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Sample records for faba beans vicia

  1. Carbohydrate composition of mature and immature faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seeds from diverse origins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a valuable pulse crop for human consumption. The low molecular weight carbohydrates (LMWC): glucose, fructose, sucrose (GFS), raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose (RFO- raffinose family oligosaccharides) in faba bean seeds are significant components of human nutrition an...

  2. Nutritional response of growing rats to faba beans (Vicia faba L., minor) and faba bean fractions.

    PubMed

    Rubio, L A; Grant, G; Bardocz, S; Dewey, P; Pusztai, A

    1991-11-01

    The effects of raw faba bean (Vicia faba L., minor) meal (VFM) and its fractions on the growth and nitrogen utilization of rats have been determined in two experiments. Two commercial varieties of VFM were tested, local VFM (409-439 g/kg diet) and Troy VFM (439 g/kg diet). The bean fractions tested were V. faba lectin-depleted protein (VFDP), V. faba lectin (VFL) and V. faba cotyledon residue (VFCR). All diets were supplemented with amino acids to target requirements. Body-weight, body N and lipid contents of rats fed on VFM were reduced significantly in comparison with control rats fed on lactalbumin. This was due, in part, to the lower digestibility of the protein, lipid and dry matter (DM) of VFM diets. As a result, net protein utilization (NPU) and biological value (BV) of faba bean proteins were less than expected. Urine and urea-N outputs of the VFM-fed rats were also elevated in both experiments. Increasing the energy content of local VFM diets led to significantly higher dry body-weight, body N and lipid contents, with the result that the NPU and BV values of the protein also increased. However, the NPU values for VFM-fed rats were still significantly lower than those for the controls in both experiments. In contrast, true N, lipid and DM digestibilities in rats given local VFM were not significantly affected by the difference in the energy content of the diets. The replacement of two-thirds of the lactalbumin in the diet with VFDP (65 g/kg) reduced dry body-weight, N and lipid contents, NPU and BV compared with the control rats, even though N, lipid and DM digestibilities were not significantly different. The nutritional performance of rats fed on lactalbumin-based diets containing 7 g VFL/kg was similar to that of the controls. Similarly, the inclusion of the cotyledon residue (237 g VFCR/kg diet) had no appreciable effect on any of the variables studied. As VFL and VFCR had no antinutritional effects in these rats, it appears that the low nutritional

  3. Genetic diversity and relationship among faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasm entries as revealed by TRAP markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) markers were used to assess genetic diversity and relationship among 151 world-wide collected faba bean (Vicia faba L.) entries (137 accessions maintained at the USDA-ARS, Pullman, WA, two commercial varieties and 12 elite cultivars and advanced breedi...

  4. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) under Ascochyta fabae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ocaña, Sara; Seoane, Pedro; Bautista, Rocio; Palomino, Carmen; Claros, Gonzalo M.; Torres, Ana M.; Madrid, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Faba bean is an important food crop worldwide. However, progress in faba bean genomics lags far behind that of model systems due to limited availability of genetic and genomic information. Using the Illumina platform the faba bean transcriptome from leaves of two lines (29H and Vf136) subjected to Ascochyta fabae infection have been characterized. De novo transcriptome assembly provided a total of 39,185 different transcripts that were functionally annotated, and among these, 13,266 were assigned to gene ontology against Arabidopsis. Quality of the assembly was validated by RT-qPCR amplification of selected transcripts differentially expressed. Comparison of faba bean transcripts with those of better-characterized plant genomes such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula and Cicer arietinum revealed a sequence similarity of 68.3%, 72.8% and 81.27%, respectively. Moreover, 39,060 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and 3,669 InDels were identified for genotyping applications. Mapping of the sequence reads generated onto the assembled transcripts showed that 393 and 457 transcripts were overexpressed in the resistant (29H) and susceptible genotype (Vf136), respectively. Transcripts involved in plant-pathogen interactions such as leucine rich proteins (LRR) or plant growth regulators involved in plant adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses were found to be differently expressed in the resistant line. The results reported here represent the most comprehensive transcript database developed so far in faba bean, providing valuable information that could be used to gain insight into the pathways involved in the resistance mechanism against A. fabae and to identify potential resistance genes to be further used in marker assisted selection. PMID:26267359

  5. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) under Ascochyta fabae Infection.

    PubMed

    Ocaña, Sara; Seoane, Pedro; Bautista, Rocio; Palomino, Carmen; Claros, Gonzalo M; Torres, Ana M; Madrid, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Faba bean is an important food crop worldwide. However, progress in faba bean genomics lags far behind that of model systems due to limited availability of genetic and genomic information. Using the Illumina platform the faba bean transcriptome from leaves of two lines (29H and Vf136) subjected to Ascochyta fabae infection have been characterized. De novo transcriptome assembly provided a total of 39,185 different transcripts that were functionally annotated, and among these, 13,266 were assigned to gene ontology against Arabidopsis. Quality of the assembly was validated by RT-qPCR amplification of selected transcripts differentially expressed. Comparison of faba bean transcripts with those of better-characterized plant genomes such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula and Cicer arietinum revealed a sequence similarity of 68.3%, 72.8% and 81.27%, respectively. Moreover, 39,060 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and 3,669 InDels were identified for genotyping applications. Mapping of the sequence reads generated onto the assembled transcripts showed that 393 and 457 transcripts were overexpressed in the resistant (29H) and susceptible genotype (Vf136), respectively. Transcripts involved in plant-pathogen interactions such as leucine rich proteins (LRR) or plant growth regulators involved in plant adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses were found to be differently expressed in the resistant line. The results reported here represent the most comprehensive transcript database developed so far in faba bean, providing valuable information that could be used to gain insight into the pathways involved in the resistance mechanism against A. fabae and to identify potential resistance genes to be further used in marker assisted selection.

  6. Insect pollination reduces yield loss following heat stress in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Jacob; Jones, Hannah Elizabeth; Lukac, Martin; Potts, Simon Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Global food security, particularly crop fertilization and yield production, is threatened by heat waves that are projected to increase in frequency and magnitude with climate change. Effects of heat stress on the fertilization of insect-pollinated plants are not well understood, but experiments conducted primarily in self-pollinated crops, such as wheat, show that transfer of fertile pollen may recover yield following stress. We hypothesized that in the partially pollinator-dependent crop, faba bean (Vicia faba L.), insect pollination would elicit similar yield recovery following heat stress. We exposed potted faba bean plants to heat stress for 5 days during floral development and anthesis. Temperature treatments were representative of heat waves projected in the UK for the period 2021–2050 and onwards. Following temperature treatments, plants were distributed in flight cages and either pollinated by domesticated Bombus terrestris colonies or received no insect pollination. Yield loss due to heat stress at 30 °C was greater in plants excluded from pollinators (15%) compared to those with bumblebee pollination (2.5%). Thus, the pollinator dependency of faba bean yield was 16% at control temperatures (18–26 °C) and extreme stress (34 °C), but was 53% following intermediate heat stress at 30 °C. These findings provide the first evidence that the pollinator dependency of crops can be modified by heat stress, and suggest that insect pollination may become more important in crop production as the probability of heat waves increases. PMID:26989276

  7. Planting geometry to optimize growth and productivity in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and soil fertility.

    PubMed

    Singh, A K; Bhatt, B P; Sundaram, P K; Gupta, A K; Singh, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) responses to alteration of its ambient environment leads to certain modification in the crop phenology, yield attributes and economic yield. To know the extent and pattern of response by faba bean to alterations, a two year field experimentation was carried out with two crop establishment methods (i) flatbed planting (ii) raised bed planting, four planting geometry (i) 30 x 20 cm(ii) 30 x 30 cm (iii) 30 x 45 cm and (iv) 45X45cm and three seeding depth. All the treatment (two crop establishment methods, four planting geometry and three seeding depth) were combined together consisting twenty four treatments, were organized in factorial experiment in complete randomized block design (CRBD) with three replications. Data were recorded on growth and development; yield attributes and yield. Soil analysis was done and finally statistical tool were applied to come in to valid conclusion. Raised bed planting proves superior over flatbed in case of seed yield. Square planting architect with 30 cm apart prove better (3690.9 kg ha(-1)) than other tested planting geometry. Seeding at 10 cm depth showed, significant improvement in seed yield per plant and per ha over other two tested seeding depth. Phosphorus availability was significantly higher in raised bed planting (36.9 kg ha(-1)). However, available K (kg ha(-1)) was significantly influenced by planting geometry and seeding depth. It was maximum (155.2 kg ha(-1)) with 30 x 45 cm plant geometry, proved significantly higher than 30 x 20 cm and 30 x 30 cm and at par with 45 x 45 cm planting.

  8. Biology and demographic growth parameters of cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora) on faba bean (Vicia faba) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Soffan, A; Aldawood, A S

    2014-01-01

    The performance of cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch. (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on five faba bean, Vicia faba L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) cultivars was evaluated. Colony development, biology, and demographic parameters were studied to measure the cowpea aphid performance. Two methods, whole plant and detached leaf, were used in these experiments. After 14 d , the number of apterous adult, nymphs, and total cowpea aphids were significantly lower in cultivar Gazira2 and highest on cultivar Misr1. Assuming that low aphid numbers per plant represented high resistance, the order of resistant cultivars was as follows: Gazira2 > Misr > Giza3 Improved > Goff1 > Misr1. Aphid infestation significantly inhibited plant growth compared with uninfested plants, as indicated by factorial analysis using plant height (F = 41.38, P < 0.0001). The detached-leaf biological assay showed that the cultivar Gazira2 was less suitable than Misr1 because it had longer prereproductive, reproductive, and post reproductive periods, longer total longevity, and lower number of progeny. Similarly, demographic parameters also justified the suggested lower suitability of Gazira2 compared with Misr1, indicated by significantly lower net reproduction rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, but longer generation time and doubling time on Gazira2. It was shown that cowpea aphid performed differently on the whole plant as compared with detached leaves. The detached-leaf biological assay is recommended for future experiments because it is more accurate and efficient and it produces reliable data.

  9. A reference consensus genetic map for molecular markers and economically important traits in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the earliest domesticated crops from the Near East. Today this legume is a key protein feed and food worldwide and continues to serve an important role in culinary traditions throughout Middle East, Mediterranean region, China and Ethiopia. Adapted to a wide range of soil types, the main faba bean breeding objectives are to improve yield, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, seed quality and other agronomic traits. Genomic approaches aimed at enhancing faba bean breeding programs require high-quality genetic linkage maps to facilitate quantitative trait locus analysis and gene tagging for use in a marker-assisted selection. The objective of this study was to construct a reference consensus map in faba bean by joining the information from the most relevant maps reported so far in this crop. Results A combination of two approaches, increasing the number of anchor loci in diverse mapping populations and joining the corresponding genetic maps, was used to develop a reference consensus map in faba bean. The map was constructed from three main recombinant inbreed populations derived from four parental lines, incorporates 729 markers and is based on 69 common loci. It spans 4,602 cM with a range from 323 to 1041 loci in six main linkage groups or chromosomes, and an average marker density of one locus every 6 cM. Locus order is generally well maintained between the consensus map and the individual maps. Conclusion We have constructed a reliable and fairly dense consensus genetic linkage map that will serve as a basis for genomic approaches in faba bean research and breeding. The core map contains a larger number of markers than any previous individual map, covers existing gaps and achieves a wider coverage of the large faba bean genome as a whole. This tool can be used as a reference resource for studies in different genetic backgrounds, and provides a framework for transferring genetic information when using different

  10. Genetic diversity analysis of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasms using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hou, W W; Zhang, X J; Shi, J B; Liu, Y J

    2015-10-30

    To investigate genetic diversity and relationships of 101 faba bean (Vicia faba L.), landraces and varieties from different provinces of China and abroad were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). A total of 2625 unambiguous and stable bands from 101 germplasms were detected, and 36 different bands were classified according to the electrophoretic mobility patterns of the proteins as determined by the SDS-PAGE analysis, of which 16 were polymorphic. Besides the common bands, the protein bands of 92, 75, 62, 40, 34, 17, and 13 kDa presented the highest frequencies of 92.08, 90.10, 99.01, 95.05, 95.05, 98.02, and 95.05%, respectively. The other 29 polymorphic protein bands showed higher polymorphism with 16.09 polymorphic bands in average. The genetic similarity of the 101 genotypes tested varied from 0.6111 to 0.9722, with an average of 0.7122. Cluster analysis divided the 101 genotypes into six major clusters, which was consistent with the systematic classification of faba bean done in previous studies. The overall results indicated that SDS-PAGE was a useful tool for genetic diversity analysis and laid a solid foundation for future faba bean breeding.

  11. Genetic diversity analysis of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasms using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hou, W W; Zhang, X J; Shi, J B; Liu, Y J

    2015-01-01

    To investigate genetic diversity and relationships of 101 faba bean (Vicia faba L.), landraces and varieties from different provinces of China and abroad were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). A total of 2625 unambiguous and stable bands from 101 germplasms were detected, and 36 different bands were classified according to the electrophoretic mobility patterns of the proteins as determined by the SDS-PAGE analysis, of which 16 were polymorphic. Besides the common bands, the protein bands of 92, 75, 62, 40, 34, 17, and 13 kDa presented the highest frequencies of 92.08, 90.10, 99.01, 95.05, 95.05, 98.02, and 95.05%, respectively. The other 29 polymorphic protein bands showed higher polymorphism with 16.09 polymorphic bands in average. The genetic similarity of the 101 genotypes tested varied from 0.6111 to 0.9722, with an average of 0.7122. Cluster analysis divided the 101 genotypes into six major clusters, which was consistent with the systematic classification of faba bean done in previous studies. The overall results indicated that SDS-PAGE was a useful tool for genetic diversity analysis and laid a solid foundation for future faba bean breeding. PMID:26535710

  12. Inbreeding, outbreeding and RAPD markers studies of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) crop

    PubMed Central

    Obiadalla-Ali, Hazem A.; Mohamed, Naheif E.M.; Khaled, Abdelsabour G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Five faba bean genotypes (Vicia faba L.) were selfed for two cycles to produce S1 and S2 generations. A half-diallel cross was carried out among them in each level of inbreeding (S0, S1 and S2) to obtain 10 F1 hybrids. Parental materials as well as their respective F1s were evaluated during the winter season of 2012. All studied traits except total dry seed yield showed significant inbreeding depression after the first generation of selfing (S1). No further decrease was noticed at the S2 generation. In the S1 generation the degree of inbreeding depression was highest for No. of branches/plant (−14.0%) and the least for weight of 100-seeds (−2.7). Some parents showed inbreeding vigor i.e. positive difference between S2 and S1 for some traits in S2 generation. Most studied traits showed significant positive heterosis values over mid-parent. The highest value of heterosis over the mid-parent was detected for total dry seed yield (128.8) and the lowest value of hybrid vigor was shown by weight of 100-seeds (1.2%). Specific combination among the 5 parental genotypes showed the highest value for heterosis for example cross Misr 2 × Giza 429 was the best cross for total dry seed yield, cross Giza 429 × Misr 1 for No. of branches/plant. Giza 429 is the best general combiner for most traits. Some crosses showed heterosis depression i.e. negative heterosis value in some traits. Hybridization among parental genotypes is recommended to be at the S1 or S2 generation. Twelve arbitrary primers produced different degrees of genetic polymorphism among the parental genotypes. A total of 65 amplification products were scored polymorphic. The percentage of polymorphic bands detected ranged from 33% to 100% with an average of 66.47%. The average of amplified bands was 5.42 polymorphic bands per primer. A positive, but non-significant, correlation (r = 0.085) between Euclidean distance and RAPD distance was observed. PMID:26644923

  13. Inbreeding, outbreeding and RAPD markers studies of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) crop.

    PubMed

    Obiadalla-Ali, Hazem A; Mohamed, Naheif E M; Khaled, Abdelsabour G A

    2015-11-01

    Five faba bean genotypes (Vicia faba L.) were selfed for two cycles to produce S1 and S2 generations. A half-diallel cross was carried out among them in each level of inbreeding (S0, S1 and S2) to obtain 10 F1 hybrids. Parental materials as well as their respective F1s were evaluated during the winter season of 2012. All studied traits except total dry seed yield showed significant inbreeding depression after the first generation of selfing (S1). No further decrease was noticed at the S2 generation. In the S1 generation the degree of inbreeding depression was highest for No. of branches/plant (-14.0%) and the least for weight of 100-seeds (-2.7). Some parents showed inbreeding vigor i.e. positive difference between S2 and S1 for some traits in S2 generation. Most studied traits showed significant positive heterosis values over mid-parent. The highest value of heterosis over the mid-parent was detected for total dry seed yield (128.8) and the lowest value of hybrid vigor was shown by weight of 100-seeds (1.2%). Specific combination among the 5 parental genotypes showed the highest value for heterosis for example cross Misr 2 × Giza 429 was the best cross for total dry seed yield, cross Giza 429 × Misr 1 for No. of branches/plant. Giza 429 is the best general combiner for most traits. Some crosses showed heterosis depression i.e. negative heterosis value in some traits. Hybridization among parental genotypes is recommended to be at the S1 or S2 generation. Twelve arbitrary primers produced different degrees of genetic polymorphism among the parental genotypes. A total of 65 amplification products were scored polymorphic. The percentage of polymorphic bands detected ranged from 33% to 100% with an average of 66.47%. The average of amplified bands was 5.42 polymorphic bands per primer. A positive, but non-significant, correlation (r = 0.085) between Euclidean distance and RAPD distance was observed. PMID:26644923

  14. Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor) in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg) and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized faba bean (130 g/kg) as the main protein source. Substituting SBM with faba bean had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative weight of the guinea fowls. Conversely, a decrease (p<0.05) of abdominal fat was found in guinea fowls fed the faba bean-diet. Breast muscle of birds fed faba bean had higher L* score (p<0.05) and water-holding capacity (p<0.05) than the SBM control diet. Meat from guinea fowls fed faba bean had less total lipids (p<0.05) and cholesterol (p<0.01), and higher concentrations of phospholipids (p<0.01). Feeding faba bean increased polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in breast meat and decreased the saturated fatty acid levels. Moreover, dietary faba bean improved the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in guinea fowl breast meat. Results indicated that substitution of SBM with faba bean meal in guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative traits, enhancing also meat lipid profile without negatively affecting growth performance. PMID:26323403

  15. Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality

    PubMed Central

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor) in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg) and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized faba bean (130 g/kg) as the main protein source. Substituting SBM with faba bean had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative weight of the guinea fowls. Conversely, a decrease (p<0.05) of abdominal fat was found in guinea fowls fed the faba bean-diet. Breast muscle of birds fed faba bean had higher L* score (p<0.05) and water-holding capacity (p<0.05) than the SBM control diet. Meat from guinea fowls fed faba bean had less total lipids (p<0.05) and cholesterol (p<0.01), and higher concentrations of phospholipids (p<0.01). Feeding faba bean increased polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in breast meat and decreased the saturated fatty acid levels. Moreover, dietary faba bean improved the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in guinea fowl breast meat. Results indicated that substitution of SBM with faba bean meal in guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative traits, enhancing also meat lipid profile without negatively affecting growth performance. PMID:26323403

  16. Synergistic interaction of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as a plant growth promoting biofertilizers for faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in alkaline soil.

    PubMed

    Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; El-Enany, Abdel-Wahab Elsadek; Nafady, Nivien Allam; Khalaf, David Mamdouh; Morsy, Fatthy Mohamed

    2014-01-20

    Egyptian soils are generally characterized by slightly alkaline to alkaline pH values (7.5-8.7) which are mainly due to its dry environment. In arid and semi-arid regions, salts are less concentrated and sodium dominates in carbonate and bicarbonate forms, which enhance the formation of alkaline soils. Alkaline soils have fertility problems due to poor physical properties which adversely affect the growth and the yield of crops. Therefore, this study was devoted to investigating the synergistic interaction of Rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for improving growth of faba bean grown in alkaline soil. A total of 20 rhizobial isolates and 4 species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) were isolated. The rhizobial isolates were investigated for their ability to grow under alkaline stress. Out of 20 isolates 3 isolates were selected as tolerant isolates. These 3 rhizobial isolates were identified on the bases of the sequences of the gene encoding 16S rRNA and designated as Rhizobium sp. Egypt 16 (HM622137), Rhizobium sp. Egypt 27 (HM622138) and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae STDF-Egypt 19 (HM587713). The best alkaline tolerant was R. leguminosarum bv. viciae STDF-Egypt 19 (HM587713). The effect of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae STDF-Egypt 19 and mixture of AMF (Acaulospora laevis, Glomus geosporum, Glomus mosseae and Scutellospora armeniaca) both individually and in combination on nodulation, nitrogen fixation and growth of Vicia faba under alkalinity stress were assessed. A significant increase over control in number and mass of nodules, nitrogenase activity, leghaemoglobin content of nodule, mycorrhizal colonization, dry mass of root and shoot was recorded in dual inoculated plants than plants with individual inoculation. The enhancement of nitrogen fixation of faba bean could be attributed to AMF facilitating the mobilization of certain elements such as P, Fe, K and other minerals that involve in synthesis of nitrogenase and leghaemoglobin. Thus it is

  17. Effect of several germination treatments on phosphatases activities and degradation of phytate in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and azuki bean (Vigna angularis L.).

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuwei; Xie, Weihua; Luo, Fengxia

    2012-10-01

    Two assays were conducted to investigate the changes of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and azuki bean (Vigna angularis L.) phosphatases (phytase [Phy] and acid phosphatase [AcPh]) and the degradation of its substrates (inositol phosphate esters) during seed germination. The 1st assay was to establish the optimal germination conditions of faba bean and azuki bean to improve the endogenous phosphatases and increase the hydrolysis of phytate and, in the second assay, to determine the different lower phosphate esters of myo-inositol produced during the germination process. In the 1st assay, seeds were soaked for 12 and 24 h and germinated for 3 and 5 d with and without the addition of gibberellic acid (GA(3) ). In the second assay, seeds were soaked for 12 h and germinated for 1, 3, and 5 d with GA(3) . Phy (up to 3625 and 1340 U/kg) and AcPh (up to 9456 and 2740 U/g) activities, and inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) (8.23 and 7.46 mg/g), inositol pentaphosphate (IP5) (0.55 and 0.82 mg/g), and inositol tetraphosphate (IP4) (0.26 and 0.01 mg/g) were detected in ungerminated faba bean and azuki bean, respectively. The germination process caused a significant increase of Phy and AcPh activities in faba bean (up to 147% and 210%) and azuki bean (up to 211% and 596%) and a reduction in the phytate phosphorus content (up to 81% and 63%, respectively). Phytate phosphorus content was affected only by soaking time in the case of faba bean. Finally, during the course of germination, IP6 and IP5 were rapidly degraded in faba bean (88% and 39%) and azuki bean (55% and 56%), and IP4 was only a short-living intermediate, which was increased during hydrolysis and degraded to inositol triphosphate. In this manner we could obtain a low-phytate, endogenous phosphatase-rich ingredient for enhancing human nutrition. PMID:22938099

  18. The dynamic process of interspecific interactions of competitive nitrogen capture between intercropped wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Chunjie; Dong, Yan; Li, Haigang; Shen, Jianbo; Zhang, Fusuo

    2014-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/faba bean (Vicia faba L.) intercropping shows significant overyielding and high nitrogen (N)-use efficiency, but the dynamics of plant interactions have rarely been estimated. The objective of the present study was to investigate the temporal dynamics of competitive N acquisition between intercropped wheat and faba bean with the logistic model. Wheat and faba bean were grown together or alone with limited N supply in pots. Data of shoot and root biomass and N content measured from 14 samplings were fitted to logistic models to determine instantaneous rates of growth and N uptake. The superiority of instantaneous biomass production and N uptake shifted from faba bean to wheat with their growth. Moreover, the shift of superiority on N uptake occurred 7-12 days earlier than that of biomass production. Interspecific competition stimulated intercropped wheat to have a much earlier and stronger superiority on instantaneous N uptake compared with isolated wheat. The modeling methodology characterized the temporal dynamics of biomass production and N uptake of intercropped wheat and faba bean in different planting systems, which helps to understand the underlying process of plant interaction for intercropping plants.

  19. The Dynamic Process of Interspecific Interactions of Competitive Nitrogen Capture between Intercropped Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/faba bean (Vicia faba L.) intercropping shows significant overyielding and high nitrogen (N)-use efficiency, but the dynamics of plant interactions have rarely been estimated. The objective of the present study was to investigate the temporal dynamics of competitive N acquisition between intercropped wheat and faba bean with the logistic model. Wheat and faba bean were grown together or alone with limited N supply in pots. Data of shoot and root biomass and N content measured from 14 samplings were fitted to logistic models to determine instantaneous rates of growth and N uptake. The superiority of instantaneous biomass production and N uptake shifted from faba bean to wheat with their growth. Moreover, the shift of superiority on N uptake occurred 7–12 days earlier than that of biomass production. Interspecific competition stimulated intercropped wheat to have a much earlier and stronger superiority on instantaneous N uptake compared with isolated wheat. The modeling methodology characterized the temporal dynamics of biomass production and N uptake of intercropped wheat and faba bean in different planting systems, which helps to understand the underlying process of plant interaction for intercropping plants. PMID:25541699

  20. Cultivation practices affect heavy metal migration between soil and Vicia faba (broad bean).

    PubMed

    Li, Feili; Ni, Lijia; Yuan, Jin; Daniel Sheng, G

    2010-09-01

    Pot-test experiments were conducted to study the influences of mulching and fertilizing on the migration of heavy metals from soil to Vicia faba (broad bean). Semi-transparent film was used to mulch soil. Swine manure compost was mixed with soil at a rate of 50 mg kg(-1) to fertilize the soil. Broad bean was grown for several months until fruits were formed. Soils and bean parts were sampled to analyze and fractionate heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn). Mulching promoted an obvious growth of broad bean. Fertilizing decreased soil pH and increased organic matter content and conductivity. Mulching reduced the exchangeable metal fractions by 5-52%. Fertilizing, in contrast, increased the exchangeable fractions of most of the metals except Fe and Pb by 20-295%. While the two cultivations increased obviously metal concentrations in bean laminas as compared to un-mulched and un-fertilized controls, the levels of most of the metals except Pb decreased in bean fruits. No clear relationships existed in roots and caudices in terms of metal levels. Calculated bioconcentration factors (BCF) and transfer factors (TF) indicate that the cultivations had little influences on the metal enrichments in roots, but promoted their migration from roots to laminas. In particular, mulching greatly promoted the absorption and translocation of Fe, while fertilizing enhanced the bean fruit uptake of Pb. Further studies on the influence of cultivation practices on heavy metal migration in soil-plant systems are recommended to acquire more information for evaluation of crop safety.

  1. Development and molecular characterization of 55 novel polymorphic cDNA-SSR markers in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) using 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Sundan; Park, Jong-Hyun; Cho, Gyu-Taek; Lee, Ho-Sun; Baek, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Sok-Young; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2013-01-31

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a major food source and fodder legume, popularly known for its high content of seed-protein. Its role is critical in crop rotation, and for fixing nitrogen effectively. Polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers from transcript sequences (cDNA; simple sequence repeat [SSR]) were developed for faba bean (Vicia faba). We found that 1,729 SSR loci from 81,333 individual sequence reads and 240 primer pairs were designed and synthesized. In total, 55 primer pairs were found to be polymorphic and scorable consistently when screened in 32 accessions. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 15, frequency of major alleles per locus varied from 0.17 to 0.91, the genotypes number ranged from 2 to 17, observed and expected heterozycosity values ranged from 0.00 to 0.44 and 0.17 to 0.89 and overall PIC values ranged from 0.16 to 0.88 respectively. These markers will be a useful tool for assessing the genetic diversity, understanding the population structure, and breeding patterns of faba bean.

  2. Dual action of phosphonate herbicides in plants affected by herbivore--model study on black bean aphid Aphis fabae rearing on broad bean Vicia faba plants.

    PubMed

    Lipok, Jacek

    2009-09-01

    The interactions between plants, herbicides and herbivore insects were studied as an aspect of possible side effect of the using of phosphonate herbicides. The experimental system was composed of phosphonate herbicides, broad bean Vicia faba (L.) plants and black bean aphid Aphis fabae (Scopoli). Two means of herbicide application, namely standard spraying and direct introduction of the herbicide into stem via glass capillary, were examined. The results obtained for N-2-piridylaminomethylene bisphosphonic acid and its derivatives show 10 times higher inhibition of the plant growth if glass capillary mode was used. When plants were infested by aphids 24h after the use of herbicide, a significant decrease in plant growth rate was observed in relation to plants treated with herbicides alone. Moreover, the sensitivity of aphids towards glyphosate, N-2-piridylaminomethylene bisphosphonic acid and its 3-methyl derivative introduced to artificial diet indicated that these herbicidal phosphonates possessed also insecticidal activity if applied in a systemic manner. Additionally, olfactometer measurements revealed that aphids preferred intact V. faba leaves over those that had been treated with sublethal doses of herbicides. The results achieved in these experiments indicate that the use of phosphonate herbicides decreases plant resistance and influences the number of aphids accompanied with treated plants. Regarding these facts it can be concluded that the combined effect of herbicide-induced stress and insect herbivory reduced plant fitness and thus should be considered as also a factor enabling the reduction of herbicide doses.

  3. Folate content in faba beans (Vicia faba L.)—effects of cultivar, maturity stage, industrial processing, and bioprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Hefni, Mohammed E; Shalaby, Mohamed T; Witthöft, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Faba beans are an important source of folate and commonly consumed in Egypt. This study examined the effects of Egyptian industrial food processing (e.g., canning and freezing), germination, cultivar, and maturity stages on folate content, with the aim to develop a candidate functional canned faba bean food with increased folate content. The folate content in four cultivars of green faba beans ranged from 110 to 130 μg 100 g−1 fresh weight (535–620 μg 100 g−1 dry matter [DM]), which was four- to sixfold higher than in dried seeds. Industrial canning of dried seeds resulted in significant folate losses of ∼20% (P = 0.004), while industrial freezing had no effect. Germination of faba beans increased the folate content by >40% (P < 0.0001). A novel industrial canning process involving pregermination of dried faba beans resulted in a net folate content of 194 μg 100 g−1 DM, which is 52% more than in conventional canned beans. The consumption of green faba beans should be recommended, providing ∼120 μg dietary folate equivalents per 100 g/portion. PMID:25650294

  4. Folate content in faba beans (Vicia faba L.)-effects of cultivar, maturity stage, industrial processing, and bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Hefni, Mohammed E; Shalaby, Mohamed T; Witthöft, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Faba beans are an important source of folate and commonly consumed in Egypt. This study examined the effects of Egyptian industrial food processing (e.g., canning and freezing), germination, cultivar, and maturity stages on folate content, with the aim to develop a candidate functional canned faba bean food with increased folate content. The folate content in four cultivars of green faba beans ranged from 110 to 130 μg 100 g(-1) fresh weight (535-620 μg 100 g(-1) dry matter [DM]), which was four- to sixfold higher than in dried seeds. Industrial canning of dried seeds resulted in significant folate losses of ∼20% (P = 0.004), while industrial freezing had no effect. Germination of faba beans increased the folate content by >40% (P < 0.0001). A novel industrial canning process involving pregermination of dried faba beans resulted in a net folate content of 194 μg 100 g(-1) DM, which is 52% more than in conventional canned beans. The consumption of green faba beans should be recommended, providing ∼120 μg dietary folate equivalents per 100 g/portion.

  5. Oxidative stress and DNA damage in broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seedlings induced by thallium.

    PubMed

    Radić, Sandra; Cvjetko, Petra; Glavas, Katarina; Roje, Vibor; Pevalek-Kozlina, Branka; Pavlica, Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a metal of great toxicological concern because it is highly toxic to all living organisms through mechanisms that are yet poorly understood. Since Tl is accumulated by important crops, the present study aimed to analyze the biological effects induced by bioaccumulation of Tl in broad bean (Vicia faba L.) as well as the plant's antioxidative defense mechanisms usually activated by heavy metals. Thallium toxicity was related to production of reactive oxygen species in leaves and roots of broad bean seedlings following short-term (72 h) exposure to thallium (I) acetate (0, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 mg/L) by evaluating DNA damage and oxidative stress parameters as well as antioxidative response. The possible antagonistic effect of potassium (K) was tested by combined treatment with 5 mg/L of Tl (Tl+) and 10 mg/L of potassium (K+) acetate. Accumulation of Tl+ in roots was 50 to 250 times higher than in broad bean shoots and was accompanied by increase in dry weight and proline. Despite responsive antioxidative defense (increased activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and pyrogallol peroxidase), Tl+ caused oxidative damage to lipids and proteins as evaluated by malondialdehyde and carbonyl group levels, and induced DNA strand breaks. Combined treatment caused no oxidative alternations to lipids and proteins though it induced DNA damage. The difference in Tl-induced genotoxicity following both acellular and cellular exposure implies indirect DNA damage. Results obtained indicate that oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism of Tl toxicity and that the tolerance of broad bean to Tl is achieved, at least in part, through the increased activity of antioxidant enzymes.

  6. Radiobiological intercomparison of clinical neutron beams for growth inhibition in Vicia faba bean roots

    SciTech Connect

    Beauduin, M.; Gueulette, J.; Vynckier, S.; Wambersie, A.

    1989-02-01

    Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) values of different neutron beams produced at the variable energy cyclotron Cyclone of Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium) were determined. The neutrons were obtained by bombarding a beryllium target with 34-, 45-, 65-, or 75-MeV protons or with 50-MeV deuterons. The biological system was growth inhibition in Vicia faba bean roots. Taking the p(65) + Be neutron beam as a reference, RBE values were found equal to 1.36 +/- 0.2, 1.20 +/- 0.1, 1.00 (ref), 0.98 +/- 0.1, and 1.18 +/- 0.1, respectively; the doses corresponding to 50% growth inhibition were 0.39, 0.44, 0.53, 0.54, and 0.45 Gy. For the same beams, OER values were found equal to 1.55 +/- 0.1, 1.38 +/- 0.1, 1.29 +/- 0.1, 1.41 +/- 0.1, and 1.60 +/- 0.2, respectively.

  7. Development of EST-SSR markers and construction of a linkage map in faba bean (Vicia faba).

    PubMed

    El-Rodeny, Walid; Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sabah, Attia; Shirasawa, Kenta; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Watanabe, Akiko; Kawashima, Kumiko; Kato, Midori; Wada, Tsuyuko; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Takahashi, Chika; Minami, Chiharu; Nanri, Keiko; Nakayama, Shinobu; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Yamada, Manabu; Kishida, Yoshie; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Isobe, Sachiko

    2014-09-01

    To develop a high density linkage map in faba bean, a total of 1,363 FBES (Faba bean expressed sequence tag [EST]-derived simple sequence repeat [SSR]) markers were designed based on 5,090 non-redundant ESTs developed in this study. A total of 109 plants of a 'Nubaria 2' × 'Misr 3' F2 mapping population were used for map construction. Because the parents were not pure homozygous lines, the 109 F2 plants were divided into three subpopulations according to the original F1 plants. Linkage groups (LGs) generated in each subpopulation were integrated by commonly mapped markers. The integrated 'Nubaria 2' × 'Misr 3' map consisted of six LGs, representing a total length of 684.7 cM, with 552 loci. Of the mapped loci, 47% were generated from multi-loci diagnostic (MLD) markers. Alignment of homologous sequence pairs along each linkage group revealed obvious syntenic relationships between LGs in faba bean and the genomes of two model legumes, Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula. In a polymorphic analysis with ten Egyptian faba bean varieties, 78.9% (384/487) of the FBES markers showed polymorphisms. Along with the EST-SSR markers, the dense map developed in this study is expected to accelerate marker assisted breeding in faba bean.

  8. Development of EST-SSR markers and construction of a linkage map in faba bean (Vicia faba)

    PubMed Central

    El-Rodeny, Walid; Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sabah, Attia; Shirasawa, Kenta; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Watanabe, Akiko; Kawashima, Kumiko; Kato, Midori; Wada, Tsuyuko; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Takahashi, Chika; Minami, Chiharu; Nanri, Keiko; Nakayama, Shinobu; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Yamada, Manabu; Kishida, Yoshie; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Isobe, Sachiko

    2014-01-01

    To develop a high density linkage map in faba bean, a total of 1,363 FBES (Faba bean expressed sequence tag [EST]-derived simple sequence repeat [SSR]) markers were designed based on 5,090 non-redundant ESTs developed in this study. A total of 109 plants of a ‘Nubaria 2’ × ‘Misr 3’ F2 mapping population were used for map construction. Because the parents were not pure homozygous lines, the 109 F2 plants were divided into three subpopulations according to the original F1 plants. Linkage groups (LGs) generated in each subpopulation were integrated by commonly mapped markers. The integrated ‘Nubaria 2’ × ‘Misr 3’ map consisted of six LGs, representing a total length of 684.7 cM, with 552 loci. Of the mapped loci, 47% were generated from multi-loci diagnostic (MLD) markers. Alignment of homologous sequence pairs along each linkage group revealed obvious syntenic relationships between LGs in faba bean and the genomes of two model legumes, Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula. In a polymorphic analysis with ten Egyptian faba bean varieties, 78.9% (384/487) of the FBES markers showed polymorphisms. Along with the EST-SSR markers, the dense map developed in this study is expected to accelerate marker assisted breeding in faba bean. PMID:25320560

  9. Genetic diversity in Tunisian populations of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) based on morphological traits and molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Backouchi, I Z; Aouida, M; Khemiri, N; Jebara, M

    2015-07-13

    Genetic diversity within Vicia faba L. is key to the genetic improvement of this important species. In this study, morphological traits and RAPD molecular markers were used to assess the levels of polymorphism across 12 Tunisian populations, three major and nine minor from different locations. Analysis of morphological traits indicated that the three major populations showed significant differences and the nine minor populations exhibited considerable variation for most traits. The grain yield of the Alia population could be increased by inoculation. Of the seven primers tested, it was clear that the Cs12 primer would be recommend for genetic diversity analysis of V. faba.Within population genetic diversity exhibited 94% of total diversity. Intra-population genetic diversity (HS) was 0.16, which was clearly higher than between population genetic diversity (DST = 0.06) UPG-MA showed a high level of genetic variation between major and minor populations of V. faba L. Particularly the minor populations showed a high level of diversity and was divided into two subclusters. Ltaifia was separated from the other populations. In addition to a high grain yield, these populations showed the lowest Nei and Shannon indices (H = 0.08 and I = 0.13) justifying their homogeneity. For these reasons, these cultivars can be considered a selected population. However, the Takelsa population showed the highest Nei and Shannon indices (H = 0.13 and I = 0.21), indicating that this population was the most heterogeneous, which is interesting for breeding programs.

  10. Manganese induced changes in growth, chlorophyll content and antioxidants activity in seedlings of broad bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Arya, Shashi K; Roy, B K

    2011-11-01

    The effect of manganese (Mn) on broad bean (Vicia faba L.) was studied with regard to growth, Mn accumulation in root and shoot, chlorophyll, proline content and peroxidase activity. Seeds were treated with Mn (10, 20, 40, 80,120,160 microM) and grown hydroponically up to 15 days. Manganese level in both root and shoot increased progressively in response to increasing concentration and it was high in roots (13 fold) overthe shoots (8 fold). The reductions in root (52%) and shoot (62.92%) development were evident for the maximum Mn concentration (160 microM). The chlorophyll amount gradually declined with increasing Mn concentrations and attained its maximum (42%) at 160 microM. By contrast, the guaiacol peroxidase activity was high (71%) along with the accompanying rise in proline content (75%) in shoots of the highest Mn concentration (160 microM). However, there was about 2 fold increase in total glutathione content at 40 microM than the basal level and further declined to 21.65 microg g(-1) fresh wt. at 160 microM Mn. The alterations in overall reflected Mn concentration-dependent changes in the parameters studied. The results suggest thatthe plant Vicia faba L. copes with Mn exposure through enhanced production of antioxidants.

  11. A novel perspective on seed yield of broad bean (Vicia faba L.): differences resulting from pod characteristics.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiong; Yang, Yongping

    2014-10-31

    Broad bean (Vicia faba L.) is an important crop worldwide. An increase in seed yield would increase both the grain reserve and the profit for farmers. Previous studies on increasing broad bean seed yield have focused mainly on increases at the whole population level. Few studies have focused on the differences in plant type within populations. In this study, we classified broad bean plants into four categories based on pod type, and then evaluated the ratio of each category in field-grown broad bean populations. We analysed the seed and pod characteristics of each category, and their contributions to total seed yield. The number of seeds per pod, and the number of pods or seeds per plant differed among the four plant categories, but the seed weight was relatively uniform. There were significant differences in seed yield per plant among the four plant categories. We calculated the effects of increasing the proportion of each plant category by 10% or to 100% on seed yield, and found that seed yield could be improved by increasing the ratio of plants with the highest seed production rate. This study provides a novel perspective on estimating the seed yield of broad bean.

  12. A novel perspective on seed yield of broad bean (Vicia faba L.): differences resulting from pod characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiong; Yang, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Broad bean (Vicia faba L.) is an important crop worldwide. An increase in seed yield would increase both the grain reserve and the profit for farmers. Previous studies on increasing broad bean seed yield have focused mainly on increases at the whole population level. Few studies have focused on the differences in plant type within populations. In this study, we classified broad bean plants into four categories based on pod type, and then evaluated the ratio of each category in field-grown broad bean populations. We analysed the seed and pod characteristics of each category, and their contributions to total seed yield. The number of seeds per pod, and the number of pods or seeds per plant differed among the four plant categories, but the seed weight was relatively uniform. There were significant differences in seed yield per plant among the four plant categories. We calculated the effects of increasing the proportion of each plant category by 10% or to 100% on seed yield, and found that seed yield could be improved by increasing the ratio of plants with the highest seed production rate. This study provides a novel perspective on estimating the seed yield of broad bean. PMID:25358856

  13. Pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, suppress induced plant volatiles in broad bean, Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Schwartzberg, Ezra G; Böröczky, Katalin; Tumlinson, James H

    2011-10-01

    Plants defend themselves against herbivory through several means, including the production of airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These VOCs benefit plants by attracting natural enemies of their herbivores. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, is able to feed on its host plant, Vicia faba, without inducing detectable changes in plant VOC emission. Levels of VOCs emission are not significantly different between control plants and those fed upon by aphids for up to 5 days. Using a second herbivore, the beet armyworm caterpillar, Spodoptera exigua, we demonstrate that several expected caterpillar-induced VOCs are reduced when co-infested with pea aphids, thus demonstrating that pea aphids have the ability to inhibit the release of certain VOCs. This study shows, for the first time, that aphids not only avoid triggering plant volatile emission, but also can actively inhibit herbivore-induced volatiles.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Defense Responses in Chocolate Spot-Resistant and -Susceptible Faba Bean (Vicia faba) Cultivars Following Infection by the Necrotrophic Fungus Botrytis fabae

    PubMed Central

    El-Komy, Mahmoud H.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, resistance responses were investigated during the interaction of Botrytis fabae with two faba bean cultivars expressing different levels of resistance against this pathogen, Nubaria (resistant) and Giza 40 (susceptible). Disease severity was assessed on leaves using a rating scale from 1 to 9. Accumulation levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase) were measured in leaf tissues at different times of infection. The expression profiles of two pathogenesis-related proteins (PRPs) encoded by the genes PR-1 and β-1,3-glucanase were also investigated using reverse transcription RT-PCR analysis. The accumulation of these defense responses was induced significantly in both cultivars upon infection with B. fabae compared with un-inoculated controls. The resistant cultivar showed weaker necrotic symptom expression, less ROS accumulation, a lower rate of lipid peroxidation and higher activity of the enzymatic ROS scavenging system compared with susceptible cultivar. Interestingly, ROS accumulated rapidly in the resistant leaf tissues and peaked during the early stages of infection, whereas accumulation was stronger and more intense in the susceptible tissues in later stages. Moreover, the response of the resistant cultivar to infection was earlier and stronger, exhibiting high transcript accumulation of the PR genes. These results indicated that the induction of oxidant/antioxidant responses and the accumulation of PRPs are part of the faba bean defense mechanism against the necrotrophic fungus B. fabae with a different intensity and timing of induction, depending on the resistance levels. PMID:25506300

  15. Nutritional improvement of corn pasta-like product with broad bean (Vicia faba) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    PubMed

    Giménez, M A; Drago, S R; Bassett, M N; Lobo, M O; Sammán, N C

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the nutritional quality of pasta-like product (spaghetti-type), made with corn (Zea mays) flour enriched with 30% broad bean (Vicia faba) flour and 20% of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour, was determined. Proximate chemical composition and iron, zinc and dietary fiber were determined. A biological assay was performed to assess the protein value using net protein utilization (NPU), true digestibility (TD) and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). Iron and zinc availability were estimated by measuring dialyzable mineral fraction (%Da) resulting from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Nutritionally improved, gluten-free spaghetti (NIS) showed significantly increased NPU and decreased TD compared with a non-enriched control sample. One NIS-portion supplied 10-20% of recommended fiber daily intake. Addition of quinoa flour had a positive effect on the FeDa% as did broad bean flour on ZnDa%. EDTA increased Fe- and ZnDa% in all NIS-products, but it also impaired sensorial quality.

  16. Nutritional improvement of corn pasta-like product with broad bean (Vicia faba) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    PubMed

    Giménez, M A; Drago, S R; Bassett, M N; Lobo, M O; Sammán, N C

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the nutritional quality of pasta-like product (spaghetti-type), made with corn (Zea mays) flour enriched with 30% broad bean (Vicia faba) flour and 20% of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour, was determined. Proximate chemical composition and iron, zinc and dietary fiber were determined. A biological assay was performed to assess the protein value using net protein utilization (NPU), true digestibility (TD) and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). Iron and zinc availability were estimated by measuring dialyzable mineral fraction (%Da) resulting from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Nutritionally improved, gluten-free spaghetti (NIS) showed significantly increased NPU and decreased TD compared with a non-enriched control sample. One NIS-portion supplied 10-20% of recommended fiber daily intake. Addition of quinoa flour had a positive effect on the FeDa% as did broad bean flour on ZnDa%. EDTA increased Fe- and ZnDa% in all NIS-products, but it also impaired sensorial quality. PMID:26775956

  17. Symbiotic effectiveness and phylogeny of rhizobia isolated from faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Sichuan hilly areas, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kai Wei; Zou, Lan; Penttinen, Petri; Wang, Ke; Heng, Nan Nan; Zhang, Xiao Ping; Chen, Qiang; Zhao, Ke; Chen, Yuan Xue

    2015-10-01

    A total of 54 rhizobial strains were isolated from faba bean root nodules in 21 counties of Sichuan hilly areas in China, and their symbiotic effectiveness, genetic diversity and phylogeny were assessed. Only six strains increased the shoot dry mass of the host plant significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Based on the cluster analysis of combined 16S rDNA and intergenic spacer region (IGS) PCR-RFLP, the strains were divided into 31 genotypes in 11 groups, indicating a high degree of genetic diversity among the strains. The sequence analysis of three housekeeping genes (atpD, glnII and recA) and 16S rDNA indicated that the strains represented two R. leguminosarum, two Rhizobium spp., R. mesosinicum, Agrobacterium sp. and A. tumefaciens. The strains representing four Rhizobium species were divided into two distinct nodC and nifH genotypes. However, the phylogeny of housekeeping genes and symbiotic genes was not congruent, implying that the strains had been shaped by vertical evolution of the housekeeping genes and lateral evolution of the symbiotic genes.

  18. Increasing phosphorus supply is not the mechanism by which arbuscular mycorrhiza increase attractiveness of bean (Vicia faba) to aphids

    PubMed Central

    Babikova, Zdenka; Gilbert, Lucy; Randall, Kate C.; Bruce, Toby J. A.; Pickett, John A.; Johnson, David

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, important plant mutualists, provide plants with nutrients such as phosphorus (P) in return for carbon. AM fungi also enhance the attractiveness of plants to aphids via effects on emissions of plant volatiles used in aphid host location. We tested whether increased P uptake by plants is the mechanism through which AM fungi alter the volatile profile of plants and aphid behavioural responses by manipulating the availability of P and AM fungi to broad beans (Vicia faba L.) in a multi-factorial design. If AM fungi affect plant volatiles only via increased P acquisition, we predicted that the emission of volatiles and the attractiveness of mycorrhizal beans to aphids would be similar to those of non-mycorrhizal beans supplied with additional P. AM fungi and P addition increased leaf P concentrations by 40 and 24%, respectively. The production of naphthalene was less in mycorrhizal plants, regardless of P addition. By contrast, production of (S)-linalool, (E)-caryophyllene and (R)-germacrene D was less in plants colonized by AM fungi but only in the absence of P additions. The attractiveness of plants to pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) was positively affected by AM fungi and correlated with the extent of root colonization; however, attractiveness was neither affected by P treatment nor correlated with leaf P concentration. These findings suggest that increased P uptake is not the main mechanism by which mycorrhiza increase the attractiveness of plants to aphids. Instead, the mechanism is likely to operate via AM fungi-induced plant systemic signalling. PMID:25200735

  19. Increasing phosphorus supply is not the mechanism by which arbuscular mycorrhiza increase attractiveness of bean (Vicia faba) to aphids.

    PubMed

    Babikova, Zdenka; Gilbert, Lucy; Randall, Kate C; Bruce, Toby J A; Pickett, John A; Johnson, David

    2014-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, important plant mutualists, provide plants with nutrients such as phosphorus (P) in return for carbon. AM fungi also enhance the attractiveness of plants to aphids via effects on emissions of plant volatiles used in aphid host location. We tested whether increased P uptake by plants is the mechanism through which AM fungi alter the volatile profile of plants and aphid behavioural responses by manipulating the availability of P and AM fungi to broad beans (Vicia faba L.) in a multi-factorial design. If AM fungi affect plant volatiles only via increased P acquisition, we predicted that the emission of volatiles and the attractiveness of mycorrhizal beans to aphids would be similar to those of non-mycorrhizal beans supplied with additional P. AM fungi and P addition increased leaf P concentrations by 40 and 24%, respectively. The production of naphthalene was less in mycorrhizal plants, regardless of P addition. By contrast, production of (S)-linalool, (E)-caryophyllene and (R)-germacrene D was less in plants colonized by AM fungi but only in the absence of P additions. The attractiveness of plants to pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) was positively affected by AM fungi and correlated with the extent of root colonization; however, attractiveness was neither affected by P treatment nor correlated with leaf P concentration. These findings suggest that increased P uptake is not the main mechanism by which mycorrhiza increase the attractiveness of plants to aphids. Instead, the mechanism is likely to operate via AM fungi-induced plant systemic signalling.

