. The surface morphological studies using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) exhibit that the formation of nanosized TiO2 particles with less densification nature. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) topography exhibits the uniform distribution of spherical-shaped particles. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) confirms the presence of Titanium and Oxygen in synthesized TiO2 nanopowder. The value of optical bandgap of TiO2 nanopowder calculated from UV-Visible spectrum is 3.45eV. The presence of TiO2 particles is confirmed from the dominant fourier transform infrared (FTIR) peaks at 621cm-1 and 412cm-1.

  18. Highly biocompatible, nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite synthesized in a solvothermal process driven by high energy density microwave radiation

    PubMed Central

    Smolen, Dariusz; Chudoba, Tadeusz; Malka, Iwona; Kedzierska, Aleksandra; Lojkowski, Witold; Swieszkowski, Wojciech; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof Jan; Kolodziejczyk-Mierzynska, Małgorzata; Lewandowska-Szumiel, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    A microwave, solvothermal synthesis of highly biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanopowder was developed. The process was conducted in a microwave radiation field having a high energy density of 5 W/mL and over a time less than 2 minutes. The sample measurements included: powder X-ray diffraction, density, specific surface area, and chemical composition. The morphology and structure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The thermal behavior analysis was conducted using a simultaneous thermal analysis technique coupled with quadruple mass spectrometry. Additionally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy tests of heated samples were performed. A degradation test and a biocompatibility study in vitro using human osteoblast cells were also conducted. The developed method enables the synthesis of pure, fully crystalline hexagonal HAp nanopowder with a specific surface area close to 240 m2/g and a Ca/P molar ratio equal to 1.57. TEM measurements showed that this method results in particles with an average grain size below 6 nm. A 28-day degradation test conducted according to the ISO standard indicated a 22% loss of initial weight and a calcium ion concentration at 200 μmol/dm3 in the tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane hydrochloride test solution. The cytocompatibility of the obtained material was confirmed in a culture of human bone derived cells, both in an indirect test using the material extract, and in direct contact. A quantitative analysis was based on the 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide. Viability assay as well as on DNA content measurements in the PicoGreen test. Indirect observations were performed at one point in time according to the ISO standard for in vitro cytotoxicity (ie, after 24 hours of cell exposure to the extracts). The direct contact tests were completed at three time points: after 24 hours, on day 7, and on day 14 of a culture in an osteogenic

  19. The kinetics of self-heating in the reaction between aluminum nanopowder and liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astankova, A. P.; Godymchuk, A. Yu.; Gromov, A. A.; Il'in, A. P.

    2008-11-01

    Factors that influenced self-heating in the interaction of aluminum nanopowder produced by electrical explosion with liquid water were studied. The effects of suspension heating, medium pH (over the range 1.0 12.0), admixtures of Cu2+, Ni2+,and Ag+ metal cations (0.0001 0.1 mol/l), and passivating coating (B, F, and Ni) were investigated.

  20. Subcutaneous connective tissue reactions to three types of bioactive glass nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Mehdikhani-Nahrkhalajil, M; Fathi, M H; Mortazavi, V; Mousavi, S B; Razavi, S M

    2011-06-01

    Silica-based bioactive glasses are considered promising bone substitutes and tissue regeneration matrices, because of their bioactivity, biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and possibly even osteoinductivity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the subcutaneous connective tissue reactions to 58S, 63S, and 72S bioactive glass nanopowders. Our previous study showed the antibacterial activities of 58S and 63S bioactive glass nanopowders on aerobic bacteria, while 72S showed no antibacterial effects at all. Bioactive glass nanopowders were prepared via the sol-gel technique. Characterization techniques such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray fluorescent (XRF) were utilized to carry out the phase analysis, study of the structure, particle size and the composition of the synthesized bioactive glasses. To evaluate the subcutaneous connective tissue reactions, the specimens were placed in polyethylene tubes and implanted into the dorsal connective tissue of rats. Empty polyethylene tubes were used as the control and bioactive glass micropowders (NovaBone) was used as a FDA approved bone graft. The evaluation of inflammatory reactions was performed 3, 7, 15, and 28 days after implantation. Results showed a particle size of below 100 nm for samples with amorphous structure. The samples were well tolerated by the tissues over a 28-day evaluation period. The extra tissue reactions of the 72S specimen in comparison with 58S and 63S specimens could be attributed to its higher silica content. It may be concluded that biocompatible 58S and 63S bioactive glass nanopowders with antibacterial activities can be synthesized for the treatment of osseous defects.

  1. Irradiation creep of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide at low neutron fluences

    SciTech Connect

    Koyanagi, Takaaki; Shimoda, Kazuya; Kondo, Sosuke; Hinoki, Tatsuya; Ozawa, Kazumi; Katoh, Yutai

    2014-12-01

    The irradiation creep behavior of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide was investigated using the bend stress relaxation method under neutron irradiation up to 1.9 dpa. The creep deformation was observed at all temperatures ranging from 380 to 1180 °C mainly from the irradiation creep but with the increasing contributions from the thermal creep at higher temperatures. Microstructural observation and data analysis were performed.

  2. Reaction of Si nanopowder with water investigated by FT-IR and XPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamura, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Yuki; Matsuda, Shinsuke; Akai, Tomoki; Kobayashi, Hikaru

    2017-08-01

    The initial reaction of Si nanopowder with water to generate hydrogen is investigated using FT-IR and XPS measurements. Si nanopowder is fabricated using the simple beads milling method. For HF-etched Si nanopowder, strong peaks due to Si-H and Si-H2 stretching vibrational modes and a weak shoulder peak due to Si-H3 are observed. Although no peaks due to oxide is observed in the Si 2p XPS spectrum, weak vibrational peaks due to HSiO2 and HSiO3 species are observable. The hydrogen generation rate greatly increases with pH, indicating that the reacting species is hydroxide ions (OH- ions). After the reaction, the intensities of the peaks due to SiH and SiH2 species decrease while those for HSiO, HSiO2, and HSiO3 species increase. This result demonstrates that OH- ions attack Si back-bonds, with surface Si-H bonds remaining. After initial reaction of HF-etched Si nanopowder with heavy water, vibrational peaks for SiD, SiDH, and SiDH2 appear, and then, a peak due to DSiO3 species is observed, but no peaks due to DSiO2 and DSiO species are observable. This result indicates that SiD, SiDH, and SiDH2 species are formed by substitution reactions, followed by oxidation of back-bonds to form DSiO3 species. After immersion in D2O for a day, 37% H atoms on the surface are replaced to D atoms.

  3. Preparation of irregular mesoporous hydroxyapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Hualin Zhai Linfeng; Li Yanhong; Shi Tiejun

    2008-06-03

    An irregular mesoporous hydroxyapatite (meso-HA), Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}, is successfully prepared from Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} using surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as template. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results reveal that the positive head of CTAB is assembled on the surface precipitated HA and much NH{sub 4}{sup +} is enclosed in precipitated HA before calcination. Field scanning electron microscope (FSEM) reveals that there exist many interconnected pores throughout the HA reticular skeleton. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption experiment exhibits a mesoporous material type IV curve, and pore size distribution calculated from the desorption branch of the isotherms based on Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) model shows that most pores throughout the HA reticular skeleton are sized at about 40 nm, but the pores are not uniform on the whole, owning to decomposition of the 'organic' CTAB templating structures and ammonium salt enclosed in the precipitated HA. The specific surface area of irregular meso-HA is calculated to be 37.6 m{sup 2}/g according to the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) equation. Moreover, after polylactic acid/meso-HA (PLA/meso-HA) composites degraded 12 weeks in normal saline at 37 deg. C, the interconnected pores throughout the HA skeleton were enlarged and sized in micron degree, which resemble trabecular bone structure very much.

  4. The effect of surface coatings on the dustiness of a calcium carbonate nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdett, Garry; Bard, Delphine; Kelly, Alexandra; Thorpe, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Six calcium carbonate nanopowders that had been functionalized (coated) to enhance their use in a range of industrial applications were compared to the uncoated nanopowder (15-30-nm size range) from which they were made. The nanopowders were first characterized using the standard gravimetric rotating drum dustiness test (EN 15051 2006). All the functionalized powders showed a substantial increase in dustiness compared with the uncoated sample. The largest increase was some ×45, ×90 and ×331 higher for the inhalable, thoracic and respirable fractions, respectively, and would potentially give rise to much higher exposures to workers handling these powders. This article also investigated a range of additional measurement methods to extend the standard dustiness test to measure the particle size distribution and particle number concentrations. Several online instruments were compared in two sets of tests, as well as, offline transmission electron microscopy analysis. The results of these tests are discussed to assess the suitability and limitations of the measurement methods and to assess the best approach for extending the current gravimetric standard to include number concentration and size distribution measurements. It was concluded that questions remain over the performance characteristics of online charge detection instruments such as the FMPS and ELPI for dustiness testing, and such issues need to be resolved before a standardized test can be finalized.

  5. Structural, morphological, and optical study of titania-based nanopowders suitable for photocatalytic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šćepanović, M.; Grujić-Brojčin, M.; Abramović, B.; Golubović, A.

    2017-01-01

    Systematic investigation of the relationship between structural, morphological, optical and photocatalytic properties of the titania-based nanopowders is presented. A series of pure and doped titania catalysts with various (anatase and brookite) phase compositions have been prepared by sol–gel or hydrothermal route. The crystal structure and composition of the synthesized samples have been extensively characterised by XRD and Raman scattering measurements. The nanopowder morphology has been studied using microscopic methods (SEM, AFM, and STM), whereas the porous structure has been revealed by the analysis of nitrogen sorption data. The optical and electronic properties have been studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry. All investigated properties have been correlated to photocatalytic activity, tested in degradation of the pharmaceutically active substances (such as metoprolol and alprazolam) induced by UVA or visible radiation. Based on this correlation, the physical properties which contribute most to the increase in photocatalytic activity of synthesized nanopowders have been determined, in order to optimize the synthesis conditions which could lead to the maximal efficiency in degradation of particular pollutant.

  6. Photoluminescent BaMoO 4 nanopowders prepared by complex polymerization method (CPM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Azevedo Marques, Ana Paula; de Melo, Dulce M. A.; Paskocimas, Carlos A.; Pizani, Paulo S.; Joya, Miryam R.; Leite, Edson R.; Longo, Elson

    2006-03-01

    The BaMoO 4 nanopowders were prepared by the Complex Polymerization Method (CPM). The structure properties of the BaMoO 4 powders were characterized by FTIR transmittance spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, photoluminescence spectra (PL) and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM). The XRD, FTIR and Raman data showed that BaMoO 4 at 300 °C was disordered. At 400 °C and higher temperature, BaMoO 4 crystalline scheelite-type phases could be identified, without the presence of additional phases, according to the XRD, FTIR and Raman data. The calculated average crystallite sizes, calculated by XRD, around 40 nm, showed the tendency to increase with the temperature. The crystallite sizes, obtained by HR-SEM, were around of 40-50 nm. The sample that presented the highest intensity of the red emission band was the one heat treated at 400 °C for 2 h, and the sample that displayed the highest intensity of the green emission band was the one heat treated at 700 °C for 2 h. The CPM was shown to be a low cost route for the production of BaMoO 4 nanopowders, with the advantages of lower temperature, smaller time and reduced cost. The optical properties observed for BaMoO 4 nanopowders suggested that this material is a highly promising candidate for photoluminescent applications.

  7. Ultrasonic deagglomeration of aluminum nanopowders with multi-walled carbon nanotube mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Kozulin, Alexander A. Vorozhtsov, Sergey A. Kulkov, Sergey S.; Kulkov, Sergey N.; Teipel, U.

    2015-10-27

    Comprehensive investigations of aluminum nanopowders, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and aluminum mixtures with multi-walled carbon nanotubes subjected to ultrasonic deagglomeration in a liquid medium were performed, using microstructural, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric, and calorimetric analyses, and specific surface area measurements. The regime of ultrasonic deagglomeration of aluminum nanopowders with multi-walled carbon nanotubes in a liquid medium is described, during which the division of large agglomerates and creation of homogeneous distribution of mixtures components in the volume takes place. It was determined that ultrasonic treatment influences the morphology and crystalline structure of investigated mixtures, contributes to the appearance of X-ray amorphous phase, decreases the specific surface area of the aluminum nanopowder from 13 to 12 m{sup 2}/g, and increases the pore volume and average size from 0.04 to 0.06 cm{sup 3}/g and from 12 to 19 nm, respectively. The size of coherently-diffracting domain was determined by the X-ray diffraction analysis is close to that estimated from the specific surface area and corresponds to average crystallites size in the materials under study.

  8. Pulsed plasma chemical synthesis of SixCyOz composite nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholodnaya, G.; Sazonov, R.; Ponomarev, D.; Remnev, G.

    2017-05-01

    SixCyOz composite nanopowder with an average size of particles about 10-50 nm was produced using the pulsed plasma chemical method. The experiments on the synthesis of nanosized composite were carried out using a TEA-500 pulsed electron accelerator. To produce a composite, SiCl4, O2, and CH4 were used. The major part of experiments was conducted using a plasma chemical reactor (quartz, 140 mm diameter, 6 l volume). The initial reagents were injected into the reactor, then a pulsed electron beam was injected which initiated the chemical reactions whose products were the SixCyOz composite nanopowder. To define the morphology of the particles, the JEOL-II-100 transmission electron microscope (TEM) with an accelerating voltage of 100 kV was used. The substances in the composition of the composite nanopowder were identified using the infrared absorption optical spectrum. To conduct this analysis, the Nicolet 5700 FT-IR spectrometer was used.

  9. High productive laser synthesis of composite nanopowders in certain stoichiometric ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, V. V.; Lisenkov, V. V.; Platonov, V. V.

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, the possibility of composite nanopowders production using laser evaporation method has been investigated. For this purpose, the three-dimensional thermohydrodynamical model of interaction process between the substance and laser radiation was developed. With its help, the dynamics of evaporation, movement, and crystallization of melt in Nd3+:Y3Al5O12 target have been investigated numerically. It has been established that the difference between vapor and target compositions is caused by more intensive evaporation of the components with lower boiling temperature and displacement of melt under the vapor overpressure. This difference has been obtained as a result of calculations. For the first time, the composite nanopowders in certain stoichiometric ratio have been obtained via the usage of long pulses (>300 μs). This synthesis had high productivity (>20 g/h). The Nd3+:Y3Al5O12 high transparent ceramics have been obtained after the compaction of these nanopowders and vacuum sintering of the compacts at 1700°C.

  10. Spectroscopic studies of undoped and Mn2+-doped calcium borophosphate phosphor (CaBP) nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, M. R.; Raja, B. J.; Manjari, V. P.; Avinash, M.; Krishna, C. R.; Ravikumar, R. V. S. S. N.

    2016-02-01

    Undoped and Mn2+-doped Ca6BP5O20 nanopowders (CaBP) have been prepared by modified solid-state synthesis and characterized by spectroscopic investigations like X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope with EDX, optical absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance, photoluminescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. From powder XRD patterns, the crystal structure is confirmed to be triclinic. Unit cell parameters, average crystal size, strain and dislocation densities have been calculated by using powder XRD data. Field emission scanning electron micrograph with EDX images, taken at different magnifications, shows that the prepared samples contain Ca, B, P, O, Mn species and micrographs exhibit irregular shaped spheres with agglomeration. By using optical absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance data, crystal field, inter-electronic repulsion and spin-Hamiltonian parameters have been evaluated. The site symmetry of Mn2+ ions is ascribed as octahedral sites with ligands. Fourier transform infrared spectra show the specific vibrations of phosphate and inorganic molecules. Photoluminescence spectra of undoped and Mn2+-doped CaBP nanopowders exhibit pale yellow to white emission under the excitation wavelength of 325 nm. The CIE chromaticity coordinates have been also calculated from emission spectrum for undoped and Mn2+-doped CaBP nanopowders.

  11. Structural and magnetic properties of Co-substituted NiCu ferrite nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Le-Zhong; Zhong, Xiao-Xi; Wang, Rui; Tu, Xiao-Qiang; Peng, Long

    2017-07-01

    Co-substituted NiCu ferrite nanopowders with the chemical formula Ni0.5-xCu0.5-xCo2xFe2O4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.50) were synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method. The effects of Co substitution on the cation distribution, structural and magnetic properties of the NiCu ferrite nanopowders have been investigated. Differential thermal analysis-thermogravimetry (DTA-TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements were used to characterize the chemical, structural and magnetic properties of the ferrite nanopowders, respectively. The DTA-TG results indicate that there are three steps of the combustion process. XRD results indicate that there are Fe2O3 and CuO impurity phases when x ≤ 0.10. Furthermore, the lattice parameter increases, and the X-ray density and the average crystallite size decrease with increasing Co substitution. And the obtained particle size from TEM image is in very good agreement with the average crystallite size estimated by XRD measurements. The saturation magnetization and coercivity monotonically increase with the increase of Co substitution. The increase of the saturation magnetization is due to the substitution of Ni2+ and Cu2+ ions with lower magnetic moment by Co2+ ions with higher magnetic moment on the octahedral sites. And the increase of the coercivity is mainly due to the increase of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy.

  12. Solar physical vapor deposition: A new approach for preparing magnesium titanate nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, Irina; Saravanan, K. Venkata; Monty, Claude J. A.; Vilarinho, Paula M.

    2013-11-01

    Solar energy is a major factor in the equation of energy, because of the unlimited potential of the sun that eclipses all other renewable sources of energy. Solar physical vapor deposition (SPVD) is a core innovative, original and environmentally friendly process to prepare nanocrystalline materials in a powder form. The principle of this process is to melt the material under concentrated solar radiation, which evaporates and condenses as nanopowders on a cold surface. We synthesized nanopowders of magnesium titanate by the SPVD process at PROMES Laboratory in Odeillo-Font Romeu, France. The SPVD system consists of a parabolic mirror concentrator, a mobile plane mirror ("heliostat") tracking the sun and a solar reactor "heliotron". The synthesized nanopowders were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to know their crystalline structure and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for determining the surface morphology. We have shown that the characteristics of obtained nanotitanates were determined by the targets' composition and SPVD process parameters such as the working pressure inside the solar reactor and evaporation duration (process time).

  13. Synthesis of nanopowders with a help of powerful CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, V. V.; Lisenkov, V. V.; Platonov, V. V.

    2011-02-01

    The paper reports about the results of researches of nanopowder production with a help powerful repetitively pulsed CO2 laser "LAERT" which generated radiation with pulse energy of ~1 J, peak power of ~8 kW and mean power of 500 W. Laser radiation affected and evaporated the target. The target material vapor condensed into nanoparticles as a result of intermixing vapor with a flow of cold gas. In basic the air of atmospheric pressure was used as the carrier gas. However in some experiments were used He and Ar and the gas pressure also was changed. In our experiments we produced nanopowders of such materials as: YSZ, YSZ:Al2O3, Al2O3, CeO2:Gd2O3, 0.5%Nd:Y2O3, 1%Nd:YAG, Fe3O4and carbon with a middle size 10÷30 nm. Received nanopowders were also weakly agglomerated. We carried out 3D numerical modeling of thermo-hydrodynamic processes occurred during the laser evaporation of a target. Results of calculations have cleared up many details of target evaporation. In particular, influence of liquid melt movement on stoichiometry of evaporation of a target from oxide mixes is found out. Results of calculations are in a good agreement with experimental data.

  14. Synthesis of nanopowders with a help of powerful CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, V. V.; Lisenkov, V. V.; Platonov, V. V.

    2010-09-01

    The paper reports about the results of researches of nanopowder production with a help powerful repetitively pulsed CO2 laser "LAERT" which generated radiation with pulse energy of ~1 J, peak power of ~8 kW and mean power of 500 W. Laser radiation affected and evaporated the target. The target material vapor condensed into nanoparticles as a result of intermixing vapor with a flow of cold gas. In basic the air of atmospheric pressure was used as the carrier gas. However in some experiments were used He and Ar and the gas pressure also was changed. In our experiments we produced nanopowders of such materials as: YSZ, YSZ:Al2O3, Al2O3, CeO2:Gd2O3, 0.5%Nd:Y2O3, 1%Nd:YAG, Fe3O4and carbon with a middle size 10÷30 nm. Received nanopowders were also weakly agglomerated. We carried out 3D numerical modeling of thermo-hydrodynamic processes occurred during the laser evaporation of a target. Results of calculations have cleared up many details of target evaporation. In particular, influence of liquid melt movement on stoichiometry of evaporation of a target from oxide mixes is found out. Results of calculations are in a good agreement with experimental data.

  15. Synthesis of bismuth titanate (BTO) nanopowder and fabrication of microstrip rectangular patch antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiruramanathan, P.; Sharma, Sanjeev K.; Sankar, S.; Sankar Ganesh, R.; Marikani, A.; Kim, Deuk Young

    2016-12-01

    The bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12) or BTO nanopowder was synthesized from the combustion method and fabricated a microstrip rectangular patch antenna (MPA). The crystal structure and lattice spacing of BTO were evaluated from XRD, TEM, and SAED analysis. The crystal structure of BTO (annealed at 900 °C) was observed to be the orthorhombic phase with fcc lattice. The microstructure of BTO nanoparticles was confirmed the spherical and hexagonal shapes, which were slightly agglomerated due to the lack of stabilizing surfactants. The presence of weak and wide bands in Raman spectrum quantified the mechanical compressions to the uniform directions of elongated lattice constants and tensions to the lattice constriction of crystalline bismuth titanate. To fabricate the MPA, pellets of BTO nanopowder were prepared by applying the uniaxial pressure in the dimension of 1.5 mm thickness and 8 mm diameter. These pellets were formed a densely packed structure close to the theoretical density. The coercivity and remanence polarization of BTO ceramics increased as the applied field increased. The inexpensive combustion synthesis method of BTO nanopowder showed the high dielectric constant (ɛ' = 450) and low dielectric loss (tan δ = 0.98), which has a potential implication of the cost-effectiveness in the field of miniaturized microelectronics. The synthesis and measurements of BTO ceramics are found to be suitable for wireless communication systems.

  16. Photoluminescent BaMoO{sub 4} nanopowders prepared by complex polymerization method (CPM)

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo Marques, Ana Paula de . E-mail: apamarques@liec.ufscar.br; Melo, Dulce M.A. de; Paskocimas, Carlos A.; Pizani, Paulo S.; Joya, Miryam R.; Leite, Edson R.; Longo, Elson

    2006-03-15

    The BaMoO{sub 4} nanopowders were prepared by the Complex Polymerization Method (CPM). The structure properties of the BaMoO{sub 4} powders were characterized by FTIR transmittance spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, photoluminescence spectra (PL) and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM). The XRD, FTIR and Raman data showed that BaMoO{sub 4} at 300 deg. C was disordered. At 400 deg. C and higher temperature, BaMoO{sub 4} crystalline scheelite-type phases could be identified, without the presence of additional phases, according to the XRD, FTIR and Raman data. The calculated average crystallite sizes, calculated by XRD, around 40 nm, showed the tendency to increase with the temperature. The crystallite sizes, obtained by HR-SEM, were around of 40-50 nm. The sample that presented the highest intensity of the red emission band was the one heat treated at 400 deg. C for 2 h, and the sample that displayed the highest intensity of the green emission band was the one heat treated at 700 deg. C for 2 h. The CPM was shown to be a low cost route for the production of BaMoO{sub 4} nanopowders, with the advantages of lower temperature, smaller time and reduced cost. The optical properties observed for BaMoO{sub 4} nanopowders suggested that this material is a highly promising candidate for photoluminescent applications.

  17. Effect of biopolymers on structure of hydroxyapatite and interfacial interactions in biomimetically synthesized hydroxyapatite/biopolymer nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Verma, Devendra; Katti, Kalpana S; Katti, Dinesh R

    2008-06-01

    The interfacial interaction and effect of biopolymer on crystal structure of hydroxyapatite in biomimetically synthesized nanocomposites, chitosan/hydroxyapatite (ChiHAP50), polygalacturonic acid/hydroxyapatite (PgAHAP50), and chitosan/polygalacturonic acid/hydroxyapatite (ChiPgAHAP50) have been investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Rietveld analysis. AFM phase images show nano-sized hydroxyapatite particles uniformly distributed in biopolymer. FTIR spectra indicate that chitosan interacts with hydroxyapatite through NH(3)(+) groups, whereas in polygalacturonic acid/hydroxyapatite, dissociated carboxylate groups (COO(-)) form unidentate chelate with calcium atoms. A change in lattice parameters of hydroxyapatite in all nanocomposites is observed using Rietveld analysis. The increase in lattice parameters was most prominent along c-axis in ChiHAP50 and ChiPgAHAP50 nanocomposites, which was 0.388% and 0.319%, respectively. Comparison between particle sizes of hydroxyapatite, determined from AFM and Rietveld analysis, indicates presence of amorphous phase in hydroxyapatite particles, which is believed to be present at the interface of hydroxyapatite and biopolymer.

  18. Continuous microwave flow synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Akram, Muhammad; Alshemary, Ammar Z; Goh, Yi-Fan; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Lintang, Hendrik O; Hussain, Rafaqat

    2015-11-01

    We have successfully used continuous microwave flow synthesis (CMFS) technique for the template free synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite. The continuous microwave flow reactor consisted of a modified 2.45GHz household microwave, peristaltic pumps and a Teflon coil. This cost effective and efficient system was exploited to produce semi-crystalline phase pure nano-sized hydroxyapatite. Effect of microwave power, retention time and the concentration of reactants on the phase purity, degree of crystallinity and surface area of the final product was studied in detail. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to study the phase purity and composition of the product, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the effect of process parameters on the morphology of hydroxyapatite. The TEM analysis confirmed the formation of spherical particles at low microwave power; however the morphology of the particles changed to mesoporous needle and rod-like structure upon exposing the reaction mixture to higher microwave power and longer retention time inside the microwave. The in-vitro ion dissolution behavior of the as synthesized hydroxyapatite was studied by determining the amount of Ca(2+) ion released in SBF solution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Reconsidering remineralization strategies to include nanoparticle hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Kutsch, V Kim; Chaiyabutr, Yada; Milicich, Graeme

    2013-03-01

    Dental caries is a transmissible biofilm-mediated disease of the teeth that is defined by prolonged periods of low pH resulting in net mineral loss from the teeth. Hydroxyapatite, fluorapatite, and the carbonated forms of calcium phosphate form the main mineral content of dental hard tissues: enamel, dentin, and cementum. Active dental caries results when the biofilm pH on the tooth surface drops below the dissolution threshold for hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite. The clinical evidence of this net mineral loss is porosity, whitespot lesions, caries lesions, and/or cavitation. The potential to reverse this mineral loss through remineralization has been well documented, although previous remineralization strategies for dental hard tissues have focused on the use of fluorides and forms of calcium phosphate. This in-vitro study documented the deposition of nanoparticle hydroxyapatite on demineralized enamel surfaces after treatment with an experimental remineralization gel. This finding supports consideration of an additional approach to remineralization that includes pH neutralization strategies and nanoparticle hydroxyapatite crystals.

  20. Characteristic of nanoparticles generated from different nano-powders by using different dispersion methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chuen-Jinn; Lin, Guan-Yu; Liu, Chun-Nan; He, Chi-En; Chen, Chun-Wan

    2012-03-01

    A standard rotating drum with a modified sampling train (RD), a vortex shaker (VS), and a SSPD (small-scale powder disperser) were used to investigate the emission characteristics of nano-powders, including nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2, primary diameter: 21 nm), nano-zinc oxide (nano-ZnO, primary diameter: 30-50 nm), and nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO2, primary diameter: 10-30 nm). A TSI SMPS (scanning mobility particle sizer), a TSI APS (aerodynamic particle sizer), and a MSP MOUDI (micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor) were used to measure the number and mass distributions of generated particles. Significant differences in specific number and mass concentration or distributions were found among different methods and nano-powders with the most specific number and mass concentration and the smallest particles being generated by the most energetic SSPD, followed by VS and RD. Near uni-modal number or mass distributions were observed for the SSPD while bi-modal number or mass distributions existed for nano-powders except nano-SiO2 which also exhibited bimodal mass distributions. The 30-min average results showed that the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and number median diameter (NMD) of the SSPD ranged 1.1-2.1 μm and 166-261 nm, respectively, for all three nano-powders, which were smaller than those of the VS (MMAD: 3.3-6.0 μm and NMD: 156-462 nm), and the RD (MMAD: 5.2-11.2 μm and NMD: 198-479 nm). For nano-particles (electric mobility diameter < 100 nm), specific mass concentrations were nearly negligible for all three nano-powders and test methods. Specific number concentrations of nano-particles were low for the RD tester but were elevated when more energetic VS and SSPD testers were used. The quantitative size and concentration data obtained in this study is useful to elucidate the field emission and personal exposure data in the future provided that particle loss in the generation system is carefully assessed.

  1. [Adsorption of Congo red from aqueous solution on hydroxyapatite].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yan-Hui; Lin, Jian-Wei

    2013-08-01

    The adsorption of Congo red (CR) from aqueous solution on hydroxyapatite was investigated using batch experiments. The hydroxyapatite was effective for CR removal from aqueous solution. The adsorption kinetics of CR on hydroxyapatite well followed a pseudo-second-order model. The equilibrium adsorption data of CR on hydroxyapatite could be described by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy change, enthalpy change and entropy change were calculated and showed that the adsorption of CR on hydroxyapatite was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. The CR adsorption capacity for hydroxyapatite decreased significantly with increasing pH from 8 to 10. Thermal regeneration showed that hydroxyapatite could be used for six desorption-adsorption cycles with high removal efficiency for CR in each cycle. The mechanisms for CR adsorption on hydroxyapatite with pH value below the pH at point of zero charge (pH(PZC)) include electrostatic attraction, hydrogen bonding and Lewis acid-base interaction. The mechanisms for CR adsorption on hydroxyapatite with pH value above its pH(PZC) include hydrogen bonding and Lewis acid-base interaction. Results of this work indicate that hydroxyapatite is a promising adsorbent for CR removal from aqueous solution.

  2. Nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatites: synthesis and characterization.

    PubMed

    Golden, D C; Ming, D W

    1999-01-01

    Incorporation of Mg, S, and plant-essential micronutrients into the structure of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) may be advantageous for closed-loop systems, such as will be required on Lunar and Martian outposts, because these apatites can be used as slow-release fertilizers. Our objective was to synthesize HA with Ca, P, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo, B, and Cl incorporated into the structure, i.e., nutrient-substituted apatites. Hydroxyapatite, carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHA), nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatite (NHA), and nutrient-substituted carbonate hydroxyapatite (NCHA) were synthesized by precipitating from solution. Chemical and mineralogical analysis of precipitated samples indicated a considerable fraction of the added cations were incorporated into HA, without mineral impurities. Particle size of the HA was in the 1 to 40 nm range, and decreased with increased substitution of nutrient elements. The particle shape of HA was elongated in the c-direction in unsubstituted HA and NHA but more spherical in CHA and NCHA. The substitution of cations and anions in the HA structure was confirmed by the decrease of the d[002] spacing of HA with substitution of ions with an ionic radius less than that of Ca or P. The DTPA-extractable Cu ranged from 8 to 8429 mg kg-1, Zn ranged from 57 to 1279 mg kg-1, Fe from 211 to 2573 mg kg-1, and Mn from 190 to 1719 mg kg-1, depending on the substitution level of each element in HA. Nutrient-substituted HA has the potential to be used as a slow-release fertilizer to supply micronutrients, S, and Mg in addition to Ca and P.

  3. Nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatites: synthesis and characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.

    1999-01-01

    Incorporation of Mg, S, and plant-essential micronutrients into the structure of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) may be advantageous for closed-loop systems, such as will be required on Lunar and Martian outposts, because these apatites can be used as slow-release fertilizers. Our objective was to synthesize HA with Ca, P, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo, B, and Cl incorporated into the structure, i.e., nutrient-substituted apatites. Hydroxyapatite, carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHA), nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatite (NHA), and nutrient-substituted carbonate hydroxyapatite (NCHA) were synthesized by precipitating from solution. Chemical and mineralogical analysis of precipitated samples indicated a considerable fraction of the added cations were incorporated into HA, without mineral impurities. Particle size of the HA was in the 1 to 40 nm range, and decreased with increased substitution of nutrient elements. The particle shape of HA was elongated in the c-direction in unsubstituted HA and NHA but more spherical in CHA and NCHA. The substitution of cations and anions in the HA structure was confirmed by the decrease of the d[002] spacing of HA with substitution of ions with an ionic radius less than that of Ca or P. The DTPA-extractable Cu ranged from 8 to 8429 mg kg-1, Zn ranged from 57 to 1279 mg kg-1, Fe from 211 to 2573 mg kg-1, and Mn from 190 to 1719 mg kg-1, depending on the substitution level of each element in HA. Nutrient-substituted HA has the potential to be used as a slow-release fertilizer to supply micronutrients, S, and Mg in addition to Ca and P.

  4. Fabrication of alpha-Fe2O3 nanopowder modified glassy carbon electrode for applications in electrochemical sensing.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Rajendra N; Pandey, Ashish K; Kaur, Davinder; Kumar, Ashvani

    2009-08-01

    In the present study, Fe2O3 nanopowder has been grown by Ultrasonic mist chemical vapor deposition (UM-CVD), which is a promising method for large area deposition at low temperatures taking in to account of its simplicity, inexpensiveness and safety. Room temperature XRD results revealed prominent hematite phase with intense (104) reflection and was also in agreement with the HR-TEM results. In situ high temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies clearly indicated the change of phase from hematite to magnetite as the temperature increases above 300 degrees C. The surface morphology and particle size distribution of Fe2O3 nanopowder were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), which revealed that the particles were spherical in nature and distributed in range of 50-100 nm. SQUID magnetometry results indicate the ferromagnetic nature of the nanopowder with crystallite size of 6 nm as calculated from M-H curve. Transmittance of approximately 55% and estimated direct band gap of 2.5 eV was observed. Further, the nanopowder was used to modify glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and the modified electrode was found to exhibit electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of dopamine. It is expected that the nanopowder will exhibit promising applications in the development of sensors.

  5. Synthesis of hollow cobalt oxide nanopowders by a salt-assisted spray pyrolysis process applying nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion and their electrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Ju, Hyeon Seok; Cho, Jung Sang; Kim, Jong Hwa; Choi, Yun Ju; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-12-21

    A new concept for preparing hollow metal oxide nanopowders by salt-assisted spray pyrolysis applying nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion is introduced. The composite powders of metal oxide and indecomposable metal salt are prepared by spray pyrolysis. Post-treatment under a reducing atmosphere and subsequent washing using distilled water produce aggregation-free metal nanopowders. The metal nanopowders are then transformed into metal oxide hollow nanopowders by nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion. Co3O4 hollow nanopowders are prepared as first target materials. A cobalt oxide-NaCl composite powder prepared by spray pyrolysis transforms into several Co3O4 hollow nanopowders by several treatment processes. The discharge capacities of the Co3O4 nanopowders with filled and hollow structures at a current density of 1 A g(-1) for the 150th cycle are 605 and 775 mA h g(-1), respectively. The hollow structure formed by nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion improves the lithium-ion storage properties of Co3O4 nanopowders.

  6. Ferroelectric Polarization in Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Thin Films on Silicon

    PubMed Central

    Lang, S. B.; Tofail, S. A. M.; Kholkin, A. L.; Wojtaś, M.; Gregor, M.; Gandhi, A. A.; Wang, Y.; Bauer, S.; Krause, M.; Plecenik, A.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals in natural form are a major component of bone- a known piezoelectric material. Synthetic hydroxyapatite is widely used in bone grafts and prosthetic pyroelectric coatings as it binds strongly with natural bone. Nanocrystalline synthetic hydroxyapatite films have recently been found to exhibit strong piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity. While a spontaneous polarization in hydroxyapatite has been predicted since 2005, the reversibility of this polarization (i.e. ferroelectricity) requires experimental evidence. Here we use piezoresponse force microscopy to demonstrate that nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite indeed exhibits ferroelectricity: a reversal of polarization under an electrical field. This finding will strengthen investigations on the role of electrical polarization in biomineralization and bone-density related diseases. As hydroxyapatite is one of the most common biocompatible materials, our findings will also stimulate systematic exploration of lead and rare-metal free ferroelectric devices for potential applications in areas as diverse as in vivo and ex vivo energy harvesting, biosensing and electronics. PMID:23884324

  7. Ferroelectric Polarization in Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Thin Films on Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, S. B.; Tofail, S. A. M.; Kholkin, A. L.; Wojtaś, M.; Gregor, M.; Gandhi, A. A.; Wang, Y.; Bauer, S.; Krause, M.; Plecenik, A.

    2013-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals in natural form are a major component of bone- a known piezoelectric material. Synthetic hydroxyapatite is widely used in bone grafts and prosthetic pyroelectric coatings as it binds strongly with natural bone. Nanocrystalline synthetic hydroxyapatite films have recently been found to exhibit strong piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity. While a spontaneous polarization in hydroxyapatite has been predicted since 2005, the reversibility of this polarization (i.e. ferroelectricity) requires experimental evidence. Here we use piezoresponse force microscopy to demonstrate that nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite indeed exhibits ferroelectricity: a reversal of polarization under an electrical field. This finding will strengthen investigations on the role of electrical polarization in biomineralization and bone-density related diseases. As hydroxyapatite is one of the most common biocompatible materials, our findings will also stimulate systematic exploration of lead and rare-metal free ferroelectric devices for potential applications in areas as diverse as in vivo and ex vivo energy harvesting, biosensing and electronics.

  8. Simple route for nano-hydroxyapatite properties expansion.

    PubMed

    Rojas, L; Olmedo, H; García-Piñeres, A J; Silveira, C; Tasic, L; Fraga, F; Montero, M L

    2015-10-20

    Simple surface modification of nano-hydroxyapatite, through acid-basic reactions, allows expanding the properties of this material. Introduction of organic groups such as hydrophobic alkyl chains, carboxylic acid, and amide or amine basic groups on the hydroxyapatite surface systematically change the polarity, surface area, and reactivity of hydroxyapatite without modifying its phase. Physical and chemical properties of the new derivative particles were analyzed. The biocompatibility of modified Nano-Hap on Raw 264.7 cells was also assessed.

  9. Wettability patterning of hydroxyapatite nanobioceramics induced by surface potential modification

    SciTech Connect

    Aronov, D.; Rosenman, G.; Karlov, A.; Shashkin, A.

    2006-04-17

    Hydroxyapatite is known as a substrate for effective adhesion of various biological cells and bacteria as well implantable biomimetic material replacing defective bone tissues. It is found that low energy electron irradiation induces its strong surface potential variation and gives rise to pronounced wettability modification. The found electron-modulation method of the hydroxyapatite wettability enables both wettability switching and its microscopic patterning, which may be used for fabrication of spatially arrayed hydroxyapatite for biological cells immobilization, gene transfer, etc.

  10. Microwave absorption properties of multiwalled carbon nanotube/FeNi nanopowders as light-weight microwave absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Fusheng; Zhang, Fang; Xiang, Jianyong; Hu, Wentao; Yuan, Shijun; Liu, Zhongyuan

    2013-10-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and FeNi nanopowders have been facilely synthesized by a simple chemical method. Excellent microwave absorption properties have been obtained due to a proper combination of complex permittivity and permeability which result from the high resistivity of the sintered composite of MWCNTs and the magnetic FeNi nanopowders. The minimum reflection loss (RL) is less than -20 dB at 2.72-18.0 GHz with a thickness between 1.21 and 6.00 mm for 40 wt% MWCNT/FeNi composites, and a minimum RL value of -47.6 dB is observed at 12.09 GHz on a specimen with a matching thickness of 1.79 mm. The frequency of microwave absorption complies with the quarter-wavelength (λ/4) matching model. The MWCNT/FeNi nanopowders are a promising candidate for lightweight microwave absorption materials.

  11. Effect of uniform magnetic and electric fields on microstructure and substructure characteristics of combustion products of aluminum nanopowder in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'in, A. P.; Mostovshchikov, A. V.; Pak, A. Ya.

    2016-12-01

    We have analyzed the effect of constant electric and magnetic fields on the micro- and substructure characteristics of the combustion products of aluminum nanopowder in air. It has been found that the combustion of aluminum nanopowder in a magnetic field leads to the formation of single crystals of the hexagonal habitus, while the combustion in an electric field results in the formation of faceted crystallites with layered morphology. The fields noticeably affect the crystal lattice parameters of aluminum oxide and nitride (reduce the coherent scattering regions in aluminum nitride and increase such regions in aluminum γ-oxide). At the same time, the displacement of atoms relative to the equilibrium position becomes noticeably smaller for all crystal phases under the action of the fields (except for aluminum nitride in a magnetic field). These results have been explained by the orienting and stabilizing actions of the fields on the combustion products of aluminum nanopowder in air.

  12. Poly(ε-caprolactone)/nano fluoridated hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: in vitro degradation and biocompatibility study.

    PubMed

    Johari, N; Fathi, M H; Golozar, M A; Erfani, E; Samadikuchaksaraei, A

    2012-03-01

    In this study, biodegradation and biocompatibility of novel poly(ε-caparolactone)/nano fluoridated hydroxyapatite (PCL-FHA) scaffolds were investigated. The FHA nanopowders were prepared via mechanical alloying method and had a chemical composition of Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)OH(2-x )F(x) (where x values were selected equal to 0.5 and 2.0). In order to fabricate PCL-FHA scaffolds, 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt% of the FHA were added to the PCL. The PCL-FHA scaffolds were produced by the solvent casting/particulate leaching using sodium chloride particles (with diameters of 300-500 μm) as the porogen. The phase structure, microstructure and morphology of the scaffolds were evaluated using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Porosity of the scaffolds was measured using the Archimedes' Principle. In vitro degradation of PCL-FHA scaffolds was studied by incubating the samples in phosphate buffered saline at 37°C and pH 7.4 for 30 days. Moreover, biocompatibility was evaluated by MTT assay after seeding and culture of osteoblast-like cells on the scaffolds. Results showed that the osteoblast-like cells attached to and proliferated on PCL-FHA and increasing the porosity of the scaffolds increased the cell viability. Also, degradation rate of scaffolds were increased with increasing the fluorine content in scaffolds composition.

  13. Carbon nanotube-reinforced mesoporous hydroxyapatite composites with excellent mechanical and biological properties for bone replacement material application.

    PubMed

    Li, Haipeng; Song, Xiaoqing; Li, Baoe; Kang, Jianli; Liang, Chunyong; Wang, Hongshui; Yu, Zhenyang; Qiao, Zhijun

    2017-08-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced mesoporous hydroxyapatite (HA) composites with excellent mechanical and biological properties were fabricated successfully by the in situ chemical deposition of mesoporous HA on homogeneously dispersed CNTs. The CNTs are first synthesized in situ on HA nanopowders by chemical vapor deposition, and then, the HA particles with mesoporous structures are deposited in situ onto the as-grown CNTs by using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide as templates to form mesoporous HA encapsulated CNTs (CNT@meso-HA). The modification of CNTs by mesoporous HA leads to strong CNT-HA interfacial bonding, resulting in efficient load transfer between CNT and HA and improved mechanical properties of CNT/HA composites. More importantly, the mesoporous HA structure has a high specific surface area and large surface roughness that greatly promote the cell adhesion and proliferation, resulting in better biocompatibility and improved osteoblast viability (MC3T3-E1) compared to those fabricated by traditional methods. Therefore, the obtained CNT@meso-HA composites are expected to be promising materials for bone regeneration and implantation applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the sputtered Ti doped hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Vladescu, A; Padmanabhan, S C; Ak Azem, F; Braic, M; Titorencu, I; Birlik, I; Morris, M A; Braic, V

    2016-10-01

    The hydroxyapatite enriched with Ti were prepared as possible candidates for biomedical applications especially for implantable devices that are in direct contact to the bone. The hydroxyapatites with different Ti content were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on Ti-6Al-4V alloy using pure hydroxyapatite and TiO2 targets. The content of Ti was modified by changing the RF power fed on TiO2 target. The XPS and FTIR analyses revealed the presence of hydroxyapatite structure. The hardness and elastic modulus of the hydroxyapatite were increased by Ti addition. After 5 days of culture, the cell viability of the Ti-6Al-4V was enhanced by depositing with undoped or doped hydroxyapatite. The Ti additions led to an increase in cell viability of hydroxyapatite, after 5 days of culture. The electron microscopy showed the presence of more cells on the surface of Ti-enriched hydroxyapatite than those observed on the surface of the uncoated alloys or undoped hydroxyapatite.

  15. Macroporous hydroxyapatite as alloplastic material for dental applications.

    PubMed

    Carotenuto, G; Spagnuolo, G; Ambrosio, L; Nicolais, L

    1999-01-01

    In the dentistry field, synthetic hydroxyapatite can be conveniently used as semiabsorbable alloplastic material to solve a number of clinical problems. The hydroxyapatite structure influences bone ingrowth as well as its resorption. In particular, pore size must exceed 100 microm to allow new bone ingrowth. Because of its brittleness, highly porous hydroxyapatite is difficult to handle without causing damage, and, therefore, its mechanical performance has to be improved placing the material on a dense hydroxyapatite substrate. Dense/porous hydroxyapatite laminates can be obtained by slip casting technology. The method starts with the preparation of a ceramic powder-binder-solvent system. This slurry produces, after solvent evaporation, a soft green tape, that is successively baked at 300 degrees C to remove all organic component, and finally sintered at high temperature (1200 degrees C). The material porosity cannot be significantly modified by changes in the slurry composition and sintering temperature; therefore, the macroporous hydroxyapatite layer must be obtained using a porous hydroxyapatite powder. The powder is prepared by grinding of green tape pieces and the resulting coarse material is successively baked at 300 degrees C. Such material is mixed with a polymer solution and cast on a green tape substrate. Layer fractures are not observed in both film bulks and interface, because during sintering the consolidation of two layers happens simultaneously. In the resulting material, the first layer consisted of macroporous hydroxyapatite with high osteoconductive properties, and the second layer was a dense hydroxyapatite substrate able to improve the laminate mechanical properties.

  16. Preparation and characterization of collagen-hydroxyapatite/pectin composite.

    PubMed

    Wenpo, Feng; Gaofeng, Liang; Shuying, Feng; Yuanming, Qi; Keyong, Tang

    2015-03-01

    Pectin, a kind of plant polysaccharide, was introduced into collagen-hydroxyapatite composite system, and prepared collagen-hydroxyapatite/pectin (Col-HA/pectin) composite in situ. The structure of the composite was investigated by XRD, SEM, and FT-IR. The mechanical properties, water absorption, enzyme degradation, and cytotoxicity of the composite were investigated as well. The results show that the inorganic substance in the composite materials is hydroxyapatite in relatively low crystallinity. A new interface appeared by the interaction among hydroxyapatite and collagen-pectin, and formed smooth fine particles. The mechanical properties, water absorption, enzyme degradation, and cytotoxicity indicate a potential use in bone replacement for the new composite.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of carbonate hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Merry, J C; Gibson, I R; Best, S M; Bonfield, W

    1998-12-01

    Substituted apatite ceramics are of clinical interest as they offer the potential to improve the bioactive properties of implants. Carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHA) has been synthesized by an aqueous precipitation method and precipitates with two different levels of carbonate, processed as powders. Sintering experiments were performed to establish the influence of carbonate in significantly reducing the temperature required to prepare high-density ceramics when compared with stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (HA). High-temperature X-ray diffraction was used to characterize the phase stability of the apatites on sintering. Increasing carbonate content was shown to reduce the temperature at which decomposition occurred, to phases of CaO and beta-TCP. Mechanical testing, performed using biaxial flexure, showed that the CHA specimens had strengths similar to stoichiometric HA. Copyright 1998 Kluwer Academic Publishers

  18. Hydroxyapatite Fibers: A Review of Synthesis Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Mei-Li; He, Kun; Huang, Zhen-Nan; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Xiao, Gui-Yong; Lu, Yu-Peng; Shokuhfar, Tolou

    2017-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) exhibits excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, osteoconductivity, non-toxicity and so on, making it a perfect candidate for biomedical applications. However, HA is not qualified to be used in load-bearing sites due to its poor flexural strength and fracture toughness. Design, synthesis and application of fibrous HA is a promising strategy to overcome the inherent brittleness. This review provides a brief description of HA and hydroxyapatite fiber (HAF), then introduces different synthesis methods of HAF and highlights the inherent merits and drawbacks involved in each method. Finally, the future perspectives in this active research area are given. The purpose of this review is to acquaint the reader with this promising new field of biomaterials research and with emphasis on recent techniques to obtain continuous, uniform and long HAF.