  20. Exogenous tannase improves feeding value of a diet containing field beans (Vicia faba) when fed to broilers.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, J; Rose, S P; Mackenzie, A M; Mirza, W; Pirgozliev, V

    2016-04-01

    A total of 72 male Ross 308 broilers were used in a study to investigate the effect of dietary tannase on apparent metabolisable energy (AME), coefficients of dry matter retention (DMR) and nitrogen retention (NR) and fat digestibility (FD) of a diet containing 300 g/kg field beans (Vicia faba). Growth performance variables and gastrointestinal tract development were also measured. Two treatments were used in this study: control (C) and C + 3400 tannase units (TU) per kg feed. Diets were formulated to be nutritionally adequate with the exception that the AME was lower than recommended (12.65 vs 12.97 MJ/kg, respectively). Inclusion of tannase increased AME by 0.4 MJ/kg DM. Tannase supplementation improved dietary DMR, NR and FD by 2.8%, 3.2% and 6.5%, respectively. Birds given tannase had 4.4% reduction in feed intake and 2.6% improvement in gain to feed ratio (P < 0.05). Compared to control diet, birds given tannase had reduced relative to body weight (%BW) proventriculus and gizzard and pancreas weights, 3.29% vs 3.09% and 0.47% vs 0.44%, respectively. The mechanisms of action of the studied enzyme require further elucidation.

  1. Muscle and liver protein synthesis and degradation in growing rats fed a raw field bean (Vicia faba L.) diet.

    PubMed

    Goena, M; Santidrián, S; Cuevillas, F; Larralde, J

    1988-12-01

    Body weight gain, food intake, gastrocnemius muscle and liver weight, protein and RNA content, as well as the fractional rates of muscle and liver protein synthesis (ks, according to the method of constant infusion of L-[14C]tyrosine), growth (kg) and degradation (kd), along with RNA activity (g of protein synthesized per day/g RNA) of both organs, were determined in growing male rats fed ad libitum over a period of 10 days on 18.7% protein diets containing either casein (5% of methionine added) (control) or the raw legume field bean (Vicia faba L.) as the sole sources of protein. It has been found that as compared to control rats, those fed the raw legume diet exhibited a significant reduction in the rate of growth, muscle RNA, ks, kg, kd and RNA activity, and a significant increase in liver ks, kd and RNA activity. All differences were statistically significant at least at the 5% level. The possible nature of these findings is discussed.

  2. Factors influencing diamine oxidase activity and γ-aminobutyric acid content of fava bean (Vicia faba L.) during germination.

    PubMed

    Yang, Runqiang; Chen, Hui; Gu, Zhenxin

    2011-11-01

    Factors (germination time, spectra, temperature, pH, and chemical inhibitors) influencing diamine oxidase (DAO, EC 1.4.3.6) activity and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content of fava bean (Vicia faba L.) during germination were investigated in this study. DAO activity significantly increased in germinating seeds but varied with different organs. The enzyme activity was higher in shoot than that in cotyledon, hypocotyl, and radicle. When seeds were germinated in the dark, DAO activity was 2.35-, 2.00-, 2.36-, 4.40-, and 1.67-fold of that under white, red, blue, green, and yellow spectra, respectively. The optimum germination temperature and pH value for increasing DAO activity were 30 °C and 3.0, respectively. The DAO activity was inhibited significantly by aminoguanidine and sodium ethylenediamine tetracetate, while it was activated by CuCl(2) and CaCl(2). Germinating at an appropriate temperature and pH, 30% of GABA formation was supplied by DAO. Calcium was related to the regulation of DAO activity and GABA accumulation. PMID:21942768

  3. Exogenous tannase improves feeding value of a diet containing field beans (Vicia faba) when fed to broilers.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, J; Rose, S P; Mackenzie, A M; Mirza, W; Pirgozliev, V

    2016-04-01

    A total of 72 male Ross 308 broilers were used in a study to investigate the effect of dietary tannase on apparent metabolisable energy (AME), coefficients of dry matter retention (DMR) and nitrogen retention (NR) and fat digestibility (FD) of a diet containing 300 g/kg field beans (Vicia faba). Growth performance variables and gastrointestinal tract development were also measured. Two treatments were used in this study: control (C) and C + 3400 tannase units (TU) per kg feed. Diets were formulated to be nutritionally adequate with the exception that the AME was lower than recommended (12.65 vs 12.97 MJ/kg, respectively). Inclusion of tannase increased AME by 0.4 MJ/kg DM. Tannase supplementation improved dietary DMR, NR and FD by 2.8%, 3.2% and 6.5%, respectively. Birds given tannase had 4.4% reduction in feed intake and 2.6% improvement in gain to feed ratio (P < 0.05). Compared to control diet, birds given tannase had reduced relative to body weight (%BW) proventriculus and gizzard and pancreas weights, 3.29% vs 3.09% and 0.47% vs 0.44%, respectively. The mechanisms of action of the studied enzyme require further elucidation. PMID:26864377

  4. Factors influencing diamine oxidase activity and γ-aminobutyric acid content of fava bean (Vicia faba L.) during germination.

    PubMed

    Yang, Runqiang; Chen, Hui; Gu, Zhenxin

    2011-11-01

    Factors (germination time, spectra, temperature, pH, and chemical inhibitors) influencing diamine oxidase (DAO, EC 1.4.3.6) activity and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content of fava bean (Vicia faba L.) during germination were investigated in this study. DAO activity significantly increased in germinating seeds but varied with different organs. The enzyme activity was higher in shoot than that in cotyledon, hypocotyl, and radicle. When seeds were germinated in the dark, DAO activity was 2.35-, 2.00-, 2.36-, 4.40-, and 1.67-fold of that under white, red, blue, green, and yellow spectra, respectively. The optimum germination temperature and pH value for increasing DAO activity were 30 °C and 3.0, respectively. The DAO activity was inhibited significantly by aminoguanidine and sodium ethylenediamine tetracetate, while it was activated by CuCl(2) and CaCl(2). Germinating at an appropriate temperature and pH, 30% of GABA formation was supplied by DAO. Calcium was related to the regulation of DAO activity and GABA accumulation.

  5. Expression analysis of ClpB/Hsp100 gene in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) plants in response to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ritesh; Singh, Amit Kumar; Lavania, Dhruv; Siddiqui, Manzer H; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H; Grover, Anil

    2016-03-01

    Heat stress adversely affects the growth and yield of faba bean crop. Accumulation of ClpB/Hsp100 class of proteins is a critical parameter in induction of acquired heat stress tolerance in plants. Heat-induced expression of ClpB/Hsp100 genes has been noted in diverse plant species. Using primers complementary to soybean ClpB/Hsp100 gene, we analyzed the transcript expression profile of faba bean ClpB/Hsp100 gene in leaves of seedlings and flowering plants and in pollen grains. ClpB/Hsp100 protein accumulation profile was analyzed in leaves of faba bean seedlings using Arabidopsis thaliana cytoplasmic Hsp101 antibodies. The transcript and protein levels of faba bean ClpB/Hsp100 were significantly induced in response to heat stress.

  6. Expression analysis of ClpB/Hsp100 gene in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) plants in response to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ritesh; Singh, Amit Kumar; Lavania, Dhruv; Siddiqui, Manzer H; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H; Grover, Anil

    2016-03-01

    Heat stress adversely affects the growth and yield of faba bean crop. Accumulation of ClpB/Hsp100 class of proteins is a critical parameter in induction of acquired heat stress tolerance in plants. Heat-induced expression of ClpB/Hsp100 genes has been noted in diverse plant species. Using primers complementary to soybean ClpB/Hsp100 gene, we analyzed the transcript expression profile of faba bean ClpB/Hsp100 gene in leaves of seedlings and flowering plants and in pollen grains. ClpB/Hsp100 protein accumulation profile was analyzed in leaves of faba bean seedlings using Arabidopsis thaliana cytoplasmic Hsp101 antibodies. The transcript and protein levels of faba bean ClpB/Hsp100 were significantly induced in response to heat stress. PMID:26981006

  7. Effects of soaking, boiling and autoclaving on the phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of faba beans (Vicia faba L.) differing in seed coat colours.

    PubMed

    Siah, Siem; Wood, Jennifer A; Agboola, Samson; Konczak, Izabela; Blanchard, Christopher L

    2014-01-01

    The Australian grown faba beans of different seed coat colours were either soaked, boiled or autoclaved, and analysed for phenolic contents and antioxidant activity using an array of reagent-based assays. Soaking, boiling and autoclaving were shown to lower the level of active compounds in faba beans. A significant amount of active compounds was leached to the soaking and cooking medium. Boiling was a better method in retaining active compounds in beans than autoclaving. The boiled beans had more active compounds than those of resulting cooking broths, which was the opposite observation when autoclaving. The buff-genotypes had a similar level of active compounds to red- and green-genotypes. The high performance liquid chromatography-post column derivatisation (HPLC-PCD) system detected a dense collection of high antioxidant HPLC peaks ('humps') in extracts of raw, soaked and boiled beans. The present findings encouraged consumption of faba beans together with cooking broth for the maximum potential health benefits.

  8. Measuring and modeling three-dimensional water uptake of a growing faba bean (Vicia faba) within a soil column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Katrin; Koebernick, Nicolai; Kerkhofs, Elien; Vanderborght, Jan; Javaux, Mathieu; Vetterlein, Doris; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-05-01

    A faba bean was grown in a column filled with a sandy soil, which was initially close to saturation and then subjected to a single drying cycle of 30 days. The column was divided in four hydraulically separated compartments using horizontal paraffin layers. Paraffin is impermeable to water but penetrable by roots. Thus by growing deeper, the roots can reach compartments that still contain water. The root architecture was measured every second day by X-ray CT. Transpiration rate, soil matric potential in four different depths, and leaf area were measured continously during the experiment. To investigate the influence of the partitioning of available soil water in the soil column on water uptake, we used R-SWMS, a fully coupled root and soil water model [1]. We compared a scenario with and without the split layers and investigated the influence on root xylem pressure. The detailed three-dimensional root architecture was obtained by reconstructing binarized root images manually with a virtual reality system, located at the Juelich Supercomputing Centre [2]. To verify the properties of the root system, we compared total root lengths, root length density distributions and root surface with estimations derived from Minkowski functionals [3]. In a next step, knowing the change of root architecture in time, we could allocate an age to each root segment and use this information to define age dependent root hydraulic properties that are required to simulate water uptake for the growing root system. The scenario with the split layers showed locally much lower pressures than the scenario without splits. Redistribution of water within the unrestricted soil column led to a more uniform distribution of water uptake and lowers the water stress in the plant. However, comparison of simulated and measured pressure heads with tensiometers suggested that the paraffin layers were not perfectly hydraulically isolating the different soil layers. We could show compensation efficiency of

  9. The onset of faba bean farming in the Southern Levant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracuta, Valentina; Barzilai, Omry; Khalaily, Hamudi; Milevski, Ianir; Paz, Yitzhak; Vardi, Jacob; Regev, Lior; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2015-10-01

    Even though the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the most ubiquitously cultivated crops, very little is known about its origins. Here, we report discoveries of charred faba beans from three adjacent Neolithic sites in the lower Galilee region, in the southern Levant, that offer new insights into the early history of this species. Biometric measurements, radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analyses of the archaeological remains, supported by experiments on modern material, date the earliest farming of this crop to ~10,200 cal BP. The large quantity of faba beans found in these adjacent sites indicates intensive production of faba beans in the region that can only have been achieved by planting non-dormant seeds. Selection of mutant-non-dormant stock suggests that the domestication of the crop occurred as early as the 11th millennium cal BP. Plant domestication| Vicia faba L.| Pre-Pottery Neolithic B| radiocarbon dating| Δ13C analysis.

  10. The onset of faba bean farming in the Southern Levant

    PubMed Central

    Caracuta, Valentina; Barzilai, Omry; Khalaily, Hamudi; Milevski, Ianir; Paz, Yitzhak; Vardi, Jacob; Regev, Lior; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Even though the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the most ubiquitously cultivated crops, very little is known about its origins. Here, we report discoveries of charred faba beans from three adjacent Neolithic sites in the lower Galilee region, in the southern Levant, that offer new insights into the early history of this species. Biometric measurements, radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analyses of the archaeological remains, supported by experiments on modern material, date the earliest farming of this crop to ~10,200 cal BP. The large quantity of faba beans found in these adjacent sites indicates intensive production of faba beans in the region that can only have been achieved by planting non-dormant seeds. Selection of mutant-non-dormant stock suggests that the domestication of the crop occurred as early as the 11th millennium cal BP. Plant domestication| Vicia faba L.| Pre-Pottery Neolithic B| radiocarbon dating| Δ13C analysis. PMID:26458981

  11. The onset of faba bean farming in the Southern Levant.

    PubMed

    Caracuta, Valentina; Barzilai, Omry; Khalaily, Hamudi; Milevski, Ianir; Paz, Yitzhak; Vardi, Jacob; Regev, Lior; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2015-10-13

    Even though the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the most ubiquitously cultivated crops, very little is known about its origins. Here, we report discoveries of charred faba beans from three adjacent Neolithic sites in the lower Galilee region, in the southern Levant, that offer new insights into the early history of this species. Biometric measurements, radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analyses of the archaeological remains, supported by experiments on modern material, date the earliest farming of this crop to ~10,200 cal BP. The large quantity of faba beans found in these adjacent sites indicates intensive production of faba beans in the region that can only have been achieved by planting non-dormant seeds. Selection of mutant-non-dormant stock suggests that the domestication of the crop occurred as early as the 11(th) millennium cal BP. Plant domestication| Vicia faba L.| Pre-Pottery Neolithic B| radiocarbon dating| Δ(13)C analysis.

  12. The onset of faba bean farming in the Southern Levant.

    PubMed

    Caracuta, Valentina; Barzilai, Omry; Khalaily, Hamudi; Milevski, Ianir; Paz, Yitzhak; Vardi, Jacob; Regev, Lior; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Even though the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the most ubiquitously cultivated crops, very little is known about its origins. Here, we report discoveries of charred faba beans from three adjacent Neolithic sites in the lower Galilee region, in the southern Levant, that offer new insights into the early history of this species. Biometric measurements, radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analyses of the archaeological remains, supported by experiments on modern material, date the earliest farming of this crop to ~10,200 cal BP. The large quantity of faba beans found in these adjacent sites indicates intensive production of faba beans in the region that can only have been achieved by planting non-dormant seeds. Selection of mutant-non-dormant stock suggests that the domestication of the crop occurred as early as the 11(th) millennium cal BP. Plant domestication| Vicia faba L.| Pre-Pottery Neolithic B| radiocarbon dating| Δ(13)C analysis. PMID:26458981

  13. Formation of an activated N-nitroso compound in nitrite-treated fava beans (Vicia faba).

    PubMed

    Piacek-Llanes, B G; Tannenbaum, S R

    1982-01-01

    Fava beans are prominent in the diet of the Colombian population at high gastric cancer risk. Upon nitrite treatment under simulated gastric conditions, a potent mutagen was formed as detected by a forward mutation assay using Salmonella typhimurium TM677 without microsomal activation. The promutagen was partially purified by preparative t.l.c. and normal phase h.p.l.c. of the acetone-soluble portion of a dried aqueous extract. The nitrosated promutagen fully accounted for the mutagenicity observed with whole fava beans. One gram of fresh fava beans yielded approximately 0.35 nmol of mutagen. Mutagenicity data indicated that this mutagen was more potent than N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. The characteristics of the mutagen were typical of an activated N-nitroso compound, that is a compound in which the N-nitroso moiety is attached to an activating group, such as a carbonyl group. Irradiation of the mutagen yielded a Griess positive reaction. By reverse-phase h.p.l.c. photohydrolysis, a single peak could be ascribed to the mutagen. Its stability varied as a function of pH, being most unstable under alkaline conditions. Cysteine and phosphate concentration had no effect on its rate of decomposition, thereby strongly suggesting that the mutagen is an N-nitrosourea. The results obtained in this study support the hypothesis of carcinogenesis via the intragastric production of activated N-nitroso compounds. PMID:7151253

  14. Treated fava bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as substitute for soybean meal in diet of early phase laying hens: egg-laying performance and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Tufarelli, V

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary dehulled-micronized fava bean (Vicia faba var. minor) seed on egg production, egg weight, feed conversion ratio, eggshell quality, and egg yolk color. In this trial, 18-wk-old laying hens in the early phase of production (ISA Brown) were randomly assigned to 2 groups and fed durum wheat middlings-based diets containing soybean or micronized-dehulled fava bean meal as the main protein source. Eggs were collected and weighed daily. Laying performance, egg quality, and feed conversion ratio were evaluated for 10 wk. The only significant effect detected was for feed intake (P<0.05), which was lower in hens fed the diet containing fava bean than for hens fed soybean meal, without however any negative effects on feed efficiency. None of the egg quality parameters studied were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color score that was reduced in hens fed the fava bean diet (P<0.05). We conclude that dehulled-micronized fava beans in the diet did not have a negative influence on productive performance or egg quality of young brown hens.

  15. Treated fava bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as substitute for soybean meal in diet of early phase laying hens: egg-laying performance and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Tufarelli, V

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary dehulled-micronized fava bean (Vicia faba var. minor) seed on egg production, egg weight, feed conversion ratio, eggshell quality, and egg yolk color. In this trial, 18-wk-old laying hens in the early phase of production (ISA Brown) were randomly assigned to 2 groups and fed durum wheat middlings-based diets containing soybean or micronized-dehulled fava bean meal as the main protein source. Eggs were collected and weighed daily. Laying performance, egg quality, and feed conversion ratio were evaluated for 10 wk. The only significant effect detected was for feed intake (P<0.05), which was lower in hens fed the diet containing fava bean than for hens fed soybean meal, without however any negative effects on feed efficiency. None of the egg quality parameters studied were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color score that was reduced in hens fed the fava bean diet (P<0.05). We conclude that dehulled-micronized fava beans in the diet did not have a negative influence on productive performance or egg quality of young brown hens. PMID:20852122

  16. Purification of the glycoprotein lectin from the broad bean (Vicia faba) and a comparison of its properties with lectins of similar specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, A K; Desai, N N; Neuberger, A

    1976-01-01

    1. The lectin from the broad bean (Vicia faba) was purified by affinity chromatography by using 3-O-methylglucosamine covalently attached through the amino group to CH-Sepharose (an omega-hexanoic acid derivative of agarose). Its composition and the nature of its subunits were compared with concanavalin A and the lectins from pea and lentil. 2. Unlike the other three lectins, broad-bean lectin is a glycoprotein; a glycopeptide containing glucosamine and mannose was isolated from a proteolytic digest. 3. The mol.wt. is about 47500; the glycoprotein consists of two apprently identical subunits, held together by non-covalent forces. Fragments of the subunits, similar to those found in concanavalin A and soya-bean agglutinin, were found in active preparations. 4. Broad-bean lectin was compared with concanavalin A and the lectins from pea and lentil in an investigation of the inhibition of their action by a number of monosaccharides, methyl ethers of monosaccharides, disaccharides and glycopeptides. The most striking differences concern 3-O-substituted monosaccharides, which are strong inhibitors of the action of broad-bean, pea and lentil lectins but not of the action of concanavalin A. There is, however, no strong inhibition of the action of these lectins by 3-Olinked disaccharides. PMID:938471

  17. Effect of air classification and fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum VTT E-133328 on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) flour nutritional properties.

    PubMed

    Coda, Rossana; Melama, Leena; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Curiel, José Antonio; Sibakov, Juhani; Holopainen, Ulla; Pulkkinen, Marjo; Sozer, Nesli

    2015-01-16

    The effects of air classification and lactic acid bacteria fermentation on the reduction of anti-nutritional factors (vicine and convicine, trypsin inhibitor activity, condensed tannins and phytic acid) and in vitro protein and starch digestibility of faba bean flour were studied. Free amino acid (FAA) profile analysis was also carried out. Air classification allowed the separation of the flour into protein and starch rich fractions, showing different chemical compositions and microstructures. Lactobacillus plantarum growth and acidification in faba bean flour and its fractions were assessed. The anti-nutritional compounds were separated mostly to the fine protein-rich fraction. Fermentation caused the decrease of vicine and convicine contents by more than 91% and significantly reduced trypsin inhibitor activity and condensed tannins (by more than 40% in the protein-rich fraction). No significant (P>0.05) variation was observed for total phenols and phytic acid content. Fermentation increased the amount of FAA, especially of the essential amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, enhanced the in vitro protein digestibility and significantly lowered the hydrolysis index. This work showed that the combination of air classification and fermentation improved nutritional functionality of faba bean flour which could be utilized in various food applications.

  18. Enzymic potential for fructose 6-phosphate phosphorylation by guard cells and by palisade cells in leaves of the broad bean Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Hite, D R; Bodson, M J; Outlaw, W H

    1992-06-01

    Guard cells and palisade cells were dissected from freeze-dried leaflets of the broad bean, Vicia faba L. Individual cell samples (6-12 ng) were assayed for ATP-dependent and pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinases. The assay indicator, NADH loss, was monitored in real time in oil droplets with a computer-driven microfluorometer. On a protein basis, both activities were 10-fold higher in guard cells than in palisade cells, indicating (i) elevated carbon metabolism in guard cells to meet demands for energy and carbon skeletons required during stomatal opening, and (ii) parallel glycolytic pathways in guard cells, one responsive to the potent regulatory metabolite fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and the other not. Future work will be devoted to clarifying the roles of the cytosolic and chloroplastic compartments in guard cells.

  19. Association mapping for frost tolerance using multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) population in faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Sallam, Ahmed; Martsch, Regina

    2015-08-01

    A multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) derived from 11 founder lines in faba bean was used in this study to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for frost tolerance traits using the association mapping method with 156 SNP markers. This MAGIC population consists of a set of 189 genotypes from the Göttingen Winter Bean Population. The association panel was tested in two different experiments, i.e. a frost and a hardening experiment. Six morphological traits, leaf fatty acid composition, relative water content in shoots were scored in this study. The genotypes presented a large genetic variation for all traits that were highly heritable after frost and after hardening. High phenotypic significant correlations were established between traits. The principal coordinates analysis resulted in no clear structure in the current population. Association mapping was performed using a general linear model and mixed linear model with kinship. A False discovery rate of 0.20 (and 0.05) was used to test the significance of marker-trait association. As a result, many putative QTLs for 13 morphological and physiological traits were detected using both models. The results reveal that QTL mapping by association analysis is a powerful method of detecting the alleles associated with frost tolerance in the winter faba bean which can be used in accelerating breeding programs.

  20. Variability among Rhizobium Strains Originating from Nodules of Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    van Berkum, P; Beyene, D; Vera, F T; Keyser, H H

    1995-07-01

    Rhizobium strains from nodules of Vicia faba were diverse in plasmid content and serology. Results of multilocus gel electrophoresis and restriction fragment length polymorphism indicated several deep chromosomal lineages among the strains. Linkage disequilibrium among the chromosomal types was detected and may have reflected variation of Rhizobium strains in the different geographical locations from which the strains originated. An investigation of pea strains with antibodies prepared against fava bean strains and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses, targeting DNA regions coding for rRNA and nodulation, indicated that Rhizobium strains from V. faba nodules were distinguishable from those from Pisum sativum, V. villosa, and Trifolium spp. PMID:16535075

  1. In vitro fermentation of lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) and broad beans (Vicia faba): dynamic modulation of the intestinal microbiota and metabolomic output.

    PubMed

    Gullón, Patricia; Gullón, Beatriz; Tavaria, Freni; Vasconcelos, Marta; Gomes, Ana Maria

    2015-10-01

    Broad beans (Vicia faba) and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) are legumes rich in a wide range of compounds, which may represent a useful dietary approach for modulating the human gut microbiome. In this work, after in vitro digestion, legume samples were used as carbon sources in anaerobic batch cultures to evaluate their impact on the intestinal microbiota composition and on their metabolic products. The fermentations were monitored by a decrease in pH, generation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactate and the changes in the dynamic bacterial populations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The total SCFA at the end of fermentation was 81.52 mM for lupin seeds and 78.41 mM for broad beans accompanied by a decrease of the pH for both legumes. The microbial groups that increased significantly (P < 0.05) were Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus-Enterococcus, Atopobium, Bacteroides-Pretovella, Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia intestinalis. This impact on the intestinal microbiota suggests that lupin seeds and broad beans may be used in the development of novel functional foods, which can be included in dietary strategies for human health promotion. PMID:26252418

  2. A study of arsenic speciation in soil, irrigation water and plant tissue: A case study of the broad bean plant, Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Sadee, Bashdar A; Foulkes, Mike E; Hill, Steve J

    2016-11-01

    Samples of soil, the broad bean plant, Vicia faba and irrigation water were collected from the same agricultural site in Dokan, in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation were determined in all materials by ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS, respectively. Available arsenic (11%) was also determined within the soil, together with Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of total arsenic were: soil (5.32μgg(-1)), irrigation water (1.06μgL(-1)), roots (2.065μgg(-1)) and bean (0.133μgg(-1)). Stems, leaves and pods were also measured. Inorganic As(V) dominated soil (90%) and root (78%) samples. However, organo-arsenic (MMA, 48% and DMA, 19%) was the more dominant species in the edible bean. The study provides an insight into the uptake, preferred disposal route, speciation changes and loss mechanism involved for arsenic with this food source. PMID:27211659

  3. In vitro fermentation of lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) and broad beans (Vicia faba): dynamic modulation of the intestinal microbiota and metabolomic output.

    PubMed

    Gullón, Patricia; Gullón, Beatriz; Tavaria, Freni; Vasconcelos, Marta; Gomes, Ana Maria

    2015-10-01

    Broad beans (Vicia faba) and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) are legumes rich in a wide range of compounds, which may represent a useful dietary approach for modulating the human gut microbiome. In this work, after in vitro digestion, legume samples were used as carbon sources in anaerobic batch cultures to evaluate their impact on the intestinal microbiota composition and on their metabolic products. The fermentations were monitored by a decrease in pH, generation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactate and the changes in the dynamic bacterial populations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The total SCFA at the end of fermentation was 81.52 mM for lupin seeds and 78.41 mM for broad beans accompanied by a decrease of the pH for both legumes. The microbial groups that increased significantly (P < 0.05) were Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus-Enterococcus, Atopobium, Bacteroides-Pretovella, Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia intestinalis. This impact on the intestinal microbiota suggests that lupin seeds and broad beans may be used in the development of novel functional foods, which can be included in dietary strategies for human health promotion.

  4. Cytoplasmic Sterility Factors in VICIA FABA L

    PubMed Central

    Edwardson, J. R.; Bond, D. A.; Christie, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    Tissues of cytoplasmic male sterile, maintainer, restorer, and restored lines, and sterile plants which reverted to fertility in Vicia faba were examined in ultrathin sections. Cytoplasmic spherical bodies (CSB), ca. 70 nm in diameter, were observed in tissues of all sterile plants but not in tissues of maintainer, restorer or restored sterile plants. No CSB were observed in a reverted fertile branch of a tiller-sterile plant, nor in 5 of 6 reverted fertile plants. One reverted fertile plant contained CSB in ovules. It is proposed that the CSB are the sites of, or possibly, products of, sterility factors in Vicia faba. PMID:17248701

  5. Does ascorbate in the mesophyll cell walls form the first line of defence against ozone? Testing the concept using broad bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Turcsányi, E; Lyons, T; Plöchl, M; Barnes, J

    2000-05-01

    Broad bean (Vicia faba L.) plants were exposed, in duplicate controlled environment chambers, to charcoal/Purafil-filtered air (CFA-grown plants) or to 75 nmol mol(-1) ozone (O(3)) for 7 h d(-1) (O(3)-grown plants) for 28 d, and then exposed to 150 nmol mol(-1) O(3 )for 8 h. The concentration of ascorbate (ASC) was determined in leaf extracellular washing fluid (apoplast) and in the residual leaf tissue (symplast) after 0, 4 and 8 h acute fumigation, and after a 16 h "recovery" period in CFA. Changes in stomatal conductance were measured in vivo in order to model pollutant uptake, while the light-saturated rate of CO(2) assimilation (A:(sat)) was recorded as an indicator of O(3)-induced intracellular damage. Measurements of A:(sat) revealed enhanced tolerance to 150 nmol mol(-1) O(3) in plants pre-exposed to the pollutant compared with equivalent plants grown in CFA, consistent with the observed reduction in pollutant uptake due to lower stomatal conductance. The concentration of ASC in the leaf apoplast (ASC(apo)) declined upon O(3)-treatment in both CFA- and O(3)-grown plants, consistent with the oxidation of ASC(apo) under O(3)-stress. Furthermore, the decline in ASC(apo) was reversible in O(3)-grown plants after a 16 h "recovery" period, but not in plants grown in CFA. No significant change in the level and/or redox state of ASC in the symplast (ASC(symp)) was observed in plants exposed to 150 nmol mol(-1) O(3), and there was no difference in the constitutive level of ASC(symp) between CFA- and O(3)-grown plants. Model calculations indicated that the reaction of O(3) with ASC(apo) in the leaves of Vicia faba is potentially sufficient to intercept a substantial proportion (30-40%) of the O(3)entering the plant under environmentally-relevant conditions. The potential role of apoplastic ASC in mediating the tolerance of leaves to O(3) is discussed.

  6. Variation of L-DOPA in the leaf and flower tissues of seven faba bean accessions with different flower colors.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) has been selected to adapt to a wide range of environments worldwide and is grown for different end-uses such as food, feed, forage and green manure. Particularly noteworthy in faba bean is the medicinally important component L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-DOPA), the majo...

  7. Variation of L-DOPA in the leaf and flower tissues of seven faba bean accessions with different flower colors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) has been selected to adapt to a wide range of environments worldwide and is grown for different end-uses such as food, feed, forage and green manure. Particularly noteworthy in faba bean is the medicinally important component L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-DOPA), the majo...

  8. In vitro investigations of the potential health benefits of Australian-grown faba beans (Vicia faba L.): chemopreventative capacity and inhibitory effects on the angiotensin-converting enzyme, α-glucosidase and lipase.

    PubMed

    Siah, Siem D; Konczak, Izabela; Agboola, Samson; Wood, Jennifer A; Blanchard, Christopher L

    2012-08-01

    The functional properties, including antioxidant and chemopreventative capacities as well as the inhibitory effects on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase, of three Australian-grown faba bean genotypes (Nura, Rossa and TF(Ic*As)*483/13) were investigated using an array of in vitro assays. Chromatograms of on-line post column derivatisation assay coupled with HPLC revealed the existence of active phenolics (hump) in the coloured genotypes, which was lacking in the white-coloured breeding line, TF(Ic*As)*483/13. Roasting reduced the phenolic content, and diminished antioxidant activity by 10-40 % as measured by the reagent-based assays (diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) in all genotypes. Cell culture-based antioxidant activity assay (cellular antioxidant activity) showed an increase of activity in the coloured genotypes after roasting. Faba bean extracts demonstrated cellular protection ability against H₂O₂-induced DNA damage (assessed using RAW264.7 cells), and inhibited the proliferation of all human cancer cell lines (BL13, AGS, Hep G2 and HT-29) evaluated. However, the effect of faba bean extracts on the non-transformed human cells (CCD-18Co) was negligible. Flow cytometric analyses showed that faba bean extracts successfully induced apoptosis of HL-60 (acute promyelocytic leukaemia) cells. The faba bean extracts also exhibited ACE, α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities. Overall, extracts from Nura (buff-coloured) and Rossa (red-coloured) were comparable, while TF(Ic*As)*483/13 (white-coloured) contained the lowest phenolic content and exhibited the least antioxidant and enzyme inhibition activities. These results are important to promote the utilisation of faba beans in human diets for various health benefits. PMID:22916808

  9. Adaptation of autumn-sown faba bean germplasm to southeastern Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information regarding the suitability of autumn-sown faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in southeastern Washington is lacking. Therefore, a variety trial testing the effects of two sowing dates was conducted for two seasons (2011-12 and 2012-13) at three locations, Central Ferry Research Farm (CF), Pomeroy, ...

  10. Physiological responses of Vicia faba plants to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Nandi, P.K.; Agrawal, M.; Agrawal, S.B.; Rao, D.N. )

    1990-02-01

    Exposure of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) plants to 270 +/- 32 and 670 +/- 45 micrograms m 3SO{sub 2} for 1.5 hr daily between 40 and 85 days of their ages resulted in an increase in their transpiration rate, water saturation deficit, phenol content, and peroxidase activity and a decrease in protein content. With the increase in number of exposures of plants to SO{sub 2}, chlorotic and brown, necrotic visible injury signs were also developed in leaves. It was further noted that the magnitude of undesirable biochemical changes, which possibly helped in the formation of new pigment characteristic of necrotic tissue of SO{sub 2}-exposed plants, was not totally dependent on the pollutant concentration.

  11. Advances in Faba Bean Genetics and Genomics.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Donal M; Angra, Deepti

    2016-01-01

    Vicia faba L, is a globally important grain legume whose main centers of diversity are the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean basin. Because of its small number (six) of exceptionally large and easily observed chromosomes it became a model species for plant cytogenetics the 70s and 80s. It is somewhat ironic therefore, that the emergence of more genomically tractable model plant species such as Arabidopsis and Medicago coincided with a marked decline in genome research on the formerly favored plant cytogenetic model. Thus, as ever higher density molecular marker coverage and dense genetic and even complete genome sequence maps of key crop and model species emerged through the 1990s and early 2000s, genetic and genome knowledge of Vicia faba lagged far behind other grain legumes such as soybean, common bean and pea. However, cheap sequencing technologies have stimulated the production of deep transcriptome coverage from several tissue types and numerous distinct cultivars in recent years. This has permitted the reconstruction of the faba bean meta-transcriptome and has fueled development of extensive sets of Simple Sequence Repeat and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. Genetics of faba bean stretches back to the 1930s, but it was not until 1993 that DNA markers were used to construct genetic maps. A series of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-based genetic studies mainly targeted at quantitative loci underlying resistance to a series of biotic and abiotic stresses were conducted during the 1990's and early 2000s. More recently, SNP-based genetic maps have permitted chromosome intervals of interest to be aligned to collinear segments of sequenced legume genomes such as the model legume Medicago truncatula, which in turn opens up the possibility for hypotheses on gene content, order and function to be translated from model to crop. Some examples of where knowledge of gene content and function have already been productively exploited are discussed. The

  12. Advances in Faba Bean Genetics and Genomics

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, Donal M.; Angra, Deepti

    2016-01-01

    Vicia faba L, is a globally important grain legume whose main centers of diversity are the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean basin. Because of its small number (six) of exceptionally large and easily observed chromosomes it became a model species for plant cytogenetics the 70s and 80s. It is somewhat ironic therefore, that the emergence of more genomically tractable model plant species such as Arabidopsis and Medicago coincided with a marked decline in genome research on the formerly favored plant cytogenetic model. Thus, as ever higher density molecular marker coverage and dense genetic and even complete genome sequence maps of key crop and model species emerged through the 1990s and early 2000s, genetic and genome knowledge of Vicia faba lagged far behind other grain legumes such as soybean, common bean and pea. However, cheap sequencing technologies have stimulated the production of deep transcriptome coverage from several tissue types and numerous distinct cultivars in recent years. This has permitted the reconstruction of the faba bean meta-transcriptome and has fueled development of extensive sets of Simple Sequence Repeat and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. Genetics of faba bean stretches back to the 1930s, but it was not until 1993 that DNA markers were used to construct genetic maps. A series of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-based genetic studies mainly targeted at quantitative loci underlying resistance to a series of biotic and abiotic stresses were conducted during the 1990's and early 2000s. More recently, SNP-based genetic maps have permitted chromosome intervals of interest to be aligned to collinear segments of sequenced legume genomes such as the model legume Medicago truncatula, which in turn opens up the possibility for hypotheses on gene content, order and function to be translated from model to crop. Some examples of where knowledge of gene content and function have already been productively exploited are discussed. The

  13. Advances in Faba Bean Genetics and Genomics

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, Donal M.; Angra, Deepti

    2016-01-01

    Vicia faba L, is a globally important grain legume whose main centers of diversity are the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean basin. Because of its small number (six) of exceptionally large and easily observed chromosomes it became a model species for plant cytogenetics the 70s and 80s. It is somewhat ironic therefore, that the emergence of more genomically tractable model plant species such as Arabidopsis and Medicago coincided with a marked decline in genome research on the formerly favored plant cytogenetic model. Thus, as ever higher density molecular marker coverage and dense genetic and even complete genome sequence maps of key crop and model species emerged through the 1990s and early 2000s, genetic and genome knowledge of Vicia faba lagged far behind other grain legumes such as soybean, common bean and pea. However, cheap sequencing technologies have stimulated the production of deep transcriptome coverage from several tissue types and numerous distinct cultivars in recent years. This has permitted the reconstruction of the faba bean meta-transcriptome and has fueled development of extensive sets of Simple Sequence Repeat and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. Genetics of faba bean stretches back to the 1930s, but it was not until 1993 that DNA markers were used to construct genetic maps. A series of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-based genetic studies mainly targeted at quantitative loci underlying resistance to a series of biotic and abiotic stresses were conducted during the 1990's and early 2000s. More recently, SNP-based genetic maps have permitted chromosome intervals of interest to be aligned to collinear segments of sequenced legume genomes such as the model legume Medicago truncatula, which in turn opens up the possibility for hypotheses on gene content, order and function to be translated from model to crop. Some examples of where knowledge of gene content and function have already been productively exploited are discussed. The

  14. Ethanol, feed components and fungal biomass production from field bean (Vicia faba var. equina) seeds in an integrated process.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Witold; Kawa-Rygielska, Joanna; Król, Barbara; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-09-01

    The use of field beans, a non-food leguminous crop, was studied for ethanol, feed components and fungal biomass production. The seeds were hydrolyzed using enzymes or with combination of acid (H3PO4) and alkaline (Ca(OH)2) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with or without removal of suspended solids, yielded 38.3-42.5gL(-1) ethanol (71.3-79.2% efficiency). The filtration residues contained ca. 247-326gkg(-1) crude protein, 10.6-15.5% acid detergent fiber and 19.9-29.1% neutral detergent fiber. They were enriched in phenolics (by up to 93.4%) and depleted in condensed tannin (by up to 59.3%) in comparison to the raw material. The thin stillages were used for cultivation of edible fungus Neurospora intermedia which produced 8.5-15.9gL(-1) ethanol and 4.8-16.2gL(-1) biomass containing over 62% protein. The mass balances showed that fermentation of unfiltered mashes was more efficient yielding up to 195.9gkg(-1) ethanol and 84.4% of protein recovery. PMID:27233099

  15. Molecular Diversity Assessment Using Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) Markers in Vicia faba L.

    PubMed Central

    Alghamdi, Salem S.; Al-Faifi, Sulieman A.; Migdadi, Hussein M.; Khan, Muhammad Altaf; El-Harty, Ehab H.; Ammar, Megahed H.

    2012-01-01

    Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and relationship among 58 faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes. Fourteen SRAP primer combinations amplified a total of 1036 differently sized well-resolved peaks (fragments), of which all were polymorphic with a 0.96 PIC value and discriminated all of the 58 faba bean genotypes. An average pairwise similarity of 21% was revealed among the genotypes ranging from 2% to 65%. At a similarity of 28%, UPGMA clustered the genotypes into three main groups comprising 78% of the genotypes. The local landraces and most of the Egyptian genotypes in addition to the Sudan genotypes were grouped in the first main cluster. The advanced breeding lines were scattered in the second and third main clusters with breeding lines from the ICARDA and genotypes introduced from Egypt. At a similarity of 47%, all the genotypes formed separated clusters with the exceptions of Hassawi 1 and Hassawi 2. Group analysis of the genotypes according to their geographic origin and type showed that the landraces were grouped according to their origin, while others were grouped according to their seed type. To our knowledge, this is the first application of SRAP markers for the assessment of genetic diversity in faba bean. Such information will be useful to determine optimal breeding strategies to allow continued progress in faba bean breeding. PMID:23211669

  16. Carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes aggravated biochemical and subcellular damages in leaves of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seedlings under combined stress of lead and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengrun; Liu, Haitao; Chen, Jinyun; Tian, Yuan; Shi, Jian; Li, Dongdong; Guo, Chen; Ma, Qingping

    2014-06-15

    Increasing industrialization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) would inevitably lead to their release into the environment and combination with heavy metals. However, studies concerning the combined effects of MWCNTs and heavy metals on agricultural crops are limited. Herein, effects and mechanisms of carboxylated MWCNTs (MWCNTs-COOH) (2.5, 5 and 10mg/L) and their combination with 20 μM Pb and 5 μM Cd (shortened as Pb+Cd) on Vicia faba L. seedlings were investigated. The results showed that the MWCNTs-COOH disturbed the imbalance of nutrient elements, and caused oxidative stress and damages in the leaves. Additionally, the combination of MWCNTs-COOH with Pb+Cd resulted in enrichment of Pb and Cd, and deterioration of oxidative damages compared with the treatments of MWCNTs-COOH or Pb+Cd alone in the leaves. As the results, the concentrations of MWCNTs-COOH not only caused oxidative stress, but also exacerbated the biochemical and subcellular damages due to the treatment of Pb+Cd in the leaves. It also suggests that persistent release of MWCNTs-COOH into the environment may cause phytotoxicity and aggravate ecological risks due to combination of heavy metals.

  17. FIA functions as an early signal component of abscisic acid signal cascade in Vicia faba guard cells.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Yusuke; Uraji, Misugi; Watanabe-Sugimoto, Megumi; Okuma, Eiji; Munemasa, Shintaro; Shimoishi, Yasuaki; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Mori, Izumi C; Iwai, Sumio; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2012-02-01

    An abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive Vicia faba mutant, fia (fava bean impaired in ABA-induced stomatal closure) had previously been isolated. In this study, it was investigated how FIA functions in ABA signalling in guard cells of Vicia faba. Unlike ABA, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), H(2)O(2), and nitric oxide (NO) induced stomatal closure in the fia mutant. ABA did not induce production of either reactive oxygen species or NO in the mutant. Moreover, ABA did not suppress inward-rectifying K(+) (K(in)) currents or activate ABA-activated protein kinase (AAPK) in mutant guard cells. These results suggest that FIA functions as an early signal component upstream of AAPK activation in ABA signalling but does not function in MeJA signalling in guard cells of Vicia faba.

  18. FIA functions as an early signal component of abscisic acid signal cascade in Vicia faba guard cells.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Yusuke; Uraji, Misugi; Watanabe-Sugimoto, Megumi; Okuma, Eiji; Munemasa, Shintaro; Shimoishi, Yasuaki; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Mori, Izumi C; Iwai, Sumio; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2012-02-01

    An abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive Vicia faba mutant, fia (fava bean impaired in ABA-induced stomatal closure) had previously been isolated. In this study, it was investigated how FIA functions in ABA signalling in guard cells of Vicia faba. Unlike ABA, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), H(2)O(2), and nitric oxide (NO) induced stomatal closure in the fia mutant. ABA did not induce production of either reactive oxygen species or NO in the mutant. Moreover, ABA did not suppress inward-rectifying K(+) (K(in)) currents or activate ABA-activated protein kinase (AAPK) in mutant guard cells. These results suggest that FIA functions as an early signal component upstream of AAPK activation in ABA signalling but does not function in MeJA signalling in guard cells of Vicia faba. PMID:22131163

  19. Extrafloral nectary phenotypic plasticity is damage- and resource-dependent in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Mondor, Edward B; Tremblay, Michelle N; Messing, Russell H

    2006-12-22

    Phenotypic plasticity enables many damaged plants to increase nectar secretion rates from extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), or in the case of broad bean, Vicia faba L. to produce additional EFNs, to attract natural enemies of herbivores. While plants benefit greatly from these defensive mutualisms, the costs of producing EFNs are largely unknown. We hypothesized that if EFN production is costly, then damaged plants with high resource levels would be able to produce more EFNs than plants that are resource-limited. Here, we show that this indirect inducible defence does follow this general pattern. Vicia faba enriched with 6 or 12 g of 14:14:14 NPK fertilizer increased EFN numbers after leaf damage by 46 and 60%, respectively, compared with nutrient-poor plants. Thus, EFN production is both damage- and resource-dependent. Analogous to direct defences, production of EFNs may limit the overall loss of leaf tissue when risk of herbivory increases. PMID:17148294

  20. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Vicia faba L. Landraces and Wild Related Species Assessed by Nuclear SSRs

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Manuela; Lopes, Susana; Viegas, Wanda; Veloso, Maria Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a facultative cross-pollinating legume crop with a great importance for food and feed due to its high protein content as well as the important role in soil fertility and nitrogen fixation. In this work we evaluated genetic diversity and population structure of faba bean accessions from the Western Mediterranean basin and wild related species. For that purpose we screened 53 V. faba, 2 V. johannis and 7 V. narbonensis accessions from Portugal, Spain and Morocco with 28 faba bean Single Sequence Repeats (SSR). SSR genotyping showed that the number of alleles detected per locus for the polymorphic markers ranged between 2 and 10, with Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) values between 0.662 and 0.071, and heterozygosity (HO) between 0–0.467. Heterozygosity and inbreeding coefficient levels indicate a higher level of inbreeding in wild related species than in cultivated Vicia. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed a superior genetic diversity within accessions than between accessions even from distant regions. These results are in accordance to population structure analysis showing that individuals from the same accession can be genetically more similar to individuals from far away accessions, than from individuals from the same accession. In all three levels of analysis (whole panel of cultivated and wild accessions, cultivated faba bean accessions and Portuguese accessions) no population structure was observed based on geography or climatic factors. Differences between V. narbonensis and V. johannis are undetectable although these wild taxa are clearly distinct from V. faba accessions. Thus, a limited gene flow occurred between cultivated accessions and wild relatives. Contrastingly, the lack of population structure seems to indicate a high degree of gene flow between V. faba accessions, possibly explained by the partially allogamous habit in association with frequent seed exchange/introduction. PMID:27168146

  1. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Vicia faba L. Landraces and Wild Related Species Assessed by Nuclear SSRs.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Hugo R; Tomás, Diana; Silva, Manuela; Lopes, Susana; Viegas, Wanda; Veloso, Maria Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a facultative cross-pollinating legume crop with a great importance for food and feed due to its high protein content as well as the important role in soil fertility and nitrogen fixation. In this work we evaluated genetic diversity and population structure of faba bean accessions from the Western Mediterranean basin and wild related species. For that purpose we screened 53 V. faba, 2 V. johannis and 7 V. narbonensis accessions from Portugal, Spain and Morocco with 28 faba bean Single Sequence Repeats (SSR). SSR genotyping showed that the number of alleles detected per locus for the polymorphic markers ranged between 2 and 10, with Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) values between 0.662 and 0.071, and heterozygosity (HO) between 0-0.467. Heterozygosity and inbreeding coefficient levels indicate a higher level of inbreeding in wild related species than in cultivated Vicia. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed a superior genetic diversity within accessions than between accessions even from distant regions. These results are in accordance to population structure analysis showing that individuals from the same accession can be genetically more similar to individuals from far away accessions, than from individuals from the same accession. In all three levels of analysis (whole panel of cultivated and wild accessions, cultivated faba bean accessions and Portuguese accessions) no population structure was observed based on geography or climatic factors. Differences between V. narbonensis and V. johannis are undetectable although these wild taxa are clearly distinct from V. faba accessions. Thus, a limited gene flow occurred between cultivated accessions and wild relatives. Contrastingly, the lack of population structure seems to indicate a high degree of gene flow between V. faba accessions, possibly explained by the partially allogamous habit in association with frequent seed exchange/introduction. PMID:27168146

  2. Increased soil phosphorus availability induced by faba bean root exudation stimulates root growth and phosphorus uptake in neighbouring maize.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deshan; Zhang, Chaochun; Tang, Xiaoyan; Li, Haigang; Zhang, Fusuo; Rengel, Zed; Whalley, William R; Davies, William J; Shen, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    Root growth is influenced by soil nutrients and neighbouring plants, but how these two drivers affect root interactions and regulate plant growth dynamics is poorly understood. Here, interactions between the roots of maize (Zea mays) and faba bean (Vicia faba) are characterized. Maize was grown alone (maize) or with maize (maize/maize) or faba bean (maize/faba bean) as competitors under five levels of phosphorus (P) supply, and with homogeneous or heterogeneous P distribution. Maize had longer root length and greater shoot biomass and P content when grown with faba bean than with maize. At each P supply rate, faba bean had a smaller root system than maize but greater exudation of citrate and acid phosphatase, suggesting a greater capacity to mobilize P in the rhizosphere. Heterogeneous P availability enhanced the root-length density of maize but not faba bean. Maize root proliferation in the P-rich patches was associated with increased shoot P uptake. Increased P availability by localized P application or by the presence of faba bean exudation stimulated root morphological plasticity and increased shoot growth in maize in the maize/faba bean mixture, suggesting that root interactions of neighbouring plants can be modified by increased P availability.

  3. 4-Chloro-6-methoxyindole is the precursor of a potent mutagen (4-chloro-6-methoxy-2-hydroxy-1-nitroso-indolin-3-one oxime) that forms during nitrosation of the fava bean (Vicia faba).

    PubMed

    Yang, D; Tannenbaum, S R; Büchi, G; Lee, G C

    1984-10-01

    Fava beans (Vicia faba) upon treatment with nitrite under simulated gastric conditions, form a direct-acting bacterial mutagen, comparable in specific activity to the most potent known mutagens for several strains of Salmonella typhimurium. The precursor of the mutagen was isolated and identified as 4-chloro-6-methoxyindole by u.v., i.r., m.s. and n.m.r. The precursor was dechlorinated with NaBH4 and PdCl2 as the catalyst and the product obtained from this reaction was identified as 6-methoxyindole. Since synthetic 4-chloro-6-methoxyindole was not available, structure activity studies were conducted on substituted indoles. Nitrosation of 4-chloroindole closely follows the results for nitrosation of 4-chloro-6-methoxyindole. The major product of nitrosation of 4-chloroindole is 4-chloro-2-hydroxy-N1-nitroso-indolin-3-one oxime. Thus, it appears that the major nitrosation product of 4-chloroindole and of 4-chloro-6-methoxyindole is a stable alpha-hydroxy N-nitroso compound. This is the first reported case of stable alpha-hydroxy N-nitroso compounds. In the presence of N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (NEDD), the alpha-hydroxy N-nitroso compound rearranges to an aromatic diazonium ion which couples with the diamine to form an azo dye. Studies on nitrosation kinetics indicate that the nitrosation of indoles are relatively fast reactions. Both the structural and rate studies give strong support to the hypothesis that intragastric nitrosation of fava beans yield the putative gastric carcinogen in the high-risk area in Colombia.

  4. 4-Chloro-6-methoxyindole is the precursor of a potent mutagen (4-chloro-6-methoxy-2-hydroxy-1-nitroso-indolin-3-one oxime) that forms during nitrosation of the fava bean (Vicia faba).