  19. Mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite/mica composite.

    PubMed

    Nordström, E G; Herø, H; Jørgensen, R B

    1994-01-01

    Bend specimens of the inorganic synthetic materials hydroxyapatite (HA) and a composite of hydroxyapatite/muscovite mica have been prepared and tested mechanically. Sintering followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) without encapsulation gave an increased strength for HA alone, but no significant increase in strength compared with sintering alone for HA/mica composites. The bend strength of the HA/mica composite was inferior to that of HA alone, the reason being inadequate bonding between HA and mica. HIP in glass capsules and an increased cold compaction pressure tended to improve the bend strength of the composite. Corrosion in tris for 7 d did not affect the bend strength of the investigated materials significantly.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabiee, S. M.; Moztarzadeh, F.; Solati-Hashjin, M.

    2010-04-01

    This study deals with synthesizing hydroxyapatite bone cement as a bone substitute for clinical applications. The powder part of the cement is using β-tricalcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, dicalcium phosphate and the liquid part contains NaH 2PO 4·2H 2O solution with different concentrations. The effects of liquid concentration on the setting times of the cement have been investigated. XRD analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy were used to study the phase composition of calcium phosphate cement. Morphology and chemical analysis of the synthesized cement was performed using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyser. In addition, the effect of soaking time of synthesized bone cement in simulated body fluid (SBF) on the final phase and strength has been studied. Soaking prepared cement in SBF solution for appropriate time resulted in transformation of the composition of the cement into hydroxyapatite and hence the strength of the cement has been increased.

  1. Biomineralization of nanoscale single crystal hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Omokanwaye, Tiffany; Wilson, Otto C; Gugssa, Ayelle; Anderson, Winston

    2015-11-01

    The chemical and physical characteristics of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite particles which formed during the subcutaneous implantation of crab shell in Sprague-Dawley rats were studied using selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The initial SAED characterization evidence indicated the presence of an amorphous calcium phosphate phase. The electron dense nanophase particles which formed in the wound healing zone displayed broad diffuse rings which usually indicate a low crystalline order or amorphous phase. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) revealed that these mineralized regions contained discrete single crystal particles less than 5nm in size. Micrographs taken at successively higher magnifications revealed very small nanoparticles with a hexagonal arrangement of ion channels with characteristic spacing of 0.54nm and 0.23nm. This study revealed that single crystal hydroxyapatite nanoparticles consisting of only a few unit cells formed via a biomineralization directed process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis and crystallization of macroporous hydroxyapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Madhavi, S. . E-mail: madhavi@ntu.edu.sg; Ferraris, C.; White, T.J.

    2005-09-15

    Macroporous hydroxyapatite Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} was synthesized using ordered polystyrene sphere templates that were impregnated with a calcium phosphate precursor solution which was allowed to solidify followed by sintering from 500 to 1000 deg. C in flowing oxygen to remove the polymer and crystallize the phosphates. Using a combination of diffraction and imaging the face-centered cubic macroporous framework was shown to have pore diameters of 0.8-0.9 {mu}m and to be composed of hydroxyapatite (80-98 wt%) and X-ray diffraction amorphous material (14-55%), the proportions dependent on the duration and temperature of heat treatment. At lower sintering temperatures the HAp is calcium deficient. Ion exchange of calcium by cadmium demonstrated the potential of this material for hazardous waste remediation.

  3. Preparation of ZnO nanopowders by thermal plasma and characterization of photo-catalytic property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, So-Jung; Park, Dong-Wha

    2009-03-01

    Nano-sized zinc oxide (ZnO) powders were prepared via a thermal plasma process from micro-sized zinc powder while oxygen was employed as a reaction gas. Two different carrier gases, oxygen and argon, were evaluated and the flow rate of the reaction gas was controlled. The photo-catalytic activities of ZnO powders were evaluated by measuring the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in water under the UV and visible region. The prevailing goal of this study is to improve the photo-catalytic activity of nano-sized ZnO powders for the removal of environmental pollutants. The ZnO nanopowders were characterized by XRD, SEM, BET, and UV-vis spectrometry. Their mean crystallites sizes ranged from 26.5 nm to 48.6 nm. It was confirmed by a XRD analysis that the ZnO nanopowders had a high quality wurtzite structure. SEM and XRD results show that the size of the particles synthesized increased with an increase of the flow rate of the oxygen reaction gas. The powder obtained using the argon carrier gas with higher oxygen reaction gas flow rate was more rod-shape. The MB decomposition rates of the obtained ZnO nanopowders were studied under the UV and visible region. In the UV region, synthesized ZnO could decompose MB as well as commercial ZnO. However, in the visible region, the MB decomposition rate obtained using ZnO was much higher than that by commercial ZnO.

  4. The effect of annealing on properties of europium doped ZnO nanopowders obtained by a microwave hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolska-Kornio, E.; Kaszewski, J.; Witkowski, B. S.; Wachnicki, Ł.; Godlewski, M.

    2016-09-01

    Europium doped ZnO nanopowders made by microwave hydrothermal method are investigated. As zinc oxide precursor zinc nitrate(V) hexahydrate (Zn(NO3)2·6H2O) was used. Two types of nanopowder samples are examined: as grown and annealed at 750 °C in air atmosphere. We investigate the structural, morphological and optical prosperities of europium doped ZnO. Results of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, photo- and cathodoluminescence investigations and also CIE1961 chromaticity diagram are presented.

  5. Preparation and properties of Ba1-xCaxTiO3 nanopowders obtained by mechanochemical synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szafraniak-Wiza, Izabela; Kozielski, Lucjan; Sebastian, Tutu

    2016-08-01

    The calcium-substituted barium titanate nanopowders Ba1-xCaxTiO3 (0.2 ≤ x ≤ 0.3) have been obtained at room temperature by mechanochemical synthesis. The formation of the perovskite phase was controlled by X-ray diffraction studies at various milling duration. The powders possess the perovskite crystallographic structure directly after milling longer than 10 h. The dielectric properties of the ceramics obtained by sintering of the nanopowders were investigated in the temperature range between 300 and 500 K. The temperature dependence of permittivity exhibited a single anomaly, which corresponds to the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition.

  6. Slow crack growth behaviour of hydroxyapatite ceramics.

    PubMed

    Benaqqa, Chahid; Chevalier, Jerome; Saädaoui, Malika; Fantozzi, Gilbert

    2005-11-01

    Among materials for medical applications, hydroxyapatite is one of the best candidates in orthopedics, since it exhibits a composition similar to the mineral part of bone. Double torsion technique was here performed to investigate slow crack growth behaviour of dense hydroxyapatite materials. Crack rate, V, versus stress intensity factor, K(I), laws were obtained for different environments and processing conditions. Stress assisted corrosion by water molecules in oxide ceramics is generally responsible for slow crack growth. The different propagation stages obtained here could be analyzed in relation to this process. The presence of a threshold defining a safety range of use was also observed. Hydroxyapatite ceramics appear to be very sensitive to slow crack growth, crack propagation occurring even at very low K(I). This can be explained by the fact that they contain hydroxyl groups (HAP: Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2)), favouring water adsorption on the crack surface and thus a strong decrease of surface energy in the presence of water. This study demonstrates that processing conditions must be carefully controlled, specially sintering temperature, which plays a key role on V-K(I) laws. Sintering at 50 degrees C above or below the optimal temperature, for example, may shift the V-K(I) law towards very low stress intensity factors. The influence of ageing is finally discussed.

  7. [Generalized periarthritis calcarea (generalized hydroxyapatite disease)].

    PubMed

    Müller, W; Bahous, I

    1979-09-01

    The condition of generalized periarthritis calcarea (hydroxyapatite deposition disease) is characterised by multiple periarticular calcification which can be localised around practically any joint and also in proximity to the spine. This calcification consists of hydroxyapatite crystals which are responsible for the episodes of acute, subacute or chronic periarticular or articular inflammation so typical of the condition. Because of this one can classify periarthritis calcarea along with gout and chondrocalcinosis in the group of crystal deposition diseases. The actual cause of the calcification remains unknown but it is probable that, along with hereditary factors, disturbances in metabolism play an important role. The diagnosis of generalised periarthritis is made from the characteristic X-ray picture in conjunction with the clinical findings and, on occasion, the demonstration of hydroxyapatite crystals in the affected tissues. In the differential diagnosis gout, chondrocalcinosis, various inflammatory rheumatic conditions and septic arthritis must be excluded and various calcification processes, particularly interstitial calcinosis and lipocal cinogranulomatosis, must also be considered. Since the etiology of the calcification remains unknown to specific treatment is available. Symptomatic treatment with colchicine is mostly inadequate which is why one often has recourse to the use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids.

  8. Plasma Synthesized Doped Boron Nanopowder for MgB2 Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    James V. Marzik

    2012-03-26

    Under this program, a process to synthesize nano-sized doped boron powder by a plasma synthesis process was developed and scaled up from 20 gram batches at program start to over 200 grams by program end. Over 75 batches of boron nanopowder were made by RF plasma synthesis. Particle sizes were typically in the 20-200 nm range. The powder was synthesized by the reductive pyrolysis of BCl{sub 3} in hydrogen in an RF plasma. A wide range of process parameters were investigated including plasma power, torch geometry, gas flow rates, and process pressure. The powder-in-tube technique was used to make monofilament and multifilament superconducting wires. MgB{sub 2} wire made with Specialty Materials plasma synthesized boron nanopowder exhibited superconducting properties that significantly exceeded the program goals. Superconducting critical currents, J{sub c}, in excess of 10{sup 5} A cm{sup -2} at magnetic fields of 8 tesla were reproducibly achieved. The upper critical magnetic field in wires fabricated with program boron powder were H{sub c2}(0) = 37 tesla, demonstrating the potential of these materials for high field magnet applications. T{sub c} in carbon-doped MgB{sub 2} powder showed a systematic decrease with increasing carbon precursor gas flows, indicating the plasma synthesis process can give precise control over dopant concentrations. Synthesis rates increased by a factor of 400% over the course of the program, demonstrating the scalability of the powder synthesis process. The plasma synthesis equipment at Specialty Materials has successfully and reproducibly made high quality boron nanopowder for MgB{sub 2} superconductors. Research and development from this program enabled Specialty Materials to successfully scale up the powder synthesis process by a factor of ten and to double the size of its powder pilot plant. Thus far the program has been a technical success. It is anticipated that continued systematic development of plasma processing parameters, dopant

  9. Synthesis and characterization of Eu3+:YAG nanopowder by precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, D.; Thangaraju, D.; Durairajan, A.; Babu, S. Moorthy

    2013-02-01

    Eu3+:Y3Al5O12 (Eu3+:YAG) nanopowder has been synthesized by reverse co-precipitation method. Cubic YAG structure was obtained at 850 °C calcination. FE-SEM micrographs confirm that YAG:Eu3+ particles are homogeneous sphere like morphology with average particle size of 50-70 nm. The crystalline phosphors showed orange - red emission with magnetic dipole transition 5D0→7F1 (590 nm) as most prominent group than forced electric dipole transition 5D0→7F2 (610nm).

  10. Optical properties and radiation stability of submicro- and nanopowders titanium dioxide measured in situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, M. M.; Neshchimenko, V. V.; Yuryev, S. A.

    2016-04-01

    This study carried out an in situ and external investigation on the reflective spectra of micro- and nanopowders titanium dioxide before and after irradiation by 30 keV electrons. The particle sizes range from 60-240 nm. It was established that the decrease in the particle size leads to an increase in intrinsic defects. The particles with intrinsic defects are then transformed into absorption centers during irradiation as a result of optical degradation of TiO2 powders. High radiation stability has particle sizes range from 80-160 nm.

  11. Characterization and mechanical properties of solar grade silicon in granular and nanopowder form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbib, Mohamad B.

    Polycrystalline silicon is mainly used for solar cell applications, structures in micro-electromechanical systems, and production of single crystal Si. One of the relatively new methods for producing large quantities of polysilicon is fluidized bed reactor (FBR), where two main morphologies are produced, granular solid (1-3 mm) and nanopowders (30-300 nm). Grinding and fracture occurs in the granular solid during shipping and handling which can affect the final product properties and create safety issues. The microstructure and the morphology of both the granular and the nanopowder forms of Si were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopes (SEM and TEM). The fracture toughness of the granular silicon was studied, using microindentation and nanoindentation techniques, at different annealing processes, and with different hydrogen concentrations during production. Hydrogen defects in silicon were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy to develop a new relationship between hydrogen and toughness. Based on the microstructural analysis it was shown that the granular Si are mostly crystalline with some amorphous regions linked to small pores, while the nanopowders are mostly amorphous with some crystalline bits; the porosity in the granular Si ranges between 1-4 volume percentage. It was proposed that the primary mechanism in FBR for the granular Si formation is chemical vapor deposition with minor agglomeration associated with pores. It was found that the lower the hydrogen in the production, the higher the fracture toughness where it can be improved up to 45% (from 0.6 to 0.86 MPa.m0.5), and lead for less dust during physical contact. New attrition parameters were proposed in order to better understand the fracture mechanisms of Si granules and other brittle microspheres. These parameters provide a relationship between the mechanical properties (indentation techniques), fracture behavior and failure mechanisms using both crushing tests and impact tests

  12. Co environment and magnetic defects in anatase CoxTi1-xO2 nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecu, M. N.; Macovei, D.; Ghica, D.; Logofatu, C.; Valsan, S.; Apostol, N. G.; Lungu, G. A.; Negrea, R. F.; Piticescu, R. R.

    2013-04-01

    Cobalt environment and magnetic defects nature in hydrothermal synthesized anatase CoxTi1-xO2 nanopowders (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) are investigated by x-ray diffraction and a variety of spectroscopic techniques. One shows that cobalt is partially inserted in the anatase lattice, as Co2+ ions located on substitutional and interstitial sites. The fraction of the diluted Co is limited to 3 at. % for x ≥ 0.05, while the rest of the Co atoms gather into Co3O4 clusters. As found by electron paramagnetic resonance, the Co doping brings about hole- and electron-excess defects.

  13. Electrophoretic deposition of composite hydroxyapatite-chitosan coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Pang Xin; Zhitomirsky, Igor . E-mail: zhitom@mcmaster.ca

    2007-04-15

    Cathodic electrophoretic deposition has been utilized for the fabrication of composite hydroxyapatite-chitosan coatings on 316L stainless steel substrates. The addition of chitosan to the hydroxyapatite suspensions promoted the electrophoretic deposition of the hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and resulted in the formation of composite coatings. The obtained coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, potentiodynamic polarization measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was shown that the deposit composition can be changed by a variation of the chitosan or hydroxyapatite concentration in the solutions. Experimental conditions were developed for the fabrication of hydroxyapatite-chitosan nanocomposites containing 40.9-89.8 wt.% hydroxyapatite. The method enabled the formation of adherent and uniform coatings of thicknesses up to 60 {mu}m. X-ray studies revealed that the preferred orientation of the hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in the chitosan matrix increases with decreasing hydroxyapatite content in the composite coatings. The obtained coatings provided the corrosion protection for the 316L stainless steel substrates00.

  14. Structural, magnetic and electrical properties of CuZn ferrite nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Le-Zhong; Peng, Long; Zhong, Xiao-Xi; Wang, Rui; Tu, Xiao-Qiang

    2016-12-01

    Zn-substituted Cu ferrite nanopowders, Cu1-xZnxFe2O4 (0≤x≤1.0), were synthesized by the sol-gel auto-combustion method. The effect of Zn substitution on the structural, magnetic and electrical properties have been investigated. The DTA and TG results indicate that there are three steps of combustion process. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that there are Fe2O3, CuO and CuFeO2 secondary phases and tetragonal structure when x=0.0. Furthermore, the lattice parameter and the average crystallite size decrease, and the X-ray density increases with the increase of Zn substitution. The saturation magnetization increases with the increase of Zn substitution when x≤0.40, and decreases when x>0.40. Meanwhile, the coercivity monotonically decreases with the increase of Zn substitution. The polarization behavior for all the samples in the test frequency range of 100 Hz to 10 MHz obeys the charge polarization mechanism. Electrical transport behavior of the ferrites nanopowders is same with the impurity semiconductor, and the effect of Zn substitution on the temperature dependence of dc resistivity is observed.

  15. EGCG assisted green synthesis of ZnO nanopowders: Photodegradative, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, D.; Udayabhanu; Nethravathi, P. C.; Lingaraju, K.; Rajanaika, H.; Sharma, S. C.; Nagabhushana, H.

    2015-02-01

    Zinc oxide nanopowders were synthesized by solution combustion method using Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) a tea catechin as fuel. The structure and morphology of the product was characterized by Powder X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, photoluminescence and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The nanopowders (Nps) were subjected to photocatalytic and biological activities such as antimicrobial and antioxidant studies. PXRD patterns demonstrate that the formed product belongs to hexagonal wurtzite system. SEM images show that the particles are agglomerated to form sponge like structure and the average crystallite sizes were found to be ∼10-20 nm. PL spectra exhibit broad and strong peak at 590 nm due to the Zn-vacancies, and O-vacancies. The prepared ZnO Nps exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity for the photodegradation of malachite green (MG) and methylene blue (MB) indicating that the ZnO NPs are potential photocatalytic semiconductor materials. ZnO NPs exhibit significant bactericidal activity against Klebsiella aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using the agar well diffusion method. Furthermore, the ZnO nano powders show good antioxidant activity by potentially scavenging DPPH radicals. The study successfully demonstrates synthesis of ZnO NPs by simple ecofriendly route employing EGCG as fuel that exhibit superior photodegradative, antibacterial and antioxidant activities.

  16. Bulk synthesis of monodisperse magnetic FeNi3 nanopowders by flow levitation method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanjun; Chen, Yan; Kang, Xiaoli; Li, Song; Tian, Yonghong; Wu, Weidong; Tang, Yongjian

    2013-10-01

    In this work, a novel bulk synthesis method for monodisperse FeNi3 nanoparticles was developed by flow levitation method (FL). The Fe and Ni vapours ascending from the high temperature levitated droplet was condensed by cryogenic Ar gas under atmospheric pressure. X-ray diffraction was used to identify and characterize the crystal phase of prepared powders exhibiting a FeNi3 phase. The morphology and size of nanopowders were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The chemical composition of the nanoparticles was determined with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The results indicated that the FeNi3 permalloy powders are nearly spherical-shaped with diameter about 50-200 nm. Measurement of the magnetic property of nanopowders by a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID, Quantum Design MPMS-7) showed a symmetric hysteresis loop of ferromagnetic behavior with coercivity of 220 Oe and saturation magnetization of 107.17 emu/g, at 293 K. At 5 K, the obtained saturation magnetization of the sample was 102.16 emu/g. The production rate of FeNi3 nanoparticles was estimated to be about 6 g/h. This method has great potential in mass production of FeNi3 nannoparticles.

  17. Defect properties of ZnO nanopowders and their modifications induced by remote plasma treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramo, J. A.; Peters, R. M.; Quarles, C. A.; Vallejo, H.; Strzhemechny, Y. M.

    2009-11-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) and positron lifetime (LT) measurements were used on several commercial ZnO nanopowders. We observed that sample-to-sample differences in the quality of the powders overshadow any observation of probable size effects. However, the average LT for all nanocrystals is longer than in a bulk sample, consistent with the hypothesis of crystals with surface and subsurface layers rich in defects. Temperature-dependent PL spectra from the ZnO nanopowders were analyzed in detail for the bound-exciton (BEx) range and the numerical fits of the peak positions yielded activation energies that suggested different channels of recombination for the BEx. Also, fits for the full width at half maximum (FWHM) show nonlinear behavior, indicating contribution from surface phonons. We, also, used remote nitrogen and hydrogen plasma treatment on the ZnO nanosystems to manipulate their surface and subsurface defect states. We demonstrated that those plasma species induce a variety of changes in the deep defect visible emission as well as in the BEx luminescence, most likely associated with the surface/subsurface states.

  18. White light emission from Er2O3 nano-powder excited by infrared radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabanli, Sevcan; Eryurek, Gonul; Di Bartolo, Baldassare

    2017-07-01

    Phosphors of Er2O3 nano-crystalline powders were synthesized by the thermal decomposition method. The structural properties of the nano-powders were investigated with XRD and HRTEM measurements. The cubic phase with a = 10.540 Å was the only phase observed. The average crystalline sizes and the widths of the grain size distribution curves were determined to be 27.2, 18.7 and 9.7 nm, respectively. The spectroscopic properties of the Er2O3 nano-powder were studied by measuring the luminescence, decay and rise patterns under 808 and 975 nm diode laser excitations. A peculiar effect of the pressure was observed since an optically active ion (Er) is part of the complex and not a dopant. A broad band of the white light emission combined with blue, green and red up-conversion emission bands of Er3+ ions were observed at 0.03 mbar pressure under both excitation wavelengths. Only, an intense broad band white light emission was observed from these nanocrystals at atmospheric pressure. Rising patterns show that the white light intensity reaches its maximum value more rapidly under 975 nm excitation although it decays slower than that of 808 nm excitation. The color quality parameters such as the color coordinate (CRI), correlated color temperature and the color rendering index were found to vary with both the excitation wavelength and the ambient pressure indicating that these nanocrystals could be considered good white light emitting source under the infrared excitations.

  19. [Effects of silver and silicon dioxide nanopowders on the development of herpesvirus infection in vitro].

    PubMed

    Sopova, E A; Baranov, V I; Gankovskaia, O A; Lavrov, V F; Zverev, V V

    2010-01-01

    Estimation of the potential ability of nanoparticles (NP) to affect human health has generated a need for developing rapid, sensitive, and efficient laboratory tests of the toxicity of nanomaterials. The purpose of the investigation was to study the cytotoxic effect of NP of silver (Ag) and silicon dioxide (SiO2). The transplantable Vero cells treated with NP at different concentrations were used as target cells. Some experiments examined the combined effects of nanopowders and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) on Vero cell viability and the direct effect of NP on the reproductive potential of HSV-2 in the culture. SiO2 NPs at concentrations of 1.0 to 0.1 mg/ml were found to cause a marked cytotoxic effect that was in the complete destruction of the cell monolayer. Ag HPs were more toxic than silicon nanopowders and induced a complete degradation of the cell monolayer at substantially lower concentrations. The results of the study formed the basis for the development of a rapid (24-48-hour), reliable, and efficient test for the toxicity of nanomaterials, by using the cultured cells in the laboratory setting. It was also shown that silicon NPs did not noticeably affect the reproductive potential of HSV-2 while nano silver suppressed the capacity of HSV-2 for multiplication, by significantly reducing viral progeny titer in the cell culture.

  20. Dependence of viscosity of suspensions of ceramic nanopowders in ethyl alcohol on concentration and temperature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This work presents results of measurements of viscosity of suspensions including yttrium oxide (Y2O3), yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al5O12) and magnesium aluminum spinel (MgAl2O4) nanopowders in ethanol. Nanoparticles used in our research were either commercially available (Baikowski) or nanopowders newly developed in the Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials in Warsaw, Poland. The study was conducted in a wide range of shear rates (0.01 to 2,000 s−1) and temperature interval from -15°C to 20°C. A Haake Mars 2 rheometer from Thermo Fisher, Germany, was used in the Biophysics Laboratory at Rzeszów University of Technology. Most of the samples show a non-Newtonian behaviour. It was confirmed with a Rheo-NMR system from Bruker that 10% by weight of Y2O3 suspension is a non-Newtonian fluid. In this work, we also report an unexpected behaviour of the viscosity of some samples (Y2O3 and Y3Al5O12) due to sedimentation effect. PMID:22824064

  1. Aluminum doped zirconia nanopowders: Wet-chemical synthesis and structural analysis by Rietveld refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Srdic, Vladimir V. Rakic, Srdan; Cvejic, Zeljka

    2008-10-02

    Alumina/zirconia nanopowders, with up to 20 mol% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, were prepared by wet-chemical synthesis technique, using controlled hydrolysis of alkoxides. The as-synthesized powders are amorphous, have very high specific surface area and the corresponding particle size smaller than 4 nm. Amorphous powders with 0, 10 and 20 mol% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystallize at 460, 692 and 749 deg. C, respectively, as a single-phase tetragonal zirconia, without any traces of alumina phases. Rietvled refinement of X-ray diffraction data, used for the detailed structural analysis of annealed nanopowders, showed that the high-temperature zirconia phase is stabilized due to the formation of ZrO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} solid solutions. High solubility of alumina in the tetragonal zirconia (up to 28.6 at% Al{sup 3+}) and stabilization of tetragonal zirconia solid solution up to high temperature (as high as 1150 deg. C) were also confirmed.

  2. Infrared study of laser synthesized anatase TiO2 nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujic-Brojcin, M.; Scepanovic, M. J.; Dohcevic-Mitrovic, Z. D.; Hinic, I.; Matovic, B.; Stanisic, G.; Popovic, Z. V.

    2005-05-01

    Nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO2) is synthesized by laser-induced pyrolysis using titanium isopropoxide as a liquid precursor. The specific surface area of as-produced nanopowders measured by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method (BET) varies from 84 to 110 m2 g-1. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering showed that the TiO2 nanocrystals had an anatase structure. The grain size of the nanoparticles was estimated from scanning electron microscopy, XRD and BET measurements. The reflection spectra of nanocrystalline TiO2 pressed pellets has been measured in the region between 80 and 1500 cm-1 by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. To interpret the experimental results, a model based on a generalized Bruggeman effective medium approximation of a dielectric function has been proposed. It is based on the polycrystalline character of TiO2 nanoparticles including island-structure and porosity of the nanopowders, along with the anatase single crystal dielectric functions. Thus, by comparing the results of calculated and experimental infrared (IR) spectra, the values of microscopic parameters of nanocrystalline powders can be deduced.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of NiO nanopowder by sol-gel process

    SciTech Connect

    Ningsih, Sherly Kasuma Warda

    2015-09-30

    Preparation of nickel oxide (NiO) nanopowder by sol-gel process has been studied. NiO nanopowders were obtained by sol-gel method by using nickel nitrate hexahydrate and sodium hydroxide and aquadest were used as precursor, agent precipitator and solvent, respectively. The powders were formed by drying at 110°C and followed by heating in the furnace at 400°C for 1.5 hours. The product was obtained black powder. The product was characterized by Energy Dispesive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The ED-XRF pattern shows the composition of NiO produced was 97.1%. The XRD pattern showed NiO forms were produced generally in monoclinic stucture. The crystalline size of NiO was obtained in the range 40-85 nm. SEM micrograph clearly showed that powder had a spherical with uniform distribution size is 0.1-1.0 µm approximately.

  4. Methods of synthesizing hydroxyapatite powders and bulk materials

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Ping

    1999-01-12

    Methods are provided for producing non-porous controlled morphology hydroxyapatite granules of less than 8 .mu.m by a spray-drying process. Solid or hollow spheres or doughnuts can be formed by controlling the volume fraction and viscosity of the slurry as well as the spray-drying conditions. Methods of providing for homogenous cellular structure hydroxyapatite granules are also provided. Pores or channels or varying size and number can be formed by varying the temperature at which a hydroxyapatite slurry formed in basic, saturated ammonium hydroxide is spray-dried. Methods of providing non-porous controlled morphology hydroxyapatite granules in ammonium hydroxide are also provided. The hydroxyapatite granules and bulk materials formed by these methods are also provided.

  5. Methods of synthesizing hydroxyapatite powders and bulk materials

    DOEpatents

    Luo, P.

    1999-01-12

    Methods are provided for producing non-porous controlled morphology hydroxyapatite granules of less than 8 {micro}m by a spray-drying process. Solid or hollow spheres or doughnuts can be formed by controlling the volume fraction and viscosity of the slurry as well as the spray-drying conditions. Methods of providing for homogeneous cellular structure hydroxyapatite granules are also provided. Pores or channels or varying size and number can be formed by varying the temperature at which a hydroxyapatite slurry formed in basic, saturated ammonium hydroxide is spray-dried. Methods of providing non-porous controlled morphology hydroxyapatite granules in ammonium hydroxide are also provided. The hydroxyapatite granules and bulk materials formed by these methods are also provided. 26 figs.

  6. Surface properties of calcium and magnesium oxide nanopowders grafted with unsaturated carboxylic acids studied with inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Maciejewska, Magdalena; Krzywania-Kaliszewska, Alicja; Zaborski, Marian

    2012-09-28

    Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) was applied at infinite dilution to evaluate the surface properties of calcium and magnesium oxide nanoparticles and the effect of surface grafted unsaturated carboxylic acid on the nanopowder donor-acceptor characteristics. The dispersive components (γ(s)(D)) of the free energy of the nanopowders were determined by Gray's method, whereas their tendency to undergo specific interactions was estimated based on the electron donor-acceptor approach presented by Papirer. The calcium and magnesium oxide nanoparticles exhibited high surface energies (79 mJ/m² and 74 mJ/m², respectively). Modification of nanopowders with unsaturated carboxylic acids decreased their specific adsorption energy. The lowest value of γ(s)(D) was determined for nanopowders grafted with undecylenic acid, approximately 55 mJ/m². The specific interactions were characterised by the molar free energy (ΔG(A)(SP)) and molar enthalpy (ΔH(A)(SP)) of adsorption as well as the donor and acceptor interaction parameters (K(A), K(D)).

  7. Tough yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic by low-temperature spark plasma sintering of long-term stored nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Bezdorozhev, Oleksii; Borodianska, Hanna; Sakka, Yoshio; Vasylkiv, Oleg

    2011-09-01

    Weakly agglomerated 1.75 and 3 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia nanopowders were used in this study after six years of storage in vacuum-processed plastic containers. The proper storage conditions of the Y-TZP nanopowders avoided the hard agglomeration. Untreated and bead-milled nanopowders were used to obtain dense ceramics by slip casting and subsequent low-temperature sintering. Fully dense nanostructured 1.75Y-TZP and 3Y-YZP ceramics with and without doping of 1 wt% Al2O3 were produced by an optimized spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique at the temperatures of 1050-1150 degrees C at a pressure of 100 MPa. The SPS has revealed the clear advantage of consolidation of the weakly agglomerated nanopowders without preliminary deagglomeration. The Vickers hardness of both the low-temperature and spark plasma sintered samples was found to lie in the range of 10.98-13.71 GPa. A maximum fracture toughness of 15.7 MPa m(1/2) (average 14.23 MPa m(1/2)) was achieved by SPS of the 1.75Y-TZP ceramic doped with 1 wt% Al2O3 whereas the toughness of the 3Y-TZP ceramics with and without alumina doping was found to vary between 3.55 and 5.5 MPa m(1/2).

  8. Histological Study on a Novel Bone Graft Substitute: Human Derived Tooth-Hydroxyapatite Compared With Coralline Hydroxyapatite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    HISTOLOGICAL STUDY ON A NOVEL BONE GRAFT SUBSTITUTE: HUMAN DERIVED TOOTH -HYDROXYAPATITE COMPARED WITH CORALLINE HYDROXYAPATITE F. N. Oktar1, H...3] (second site morbidity), limited availability, anatomical and structural problems and tendency towards resorption [4]. Allogeneic tissue bears...METHODOLOGY In this study, HA prepared from human tooth (THA) and coralline HA (Pro Osteon 200, Interpore Cross, USA) (CHA) was used. THA

  9. Osteogenic differentiation of cultured marrow stromal stem cells on surface of microporous hydroxyapatite based mica composite and macroporous synthetic hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Nordström, E; Ohgushi, H; Yoshikawa, T; Yokobori, A T; Yokobori, T

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the significance of hydroxyapatite based microporous composite (HA/mica composite) surfaces and a macroporous synthetic hydroxyapatite, rat marrow cell culture, which shows osteogenic differentiation, was carried out on six different culture substrata (two control culture dishes, two identical HA/mica composites, and two identical macroporous synthetic hydroxyapatites). A culture period of two weeks in the presence of beta-glycerophosphate (BGP), ascorbic acid, and dexamethasone resulted in abundant mineralized nodule formations that were positive for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) stain. The stain on the macroporous synthetic hydroxyapatite and the HA/mica composites were intense, the enzyme activity being about double that of control culture dishes. These data indicate that the synthetic macroporous hydroxyapatite surface and the HA/mica composite surface promotes osteoblastic differentiation.

  10. Thermal effect on thermoluminescence response of hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Zarate-Medina, J; Sandoval-Cedeño, K J; Barrera-Villatoro, A; Lemus-Ruiz, J; Rivera Montalvo, T

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of the thermoluminescence (TL) induced by gamma radiation in synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAp) obtained by the precipitation method, using Ca(NO3)2·4H2O and (NH4)2HPO4 and calcined at different temperatures. The structural and morphological characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. TL response as a function of gamma radiation dose was in a wide range, where intensity was enhanced in the sample annealed at 900°C, which tricalcium diphosphate (TCP) phase appear. Fading of the TL was also studied.

  11. Biomaterial aspects of Interpore-200 porous hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    White, E; Shors, E C

    1986-01-01

    Interpore-200 is the product of over 11 years of continuous research and development. It has been investigated at over 25 research centers in a wide variety of animal and human implant settings, including alveolar ridge augmentation, periodontics, and orthognathic reconstructions. The biomaterial aspects of Interpore-200 show the following: Interpore-200 has a highly interconnected, three-dimensional porosity that is uniform and consistent. The hydroxyapatite manufactured from marine corals is biocompatible and nontoxic. Interpore-200 is essentially pure hydroxyapatite, with the balance consisting of tricalcium phosphate. Interpore-200 is approximately 55 to 65 per cent porous with nominal pore diameters of 200 micron. Unlike nonporous materials, Interpore-200 is osteoconductive and results, when placed next to a viable bone, in an advancing front of bone into the implant. From 50 to 88 per cent of the porosity within the implant is filled with woven and lamellar bone within 3 months. Moreover, the surfaces of Interpore-200 are intimately bonded with the bone tissue. The biomechanical properties of Interpore-200 blocks are similar to those of a cancellous bone graft. Once ingrown with vascularized bone tissue, the defect site is, in effect, restored. Interpore-200 adequately matches the elastic properties of bone so that stresses necessary to maintain healthy bone are transmitted throughout the regenerated region. Extensive animal and clinical studies have shown that nonporous implants or implants without interconnected porosity can result in aberrant mineralization, stress shielding, low fatigue strength, and bulk displacement. Hydroxyapatite with interconnected porosity like Interpore-200 reacts differently than materials with limited or no porosity. In animals, Interpore-200 exhibits 0 to 5 per cent biodegradation per year. Moreover, this minimal biodegradation is compensated by regeneration of bone. These studies have now been extended for 4 years. Interpore

  12. Pyroelectric surface charge in hydroxyapatite ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofail, S. A. M.; Baldisserri, C.; Haverty, D.; McMonagle, J. B.; Erhart, J.

    2009-11-01

    Surface charge of pyroelectric nature is measured in poled hydroxyapatite ceramics. The average pyroelectric constant can range from 0.1 to 40 nC cm-2 K-1 at temperatures of 300-500 °C, while at 27-60 °C the value ranges from 15 to 64 nC cm-2 K-1. The higher temperature values are comparable to conventional pyroelectric ceramics such as LiTaO3 or PZT. The lower temperature values are four orders higher than those observed in bone and tendon.

  13. Hydroxyapatite-silver nanoparticles coatings on porous polyurethane scaffold.

    PubMed

    Ciobanu, Gabriela; Ilisei, Simona; Luca, Constantin

    2014-02-01

    The present paper is focused on a study regarding the possibility of obtaining hydroxyapatite-silver nanoparticle coatings on porous polyurethane scaffold. The method applied is based on a combined strategy involving hydroxyapatite biomimetic deposition on polyurethane surface using a Supersaturated Calcification Solution (SCS), combined with silver ions reduction and in-situ crystallization processes on hydroxyapatite-polyurethane surface by sample immersing in AgNO3 solution. The morphology, composition and phase structure of the prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. The data obtained show that a layer of hydroxyapatite was deposited on porous polyurethane support and the silver nanoparticles (average size 34.71 nm) were dispersed among and even on the hydroxyapatite crystals. Hydroxyapatite/polyurethane surface acts as a reducer and a stabilizing agent for silver ions. The surface plasmon resonance peak in UV-Vis absorption spectra showed an absorption maximum at 415 nm, indicating formation of silver nanoparticles. The hydroxyapatite-silver polyurethane scaffolds were tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and the obtained data were indicative of good antibacterial properties of the materials.

  14. Effect of solution combusted TiO2 nanopowder within commercial BaTiO3 dielectric layer on the photoelectric properties for AC powder electroluminescence devices.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung; Choi, Gil Rak; Kim, Youn Cheol; Lee, Jae Chun; Lee, Ju Hyeon

    2013-05-01

    A unique synthesis method was developed, which is called solution combustion method (SCM). TiO2 nanopowder was synthesized by this method. This SCM TiO2 nanopowder (-35 nm) was added to the dielectric layer of AC powder electroluminescence (EL) device. The dielectric layer was made of commercial BaTiO3 powder (-1.2 microm) and binding polymer. 0, 5, 10 and 15 wt% of SCM TiO2 nanopowder was added to the dielectric layer during fabrication of AC powder EL device respectively. Dielectric constant of these four kinds of dielectric layers was measured. The brightness and current density of AC powder EL device were also measured. When 10 wt% of SCM TiO2 nanopowder was added, dielectric constant and brightness were increased by 30% and 101% respectively. Furthermore, the current density was decreased by 71%. This means that the brightness was double and the power consumption was one third.

  15. Nanopowders M{sub 2}O{sub 3} (M = Y, La, Yb, Nd) with spherical particles and laser ceramics based on them

    SciTech Connect

    Bagayev, Sergei N; Kaminskii, Alexandr A; Kopylov, Yu L; Kravchenko, V B; Tolmachev, A V; Shemet, V V; Yavetskii, R P

    2013-03-31

    We have considered the problems of agglomeration of yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) nanopowders prepared by chemical co-precipitation of precursors from aqueous solutions and subsequent calcination. To fabricate YAG and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} laser ceramic samples with high optical transmittance and reproducible characteristics, we have developed a method for producing non-agglomerated nanopowders of pure and doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} by homogeneous chemical precipitation. Nanopowders Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} with La and Yb as well as mixtures of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} : Nd and several commercial nanopowders of aluminium oxide have been compacted; optimised compacting technique have been selected; ceramic samples (Y, La, Yb){sub 2}O{sub 3} and YAG : Nd with high optical transmittance at a wavelength of 1 {mu}m have been produced by solid-phase synthesis. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  16. Inflammatory response to nano- and microstructured hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Mestres, Gemma; Espanol, Montserrat; Xia, Wei; Persson, Cecilia; Ginebra, Maria-Pau; Ott, Marjam Karlsson

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation and activation of leukocytes upon contact with a biomaterial play a crucial role in the degree of inflammatory response, which may then determine the clinical failure or success of an implanted biomaterial. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether nano- and microstructured biomimetic hydroxyapatite substrates can influence the growth and activation of macrophage-like cells. Hydroxyapatite substrates with different crystal morphologies consisting of an entangled network of plate-like and needle-like crystals were evaluated. Macrophage proliferation was evaluated on the material surface (direct contact) and also in extracts i.e. media modified by the material (indirect contact). Additionally, the effect of supplementing the extracts with calcium ions and/or proteins was investigated. Macrophage activation on the substrates was evaluated by quantifying the release of reactive oxygen species and by morphological observations. The results showed that differences in the substrate's microstructure play a major role in the activation of macrophages as there was a higher release of reactive oxygen species after culturing the macrophages on plate-like crystals substrates compared to the almost non-existent release on needle-like substrates. However, the difference in macrophage proliferation was ascribed to different ionic exchanges and protein adsorption/retention from the substrates rather than to the texture of materials.

  17. Evolving application of biomimetic nanostructured hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Roveri, Norberto; Iafisco, Michele

    2010-11-09

    By mimicking Nature, we can design and synthesize inorganic smart materials that are reactive to biological tissues. These smart materials can be utilized to design innovative third-generation biomaterials, which are able to not only optimize their interaction with biological tissues and environment, but also mimic biogenic materials in their functionalities. The biomedical applications involve increasing the biomimetic levels from chemical composition, structural organization, morphology, mechanical behavior, nanostructure, and bulk and surface chemical-physical properties until the surface becomes bioreactive and stimulates cellular materials. The chemical-physical characteristics of biogenic hydroxyapatites from bone and tooth have been described, in order to point out the elective sides, which are important to reproduce the design of a new biomimetic synthetic hydroxyapatite. This review outlines the evolving applications of biomimetic synthetic calcium phosphates, details the main characteristics of bone and tooth, where the calcium phosphates are present, and discusses the chemical-physical characteristics of biomimetic calcium phosphates, methods of synthesizing them, and some of their biomedical applications.

  18. Hydroxyapatite formation from cuttlefish bones: kinetics.

    PubMed

    Ivankovic, H; Tkalcec, E; Orlic, S; Ferrer, G Gallego; Schauperl, Z

    2010-10-01

    Highly porous hydroxyapatite (Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)·(OH)(2), HA) was prepared through hydrothermal transformation of aragonitic cuttlefish bones (Sepia officinalis L. Adriatic Sea) in the temperature range from 140 to 220°C for 20 min to 48 h. The phase composition of converted hydroxyapatite was examined by quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) using Rietveld structure refinement and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) approach was used to follow the kinetics and mechanism of transformation. Diffusion controlled one dimensional growth of HA, predominantly along the a-axis, could be defined. FTIR spectroscopy determined B-type substitutions of CO(3) (2-) groups. The morphology and microstructure of converted HA was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The general architecture of cuttlefish bones was preserved after hydrothermal treatment and the cuttlefish bones retained its form with the same channel size (~80 × 300 μm). The formation of dandelion-like HA spheres with diameter from 3 to 8 μm were observed on the surface of lamellae, which further transformed into various radially oriented nanoplates and nanorods with an average diameter of about 200-300 nm and an average length of about 8-10 μm.

  19. Hydroxyapatite surface-induced peptide folding.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Lisa A; Beebe, Thomas P; Schneider, Joel P

    2007-04-25

    Herein, we describe the design and surface-binding characterization of a de novo designed peptide, JAK1, which undergoes surface-induced folding at the hydroxyapatite (HA)-solution interface. JAK1 is designed to be unstructured in buffered saline solution, yet undergo HA-induced folding that is largely governed by the periodic positioning of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues within the primary sequence of the peptide. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation indicate that the peptide remains unfolded and monomeric in solution under normal physiological conditions; however, CD spectroscopy indicates that in the presence of hydroxyapatite, the peptide avidly binds to the mineral surface adopting a helical structure. Adsorption isotherms indicate nearly quantitative surface coverage and Kd = 310 nM for the peptide-surface binding event. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) coupled with the adsorption isotherm data suggests that JAK1 binds to HA, forming a self-limiting monolayer. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using HA surfaces to trigger the intramolecular folding of designed peptides and represents the initial stages of defining the design rules that allow HA-induced peptide folding.

  20. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanostructures using microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, J L; Velázquez-Castillo, R; Rivera-Muñoz, E M

    2011-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoplates and nanofibers have been synthesized using CaNO3, KOH and K2HPO4 as chemical precursors. The concentration of these precursors was kept constant in all experiments. Synthesis reactions were carried out inside of pressurized Teflon vessels. The energy required for the synthesis was supplied by microwaves. Most of the reactions were performed in the presence of glutamic acid. The concentration of this substance was the only difference in the formulation of the reacting mixture, and its effect on the morphology of nanostructures has been evaluated. The use of pressurized vessels and the heating by microwaves in the synthesis reactions made easier the obtaining of HAp crystals. The morphology of nanostructures was influenced through the differences in the concentration of glutamic acid. The variations on the reaction time were useful to obtain nanofibers with an adequate size. The nanoplates and nanofibers obtained will be used to synthesize an organic-inorganic composite which has potential application on medicine and odontology. X-ray diffraction and FTIR were performed to verify the obtaining of a hydroxyapatite phase. High-resolution electron microscopy was carried out for microstructure analyses. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to evaluate the Ca/P ratio in all nanostructures.

  1. Evolving application of biomimetic nanostructured hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Roveri, Norberto; Iafisco, Michele

    2010-01-01

    By mimicking Nature, we can design and synthesize inorganic smart materials that are reactive to biological tissues. These smart materials can be utilized to design innovative third-generation biomaterials, which are able to not only optimize their interaction with biological tissues and environment, but also mimic biogenic materials in their functionalities. The biomedical applications involve increasing the biomimetic levels from chemical composition, structural organization, morphology, mechanical behavior, nanostructure, and bulk and surface chemical–physical properties until the surface becomes bioreactive and stimulates cellular materials. The chemical–physical characteristics of biogenic hydroxyapatites from bone and tooth have been described, in order to point out the elective sides, which are important to reproduce the design of a new biomimetic synthetic hydroxyapatite. This review outlines the evolving applications of biomimetic synthetic calcium phosphates, details the main characteristics of bone and tooth, where the calcium phosphates are present, and discusses the chemical–physical characteristics of biomimetic calcium phosphates, methods of synthesizing them, and some of their biomedical applications. PMID:24198477

  2. Inflammatory Response to Nano- and Microstructured Hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Mestres, Gemma; Espanol, Montserrat; Xia, Wei; Persson, Cecilia; Ginebra, Maria-Pau; Ott, Marjam Karlsson

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation and activation of leukocytes upon contact with a biomaterial play a crucial role in the degree of inflammatory response, which may then determine the clinical failure or success of an implanted biomaterial. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether nano- and microstructured biomimetic hydroxyapatite substrates can influence the growth and activation of macrophage-like cells. Hydroxyapatite substrates with different crystal morphologies consisting of an entangled network of plate-like and needle-like crystals were evaluated. Macrophage proliferation was evaluated on the material surface (direct contact) and also in extracts i.e. media modified by the material (indirect contact). Additionally, the effect of supplementing the extracts with calcium ions and/or proteins was investigated. Macrophage activation on the substrates was evaluated by quantifying the release of reactive oxygen species and by morphological observations. The results showed that differences in the substrate’s microstructure play a major role in the activation of macrophages as there was a higher release of reactive oxygen species after culturing the macrophages on plate-like crystals substrates compared to the almost non-existent release on needle-like substrates. However, the difference in macrophage proliferation was ascribed to different ionic exchanges and protein adsorption/retention from the substrates rather than to the texture of materials. PMID:25837264

  3. Biological reactivity of zirconia-hydroxyapatite composites.

    PubMed

    Silva, Viviane V; Lameiras, Fernando S; Lobato, Zélia I P

    2002-01-01

    Materials and devices intended for end-use applications as implants and medical devices must be evaluated to determine their biocompatibility potential in contact with physiological systems. The use of standard practices of biological testing provides a reasonable level of confidence concerning the response of a living organism to a given material or device, as well as guidance in selecting the proper procedures to be carried out for the screening of new or modified materials. This article presents results from cytotoxicity assays of cell culture, skin irritation, and acute toxicity by systemic and intracutaneous injections for powders, ceramic bodies, and extract liquids of hydroxyapatite (HA), calcia partially stabilized zirconia (ZO), and two types of zirconia-hydroxyapatite composites (Z4H6 and Z6H4) with potential for future use as orthopedic and dental implants. They indicate that these materials present potential for this type of application because they meet the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity of ATCC cell cultures (CCL1 NCTC clone 929 of mouse connective tissue and CCL 81 of monkey connective tissue) and animals (rabbit and mouse) with direct or indirect patient contact, or by the injection of specific extracts prepared from the material under test. In addition, studies involving short-term intramuscular and long-term implantation assays to estimate the reaction of living tissue to the composites studied, and investigations on long-term effects that these materials can cause on the cellular metabolism, are already in progress.

  4. Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles as a Novel Gene Carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, S. H.; Huang, B. Y.; Zhou, K. C.; Huang, S. P.; Liu, F.; Li, Y. M.; Xue, Z. G.; Long, Z. G.

    2004-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite crystalline nanoparticles were created by a precipitation hydrothermal technique and the majority of crystal particles were in the size range of 40-60nm and exhibited a colloidal feature when suspended in water. The gastric cancer SGC-7901 cell line cells were cultivated in the presence of10-100 μg ml-1 hydroxyapatite nanoparticle suspension and verified by MTT evaluation for their biocompatibility in vitro. The agarose gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that the HA nanoparticles potentially adsorb the green fluorescence protein EGFP-N1 plasmid DNA at pH 2 and 7, but not at pH 12. The DNA-nanoparticle complexes transfected EGFP-N1 pDNA into SGC-7901 cells in vitro with the efficiency about 80% as referenced with Lipofectmine TM 2000. In vivo animal experiment revealed no acute toxic adverse effect 2weeks after tail vein injection into mice, and TEM examination demonstrated their biodistribution and expression within the cytoplasm and also a little in the nuclei of the liver, kidney and brain tissue cells. These results suggest that the HA nanoparticle is a promising material that can be used as gene carrier, vectors.

  5. Mechanical, thermal and bioactive behaviors of polyamide 6/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Tjong, Sie Chin

    2011-12-01

    Polyamide-6 nanocomposites filled with different hydroxyapatite nanorod contents were injection molded. The thermal and tensile properties as well as bioactivity of such nanocomposties were investigated. The results showed that the thermal stabilities of polyamide-6 improve considerably by adding hydroxyapatite nanorods. Tensile measurements demonstrated that nanorods reinforce polyamide-6 effectively but reduce its tensile elongation and impact strength. Cell cultivation and viability tests showed that mouse osteoblasts adhere and proliferate readily on the nanocomposites containing high filler contents. Therefore, polyamide-6/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites show potential application in orthopedics for bone tissue replacements.

  6. Hydroxyapatite Reinforced Coatings with Incorporated Detonationally Generated Nanodiamonds

    SciTech Connect

    Pramatarova, L.; Pecheva, E.; Hikov, T.; Fingarova, D.; Dimitrova, R.; Spassov, T.; Krasteva, N.; Mitev, D.

    2010-01-21

    We studied the effect of the substrate chemistry on the morphology of hydroxyapatite-detonational nanodiamond composite coatings grown by a biomimetic approach (immersion in a supersaturated simulated body fluid). When detonational nanodiamond particles were added to the solution, the morphology of the grown for 2 h composite particles was porous but more compact then that of pure hydroxyapatite particles. The nanodiamond particles stimulated the hydroxyapatite growth with different morphology on the various substrates (Ti, Ti alloys, glasses, Si, opal). Biocompatibility assay with MG63 osteoblast cells revealed that the detonational nanodiamond water suspension with low and average concentration of the detonational nanodiamond powder is not toxic to living cells.

  7. A study of tungsten nanopowder formation by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nersisyan, H.H.; Won, C.W.; Lee, J.H.

    2005-08-01

    Molten salt-assisted self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of nanocrystalline W powder was studied experimentally. The technique involves the reduction of WO{sub 3} in the presence of sodium chloride using three different reducing agents: magnesium (Mg), sodium azide (NaN{sub 3}), and sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}). The effects of the mole fraction of sodium chloride on temperature distributions, combustion parameters, phase compositions, and morphology of the final products were determined. The sodium chloride-assisted method reported here has been found to be effective for lowering combustion temperature and producing uniform and spherical W nanopowders of average particle size around 20-200, 100-200, and 20-50 nm. The effect of combustion temperature on tungsten particle size is discussed, and a sketch describing the chemistry of combustion is proposed.

  8. Ferromagnetic order in aged Co-doped TiO2 anatase nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, A J; Pereira, L C J; Nunes, M R; Monteiro, O C

    2012-08-01

    This paper reports on the ferromagnetic properties of aged Ti(1-x)CoxO(2-delta) anatase nanopowders with different Co contents (0.03 < or = x < or = 0.10). It is shown for the first time that aged Co:TiO2 anatase samples retain rather high values of magnetization (M), remanence (Mr) and coercivity (Hc) which provide strong evidence for a preserved long-range ferromagnetic order. Room temperature M, Mr and Hc values were measured in the ranges of [0.05, 0.79] microB/Co, [0.044, 0.096] microB/Co and [366.7,494.8]Oe, respectively, which are in the same range as in general reported either for newly prepared thin films or nanoparticles.

  9. Preparation, structural and optical characterization of ZnO, ZnO: Al nanopowder

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, R. Raj; Rajendran, K.; Sambath, K.

    2014-01-28

    In this paper, ZnO and ZnO:Al nanopowders have been synthesized by low cost hydrothermal method. Zinc nitrate, hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and aluminium nitrate are used as precursors for ZnO and AZO with different molar ratios. The structural and optical characterization of doped and un-doped ZnO powders have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), photoluminescence (PL) and ultra violet visible (UV-Vis) absorption studies. The SEM results show that the hydrothermal synthesis can be used to obtain nanoparticles with different morphology. It is observed that the grain size of the AZO nanoparticles increased with increasing of Al concentration. The PL measurement of AZO shows that broad range of green emission around 550nm with high intensity. The green emission resulted mainly because of intrinsic defects.

  10. Acetone Sensing Properties of a Gas Sensor Composed of Carbon Nanotubes Doped With Iron Oxide Nanopowder

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Qiulin; Fang, Jiahua; Liu, Wenyi; Xiong, Jijun; Zhang, Wendong

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanopowder was prepared by a precipitation method and then mixed with different proportions of carbon nanotubes. The composite materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A fabricated heater-type gas sensor was compared with a pure Fe2O3 gas sensor under the influence of acetone. The effects of the amount of doping, the sintering temperature, and the operating temperature on the response of the sensor and the response recovery time were analyzed. Experiments show that doping of carbon nanotubes with iron oxide effectively improves the response of the resulting gas sensors to acetone gas. It also reduces the operating temperature and shortens the response recovery time of the sensor. The response of the sensor in an acetone gas concentration of 80 ppm was enhanced, with good repeatability. PMID:26569253

  11. The effect of calcination temperature on the crystallinity of TiO 2 nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yung-Fang; Lee, Chi-Young; Yeng, Ming-Yu; Chiu, Hsin-Tien

    2003-01-01

    TiO 2 nanopowders have been prepared using 0.1 M titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in varied pH aqueous solution containing TMC and NP-204 surfactants. Only the powder acquired from a solution of pH=2 has a regular particle size distribution. Anatase phase powders are obtained by calcination in nitrogen in the 250-500°C temperature range. When calcined at 400°C, the diameter of the nanoparticles is approximately 10 nm with a specific surface area of 106.9 m 2/g. As the calcination temperature is increased, the particle size increases. Rutile phase powders are formed at calcination temperatures above 600°C.

  12. Molten salt synthesis and localized surface plasmon resonance study of vanadium dioxide nanopowders

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Fu; Liu Yun; Liu Chunyan

    2009-12-15

    Rutile-type vanadium dioxide nanopowders with four different sizes were successfully synthesized by carbothermal reducing V{sub 2}O{sub 5} in KCl-LiCl molten salt. XRD and TEM characterizations suggested that vanadium dioxide particles formed by a broken and reunited process of vanadium oxide. Molten salt and organic carbon sources are crucial to the size of final particles. In the presence of the molten salt, the organic carbon with a shorter chain length would induce smaller particles. The UV-VIS-IR spectral measurements for as-prepared vanadium dioxide announced an obvious localized surface plasmon resonance band in the near infrared region at 90 deg. C. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the formation mechanism of VO{sub 2}(M) nanoparticles in molten salt, particles size can be controlled by choosing organic carbon sources with different chain length.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Fine-Particle NTO and Its Formulation with Al Nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.-Y.; Kennedy, J. E.; Asay, B. W.; Son, S. F.; Martin, E. S.

    2004-07-01

    We have initiated study of the effect of nano-aluminum on the detonation performance of NTO. A novel method for the preparation of both fine-particle NTO (UF-NTO) and its formulation with Al nanopowder has been developed. Results from small-scale sensitivity tests on both the UF-NTO and aluminized NTO composite indicated that they are insensitive to impact, friction and HESD. The performance of both UF-NTO and NTO/Al mix was evaluated by detonation-spreading floret tests. At the same pressed density, it was found that, when initiated by a 3-mm-diameter flyer plate, the aluminized NTO composite produced a shallower dent on a copper witness plate than neat UF-NTO and thus was inferior to UF-NTO in detonation spreading.

  14. Effect of BaTiO3 Nanopowder Concentration on Rheological Behaviour of Ceramic Inkjet Inks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyrpal, R.; Dulina, I.; Ragulya, A.

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between rheological properties of ceramic inkjet inks based on BaTiO3 nanopowder and solid phase concentration has been investigated. In the ink volume takes place the formation periodic colloidal structures (PCS). The determining factor of structure formation is powder-dispersant ratio. Structural constitution of in the system with the low pigment concentration represented as PCS2, that contains solid particles in deflocculated that stabilized by the presence of adsorption-solvate layers. Dilatant structure formation for such inks explained by constrained conditions of the interaction. Samples with high BaTiO3 concentration have been classified as PKS1. Dilatant properties of the PKS1 resulted in particles rearrangement under the influence of the flow. In the region of some values powder-dispersant ratio take place conversation PKS2 to PKS1 and ink structure transformation from monodisperse to aggregate state.

  15. Preparation, structural and optical characterization of ZnO, ZnO: Al nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, R. Raj; Rajendran, K.; Sambath, K.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, ZnO and ZnO:Al nanopowders have been synthesized by low cost hydrothermal method. Zinc nitrate, hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and aluminium nitrate are used as precursors for ZnO and AZO with different molar ratios. The structural and optical characterization of doped and un-doped ZnO powders have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), photoluminescence (PL) and ultra violet visible (UV-Vis) absorption studies. The SEM results show that the hydrothermal synthesis can be used to obtain nanoparticles with different morphology. It is observed that the grain size of the AZO nanoparticles increased with increasing of Al concentration. The PL measurement of AZO shows that broad range of green emission around 550nm with high intensity. The green emission resulted mainly because of intrinsic defects.

  16. Nanopowder molding method for creating implantable high-aspect-ratio electrodes on thin flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Zhiyu; Thundat, Thomas George

    2006-03-01

    Metal nanoparticles and a nanopowder molding process were used to fabricate 2D and 3D patternable structures having a height-to-width ratio of up to 10:1. By means of this process, an entire neural stimulation circuit, including stimulating electrode, connection trace, and contact pad, can be fused into one continuous, integrated structure where different sections can have different heights, widths, and shapes. The technique is suitable for mass production, and the fabricated electrode is robust and very flexible. More importantly for biomedical applications, the entire fabricated structure can be packed at room temperature onto a biocompatible flexible substrate, such as polydimethylsiloxane, parylene, and polyimide as well as other temperature-sensitive or vacuum-sensitive materials. The electrodes and wires have about the same electrical resistivities as bulk materials and desirable electrochemical properties, including low impedance.

  17. Study on the Effect of Different Amount of Titanium Dioxide Nano-Powder to the Nano-Structured Titanium Dioxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, M. K.; Rusop, M.

    2009-06-01

    Nanostructured Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) thin film with additional various amount of TiO2 nanopowder has been successfully prepared using sol-gel spin coating method. The amounts of TiO2 nanopowders are varied at 0.02 g, 0.04 g, 0.06 g, 0.08 g, 0.10 g and 0.12 g, respectively. The effects of different amount of Titanium Dioxide nanopowder to the structural, electrical and optical properties have been studied. The effects of different amount of nano-powder TiO2 were characterized using X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), 2-point probe I-V measurement and UV-Vis-NIR Spectrophotometer. For electrical properties, O.1 g of TiO2 nanopowder gives the lowest sheet resistance among other nanostructured TiO2 thin film. As for XRD data, all thin films are in crystalline anatase form which can observe at 2θ degree 25.6° for [101]. As the amount TiO2 nanopowder increased at 0.10 g and 0.12 g, new crystalline anatase phase can be observed at 2θ degree 48.6° for [200]. All TiO2 thin films also exhibited optical transmittance over 69% with wavelength range from 200 nm to 1000 nm.

  18. Influence of precipitant solution pH on the structural, morphological and upconversion luminescent properties of Lu 2O 3:2%Yb, 0.2%Tm nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Xiaochun, Wang; xiantao, Wei; Yonghu, Chen; Changxin, Guo; Min, Yin

    2011-02-01

    Lutetium oxide nanopowders codoped with Tm 3+ and Yb 3+ were synthesized by the reverse-strike co-precipitation method. Effects of precipitant solution pH on the structural, morphological and upconversion luminescent properties of Lu 2O 3:2%Yb, 0.2%Tm nanopowders had been investigated. The results show that pH value of the precipitant (NH 4HCO 3) solution has a significant effect on the particle size, morphology and upconversion emission intensity of the Lu 2O 3:2%Yb, 0.2%Tm nanopowders. All the samples obtained from different pH value of precipitant solution can be readily indexed to pure cubic phase of Lu 2O 3, indicating good crystallinity. The upconversion emission intensity of Lu 2O 3:2%Yb, 0.2%Tm nanopowders obtained from the precipitant solution with pH=11 is the strongest. The enhancement of the upconversion luminescence is suggested to be the consequence of reducing the number of OH - groups and the enlarged nanopowder size. The strong blue, weak red and near infrared emissions from the prepared nanopowders were observed under 980 nm laser excitation, and attributed to the 1G 4→ 3H 6, 1G 4→ 3F 4 and 3H 4→ 3H 6 transitions of Tm 3+ ion, respectively.

  19. Green approach for the synthesis and characterization of ZrSnO4 nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athar, Taimur; Vishwakarma, Sandeep Kumar; Bardia, Avinash; Alabass, Razzaq; Alqarlosy, Ahmed; Khan, Aleem Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Well-defined structural framework of ZrSnO4 nanopowder has been synthesized for the fabrications of cost-effective and sensitive devices which give final reproducible result with reliability under ideal conditions. The synthesis was carried out at moderate temperature and then finally dried in the laboratory oven and then followed with calcination at 1000 °C for 4 h to get phase selective product. It was observed that gelation time depends on the concentration of reactants and temperature. The characterization of ZrSnO4 was carried out with XRD, SEM, TEM, UV, thermal analysis, DLS and FT-IR techniques. With adjustment of reaction parameters, the systematic tuning of the particle size, shape and functional properties can be controlled. It was concluded that self-assembly is an integral part for the synthesis and opens a new exciting opportunity for better understanding the formation of nanostructure framework from micro- to nanoscale along with mechanistic via wet chemical approach. ZrSnO4 has vital role in identifying its potential cytotoxicity in the biological systems. The cytotoxicity effects of ZrSnO4 nanopowder in vitro were evaluated in three different human cell types (hepatocytes, mesenchymal stem cells and neuronal cells). Acute exposure of nanoparticles was found to have greater cytotoxic effect at higher concentration (30 µg/ml). However, partial detoxification was observed during nanoparticles exposure at day 6. The study concluded that an initial stress from nanoparticles incorporates sealing or detoxification of nanoparticles which may help to recover cell viability.

  20. Structural, magnetic and electrical properties of Zr-substitued NiZnCo ferrite nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Le-Zhong; Zhong, Xiao-Xi; Wang, Rui; Tu, Xiao-Qiang

    2017-08-01

    Zr-substituted NiZnCo ferrite nanopowders, Ni0.4-xZn0.5ZrxCo0.1Fe2.0O4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.20), were synthesized by the sol-gel auto-combustion method. The effects of Zr substitution on the structural, magnetic and electrical properties have been investigated. The DTA and TG results indicate that there are three steps of combustion process. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that the lattice parameter and the average crystallite size increase with the increase of Zr substitution. The saturation magnetization increases with the increase of Zr substitution when x ≤ 0.05, and then decreases when x > 0.05. Meanwhile, the coercivity initially decreases with the increase of Zr substitution when x ≤ 0.05, and then increases when x > 0.05. The polarization behavior for all the samples in the test frequency range from100 Hz to10 MHz obeys the charge polarization mechanism, which happens since the frequency of the hopping of electron exchange between Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions are far from the frequency of alternating-current field. And the dielectric constant increases with the increase of Zr substitution. The relaxation peak of the frequency dependence of dielectric loss is observed for x ≥ 0.10, which is due to the frequency of charge hopping between the Fe2+ and Fe3+ exactly matches with the frequency of the external applied field. Electrical transport behavior of the ferrite nanopowders is found to follow the impurity semiconductor, and the effect of Zr substitution on the temperature dependence of dc resistivity is observed.

  1. Combustion synthesis, characterization and Raman studies of ZnO nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Reddy, A Jagannatha; Kokila, M K; Nagabhushana, H; Rao, J L; Shivakumara, C; Nagabhushana, B M; Chakradhar, R P S

    2011-10-15

    Spherical shaped ZnO nanopowders (14-50 nm) were synthesized by a low temperature solution combustion method in a short time <5 min. Rietveld analysis show that ZnO has hexagonal wurtzite structure with lattice constants a=3.2511(1) Å, c=5.2076(2) Å, unit cell volume (V)=47.66(5) (Å)(3) and belongs to space group P63mc. SEM micrographs reveal that the particles are spherical in shape and the powders contained several voids and pores. TEM results also confirm spherical shape, with average particle size of 14-50 nm. The values are consistent with the grain sizes measured from Scherrer's method and Williamson-Hall (W-H) plots. A broad UV-vis absorption spectrum was observed at ∼375 nm which is a characteristic band for the wurtzite hexagonal pure ZnO. The optical energy band gap of 3.24 eV was observed for nanopowder which is slightly lower than that of the bulk ZnO (3.37 eV). The observed Raman peaks at 438 and 588 cm(-1) were attributed to the E(2) (high) and E(1) (LO) modes respectively. The broad band at 564 cm(-1) is due to disorder-activated Raman scattering for the A(1) mode. These bands are associated with the first-order Raman active modes of the ZnO phase. The weak bands observed in the range 750-1000 cm(-1) are due to small defects.

  2. Cytotoxicity of hydroxyapatite, fluorapatite and fluor-hydroxyapatite: a comparative in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Theiszova, M; Jantova, S; Letasiova, S; Palou, M; Cipak, L

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of two formulations of hydroxyapatite (HA), namely fluorapatite (FA) and fluor-hydroxyapatite (FHA). HA is used as carrier material for antibiotics or anticancer drugs during treatment of bone metastasis. Negative control, represented by HA, was included for comparative purposes. Leukemia cells were used as a model cell line, and the effect of eluates of tested biomaterials on cell proliferation/viability and mechanism of antiproliferative activity were assessed. Study design attempted to reveal the toxicity of tested biomaterials with an emphasis to decide if tested biomaterials have promise for further studies in vivo. Results showed that eluates of FA and FHA inhibit the growth of leukemia cells and induce programmed cell death through mitochondrial/caspase-9/caspase-3-dependent pathway. Due to these differences compare to HA, it is concluded that FA and FHA have promise for evaluation of their behaviour in vivo.

  3. Carbonate Hydroxyapatite and Silicon-Substituted Carbonate Hydroxyapatite: Synthesis, Mechanical Properties, and Solubility Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Bang, L. T.; Long, B. D.; Othman, R.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the chemical composition, solubility, and physical and mechanical properties of carbonate hydroxyapatite (CO3Ap) and silicon-substituted carbonate hydroxyapatite (Si-CO3Ap) which have been prepared by a simple precipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) techniques were used to characterize the formation of CO3Ap and Si-CO3Ap. The results revealed that the silicate (SiO44−) and carbonate (CO32−) ions competed to occupy the phosphate (PO43−) site and also entered simultaneously into the hydroxyapatite structure. The Si-substituted CO3Ap reduced the powder crystallinity and promoted ion release which resulted in a better solubility compared to that of Si-free CO3Ap. The mean particle size of Si-CO3Ap was much finer than that of CO3Ap. At 750°C heat-treatment temperature, the diametral tensile strengths (DTS) of Si-CO3Ap and CO3Ap were about 10.8 ± 0.3 and 11.8 ± 0.4 MPa, respectively. PMID:24723840

  4. Formation of hydroxyapatite in various aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturgeon, Jacqueline Lee

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp), Ca10(PO4)6(OH) 2, is important in the field of biomaterials as it is the mineral component of bones and teeth. Biological apatites do not maintain an exact composition and are usually calcium-deficient, represented as Ca(10- x)(HPO 4)x(PO4)(6-x)(OH)(2-x), where x ranges from 0 to 1, with various ion substitutions. Formation of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatites (CDHAp) from solid calcium phosphate precursor materials was performed at physiologic temperature (37°C) in a variety of aqueous solutions. Two cement systems were utilized in these experiments: tetralcium phosphate (TetCP) with dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP). The kinetics, solution chemistry, phase evolution, and microstructure of the developed apatites were analyzed as appropriate. Reaction of beta-TCP in ammonium fluoride solutions formed HAp substituted with fluoride and calculated to be deficient in calcium. A new ratio of TetCP to DCPA was used with solutions of sodium bicarbonate to form a calcium-deficient carbonate hydroxyapatite. The capacity for sodium dihydrogen phosphate to buffer pH increases and enhance reaction kinetics in this system was also explored. Formation of a highly crystalline CDHAp was achieved by hydrolyzing beta-TCP in water for extended time periods. Lattice parameters were among the features characterized for this apatite. The hydrolysis of beta-TCP in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and simulated body fluids (SBF) was also investigated; use of SBF was found to completely inhibit formation of HAp in this system while reaction in PBS was slow in comparison to water. The effects of filler materials on the mechanical properties of a calcium phosphate cement were examined using the TetCP/DCPA system. Dense aggregates were not found to decrease compressive strength in comparison to the cement alone. The use of aggregates was found to improve the compressive strength of cement formed using NaHCO3 solution as a

  5. Synthesis of mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite by using zwitterions surfactant

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite (mn-HAP) was successfully synthesized via a novel micelle-templating method using lauryl dimethylaminoacetic acid as zwitterionic surfactant. The systematic use of such a surfactant in combination with microwave energy inputenables the precise contr...

  6. Room Temperature Crystallization of Hydroxyapatite in Porous Silicon Structures.

    PubMed

    Santana, M; Estevez, J O; Agarwal, V; Herrera-Becerra, R

    2016-12-01

    Porous silicon (PS) substrates, with different pore sizes and morphology, have been used to crystallize hydroxyapatite (HA) nano-fibers by an easy and economical procedure using a co-precipitation method at room temperature. In situ formation of HA nanoparticles, within the meso- and macroporous silicon structure, resulted in the formation of nanometer-sized hydroxyapatite crystals on/within the porous structure. The X-ray diffraction technique was used to determine the tetragonal structure of the crystals. Analysis/characterization demonstrates that under certain synthesis conditions, growth and crystallization of hydroxyapatite layer on/inside PS can be achieved at room temperature. Such composite structures expand the possibility of designing a new bio-composite material based on the hydroxyapatite and silicon synthesized at room temperature.

  7. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals from cattle bones

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Sangeeta; Wei, Shanghai; Han, Jie; Gao, Wei

    2015-11-15

    In this present study, hydroxyapatite which was obtained from cattle bones has been heat treated at temperature 400 °C and 600 °C. The microstructure after the treatment has been studied in detail using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction techniques. The TEM results indicate that natural bone consists of collagen and hydroxyapatite nano-crystals which are needle shaped. The heat treatment influences the crystallinity and growth of these hydroxyapatite nano-crystals known as ‘crystal maturation’ or ‘crystal ageing’. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite is obtained from cattle bones. • Material has been characterised using XRD and TEM. • Crystal growth and orientation has been studied in detail.

  8. Formation of pyrophosphate on hydroxyapatite with thioesters as condensing agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    'Energy-rich' thioesters are shown to act as condensing agents in the formation of pyrophosphate on hydroxyapatite in the presence of water at ambient temperature. The yield of pyrophosphate based on thioester ranges from 2.5% to 11.4% and depends upon the pH and concentration of reactants. Reaction of 0.130 M hydroxyapatite suspended in a solution of 0.08 M sodium phosphate and 0.20 M imidazole hydrochloride (pH 7.0) with 0.10 M N,S-diacetylcysteamine for 6 days gives the highest yield of pyrophosphate (11.4%). Pyrophosphate formation requires the presence of hydroxyapatite, sodium phosphate and the thioester, N,S-diacetylcysteamine. The related thioester, N,S-diacetylcysteine, also yields pyrophosphate in reactions on hydroxyapatite.

  9. Synthesis of mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite by using zwitterions surfactant

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite (mn-HAP) was successfully synthesized via a novel micelle-templating method using lauryl dimethylaminoacetic acid as zwitterionic surfactant. The systematic use of such a surfactant in combination with microwave energy inputenables the precise contr...

  10. Electrical and optical properties of SrTiO3 nanopowders: Effect of different dopants Ba and Ag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemifard, Mahdi; Ghamari, Misagh; Iziy, Meysam

    2016-05-01

    Using strontium-titanium salts precursor, nanopowders (STO-based-NPs) were successfully synthesized by controlled gel-combustion method. Citric and nitric acids in an optimum ratio were used as the fuel and oxidizer agents, respectively. After heat treatment at 850∘C, the crystalline structure of the products was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The effects of Ba and Ag dopants on particle size distribution were discussed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optical and dielectric parameters such as energy band gap (Eg), real and imaginary parts of refractive index, dielectric function and energy loss function of nanopowders have been investigated by UV-Vis and FTIR spectra. The band gap of SrTiO3 increased with increasing Ba, Ag and Ba-Ag. Different atomic radii of dopants are responsible for changing optical and dielectric parameters due to the altered orbital configuration of the lattice structure.

  11. Correlation Between Optoelectronic and Positron Lifetime Properties in As-received and Plasma-treated ZnO Nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, R. M.; Paramo, J. A.; Quarles, C. A.; Strzhemechny, Y. M.

    2009-03-01

    We employed photoluminescence and positron lifetime measurements on a number of commercially available ZnO nanopowders. The experiments were performed before and after processing of these samples in remote N and O/He plasma. In all the nanopowders, the average lifetime component is substantially longer than in a single-crystalline sample, consistent with the model of grains with defect-rich surface and subsurface layers. However, the sample-to-sample differences in the quality of the powders, as detected by the photoluminescence spectroscopy, obscure observation of possible size effects. Compression of the powders into pellets yields reductions of the average positron lifetimes. Plasma-induced modifications are most visible in the low-temperature photoluminescence spectra of the smallest nanocrystals, indicative of a surface-specific nature of the chosen treatment procedure.

  12. Comparison of the luminescent properties of LuAG:Pr nanopowders, crystals and films using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbenko, V.; Zych, E.; Voznyak, T.; Nizankovskiy, S.; Zorenko, T.; Zorenko, Yu.

    2017-04-01

    Comparison of the luminescent properties of nanopowder, single crystal and single crystalline film of Pr3+ doped Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 garnet (LuAG:Pr) prepared by the different technological methods is performed in this work using the time-resolved emission spectroscopy under excitation by synchrotron radiation with an energy of 3.7-25 eV at 300 K and 10 K. The notable differences in the properties of the Pr3+ luminescence are observed in LuAG:Pr crystals and films caused by involving the LuAl antisite defects and oxygen vacancies in crystals and Pb2+ flux related dopant in films in the excitation processes of the Pr3+ luminescence. At the same time, we have also found that the influence of host defects on the Pr3+ luminescence is significantly smaller in the LuAG:Pr nanopowders.

  13. Structure-Controllable Synthesis of Multiferroic YFeO3 Nanopowders and Their Optical and Magnetic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Ting; Song, Shenhua; Tan, Manlin

    2017-01-01

    Phase-pure hexagonal and orthorhombic YFeO3 nanopowders are synthesized by low-temperature solid-state reaction along with Zr doping. The obtained powders are characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and physical property measurements. The hexagonal YFeO3 exhibits a narrower optical band gap in comparison to the orthorhombic one, while the orthorhombic YFeO3 presents better magnetic properties. The formation of hexagonal or orthorhombic phase can be effectively controlled by Zr doping. The temperature range of synthesizing the hexagonal YFeO3 nanopowders is increased by ~200 °C due to Zr doping so that they can be easily synthesized, which possesses a finer particle size and a smaller optical band gap, making it favorable for optical applications. PMID:28772985

  14. First principles study of hydroxyapatite surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slepko, Alexander; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2013-07-01

    The biomineral hydroxyapatite (HA) [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] is the main mineral constituent of mammal bone. We report a theoretical investigation of the HA surface. We identify the low energy surface orientations and stoichiometry under a variety of chemical environments. The surface most stable in the physiologically relevant OH-rich environment is the OH-terminated (1000) surface. We calculate the work function of HA and relate it to the surface composition. For the lowest energy OH-terminated surface we find the work function of 5.1 eV, in close agreement with the experimentally reported range of 4.7 eV-5.1 eV [V. S. Bystrov, E. Paramonova, Y. Dekhtyar, A. Katashev, A. Karlov, N. Polyaka, A. V. Bystrova, A. Patmalnieks, and A. L. Kholkin, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23, 065302 (2011), 10.1088/0953-8984/23/6/065302].

  15. Novel hydroxyapatite biomaterial covalently linked to raloxifene.

    PubMed

    Meme, L; Santarelli, A; Marzo, G; Emanuelli, M; Nocini, P F; Bertossi, D; Putignano, A; Dioguardi, M; Lo Muzio, L; Bambini, F

    2014-01-01

    Since raloxifene, a drug used in osteoporosis therapy, inhibits osteoclast, but not osteoblast functions, it has been suggested to improve recovery during implant surgery. The present paper describes an effective method to link raloxifene, through a covalent bond, to a nano-Hydroxyapatite-based biomaterial by interfacing with (3-aminopropyl)-Triethoxysilane as assessed by Infra Red-Fourier Transformed (IR-FT) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). To evaluate the safety of this modified new material, the vitality of osteoblast-like cells cultured with the new biomaterial was then investigated. Raloxifene-conjugated HAbiomaterial has been shown to be a safe material easy to obtain which could be an interesting starting point for the use of a new functional biomaterial suitable in bone regeneration procedures.

  16. Impact behavior of hydroxyapatite reinforced polyethylene composites.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Tanner, K E

    2003-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite particulate reinforced high density polyethylene composite (HA-HDPE) has been developed as a bone replacement material. The impact behavior of the composites at 37 degrees C has been investigated using an instrumented falling weight impact testing machine. The fracture surfaces were examined using SEM and the fracture mechanisms are discussed. It was found that the fracture toughness of HA-HDPE composites increased with HDPE molecular weight, but decreased with increasing HA volume fraction. Examination of fracture surfaces revealed weak filler/matrix interfaces which can debond easily to enable crack initiation and propagation. Increasing HA volume fraction increases the interface area, and more cracks can form and develop, thus decreasing the impact resistance of the composites. Another important factor for the impact behavior of the composites is the matrix. At higher molecular weight, HDPE is able to sustain more plastic deformation and dissipates more impact energy, hence improving the impact property.

  17. Thermal Diffusivity in Bone and Hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderón, A.; Peña Rodríguez, G.; Muñoz Hernández, R. A.; Díaz Gongora, J. A. I.; Mejia Barradas, C. M.

    2004-09-01

    We report thermal diffusivity measurements in bull bone and commercial hydroxyapatite (HA), both in powder form, in order to determinate the thermal compatibility between these materials. Besides this, we report a comparison between these measured values and those of metallic samples frequently used in implants, as high purity titanium and stainless steel. Our results show a good thermal compatibility (74%) between HA and bone, both in powder form. Finally, it was obtained a one order of magnitude difference between the thermal diffusivity values of metallic samples and those corresponding values to bone and HA being this difference greater in titanium than in stainless steel, which is important to consider in some biomedical and dental applications.

  18. Hydroxyapatite motility implants in ocular prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Cowper, T R

    1995-03-01

    For the past 5 years, an increasing number of ophthalmologists have been using hydroxyapatite (HA) motility implants after uncomplicated enucleation or evisceration of the eye. Unlike previous implant materials, HA promotes fibrovascular ingrowth and seemingly true integration of the motility implant to the residual ocular structures. As a result, a more stable defect and greater movement of the overlying prosthesis is produced. In addition, the problems of long-term orbital implant migration and the vexing postenucleation socket syndrome are thought to be minimized. This article briefly reviews the history and development of orbital implants and HA implant surgical and prosthetic procedures. It is concluded that HA implant rehabilitation is indicated after most uncomplicated enucleations or eviscerations where there is small likelihood of complication.

  19. Proteinoid/hydroxyapatite hybrid microsphere composites.

    PubMed

    Tallawi, Marwa

    2011-02-01

    Organic/hydroxyapatite (HA) hybrid composites are promising materials for orthopedic applications. Proteinoid/HA hybrid microsphere composite is an ideal material for bioresorbable and biocompatible three-dimensional scaffolds. Proteinoids are thermally condensed mixtures of amino acids, forming microspheres via self-assembly of proteinoid chains. Synthesis of an onion-type multilayer proteinoid/HA hybrid composite is achieved by thermally condensing a mixture of amino acids in the presence of commercially available HA. Proteinoid/HA microsphere composite of about 40 μm are achieved as a result of heterogeneous nucleation of HA on proteinoids chains. The formation mechanism is based on the interaction between calcium ions of HA and carboxyl side groups of proteinoid. The morphology was gleaned by scanning electron microscopy, and the organic and inorganic constituents were characterized by several analytical methods. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. First principles study of hydroxyapatite surface.

    PubMed

    Slepko, Alexander; Demkov, Alexander A

    2013-07-28

    The biomineral hydroxyapatite (HA) [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] is the main mineral constituent of mammal bone. We report a theoretical investigation of the HA surface. We identify the low energy surface orientations and stoichiometry under a variety of chemical environments. The surface most stable in the physiologically relevant OH-rich environment is the OH-terminated (1000) surface. We calculate the work function of HA and relate it to the surface composition. For the lowest energy OH-terminated surface we find the work function of 5.1 eV, in close agreement with the experimentally reported range of 4.7 eV-5.1 eV [V. S. Bystrov, E. Paramonova, Y. Dekhtyar, A. Katashev, A. Karlov, N. Polyaka, A. V. Bystrova, A. Patmalnieks, and A. L. Kholkin, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23, 065302 (2011)].

  1. Injectable polydimethylsiloxane-hydroxyapatite composite cement.

    PubMed

    Ignjatović, Nenad; Jovanović, Jelena; Suljovrujić, Edin; Uskoković, Dragan

    2003-01-01

    An injectable polydimethylsiloxane/hydroxyapatite (PDMS/HAp) composite cement was synthesised using linear PDMS and HAp (particles of about 100 nm in size) of different mass fractions. The effect of HAp mass fraction (5-60 mass%) on the hardness of PDMS/HAp composite cement was investigated. The hardness achieved is 25-49 degrees ShA. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the cross-linking process and the influence of HAp on the temperature and duration of PDMS/HAp cross-linking. The microstructure of composite cement surfaces after 10 days in vivo tests was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of well-adhered macrophages, fibroblasts and monocytes was found on the implant surface upon its extraction from the organism.

  2. Development of hybrid type artificial bone marrow using sintered hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, K; Tange, T; Hirota, K; Kawase, K

    1994-01-01

    In vivo inducement of hybrid-type artificial bone marrow with hemopoietic inductive microenvironment (HIM) in sintered hydroxyapatite (HA) chamber was carried out. This research is important to disclose the mechanisms of hemopoiesis and is useful for clinical application. In the evolution of vertebrates, cartilage of the inner skeleton changed into bone, having biomechanical properties to form bone marrow cavities. The hemopoietic nests immigrated into the cavities from the spleen. We should be able to induce hemopoietic nests in a hydroxyapatite chamber in place of bone, if we can find optimal structural conditions. Therefore, we tried to artificially induce a hematopoietic field in muscles using sintered porous tubular hydroxyapatite and new type hydroxyapatite plate made by high-pressure gas technique. As a result, not only in the pore sites of tubular hydroxyapatite artificial bone, but at the surface of the new type hydroxyapatite plate implanted in the dorsal muscles, marked differentiation of bone marrow cell clusters of the hematopoietic field could be observed.

  3. Effect of glass phase on the dissolution of hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Youn, S H; Yang, Z X; Hwang, K H; Seo, D S; Lee, J K; Jun, B S; Kim, H

    2008-02-01

    Nano size defect formation at grain boundary during the dissolution of hydroxyapatite in water was evaluated by adding several sintering additives for sinterability enhancement. In the case of sintered pure hydroxyapatite, significant dissolution occurred after immersion in distilled water or in simulated body fluid. The dissolution initiated at the grain boundaries creating nano-size defects like small pores that afterwards grew up to micro scale by increasing immersion time. This dissolution resulted in grain separation at the surfaces and finally in fracture. The dissolution concentrated on the grains adjacent to pores rather than those in the dense region. So hydroxyapatite ceramics containing glass powders were prepared to prevent the dissolution by strengthening grain boundary. Calcium silicate and phosphate glasses were added at 0 to 10 mass% and sintered at 1200 degrees C for 2 h in air with moisture protection. Glass phase was incorporated into hydroxyapatite to act as the sintering aid followed by crystallization in order to improve the mechanical properties without reducing biocompatibility. Dissolution tests, as well as X-ray diffraction and SEM showed little decomposition of hydroxyapatite to secondary phases and the fracture toughness increased compared to pure hydroxyapatite.

  4. Improvement of the stability of hydroxyapatite through glass ceramic reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Ha, Na Ra; Yang, Zheng Xun; Hwang, Kyu Hong; Kim, Tae Suk; Lee, Jong Kook

    2010-05-01

    Hydroxyapatite has achieved significant application in orthopedic and dental implants due to its excellent biocompatibility. Sintered hydroxyapatites showed significant dissolution, however, after their immersion in water or simulated body fluid (SBF). This grain boundary dissolution, even in pure hydroxyapatites, resulted in grain separation at the surfaces, and finally, in fracture. In this study, hydroxyapatite ceramics containing apatite-wollastonite (AW) or calcium silicate (SG) glass ceramics as additives were prepared to prevent the dissolution. AW and SG glass ceramics were added at 0-7 wt% and powder-compacted uniaxially followed by firing at moisture conditions. The glass phase was incorporated into the hydroxyapatite to act as a sintering aid, followed by crystallization, to improve the mechanical properties without reducing the biocompatibility. As seen in the results of the dissolution test, a significant amount of damage was reduced even after more than 14 days. TEM and SEM showed no decomposition of HA to the secondary phase, and the fracture toughness increased, becoming even higher than that of the commercial hydroxyapatite.

  5. Surgical coverage of exposed hydroxyapatite implant with retroauricular myoperiosteal graft

    PubMed Central

    Liao, S L; Kao, S C S; Tseng, J H S; Lin, L L-K

    2005-01-01

    Background: With the increasing use of hydroxyapatite orbital implants, the complication of exposure has become apparent to oculoplastic surgeons. Many kinds of patch grafts, such as sclera, dermis, and hard palate mucosa, have been used to cover exposed hydroxyapatite implants with inconsistent results. In this study, the authors use a newly developed technique, autogenous retroauricular myoperiosteal graft, and the results are reported. Methods: A piece of retroauricular muscle together with its underlying periosteum was carefully harvested. This myoperiosteal graft was patched to the debrided hydroxyapatite exposure area with the periosteal surface facing outward. The margin of periosteal surface was secured with conjunctiva and left uncovered for the surrounding conjunctiva to epithelialise. Results: Nine eyes with hydroxyapatite exposure more than 3 mm were managed with autogenous retroauricular myoperiosteal grafts. Seven cases were successfully treated with single graft surgery. The other two cases needed an additional graft surgery, and there was no re-exposure noted thereafter. Five patients received a successful insertion of the motility peg. All nine patients have been fitted with prosthesis with reasonable motility. There were no complication noted during more than 1 year of follow up. Conclusion: The thick composite nature of the myoperiosteal graft provides a durable and vascularised coverage for exposed hydroxyapatite implants. This technique offers an encouraging alternative for the management of exposed hydroxyapatite implants. PMID:15615754

  6. Novel doped hydroxyapatite thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duta, L.; Oktar, F. N.; Stan, G. E.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Serban, N.; Luculescu, C.; Mihailescu, I. N.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of novel ovine and bovine derived hydroxyapatite thin films on titanium substrates by pulsed laser deposition for a new generation of implants. The calcination treatment applied to produce the hydroxyapatite powders from ovine/bovine bones was intended to induce crystallization and to prohibit the transmission of diseases. The deposited films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Pull-off adherence and profilometry measurements were also carried out. X-ray diffraction ascertained the polycrystalline hydroxyapatite nature of the powders and films. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy evidenced the vibrational bands characteristic to a hydroxyapatite material slightly carbonated. The micrographs of the films showed a uniform distribution of spheroidal particulates with a mean diameter of ∼2 μm. Pull-off measurements demonstrated excellent bonding strength values between the hydroxyapatite films and the titanium substrates. Because of their physical-chemical properties and low cost fabrication from renewable resources, we think that these new coating materials could be considered as a prospective competitor to synthetic hydroxyapatite used for implantology applications.

  7. In situ deposition of hydroxyapatite on graphene nanosheets

    SciTech Connect

    Neelgund, Gururaj M.; Oki, Aderemi; Luo, Zhiping

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: A facile chemical precipitation method is reported for effective in situ deposition of hydroxyapatite on graphene nanosheets. Prior to grafting of hydroxyapatite, chemically modified graphene nanosheets were obtained by the reduction of graphene oxide in presence of ethylenediamine. Display Omitted Highlights: ► It is a facile and effective method for deposition of HA on GR nanosheets. ► It avoids the use of harmful reducing agents like hydrazine, NaBH{sub 4} etc. ► GR nanosheets were produced using bio-compatible, ethylenediamine. ► The graphitic structure of synthesized GR nanosheets was high ordered. ► The ratio of Ca to P in HA was 1.64, which is close to ratio in natural bone. -- Abstract: Graphene nanosheets were effectively functionalized by in situ deposition of hydroxyapatite through a facile chemical precipitation method. Prior to grafting of hydroxyapatite, chemically modified graphene nanosheets were obtained by the reduction of graphene oxide in presence of ethylenediamine. The resulting hydroxyapatite functionalized graphene nanosheets were characterized by attenuated total reflection IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. These characterization techniques revealed the successful grafting of hydroxyapatite over well exfoliated graphene nanosheets without destroying their structure.

  8. Suspension thermal spraying of hydroxyapatite: microstructure and in vitro behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bolelli, Giovanni; Bellucci, Devis; Cannillo, Valeria; Lusvarghi, Luca; Sola, Antonella; Stiegler, Nico; Müller, Philipp; Killinger, Andreas; Gadow, Rainer; Altomare, Lina; De Nardo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    In cementless fixation of metallic prostheses, bony ingrowth onto the implant surface is often promoted by osteoconductive plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings. The present work explores the use of the innovative High Velocity Suspension Flame Spraying (HVSFS) process to coat Ti substrates with thin homogeneous hydroxyapatite coatings. The HVSFS hydroxyapatite coatings studied were dense, 27-37μm thick, with some transverse microcracks. Lamellae were sintered together and nearly unidentifiable, unlike conventional plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite. Crystallinities of 10%-70% were obtained, depending on the deposition parameters and the use of a TiO2 bond coat. The average hardness of layers with low (<24%) and high (70%) crystallinity was ≈3.5GPa and ≈4.5GPa respectively. The distributions of hardness values, all characterised by Weibull modulus in the 5-7 range, were narrower than that of conventional plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite, with a Weibull modulus of ≈3.3. During soaking in simulated body fluid, glassy coatings were progressively resorbed and replaced by a new, precipitated hydroxyapatite layer, whereas coatings with 70% crystallinity were stable up to 14days of immersion. The interpretation of the precipitation behaviour was also assisted by surface charge assessments, performed through Z-potential measurements. During in vitro tests, HA coatings showed no cytotoxicity towards the SAOS-2 osteoblast cell line, and surface cell proliferation was comparable with proliferation on reference polystyrene culture plates.

  9. Hydroxyapatite growth inhibition by osteopontin hexapeptide sequences.

    PubMed

    Silverman, L D; Saadia, M; Ishal, J S; Tishbi, N; Leiderman, E; Kuyunov, I; Recca, B; Reitblat, C; Viswanathan, R

    2010-06-15

    The effects of three acidic hexapeptides on in vitro hydroxyapatite growth were characterized by pH-stat kinetic studies, adsorption isotherms, and molecular modeling. The three peptides, pSDEpSDE, SDESDE, and DDDDDD, are equal-length model compounds for the acidic sequences in osteopontin, a protein that inhibits mineral formation in both calcified and noncalcified tissues. Growth rates from 1.67 mM calcium and 1.00 mM phosphate solution were measured at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C in 150 mM NaCl. pSDEpSDE was a strong growth inhibitor when preadsorbed onto hydroxyapatite (HA) seeds from > or = 0.67 mM solutions, concentrations where adsorption isotherms showed relatively complete surface coverage. The nonphosphorylated SDESDE control showed no growth inhibition. Although it adsorbed to almost the same extent as pSDEpSDE, it rapidly desorbed under the pH-stat growth conditions while pSDEpSDE did not. DDDDDD exhibited weak inhibition as its concentration was increased and similar adsorption/desorption behavior to pSDEpSDE. Molecular modeling yielded binding energy trends based on simple adsorption of peptides on the [100] surface that were consistent with observed inhibition, but not for the [001] surface. The relatively unfavorable binding energies for peptides on the [001] surface suggest that their absorption will be primarily on the [100] face. The kinetic and adsorption data are consistent with phosphorylation of osteopontin acting to control mineral formation.

  10. Fluoride removal performance of glass derived hydroxyapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Wen; Zhan, Lei; Piao, Longhua; Russel, Christian

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Novel sodium calcium borate glass derived hydroxyapatite (G-HAP) is prepared. {yields} Micro-G-HAP adsorbs F{sup -} ions in solutions more effectively than commercial nano-HAP. {yields} The adsorption kinetics and isotherms are well fitted by a second order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model. -- Abstract: A novel sodium calcium borate glass derived hydroxyapatite (G-HAP) with different ranges of particle size was prepared by immersion sodium calcium borate glass in 0.1 M K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} solution by the ratio of 50 g L{sup -1} for 7 days. The unique advantage of G-HAP for the adsorption of fluoride ions in solutions was studied. The effects of size and quantity of particles, pH value and adsorption time on adsorption performance were investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity was 17.34 mg g{sup -1} if 5 g L{sup -1}, <100 {mu}m G-HAP was added to a solution with an initial pH value of 6.72 and the adsorption time was 12 h. The results showed that the micro-G-HAP could immobilize F{sup -} in solution more effectively than commercial nano-HAP, which makes potential application of the G-HAP in removing the fluoride ions from wastewater. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms for F{sup -} could be well fitted by a second order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model respectively, which could be used to describe the adsorption behavior. The mechanism of G-HAP in immobilizing F{sup -} from aqueous solutions was investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectra (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  11. Investigation of phase transitions and properties of aluminum oxides prepared by oxidation of Al/AlN nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantsev, S. O.; Lozhkomoev, A. S.

    2016-11-01

    Electroexplosive Al/AlN nanopowder is used to synthesize low-dimensional particles of aluminum oxide and hydroxide phases with different shape, size, phase composition, and textural characteristics. It is shown that various conditions of production allow a synthesis of agglomerates of crumpled pseudoboehmite nanosheets, boehmite nanoplatelets, and hexagonal bayerite rods. The effect of heat treatment on phase transitions in samples as well as on the specific surface area and morphology of particles is studied.

  12. Ammonia sensing properties of V-doped ZnO:Ca nanopowders prepared by sol–gel synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fazio, E.; Hjiri, M.; Dhahri, R.; El Mir, L.; Sabatino, G.; Barreca, F.; Neri, F.; Leonardi, S.G.; Pistone, A.; Neri, G.