    PubMed

    Yang, D; Tannenbaum, S R; Büchi, G; Lee, G C

    1984-10-01

    Fava beans (Vicia faba) upon treatment with nitrite under simulated gastric conditions, form a direct-acting bacterial mutagen, comparable in specific activity to the most potent known mutagens for several strains of Salmonella typhimurium. The precursor of the mutagen was isolated and identified as 4-chloro-6-methoxyindole by u.v., i.r., m.s. and n.m.r. The precursor was dechlorinated with NaBH4 and PdCl2 as the catalyst and the product obtained from this reaction was identified as 6-methoxyindole. Since synthetic 4-chloro-6-methoxyindole was not available, structure activity studies were conducted on substituted indoles. Nitrosation of 4-chloroindole closely follows the results for nitrosation of 4-chloro-6-methoxyindole. The major product of nitrosation of 4-chloroindole is 4-chloro-2-hydroxy-N1-nitroso-indolin-3-one oxime. Thus, it appears that the major nitrosation product of 4-chloroindole and of 4-chloro-6-methoxyindole is a stable alpha-hydroxy N-nitroso compound. This is the first reported case of stable alpha-hydroxy N-nitroso compounds. In the presence of N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (NEDD), the alpha-hydroxy N-nitroso compound rearranges to an aromatic diazonium ion which couples with the diamine to form an azo dye. Studies on nitrosation kinetics indicate that the nitrosation of indoles are relatively fast reactions. Both the structural and rate studies give strong support to the hypothesis that intragastric nitrosation of fava beans yield the putative gastric carcinogen in the high-risk area in Colombia. PMID:6548421

  5. Effect of sulphur dioxide exposure on chlorophyll content and nitrogenase activity of Vicia faba L. plants

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, S.B.; Agrawal, M. )

    1991-11-01

    The annual average concentrations of SO{sub 2} around Obra thermal power plant and nonpolluted sites in India were reported as 0.06, and 0.007 ppm, respectively. However, daily average concentrations in areas close to the emission source may be as large as 0.34 ppm. Therefore, in the present investigation an attempt has been made to determine the potential effects of such episodic and exceptionally high intermittent concentrations of SO{sub 2} on total chlorophyll content and nitrogenase activity of Vicia faba (broad bean) plants.

  6. Vicia faba bioassay for environmental toxicity monitoring: A review.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Munawar

    2016-02-01

    Higher plants are recognized as excellent genetic models to detect cytogenetic and mutagenic agents and are frequently used in environmental monitoring studies. Vicia faba (V. faba) bioassay have been used to study DNA damages i.e., chromosomal and nuclear aberrations induced by metallic compounds, pesticides, complex mixtures, petroleum derivates, toxins, nanoparticles and industrial effluents. The main advantages of using V. faba is its availability round the year, economical to use, easy to grow and handle; its use does not require sterile conditions, rate of cell division is fast, chromosomes are easy to score, less expensive and more sensitive as compared to other short-term tests that require pre-preparations. The V. faba test offers evaluation of different endpoints and tested agents can be classified as cytotoxic/genotoxic/mutagenic. This test also provides understanding about mechanism of action, whether the tested agent is clastogenic or aneugenic in nature. In view of advantages offered by V. faba test system, it is used extensively to assess toxic agents and has been emerged as an important bioassay for ecotoxicological studies. Based on the applications of V. faba test to assess the environmental quality, this article offers an overview of this test system and its efficiency in assessing the cytogenetic and mutagenic agents in different classes of the environmental concerns.

  7. Vicia faba bioassay for environmental toxicity monitoring: A review.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Munawar

    2016-02-01

    Higher plants are recognized as excellent genetic models to detect cytogenetic and mutagenic agents and are frequently used in environmental monitoring studies. Vicia faba (V. faba) bioassay have been used to study DNA damages i.e., chromosomal and nuclear aberrations induced by metallic compounds, pesticides, complex mixtures, petroleum derivates, toxins, nanoparticles and industrial effluents. The main advantages of using V. faba is its availability round the year, economical to use, easy to grow and handle; its use does not require sterile conditions, rate of cell division is fast, chromosomes are easy to score, less expensive and more sensitive as compared to other short-term tests that require pre-preparations. The V. faba test offers evaluation of different endpoints and tested agents can be classified as cytotoxic/genotoxic/mutagenic. This test also provides understanding about mechanism of action, whether the tested agent is clastogenic or aneugenic in nature. In view of advantages offered by V. faba test system, it is used extensively to assess toxic agents and has been emerged as an important bioassay for ecotoxicological studies. Based on the applications of V. faba test to assess the environmental quality, this article offers an overview of this test system and its efficiency in assessing the cytogenetic and mutagenic agents in different classes of the environmental concerns. PMID:26414739

  8. Faba bean forisomes can function in defence against generalist aphids.

    PubMed

    Medina-Ortega, Karla J; Walker, Gregory P

    2015-06-01

    Phloem sieve elements have shut-off mechanisms that prevent loss of nutrient-rich phloem sap when the phloem is damaged. Some phloem proteins such as the proteins that form forisomes in legume sieve elements are one such mechanism and in response to damage, they instantly form occlusions that stop the flow of sap. It has long been hypothesized that one function of phloem proteins is defence against phloem sap-feeding insects such as aphids. This study provides the first experimental evidence that aphid feeding can induce phloem protein occlusion and that the aphid-induced occlusions inhibit phloem sap ingestion. The great majority of phloem penetrations in Vicia faba by the generalist aphids Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae triggered forisome occlusion and the aphids eventually withdrew their stylets without ingesting phloem sap. This contrasts starkly with a previous study on the legume-specialist aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, where penetration of faba bean sieve elements did not trigger forisome occlusion and the aphids readily ingested phloem sap. Next, forisome occlusion was demonstrated to be the cause of failed phloem ingestion attempts by M. persicae: when occlusion was inhibited by the calcium channel blocker lanthanum, M. persicae readily ingested faba bean phloem sap.

  9. Inhibitory effect of cheese and some food constituents on mutagenicity generated in Vicia faba after treatment with nitrite.

    PubMed

    Jongen, W M; van Boekel, M A; van Broekhoven, L W

    1987-02-01

    The inhibitory potential of various food constituents on the mutagenicity generated in fava beans after treatment with nitrite has been investigated. Cheese was able to inhibit this direct-acting mutagenicity. The antimutagenic factor was not extractable from cheese; solvents of different polarity were used for the extraction. Casein, pectin, gelatin, Vicia faba protein and, to a lesser extent, whey protein and starch could also inhibit mutagenicity. A decrease in mutagenicity was always accompanied by a decrease in total N-nitroso content, as measured analytically. The mutagenic principles appeared to bind more strongly onto cheese than onto V. faba. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:3557236

  10. Effect of fertilizers on faba bean (V. faba) growth and soil pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, C.

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to see the effect of fertilizers on faba bean (V. faba) growth and soil pH. This experiment is important because of the agriculture here in California and the damage fertilizers are doing to the soil. Three Broad Fava Windsor beans (Vicia faba) were planted per pot, with at least three pots per treatment. There were four treatments: soil with phosphorus (P) fertilizer, soil with nitrogen (N) fertilizer, soil with both N and P fertilizer, and soil without any fertilizers (control). The soil pH was 7.7, and it had 26.6mg/kg Olsen-P, 2.2mg/kg ammonium-N and no nitrate-N (Data from UCD Horwath Lab). All pots were put in a greenhouse with a stable temperature of 80 degrees. I watered them 2-3 times a week. After two months I measured the soil pH using a calibrated pHep HI 98107 pocket-sized pH meter. After letting the plants dry I weighed the shoots and roots separately for dry biomass. From testing pH of the soil of the faba bean plants with and without fertilizer I found that only the nitrogen fertilizer made the soil more acidic than the other ones. The other ones became more basic. Also the N-fertilized plants weighed more than the other ones. This shows how the nitrogen fertilizer had a greater impact on the plants. I think the reason why the nitrogen and the phosphorus fertilizers didn't work as well is because there was an interaction between the fertilizers and the nitrogen one made the soil more acidic because of the way nitrogen is made.

  11. The FIGS (focused identification of germplasm strategy) approach identifies traits related to drought adaptation in Vicia faba genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Khazaei, Hamid; Street, Kenneth; Bari, Abdallah; Mackay, Michael; Stoddard, Frederick L

    2013-01-01

    Efficient methods to explore plant agro-biodiversity for climate change adaptive traits are urgently required. The focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS) is one such approach. FIGS works on the premise that germplasm is likely to reflect the selection pressures of the environment in which it developed. Environmental parameters describing plant germplasm collection sites are used as selection criteria to improve the probability of uncovering useful variation. This study was designed to test the effectiveness of FIGS to search a large faba bean (Vicia faba L.) collection for traits related to drought adaptation. Two sets of faba bean accessions were created, one from moisture-limited environments, and the other from wetter sites. The two sets were grown under well watered conditions and leaf morpho-physiological traits related to plant water use were measured. Machine-learning algorithms split the accessions into two groups based on the evaluation data and the groups created by this process were compared to the original climate-based FIGS sets. The sets defined by trait data were in almost perfect agreement to the FIGS sets, demonstrating that ecotypic differentiation driven by moisture availability has occurred within the faba bean genepool. Leaflet and canopy temperature as well as relative water content contributed more than other traits to the discrimination between sets, indicating that their utility as drought-tolerance selection criteria for faba bean germplasm. This study supports the assertion that FIGS could be an effective tool to enhance the discovery of new genes for abiotic stress adaptation.

  12. High-throughput novel microsatellite marker of faba bean via next generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is an important food legume crop, grown for human consumption globally including in China, Turkey, Egypt and Ethiopia. Although genetic gain has been made through conventional selection and breeding efforts, this could be substantially improved through the application of molecular methods. For this, a set of reliable molecular markers representative of the entire genome is required. Results A library with 125,559 putative SSR sequences was constructed and characterized for repeat type and length from a mixed genome of 247 spring and winter sown faba bean genotypes using 454 sequencing. A suit of 28,503 primer pair sequences were designed and 150 were randomly selected for validation. Of these, 94 produced reproducible amplicons that were polymorphic among 32 faba bean genotypes selected from diverse geographical locations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 8, the expected heterozygocities ranged from 0.0000 to 1.0000, and the observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.0908 to 0.8410. The validation by UPGMA cluster analysis of 32 genotypes based on Nei's genetic distance, showed high quality and effectiveness of those novel SSR markers developed via next generation sequencing technology. Conclusions Large scale SSR marker development was successfully achieved using next generation sequencing of the V. faba genome. These novel markers are valuable for constructing genetic linkage maps, future QTL mapping, and marker-assisted trait selection in faba bean breeding efforts. PMID:23137291

  13. Rhizobium laguerreae sp. nov. nodulates Vicia faba on several continents.

    PubMed

    Saïdi, Sabrine; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Santillana, Nery; Zúñiga, Doris; Álvarez-Martínez, Estela; Peix, Alvaro; Mhamdi, Ridha; Velázquez, Encarna

    2014-01-01

    Several fast-growing strains nodulating Vicia faba in Peru, Spain and Tunisia formed a cluster related to Rhizobium leguminosarum. The 16S rRNA gene sequences were identical to that of R. leguminosarum USDA 2370(T), whereas rpoB, recA and atpD gene sequences were phylogenetically distant, with sequence similarities of less than 96 %, 97 % and 94 %, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis showed a mean relatedness value of 43 % between strain FB206(T) and R. leguminosarum USDA 2370(T). Phenotypic characteristics of the novel strains also differed from those of the closest related species of the genus Rhizobium. Therefore, based on genotypic and phenotypic data obtained in this study, we propose to classify this group of strains nodulating Vicia faba as a novel species of the genus Rhizobium named Rhizobium laguerreae sp. nov. The type strain is FB206(T) ( = LMG 27434(T) = CECT 8280(T)).

  14. Genotoxic effects and induction of phytochelatins in the presence of cadmium in Vicia faba roots.

    PubMed

    Béraud, Eric; Cotelle, Sylvie; Leroy, Pierre; Férard, Jean-François

    2007-10-01

    This study investigates different effects in roots of Vicia faba (broad bean) after exposure to cadmium. Genotoxic effects were assessed by use of the well-known Vicia root tip micronucleus assay. Cytotoxic effects were evaluated by determining the mitotic index in root tip cells. Finally, molecular induction mechanisms were evaluated by measuring phytochelatins with HPLC. After hydroponical exposure of V. faba roots to a range of cadmium concentrations and during different exposure times, the results of this approach showed large variations, according to the endpoint measured: after 48 h of exposure, genotoxic effects were found between 7.5 x 10(-8) and 5 x 10(-7)M CdCl(2), and cytotoxic effects were observed between 2.5 x 10(-7) and 5 x 10(-7)M CdCl(2). Statistically significant phytochelatin (PC) concentrations were measured at >or=10(-6)M CdCl(2) for PC(2), and at >or=10(-5)M CdCl(2) for PC3 and PC4. PMID:17689137

  15. Genotoxic effects and induction of phytochelatins in the presence of cadmium in Vicia faba roots.

    PubMed

    Béraud, Eric; Cotelle, Sylvie; Leroy, Pierre; Férard, Jean-François

    2007-10-01

    This study investigates different effects in roots of Vicia faba (broad bean) after exposure to cadmium. Genotoxic effects were assessed by use of the well-known Vicia root tip micronucleus assay. Cytotoxic effects were evaluated by determining the mitotic index in root tip cells. Finally, molecular induction mechanisms were evaluated by measuring phytochelatins with HPLC. After hydroponical exposure of V. faba roots to a range of cadmium concentrations and during different exposure times, the results of this approach showed large variations, according to the endpoint measured: after 48 h of exposure, genotoxic effects were found between 7.5 x 10(-8) and 5 x 10(-7)M CdCl(2), and cytotoxic effects were observed between 2.5 x 10(-7) and 5 x 10(-7)M CdCl(2). Statistically significant phytochelatin (PC) concentrations were measured at >or=10(-6)M CdCl(2) for PC(2), and at >or=10(-5)M CdCl(2) for PC3 and PC4.

  16. Extrafloral nectary phenotypic plasticity is damage- and resource-dependent in Vicia faba

    PubMed Central

    Mondor, Edward B; Tremblay, Michelle N; Messing, Russell H

    2006-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity enables many damaged plants to increase nectar secretion rates from extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), or in the case of broad bean, Vicia faba L., to produce additional EFNs, to attract natural enemies of herbivores. While plants benefit greatly from these defensive mutualisms, the costs of producing EFNs are largely unknown. We hypothesized that if EFN production is costly, then damaged plants with high resource levels would be able to produce more EFNs than plants that are resource-limited. Here, we show that this indirect inducible defence does follow this general pattern. Vicia faba enriched with 6 or 12 g of 14 : 14 : 14 NPK fertilizer increased EFN numbers after leaf damage by 46 and 60%, respectively, compared with nutrient-poor plants. Thus, EFN production is both damage- and resource-dependent. Analogous to direct defences, production of EFNs may limit the overall loss of leaf tissue when risk of herbivory increases. PMID:17148294

  17. Screening of Rhizobacteria for Their Plant Growth Promotion Ability and Antagonism Against Damping off and Root Rot Diseases of Broad Bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Indira Devi, S; Talukdar, N C; Chandradev Sharma, K; Jeyaram, K; Rohinikumar, M

    2011-01-01

    Development of microbial inoculants from rhizobacterial isolates with potential for plant growth promotion and root disease suppression require rigorous screening. Fifty-four (54) fluorescent pseudomonads, out of a large collection of rhizobacteria from broad bean fields of 20 different locations within Imphal valley of Manipur, were initially screened for antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani, of diseased roots of broad bean and also three other reference fungal pathogens of plant roots. Fifteen fluorescent pseudomonas isolates produced inhibition zone (8-29 mm) of the fungal growth in dual plate assay and IAA like substances (24.1-66.7 μg/ml) and soluble P (12.7-56.80 μg/ml) in broth culture. Among the isolates, RFP 36 caused a marked increase in seed germination, seedling biomass and control of the root borne pathogens of broad bean. PCR-RAPD analysis of these isolates along with five MTCC reference fluorescent pseudomonas strains indicated that the RFP-36 belonged to a distinct cluster and the PCR of its genomic DNA with antibiotic specific primers Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and 2, 4-diacetyl phloroglucinol suggested possible occurrence of gene for the potent antibiotics. Overall, the result of the study indicated the potential of the isolate RFP 36 as a microbial inoculant with multiple functions for broad bean.

  18. Resistance of Faba Bean and Pea Germplasm to Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and Its Relationship With Quality Components.

    PubMed

    Duan, Can-Xing; Zhu, Zhen-Dong; Ren, Gui-Xing; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Li, Dan-Dan

    2014-10-01

    In total, 339 faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and 100 pea (Pisum sativum L.) accessions were screened for their ability to resist Callosobruchus chinensis L. in free choice laboratory tests. Four, 15, and 43 faba bean varieties were highly resistant, resistant, and moderately resistant to C. chinensis, respectively. Three immune, three highly resistant, and six resistant accessions were discovered among the pea germplasm. The faba bean and pea varieties presented a hundred-kernel weight reduction varied from 0.18 to 35.36% for faba bean varieties and 0 to 56.53% for pea varieties. Varieties with brown and black seed color had significantly fewer wormholes and higher C. chinensis resistance than varieties with light-color seeds. Resistance to C. chinensis showed a significant, positive correlation with catechin, total polyphenol, and γ-aminobutyric acid contents, but a significant, negative correlation with oligosaccharide content. Correlation coefficients (r) between infestation rate of faba bean and total phenol, catechin, and oligosaccharide contents were -0.9723, -0.8071, and 0.7631, respectively. The values of r for pea resistance and total phenol, catechin, and oligosaccharide content were -0.8846, -0.7666, and 0.8308, respectively. The results suggest that quality components in faba bean and pea have a great role in resistance against C. chinensis.

  19. Nutritional value of raw and micronised field beans (Vicia faba L. var. minor) with and without enzyme supplementation containing tannase for growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Jalil Mahmwd; Rose, Stephen Paul; Mackenzie, Alexander Mackay; Ivanova, Sonya Georgieva; Staykova, Genoveva Petrova; Pirgozliev, Vasil Radoslavov

    2016-10-01

    An experiment examined the effects of two field bean cultivar samples with different tannin contents, the effect of heat treatment (micronising) and the effect of dietary supplementation of a proprietary enzyme preparation containing tannase, pectinase, and xylanase activities on metabolisable energy (ME), total tract dry matter digestibility (DMD) and ether extract digestibility (EED), nitrogen retention (NR), tannin degradability, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, and endogenous mucin losses excretion in broiler chickens. The Control diet contained per kg 221 g crude protein and 12.83 MJ ME. Four additional diets contained 300 g/kg of each of the two untreated or micronised experimental field bean cultivar samples. Each diet was then split into two batches and one of them was supplemented with 3400 units tannase per kg diet resulting in 10 diets in total. Each diet was fed to seven pens with two randomly selected male broilers each. Birds fed the high tannin bean sample had a lower weight gain (p < 0.001), and a lower determined apparent ME (p < 0.05), and DMD (p < 0.001) but a higher tannin degradability (p < 0.001). Compared to the Control diet, feeding field beans increased (p < 0.001) the weights of the proventriculus and gizzard of the birds, and also increased endogenous mucin losses (p < 0.05). Supplementing diets with the tannase-containing enzyme preparation improved dietary ME (p < 0.001), DMD (p < 0.001), NR (p < 0.001) and DEE (p < 0.05), but did not change tannin degradability. Heat treatment of the beans reduced the degradability of condensed tannins and increased endogenous mucin losses (p < 0.05). The differences in the feeding value of the different field bean samples were not improved by heat treatment, but enzyme supplementation improved the feeding value of all diets regardless of the bean samples or heat treatment. Further research is warranted to study the effectiveness of tannase supplementation in poultry

  20. Nutritional value of raw and micronised field beans (Vicia faba L. var. minor) with and without enzyme supplementation containing tannase for growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Jalil Mahmwd; Rose, Stephen Paul; Mackenzie, Alexander Mackay; Ivanova, Sonya Georgieva; Staykova, Genoveva Petrova; Pirgozliev, Vasil Radoslavov

    2016-10-01

    An experiment examined the effects of two field bean cultivar samples with different tannin contents, the effect of heat treatment (micronising) and the effect of dietary supplementation of a proprietary enzyme preparation containing tannase, pectinase, and xylanase activities on metabolisable energy (ME), total tract dry matter digestibility (DMD) and ether extract digestibility (EED), nitrogen retention (NR), tannin degradability, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, and endogenous mucin losses excretion in broiler chickens. The Control diet contained per kg 221 g crude protein and 12.83 MJ ME. Four additional diets contained 300 g/kg of each of the two untreated or micronised experimental field bean cultivar samples. Each diet was then split into two batches and one of them was supplemented with 3400 units tannase per kg diet resulting in 10 diets in total. Each diet was fed to seven pens with two randomly selected male broilers each. Birds fed the high tannin bean sample had a lower weight gain (p < 0.001), and a lower determined apparent ME (p < 0.05), and DMD (p < 0.001) but a higher tannin degradability (p < 0.001). Compared to the Control diet, feeding field beans increased (p < 0.001) the weights of the proventriculus and gizzard of the birds, and also increased endogenous mucin losses (p < 0.05). Supplementing diets with the tannase-containing enzyme preparation improved dietary ME (p < 0.001), DMD (p < 0.001), NR (p < 0.001) and DEE (p < 0.05), but did not change tannin degradability. Heat treatment of the beans reduced the degradability of condensed tannins and increased endogenous mucin losses (p < 0.05). The differences in the feeding value of the different field bean samples were not improved by heat treatment, but enzyme supplementation improved the feeding value of all diets regardless of the bean samples or heat treatment. Further research is warranted to study the effectiveness of tannase supplementation in poultry

  1. Allyl isothiocyanate induces stomatal closure in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Sobahan, Muhammad Abdus; Akter, Nasima; Okuma, Eiji; Uraji, Misugi; Ye, Wenxiu; Mori, Izumi C; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Isothiocyanates are enzymatically produced from glucosinolates in plants, and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) induces stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we investigated stomatal responses to AITC in Vicia faba. AITC-induced stomatal closure accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NO production, cytosolic alkalization and glutathione (GSH) depletion in V. faba. GSH monoethyl ester induced stomatal reopening and suppressed AITC-induced GSH depletion in guard cells. Exogenous catalase and a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid, inhibited AITC-induced stomatal closure, unlike an NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride. The peroxidase inhibitor also abolished the AITC-induced ROS production, NO production, and cytosolic alkalization. AITC-induced stomatal closure was suppressed by an NO scavenger, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide, and an agent to acidify cytosol, butyrate. These results indicate that AITC-induced stomatal closure in V. faba as well as in A. thaliana and suggest that AITC signaling in guard cells is conserved in both plants.

  2. GABA shunt and polyamine degradation pathway on γ-aminobutyric acid accumulation in germinating fava bean (Vicia faba L.) under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Runqiang; Guo, Qianghui; Gu, Zhenxin

    2013-01-01

    GABA shunt and polyamine degradation pathway on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in germinating fava bean under hypoxia was investigated. GABA content, GAD and DAO activity were significantly increased under hypoxia treatment. Glu and polyamine contents enhanced largely and thus supplied as sufficient substrates for GABA formation. In contrast, GABA content decreased, mainly in the embryo, after removing the hypoxia stress. DAO activity, Glu and polyamines contents decreased, while an increment of GAD activity was observed. This indicated that GAD activity can be not only regulated by hypoxia, but by the rapid growth of embryo after the recovery from hypoxia stress. When treated with AG, DAO activity was almost inhibited completely, and the GABA content decreased by 32.96% and 32.07% after treated for 3 and 5 days, respectively. Hence, it can be inferred that about 30% of GABA formed in germinating fava bean under hypoxia was supplied by polyamine degradation pathway. PMID:23017406

  3. GABA shunt and polyamine degradation pathway on γ-aminobutyric acid accumulation in germinating fava bean (Vicia faba L.) under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Runqiang; Guo, Qianghui; Gu, Zhenxin

    2013-01-01

    GABA shunt and polyamine degradation pathway on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in germinating fava bean under hypoxia was investigated. GABA content, GAD and DAO activity were significantly increased under hypoxia treatment. Glu and polyamine contents enhanced largely and thus supplied as sufficient substrates for GABA formation. In contrast, GABA content decreased, mainly in the embryo, after removing the hypoxia stress. DAO activity, Glu and polyamines contents decreased, while an increment of GAD activity was observed. This indicated that GAD activity can be not only regulated by hypoxia, but by the rapid growth of embryo after the recovery from hypoxia stress. When treated with AG, DAO activity was almost inhibited completely, and the GABA content decreased by 32.96% and 32.07% after treated for 3 and 5 days, respectively. Hence, it can be inferred that about 30% of GABA formed in germinating fava bean under hypoxia was supplied by polyamine degradation pathway.

  4. Yield and quality attributes of faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan.

    PubMed

    Gasim, Seif; Hamad, Solafa A A; Abdelmula, Awadalla; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A

    2015-11-01

    Faba beans (Vicia faba L.) represent an essential source of food protein for many people in Sudan, especially those who cannot afford to buy animal meat. The demand for faba bean seeds is greatly increased in recent years, and consequently its production area was extended southward where the climate is marginally suitable. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate seed yield and nutritional quality of five faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan. The inbred lines have considerable (P ≤ 0.05) variability in yield and yield components, and seed chemical composition. The mean carbohydrate content was very high (501.1 g kg(-1)) and negatively correlated with seed yield, whereas the average protein content was relatively high (253.1 g kg(-1)) and positively correlated with seed yield. Globulin was the significant fraction (613.5 g kg(-1)protein) followed by albumin (200.2 g kg(-1)protein). Biplot analysis indicates that inbred lines Hudeiba/93-S5 and Ed-damar-S5 outscore other lines in terms of seed yield and nutritional quality. This study demonstrates that Hudeiba/93-S5 and Ed-damar-S5 are useful candidates in faba bean breeding program to terminate the protein deficiency malnutrition and provide healthy and nutritious meal for people living in subtropical areas. PMID:26788295

  5. Deoxyribonucleotide synthesis and DNA polymerase activity in plant cells (Vicia faba and Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Hovemann, B; Follmann, H

    1979-01-26

    Enzymes of deoxyribonucleotide and DNA biosynthesis, which are little known in plants, were studied in root tips of germinating broad beans (Vicia faba) and in fast-growing cultures of soybean cells (Glycine max). The plant cells contain a ribonucleoside 5'-diphosphate reductase which is detected in vitro only during a limited period of growth, viz. 30--32 h after inhibition of Vicia seeds, and between the second and third day after inoculation of soybean cultures. In both species ribonucleotide reductase activity precedes maximum DNA synthesis. The reductases could be precipitated with ammonium sulfate but were not purified further due to the extremely low enzyme content of the plant extracts. Therefore the reductive pathway of deoxyribotide formation was also established in Vicia root tips by efficient labeling of the plant DNA with a ribonucleoside, [5-3H]cytidine, which reaches a maximum at the same time as the reductase activity measured in vitro. Cycloheximide inhibits this process, indicating the need for de novo enzyme induction. In contrast, DNA polymerase is present in the tissue throughout the entire development and rises only 2-fold in activity during the S phase. The soluble polymerases were partially characterized in both legume species and were found very similar to the DNA polymerase of pea seedlings. Ribonucleotide reductase is more likely a limiting component of DNA formation during the plant cell cycle than DNA polymerase.

  6. SOME ASPECTS OF THE NATURAL CONTROL OF PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES IN SOIL UNDER BROAD BEAN VICIA FABA L. CULTIVATED IN CROP ROTATION AND LONG-TERM MONOCULTURE.

    PubMed

    Skwiercz, A T; Damszel, M; Stefanovska, T; Rychcik, B

    2015-01-01

    Observations on population density of plant parasitic nematodes occurring in rhizosphere of broad bean cultivated in the crop rotation and long-term monoculture were performed during 2013-2014. 13 species were observed: Trichodorus primitivus, T. viruliferus, Paratrichodorus pachydermus, Criconema annuliferum, Paratylenchus projectus, Bitylenchus dubius, Merlinius brevidens, Pratylenchus fallax, P. flakkensis, P. neglectus, Heterodera triffolii, H. goettingiana, and Ditylenchus dipsaci. In monoculture plots 70-80% of eggs inside Heterodera cysts were colonized by pathogenic fungi (v.s. 50-62% of cysts from crop rotation). 12-18% of specimens of Pratylenchus species were colonized by the nematode-pathogenic bacteria: Bacillus penetrans.

  7. Amino acid sequence and variant forms of favin, a lectin from Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Hopp, T P; Hemperly, J J; Cunningham, B A

    1982-04-25

    We have determined the complete amino acid sequence (182 residues) of the beta chain of favin, the glucose-binding lectin from fava beans (Vicia faba), and have established that the carbohydrate moiety is attached to Asn 168. Together with the sequence of the alpha chain previously reported (Hemperly, J. J., Hopp, T. P., Becker, J. W., and Cunningham, B. A. (1979) J. Biol. Chem. 254, 6803-6810), these data complete the analysis of the primary structure of the lectin. We have also examined minor polypeptides that appear in all preparations of favin. Two lower molecular weight species (Mr = 9,500-11,600) appear to be fragments of the beta chain resulting from cleavage following Asn 76, whereas six high molecular weight forms (Mr = 25,000 or greater) appear to include aggregates of the beta chain and possibly some alternative products of chain processing. PMID:7068646

  8. Mitochondrial Arginase Activity from Cotyledons of Developing and Germinating Seeds of Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Kollöffel, C; van Dijke, H D

    1975-03-01

    Differential and sucrose density gradient centrifugation established that about 80% of the total arginase activity (EC 3.5.3.1) in cotyledons of germinating broad bean seeds (Vicia faba L.) was present in the mitochondrial fraction. The mitochondrial arginase activity was enhanced considerably by exposure to osmotic shock, by freezing and thawing, or by Triton X-100 treatment. About 10% of the total arginase activity was recovered from the 40,000g supernatant fraction. During seed maturation, arginase activity in the cotyledons decreased to about one-third of its maximal activity, while increasing over 10-fold during subsequent germination. The time courses of mitochondrial arginase, succinate oxidase, and succinate dehydrogenase activities differed considerably during germination.

  9. Toxicity of sulcotrione and grape marc on Vicia faba cells.

    PubMed

    Sta, Chaima; Goujon, Eric; Ferjani, Ezzeddine; Ledoigt, Gérard

    2014-12-10

    The cell toxicity of sulcotrione, a selective triketone herbicide, was evaluated on Vicia faba. Sulcotrione, trademark Mikado, grape marc, and mixtures of sulcotrione or Mikado with grape marc induced cell death. Addition of grape marc to either sulcotrione or Mikado enhanced cell death, especially with Mikado. Addition of grape marc to herbicides, sulcotrione, or Mikado resulted in different expression of genes usually associated with cell stress. Mixtures of grape marc and herbicides enhanced transcript accumulation for ubiquitin, hsp 70, and cytosolic superoxide dismutase, but did not change ascorbate peroxidase transcript accumulation. The results thus provide evidence that sulcotrione, Mikado, and mixtures with grape marc can trigger cell death and specific gene expressions. Cocktails of products with sulcotrione, such as commercial additives and grape marc, can modify biological features of pesticide. Moreover, grape marc differently enhanced cell toxicity of sulcotrione and Mikado, suggesting a synergy between pesticide products and grape marc.

  10. Mathematical modeling of biological growth for some Vicia faba varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionel, Samfira; Andreea, Ghica; Marius, Boldea; Monica, Butnariu; Marius, Sendroni; Andrei, M.-Kiss

    2013-10-01

    Vicia faba is one of the legume species of importance for human and animal nutrition. Over the past decade, the areas cultivated with this species have significantly increased. Given that the levels of the yield and quality obtained from this species depend largely on the specific soil and climate conditions, the present paper focuses on the study of the morpho-productive features under the conditions in Banat Plain, in the west of Romania. A collection of varieties and genetic lines was studied, with focus on the interdependence between plant height, characteristics of the foliage and in the end the foliar surface of the leaf and of the entire plant. The observations led to the conclusion that variety Melodie has the best response of biological growth on the plain.

  11. Effect of ensiling moist field bean (Vicia faba), pea (Pisum sativum) and lupine (Lupinus spp.) grains on the contents of alkaloids, oligosaccharides and tannins.

    PubMed

    Gefrom, A; Ott, E M; Hoedtke, S; Zeyner, A

    2013-12-01

    Ensiling legume grain may be an inexpensive and ecologically interesting method to produce a high-protein feed of local origin. The typically patchy maturation recommends harvesting and ensiling the seeds in moist condition. Developing a method for preserving legume grains harvested before maturation by lactic acid fermentation would have several advantages. Under laboratory conditions, crushed legume seeds of beans, peas and lupines with high moisture content of 35 % were ensiled with different additives (molasses and lactic acid bacteria). To characterize the final silages, contents of proximate nutrients and antinutritional factors (alkaloids, oligosaccharides, tannins) were analysed. The addition of lactic acid bacteria ensured a fast and pronounced lactic acid production and decreased contents of undesired fermentation products like ethanol. An additional use of molasses for ensilage did not provide a remarkable additional benefit. Excluding sugar and starch, the contents of proximate nutrients were not remarkably altered after ensiling. As an overall effect, lactic acid fermentation reduced tannins and oligosaccharides. It can be supposed that the oligosaccharides after breakdown of the complex molecules acted as a source of fermentable carbohydrates. A relevant reduction of alkaloids did not occur. The lactic acid fermentation of legume grains can be recommended as an appropriate method for conservation. With respect to the economic advantages and compared with methods of chemical preservation, the lactic acid fermentation of legume grains under anaerobic conditions is an environmentally compliant procedure and therefore also an option for organic farming.

  12. Response of Bean (Vicia faba L.) Plants to Low Sink Demand by Measuring the Gas Exchange Rates and Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guo-Tian; Xu, Hong-Guo; Wang, Li-Jun; Li, Shao-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Background The decline of photosynthesis in plants under low sink demand is well known. Previous studies focused on the relationship between stomatal conductance (gs) and net photosynthetic rate (Pn). These studies investigated the effect of changes in Photosystem II (PSII) function on the Pn decline under low sink demand. However, little is known about its effects on different limiting steps of electron transport chain in PSII under this condition. Methodology/Principal Finding Two-month-old bean plants were processed by removing pods and flowers (low sink demand). On the 1st day after low sink demand treatment, a decline of Pn was accompanied by a decrease in gs and internal-to-ambient CO2 concentration ratio (Ci/Ca). From the 3rd to 9th day, Pn and gs declined continuously while Ci/Ca ratio remained stable in the treatment. Moreover, these values were lower than that of control. Wk (a parameter reflecting the damage to oxygen evolving complex of the donor side of PSII) values in the treatment were significantly higher than their corresponding control values. However, RCQA (a parameter reflecting the number of active RCs per excited cross-section of PSII) values in the treatment were significantly lower than control from the 5th day. From the 11th to 21st day, Pn and gs of the treatment continued to decline and were lower than control. This was accompanied by a decrease of RCQA, and an increase of Wk. Furthermore, the quantum yield parameters φPo, φEo and ψEo in the treatment were lower than in control; however, Ci/Ca values in the treatment gradually increased and were significantly higher than control on the 21st day. Conclusions Stomatal limitation during the early stage, whereas a combination of stomatal and non-stomatal limitation during the middle stage might be responsible for the reduction of Pn under low sink demand. Non-stomatal limitation during the late stages after the removal of the sink of roots and pods may also cause Pn reduction. The non

  13. Cytotoxic effects of cylindrospermopsin in mitotic and non-mitotic Vicia faba cells.

    PubMed

    Garda, Tamás; Riba, Milán; Vasas, Gábor; Beyer, Dániel; M-Hamvas, Márta; Hajdu, Gréta; Tándor, Ildikó; Máthé, Csaba

    2015-02-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanobacterial toxin known as a eukaryotic protein synthesis inhibitor. We aimed to study its effects on growth, stress responses and mitosis of a eukaryotic model, Vicia faba (broad bean). Growth responses depended on exposure time (3 or 6d), cyanotoxin concentration, culture conditions (dark or continuous light) and V. faba cultivar ("Standard" or "ARC Egypt Cross"). At 6d of exposure, CYN had a transient stimulatory effect on root system growth, roots being possibly capable of detoxification. The toxin induced nucleus fragmentation, blebbing and chromosomal breaks indicating double stranded DNA breaks and programmed cell death. Root necrotic tissue was observed at 0.1-20 μg mL(-1) CYN that probably impeded toxin uptake into vascular tissue. Growth and cell death processes observed were general stress responses. In lateral root tip meristems, lower CYN concentrations (0.01-0.1 μg mL(-1)) induced the stimulation of mitosis and distinct mitotic phases, irrespective of culture conditions or the cultivar used. Higher cyanotoxin concentrations inhibited mitosis. Short-term exposure of hydroxylurea-synchronized roots to 5 μg mL(-1) CYN induced delay of mitosis that might have been related to a delay of de novo protein synthesis. CYN induced the formation of double, split and asymmetric preprophase bands (PPBs), in parallel with the alteration of cell division planes, related to the interference of cyanotoxin with protein synthesis, thus it was a plant- and CYN specific alteration.

  14. Carbon dynamics and aggregation in a Vicia faba crop: influence of management practice and cultivar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Navarro, Virginia; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Fernández, Juan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we assessed the influence of a legume crop (Vicia faba) on the soil properties related to the carbon (C) cycle and soil aggregation, taking into account two cultivars (Muchamiel and Palenca) and two different management practices (conventional and organic). The study was randomly designed in blocks with four replications, in plots of 10 m2. Faba bean crop spanned from 24 November 2014 to 2 March 2015. We took a soil sampling (0-30 cm) from each plot at the end of the cycle to measure soil organic C, recalcitrant C, labile C fractions, microbial biomass C (MBC), aggregate stability and the enzyme activities β-glucosidase, β-glucosaminidase, dehydrogenase, cellulose and arylesterase. Results showed that the cultivar and the management practice had no significant effect on any of the analyzed properties. Significant positive correlations were only observed between soil organic C and arylesterase activity, recalcitrant C and labile C fractions, and recalcitrant C with arylesterase and cellulase activities. So, it seems that the selected cultivars and management practices had similar effects on C dynamics and aggregation. Both management practices maintain the same levels of soil organic C, the different organic C pools, and aggregate stability. In addition, soil microorganisms are responding to the recalcitrant fraction of the organic carbon by release of cellulases and arylesterases. Acknowledgements: This research was financed by the FP7 European Project Eurolegume (FP7-KBBE- 613781).

  15. [Effect of pesticides on field-controlling root rot of Vicia faba].

    PubMed

    Nan, Zhibiao; Ge, Gaozu; Li, Chunjie

    2002-08-01

    The effect of pesticides on field-controlling root rot of Vicia faba was studied in two consecutive years by seed treatment of fungicides and their combination. The results of the first year field experiments showed that among the 11 treatments tested, triadimefon of 0.01 g a.i.kg-1 seeds was more effective than other fungicides applied singly or in combinations. The other test fungicides included thiophanate-methyl, thiram, oxadixyl and metalaxyl. Compared to the control, triadimefon treatment reduced the root rot index of 6-week-old seedlings by 51.5%, and plant accumulated percent mortality by 36%. Consequently, the treatment increased seed yield/plant by 21% and seed yield/ha by 97.6%. In the trials carried out in the following year, the plant percent mortality was reduced by 31.9% and seed yield increased by 19.6% under triadimefon seed treatment. It is demonstrated that seed treatment by triadimefon effectively controlled root rot, promoted plant growth, and increased seed yield of faba bean in the fields.

  16. Hypocholesterolemic and Anticarcinogenic Effect of Vicia faba Protein Hydrolyzates.

    PubMed

    León-Espinosa, Erika B; Sánchez-Chino, Xariss; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Álvarez-González, Rosa I; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Téllez-Medina, Darío I; Jiménez-Martínez, Cristian

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, the consumption of vegetal-source proteins has been studied to determine their preventing effect on the development of several chronic diseases. The initial purpose of this report was to determine the effect of a hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) given to mice, alone or with azoxymethane (AOM), on various obesity biochemical biomarkers, as well as on the induction of colon aberrant crypts (aberrant crypt foci; ACF). At the end of the 5-week assay, animals fed the HCD showed alterations in the level of total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoproteins, and in the Atherogenic Index; besides, a significant elevation was observed in the number of ACF. Our second aim was to examine the effect of a Faba Protein Hydrolyzate (FPH) on mice fed the HCD. We first obtained protein hydrolyzates from the seeds of Vicia faba, determined the in vitro antioxidant potential with two tests, and, subsequently, evaluated the effect on obesity biomarkers and on the number of ACF. In the first case, we found that, generally, the best protective effect was obtained with the low dose of FPH (10 mg/kg) administered to animals fed the HCD, and injected AOM. With respect to the number of ACF, we observed that this dose was more effective, inhibiting such lesions to almost the level determined for the normocholesterolemic diet (NCD). Therefore, our results demonstrated the relevance of a HCD to develop anomalies in obesity biomarkers in mouse, as well as to increase the number of precarcinogenic lesions. Our results also showed a protective response with the administration of FPH, particularly with a specific dose, suggesting the need for extending research on the matter by widening the spectra of doses, in order to clearly define its potential to counteract the damage induced by the HCD, as well as to confirm if antioxidation in mice was involved in such an effect. PMID:27282923

  17. [Faba bean fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum )control and its mechanism in different wheat varieties and faba bean intercropping system].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan; Dong, Kun; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li; Yang, Zhi-Xian

    2014-07-01

    Field experiment and hydroponic culture were conducted to investigate effects of three wheat varieties (Yunmai 42, Yunmai 47 and Mianyang 29) and faba bean intercropping on the shoot biomass, disease index of fusarium wilt, functional diversity of microbial community and the amount of Fusarium oxysporum in rhizosphere of faba bean. Contents and components of the soluble sugars, free amino acids and organic acids in the root exudates were also examined. Results showed that, compared with monocropped faba bean, shoot biomass of faba bean significantly increased by 16.6% and 13.4%, disease index of faba bean fusarium wilt significantly decreased by 47.6% and 23.3% as intercropped with Yunmai 42 and Yunmai 47, but no significant differences of both shoot biomass and disease index were found as intercropped with Mianyang 29. Compared with monocropped faba bean, the average well color development (AWCD value) and total utilization ability of carbon sources of faba bean significantly increased, the amount of Fusarium oxysporum of faba bean rhizosphere significantly decreased, and the microbial community structures of faba bean rhizosphere changed as intercropped with YM42 and YM47, while no significant effects as intercropped with MY29. Total contents of soluble sugar, free amino acids and organic acids in root exudates were in the trend of MY29>YM47>YM42. Contents of serine, glutamic, glycine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, lysine in root exudates of MY29 were significantly higher than that in YM42 and YM47. The arginine was detected only in the root exudates of YM42 and YM47, and leucine was detected only in the root exudates of MY29. Six organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, t-aconitic acid were detected in root exudates of MY29 and YM47, and four organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid were detected in root exudates of YM42. Malic acid content in root exudates of YM47 and MY29 was

  18. Assessment of genetic diversity among faba bean genotypes using agro-morphological and molecular markers

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, Megahed H.; Alghamdi, Salem S.; Migdadi, Hussein M.; Khan, Muhammad A.; El-Harty, Ehab H.; Al-Faifi, Sulieman A.

    2015-01-01

    Forty faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes were evaluated for their agro-morphological performance and molecular diversity under Central Region of Saudi Arabia conditions during 2010–11 and 2011–12 seasons. Field performance results showed that faba genotypes exhibited a significant amount of variation for their agro-morphological studied parameters. Giza40 recorded the tallest genotype (139.5 cm), highest number of seeds per plants (100.8), and the highest seed yield per plant (70.8 g). The best performing genotypes were Giza40, FLIP03-014FB, Gazira1 and Goff1. Genetic variability among genotypes was determined using Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A total of 183 amplified fragments (alleles) and 1758 polymorphic fragments (bands) in SRAP and 202 alleles and 716 bands in AFLP were obtained using six SRAP and four AFLP primer combinations respectively. Polymorphism information content (PIC) values for AFLP and SRAP markers were higher than 0.8, indicating the existence of a considerable amount of genetic diversity among faba tested genotypes. The UPGMA based clustering of faba genotypes was largely based on origin and/or genetic background. Result of cluster analysis based on SRAP showed weak and not significant correlation while, it was highly significant based on AFLP analysis with agro-morphological characters (r = 0.01, p > 0.54 and r = 0.26, p < 0.004 respectively). Combined SRAP and AFLP markers proved to be significantly useful for genetic diversity assessment at molecular level. They exhibited high discrimination power, and were able to distinguish the faba bean genotypes with high efficiency and accuracy levels. PMID:25972757

  19. [Broad beans (Vicia fava, L.) as an alternative source of protein in chick diets].

    PubMed

    Bezares, A; Cuca, M; Avila, E; Velásquez, C

    1980-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to study the possibility of improving the nutritive value of broad beans (Vicia faba, L.) in poultry diets. In the first experiment, raw and autoclaved (1.0 kg/cm2/15 min) beans, with and without antibiotic supplementation, were studied. The results after 21 days showed no significant differences among treatments in regard to body weight. In feed conversion, however, a significant difference was observed when diets prepared with raw beans were supplemented with 20 ppm of flavomycin. In the second experiment raw and autoclaved beans were supplemented with 0, 10, and 20 ppm of virginiamycin and 200 and 400 ppm of flavomycin to study the effect of these two antibiotics. After 28 days, the results indicated no significant differences with antibiotic supplementation in either raw or autoclaved beans. However, a significant difference (P < 0.05) in body weight was found when beans were autoclaved. In the third experiment, two levels, 31 and 76% of raw and autoclaved beans, were included in the chick diets. The results in body weight, after 28 days, did not show any significant differences between raw and autoclaved beans fed at a 31% level. With the 76% level the autoclaved treatment, however, induced a significantly higher body weight than the diets containing raw beans. PMID:7447590

  20. Sister chromatid exchange in human lymphocytes induced by propoxur following plant activation by Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Arroyo, S; Calderón-Segura, M E; Villalobos-Pietrini, R

    1995-01-01

    Because the carbamate insecticide propoxur induced sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in Vicia faba but was ineffective in producing SCE in lymphocytes in culture, it was hardly suspected that plant metabolism was involved. Experiments were conducted in which metabolic activation was afforded by Vicia faba roots, and SCE in human lymphocytes in vitro was used to assess cytogenetic damage. Several concentrations of propoxur (250, 500, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 ppm) were applied for 4 hr to the roots of Vicia faba. Extracts prepared from these treatments were added to the lymphocyte cultures and a significant increase of SCE frequencies with a concentration-response relationship could be detected. The lymphocyte proliferation kinetics and the proliferation rate index (PRI) were not affected (except in the highest concentration, of 2,000 ppm). This general behavior was in agreement with the presence of an enzymatic system (S10 fraction) in Vicia roots capable of metabolizing or activating the propoxur. With 2,000 ppm, cell necrosis was produced in Vicia; therefore, this extract did not induce SCE in lymphocytes. However, lymphocyte proliferation kinetics were delayed and PRI was significantly decreased. Ethanol, a promutagen activated by this plant, was applied directly to the lymphocyte cultures as a positive control, and the response was negative. On the other hand, the extracts of roots treated with ethanol increased the SCE to more than twice that of the negative control, but the lymphocyte proliferation kinetics and PRI were not affected.

  1. In vitro inhibition of ETEC K88 adhesion by pea hulls and of LT enterotoxin binding by faba bean hulls.

    PubMed

    Becker, P M; van der Meulen, J; Jansman, A J M; van Wikselaar, P G

    2012-12-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing K88 (F4) adhesins are associated with post-weaning diarrhoea in piglets. Different grain fractions from pea (Pisum sativum) and faba bean (Vicia faba) were tested in vitro for their capacity to counteract aetiological factors, which contribute to the development of diarrhoea. In detail, adhesion of E. coli O149:K91:K88ac (ETEC K88ac) to grain legume products, intended to impair the colonization of the host, was studied as well as interference with receptor binding of the pathogen's heat-labile enterotoxin LT, intended to reduce toxin-inflicted gut cell damage. When comparing different pea and faba bean products tested for their binding capacity of ETEC K88ac, especially pea hulls, but also whole pea meal, starch-enriched and protein-enriched pea meal, and digestion-resistant pea hull and meal fractions showed a higher binding of ETEC K88ac than faba bean products. In contrast to the ETEC K88ac adhesion results, bean hulls proved more effective than pea hulls in preventing GM1 receptor binding of LT. Previous small intestinal segment perfusion experiments we performed with ETEC K88ac-challenged piglets indicated that both pea and bean hulls have the potential for successful application in diarrhoea prophylaxis and treatment, which is in agreement with and refined by our detection of their different modes of functioning. PMID:21929729

  2. Exogenous application of salicylic acid to alleviate the toxic effects of insecticides in Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aradhana; Srivastava, Anjil Kumar; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the possible mediatory role of salicylic acid (SA) in protecting plants from insecticides toxicity. The seeds of Vicia faba var IIVR Selection-1 were treated with different concentrations (1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 ppm) of the insecticides alphamethrin (AM) and endosulfan (ES) for 6 h with and without 12 h conditioning treatment of SA (0.01 mM). Insecticides treatment caused a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) and induction of different types of chromosomal abnormalities in the meristematic cells of broad bean roots. Pretreatment of seeds with SA resulted in increased MI and significant reduction of chromosomal abnormalities. SA application also regulated proline accumulation and carotenoid content in the leaf tissues. SA resulted in the decrement of insecticides induced increase in proline content and increased the carotenoids content. These results illustrate the ameliorating effect of SA under stress conditions and reveal that SA is more effective in alleviating the toxic effects of insecticides at higher concentrations than that at lower concentrations.

  3. Purification and modes of antifungal action by Vicia faba cv. Egypt trypsin inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Fang, Evandro Fei; Hassanien, Abdallah Abd Elazeem; Wong, Jack Ho; Bah, Clara Shui Fern; Soliman, Saeed Saad; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2010-10-13

    A new 15 kDa Bowman-Birk type trypsin inhibitor (termed VFTI-E1) from fava beans (Vicia faba cv. Egypt 1) was isolated using liquid chromatography. Though it exhibited substantial homology in N-terminal amino acid sequence to other protease inhibitors, VFTI-E1 showed antiproteolytic activity against trypsin (K(i) 11.9 × 10(-9) M) but hardly any activity against chymotrypsin. It demonstrated antifungal activity toward the filamentous fungus Valsa mali with an IC(50) of 20 μM. The mechanism of its antifungal action toward V. mali included (1) induction of alteration of hyphal morphology, (2) growth inhibition by chitin deposition at hyphal tips, and (3) permeabilization of fungal membrane. The antifungal activity of VFTI-E1 was dependent on the ambient ionic strength as increasing concentrations of NaCl, CaCl(2), and MgCl(2) diminished the activity. The membranolytic action of VFTI-E1 was confined to fungus, but not exerted on human and rabbit erythrocytes. This study sheds light on the mode of hyphal growth inhibitory activity of protease inhibitors with antifungal activity. The antifungal activity of VFTI-E1 amplifies the scope of its potential applications. PMID:20836498

  4. [Regulation of fertilizer application on yield and root growth of spring wheat-faba bean intercropping system].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Enhe; Li, Lingling; Huang, Gaobao; Huang, Peng; Chai, Qiang

    2002-08-01

    The effects of N and P fertilizer application on the multiple population yield and root growth of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum)--spring faba bean(Vicia sativa)intercropping system were studied by two field experiments with 0, 150 and 225 kgN.hm-2, three pot and pool experiments with 2 N applications (0, 100 mg N.kg-1 soil) and 3 P applications (0, 100 and 200 mg P.kg-1 soil). The results showed that this intercropping system had a significant advantage of yield and beneficial effects. Compared to Po supply, P fertilization increased the seed yield by 48.39% for intercropped spring wheat and 16.69% for intercropped faba bean in field experiment. Furthermore, the total seed yield of both crops was increased by 20.07% to 43.14% in pool culture, and the grain yield of intercropped faba bean was increased by 58.46% to 78.78%. In the intercropping system, the growth peak of root density of both crops was appeared alternately, the peak of wheat root growth being earlier than that of faba bean. The maximum root weight of intercropped wheat was in its early heading periods, whereas that of faba bean appeared at its maturity periods, which reduced the competition for water and nutrients between the crops, and resulted in yield increase. The weight, length and surface area of wheat roots in P supply were increased by 54.33%, 48.88% and 47.00%, and in N supply, they were increased by 15.25%, 11.61% and 11.46%, respectively. About 57.61% of wheat root weight and 69.20% of faba bean root weight were distributed at 0-30 cm soil depths in the treatments of receiving P fertilizer at various rates, which indicated that P supply increased root weight and length of both crops in the intercropping system.

  5. In vitro translation and processing of a precursor form of favin, a lectin from Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Hemperly, J J; Mostov, K E; Cunningham, B A

    1982-07-10

    Favin, the glucose- and mannose-binding lectin isolated from fava (Vicia faba) beans, consists of two polypeptide chains (alpha, Mr = 5,571; beta, Mr = 20,700). Translation of fava bean mRNA in vitro in a wheat germ-derived system yields a single favin polypeptide chain of Mr = 29,000. This molecule appears to consist of a hydrophobic 29-amino acid residue signal sequence at the NH2 terminus followed by the beta chain sequence; it also includes the alpha chain sequence. These results suggest that the alpha and beta chains arise by post-translational cleavage of a single precursor polypeptide: signal-beta chain-alpha chain. The signal peptide is similar in sequence to those seen in animal and prokaryotic systems, suggesting that translocation mechanisms are highly conserved. Translation of favin mRNA in the presence of dog pancreas microsomal membranes yields at least three polypeptides in addition to the presumed precursor chain. The largest of these molecules is translocated into the lumen of the membrane vesicles and glycosylated but its signal sequence remains intact. The two other species are translocated and glycosylated, but their signal sequences have been removed; they appear to differ from each other in that one begins with the beta chain sequence and the other begins one residue after the NH2-terminal threonine of the beta chain. These three variants could reflect normal features of the processing of the favin precursor but more likely result from aberrant processing of the plant protein by dog pancreas membranes. PMID:7085653

  6. Rhizobium anhuiense sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu Jing; Zheng, Wen Tao; Everall, Isobel; Young, J Peter W; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Tian, Chang Fu; Sui, Xin Hua; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin

    2015-09-01

    Four rhizobia-like strains, isolated from root nodules of Pisum sativum and Vicia faba grown in Anhui and Jiangxi Provinces of China, were grouped into the genus Rhizobium but were distinct from all recognized species of the genus Rhizobium by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and housekeeping genes. The combined sequences of the housekeeping genes atpD, recA and glnII for strain CCBAU 23252(T) showed 86.9 to 95% similarity to those of known species of the genus Rhizobium. All four strains had nodC and nifH genes and could form effective nodules with Pisum sativum and Vicia faba, and ineffective nodules with Phaseolus vulgaris, but did not nodulate Glycine max, Arachis hypogaea, Medicago sativa, Trifolium repens or Lablab purpureus in cross-nodulation tests. Fatty acid composition, DNA-DNA relatedness and a series of phenotypic tests also separated these strains from members of closely related species. Based on all the evidence, we propose a novel species, Rhizobium anhuiense sp. nov., and designate CCBAU 23252(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12621(T) = LMG 27729(T)) as the type strain. This strain was isolated from a root nodule of Vicia faba and has a DNA G+C content of 61.1 mol% (Tm).

  7. Effects of atrazine on DNA damage and antioxidative enzymes in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan; Zhu, Lu-Sheng; Xie, Hui; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jin-Hua; Liu, Wei; Dong, Xiao-Li

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) ecotoxicology in soil, the effect of atrazine on the activity of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], and guaiacol peroxidase [POD]) was investigated in Vicia faba roots. Tissues from each treatment were collected on the days 7, 14, 21, and 28. Compared with the controls, SOD activity in V. faba roots was stimulated by the 2.5 mg/kg treatment and inhibited by the 5 and 10 mg/kg treatments, and CAT and POD activities in the 10 mg/kg treatment were inhibited on the whole. The Olive tail moments of single-cell gel electrophoresis of root cells were enhanced after treatment with different doses of atrazine on days 7, 14, 21, and 28, and significant differences were found compared to the controls. In conclusion, atrazine induces oxidative stress and DNA damage on V. faba.

  8. Cytogenetic effects of leachates from tannery solid waste on the somatic cells of Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Saurabh; Chauhan, L K S; Pande, P N; Gupta, S K

    2004-04-01

    The contamination of surface- and groundwater by the leaching of solid wastes generated by industrial activities as a result of water runoff and rainfall is a matter of great concern. The leachates from tannery solid waste (TSW), a major environmental pollutant, were examined for their possible genotoxic effects on the somatic cells of Vicia faba. Leachates were prepared from solid wastes procured from leather-tanning industrial sites, and V. faba seedlings were exposed to three test concentrations, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%, through soil and aqueous media for 5 days. The root tips examined for cytogenetic damage revealed that leachate of TSW significantly inhibited the mitotic index and induced significantly frequent chromosomal and mitotic aberrations (CA/MA) in a dose-dependent manner. The chemical analysis of TSW samples revealed that the chief constituents were chromium and nickel, which may cause genetic abnormalities. The frequency of aberrations was found to be higher in the root meristematic cells of Vicia faba exposed through the aqueous medium than those exposed through the soil medium. The results of the present study indicated that contamination of potable water bodies by leachates of TSW may cause genotoxicity. For the biomonitoring of complex mixtures of toxicants with the V. faba bioassay, the use of the aqueous medium seems to be a more promising method than the use of the soil medium.

  9. Impact of Faba Bean-Seed Rhizobial Inoculation on Microbial Activity in the Rhizosphere Soil during Growing Season.

    PubMed

    Siczek, Anna; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Inoculation of legume seeds with Rhizobium affects soil microbial community and processes, especially in the rhizosphere. This study aimed at assessing the effect of Rhizobium inoculation on microbial activity in the faba bean rhizosphere during the growing season in a field experiment on a Haplic Luvisol derived from loess. Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seeds were non-inoculated (NI) or inoculated (I) with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and sown. The rhizosphere soil was analyzed for the enzymatic activities of dehydrogenases, urease, protease and acid phosphomonoesterase, and functional diversity (catabolic potential) using the Average Well Color Development, Shannon-Weaver, and Richness indices following the community level physiological profiling from Biolog EcoPlate™. The analyses were done on three occasions corresponding to the growth stages of: 5-6 leaf, flowering, and pod formation. The enzymatic activities were higher in I than NI (p < 0.05) throughout the growing season. However, none of the functional diversity indices differed significantly under both treatments, regardless of the growth stage. This work showed that the functional diversity of the microbial communities was a less sensitive tool than enzyme activities in assessment of rhizobial inoculation effects on rhizosphere microbial activity. PMID:27213363

  10. Impact of Faba Bean-Seed Rhizobial Inoculation on Microbial Activity in the Rhizosphere Soil during Growing Season

    PubMed Central

    Siczek, Anna; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Inoculation of legume seeds with Rhizobium affects soil microbial community and processes, especially in the rhizosphere. This study aimed at assessing the effect of Rhizobium inoculation on microbial activity in the faba bean rhizosphere during the growing season in a field experiment on a Haplic Luvisol derived from loess. Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seeds were non-inoculated (NI) or inoculated (I) with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and sown. The rhizosphere soil was analyzed for the enzymatic activities of dehydrogenases, urease, protease and acid phosphomonoesterase, and functional diversity (catabolic potential) using the Average Well Color Development, Shannon-Weaver, and Richness indices following the community level physiological profiling from Biolog EcoPlate™. The analyses were done on three occasions corresponding to the growth stages of: 5–6 leaf, flowering, and pod formation. The enzymatic activities were higher in I than NI (p < 0.05) throughout the growing season. However, none of the functional diversity indices differed significantly under both treatments, regardless of the growth stage. This work showed that the functional diversity of the microbial communities was a less sensitive tool than enzyme activities in assessment of rhizobial inoculation effects on rhizosphere microbial activity. PMID:27213363

  11. Sucrolytic Enzyme Activities in Cotyledons of the Faba Bean (Developmental Changes and Purification of Alkaline Invertase).

    PubMed Central

    Ross, H. A.; McRae, D.; Davies, H. V.

    1996-01-01

    In terms of maximum extractable catalytic activity, sucrose synthase is the predominant sucrolytic enzyme in developing cotyledons of faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Although acid invertase activity is extremely low, there is significant activity of alkaline invertase, the majority of which is extractable only with high concentrations of NaCl. Calculations of potential activity in vivo indicate that alkaline invertase is the predominant sucrolytic enzyme from 50 days after anthesis onward. However, at almost all stages of cotyledon development analyzed, the maximum extractable catalytic activities of both enzymes is in excess of the actual rate of starch deposition. Two forms of alkaline invertase were identified in developing cotyledons. The major form has been purified to homogeneity, and antibodies have been raised against it. The native protein has a molecular mass of about 238 [plus or minus] 4.5 kD. It is apparently a homotetramer (subunit molecular mass 53.4 [plus or minus] 0.9 kD). The enzyme has a pH optimum of 7.4, an isoelectric point of 5.2, and a Km[sucrose] of 10 mM and is inhibited by Tris (50% inhibition at 5 mM) and fructose (30% inhibition at 10 mM). Bean alkaline invertase is a [beta]-fructofuranosidase with no significant activity against raffinose, stachyose, trehalose, maltose, or lactose. PMID:12226291

  12. Evaluation of phytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nitrobenzene with a battery of Vicia faba assay system.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Guo, Donglin; Su, Wenyue; Wang, Dan; Guo, Changhong

    2013-06-01

    Nitrobenzene (NB) is an important organic compound intermediate that is used widely in industry. In the present study, to evaluate the phytotoxicity and genotoxicity of NB on plants, Vicia faba was exposed to increasing concentrations of NB (5 mg L(-1) , 10 mg L(-1) , 25 mg L(-1) , 50 mg L(-1) , and 100 mg L(-1) ). The data revealed that germination rate and radicle length of V. faba seedlings were promoted by low NB concentrations and short exposure periods, whereas these parameters were inhibited at greater NB concentrations and longer exposures. When assessed by mitotic index, micronucleus, and chromosomal aberration assays, NB showed dose-dependent genotoxicity at 0 mg L(-1) to 50 mg L(-1).

  13. Effect of Colored Light on Stomatal Opening Rates of Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Kana, T M; Miller, J H

    1977-02-01

    The average opening rate of Vicia faba L. stomata was determined over an initial 20-minute light period following darkness. Nonsaturating intensities of broad band red and blue light had similar quantum effectiveness for the promotion of opening, whereas broad band green was about 40% and far red about 5% as effective. The opening rates under saturating red, green, and blue light were the same. Net photosynthesis was measured under various intensities of the same red, green, and blue light spectra. Red and blue light were equally efficient in causing photosynthesis, whereas green was 60% as effective. The light compensation points for the three colors were at higher intensities than those which saturated the opening rate response. These data suggest that only a single pigment system, probably the photosynthetic pigments, is responsible for initiating the light-induced opening response in V. faba stomata.

  14. Response of different genotypes of faba bean plant to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Manzer H; Al-Khaishany, Mutahhar Y; Al-Qutami, Mohammed A; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H; Grover, Anil; Ali, Hayssam M; Al-Wahibi, Mona S; Bukhari, Najat A

    2015-05-05

    Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that are a threat to crop production worldwide. Drought stress impairs the plants growth and yield. Therefore, the aim of the present experiment was to select the tolerant genotype/s on the basis of moprpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of 10 Vicia faba genotypes (Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853) under drought stress. We studied the effect of different levels of drought stress i.e., (i) normal irrigation (ii) mild stress (iii) moderate stress, and (iv) severe stress on plant height (PH) plant-1, fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) plant-1, area leaf-1, leaf relative water content (RWC), proline (Pro) content, total chlorophyll (Total Chl) content, electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, and activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of genotypes of faba bean. Drought stress reduced all growth parameters and Total Chl content of all genotypes. However, the deteriorating effect of drought stress on the growth performance of genotypes "C5" and "Zafar 1" were relatively low due to its better antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT, POD and SOD), and accumulation of Pro and Total Chl, and leaf RWC. In the study, genotype "C5" and "Zafar 1" were found to be relatively tolerant to drought stress and genotypes "G853" and "C4" were sensitive to drought stress.

  15. Peptide and amino acid transporters are differentially regulated during seed development and germination in faba bean.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Manoela; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Tewes, Annegret; Dietrich, Daniela; Rentsch, Doris; Weber, Hans; Wobus, Ulrich

    2003-08-01

    Two peptide transporter (PTR) homologs have been isolated from developing seeds of faba bean (Vicia faba). VfPTR1 was shown to be a functional peptide transporter through complementation of a yeast mutant. Expression patterns of VfPTR1 and VfPTR2 as well as of the amino acid permease VfAAP1 (Miranda et al., 2001) were compared throughout seed development and germination. In developing seeds, the highest levels of VfPTR1 transcripts were reached during midcotyledon development, whereas VfAAP1 transcripts were most abundant during early cotyledon development, before the appearance of storage protein gene transcripts, and were detectable until late cotyledon development. During early germination, VfPTR1 mRNA appeared first in cotyledons and later, during seedling growth, also in axes and roots. Expression of VfPTR2 and VfAAP1 was delayed compared with VfPTR1, and was restricted to the nascent organs of the seedlings. Localization of VfPTR1 transcripts showed that this PTR is temporally and spatially regulated during cotyledon development. In germinating seeds, VfPTR1 mRNA was localized in root hairs and root epidermal cells, suggesting a role in nutrient uptake from the soil. In seedling roots, VfPTR1 was repressed by a dipeptide and by an amino acid, whereas nitrate was without influence.

  16. [Toxicity of surfactant, acid rain and Cd2+ combined pollution to the nucleus of Vicia faba root tip cells].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyu; Liao, Bohan; Lu, Shuangqing

    2004-03-01

    The toxicity of Cd2+ and its combination with surfactant or simulated acid rain to Vicia faba root tip cell was studied by using micro-nucleus technique. The results showed that the formation of micro-nucleus in Vicia faba root tip cell was strongly induced by Cd2+ in its concentration of 0-10.0 mg.L-1. The micro-nucleus rate was 13.85@1000 at 6.0 mg.L-1Cd2+, 4.53@1000 at 0 mg.L-1Cd2+, and the pollution index (PI) was 3.06. The micro-nucleus ratio and PI decreased when the accompanied surfactant LAS was also presented or the pH values decreased to 4.5 or 3.5. In the meantime, many deformed nuclei and grains were observed in the root tip cells. The growth of the Vicia faba roots was restrained, and the root cells were not easy to be scattered. Therefore, the toxicity of Cd2+ was increased by its combination with surfactant or acid rain. The Cd2+ toxicity to Vicia faba cells at pH3.5 was stronger than that at pH4.5. When the mutation effect of contaminant with high concentration or with strong toxicity to plant cell was tested, the contaminant should be diluted for at least three times, and hence, the highest micro-nucleus ratio and pollution index (PI) could be found.

  17. Fresh broad (Vicia faba) tissue homogenate-based biosensor for determination of phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Hakki Mevlut; Sagiroglu, Ayten

    2014-08-01

    In this study, a novel fresh broad (Vicia faba) tissue homogenate-based biosensor for determination of phenolic compounds was developed. The biosensor was constructed by immobilizing tissue homogenate of fresh broad (Vicia faba) on to glassy carbon electrode. For the stability of the biosensor, general immobilization techniques were used to secure the fresh broad tissue homogenate in gelatin-glutaraldehyde cross-linking matrix. In the optimization and characterization studies, the amount of fresh broad tissue homogenate and gelatin, glutaraldehyde percentage, optimum pH, optimum temperature and optimum buffer concentration, thermal stability, interference effects, linear range, storage stability, repeatability and sample applications (Wine, beer, fruit juices) were also investigated. Besides, the detection ranges of thirteen phenolic compounds were obtained with the help of the calibration graphs. A typical calibration curve for the sensor revealed a linear range of 5-60 μM catechol. In reproducibility studies, variation coefficient (CV) and standard deviation (SD) were calculated as 1.59%, 0.64×10(-3) μM, respectively.

  18. The investigation of cytotoxic effects of refinery wastewater on root tip cells of Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Cavusoglu, Kultigin; Yalcin, Emine; Ergene, Aysun

    2010-07-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of refinery wastewater collected from different stations of the Kizilirmak river on Vicia faba L. root tip cells. For this aim, we used the germination percentage, root length, weight gain and micronucleus (MN) frequency as indicators of cytotoxicity. Additionally to the cytological analysis, DNA analyses were performed in root tips meristems of Vicia faba seeds treated with refinery wastewater. Heavy metal concentrations in the water samples were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The concentrations of heavy metals in the water were in the order of Pb>Zn>Fe>Cu>Ni>Cd>Hg. The highest germination percantage was observed in the control group (in proportion as 96%). Heavy metals in the water samples collected from Station I, II and III caused a decrease in the germination percentage as 48, 18 and 30%, respectively. The highest root length and weight gain was observed in the control group at the end of the experimental period. The least root length and weight gain was observed in seeds treated with wastewater collected from Station I. In the control group, the weights of all the seeds increased about 4.08 g when compared with initial weight. The root lengths of the control seeds were determined as 6.38 cm at the end of the experimental period. The weights of the seeds exposed to wastewaters obtained from Station I, II and III increased about 1.08, 3.03 and 2.01 g according to initial weight, respectively. Microscopic examination of V. faba root tip meristem cells showed that any example of the MN formation was not seen in the control group. The highest frequency of MN was observed in group treated with wastewater collected from Station I and least frequency of MN was observed in group treated with wastewater collected from Station II. It was also observed that the yields of DNA in the seeds exposed to wastewater were lower than recorded in the controls. Hence, DNA yields exposed

  19. Nitric oxide mitigates arsenic-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Pratiksha; Singh, A K

    2015-09-01

    The protective effects of nitric oxide (NO) against arsenic (As)-induced structural disturbances in Vicia faba have been investigated. As treatment (0.25, 0.50, and 1 mM) resulted in a declined growth of V. faba seedlings. Arsenic treatment stimulates the activity of SOD and CAT while the activities of APX and GST content were decreased. The oxidative stress markers such as superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation) contents were enhanced by As. Overall results revealed that significant accumulation of As suppressed growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX, and GST activity), mitotic index, and induction of different chromosomal abnormalities, hence led to oxidative stress. The concentration of SNP (0.02 mM) was very effective in counteracting the adverse effect of As toxicity. These abnormalities use partially or fully reversed by a simultaneous application of As and NO donor and sodium nitroprusside and has an ameliorating effect against As-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in V. faba roots.

  20. Glucose- and mannose-induced stomatal closure is mediated by ROS production, Ca(2+) and water channel in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Xu, ShanShan; Gao, Jing; Pan, Sha; Wang, GenXuan

    2016-03-01

    Sugars act as vital signaling molecules that regulate plant growth, development and stress responses. However, the effects of sugars on stomatal movement have been unclear. In our study, we explored the effects of monosaccharides such as glucose and mannose on stomatal aperture. Here, we demonstrate that glucose and mannose trigger stomatal closure in a dose- and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of broad bean (Vicia faba). Pharmacological studies revealed that glucose- and mannose-induced stomatal closure was almost completely inhibited by two reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers, catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH), was significantly abolished by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), whereas they were hardly affected by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM). Furthermore, glucose- and mannose-induced stomatal closure was strongly inhibited by a Ca(2+) channel blocker, LaCl3 , a Ca(2+) chelator, ethyleneglycol-bis(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and two water channel blockers, HgCl2 and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO); whereas the inhibitory effects of the water channel blockers were essentially abolished by the reversing agent β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME). These results suggest that ROS production mainly via NADPH oxidases, Ca(2+) and water channels are involved in glucose- and mannose-induced stomatal closure. PMID:26046775

  1. Up-regulation and interaction of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and the 14-3-3 protein are involved in the regulation of citrate exudation from the broad bean (Vicia faba L.) under Al stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Guo, Chuan-Long; Wang, Ping; Chen, Xuan-Qin; Wu, Kong-Huan; Li, Kui-Zhi; Yu, Yong-Xiong; Chen, Li-Mei

    2013-09-01

    Our previous study showed that citrate excretion coupled with a concomitant release of protons was involved in aluminum (Al) resistance in the broad bean. Furthermore, genes encoding plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase (vha2) and the 14-3-3 protein (vf14-3-3b) were up-regulated by Al in Al-resistant (YD) broad bean roots. In this study, the roles of PM H(+)-ATPase (E.C. 3.6.3.6) and the 14-3-3 protein in the regulation of citrate secretion were further investigated in Al-resistant (YD) and Al-sensitive (AD) broad bean cultivars under Al stress. The results showed that greater citrate exudation was positively correlated with higher activities of PM H(+)-ATPase in roots of YD than AD. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that vha2 was clearly up-regulated by Al in YD but not in AD roots, whereas the transcription levels of vf14-3-3b were elevated in a time-dependent manner in both YD and AD roots. Immunoprecipitation and Western analysis suggested that phosphorylation and interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein of the VHA2 were enhanced in YD roots but not in AD roots with increasing Al treatment time. Fusicoccin or adenosine 5'-monophosphate increased or decreased the interaction between the phosphorylated VHA2 and the vf14-3-3b protein, followed by an enhancement or reduction of the PM H(+)-ATPase activity and citrate exudation in both cultivars under Al stress conditions, respectively. Taken together, these results suggested that Al enhanced the expression and interaction of the PM H(+)-ATPase and the 14-3-3 protein, which thereby led to higher activity of the PM H(+)-ATPase and more citrate exudation from YD plants.

  2. [Effect of wheat and faba bean intercropping on root exudation of low molecular weight organic acids].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jing-Xiu; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li

    2014-06-01

    Pot experiment of wheat and faba bean intercropping was conducted and exudates from wheat and faba bean roots were collected at different growth stages. Low molecular weight organic acids (OA) in root exudates were examined by HPLC. The results showed that wheat and faba bean intercropping significantly increased the total amounts of OA exuded by roots. At tillering (57 d), booting (120 d) and filling stages (142 d), intercropping increased the total amounts of OA in wheat root exudates by 155%, 35.6% and 92.6% respectively, in comparison with that of monoculture wheat (MW). At branching (57 d) and filling stages (142 d), intercropping increased the total amounts of OA in faba bean root exudates by 87.4% and 38.7%, respectively, in comparison with that of monoculture faba bean (MF). Wheat and faba bean intercropping changed the types of OA exuded by roots. At tillering stage, lactic acid was identified in root exudates of intercropping wheat (IW), but not in that of MW. At jointing stage (98 d), citric acid was identified in root exudates of IW, but not in that of MW, and acetic acid was vice versa. At branching stage, acetic acid was identified in root exudates of intercropping faba bean (IF), but not in that of MF, and lactic acid was vice versa. At filling stage, lactic acid was identified in root exudates of IF, but not in that of MF. Wheat and faba bean intercropping increased the OA exudation rate of wheat. At booting stage, the exudation rates of citric and fumaric acid from IW were 179 and 184-times as that of from MW, respectively. At filling stage, the exudation rate of lactic acid from IW was 2.53-times as that from MW. In conclusion, wheat and faba bean intercropping increased the rate and total amount, and changed the types of OA exuded by roots.

  3. Faba bean hulls as a potential source of pectin.

    PubMed

    Korish, Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed for the first time to assess the potential use of faba bean hulls as a source of pectin. The study involved extracting pectin under various conditions of pH, temperature and extraction time and determining how these conditions affected pectin yield and its characteristics. The maximum yield of extracted pectin did not coincide with the highest degree of esterification since the maximum yield (15.75 %) was recorded at pH 1.5 and at a temperature of 85 °C for an 80-min extraction period and solid to liquid (1: 25) ratio, while the highest degree of esterification (54.62 %) occurred at pH 2.5 and at temperature of 90 °C for a 60-min extraction period. The composition of the pectin varied according to the extraction conditions: the neutral sugars galactose, arabinose and rhamnose increased under milder extraction conditions while glucose, mannose and xylose sugars predominated under harsher extraction conditions. The results indicated that faba bean hulls contains adequate amount of pectin, suitable for commercial utilization. PMID:26345029

  4. Faba bean hulls as a potential source of pectin.

    PubMed

    Korish, Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed for the first time to assess the potential use of faba bean hulls as a source of pectin. The study involved extracting pectin under various conditions of pH, temperature and extraction time and determining how these conditions affected pectin yield and its characteristics. The maximum yield of extracted pectin did not coincide with the highest degree of esterification since the maximum yield (15.75 %) was recorded at pH 1.5 and at a temperature of 85 °C for an 80-min extraction period and solid to liquid (1: 25) ratio, while the highest degree of esterification (54.62 %) occurred at pH 2.5 and at temperature of 90 °C for a 60-min extraction period. The composition of the pectin varied according to the extraction conditions: the neutral sugars galactose, arabinose and rhamnose increased under milder extraction conditions while glucose, mannose and xylose sugars predominated under harsher extraction conditions. The results indicated that faba bean hulls contains adequate amount of pectin, suitable for commercial utilization.

  5. Sequence analysis of Vicia faba repeated DNA, the FokI repeat element.

    PubMed Central

    Kato, A; Yakura, K; Tanifuji, S

    1984-01-01

    A type of highly repeated DNA sequences present in the genome of Vicia faba was detected by digestion its nuclear DNA with FokI endonuclease and fractionating the digests on polyacrylamide gels. Four fragments of 59, 108, 177 and 246 bp of the FokI repeated sequences were collected from the gels and their primary structures were determined by the method of Maxam and Gilbert. These repeated DNA sequences were shown to be a multiple tandem array of a 59 bp sequence element. And its nucleotide sequence was almost completely conserved among all the sequence members of each the size class and also among these classes. This sequence element consists of a duplet of an about the duplet has an incomplete dyad symmetrical structure. Images PMID:6089113

  6. Performance of Vicia faba plants in relation to simulated acid rain and/or endosulphan treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, N.; Yunus, M.; Singh, S.N.; Ahmad, K.J. )

    1992-02-01

    The increasing human population in India is necessitating the optimum use of cultivable land for increased food production. Eradication and control of pests and pathogens is an essential component of any strategy for increased agricultural production. In this context, the use of pesticides to control the incidence of disease in crops becomes inevitable. Most of the pesticides used for foliar spraying invariably contain surfactants in their formulation, which not only increase the surface wettability but also enhance permeability of the cuticle for more cation infusion/effusion and hence they may make the leaf more susceptible to direct effects of acid rain. To evaluate the validity of this assumption, an experiment using endosulphan, the most commonly used insecticide in India, and acid rain of different pH was conducted on Vicia faba.

  7. Photoreduction of α-Ketoglutarate to Glutamate by Vicia faba Chloroplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Givan, Curtis V.; Givan, Alice L.; Leech, Rachel M.

    1970-01-01

    Intact chloroplasts isolated from leaves of Vicia faba L. var. the Sutton show a decline in the endogenous level of α-ketoglutarate upon illumination. α-Ketoglutarate supplied to the chloroplasts is similarly utilized in this light-dependent reaction, and its consumption is paralleled by a concomitant increase in the level of glutamate. There is no photostimulation of glutamate synthesis in chloroplasts broken by osmotic shock, but it can be somewhat restored by addition of ferredoxin and NADP. These results suggest that in the isolated chloroplast the synthesis of glutamate from α-ketoglutarate is regulated by the availability of reduced pyridine nucleotide generated by photosynthetic electron transport. This conclusion is supported by the finding of an apparent competition between the photoreduction of phosphoglycerate to triose phosphate and the photoutilization of α-ketoglutarate. PMID:16657357

  8. Relationship of Temperature to Stomatal Aperture and Potassium Accumulation in Guard Cells of Vicia faba1

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Cynthia A.; Powell, Robert D.; Sharpe, Peter J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Epidermal strips of Vicia faba were floated on 10 millimolar KCl at various temperatures and for several time periods. The diameter of the stomatal aperture was determined microscopically and K+ content was estimated and expressed as the per cent of the guard cell stained. Stomatal opening was associated with increased K+ in guard cells, but the quantitative association was modified both by time and temperature. At low temperatures (0-20 C) there was a prolonged Spannungsphase while at higher temperatures (30-45 C) motorphase was exhibited. During the motorphase there was a rapid opening of the stomates which was highly correlated with K+ influx. At treatment periods of 360 minutes and temperatures higher than 25 C there appeared to be a maintenance phase during which K+ concentration of the guard cells decreased without an equivalent decrease in aperture. PMID:16660733

  9. VFK1, a Vicia faba K(+) channel involved in phloem unloading.

    PubMed

    Ache, P; Becker, D; Deeken, R; Dreyer, I; Weber, H; Fromm, J; Hedrich, R

    2001-09-01

    In search of a K(+) channel involved in phloem transport we screened a Vicia faba cotyledon cDNA library taking advantage of a set of degenerated primers, flanking regions conserved among K(+) uptake channels. We cloned VFK1 (for Vicia faba K(+) channel 1) characterised by a structure known from the Shaker family of plant K(+) channels. When co-expressed with a KAT1 mutant in Xenopus oocytes, heteromers revealed the biophysical properties of a K(+) selective, proton-blocked channel. Northern blot analyses showed high levels of expression in cotyledons, flowers, stem and leaves. Using in situ PCR techniques we could localise the K(+) channel mRNA in the phloem. In the stem VFK1 expression levels were higher in the lower internodes. There channel transcripts increased in the light and thus under conditions of increased photosynthate allocation. VFK1 transcripts are elevated in sink leaves, and rise in source leaves during the experimental transition into sinks. Fructose- rather than sucrose- or glucose-feeding via the petiole induced VFK1 gene activity. We therefore monitored the fructose sensitivity of the sieve tube potential through cut aphid stylets. In response to an 1 h fructose treatment the sieve tube potential shift increased from 19 mV to 53 mV per 10-fold change in K(+) concentration. Under these conditions K(+) channels dominated the electrical properties of the plasma membrane. Based on the phloem localisation and expression patterns of VFK1 we conclude that this K(+) channel is involved in sugar unloading and K(+) retrieval.

  10. Phosphorylation and Interaction with the 14-3-3 Protein of the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase are Involved in the Regulation of Magnesium-Mediated Increases in Aluminum-Induced Citrate Exudation in Broad Bean (Vicia faba. L).

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Kan, Qi; Wang, Ping; Yu, Wenqian; Yu, Yuzhen; Zhao, Yan; Yu, Yongxiong; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown that external application of micromolar magnesium (Mg) can increase the resistance of legumes to aluminum (Al) stress by enhancing Al-induced citrate exudation. However, the exact mechanism underlying this regulation remains unknown. In this study, the physiological and molecular mechanisms by which Mg enhances Al-induced citrate exudation to alleviate Al toxicity were investigated in broad bean. Micromolar concentrations of Mg that alleviated Al toxicity paralleled the stimulation of Al-induced citrate exudation and increased the activity of the plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase. Northern blot analysis shows that a putative MATE-like gene (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) was induced after treatment with Al for 4, 8 and 12 h, whereas the mRNA abundance of the MATE-like gene showed no significant difference between Al plus Mg and Al-only treatments during the entire treatment period. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot analyses suggest that the transcription and translation of the PM H(+)-ATPase were induced by Al but not by Mg. In contrast, immunoprecipitation suggests that Mg enhanced the phosphorylation levels of VHA2 and its interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein under Al stress. Taken together, our results suggest that micromolar concentrations of Mg can alleviate the Al rhizotoxicity by increasing PM H(+)-ATPase activity and Al-induced citrate exudation in YD roots. This enhancement is likely to be attributable to Al-induced increases in the expression of the MATE-like gene and vha2 and Mg-induced changes in the phosphorylation levels of VHA2, thus changing its interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein.

  11. Genotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles in Vicia faba: A Pilot Study on the Environmental Monitoring of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Patlolla, Anita K.; Berry, Ashley; May, LaBethani; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2012-01-01

    The use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in commercial products has increased significantly in recent years. Although there have been some attempts to determine the toxic effects of AgNPs in mammalian and human cell-lines, there is little information on plants which play a vital role in ecosystems. The study reports the use of Vicia faba root-tip meristem to investigate the genotoxicity of AgNPs under modified GENE-TOX test conditions. The root tip cells of V. faba were treated with four different concentrations of engineered AgNPs dispersion to study toxicological endpoints such as mitotic index (MI), chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronucleus induction (MN). For each concentration, five sets of microscopy observations were carried out. The results demonstrated that AgNPs exposure significantly increased (p < 0.05) the number of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, and decreased the MI in exposed groups compared to control. From this study we infer that AgNPs might have penetrated the plant system and may have impaired mitosis causing CA and MN. The results of this study demonstrate that AgNPs are genotoxic to plant cells. Since plant assays have been integrated as a genotoxicity component in risk assessment for detection of environmental mutagens, they should be given full consideration when evaluating the overall toxicological impact of the nanoparticles in the environment. PMID:22754463

  12. Impact of dual inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR on growth and antioxidant status of Vicia faba L. under copper stress.

    PubMed

    Fatnassi, Imen Challougui; Chiboub, Manel; Saadani, Omar; Jebara, Moez; Jebara, Salwa Harzalli

    2015-04-01

    Plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR) may help reduce the toxicity of heavy metals in plants in polluted environments. In this work, the effects of dual inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR strains on the growth of Vicia faba grown under copper stress were assessed during hydroponic culture. Growth parameters, copper (Cu) accumulation and antioxidant enzyme activities were studied. Copper concentrations above 1mM damaged plant growth, but co-inoculation reduced its harmful effect. Co-inoculation of plants treated with 1mM Cu and 2mM Cu increased the dry weights as compared with Cu-treated and uninoculated plants. However, it decreased copper uptake up to 80% in the roots of 1-mM-Cu-treated plants as compared to non-inoculated control. Copper tolerance in Vicia faba is linked to the activity of antioxidant systems that are modulated by metal concentrations: both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were higher in the presence of Cu; a lower Cu dose of 0.5mM stimulated ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and/or peroxidase (POX) activities in shoots and roots; however in nodules CAT appeared to be the main peroxidase in H2O2 scavenging. The 1mM Cu treatment enhanced SOD, CAT and APX activities in roots and only SOD and POX were activated in shoots. All enzyme activities were inhibited by inoculation of 2mM Cu. The effect of inoculation with copper-accumulating PGPRs and the status of the antioxidant enzyme system were linked to changes in the copper tolerance status of Vicia faba. Our results suggested that Vicia faba inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR Enterobacter clocae and Pseudomonas sp. could help to alleviate copper stress under hydroponic conditions. This result should be tested under field conditions for soil fertilization and phytostabilisation purposes.

  13. Response of Different Genotypes of Faba Bean Plant to Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Manzer H.; Al-Khaishany, Mutahhar Y.; Al-Qutami, Mohammed A.; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H.; Grover, Anil; Ali, Hayssam M.; Al-Wahibi, Mona S.; Bukhari, Najat A.

    2015-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that are a threat to crop production worldwide. Drought stress impairs the plants growth and yield. Therefore, the aim of the present experiment was to select the tolerant genotype/s on the basis of moprpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of 10 Vicia faba genotypes (Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853) under drought stress. We studied the effect of different levels of drought stress i.e., (i) normal irrigation (ii) mild stress (iii) moderate stress, and (iv) severe stress on plant height (PH) plant−1, fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) plant−1, area leaf−1, leaf relative water content (RWC), proline (Pro) content, total chlorophyll (Total Chl) content, electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, and activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of genotypes of faba bean. Drought stress reduced all growth parameters and Total Chl content of all genotypes. However, the deteriorating effect of drought stress on the growth performance of genotypes “C5” and “Zafar 1” were relatively low due to its better antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT, POD and SOD), and accumulation of Pro and Total Chl, and leaf RWC. In the study, genotype “C5” and “Zafar 1” were found to be relatively tolerant to drought stress and genotypes “G853” and “C4” were sensitive to drought stress. PMID:25950766

  14. Effects of Endophyte Colonization of Vicia faba (Fabaceae) Plants on the Life–History of Leafminer Parasitoids Phaedrotoma scabriventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Diglyphus isaea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    PubMed Central

    Akutse, Komivi S.; Fiaboe, Komi K. M.; Van den Berg, Johnnie; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K.

    2014-01-01

    Effects of the fungal endophytes Beauveria bassiana (isolates ICIPE 279, G1LU3, S4SU1) and Hypocrea lixii (isolate F3ST1) on the life-history of Phaedrotoma scabriventris and Diglyphus isaea, parasitoids of the pea leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis, were studied in the laboratory. Parasitoids were allowed to parasitize 2nd and 3rd instar L. huidobrensis larvae reared on endophytically-inoculated faba bean, Vicia faba. In the control, parasitoids were reared on non-inoculated host plants. Parasitism, pupation, adult emergence and survival were recorded. No significant difference was observed between the control and the endophyte-inoculated plants in terms of parasitism rates of P. scabriventris (p = 0.68) and D. isaea (p = 0.45) and adult' survival times (p = 0.06). The survival period of the F1 progeny of P. scabriventris was reduced (p<0.0001) in B. bassiana S4SU1 to 28 days as compared to more than 40 days for B. bassiana G1LU3, ICIPE 279 and H. lixii F3ST1. However, no significant difference (p = 0.54) was observed in the survival times of the F1 progeny of D. isaea. This study has demonstrated that together, endophytes and parasitoids have beneficial effects in L. huidobrensis population suppression. PMID:25338084

  15. Identification of Candidate Transcriptional Regulators of Epidermal Transfer Cell Development in Vicia faba Cotyledons

    PubMed Central

    Arun-Chinnappa, Kiruba S.; McCurdy, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Transfer cells (TCs) are anatomically-specialized cells formed at apoplasmic-symplasmic bottlenecks in nutrient transport pathways in plants. TCs form invaginated wall ingrowths which provide a scaffold to amplify plasma membrane surface area and thus increase the density of nutrient transporters required to achieve enhanced nutrient flow across these bottlenecks. Despite their importance to nutrient transport in plants, little is known of the transcriptional regulation of wall ingrowth formation. Here, we used RNA-Seq to identify transcription factors putatively involved in regulating epidermal TC development in cotyledons of Vicia faba. Comparing cotyledons cultured for 0, 3, 9, and 24 h to induce trans-differentiation of epidermal TCs identified 43 transcription factors that showed either epidermal-specific or epidermal–enhanced expression, and 10 that showed epidermal-specific down regulation. Members of the WRKY and ethylene-responsive families were prominent in the cohort of transcription factors showing epidermal-specific or epidermal–enhanced expression, consistent with the initiation of TC development often representing a response to stress. Members of the MYB family were also prominent in these categories, including orthologs of MYB genes involved in localized secondary wall deposition in Arabidopsis thaliana. Among the group of transcription factors showing down regulation were various homeobox genes and members of the MADs-box and zinc-finger families of poorly defined functions. Collectively, this study identified several transcription factors showing expression characteristics and orthologous functions that indicate likely participation in transcriptional regulation of epidermal TC development in V. faba cotyledons. PMID:27252730

  16. Effect of kiln dust from a cement factory on growth of Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Ismet; Ozdilek, Hasan Göksel; Oztürk, Münir

    2012-04-01

    This study was undertaken to study the effects of different amounts of kiln dust mixed with soil on the seed germination, plant growth, leaf area and water content of Vicia faba cv. Eresen. The reason for this was that cement kiln dust generated as a by-product from the cement factories is rich in potassium, sulfate and other compounds. This product becomes a serious problem when it comes in contact with water. The dust was collected from a cement factory located in Canakkale. Various elements such as Al, Co, Mo, Ca, B, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Se and Zn were determined both in soil as well as kiln dust. Kiln dust was mixed with soil in pots (20 cm diameter) to make seven different treatments varying from 15 to 105 g kiln dust kg(-1) of soil. The experiment lasted for 4 months. Seeds of V faba were sown in the pots filled with mixtures of preanalysed kiln dust and soil. Germination was high in the pots with a lower treatment of cement kiln dust. However, lower germination rates were observed in the pots mixed with the highest and the medium amounts of cement kiln dust. Plants growing in the soil including 15 g kiln dust showed better performance in length as compared to control. Leaf area increased with increase in cement kiln dust content up to 60 g kiln dust kg(-1) of soil, but declined after 75 g kg(-1). Water content of leaves (mg cm(-2) leaf area) was found to be constantly decreasing with respect to increasing cement kiln content in the pots. Differences between the averages were evaluated by Tukey test and results were found to be significant.

  17. [Oxidative damage of volatile oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides on Vicia faba root tip cells].

    PubMed

    Hu, Wan-Jun; Ma, Dan-Wei; Wang, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Hong

    2012-04-01

    Chenopodium ambrosioides is an invasive species, which has strong allelopathic effect on surrounding plants. In this study, the methods of soil culture and filter paper culture were adopted to simulate the eluviation and volatilization of the volatile oil from C. ambrosioides, respectively, and to investigate the allelopathy of the volatile oil on the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities of Vicia faba root tip cells, with the mechanisms of the induced tip cell apoptosis analyzed. At the early stage (24 h) of soil culture and filter paper culture, the superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase activities of the tip cells decreased after an initial increase with the increasing dose of the volatile oil, and the malondialdehyde content of the tip cells increased with the increasing volatile oil dose and treated time. At the midterm (48 h) and later (72 h) stages of soil culture and filter paper culture, a typical DNA ladder strip appeared, suggesting that the volatile oil from C. ambrosioides could induce the apoptosis of the tip cells, and the apoptosis was dose- and time dependent. This study showed that the volatile oil from C. ambrosioides could act on its surrounding plants via eluviation and volatilization, making the lipid peroxidation of acceptor plants aggravated and the antioxidant enzyme activities of the plants inhibited, resulting in the oxidative damage and apoptosis of the plant root tip cells, and accordingly, the inhibition of the plant growth. Under soil culture, the root tip cells of V. faba had higher antioxidant enzyme activities and lesser DNA damage, suggesting that the volatile oil from C. ambrosioides via volatilization had stronger allelopathy on the growth of surrounding plants than via eluviation.

  18. Fast responses of metabolites in Vicia faba L. to moderate NaCl stress.

    PubMed

    Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Niehaus, Karsten; Gödde, Victoria; Hasler, Mario; Zörb, Christian; Gorzolka, Karin; Jezek, Mareike; Senbayram, Mehmet; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Mühling, Karl H

    2015-07-01

    Salt stress impairs global agricultural crop production by reducing vegetative growth and yield. Despite this importance, a number of gaps exist in our knowledge about very early metabolic responses that ensue minutes after plants experience salt stress. Surprisingly, this early phase remains almost as a black box. Therefore, systematic studies focussing on very early plant physiological responses to salt stress (in this case NaCl) may enhance our understanding on strategies to develop crop plants with a better performance under saline conditions. In the present study, hydroponically grown Vicia faba L. plants were exposed to 90 min of NaCl stress, whereby every 15 min samples were taken for analyzing short-term physiologic responses. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiles were analysed by calculating a principal component analysis followed by multiple contrast tests. Follow-up experiments were run to analyze downstream effects of the metabolic changes on the physiological level. The novelty of this study is the demonstration of complex stress-induced metabolic changes at the very beginning of a moderate salt stress in V. faba, information that are very scant for this early stage. This study reports for the first that the proline analogue trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline, known to inhibit cell elongation, was increasingly synthesized after NaCl-stress initiation. Leaf metabolites associated with the generation or scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were affected in leaves that showed a synchronized increase in ROS formation. A reduced glutamine synthetase activity indicated that disturbances in the nitrogen assimilation occur earlier than it was previously thought under salt stress.

  19. Identification of Candidate Transcriptional Regulators of Epidermal Transfer Cell Development in Vicia faba Cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Arun-Chinnappa, Kiruba S; McCurdy, David W

    2016-01-01

    Transfer cells (TCs) are anatomically-specialized cells formed at apoplasmic-symplasmic bottlenecks in nutrient transport pathways in plants. TCs form invaginated wall ingrowths which provide a scaffold to amplify plasma membrane surface area and thus increase the density of nutrient transporters required to achieve enhanced nutrient flow across these bottlenecks. Despite their importance to nutrient transport in plants, little is known of the transcriptional regulation of wall ingrowth formation. Here, we used RNA-Seq to identify transcription factors putatively involved in regulating epidermal TC development in cotyledons of Vicia faba. Comparing cotyledons cultured for 0, 3, 9, and 24 h to induce trans-differentiation of epidermal TCs identified 43 transcription factors that showed either epidermal-specific or epidermal-enhanced expression, and 10 that showed epidermal-specific down regulation. Members of the WRKY and ethylene-responsive families were prominent in the cohort of transcription factors showing epidermal-specific or epidermal-enhanced expression, consistent with the initiation of TC development often representing a response to stress. Members of the MYB family were also prominent in these categories, including orthologs of MYB genes involved in localized secondary wall deposition in Arabidopsis thaliana. Among the group of transcription factors showing down regulation were various homeobox genes and members of the MADs-box and zinc-finger families of poorly defined functions. Collectively, this study identified several transcription factors showing expression characteristics and orthologous functions that indicate likely participation in transcriptional regulation of epidermal TC development in V. faba cotyledons. PMID:27252730

  20. Digestibility of amino acids in organically cultivated white-flowering faba bean and cake from cold-pressed rapeseed, linseed and hemp seed in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Presto, Magdalena Høøk; Lyberg, Karin; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2011-02-01

    The study aimed at determining the ileal apparent (IAD) and standardised ileal (SID) digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in organically cultivated white-flowering faba beans (Vicia faba), and cakes from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa), linseed (Linum usitatissimum) and rapeseed (Brassica napus). The experiment was designed as a four period cross-over trial with six castrated male Yorkshire pigs fitted with post valve T-caecum (PVTC) cannulas. The IAD and SID of CP for the feed ingredients ranged from 79.2-85.9% and were affected by dietary treatment, with significantly lower values in rapeseed cake. The IAD and SID of most AA in the feed ingredients were also significantly affected by dietary treatment, but without any consistent trend. However, the overall digestibilities were in general comparable with conventional protein feed ingredients. Thus, these alternative protein feed ingredients have the potential to be used to a greater extent when formulating organic pig diets.

  1. Characterizations of bio-accumulations, subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cesium in Brassica juncea, and Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qian; Lai, Jin-long; Tao, Zong-ya; Han, Na; Wu, Guo

    2016-04-01

    We aim to investigate the tolerance and enrichment mechanism of cesium (Cs) in hyperaccumulation plants. In this study, Brassica juncea and Vicia faba were subjected to varying doses of Cs for 21 days to investigate the differences in bio-accumulations, subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cs in two cultivars by differential centrifugation, and extraction of Cs in different chemical forms, respectively. The results showed that 49.87%-61.08% of the Cs were in the leaf of B. juncea, while in V. faba, 1.58%-79.29% of the Cs was in the root. The translocation factor (TF) arrived 2.79 to 3.71 in B. juncea, while it only reached 0.26 to 0.62 in V. faba. Cs subcellular distribution of the two plants was in sequence as follows: soluble fraction > cell wall > organelles. Cs was more easily distributed to metal-sensitive fractions of V. faba. The inorganic Cs (F-ethanol), and water-soluble Cs (F-dH2O) are the main existing types of Cs in the two plants. In B. juncea, the relative content of inorganic Cs, and organic acids/CsH2PO4 (F-dH2O) were higher than that of V. faba in the stem. This suggests that Cs may induce related transporter gene expression (such as phosphate transporter, organic cation, high affinity nitrate transporter, amino acid permease, etc.) to help the transport of Cs between root to shoot. PMID:26854554

  2. [Evaluation of soil lead contamination by biomarkers in leaves of Vicia faba L. seedlings].

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng-Run; Wang, Xiao-Rong; Yu, Hong-Xia; Qiao, Song; Zhang, Bao-Gang; Sun, Jian

    2008-11-01

    Stress proteins (HSP70 and HSP60) and other related biological parameters were investigated in leaves of Vicia faba L. seedlings subjected to soil lead stress. The seedlings were cultivated outdoors in pots for five weeks. Results showed that total lead content, superoxide radical (O2*-) and lipid peroxidation productions in the leaves increased with the increase of extraneous lead in soils. Significant correlation was found between the O2*- and lipid peroxidation productions (r = 0.973, p < 0.01). Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were activated. Moreover, HSP70 and HSP60 increased more sensitively than the other parameters in response to lead stress. This indicates lead might cause lipid peroxidation in the leaves by mediation of O2*-. The activated antioxidative enzymes alleviated the stress and damage of reactive oxygen species. HSP70 and HSP60 are potential biomarkers for early warning of lead-contaminated soils. Additionally, concentrations of soil lead and related biological parameters should be combined.