    2015-03-15

    V-doped ZnO:Ca nanopowders with different V loading were prepared by sol–gel synthesis and successive drying in ethanol under supercritical conditions. Characterization data of nanopowders annealed at 700 °C in air, revealed that they have the wurtzite structure. Raman features of V-doped ZnO:Ca samples were found to be substantially modified with respect to pure ZnO or binary ZnO:Ca samples, which indicate the substitution of vanadium ions in the ZnO lattice. The ammonia sensing properties of V-doped ZnO:Ca thick films were also investigated. The results obtained demonstrate the possibility of a fine tuning of the sensing characteristics of ZnO-based sensors by Ca and V doping. In particular, their combined effect has brought to an enhanced response towards NH{sub 3} compared to bare ZnO and binary V-ZnO and Ca-ZnO samples. Raman investigation suggested that the presence of Ca play a key role in enhancing the sensor response in these ternary composite nanomaterials. - Graphical abstract: V-doped ZnO:Ca nanopowders prepared by sol–gel synthesis possess enhanced sensing characteristics towards NH{sub 3} compared to bare ZnO. - Highlights: • V-doped ZnO:Ca nanopowders with different V loading were prepared by sol–gel synthesis. • Raman features of V-doped ZnO:Ca samples indicate the substitution of V ions in the ZnO lattice. • Combined effects of dopants have brought to an enhanced response to NH{sub 3} compared to ZnO. • Ca play a key role in enhancing the sensor response of ternary V-doped ZnO:Ca composites.

  13. Evaluation of the resistance of DNA immobilized on ferrimagnetic particles of cobalt ferrite nanopowder against nuclease cleavage.

    PubMed

    Pershina, A G; Sazonov, A E; Ogorodova, L M

    2010-07-01

    DNA was immobilized on ferrimagnetic particles of cobalt ferrite nanopowder (CoFe(2)O(4)) and its resistance to endonuclease (DNase I) hydrolysis was studied. Immobilization on cobalt ferrite nanoparticles prevented enzymatic cleavage of DNA. This process was not associated with enzyme inactivation under the effect of nanosize cobalt ferrite and was presumably determined by lesser availability of the DNA molecule as a result of its interaction with nanoparticles.

  14. The Preventive Effects of Nanopowdered Peanut Sprout-added Caciocavallo Cheese on Collagen-induced Arthritic Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hwi; Chang, Yoon Hyuk; Kwak, Hae-Soo

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of nanopowdered peanut sprout-added Caciocavallo cheese (NPCC) on the prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in DBA/IJ mice immunized with type II collagen. After the induction of arthritis, the mice were being divided into five groups: (1) normal, no immunization; (2) CIA, collagen-induced arthritis; (3) MTX, collagen-induced arthritis treated with methotrexate (0.3 mg/kg body weight); (4) CC, collagen-induced arthritis treated with Caciocavallo cheese (0.6 g/d); (5) NPCC, collagen-induced arthritis treated with nanopowdered peanut sprout-added Caciocavallo cheese (0.6 g/d). Nanopowdered peanut sprout was ranged from 300 to 350 nm, while regular powdered peanut sprouts were ranged from 50 to 150 μm. The NPCC group had considerable reductions of clinical scores and paw thicknesses at the end of experiment as compared to the CIA group. In the serum analysis, the TNF-α, IL-1β, IL- 6 and IgG1 levels in the NPCC group have decreased by 69.4, 75.9, 66.6, and 61.9%, respectively, when compared to the CIA group. The histological score and spleen index of the NPCC group were significantly lower than the CIA group. In conclusion, the feeding NPCC method could delay and/or prevent the rheumatoid arthritis in the collagen-induced arthritis mouse model. Based on this study, nanopowdered peanut sprouts could be applied to various functional cheeses.

  15. The Preventive Effects of Nanopowdered Peanut Sprout-added Caciocavallo Cheese on Collagen-induced Arthritic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yoon Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of nanopowdered peanut sprout-added Caciocavallo cheese (NPCC) on the prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in DBA/IJ mice immunized with type II collagen. After the induction of arthritis, the mice were being divided into five groups: (1) normal, no immunization; (2) CIA, collagen-induced arthritis; (3) MTX, collagen-induced arthritis treated with methotrexate (0.3 mg/kg body weight); (4) CC, collagen-induced arthritis treated with Caciocavallo cheese (0.6 g/d); (5) NPCC, collagen-induced arthritis treated with nanopowdered peanut sprout-added Caciocavallo cheese (0.6 g/d). Nanopowdered peanut sprout was ranged from 300 to 350 nm, while regular powdered peanut sprouts were ranged from 50 to 150 μm. The NPCC group had considerable reductions of clinical scores and paw thicknesses at the end of experiment as compared to the CIA group. In the serum analysis, the TNF-α, IL-1β, IL- 6 and IgG1 levels in the NPCC group have decreased by 69.4, 75.9, 66.6, and 61.9%, respectively, when compared to the CIA group. The histological score and spleen index of the NPCC group were significantly lower than the CIA group. In conclusion, the feeding NPCC method could delay and/or prevent the rheumatoid arthritis in the collagen-induced arthritis mouse model. Based on this study, nanopowdered peanut sprouts could be applied to various functional cheeses. PMID:26760745

  16. A study on the production of titanium carbide nano-powder in the nanostate and its properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiryaeva, L. S.; Rudneva, S. V.; Galevsky, G. V.; Garbuzova, A. K.

    2016-09-01

    The plasma synthesis of titanium carbide nano-powder in the conditions close to industrial was studied. Titanium carbide TiC is a wear- and corrosion-resistant, hard, chemically inert material, demanded in various fields for the production of hard alloys, metal- ceramic tools, heat-resistant products, protective metal coatings. New perspectives for application titanium carbide in the nanostate can be found in the field of alloys modification with different composition and destination.

  17. Synthesis of Spongy-Like Mesoporous Hydroxyapatite from Raw Waste Eggshells for Enhanced Dissolution of Ibuprofen Loaded via Supercritical CO2

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Abdul-Rauf; Li, Xiangyun; Zhou, Yulan; Huang, Yan; Chen, Wenwen; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The use of cheaper and recyclable biomaterials (like eggshells) to synthesize high purity hydroxyapatite (HAp) with better properties (small particle size, large surface area and pore volume) for applications (in environmental remediation, bone augmentation and replacement, and drug delivery systems) is vital since high-purity synthetic calcium sources are expensive. In this work, pure and mesoporous HAp nanopowder with large pore volume (1.4 cm3/g) and surface area (284.1 m2/g) was produced from raw eggshells at room temperature using a simple two-step procedure. The control of precursor droplets could stabilize the pH value of the reaction solution, because of the size of the needle (of the syringe pump used for precursor additions) leading to production of HAp with high surface area and pore size. The as-produced HAp revealed high ibuprofen (as a model drug) loading (1.38 g/g HAp), enhanced dissolution and controllable release of the drug via solute-saturated supercritical carbon dioxide. PMID:25860950

  18. Synthesis of nanostructured framework of novel ZnBaO2 nanopowder via wet chemical approach and hepatocytotoxicity response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athar, Taimur; Vishwakarma, Sandeep Kumar; Alabass, Razzaq; Alqaralosy, Ahmed; Khan, Aleem Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    Wet synthetic process is an effective and facile method at low cost, environmentally benign process for easy scaling-up and then used for fabrication of multi-utility devices. Self-assembling of nanobrick leads to architecture framework with new functional properties which help to make its vast applications as nanodevices with their intrinsic shape, size and functional properties. The bimetallic oxide nanostructure with phase structure was characterized by FTIR, UV-visible electronic absorption, XRD, thermal studies, SEM, TEM, DLS and fluorescence. Nanocrystalline ZnBaO2 powder can be used due to its chemical stability and excellent transmission in the visible region. It was observed that the annealing rate plays an important role to redefine the structural and other physicochemical properties which finally help to change gel into crystalline functional properties with porosity. Wet chemical approach can be used for the synthesis of other metal oxide nanopowders which can be easily scale up for production level. Along with synthesis and characterization, we also assessed biological responses of human hepatocytes exposed to ZnBaO2 nanopowder. Cell membrane permeability and ammonia detoxification were investigated against various concentrations of nanoparticles on in vitro cultured hepatocytes. Our results suggest that low concentrations (<40 μg/ml) of ZnBaO2 nanopowder have no cytotoxic effect on hepatocytes viability, proliferation and detoxification, whereas concentrations above 40 μg/ml depict significant toxicity on cells.

  19. Tuning the combined magnetic and antibacterial properties of ZnO nanopowders through Mn doping for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, K.; Karthika, K.; Sakthivel, B.; Jabena Begum, N.; Snega, S.; Swaminathan, K.; Senthamilselvi, V.

    2014-05-01

    Manganese (Mn) doped ZnO nanopowders (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 at%) were synthesized using a simple soft chemical route and their structural, optical, surface morphological, magnetic and antibacterial properties were investigated. Structural studies show that the nanopowders exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO. No other secondary phases like MnO2, MnO, Mn3O4 and Mn2O3 are observed. The blue shift observed in the photoluminescence spectra beyond the Mn doping level of 6 at% shows that there is an increase in the carrier concentration, caused by the interstitial incorporation of Zn and Mn in the ZnO matrix. From the antibacterial studies, it is found that ZnO:Mn nanopowders with higher Mn doping level (8 and 10 at%) exhibit good antibacterial efficiency against Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. The magnetization curves obtained using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) show a sign of strong room temperature ferromagnetic behavior when the Mn doping level is 6 at% and a weak room temperature ferromagnetic behavior, when the Mn doping level is below 6 at%. Beyond 6 at% they are found to exhibit antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic properties, when the Mn doping levels are 8 and 10 at%, respectively. The SEM images indicate that there is a gradual decrease in the grain size with increase in the Mn doping level. The EDAX profile clearly confirms the presence of expected elements in the final product, in appropriate proportions.

  20. [Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ : Ba0.65Sr0.35TiO nanopowders].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ji-qing; Zhang, Tian-jin; Wang, Jing-yang; Yu, Lin; Pan, Rui-kun

    2010-11-01

    Ba0.65Sr0.35TiO2 (BST) nanopowders doped with Er3+ were prepared by sol-gel method. The absorption spectrum and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of Er3+ : BST nanopowders was measured at room temperature. Based on the Judd-Ofelt theory, the intensity parameters of Er3+ in BST nanopowders were determined, omega2 = 0.993 x 10(-20) cm2, omega4 = 1.665 x 10(-20) cm2 and omega = 0.540 x 10(-20) cm2, and then the values of the line strengths, radiative transition probabilities and branching ratios of Er3+ were calculated. According to the PL spectrum, the emission bands centered at about 522, 545, 654 and 851 nm corresponding to 2H(11/2)-->4S(3/2-->4I(15/2), 4F(9/2)-->4I(15/2), and 4S(3/2-->4I(13/2) transition were observed, and the emission properties were also discussed. The results show that the Er3+ : BST nanomaterials are prospective candidates for applications in new photoelectric devices.

  1. Scalable preparation and characterization of GaN nanopowders with high crystallinity by soluble salts-assisted route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yingying; Yu, Leshu; Ai, Wenwen; Li, Chungen

    2014-11-01

    By using Na3PO4 as a dispersant, soluble salt-assisted route has been further developed to prepare high-crystalline GaN nanoparticles powder on a large scale through the direct nitridation of Ga-Na3PO4 mixture at 750-950 °C and followed by washing with water. The systematical characterizations including XRD, Raman, IR, TEM, XPS, and PL spectrum showed that the as-prepared nanopowders were composed of nanoparticles in diameters of 8-18 nm, hexagonal phase, pure GaN, and had a broad UV centered at 388 nm and blue emissions band centered at around 547 nm. Because of the utilization of the simple reaction between metallic Ga and NH3, the preparation of pure GaN nanopowders becomes very easy, economical, and scalable, suggesting broad application in optoelectronic device material. The interesting results indicate the wide range of soluble salt-assisted route for promising industrial production of GaN nanopowders.

  2. TiC nanocrystal formation from carburization of laser-grown Ti/O/C nanopowders for nanostructured ceramics.

    PubMed

    Leconte, Y; Maskrot, H; Herlin-Boime, N; Porterat, D; Reynaud, C; Gierlotka, S; Swiderska-Sroda, A; Vicens, J

    2006-01-12

    Refractory carbide ceramics (TiC and ZrC) raise interest as promising materials for high-temperature applications such as structural materials for the future generation of nuclear reactors. In this context, nanostructured ceramics are expected to exhibit improved thermomechanical properties as well as better behavior under irradiation when compared to conventional materials. It is therefore necessary to synthesize carbide nanocrystals of such materials to elaborate the ceramics. We report here the formation study of TiC nanocrystals through the direct carburization of Ti/O/C nanopowders grown by laser pyrolysis. A spray of titanium tetraisopropoxide was laser pyrolyzed with ethylene as the sensitizer, leading to Ti/O/C nanopowders with various C contents controlled by the synthesis conditions. Annealing treatments performed on these nanopowders under an inert atmosphere without any C addition enabled the formation of TiC grains through the carburization of the oxide phase by free C incorporated during the synthesis. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The final TiC grain size was about 80 nm, and the grains were monocrystalline. The influence of the free C content on the grain growth during the annealing step, together with its effects on the densification of the ceramics after sintering by high-pressure flash sintering, was examined. A 93% densification was finally achieved.

  3. Dispersion effect of sodium hexametaphosphate on the photocatalytic efficiency of a solution-combusted ZnO nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung; Choi, Gil Rak; Kim, Ji Hye; Lee, Jae Chun; Kim, Sun-Jae

    2012-11-01

    ZnO nanopowder was synthesized by using a unique method combusting a mixed water solution that contained an oxidant and a fuel. Zn(OH)2 powder was used as an oxidant (source material). Three kinds of fuels, glycine, carbohydrazide and urea, were respectively used to synthesize the ZnO nanopowder. Sodium hexametaphosphate was used as a dispersant to avoid aggregation of the ZnO nanoparticles in the solution. The zeta potential and the ion mobility of the dispersed ZnO nanoparticles were measured to evaluate the dispersion properties. The ZnO nanopowder synthesized with glycine showed highest zeta potential and ion mobility. A photocatalytic reaction was performed to evaluate the photocatalytic efficiency. The dispersion of the ZnO nanoparticles in waste water enhanced the Cu++ ion removal from the waste water. The Cu++ ions were completely removed in 15 h with dispersion. Without dispersion, however, they were not completely removed, not even in 35 h. This means that the dispersant changed even the extreme performance limit of the photocatalyst.

  4. Luminescence enhancement of CaZnGe2O6:Tb3+ afterglow phosphors synthesized using ZnO nanopowders

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Boon K.; Luo, Zhiping; Li, Yang; Singh, Surinder P.; Joly, Alan G.; Hossu, Marius; Liu, Zhongxin; Chen, Wei

    2011-06-01

    CaZnGe2O6:Tb3+ afterglow phosphors were prepared by solid state reaction using organic coated ZnO 30 nanopowders and their photoluminescence, X-ray luminescence and afterglow properties were investigated. The CaZnGe2O6:Tb3+ samples emit a green luminescence at 548 nm attributed to the 5D4-7F5 transition of Tb3+. It was observed that the replacement of bulk ZnO by ZnO nanopowder in the sample synthesis increases the luminescence intensity. By adjusting the mass ratio of bulk ZnO to nanopowder ZnO, the photoluminescence intensity, X-ray luminescence intensity, and afterglow efficiency are improved. The optimized sample made with a 0.71 ratio of nano ZnO to bulk ZnO has a factor of four enhancement in X-ray luminescence, photoluminescence and afterglow intensities in comparison with the sample made with 100% bulk ZnO.

  5. Bone regeneration based on nano-hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite/chitosan nanocomposites: an in vitro and in vivo comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakol, S.; Nikpour, M. R.; Amani, A.; Soltani, M.; Rabiee, S. M.; Rezayat, S. M.; Chen, P.; Jahanshahi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Surface morphology, surface wettability, and size distribution of biomaterials affect their in vitro and in vivo bone regeneration potential. Since nano-hydroxyapatite has a great chemical and structural similarity to natural bone and dental tissues, incorporated biomaterial of such products could improve bioactivity and bone bonding ability. In this research, nano-hydroxyapatite (23 ± 0.09 nm) and its composites with variety of chitosan content [2, 4, and 6 g (45 ± 0.19, 32 ± 0.12, and 28 ± 0.12 nm, respectively)] were prepared via an in situ hybridization route. Size distribution of the particles, protein adsorption, and calcium deposition of powders by the osteoblast cells, gene expression and percentage of new bone formation area were investigated. The highest degree of bone regeneration potential was observed in nano-hydroxyapatite powder, while the bone regeneration was lowest in nano-hydroxyapatite with 6 g of chitosan. Regarding these data, suitable size distribution next to size distribution of hydroxyapatite in bone, smaller size, higher wettability, lower surface roughness of the nano-hydroxyapatite particles and homogeneity in surface resulted in higher protein adsorption, cell differentiation and percentage of bone formation area. Results obtained from in vivo and in vitro tests confirmed the role of surface morphology, surface wettability, mean size and size distribution of biomaterial besides surface chemistry as a temporary bone substitute.

  6. Selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from indium-tin-oxide etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction process: Understanding their chemistry and comparisons of sustainable valorization processes.

    PubMed

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Hong, Hyun Seon; Cho, Sung-Soo

    2016-05-01

    Sustainable valorization processes for selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction processes, their chemistry has been investigated and compared. After the indium recovery by solvent extraction from ITO etching wastewater, the same is also an environmental challenge, needs to be treated before disposal. After the indium recovery, ITO etching wastewater contains 6.11kg/m(3) of copper and 1.35kg/m(3) of aluminum, pH of the solution is very low converging to 0 and contain a significant amount of chlorine in the media. In this study, pure copper nanopowder was recovered using various reducing reagents by wet chemical reduction and characterized. Different reducing agents like a metallic, an inorganic acid and an organic acid were used to understand reduction behavior of copper in the presence of aluminum in a strong chloride medium of the ITO etching wastewater. The effect of a polymer surfactant Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was included to prevent aggregation, to provide dispersion stability and control the size of copper nanopowder was investigated and compared. The developed copper nanopowder recovery techniques are techno-economical feasible processes for commercial production of copper nanopowder in the range of 100-500nm size from the reported facilities through a one-pot synthesis. By all the process reported pure copper nanopowder can be recovered with>99% efficiency. After the copper recovery, copper concentration in the wastewater reduced to acceptable limit recommended by WHO for wastewater disposal. The process is not only beneficial for recycling of copper, but also helps to address environment challenged posed by ITO etching wastewater. From a complex wastewater, synthesis of pure copper nanopowder using various wet chemical reduction route and their comparison is the novelty of this recovery process.

  7. Characterization and Bioavailability Study of Baicalin-mesoporous Carbon Nanopowder Solid Dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Li; Sune, E; Song, Jie; Wang, Jing; Jia, Xiao-bin; Zhang, Zhen-hai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Baicalin is the main bioactive constitute of the dried roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and possesses various biological activities. However, the poor water solubility and low oral bioavailability limit its efficacy. Objective: The present study was conducted to enhance the dissolution and oral bioavailability of baicalin (BA) through a novel mesoporous carbon nanopowder (MCN) drug carrier. Materials and Methods: Solid dispersions (SDs) of BA with MCN were prepared using a solvent evaporation method. The physical state of the formulations was investigated using SEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The pharmaceutical performance of pure BA, physical mixture (PM) and SDs was evaluated by performing an in-vitro dissolution test. The pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in SD rats and the analysis of the biological samples was performed on an Acquity UPLC–MS system. The intestinal and renal toxicity test of MCN was also evaluated. Results: The drug release profile indicated that the BA dissolution rate from SDs with a BA/MCN ratio of 1:6 greatly increased in comparison with that of the pure crystalline drug. Furthermore, a pharmacokinetic analysis in rats showed that the BA area under the concentration–time curve for SDs of MCN/BA was 1.83 times larger than that of pure BA. In comparison with the pure drug, the MCN–BA system significantly shortened the time to Tmax and generated higher Cmax. There was no intestinal and renal toxicity of MCN. Conclusion: These results indicated that the oral bioavailability of BA was remarkably improved by the MCN carrier. Additionally, intestinal toxicity test showed that MCN produced no toxicity in the gastrointestinal tract. Our results show that MCN-based SDs could be used to enhance the bioavailability of drugs with poor water solubility. SUMMARY The drug release profile indicated that the BA dissolution rate from SDs with a BA/MCN ratio of 1:6 greatly increased in

  8. Synthesis of Nanospherical and Ultralong Fibrous Hydroxyapatite and Reinforcement of Biodegradable Chitosan/hydroxyapatite Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huigang; Zhu, Qingshan

    Morphologies of hydroxyapatite (HAp) powders have influence on the mechanical properties of HAp/polymer composites. In this paper we reported a synthetic route for nanospherical and ultralong fibrous HAp powders and compared the influence of HAp morphologies on composite mechanical properties. HAp fibers with the length of ~250 µm along c-axis direction and nanospheres with the diameter of ~80 nm were produced, respectively, in the acidic solution containing glutamic acid and in the alkaline solution containing polyacrylic acid. The ultralong HAp fibers synthesized were used to reinforce biodegradable chitosan biomaterials with the significant improvement of bending strength because of the pull-out effect of long fibers.

  9. Nanostructured nickel-free austenitic stainless steel/hydroxyapatite composites.

    PubMed

    Tulinski, Maciej; Jurczyk, Mieczyslaw

    2012-11-01

    In this work Ni-free austenitic stainless steels with nanostructure and their nanocomposites with hydroxyapatite are presented and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and optical profiling. The samples were synthesized by mechanical alloying, heat treatment and nitriding of elemental microcrystalline powders with addition of hydroxyapatite (HA). In our work we wanted to introduce into stainless steel hydroxyapatite ceramics that have been intensively studied for bone repair and replacement applications. Such applications were chosen because of their high biocompatibility and ability to bond to bone. Since nickel-free austenitic stainless steels seem to have better mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility compared to 316L stainless steels, it is possible that composite made of this steel and HA could improve properties, as well. Mechanical alloying and nitriding are very effective technologies to improve the corrosion resistance of stainless steel. Similar process in case of nanocomposites of stainless steel with hydroxyapatite helps achieve even better mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Hence nanocrystalline nickel-free stainless steels and nickel-free stainless steel/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites could be promising bionanomaterials for use as a hard tissue replacement implants, e.g., orthopedic implants. In such application, the surface roughness and more specifically the surface topography influences the proliferation of cells (e.g., osteoblasts).

  10. New Bismuth-Substituted Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles for Bone Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciobanu, Gabriela; Bargan, Ana Maria; Luca, Constantin

    2015-11-01

    New bismuth-substituted hydroxyapatite [Ca10- x Bi x (PO4)6(OH)2 where x = 0-2.5] nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation method from aqueous solutions. The structural properties of the samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with x-ray analysis, x-ray powder diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis. The results confirm that bismuth ions have been incorporated into the hydroxyapatite lattice. The prepared nanocrystalline powders consisted of hydroxyapatite as single phase with hexagonal structure, crystal sizes smaller than 60 nm and (Bi + Ca)/P atomic ratio of around 1.67. The hydroxyapatite samples doped with Bi have mesoporous textures with pores size of around 2 nm and specific surface area in the range of 12-25 m2/g. The Bi-substituted hydroxyapatite powders are more effective against Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria than Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

  11. In vitro mechanical integrity of hydroxyapatite coated magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Kannan, M Bobby; Orr, Lynnley

    2011-08-01

    The mechanical integrity of resorbable implants during service, especially in load bearing orthopaedic applications, is critical. The high degradation rate of resorbable magnesium and magnesium-based implants in body fluid may potentially cause premature in-service failure. In this study, a magnesium alloy (AZ91) was potentiostatically coated with hydroxyapatite at different cathodic voltages in an attempt to enhance the mechanical integrity. The mechanical integrity of the uncoated and hydroxyapatite coated alloys was evaluated after in vitro testing of the coated samples in simulated body fluid (SBF). The uncoated alloy showed 40% loss in the mechanical strength after five days exposure to SBF. However, the hydroxyapatite coated alloy exposed to SBF showed 20% improvement in the mechanical strength as compared to that of the uncoated alloy. The alloy coated potentiostatically at -2 V performed better than the -3 V coated alloy. The cross-sectional analysis of the coatings revealed relatively uniform coating thickness for the -2 V coated alloy, whereas the -3 V coated alloy exhibited areas of uneven coating. This can be attributed to the increase in hydrogen evolution on the alloy during -3 V coating as compared to -2 V coating. The scanning electron micrographs of the in vitro tested alloy revealed that hydroxyapatite coating significantly reduced the localized corrosion of the alloy, which is critical for better in-service mechanical integrity. Thus, the study suggests that the in vitro mechanical integrity of resorbable magnesium-based alloy can be improved by potentiostatic hydroxyapatite coating.

  12. Hydroxyapatite incorporated into collagen gels for mesenchymal stem cell culture.

    PubMed

    Laydi, F; Rahouadj, R; Cauchois, G; Stoltz, J-F; de Isla, N

    2013-01-01

    Collagen gels could be used as carriers in tissue engineering to improve cell retention and distribution in the defect. In other respect hydroxyapatite could be added to gels to improve mechanical properties and regulate gel contraction. The aim of this work was to analyze the feasibility to incorporate hydroxyapatite into collagen gels and culture mesenchymal stem cells inside it. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC-BM) were used in this study. Gels were prepared by mixing rat tail type I collagen, hydroxyapatite microparticles and MSCs. After polymerization gels were kept in culture while gel contraction and mechanical properties were studied. In parallel, cell viability and morphology were analyzed. Gels became free-floating gels contracted from day 3, only in the presence of cells. A linear rapid contraction phase was observed until day 7, then a very slow contraction phase took place. The incorporation of hydroxyapatite improved gel stability and mechanical properties. Cells were randomly distributed on the gel and a few dead cells were observed all over the experiment. This study shows the feasibility and biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite supplemented collagen gels for the culture of mesenchymal stem cells that could be used as scaffolds for cell delivery in osteoarticular regenerative medicine.

  13. Cobalt doped proangiogenic hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering application.

    PubMed

    Kulanthaivel, Senthilguru; Roy, Bibhas; Agarwal, Tarun; Giri, Supratim; Pramanik, Krishna; Pal, Kunal; Ray, Sirsendu S; Maiti, Tapas K; Banerjee, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    The present study delineates the synthesis and characterization of cobalt doped proangiogenic-osteogenic hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite samples, doped with varying concentrations of bivalent cobalt (Co(2+)) were prepared by the ammoniacal precipitation method and the extent of doping was measured by ICP-OES. The crystalline structure of the doped hydroxyapatite samples was confirmed by XRD and FTIR studies. Analysis pertaining to the effect of doped hydroxyapatite on cell cycle progression and proliferation of MG-63 cells revealed that the doping of cobalt supported the cell viability and proliferation up to a threshold limit. Furthermore, such level of doping also induced differentiation of the bone cells, which was evident from the higher expression of differentiation markers (Runx2 and Osterix) and better nodule formation (SEM study). Western blot analysis in conjugation with ELISA study confirmed that the doped HAp samples significantly increased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in MG-63 cells. The analysis described here confirms the proangiogenic-osteogenic properties of the cobalt doped hydroxyapatite and indicates its potential application in bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of collagen on the mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite coatings.

    PubMed

    Ou, Keng-Liang; Chung, Ren-Jei; Tsai, Fu-Yi; Liang, Pei-Yu; Huang, Shih-Wei; Chang, Shou-Yi

    2011-05-01

    In this study, the mechanical properties of bioactive coatings on Ti6Al4V substrates were investigated using instrumented nanoindentation. The aim was to observe the differences in the mechanical properties before and after immersion in collagen solution. The hydroxyapatite coatings were prepared through two processes: self-assembly in simulated body fluid and a hydrothermal method. Sintered hydroxyapatite disks were used as controls. The test samples were then incubated in a dilute collagen solution for 24 hours to produce composite coatings. The materials were investigated using XRD, SEM and nanoindentation. The results showed that the grain sizes of the hydroxyapatite coatings formed using two processes were 1 μm and 10 μm, respectively. The Young's modulus of the pure hydroxyapatite, the disk and the coatings, was 3.6 GPa. After collagen incubation treatment, the composites had a Young's modulus of 7.5 GPa. The results also showed that the strengthening phenomena of collagen were more obvious for homogeneous and small-grain hydroxyapatite coatings. These results suggest that there are similarities between these HAp/collagen composited and natural composite materials, such as teeth and bones.

  15. Adsorption mechanism of BMP-7 on hydroxyapatite (001) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Hailong; Wu, Tao; Dong, Xiuli; Wang, Qi . E-mail: qiwang@zju.edu.cn; Shen, Jiawei

    2007-09-14

    Many properties and functions of bone-related proteins perform through the interface with the hydroxyapatite. However, the mechanism of difference of proteins adsorbing behaviors caused by the variation of calcium and phosphate ions on hydroxyapatite is still unclear at atomic level. In this work, we investigated the site-selective adhesion and the adsorption mechanism of protein BMP-7 to the hydroxyapatite surfaces in aqueous media during adsorption and desorption processes. Molecular dynamics (MD) and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations combined with trajectory analysis were employed to give insight into the underlying behaviors of BMP-7 binding. The results suggest that the adsorption sites could be divided into two categories: COO{sup -} and NH{sub 2}/NH3+. For COO{sup -}, the adsorption phenomenon is driven by the electrostatic interaction formed between the negative charged carboxylate groups and the Ca1 cations on the hydroxyapatite surface. While for NH{sub 2}/NH3+, the interaction is through the intermolecular H-bonds between the N-containing groups and the phosphate on the hydroxyapatite surface.

  16. ZnO and ZnTiO3 nanopowders for antimicrobial stone coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffolo, S. A.; La Russa, M. F.; Malagodi, M.; Oliviero Rossi, C.; Palermo, A. M.; Crisci, G. M.

    2010-09-01

    In the past a great variety of biocidal compounds and persistent organic pesticides were applied on a large scale for preventive measures aimed at the long-term preservation of our cultural heritage. Only recently, public and expert attention has started to focus increasingly on the risks resulting from these treatments on human health, works of art and environment in general. The work done in this field demonstrated that the most effective way for inactivation can be achieved by using highly efficient photocatalysts with the illumination of UV radiation. Following this direction our group focused its attention on well-known photocatalysts, ZnO and ZnTiO3, in the degradation and complete mineralisation of environmental pollutants. This explorative work deals with an experimental investigation on biocidal efficient of ZnO and ZnTiO3. In particular micro-quantities of the two nanopowdered photocatalysts were spread on plated dishes. They were filled by the MEA (Malt Extract Agar) medium containing given quantities of Aspergillus Niger (a chromogen filamentous fungus involved in biodeterioration). At the same time the two oxides were dispersed in different polymeric matrices, acrylic and fluorinated, in order to obtain a new coating technology, with hydrophobic, consolidant and biocidal properties for the restoration of building stone material. The mixtures obtained were applied on marble samples and capillary water absorption, simulated solar ageing, colourimetric measurements and contact angle measurements have been performed to evaluate its properties.

  17. Plasma column and nano-powder generation from solid titanium by localized microwaves in air

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, Simona; Jerby, Eli Meir, Yehuda; Ashkenazi, Dana; Barkay, Zahava; Mitchell, J. Brian A.; Le Garrec, Jean-Luc; Narayanan, Theyencheri

    2015-07-14

    This paper studies the effect of a plasma column ejected from solid titanium by localized microwaves in an ambient air atmosphere. Nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (titania) are found to be directly synthesized in this plasma column maintained by the microwave energy in the cavity. The process is initiated by a hotspot induced by localized microwaves, which melts the titanium substrate locally. The molten hotspot emits ionized titanium vapors continuously into the stable plasma column, which may last for more than a minute duration. The characterization of the dusty plasma obtained is performed in-situ by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), optical spectroscopy, and microwave reflection analyses. The deposited titania nanoparticles are structurally and morphologically analyzed by ex-situ optical and scanning-electron microscope observations, and also by X-ray diffraction. Using the Boltzmann plot method combined with the SAXS results, the electron temperature and density in the dusty plasma are estimated as ∼0.4 eV and ∼10{sup 19 }m{sup −3}, respectively. The analysis of the plasma product reveals nanoparticles of titania in crystalline phases of anatase, brookite, and rutile. These are spatially arranged in various spherical, cubic, lamellar, and network forms. Several applications are considered for this process of titania nano-powder production.

  18. Microwave sintering of nanopowder ZnNb2O6: Densification, microstructure and microwave dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bafrooei, H. Barzegar; Nassaj, E. Taheri; Hu, C. F.; Huang, Q.; Ebadzadeh, T.

    2014-12-01

    High density ZnNb2O6 ceramics were successfully fabricated by microwave sintering of ZnO-Nb2O5 and ZnNb2O6 nanopowders. Phase formation, microstructure and microwave electrical properties of the microwave sintered (MS) and microwave reaction sintered (MRS) specimens were examined using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and microwave dielectric properties measurement. Specimens were sintered in a temperature range from 950 to 1075 °C for 30 min at an interval of 25 °C using a microwave furnace operated at 2.45 GHz frequency, 3 kW power. XRD pattern revealed the formation of pure columbite phase of ZnNb2O6. The SEM micrographs show grain growth and reduction in porosity of specimens with the increase in sintering temperature. Good combination of microwave dielectric properties (εr~23.6, Qf~64,300 GHz and τf~-66 ppm/°C and εr~24, Qf~75,800 GHz and τf~-64 ppm/°C) was obtained for MS- and MRS-prepared samples at 1000 °C and 1050 °C for 30 min, respectively.

  19. Synthesis and magnetic properties of NiFe2-xSmxO4 nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh-Tabrizi, S. A.; Behbahanian, Shahrzad; Amighian, Jamshid

    2016-07-01

    NiFe2-xSmxO4 (x=0.00, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15) nanopowders were synthesized via a sol-gel combustion route. The structural studies were carried out by X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The XRD results confirmed the formation of single-phase spinel cubic structure. The crystallite size decreased with an increase of samarium ion concentration, while lattice parameter and lattice strain increased with samarium substitution. TEM micrographs showed that agglomerated nanoparticles with particle sizes ranging from 35 to 90 nm were obtained. The magnetic studies were carried out using vibrating sample magnetometer. Magnetic measurements revealed that the saturation magnetization (Ms) of NiFe2-xSmxO4 nanoparticles decreases with increasing Sm3+substitution. The reduction of saturation magnetization is attributed to the dilution of the magnetic interaction. The coercivity (Hc) of samples increases by adding samarium.

  20. Structure, nanohardness and photoluminescence of ZnO ceramics based on nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muktepavela, Faina; Grigorjeva, Larisa; Kundzins, Karlis; Gorokhova, Elena; Rodnyi, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    ZnO ceramics obtained from grained powders with different grain size by hot pressing and ceramics from tetrapods nanopowders obtained by press-less sintering have been investigated under identical conditions. Ceramics obtained by hot pressing were optically transparent but were composed of large inhomogeneous grains (d = 8-35 μm) exhibiting a substructure. Decreased values of elastic modulus within a grain and a wide defect-associated (‘green’) photoluminescence (PL) band at 2.2-2.8 eV in conjunction with a weak excitonic band indicate a high concentration of residual point defects in hot pressed ZnO ceramics. Utilization of more small-grained powders contributes to the formation of more uniform microstructure (d = 5-15 μm) and extraction of point defects. This reflects as a substantially decreased defect PL band and increased excitonic band. Ceramics obtained by press-less sintering from tetrapods had fine-grained structure (d = 1-4 μm) with no signs of a substructure. PL spectrum has a narrow excitonic band with phonon replicas (1LO_ExD0), whereas the defect ‘green’ luminescence is negligible. The effects of powders morphologies have been explained in terms of a hereditary influence of interaction processes between initial particles on the formation of a microstructure and kinetic of defect distribution on the grain growth stages during the sintering of ZnO ceramics.

  1. Effects of Remote Plasma Treatment on Surface Defects in ZnO Nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramo, Jorge; Peters, Raul; Strzhemechny, Yuri

    2008-10-01

    The field of high-tech applications of ZnO nanostructures is rapidly growing. Because of the large surface/volume ratio in these systems, device performance in many cases is determined by surface and near-surface properties of the nanocrystals. The nature of the surface/subsurface defect states in nanosized ZnO is still ambiguous, and only in a small number of recent studies attempts were made to modify these states in a controllable fashion. In our work, we used remote plasma treatment of several commercially available ZnO nanopowders to manipulate their surface and subsurface defects. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy was employed to monitor the effects of nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen plasmas on the surface states. We demonstrated that those plasma species induce a variety of changes in the deep defect visible emission as well as in the bound-exciton luminescence, most likely associated with the surface/subsurface states. We also observed significant size-dependent effects of plasma treatment in our nanosystems.

  2. Preparation and structural characterization of vulcanized natural rubber nanocomposites containing nickel-zinc ferrite nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, F S; Salmazo, L O; Budemberg, E R; da Silva, M R; Rodríguez-Pérez, M A; Nobre, M A L; Job, A E

    2012-03-01

    Single-phase polycrystalline mixed nickel-zinc ferrites belonging to Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 were prepared on a nanometric scale (mean crystallite size equal to 14.7 nm) by chemical synthesis named the modified poliol method. Ferrite nanopowder was then incorporated into a natural rubber matrix producing nanocomposites. The samples were investigated by means of infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and magnetic measurements. The obtained results suggest that the base concentration of nickel-zinc ferrite nanoparticles inside the polymer matrix volume greatly influences the magnetic properties of nanocomposites. A small quantity of nanoparticles, less than 10 phr, in the nanocomposite is sufficient to produce a small alteration in the semi-crystallinity of nanocomposites observed by X-ray diffraction analysis and it produces a flexible magnetic composite material with a saturation magnetization, a coercivity field and an initial magnetic permeability equal to 3.08 emu/g, 99.22 Oe and 9.42 x 10(-5) respectively.

  3. When Halides Come to Lithium Niobate Nanopowders Purity and Morphology Assistance.

    PubMed

    Lamouroux, Emmanuel; Badie, Laurent; Miska, Patrice; Fort, Yves

    2016-03-07

    The preparation of pure lithium niobate nanopowders was carried out by a matrix-mediated synthesis approach. Lithium hydroxide and niobium pentachloride were used as precursors. The influence of the chemical environment was studied by adding lithium halide (LiCl or LiBr). After thermal treatment of the precursor mixture at 550 °C for 30 min, the morphology of the products was obtained from transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering, whereas the crystallinity and phase purity were characterized by X-ray diffraction and UV-visible and Raman spectroscopies. Our results point out that the chemical environment during lithium niobate formation at 550 °C influences the final morphology. Moreover, direct and indirect band-gap energies have been determined from UV-visible spectroscopy. Their values for the direct-band-gap energies range from 3.97 to 4.36 eV with a slight dependence on the Li/Nb ratio, whereas for the indirect-band-gap energies, the value appears to be independent of this ratio and is 3.64 eV. No dependence of the band-gap energies on the average crystallite and nanoparticle sizes is observed.

  4. Comparison of electromagnetic shielding with polyaniline nanopowders produced in solvent-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Tantawy, Hesham Ramzy; Aston, D Eric; Smith, Jacob R; Young, Jeffrey L

    2013-06-12

    Nanoparticle synthesis (~10-50 nm) of HCl-doped polyaniline elucidates the impact of limiting solvent (water) and oxidizing agent (ammonium peroxydisulfate) on morphology (XRD and TEM), chemical structure (FTIR), conductivity (two-point DC) and electromagnetic shielding effectiveness (SE) in microwave frequencies (i.e., X-band S-parameter measurements). Detailed comparison of these properties with respect to three distinct polymerization environments indicate that a solvent-free or limited solvent polymerization accomplished through a wet grinding solid-phase reaction produces superior conductivity (27 S/cm) with intermediate crystallinity (66%) for the highest EM shielding-an order of magnitude improvement over conventional polymerization with respect to EM power transmission reduction for all loadings per shielding area (0.04 to 0.17 g/cm(2)). By contrast, the classic oxidation of aniline in a well-dispersed aqueous reaction phase with an abundance of available oxidant in free solution yielded low conductivity (3.3 S/cm), crystallinity (54%), and SE, whereas similar solvent-rich reactions with limiting oxidizer produced similar conductivity (2.9 S/cm) and significantly lower SE with the highest crystallinity (72%). This work is the first to demonstrate that limiting solvent and oxidizer enhances electromagnetic interactions for shielding microwaves in polyaniline nanopowders. This appears connected to having the highest overall extent of oxidation achieved in the wet solid-phase reaction.

  5. Spectral characterizations of undoped and Cu2+doped CdO nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswani, T.; Pushpa Manjari, V.; Babu, B.; Muntaz Begum, Sk.; Rama Sundari, G.; Ravindranadh, K.; Ravikumar, R. V. S. S. N.

    2014-04-01

    Undoped and Cu2+ doped CdO nanopowders were prepared by solid state reaction method with the aid of ultrasonic waves. The prepared samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope, optical absorption, photoluminescence, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and FT-IR spectroscopy techniques. From powder XRD pattern the lattice cell parameters and average crystallite sizes were evaluated. SEM images gave the stone like morphologies in the prepared sample. Optical and EPR data confirmed that the doped Cu2+ ions enter in the host material as rhombically distorted octahedral site. Photoluminescence spectra of undoped and Cu2+ doped CdO exhibited a weak UV and a strong blue emission band at 418, 446 nm and a weak UV and a strong blue-green emission band at 427, 481 nm respectively under the excitation wavelength of 380 nm. The CIE chromaticity coordinates were also calculated from emission spectrum for undoped and Cu2+ doped samples as (x = 0.151, y = 0.112) and (x = 0.158, y = 0.165) respectively. The presences of various functional groups related to metal oxide and organic molecular groups were identified in the FT-IR spectra.

  6. Electrochemical sensor based on polystyrene sulfonate-carbon nanopowders composite for Cu (II) determination.

    PubMed

    Cantalapiedra, Alberto; Gismera, M Jesús; Procopio, Jesús R; Sevilla, M Teresa

    2015-07-01

    A differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric (DPASV) method, with an open circuit (OC) approach in the pre-concentration step has been developed for copper ion determination at very low concentration level using a sensor based on a polystyrene sulfonate-carbon nanopowders (PSS-CnP) composite. This composite material is easily prepared from ultrasonic assisted dispersions of CnP in aqueous solution of PSS. For preparation of sensor devices, a reproducible and inexpensive drop coating procedure of the surface of home-made pencil graphite electrodes (PGEs) using a CnP dispersion in PSS was performed. At the optimal conditions for accumulation (0.01molL(-1) KNO3 at pH 3) and measurement steps (a reduction potential of -0.5V for 60s and then, an anodic DPV scan) and using a pre-concentration time of 300s, the limit of detection was 0.11µgL(-1) (1.73nM). This OC-DPASV method using the PSS-CnP-PGE sensor was successfully employed for Cu(II) determination in mineral, river and sea water samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Irradiation creep of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide at low neutron fluences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyanagi, T.; Shimoda, K.; Kondo, S.; Hinoki, T.; Ozawa, K.; Katoh, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The irradiation creep behavior of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide was investigated using the bend stress relaxation method under neutron irradiation up to 1.9 dpa. The creep deformation was observed at all temperatures ranging from 380 to 1180 °C mainly from the irradiation creep but with the increasing contributions from the thermal creep at higher temperatures. The apparent stress exponent of the irradiation creep slightly exceeded unity, and instantaneous creep coefficient at 380-790 °C was estimated to be ∼1 × 10-5 [MPa-1 dpa-1] at ∼0.1 dpa and 1 × 10-7 to 1 × 10-6 [MPa-1 dpa-1] at ∼1 dpa. The irradiation creep strain appeared greater than that for the high purity SiC. Microstructural observation and data analysis indicated that the grain-boundary sliding associated with the secondary phases contributes to the irradiation creep at 380-790 °C to 0.01-0.11 dpa.

  8. Synthesis of silicon carbide nanopowders in free flowing plasma jet with different energy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, D.; Sivkov, A.; Rahmatullin, I.; Ivashutenko, A.

    2017-05-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) nanopowders were produced by the synthesis in an electrodischarge plasma jet generated by a high-current pulsed coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator. The present work focuses on the experiments where the obtained hypersonic plasma jet flew into space of the reactor chamber without impact on a target. The energy level of experiments was changed from ∼10.0 to ∼30.0 kJ. Four experiments were carried out at different energy levels. The powder products synthesized by the plasmadynamic method were studied by such well-known methods: X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All the powders mainly contain cubic silicon carbide (β-SiC) particles with clear crystal structures and triangular shapes. SiC content reaches its maximum value 95% at the energy level 21.0 kJ, then SiC content is decreased to 70% the energy level 27.8 kJ. The powder crystallites in different experiments have approximately the same average crystallite size because quasistationary time, which allows growing powder crystallites, is absent.

  9. The evaluation of linear and planar defects in W-doped ZnO nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleimanian, Vishtasb; Chenari, Hossein Mahmoudi

    2017-02-01

    Nanocrystalline tungsten doped zinc oxide (Zn1-xWx O where, x=0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06) was synthesized by the sol-gel method. the bright and dark field modes of TEM have been used to characterize the grains and sub-grains of nanopowders, respectively. The planar defects of samples were studied by using the DiffaX software. To do this, the X-ray diffraction patterns at different twinning and stacking faults probability were simulated. The Williamson-Hall plot of simulated patterns were compared with those extracted from W-doped samples. It was found that among the various compressive and tensile twins, only the behavior of broadening in { 11.1 } < 1 bar 1 bar .6 > tensile twins is similar to Williamson-Hall plot of doped samples. The results of DiffaX simulation were incorporated into the eCMWP fitting procedure and the impact of microstructure parameters including crystallite size, size distribution function, twin boundary frequency, dislocation density and outer cut-off radius of dislocation were studied as a function of W doping concentration.

  10. Effect of annealing on ESR characteristics of zirconia nanopowders with different impurity compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, I. P.; Brik, A. B.; Bagmut, N. N.; Kalinichenko, A. M.; Bevz, V. V.; Vereshchak, V. G.; Yastrabik, L.

    2009-06-01

    An ESR study is performed for four groups of zirconia nanopowder samples: nominally pure ZrO2 powders (first group), zirconia samples with Y2O3 and Sc2O3 impurities (second group), samples with different amounts of Cr2O3 (third group), and samples containing both Y2O3 and Cr2O3 (fourth group). The effect of annealing on ESR signals due to Zr3+ ions (sample groups 1 and 2) and Cr5+ ions (groups 3 and 4) is studied. It is established that, although the Zr3+ and Cr5+ ions have similar ESP characteristics, the annealing exerts different effects on ESR signals of these ions. Annealing in the temperature range 200-900°C leads to a monotonic increase in the amount of Zr3+ ions. Interestingly, the annealing temperature at which Zr3+ ions begin to generate ESR signals is different for samples with different impurity compositions. Unlike the Zr3+ ions, the annealing curves of the ESR signals due to the Cr5+ ions pass through an extremum at T = 500-600°C.

  11. Chemically processed BaZrO3 nanopowders as artificial pinning centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciontea, L.; Celentano, G.; Augieri, A.; Ristoiu, T.; Suciu, R.; Gabor, M. S.; Rufoloni, A.; Vannozzi, A.; Galluzzi, V.; Petrisor, T.

    2008-02-01

    This work reports on the preparation of a BaZrO3 (BZO) nanopowder by the chemical decomposition of an oxalate precursor starting from barium acetate and zirconium oxychloride. The X-ray peak profile analyses and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have indicated that the mean powder size ranges from 30nm to 340 nm for the thermal treatment temperature varying from 700°C to 1200°C, respectivelly. The as prepared powder has been used to manufacture YBCO-5 mol. % BZO composite targets from which epitaxial YBCO thin films on (100)SrTiO3 substrate were ablated. The X-ray analysis have revealed that the BZO nanoislands are epitaxially grown throughout the YBCO film, having the same epitaxial relationship as YBCO. Moreover, as revealed by SEM, the presence of BZO considerably improves the morphology of the YBCO film. The critical temperature (Tc) registered a slight decrease with the BZO concentration. Nevertheless, the BZO addition resulted in an improvement of the critical current density, Jc. The JcvsB curve exihibits a large plateau extended up to about 2.5 Tesla. The YBCO-BZO composite films showed pinning forces with a c-axis correlated character, as revealed by the angular behaviour of Jc.