  3. DNA Damage in Vicia faba by Exposure to Agricultural Soils from Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Santacruz, L; García-Nieto, E; García-Gallegos, E; Romo-Gómez, C; Ortiz-Ortiz, E; Costilla-Salazar, R; Luna-Zendejas, H S

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to quantify some POPs, such as p,p' DDT, p,p' DDE, and PCBs in agricultural soils of Tlaxcala, Mexico and evaluate their capacity for eliciting DNA damage, using Vicia faba as bioindicator. The values of ΣDDTs and ΣPCBs ranged from 8-24 to 118-26,983 µg/kg, respectively. The samples T1 (HQ = 9.3) and T2 (HQ = 53.9) showed concentrations of ΣPCBs higher than Canadian guidelines (SQGE = 500 µg/kg). The genotoxicity testing produced percentages of DNA fragmentation higher than negative control and statistically significant (p < 0.05), both in agricultural soils and organic extracts. The soils T2, T3, N4, and N5 showed a DICA from 2.6 to 3.1 times, statistically higher (p < 0.05) than negative control. In general, the agricultural soils have greater genotoxic capacity than the organic extracts, suggesting a potential risk to biota that depends upon this ecosystem. PMID:26385693

  4. DNA Damage in Vicia faba by Exposure to Agricultural Soils from Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Santacruz, L; García-Nieto, E; García-Gallegos, E; Romo-Gómez, C; Ortiz-Ortiz, E; Costilla-Salazar, R; Luna-Zendejas, H S

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to quantify some POPs, such as p,p' DDT, p,p' DDE, and PCBs in agricultural soils of Tlaxcala, Mexico and evaluate their capacity for eliciting DNA damage, using Vicia faba as bioindicator. The values of ΣDDTs and ΣPCBs ranged from 8-24 to 118-26,983 µg/kg, respectively. The samples T1 (HQ = 9.3) and T2 (HQ = 53.9) showed concentrations of ΣPCBs higher than Canadian guidelines (SQGE = 500 µg/kg). The genotoxicity testing produced percentages of DNA fragmentation higher than negative control and statistically significant (p < 0.05), both in agricultural soils and organic extracts. The soils T2, T3, N4, and N5 showed a DICA from 2.6 to 3.1 times, statistically higher (p < 0.05) than negative control. In general, the agricultural soils have greater genotoxic capacity than the organic extracts, suggesting a potential risk to biota that depends upon this ecosystem.

  5. Cellular distribution of calmodulin and calmodulin-binding proteins in Vicia faba L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, V.; Assmann, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of calmodulin (CaM) and CaM-binding proteins within Vicia faba was investigated. Both CaM and CaM-binding proteins were found to be differentially distributed among organs, tissues, and protoplast types. CaM levels, on a per protein basis, were found to be the highest in leaf epidermis, containing 3-fold higher levels of CaM than in total leaf. Similarly, guard cell and epidermal cell protoplasts were also found to have higher levels of CaM than mesophyll cell protoplasts. 125I-CaM blot overlay assays were performed to qualitatively examine CaM-binding proteins in these protoplast types as well as in whole tissues and organs. CaM-binding proteins with Mr 52,000, 78,000, and 115,000 were common in all metabolically active plant parts. Unique CaM-binding protein bands were detected in guard cell protoplasts (Mr 39,000, 88,000), stems (Mr 45,000, 60,000, 64,000), and roots (Mr 62,000), suggesting the presence of specialized CaM-dependent processes in these cells and organs.

  6. Effect of cooking methods on selected physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean.

    PubMed

    Güzel, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2012-02-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure cooking (APC) and high-pressure cooking (HPC) on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean were investigated. The hardness of the legumes cooked by APC or HPC were not statistically different (P > 0.05). APC resulted in higher percentage of seed coat splits than HPC. Both cooking methods decreased Hunter "L" value significantly (P < 0.05). The "a" and "b" values of dark-colored seeds decreased after cooking, while these values tended to increase for the light-colored seeds. The total amounts of solid lost from legume seeds were higher after HPC compared with APC. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) percentages increased considerably after both cooking methods. High pressure cooked legumes resulted in higher levels of resistant starch (RS) but lower levels of slowly digestible starch (SDS) than the atmospheric pressure cooked legumes.

  7. Biochemical toxicity and DNA damage of imidazolium-based ionic liquid with different anions in soil on Vicia faba seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tong; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jun; Sun, Xi; Zhang, Cheng

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, the toxic effects of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Omim]Cl), 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Omim]Br) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Omim]BF4) in soil on Vicia faba (V. faba) seedlings at 0, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg-1 were assessed for the first time at the cellular and molecular level. Moreover, the toxicity of these three ionic liquids (ILs) was evaluated, and the influence of anions on the toxicity of the ILs was assessed. The results showed that even at 100 mg kg-1, the growth of V. faba seedlings was inhibited after exposure to the three ILs, and the inhibitory effect was enhanced with increasing concentrations of the three ILs. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased after exposure to the three ILs, which resulted in lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and oxidative damage in the cells of the V. faba seedlings. In addition, the anion structure could influence the toxicity of ILs, and toxicity of the three tested ILs decreased in the following order: [Omim]BF4 > [Omim]Br > [Omim]Cl. Moreover, oxidative damage is the primary mechanism by which ILs exert toxic effects on crops, and ILs could reduce the agricultural productivity.

  8. Biochemical toxicity and DNA damage of imidazolium-based ionic liquid with different anions in soil on Vicia faba seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jun; Sun, Xi; Zhang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the toxic effects of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Omim]Cl), 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Omim]Br) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Omim]BF4) in soil on Vicia faba (V. faba) seedlings at 0, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg−1 were assessed for the first time at the cellular and molecular level. Moreover, the toxicity of these three ionic liquids (ILs) was evaluated, and the influence of anions on the toxicity of the ILs was assessed. The results showed that even at 100 mg kg−1, the growth of V. faba seedlings was inhibited after exposure to the three ILs, and the inhibitory effect was enhanced with increasing concentrations of the three ILs. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased after exposure to the three ILs, which resulted in lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and oxidative damage in the cells of the V. faba seedlings. In addition, the anion structure could influence the toxicity of ILs, and toxicity of the three tested ILs decreased in the following order: [Omim]BF4 > [Omim]Br > [Omim]Cl. Moreover, oxidative damage is the primary mechanism by which ILs exert toxic effects on crops, and ILs could reduce the agricultural productivity. PMID:26675424

  9. Biochemical toxicity and DNA damage of imidazolium-based ionic liquid with different anions in soil on Vicia faba seedlings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jun; Sun, Xi; Zhang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the toxic effects of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Omim]Cl), 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Omim]Br) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Omim]BF4) in soil on Vicia faba (V. faba) seedlings at 0, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg(-1) were assessed for the first time at the cellular and molecular level. Moreover, the toxicity of these three ionic liquids (ILs) was evaluated, and the influence of anions on the toxicity of the ILs was assessed. The results showed that even at 100 mg kg(-1), the growth of V. faba seedlings was inhibited after exposure to the three ILs, and the inhibitory effect was enhanced with increasing concentrations of the three ILs. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased after exposure to the three ILs, which resulted in lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and oxidative damage in the cells of the V. faba seedlings. In addition, the anion structure could influence the toxicity of ILs, and toxicity of the three tested ILs decreased in the following order: [Omim]BF4 > [Omim]Br > [Omim]Cl. Moreover, oxidative damage is the primary mechanism by which ILs exert toxic effects on crops, and ILs could reduce the agricultural productivity. PMID:26675424

  10. Sugar Concentrations in Guard Cells of Vicia faba Illuminated with Red or Blue Light 1

    PubMed Central

    Poffenroth, Matthew; Green, David B.; Tallman, Gary

    1992-01-01

    Concentrations of soluble sugars in guard cells in detached, sonicated epidermis from Vicia faba leaves were analyzed quantitatively by high performance liquid chromatography to determine the extent to which sugars could contribute to changes in the osmotic potentials of guard cells during stomatal opening. Stomata were illuminated over a period of 4 hours with saturating levels of red or blue light, or a combination of red and blue light. When stomata were irradiated for 3 hours with red light (50 micromoles per square meter per second) in a solution of 5 millimolar KCl and 0.1 millimolar CaCl2, stomatal apertures increased a net maximum of 6.7 micrometers and the concentration of total soluble sugar was 289 femtomoles per guard cell (70% sucrose, 30% fructose). In an identical solution, 2.5 hours of irradiation with 25 micromoles per square meter per second of blue light caused a maximum net increase of 7.1 micrometers in stomatal aperture and the total soluble sugar concentration was 550 femtomoles per guard cell (91% sucrose, 9% fructose). Illumination with blue light at 25 micromoles per square meter per second in a solution lacking KCl caused a maximum net increase in stomatal aperture of 3.5 micrometers and the sugar concentration was 382 femtomoles per guard cell (82% sucrose, 18% fructose). In dual beam experiments, stomata irradiated with 50 micromoles per square meter per second of red light opened steadily with a concomitant increase in sugar production. Addition of 25 micromoles per square meter per second of blue light caused a further net gain of 3.7 micrometers in stomatal aperture and, after 2 hours, sugar concentrations had increased by an additional 138 femtomoles per guard cell. Experiments with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) were performed with epidermis illuminated with 50 micromoles per square meter per second of red light or with 25 micromoles per square meter per second of blue light in solutions containing or lacking KCl

  11. Isolation of guard cell protoplasts from mechanically prepared epidermis of Vicia faba leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, T.; Tallman, G.; Zeiger, E. Univ. of California, Santa Cruz )

    1989-08-01

    A method for isolating guard cell protoplasts (GCP) from mechanically prepared epidermis of Vicia faba is described. Epidermis was prepared by homogenizing leaves in a Waring blender in a solution of 10% Ficoll, 5 millimolar CaCl{sub 2}, and 0.1% polyvinylpyrrolidone 40 (PVP). Attached mesophyll and epidermal cells were removed by shaking epidermis in a solution of Cellulysin, mannitol, CaCl{sub 2}, PVP, and pepstatin A. Cleaned epidermis was transferred to a solution of mannitol, CaCl{sub 2}, PVP, pepstatin A, cellulase Onozuka RS, and pectolyase Y-23 for the isolation of GCP. Preparations made by this method included both adaxial and abaxial GCP and contained {le}0.017% mesophyll protoplasts, {le}0.6% mesophyll fragments, and no epidermal cell contaminants. Yields averaged 9 {times} 10{sup 4} protoplasts/leaflet and 98 to 100% of the GCP excluded trypan blue, concentrated neutral red, and hydrolyzed fluorescein diacetate. Isolated GCP increased in diameter by 2.2 micrometers after incubation in darkness in 10 micromolar fusicoccin, 0.4 molar mannitol, 5 millimolar KCl, and 1 millimolar CaCl{sub 2}. Illumination of GCP with 800 micromoles per square meter per second of red light resulted in alkalinization of their suspension medium. When 10 micromolar per square meter per second of blue light was superimposed onto the red light background, the medium acidified. Measurements of chlorophyll a fast fluorescence transients from isolated GCP indicated that GCP were capable of electron transport, and slow transients contained the M peak usually associated with a functional photosynthetic carbon reduction pathway.

  12. Exposure to 915 MHz radiation induces micronuclei in Vicia faba root tips.

    PubMed

    Gustavino, Bianca; Carboni, Giovanni; Petrillo, Roberto; Paoluzzi, Giovanni; Santovetti, Emanuele; Rizzoni, Marco

    2016-03-01

    The increasing use of mobile phones and wireless networks raised a great debate about the real carcinogenic potential of radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure associated with these devices. Conflicting results are reported by the great majority of in vivo and in vitro studies on the capability of RF-EMF exposure to induce DNA damage and mutations in mammalian systems. Aimed at understanding whether less ambiguous responses to RF-EMF exposure might be evidenced in plant systems with respect to mammalian ones, in the present work the mutagenic effect of RF-EMF has been studied through the micronucleus (MN) test in secondary roots of Vicia faba seedlings exposed to mobile phone transmission in controlled conditions, inside a transverse electro magnetic (TEM) cell. Exposure of roots was carried out for 72h using a continuous wave (CW) of 915 MHz radiation at three values of equivalent plane wave power densities (23, 35 and 46W/m(2)). The specific absorption rate (SAR) was measured with a calorimetric method and the corresponding values were found to fall in the range of 0.4-1.5W/kg. Results of three independent experiments show the induction of a significant increase of MN frequency after exposure, ranging from a 2.3-fold increase above the sham value, at the lowest SAR level, up to a 7-fold increase at the highest SAR. These findings are in agreement with the limited number of data on cytogenetic effects detected in other plant systems exposed to mobile phone RF-EMF frequencies and clearly show the capability of radiofrequency exposure to induce DNA damage in this eukaryotic cell system.

  13. Exposure to 915 MHz radiation induces micronuclei in Vicia faba root tips.

    PubMed

    Gustavino, Bianca; Carboni, Giovanni; Petrillo, Roberto; Paoluzzi, Giovanni; Santovetti, Emanuele; Rizzoni, Marco

    2016-03-01

    The increasing use of mobile phones and wireless networks raised a great debate about the real carcinogenic potential of radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure associated with these devices. Conflicting results are reported by the great majority of in vivo and in vitro studies on the capability of RF-EMF exposure to induce DNA damage and mutations in mammalian systems. Aimed at understanding whether less ambiguous responses to RF-EMF exposure might be evidenced in plant systems with respect to mammalian ones, in the present work the mutagenic effect of RF-EMF has been studied through the micronucleus (MN) test in secondary roots of Vicia faba seedlings exposed to mobile phone transmission in controlled conditions, inside a transverse electro magnetic (TEM) cell. Exposure of roots was carried out for 72h using a continuous wave (CW) of 915 MHz radiation at three values of equivalent plane wave power densities (23, 35 and 46W/m(2)). The specific absorption rate (SAR) was measured with a calorimetric method and the corresponding values were found to fall in the range of 0.4-1.5W/kg. Results of three independent experiments show the induction of a significant increase of MN frequency after exposure, ranging from a 2.3-fold increase above the sham value, at the lowest SAR level, up to a 7-fold increase at the highest SAR. These findings are in agreement with the limited number of data on cytogenetic effects detected in other plant systems exposed to mobile phone RF-EMF frequencies and clearly show the capability of radiofrequency exposure to induce DNA damage in this eukaryotic cell system. PMID:26476436

  14. Molecular and structural changes induced by essential oils treatments in Vicia faba roots detected by genotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Sturchio, Elena; Boccia, Priscilla; Zanellato, Miriam; Meconi, Claudia; Donnarumma, Lucia; Mercurio, Giuseppe; Mecozzi, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been an increased interest in exploiting allelopathy in organic agriculture. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of essential oil mixtures in order to establish their allelopathic use in agriculture. Two mixtures of essential oils consisting respectively of tea tree oil (TTO) and clove plus rosemary (C + R) oils were tested. Phytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests on the root meristems of Vicia faba minor were performed. A phytotoxic influence was particularly relevant for C + R mixture, while genotoxicity tests revealed significant results with both C + R oil mixture and TTO. Phenotypic analysis on Vicia faba minor primary roots following C + R oil mixture treatment resulted in callose production, an early symptom attributed to lipid peroxidation. The approach described in this study, based on genotoxicity bioassays, might identify specific DNA damage induced by essential oil treatments. These tests may represent a powerful method to evaluate potential adverse effects of different mixtures of essential oils that might be useful in alternative agriculture. Future studies are focusing on the positive synergism of more complex mixtures of essential oils in order to reduce concentrations of potentially toxic components while at the same time maintaining efficacy in antimicrobial and antifungal management.

  15. Phytostabilization of moderate copper contaminated soils using co-inoculation of Vicia faba with plant growth promoting bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fatnassi, Imen Challougui; Chiboub, Manel; Saadani, Omar; Jebara, Moez; Jebara, Salwa Harzalli

    2015-03-01

    There is a need to conduct research on the selection of microbial isolates from rhizosphere of plants growing on heavy metal contaminated soils for specific restoration programs. This article suggest a consortium of bacteria combining Rhizobium sp. CCNWSX0481, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae, Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas sp. 2(2010) that was examined for the ability to promote Vicia faba.L. growth when cultivated on the vineyard of soil moderately contaminated with copper. Data showed that inoculation was significant in nodulation; it increases the number and the weight of nodules of 50%. Co-inoculation was also found to positively influence growth and seed yield, through increasing fresh shoot and fresh root weights by 33 and 26%, respectively, and through rising numbers of seed per pod and pods per plant. In contrast, co-inoculation produced a significant reduction of accumulated copper in roots attending 35%, however, the treatment revealed no significant effects on the copper contents in pods and seeds. The tested inoculum could be an option to promote V. faba growth and to enhance soil fertilization in moderate copper contaminated soils. Further studies on the influence of co-inoculation practices on copper migration in soil-plant systems are recommended to acquire more information for evaluation of this legume safety.

  16. Molecular and structural changes induced by essential oils treatments in Vicia faba roots detected by genotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Sturchio, Elena; Boccia, Priscilla; Zanellato, Miriam; Meconi, Claudia; Donnarumma, Lucia; Mercurio, Giuseppe; Mecozzi, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been an increased interest in exploiting allelopathy in organic agriculture. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of essential oil mixtures in order to establish their allelopathic use in agriculture. Two mixtures of essential oils consisting respectively of tea tree oil (TTO) and clove plus rosemary (C + R) oils were tested. Phytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests on the root meristems of Vicia faba minor were performed. A phytotoxic influence was particularly relevant for C + R mixture, while genotoxicity tests revealed significant results with both C + R oil mixture and TTO. Phenotypic analysis on Vicia faba minor primary roots following C + R oil mixture treatment resulted in callose production, an early symptom attributed to lipid peroxidation. The approach described in this study, based on genotoxicity bioassays, might identify specific DNA damage induced by essential oil treatments. These tests may represent a powerful method to evaluate potential adverse effects of different mixtures of essential oils that might be useful in alternative agriculture. Future studies are focusing on the positive synergism of more complex mixtures of essential oils in order to reduce concentrations of potentially toxic components while at the same time maintaining efficacy in antimicrobial and antifungal management. PMID:26914511

  17. [NO may function in the downstream of Ca2+ in ethylene induced stomatal closure in Vicia faba L].

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo Hua; Liu, Jing; Hou, Li Xia; Tang, Jing; Liu, Xin

    2009-04-01

    Through pharmacological combined with laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) and spectrophotography to study the role of Ca2+ and NO in signaling during Vicia faba L. stomatal movement response to ethylene (Eth). The results showed that treatment with ethephon (0.004%, 0.04%, 0.4%) resulted in a time- and dose-dependent stomatal closure under light. NO scavenger cPTIO, nitrate reductase inhibitor NaN3, or extracellular Ca2+ chelation EGTA reduced ethylene-induced stomatal closure. Moreover, ethylene was shown to enhance nitric oxide levels and, corresponding, nitrate reductase activity. Inhibition of the nitrate reductase diminished ethylene-induced NO production in both stomatal guard cell and leaf. Finally, ethylene-induced NO levels and nitrate reductase activity decreased when Ca2+ was compromised. On the basis of biochemical and pharmacological experimental results, we can conclude that Ca2+ and NO were involved in the signal transduction pathway of ethylene induced stomatal closure. Nitrate reductase-derived NO may represents a novel downstream component of Ca2+ signaling cascade during ethylene-induced stomatal movement in Vicia faba L.

  18. Physiological and biochemical defense reactions of Vicia faba L.-Rhizobium symbiosis face to chronic exposure to cyanobacterial bloom extract containing microcystins.

    PubMed

    Lahrouni, Majida; Oufdou, Khalid; El Khalloufi, Fatima; Baz, Mohamed; Lafuente, Alejandro; Dary, Mohammed; Pajuelo, Eloisa; Oudra, Brahim

    2013-08-01

    The presence of cyanotoxins, mainly microcystins (MCs), in surface freshwater represents a serious health risk to aquatic organisms living in the water body, as well as terrestrial animals and plants that are in contact with contaminated water. Consequently, the use of MCs contaminated water for irrigation represents a hazard for cultivated plants and could induce severe economical losses due to crops' yield reduction. The experimental approach undertaken in this work was exposing Vicia faba seedlings (inoculated with a Rhizobium strain resistant to MCs), to water supplemented with cyanobacterial crude extract containing total microcystins at a concentration of 50 and 100 μg/L (environmental relevant concentrations of MCs dissolved in the raw irrigation water from Lalla Takerkoust Lake-Marrakesh region). After chronic MCs exposure (2 months), biological and physiological parameters (plant growth, nitrogen uptake, mineral assimilation, and oxidative defense mechanisms) were evaluated. The results obtained showed evidence that chronic exposure to cyanobacterial bloom extract containing MCs strongly affected the physiological and biological plants activities; reduction of dry matter, photosynthetic activity, nodule number, and nitrogen assimilation. At the same time, an increase of oxidative stress was observed, as deduced from a significant increase of the activities of peroxidase, catalase, polyphenoloxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase in leaves, roots, and nodules of faba bean plants exposed to cyanotoxins, especially at 100 μg/L of MCs. This experimentation constitutes a simulation of the situation related to cyanotoxins chronic exposure of seedlings-plants via the contaminated irrigation water. For this reason, once should take into consideration the possibility of contamination of agricultural crops and the quality of irrigation water should be by the way monitored for cyanotoxins biohazard.

  19. Physiological impacts of soil pollution and arsenic uptake in three plant species: Agrostis capillaris, Solanum nigrum and Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Austruy, A; Wanat, N; Moussard, C; Vernay, P; Joussein, E; Ledoigt, G; Hitmi, A

    2013-04-01

    In order to revegetate an industrial soil polluted by trace metals and metalloids (As, Pb, Cu, Cd, Sb), the impact of pollution on three plant species, Solanum nigrum and Agrostis capillaris, both native species in an industrial site, and Vicia faba, a plant model species, is studied. Following the study of soil pollution from the industrial wasteland of Auzon, it appears that the As is the principal pollutant. Particular attention is given to this metalloid, both in its content and its speciation in the soil that the level of its accumulation in plants. In V. faba and A. capillaris, the trace metals and metalloids inhibit the biomass production and involve a lipid peroxidation in the leaves. Furthermore, these pollutants cause a photosynthesis perturbation by stomatal limitations and a dysfunction of photosystem II. Whatever the plant, the As content is less than 0.1 percent of dry matter, the majority of As absorbed is stored in the roots which play the role of trap organ. In parallel, the culture of S. nigrum decreases significantly the exchangeable and weakly adsorbed fraction of As in rhizospheric soil. This study has highlighted the ability of tolerance to trace metals of S. nigrum and to a lesser extent A. capillaris. Our data indicate that V. faba is not tolerant to soil pollution and is not a metallophyte species.

  20. Biological responses of Vicia faba seedlings to the imidazolium-based ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride in soil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Lusheng; Zhang, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Although there are a few studies on the toxicity of ionic liquids (ILs), relatively little is known about their toxic effects on plants in soil. In the present study, the toxic effects of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Hmim]Cl) in the soil on Vicia faba seedlings and the influences of [Hmim]Cl on the physicochemical properties of the soil were studied. Organic matter content, pH, and conductivity of the tested soil were significantly altered at [Hmim]Cl concentrations greater than 1000 mg kg(-1) . Moreover, shoot length, root length, dry weight, and pigment content of the V. faba seedlings were greatly inhibited when the [Hmim]Cl concentration was greater than 500 mg kg(-1) . The roots were the most seriously affected organ and stopped growing at 3000 mg kg(-1) . In addition, [Hmim]Cl caused an increase in the level of reactive oxygen species at [Hmim]Cl concentrations above 250 mg kg(-1) that resulted in lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and oxidative stress in the V. faba seedlings. The present study provides information that is useful for evaluation of the environmental safety of ILs in soil. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1502-1510. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26517735

  1. The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride in soil on Vicia faba seedlings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Xie, Hui

    2015-03-21

    Although considered as "green" solvents, the toxic effects of ionic liquids (ILs) on organisms have been widely investigated in recent years. However, studies on the toxic effects of ILs on plants all focus on toxicity in nutrient solution. In the present paper, the toxic effects of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl) on Vicia faba seedlings in soil at 0, 500, 1500, and 2500 mg kg(-1) on day 10 were studied. The present results showed that the growth of V. faba seedlings may be seriously inhibited when the IL concentrations were higher than 500 mg kg(-1). The EC50 values for shoot length, root length, and dry weight were 3886, 2483, and 3359 mg kg(-1), respectively. In addition, [C4mim]Cl caused lipid peroxidation and DNA damage at 500 mg kg(-1) and oxidative stress at 1500 mg kg(-1), which indicated that [C4mim]Cl may have genotoxicity and cytotoxicity on V. faba seedlings. Moreover, oxidative damage may be the main toxic mechanism of ILs.

  2. Lead-induced genotoxicity to Vicia faba L. roots in relation with metal cell uptake and initial speciation.

    PubMed

    Shahid, M; Pinelli, E; Pourrut, B; Silvestre, J; Dumat, C

    2011-01-01

    Formation of organometallic complexes in soil solution strongly influence metals phytoavailability. However, only few studies deal with the influence of metal speciation both on plant uptake and genotoxicity. In the present study, Vicia faba seedlings were exposed for 6h in controlled hydroponic conditions to 5 μM of lead nitrate alone and chelated to varying degrees by different organic ligands. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and citric acid were, respectively, chosen as models of humic substances and low weight organic acids present in natural soil solutions. Visual Minteq software was used to estimate free lead cations concentration and ultimately to design the experimental layout. For all experimental conditions, both micronucleus test and measure of lead uptake by plants were finally performed. Chelation of Pb by EDTA, a strong chelator, dose-dependently increased the uptake in V. faba roots while its genotoxicity was significantly reduced, suggesting a protective role of EDTA. A weak correlation was observed between total lead concentration absorbed by roots and genotoxicity (r(2)=0.65). In contrast, a strong relationship (r(2)=0.93) exists between Pb(2+) concentration in exposure media and genotoxicity in the experiment performed with EDTA. Citric acid induced labile organometallic complexes did not demonstrate any significant changes in lead genotoxicity or uptake. These results demonstrate that metal speciation knowledge could improve the interpretation of V. faba genotoxicity test performed to test soil quality.

  3. A New Mechanism for the Regulation of Stomatal Aperture Size in Intact Leaves (Accumulation of Mesophyll-Derived Sucrose in the Guard-Cell Wall of Vicia faba).

    PubMed

    Lu, P.; Outlaw Jr, W. H.; Smith, B. G.; Freed, G. A.

    1997-05-01

    At various times after pulse-labeling broad bean (Vicia faba L.) leaflets with 14CO2, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents, whereas those from rinsed peels contained only symplastic contents. Sucrose (Suc)-specific radioactivity peaked (111 GBq mol-1) in palisade cells at 20 min. In contrast, the 14C content and Sucspecific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO2 incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum Suc-specific radioactivity (204 GBq mol-1) and a high Suc influx rate (0.05 pmol stoma-1 min-1). These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple Suc pools in mesophyll cells, (b) a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and (c) mesophyll-derived Suc in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by approximately 3 [mu]m. Factors expected to enhance Suc accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and (b) high apoplastic Suc concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll Suc efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism.

  4. A new mechanism for the regulation of stomatal aperture size in intact leaves: Accumulation of mesophyll-derived sucrose in the guard-cell wall of Vicia faba

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ping; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Smith, B.G.; Freed, G.A.

    1997-05-01

    At various times after pulse-labeling broad bean (Vicia faba L.) leaflets with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents, whereas those from rinsed peels contained only symplastic contents. Sucrose (Suc)-specific radioactivity peaked (111 GBq mol{sup -1}) in palisade cells at 20 min. In contrast, the {sup 14}C content and Suc-specific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO, incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum Suc-specific radioactivity (204 GBq mol{sup -1}) and a high Suc influx rate (0.05 pmol stoma{sup -1} min{sup -1}). These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple Suc pools in mesophyll cells, M a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and mesophyll-derived Suc in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by approximately 3 pm. Factors expected to enhance Suc accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and N high apoplastic Suc concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll Suc efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism. 50 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Degradation of vicine, convicine and their aglycones during fermentation of faba bean flour.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Losito, Ilario; Facchini, Laura; Katina, Kati; Palmisano, Francesco; Gobbetti, Marco; Coda, Rossana

    2016-01-01

    In spite of its positive repercussions on nutrition and environment, faba bean still remains an underutilized crop due to the presence of some undesired compounds. The pyrimidine glycosides vicine and convicine are precursors of the aglycones divicine and isouramil, the main factors of favism, a genetic condition which may lead to severe hemolysis after faba bean ingestion. The reduction of vicine and convicine has been targeted in several studies but little is known about their degradation. In this study, the hydrolysis kinetics of vicine and convicine and their derivatives during fermentation with L. plantarum DPPMAB24W was investigated. In particular, a specific HPLC method coupled to ESI-MS and MS/MS analysis, including the evaluation procedure of the results, was set up as the analytical approach to monitor the compounds. The degradation of the pyrimidine glycosides in the fermented flour was complete after 48 h of incubation and the aglycone derivatives could not be detected in any of the samples. The toxicity of the fermented faba bean was established through ex-vivo assays on human blood, confirming the experimental findings. Results indicate that mild and cost effective bioprocessing techniques can be applied to detoxify faba bean also for industrial applications. PMID:27578427

  6. Degradation of vicine, convicine and their aglycones during fermentation of faba bean flour

    PubMed Central

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Losito, Ilario; Facchini, Laura; Katina, Kati; Palmisano, Francesco; Gobbetti, Marco; Coda, Rossana

    2016-01-01

    In spite of its positive repercussions on nutrition and environment, faba bean still remains an underutilized crop due to the presence of some undesired compounds. The pyrimidine glycosides vicine and convicine are precursors of the aglycones divicine and isouramil, the main factors of favism, a genetic condition which may lead to severe hemolysis after faba bean ingestion. The reduction of vicine and convicine has been targeted in several studies but little is known about their degradation. In this study, the hydrolysis kinetics of vicine and convicine and their derivatives during fermentation with L. plantarum DPPMAB24W was investigated. In particular, a specific HPLC method coupled to ESI-MS and MS/MS analysis, including the evaluation procedure of the results, was set up as the analytical approach to monitor the compounds. The degradation of the pyrimidine glycosides in the fermented flour was complete after 48 h of incubation and the aglycone derivatives could not be detected in any of the samples. The toxicity of the fermented faba bean was established through ex-vivo assays on human blood, confirming the experimental findings. Results indicate that mild and cost effective bioprocessing techniques can be applied to detoxify faba bean also for industrial applications. PMID:27578427

  7. Plant growth, metabolism and adaptation in relation to stress conditions. XXVII. Can ascorbic acid modify the adverse effects of NaCl and mannitol on amino acids, nucleic acids and protein patterns in Vicia faba seedlings?

    PubMed

    Younis, M E; Hasaneen, M N A; Kazamel, A M S

    2009-03-01

    The adverse effects of either NaCl or mannitol on amino acids, protein patterns and nucleic acids in Vicia faba seeds were investigated. The exogenous addition of 4 mM ascorbic acid to the stressing media in which the broad bean seeds were germinated in combination with either the ionic (NaCl) or osmotic (mannitol) stressor induced significant protective changes in the total amount and in the relative composition of amino acids in general and in proline, glycine, glutamic, aspartic, alanine and serine in particular. It also induced changes in nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) content. These changes occurred throughout the entire period of the experiments (12 days). Separate administration of NaCl or mannitol enhanced the occurrence of particular novel proteins that were not detected in control bean seeds (water medium). Protein banding patterns of broad bean seedlings treated with NaCl or mannitol in combination with 4 mM ascorbic acid showed different de novo protein bands, with different molecular weights, at different stages of seedlings growth, with lower levels or a nearly complete absence of the major stress proteins. The pattern of changes for amino acids and nucleic acids and the range of protein bands extracted from the variously treated broad bean seedlings indicate a positive role of ascorbic acid in the alleviation of the damage effects induced by NaCl and mannitol. The importance of this role in the stress tolerance of broad beans is discussed.

  8. [Influence of Four Kinds of PPCPs on Micronucleus Rate of the Root-Tip Cells of Vicia-faba and Garlic].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-jun; Wang, Jin-hua; Zhu, Lu-sheng; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Xiang

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the degree of biological genetic injury induced by PPCPs, the genotoxic effects of the doxycycline (DOX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), triclocarban (TCC) and carbamazepine (CBZ) in the concentration range of 12.5-100 mg · L⁻¹ were studied using micronucleus rate and micronucleus index of Vicia-fabe and garlic. The results showed that: (1) When the Vicia-faba root- tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ, micronucleus rates were higher than 1.67 ‰ (CK₁), it was significantly different from that of the control group (P < 0.05), and the micronucleus index was even greater than 3.5; With the increasing concentrations of the PPCPs, the micronucleus rates first increased and then decreased. (2) When the garlic root tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ respectively, the micronucleus rates were less than those of the Vicia-faba, while in most treatments significantly higher than that of the control group (0.67‰). The micronucleus index was higher than 3.5 in the groups exposed to CIP with concentrations of 25, 50, 100 mg · L⁻¹ and TCC and CBZ with concentrations of 25 mg · L⁻¹; With the increase of exposure concentrations, the micronucleus rate showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing as well. (3) Under the same experimental conditions, the cells micronucleus rates of the garlic cells caused by the four tested compounds were significantly lower than those of Vicia-faba. (4) The micronucleus index of the root tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic treated with the four kinds of compounds followed the order of CIP > CBZ > TCC > DOX. These results demonstrated that the four compounds caused biological genetic injury to root-tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic, and the genetic damage caused to garlic was significantly lower than that to Vicia-faba. The damages caused by the four kinds of different compounds were also different.

  9. [Influence of Four Kinds of PPCPs on Micronucleus Rate of the Root-Tip Cells of Vicia-faba and Garlic].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-jun; Wang, Jin-hua; Zhu, Lu-sheng; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Xiang

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the degree of biological genetic injury induced by PPCPs, the genotoxic effects of the doxycycline (DOX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), triclocarban (TCC) and carbamazepine (CBZ) in the concentration range of 12.5-100 mg · L⁻¹ were studied using micronucleus rate and micronucleus index of Vicia-fabe and garlic. The results showed that: (1) When the Vicia-faba root- tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ, micronucleus rates were higher than 1.67 ‰ (CK₁), it was significantly different from that of the control group (P < 0.05), and the micronucleus index was even greater than 3.5; With the increasing concentrations of the PPCPs, the micronucleus rates first increased and then decreased. (2) When the garlic root tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ respectively, the micronucleus rates were less than those of the Vicia-faba, while in most treatments significantly higher than that of the control group (0.67‰). The micronucleus index was higher than 3.5 in the groups exposed to CIP with concentrations of 25, 50, 100 mg · L⁻¹ and TCC and CBZ with concentrations of 25 mg · L⁻¹; With the increase of exposure concentrations, the micronucleus rate showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing as well. (3) Under the same experimental conditions, the cells micronucleus rates of the garlic cells caused by the four tested compounds were significantly lower than those of Vicia-faba. (4) The micronucleus index of the root tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic treated with the four kinds of compounds followed the order of CIP > CBZ > TCC > DOX. These results demonstrated that the four compounds caused biological genetic injury to root-tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic, and the genetic damage caused to garlic was significantly lower than that to Vicia-faba. The damages caused by the four kinds of different compounds were also different. PMID:27548984

  10. The Potential Use of Fermented Chickpea and Faba Bean Flour as Food Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Chandra-Hioe, Maria V; Wong, Christina H M; Arcot, Jayashree

    2016-03-01

    Apart from being a rich and inexpensive protein source, legumes provide essential vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Considering the nutritional benefits, legumes flour can potentially be incorporated in the development of new products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether fermentation affects the protein content, in vitro protein digestibility, trypsin inhibitor activity and the functionality of proteins in faba bean, desi and kabuli chickpea. Australian grown chickpea and faba bean were selected and initially soaked, de-hulled, dried and milled into flour. This was fermented with lyophilised yoghurt cultures in a 30 °C orbital shaker for 16 h. While protein contents in fermented desi and kabuli flour were lower than their raw counterparts (p > 0.05), it was significantly higher in fermented faba bean. A significant increase (9.5%) in in vitro protein digestibility was found in fermented desi. Trypsin inhibitor activity in fermented desi, kabuli and faba bean reduced by 2.7, 1.1 and 4.7%, respectively (p > 0.05). Overall, the in vitro protein digestibility in flour samples increased, while simultaneously reducing the trypsin inhibitor activity. The water absorption capacity of the fermented kabuli flour significantly increased by 11.3%. All fermented flour samples had significantly higher oil absorption capacity than their corresponding raw flour that was likely due to increased insoluble hydrophobic protein. Although, the foaming capacity in all fermented flour samples was significantly lower than their respective raw samples, only fermented desi and faba bean flour showed lower foaming stability (p > 0.05). The present study suggests that fermented legume flour could fulfill the demand for innovative products of higher nutritional value.

  11. The Potential Use of Fermented Chickpea and Faba Bean Flour as Food Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Chandra-Hioe, Maria V; Wong, Christina H M; Arcot, Jayashree

    2016-03-01

    Apart from being a rich and inexpensive protein source, legumes provide essential vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Considering the nutritional benefits, legumes flour can potentially be incorporated in the development of new products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether fermentation affects the protein content, in vitro protein digestibility, trypsin inhibitor activity and the functionality of proteins in faba bean, desi and kabuli chickpea. Australian grown chickpea and faba bean were selected and initially soaked, de-hulled, dried and milled into flour. This was fermented with lyophilised yoghurt cultures in a 30 °C orbital shaker for 16 h. While protein contents in fermented desi and kabuli flour were lower than their raw counterparts (p > 0.05), it was significantly higher in fermented faba bean. A significant increase (9.5%) in in vitro protein digestibility was found in fermented desi. Trypsin inhibitor activity in fermented desi, kabuli and faba bean reduced by 2.7, 1.1 and 4.7%, respectively (p > 0.05). Overall, the in vitro protein digestibility in flour samples increased, while simultaneously reducing the trypsin inhibitor activity. The water absorption capacity of the fermented kabuli flour significantly increased by 11.3%. All fermented flour samples had significantly higher oil absorption capacity than their corresponding raw flour that was likely due to increased insoluble hydrophobic protein. Although, the foaming capacity in all fermented flour samples was significantly lower than their respective raw samples, only fermented desi and faba bean flour showed lower foaming stability (p > 0.05). The present study suggests that fermented legume flour could fulfill the demand for innovative products of higher nutritional value. PMID:26880215

  12. De novo assembly of a genome-wide transcriptome map of Vicia faba (L.) for transfer cell research

    PubMed Central

    Arun-Chinnappa, Kiruba S.; McCurdy, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Vicia faba (L.) is an important cool-season grain legume species used widely in agriculture but also in plant physiology research, particularly as an experimental model to study transfer cell (TC) development. TCs are specialized nutrient transport cells in plants, characterized by invaginated wall ingrowths with amplified plasma membrane surface area enriched with transporter proteins that facilitate nutrient transfer. Many TCs are formed by trans-differentiation from differentiated cells at apoplasmic/symplasmic boundaries in nutrient transport. Adaxial epidermal cells of isolated cotyledons can be induced to form functional TCs, thus providing a valuable experimental system to investigate genetic regulation of TC trans-differentiation. The genome of V. faba is exceedingly large (ca. 13 Gb), however, and limited genomic information is available for this species. To provide a resource for future transcript profiling of epidermal TC differentiation, we have undertaken de novo assembly of a genome-wide transcriptome map for V. faba. Illumina paired-end sequencing of total RNA pooled from different tissues and different stages, including isolated cotyledons induced to form epidermal TCs, generated 69.5 M reads, of which 65.8 M were used for assembly following trimming and quality control. Assembly using a De-Bruijn graph-based approach generated 21,297 contigs, of which 80.6% were successfully annotated against GO terms. The assembly was validated against known V. faba cDNAs held in GenBank, including transcripts previously identified as being specifically expressed in epidermal cells across TC trans-differentiation. This genome-wide transcriptome map therefore provides a valuable tool for future transcript profiling of epidermal TC trans-differentiation, and also enriches the genetic resources available for this important legume crop species. PMID:25914703

  13. Susceptibility of Five Sugar Beet Cultivars to the Black Bean Aphid, Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Golizadeh, A; Abedi, Z; Borzoui, E; Golikhajeh, N; Jafary, M

    2016-08-01

    The black bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is one of the important pests of sugar beet. The relative impact of resistance, including antibiosis and antixenosis of five sugar beet cultivars (Doroti, Perimer, Pershia, Rozier and 006) on A. fabae was studied under laboratory conditions using clip cages. The antibiosis test was based on life table parameters. Significant differences on developmental time, mean number of nymphs/aphid/day, fecundity, and adult longevity of A. fabae were found across tested sugar beet cultivars. In addition, there were significant differences among the sugar beet cultivars for population growth parameters such as the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m ), net reproductive rate (R 0), finite rate of increase (λ), doubling time (DT), and mean generation time (T) of A. fabae. The highest and lowest (r m ) values were observed on Pershia (0.449 nymphs/female/day) and Perimer (0.358 nymphs/female/day), respectively. No significant differences were found for the preference of the black bean aphid, and antixenosis had no effect on resistance against this aphid. As a result, our findings showed that the Pershia cultivar was a relatively susceptible host plant. Two cultivars (Perimer and Rozier) were relatively resistant to A. fabae, which could prove useful in the development of IPM programs for this aphid in sugar beet fields. PMID:26927334

  14. Occurrence of phytoplasma phyllody and witches' broom disease of faba bean in Bihar.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anil K; Bhatt, B P; Manibhushan

    2013-09-01

    Faba bean (Vicio faba) plants showed symptoms of shoe stringed leaves, phyllody and flower abortion in experimental field. The first symptoms consisted of phyllody mild yellowing, vein clearing and slightly inward folding of newly formed leaves in the apical region of the plant. The disease was characterized by a series of floral abnormalities including virescence, phyllody and proliferation of sprouts together with other abnormalities, such as loss of apical dominance, vivipary and enhanced vegetative growth. Ambient temperature found to be contributing positively on disease development. Under climate change condition there may be every possible chance for speedy spread of this very economic important disease to the earlier not known regions.

  15. Inducing somatic meiosis-like reduction at high frequency by caffeine in root-tip cells of Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Zhang, L; Zhou, Y; Geng, Y; Chen, Z

    2000-07-20

    Germinated seeds of Vicia faba were treated in caffeine solutions of different concentration for different durations to establish the inducing system of somatic meiosis-like reduction. The highest frequency of somatic meiosis-like reduction could reach up to 54.0% by treating the root tips in 70 mmol/l caffeine solution for 2 h and restoring for 24 h. Two types of somatic meiosis-like reduction were observed. One was reductional grouping, in which the chromosomes in a cell usually separated into two groups, and the role of spindle fibers did not show. The other type was somatic meiosis, which was analogous to meiosis presenting in gametogenesis, and chromosome pairing and chiasmata were visualized.

  16. Comparative genomics to bridge Vicia faba with model and closely-related legume species: stability of QTLs for flowering and yield-related traits.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Izquierdo, S; Avila, C M; Satovic, Z; Palomino, C; Gutierrez, N; Ellwood, S R; Phan, H T T; Cubero, J I; Torres, A M

    2012-12-01

    This study presents the development of an enhanced map in faba bean. The map contains 258 loci, mostly gene-based markers, organized in 16 linkage groups that expand 1,875 cM, with an average inter-marker distance of 7.26 cM. The combination of EST-derived markers with a number of markers physically located or previously ascribed to chromosomes by trisomic segregation, allowed the allocation of eight linkage groups (229 markers), to specific chromosomes. Moreover, this approach provided anchor points to establish a global homology among the faba bean chromosomes and those of closely-related legumes species. The map was used to identify and validate, for the first time, QTLs controlling five flowering and reproductive traits: days to flowering, flowering length, pod length, number of seeds per pod and number of ovules per pod. Twelve QTLs stable in the 2 years of evaluation were identified in chromosomes II, V and VI. Comparative mapping suggested the conservation of one of the faba bean genomic regions controlling the character days to flowering in other five legume species (Medicago, Lotus, pea, lupine, chickpea). Additional syntenic co-localizations of QTLs controlling pod length and number of seeds per pod between faba bean and Lotus japonicus are likely. The new genetic map opens the way for further translational studies between faba bean and related legume species, and provides an efficient tool for breeding applications such as QTL analysis and marker-assisted selection.

  17. Saccharomyces cerevisiae-induced stomatal closure mainly mediated by salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive peroxidases in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Wang, Nan; Wang, Gen-Xuan

    2013-04-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced stomatal closure in a dose-dependent manner on Vicia faba L. (cv. Daqingpi). Using pharmacological inhibitors in this study, we found that stomatal closure was completely inhibited by salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) and reduced glutathione (GSH), whereas slightly inhibited by diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), suggesting that H2O2 was mostly produced by cell wall peroxidases. The specific NO scavenger (cPTIO), NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and sodium azide (NaN3; inhibitor of nitrate reductase) prevented yeast-induced stomatal closure, suggesting that NO in guard cells of V. faba is derived from both NOS-like enzyme and nitrate reductase. Results of HgCl2 and β-mercaptoethanol (ME) treatment (as a functional inhibitor of water channels and its reversing agent, respectively) suggest that water channels are involved in yeast-induced stomatal movements. CoCl2 (the blocker of calcium channel), LaCl3 (Ca(2+) antagonist) and EGTA (Ca(2+) chelator) also impaired yeast-induced stomatal closure. Thus, it is concluded that H2O2, NO, water channels and Ca(2+) are involved in yeast-induced stomatal closure.

  18. Meat quality of buffalo young bulls fed faba bean as protein source.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, S; Cutrignelli, M I; Gonzalez, O J; Chiofalo, B; Grossi, M; Tudisco, R; Panetta, C; Infascelli, F

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen Italian Mediterranean Buffalo young bulls were divided into two groups fed isoprotein and isoenergy diets and only differing for protein source of concentrate: faba bean (FB) vs soybean (SB). Animals were slaughtered at 350 kg BW. Meat from FB group showed significantly lower fat, protein, cholesterol and saturated fatty acids than SB group. Significant differences were also found between the three muscles analysed [Longissimus thoracis (LT), Semitendinosus (ST) and Iliopsoas plus Psoas minor (IP)]. ST showed the most favourable fatty acids profile: lower SFA, higher PUFA, MUFA, ω-3, ω-6, CLA and, consequently, lower values for both atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. Results showed that faba bean can be used as a protein source alternative to soybean in the diet of young buffalo bulls for the production of high quality meat. PMID:24018277

  19. Enhancement of faba bean competitive ability by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is highly correlated with dynamic nutrient acquisition by competing wheat.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xu; Bei, Shuikuan; Li, Chunjie; Dong, Yan; Li, Haigang; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Fusuo; Zhang, Junling

    2015-01-29

    The mechanistic understanding of the dynamic processes linking nutrient acquisition and biomass production of competing individuals can be instructive in optimizing intercropping systems. Here, we examine the effect of inoculation with Funneliformis mosseae on competitive dynamics between wheat and faba bean. Wheat is less responsive to mycorrhizal inoculation. Both inoculated and uninoculated wheat attained the maximum instantaneous N and P capture approximately five days before it attained the maximum instantaneous biomass production, indicating that wheat detected the competitor and responded physiologically to resource limitation prior to the biomass response. By contrast, the instantaneous N and P capture by uninoculated faba bean remained low throughout the growth period, and plant growth was not significantly affected by competing wheat. However, inoculation substantially enhanced biomass production and N and P acquisition of faba bean. The exudation of citrate and malate acids and acid phosphatase activity were greater in mycorrhizal than in uninoculated faba bean, and rhizosphere pH tended to decrease. We conclude that under N and P limiting conditions, temporal separation of N and P acquisition by competing plant species and enhancement of complementary resource use in the presence of AMF might be attributable to the competitive co-existence of faba bean and wheat.

  20. Enhancement of faba bean competitive ability by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is highly correlated with dynamic nutrient acquisition by competing wheat

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Xu; Bei, Shuikuan; Li, Chunjie; Dong, Yan; Li, Haigang; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Fusuo; Zhang, Junling

    2015-01-01

    The mechanistic understanding of the dynamic processes linking nutrient acquisition and biomass production of competing individuals can be instructive in optimizing intercropping systems. Here, we examine the effect of inoculation with Funneliformis mosseae on competitive dynamics between wheat and faba bean. Wheat is less responsive to mycorrhizal inoculation. Both inoculated and uninoculated wheat attained the maximum instantaneous N and P capture approximately five days before it attained the maximum instantaneous biomass production, indicating that wheat detected the competitor and responded physiologically to resource limitation prior to the biomass response. By contrast, the instantaneous N and P capture by uninoculated faba bean remained low throughout the growth period, and plant growth was not significantly affected by competing wheat. However, inoculation substantially enhanced biomass production and N and P acquisition of faba bean. The exudation of citrate and malate acids and acid phosphatase activity were greater in mycorrhizal than in uninoculated faba bean, and rhizosphere pH tended to decrease. We conclude that under N and P limiting conditions, temporal separation of N and P acquisition by competing plant species and enhancement of complementary resource use in the presence of AMF might be attributable to the competitive co-existence of faba bean and wheat. PMID:25631933

  1. Protective role of Ginkgo biloba on petroleum wastewater-induced toxicity in Vicia faba L. (Fabaceae) root tip cells.

    PubMed

    Cavusoglu, Kultigin; Yapar, Kursad; Kinalioglu, Kadir; Turkmen, Zafer; Cavusoglu, Kursat; Yalcin, Emine

    2010-05-01

    The Melet is one of Turkey's economically important rivers. Most of the petroleum plants are located at fairly nearby of the river This situation is considered as main source of heavy metal pollution in the river. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective role of Ginkgo biloba (GB) on cytotoxicity induced by petroleum wastewater in Vicia faba root tip cells. For this aim, we used the germination percentage, root length, weight gain and micronucleus (MN) frequency as indicators of cytotoxicity. Additionally to the cytological analysis, lipid peroxidation analyses were also performed in V. faba roots. Heavy metal concentrations in wastewater were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The V. faba seeds were divided into six groups. They were treated with petroleum wastewater and 10, 20 and 30 microM doses of GB. As a result, the mean concentrations of heavy metals in wastewater were observed in the order: Pb > A > Ni > Cr > Fe > Cu > Zn > Cd. The highest germination percentage was observed in the seeds of the control and positive control groups (in proportion as 98 and 96%, respectively). Wastewater treatment caused a significant decrease in the germination percentage of Group III (in proportion as 44%). The highest root length and weight gain were observed in the seeds of the control and positive control groups at the end of the experimental period. The least root length and weight gain were observed in the seeds of Group III treated with wastewater alone. In the control group, the final weights of all the seeds increased about 4.08 g according to initial weight. The root lengths of the control seeds were measured as 6.80 cm at the end of the experimental period. The final weights of the seeds exposed to wastewater alone increased about 0.90 g according to initial weight. Besides, there was a significantly increase in the MDA levels of the roots exposed to wastewater. Heavy metals in wastewater significantly affected the MDA

  2. Identification and Verification of QTL Associated with Frost Tolerance Using Linkage Mapping and GWAS in Winter Faba Bean.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Ahmed; Arbaoui, Mustapha; El-Esawi, Mohamed; Abshire, Nathan; Martsch, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Frost stress is one of the abiotic stresses that causes a significant reduction in winter faba bean yield in Europe. The main objective of this work is to genetically improve frost tolerance in winter faba bean by identifying and validating QTL associated with frost tolerance to be used in marker-assisted selection (MAS). Two different genetic backgrounds were used: a biparental population (BPP) consisting of 101 inbred lines, and 189 genotypes from single seed descent (SSD) from the Gottingen Winter bean Population (GWBP). All experiments were conducted in a frost growth chamber under controlled conditions. Both populations were genotyped using the same set of 189 SNP markers. Visual scoring for frost stress symptoms was used to define frost tolerance in both populations. In addition, leaf fatty acid composition (FAC) and proline content were analyzed in BPP as physiological traits. QTL mapping (for BPP) and genome wide association studies (for GWBP) were performed to detect QTL associated with frost tolerance. High genetic variation between genotypes, and repeatability estimates, were found for all traits. QTL mapping and GWAS identified new putative QTL associated with promising frost tolerance and related traits. A set of 54 SNP markers common in both genetic backgrounds showed a high genetic diversity with polymorphic information content (PIC) ranging from 0.31 to 0.37 and gene diversity ranging from 0.39 to 0.50. This indicates that these markers may be polymorphic for many faba bean populations. Five SNP markers showed a significant marker-trait association with frost tolerance and related traits in both populations. Moreover, synteny analysis between Medicago truncatula (a model legume) and faba bean genomes was performed to identify candidate genes for these markers. Collinearity was evaluated between the faba bean genetic map constructed in this study and the faba bean consensus map, resulting in identifying possible genomic regions in faba bean which may

  3. Identification and Verification of QTL Associated with Frost Tolerance Using Linkage Mapping and GWAS in Winter Faba Bean

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Ahmed; Arbaoui, Mustapha; El-Esawi, Mohamed; Abshire, Nathan; Martsch, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Frost stress is one of the abiotic stresses that causes a significant reduction in winter faba bean yield in Europe. The main objective of this work is to genetically improve frost tolerance in winter faba bean by identifying and validating QTL associated with frost tolerance to be used in marker-assisted selection (MAS). Two different genetic backgrounds were used: a biparental population (BPP) consisting of 101 inbred lines, and 189 genotypes from single seed descent (SSD) from the Gottingen Winter bean Population (GWBP). All experiments were conducted in a frost growth chamber under controlled conditions. Both populations were genotyped using the same set of 189 SNP markers. Visual scoring for frost stress symptoms was used to define frost tolerance in both populations. In addition, leaf fatty acid composition (FAC) and proline content were analyzed in BPP as physiological traits. QTL mapping (for BPP) and genome wide association studies (for GWBP) were performed to detect QTL associated with frost tolerance. High genetic variation between genotypes, and repeatability estimates, were found for all traits. QTL mapping and GWAS identified new putative QTL associated with promising frost tolerance and related traits. A set of 54 SNP markers common in both genetic backgrounds showed a high genetic diversity with polymorphic information content (PIC) ranging from 0.31 to 0.37 and gene diversity ranging from 0.39 to 0.50. This indicates that these markers may be polymorphic for many faba bean populations. Five SNP markers showed a significant marker-trait association with frost tolerance and related traits in both populations. Moreover, synteny analysis between Medicago truncatula (a model legume) and faba bean genomes was performed to identify candidate genes for these markers. Collinearity was evaluated between the faba bean genetic map constructed in this study and the faba bean consensus map, resulting in identifying possible genomic regions in faba bean which may

  4. Identification and Verification of QTL Associated with Frost Tolerance Using Linkage Mapping and GWAS in Winter Faba Bean.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Ahmed; Arbaoui, Mustapha; El-Esawi, Mohamed; Abshire, Nathan; Martsch, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Frost stress is one of the abiotic stresses that causes a significant reduction in winter faba bean yield in Europe. The main objective of this work is to genetically improve frost tolerance in winter faba bean by identifying and validating QTL associated with frost tolerance to be used in marker-assisted selection (MAS). Two different genetic backgrounds were used: a biparental population (BPP) consisting of 101 inbred lines, and 189 genotypes from single seed descent (SSD) from the Gottingen Winter bean Population (GWBP). All experiments were conducted in a frost growth chamber under controlled conditions. Both populations were genotyped using the same set of 189 SNP markers. Visual scoring for frost stress symptoms was used to define frost tolerance in both populations. In addition, leaf fatty acid composition (FAC) and proline content were analyzed in BPP as physiological traits. QTL mapping (for BPP) and genome wide association studies (for GWBP) were performed to detect QTL associated with frost tolerance. High genetic variation between genotypes, and repeatability estimates, were found for all traits. QTL mapping and GWAS identified new putative QTL associated with promising frost tolerance and related traits. A set of 54 SNP markers common in both genetic backgrounds showed a high genetic diversity with polymorphic information content (PIC) ranging from 0.31 to 0.37 and gene diversity ranging from 0.39 to 0.50. This indicates that these markers may be polymorphic for many faba bean populations. Five SNP markers showed a significant marker-trait association with frost tolerance and related traits in both populations. Moreover, synteny analysis between Medicago truncatula (a model legume) and faba bean genomes was performed to identify candidate genes for these markers. Collinearity was evaluated between the faba bean genetic map constructed in this study and the faba bean consensus map, resulting in identifying possible genomic regions in faba bean which may

  5. Sucrose transport and phloem unloading in stem of Vicia faba: possible involvement of a sucrose carrier and osmotic regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Aloni, B.; Wyse, R.E.; Griffith, S.

    1986-06-01

    After pulse labeling of a source leaf with /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, stem sections of Vicia faba plants were cut and the efflux characteristics of /sup 14/C-labeled sugars into various buffered solutions were determined. Radiolabeled sucrose was shown to remain localized in the phloem and adjacent phloem parenchyma tissues after a 2-hour chase. Therefore, sucrose leakage from stem segments prepared following a 75-minute chase period was assumed to be characteristic of phloem unloading. The efflux of /sup 14/C assimilates from the phloem was enhanced by 1 millimolar p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) and by 5 micromolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenly hydrazone (CCCP). However, PCMBS inhibited and CCCP enhanced general leakage of nonradioactive sugars from the stem segments. Sucrose at concentrations of 50 millimolar in the free space increased efflux of (/sup 14/C)sucrose, presumably through an exchange mechanism. This exchange was inhibited by PCMBS and abolished by 0.2 molar mannitol. Increasing the osmotic concentration of the efflux medium with mannitol reduced (/sup 14/C)sucrose efflux. However, this inhibition seems not to be specific to sucrose unloading since leakage of total sugars, nonlabeled sucrose, glucose, and amino acids from the bulk of the tissue was reduced in a similar manner. The data suggest that phloem unloading in cut stem segments is consistent with passive efflux of sucrose from the phloem to the apoplast and that sucrose exchange via a membrane carrier may be involved.

  6. Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of pRb-like protein in root meristem cells of Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Polit, Justyna Teresa; Kaźmierczak, Andrzej; Walczak-Drzewiecka, Aurelia

    2012-01-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRb) regulates cell cycle progression by controlling the G1-to-S phase transition. As evidenced in mammals, pRb has three functionally distinct binding domains and interacts with a number of proteins including the E2F family of transcription factors, proteins with a conserved LxCxE motif (D-type cyclin), and c-Abl tyrosine kinase. CDK-mediated phosphorylation of pRb inhibits its ability to bind target proteins, thus enabling further progression of the cell cycle. As yet, the roles of pRb and pRb-binding factors have not been well characterized in plants. By using antibody which specifically recognizes phosphorylated serines (S807/811) in the c-Abl tyrosine kinase binding C-domain of human pRb, we provide evidence for the cell cycle-dependent changes in pRb-like proteins in root meristems cells of Vicia faba. An increased phosphorylation of this protein has been found correlated with the G1-to-S phase transition.

  7. Antioxidant and prooxidant effects of lanthanum ions on Vicia faba L. seedlings under cadmium stress, suggesting ecological risk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng-Run; Xiao, Jia-Jun; Tian, Yuan; Bao, Xia; Liu, Ling; Yu, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Rong; Chen, Tian-Yu

    2012-06-01

    The present study combined chemical analyses and biological measurements to investigate biphasic effects of La on Cd stress in leaves of Vicia faba seedlings, which were hydroponically cultivated for 15 d in the combination of 6 µM CdCl(2) and 2 to 480 µM La(NO(3))(3), respectively. The results showed that contents of Cd first elevated above and then declined below the 6 µM single Cd treatment when 2 to 30 µM extraneous La were combined. Contents of mineral nutrients altered differentially and became imbalanced. No distinct band was observed in catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), or ascorbate peroxidase (APX) patterns, but in superoxide dismutase (SOD) isozymes by the supplementation with 8 to 480 µM of extraneous La. Superoxide dismutase and APX activities changed as a U-shaped curve; however, CAT and GPX changed as an inverted U-shaped curve along with increasing La. Moreover, heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) production was reduced below the single treatment of Cd at 2 to 8 µM of extraneous La and enhanced thereafter. Thus, La at lower concentrations promoted antioxidation against Cd stress; La at higher concentrations turned to prooxidant effects, implicating potential ecological risk. Heat shock protein 70, combined with the antioxidant enzymes, constitutes an integrative defense system, which can be used to estimate the degree of antioxidation or prooxidation of extraneous La to Cd-induced oxidative stress in the seedlings.

  8. CYTOGENETIC AND MOLECULAR RESPONSES OF AMMONIUM SULPHATE APPLICATION FOR TOLERANCE TO EXTREME TEMPERATURES IN VICIA FABA L.

    PubMed

    Öney, S; Tabur, S; Tuna, M

    2015-01-01

    Effects of ammonium sulphate [(NH4)2SO4] on mitosis, cell cycle and chromosomes in Vicia faba L. seeds exposed to extreme temperatures were investigated using flowcytometric and cytogenetic analysis. Seeds germinated at high and low temperatures showed a signiicant decrease in mitotic index as compared to those of optimum temperature conditions. Application of 50 and 1000 µM (NH4)2SO4 were successful in alleviating the negative effects of low and high temperature on mitotic activity, respectively. 50 µM (NH4)2SO4 showed the most positive effect on cell cycle at the extreme temperatures. This concentration increased the cell division removing or decreasing the negative effects of temperature stress. Namely, the highest G2/M and S phase percentages under stress conditions were obtained with application of 50 µM (NH4)2SO4. Chromosomal aberrations were not observed in cells of seeds germinated in distilled water and also at any temperatures. However, the frequency of chromosomal aberrations increased significantly by increasing (NH4)2SO4 concentration. The highest aberration frequency in all temperature degree tested was found at 1000 µM (NH4)2SO4 concentration.

  9. SB202190 affects cell response to hydroxyurea-induced genotoxic stress in root meristems of Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Winnicki, Konrad; Maszewski, Janusz

    2012-11-01

    Genotoxic stress caused by a variety of chemical and physical agents may lead to DNA breaks and genome instability. Response to DNA damage depends on ATM/ATR sensor kinases and their downstream proteins, which arrange cell cycle checkpoints. Activation of ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated)/ATR (ATM and Rad 3-related) signaling pathway triggers cell cycle arrest (by keeping cyclin-Cdk complexes inactive), combined with gamma-phosphorylation of histone H2A.X and induction of DNA repair processes. However, genotoxic stress activates also mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) which may control the functions of checkpoint proteins both directly, by post-translational modifications, or indirectly, by regulation of their expression. Our results indicate that in root meristem cells of Vicia faba, MAP kinase signaling pathway takes part in response to hydroxyurea-induced genotoxic stress. It is shown that SB202190, an inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, triggers PCC (premature chromosome condensation) more rapidly, but only if cell cycle checkpoints are alleviated by caffeine. Since SB202190 and, independently, caffeine reduces HU-mediated histone H4 Lys5 acetylation, it may be that there is a cooperation of MAP kinase signaling pathways and ATM/ATR-dependent checkpoints during response to genotoxic stress.

  10. CYTOGENETIC AND MOLECULAR RESPONSES OF AMMONIUM SULPHATE APPLICATION FOR TOLERANCE TO EXTREME TEMPERATURES IN VICIA FABA L.

    PubMed

    Öney, S; Tabur, S; Tuna, M

    2015-01-01

    Effects of ammonium sulphate [(NH4)2SO4] on mitosis, cell cycle and chromosomes in Vicia faba L. seeds exposed to extreme temperatures were investigated using flowcytometric and cytogenetic analysis. Seeds germinated at high and low temperatures showed a signiicant decrease in mitotic index as compared to those of optimum temperature conditions. Application of 50 and 1000 µM (NH4)2SO4 were successful in alleviating the negative effects of low and high temperature on mitotic activity, respectively. 50 µM (NH4)2SO4 showed the most positive effect on cell cycle at the extreme temperatures. This concentration increased the cell division removing or decreasing the negative effects of temperature stress. Namely, the highest G2/M and S phase percentages under stress conditions were obtained with application of 50 µM (NH4)2SO4. Chromosomal aberrations were not observed in cells of seeds germinated in distilled water and also at any temperatures. However, the frequency of chromosomal aberrations increased significantly by increasing (NH4)2SO4 concentration. The highest aberration frequency in all temperature degree tested was found at 1000 µM (NH4)2SO4 concentration. PMID:26638498

  11. Microcystin-tolerant Rhizobium protects plants and improves nitrogen assimilation in Vicia faba irrigated with microcystin-containing waters.

    PubMed

    Lahrouni, Majida; Oufdou, Khalid; El Khalloufi, Fatima; Benidire, Loubna; Albert, Susann; Göttfert, Michael; Caviedes, Miguel A; Rodriguez-Llorente, Ignacio D; Oudra, Brahim; Pajuelo, Eloísa

    2016-05-01

    Irrigation of crops with microcystins (MCs)-containing waters-due to cyanobacterial blooms-affects plant productivity and could be a way for these potent toxins entering the food chain. This study was performed to establish whether MC-tolerant rhizobia could benefit growth, nodulation, and nitrogen metabolism of faba bean plants irrigated with MC-containing waters. For that, three different rhizobial strains-with different sensitivity toward MCs-were used: RhOF96 (most MC-sensitive strain), RhOF125 (most MC-tolerant strain), or Vicz1.1 (reference strain). As a control, plants grown without rhizobia and fertilized by NH4NO3 were included in the study. MC exposure decreased roots (30-37 %) and shoots (up to 15 %) dry weights in un-inoculated plants, whereas inoculation with rhizobia protects plants toward the toxic effects of MCs. Nodulation and nitrogen content were significantly impaired by MCs, with the exception of plants inoculated with the most tolerant strain RhOF125. In order to deep into the effect of inoculation on nitrogen metabolism, the nitrogen assimilatory enzymes (glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT)) were investigated: Fertilized plants showed decreased levels (15-30 %) of these enzymes, both in shoots and roots. By contrast, inoculated plants retained the levels of these enzymes in shoots and roots, as well as the levels of NADH-GOGAT activity in nodules. We conclude that the microcystin-tolerant Rhizobium protects faba bean plants and improves nitrogen assimilation when grown in the presence of MCs. PMID:26865488

  12. The utilization of lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) and faba bean globulins by rats is poorer than of soybean globulins or lactalbumin but the nutritional value of lupin seed meal is lower only than that of lactalbumin.

    PubMed

    Rubio, L A; Grant, G; Scislowski, P W; Brown, D; Bardocz, S; Pusztai, A

    1995-08-01

    The effects of dietary sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius, Unicrop) seed meal or its insoluble fiber (nonstarch polysaccharides + lignin) on performance, digestibility and nitrogen utilization in growing rats were studied in four experiments. Globulin proteins isolated from lupin, faba bean (Vicia faba L. minor) or soybean (Glycine max) were also incorporated into purified diets as replacements for lactalbumin (control) and the nutritional effects were evaluated. Isocaloric, legume-based diets supplemented with amino acids were used. Final weight gain, gain:feed ratios, nitrogen retention and net protein utilization of the animals fed whole lupin meal-based diets for 10 d were inferior to those of controls. In contrast, adding lupin insoluble fiber to a control diet produced no adverse effects. Ileal starch and apparent nitrogen digestibilities, and fecal digestibility of starch in lupin-fed rats were higher than those of controls, but fecal true nitrogen digestibility was lower. Replacement of lactalbumin with globulin proteins from lupin or faba bean depressed food intake and protein utilization, but only performance was affected by consumption of soybean globulins. Rats consuming lupin or faba bean globulins excreted significantly more nitrogen, particularly as urea through the urine. This did not occur in rats fed soybean globulins. Urea concentration in plasma was higher in rats fed diets containing lupin meal or legume globulins. The concentrations of urea, arginine and ornithine in plasma increased significantly compared with control values after 3 to 9 h of a lupin diet. After 9 h, plasma lysine was also decreased. We concluded that the main reasons for the low nutritional value of sweet lupin seed meal are likely to be related to the chemical structure of the globulin proteins and their adverse effects on growth and nitrogen metabolism, and not to any known antinutritional factor or poor digestibility.

  13. Effects of essential oil treatments on the secondary protein structure of Vicia faba: a mid-infrared spectroscopic study supported by two-dimensional correlation analysis.

    PubMed

    Mecozzi, Mauro; Sturchio, Elena

    2015-02-25

    In this study we investigated the effects of essential oil treatments on the secondary protein structure of the Vicia faba roots, a bioindicator plant, in order to obtain information for the potential allelopathic uses of these oils as alternative to the use of pesticides in agriculture. We tested two mixtures of essential oils consisting of Tween 20-emulsions of tea tree oil (TTO) and Tween 20-emulsion of Clove and Rosemary (GARROM) essential oils respectively at three different oil concentrations each. The molecular modifications caused in Vicia faba by exposure to oil emulsions were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance (DRIFT) mode. We considered the specific Amide I, Amide II and Amide VI bands by ordinary and second derivative spectroscopy and the results showed that both Tween 20-emulsion of GARROM and Tween 20-emulsion of TTO oils cause transitions among the secondary (α-helix, β-sheet and β-turn) structures with in addition the appearance of random coil structures in exposed samples. The Amide VI bands, placed between 500 and 600 cm(-1), confirmed the structural transitions observed for the Amide I bands. In addition we observed the presence of a protein oxidation effect for TTO treated samples, oxidation which resulted negligible instead for the GARROM oil samples. At last, FTIR spectra were also submitted to two-dimensional correlation analysis (2DCORR) and double two-dimensional correlation analysis (D2DCORR); the results confirmed the different effects caused by the two typologies of essential oils on the secondary protein structures of Vicia faba roots.

  14. Effects of essential oil treatments on the secondary protein structure of Vicia faba: A mid-infrared spectroscopic study supported by two-dimensional correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecozzi, Mauro; Sturchio, Elena

    2015-02-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of essential oil treatments on the secondary protein structure of the Vicia faba roots, a bioindicator plant, in order to obtain information for the potential allelopathic uses of these oils as alternative to the use of pesticides in agriculture. We tested two mixtures of essential oils consisting of Tween 20-emulsions of tea tree oil (TTO) and Tween 20-emulsion of Clove and Rosemary (GARROM) essential oils respectively at three different oil concentrations each. The molecular modifications caused in Vicia faba by exposure to oil emulsions were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance (DRIFT) mode. We considered the specific Amide I, Amide II and Amide VI bands by ordinary and second derivative spectroscopy and the results showed that both Tween 20-emulsion of GARROM and Tween 20-emulsion of TTO oils cause transitions among the secondary (α-helix, β-sheet and β-turn) structures with in addition the appearance of random coil structures in exposed samples. The Amide VI bands, placed between 500 and 600 cm-1, confirmed the structural transitions observed for the Amide I bands. In addition we observed the presence of a protein oxidation effect for TTO treated samples, oxidation which resulted negligible instead for the GARROM oil samples. At last, FTIR spectra were also submitted to two-dimensional correlation analysis (2DCORR) and double two-dimensional correlation analysis (D2DCORR); the results confirmed the different effects caused by the two typologies of essential oils on the secondary protein structures of Vicia faba roots.

  15. Genotoxicity of water samples from Dianchi lake detected by the Vicia faba micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Duan, C Q; Hu, B; Jiang, X H; Wen, C H; Wang, Z; Wang, Y X

    1999-05-19

    Dianchi Lake covers about a 300 km2 area. Kunming city on the edge of the lake is surrounded by industrial establishments. Farm land surrounds the remaining areas of the lake. The lake water is polluted by the Kunming city municipal sewage from 3 million inhabitants, the industrial effluent and farm runoff. Water samples were collected from 12 sites along the shore of the lake during the dry (May) and rainy (August) seasons for genotoxicity testing with the Vicia micronucleus assay during the year 1995. Genotoxicity in terms of micronuclei (MCN) frequencies in the root tip cells of Vicia showed a consistent elevated frequency of MCN over the control sample at the 0.05-0.01 levels of significance in both seasons. The MCN frequencies of sites A (Daguanhe), B (Gaoqiao) and C (Xiyuan) were 3.5-4 times as high as the control values (5.25/1000 cells) in the dry season. In the rainy season, the MCN frequencies of water samples from most of the 12 sites were relatively lower than those of the dry season except sites J (Haikou), and K (Kunyang). The average MCN frequency of the dry season samples was 14.97 per 1000 cells and that of the rainy season samples was 12.24 per 1000 cells while the average control value was around 5.00/1000 cells.

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions in a faba bean crop: incluence of management practices and cultivars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Navarro, Virginia; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Fernández, Juan

    2016-04-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of two cultivars of faba bean (Muchamiel and Palenca) with two different management practices (conventional and organic) on the direct emissions of N2O and CH4 during the crop cycle and their interaction with soil properties. The study was randomly designed in blocks with four replications, in plots of 10 m2. Faba bean crop spanned from 24 November 2014 to 2 March 2015. Gas samples were taken in different times (0, 30 and 60 minutes) once a week using the static gas chamber technique for crop cycle. The results showed that accumulated N2O was higher for both cultivars under conventional management practice with comparison to organic management, with an average increase of 18.27 mg m-2 in Muchamiel cultivar and 8.95 mg m-2 in Palenca cultivar. Accumulated CH4 was higher in Palenca cultivar under conventional management practice, with an average increase of 455.28 mg m-2 over this cultivar under organic management practice. We observed significant negative correlations between N2O emission and β-glucosaminidase activity, and between CH4 and sodium content in soil. In addition, CH4 emission showed a positive correlation with the enzyme activities arylesterase and cellulase. Acknowledgements: This research was financed by the FP7 European Project Eurolegume (FP7-KBBE- 613781).

  17. Low strigolactone root exudation: a novel mechanism of broomrape (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) resistance available for faba bean breeding.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Kisugi, Takaya; Xie, Xiaonan; Rubiales, Diego; Yoneyama, Koichi

    2014-07-23

    Faba bean yield is severely constrained in the Mediterranean region and Middle East by the parasitic weeds Orobanche crenata, O. foetida, and Phelipanche aegyptiaca. Seed germination of these weeds is triggered upon recognition of host root exudates. Only recently faba bean accessions have been identified with resistance based in low induction of parasitic seed germination, but the underlying mechanism was not identified. Strigolactones are a group of terpenoid lactones involved in the host recognition by parasitic plants. Our LC-MS/MS analysis of root exudates of the susceptible accession Prothabon detected orobanchol, orobanchyl acetate, and a novel germination stimulant. A time course analysis indicated that their concentration increased with plant age. However, low or undetectable amounts of these germination stimulants were detected in root exudates of the resistant lines Quijote and Navio at all plant ages. A time course analysis of seed germination induced by root exudates of each faba bean accession indicated important differences in the ability to stimulate parasitic germination. Results presented here show that resistance to parasitic weeds based on low strigolactone exudation does exist within faba bean germplasm. Therefore, selection for this trait is feasible in a breeding program. The remarkable fact that low induction of germination is similarly operative against O. crenata, O. foetida, and P. aegyptiaca reinforces the value of this resistance.

  18. Inhibitors of ethylene synthesis inhibit auxin-induced stomatal opening in epidermis detached from leaves of Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Merritt, F; Kemper, A; Tallman, G

    2001-02-01

    Using leaf epidermis from Vicia faba, we tested whether auxin-induced stomatal opening was initiated by auxin-induced ethylene synthesis. Epidermis was dark-incubated in buffered KNO3 containing 0.1 mM alpha-napthalene acetic acid or 1 mM indole-3-acetic acid. Maximum net opening was ca. 4 micron after 6 h. Opening was reversed by 20 microM ABA, 0.1 mM CaCl2. 1-Aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase catalyzes synthesis of ACC, the immediate precursor to ethylene. Auxin-induced stomatal opening was fully inhibited by 10 microM 1-aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), an ACC synthase inhibitor. In solutions containing AVG, auxin-induced opening was restored in a concentration-dependent manner by exogenous ACC, but not in control solutions lacking an auxin. ACC-mediated reversal of AVG-inhibition of stomatal opening was inhibited by alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), an inhibitor of ACC oxidase, the last enzyme in the ethylene biosynthetic pathway, by 10 microM silver thiosulfate (STS), an inhibitor of ethylene action, and by 20 microM ABA, 0.1 mM CaCl2. CoCl2, an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis, also inhibited auxin-induced opening. Both STS and CoCl2 inhibited opening induced by light or by fusicoccin, but neither light- nor fusicoccin-induced opening was inhibited by AVG. These results support the hypothesis that auxin-induced stomatal opening is mediated through auxin-induced ethylene production by guard cells.

  19. Sugar and organic acid accumulation in guard cells of Vicia faba in response to red and blue light

    SciTech Connect

    Talbott, L.D.; Zeiger, E. )

    1993-08-01

    Changes in neutral sugar and organic acid content of guard cells were quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography during stomatal opening in different light qualities. Sonicated Vicia faba epidermal peels were irradiated with 10 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1] of blue light, a fluence rate insufficient for the activation of guard cell photosynthesis, or 125 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1] of red light, in the presence of 1mM KCl, 0.1 mM CaCl[sub 2]. The low-fluence-rate blue light stimulated an average net stomatal opening of 4.7 [mu]m in 2 h, whereas the saturating fluence rate of red light stimulated an average net opening of 3.8 [mu]m in 2 h. Under blue light, the malate content of guard cells increased to 173% of the initial level during the first 30 min of opening and declined as opening continued. Sucrose levels continuously rose throughout the blue light-stimulated opening, reaching 215% of the initial level after 2 h. The starch hydrolysis products maltose and maltotriose remained elevated at all times. Under red light, guard cells showed very little increase in organic acid or maltose levels, whereas sucrose levels increased to 208% of the initial level after 2 h. Total measured organic metabolite concentrations were correlated with stomatal apertures in all cases except where substantial malate increases occurred. These results support the hypothesis that light quality modulates alternative mechanisms of osmotic accumulation guard cells, including potassium uptake, photosynthetic sugar production, and starch breakdown. 29 refs., 5 figs., 2 tab.

  20. Influence of partial replacement of soya bean meal by faba beans or peas in heavy pigs diet on meat quality, residual anti-nutritional factors and phytoestrogen content.

    PubMed

    Gatta, Domenico; Russo, Claudia; Giuliotti, Lorella; Mannari, Claudio; Picciarelli, Piero; Lombardi, Lara; Giovannini, Luca; Ceccarelli, Nello; Mariotti, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    The study evaluated the partial substitution of soybean meal by faba beans (18%) or peas (20%) as additional protein sources in diets destined for typical Italian heavy pig production. It compared animal performances, meat quality, the presence of residual anti-nutritional factors (ANF) and phytoestrogens in plasma and meat and the possible effects on pig health, by evaluating oxidative, inflammatory and pro-atherogenic markers. The results showed that the productive performances, expressed as body weight and feed conversion ratio, of pigs fed with faba bean and pea diets were similar to those of pigs fed only the soybean meal. Meat quality of pigs fed with the three diets was similar in colour, water-holding capacity, tenderness and chemical composition. Despite the higher levels of phytoestrogen in the plasma of pigs fed only the soybean meal, phytoestrogen concentration in the muscle was equivalent to that of animals fed diets with faba beans, whereas pigs fed a diet with peas showed a lower concentration. Inflammation and pro-atherogenic parameters did not show significant differences among the three diets. Overall, the partial substitution of soybean meal by faba beans appears more interesting than with peas, particularly in relation to the higher amount of polyphenols in the diet and the highest concentration of phytoestrogens found in the plasma and muscle of animals, while the pyrimidine anti-nutritional compounds present in the diet did not appear to accumulate and had no effect on the growth performance of animals.

  1. Chlorella Induces Stomatal Closure via NADPH Oxidase-Dependent ROS Production and Its Effects on Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency in Vicia faba

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Xu, Shan-Shan; Gao, Jing; Pan, Sha; Wang, Gen-Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been established to participate in stomatal closure induced by live microbes and microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Chlorella as a beneficial microorganism can be expected to trigger stomatal closure via ROS production. Here, we reported that Chlorella induced stomatal closure in a dose-and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of Vicia faba. Using pharmacological methods in this work, we found that the Chlorella-induced stomatal closure was almost completely abolished by a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger, catalase (CAT), significantly suppressed by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), and slightly affected by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), suggesting that ROS production involved in Chlorella-induced stomatal closure is mainly mediated by DPI-sensitive NADPH oxidase. Additionally, Exogenous application of optimal concentrations of Chlorella suspension improved instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi) in Vicia faba via a reduction in leaf transpiration rate (E) without a parallel reduction in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) assessed by gas-exchange measurements. The chlorophyll fluorescence and content analysis further demonstrated that short-term use of Chlorella did not influence plant photosynthetic reactions center. These results preliminarily reveal that Chlorella can trigger stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in epidermal strips and improve WUEi in leave levels. PMID:24687099

  2. Thidiazuron-induced plant regeneration from protoplasts of Vicia faba cv. Mythos.

    PubMed

    Tegeder, M; Gebhardt, D; Schieder, O; Pickardt, T

    1995-12-01

    Protoplasts of 10 cultivars of V. faba were isolated from etiolated shoot-tips and tested for their regeneration capacity. After purification, protoplasts were embedded in sodium alginate and cultivated in the medium of Kao and Michayluk (1975) containing 0.5 mg·1(-1) of each 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, naphthylacetic acid and 6-benzylaminopurine. Depending on cultivar, division frequencies of up to 40% were obtained. Six weeks after embedding, protoplast-derived calluses were transferred to Gelrite-solidified media with different combinations of growth regulators. A two step protocol (auxin high/low) was tested for its ability to induce somatic embryogenesis. The formation of globular structures was observed, but no embryo formation could be achieved. In contrast, cultivation of protocalluses on medium supplemented with thidiazuron resulted in shoot development in cultivar Mythos. To generate mature plants, the shoots were grafted onto young seedlings. In order to optimize the in vitro-conditions, different concentrations of thidiazuron alone or in combination with naphthylacetic acid were tested, showing that an increase of thidiazuron and the addition of naphthylacetic acid positively affects both the viability of protocalluses and the regeneration frequency.

  3. High concentrations of Na+ and Cl- ions in soil solution have simultaneous detrimental effects on growth of faba bean under salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K

    2010-10-01

    Despite the fact that most plants accumulate both sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) ions to high concentration in their shoot tissues when grown in saline soils, most research on salt tolerance in annual plants has focused on the toxic effects of Na(+) accumulation. There have also been some recent concerns about the ability of hydroponic systems to predict the responses of plants to salinity in soil. To address these two issues, an experiment was conducted to compare the responses to Na(+) and to Cl(-) separately in comparison with the response to NaCl in a soil-based system using two varieties of faba bean (Vicia faba), that differed in salinity tolerance. The variety Nura is a salt-sensitive variety that accumulates Na(+) and Cl(-) to high concentrations while the line 1487/7 is salt tolerant which accumulates lower concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-). Soils were prepared which were treated with Na(+) or Cl(-) by using a combination of different Na(+) salts and Cl(-) salts, respectively, or with NaCl. While this method produced Na(+)-dominant and Cl(-)-dominant soils, it unavoidably led to changes in the availability of other anions and cations, but tissue analysis of the plants did not indicate any nutritional deficiencies or toxicities other than those targeted by the salt treatments. The growth, water use, ionic composition, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. Both high Na(+) and high Cl(-) reduced growth of faba bean but plants were more sensitive to Cl(-) than to Na(+). The reductions in growth and photosynthesis were greater under NaCl stress and the effect was mainly additive. An important difference to previous hydroponic studies was that increasing the concentrations of NaCl in the soil increased the concentration of Cl(-) more than the concentration of Na(+). The data showed that salinity caused by high concentrations of NaCl can reduce growth by the accumulation of high concentrations of both Na(+) and Cl(-) simultaneously, but

  4. The Effect of Orobanche crenata Infection Severity in Faba Bean, Field Pea, and Grass Pea Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Flores, Fernando; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Broomrape weeds (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) are root holoparasites that feed off a wide range of important crops. Among them, Orobanche crenata attacks legumes complicating their inclusion in cropping systems along the Mediterranean area and West Asia. The detrimental effect of broomrape parasitism in crop yield can reach up to 100% depending on infection severity and the broomrape-crop association. This work provides field data of the consequences of O. crenata infection severity in three legume crops, i.e., faba bean, field pea, and grass pea. Regression functions modeled productivity losses and revealed trends in dry matter allocation in relation to infection severity. The host species differentially limits parasitic sink strength indicating different levels of broomrape tolerance at equivalent infection severities. Reductions in host aboveground biomass were observed starting at low infection severity and half maximal inhibitory performance was predicted as 4.5, 8.2, and 1.5 parasites per faba bean, field pea, and grass pea plant, respectively. Reductions in host biomass occurred in both vegetative and reproductive organs, the latter resulting more affected. The increase of resources allocated within the parasite was concomitant to reduction of host seed yield indicating that parasite growth and host reproduction compete directly for resources within a host plant. However, the parasitic sink activity does not fully explain the total host biomass reduction because combined biomass of host–parasite complex was lower than the biomass of uninfected plants. In grass pea, the seed yield was negligible at severities higher than four parasites per plant. In contrast, faba bean and field pea sustained low but significant seed production at the highest infection severity. Data on seed yield and seed number indicated that the sensitivity of field pea to O. crenata limited the production of grain yield by reducing seed number but maintaining seed size. In contrast

  5. Phytotoxicity of imidazolium-based ILs with different anions in soil on Vicia faba seedlings and the influence of anions on toxicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Tan, Meiying

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the toxic effects of ionic liquids (ILs) in soil on plants at the molecular and cellular levels and to assess the influence of anions on IL toxicity, the toxic effects of 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Demim]Cl), 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Demim]Br) and 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ([Demim]NO3) in soil on Vicia faba (V. faba) seedlings were studied for the first time. Our results show that these ILs had little impact on the growth of V. faba seedlings at 1, 5 and 25 mg kg(-1); however, the shoot length, root length, dry weight and pigment contents of the seedlings were significantly affected at 50 mg kg(-1). Furthermore, the EC50 values for effects of [Demim]Cl, [Demim]Br and [Demim]NO3 on the shoot length, root length and dry weight induced were consistent, indicating that the anion may have little influence on IL toxicity. ROS levels were also significantly enhanced at 50 mg kg(-1), resulting in cellular lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and oxidative damage. PMID:26688264

  6. Phytotoxicity of imidazolium-based ILs with different anions in soil on Vicia faba seedlings and the influence of anions on toxicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Tan, Meiying

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the toxic effects of ionic liquids (ILs) in soil on plants at the molecular and cellular levels and to assess the influence of anions on IL toxicity, the toxic effects of 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Demim]Cl), 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Demim]Br) and 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ([Demim]NO3) in soil on Vicia faba (V. faba) seedlings were studied for the first time. Our results show that these ILs had little impact on the growth of V. faba seedlings at 1, 5 and 25 mg kg(-1); however, the shoot length, root length, dry weight and pigment contents of the seedlings were significantly affected at 50 mg kg(-1). Furthermore, the EC50 values for effects of [Demim]Cl, [Demim]Br and [Demim]NO3 on the shoot length, root length and dry weight induced were consistent, indicating that the anion may have little influence on IL toxicity. ROS levels were also significantly enhanced at 50 mg kg(-1), resulting in cellular lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and oxidative damage.

  7. The potentiality of Trichoderma harzianum in alleviation the adverse effects of salinity in faba bean plants.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Baki, G K; Mostafa, Doaa

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between sodium chloride and Trichoderma harzianum (T24) on growth parameters, ion contents, MDA content, proline, soluble proteins as well as SDS page protein profile were studied in Vicia faba Giza 429. A sharp reduction was found in fresh and dry mass of shoots and roots with increasing salinity. Trichoderma treatments promoted the growth criteria as compared with corresponding salinized plants. The water content and leaf area exhibited a marked decrease with increasing salinity. Trichoderma treatments induced a progressive increase in both parameters. Both proline and MDA contents were increased progressively as the salinity rose in the soil. Trichoderma treatments considerably retarded the accumulation of both parameters in shoots and roots. Both Na+ and K+ concentration increased in both organs by enhancing salinity levels. The treatment with Trichoderma harzianum enhanced the accumulation of both ions. Exposure of plants to different concentrations of salinity, or others treated with Trichoderma harzianum produced marked changes in their protein pattern. Three types of alterations were observed: the synthesis of certain proteins declined significantly, specific synthesis of certain other proteins were markedly observed and synthesis of a set specific protein was induced de novo in plant treated with Trichoderma harzianum.

  8. Morphological and physiological characterization of different genotypes of faba bean under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Manzer H; Al-Khaishany, Mutahhar Y; Al-Qutami, Mohammed A; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H; Grover, Anil; Ali, Hayssam M; Al-Wahibi, Mona Suliman

    2015-09-01

    Heat stress (HS) is the major constraint to crop productivity worldwide. The objective of the present experiment was to select the tolerant and sensitive genotype(s) on the basis of morpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of ten Vicia faba genotypes. These genotypes were as follows: Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam 1, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853. The experimental work was undertaken to study the effects of different levels of temperature (control, mild, and modest) on plant height (PH) plant(-1), fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) plant(-1), area leaf(-1), content of leaf relative water (RWC), proline content (Pro) and total chlorophyll (Total Chl), electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde level (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes. HS significantly affected growth performance of all genotypes. However, the magnitude of reduction in genotypes 'C5' was relatively low, possibly due to its better antioxidant activities (CAT, POD and SOD), and accumulation of Pro and Total Chl, and leaf RWC. In the study, 'C5' was noted to be the most HS tolerant and 'Espan' most HS sensitive genotypes. It was concluded that the heat-tolerant genotypes may have better osmotic adjustment and protection from free radicals by increasing the accumulation of Pro content with increased activities of antioxidant enzyme. PMID:26288573

  9. Morphological and physiological characterization of different genotypes of faba bean under heat stress

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Manzer H.; Al-Khaishany, Mutahhar Y.; Al-Qutami, Mohammed A.; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H.; Grover, Anil; Ali, Hayssam M.; Al-Wahibi, Mona Suliman

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) is the major constraint to crop productivity worldwide. The objective of the present experiment was to select the tolerant and sensitive genotype(s) on the basis of morpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of ten Vicia faba genotypes. These genotypes were as follows: Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam 1, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853. The experimental work was undertaken to study the effects of different levels of temperature (control, mild, and modest) on plant height (PH) plant−1, fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) plant−1, area leaf−1, content of leaf relative water (RWC), proline content (Pro) and total chlorophyll (Total Chl), electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde level (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes. HS significantly affected growth performance of all genotypes. However, the magnitude of reduction in genotypes ‘C5’ was relatively low, possibly due to its better antioxidant activities (CAT, POD and SOD), and accumulation of Pro and Total Chl, and leaf RWC. In the study, ‘C5’ was noted to be the most HS tolerant and ‘Espan’ most HS sensitive genotypes. It was concluded that the heat-tolerant genotypes may have better osmotic adjustment and protection from free radicals by increasing the accumulation of Pro content with increased activities of antioxidant enzyme. PMID:26288573

  10. Impact of phosphate-solubilizing fungi on the yield and phosphorus-uptake by wheat and faba bean plants.

    PubMed

    Wahid, O A; Mehana, T A

    2000-09-01

    Three fungal isolates (phosphate-dissolvers), Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus and Penicillium pinophilum were isolated from the rhizosphere of different plants grown in Ismailia and South Sinai Governorates. They effectively solubilized rock phosphate or tricalcium phosphate in Pikovskaya's liquid medium. In pot and column experiments, they significantly reduced pH and increased available phosphorus in the soil treated with either rock phosphate or superphosphate. The yield components of wheat and faba bean plants increased as a result of soil inoculation with the isolated fungi. Penicillium pinophilum was the most efficient isolate. It increased the yield of wheat grains by 28.9 and 32.8% in the soil treated with rock phosphate and superphosphate, respectively. Similarly, it increased the production of faba bean seeds by 14.7 and 29.4% with the same treatments. The uptake of phosphorus by both crops significantly increased due to inoculation of the soil with the tested fungi.

  11. Red light-dependent CO/sub 2/ uptake and oxygen evolution in guard cell protoplasts of Vicia faba L. : evidence for photosynthetic CO/sub 2/ fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Shimazaki, K.I.; Zeiger, E.

    1987-05-01

    Suspensions of dark-adapted guard cell protoplasts of Vicia faba L. alkalinized their medium in response to irradiation with red light. The alkalinization peaked within about 50 minutes and reached steady state shortly thereafter. Simultaneous measurements of O/sub 2/ concentrations and medium pH showed that oxygen evolved in parallel with the red light-induced alkalinization. When the protoplasts were returned to darkness, they acidified their medium and consumed oxygen. Both oxygen evolution and medium alkalinization were inhibited by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU). In photosynthetically competent preparations, light-dependent medium alkalinization is diagnostic for photosynthetic carbon fixation, indicating that guard cell chloroplasts have that capacity. The striking contrast between the responses of guard cell protoplasts to red light, which induces alkalinization, and that to blue light, which activates proton extrusion, suggests that proton pumping and photosynthesis in guard cells are regulated by light quality.

  12. Modification of catalase and MAPK in Vicia faba cultivated in soil with high natural radioactivity and treated with a static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Haghighat, Nazanin; Abdolmaleki, Parviz; Ghanati, Faezeh; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Payez, Atefeh

    2014-03-01

    The effects of a static magnetic field (SMF) and high natural radioactivity (HR) on catalase and MAPK genes in Vicia faba were investigated. Soil samples with high natural radioactivity were collected from Ramsar in north Iran where the annual radiation absorbed dose from background radiation is higher than 20mSv/year. The specific activity of the radionuclides of (232)Th, (236)Ra, and (40)K was measured using gamma spectrometry. The seeds were planted either in the soil with high natural radioactivity or in the control soils and were then exposed to a SMF of 30mT for 8 days; 8h/day. Levels of expression of catalase and MAPK genes, catalase activity and H2O2 content were evaluated. The results demonstrated significant differences in the expression of catalase and MAPK genes in SMF- and HR-treated plants compared to the controls. An increase in catalase activity was accompanied by increased expression of its gene and accumulation of H2O2. Relative expression of the MAPK gene in treated plants, however, was lower than those of the controls. The results suggest that the response of V. faba plants to SMF and HR may be mediated by modification of catalase and MAPK.

  13. Caffeine-Induced Premature Chromosome Condensation Results in the Apoptosis-Like Programmed Cell Death in Root Meristems of Vicia faba

    PubMed Central

    Rybaczek, Dorota; Musiałek, Marcelina Weronika; Balcerczyk, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated that the activation of apoptosis-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD) was a secondary result of caffeine (CF) induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) in hydroxyurea-synchronized Vicia faba root meristem cells. Initiation of the apoptotic-like cell degradation pathway seemed to be the result of DNA damage generated by treatment with hydroxyurea (HU) [double-stranded breaks (DSBs) mostly] and co-treatment with HU/CF [single-stranded breaks (SSBs) mainly]. A single chromosome comet assay was successfully used to study different types of DNA damage (neutral variant–DSBs versus alkaline–DSBs or SSBs). The immunocytochemical detection of H2AXS139Ph and PARP-2 were used as markers for DSBs and SSBs, respectively. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB) were applied for quantitative immunofluorescence measurements of dead, dying and living cells. Apoptotic-type DNA fragmentation and positive TUNEL reaction finally proved that CF triggers AL-PCD in stressed V. faba root meristem cells. In addition, the results obtained under transmission electron microscopy (TEM) further revealed apoptotic-like features at the ultrastructural level of PCC-type cells: (i) extensive vacuolization; (ii) abnormal chromatin condensation, its marginalization and concomitant degradation; (iii) formation of autophagy-like vesicles (iv) protoplast shrinkage (v) fragmentation of cell nuclei and (vi) extensive degeneration of the cells. The results obtained have been discussed with respect to the vacuolar/autolytic type of plant-specific AL-PCD. PMID:26545248

  14. Three major nucleolar proteins migrate from nucleolus to nucleoplasm and cytoplasm in root tip cells of Vicia faba L. exposed to aluminum.

    PubMed

    Qin, Rong; Zhang, Huaning; Li, Shaoshan; Jiang, Wusheng; Liu, Donghua

    2014-09-01

    Results from our previous investigation indicated that Al could affect the nucleolus and induce extrusion of silver-staining nucleolar particles containing argyrophilic proteins from the nucleolus into the cytoplasm in root tip cells of Vicia faba L. So far, the nucleolar proteins involved have not been identified. It is well known that nucleophosmin (B23), nucleolin (C23), and fibrillarin are three major and multifunctional nucleolar proteins. Therefore, effects of Al on B23, C23, and fibrillarin in root tip cells of V. faba exposed to 100 μM Al for 48 h were observed and analyzed using indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting. The results from this work demonstrated that after 100 μM of Al treatment for 48 h, B23 and C23 migrated from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm and fibrillarin from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. In some cells, fibrillarin was present only in the cytoplasm. Western blotting data revealed higher expression of the three major nucleolar proteins in Al-treated roots compared with the control and that the B23 content increased markedly. These findings confirmed our previous observations.

  15. Electrophoretic assay for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in guard cells and other leaf cells of Vicia faba L

    SciTech Connect

    Tarczynski, M.C.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Arold, N.; Neuhoff, V.; Hampp, R. Max-Planck-Institute fuer Experimentelle Medizin, Goettingen Universitaet Tuebingen )

    1989-04-01

    The ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) contents of guard cells and other cells of Vicia faba L. leaflet were determined. To prevent proteolysis, proteins of frozen protoplast preparations or of cells excised from freeze-dried leaf were extracted directly in a sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-containing solution which was heated immediately after sample addition. Protein profiles of the different cell types were obtained by electrophoresis of the extracts and subsequent densitometry of the stained protein bands. About one-third of the protein of palisade parenchyma and of spongy parenchyma was Rubisco large subunit. Using chlorophyll (Chl):protein ratios previously obtained, we calculate mesophyll contained ca. 22 millimoles Rubisco per mole Chl. In contrast, guard-cell protoplast preparations were calculated to contain from 0.7 to 2.2 millimoles Rubisco per mole Chl. The upper end of this range is an overestimate resulting from contamination by mesophyll and to the method of peak integration. Extracts of excised guard cells were calculated to contain 0.05 to 0.17 millimole Rubisco per mole Chl. We conclude that Rubisco is absent, or virtually so, in guard cells of V. faba.

  16. Caffeine-Induced Premature Chromosome Condensation Results in the Apoptosis-Like Programmed Cell Death in Root Meristems of Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Rybaczek, Dorota; Musiałek, Marcelina Weronika; Balcerczyk, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated that the activation of apoptosis-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD) was a secondary result of caffeine (CF) induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) in hydroxyurea-synchronized Vicia faba root meristem cells. Initiation of the apoptotic-like cell degradation pathway seemed to be the result of DNA damage generated by treatment with hydroxyurea (HU) [double-stranded breaks (DSBs) mostly] and co-treatment with HU/CF [single-stranded breaks (SSBs) mainly]. A single chromosome comet assay was successfully used to study different types of DNA damage (neutral variant-DSBs versus alkaline-DSBs or SSBs). The immunocytochemical detection of H2AXS139Ph and PARP-2 were used as markers for DSBs and SSBs, respectively. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB) were applied for quantitative immunofluorescence measurements of dead, dying and living cells. Apoptotic-type DNA fragmentation and positive TUNEL reaction finally proved that CF triggers AL-PCD in stressed V. faba root meristem cells. In addition, the results obtained under transmission electron microscopy (TEM) further revealed apoptotic-like features at the ultrastructural level of PCC-type cells: (i) extensive vacuolization; (ii) abnormal chromatin condensation, its marginalization and concomitant degradation; (iii) formation of autophagy-like vesicles (iv) protoplast shrinkage (v) fragmentation of cell nuclei and (vi) extensive degeneration of the cells. The results obtained have been discussed with respect to the vacuolar/autolytic type of plant-specific AL-PCD. PMID:26545248

  17. Caffeine-Induced Premature Chromosome Condensation Results in the Apoptosis-Like Programmed Cell Death in Root Meristems of Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Rybaczek, Dorota; Musiałek, Marcelina Weronika; Balcerczyk, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated that the activation of apoptosis-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD) was a secondary result of caffeine (CF) induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) in hydroxyurea-synchronized Vicia faba root meristem cells. Initiation of the apoptotic-like cell degradation pathway seemed to be the result of DNA damage generated by treatment with hydroxyurea (HU) [double-stranded breaks (DSBs) mostly] and co-treatment with HU/CF [single-stranded breaks (SSBs) mainly]. A single chromosome comet assay was successfully used to study different types of DNA damage (neutral variant-DSBs versus alkaline-DSBs or SSBs). The immunocytochemical detection of H2AXS139Ph and PARP-2 were used as markers for DSBs and SSBs, respectively. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB) were applied for quantitative immunofluorescence measurements of dead, dying and living cells. Apoptotic-type DNA fragmentation and positive TUNEL reaction finally proved that CF triggers AL-PCD in stressed V. faba root meristem cells. In addition, the results obtained under transmission electron microscopy (TEM) further revealed apoptotic-like features at the ultrastructural level of PCC-type cells: (i) extensive vacuolization; (ii) abnormal chromatin condensation, its marginalization and concomitant degradation; (iii) formation of autophagy-like vesicles (iv) protoplast shrinkage (v) fragmentation of cell nuclei and (vi) extensive degeneration of the cells. The results obtained have been discussed with respect to the vacuolar/autolytic type of plant-specific AL-PCD.