  12. Structural and Magnetic Characterization of Mn and Fe-doped ZnO Nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewangga Candra Seta, Putra; Eka Yunita, Pelangi; Anjelh Baqiya, Malik; Darminto

    2017-05-01

    The Zn1-xAxO (A = Mn, Fe and x = 0 - 0.03) nanopowders, have successfully been synthesized by coprecipitation method. The starting materials of dihydrate zinc acetate, iron and mangan powders were employed using HCl and NH4OH as solvent and precipitating agents respectively. The solution was stirred at 48°C for 4h to induce a precipitation and the resulted precipitate was then heated at 100°C for 24h in air followed by annealing at 400°C for 3h. Based on the XRD spectra, the doped samples with x up to 0.02 form the single wurtzite phase of ZnO with crystal size around 20-60 nm, where the dopants, both Mn and Fe, have partially substituted Zn. Meanwhile, samples with x = 0.03 were obesrved to contain impurity phases. The magnetization for the magnetic field up to 1 tesla vizualizes a monotonically increased weak-ferromagnetism for Fe doping, while exhibits from diamagnetic, paramagnetic to weak-ferromagnetic behaviors for Mn doping. This magnetic interaction becomes complicated by the presence of magnetic impurities due to Mn dopant.

  13. Novel microwave assisted synthesis of highly doped phase pure Nd:YAG nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiranmala, L.; Rekha, M.; Neelam, M.

    2011-09-01

    For the first time, the studies on 2 to 10 at.% neodymium (Nd3+) ion doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) nanopowders obtained by microwave assisted citrate nitrate gel combustion synthesis is described in this work. This paper reports on high doping of Nd3+ ions with retaining the cubic garnet structure of YAG as evidenced from XRD, except the case of 8 at.% doped Nd:YAG. Phase pure YAG formation with 8 at.% Nd3+ doping was explored by using urea and alanine as alternative to citric acid complexing agents. Complete crystallization of YAG as a result of 2 hour thermal treatment at 900 °C under oxygen supply was studied by using Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques. With an increase in the dopant concentration a red shift in the FTIR peaks was observed. Using the XRD data, the cell parameter of Nd3+ (2 to 6 and 10 at.%) YAG was found to increase with an increase in the dopant concentration. The average primary particle size calculated using Scherrer's equation was ˜25 nm which was additionally supported by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results yielding particle sizes in the range of ˜25 to 30 nm for all the cases.

  14. Plasticizer Effect on Rheological Behaviour of Screen Printing Pastes Based on Barium Titanate Nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulina, I.; Umerova, S.; Ragulya, A.

    2015-04-01

    The dependence of rheological behaviour of pastes based on BaTiO3 nanopowder vs. plasticizer content has been investigated. All pastes prepared for research can be divided into groups by structure types and viscosity. Such a grouping has been explained by different interaction between nanoparticles and binder in the pastes. Particles with molecules of binder form clusters - the representative units in the volume of paste where particles are uniformly distributed. Plasticizer adding effects on binder molecule conformation and change clusters size. Bond strength between clusters can be specified with rheopexy in the area of low shear stress and low strain rates. Rheopexy degree increasing authenticates interaction intensification between clusters. Rheopexy structure destruction leads to separate clusters formation and initiation of the pseudoplastic flow stage. The end of pseudoplastic flow corresponds to structure with clusters assembled into separated layers. Further shear stress increasing leads to inter-clusters bonds appear which can be deformed elastically and the temporary local linkage is possible. Such a phenomenon fully discloses the features of thixotropic structure destruction in plasticized pastes.

  15. Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) applied in the surface modification of hydroxyapatite to develop polydimethylsiloxane/hydroxyapatite composites.

    PubMed

    Bareiro, O; Santos, L A

    2014-03-01

    Nanometric hydroxyapatite (HAp) particles were modified with 5 or 10 wt.% tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) solutions in order to prepare polydimethylsiloxane/hydroxyapatite (PDMS/HAp) composites. The surface modification of the HAp particles was studied by transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM) and by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) equipment. The dispersion state of the modified particles in the PDMS matrix was also assessed by SEM. The composite phase composition was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The composite thermodynamic parameters of cross-linking were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). TEM micrographs and EDS spectra indicated evidence of silica-coating formation on the surface of modified HAp particles. SEM results showed that the HAp particles formed agglomerates in the PDMS matrix. It was found that the introduction of HAp particles into the PDMS changed the enthalpy of cross-linking and the temperature of the beginning of the cross-linking reaction. EDS results indicated that the surface modification of HAp produced composites showing thermodynamic parameters that were more similar to those of unfilled PDMS.

  16. Ion exchange in hydroxyapatite with lanthanides.

    PubMed

    Cawthray, Jacqueline F; Creagh, A Louise; Haynes, Charles A; Orvig, Chris

    2015-02-16

    Naturally occurring hydroxyapatite, Ca5(PO4)3(OH) (HAP), is the main inorganic component of bone matrix, with synthetic analogues finding applications in bioceramics and catalysis. An interesting and valuable property of both natural and synthetic HAP is the ability to undergo cationic and anionic substitution. The lanthanides are well-suited for substitution for the Ca(2+) sites within HAP, because of their similarities in ionic radii, donor atom requirements, and coordination geometries. We have used isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to investigate the thermodynamics of ion exchange in HAP with a representative series of lanthanide ions, La(3+), Sm(3+), Gd(3+), Ho(3+), Yb(3+) and Lu(3+), reporting the association constant (Ka), ion-exchange thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS, ΔG), and binding stoichiometry (n). We also probe the nature of the La(3+):HAP interaction by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), in support of the ITC results.

  17. Control of bisphosphonate release using hydroxyapatite granules.

    PubMed

    Seshima, Hisashi; Yoshinari, Masao; Takemoto, Shinji; Hattori, Masayuki; Kawada, Eiji; Inoue, Takashi; Oda, Yutaka

    2006-08-01

    The efficacy of hydroxyapatite (HAp) as a carrier was investigated to establish a method of local administration of bisphosphonates (Bps), which has currently been administered systemically. HAp granules (300-500 microm in size) with different physicochemical features were prepared by altering the sintering temperature. To ascertain the physicochemical properties of the HAp granules, their crystallinity was assessed using X-ray diffraction, the surface morphology was examined under scanning electron microscopy, and the specific surface area and calcium dissolution were evaluated. Different Bps-HAp composites were subsequently prepared and the concentration of Bps released from these composites was measured. The influence of Bps-HAp composites on the rate of osteoclast survival was also evaluated. The results revealed that (1) HAp solubility depends on the sintering temperature; (2) The concentration of released Bps could be controlled by regulating the sintering temperature of HAp as a carrier; and (3) Bps released from Bps-HAp composites reduced the number of osteoclasts. These findings indicated that Bps-HAp composites could be locally administered as a drug delivery system to areas with bone resorption.

  18. Elastin-like Polypeptide Based Hydroxyapatite Bionanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Eddie; Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2011-01-01

    In nature, organic matrix macromolecules play a critical role in enhancing the mechanical properties of biomineralized composites such as bone and teeth. Designing artificial matrix analogues is promising but challenging because relatively little is known about how natural matrix components function. Therefore, in lieu of using natural components, we created biomimetic matrices using genetically engineered elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) then used them to construct mechanically robust ELP-hydroxyapatite (HAP) composites. ELPs were engineered with well-defined backbone charge distributions by periodic incorporation of negative, positive, or neutral side chains or with HAP-binding octaglutamic acid motifs at one or both protein termini. ELPs exhibited sequence-specific capacities to interact with ions, bind HAP, and disperse HAP nanoparticles. HAP-binding ELPs were incorporated into calcium phosphate cements resulting in materials with improved mechanical strength, injectability, and anti-washout properties. The results demonstrate that rational design of genetically engineered polymers is a powerful system for determining sequence-property relationships and for improving the properties of organic-inorganic composites. Our approach may be used to further develop novel, multifunctional bone cements and expanded to the design of other advanced composites. PMID:21218767

  19. First principles study of biomineral hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slepko, Alexander

    2010-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] is one of the most abundant materials in mammal bone. It crystallizes within the spaces between the tropocollagen chains and strengthens the bone tissue. The mineral content of human bone increases with age reaching a maximum value from which it starts to decrease leading to diseases such as osteomalacia. Therefore, an emergent application of this study is bone repair and the production of synthetic bone. Despite its importance, little is known about the growth of HA crystallites in bones. Nor is it well understood how the HA attaches to protein chains and interacts with the surrounding aqueous solution. Using density functional theory (DFT) we calculate the theoretical ground state structure, electronic and vibration properties of hexagonal HA. We find several low energy structures and analyze the energy barriers for spontaneous phase transitions. We calculate the phonon density of states and study the surface energetics for different orientations. We identify the surfaces with highest reactivity using the frontier orbital approach and analyze interactions between these surfaces and water molecules/amino acids.

  20. [Synthesis and characteristics of porous hydroxyapatite bioceramics].

    PubMed

    Niu, Jinlong; Zhang, Zhenxi; Jiang, Dazong

    2002-06-01

    The macroporous structure of human bone allows the ingrowth of the soft tissues and organic cells into the bone matrix, profits the development and metabolism of bone tissue, and adapts the bone to the change of load. There is great requirement for artificial biomimic porous bioactive ceramics with the similar structure of bone tissue that can be used clinically for repairing lost bone. Fine hydroxyapatite (HAp) powder produced by wet chemical reaction was mixed with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), polyvinyl alcohol, methyl cellulose or other pores-making materials to form green cake. After drying at low temperature (below 100 degrees C) and decarbonizing at about 300 degrees C-400 degrees C, the spongy ceramic block was sintered at high temperature, thus, macroporous HAp bioceramic with interconnected pores and reasonable porosity and pore-diameter was manufactured. This kind of porous HAp bioceramics were intrinsically osteoinductive to a certain degree, but its outstanding property was that they can absorb human bone morphogenetic proteins and other bone growth factors to form composites, so that the macroporous HAp bioactive ceramic has appropriate feasibility for clinical application. From the point of biomedical application, the recent developments in synthesis and characteristics investigation of macroporous HAp are reviewed in this paper.

  1. Carbon Nanotubes Blended Hydroxyapatite Ethanol Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjum, S. R.; Khairnar, R. S.

    2016-12-01

    Nano crystals of Hydroxyapatite (HAp) were synthesized by a wet chemical precipitation method. The nano composite materials were developed by doping various weight concentrations of carbon nanotubes in HAp, followed by characterization using scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Thick films of these materials were prepared by using screen printing technique. The ethanol sensing properties of these nano crystals and nano composite films were investigated by two probe electrical method. The gas sensing features such as operating temperature, response and recovery time, maximum gas detection limit, etc. were studied, since these parameters are of prime importance for sensor. The results revealed that at room temperature, the composite materials exhibited improved sensing performance towards 100 ppm ethanol with fast response times. It also showed shorter recovery time with higher vapor uptake capacity. The ethanol adsorption processes on doped and undoped substrates can be explained by surface chemical reactions as well as providing the possible adsorption models. The novelty of this work lies in developing reusable sensor substrates for room temperature sensing.

  2. Bacterial adhesion to bisphosphonate coated hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, A; Steward, C; Butler, S L; Philips, G J; Meikle, S T; Lloyd, A W; Grant, M H

    2005-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is commonly associated with microbial infection of orthopaedic implants. Such infections often lead to osteomyelitis, which may result in failure of the implant due to localised bone destruction. Bacterial adhesion and subsequent colonisation of the device may occur as a consequence of contamination during surgery, or by seeding from a distant site through the blood circulation. Coating of the hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic component of artificial hip joints with the bisphosphonates clodronate (C) and pamidronate (P) has been proposed as a means to minimise osteolysis and thereby prevent loosening of the implant. However, the effect of the bisphosphonate coating on bacterial adhesion to the HA materials must be determined before this approach can be implemented. In this study coated HA materials were incubated with the S. aureus and the number of adherent bacteria determined using the Modified Vortex Device (MVD) method. The number of bacteria adherent to the P coated HA material was significantly greater than that adherent to uncoated HA (60-fold increase) or to the C coated HA (90-fold increase). Therefore, even though earlier studies suggested that P bound to HA may improve osseointegration, the results presented would suggest that the use of this coating may be limited by the potential increased susceptibility of the coated device to infection.

  3. Dual functional selenium-substituted hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanhua; Ma, Jun; Zhou, Lei; Chen, Jin; Liu, Yonghui; Qiu, Zhiye; Zhang, Shengmin

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) doped with trace elements has attracted much attention recently owing to its excellent biological functions. Herein, we use a facile co-precipitation method to incorporate selenium into HA by adding sodium selenite during synthesis. The obtained selenium-substituted HA products are needle-like nanoparticles which have  size and crystallinity that are similar to those of the pure HA nanoparticles (HANs) when the selenium content is low. HANs are found to have the ability to induce the apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells, and the anti-tumour effects are enhanced after incorporation of selenium. Meanwhile, the nanoparticles can also support the growth of bone marrow stem cells. Furthermore, the flow cytometric results indicate that the apoptosis induction of osteosarcoma cells is caused by the increased reactive oxygen species and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. These results show that the selenium-substituted HANs are potentially promising bone graft materials in osteosarcoma treatment due to their dual functions of supporting normal cell growth and inducing tumour cell apoptosis. PMID:23741613

  4. Biodegradable magnesium-hydroxyapatite metal matrix composites.

    PubMed

    Witte, Frank; Feyerabend, Frank; Maier, Petra; Fischer, Jens; Störmer, Michael; Blawert, Carsten; Dietzel, Wolfgang; Hort, Norbert

    2007-04-01

    Recent studies indicate that there is a high demand to design magnesium alloys with adjustable corrosion rates and suitable mechanical properties. An approach to this challenge might be the application of metal matrix composite (MMC) based on magnesium alloys. In this study, a MMC made of magnesium alloy AZ91D as a matrix and hydroxyapatite (HA) particles as reinforcements have been investigated in vitro for mechanical, corrosive and cytocompatible properties. The mechanical properties of the MMC-HA were adjustable by the choice of HA particle size and distribution. Corrosion tests revealed that HA particles stabilised the corrosion rate and exhibited more uniform corrosion attack in artificial sea water and cell solutions. The phase identification showed that all samples contained hcp-Mg, Mg(17)Al(12), and HA before and after immersion. After immersion in artificial sea water CaCO3 was found on MMC-HA surfaces, while no formation of CaCO3 was found after immersion in cell solutions with and without proteins. Co-cultivation of MMC-HA with human bone derived cells (HBDC), cells of an osteoblasts lineage (MG-63) and cells of a macrophage lineage (RAW264.7) revealed that RAW264.7, MG-63 and HBDC adhere, proliferate and survive on the corroding surfaces of MMC-HA. In summary, biodegradable MMC-HA are cytocompatible biomaterials with adjustable mechanical and corrosive properties.

  5. Reusable hydroxyapatite nanocrystal sensors for protein adsorption

    PubMed Central

    Tagaya, Motohiro; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Chakarov, Dinko; Kasemo, Bengt; Tanaka, Junzo

    2010-01-01

    The repeatability of the adsorption and removal of fibrinogen and fetal bovine serum on hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocrystal sensors was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring technique. The HAp nanocrystals were coated on a gold-coated quartz sensor by electrophoretic deposition. Proteins adsorbed on the HAp sensors were removed by (i) ammonia/hydrogen peroxide mixture (APM), (ii) ultraviolet light (UV), (iii) UV/APM, (iv) APM/UV and (v) sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) treatments. FTIR spectra of the reused surfaces revealed that the APM and SDS treatments left peptide fragments or the proteins adsorbed on the surfaces, whereas the other methods successfully removed the proteins. The QCM-D measurements indicated that in the removal treatments, fibrinogen was slowly adsorbed in the first cycle because of the change in surface wettability revealed by contact angle measurements. The SDS treatment was not effective in removing proteins. The APM or UV treatment decreased the frequency shifts for the reused HAp sensors. The UV/APM treatment did not induce the frequency shifts but decreased the dissipation shifts. Therefore, we conclude that the APM/UV treatment is the most useful method for reproducing protein adsorption behavior on HAp sensors. PMID:27877351

  6. Nanoscale hydroxyapatite particles for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongjian; Lee, Jaebeom

    2011-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) exhibits excellent biocompatibility with soft tissues such as skin, muscle and gums, making it an ideal candidate for orthopedic and dental implants or components of implants. Synthetic HAp has been widely used in repair of hard tissues, and common uses include bone repair, bone augmentation, as well as coating of implants or acting as fillers in bone or teeth. However, the low mechanical strength of normal HAp ceramics generally restricts its use to low load-bearing applications. Recent advancements in nanoscience and nanotechnology have reignited investigation of nanoscale HAp formation in order to clearly define the small-scale properties of HAp. It has been suggested that nano-HAp may be an ideal biomaterial due to its good biocompatibility and bone integration ability. HAp biomedical material development has benefited significantly from advancements in nanotechnology. This feature article looks afresh at nano-HAp particles, highlighting the importance of size, crystal morphology control, and composites with other inorganic particles for biomedical material development. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nano-Hydroxyapatite Thick Film Gas Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Khairnar, Rajendra S.; Mene, Ravindra U.; Munde, Shivaji G.; Mahabole, Megha P.

    2011-12-10

    In the present work pure and metal ions (Co and Fe) doped hydroxyapatite (HAp) thick films have been successfully utilized to improve the structural, morphological and gas sensing properties. Nanocrystalline HAp powder is synthesized by wet chemical precipitation route, and ion exchange process is employed for addition of Co and Fe ions in HAp matrix. Moreover, swift heavy ion irradiation (SHI) technique is used to modify the surface of pure and metal ion exchanged HAp with various ion fluence. The structural investigation of pure and metal ion exchanged HAp thick films are carried out using X-ray diffraction and the presence of functional group is observed by means FTIR spectroscopy. Furthermore, surface morphology is visualized by means of SEM and AFM analysis. CO gas sensing study is carried out for, pure and metal ions doped, HAp thick films with detail investigation on operating temperature, response/recovery time and gas uptake capacity. The surface modifications of sensor matrix by SHI enhance the gas response, response/recovery and gas uptake capacity. The significant observation is here to note that, addition of Co and Fe in HAp matrix and surface modification by SHI improves the sensing properties of HAp films drastically resulting in gas sensing at relatively lower temperatures.

  8. Hydroxyapatite coating of threaded pins enhances fixation.

    PubMed

    Magyar, G; Toksvig-Larsen, S; Moroni, A

    1997-05-01

    We measured the insertion and extraction torque forces in a randomised study of 76 external fixation screws in 19 patients treated by hemicallotasis for osteoarthritis of the medial side of the knee. The patients were randomised to have either standard tapered screws (Orthofix 6/5 mm) or the same screws with hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. One patient had two standard and two HA-coated screws. All patients had an anterior external fixator (Orthofix T-garche), with two screws in the proximal tibial metaphysis parallel to and about 2 cm below the joint surface and two in the tibial diaphysis. The mean torque forces for insertion of the standard screws were 260 Ncm for the proximal to medial screw, 208 for the proximal to lateral screw and 498 and 546 Ncm for the diaphyseal pins. The corresponding forces for the HA-coated pins were not significantly different. The torque forces for the extraction of the standard pins were 2 Ncm for the proximal pins, 277 and 249 Ncm for the distal pins and 482, 478, 585 and 620 Ncm, respectively (p < 0.005) for the HA-coated pins. All 18 of the metaphyseal standard screws were loose at extraction (extraction force < 20 Ncm), but only one of the HA screws in the metaphysis was loose. In the diaphysis the standard screws lost about 40% of their fixation in contrast to the HA-coated screws which retained full fixation strength.

  9. A novel biomagnetic nanoparticle based on hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hsi-Chin; Wang, Tzu-Wei; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Wang, Wen-Hsi; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2007-04-01

    In the present study, magnetic HAP was synthesized at different ratios of Fe:Ca (XFe/Ca) by the co-precipitation method. We have evaluated the present essential properties including the crystal structure and cell parameters by XRD, lattice arrangement by HR-TEM, composition analysis by ICP-MS, and functional groups by FTIR. The morphology and magnetization were investigated by SEM and AFM and SQUID, respectively. The in vitro biocompatibility was also investigated with a lactate dehydrogenase assay. The results showed that the crystal and molecular structure of the synthesized magnetic-HAP nanoparticle remained unaltered without collapse with the addition of iron ions. The lattice constants of m-HAP were similar to reference JCPDS card no. 9-432. The magnetization of m-HAP nanoparticles increased with increasing XFe/Ca and possessed the superparamagnetic property with size distribution around 20 nm. The hydroxyapatite-based magnetic nanoparticles were also examined with good biocompatibility. With the appropriate physico-chemical and biological properties, the magnetic-HAP nanoparticles would have great potential to be applied in biomedical applications.

  10. Crystallographic Properties of Physiological Hydroxyapatite as a Function of Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leventouri, Th.; Venturelli, R.; Kyriacou, A.

    2007-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite with 4-6 wt % B-type carbonate substitution is the major mineral component in our teeth and bones. Crystal structure properties of human teeth as a function of age between 17 and 91 years are investigated. X-ray powder diffraction reveals a partial phase transition from the hexagonal Ca5(PO4)3OH (Hydroxyapatite) to the triclinic Ca4H(PO4)3.2H2O (Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate Hydrate) at the 70 year old tooth. This phase becomes predominant in the diffraction pattern of a 91 year old tooth. Correlation of such transition with physical properties of synthetic hydroxyapatite could provide useful insights in dentistry and medicine.

  11. Crystallographic texture in pulsed laser deposited hydroxyapatite bioceramic coatings

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunbin; Camata, Renato P.; Lee, Sukbin; Rohrer, Gregory S.; Rollett, Anthony D.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2008-01-01

    The orientation texture of pulsed laser deposited hydroxyapatite coatings was studied by X-ray diffraction techniques. Increasing the laser energy density of the KrF excimer laser used in the deposition process from 5 to 7 J/cm2 increases the tendency for the c-axes of the hydroxyapatite grains to be aligned perpendicular to the substrate. This preferred orientation is most pronounced when the incidence direction of the plume is normal to the substrate. Orientation texture of the hydroxyapatite grains in the coatings is associated with the highly directional and energetic nature of the ablation plume. Anisotropic stresses, transport of hydroxyl groups and dehydroxylation effects during deposition all seem to play important roles in the texture development. PMID:18563207

  12. Mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite single crystals from nanoindentation data

    PubMed Central

    Zamiri, A.; De, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we compute elasto-plastic properties of hydroxyapatite single crystals from nanindentation data using a two-step algorithm. In the first step the yield stress is obtained using hardness and Young’s modulus data, followed by the computation of the flow parameters. The computational approach is first validated with data from existing literature. It is observed that hydroxyapatite single crystals exhibit anisotropic mechanical response with a lower yield stress along the [1010] crystallographic direction compared to the [0001] direction. Both work hardening rate and work hardening exponent are found to be higher for indentation along the [0001] crystallographic direction. The stress-strain curves extracted here could be used for developing constitutive models for hydroxyapatite single crystals. PMID:21262492

  13. Extracorporeal hydroxyapatite-chamber for bone and biomaterial studies.

    PubMed

    Tarallo, Luigi; Zaffe, Davide; Adani, Roberto; Krajewski, Adriano; Ravaglioli, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) spherules and autologous bone (AB) with a central vascular pedicle were housed inside an HA-chamber to form the skeletal segment of specific shape. Experimental chambers were then inserted in a pocket between medial thigh muscles in 13 New Zealand male rabbits for 3 months. Three graft group were scheduled: (A) HA and AB without vascular pedicle, (B) HA with vascular pedicle, (C) HA and AB with vascular pedicle. At term, histology showed tissue and cellular degeneration in group A chambers. Due to spherules coalescence, fibrous tissue is formed in group B chambers. Group C chambers contained living osteocytes in the implanted bone, several newly formed vessels in soft tissue, bone and partial hydroxyapatite erosions. New bone was formed in apposition to both autologous bone and hydroxyapatite. Our study suggests that this experimental model could be used to grow adequately sized vascularized skeletal segments.

  14. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Silver-Doped Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ciobanu, Carmen Steluta; Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Costescu, Adrian; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Predoi, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of nanosized particles of Ag-doped hydroxyapatite with antibacterial properties is of great interest for the development of new biomedical applications. The aim of this study was the evaluation of Ca10−xAgx(PO4)6(OH)2 nanoparticles (Ag:HAp-NPs) for their antibacterial and antifungal activity. Resistance to antimicrobial agents by pathogenic bacteria has emerged in the recent years and became a major health problem. Here, we report a method for synthesizing Ag doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite. A silver-doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite was synthesized at 100°C in deionised water. Also, in this paper Ag:HAp-NPs are evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungal strains. The specific antimicrobial activity revealed by the qualitative assay is demonstrating that our compounds are interacting differently with the microbial targets, probably due to the differences in the microbial wall structures. PMID:23509801

  15. Fabrication, Properties and Applications of Dense Hydroxyapatite: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Prakasam, Mythili; Locs, Janis; Salma-Ancane, Kristine; Loca, Dagnija; Largeteau, Alain; Berzina-Cimdina, Liga

    2015-01-01

    In the last five decades, there have been vast advances in the field of biomaterials, including ceramics, glasses, glass-ceramics and metal alloys. Dense and porous ceramics have been widely used for various biomedical applications. Current applications of bioceramics include bone grafts, spinal fusion, bone repairs, bone fillers, maxillofacial reconstruction, etc. Amongst the various calcium phosphate compositions, hydroxyapatite, which has a composition similar to human bone, has attracted wide interest. Much emphasis is given to tissue engineering, both in porous and dense ceramic forms. The current review focusses on the various applications of dense hydroxyapatite and other dense biomaterials on the aspects of transparency and the mechanical and electrical behavior. Prospective future applications, established along the aforesaid applications of hydroxyapatite, appear to be promising regarding bone bonding, advanced medical treatment methods, improvement of the mechanical strength of artificial bone grafts and better in vitro/in vivo methodologies to afford more particular outcomes. PMID:26703750

  16. Mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite single crystals from nanoindentation data.

    PubMed

    Zamiri, A; De, S

    2011-02-01

    In this paper we compute elastoplastic properties of hydroxyapatite single crystals from nanoindentation data using a two-step algorithm. In the first step the yield stress is obtained using hardness and Young's modulus data, followed by the computation of the flow parameters. The computational approach is first validated with data from the existing literature. It is observed that hydroxyapatite single crystals exhibit anisotropic mechanical response with a lower yield stress along the [1010] crystallographic direction compared to the [0001] direction. Both work hardening rate and work hardening exponent are found to be higher for indentation along the [0001] crystallographic direction. The stress-strain curves extracted here could be used for developing constitutive models for hydroxyapatite single crystals.

  17. Regenerated cellulose/wool blend enhanced biomimetic hydroxyapatite mineralization.

    PubMed

    Salama, Ahmed; El-Sakhawy, Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    The current article investigates the effect of bioactive cellulose/wool blend on calcium phosphate biomimetic mineralization. Regenerated cellulose/wool blend was prepared by dissolution-regeneration of neat cellulose and natural wool in 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride [Bmim][Cl], as a solvent for the two polymers. Crystalline hydroxyapatite nanofibers with a uniform size, shape and dimension were formed after immersing the bioactive blend in simulated body fluid. The cytotoxicity of cellulose/wool/hydroxyapatite was studied using animal fibroblast baby hamster kidney cells (BHK-21) and the result displayed good cytocompatability. This research work presents a green processing method for the development of novel cellulose/wool/hydroxyapatite hybrid materials for tissue engineering applications.

  18. [IN VIVO EVALUATION OF POLYCAPROLACTONE-HYDROXYAPATITE SCAFFOLD BIOCOMPATIBILITY].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A N; Kozadaev, M N; Bogomolova, N V; Matveeva, O V; Puchinyan, D M; Norkin, I A; Sal'kovskii, Yu E; Lyubun, G P

    2015-01-01

    Biocompatibility is one of the main and very important properties for scaffolds. The aim of the present study was to investigate cells population dynamics in vivo in the process of original polycaprolactone-hydroxyapatite scaffold colonization, as well as tissue reactions to the implantation to assess the biocompatibility of the matrix. It has been found that tissue reactive changes in white rats subside completely up to the 21st day after subcutaneous polycaprolactone-hydroxyapatite scaffold implantation. Matrix was actively colonized by connective tissue cells in the period from the 7th to the 21st day of the experiment. However, intensive scaffold vascularization started from the 14th day after implantation. These findings suggest a high degree of the polycaprolactone-hydroxyapatite scaffold biocompatiblilitye.

  19. Preparation of highly porous hydroxyapatite from cuttlefish bone.

    PubMed

    Ivankovic, H; Gallego Ferrer, G; Tkalcec, E; Orlic, S; Ivankovic, M

    2009-05-01

    Hydroxyapatite structures for tissue engineering applications have been produced by hydrothermal (HT) treatment of aragonite in the form of cuttlefish bone at 200 degrees C. Aragonite (CaCO(3)) monoliths were completely transformed into hydroxyapatite after 48 h of HT treatment. The substitution of CO(3) (2-) groups predominantly into the PO(4) (3-) sites of the Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2) structure was suggested by FT-IR spectroscopy and Rietveld structure refinement. The intensity of the nu(3)PO(4) (3-) bands increase, while the intensity of the nu(2)CO(3) (2-) bands decrease with the duration of HT treatment resulting in the formation of carbonate incorporating hydroxyapatite. The SEM micrographs have shown that the interconnected hollow structure with pillars connecting parallel lamellae in cuttlefish bone is maintained after conversion. Specific surface area (S (BET)) and total pore volume increased and mean pore size decreased by HT treatment.

  20. Recent Advances in Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds Containing Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Michel, John; Penna, Matthew; Kochen, Juan; Cheung, Herman

    2015-01-01

    Modern day tissue engineering and cellular therapies have gravitated toward using stem cells with scaffolds as a dynamic modality to aid in differentiation and tissue regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the most studied stem cells used in combination with scaffolds. These cells differentiate along the osteogenic lineage when seeded on hydroxyapatite containing scaffolds and can be used as a therapeutic option to regenerate various tissues. In recent years, the combination of hydroxyapatite and natural or synthetic polymers has been studied extensively. Due to the interest in these scaffolds, this review will cover the wide range of hydroxyapatite containing scaffolds used with MSCs for in vitro and in vivo experiments. Further, in order to maintain a progressive scope of the field this review article will only focus on literature utilizing adult human derived MSCs (hMSCs) published in the last three years. PMID:26106425

  1. Nanoparticle fabrication of hydroxyapatite by laser ablation in water

    SciTech Connect

    Musaev, O. R.; Wieliczka, D. M.; Wrobel, J. M.; Kruger, M. B.; Dusevich, V.

    2008-10-15

    Synthetic polycrystalline hydroxyapatite was ablated in water with 337 nm radiation from a UV nitrogen pulsed laser. According to transmission electron microscopy micrographs, the ablated particles were approximately spherical and had a size of {approx}80 nm. Raman spectroscopic analysis demonstrated that particles had the same structure as the original crystal. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the surface chemical composition was close to that of the original material. The characteristics of the ablated particles and estimations of the temperature rise of the hydroxyapatite surface under laser irradiation are consistent with the mechanism of explosive boiling being responsible for ablation. The experimental observations offer the basis for preparation of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by laser ablation in water.

  2. Characterization of phase evolution during lead immobilization by synthetic hydroxyapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Mavropoulos, Elena; Rocha, Nilce C.C.; Soares, Gloria A. . E-mail: Gloria@ufrj.br

    2004-09-15

    Immobilization of toxic metals by calcium phosphates is a promising technology for treating contaminated soil, water and wastes. A detailed study on the mechanisms of lead immobilization by hydroxyapatite has been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). For this, synthetic hydroxyapatite powder were submitted to a sorption process through exposure to an aqueous solution containing 917 mg L{sup -1} of lead for times that varied from 3 min to 54 h. The results obtained reinforce the hypothesis that hydroxypyromorphite formation is the end of a kinetic process in which the hydroxyapatite crystals are continuously dissolved and recrystallized in order to form more stable structures with higher lead content. Consequently, the use of calcium phosphates to immobilize lead ions seems to be technically viable.

  3. [Fracture healing under intramedullary insertion of wires with hydroxyapatite coating].

    PubMed

    Ir'ianov, Iu M; Kir'ianov, N A; Popkov, A V

    2014-01-01

    To study morphological features of the bone formation process in consolidation of fractures of long tubular bones in conditions of intramedullary wires insertion with bioactive calcium-phosphate coating of hydroxyapatite. In experimental study in dogs was simulated open comminuted tibia fracture and performed intramedullary insertion of wires with hydroxyapatite coating. Using light and electron microscopy, using X-ray electron microprobe microanalyses were studied bone regenerates in 14-360 days after surgery. It was found that around wires there is a formation of an area of active reparative bone formation and angiogenesis, bone shaped case with the properties of the conductor and inducer of osteogenesis. Fracture consolidation is carried out in the early stages of the primary type without formation of cartilage and connective tissue in the bone adhesion. Study results testify that intramedullary wires with hydroxyapatite coating positively influence on the process and intensity of reparative bone formation in fracture healing.

  4. The precursors effects on biomimetic hydroxyapatite ceramic powders.

    PubMed

    Yoruç, Afife Binnaz Hazar; Aydınoğlu, Aysu

    2017-06-01

    In this study, effects of the starting material on chemical, physical, and biological properties of biomimetic hydroxyapatite ceramic powders (BHA) were investigated. Characterization and chemical analysis of BHA powders were performed by using XRD, FT-IR, and ICP-AES. Microstructural features such as size and morphology of the resulting BHA powders were characterized by using BET, nano particle sizer, pycnometer, and SEM. Additionally, biological properties of the BHA ceramic powders were also investigated by using water-soluble tetrazolium salts test (WST-1). According to the chemical analysis of BHA ceramic powders, chemical structures of ceramics which are prepared under different conditions and by using different starting materials show differences. Ceramic powders which are produced at 80°C are mainly composed of hydroxyapatite, dental hydroxyapatite (contain Na and Mg elements in addition to Ca), and calcium phosphate sulfide. However, these structures are altered at high temperatures such as 900°C depending on the features of starting materials and form various calcium phosphate ceramics and/or their mixtures such as Na-Mg-hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, Mg-Whitlockit, and chloroapatite. In vitro cytotoxicity studies showed that amorphous ceramics produced at 80°C and ceramics containing chloroapatite structure as main or secondary phases were found to be extremely cytotoxic. Furthermore, cell culture studies showed that highly crystalline pure hydroxyapatite structures were extremely cytotoxic due to their high crystallinity values. Consequently, the current study indicates that the selection of starting materials which can be used in the production of calcium phosphate ceramics is very important. It is possible to produce calcium phosphate ceramics which have sufficient biocompatibility at physiological pH values and by using appropriate starting materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydroxyapatite Growth Inhibition Effect of Pellicle Statherin Peptides.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Y; Karttunen, M; Jalkanen, J; Mussi, M C M; Liao, Y; Grohe, B; Lagugné-Labarthet, F; Siqueira, W L

    2015-08-01

    In our recent studies, we have shown that in vivo-acquired enamel pellicle is a sophisticated biological structure containing a significant portion of naturally occurring salivary peptides. From a functional aspect, the identification of peptides in the acquired enamel pellicle is of interest because many salivary proteins exhibit functional domains that maintain the activities of the native protein. Among the in vivo-acquired enamel pellicle peptides that have been newly identified, 5 peptides are derived from statherin. Here, we assessed the ability of these statherin pellicle peptides to inhibit hydroxyapatite crystal growth. In addition, atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to better understand the underlying physical mechanisms of hydroxyapatite growth inhibition. A microplate colorimetric assay was used to quantify hydroxyapatite growth. Statherin protein, 5 statherin-derived peptides, and a peptide lacking phosphate at residues 2 and 3 were analyzed. Statherin peptide phosphorylated on residues 2 and 3 indicated a significant inhibitory effect when compared with the 5 other peptides (P < 0.05). MD simulations showed a strong affinity and fast adsorption to hydroxyapatite for phosphopeptides, whereas unphosphorylated peptides interacted weakly with the hydroxyapatite. Our data suggest that the presence of a covalently linked phosphate group (at residues 2 and 3) in statherin peptides modulates the effect of hydroxyapatite growth inhibition. This study provides a mechanism to account for the composition and function of acquired enamel pellicle statherin peptides that will contribute as a base for the development of biologically stable and functional synthetic peptides for therapeutic use against dental caries and/or periodontal disease.

  6. Localized drugs delivery hydroxyapatite microspheres for osteoporosis therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Ko, I. H.; Jeon, S.-H.; Chae, J. H.; Lee, E. J.; Chang, J. H.

    2011-10-01

    This study describes the preparation of hydroxyapatite microspheres for local drugs delivery. The formation of the hydroxyapatite microspheres was initiated by enzymatic decomposition of urea and accomplished by emulsification process (water-in-oil). The microspheres obtained were sintered at 500°C. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicated that the microspheres have various porous with random size, which maximizes the surface area. Cytotoxicity was not observed after sintering. Osteoporosis drugs, alendronate and BMP-2, were loaded into HAp microspheres and the releases of both molecules showed sustained releasing profiles.

  7. Polymer assisted hydroxyapatite microspheres suitable for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Sinha, A; Mishra, T; Ravishankar, N

    2008-05-01

    Hollow Microspheres of hydroxyapatite-polymer composite can be used as carriers in drug delivery and fillers in tissue engineering. Based on the concept of soft chemistry, a battery of technique is available in the literature to synthesize hollow microspheres, however, an economically viable synthesis route, having good control over the microarchitect and easy to be scaled up, is yet to be developed. Polymer matrix mediated synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles is known to synthesize nanoparticles with controlled morphology and dimensions. It is termed as biomimetic synthesis. Integrating the biomimetic synthesis of nano-particles and spray drying techniques, a novel process of producing hydroxyapatite-polymer composite hollow microspheres is briefly discussed here.

  8. Laser-surface-alloyed carbon nanotubes reinforced hydroxyapatite composite coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yao; Gan Cuihua; Zhang Tainua; Yu Gang; Bai Pucun; Kaplan, Alexander

    2005-06-20

    Carbon-nanotube (CNT)-reinforced hydroxyapatite composite coatings have been fabricated by laser surface alloying. Microstructural observation using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed that a large amount of CNTs remained with their original tubular morphology, even though some CNTs reacted with titanium element in the substrate during laser irradiation. Additionally, measurements on the elastic modulus and hardness of the composite coatings indicated that the mechanical properties were affected by the amount of CNTs in the starting precursor materials. Therefore, CNT-reinforced hydroxyapatite composite is a promising coating material for high-load-bearing metal implants.

  9. Laser-surface-alloyed carbon nanotubes reinforced hydroxyapatite composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yao; Gan, Cuihua; Zhang, Tainua; Yu, Gang; Bai, Pucun; Kaplan, Alexander

    2005-06-01

    Carbon-nanotube (CNT)-reinforced hydroxyapatite composite coatings have been fabricated by laser surface alloying. Microstructural observation using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed that a large amount of CNTs remained with their original tubular morphology, even though some CNTs reacted with titanium element in the substrate during laser irradiation. Additionally, measurements on the elastic modulus and hardness of the composite coatings indicated that the mechanical properties were affected by the amount of CNTs in the starting precursor materials. Therefore, CNT-reinforced hydroxyapatite composite is a promising coating material for high-load-bearing metal implants.

  10. Structural study and phase transition investigation in a simple synthesis of porous architected-ZnO nanopowder

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, C.; Barnabé, A.

    2013-12-15

    In this work, zinc oxide powder with a rectangular-shaped porous architecture, made of numerous spherical nanometric particles, was obtained. A simple precipitation/decomposition procedure was used comprising a zinc oxalate intermediate, obtained from zinc sulfate and oxalic acid without any additives. Detailed studies on zinc oxalate dehydration, decomposition and zinc oxide formation, were carried out using in-situ temperature X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. During the investigation, the temperature dependence of particle sizes, lattice parameters and crystal structures of ZnC{sub 2}O{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O, ZnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnO nanopowders were analyzed from room temperature to 450 °C. Structural transitions were also discussed. The structure and morphology of the as-prepared ZnO nanopowder were investigated by electron microscopy and compared to the crystalline rectangular shape of ZnC{sub 2}O{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O. The calcination temperature, counter ion and precipitate agent were found to be related to the product's shape and diameter. Spherical ZnO nanoparticles with diameters of less than 20 nm and a maximum specific surface of 53 m{sup 2}/g were obtained using this method. Highlights: • ZnO nanopowders with porous architecture were synthesized by a simple method. • Spherical ZnO nanoparticles confined in submicronic rectangular shape are obtained. • Crystal structures are determined temperature in-situ XRD up to 450 °C. • Structural transitions were analyzed.

  11. Autogenic synthesis of green- and red-emitting single-phase Pr(2)O(2)CO(3) and PrO(1.833) luminescent nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Calderon Moreno, Jose M; Pol, Vilas G; Suh, Soong-Hyuck; Popa, Monica

    2010-11-01

    This Article reveals a rare synthesis of pure Pr(2)O(2)CO(3) (POC) nanopowder by thermolysis (700 °C) of a single chemical precursor in an autogenic reaction. The autogenic thermolysis of praseodymium acetate is a solvent-free, efficient, and straightforward approach yielding luminescent POC nanoparticles. The as-prepared POC nanopowder converted to PrO(1.833) (PO) powder via combustion. Methodical morphological, structural, and compositional characterizations of POC and PO powders are carried out, supported by mechanistic elucidation and the photoluminescent properties.

  12. Molecular mechanics of tropocollagen-hydroxyapatite biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    Hard biomaterials such as bone, dentin, and nacre show remarkable mechanical performance and serve as inspiration for development of next generation of composite materials with high strength and toughness. Such materials have primarily an organic phase (e.g. tropocollagen (TC) or chitin) and a mineral phase (e.g. hydroxyapatite (HAP) or aragonite) arranged in a staggered arrangement at nanoscopic length scales. Interfacial interactions between the organic phases and the mineral phases and structural effects arising due to the staggered and hierarchical arrangements are identified to be the two most important determinants for high mechanical performance of such biomaterials. Effects of these determinants in such biomaterials are further intertwined with factors such as loading configuration, chemical environment, mineral crystal shape, and residue sequences in polymer chains. Atomistic modeling is a desired approach to investigate such sub nanoscale issues as experimental techniques for investigations at such small scale are still in nascent stage. For this purpose, explicit three dimensional (3D) molecular dynamics (MD) and ab initio MD simulations of quasi-static mechanical deformations of idealized Tropocollagen-Hydroxyapatite (TC-HAP) biomaterials with distinct interfacial arrangements and different loading configurations are performed. Focus is on developing insights into the molecular level mechanics of TC-HAP biomaterials at fundamental lengthscale with emphasis on interface phenomenon. Idealized TC-HAP atomistic models are analyzed for their mechanical strength and fracture failure behavior from the viewpoint of interfacial interactions between TC and HAP and associated molecular mechanisms. In particular, study focuses on developing an understanding of factors such as role of interfacial structural arrangement, hierarchical structure design, influence of water, effect of changes in HAP crystal shape, and mutations in TC molecule on the mechanical strength

  13. Femur bone repair in ovariectomized rats under the local action of alendronate, hydroxyapatite and the association of alendronate and hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Canettieri, Antonio Carlos Victor; Colombo, Carlos Eduardo Dias; Chin, Chung Man; Faig-Leite, Horácio

    2009-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the local action of alendronate sodium (A), hydroxyapatite (HA) and the association of both substances (A + HA), in different molar concentrations, on the femur bone repair of ovariectomized rats. Ninety-eight animals were divided into seven groups: control (C), starch (S), alendronate 1 mol (A1), alendronate 2 mols (A2), hydroxyapatite 1 mol (HA1), hydroxyapatite 2 mols (HA2) and the association of alendronate + hydroxyapatite (A + HA). Rats weighing about 250 g were ovariectomized and 2.5-mm diameter bone defects were made on the left femur 30 days later. Each experimental group had defects filled with appropriate material, except for group C (control). The animals were killed 7 and 21 days after surgery. Histological, histomorphometric and statistical analyses of bone neoformation in the bone defect site were performed. From the histological standpoint, the major differences occurred after 21 days. All specimens in groups C, S, HA1 and HA2 presented linear closure of the bone defect, and most animals in groups A1, A2 and A + HA showed no bone neoformation in the central area of the defect. No statistically significant difference was found among the experimental groups after 7 days; after 21 days, group HA2 presented the highest amount of neoformed bone. There was no significant difference among groups A1, A2 and A + HA in the two study periods. It was concluded that alendronate, either isolated or in association with hydroxyapatite, had an adverse effect on bone repair in this experimental model. Moreover, the hydroxyapatite used here proved to be biocompatible and osteoconductive, with group HA2 showing the best results. PMID:19765106

  14. Hydroxyapatite-reinforced collagen tissue engineering scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Robert J.

    Scaffolds have been fabricated from a wide variety of materials and most have showed some success, either as bone graft substitutes or as tissue engineering scaffolds. However, all current scaffold compositions and architectures suffer from one or more flaws including poor mechanical properties, lack of biological response, nondegradability, or a scaffold architecture not conducive to osteointegration. Biomimetic approaches to scaffold design using the two main components of bone tissue, collagen and hydroxyapatite, resulted in scaffolds with superior biological properties but relatively poor mechanical properties and scaffold architecture. It was hypothesized that by optimizing scaffold composition and architecture, HA-collagen bone tissue engineering scaffolds could provide both an excellent biological response along with improved structural properties. The mechanical properties of freeze-dried HA-collagen scaffolds, the most common type of porous HA-collagen material, were first shown to be increased by the addition of HA reinforcements, but scaffold stiffness still fell far short of the desired range. Based on limitations inherent in the freeze-dried process, a new type of leached-porogen scaffold fabrication process was developed. Proof-of-concept scaffolds demonstrated the feasibility of producing leached-porogen HA-collagen materials, and the scaffold architecture was optimized though careful selection of porogen particle size and shape along with an improved crosslinking technique. The final scaffolds exhibited substantially increased compressive modulus compared to previous types HA-collagen scaffolds, while the porosity, pore size, and scaffold permeability were tailored to be suitable for bone tissue ingrowth. An in vitro study demonstrated the capacity of the leached-porogen scaffolds to serve as a substrate for the differentiation of osteoblasts and subsequent production of new bone tissue. The new leached-porogen scaffold HA-collagen scaffolds were

  15. Hydroxyapatite implants with designed internal architecture.

    PubMed

    Chu, T M; Halloran, J W; Hollister, S J; Feinberg, S E

    2001-06-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) has been used as a bone graft material in the clinics for decades. Traditionally, the pores in these HAs are either obtained from the coralline exoskeletal patterns or from the embedded organic particles in the starting HA powder. Both processes offer very limited control on the pore structure. A new method for manufacturing porous HA with designed pore channels has been developed. This method is essentially a lost-mold technique with negative molds made with Stereolithography and a highly loaded curable HA suspension as the ceramic carrier. Implants with designed channels and connection patterns were first generated from a Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) software and Computer Tomography (CT) data. The negative images of the designs were used to build the molds on a stereolithography apparatus with epoxy resins. A 40 vol% HA suspension in propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate (PNPGDA) and iso-bornyl acrylate (IBA) was formulated. HA suspension was cast into the epoxy molds and cured into solid at 85 degrees C. The molds and acrylate binders were removed by pyrolysis, followed by HA green body sintering. With this method, implants with six different channel designs were built successfully and the designed channels were reproduced in the sintered HA implants. The channels created in the sintered HA implants were between 366 microm and 968 microm in diameter with standard deviations of 50 microm or less. The porosity created by the channels were between 26% and 52%. The results show that HA implants with designed connection pattern and well controlled channel size can be built with the technique developed in this study. Copyright 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers

  16. Intrinsic and Ce 3+-related luminescence of YAG and YAG:Ce single crystals, single crystalline films and nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Zych, E.; Voloshinovskii, A.

    2009-10-01

    A comparative analysis of the luminescent properties of YAG and YAG:Ce nanopowders (NP) in comparison with single crystalline film (SCF) and single crystal (SC) analogues was performed under excitation by a pulsed synchrotron and X-ray radiation. It was shown that the natural defects concentration in NP was between the SC with a large (˜0.18-0.19 at.%) concentration of Y Al antisite defects (AD) and SCF of these garnets where Y Al AD were completely absent. At the same time, Ce 3+ doped YAG NP showed luminescent properties close to those of YAG:Ce SCF.