  18. Genotoxicity assessment of particulate matter emitted from heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles using the in vivo Vicia faba L. micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Albertina X R; Cotelle, Sylvie; Millet, Maurice; Somensi, Cleder A; Wagner, Theodoro M; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2016-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particulate matter (PM) can have an impact on the environment due to its chemical constitution. A large number of substances such as organic compounds, sulfates, nitrogen derivatives and metals are adsorbed to the particles and desorption of these contaminants could promote genotoxic effects. The objective of this study was to assess the in vivo genotoxicity profile of diesel exhaust PM from heavy-duty engines. Extracts were obtained through leaching with pure water and chemical extraction using three organic solvents (dichloromethane, hexane, and acetone). The in vivo Vicia faba micronucleus test (ISO 29200 protocol) was used to assess the environmental impact of the samples collected from diesel exhaust PM. The solid diesel PM (soot) dissolved in water, and the different extracts, showed positive results for micronucleus formation. After the addition of EDTA, the aqueous extracts did not show a genotoxic effect. The absence of metals in the organic solvent extract indicated that organic compounds also had a genotoxic effect, which was not observed for a similar sample cleaned in a C18 column. Thus, considering the ecological importance of higher plants in relation to ecosystems (in contrast to Salmonella spp., which are commonly used in mutagenicity studies), the Vicia micronucleus test was demonstrated to be appropriate for complementing prokaryotic or in vitro tests on diesel exhaust particulate matter included in risk assessments. PMID:26866755

  19. Genotoxicity assessment of particulate matter emitted from heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles using the in vivo Vicia faba L. micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Albertina X R; Cotelle, Sylvie; Millet, Maurice; Somensi, Cleder A; Wagner, Theodoro M; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2016-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particulate matter (PM) can have an impact on the environment due to its chemical constitution. A large number of substances such as organic compounds, sulfates, nitrogen derivatives and metals are adsorbed to the particles and desorption of these contaminants could promote genotoxic effects. The objective of this study was to assess the in vivo genotoxicity profile of diesel exhaust PM from heavy-duty engines. Extracts were obtained through leaching with pure water and chemical extraction using three organic solvents (dichloromethane, hexane, and acetone). The in vivo Vicia faba micronucleus test (ISO 29200 protocol) was used to assess the environmental impact of the samples collected from diesel exhaust PM. The solid diesel PM (soot) dissolved in water, and the different extracts, showed positive results for micronucleus formation. After the addition of EDTA, the aqueous extracts did not show a genotoxic effect. The absence of metals in the organic solvent extract indicated that organic compounds also had a genotoxic effect, which was not observed for a similar sample cleaned in a C18 column. Thus, considering the ecological importance of higher plants in relation to ecosystems (in contrast to Salmonella spp., which are commonly used in mutagenicity studies), the Vicia micronucleus test was demonstrated to be appropriate for complementing prokaryotic or in vitro tests on diesel exhaust particulate matter included in risk assessments.

  20. The role of maize root size in phosphorus uptake and productivity of maize/faba bean and maize/wheat intercropping systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yikai; Chen, Fanjun; Li, Long; Chen, Yanhua; Liu, Bingran; Zhou, Yuling; Yuan, Lixing; Zhang, Fusuo; Mi, Guohua

    2012-11-01

    Interspecific root/rhizosphere interactions affect phosphorus (P) uptake and the productivity of maize/faba bean and maize/wheat intercropping systems. The aim of these experiments was to determine whether manipulation of maize root growth could improve the productivity of the two intercropping systems. Two near isogenic maize hybrids (the larger-rooted T149 and smaller-rooted T222) were intercropped with faba bean and wheat, under conditions of high- and low-P availability. The larger-rooted T149 showed greater competitive ability than the smaller-rooted T222 in both maize/faba bean and maize/wheat intercropping systems. The higher competitive ability of T149 improved the productivity of the maize/faba bean intercropping system in P-sufficient conditions. In maize/wheat intercropping systems, root growth, shoot biomass, and P uptake of maize were inhibited by wheat, regardless of the P-supply. Compared with T222, the larger-rooted T149 suffered less in the intercropping systems. The total biomass of the maize/wheat intercropping system was higher for wheat/T149 than for wheat/T222 under low-P conditions. These data suggested that genetic improvement of maize root size could enhance maize growth and its ability to compete for P resources in maize/faba bean and maize/wheat intercropping systems. In addition, depending on the P availability, larger maize roots could increase the productivity of intercropping systems.

  1. Oxidative Damage and Mutagenic Potency of Fast Neutron and UV-B Radiation in Pollen Mother Cells and Seed Yield of Vicia faba L.

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Haliem, Ekram; Abdullah, Hanan; AL-Huqail, Asma A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great deal of attention toward free radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by exposure of crop plant cells to physical radiations. Henceforth, the current study was planned to compare oxidative stress and mutagenic potential of different irradiation doses of fast neutron (FN) and UV-B on meiotic-pollen mother cells (PMCs), pollen grains (PGs) and seeds yielded from irradiated faba beans seedlings. On the cytogenetic level, each irradiation type had special interference with DNA of PMC and exhibited wide range of mutagenic action on the frequency and type of chromosomal anomalies, fertility of PGs and seed yield productivity based on the irradiation exposure dose and radiation sensitivity of faba bean plants compared with un-irradiated ones. On the molecular level, SDS-PAGE and RPAD-PCR analyses of seeds yielded from irradiated seedlings exhibited distinctive polymorphisms based on size, intensity, appearance, and disappearance of polypeptides bands compared with un-irradiated ones. The total values of protein and DNA polymorphisms reached 88% and 90.80% respectively. The neutron fluency (2.3 × 106 n/cm2) and UV-B dose for 1 hr were recorded as bio-positive effects. The present study proved that genetic variations revealed by cytogenetic test could be supported by gene expression (alterations in RAPD and protein profiles). PMID:24066298

  2. Microcystin-LR, a protein phosphatase inhibitor, induces alterations in mitotic chromatin and microtubule organization leading to the formation of micronuclei in Vicia faba

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Dániel; Tándor, Ildikó; Kónya, Zoltán; Bátori, Róbert; Roszik, Janos; Vereb, György; Erdődi, Ferenc; Vasas, Gábor; M-Hamvas, Márta; Jambrovics, Károly; Máthé, Csaba

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Microcystin-LR (MCY-LR) is a cyanobacterial toxin, a specific inhibitor of type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases (PP1 and PP2A) with significant impact on aquatic ecosystems. It has the potential to alter regulation of the plant cell cycle. The aim of this study was improved understanding of the mitotic alterations induced by cyanotoxin in Vicia faba, a model organism for plant cell biology studies. Methods Vicia faba seedlings were treated over the long and short term with MCY-LR purified in our laboratory. Short-term treatments were performed on root meristems synchronized with hydroxylurea. Sections of lateral root tips were labelled for chromatin, phosphorylated histone H3 and β-tubulin via histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Mitotic activity and the occurrence of mitotic alterations were detected and analysed by fluorescence microscopy. The phosphorylation state of histone H3 was studied by Western blotting. Key Results Long-term MCY-LR exposure of lateral root tip meristems increased the percentage of either early or late mitosis in a concentration-dependent manner. We observed hypercondensed chromosomes and altered sister chromatid segregation (lagging chromosomes) leading to the formation of micronuclei, accompanied by the formation of disrupted, multipolar and monopolar spindles, disrupted phragmoplasts and the hyperphosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser10. Short-term MCY-LR treatment of synchronized cells showed that PP1 and PP2A inhibition delayed the onset of anaphase at 1 µg mL−1 MCY-LR, accelerated cell cycle at 10 µg mL−1 MCY-LR and induced the formation of lagging chromosomes. In this case mitotic microtubule alterations were not detected, but histone H3 was hyperphosphorylated. Conclusions MCY-LR delayed metaphase–anaphase transition. Consequently, it induced aberrant chromatid segregation and micronucleus formation that could be associated with both H3 hyperphosphorylation and altered microtubule organization

  3. ABA induces H2O2 production in guard cells, but does not close the stomata on Vicia faba leaves developed at high air humidity.

    PubMed

    Arve, Louise E; Carvalho, Dália R A; Olsen, Jorunn E; Torre, Sissel

    2014-01-01

    Plants developed under constant high (> 85%) relative air humidity (RH) have larger stomata that are unable to close completely. One of the hypotheses for the less responsive stomata is that the plants have reduced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). Both ABA and darkness are signals for stomatal closure and induce the production of the secondary messenger hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, the ability of Vicia faba plants developed in moderate or high RH to close the stomata in response to darkness, ABA and H2O2 was investigated. Moreover, the ability of the plants to produce H2O2 when treated with ABA or transferred to darkness was also assessed. Our results show that the ABA concentration in moderate RH is not increased during darkness even though the stomata are closing. This indicates that stomatal closure in V. faba during darkness is independent of ABA production. ABA induced both H2O2 production and stomatal closure in stomata formed at moderate RH. H2O2 production, as a result of treatment with ABA, was also observed in stomata formed at high RH, though the closing response was considerably smaller as compared with moderate RH. In either RH, leaf ABA concentration was not affected by darkness. Similarly to ABA treatment, darkness elicited both H2O2 production and stomatal closure following plant cultivation at moderate RH. Contrary to this, neither H2O2 production nor stomatal closure took place when stomata were formed at high RH. These results suggest that the reduced stomatal response in plants developed in continuous high RH is caused by one or more factors downstream of H2O2 in the signaling pathway toward stomatal closure. PMID:25763494

  4. ABA induces H2O2 production in guard cells, but does not close the stomata on Vicia faba leaves developed at high air humidity.

    PubMed

    Arve, Louise E; Carvalho, Dália R A; Olsen, Jorunn E; Torre, Sissel

    2014-01-01

    Plants developed under constant high (> 85%) relative air humidity (RH) have larger stomata that are unable to close completely. One of the hypotheses for the less responsive stomata is that the plants have reduced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). Both ABA and darkness are signals for stomatal closure and induce the production of the secondary messenger hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, the ability of Vicia faba plants developed in moderate or high RH to close the stomata in response to darkness, ABA and H2O2 was investigated. Moreover, the ability of the plants to produce H2O2 when treated with ABA or transferred to darkness was also assessed. Our results show that the ABA concentration in moderate RH is not increased during darkness even though the stomata are closing. This indicates that stomatal closure in V. faba during darkness is independent of ABA production. ABA induced both H2O2 production and stomatal closure in stomata formed at moderate RH. H2O2 production, as a result of treatment with ABA, was also observed in stomata formed at high RH, though the closing response was considerably smaller as compared with moderate RH. In either RH, leaf ABA concentration was not affected by darkness. Similarly to ABA treatment, darkness elicited both H2O2 production and stomatal closure following plant cultivation at moderate RH. Contrary to this, neither H2O2 production nor stomatal closure took place when stomata were formed at high RH. These results suggest that the reduced stomatal response in plants developed in continuous high RH is caused by one or more factors downstream of H2O2 in the signaling pathway toward stomatal closure.

  5. Microcystin-LR induces mitotic spindle assembly disorders in Vicia faba by protein phosphatase inhibition and not reactive oxygen species induction.

    PubMed

    Garda, Tamás; Kónya, Zoltán; Tándor, Ildikó; Beyer, Dániel; Vasas, Gábor; Erdődi, Ferenc; Vereb, György; Papp, Georgina; Riba, Milán; M-Hamvas, Márta; Máthé, Csaba

    2016-07-20

    We aimed to reveal the mechanisms of mitotic spindle anomalies induced by microcystin-LR (MCY-LR), a cyanobacterial toxin in Vicia faba, a well-known model in plant cell and molecular biology. MCY-LR inhibits type 1 and 2A phosphoserine/threonine specific protein phosphatases (PP1 and PP2A) and induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. The cytoskeleton is one of the main targets of the cyanotoxin during cytopathogenesis. Histochemical-immunohistochemical and biochemical methods were used. A significant number of MCY-LR induced spindle alterations are described for the first time. Disrupted, multipolar spindles and missing kinetochore fibers were detected both in metaphase and anaphase cells. Additional polar microtubule (MT) bundles, hyperbundling of spindle MTs, monopolar spindles, C-S- shaped, additional and asymmetric spindles were detected in metaphase, while midplane kinetochore fibers were detected in anaphase cells only. Several spindle anomalies induced mitotic disorders, i.e. they occurred concomitantly with altered sister chromatid separation. Alterations were dependent on the MCY-LR dose and exposure time. Under long-term (2 and mainly 6 days') exposure they were detected in the concentration range of 0.1-20μgmL(-1) MCY-LR that inhibited PP1 and PP2A significantly without significant ROS induction. Elevated peroxidase/catalase activities indicated that MCY-LR treated V. faba plants showed efficient defense against oxidative stress. Thus, although the elevation of ROS is known to induce cytoskeletal aberrations in general, this study shows that long-term protein phosphatase inhibition is the primary cause of MCY-LR induced spindle disorders. PMID:27186862

  6. ABA induces H2O2 production in guard cells, but does not close the stomata on Vicia faba leaves developed at high air humidity

    PubMed Central

    Arve, Louise E; Carvalho, Dália RA; Olsen, Jorunn E; Torre, Sissel

    2014-01-01

    Plants developed under constant high (> 85%) relative air humidity (RH) have larger stomata that are unable to close completely. One of the hypotheses for the less responsive stomata is that the plants have reduced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). Both ABA and darkness are signals for stomatal closure and induce the production of the secondary messenger hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, the ability of Vicia faba plants developed in moderate or high RH to close the stomata in response to darkness, ABA and H2O2 was investigated. Moreover, the ability of the plants to produce H2O2 when treated with ABA or transferred to darkness was also assessed. Our results show that the ABA concentration in moderate RH is not increased during darkness even though the stomata are closing. This indicates that stomatal closure in V. faba during darkness is independent of ABA production. ABA induced both H2O2 production and stomatal closure in stomata formed at moderate RH. H2O2 production, as a result of treatment with ABA, was also observed in stomata formed at high RH, though the closing response was considerably smaller as compared with moderate RH. In either RH, leaf ABA concentration was not affected by darkness. Similarly to ABA treatment, darkness elicited both H2O2 production and stomatal closure following plant cultivation at moderate RH. Contrary to this, neither H2O2 production nor stomatal closure took place when stomata were formed at high RH. These results suggest that the reduced stomatal response in plants developed in continuous high RH is caused by one or more factors downstream of H2O2 in the signaling pathway toward stomatal closure. PMID:25763494

  7. Drosophila melanogaster, Vicia faba and Arabidopsis thaliana short-term bioassays in genotoxicity evaluation of air and soil samples from sites surrounding two industrial factories in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Chroust, K; Kuglík, P; Relichová, J; Holoubek, I; Cáslavský, J; Veselská, R; Rysková, M; Benedík, J

    1997-01-01

    The Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) in wing cells of Drosophila melanogaster, the Vicia faba cytogenetic tests-Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) and Micronucleus Test (MN), and the Müller test for gametic mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana were used for genotoxicity testing of environmental samples of pollutants from the surroundings of LACHEMA chemical factory (Brno, Czech Republic) and DEZA factory in Valasské Mezirící (Moravia, Czech Republic). Tested soil and air samples were taken from the near vicinity of both factories. The surroundings of both sites are heavy loaded by exhalation of chemicals from the factories. Chemical analyses of the 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) list of priority pollutants and heavy metals were performed in both soil and air samples. The Drosophila wing spot test was positive in 70.6% of the tested samples, the Vicia sister chromatid exchange test in 62.5%, and the Arabidopsis Müller test in 58.9%. The micronucleus Vicia faba test was quite insensitive in tested environmental samples. The concordance between SMART and SCE was 62.5%, between SMART and Müller test 76.5%, and between Müller test and SCE 100%. Total concordance of these three tests was 79.7%. Müller test for gametic mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana and cytogenetic SCE test in Vicia faba seem to be quite sensitive and convenient plant bioassays for assessing the mutagenic potential of environmental agents, when compared to the SMART test in Drosophila melanogaster.

  8. Similar Intracellular Location and Stimulus Reactivity, but Differential Mobility of Tailless (Vicia faba) and Tailed Forisomes (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Intact Sieve Tubes.

    PubMed

    Furch, Alexandra C U; Buxa, Stefanie V; van Bel, Aart J E

    2015-01-01

    Sieve elements of legumes contain forisomes-fusiform protein bodies that are responsible for sieve-tube occlusion in response to damage or wound signals. Earlier work described the existence of tailless and tailed forisomes. This study intended to quantify and compare location and position of tailless (in Vicia faba) and tailed (in Phaseolus vulgaris) forisomes inside sieve elements and to assess their reactivity and potential mobility in response to a remote stimulus. Location (distribution within sieve elements) and position (forisome tip contacts) of more than altogether 2000 forisomes were screened in 500 intact plants by laser scanning confocal microscopy in the transmission mode. Furthermore, we studied the dispersion of forisomes at different locations in different positions and their positional behaviour in response to distant heat shocks. Forisome distribution turned out to be species-specific, whereas forisome positions at various locations were largely similar in bushbean (Phaseolus) and broadbean (Vicia). In general, the tailless forisomes had higher dispersion rates in response to heat shocks than the tailed forisomes and forisomes at the downstream (basal) end dispersed more frequently than those at the upstream end (apical). In contrast to the tailless forisomes that only oscillate in response to heat shocks, downstream-located tailed forisomes can cover considerable distances within sieve elements. This displacement was prevented by gentle rubbing of the leaf (priming) before the heat shock. Movement of these forisomes was also prohibited by Latrunculin A, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. The apparently active mobility of tailed forisomes gives credence to the idea that at least the latter forisomes are not free-floating, but connected to other sieve-element structures.

  9. Similar Intracellular Location and Stimulus Reactivity, but Differential Mobility of Tailless (Vicia faba) and Tailed Forisomes (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Intact Sieve Tubes.

    PubMed

    Furch, Alexandra C U; Buxa, Stefanie V; van Bel, Aart J E

    2015-01-01

    Sieve elements of legumes contain forisomes-fusiform protein bodies that are responsible for sieve-tube occlusion in response to damage or wound signals. Earlier work described the existence of tailless and tailed forisomes. This study intended to quantify and compare location and position of tailless (in Vicia faba) and tailed (in Phaseolus vulgaris) forisomes inside sieve elements and to assess their reactivity and potential mobility in response to a remote stimulus. Location (distribution within sieve elements) and position (forisome tip contacts) of more than altogether 2000 forisomes were screened in 500 intact plants by laser scanning confocal microscopy in the transmission mode. Furthermore, we studied the dispersion of forisomes at different locations in different positions and their positional behaviour in response to distant heat shocks. Forisome distribution turned out to be species-specific, whereas forisome positions at various locations were largely similar in bushbean (Phaseolus) and broadbean (Vicia). In general, the tailless forisomes had higher dispersion rates in response to heat shocks than the tailed forisomes and forisomes at the downstream (basal) end dispersed more frequently than those at the upstream end (apical). In contrast to the tailless forisomes that only oscillate in response to heat shocks, downstream-located tailed forisomes can cover considerable distances within sieve elements. This displacement was prevented by gentle rubbing of the leaf (priming) before the heat shock. Movement of these forisomes was also prohibited by Latrunculin A, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. The apparently active mobility of tailed forisomes gives credence to the idea that at least the latter forisomes are not free-floating, but connected to other sieve-element structures. PMID:26624625

  10. Early insights into the genome sequence of Uromyces fabae

    PubMed Central

    Link, Tobias; Seibel, Christian; Voegele, Ralf T.

    2014-01-01

    Uromyces fabae is a major pathogen of broad bean, Vicia faba. U. fabae has served as a model among rust fungi to elucidate the development of infection structures, expression and secretion of cell wall degrading enzymes and gene expression. Using U. fabae, enormous progress was made regarding nutrient uptake and metabolism and in the search for secreted proteins and effectors. Here, we present results from a genome survey of U. fabae. Paired end Illumina sequencing provided 53 Gb of data. An assembly gave 59,735 scaffolds with a total length of 216 Mb. K-mer analysis estimated the genome size to be 329 Mb. Of a representative set of 23,153 predicted proteins we could annotate 10,209, and predict 599 secreted proteins. Clustering of the protein set indicates families of highly likely effectors. We also found new homologs of RTP1p, a prototype rust effector. The U. fabae genome will be an important resource for comparative analyses with U. appendiculatus and P. pachyrhizi and provide information regarding the phylogenetic relationship of the genus Uromyces with respect to other rust fungi already sequenced, namely Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, P. striiformis f. sp. tritici, Melampsora lini, and Melampsora larici-populina. PMID:25400651

  11. Chloride-inducible transient apoplastic alkalinizations induce stomata closure by controlling abscisic acid distribution between leaf apoplast and guard cells in salt-stressed Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Mithöfer, Axel; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Zörb, Christian; Muehling, Karl H

    2015-11-01

    Chloride stress causes the leaf apoplast transiently to alkalize, an event that is presumed to contribute to the ability of plants to adapt to saline conditions. However, the initiation of coordinated processes downstream of the alkalinization is unknown. We hypothesize that chloride-inducible pH dynamics are a key chemical feature modulating the compartmental distribution of abscisic acid (ABA) and, as a consequence, affecting stomata aperture. Apoplastic pH and stomata aperture dynamics in intact Vicia faba leaves were monitored by microscopy-based ratio imaging and porometric measurements of stomatal conductance. ABA concentrations in leaf apoplast and guard cells were compared with pH dynamics by gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results demonstrate that, upon chloride addition to roots, an alkalizing factor that initiates the pH dynamic propagates from root to leaf in a way similar to xylem-distributed water. In leaves, it induces a systemic transient apoplastic alkalinization that causes apoplastic ABA concentration to increase, followed by an elevation of endogenous guard cell ABA. We conclude that the transient alkalinization, which is a remote effect of chloride stress, modulates the compartmental distribution of ABA between the leaf apoplast and the guard cells and, in this way, is instrumental in inducing stomata closure during the beginning of salinity. PMID:26096890

  12. Hyperpolization-activated Ca(2+) channels in guard cell plasma membrane are involved in extracellular ATP-promoted stomatal opening in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Jia, Juanjuan; Wang, Yufang; Wang, Weixia; Chen, Yuling; Liu, Ting; Shang, Zhonglin

    2014-09-01

    Extracellular ATP (eATP) plays essential roles in plant growth, development, and stress tolerance. Extracellular ATP-regulated stomatal movement of Arabidopsis thaliana has been reported. Here, ATP was found to promote stomatal opening of Vicia faba in a dose-dependent manner. Three weakly hydrolysable ATP analogs (adenosine 5'-O-(3-thio) triphosphate (ATPγS), 3'-O-(4-benzoyl) benzoyl adenosine 5'-triphosphate (Bz-ATP) and 2-methylthio-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (2meATP)) showed similar effects, indicating that ATP acts as a signal molecule rather than an energy charger. ADP promoted stomatal opening, while AMP and adenosine did not affect stomatal movement. An ATP-promoted stomatal opening was blocked by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI), the reductant dithiothreitol (DTT) or the Ca(2+) channel blockers GdCl3 and LaCl3. A hyperpolarization-activated Ca(2+) channel was detected in plasma membrane of guard cell protoplast. Extracellular ATP and weakly hydrolyzable ATP analogs activated this Ca(2+) channel significantly. Extracellular ATP-promoted Ca(2+) channel activation was markedly inhibited by DPI or DTT. These results indicated that eATP may promote stomatal opening via reactive oxygen species that regulate guard cell plasma membrane Ca(2+) channels.

  13. Chloride-inducible transient apoplastic alkalinizations induce stomata closure by controlling abscisic acid distribution between leaf apoplast and guard cells in salt-stressed Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Mithöfer, Axel; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Zörb, Christian; Muehling, Karl H

    2015-11-01

    Chloride stress causes the leaf apoplast transiently to alkalize, an event that is presumed to contribute to the ability of plants to adapt to saline conditions. However, the initiation of coordinated processes downstream of the alkalinization is unknown. We hypothesize that chloride-inducible pH dynamics are a key chemical feature modulating the compartmental distribution of abscisic acid (ABA) and, as a consequence, affecting stomata aperture. Apoplastic pH and stomata aperture dynamics in intact Vicia faba leaves were monitored by microscopy-based ratio imaging and porometric measurements of stomatal conductance. ABA concentrations in leaf apoplast and guard cells were compared with pH dynamics by gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results demonstrate that, upon chloride addition to roots, an alkalizing factor that initiates the pH dynamic propagates from root to leaf in a way similar to xylem-distributed water. In leaves, it induces a systemic transient apoplastic alkalinization that causes apoplastic ABA concentration to increase, followed by an elevation of endogenous guard cell ABA. We conclude that the transient alkalinization, which is a remote effect of chloride stress, modulates the compartmental distribution of ABA between the leaf apoplast and the guard cells and, in this way, is instrumental in inducing stomata closure during the beginning of salinity.

  14. Extracellular hydrogen peroxide, produced through a respiratory burst oxidase/superoxide dismutase pathway, directs ingrowth wall formation in epidermal transfer cells of Vicia faba cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xue; Zhang, Hui-Ming; Andriunas, Felicity A; Offler, Christina E; Patrick, John W

    2012-09-01

    The intricate, and often polarized, ingrowth walls of transfer cells (TCs) amplify their plasma membrane surface areas to confer a transport function of supporting high rates of nutrient exchange across apo-/symplasmic interfaces. The TC ingrowth wall comprises a uniform wall layer on which wall ingrowths are deposited. Signals and signal cascades inducing trans-differentiation events leading to formation of TC ingrowth walls are poorly understood. Vicia faba cotyledons offer a robust experimental model to examine TC induction as, when placed into culture, their adaxial epidermal cells rapidly (h) and synchronously form polarized ingrowth walls accessible for experimental observations. Using this model, we recently reported findings consistent with extracellular hydrogen peroxide, produced through a respiratory burst oxidase homolog/superoxide dismutase pathway, initiating cell wall biosynthetic activity and providing directional information guiding deposition of the polarized uniform wall. Our conclusions rested on observations derived from pharmacological manipulations of hydrogen peroxide production and correlative gene expression data sets. A series of additional studies were undertaken, the results of which verify that extracellular hydrogen peroxide contributes to regulating ingrowth wall formation and is generated by a respiratory burst oxidase homolog/superoxide dismutase pathway.

  15. Hydroxyurea-induced replication stress causes poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 accumulation and changes its intranuclear location in root meristems of Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Rybaczek, Dorota

    2016-07-01

    Replication stress induced by 24 and 48h exposure to 2.5mM hydroxyurea (HU) increased the activity of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP-2; EC 2.4.2.30) in root meristem cells of Vicia faba. An increase in the number of PARP-2 foci was accompanied by their delocalization from peripheral areas to the interior of the nucleus. Our results indicate that the increase in PARP-2 was connected with an increase in S139-phosphorylated H2AX histones. The findings suggest the possible role of PARP-2 in replication stress. We also confirm that the intranuclear location of PARP-2 depends on the duration of HU-induced replication stress, confirming the role of PARP-2 as an indicator of stress intensity. Finally, we conclude that the more intense the HU-mediated replication stress, the greater the probability of PARP-2 activation or H2AXS139 phosphorylation, but also the greater the chance of increasing the efficiency of repair processes and a return to normal cell cycle progression. PMID:27155387

  16. Behavior of the organophosphorus insecticide fenitrothion in stored faba beans and its biological effects towards experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Farghaly, M; Mahdy, F; Taha, H; Fathy, U

    2007-08-01

    Sound whole-seed faba beans were treated with (methyl-(14)C) fenitrothion [O, O-dimethyl-O-(3-methyl-4-nitrophenyl) phosphorothioate] at 5 and 10 mg insecticide/kg seeds, a dose normally used in practice. During the 30 weeks of storage period, the penetration and distribution of insecticide residues were studied. The amount of surface residues, internal residues and bound insecticide residues was estimated. Surface residues were found to decrease with the increase in time of storage, whereas internal residues showed a gradual increase with time apparently not dose dependent. Grain-bound residues increased with time and reached to its maximum (14-18%) after 24 weeks of storage. Chromatographic analysis of the internal extracts revealed the presence of the parent compound together with three main metabolites which were found in both free and conjugated form. Feeding mice for 90 days with a diet mixed with total internal fenitrothion residues in stored faba beans led to a reduction in body weight gain, and an appreciable decrease in cholinesterase activity of 32% for plasma and 15% for red blood cells (RBC(S)) after two months of experiment. Also, a significant decrease was showed in both total protein and albumin concentration at the end of feeding period (90 days). Liver and kidney function, as well as lipid profile of treated mice significantly increased at the end of feeding period. After a one-month recovery period, all the examined blood parameters returned to about the control values except blood urea and serum triglyceride.

  17. L-DOPA concentration variation in the leaf and flower tissues of six faba bean lines with common and rare flower colors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Faba bean is one of the a few plant species that can produce the medicinally important molecule, L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-DOPA), the major ingredient of several prescription drugs used to treat Parkinson’s disease. L-DOPA can cross the blood-brain barrier, where it is converted to dopamine, ...

  18. [Effect of the same amount of faba bean fresh straw returning with different ratios of chemi- cal fertilizer on single cropping late rice].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-hong; Zhang, Xian; Cao, Kai; Hua, Jin-wei

    2015-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted on paddy soil derived from alluvial materials at Bihu Town, Lishui City, Zhejiang Province, China to explore the effects of combined application of faba bean fresh straw and different-rate chemical fertilizer on nutrient uptake, nutrient use efficiencies, and yields of single cropping late rice and to determine the optimal rate of chemical fertilizer under the condition of application of faba bean fresh straw at the rate of 15 t · hm(-2) (GM15) in 2012, April to December. The experiments consisted of 7 treatments: CK (no fertilizers) , CF (conventional chemical fertilizer rate) , and combined application of 15 t · hm(-2) of faba bean fresh straw and 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of the conventional chemical fertilizer rate. The results showed that the highest total uptake amounts of N, P and K by the aboveground part were obtained from the treatments of GM15 + 60%CF and GM15 + 80% CF, but the highest nutrient agronomy use efficiencies of N, P and K in rice grains were obtained from the treatments of GM15 + 60% CF and GM15 + 40% CF. The agronomy use efficiencies and physiological use efficiencies of N, P, and K were significantly correlated with rice grain yields, thus they could be used for accurate comprehensive evaluation of fertilizer efficiencies of N, P, and K. Compared with no fertilizer treatment, the treatments of 100% CF and combined application of faba bean fresh straw and different-rate chemical fertilizer increased rice gain yields by 25.0% and 6.1%-29.2%, respectively. In the cropping system of faba bean-single cropping late rice, returning of 15 t · hm2 faba bean fresh straw to the paddy field did not result in the runt seedling of rice. From the point of improving fertilizer use efficiency and reducing environmental risk perspective, the optimum rate of chemical fertilizer was 60% of the conventional chemical fertilizer rate when 15 t · h(-2) of faba bean fresh straw was applied. PMID:26571653

  19. [Effect of the same amount of faba bean fresh straw returning with different ratios of chemi- cal fertilizer on single cropping late rice].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-hong; Zhang, Xian; Cao, Kai; Hua, Jin-wei

    2015-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted on paddy soil derived from alluvial materials at Bihu Town, Lishui City, Zhejiang Province, China to explore the effects of combined application of faba bean fresh straw and different-rate chemical fertilizer on nutrient uptake, nutrient use efficiencies, and yields of single cropping late rice and to determine the optimal rate of chemical fertilizer under the condition of application of faba bean fresh straw at the rate of 15 t · hm(-2) (GM15) in 2012, April to December. The experiments consisted of 7 treatments: CK (no fertilizers) , CF (conventional chemical fertilizer rate) , and combined application of 15 t · hm(-2) of faba bean fresh straw and 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of the conventional chemical fertilizer rate. The results showed that the highest total uptake amounts of N, P and K by the aboveground part were obtained from the treatments of GM15 + 60%CF and GM15 + 80% CF, but the highest nutrient agronomy use efficiencies of N, P and K in rice grains were obtained from the treatments of GM15 + 60% CF and GM15 + 40% CF. The agronomy use efficiencies and physiological use efficiencies of N, P, and K were significantly correlated with rice grain yields, thus they could be used for accurate comprehensive evaluation of fertilizer efficiencies of N, P, and K. Compared with no fertilizer treatment, the treatments of 100% CF and combined application of faba bean fresh straw and different-rate chemical fertilizer increased rice gain yields by 25.0% and 6.1%-29.2%, respectively. In the cropping system of faba bean-single cropping late rice, returning of 15 t · hm2 faba bean fresh straw to the paddy field did not result in the runt seedling of rice. From the point of improving fertilizer use efficiency and reducing environmental risk perspective, the optimum rate of chemical fertilizer was 60% of the conventional chemical fertilizer rate when 15 t · h(-2) of faba bean fresh straw was applied.

  20. Induction of premature mitosis in root meristem cells of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum by various agents is correlated with an increased level of protein phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Rybaczek, Dorota; Polit, Justyna; Luchniak, Piotr; Maszewski, Janusz

    2002-01-01

    The intra-S-phase checkpoint response to hydroxyurea (HU)-mediated arrest of DNA replication was analysed in root meristems of two legumes, Pisum sativum and Vicia faba. The obtained results suggest that a molecular signal which invokes mechanisms allowing the cells to override the S-M dependency control system may be generated by caffeine (CF) and a number of alternative, yet related chemical agents, benzyl-6-aminopurine (BAP), 2-aminopurine (2-AP), and 6-dimethylaminopurine (DMAP). A variety of aberrant mitotic divisions included chromosomal breaks and gaps, lost and lagging chromatids and chromosomes, acentric fragments, chromosome bridges and micronuclei. Furthermore, similar effects induced by sodium vanadate, an inhibitor of protein phosphatases, extend the number of inhibitors capable of inducing premature chromosome condensation (PCC) in root meristem cells, as well as the range of possible regulatory pathways leading to the transition from S-phase arrest towards abnormal mitosis. Until preprophase, FITC-conjugated monoclonal antibodies (alpha-Y(a)b-FITC) that specifically recognize phosphorylated form of threonine indicate no evident cell cycle-dependent changes in an overall phosphorylation status of root meristem cells in the control plants. Irrespective of the stage of interphase, alpha-Y(p)ab-FITC was localized basically in the cytoplasm, whereas nuclear staining was considerably weaker, with a significant fluorescence confined merely to nucleolar regions. The intensity of alpha-Y(p)ab-FITC staining in HU/CF-treated seedlings was found higher than that in the control plants (with the exception of G2 cells), suggesting a general increase in the level of protein phosphorylation, a physiological response mediated probably by an enhanced activity of the cdc-like protein kinase(s).

  1. Sucrose synthase activity and carbohydrates content in relation to phosphorylation status of Vicia faba root meristems during reactivation from sugar depletion.

    PubMed

    Polit, Justyna Teresa; Ciereszko, Iwona

    2012-11-01

    Carbohydrate starvation of Vicia faba root meristems leads to readjustment of carbohydrate metabolism and blocks the cell cycle in two principal control points (PCP1/2). The cell cycle reactivation is possible after sucrose provision, although with a delay of about 12h. During this period, the cells are sensitive to 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) and okadaic acid (OA), inhibitors of protein kinases and phosphatases, respectively. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether those inhibitors are involved in inhibition of cell cycle revival through interference with the activities of two sucrose-cleaving enzymes: sucrose synthase (SuSy; EC 2.4.1.13) and invertase (INV; EC 3.2.1.26). In sugar-starved cells, the in situ activity of both enzymes decreased significantly. Following supplementation of root meristems with sugar, INV remained inactive, but SuSy activity increased. Despite the lack of INV activity, glucose was present in meristem cells, but its content was low in cells treated with OA. In the latter case, the size of plastids was reduced, they had less starch, and Golgi structures were affected. In sugar-starved cells, SuSy activity was induced more by exogenous sucrose than by glucose. The sucrose-induced activity was strongly inhibited by OA (less by 6-DMAP) at early stages of regeneration, but not at the stages preceding DNA replication or mitotic activities. The results indicate that prolongation of regeneration and a marked decrease in the number of cells resuming proliferation (observed in previous studies) and resulting from the action of inhibitors, are correlated with the process of SuSy activation at the beginning of regeneration from sugar starvation.

  2. Toxicological effects, mechanisms, and implied toxicity thresholds in the roots of Vicia faba L. seedlings grown in copper-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianghua; Huang, Zhicheng; Wang, Chengrun; Zhong, Li; Tian, Yuan; Li, Dongdong; Zhang, Gaojian; Shi, Jian

    2015-09-01

    Copper (Cu) contamination has become a global concern because of industrial, agricultural, and other anthropogenic activities. In the present experiments, the toxicological effects, mechanisms, and potential toxicity thresholds were investigated in the roots of Vicia faba L. seedlings that were cultivated in Cu-amended soils (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg kg(-1)) for 20 days, based on an analysis of the soil physicochemical properties, native Cu, available Cu, and root-enriched Cu contents. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) isozymes and activities, as well as glutathione (GSH) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), changed like biphasic dose-response curves, cooperating to control the redox homeostasis. The APX and POD enzymes exhibited enhanced activities and became H2O2 scavengers primarily when the catalase (CAT) activities tended to decrease. Endoprotease (EP) isozymes and activities might be enhanced to degrade carbonylated proteins and alleviate metabolic disturbance in the roots. Additionally, HSP70 may not be suitable as a biomarker for relatively higher soil Cu concentrations and relatively longer exposure times for the roots. As a result, the isozymes and activities of SOD, CAT, and EP, as well as GSH, can be adopted as the most sensitive biomarkers. The toxicity threshold is estimated as 0.76-1.21 mg kg(-1) of available Cu in the soils or 25.04-36.65 μg Cu g(-1) dry weights (DW) in the roots.

  3. Leaf ion homeostasis and plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity in Vicia faba change after extra calcium and potassium supply under salinity.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Sherif H; Maity, Pooja Jha; Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Lindberg, Sylvia; Mühling, Karl Hermann

    2014-09-01

    Salt stress in plants impacts apoplastic ion activities and cytosolic ionic homeostasis. The ameliorating effects exerted by calcium or potassium on compartmentation of ions in leaves under salinity are not fully understood. To clarify how calcium or potassium supply could ameliorate ion homeostasis and ATPase activities under salinity, 5 mM CaSO4 or 10 mM K2SO4 were added with, or without, 100 mM NaCl for 7 d and 21 d to Vicia faba grown in hydroponics. The apoplastic pH was detected with Oregon Green dextran dye in intact second-uppermost leaves by microscopy-based ratio imaging. The cytosolic Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+) activities and pH were detected in protoplasts loaded with the acetoxy methyl-esters of Fura-2, SBFI, PBFI and BCECF, respectively, using epi-fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, total Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+) concentrations and growth parameters were investigated. The ATPase hydrolyzing activity increased with time, but decreased after long salinity treatment. The activity largely increased in calcium-treated plants, but was depressed in potassium-treated plants after 7 d. The calcium supply increased Vmax, and the ATPase activity increased with salinity in a non-competitive way for 7 d and 21 d. The potassium supply instead decreased activity competitively with Na(+), after 21 d of salinity, with different effects on Km and Vmax. The confirmed higher ATPase activity was related with apoplast acidification, cytosol alkalinization and low cytosolic [Na(+)], and thus, might be an explanation why extra calcium improved shoot and leaf growth.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soils: bioaugmentation of autochthonous bacteria and toxicological assessment of the bioremediation process by means of Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica; Giorgetti, Lucia; Becarelli, Simone; Siracusa, Giovanna; Lorenzi, Roberto; Di Gregorio, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Two bacterial strains, Achromobacter sp. (ACH01) and Sphingomonas sp. (SPH01), were isolated from a heavily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil (5431.3 ± 102.3 ppm) for their capacity to use a mixture of anthracene, pyrene, phenanthrene and fluorene as sole carbon sources for growth and for the capacity to produce biosurfactants. The two strains were exploited for bioaugmentation in a biopile pilot plant to increase the bioavailability and the degradation of the residual PAH contamination (99.5 ± 7.1 ppm) reached after 9 months of treatment. The denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) profile of the microbial ecology of the soil during the experimentation showed that the bioaugmentation approach was successful in terms of permanence of the two strains in the soil in treatment. The bioaugmentation of the two bacterial isolates positively correlated with the PAH depletion that reached 7.9 ± 2 ppm value in 2 months of treatment. The PAH depletion was assessed by the loss of the phyto-genotoxicity of soil elutriates on the model plant Vicia faba L., toxicological assessment adopted also to determine the minimum length of the decontamination process for obtaining both the depletion of the PAH contamination and the detoxification of the soil at the end of the process. The intermediate phases of the bioremediation process were the most significant in terms of toxicity, inducing genotoxic effects and selective DNA fragmentation in the stem cell niche of the root tip. The selective DNA fragmentation can be related to the selective induction of cell death of mutant stem cells that can compromise offsprings.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soils: bioaugmentation of autochthonous bacteria and toxicological assessment of the bioremediation process by means of Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica; Giorgetti, Lucia; Becarelli, Simone; Siracusa, Giovanna; Lorenzi, Roberto; Di Gregorio, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Two bacterial strains, Achromobacter sp. (ACH01) and Sphingomonas sp. (SPH01), were isolated from a heavily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil (5431.3 ± 102.3 ppm) for their capacity to use a mixture of anthracene, pyrene, phenanthrene and fluorene as sole carbon sources for growth and for the capacity to produce biosurfactants. The two strains were exploited for bioaugmentation in a biopile pilot plant to increase the bioavailability and the degradation of the residual PAH contamination (99.5 ± 7.1 ppm) reached after 9 months of treatment. The denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) profile of the microbial ecology of the soil during the experimentation showed that the bioaugmentation approach was successful in terms of permanence of the two strains in the soil in treatment. The bioaugmentation of the two bacterial isolates positively correlated with the PAH depletion that reached 7.9 ± 2 ppm value in 2 months of treatment. The PAH depletion was assessed by the loss of the phyto-genotoxicity of soil elutriates on the model plant Vicia faba L., toxicological assessment adopted also to determine the minimum length of the decontamination process for obtaining both the depletion of the PAH contamination and the detoxification of the soil at the end of the process. The intermediate phases of the bioremediation process were the most significant in terms of toxicity, inducing genotoxic effects and selective DNA fragmentation in the stem cell niche of the root tip. The selective DNA fragmentation can be related to the selective induction of cell death of mutant stem cells that can compromise offsprings. PMID:26769476

  6. Behavior of the organophosphorus insecticide fenitrothion in stored faba beans and its biological effects towards experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Farghaly, M; Mahdy, F; Taha, H; Fathy, U

    2007-08-01

    Sound whole-seed faba beans were treated with (methyl-(14)C) fenitrothion [O, O-dimethyl-O-(3-methyl-4-nitrophenyl) phosphorothioate] at 5 and 10 mg insecticide/kg seeds, a dose normally used in practice. During the 30 weeks of storage period, the penetration and distribution of insecticide residues were studied. The amount of surface residues, internal residues and bound insecticide residues was estimated. Surface residues were found to decrease with the increase in time of storage, whereas internal residues showed a gradual increase with time apparently not dose dependent. Grain-bound residues increased with time and reached to its maximum (14-18%) after 24 weeks of storage. Chromatographic analysis of the internal extracts revealed the presence of the parent compound together with three main metabolites which were found in both free and conjugated form. Feeding mice for 90 days with a diet mixed with total internal fenitrothion residues in stored faba beans led to a reduction in body weight gain, and an appreciable decrease in cholinesterase activity of 32% for plasma and 15% for red blood cells (RBC(S)) after two months of experiment. Also, a significant decrease was showed in both total protein and albumin concentration at the end of feeding period (90 days). Liver and kidney function, as well as lipid profile of treated mice significantly increased at the end of feeding period. After a one-month recovery period, all the examined blood parameters returned to about the control values except blood urea and serum triglyceride. PMID:17701701

  7. Enzymatic adaptations to arsenic-induced oxidative stress in Zea mays and genotoxic effect of arsenic in root tips of Vicia faba and Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Duquesnoy, Isabelle; Champeau, Gabrielle Marie; Evray, Germaine; Ledoigt, Gérard; Piquet-Pissaloux, Agnès

    2010-01-01

    Agronomic plant species may display physiological and biochemical responses to oxidative stress caused by heavy metals and metalloids. Zea mays plants were grown hydroponically for eight days at different concentrations of As (0, 134 and 668 μM) and at different pH (4, 7 and 9). Metabolic variations in response to As toxicity were measured using physiological parameters and antioxidant enzymatic activities. A significant decrease in SOD activity was observed in the leaves and roots of Z. mays with the majority of As treatments. As decreased G-POX activity less in leaves than in roots. An increase in the concentration of As increased APX activity in leaves and roots, except As(V) at pH 4 and pH 9 in the leaves and As(III) at pH 9 in the roots, when there was a significant decrease in APX activity at low As concentrations. After exposure to As(V), CAT activity was the same as in the control. As(III) led to an increase in CAT activity in leaves and to a decrease in roots. With increasing concentrations of As(III), CAT activity increased in both leaves and roots whatever the pH. To obtain more detailed knowledge on the effects of arsenate and arsenite exposure on Vicia faba and Z. mays, root meristems were also examined. Roots were fed hydroponically with 134, 334, 534 and 668 μM arsenate or arsenite and 4 × 10(-3)M of maleic hydrazide as positive control, at three different pH. Physiological parameters, the mitotic index and micronuclei frequencies were evaluated in root meristems. At all three pH, the highest As(V) and As(III) concentrations induced a substantial modification in root colour, increased root thickness with stiffening, and reduced root length. High concentrations also caused a significant decrease in the mitotic index, and micronucleus chromosomic aberrations were observed in the root meristems of both species.

  8. Electrophysiological approach to determine kinetic parameters of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements or phloem parenchyma cells in intact Vicia faba plants

    PubMed Central

    Hafke, Jens B.; Höll, Sabina-Roxana; Kühn, Christina; van Bel, Aart J. E.

    2013-01-01

    Apart from cut aphid stylets in combination with electrophysiology, no attempts have been made thus far to measure in vivo sucrose-uptake properties of sieve elements. We investigated the kinetics of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells in Vicia faba plants. To this end, microelectrodes were inserted into free-lying phloem cells in the main vein of the youngest fully-expanded leaf, half-way along the stem, in the transition zone between the autotrophic and heterotrophic part of the stem, and in the root axis. A top-to-bottom membrane potential gradient of sieve elements was observed along the stem (−130 mV to −110 mV), while the membrane potential of the phloem parenchyma cells was stable (approx. −100 mV). In roots, the membrane potential of sieve elements dropped abruptly to −55 mV. Bathing solutions having various sucrose concentrations were administered and sucrose/H+-induced depolarizations were recorded. Data analysis by non-linear least-square data fittings as well as by linear Eadie–Hofstee (EH) -transformations pointed at biphasic Michaelis–Menten kinetics (2 MM, EH: Km1 1.2–1.8 mM, Km2 6.6–9.0 mM) of sucrose uptake by sieve elements. However, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) favored single MM kinetics. Using single MM as the best-fitting model, Km values for sucrose uptake by sieve elements decreased along the plant axis from 1 to 7 mM. For phloem parenchyma cells, higher Km values (EH: Km1 10 mM, Km2 70 mM) as compared to sieve elements were found. In preliminary patch-clamp experiments with sieve-element protoplasts, small sucrose-coupled proton currents (−0.1 to −0.3 pA/pF) were detected in the whole-cell mode. In conclusion (a) Km values for sucrose uptake measured by electrophysiology are similar to those obtained with heterologous systems, (b) electrophysiology provides a useful tool for in situ determination of Km values, (c) As yet, it remains unclear if one or two uptake systems are involved

  9. Investigation the growth, yield and yield components of rice varieties in rotation with garlic, Faba bean, lettuce, pea and fallow in north of Iran.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, Morteza; Pirdashti, Hemmatollah; Tari, Davood Barari

    2007-08-15

    In order to investigating the effects of second crop cultivation on growth, yield and yield components of rice, a field experiment was conducted at the Rice Research Institute of Iran-Deputy of Mazandaran (Amol) during 2004 and 2005. Tarom as a traditional variety and Fajr as a improved variety were used in this research. Faba, pea, Lettuce and garlic were used as a second crop in rotation with rice. Second crop cultivation, variety and interaction between them had a significant effect on tiller number at 0.01 probability level. Results showed that rice yield after lettuce and garlic rotation was lower than with Faba bean, pea and fallow rotation. These results indicated that rice varieties had different reaction to second crop cultivation. For example, Tarom variety in rotation with lettuce and garlic had higher yield deficiency than Fajr variety. These results suggested that Lettuce and garlic can not be a permanent second crop in paddy field. According to results, pea and faba bean in rotation with rice for the best performance of yield attributes of rice varieties were recommended.

  10. Large interclone differences in melezitose secretion in the facultatively ant-tended black bean aphid Aphis fabae.

    PubMed

    Vantaux, A; Van den Ende, W; Billen, J; Wenseleers, T

    2011-12-01

    Many aphids are known to engage in a trophic mutualism with ants, whereby the aphids secrete sugary-rich honeydew which is collected by the ants for food, and the ants, in exchange, protect the aphids against natural enemies. Previous results, however, suggest that the production of some of the honeydew sugars, such as the ant-attractant trisaccharide melezitose, may induce an indirect cost to the aphids. This led us to believe that large differences in the nature of the secreted honeydew might exist, due to some clones capitalizing more or less on their mutualistic interaction with ants, or due to some "cheater" clones foregoing the production of particular sugars, instead taking advantage of the ant-attracting effect of other non sugar-deficient clones, co-occurring on the same plant. Here we present data on clonal variation in the composition of honeydew of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae which confirm this prediction. In particular, our results show that there was large interclone variation in the amount of glucose, melezitose and total sugar produced. The variation in the production of melezitose, however, showed particularly large differences, with 54% (7 out of 13) of the clones screened being virtually deficient for the production of this sugar, irrespective of whether the aphid colonies were ant-tended or not. The consequences of this finding in the context of the evolution and maintenance of the ant-aphid mutualism, as well as the adaptive benefits of oligosaccharide synthesis in aphids and other insects are discussed.