  17. Physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of nanopowdered eggshell-supplemented yogurt during storage.

    PubMed

    Al Mijan, Mohammad; Choi, Kyung-Hoon; Kwak, Hae-Soo

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of adding nanopowdered eggshell (NPES) into yogurt to improve the functionality of yogurt and the effects of adding NPES on the physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of the products during storage. The pH and mean lactic acid bacteria counts of NPES-added (0.15-0.45%, wt/vol) yogurt ranged from 4.31 to 4.66 and from 6.56 × 10(8) to 8.56 × 10(8)cfu/mL, respectively, whereas these values ranged from 4.13 to 4.44 and 8.46 × 10(8) to 1.39 × 10(9), respectively, for the control samples during storage at 5 °C for 16d, which indicates a prolonged shelf-life with NPES-supplemented yogurt. Color analysis showed that the lightness (L*) and position between red and green (a*) values were not significantly influenced by the addition of NPES. However, the position between yellow and blue (b*) value significantly increased with the addition of the concentration (0.45%, wt/vol) of NPES at d 16 of storage. Sensory evaluation revealed that NPES-added yogurts showed a notably less sourness score and a higher astringency score than the control. An earthy flavor was higher in 0.45% NPES-supplemented yogurt compared with the control. Based on the results obtained from the current study, the concentration (0.15 to 0.30%, wt/vol) of NPES can be used to formulate NPES-supplemented yogurt without any significant adverse effects on the physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultrasound assisted dispersal of a copper nanopowder for electroless copper activation.

    PubMed

    Graves, John E; Sugden, Mark; Litchfield, Robert E; Hutt, David A; Mason, Timothy J; Cobley, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the ultrasound assisted dispersal of a low wt./vol.% copper nanopowder mixture and determines the optimum conditions for de-agglomeration. A commercially available powder was added to propan-2-ol and dispersed using a magnetic stirrer, a high frequency 850 kHz ultrasonic cell, a standard 40 kHz bath and a 20 kHz ultrasonic probe. The particle size of the powder was characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS). Z-Average diameters (mean cluster size based on the intensity of scattered light) and intensity, volume and number size distributions were monitored as a function of time and energy input. Low frequency ultrasound was found to be more effective than high frequency ultrasound at de-agglomerating the powder and dispersion with a 20 kHz ultrasonic probe was found to be very effective at breaking apart large agglomerates containing weakly bound clusters of nanoparticles. In general, the breakage of nanoclusters was found to be a factor of ultrasonic intensity, the higher the intensity the greater the de-agglomeration and typically micron sized clusters were reduced to sub 100 nm particles in less than 30 min using optimum conditions. However, there came a point at which the forces generated by ultrasonic cavitation were either insufficient to overcome the cohesive bonds between smaller aggregates or at very high intensities decoupling between the tip and solution occurred. Absorption spectroscopy indicated a copper core structure with a thin oxide shell and the catalytic performance of this dispersion was demonstrated by drop coating onto substrates and subsequent electroless copper metallization. This relatively inexpensive catalytic suspension has the potential to replace precious metal based colloids used in electronics manufacturing.

  19. Physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of yogurt supplemented with nanopowdered chitosan during storage.

    PubMed

    Seo, M H; Lee, S Y; Chang, Y H; Kwak, H S

    2009-12-01

    This study was carried out to determine the possibility of adding nanopowdered chitosan (NPC) into cholesterol-reduced yogurt to improve the functionality of yogurt and the effects of adding NPC on the physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of the products during storage. The pH values and mean lactic acid bacteria counts of NPC-added (0.3 to approximately 0.7%, wt/vol) and cholesterol-reduced yogurt ranged from 4.19 to 4.41 and from 4.75 x 10(8) to 9.70 x 10(8) cfu/mL, respectively, when stored at 4 degrees C for 20 d, thereby indicating a possibility of prolonging the shelf life of yogurt. In color, the a* and b* values for cholesterol-reduced yogurt were not significantly influenced by the addition of NPC (0.1 to approximately 0.7%, wt/vol); however, the L* values significantly decreased with the addition of the greatest concentration (0.7%, wt/vol) of NPC at 0-d storage. The sensory test revealed that the astringency scores significantly increased at 0-d storage when the greatest concentration (0.7%, wt/vol) of NPC was added into cholesterol-reduced yogurt. Based on the data obtained from the current study, it is concluded that concentrations (0.3 to ~0.5%, vol/vol) of NPC could be used to produce an NPC-added and cholesterol-reduced yogurt without significantly adverse effects on the physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties.

  20. Reverse micelle synthesis of oxide nanopowders: mechanisms of precipitate formation and agglomeration effects.

    PubMed

    Graeve, Olivia A; Fathi, Hoorshad; Kelly, James P; Saterlie, Michael S; Sinha, Kaustav; Rojas-George, Gabriel; Kanakala, Raghunath; Brown, David R; Lopez, Enrique A

    2013-10-01

    We present an analysis of reverse micelle stability in four model systems. The first two systems, composed of unstable microemulsions of isooctane, water, and Na-AOT with additions of either iron sulfate or yttrium nitrate, were used for the synthesis of iron oxide or yttrium oxide powders. These oxide powders were of nanocrystalline character, but with some level of agglomeration that was dependent on calcination temperature and cleaning procedures. Results show that even though the reverse micellar solutions were unstable, nanocrystalline powders with very low levels of agglomeration could be obtained. This effect can be attributed to the protective action of the surfactant on the surfaces of the powders that prevents neck formation until after all the surfactant has volatilized. A striking feature of the IR spectra collected on the iron oxide powders is the absence of peaks in the ~1715 cm(-1) to 1750 cm(-1) region, where absorption due to the symmetric C=O (carbonyl) stretching occurs. The lack of such peaks strongly suggests the carbonyl group is no longer free, but is actively participating in the surfactant-precipitate interaction. The final two microemulsion systems, containing CTAB as the surfactant, showed that loss of control of the reverse micelle synthesis process can easily occur when the amount of salt in the water domains exceeds a critical concentration. Both model systems eventually resulted in agglomerated powders of broad size distributions or particles that were large compared to the sizes of the reverse micelles, consistent with the notion that the microemulsions were not stable and the powders were precipitated in an uncontrolled fashion. This has implications for the synthesis of nanopowders by reverse micelle synthesis and provides a benchmark for process control if powders of the highest quality are desired.

  1. Mechanism of Zn stabilization in hydroxyapatite and hydrated (0 0 1) surfaces of hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Matos, M; Terra, J; Ellis, D E

    2010-04-14

    A basic understanding of Zn incorporation on bulk and hydrated (0 0 1) surfaces of hydroxyapatite (HA) is attained through electronic structure calculations which use a combined first principles density functional (DFT) and extended Hückel tight binding (EHTB) methodology. A Zn substituted hydroxyapatite relaxed structure is obtained through a periodic cell DFT geometry optimization method. Electronic structure properties are calculated by using both cluster DFT and periodic cell EHTB methods. Bond order calculations show that Zn preference for the Ca2 vacancy, near the OH channel and with greater structural flexibility, is associated with the formation of a four-fold (bulk) and nearly four-fold (surface) coordination, as in ZnO. When occupying the octahedral Ca1 vacancy, Zn remains six-fold in the bulk, but coordination decreases to five-fold in the surface. In the bulk and surface, Zn2 is found to be more covalent than Zn1, due to a decrease in bond lengths at the four-fold site, which approach the 1.99 Å ZnO value. Zn is however considerably less bound in the biomaterial than in the oxide, where calculated bond orders are twice as large as in HA. Surface phosphate groups (PO(4)) and hydroxide ions behave as compact individual units as in the bulk; no evidence is found for the presence of HPO(4). Ca-O bond orders decrease at the surface, with a consequent increase in ionicity. Comparison between DFT and EHTB results show that the latter method gives a good qualitative account of charge and bonding in these systems.

  2. Electrophoretic deposition of zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guangfei; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Shengmin

    2014-06-01

    Zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized by the co-precipitation method were used to coat stainless steel plates by electrophoretic deposition in n-butanol with triethanolamine as a dispersant. The effect of zinc concentration in the synthesis on the morphology and microstructure of coatings was investigated. It is found that the deposition current densities significantly increase with the increasing zinc concentration. The zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It is inferred that hydroxyapatite and triethanolamine predominate in the chemical composition of coatings. With the increasing Zn/Ca ratios, the contents of triethanolamine decrease in the final products. The triethanolamine can be burnt out by heat treatment. The tests of adhesive strength have confirmed good adhesion between the coatings and substrates. The formation of new apatite layer on the coatings has been observed after 7days of immersion in a simulated body fluid. In summary, the results show that dense, uniform zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings are obtained by electrophoretic deposition when the Zn/Ca ratio reaches 5%.

  3. Peculiarities of hydroxyapatite/nanodiamond composites as novel implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramatarova, L.; Dimitrova, R.; Pecheva, E.; Spassov, T.; Dimitrova, M.

    2007-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite/detonation nanodiamond composites are created on silica glass and cover glass by simple soaking process in an open deposition type set-up. The supersaturated solution (simulated body fluid, SBF) is prepared in a way to resemble the composition of human blood plasma. The composite growth is carried out through the addition of detonation nanodiamond particles to the SBF. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy are used to determine the surface morphology and the structure of the hydroxyapatite /detonation nanodiamond composite layers. The applied methods provide evidence that the nanodiamond surface functional groups interact strongly with the biological solution. The detonation nanodiamond surface is chemically multifunctional (surface OH, C-O-H, C = C, C-O-C and C = O groups exist), so that the hydroxyapatite is grown both by physical adsorption and chemical interaction. The OH- groups are regarded to play an important role in the hydroxyapatite growth on a diamond's surface from SBF, as they charge it negatively and attract Ca2+ ions, which in turn attract PO43- ions, thus forming apatite nuclei.

  4. Hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on hydroxyapatite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Sana Ben; Bachouâ, Hassen; Gruselle, Michel; Beaunier, Patricia; Flambard, Alexandrine; Badraoui, Béchir

    2017-04-01

    The present article details the formation of calcium hydroxyapatite synthesized by the hydrothermal way, in presence of glycine or sarcosine. The presence of these amino-acids during the synthetic processes reduces the crystalline growthing through the formation of hybrid organic-inorganic species The crystallite sizes are decreasing and the morphology is modified with the increase of the amino-acid concentration.

  5. [Repair of incus long arm defects by hydroxyapatite bone cement].

    PubMed

    Olgun, Yüksel; Pınar, Ercan; İmre, Abdülkadir; Önal, Haydar Kazım; Aslan, Hale; Ateş, Düzgün

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate our ossiculoplasty results using hydroxyapatite bone cement. Data of 29 patients (16 males, 13 females; mean age 28 years; range 17 to 57 years) who were performed ossiculoplasty using hydroxyapatite bone cement in İzmir Katip Çelebi University Atatürk Training and Research Hospital Department of Otorhinolaryngology between January 2010 and December 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. Of the 29 operated patients, bone cement was administered in 23 patients during tympanoplasty, in two patients during open technique tympanomastoidectomy, and in four patients during exploratory tympanotomy. Hydroxyapatite bone cement was only used to repair defects between incus and stapes no longer than one third of incus long arm length. Mean follow-up time was 6.5 months (range 2-32 months). Success of ossiculoplasty was evaluated by Belfast 15/30 dB rule of thumb. Preoperative air-bone gap was 45.1 dB (range 35-55) and postoperative air-bone gap was 17.7 dB (range 6-40). Air-bone gap was below 10 dB in six patients, between 10-20 dB in 14 patients, between 20-30 dB in seven patients, and between 30-40 dB in two patients. Ossiculoplasty using hydroxyapatite bone cement is a safe and effective method for the repair of particularly small incus long arm defects.

  6. Fabrication of hydroxyapatite from fish bones waste using reflux method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahyanto, A.; Kosasih, E.; Aripin, D.; Hasratiningsih, Z.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this present study was to investigate the fabrication of hydroxyapatites, which were synthesized from fish bone wastes using reflux method. The fish bone wastes collected from the restaurant were brushed and boiled at 100°C for 10 minutes to remove debris and fat. After drying, the fish bones were crushed, and ball milled into a fine powder. The fish bone wastes were then processed by refluxing using KOH and H3PO4 solutions. The samples were calcined at 900°C and characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The XRD pattern of samples after treatment revealed that the peak of hydroxyapatite was observed and the bands of OH- and PO4 3- were observed by FT-IR. The scanning electron microscope evaluation of sample showed the entangled crystal and porous structure of hydroxyapatite. In conclusion, the hydroxyapatite was successfully synthesized from fish bone wastes using reflux method.

  7. Bone-Like Hydroxyapatite Formation in Human Blood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titov, Anatoly T.; Larionov, Peter M.; Ivanova, Alexandra S.; Zaikovskii, Vladimir I.; Chernyavskiy, Mikhail A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prove the mechanism of mineralization, when hydroxyapatite (HAP) is formed in blood plasma. These observations were substantiated by in vitro simulation of HAP crystallization in the plasma of healthy adults in a controllable quasi-physiological environment (T = 37°C, pH = 7.4) and at concentrations of dissolved Ca…

  8. Facilitated transport of copper with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in saturated sand

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Saturated packed column experiments were conducted to investigate the facilitated transport of Cu with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAP) at different pore water velocities (0.22-2.2 cm min–1), solution pH (6.2-9.0), and fraction of Fe oxide coating on grain surfaces (', 0-0.36). The facilitated tr...

  9. Fabrication of Yb:Sc2O3 laser ceramics by vacuum sintering co-precipitated nano-powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiang; Dai, Zhengfa; Hreniak, Dariusz; Li, Shanshan; Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Wei; Luo, Wei; Li, Chaoyu; Dai, Jiawei; Chen, Haohong; Kou, Huamin; Shi, Yun; Pan, Yubai; Li, Jiang

    2017-10-01

    Ytterbium doped scandium oxide (Yb:Sc2O3) nano-powders were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. Ammonium hydrogen carbonate (NH4HCO3) and ammonia sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) were used in the precipitation process as the precipitant and dispersing agent, respectively. Structural properties and morphology of the precursor and nano-powders were investigated by BET, XRD, and SEM measurements. Ultra-fine and low agglomerated 5 at%Yb:Sc2O3 powders with the average particle size of 86 nm were obtained after calcination of the precipitate at 1100 °C for 5 h, that was found to be the optimal temperature for preparation of 5 at%Sc2O3 powders for further sintering. 5 at%Yb:Sc2O3 transparent ceramics with in-line transmittance of 73.9% at 1100 nm and average grain size of 182 μm were fabricated by vacuum sintering of the optimal powder at 1850 °C for 10 h. The microstructure, the spectroscopic properties and the gain characteristics of obtained 5 at%Yb:Sc2O3 ceramics were also studied and discussed.

  10. In vitro fabrication of dental filling nanopowder by green route and its antibacterial activity against dental pathogens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Ho; Velmurugan, Palanivel; Park, Jung-Hee; Lee, Kui-Jae; Jin, Jong-Sik; Park, Yool-Jin; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce novel Sn, Cu, Hg, and Ag nanopowders (NPs) and a composite nanopowder (NP) synthesized using Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (SM) root extract as a reducing and capping agent to improve the antibacterial property of dental filling materials. All of the NPs obtained were characterized using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrum imaging was performed to map the elemental distributions of the NP composite. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was performed to identify the role of various functional groups in all of the obtained NPs and the phyto-compound responsible for the reduction of various metal ions. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns clearly illustrated the crystalline phase of the synthesized NP. The antibacterial properties of the synthesized Sn, Cu, Hg, Ag, composite NP, SM root extract, and commercial amalgam powder were evaluated. The Cu, composite NP, SM root extract and Ag NP displayed excellent antibacterial activity against dental bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The results of this study require further evaluation for signs of metal toxicity in appropriate animal models. However, the results are encouraging for the application of metal NPs as suitable alternatives for antibiotics and disinfectants, especially in dental filling materials.

  11. Sub-10 nm Ytterbium Oxide Nanopowder-doped Silicone Rubber Acoustic Lens Material for Medical Echo Array Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Yohachi (John); Hosono, Yasuharu; Itsumi, Kazuhiro

    2007-09-01

    The effects of 8-nm-Yb2O3-nanopowders dopant, on the physical and acoustical properties of high-temperature-vulcanization (HTV) silicone (Q) rubber have been investigated, to develop a low acoustic attenuation (α) lens material for medical array probes. A 35 wt % (6 vol %) Yb2O3-doped HTV Q rubber showed a sound velocity (c) = 867 m/s, an acoustic impedance (Z) = 1.36× 106 kg\\cdotm-2\\cdots-1, an acoustic attenuation α = 0.66 dB\\cdotmm-1\\cdotMHz-1, and an α-figure of merits (FOM) (α× c) = 574 at 37 °C. The α-FOM value with Z = 1.36× 106 kg\\cdotm-2\\cdots-1 for a Q rubber lens material is the lowest attenuation ever reported. Microstructure observation revealed that the low-α rubber showed a uniform Yb2O3 nanopowder distribution in the rubber matrix.

  12. Probing the microstructural evolution of polyviologen-silica hybrid nanopowders during intermediate processing using X-ray microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundogdu, O.; Jenneson, P. M.; Tuzun, U.; Gray, G. M.; Hay, J. N.

    2006-11-01

    Polyviologen polymers are potential template agents for hydrolytic sol-gel processing of silica particles. The resultant polyviologen-silica hybrid nanopowders are amorphous aggregates of roughly spherical shape, which can be harvested from the sol-gel solution and processed to green body products under different environmental conditions. A bench-top X-ray microtomography system, with a spatial resolution of 5 μm is used to produce three-dimensional images of the dynamic processing of the nanopowders. Various processing routes are imaged using a custom built environmental chamber where the temperature, atmospheric pressure, and compaction force can be controlled. This allows processes such as vacuum sintering and microwave sintering to be studied. The three-dimensional images reveal the axial and radial distributions of the molten polyviologen polymer within a matrix of agglomerates of the silica nanoparticles. Such observations are crucial to the optimisation of the processes that are used to produce the green body products so as to preserve desirable nano-intensive properties.

  13. Urea-Hydroxyapatite Nanohybrids for Slow Release of Nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Kottegoda, Nilwala; Sandaruwan, Chanaka; Priyadarshana, Gayan; Siriwardhana, Asitha; Rathnayake, Upendra A; Berugoda Arachchige, Danushka Madushanka; Kumarasinghe, Asurusinghe R; Dahanayake, Damayanthi; Karunaratne, Veranja; Amaratunga, Gehan A J

    2017-02-28

    While slow release of chemicals has been widely applied for drug delivery, little work has been done on using this general nanotechnology-based principle for delivering nutrients to crops. In developing countries, the cost of fertilizers can be significant and is often the limiting factor for food supply. Thus, it is important to develop technologies that minimize the cost of fertilizers through efficient and targeted delivery. Urea is a rich source of nitrogen and therefore a commonly used fertilizer. We focus our work on the synthesis of environmentally benign nanoparticles carrying urea as the crop nutrient that can be released in a programmed manner for use as a nanofertilizer. In this study, the high solubility of urea molecules has been reduced by incorporating it into a matrix of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have been selected due to their excellent biocompatibility while acting as a rich phosphorus source. In addition, the high surface area offered by nanoparticles allows binding of a large amount of urea molecules. The method reported here is simple and scalable, allowing the synthesis of a urea-modified hydroxyapatite nanohybrid as fertilizer having a ratio of urea to hydroxyapatite of 6:1 by weight. Specifically, a nanohybrid suspension was synthesized by in situ coating of hydroxyapatite with urea at the nanoscale. In addition to the stabilization imparted due to the high surface area to volume ratio of the nanoparticles, supplementary stabilization leading to high loading of urea was provided by flash drying the suspension to obtain a solid nanohybrid. This nanohybrid with a nitrogen weight of 40% provides a platform for its slow release. Its potential application in agriculture to maintain yield and reduce the amount of urea used is demonstrated.

  14. Osteoconductive capacity of hydroxyapatite implanted into the skull of diabetics.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Marcelo Rodrigues; Gushiken, Veronica Ozaki; Mardegan Issa, João Paulo; Iatecola, Amilton; Pettian, Mariane; Santos, Arnaldo Rodrigues

    2011-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus can cause various diseases, including loss of bone mineral density as a characteristic manifestation of osteoporosis. In this condition, bone is more vulnerable to pathologic fractures that can be treated by implantation of biomaterial grafts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic capacity of hydroxyapatite implanted into bone defects in the skull of nonobese diabetic mice. Fifteen nonobese diabetic mice were divided into 3 groups: control (nondiabetic), spontaneously diabetic, and spontaneously diabetic receiving insulin replacement applied subcutaneously into the dorsum. Defects were created experimentally in the skull with a surgical bur and filled with hydroxyapatite granules. The animals were killed 4 weeks after surgery, and samples were obtained for analysis. Quantitative methods were used for measurement of the new bone formation. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance followed by the Tukey test (P < 0.05). Radiographic results showed good radiopacity of the hydroxyapatite; however, radiolucent spots were seen between the hydroxyapatite granules in the diabetic groups, indicating infiltration of connective tissue. Microscopic results showed projections of newly formed bone from the margin of bone defect toward the implant. The quantity of newly formed bone was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that observed in the diabetic groups. The recipient area of diabetic groups contained a larger amount of connective tissue as demonstrated by radiographic analyses. In conclusion, the osteogenesis guided by the properties of hydroxyapatite may even occur in bone suffering from the effects of diabetes, but the quantity of newly formed bone is lower, and the process is slower.

  15. Surface properties of various powdered hydroxyapatites.

    PubMed

    García Rodenas, L; Palacios, J M; Apella, M C; Morando, P J; Blesa, M A

    2005-10-01

    Electrophoretic mobilities of various synthetic and semisynthetic hydroxyapatites (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HAP) suspended in aqueous solutions have been measured as a function of pH and calcium concentration. The studied powders differ in particle size, crystallinity degree and surface contamination (carbonate). When equilibrated in mineral acids or bases, a large plateau of negative mobility is observed in the pH range 5-8, with increasing negative values at higher pH. Only in the case of the sample composed of nanoparticles, positive mobility obtains at pH < 8.9. When Ca2+ is added, positive mobility values are observed for all samples, and a bell-shaped profile results as a function of pH. Two possible models are explored to describe the results: the Nernstian approach, which assumes solubility equilibrium and surface potentials determined by the three potential-determining ions (Ca2+, PO3-4, and OH-), and the surface complexation approach, based on the idea of negligible phase transfer of structural phosphate. The Nernstian model is inadequate, whereas a very simple surface complexation model based on the equations Ca5(PO4)+3 = Ca4(PO4)-3 + Ca2+,Ca4(PO4)-3 + H+ = Ca4(PO4)2(PO4H),Ca5(PO4)+3 + OH- = Ca5(PO4)3(OH),coupled with a very simple electrical double layer, model suffices to reproduce the bell-shaped profile of the mobility as a function of pH in the presence of added calcium salts. The results also show that the sample composed of nanoparticles exchanges ions more easily with the solution, without reaching the solubility equilibrium in the explored timespans. In the presence of soluble phosphate salts, it is postulated that the same surface ensembles define the surface charge, with participation of phosphate as described by the equation Ca5(PO4)+3 + PO3-4 = Ca4(PO4)-3.HAP is just one member of a family of calcium phosphates with different (Ca)/(P) ratios. Electrophoretic mobilities of another member, tricalcium diphosphate, Ca3(PO4)2, were also measured and

  16. The inhibition of lamellar hydroxyapatite and lamellar magnetic hydroxyapatite on the migration and adhesion of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jun; Zuo, Guifu; Xiong, Guangyao; Luo, Honglin; Li, Qiuping; Ma, Chunying; Li, Deying; Gu, Feng; Ma, Yongjie; Wan, Yizao

    2014-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have been reported to exhibit potent anti-tumor effects in some cancer cells. In our previous study, we have successfully synthesized two types of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, laminated hydroxyapatite (L-HAp) and laminated magnetic hydroxyapatite (LM-HAp). In this study, we wanted to investigate the effects of L-HAp and LM-HAp with various concentrations on human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Cell proliferation was assessed with a MTT colorimetric assay. Scratch and adhesion assays were used to detect the effects of these two materials on migration and adhesion. The expressions of integrin β1 and Akt were measured by Western blotting. Our results showed that L-HAp and LM-HAp had little cell cytotoxicity and significantly reduced cell mobility and adhesion. LM-HAp showed greater inhibitor ability on migration and adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, results from western blotting showed that L-HAp and LM-HAp impacted the phosphorylation of integrin β1, but showed no regular impact on Akt. This study suggests that L-HAp and LM-HAp may be potential anti-tumor and delivery system for breast cancer therapy.

  17. Preparation of Carbon-Doped TiO2 Nanopowder Synthesized by Droplet Injection of Solution Precursor in a DC-RF Hybrid Plasma Flow System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Juyong; Takana, Hidemasa; Ando, Yasutaka; Solonenko, Oleg P.; Nishiyama, Hideya

    2013-08-01

    Carbon-doped titanium dioxide nanopowder has received much attention because of its higher photocatalytic performance, which is practically activated not only by UV, but also by visible light irradiation. In the present study, C-TiO2 nanopowder was synthesized by droplet injection of solution precursor in a DC-RF hybrid plasma flow system, resulting in higher photocatalytic performance even under visible light irradiation. In-flight C-TiO2 nanoparticles reacted with the high concentration of carbon in plasma flow and were then deposited on the surfaces of two quartz tubes in the upstream and downstream regions of this system. The collected C-TiO2 nanopowder contained anatase-rutile mixed-phase TiO2 and TiC, the contents of which depended on the location of the powder collection, the temperature, and the duration of plasma treatment. Highly functional C-TiO2 nanopowder collected in the downstream region exhibited a higher degradation rate of methylene blue than that of single-phase anatase TiO2, even under visible light irradiation, in spite of being TiC.

  18. Effects of size-controlled TiO2 nanopowders synthesized by chemical vapor condensation process on conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo-Byoung; Lee, Jai-Sung

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the microstructural effects of the synthesized TiO2 nanopowders such as particle size, specific surface area, pore size and pore distributions for the application of an anode material of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), size-controlled and well-dispersed TiO2 nanopowders were synthesized by chemical vapor condensation (CVC) process in the range of 800-1000 degreesC under a pressure of 50 mbar. The average particle size of synthesized TiO2 nanopowders was increased with increasing temperature from 13 nm for 800 degreesC, 15 nm for 900 degreesC and 26 nm. The specific surface area of synthesized nanoparticles were measured as 119.1 m2/g for 800 degreesC, 104.7 m2/g for 900 degreesC and 59.5 m2/g for 1000 degreesC, respectively. The conversion efficiency values (eta%) of DSSC with the synthesized TiO2 nanopowders at 800 degreesC, 900 degreesC, and 1000 degreesC were 2.59%, 5.96% and 3.66%, respectively. The highest conversion efficiency obtained in the 900 degreesC (5.96%) sample is thought to be attributable to homogeneous particle size and pore distributions, large specific surface area, and high transmittance in regions of dye absorption wavelength.

  19. Synthesis of 8YSZ-LSGM Composite Thick Film Ceramics for Solid Electrolyte From Nanopowder Utilizing Local Zircon Prepared Using Sol Gel Process

    SciTech Connect

    Syarif, Dani Gustaman; Soepriyanto, Syoni; Korda, Akhmad; Ismunandar

    2010-10-24

    Thick film ceramics of 8% mol Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped-ZrO{sub 2}(8YSZ)-La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.2}Mg{sub 0.8}O{sub 3}(LSGM) composite for solid electrolyte have been synthesized from nanopowder. Concentration of LSGM was 0 and 10% weight. A paste for the thick films was made from 8YSZ nanopowder prepared using sol gel method and LSGM powder prepared by solid state reaction. Precursors for the 8YSZ nanopowder preparation were ZrOCl{sub 2{center_dot}}8H{sub 2}O derived from local zircon as byproduct of Tin processing at Bangka Island using caustic fusion method, and Y(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}. The thick films were produced by screen printing technique on alumina substrates. The films were sintered at 1500 deg. C for 2 hours in air. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data showed that the nanopowder of 8YSZ was well produced with broad peaks. The particle size of the 8YSZ powder was about 12 nm as calculated using Debye Scherrer method. The thick films of 8YSZ and 8YSZ-LSGM (90:10 in weight %) composite could be produced, however, the films still contain voids. The ionic conductance of the YSZ-10LSGM films was smaller than that of the YSZ films.

  20. Infrared, Raman and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Study of SiO2:C Nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, Dariya; Vorliček, Vladimir; Kalabukhova, Ekaterina; Sitnikov, Aleksandr; Vasin, Andrii; Kysil, Dmytro; Sevostianov, Stanislav; Tertykh, Valentyn; Nazarov, Alexei

    2017-04-01

    Optical and magnetic properties of SiO2:C nanopowders obtained by chemical and thermal modification of fumed silica were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman, continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), echo-detected EPR and pulsed electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy. Two overlapping signals of Lorentzian lineshape were detected in CW EPR spectra of the initial SiO2:C. The EPR signal at g = 2.0055(3) is due to the silicon dangling bonds, which vanishes after thermal annealing, and the second EPR signal at g = 2.0033(3) was attributed to the carbon-related defect (CRD). The annealing of the SiO2:C samples gives rise to the increase of the CRD spin density and shift to the higher g-values due to the appearance of the oxygen in the vicinity of the CRD. Based on the temperature-dependent behavior of the CRD EPR signal intensity, linewidth and resonance field position we have attributed it to the spin system with non-localized electrons hopping between neighboring carbon dangling bonds, which undergo a strong exchange interaction with a localized spin system of carbon nanodots. The observed motional narrowing of the CRD EPR signal in the temperature interval from 4 to 20 K indicates that electrons are mobile at 4 K which can be explained by a quantum character of the conductivity in the vicinity of the carbon layer. The electrons trapped in quantum wells move from one carbon nanodot to another by hopping process through the energy barrier. The fact that echo-detected EPR signal at g = 2.0035(3) was observed in SiO2:C sample annealed at T ann ≥ 700 °C serves as evidence that non-localized electrons coexist with localized electrons that have the superhyperfine interaction with surrounding 13C and 29Si nuclei located at the SiO2:C interface. The presence of the superhyperfine interaction of CRD with 1H nuclei indicates the existence of hydrogenated regions in SiO2:C sample.

  1. Infrared, Raman and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Study of SiO2:C Nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Savchenko, Dariya; Vorliček, Vladimir; Kalabukhova, Ekaterina; Sitnikov, Aleksandr; Vasin, Andrii; Kysil, Dmytro; Sevostianov, Stanislav; Tertykh, Valentyn; Nazarov, Alexei

    2017-12-01

    Optical and magnetic properties of SiO2:C nanopowders obtained by chemical and thermal modification of fumed silica were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman, continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), echo-detected EPR and pulsed electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy. Two overlapping signals of Lorentzian lineshape were detected in CW EPR spectra of the initial SiO2:C. The EPR signal at g = 2.0055(3) is due to the silicon dangling bonds, which vanishes after thermal annealing, and the second EPR signal at g = 2.0033(3) was attributed to the carbon-related defect (CRD). The annealing of the SiO2:C samples gives rise to the increase of the CRD spin density and shift to the higher g-values due to the appearance of the oxygen in the vicinity of the CRD. Based on the temperature-dependent behavior of the CRD EPR signal intensity, linewidth and resonance field position we have attributed it to the spin system with non-localized electrons hopping between neighboring carbon dangling bonds, which undergo a strong exchange interaction with a localized spin system of carbon nanodots. The observed motional narrowing of the CRD EPR signal in the temperature interval from 4 to 20 K indicates that electrons are mobile at 4 K which can be explained by a quantum character of the conductivity in the vicinity of the carbon layer. The electrons trapped in quantum wells move from one carbon nanodot to another by hopping process through the energy barrier. The fact that echo-detected EPR signal at g = 2.0035(3) was observed in SiO2:C sample annealed at T ann ≥ 700 °C serves as evidence that non-localized electrons coexist with localized electrons that have the superhyperfine interaction with surrounding (13)C and (29)Si nuclei located at the SiO2:C interface. The presence of the superhyperfine interaction of CRD with (1)H nuclei indicates the existence of hydrogenated regions in SiO2:C sample.

  2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis for the chemical impact of solvent addition rate on electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of HCl-doped polyaniline nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantawy, Hesham Ramzy; Kengne, Blaise-Alexis F.; McIlroy, David N.; Nguyen, Tai; Heo, Deukhyoun; Qiang, You; Aston, D. Eric

    2015-11-01

    An in-depth analysis of the chemical functionality in HCl-doped polyaniline (PANI) nanopowders is discussed through interpretations of x-ray photoelectron spectra. The distinctions between three PANI sample types, produced under varied synthesis conditions, are compared on the basis correlations between newly collected electron spectra for chemical analysis (or also x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and electromagnetic (EM) shielding effectiveness (SE) within two frequency bands (100-1500 MHz and ˜2-14 GHz). The findings are discussed with reference to previous data analysis of electrical conductivities and Raman and UV-vis spectra analyzed from replicates of the same PANI nanopowders, where only the 8-12 GHz range for SE was tested. They further corroborate previous results for limited-solvent conditions that enhance EM shielding. The three nanopowder types show distinctive differences in polaron, bipolaron, and polar lattice contributions. The collective findings describe the chemical connections between controlling and, most importantly, limiting the available solvent for polymerization with simultaneously doping and how it is that the newly developed solvent-limited approach for HCl-PANI nanopowders provides better shielding than traditionally solvent-rich methods by having more extended and perhaps even faster polaron delocalization than other PANI-based products. The maximum oxidation (50%) and doping (49%) levels obtained in the solvent-free nanopowders also produced the highest SE values of 37.3 ± 3.7 dB (MHz band) and 68.6 ± 4.6 dB (GHz band).

  3. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis for the chemical impact of solvent addition rate on electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of HCl-doped polyaniline nanopowders

    SciTech Connect

    Tantawy, Hesham Ramzy; Aston, D. Eric; Kengne, Blaise-Alexis F.; McIlroy, David N.; Qiang, You; Nguyen, Tai; Heo, Deukhyoun

    2015-11-07

    An in-depth analysis of the chemical functionality in HCl-doped polyaniline (PANI) nanopowders is discussed through interpretations of x-ray photoelectron spectra. The distinctions between three PANI sample types, produced under varied synthesis conditions, are compared on the basis correlations between newly collected electron spectra for chemical analysis (or also x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and electromagnetic (EM) shielding effectiveness (SE) within two frequency bands (100–1500 MHz and ∼2–14 GHz). The findings are discussed with reference to previous data analysis of electrical conductivities and Raman and UV-vis spectra analyzed from replicates of the same PANI nanopowders, where only the 8–12 GHz range for SE was tested. They further corroborate previous results for limited-solvent conditions that enhance EM shielding. The three nanopowder types show distinctive differences in polaron, bipolaron, and polar lattice contributions. The collective findings describe the chemical connections between controlling and, most importantly, limiting the available solvent for polymerization with simultaneously doping and how it is that the newly developed solvent-limited approach for HCl-PANI nanopowders provides better shielding than traditionally solvent-rich methods by having more extended and perhaps even faster polaron delocalization than other PANI-based products. The maximum oxidation (50%) and doping (49%) levels obtained in the solvent-free nanopowders also produced the highest SE values of 37.3 ± 3.7 dB (MHz band) and 68.6 ± 4.6 dB (GHz band)

  4. Hydroxyapatite nanorods: soft-template synthesis, characterization and preliminary in vitro tests.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nga Kim; Leoni, Matteo; Maniglio, Devid; Migliaresi, Claudio

    2013-07-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatite nanorods are excellent candidates for bone tissue engineering applications. In this study, hydroxyapatite nanorods resembling bone minerals were produced by using soft-template method with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Composite hydroxyapatite/poly(D, L)lactic acid films were prepared to evaluate the prepared hydroxyapatite nanorods in terms of cell affinity. Preliminary in vitro experiments showed that aspect ratio and film surface roughness play a vital role in controlling adhesion and proliferation of human osteoblast cell line MG 63. The hydroxyapatite nanorods with aspect ratios in the range of 5.94-7 were found to possess distinctive properties, with the corresponding hydroxyapatite/poly(D, L)lactic acid films promoting cellular confluence and a fast formation of collagen fibers as early as after 7 days of culture.

  5. Hydroxyapatite Based 99Mo - 99Tc and 188W - 188Re Generator Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp Jr, Russ F; Monroy-Guzman, F.; Badillo, V. E.; Cosgrove, John M; De La Torre, J.A. Flores

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes studies evaluating the use of hydroxyapatite as the adsorbent material for both {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re generator systems. Hydroxyapatite is an insoluble solid with anion exchange properties. A study of the sorption behaviour of {sup 99}Mo, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 188}W and {sup 188}Re on hydroxyapatite in NaCl medium was evaluated by batch experiments. The results demonstrated that while {sup 99}Mo, {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re are not adsorbed by the hydroxyapatite in NaCl solutions (Kd <5), {sup 188}W is strongly adsorbed (Kd >500). On the basis of these measurements, hydroxyapatite {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re generator systems were then constructed and eluted in NaCl solutions. The hydroxyapatite based {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re generator performances are presented.

  6. Comparative study of hydroxyapatite from eggshells and synthetic hydroxyapatite for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Woon; Kim, Seong-Gon; Balázsi, Csaba; Chae, Weon-Sik; Lee, Hee-Ok

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of synthetic hydroxyapatite (sHA) and hydroxyapatite from eggshells (eHA) by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) and to compare the regenerative ability of the bone using sHA and eHA in a rabbit calvarial defect model. FT-IR and XRD were used to compare the physical properties of sHA and eHA. sHA was purchased from Sigma, and eHA was kindly donated from the Hungarian academy of science. Sixteen New Zealand white rabbits were used for the animal study. After the formation of a bilateral parietal bony defect (diameter 8.0 mm), either sHA or eHA was grafted into the defect. The defect in the control was left unfilled. Bone regeneration was evaluated by histomorphometry at 4 and 8 weeks after the operation. The peak broadening of the XRD experiments were in agreement with scanning electron microscope observation; the sHA had a smaller granule size than the eHA. The eHA had impurities phases of CaO (International Center for Diffraction Data (ICDD) 075-0264) and Ca(OH)(2) (ICDD 072-0156). Total new bone was 17.11 ± 10.24% in the control group, 28.81 ± 12.63% in sHA group, and 25.68 ± 10.89% in eHA group at 4 weeks after the operation. The difference was not statistically significant (P > .05). Total new bone at 8 weeks after the operation was 27.50 ± 10.89% in the control group, 38.62 ± 17.42% in sHA group, and 41.99 ± 8.44% in the eHA group. When comparing the sHA group to the control group, the difference was not statistically significant (P > .05). However, the eHA group was significantly different from the control group (P = .038). When comparing the eHA group to the sHA group, the difference was not statistically significant (P > .05). Both types of HA showed higher bone formation than the unfilled control. However, eHA had significantly higher bone formation than the unfilled control at 8 weeks after operation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gel-derived bioglass as a compound of hydroxyapatite composites.

    PubMed

    Cholewa-Kowalska, Katarzyna; Kokoszka, Justyna; Laczka, Maria; Niedźwiedzki, Lukasz; Madej, Wojciech; Osyczka, Anna M

    2009-10-01

    Despite the excellent biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite and bioglass, their clinical applications are limited to non-load-bearing implants and implant coatings due to their low mechanical properties. We have developed two different composites made of hydroxyapatite (HA) and gel-derived bioglasses designated S2 (80 mol% SiO(2)-16 mol% CaO-4 mol% P(2)O(5)) or A2 (40 mol% SiO(2)-54 mol% CaO-6 mol% P(2)O(5)). We show that the combination of hydroxyapatite with either bioglass results in better composite bioactivity and biocompatibility compared to HA alone. We used a commercially available hydroxyapatite that was sintered with varying additions (10%, 50%) of A2 or S2 bioglass. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to characterize the microstructure and phases of the composites. The elastic properties of bioglass/HA composites were analyzed with the use of the pulse ultrasonic technique. The bioactivity (surface activity) of the composites was assessed by determining the changes of surface morphology and composition after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 and 14 days. The biocompatibility of the obtained composites was then assessed in vitro using adult human bone marrow stromal cells. Cells were seeded on the material surfaces at a density of 10(4) cells cm(-2) and cultured for 7 days in non-differentiating and osteogenic conditions. The number of live cells was estimated in both standard and osteogenic cultures, followed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay in osteogenic cultures. We determined that 10 wt% addition of A2 (E = 12.24 GPa) and 50 wt% addition of S2 (E = 16.96 GPa) to the HA base results in higher Young's modulus of the composites compared to pure hydroxyapatite (E = 9.03 GPa). The rate of Ca-P rich layer formation is higher for bioglass/HA composites containing A2 bioglass compared to the composites containing S2 bioglass. Evaluation of cell growth on the bioglass/HA composites showed that the incorporation of

  8. Experimental replacement of aragonite by hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasioptas, A.; Perdikouri, C.; Geisler, T.; Putnis, A.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrothermal treatment of aragonite with (NH4)2HPO4 solution has been shown to produce hydroxyapatite (HAP) with an overall identical and thus pre-determined morphology (Kasioptas et al, 2008). The preservation of the morphology is an outcome of the pseudomorphic nature of this particular reaction. We have investigated the mechanism of the replacement of aragonite by HAP using single, natural, inorganic aragonite crystals. Isothermal experiments were carried out with small crystals placed and sealed in autoclaves with (NH4)2HPO4 solution. After the experiments the aragonite crystals are partly replaced by a new phase. X-ray powder diffraction confirmed that the product phase is indeed HAP; however electron microprobe measurements revealed that the HAP is probably non-stoichiometric. Even when completely converted to HAP, scanning electron microscopy showed that the fine-structure of the aragonite has perfectly been retained. It was also observed that the HAP product phase exhibited a high porosity and was separated from the aragonite parent phase by a sharp interface (on the micrometer scale). The replacement of aragonite by HAP in an aqueous solution can be described in terms of a coupled dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism that takes place at an inward moving reaction front (Putnis& Putnis, 2007). The porosity in the HAP product phase allows the solution to reach the reaction interface. In addition, we have performed experiments with (NH4)2HPO4 solutions prepared with H2O enriched with 97 at.% 18O. The solutions were pre-heated separately to equilibrate the oxygen isotopes in the solution. Raman spectroscopy of the HAP product was used to identify the different vibration modes in the PO43-molecule due to the exchange of 16O with 18O atoms. Apart from the main ?1(PO4) band located near 962 cm-1, we observed four new bands near 945, 931, 919 and 908 cm-1. We have attributed the generation of these new bands to four different degrees of 18O atomic substitutions in

  9. Development of lattice-inserted 5-Fluorouracil-hydroxyapatite nanoparticles as a chemotherapeutic delivery system.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ching-Li; Chen, Jung-Chih; Wu, Yu-Chun; Fang, Hsu-Wei; Lin, Feng-Huei; Tang, Tzu-Piao

    2015-10-01

    Developing an effective vehicle for cancer treatment, hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were fabricated for drug delivery. When 5-Fluorouracil, a major chemoagent, is combined with hydroxyapatite nanocarriers by interclay insertion, the modified hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have superior lysosomal degradation profiles, which could be leveraged as controlled drug release. The decomposition of the hydroxyapatite nanocarriers facilitates the release of 5-Fluorouracil into the cytoplasm causing cell death. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with/without 5-Fluorouracil were synthesized and analyzed in this study. Their crystallization properties and chemical composition were examined by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. The 5-Fluorouracil release rate was determined by UV spectroscopy. The biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite-5-Fluorouracil extraction solution was assessed using 3T3 cells via a WST-8 assay. The effect of hydroxyapatite-5-Fluorouracil particles which directly work on the human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells was evaluated by a lactate dehydrogenase assay via contact cultivation. A 5-Fluorouracil-absorbed hydroxyapatite particles were also tested. Overall, hydroxyapatite-5-Fluorouracils were prepared using a co-precipitation method wherein 5-Fluorouracil was intercalated in the hydroxyapatite lattice as determined by X-ray diffraction. Energy dispersive scanning examination showed the 5-Fluorouracil content was higher in hydroxyapatite-5-Fluorouracil than in a prepared absorption formulation. With 5-Fluorouracil insertion in the lattice, the widths of the a and c axial constants of the hydroxyapatite crystal increased. The extraction solution of hydroxyapatite-5-Fluorouracil was nontoxic to 3T3 cells, in which 5-Fluorouracil was not released in a neutral phosphate buffer solution. In contrast, at a lower pH value (2.5), 5-Fluorouracil was released by the acidic decomposition of hydroxyapatite. Finally, the results of the lactate

  10. Investigation on the effect of collagen and vitamins on biomimetic hydroxyapatite coating formation on titanium surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ciobanu, Gabriela; Ciobanu, Octavian

    2013-04-01

    This study uses an in vitro experimental approach to investigate the roles of collagen and vitamins in regulating the deposition of hydroxyapatite layer on the pure titanium surface. Titanium implants were coated with a hydroxyapatite layer under biomimetic conditions by using a supersaturated calcification solution (SCS), modified by adding vitamins A and D3, and collagen. The hydroxyapatite deposits on titanium were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results obtained have shown that hydroxyapatite coatings were produced in vitro under vitamins and collagen influence.

  11. Structure of Biocompatible Coatings Produced from Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles by Detonation Spraying.

    PubMed

    Nosenko, Valentyna; Strutynska, Nataliia; Vorona, Igor; Zatovsky, Igor; Dzhagan, Volodymyr; Lemishko, Sergiy; Epple, Matthias; Prymak, Oleg; Baran, Nikolai; Ishchenko, Stanislav; Slobodyanik, Nikolai; Prylutskyy, Yuriy; Klyui, Nickolai; Temchenko, Volodymyr

    2015-12-01

    Detonation-produced hydroxyapatite coatings were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The source material for detonation spraying was a B-type carbonated hydroxyapatite powder. The coatings consisted of tetracalcium phosphate and apatite. The ratio depended slightly on the degree of crystallinity of the initial powder and processing parameters of the coating preparation. The tetracalcium phosphate phase was homogeneous; the apatite phase contained defects localized on the sixfold axis and consisted of hydroxyapatite and oxyapatite. Technological factors contributing to the transformation of hydroxyapatite powder structure during coating formation by detonation spraying are discussed.

  12. Evolution of the calcium hydroxyapatite crystal structure under plasma deposition and subsequent reducing treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamrai, V. F.; Karpikhin, A. E.; Sirotinkin, V. P.; Kalita, V. I.; Komlev, D. I.

    2014-03-01

    The structure of hydroxyapatite plasma coatings on a titanium substrate has been investigated by the X-ray Rietveld method. The hydroxyapatite crystal structure in plasma-deposited samples is characterized by strong distortions of its main element (tetrahedral PO4 cluster) and coordination calcium polyhedra, as well as calcium deficit in the Ca2 site; however, these features do not change the main motif of the hydroxyapatite structure. The bond distortions in PO4 clusters are estimated by the Bauer method. It is shown that hydrothermal treatment leads to the almost complete recovery of the hydroxyapatite structure.

  13. On the assessment of hydroxyapatite fluoridation by means of Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campillo, M.; Lacharmoise, P. D.; Reparaz, J. S.; Goñi, A. R.; Valiente, M.

    2010-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite is the main mineral component of bones and teeth. Fluorapatite, a bioceramic that can be obtained from hydroxyapatite by chemical substitution of the hydroxide ions with fluoride, exhibits lower mineral solubility and larger mechanical strength. Despite the widespread use of fluoride against caries, a reliable technique for unambiguous assessment of fluoridation in in vitro tests is still lacking. Here we present a method to probe fluorapatite formation in fluoridated hydroxyapatite by combining Raman scattering with thermal annealing. In synthetic minerals, we found that effectively fluoride substituted hydroxyapatite transforms into fluorapatite only after heat treatment, due to the high activation energy for this first order phase transition.

  14. On the assessment of hydroxyapatite fluoridation by means of Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Campillo, M.; Valiente, M.; Lacharmoise, P. D.; Reparaz, J. S.; Goni, A. R.

    2010-06-28

    Hydroxyapatite is the main mineral component of bones and teeth. Fluorapatite, a bioceramic that can be obtained from hydroxyapatite by chemical substitution of the hydroxide ions with fluoride, exhibits lower mineral solubility and larger mechanical strength. Despite the widespread use of fluoride against caries, a reliable technique for unambiguous assessment of fluoridation in in vitro tests is still lacking. Here we present a method to probe fluorapatite formation in fluoridated hydroxyapatite by combining Raman scattering with thermal annealing. In synthetic minerals, we found that effectively fluoride substituted hydroxyapatite transforms into fluorapatite only after heat treatment, due to the high activation energy for this first order phase transition.

  15. Hydroxyapatite/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) double coating on magnesium for enhanced corrosion resistance and coating flexibility.

    PubMed

    Jo, Ji-Hoon; Li, Yuanlong; Kim, Sae-Mi; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Koh, Young-Hag

    2013-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite was deposited on pure magnesium (Mg) with a flexible poly(ε-caprolactone) interlayer to reduce the corrosion rate of Mg and enhance coating flexibility. The poly(ε-caprolactone) interlayer was uniformly coated on Mg by a spraying method, followed by hydroxyapatite deposition on the poly(ε-caprolactone) using an aerosol deposition method. In scanning electron microscopy observations, inorganic/organic composite-like structure was observed between the hydroxyapatite and poly(ε-caprolactone) layers, resulting from the collisions of hydroxyapatite particles into the poly(ε-caprolactone) matrix at the initial stage of the aerosol deposition. The corrosion resistance of the coated Mg was examined using potentiodynamic polarization tests. The hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) double coating remarkably improved the corrosion resistance of Mg in Hank's solution. In the in vitro cell tests, the coated Mg showed better cell adhesion compared with the bare Mg due to the reduced corrosion rate and enhanced biocompatibility. The stability and flexibility of hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) double coating was investigated by scanning electron microscopy inspections after the coated Mg was deformed. The hydroxyapatite coating on the poly(ε-caprolactone) interlayer revealed enhanced coating stability and flexibility without cracking or delamination during bending and stretching compared with the hydroxyapatite single coating. These results demonstrated that the hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) double coating significantly improved the surface corrosion resistance of Mg and enhanced coating flexibility for use of Mg as a biodegradable implant.

  16. Crystalline hydroxyapatite coatings synthesized under hydrothermal conditions on modified titanium substrates.

    PubMed

    Suchanek, Katarzyna; Bartkowiak, Amanda; Gdowik, Agnieszka; Perzanowski, Marcin; Kąc, Sławomir; Szaraniec, Barbara; Suchanek, Mateusz; Marszałek, Marta

    2015-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings were successfully produced on modified titanium substrates via hydrothermal synthesis in a Ca(EDTA)(2-) and (NH4)2HPO4 solution. The morphology of modified titanium substrates as well as hydroxyapatite coatings was studied using scanning electron microcopy and phase identification by X-ray diffraction, and Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. The results show that the nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite needle-like crystals with hexagonal symmetry occurred only on titanium substrates both chemically and thermally treated. No hydroxyapatite phase was detected on only acid etched Ti metal. This finding demonstrates that only a particular titanium surface treatment can effectively induce the apatite nucleation under hydrothermal conditions.

  17. Laser ablation ICP-MS analysis on nano-powder pellets and applications to granite bulk rock analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shitou; Karius, Volker; Wörner, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    Granites are a ubiquitous component of the continental crust and knowing their precise trace element signatures is essential in understanding the origins and evolution of the continental crust. ICP-MS bulk analysis of granite is generally conducted on solution after acid-digestion. However this technique has several deficiencies related to the difficulty of completely dissolving accessary minerals such as zircon and the instability/adsorption of high valence trace elements (Nb, Ta et al.) in acid solutions. The development of a nano-powder pellet technique by using wet milling procedure, and its combination with laser ablation ICP-MS has been proposed to overcome these problems. In this study, we produced nano-powders from a series of granite rock standards by wet milling in agate using a high power planetary ball mill instrument. The procedure was tested and optimized by modifying parameters (ball to powder ratio, water to powder ratio, milling power etc.). Characterization of nano-powders was conducted by various techniques including electron microprobe (EMP), secondary electron imaging, polarizing microscope, and laser particle size analyzer (LPSA) and laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM). Particle sizes range from a few nm to 5 μm with a small secondary mode at around 10 to 20 μm that probably represent particle aggregates rather than remaining crystal grains after milling. Pellets of 5 mm in diameter were pressed into molds of cellulose at 1.75 *103 N/cm2. Surface roughness of the pellets was measured by LSCM and gave a Ra of 0.494 μm, which is an order higher than the surface of polished ATGH-G reference glass surface (Ra: 0.048 μm), but sufficient for laser ablation. Sources of contamination either from abrading agate balls or from ultrapure water were evaluated and quantified. The homogeneity of powder pellets down to less than 5 μm size was documented based on EMPA element mapping and statistical analyses of LA-ICP-MS in discrete spot and line

  18. Microstructural disintegration in dense hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite-coated metal implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Dong Seok; Lee, Jong Kook

    2007-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been widely used as a coating for orthopedic metal implants. An important concern regarding HA coating is its degradation of the biological milieu. In this study, the microstructure of a retrieved HA-coated acetabular cup implanted for four years after total hip arthroplasty (THA) was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy. In order to understand the underlying mechanism, of degradation and exfoliation of the HA coating, degradation of phase-pure and dense HA ceramics was also observed by in vitro and in vivo testing. The surface morphology and fracture surfaces of HA ceramics revealed that the dissolution starting at the surface extended inwards resulting in particle loosening and microstructural-level degradation. The dissolution features of HA ceramics were similar to the case of HA coating. It was found that extensive dissolution of the coating occurred and most of the coating disappeared. The majority of the remaining graints were fractured by the intergranular mode, suggesting that grain boundaries should be predominantly dissolved. These observations may explain the mechanism through which the biological stability of the HA coated layer becomes unexpectedly poor.

  19. [Impact of particle size and morphology on zinc cation adsorption by hydroxyapatite and dentifrice containing hydroxyapatite].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Zhen; Shen, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Cheng-Xia; Xu, Ping-Ping

    2016-05-01

    To study the influence of particle size and morphology on zinc cation adsorption by hydroxyapatite (HA) and dentifrice containing HA. Four HAs with different particle sizes and morphologies, HA-containing dentifrice and blank dentifrice were prepared into suspensions of serial concentrations. Zinc ion solutions with an initial concentration of 10 mg/L was mixed with the suspensions and kept for 24 h for adsorption reaction. The zinc ion concentration in the supernatant was measured by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer and the sorption rate of zinc ion was calculated. HA and HA-containing dentifrice with various particle sizes and morphologies were all capable of absorbing zinc ions from simulated waste water, and the adsorption rate of HA-containing dentifrice was 3%-10% higher than that of HA. HA with a particle size of 12 µm and a spherical morphology showed the strongest adsorption ability, followed by short bar-shaped HA with a particle size of 30 µm. Both Langmuir and Freundlich equation could simulate the sorption processes of HA dentifrice, while only Langmuir equation could simulate the sorption processes of HA. Incorporation of HA in dentifrice can enhance zinc ion adsorption capacity of the material. The particle size and morphology of HA both affect the adsorption of zinc ions, and 12-µm HA particle with a spherical morphology has the best adsorption ability.

  20. Antimicrobial and cytotoxicity evaluation of aliovalent substituted hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugam, Sumathi; Gopal, Buvaneswari

    2014-06-01

    Aliovalent ion substituted hydroxyapatite of formulae BiNaCa3(PO4)3OH, Bi0.5M0.5Ca4(PO4)3OH (M = K, Ag) were synthesized and characterized. Antimicrobial properties of these synthesized materials were studied quantitatively by spread plate method against the microorganisms Escherichia coli (gram negative bacteria), Staphylococcus aureus (gram positive bacteria) and Candida albicans (yeast). Among the substituted hydroxyapatite compounds bismuth and silver substituted compound of formula Bi0.5Ag0.5Ca4(PO4)3OH shown excellent activity against all the three organisms. Cytotoxicity study was carried out against mouse fibroblast NIH-3T3 cell line in two different concentrations 10 μg/mL and 20 μg/mL by MTT assay method.

  1. Hydroxyapatite: Vibrational spectra and monoclinic to hexagonal phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slepko, Alexander; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2015-02-01

    Fundamental studies of biomaterials are necessary to deepen our understanding of their degradation and to develop cure for related illnesses. Biomineral hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 is the main mineral constituent of mammal bone, and its synthetic analogues are used in biomedical applications. The mineral can be found in either hexagonal or monoclinic form. The transformation between these two phases is poorly understood, but knowing its mechanism may be critical to reversing processes in bone related to aging. Using density functional theory, we investigate the mechanisms of the phase transformation and estimate the transition temperature to be 680 K in fair agreement with the experimental temperature of 470 K. We also report the heat capacity of hydroxyapatite and a peculiarity in its phonon dispersion that might allow for non-destructive measurements of the crystal composition with applications in preventive medical screening for bone mineral loss.

  2. Sonochemical IN SITU Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite in Hdpe and PMMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristina, Parra; Gema, González; Carmen, Albano

    2008-08-01

    In the present work, characterization of composite materials based on HDPE and PMMA filled with nanometric hydroxyapatite synthesized in situ by high frequency ultrasound has been carried out. For the composites preparation dilutions of the commercial polymers, using decaline as solvent for the HDPE and 2-butanone for PMMA, were employed. For the synthesis of Hydroxyapatite (HA), ammonium phosphate [(NH4)2HPO4] and calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] were used as precursors. The products obtained were characterized by FTIR and TEM. The results showed that when PMMA was used as matrix, the presence of nanometric HA with clear interactions with the PMMA matrix was obtained. When HDPE was used as matrix a complex complex calcium phase was obtained and without interaction with the matrix.

  3. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite prepared under various pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Palanivelu, R; Mary Saral, A; Ruban Kumar, A

    2014-10-15

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) has sovereign biomedical application due to its excellent biocompatibility, chemical and crystallographic similitude with natural human bone. In this present work, we discussed about the role of pH in the synthesis of calcium phosphate compound using calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate as starting materials by chemical precipitation method assisted with ultrasonic irradiation technique. 5% polyethylene glycol (PEG600) is added along with the precursors under various pH condition of 7, 9 and 11 respectively. The functional group analysis, crystallized size and fraction of crystallized size are confirmed using Fourier Transformation Infra-Red spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction pattern. Morphological observations are done by scanning electron microscope. The results revealed the presence of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite at pH above 9.

  4. Biological activity of lactoferrin-functionalized biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Nocerino, Nunzia; Fulgione, Andrea; Iannaccone, Marco; Tomasetta, Laura; Ianniello, Flora; Martora, Francesca; Lelli, Marco; Roveri, Norberto; Capuano, Federico; Capparelli, Rosanna

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of bacterial strains resistant to antibiotics is a general public health problem. Progress in developing new molecules with antimicrobial properties has been made. In this study, we evaluated the biological activity of a hybrid nanocomposite composed of synthetic biomimetic hydroxyapatite surface-functionalized by lactoferrin (LF-HA). We evaluated the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties of LF-HA and found that the composite was active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and that it modulated proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses and enhanced antioxidant properties as compared with LF alone. These results indicate the possibility of using LF-HA as an antimicrobial system and biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a candidate for innovative biomedical applications. PMID:24623976

  5. Biological activity of lactoferrin-functionalized biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Nocerino, Nunzia; Fulgione, Andrea; Iannaccone, Marco; Tomasetta, Laura; Ianniello, Flora; Martora, Francesca; Lelli, Marco; Roveri, Norberto; Capuano, Federico; Capparelli, Rosanna

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of bacterial strains resistant to antibiotics is a general public health problem. Progress in developing new molecules with antimicrobial properties has been made. In this study, we evaluated the biological activity of a hybrid nanocomposite composed of synthetic biomimetic hydroxyapatite surface-functionalized by lactoferrin (LF-HA). We evaluated the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties of LF-HA and found that the composite was active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and that it modulated proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses and enhanced antioxidant properties as compared with LF alone. These results indicate the possibility of using LF-HA as an antimicrobial system and biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a candidate for innovative biomedical applications.

  6. Freeze casting of hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Deville, Sylvain; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P

    2006-11-01

    Although extensive efforts have been put into the development of porous scaffolds for bone regeneration, with encouraging results, all porous materials have a common limitation: the inherent lack of strength associated with porosity. Hence, the development of porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds has been hindered to non-load bearing applications. We report here how freeze casting can be applied to synthesize porous scaffolds exhibiting unusually high compressive strength, e.g. up to 145 MPa for 47% porosity and 65 MPa for 56% porosity. The materials are characterized by well-defined pore connectivity along with directional and completely open porosity. Various parameters affecting the porosity and compressive strength have been investigated, including initial slurry concentration, freezing rate, and sintering conditions. The implications and potential application as bone substitute are discussed. These results might open the way for hydroxyapatite-based materials designed for load-bearing applications. The biological response of these materials is yet to be tested.

  7. Adsorption of citric acid from dilute aqueous solutions by hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Vega, Enrique D; Narda, Griselda E; Ferretti, Ferdinando H

    2003-12-01

    The role of citric acid in the demineralization of dental enamel, which is mainly constituted by hydroxyapatite, is important for periodontal regeneration and in the conditioning of enamel or dentin for bonding restorative resins. The adsorption of citric acid from aqueous solutions onto synthetic hydroxyapatite at 278, 288, 298, and 308 K and pH 4.8 has been studied by means of UV spectroscopy. The adsorption reaction, which takes place by an interaction between phosphate groups and citrate anions at the solid-solution interface, yields an adsorbate-adsorbent complex of high stability. The adsorption isotherms fit the Langmuirian shape. The proposed adsorption model, where citrate species interact in a bidentate manner (one citrate ion links two phosphate sites), is coherent with the experimental data. The activation standard heat and activation standard entropy were calculated. All the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were in concordance with the adsorption reaction proposed in this work.

  8. Biocomposites containing natural polymers and hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Swetha, Maddela; Sahithi, Kolli; Moorthi, Ambigapathi; Srinivasan, Narasimhan; Ramasamy, Kumarasamy; Selvamurugan, Nagarajan

    2010-07-01

    Bone tissue engineering is an alternative strategy to generate bone utilizing a combination of biomaterials and cells. Biomaterials that mimic the structure and composition of bone tissues at nanoscale are important for the development of bone tissue engineering applications. Natural or biopolymer-based composites containing chitin, chitosan, or collagen have advantages such as biocompatibility, biodegradability that are essential for bone tissue engineering. The inclusion of nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite (one of the most widely used bioceramic materials) into the biopolymer matrix improves the mechanical properties and incorporates the nanotopographic features that mimic the nanostructure of bone. This review summarizes the recent work on the development of biocomposites containing natural polymers with hydroxyapatite particles suitable for use in bone defects/bone regeneration. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Nanostructured fusiform hydroxyapatite particles precipitated from aquaculture wastewater.

    PubMed

    Correas, Covadonga; Gerardo, Michael L; Lord, Alexander M; Ward, Michael B; Andreoli, Enrico; Barron, Andrew R

    2017-02-01

    The present work represents a new approach for the isolation of uniform nano particulate hydroxyapatite (HAp). The chemical characterization of a calcium phosphate product obtained from industrial trout farm aquaculture wastewater by two different routes, washing either with a basic aqueous medium (washNaOH) or followed by a further washing with ethanol (washEtOH), is explored. Characterization of the isolated materials includes morphology studies (SEM and TEM), structural (XRD, electron diffraction), compositional (EDX) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The obtained products are a mixture of different compounds, with hydroxyapatite the predominant phase. The morphology is unusually nanometric size with fusiform shaped particles, such characteristics are ordinarily only obtained by synthetic routes. This process of phosphate precipitation represents a unique self-sufficient process to be compared to conventional chemical or biological practices for precipitating phosphate.

  10. Phosphonate-hydroxyapatite hybrid compounds prepared by hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agougui, H.; Aissa, A.; Maggi, S.; Debbabi, M.

    2010-12-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHAp) was prepared in the presence of two alkylphosphonates, the tert-butyl phosphonic acid TBPOH and the 2-carboxyletylphosphonic acid 2-CEPA, by hydrothermal method at 120 °C for 15 h. The modification of hydroxyapatite by grafting organic moieties is confirmed by IR and NMR MAS ( 1H and 31P) spectroscopy and chemical analysis. X-ray powder diffraction patterns show that the incorporation of organic moieties induces a significant loss of the material crystallinity and a clear increase of the unit cell lattice parameter a as function of 2-CEPA grafting rate. The specific surface area (SSA) increases with increasing phosphonate amount especially for 2-CEPA. All techniques show the lower reactivity of TBPOH due to the steric effects of tert-butyl, whereas the 2-CEPA with a linear chain and double acidic functions is more reactive and can replace the OH - groups of the apatitic structure.

  11. Influence of Barium Hexaferrite on Magnetic Properties of Hydroxyapatite Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Jarupoom, P; Jaita, P

    2015-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) powders was derived from natural bovine bone by sequence of thermal processes. The barium hexaferrite (BF) find magnetic powders were added into HA powders in ratio of 1-3 vol.%. The HA-BF ceramics were prepared by a solid state reaction method and sintered at 1250 degrees C for 2 h. Effects of BF additive on structural, physical and magnetic properties of HA ceramics were investigated. X-ray diffraction revealed that all HA-BF samples showed a main phase of high purity hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] with calcium and phosphate molar ratio of 1.67. The addition of BF into HA inhibited grain growth and caused an improvement of mechanical properties. The M-H hysteresis loops also showed an improvement in magnetic behavior for higher content of BF. Moreover, in vitro bioactivity test indicated that the 2-3 vol.% sample may be suitable for biological applications.

  12. Synthesis and application of hydroxyapatite/polylactide composite biomaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignjatovic, Nenad; Uskokovic, Dragan

    2004-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite/bioresorbable-polymer composite biomaterials can be used for the bone tissue reconstruction. There are different methods to obtain hydroxyapatite/poly-L-lactide (HAp/PLLA) composite biomaterial, but up to now only hot pressing and forging have been successfully used to produce blocks with mechanical properties similar to the natural bone tissue. By dissolving PLLA polymer mixed with HAp, highly porous HAp/PLLA composite biomaterial was obtained. A wide spectrum of blocks with different properties was produced by hot pressing, varying the pressing parameters. HAp/PLLA blocks were implanted into mice (intraperitoneally) and after implantation, the phenomenon was studied histopathologically and by FT-IR spectroscopy. The obtained composite biomaterial blocks have a compressive strength of up to 140 MPa and elasticity module of up to 10 GPa. After implantation, good adhesion of the surrounding tissue on the surface of the implant as well as its integration indicate high degree of its biocompatibility.

  13. Copper Doping Improves Hydroxyapatite Sorption for Arsenate in Simulated Groundwaters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-15

    Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated maximum contamination level (MCL) for copper in drinking water . When the initial pH of the SGW was 4.0, the...519. (35) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Primary Drink - ing Water Regulations; EPA: Washington, DC, 2002. (36) Czerniczyniec, M...Hydroxyapatite (HAP) has been widely used to immobilize many cationic heavy metals in water and soils. Compared with its strong sorption for metal cations, the

  14. Gradient porous hydroxyapatite ceramics fabricated by freeze casting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Kai-hui; zhang, Yuan; Jiang, Dongliang; Zeng, Yu-Ping

    2011-04-01

    By controlling the cooling rates and the composition of slurries, the gradient porous hydroxyapatite ceramics are fabricated by the freeze casting method. According to the different cooling rate, the pores of HAP ceramics fabricated by gradient freeze casting are divided into three parts: one is lamellar pores, another is column pore and the last one is fine round pores. The laminated freeze casting is in favour of obtaining the gradient porous ceramics composed of different materials and the ceramics have unclear interfaces.

  15. Sugar-decorated hydroxyapatite: an inorganic material bioactivated with carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Russo, Laura; Landi, Elena; Tampieri, Anna; Natalello, Antonino; Doglia, Silvia M; Gabrielli, Luca; Cipolla, Laura; Nicotra, Francesco

    2011-09-06

    An efficient method for the direct and covalent decoration of granules of nanostructured apatite with a sample monosaccharide is presented; the hydroxyapatite material was directly functionalised with a short azido-containing spacer arm, to which α-propargyl glucopyranoside has been chemoselectively ligated by Huisgen-type cycloaddition. The 'glycosylated' hydroxypatite was characterised by its ability to interact with glucose recognising lectins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Modification of the supramolecular structure of collagen with nanodisperse hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voloskova, E. V.; Berdnikova, L. K.; Poluboyarov, V. A.; Gur'yanova, T. I.

    2015-02-01

    The influence of nanodisperse particles of hydroxyapatite on the structure of films based on collagen with a molecular mass of 360 kDa was studied. When coatings formed, the collagen macromolecules aggregated into spherulites; modification led to structural changes related to the decomposition of the spherulite structure and the formation of a grain structure. The variation of the physicomechanical properties of film materials directly depends on the size of the structural units.

  17. [Laboratory evaluation of tooth whitening agents in hydroxyapatite samples].

    PubMed

    Poiurovskaia, I Ia; D'iakonenko, E E; Pozharkova, M E

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents laboratory model for evaluation of the effectiveness of tooth whitening agents on pure and technical hydroxyapatite (HAP) samples. HAP samples were exposed in distilled water, and colour measurements were taken after coloration in tea extract and using of "Blend-a-med delicate bleaching" ("Procter & Gamble", Germany) toothpaste. The proposed laboratory model allows imitating discoloration by food dye (tea) and measure the whitening toothpaste effect by significant change in colour characteristics in the CIE L*a*b* system.

  18. Enhancing screw stability in osteosynthesis with hydroxyapatite granules.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, K; Yamamura, S; Dohmae, Y

    1998-01-01

    We employed hydroxyapatite (HA) granules to enhance screw fixation in revision surgery of failed osteosynthesis with a compression hip screw system in an 83-year-old woman. After reduction of the fracture, the fracture site with a large bone defect was filled with HA granules, and osteosynthesis was accomplished with a double cannulated lag screw and plate system. We feel that this HA granule augmentation method may also be suitable for osteosynthesis in other osteoporotic fractures.

  19. Osteoblast response to nanocrystalline calcium hydroxyapatite depends on carbonate content.

    PubMed

    Adams, Brandy R; Mostafa, Amany; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D

    2014-09-01

    Normal bone mineral is a carbonated-apatite, but there are limited data on the effect of mineral containing carbonate on cell response. We characterized surface chemical compositions of three experimental carbonated hydroxyapatite (CO3(2-) HA) substrates and investigated their effect on osteoblast differentiation. Carbonate was incorporated into the hydroxyapatite powders while phosphate and hydroxyl groups were shown to be reduced by analyzing the chemical composition of the substrate surfaces. CO3(2-) HA powders with increasing carbonate concentrations designated as C1 (3.88%), C2 (4.85%), and C3 (5.82%) were molded, pressed, and fired into 14 mm discs. We observed that calcium phosphate ratios increased monotonically with increasing carbonate content, whereas differentiation of MG63 cells decreased. CO3(2-) HA surfaces also affected factor production. Addition of carbonate caused a 70% reduction in osteoprotegerin (OPG) compared to cultures on pure HA, but the effect of carbonate was not dose-dependent. Low carbonate content reduced VEGF-A by 80%, but higher levels of carbonate reversed this effect in a concentration dependent manner, with the C3 VEFG-A levels approximately twice that of C1 levels. These observations collectively indicate that bone cells are sensitive to carbonate content in bone mineral and the effects of carbonate substitution vary with the outcome being measured. Overall, this study provides a preliminary understanding of how carbonate substitution within hydroxyapatite modulates cellular behavior. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Controlled synthesis and thermal stability of hydroxyapatite hierarchical microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Ruixue; Chen, Kezheng; Liao, Zhongmiao; Meng, Nan

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Hydroxyapatite hierarchical microstructures have been synthesized by a facile method. ► The morphology and size of the building units of 3D structures can be controlled. ► The hydroxyapatite with 3D structure is morphologically and structurally stable up to 800 °C. - Abstract: Hydroxyapatite (HAp) hierarchical microstructures with novel 3D morphology were prepared through a template- and surfactant-free hydrothermal homogeneous precipitation method. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the morphology and composition of the synthesized products. Interestingly, the obtained HAp with 3D structure is composed of one-dimensional (1D) nanorods or two-dimensional (2D) nanoribbons, and the length and morphology of these building blocks can be controlled through controlling the pH of the reaction. The building blocks are single crystalline and have different preferential orientation growth under different pH conditions. At low pH values, octacalcium phosphate (OCP) phase formed first and then transformed into HAp phase due to the increased pH value caused by the decomposition of urea. The investigation on the thermal stability reveals that the prepared HAp hierarchical microstructures are morphologically and structurally stable up to 800 °C.

  1. Intracellular precipitation of hydroxyapatite mineral and implications for pathologic calcification.

    PubMed

    Azari, Fereshteh; Vali, Hojatollah; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Wu, Ting-Di; Croisy, Alain; Sears, S Kelly; Tabrizian, Maryam; McKee, Marc D

    2008-06-01

    In contrast to physiologic biomineralization occurring in bones, teeth and otoconia in vertebrates, calcification of soft tissues occurs in many pathologic conditions. Although similarities have been noted between the two processes, and despite the important clinical consequences of ectopic calcification, the molecular mechanisms regulating ectopic calcification are poorly understood. Although calcification is mainly extracellular, intracellular calcification has been reported and might indeed contribute to pathologic calcification of soft tissues. To better understand the process of intracellular calcification as a potential origin for pathologic calcification, and to examine the role of proteoglycans in this process, we investigated a pattern of intracellular nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells using electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (NanoSIMS), cytochemical staining, immunolabeling and biochemical analysis. We report here that under mineralizing cell culture conditions where beta-glycerophosphate (betaGP) was added as an exogenous organic source of phosphate, betaGP-cleaving alkaline phosphatase activity increased and hydroxyapatite crystals subsequently nucleated within intracellular, membrane-bounded compartments. The small, leucine-rich proteoglycan decorin was also upregulated and associated with mineral in these cultures. Such information provides insight into the mechanisms leading to pathologic calcification and describes a process whereby hydroxyapatite deposition in cells might lead to ectopic calcification.

  2. Synthesis of fluorapatite-hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and toxicity investigations.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, N; Jahandideh, R; Biazar, Esmaeil

    2011-01-01

    In this study, calcium phosphate nanoparticles with two phases, fluorapatite (FA; Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)F(2)) and hydroxyapatite (HA; Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2)), were prepared using the solgel method. Ethyl phosphate, hydrated calcium nitrate, and ammonium fluoride were used, respectively, as P, Ca, and F precursors with a Ca:P ratio of 1:72. Powders obtained from the sol-gel process were studied after they were dried at 80°C and heat treated at 550°C. The degree of crystallinity, particle and crystallite size, powder morphology, chemical structure, and phase analysis were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Zetasizer experiments. The results of XRD analysis and FTIR showed the presence of hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite phases. The sizes of the crystallites estimated from XRD patterns using the Scherrer equation and the crystallinity of the hydroxyapatite phase were about 20 nm and 70%, respectively. Transmission electron microscope and SEM images and Zetasizer experiments showed an average size of 100 nm. The in vitro behavior of powder was investigated with mouse fibroblast cells. The results of these experiments indicated that the powders were biocompatible and would not cause toxic reactions. These compounds could be applied for hard-tissue engineering.

  3. Synthesis of Doped ZnO Nanopowders Through Sucrose Protection Method and Its Use in Varistors Productions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mao-Hua; Ma, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Doped ZnO nanopowders were successfully prepared by a novel wet-chemical method in the presence of sucrose and NH4NO3. Several analytic techniques such as x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscope were used to make characterizations of the products. The results suggested that the doped ZnO powders were approximately spherical in shape with the diameter of the particles of about 25-45 nm. The as-synthesized powders were consolidated into dense varistors discs by compaction, sintering and evaluated for their electrical characteristics. Leakage current density was found to be about 0.93 μA/cm2, and non-linear coefficients as high as 46.5 and breakdown field of about 595.8 V/mm were measured. The experimental results showed the advantage of the addition of sucrose and NH4NO3 for controlling grain size and improving electrical performance of the varistors.

  4. Synthesis of Doped ZnO Nanopowders Through Sucrose Protection Method and Its Use in Varistors Productions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mao-Hua; Ma, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Wen

    2014-09-01

    Doped ZnO nanopowders were successfully prepared by a novel wet-chemical method in the presence of sucrose and NH4NO3. Several analytic techniques such as x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscope were used to make characterizations of the products. The results suggested that the doped ZnO powders were approximately spherical in shape with the diameter of the particles of about 25-45 nm. The as-synthesized powders were consolidated into dense varistors discs by compaction, sintering and evaluated for their electrical characteristics. Leakage current density was found to be about 0.93 μA/cm2, and non-linear coefficients as high as 46.5 and breakdown field of about 595.8 V/mm were measured. The experimental results showed the advantage of the addition of sucrose and NH4NO3 for controlling grain size and improving electrical performance of the varistors.

  5. Preparation and spectroscopy characterization of Eu:MgAl2O4 nanopowder prepared by modified Pechini method.

    PubMed

    Wiglusz, R J; Grzyb, T; Lis, S; Strek, W

    2009-10-01

    In the present work, a modified Pechini method was employed to prepare nanostructured MgAl2O4 spinel powders doped with Eu3+ ions. The XRD analyses demonstrated that the powders were single-phase spinel nanopowders with high crystallite dispersion. The average spinel particle size was determined to be approximately 15 nm for calcination at 700 degrees C, and approximately 20 at 1000 degrees C. The emission and excitation spectra measured for the samples calcinated at 700 and 1000 degrees C demonstrated characteristic spectra of Eu3+ ions as well as were measured the emission spectra of Eu2+ ions for the samples calcinated at 700 degrees C. The effect of MgAl2O4 grain sizes on luminescence properties was noticed. To explain these differences a detailed analysis of luminescence spectra by the Judd-Ofelt theory has been performed.

  6. Structure and Properties of Sio2 Nanopowder Obtained From High-Silica Raw Materials by Plasma Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmachev, P. V.; Vlasov, V. A.; Skripnikova, N. K.

    2017-06-01

    The paper presents a plasma-assisted generation of nanodisperse powder obtained from diatomite, a natural high-silica material. The structure and properties of the obtained material are investigated using the transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy, infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. It is clearly shown that the obtained SiO2 nanoparticles are spherical, polydisperse and represented in the form of agglomerates. The specific surface of this nanopowder is 32 m2/g. Thermodynamic modeling of the plasma-assisted process is used to obtain the equilibrium compositions of condensed and gaseous reaction products. The plasma process is performed within the 300-5000 K temperature range.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of multiferroic Sm-doped BiFeO3 nanopowders and their bulk dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yotburut, Benjaporn; Thongbai, Prasit; Yamwong, Teerapon; Maensiri, Santi

    2017-09-01

    Multiferroic Bi1-xSmxFeO3 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3) nanopowders with particle sizes of 69-22.6 nm were prepared by a simple co-precipitation method. The structure and morphology of the samples were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD patterns confirmed the phase transition from rhombohedral to orthorhombic phases. The results of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data indicate that the oxidation state of Fe in the sample was Fe3+. The results of magnetic properties revealed the enhancement of weak ferromagnetic property with increasing Sm doping in BFO nanopowders. SEM images revealed that the average grain size decreased with an increase in Sm concentration. Undoped BFO ceramics exhibited a high dielectric constant ε‧ ∼1.1 × 104 and a low loss tangent of tan δ ∼0.5 at room temperature for 1 kHz. The room temperature dielectric constant decreased with increasing concentration of Sm doping and the dielectric relaxation peaks were observed at x ≤ 0.1. The dielectric relaxation peaks which were observed at all frequency ranges were x ≤ 0.1 samples which were attributed to Maxwell-Wagner relaxation. As the temperature increased, great increases in dielectric permittivity were observed in all the Bi1-xSmxFeO3 samples. The effects of grain boundaries on the dielectric properties of Sm-doped BFO ceramics were investigated by measuring the dielectric responds in the frequencies of 100 Hz-1 MHz at room temperature under applied dc bias of 0-20 V. It was found that, with an increase in applied dc bias voltage from 0 to 20 V, the dielectric constant decreases at frequencies below 104 Hz. However, the dielectric properties in the high-frequency region remained unchanged.

  8. Formation of a thin-layer electrolyte for SOFC by magnetic pulse compaction of tapes cast of nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Lipilin, A. S.; Kotov, Yu. A.; Khrustov, V. R.; Shkerin, S. N.; Paranin, S. N.; Spirin, A. V.; Kaygorodov, A. S.

    From the analysis of the scientific and technical literature it is possible to determine the trend of development of technologies for preparation of thin films of solid electrolytes for SOFC as the most promising one. The use of powder compaction technologies and weakly agglomerated nanosized powders for this purpose has some advantages. The present study deals with physicochemical properties of electrolytes based on zirconia and ceria and electrochemical cells loaded with these electrolytes. Weakly agglomerated nanopowders with particles about 15 nm in size were produced by laser sputtering. Films 15-25 μm thick were obtained from nanopowders of the electrolytes by butyral resin slip casting. Uniaxial and radial magnetic pulse compaction of the cast films was performed at 0.1-1.6 GPa. The apparent density of the compacts accounted for 0.5-0.7 of the theoretical value. Sintering at temperatures of 900-1250 °C provided electrolytes having the relative density of 0.92-0.98. The analysis of the structure and the conductivity of the solid electrolytes, which was performed using samples shaped as flat thin disks 15-30 mm in diameter and 10 μm to 2 mm thick, and the examination of the electrochemical characteristics of the cells made of an ultrafine solid electrolyte in the form of tubes having the diameter of about 10 mm and walls 80-250 μm thick confirmed that the ceramic samples were gas-tight and had not laminations. The conductivity of, e.g. the YSZ electrolyte was 0.08-0.112 S cm -1. The electrochemical cells, which were tested in the regime of a fuel cell with a solid electrolyte synthesized using the proposed technologies, provided the specific power of about 1 W cm -2 at 800-850 °C even without optimization of the electrodes. Thus, the ultrafine solid electrolytes met the requirements imposed on SOFC ceramics.

  9. Synthesis and characterisation of La 1-xMnO 3± δ nanopowders prepared by acrylamide polymerisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezanneau, G.; Sin, A.; Roussel, H.; Vincent, H.; Audier, M.

    2002-01-01

    La 1-xMnO 3± δ (x=-0.02 to 0.35) nanocrystalline powders were prepared by a new sol-gel method. It is used the acrylamide gelification to form an organic 3D tangled network where a solution of the respective cations is soaked. This method was adapted to cover a broad range of high impact electro-ceramic oxides, which a particular example is the CMR nanopowders reported in this work. The acrylamide sol-gel process is a fast, cheaper and easy to scale-up method for obtaining fine powders of complex oxides. This synthesis method allows performing 100 g of highly pure nanopowders in one run with simple laboratory scale. The sponge like powder obtained consists of thin sheets composed of nanocrystallites whose size varies from 66 nm to 30 nm, depending on composition. The oxygen content of the manganite powder is shown to decrease with vacancy-doping on lanthanum site. Such a evolution can be explained for La/Mn<0.9 by considering a demixtion of the powder into La 0.9MnO 3 and Mn 3O 4 phases, while for La/Mn>0.9, the high oxygen excess leads to consider vacancies on both lanthanum and manganese sites. Both hypotheses are supported by magnetic measurements, which show a constant Curie temperature of 295 K for La/Mn<0.9, while for La/Mn>0.9, the occurrence of vacancies on manganese sites progressively impedes the ferromagnetic interactions, leading to a cluster-glass behaviour in the case of the highly manganese-deficient La 0.94Mn 0.92O 3 compound.

  10. Nanostructured MgTiO3 thick films obtained by electrophoretic deposition from nanopowders prepared by solar PVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, Irina; Mahajan, Amit; Monty, Claude J. A.; Venkata Saravanan, K.

    2015-12-01

    A novel combination of solar physical vapor deposition (SPVD) and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) that was developed to grow MgTiO3 nanostructured thick films is presented. Obtaining nanostructured MgTiO3 thick films, which can replace bulk ceramic components, a major trend in electronic industry, is the main objective of this work. The advantage of SPVD is direct synthesis of nanopowders, while EPD is simple, fast and inexpensive technique for preparing thick films. SPVD technique was developed at CNRS-PROMES Laboratory, Odeillo-Font Romeu, France, while the EPD was performed at University of Aveiro - DeMAC/CICECO, Portugal. The nanopowders with an average crystallite size of about 30 nm prepared by SPVD were dispersed in 50 ml of acetone in basic media with addition of triethanolamine. The obtained well-dispersed and stable suspensions were used for carrying out EPD on 25 μm thick platinum foils. After deposition, films with thickness of about 22-25 μm were sintered in air for 15 min at 800, 900 and 1000 °C. The structural and microstructural characterization of the sintered thick films was carried out using XRD and SEM, respectively. The thickness of the sintered samples were about 18-20 μm, which was determined by cross-sectional SEM. Films sintered at 900 °C exhibit a dielectric constant, ɛr ∼18.3 and dielectric loss, tan δ ∼0.0012 at 1 MHz. The effects of processing techniques (SPVD and EPD) on the structure, microstructure and dielectric properties are reported in detail. The obtained results indicate that the thick films obtained in the present study can be promising for low loss materials for microwave and millimeter wave applications.

  11. Biogenic Hydroxyapatite: A New Material for the Preservation and Restoration of the Built Environment.

    PubMed

    Turner, Ronald J; Renshaw, Joanna C; Hamilton, Andrea

    2017-09-20

    Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is by weight the world's most produced man-made material and is used in a variety of applications in environments ranging from buildings, to nuclear wasteforms, and within the human body. In this paper, we present for the first time the direct deposition of biogenic hydroxyapatite onto the surface of OPC in a synergistic process which uses the composition of the cement substrate. This hydroxyapatite is very similar to that found in nature, having a similar crystallite size, iron and carbonate substitution, and a semi-crystalline structure. Hydroxyapatites with such a structure are known to be mechanically stronger and more biocompatible than synthetic or biomimetic hydroxyapatites. The formation of this biogenic hydroxyapatite coating therefore has significance in a range of contexts. In medicine, hydroxyapatite coatings are linked to improved biocompatibility of ceramic implant materials. In the built environment, hydroxyapatite coatings have been proposed for the consolidation and protection of sculptural materials such as marble and limestone, with biogenic hydroxyapatites having reduced solubility compared to synthetic apatites. Hydroxyapatites have also been established as effective for the adsorption and remediation of environmental contaminants such as radionuclides and heavy metals. We identify that in addition to providing a biofilm scaffold for nucleation, the metabolic activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens increases the pH of the growth medium to a suitable level for hydroxyapatite formation. The generated ammonia reacts with phosphate in the growth medium, producing ammonium phosphates which are a precursor to the formation of hydroxyapatite under conditions of ambient temperature and pressure. Subsequently, this biogenic deposition process takes place in a simple reaction system under mild chemical conditions and is cheap and easy to apply to fragile biological or architectural surfaces.

  12. Sintering and microstructure property relationships of porous hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Fadzil Ayad

    2000-09-01

    The use of ceramics inside the body, as implant materials, is a relatively new technology, the first instance having been reported just 20 years ago. The ceramics used for the repair and reconstruction of diseased, damaged or 'worn out' parts of the body are referred to as bioceramics, and such a material is hydroxyapatite. The use of calcium phosphate to repair bone defects has been based on the rationale that calcium phosphate resembles vertebrate tooth and bone mineral, and is biologically compatible with these and surrounding tissues. The concept of preparing porous hydroxyapatite was developed to prevent loosening of implants by enhancing the ingrowth of tissue into the pores (biological fixation). A structural limitation of this type of implant is the requirement to have a minimal pore size between 80- 100 m in diameter to allow bone to grow into the pores. The presence of such porosity would lead to a lower strength of the bioceramic component, but this is offset by the advantages of biocompatibility. It is well known that hydroxyapatite is a brittle material and making it porous would reduce the existing mechanical properties. This study was carried out to optimise the mechanical properties by investigating the processing conditions and methods of preparation. The effect of forming method, pore geometry, pore size, sintering cycle, sintering atmosphere and types of spherical polymers on the microstructure and mechanical properties were studied. As a consequence of the experiments, it was observed that porous hydroxyapatite is formed using an isostatic pressing technique, with 53 vol. % of HMWPVC as the porosifier. Sintering in air, with a heating rate of 50C/h, held for 1h at 600C in the first stage, and a heating rate of 100C/h, held for 4h at between 1200 and 1250C, generated a spherical pore geometry which gave the best combination of properties. This fabrication route resulted in an interconnected porous hydroxyapatite with a pore size ~90 m, the volume

  13. Synthesis and release of trace elements from hollow and porous hydroxyapatite spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Wei; Grandfield, Kathryn; Schwenke, Almut; Engqvist, Håkan

    2011-07-01

    It is known that organic species regulate fabrication of hierarchical biological forms via solution methods. However, in this study, we observed that the presence of inorganic ions plays an important role in the formation and regulation of biological spherical hydroxyapatite formation. We present a mineralization method to prepare ion-doped hydroxyapatite spheres with a hierarchical structure that is free of organic surfactants and biological additives. Porous and hollow strontium-doped hydroxyapatite spheres were synthesized via controlling the concentration of strontium ions in a calcium and phosphate buffer solution. Similarly, fluoride and silicon-doped hydroxyapatite spheres were synthesized. While spherical particle formation was attainable at low and high temperature for Sr-doped hydroxyapatite, it was only possible at high temperature in the F/Si-doped system. The presence of inorganic ions not only plays an important role in the formation and regulation of biological spherical hydroxyapatite, but also could introduce pharmaceutical effects as a result of trace element release. Such ion release results showed a sustained release with pH responsive behavior, and significantly influenced the hydroxyapatite re-precipitation. These ion-doped hydroxyapatite spheres with hollow and porous structure could have promising applications as bone/tooth materials, drug delivery systems, and chromatography supports.

  14. Characterization and inhibitive study of gel-grown hydroxyapatite crystals at physiological temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parekh, Bharat; Joshi, Mihir; Vaidya, Ashok

    2008-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite is very useful for various biomedical applications, due to its chemical similarity with mineralized bone of human. Hydroxyapatite is also responsible for arthropathy (joint disease). In the present study, the growth of hydroxyapatite crystals was carried out by using single-diffusion gel growth technique in silica hydro gel media, at physiological temperature. The growth of hydroxyapatite crystals under slow and controlled environment in gel medium can be simulated in a simple manner to the growth in human body. The crystals, formed in the Liesegang rings, were characterized by powder XRD, FTIR and dielectric study. The diffusion study is also carried out for the hydroxyapatite crystals using the moving boundary model. The inhibitive influence of various Ayurvedic medicinal plant extracts such as Boswellia serrata gum resin , Tribulus terrestris fruits, Rotula aquatica roots, Boerhaavia diffusa roots and Commiphora wightii, on the growth of hydroxyapatite was studied. Roots of R. aquatica and B. diffusa show some inhibition of the hydroxyapatite crystals in vitro. This preclinical study will be helpful to design the therapy for prevention of hydroxyapatite-based ailments.

  15. Containment of uranium in the proposed Egyptian geologic repository for radioactive waste using hydroxyapatite.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Robert Charles; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Headley, Thomas Jeffrey; Sanchez, Charles Anthony; Zhao, Hongting; Salas, Fred Manuel; Hasan, Mahmoud A.; Holt, Kathleen Caroline

    2004-04-01

    Currently, the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority is designing a shallow-land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste. To insure containment and prevent migration of radionuclides from the site, the use of a reactive backfill material is being considered. One material under consideration is hydroxyapatite, Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}, which has a high affinity for the sorption of many radionuclides. Hydroxyapatite has many properties that make it an ideal material for use as a backfill including low water solubility (K{sub sp}>10{sup -40}), high stability under reducing and oxidizing conditions over a wide temperature range, availability, and low cost. However, there is often considerable variation in the properties of apatites depending on source and method of preparation. In this work, we characterized and compared a synthetic hydroxyapatite with hydroxyapatites prepared from cattle bone calcined at 500 C, 700 C, 900 C and 1100 C. The analysis indicated the synthetic hydroxyapatite was similar in morphology to 500 C prepared cattle hydroxyapatite. With increasing calcination temperature the crystallinity and crystal size of the hydroxyapatites increased and the BET surface area and carbonate concentration decreased. Batch sorption experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of each material to sorb uranium. Sorption of U was strong regardless of apatite type indicating all apatite materials evaluated. Sixty day desorption experiments indicated desorption of uranium for each hydroxyapatite was negligible.

  16. Containment of uranium in the proposed Egyptian geologic repository for radioactive waste using hydroxyapatite.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Robert Charles; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Headley, Thomas Jeffrey; Sanchez, Charles Anthony; Zhao, Hongting; Salas, Fred Manuel; Hasan, Mahmoud A.; Holt, Kathleen Caroline

    2003-08-01

    Currently, the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority is designing a shallow-land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste. To insure containment and prevent migration of radionuclides from the site, the use of a reactive backfill material is being considered. One material under consideration is hydroxyapatite, Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}, which has a high affinity for the sorption of many radionuclides. Hydroxyapatite has many properties that make it an ideal material for use as a backfill including low water solubility (K{sub sp} > 10{sup -40}), high stability under reducing and oxidizing conditions over a wide temperature range, availability, and low cost. However, there is often considerable variation in the properties of apatites depending on source and method of preparation. In this work, we characterized and compared a synthetic hydroxyapatite with hydroxyapatites prepared from cattle bone calcined at 500 C, 700 C, 900 C and 1100 C. The analysis indicated the synthetic hydroxyapatite was similar in morphology to 500 C prepared cattle hydroxyapatite. With increasing calcination temperature the crystallinity and crystal size of the hydroxyapatites increased and the BET surface area and carbonate concentration decreased. Batch sorption experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of each material to sorb uranium. Sorption of U was strong regardless of apatite type indicating all apatite materials evaluated. Sixty day desorption experiments indicated desorption of uranium for each hydroxyapatite was negligible.

  17. Synthesis and release of trace elements from hollow and porous hydroxyapatite spheres.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wei; Grandfield, Kathryn; Schwenke, Almut; Engqvist, Håkan

    2011-07-29

    It is known that organic species regulate fabrication of hierarchical biological forms via solution methods. However, in this study, we observed that the presence of inorganic ions plays an important role in the formation and regulation of biological spherical hydroxyapatite formation. We present a mineralization method to prepare ion-doped hydroxyapatite spheres with a hierarchical structure that is free of organic surfactants and biological additives. Porous and hollow strontium-doped hydroxyapatite spheres were synthesized via controlling the concentration of strontium ions in a calcium and phosphate buffer solution. Similarly, fluoride and silicon-doped hydroxyapatite spheres were synthesized. While spherical particle formation was attainable at low and high temperature for Sr-doped hydroxyapatite, it was only possible at high temperature in the F/Si-doped system. The presence of inorganic ions not only plays an important role in the formation and regulation of biological spherical hydroxyapatite, but also could introduce pharmaceutical effects as a result of trace element release. Such ion release results showed a sustained release with pH responsive behavior, and significantly influenced the hydroxyapatite re-precipitation. These ion-doped hydroxyapatite spheres with hollow and porous structure could have promising applications as bone/tooth materials, drug delivery systems, and chromatography supports.

  18. FORMATION OF CHLOROPYROMORPHITE IN A LEAD-CONTAMINATED SOIL AMENDED WITH HYDROXYAPATITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    To evaluate conversion of soil Pb to pyromorphite, a Pb contaminated soil collected adjacent to a historical smelter was reacted with hydroxyapatite in a traditional incubation experiment and in a dialysis system in which the soil and hydroxyapatite solids were separated by a dia...

  19. FORMATION OF CHLOROPYROMORPHITE IN A LEAD-CONTAMINATED SOIL AMENDED WITH HYDROXYAPATITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    To evaluate conversion of soil Pb to pyromorphite, a Pb contaminated soil collected adjacent to a historical smelter was reacted with hydroxyapatite in a traditional incubation experiment and in a dialysis system in which the soil and hydroxyapatite solids were separated by a dia...

  20. [In Situ Polymerization and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite/polyurethane Implanted Material].

    PubMed

    Gu, Muqing; Xiao, Fengjuan; Liang, Ye; Yue, Lin; Li, Song; Li, Lanlan; Feng, Feifei

    2015-08-01

    In order to improve the interfacial bonding strength of hydroxyapatite/polyurethane implanted material and dispersion of hydroxyapatite in the polyurethane matrix, we in the present study synthesized nano-hydroxyapatite/polyurethane composites by in situ polymerization. We then characterized and analyzed the fracture morphology, thermal stability, glass transition temperature and mechanical properties. We seeded MG63 cells on composites to evaluate the cytocompatibility of the composites. In situ polymerization could improve the interfacial bonding strength, ameliorate dispersion of hydroxyapatite in the properties of the composites. After adding 20 wt% hydroxyapatite into the polyurethane, the thermal stability was improved and the glass transition temperatures were increased. The tensile strength and maximum elongation were 6.83 MPa and 861.17%, respectively. Compared with those of pure polyurethane the tensile strength and maximum elongation increased by 236.45% and 143.30%, respectively. The composites were helpful for cell adhesion and proliferation in cultivation.

  1. The structural and biological properties of hydroxyapatite-modified titanate nanowire scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haixin; Dong, Wenjun; Zheng, Yingying; Liu, Aiping; Yao, Juming; Li, Chaorong; Tang, Weihua; Chen, Benyong; Wang, Ge; Shi, Zhan

    2011-09-01

    Hydroxyapatite-modified titanate nanowire scaffolds as alternative materials for tissue engineering have been developed via a titanate nanowire matrix assisted electrochemical deposition method. The macroporous titanate nanowire matrix on Ti metal was fabricated by a hydrothermal method, and then followed by an electrochemical synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on titanate nanowire. The incorporation of titanate nanowire matrix with high oriented hydroxyapatite nanoparticles generates hierarchical scaffolds with highly osteogenic, structural integrity and excellent mechanical performance. As-prepared porous three dimensional interconnected hydroxyapatite-modified titanate nanowire scaffolds, mimicking the nature's extracellular matrix, could provide a suitable microenvironment for tissue cell ingrowth and differentiation. The ceramic titanate nanowire core with HA nanoparticle sheath structure displays superhydrophilicity, which facilitates the cell attachment and proliferation, and induces the in vitro tissue-engineered bone. Human osteoblast-like MG63 cells were cultured on the hydroxyapatite-modified titanate nanowire scaffolds, and the results showed that the scaffolds highly promote the bioactivity, osteoconductivity and osteoblast differentiation.

  2. Influence of Starting Powders on Hydroxyapatite Coatings Fabricated by Room Temperature Spraying Method.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong Seok; Lee, Jong Kook; Hwang, Kyu Hong; Hahn, Byung Dong; Yoon, Seog Young

    2015-08-01

    Three types of raw materials were used for the fabrication of hydroxyapatite coatings by using the room temperature spraying method and their influence on the microstructure and in vitro characteristics were investigated. Starting hydroxyapatite powders for coatings on titanium substrate were prepared by a heat treatment at 1100 °C for 2 h of bovine bone, bone ash, and commercial hydroxyapatite powders. The phase compositions and Ca/P ratios of the three hydroxyapatite coatings were similar to those of the raw materials without decomposition or formation of a new phase. All hydroxyapatite coatings showed a honeycomb structure, but their surface microstructures revealed different features in regards to surface morphology and roughness, based on the staring materials. All coatings consisted of nano-sized grains and had dense microstructure. Inferred from in vitro experiments in pure water, all coatings have a good dissolution-resistance and biostability in water.

  3. Surface free energy predominates in cell adhesion to hydroxyapatite through wettability.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Miho; Hori, Naoko; Ando, Hiroshi; Namba, Saki; Toyama, Takeshi; Nishimiya, Nobuyuki; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2016-05-01

    The initial adhesion of cells to biomaterials is critical in the regulation of subsequent cell behaviors. The purpose of this study was to investigate a mechanism through which the surface wettability of biomaterials can be improved and determine the effects of biomaterial surface characteristics on cellular behaviors. We investigated the surface characteristics of various types of hydroxyapatite after sintering in different atmospheres and examined the effects of various surface characteristics on cell adhesion to study cell-biomaterial interactions. Sintering atmosphere affects the polarization capacity of hydroxyapatite by changing hydroxide ion content and grain size. Compared with hydroxyapatite sintered in air, hydroxyapatite sintered in saturated water vapor had a higher polarization capacity that increased surface free energy and improved wettability, which in turn accelerated cell adhesion. We determined the optimal conditions of hydroxyapatite polarization for the improvement of surface wettability and acceleration of cell adhesion.

  4. Bone regeneration in the presence of a synthetic hydroxyapatite/silica oxide-based and a xenogenic hydroxyapatite-based bone substitute material.

    PubMed

    Kruse, A; Jung, R E; Nicholls, F; Zwahlen, R A; Hämmerle, C H F; Weber, F E

    2011-05-01

    A comparison of synthetic hydroxyapatite/silica oxide, xenogenic hydroxyapatite-based bone substitute materials with empty control sites in terms of bone regeneration enhancement in a rabbit calvarial four non-critical-sized defect model. In each of six rabbits, four bicortical calvarial bone defects were generated. The following four treatment modalities were randomly allocated: (1) empty control site, (2) synthetic hydroxyapatite/silica oxide-based (HA/SiO) test granules, (3) xenogenic hydroxyapatite -based granules, (4) synthetic hydroxyapatite/silica oxide -based (HA/SiO) test two granules. The results of the latter granules have not been reported due to their size being three times bigger than the other two granule types. After 4 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and un-decalcified sections were obtained for histological analyses. For statistical analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis test was applied (P<0.05). Histomorphometric analysis showed an average area fraction of newly formed bone of 12.32±10.36% for the empty control, 17.47±6.42% for the xenogenic hydroxyapatite -based granules group, and 21.2±5.32% for the group treated with synthetic hydroxyapatite/silica oxide -based granules. Based on the middle section, newly formed bone bridged the defect to 38.33±37.55% in the empty control group, 54.33±22.12% in the xenogenic hydroxyapatite -based granules group, and to 79±13.31% in the synthetic hydroxyapatite/silica oxide -based granules group. The bone-to-bone substitute contact was 46.38±18.98% for the xenogenic and 59.86±14.92% for the synthetic hydroxyapatite/silica oxide-based granules group. No significant difference in terms of bone formation and defect bridging could be detected between the two bone substitute materials or the empty defect. There is evidence that the synthetic hydroxyapatite/silica oxide granules provide comparable results with a standard xenogenic bovine mineral in terms of bone formation and defect bridging in non-critical size

  5. Size-controlled hydroxyapatite nanoparticles as self-organized organic-inorganic composite materials.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Viorel Marin; Ng, Chuen-How; Wilke, Max; Tiersch, Brigitte; Fratzl, Peter; Peter, Martin G

    2005-09-01

    This paper presents some results concerning the size-controlled hydroxyapatite nanoparticles obtained in aqueous media in a biopolymer matrix from soluble precursors salts. Taking the inspiration from nature, where composite materials made of a polymer matrix and inorganic fillers are often found, e.g. bone, shell of crustaceans, shell of eggs, etc., the feasibility on making composite materials containing chitosan and nanosized hydroxyapatite was investigated. A stepwise co-precipitation approach was used to obtain different types of composites by means of different ratio between components. The synthesis of hydroxyapatite was carried out in the chitosan matrix from calcium chloride and sodium dihydrogenphosphate in alkaline solutions at moderate pH of 10-11 for 24 h. Our research is focused on studying and understanding the structure of this class of composites, aiming at the development of novel materials, controlled at the nanolevel scale. The X-ray diffraction technique was employed in order to study the kinetic of hydroxyapatite formation in the chitosan matrix as well as to determine the HAp crystallite sizes in the composite samples. The hydroxyapatite synthesized using this route was found to be nano-sized (15-50 nm). Moreover, applying an original approach to analyze the (002) XRD diffraction peak profile of hydroxyapatite by using a sum of two Gauss functions, the bimodal distribution of nanosized hydroxyapatite within the chitosan matrix was revealed. Two types of size distribution domains such as cluster-like (between 200 and 400 nm), which are the habitat of ''small'' hydroxyapatite nanocrystallites and scattered-like, which are the habitat of ''large'' hydroxyapatite nanocrystallites was probed by TEM and CSLM. The structural features of composites suggest that self-assembly processes might be involved. The composites contain nanosized hydroxyapatite with structural features close to those of biological apatites that make them attractive for bone

  6. Wavelength-sensitive photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange in aqueous suspension over iron(III)-doped TiO2 nanopowders under UV and visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, X H; Li, J-G; Kamiyama, H; Moriyoshi, Y; Ishigaki, T

    2006-04-06

    Well-crystallized iron(III)-doped TiO2 nanopowders with controlled Fe3+ doping concentration and uniform dopant distribution, have been synthesized with plasma oxidative pyrolysis. The photocatalytic reactivity of the synthesized TiO2 nanopowders with a mean particle size of 50-70 nm was quantified in terms of the degradation rates of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous TiO2 suspension under UV (mainly 365 and 316 nm) and visible light irradiation (mainly 405 and 436 nm). The photodecomposition of MO over TiO2 nanopowders followed a distinct two-stage pseudo first order kinetics. Interestingly, the photocatalytic reactivity depends not only on the iron doping concentration but also on the wavelength of the irradiating light. Under UV irradiation, nominally undoped TiO2 had much higher reactivity than Fe3+ -doped TiO2, suggesting that Fe3+ doping (> 0.05 at. %) in TiO2 with a mean particle size of approximately 60 nm was detrimental to the photocatalytic decomposition of methyl orange. Whereas, under visible light irradiation, the Fe3+ -doped TiO2 with an intermediate iron doping concentration of approximately 1 at. % had the highest photocatalytic reactivity due to the narrowing of band gap so that it could effectively absorb the light with longer wavelength. A strategy for improving the photocatalytic reactivity of Fe3+ -doped TiO2 used in the visible light region is also proposed.

  7. Temperature-mediated phase transformation, pore geometry and pore hysteresis transformation of borohydride derived in-born porous zirconium hydroxide nanopowders

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Nadiya B.; Nayak, Bibhuti B.

    2016-01-01

    Development of in-born porous nature of zirconium hydroxide nanopowders through a facile hydrogen (H2) gas-bubbles assisted borohydride synthesis route using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and novel information on the temperature-mediated phase transformation, pore geometry as well as pore hysteresis transformation of in-born porous zirconium hydroxide nanopowders with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) isotherm and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images are the main theme of this research work. Without any surfactants or pore forming agents, the borohydride derived amorphous nature of porous powders was stable up to 500 °C and then the seed crystals start to develop within the loose amorphous matrix and trapping the inter-particulate voids, which led to develop the porous nature of tetragonal zirconium oxide at 600 °C and further sustain this porous nature as well as tetragonal phase of zirconium oxide up to 800 °C. The novel hydrogen (H2) gas-bubbles assisted borohydride synthesis route led to develop thermally stable porous zirconium hydroxide/oxide nanopowders with an adequate pore size, pore volume, and surface area and thus these porous materials are further suggested for promising use in different areas of applications. PMID:27198738

  8. Preparation of silicon carbide SiC-based nanopowders by the aerosol-assisted synthesis and the DC thermal plasma synthesis methods

    SciTech Connect

    Czosnek, Cezary; Bućko, Mirosław M.; Janik, Jerzy F.; Olejniczak, Zbigniew; Bystrzejewski, Michał; Łabędź, Olga; Huczko, Andrzej

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Make-up of the SiC-based nanopowders is a function of the C:Si:O ratio in precursor. • Two-stage aerosol-assisted synthesis offers conditions close to equilibrium. • DC thermal plasma synthesis yields kinetically controlled SiC products. - Abstract: Nanosized SiC-based powders were prepared from selected liquid-phase organosilicon precursors by the aerosol-assisted synthesis, the DC thermal plasma synthesis, and a combination of the two methods. The two-stage aerosol-assisted synthesis method provides at the end conditions close to thermodynamic equilibrium. The single-stage thermal plasma method is characterized by short particle residence times in the reaction zone, which can lead to kinetically controlled products. The by-products and final nanopowders were characterized by powder XRD, infrared spectroscopy FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy SEM, and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR spectroscopy. BET specific surface areas of the products were determined by standard physical adsorption of nitrogen at 77 K. The major component in all synthesis routes was found to be cubic silicon carbide β-SiC with average crystallite sizes ranging from a few to tens of nanometers. In some cases, it was accompanied by free carbon, elemental silicon or silica nanoparticles. The final mesoporous β-SiC-based nanopowders have a potential as affordable catalyst supports.

  9. Collagen hydrolysate based collagen/hydroxyapatite composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficai, Anton; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Birsan, Mihaela; Sonmez, Maria; Ficai, Denisa; Trandafir, Viorica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to study the influence of collagen hydrolysate (HAS) on the formation of ternary collagen-hydrolysate/hydroxyapatite composite materials (COLL-HAS/HA). During the precipitation process of HA, a large amount of brushite is resulted at pH = 7 but, practically pure HA is obtained at pH ⩾ 8. The FTIR data reveal the duplication of the most important collagen absorption bands due to the presence of the collagen hydrolysate. The presence of collagen hydrolysate is beneficial for the management of bone and joint disorders such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis.

  10. Aging of ceramic carbonized hydroxyapatite at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, M. V.; Kamzin, A. S.

    2016-08-01

    The process of aging of ceramic carbonized hydroxyapatite (CHA) produced in a dry carbon dioxide atmosphere at temperatures of 800-1200°C has been studied by chemical and X-ray structural analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy methods. The phase composition and structure of initial prepared ceramics samples and those aged for a year have been compared. It has been shown that relaxation of internal stresses occurring during pressed sample sintering causes plastic deformation of crystallites at room temperature, accompanied by redistribution of carbonate ions between A1, A2, B1, and B2 sites and CHA decomposition with the formation of CaO separations.

  11. A newly designed hydroxyapatite ceramic burr-hole button.

    PubMed

    Kashimura, Hiroshi; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Kubo, Yoshitaka; Yoshida, Kenji; Sugawara, Atsushi; Ogawa, Akira

    2010-03-24

    Conventional burr-hole buttons sometimes do not fit the burr hole well due to the curvature of the surrounding bone. An irregular surface at the border between the button and the surrounding skull may appear unaesthetic. The major problem is the difference between the curvature radius of the skull and the burr-hole button in contact with the skull. To solve this problem, the authors designed a button made of hydroxyapatite ceramic to snugly fit the burr hole. The specifications of this device and its clinical application are described here.

  12. A newly designed hydroxyapatite ceramic burr-hole button

    PubMed Central

    Kashimura, Hiroshi; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Kubo, Yoshitaka; Yoshida, Kenji; Sugawara, Atsushi; Ogawa, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Conventional burr-hole buttons sometimes do not fit the burr hole well due to the curvature of the surrounding bone. An irregular surface at the border between the button and the surrounding skull may appear unaesthetic. The major problem is the difference between the curvature radius of the skull and the burr-hole button in contact with the skull. To solve this problem, the authors designed a button made of hydroxyapatite ceramic to snugly fit the burr hole. The specifications of this device and its clinical application are described here. PMID:20448795

  13. Coralline hydroxyapatite bone graft substitutes: preliminary report of radiographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sartoris, D J; Gershuni, D H; Akeson, W H; Holmes, R E; Resnick, D

    1986-04-01

    A new bone graft substitute made by conversion of the calcium carbonate exoskeleton of reef-building sea coral into hydroxyapatite has recently become clinically available. The normal radiographic appearance of two forms of this material is described. In the immediate postoperative period, the exoskeletal architecture of these implants is readily appreciated. With graft incorporation over the ensuing months, their intrinsic structure is gradually lost in association with poor marginal definition. Evolving radiographic findings reflect the biocompatible nature of these implants, which provides the potential for ingrowth of native bone with preservation of the coralline scaffold, resulting in enhanced biomechanical properties.

  14. Polyether sulfone/hydroxyapatite mixed matrix membranes for protein purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junfen; Wu, Lishun

    2014-07-01

    This work proposes a novel approach for protein purification from solution using mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) comprising of hydroxyapatite (HAP) inside polyether sulfone (PES) matrix. The influence of HAP particle loading on membrane morphology is studied. The MMMs are further characterized concerning permeability and adsorption capacity. The MMMs show purification of protein via both diffusion as well as adsorption, and show the potential of using MMMs for improvements in protein purification techniques. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein. The properties and structures of MMMs prepared by immersion phase separation process were characterized by pure water flux, BSA adsorption and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  15. Hydroxyapatite-binding peptides for bone growth and inhibition

    DOEpatents

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R [Berkeley, CA; Song, Jie [Shrewsbury, MA; Lee, Seung-Wuk [Walnut Creek, CA

    2011-09-20

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)-binding peptides are selected using combinatorial phage library display. Pseudo-repetitive consensus amino acid sequences possessing periodic hydroxyl side chains in every two or three amino acid sequences are obtained. These sequences resemble the (Gly-Pro-Hyp).sub.x repeat of human type I collagen, a major component of extracellular matrices of natural bone. A consistent presence of basic amino acid residues is also observed. The peptides are synthesized by the solid-phase synthetic method and then used for template-driven HA-mineralization. Microscopy reveal that the peptides template the growth of polycrystalline HA crystals .about.40 nm in size.

  16. Development of biomimetic nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(hexamethylene adipamide) composites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuejiang; Li, Yubao; Wei, Jie; de Groot, Klass

    2002-12-01

    In this study, acicular nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) was used to make a new biomimetic composite with polyamide (poly hexamethylene adipamide) by a unique technique. The physical and chemical characteristics of the composites were tested. It was found that these synthesized n-HA crystals were similar to bone apatite in size, phase composition and crystal structure. The biomimetic n-HA crystals were uniformly distributed in the polymer matrix and its content can reach 65%, close to that in natural bone. Chemical binding between inorganic n-HA and polyamide was investigated and discussed. The mechanical properties of the composites were found to match well with those of natural bone.

  17. Thermal and optical characterization of the calcium phosphate biomaterial hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bento, A. C.; Almond, D. P.; Brown, S. R.; Turner, I. G.

    1996-05-01

    Thermal wave interferometry (TWI) has been used to measure the thermophysical properties of hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings, prepared by the plasma-spraying process on titanium alloy substrates. The properties measured were thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity, thermal effusivity, and volumetric heat capacity and the optical absorption coefficient. The thermal conductivity obtained was found to be of similar magnitude to that of human tooth enamel. The results presented confirm the usefulness of TWI as a nondestructive technique for the characterization of plasma-sprayed HA coatings.

  18. Pyroelectric, piezoelectric, and photoeffects in hydroxyapatite thin films on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, S. B.; Tofail, S. A. M.; Gandhi, A. A.; Gregor, M.; Wolf-Brandstetter, C.; Kost, J.; Bauer, S.; Krause, M.

    2011-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is the major component of bone and is used in artificial form in many biomedical applications. It was once believed to have a centrosymmetric crystal structure. In theoretical and experimental studies published in 2005, it was shown to have a monoclinic P21 structure. In the work reported here, 500 nm films of HA were spin-coated on silicon wafers. The materials were not poled. They had a nonuniform polarization distribution and exhibited pyroelectricity, piezoelectricity, and photoeffects. Structures of this type may have a number of technological applications.

  19. Biomedical properties of laser prepared silver-doped hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínek, M.; Weiserová, M.; Kocourek, T.; Zezulová, M.; Strnad, J.

    2011-07-01

    Thin films of hydroxyapatite (HA) and silver-doped HA were synthesized using KrF excimer laser deposition. Material was ablated from one target composed from silver and HA segments. Layers properties as silver content, structure, color, FTIR spectra and antibacterial properties (Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis) were measured. Silver concentration in HA layers of 0.06, 0.3, 1.2, 4.4, 8.3, and 13.7 at % was detected. The antibacterial efficacy changed with silver dopation from 71.0 to 99.9%. The focus is on investigation of minimum Ag concentration needed to reach a high antibacterial efficacy.

  20. In vitro bioactivity of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatites.

    PubMed

    Balas, F; Pérez-Pariente, J; Vallet-Regí, M

    2003-08-01

    Silicon-containing hydroxyapatites were synthesized by the controlled crystallization method. Chemical analysis, N(2) adsorption, Hg porosimetry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the hydroxyapatite and to monitor the development of a calcium phosphate layer onto the surface of the substrate immersed in a simulated body fluid, that is, in vitro bioactivity tests. The influence of the silicon content and the nature of the starting calcium and phosphorus sources on the in vitro bioactivity of the resulting materials were studied. A sample of silicocarnotite, whose structure is related to that of hydroxyapatite and contains isolated SiO(4) (4-) anions that isomorphically substitute some PO(4) (3-) anions, was prepared and used as reference material for XPS studies. An increase of the unit cell parameters with the Si content was observed, which indicated that SiO(4) (4-) units are present in lattice positions, replacing some PO(4) (3-) groups. By using XPS it was possible to assess the presence of monomeric SiO(4) (4-) units in the surface of apatite samples containing 0.8 wt % of silicon, regardless the nature of the starting raw materials, either Ca(NO(3))(2)/(NH(4))(2)HPO(4)/Si(OCOCH(3))(4) or Ca(OH)(2)/H(3)PO(4)/Si(OCOCH(3))(4). However, an increase of the silicon content up to 1.6 wt % leads to the polymerization of the silicate species at the surface. This technique shows silicon enrichment at the surface of the three samples. The in vitro bioactivity assays showed that the formation of an apatite-like layer onto the surface of silicon-containing substrates is strongly enhanced as compared with pure silicon-free hydroxyapatite. The samples containing monomeric silicate species showed higher in vitro bioactivity than that of silicon-rich sample containing polymeric silicate species. The use of calcium and phosphate salts as precursors lead to

  1. The Efficacy of Hydroxyapatite for Screw Augmentation in Osteoporotic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sang Hoon; Lee, June Ho; Cho, Ji Young; Lee, Ho-Yeon; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2013-01-01

    The stability of screw constructs is of considerable importance in determining the outcome, especially in spinal osteoporosis. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) has been proven as an effective material for increasing the pullout strength of pedicle screws inserted into the osteoporotic bones. However, PMMA has several disadvantages, such as its exothermic properties, the risk of neural injury in the event of extravasation, and difficulties in performing revision surgery. In the current study, we used hydroxyapatite (HA) cement for screw augmentation in spinal osteoporosis. We conclude that HA cement is a useful tool for screw augmentation and recommend it as a promising option for spinal instrumentation in osteoporotic patients. PMID:24201099

  2. Aqueous ferrofluids as templates for magnetic hydroxyapatite nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Mir, Aparna; Mallik, Dhriti; Bhattacharyya, Soumya; Mahata, Dipankar; Sinha, Arvind; Nayar, Suprabha

    2010-08-01

    Poly (vinyl) alcohol stabilized aqueous ferrofluids (PVA-ff) were used as nanotemplates for the crystallization of calcium hydroxyapatite (HAp). Four sets of PVA-ff-HAp nanocomposites were synthesized using 20, 40, 60 and 80 ml of PVA-ff for the same initial constituents of HAp. Various physico-chemical analyses suggest that the HAp lattice structure accommodates PVA-ff to a certain extent, beyond which the magnetic intra-molecular interactions predominate and PVA-ff starts to be pushed out of the HAp matrix. The in situ incorporation of PVA-ff during HAp synthesis results in a novel magnetic biomaterial with potential applications as targeted delivery vehicles.

  3. Novel nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating for dental and orthopedic implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huinan; Jiang, Wenping; Malshe, Ajay

    2009-09-01

    A novel hybrid coating process, combining NanoSpray® (built on electrostatic spray coating) technology with microwave sintering process, was developed for synthesizing hydroxyapatite- (HA-) based nanostructured coating with favorable properties for dental and orthopedic implants. Specifically, HA nanoparticles were deposited on commercially pure titanium substrates using NanoSpray technique to produce the HA coating, which was then sintered in a microwave furnace under controlled conditions. The study showed that the use of NanoSpray followed by microwave sintering results in nanoscale HA coating for dental/orthopedic application.

  4. Optical emission spectroscopy of microwave-plasmas at atmospheric pressure applied to the growth of organosilicon and organotitanium nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilicaslan, A.; Levasseur, O.; Roy-Garofano, V.; Profili, J.; Moisan, M.; Côté, C.; Sarkissian, A.; Stafford, L.

    2014-03-01

    An atmospheric-pressure plasma sustained by an electromagnetic surface wave (SW) in the microwave regime combined with a bubbler/flash evaporator for the injection of liquid precursors was used to produce organosilicon and organotitanium nanopowders. Following the addition of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) vapors in the nominally pure argon plasma, optical emission spectra revealed the apparition of strong C2 molecular bands along with Si and Balmer H emission lines. Such features were not observed in our atmospheric-pressure Ar/HMDSO discharges controlled by dielectric barriers, indicating that microwave plasmas are characterized by much higher fragmentation levels of the precursors due to much higher electron densities. Emission spectra from the Ar/HMDSO SW plasma further showed a high-intensity continuum, the intensity of which decreased with time as powders started to form on the discharge tube walls. In presence of titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) vapors in the nominally pure Ar plasma, the emission was dominated by Ar and Ti lines, with no trace of carbon and no continuum. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy of the powders formed in Ar/HMDSO plasmas showed very strong Si-(CH3)x and O-Si-(CH3)x bands, which is consistent with the formation of silicon oxycarbide. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) further showed tube and sheet-like nanofeatures as well as larger structures consisting of agglomerated primary clusters. On the other hand, introduction of O2 in Ar/HMDSO plasmas produced only round-like nanoparticles with strong Si-O-Si bands and no trace of carbon, consistent with the formation of SiOx. The average size of the silica nanoparticles was 50 nm. FTIR spectra of powders formed in Ar/TTIP plasmas showed strong Ti-O signals, even without the addition of O2 in the gas phase. Corresponding TEM analysis showed nano- and agglomerated features comparable to those obtained in Ar/HMDSO although the average size of the titanate nanoparticles was smaller

  5. Mechanosynthesis of nanopowders of the proton-conducting electrolyte material Ba(Zr, Y)O{sub 3-{delta}}

    SciTech Connect

    Antunes, I.; Brandao, A.; Figueiredo, F.M.; Frade, J.R.; Gracio, J.; Fagg, D.P.

    2009-08-15

    The formation of perovskite nanopowders of the common proton-conducting, electrolyte material Ba(Zr{sub 1-x}Y{sub x})O{sub 3-{delta}} is demonstrated by room temperature mechanosynthesis for the compositional range x=0, 0.058 and 0.148. This is achieved with a planetary ball mill at 650 rpm in zirconia vials, starting from BaO{sub 2} with ZrO{sub 2}, (ZrO{sub 2}){sub 0.97}(Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.03} or (ZrO{sub 2}){sub 0.92}(Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.08} precursors, respectively. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals the formation of the perovskite phase in the early stages of milling with phase purity being achieved after milling times of 240 min for composition x=0.058 whereas 420 min is necessary for composition x=0.148. In contrast, traces of ZrO{sub 2} are apparent in composition x=0 even after milling times of 420 min. The use of BaCO{sub 3} as precursor does not allow the formation of the perovskite phase for any composition. The perovskite crystallites are spherical in shape with an average size determined from XRD of ca. 30 nm in agreement with transmission electron microscopy observations. FTIR spectra demonstrate that contamination levels of BaCO{sub 3} in the mechanosynthesized powders are very low. The spherical shape and nanoscale of the crystallites allow densification levels that are highly competitive when compared to BaZrO{sub 3}-based materials formed by alternative synthesis techniques documented in the literature. - Graphical abstract: The formation of perovskite nanopowders of the common proton-conducting, electrolyte, material Ba(Zr{sub 1-x}Y{sub x})O{sub 3-{delta}} is demonstrated by room temperature mechanosynthesis, starting from BaO{sub 2} with ZrO{sub 2}, (ZrO{sub 2}){sub 0.97}(Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.03} or (ZrO{sub 2}){sub 0.92}(Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.08} precursors.

  6. Optical emission spectroscopy of microwave-plasmas at atmospheric pressure applied to the growth of organosilicon and organotitanium nanopowders

    SciTech Connect

    Kilicaslan, A.; Levasseur, O.; Roy-Garofano, V.; Profili, J.; Moisan, M.; Stafford, L.; Côté, C.; Sarkissian, A.

    2014-03-21

    An atmospheric-pressure plasma sustained by an electromagnetic surface wave (SW) in the microwave regime combined with a bubbler/flash evaporator for the injection of liquid precursors was used to produce organosilicon and organotitanium nanopowders. Following the addition of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) vapors in the nominally pure argon plasma, optical emission spectra revealed the apparition of strong C{sub 2} molecular bands along with Si and Balmer H emission lines. Such features were not observed in our atmospheric-pressure Ar/HMDSO discharges controlled by dielectric barriers, indicating that microwave plasmas are characterized by much higher fragmentation levels of the precursors due to much higher electron densities. Emission spectra from the Ar/HMDSO SW plasma further showed a high-intensity continuum, the intensity of which decreased with time as powders started to form on the discharge tube walls. In presence of titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) vapors in the nominally pure Ar plasma, the emission was dominated by Ar and Ti lines, with no trace of carbon and no continuum. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy of the powders formed in Ar/HMDSO plasmas showed very strong Si-(CH{sub 3}){sub x} and O-Si-(CH{sub 3}){sub x} bands, which is consistent with the formation of silicon oxycarbide. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) further showed tube and sheet-like nanofeatures as well as larger structures consisting of agglomerated primary clusters. On the other hand, introduction of O{sub 2} in Ar/HMDSO plasmas produced only round-like nanoparticles with strong Si-O-Si bands and no trace of carbon, consistent with the formation of SiO{sub x}. The average size of the silica nanoparticles was 50 nm. FTIR spectra of powders formed in Ar/TTIP plasmas showed strong Ti-O signals, even without the addition of O{sub 2} in the gas phase. Corresponding TEM analysis showed nano- and agglomerated features comparable to those obtained in Ar/HMDSO although the

  7. Comparison of murine fibroblast cell response to fluor-hydroxyapatite composite, fluorapatite and hydroxyapatite by eluate assay.

    PubMed

    Jantová, Sona; Letasiová, Silvia; Theiszová, Marica; Palou, M

    2009-03-01

    Fluorapatite (FA) is one of the inorganic constituents of bone or teeth used for hard tissue repairs and replacements. Fluor-hydroxyapatite (FHA) is a new synthetic composite that contains the same molecular concentration of OH(-) groups and F(-) ions. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the cellular responses of murine fibroblast NIH-3T3 cells in vitro to solid solutions of FHA and FA and to compare them with the effect of hydroxyapatite (HA). We studied 24, 48 and 72 h effects of biomaterials on cell morphology, proliferation and cell cycle of NIH-3T3 cells by eluate assay. Furthermore, we examined the ability of FHA, FA and HA to induce cell death and DNA damage. Our cytotoxic/antiproliferative studies indicated that any of tested biomaterials did not cause the total inhibition of cell division. Biomaterials induced different antiproliferative effects increasing in the order HA < FHA < FA which were time- and concentration-dependent. None of the tested biomaterials induced necrotic/apoptotic death of NIH-3T3 cells. On the other hand, after 72 h we found that FHA and FA induced G0/G1 arrest of NIH-3T3 cells, while HA did not affect any cell cycle phases. Comet assay showed that while HA demonstrated weaker genotoxicity, DNA damage induced by FHA and FA caused G0/G1 arrest of NIH-3T3 cells. Fluoridation of hydroxyapatite and different FHA and FA structure caused different cell response of NIH-3T3 cells to biomaterials.

  8. Systematic Comparison of Second-Order Polarization Propagator Approximation (SOPPA) and Equation-of-Motion Coupled Cluster Singles and Doubles (EOM-CCSD) Spin-Spin Coupling Constants for Molecules with C, N, and O Double and Triple Bonds and Selected F-Substituted Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Del Bene, Janet E; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José

    2009-01-13

    Ab initio EOM-CCSD and SOPPA calculations with the Ahlrichs (qzp,qz2p) basis set have been carried out to evaluate one-, two-, and three-bond spin-spin coupling constants for molecules HmXYHn and HmXYHn for X, Y = (13)C, (15)N, and (17)O, and selected (19)F-substituted derivatives. In the great majority of cases, EOM-CCSD one-bond C-C, C-N, C-O, C-F, N-N, N-O, and N-F coupling constants and three-bond F-F coupling constants are smaller in absolute value than the corresponding SOPPA coupling constants, with the EOM-CCSD values in better agreement with experimental data. SOPPA tends to significantly overestimate the absolute values of large one- and three-bond couplings involving fluorine. The majority of two-bond SOPPA coupling constants are in better agreement with experiment than EOM-CCSD, although differences between EOM-CCSD and experimental values are not dramatic. A statistical analysis of thirty EOM-CCSD and SOPPA coupling constants versus experimental coupling constants demonstrates that better agreement with experiment is found when EOM-CCSD is the computational method.

  9. The Fate of Porous Hydroxyapatite Granules Used in Facial Skeletal Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Steve R.; Lavoipierre, Alain M.; Huggins, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Facial appearance is largely determined by the morphology of the underlying skeleton. Hydroxyapatite is one of several materials available to enhance projection of the facial skeleton. This study evaluated the long-term maintenance of augmented bony projection when porous hydroxyapatite granules are used on the facial skeleton. Ten female patients aged 28–58 years were studied following aesthetic augmentation of the facial skeleton at 24 sites using porous hydroxyapatite granules. Postoperative CT scans at 3 months served as the baseline measurement and compared with scans taken at 1 and 2 years, with the thickness of the hydroxyapatite measured in axial and coronal planes. Thickness of original bone plus overlay of hydroxyapatite, thickness of the overlying soft tissue, and the overall projection (bone plus soft tissue) were recorded. It was found that 99.7% of the hydroxyapatite was maintained at 2 years, with no statistical difference (t test) from the baseline measurement. The overall projection (bony and soft tissue) was maintained as there was no evidence of native bone resorption or soft tissue atrophy. Radiographic results confirmed that the use of porous hydroxyapatite granules for enhancement of the facial skeleton is not only a predictable procedure, but maintains full bony projection at 2 years. PMID:20186415

  10. Effect of nano-hydroxyapatite concentration on remineralization of initial enamel lesion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Huang, S B; Gao, S S; Yu, H Y

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of the research was to determine the effect of nano-hydroxyapatite concentrations on initial enamel lesions under dynamic pH-cycling conditions. Initial enamel lesions were prepared in bovine enamel with an acidic buffer. NaF (positive control), deionized water (negative control) and four different concentrations of nano-hydroxyapatite (1%, 5%, 10% and 15% wt%) were selected as the treatment agents. Surface microhardness (SMH) measurements were performed before/after demineralization and after 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of application, and the percentage surface microhardness recovery (%SMHR) was calculated. The specimens were then examined by a scanning electron microscope. The %SMHR in nano-hydroxyapatite groups was significantly greater than that of negative control. When the concentration of nano-HA was under 10%, SMH and %SMHR increased with increasing nano-hydroxyapatite concentrations. There were no significant differences between the 10% and 15% groups at different time periods in the pH-cycling. The SEM analysis showed that nano-hydroxyapatite particles were regularly deposited on the cellular structure of the demineralized enamel surface, which appeared to form new surface layers. It was concluded that nano-hydroxyapatite had the potential to remineralize initial enamel lesions. A concentration of 10% nano-hydroxyapatite may be optimal for remineralization of early enamel caries.

  11. An improved biofunction of titanium for keratoprosthesis by hydroxyapatite-coating.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ying; Yang, Jingxin; Wang, Liqiang; Ma, Xiao; Huang, Yifei; Qiu, Zhiye; Cui, Fuzhai

    2014-03-01

    Titanium framework keratoprosthesis has been commonly used in the severe corneal blindness, but the tissue melting occurred frequently around titanium. Since hydroxyapatite has been approved to possess a good tissue integration characteristic, nanostructured hydroxyapatite was coated on the surface of titanium through the aerosol deposition method. In this study, nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and auger electronic spectrometer. Biological evaluations were performed with rabbit cornea fibroblast in vitro and an animal model in vivo. The outcomes showed the coating had a grain-like surface topography and a good atomic mixed area with substrate. The rabbit cornea fibroblasts appeared a good adhesion on the surface of nanostructured hydroxyapatite in vitro. In the animal model, nanostructured hydroxyapatite-titanium implants were stably retained in the rabbit cornea, and by contrast, the corneal stroma became thinner anterior to the implants in the control. Therefore, our findings proved that nanostructured hydroxyapatite-titanium could not only provide an improved bond for substrate but also enhance the tissue integration with implants in host. As a promising material, nanostructured hydroxyapatite-titanium-based keratoprosthesis prepared by the aerosol deposition method could be utilized for the corneal blindness treatment.

  12. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of silicated hydroxyapatite and impact of insulin adsorption.

    PubMed

    Lasgorceix, M; Costa, A M; Mavropoulos, E; Sader, M; Calasans, M; Tanaka, M N; Rossi, A; Damia, C; Chotard-Ghodsnia, R; Champion, E

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluates the biological behaviour, in vitro and in vivo, of silicated hydroxyapatite with and without insulin adsorbed on the material surface. Insulin was successfully adsorbed on hydroxyapatite and silicated hydroxyapatite bioceramics. The modification of the protein secondary structure after the adsorption was investigated by means of infrared and circular dichroism spectroscopic methods. Both results were in agreement and indicated that the adsorption process was likely to change the secondary structure of the insulin from a majority of α-helix to a β-sheet form. The biocompatibility of both materials, with and without adsorbed insulin on their surface, was demonstrated in vitro by indirect and direct assays. A good viability of the cells was found and no proliferation effect was observed regardless of the material composition and of the presence or absence of insulin. Dense granules of each material were implanted subcutaneously in mice for 1, 3 and 9 weeks. At 9 weeks of implantation, a higher inflammatory response was observed for silicated hydroxyapatite than for pure hydroxyapatite but no significant effect of adsorbed insulin was detected. Though the presence of silicon in hydroxyapatite did not improve the biological behaviour, the silicon substituted hydroxyapatite remained highly viable.

  13. Bone repair analysis in a novel biodegradable hydroxyapatite/collagen composite implanted in bone.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Tetsunari; Masuno, Kazuya; Tominaga, Kazuya; Koyama, Yoshihisa; Yamada, Takeki; Takakuda, Kazuo; Kikuchi, Masanori; Tanaka, Junzo; Tanaka, Akio

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a biodegradable hydroxyapatite/collagen composite and to examine the use of the calcium ion contained for bone formation and growth. Surgical holes were prepared in the femora and tibiae of beagle dogs, and were filled with the hydroxyapatite/collagen composite labeled with alizarin red. After 4 weeks, calcein was administered to the experimental dogs. After 1 additional week, the femora and tibiae were removed surgically and fixed in formalin. Light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to examine the surgical holes with their implanted materials and the surrounding bone. There were only a few inflammatory cells adjacent to the hydroxyapatite/collagen composite. The newly formed bone in the cortical bone was stained with calcein, which binds to serum calcium, and new bone near the hydroxyapatite/collagen composite in the holes was stained positive for alizarin red, which binds to the calcium in the hydroxyapatite/collagen composite. In addition, osteoblasts near the hydroxyapatite/collagen composite as well as newly formed bone adjacent to the osteoblasts showed alizarin red staining, but the new bone at a distance from the hydroxyapatite/collagen implant reacted only to calcein staining. These results, using the tissue labeling method with calcein and alizarin red, suggested that the calcium bound to the alizarin red released from the hydroxyapatite/collagen composite materials might have been translocated to sites of new bone formation. The present experiment showed that the novel hydroxyapatite/collagen composite is a useful implant material for bone augmentation and that the calcium in the newly formed bone might have been released from the implant.

  14. Sintering and dissolution of bone ash-derived hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Dong Seok; Kim, Young Gook; Lee, Jong Kook

    2010-08-01

    Bone ash-derived hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics were prepared by pressureless sintering and hot pressing, and their dissolution behavior was examined in buffered water. HA powder was obtained by soaking bone ash in a 0.1M NaOH solution at 80 °C, followed by calcination at 1000 °C to completely remove the organic material. The crystal structure of the HA powder with a particle size of approximately 1 μm was mainly hydroxyapatite with a minimal amount of α-tricalcium phosphate. To improve densification, the powder was hot-pressed at 1000 °C for 0.5 h under a pressure of 30 MPa in an Ar atmosphere. The sintered density of the hot-pressed HA was 95 % of the theoretical density, which is much higher than the 70% obtained for the pressureless-sintered compact. In the porous HA ceramics obtained by pressureless sintering, dissolution occurred adjacent to the pores rather than in the dense part, which increased the residual porosity. On the other hand, the hot-pressed HA showed grain boundary dissolution followed by particle loosening.

  15. Rabbit synoviocyte inositol phospholipid metabolism is stimulated by hydroxyapatite crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Rothenberg, R.J.; Cheung, H.

    1988-04-01

    Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 synthesis partially ameliorates some aspects of synovitis, but joint destruction still progresses. Other aspects of phospholipid metabolism may play a role in synovial tissue pathophysiology. Products of phosphatidylinositol metabolism can activate intracellular processes in response to extracellular stimuli. We asked whether this pathway is activated in synoviocytes in monolayer tissue culture by the addition of hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals in medium. These crystals are found in pathological human synovial fluid. These crystals are associated with the secretion of degradative enzymes and with a destructive arthritis in humans. Rabbit synoviocyte cultures, previously incubated with (3H)inositol to label inositol phospholipids, were stimulated with the addition of hydroxyapatite (180 micrograms/ml) to the cultures. There was enhanced intracellular accumulation of (3H)inositol monophosphate (30-100%) after 4 h. This indicated an increased phospholipase C activity. The radioactivity in (3H)inositol bis- and trisphosphates was too low to reliably measure. The use of (32P)Pi allowed detection of these compounds. In the presence of HA, incorporation of (32P)Pi into phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol monophosphate, and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate was increased. In addition, cultures exposed to (32P)Pi during stimulation with HA had an increased content of (32P)inositol monophosphate, bisphosphate, and trisphosphate.

  16. Molecular Recognition at the Protein-Hydroxyapatite Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Stayton, Partick S.; Drobny, G. P.; Shaw, Wendy J.; Long, Joanna R.; Gilbert, Michelle R.

    2003-09-01

    Proteins found in mineralized tissues act as nature's crystal engineers, where they play a key role in promoting or inhibiting the growth of minerals, such as hydroxyapitite (bones/teeth) and calcium oxalate (kidney stones). Despite their importance in hard-tissue formation and remodeling, and in pathological processes such as stone formation and arterial calcification, there is little known of the protein structure-function relationships that govern hard-tissue engineering. Here we review early studies that have utilized solid-state NMR (ssNMR) techniques to provide in situ secondary-structure determination of statherin and statherin peptides on their biologically relevant hydroxyapatite (HAP) surfaces. In addition to direct structural study, molecular dynamics studies have provided considerable insight into the protein-binding footprint on hydroxyapatite. The molecular insight provided by these studies has also led to the design of biomimetic fusion peptides that utilize nature's crystal-recognition mechanism to display accessible and dynamic bioactive sequences from the HAP surface. These peptides selectively engage adhesion receptors and direct specific outside-in signaling pathway activation in osteoblast-like cells.

  17. Attachment of Oral Cytophaga Species to Hydroxyapatite-Containing Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Celesk, Roger A.; London, Jack

    1980-01-01

    Model systems simulating the cementum portion of teeth were used to characterize the attachment process by which certain species of oral Cytophaga initiate the colonization of the tooth root surface in vitro. The adsorption of these bacteria to spheroidal hydroxyapatite beads and mechanically powdered root material followed Langmuir isotherm kinetics. From such data, the number of binding sites per 20 mg of substrate and the affinity constants were evaluated for two strains of Cytophaga sp. Resting cells of the two strains tested adhered relatively tenaciously to hydroxyapatite beads in numbers similar to those observed with cells of Streptococcus sanguis. Attachment of bacteria to the substrates was partially inhibited by (i) coating the substrates with human serum or saliva, (ii) pretreating cell suspensions with proteinase K or phospholipase C or D, or (iii) exposing the cells to temperatures greater than 60°C for 15 min. Treating resting cell suspensions with pronase, neuraminidase, phospholipase A2, or 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid had no effect on the attachment process. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 5 PMID:7216436

  18. Alendronate functionalized mesoporous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for drug delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dongdong; Zhu, Yuntao; Liang, Zhiqiang

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► The synthesized mesoporous hydroxyapatite has nanostructure and bioactivity. ► The materials have high surface area and amino group. ► The materials show higher drug loading and slower release rate than pure HAP. - Abstract: Mesoporous nanosized hydroxyapatite (HAP) functionalized by alendronate (ALN) was synthesized using cationic surfactant CTAB as template. The structural, morphological and textural properties were fully characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption. Then the obtained materials were performed as drug delivery carriers using ibuprofen (IBU) as a model drug to investigate their drug storage/release properties in simulated body fluid (SBF). The materials showed relatively slower release rate compared with HAP due to the ionic interaction between -NH{sub 3}{sup +} on the matrix and -COO{sup −}belongs to IBU. The system provides a new concept for improving the drug loading or slowing down the release rate.

  19. Biocompatible nano-gallium/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite with antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Kurtjak, Mario; Vukomanović, Marija; Kramer, Lovro; Suvorov, Danilo

    2016-11-01

    Intensive research in the area of medical nanotechnology, especially to cope with the bacterial resistance against conventional antibiotics, has shown strong antimicrobial action of metallic and metal-oxide nanomaterials towards a wide variety of bacteria. However, the important remaining problem is that nanomaterials with highest antibacterial activity generally express also a high level of cytotoxicity for mammalian cells. Here we present gallium nanoparticles as a new solution to this problem. We developed a nanocomposite from bioactive hydroxyapatite nanorods (84 wt %) and antibacterial nanospheres of elemental gallium (16 wt %) with mode diameter of 22 ± 11 nm. In direct comparison, such nanocomposite with gallium nanoparticles exhibited better antibacterial properties against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and lower in-vitro cytotoxicity for human lung fibroblasts IMR-90 and mouse fibroblasts L929 (efficient antibacterial action and low toxicity from 0.1 to 1 g/L) than the nanocomposite of hydroxyapatite and silver nanoparticles (efficient antibacterial action and low toxicity from 0.2 to 0.25 g/L). This is the first report of a biomaterial composite with gallium nanoparticles. The observed strong antibacterial properties and low cytotoxicity make the investigated material promising for the prevention of implantation-induced infections that are frequently caused by P. aeruginosa.

  20. Effect of hydroxyapatite-based biomaterials on human osteoblast phenotype.

    PubMed

    Trombelli, L; Penolazzi, L; Torreggiani, E; Farina, R; Lambertini, E; Vecchiatini, R; Piva, R

    2010-03-01

    The present study evaluated human primary osteoblasts and two different osteoblast-like cell lines behaviour when cultured in presence of different hydroxyapatite-based (HA) biomaterials (SINTlife-FIN-CERAMICA S.p.a., Faenza, Italy; Bio-Oss, Geistlich Biomaterials, Woulhusen, Switzerland; Biostite-GABA Vebas, San Giuliano Milanese, MI, Italy), focusing attention on the effect of HA/Biostite in terms of modulation of osteoblastic differentiation. Analysis were about adhesion, proliferation and mineralization activity. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERalfa) expression and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) were measured as osteoblastic differentiation markers. Determination of viable cells was done with MTT colorimetric assay. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed on biomaterial-treated cells. All hydroxyapatite-based biomaterials didn't affect cells morphology and viability, whereas only presence of HA/Biostite improved cells adhesion, growth and differentiation. Adhesion and spreading of the primary cells on HA/Biostite were the same showed by two different osteoblast-like cell lines. These results have important implications for both tissue-engineered bone grafts and enhancement of HA implants performance, to develop new teeth's supporting structure therapies and replacement.