  11. The effects of nitrogen form on root morphological and physiological adaptations of maize, white lupin and faba bean under phosphorus deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haitao; Tang, Caixian; Li, Chunjian

    2016-01-01

    Root morphological/physiological modifications are important for phosphorus (P) acquisition of plants under P deficiency, but strategies differ among plant species. Detailed studies on the response of maize roots to P deficiency are limited. Nitrogen (N) form influences root morphology/physiology, and thus may influence root responses to P deficiency. This work investigated adaptive mechanisms of maize roots to low P by comparison with white lupin and faba bean supplied with two N forms. Plants were grown for 7–16 days in hydroponics with sufficient (250 µmol L−1) and deficient P supply (1 µmol L−1) under supply of NH4NO3 or Ca(NO3)2. Plant growth and P uptake were measured, and release of protons and organic acid anions, and acid phosphatase activity in the root were monitored. The results showed that P deficiency significantly decreased shoot growth while increased root growth and total root length of maize and faba bean, but not white lupin. It enhanced the release of protons and organic acid anions, and acid phosphatase activity, from the roots of both legumes but not maize. Compared with Ca(NO3)2, NH4NO3 dramatically increased proton release by roots but did not alter root morphology or physiology of the three species in response to low P. It is concluded that the N form did not fundamentally change root morphological/physiological responses of the three species to P deficiency. Morphological variation in maize and morpho-physiological modifications in white lupin and faba bean were the main adaptive strategies to P deficiency. PMID:27519912

  12. The effects of nitrogen form on root morphological and physiological adaptations of maize, white lupin and faba bean under phosphorus deficiency.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haitao; Tang, Caixian; Li, Chunjian

    2016-01-01

    Root morphological/physiological modifications are important for phosphorus (P) acquisition of plants under P deficiency, but strategies differ among plant species. Detailed studies on the response of maize roots to P deficiency are limited. Nitrogen (N) form influences root morphology/physiology, and thus may influence root responses to P deficiency. This work investigated adaptive mechanisms of maize roots to low P by comparison with white lupin and faba bean supplied with two N forms. Plants were grown for 7-16 days in hydroponics with sufficient (250 µmol L(-1)) and deficient P supply (1 µmol L(-1)) under supply of NH4NO3 or Ca(NO3)2 Plant growth and P uptake were measured, and release of protons and organic acid anions, and acid phosphatase activity in the root were monitored. The results showed that P deficiency significantly decreased shoot growth while increased root growth and total root length of maize and faba bean, but not white lupin. It enhanced the release of protons and organic acid anions, and acid phosphatase activity, from the roots of both legumes but not maize. Compared with Ca(NO3)2, NH4NO3 dramatically increased proton release by roots but did not alter root morphology or physiology of the three species in response to low P. It is concluded that the N form did not fundamentally change root morphological/physiological responses of the three species to P deficiency. Morphological variation in maize and morpho-physiological modifications in white lupin and faba bean were the main adaptive strategies to P deficiency. PMID:27519912

  13. Improvement of Biocontrol of Damping-off and Root Rot/Wilt of Faba Bean by Salicylic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Monaim, Montaser Fawzy

    2013-03-01

    Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, and Macrophomina phaseolina were found to be associated with root rott and wilt symptoms of faba bean plants collected from different fieldes in New Valley governorate, Egypt. All the obtained isolates were able to attack faba bean plants (cv. Giza 40) causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases. R. solani isolates 2 and 5, F. solani isolate 8, F. oxysporum isolate 12 and M. phaseolina isolate 14 were the more virulent ones in the pathogenicity tests. Biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viride and Bacillus megaterium) and chemical inducers (salicylic acid [SA] and hydrogen peroxide) individually or in combination were examined for biological control of damping-off and root rot/wilt and growth promoting of faba bean plants in vitro and in vivo. Both antagonistic biocontrol agents and chemical inducers either individually or in combination inhibited growth of the tested pathogenic fungi. Biocontrol agents combined with chemical inducers recorded the highest inhibited growth especially in case SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium. Under green house and field conditions, all treatments significantly reduced damping-off and root rot/wilt severity and increased of survival plants. Also, these treatments increased fresh and weights of the survival plants in pots compared with control. The combination between biocontrol agents and chemical inducers were more effective than used of them individually and SA + T. viride was the best treatment in this respect. Also, under field conditions, all these treatments significantly increased growth parameters (plant height and number of branches per plant) and yield components (number of pods per plant and number of seeds per plant, weight of 100 seeds and total yield per feddan) and protein content in both seasons (2010~2011 and 2011~2012). Faba bean seeds soaked in SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium were recorded the highest growth parameters and yield components. Generally, the

  14. Improvement of Biocontrol of Damping-off and Root Rot/Wilt of Faba Bean by Salicylic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, and Macrophomina phaseolina were found to be associated with root rott and wilt symptoms of faba bean plants collected from different fieldes in New Valley governorate, Egypt. All the obtained isolates were able to attack faba bean plants (cv. Giza 40) causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases. R. solani isolates 2 and 5, F. solani isolate 8, F. oxysporum isolate 12 and M. phaseolina isolate 14 were the more virulent ones in the pathogenicity tests. Biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viride and Bacillus megaterium) and chemical inducers (salicylic acid [SA] and hydrogen peroxide) individually or in combination were examined for biological control of damping-off and root rot/wilt and growth promoting of faba bean plants in vitro and in vivo. Both antagonistic biocontrol agents and chemical inducers either individually or in combination inhibited growth of the tested pathogenic fungi. Biocontrol agents combined with chemical inducers recorded the highest inhibited growth especially in case SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium. Under green house and field conditions, all treatments significantly reduced damping-off and root rot/wilt severity and increased of survival plants. Also, these treatments increased fresh and weights of the survival plants in pots compared with control. The combination between biocontrol agents and chemical inducers were more effective than used of them individually and SA + T. viride was the best treatment in this respect. Also, under field conditions, all these treatments significantly increased growth parameters (plant height and number of branches per plant) and yield components (number of pods per plant and number of seeds per plant, weight of 100 seeds and total yield per feddan) and protein content in both seasons (2010~2011 and 2011~2012). Faba bean seeds soaked in SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium were recorded the highest growth parameters and yield components. Generally, the

  15. Improvement of Biocontrol of Damping-off and Root Rot/Wilt of Faba Bean by Salicylic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Monaim, Montaser Fawzy

    2013-03-01

    Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, and Macrophomina phaseolina were found to be associated with root rott and wilt symptoms of faba bean plants collected from different fieldes in New Valley governorate, Egypt. All the obtained isolates were able to attack faba bean plants (cv. Giza 40) causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases. R. solani isolates 2 and 5, F. solani isolate 8, F. oxysporum isolate 12 and M. phaseolina isolate 14 were the more virulent ones in the pathogenicity tests. Biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viride and Bacillus megaterium) and chemical inducers (salicylic acid [SA] and hydrogen peroxide) individually or in combination were examined for biological control of damping-off and root rot/wilt and growth promoting of faba bean plants in vitro and in vivo. Both antagonistic biocontrol agents and chemical inducers either individually or in combination inhibited growth of the tested pathogenic fungi. Biocontrol agents combined with chemical inducers recorded the highest inhibited growth especially in case SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium. Under green house and field conditions, all treatments significantly reduced damping-off and root rot/wilt severity and increased of survival plants. Also, these treatments increased fresh and weights of the survival plants in pots compared with control. The combination between biocontrol agents and chemical inducers were more effective than used of them individually and SA + T. viride was the best treatment in this respect. Also, under field conditions, all these treatments significantly increased growth parameters (plant height and number of branches per plant) and yield components (number of pods per plant and number of seeds per plant, weight of 100 seeds and total yield per feddan) and protein content in both seasons (2010~2011 and 2011~2012). Faba bean seeds soaked in SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium were recorded the highest growth parameters and yield components. Generally, the

  16. Shift from complementarity to facilitation on P uptake by intercropped wheat neighboring with faba bean when available soil P is depleted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunjie; Dong, Yan; Li, Haigang; Shen, Jianbo; Zhang, Fusuo

    2016-01-01

    Rhizosphere processes stimulate overyielding and facilitative phosphorus (P) uptake in cereal/legume intercropping systems. However, little is known about when and how rhizosphere alteration of legumes plays a role in improving P uptake by cereals. Wheat was grown isolated, monocropped or intercropped with faba bean in pots with low-P soil. The biomass, P content, carboxylates and phosphatases activity were measured in 15 destructive samplings. Intraspecific competition of the biomass and P uptake of monocropped wheat was not significant before 40 and 36 days after sowing (DAS), whereas there was interspecific competition of biomass of intercropped wheat before 66 DAS. However, afterwards, the increments of the biomass and P uptake of the intercropped wheat were 1.3-1.9 and 1.9-2.3 times of increment of monocropped wheat. Meanwhile, the concentrations of malate and citrate and the acid phosphatase activity in the rhizospheres of intercropped wheat were significantly increased, which suggested that wheat/faba bean intercropping is efficient in P utilization due to complementary P uptake in the early growth stage and the positive interactions of the rhizosphere processes when the soil P was depleted.

  17. Shift from complementarity to facilitation on P uptake by intercropped wheat neighboring with faba bean when available soil P is depleted.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunjie; Dong, Yan; Li, Haigang; Shen, Jianbo; Zhang, Fusuo

    2016-01-01

    Rhizosphere processes stimulate overyielding and facilitative phosphorus (P) uptake in cereal/legume intercropping systems. However, little is known about when and how rhizosphere alteration of legumes plays a role in improving P uptake by cereals. Wheat was grown isolated, monocropped or intercropped with faba bean in pots with low-P soil. The biomass, P content, carboxylates and phosphatases activity were measured in 15 destructive samplings. Intraspecific competition of the biomass and P uptake of monocropped wheat was not significant before 40 and 36 days after sowing (DAS), whereas there was interspecific competition of biomass of intercropped wheat before 66 DAS. However, afterwards, the increments of the biomass and P uptake of the intercropped wheat were 1.3-1.9 and 1.9-2.3 times of increment of monocropped wheat. Meanwhile, the concentrations of malate and citrate and the acid phosphatase activity in the rhizospheres of intercropped wheat were significantly increased, which suggested that wheat/faba bean intercropping is efficient in P utilization due to complementary P uptake in the early growth stage and the positive interactions of the rhizosphere processes when the soil P was depleted. PMID:26728339

  18. Enrichment of pasta with faba bean does not impact glycemic or insulin response but can enhance satiety feeling and digestive comfort when dried at very high temperature.

    PubMed

    Greffeuille, Valérie; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès; Molinari, Nicolas; Cassan, Denis; Sutra, Thibault; Avignon, Antoine; Micard, Valérie

    2015-09-01

    Enrichment of durum wheat pasta with legume flour enhances their protein and essential amino acid content, especially lysine content. However, despite its nutritional potential, the addition of a legume alters the rheological properties of pasta. High temperature drying of pasta reduces this negative effect by strengthening its protein network. The aim of our study was to determine if these changes in the pasta structure alter its in vitro carbohydrate digestibility, in vivo glycemic, insulin and satiety responses. We also investigated if high temperature drying of pasta can reduce the well-known digestive discomfort associated with the consumption of legume grains. Fifteen healthy volunteers consumed three test meals: durum wheat pasta dried at a low temperature (control), and pasta enriched with 35% faba bean dried at a low and at a very high temperature. When enriched with 35% legume flour, pasta maintained its nutritionally valuable low glycemic and insulin index, despite its weaker protein network. Drying 35% faba bean pasta at a high temperature strengthened its protein network, and decreased its in vitro carbohydrate digestion with no further decrease in its in vivo glycemic or insulin index. Drying pasta at a very high temperature reduced digestive discomfort and enhanced self-reported satiety, and was not associated with a modification of energy intake in the following meal. PMID:26190153

  19. Shift from complementarity to facilitation on P uptake by intercropped wheat neighboring with faba bean when available soil P is depleted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunjie; Dong, Yan; Li, Haigang; Shen, Jianbo; Zhang, Fusuo

    2016-01-01

    Rhizosphere processes stimulate overyielding and facilitative phosphorus (P) uptake in cereal/legume intercropping systems. However, little is known about when and how rhizosphere alteration of legumes plays a role in improving P uptake by cereals. Wheat was grown isolated, monocropped or intercropped with faba bean in pots with low-P soil. The biomass, P content, carboxylates and phosphatases activity were measured in 15 destructive samplings. Intraspecific competition of the biomass and P uptake of monocropped wheat was not significant before 40 and 36 days after sowing (DAS), whereas there was interspecific competition of biomass of intercropped wheat before 66 DAS. However, afterwards, the increments of the biomass and P uptake of the intercropped wheat were 1.3–1.9 and 1.9–2.3 times of increment of monocropped wheat. Meanwhile, the concentrations of malate and citrate and the acid phosphatase activity in the rhizospheres of intercropped wheat were significantly increased, which suggested that wheat/faba bean intercropping is efficient in P utilization due to complementary P uptake in the early growth stage and the positive interactions of the rhizosphere processes when the soil P was depleted.

  20. Shift from complementarity to facilitation on P uptake by intercropped wheat neighboring with faba bean when available soil P is depleted.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunjie; Dong, Yan; Li, Haigang; Shen, Jianbo; Zhang, Fusuo

    2016-01-01

    Rhizosphere processes stimulate overyielding and facilitative phosphorus (P) uptake in cereal/legume intercropping systems. However, little is known about when and how rhizosphere alteration of legumes plays a role in improving P uptake by cereals. Wheat was grown isolated, monocropped or intercropped with faba bean in pots with low-P soil. The biomass, P content, carboxylates and phosphatases activity were measured in 15 destructive samplings. Intraspecific competition of the biomass and P uptake of monocropped wheat was not significant before 40 and 36 days after sowing (DAS), whereas there was interspecific competition of biomass of intercropped wheat before 66 DAS. However, afterwards, the increments of the biomass and P uptake of the intercropped wheat were 1.3-1.9 and 1.9-2.3 times of increment of monocropped wheat. Meanwhile, the concentrations of malate and citrate and the acid phosphatase activity in the rhizospheres of intercropped wheat were significantly increased, which suggested that wheat/faba bean intercropping is efficient in P utilization due to complementary P uptake in the early growth stage and the positive interactions of the rhizosphere processes when the soil P was depleted.

  1. Phosphorylation of H2AX histones in response to double-strand breaks and induction of premature chromatin condensation in hydroxyurea-treated root meristem cells of Raphanus sativus, Vicia faba, and Allium porrum.

    PubMed

    Rybaczek, Dorota; Maszewski, Janusz

    2007-01-01

    Histone H2A variant H2AX is rapidly phosphorylated on the induction of DNA double-strand breaks by ionizing radiation and hydroxyurea-mediated replication arrest, resulting in the formation of gamma-H2AX foci along megabase chromatin domains nearby the sites of incurred DNA damage. In an attempt to establish a relationship between species-specific nuclear architecture and H2AX phosphorylation in S/G(2) phase-arrested root meristem cells, immunocytochemical comparisons using an antibody raised against human gamma-H2AX were made among three plants differing with respect to DNA contents: Allium porrum, representing a reticulate type of DNA package, Vicia faba, having semireticulate cell nuclei, and Raphanus sativus, characterised by a chromocentric type of chromatin. Another approach was aimed at determining possible correlations between the extent of hydroxyurea-induced phosphorylation of H2AX histones and the quantities of root meristem cells induced by caffeine to enter aberrant mitotic division (premature chromosome condensation). It was concluded that the higher-order structure of chromatin may contribute to the accessibility of molecular factors engaged in the recognition and repair of genetic lesions. Consequently, in contrast to A. porrum and V. faba, a diffuse chromatin in chromocentric cell nuclei of R. sativus may become more vulnerable both to generate DNA double-strand breaks and to recruit molecular elements needed to arrange the cell cycle checkpoint functions, and thus, more resistant to factors which allow the cells to enter premature chromosome condensation spontaneously. On the other hand, however, caffeine-mediated overriding of the S-M checkpoint control system resulted in the typical appearance of premature chromosome condensation, irrespective of the genomic content of DNA. PMID:17111099

  2. A hemiterpene glucoside as a probing deterrent of the bean aphid, Megoura crassicauda, from a non-host vetch, Vicia hirsuta.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Naohiro; Mori, Naoki; Kuwahara, Yasumasa; Nishida, Ritsuo

    2006-03-01

    The bean aphid, Megoura crassicauda Mordvilko, feeds selectively on plants belonging to the genus Vicia (Fabaceae). However, it never infests the tiny vetch, V. hirsuta (L.) Gray. The aphid appeared to discriminate between host and non-host plants by tasting specific chemicals during penetration of its stylet into the plant tissues. The aphid, after being stimulated by specific probing stimulants, deposited characteristic proteinous stylet sheaths through a parafilm membrane, which has one side in contact with an extract solution of Vicia angustifolia. However, an addition of a V. hirsuta extract to the medium strongly inhibited the salivary sheath formation. A specific probing deterrent was isolated from a V. hirsuta extract by monitoring the inhibitory effect, and identified as (E)-2-methyl-2-butene-1,4-diol 4-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside. A mixture of the glycoside and the stimulatory V. angustifolia fraction in the same equivalency found in plants significantly decreased the probing activity in M. crassicauda. Since the stylet insertion process is a crucial step for the aphid's settlement on a plant, the glycoside seems to act as an effective chemical barrier for V. hirsuta.

  3. Effect of nitrogen fixation, nitrogen fertilization and viral infection on yield, tannin and protein contents and in vitro protein digestibility of faba bean.

    PubMed

    Babiker, E E; el Sheikh, E A; Osman, A J; el Tinay, A H

    1995-04-01

    A field investigation of two faba bean cultivars (cv.), Agabat and Silaim, showed that bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) infection reduced (p < or = 0.001) yield (Kg/ha), protein content and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) but increased (p < or = 0.05) tannin content (mg/100 ml). Nitrogen fertilization with viral infection significantly reduced yield and IVPD for cv. Silaim and increased (p < or = 0.05) protein and tannin contents. Nitrogen fertilization alone was found to increase (p < or = 0.05) yield, protein and tannin contents but slightly reduced IVPD. Rhizobium inoculation with viral infection significantly decreased yield per unit area, protein content and IVPD, but increased (p < or = 0.05) tannin content. Rhizobium inoculation alone significantly increased (p < or = 0.001) yield and tannin content and slightly increased protein content but decreased IVPD. The results indicated that nitrogen fertilization or nitrogen fixation increased yield, protein and tannin contents and decreased IVPD. Viral infection had an adverse effect on yield, protein content and IVPD but had no effect on tannin content.

  4. Allelopathy in the natural and agricultural ecosystems and isolation of potent allelochemicals from Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) and Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa).

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2003-06-01

    We have studied on allelopathy of plants and developed methods to identify the effective substances in root exudates, leaf leacheate, and volatile chemicals emitted from plants. We found traditional cover plants that show allelopathic activity are useful for weed control. It could eliminate the use of synthetic chemicals for this purpose. Allelopathy is a natural power of plants to protect themselves by producing natural organic chemicals. Some endemic plants in Asia, already known by farmers in the region, as either cover crops used in intercropping, hedgerow, or agroforestry, were found to possess strong allelopathic abilities. Our group identified several allelochemicals from these plants. These allelopathic cover crops, mostly leguminous plants, provide protein rich food, and grow easily without artificial fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. In this regards, these allelopathic cover crops could save food shortage in rural area, and are useful for environmental conservation. Screenings of allelopathic plants by specific bioassays and field tests have been conducted. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) and Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) are two promising species for the practical application of allelopathy. An amino acid, L-DOPA, unusual in plants, plays an important role as allelochemical in Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens). Hairy vetch is the most promising cover plant for the weed control in orchard, vegetable and rice production and even for landscape amendment in abandoned field in Japan. We have isolated "cyanamide", a well known nitrogen fertilizer, from Hairy vetch. This is the first finding of naturally produced cyanamide in the world.

  5. Compatibility of rhizobial genotypes within natural populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae for nodulation of host legumes.

    PubMed

    Laguerre, Gisèle; Louvrier, Philippe; Allard, Marie-Reine; Amarger, Noëlle

    2003-04-01

    Populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae were sampled from two bulk soils, rhizosphere, and nodules of host legumes, fava bean (Vicia faba) and pea (Pisum sativum) grown in the same soils. Additional populations nodulating peas, fava beans, and vetches (Vicia sativa) grown in other soils and fava bean-nodulating strains from various geographic sites were also analyzed. The rhizobia were characterized by repetitive extragenomic palindromic-PCR fingerprinting and/or PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacers as markers of the genomic background and PCR-RFLP of a nodulation gene region, nodD, as a marker of the symbiotic component of the genome. Pairwise comparisons showed differences among the genetic structures of the bulk soil, rhizosphere, and nodule populations and in the degree of host specificity within the Vicieae cross-inoculation group. With fava bean, the symbiotic genotype appeared to be the preponderant determinant of the success in nodule occupancy of rhizobial genotypes independently of the associated genomic background, the plant genotype, and the soil sampled. The interaction between one particular rhizobial symbiotic genotype and fava bean seems to be highly specific for nodulation and linked to the efficiency of nitrogen fixation. By contrast with bulk soil and fava bean-nodulating populations, the analysis of pea-nodulating populations showed preferential associations between genomic backgrounds and symbiotic genotypes. Both components of the rhizobial genome may influence competitiveness for nodulation of pea, and rhizosphere colonization may be a decisive step in competition for nodule occupancy.

  6. Compatibility of rhizobial genotypes within natural populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae for nodulation of host legumes.

    PubMed

    Laguerre, Gisèle; Louvrier, Philippe; Allard, Marie-Reine; Amarger, Noëlle

    2003-04-01

    Populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae were sampled from two bulk soils, rhizosphere, and nodules of host legumes, fava bean (Vicia faba) and pea (Pisum sativum) grown in the same soils. Additional populations nodulating peas, fava beans, and vetches (Vicia sativa) grown in other soils and fava bean-nodulating strains from various geographic sites were also analyzed. The rhizobia were characterized by repetitive extragenomic palindromic-PCR fingerprinting and/or PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacers as markers of the genomic background and PCR-RFLP of a nodulation gene region, nodD, as a marker of the symbiotic component of the genome. Pairwise comparisons showed differences among the genetic structures of the bulk soil, rhizosphere, and nodule populations and in the degree of host specificity within the Vicieae cross-inoculation group. With fava bean, the symbiotic genotype appeared to be the preponderant determinant of the success in nodule occupancy of rhizobial genotypes independently of the associated genomic background, the plant genotype, and the soil sampled. The interaction between one particular rhizobial symbiotic genotype and fava bean seems to be highly specific for nodulation and linked to the efficiency of nitrogen fixation. By contrast with bulk soil and fava bean-nodulating populations, the analysis of pea-nodulating populations showed preferential associations between genomic backgrounds and symbiotic genotypes. Both components of the rhizobial genome may influence competitiveness for nodulation of pea, and rhizosphere colonization may be a decisive step in competition for nodule occupancy. PMID:12676710

  7. Replacement of dietary soy- with air classified faba bean protein concentrate alters the hepatic transcriptome in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Christian; Crampton, Viv O; Bicskei, Beatrix; Tocher, Douglas R

    2015-12-01

    The production of carnivorous fish such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is dependent on the availability of high quality proteins for feed formulations. For a number of nutritional, strategic and economic reasons, the use of plant proteins has steadily increased over the years, however a major limitation is associated with the presence of anti-nutritional factors and the nutritional profile of the protein concentrate. Investigating novel raw materials involves understanding the physiological consequences associated with the dietary inclusion of protein concentrates. The primary aim of the present study was to assess the metabolic response of salmon to increasing inclusion of air-classified faba bean protein concentrate (BPC) in feeds as a replacement for soy protein concentrate (SPC). Specifically, we tested treatments with identical contents of fishmeal (222.4gkg(-1)) and progressively higher inclusion of BPC (0gkg(-1), 111.8gkg(-1), 223.6gkg(-1), 335.4gkg(-1), 447.2gkg(-1)) substituting SPC. This study demonstrated a dose-dependent metabolic response to a plant ingredient and was the first to compare the nutrigenomic transcriptional responses after substitution of terrestrial feed ingredients such as BPC and SPC without withdrawal of marine ingredients. It was found that after eight weeks a major physiological response in liver was only evident above 335.4gkg(-1) BPC and included decreased expression of metabolic pathways, and increased expression of genes regulating transcription and translation processes and the innate immune response. Furthermore, we showed that the nutritional stress caused by BPC resembled, at least at hepatic transcriptional level, that caused by soybean meal (included as a positive control in our experimental design). The outcomes of the present study suggested that Atlantic salmon parr might efficiently utilize moderate substitution of dietary SPC with BPC, with the optimum inclusion level being around 120gkg(-1)in the type of feeds

  8. Replacement of dietary soy- with air classified faba bean protein concentrate alters the hepatic transcriptome in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Christian; Crampton, Viv O; Bicskei, Beatrix; Tocher, Douglas R

    2015-12-01

    The production of carnivorous fish such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is dependent on the availability of high quality proteins for feed formulations. For a number of nutritional, strategic and economic reasons, the use of plant proteins has steadily increased over the years, however a major limitation is associated with the presence of anti-nutritional factors and the nutritional profile of the protein concentrate. Investigating novel raw materials involves understanding the physiological consequences associated with the dietary inclusion of protein concentrates. The primary aim of the present study was to assess the metabolic response of salmon to increasing inclusion of air-classified faba bean protein concentrate (BPC) in feeds as a replacement for soy protein concentrate (SPC). Specifically, we tested treatments with identical contents of fishmeal (222.4gkg(-1)) and progressively higher inclusion of BPC (0gkg(-1), 111.8gkg(-1), 223.6gkg(-1), 335.4gkg(-1), 447.2gkg(-1)) substituting SPC. This study demonstrated a dose-dependent metabolic response to a plant ingredient and was the first to compare the nutrigenomic transcriptional responses after substitution of terrestrial feed ingredients such as BPC and SPC without withdrawal of marine ingredients. It was found that after eight weeks a major physiological response in liver was only evident above 335.4gkg(-1) BPC and included decreased expression of metabolic pathways, and increased expression of genes regulating transcription and translation processes and the innate immune response. Furthermore, we showed that the nutritional stress caused by BPC resembled, at least at hepatic transcriptional level, that caused by soybean meal (included as a positive control in our experimental design). The outcomes of the present study suggested that Atlantic salmon parr might efficiently utilize moderate substitution of dietary SPC with BPC, with the optimum inclusion level being around 120gkg(-1)in the type of feeds

  9. Larval performance and kill rate of convergent ladybird beetles, Hippodamia convergens, on black bean aphids, Aphis fabae, and pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Hinkelman, Travis M; Tenhumberg, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Generalist predator guilds play a prominent role in structuring insect communities and can contribute to limiting population sizes of insect pest species. A consequence of dietary breadth, particularly in predatory insects, is the inclusion of low-quality, or even toxic, prey items in the predator's diet. Consumption of low-quality prey items reduces growth, development, and survival of predator larvae, thereby reducing the population sizes of generalist predators. The objective of this paper was to examine the effect of a suspected low-quality aphid species, Aphis fabae (Scopoli) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on the larval performance of an abundant North American predator, Hippodamia convergens (Guérin-Méneville) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). For comparison, H. convergens larvae were also reared on a known high-quality aphid species Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and on a 50:50 mix of both aphid species. The proportion of H. convergens larvae surviving to the adult stage was dramatically lower (0.13) on the A. fabae diet than on the A. pisum diet (0.70); survival on the mixed diet was intermediate (0.45) to survival on the single-species diets. Similarly, surviving H. convergens larvae also developed more slowly and weighed less as adults on the A. fabae diet than on the A. pisum diet. Despite the relatively poor performance on the A. fabae diet, H. convergens larvae killed large numbers of A. fabae. Furthermore, H. convergens displayed a preference for A. fabae in the mixed diet treatment, most likely because A. fabae was easier to catch than A. pisum. The results suggest that increases in the distribution and abundance of A. fabae in North America may have negative effects on H. convergens population size. PMID:23909291

  10. Larval performance and kill rate of convergent ladybird beetles, Hippodamia convergens, on black bean aphids, Aphis fabae, and pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Hinkelman, Travis M; Tenhumberg, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Generalist predator guilds play a prominent role in structuring insect communities and can contribute to limiting population sizes of insect pest species. A consequence of dietary breadth, particularly in predatory insects, is the inclusion of low-quality, or even toxic, prey items in the predator's diet. Consumption of low-quality prey items reduces growth, development, and survival of predator larvae, thereby reducing the population sizes of generalist predators. The objective of this paper was to examine the effect of a suspected low-quality aphid species, Aphis fabae (Scopoli) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on the larval performance of an abundant North American predator, Hippodamia convergens (Guérin-Méneville) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). For comparison, H. convergens larvae were also reared on a known high-quality aphid species Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and on a 50:50 mix of both aphid species. The proportion of H. convergens larvae surviving to the adult stage was dramatically lower (0.13) on the A. fabae diet than on the A. pisum diet (0.70); survival on the mixed diet was intermediate (0.45) to survival on the single-species diets. Similarly, surviving H. convergens larvae also developed more slowly and weighed less as adults on the A. fabae diet than on the A. pisum diet. Despite the relatively poor performance on the A. fabae diet, H. convergens larvae killed large numbers of A. fabae. Furthermore, H. convergens displayed a preference for A. fabae in the mixed diet treatment, most likely because A. fabae was easier to catch than A. pisum. The results suggest that increases in the distribution and abundance of A. fabae in North America may have negative effects on H. convergens population size.

  11. Induction of systemic protection against rust infection in broad bean by saccharin: effects on plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Celia; Walters, Dale

    2005-08-01

    Here, we examine the effect of saccharin on the induction of systemic resistance in broad bean (Vicia faba) to the rust fungus Uromyces viciae-fabae. Saccharin was applied to beans at the three-leaf stage, either as a soil drench or by painting the solution on to first leaves. Plants were then challenge inoculated with the rust 1, 6, 10 and 14 d following saccharin treatment, after which they were harvested, assessed for the intensity of rust infection and plant growth measurements conducted. Foliar application of saccharin did not induce systemic protection to rust infection until 14 d after application and was less effective than saccharin applied as a soil drench. When saccharin was applied as a drench, systemic protection was not observed until 6 d after application, but was still apparent in plants 14 d after application of the drench. Irrespective of the method of application, saccharin had no significant effect on fresh and dry weights or leaf area of the plants. Saccharin applied as a drench did, however, reduce the number of leaflets produced.

  12. Assessment of the genotoxicity of 137Cs radiation using Vicia-micronucleus, Tradescantia-micronucleus and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation bioassays.

    PubMed

    Minouflet, Marion; Ayrault, Sophie; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Cotelle, Sylvie; Ferard, Jean-François

    2005-01-01

    Since the middle of the 20th century, ionizing radiations from radioactive isotopes including 137Cs have been investigated to determine their genotoxic impact on living organisms. The present study was designed to compare the effectiveness of three plant bioassays to assess DNA damage induced by low doses of 137Cs: Vicia-micronucleus test (Vicia-MCN), Tradescantia-micronucleus test (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation test (Trad-SH) were used. Vicia faba (broad bean) and Tradescantia clone 4430 (spiderwort) were exposed to 137Cs according to different scenarios: external and internal (contamination) irradiations. Experiments were conducted with various levels of radioactivity in solution or in soil, using solid or liquid 137Cs sources. The three bioassays showed different sensitivities to the treatments. Trad-MCN appeared to be the most sensitive test (significative response from 1.5 kBq/200 ml after 30 h of contamination). Moreover, at comparable doses, internal irradiations led to larger effects for the three bioassays. These bioassays are effective tests for assessing the genotoxic effects of radioactive 137Cs pollution.

  13. Plant, cell, and molecular mechanisms of abscisic-acid regulation of stomatal apertures. A new mechanism for the regulation of stomatal-aperture size in intact leaves: Accumulation of mesophyll-derived sucrose in the guard-cell wall of Vicia faba L.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, P.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Smith, B.G.; Freed, G.A.

    1996-12-31

    At various times after pulse labeling Vicia faba L. leaflets with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents whereas those from rinsed peels contained only cytoplastic contents. Sucrose specific radioactivity peaked in palisade cells, 111 GBq{center_dot}mol{sup {minus}1}, at 20 min. In contrast, the {sup 14}C content and sucrose specific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO{sub 2} incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum sucrose specific radioactivity and a high sucrose influx rate. These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple sucrose pools in mesophyll cells, (b) a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and (c) mesophyll-derived sucrose in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by {approximately} 4 {micro}m. Factors expected to enhance sucrose accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and (b) high apoplastic sucrose concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll-sucrose efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal-aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism.

  14. Morphological and physiological changes in esterase and lipid peroxidation of two bean cultivars pre-soaked with potassium nitrate under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Shaddad, Mohamed A K; Abd El-Baki, Gaber K; Doaa, Mostafa; Al-Shimaa, Rafat

    2015-12-01

    Two broad bean cultivars (Vicia faba CV Nobaria3 and Vicia faba CV Sakha3) were obtained from Mallwi Agriculture Research Center, El Minia Governorate, Egypt. The seeds were divided into two groups, the first group soaked with distilled water, while the second group were soaked with 3 mM KNO₃, respectively, for 4 hours. Seeds were sown and left to grow for 3 weeks then treated with different concentrations of NaCl (0.0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 mM) by top irrigation, then they left to grow further for 65 days from sowing. Plant samples were collected for some measurements: leaf area, plant height, root length, fresh and dry weight, photosynthetic pigments, carotenoids, soluble sugars, soluble proteins, total free amino acids, esterase enzyme, as well as MDA (malondialdehyde) content. Salinity reduced both fresh and dry weight in two broad bean cultivars, this reduction were more pronounced in Sakha3 than Nobaria3. Seed pre-soaking with KNO₃resulted in enhancement of fresh and dry weight production in both cultivars especially at 40 mM NaCl. Photosynthetic pigments were substantially affected by salt treatment while the carotenoids were increased, seed pre-soaking with KNO₃improved these components. The soluble sugars, amino acids as well as soluble proteins showed various responses with increasing salinity in the cultivars, seed pre-soaking with KNO₃has improved these parameters to some extent. The shoots of two cultivars exhibited significant accumulation of MDA, compared to roots exposed to the highest salinity levels. Pre-soaking seeds with KNO₃did not improve MDA in shoots but enhanced it in roots, however, in most cases still lower than the absolute control. The assessment of the esterase isozyme profiles on 7.5% native polyacrylamide gel revealed the presence of 13 isoforms in two faba bean plants in response to KNO₃pre-soaking and treatments with different concentrations of NaCl. PMID:26616374

  15. Demography and Population Projection of Aphis fabae (Hemiptera: Aphididae): with Additional Comments on Life Table Research Criteria.

    PubMed

    Akca, Izzet; Ayvaz, Tamer; Yazici, Eda; Smith, Cecil L; Chi, Hsin

    2015-08-01

    We collected developmental, survival, and reproduction data for Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae) reared on faba bean, Vicia faba L. 'Sevilla' at four constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, and 30°C), 70% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. The highest intrinsic rate of increase (r = 0.4347 d(-1)) and finite rate (λ = 1.5445 d(-1)) were observed at 25°C. The population projection based on the age-stage, two-sex life table quantitatively revealed the growth potential and stage structure of the aphid. We have included the following suggestions to aid researchers in life table studies: 1) The bootstrap method should be used to estimate the variance and SEs of developmental time, survival rate, fecundity, and population parameters. 2) The required number of bootstraps is dependent on the life table data--the higher the variation among individuals, the higher the number of bootstraps should be. In most cases, we suggest that 100,000 bootstraps should be used to obtain a stable estimate of variance and SEs. 3) Computer projection based on the age-stage, two-sex life table should be used to reveal the stage structure during population growth. 4) We used a simple equation based on the total fecundity, survival rate to adult stage, and first reproductive age to detect possible errors in life table parameters. 5) To assist readers in comprehending results, life table studies should include the cohort size, preadult survival rate, number of emerged female adults, mean fecundity, survival and fecundity curves, and population parameters.

  16. Demography and Population Projection of Aphis fabae (Hemiptera: Aphididae): with Additional Comments on Life Table Research Criteria.

    PubMed

    Akca, Izzet; Ayvaz, Tamer; Yazici, Eda; Smith, Cecil L; Chi, Hsin

    2015-08-01

    We collected developmental, survival, and reproduction data for Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae) reared on faba bean, Vicia faba L. 'Sevilla' at four constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, and 30°C), 70% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. The highest intrinsic rate of increase (r = 0.4347 d(-1)) and finite rate (λ = 1.5445 d(-1)) were observed at 25°C. The population projection based on the age-stage, two-sex life table quantitatively revealed the growth potential and stage structure of the aphid. We have included the following suggestions to aid researchers in life table studies: 1) The bootstrap method should be used to estimate the variance and SEs of developmental time, survival rate, fecundity, and population parameters. 2) The required number of bootstraps is dependent on the life table data--the higher the variation among individuals, the higher the number of bootstraps should be. In most cases, we suggest that 100,000 bootstraps should be used to obtain a stable estimate of variance and SEs. 3) Computer projection based on the age-stage, two-sex life table should be used to reveal the stage structure during population growth. 4) We used a simple equation based on the total fecundity, survival rate to adult stage, and first reproductive age to detect possible errors in life table parameters. 5) To assist readers in comprehending results, life table studies should include the cohort size, preadult survival rate, number of emerged female adults, mean fecundity, survival and fecundity curves, and population parameters. PMID:26470285

  17. An increase in renal dopamine does not stimulate natriuresis after fava bean ingestion123

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Emily M; Cesar, Tericka S; Lonce, Suzanna; Ferguson, Marcus C; Robertson, David

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fava beans (Vicia faba) contain dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa), and their ingestion may increase dopamine stores. Renal dopamine regulates blood pressure and blood volume via a natriuretic effect. Objective: The objective was to determine the relation between dietary fava beans, plasma and urinary catechols, and urinary sodium excretion in 13 healthy volunteers. Design: Catechol and sodium data were compared by using a longitudinal design in which all participants consumed a fixed-sodium study diet on day 1 and the fixed-sodium diet plus fava beans on day 2. Blood was sampled at 1, 2, 4, and 6 h after a meal, and 3 consecutive 4-h urine samples were collected. Results: Mean (±SD) plasma dopa was significantly greater 1 h after fava bean consumption (11,670 ± 5440 compared with 1705 ± 530 pg/mL; P = 0.001) and remained elevated at 6 h. Plasma dopamine increased nearly 15-fold during this period. Fava bean consumption also increased urinary dopamine excretion to 306 ± 116, 360 ± 235, and 159 ± 111 μg/4-h urine sample compared with 45 ± 21, 54 ± 29, and 44 ± 17 μg in the 3 consecutive 4-h samples after the control diet (P ≤ 0.005). These substantial increases in plasma and urinary dopa and dopamine were unexpectedly associated with decreased urinary sodium. Conclusion: The failure of fava bean consumption to provoke natriuresis may indicate that dopa concentrations in commercially available beans do not raise renal dopamine sufficiently to stimulate sodium excretion, at least when beans are added to a moderate-sodium diet in healthy volunteers. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01064739. PMID:23553159

  18. A Study of Blackfly (Aphis fabae Scop.) on Broad Bean plants, and of Insects Associated Directly or Indirectly with the Colony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backhouse, Mary

    1972-01-01

    Describes the results of a study of the ecology of the bean plant/aphid/ant/associated insects/fungi system and suggests a series of experiments that secondary school students could undertake by observing or manipulating this system. (Species recorded are British) (AL)

  19. The analysis of core and symbiotic genes of rhizobia nodulating Vicia from different continents reveals their common phylogenetic origin and suggests the distribution of Rhizobium leguminosarum strains together with Vicia seeds.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Martínez, Estela R; Valverde, Angel; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha Helena; García-Fraile, Paula; Tejedor, Carmen; Mateos, Pedro F; Santillana, Nery; Zúñiga, Doris; Peix, Alvaro; Velázquez, Encarna

    2009-08-01

    In this work, we analysed the core and symbiotic genes of rhizobial strains isolated from Vicia sativa in three soils from the Northwest of Spain, and compared them with other Vicia endosymbionts isolated in other geographical locations. The analysis of rrs, recA and atpD genes and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer showed that the Spanish strains nodulating V. sativa are phylogenetically close to those isolated from V. sativa and V. faba in different European, American and Asian countries forming a group related to Rhizobium leguminosarum. The analysis of the nodC gene of strains nodulating V. sativa and V. faba in different continents showed they belong to a phylogenetically compact group indicating that these legumes are restrictive hosts. The results of the nodC gene analysis allow the delineation of the biovar viciae showing a common phylogenetic origin of V. sativa and V. faba endosymbionts in several continents. Since these two legume species are indigenous from Europe, our results suggest a world distribution of strains from R. leguminosarum together with the V. sativa and V. faba seeds and a close coevolution among chromosome, symbiotic genes and legume host in this Rhizobium-Vicia symbiosis.

  20. Chemical analysis and hemolytic activity of the fava bean aglycon divicine.

    PubMed

    McMillan, D C; Schey, K L; Meier, G P; Jollow, D J

    1993-01-01

    Divicine is an unstable aglycon metabolite of the fava bean pyrimidine beta-glucoside vicine. Divicine has long been thought to be a mediator of an acute hemolytic crisis, known as favism, in susceptible individuals who ingest fava beans (Vicia faba). However, a recent report has questioned the chemical identity of the divicine that was used in most of the studies on divicine hemotoxicity. The present study was undertaken to examine the hemolytic potential of synthetic divicine. Divicine was synthesized and its identity and purity were confirmed by HPLC, mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy. The stability and redox behavior of divicine, under physiological conditions, were examined by HPLC and cyclic voltammetry. The data indicate that divicine is readily oxidized under aerobic conditions; however, it was sufficiently stable at pH 7.4 to permit its experimental manipulation. When 51Cr-labeled rat erythrocytes were exposed in vitro to the parent glucoside, vicine (5 mM), and then readministered to rats, no decrease in erythrocyte survival was observed. In contrast, erythrocyte survival was dramatically reduced by in vitro exposure to divicine (1.5 mM). These data demonstrate that divicine is a direct-acting hemolytic agent and thus may be a mediator of the hemolytic crisis induced by fava bean ingestion.

  1. Chemical analysis and hemolytic activity of the fava bean aglycon divicine.

    PubMed

    McMillan, D C; Schey, K L; Meier, G P; Jollow, D J

    1993-01-01

    Divicine is an unstable aglycon metabolite of the fava bean pyrimidine beta-glucoside vicine. Divicine has long been thought to be a mediator of an acute hemolytic crisis, known as favism, in susceptible individuals who ingest fava beans (Vicia faba). However, a recent report has questioned the chemical identity of the divicine that was used in most of the studies on divicine hemotoxicity. The present study was undertaken to examine the hemolytic potential of synthetic divicine. Divicine was synthesized and its identity and purity were confirmed by HPLC, mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy. The stability and redox behavior of divicine, under physiological conditions, were examined by HPLC and cyclic voltammetry. The data indicate that divicine is readily oxidized under aerobic conditions; however, it was sufficiently stable at pH 7.4 to permit its experimental manipulation. When 51Cr-labeled rat erythrocytes were exposed in vitro to the parent glucoside, vicine (5 mM), and then readministered to rats, no decrease in erythrocyte survival was observed. In contrast, erythrocyte survival was dramatically reduced by in vitro exposure to divicine (1.5 mM). These data demonstrate that divicine is a direct-acting hemolytic agent and thus may be a mediator of the hemolytic crisis induced by fava bean ingestion. PMID:8374040

  2. Molecular and biological characterization of highly infectious transcripts from full-length cDNA clones of broad bean wilt virus 1.

    PubMed

    Ferriol, Inmaculada; Ambrós, Silvia; da Silva, Dorivaldo M; Falk, Bryce W; Rubio, Luis

    2016-06-01

    Broad bean wilt virus 1 (BBWV-1), genus Fabavirus, has a genome composed of two single-stranded positive-sense RNAs of ∼5.8 (RNA1) and 3.4kb (RNA2). Full-length cDNA clones of both genomic RNAs (pBenR1 and pBenR2) from BBWV-1 isolate Ben were constructed under the control of the T7 promoter. In vitro derived capped transcripts were infectious in Nicotiana benthamiana, Chenopodium quinoa and Vicia faba plants. The biological activity of viral transcripts was not affected by extra bases at the 5'-terminus introduced during in vitro transcription. Virions derived from the infectious cDNA clones displayed similar viral infectivity and accumulation, as well as symptom induction as the wild-type BBWV-1 isolate. PMID:26951858

  3. Glutamate functions in stomatal closure in Arabidopsis and fava bean.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Riichiro; Mori, Izumi C; Kamizono, Nobuto; Shichiri, Yudai; Shimatani, Tetsuo; Miyata, Fumika; Honda, Kenji; Iwai, Sumio

    2016-01-01

    Guard cells are indispensable for higher plants because they control gas exchange and water balance to maintain photosynthetic activity. The signaling processes that govern their movement are controlled by several factors, such as abscisic acid (ABA), blue light, pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and carbon dioxide. Herein, we demonstrated that the amino acid glutamate (Glu), a well-known mammalian neurotransmitter, functions as a novel signaling molecule in stomatal closure in both Arabidopsis and fava bean (Vicia faba L.). Pharmacological and electrophysiological analyses provided important clues for the participation of Glu-receptors, Ca(2+), and protein phosphorylation during the signaling process. Genetic analyses using Arabidopsis ABA-deficient (aba2-1) and ABA-insensitive (abi1-1 and abi2-1) mutants showed that ABA is not required for Glu signaling. However, loss-of-function of the Arabidopsis gene encoding Slow Anion Channel-Associated 1 (SLAC1) and Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 6 (CPK6) impaired the Glu response. Moreover, T-DNA knockout mutations of the Arabidopsis Glu receptor-like gene (GLR), GLR3.5, lost their sensitivity to Glu-dependent stomatal closure. Our results strongly support functional Glu-signaling in stomatal closure and the crucial roles of GLRs in this signaling process.

  4. Glutamate functions in stomatal closure in Arabidopsis and fava bean.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Riichiro; Mori, Izumi C; Kamizono, Nobuto; Shichiri, Yudai; Shimatani, Tetsuo; Miyata, Fumika; Honda, Kenji; Iwai, Sumio

    2016-01-01

    Guard cells are indispensable for higher plants because they control gas exchange and water balance to maintain photosynthetic activity. The signaling processes that govern their movement are controlled by several factors, such as abscisic acid (ABA), blue light, pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and carbon dioxide. Herein, we demonstrated that the amino acid glutamate (Glu), a well-known mammalian neurotransmitter, functions as a novel signaling molecule in stomatal closure in both Arabidopsis and fava bean (Vicia faba L.). Pharmacological and electrophysiological analyses provided important clues for the participation of Glu-receptors, Ca(2+), and protein phosphorylation during the signaling process. Genetic analyses using Arabidopsis ABA-deficient (aba2-1) and ABA-insensitive (abi1-1 and abi2-1) mutants showed that ABA is not required for Glu signaling. However, loss-of-function of the Arabidopsis gene encoding Slow Anion Channel-Associated 1 (SLAC1) and Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 6 (CPK6) impaired the Glu response. Moreover, T-DNA knockout mutations of the Arabidopsis Glu receptor-like gene (GLR), GLR3.5, lost their sensitivity to Glu-dependent stomatal closure. Our results strongly support functional Glu-signaling in stomatal closure and the crucial roles of GLRs in this signaling process. PMID:26586261

  5. Interactions between Rhizobia and Lectins of Lentil, Pea, Broad Bean, and Jackbean 1

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Peter P.

    1980-01-01

    A quantitative method was developed to measure the binding of fluorescent-labeled lentil (Lens esculenta Moench), pea (Pisum sativum L.), broad bean (Vicia faba L.), and jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis L., DC.) lectins to various Rhizobium strains. Lentil lectin bound to three of the five Rhizobium leguminosarum strains tested. The number of lentil lectin molecules bound per R. leguminosarum 128C53 cell was 2.1 × 104. Lentil lectin also bound to R. japonicum 61A133. Pea and broad bean lectins bound to only two of the five strains of R. leguminosarum, whereas concanavalin A (jackbean lectin) bound to all strains of R. leguminosarum, R. phaseoli, R. japonicum, and R. sp. tested. Since these four lectins have similar sugarbinding properties but different physical properties, the variation in bindings of these lectins to various Rhizobium strains indicates that binding of lectin to Rhizobium is determined not only by the sugar specificity of the lectin but also by its physical characteristics. The binding of lentil lectin and concanavalin A to R. leguminosarum 128C53 could be inhibited by glucose, fructose, and mannose. However, even at 150 millimolar glucose, about 15% of the binding remained. The binding of lentil lectin to R. japonicum 61A133 could be inhibited by glucose but not by galactose. It is concluded that the binding site of lentil lectin to R. japonicum is different from the binding site of soybean lectin to R. japonicum. PMID:16661328

  6. New fava bean guard cell signaling mutant impaired in ABA-induced stomatal closure.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Sumio; Shimomura, Naoki; Nakashima, Atsushi; Etoh, Takeomi

    2003-09-01

    We isolated a mutant from Vicia faba L. cv. House Ryousai. It wilts easily under strong light and high temperature conditions, suggesting that its stomatal movement may be disturbed. We determined responses of mutant guard cells to some environmental stimuli. Mutant guard cells demonstrated an impaired ability to respond to ABA in 0.1 mM CaCl(2) and stomata did not close in the presence of up to 1 mM ABA, whereas wild-type stomata closed when exposed to 10 micro M ABA. Elevating external Ca(2+) caused a similar degree of stomatal closure in the wild type and the mutant. A high concentration of CO(2) (700 micro l liter(-1)) induced stomatal closure in the wild type, but not in the mutant. On the basis of these results, we propose the working hypothesis that the mutation occurs in the region downstream of CO(2) and ABA sensing and in the region upstream of Ca(2+) elevation. The mutant is named fia (fava bean impaired in ABA-induced stomatal closure).

  7. New fava bean guard cell signaling mutant impaired in ABA-induced stomatal closure.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Sumio; Shimomura, Naoki; Nakashima, Atsushi; Etoh, Takeomi

    2003-09-01

    We isolated a mutant from Vicia faba L. cv. House Ryousai. It wilts easily under strong light and high temperature conditions, suggesting that its stomatal movement may be disturbed. We determined responses of mutant guard cells to some environmental stimuli. Mutant guard cells demonstrated an impaired ability to respond to ABA in 0.1 mM CaCl(2) and stomata did not close in the presence of up to 1 mM ABA, whereas wild-type stomata closed when exposed to 10 micro M ABA. Elevating external Ca(2+) caused a similar degree of stomatal closure in the wild type and the mutant. A high concentration of CO(2) (700 micro l liter(-1)) induced stomatal closure in the wild type, but not in the mutant. On the basis of these results, we propose the working hypothesis that the mutation occurs in the region downstream of CO(2) and ABA sensing and in the region upstream of Ca(2+) elevation. The mutant is named fia (fava bean impaired in ABA-induced stomatal closure). PMID:14519772

  8. ABA signaling in stomatal guard cells: lessons from Commelina and Vicia.

    PubMed

    Mori, Izumi C; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2011-07-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) signaling mechanisms have been studied in a broad variety of plant species using complementary analyses, taking advantage of different methodologies suitable for each plant species. Early studies on ABA biosynthesis using Solanum lycopersicum mutants suggested an importance of ABA synthesis in stomatal closure. To understand ABA signaling in guard cells, cellular, biochemical and electrophysiological studies in Vicia faba and Commelina communis have been conducted, providing fundamental knowledge that was further reconfirmed by molecular genetic studies of Arabidopsis. In this article, examples of stomatal studies in several plants and prospects in ABA research are discussed.

  9. Camelid nanobodies with high affinity for broad bean mottle virus: a possible promising tool to immunomodulate plant resistance against viruses.

    PubMed

    Ghannam, Ahmed; Kumari, Safa; Muyldermans, Serge; Abbady, Abdul Qader

    2015-03-01

    Worldwide, plant viral infections decrease seriously the crop production yield, boosting the demand to develop new strategies to control viral diseases. One of these strategies to prevent viral infections, based on the immunomodulation faces many problems related to the ectopic expression of specific antibodies in planta. Camelid nanobodies, expressed in plants, may offer a solution as they are an attractive tool to bind efficiently to viral epitopes, cryptic or not accessible to conventional antibodies. Here, we report a novel, generic approach that might lead to virus resistance based on the expression of camelid specific nanobodies against Broad bean mottle virus (BBMV). Eight nanobodies, recognizing BBMV with high specificity and affinity, were retrieved after phage display from a large 'immune' library constructed from an immunized Arabic camel. By an in vitro assay we demonstrate how three nanobodies attenuate the BBMV spreading in inoculated Vicia faba plants. Furthermore, the in planta transient expression of these three selected nanobodies confirms their virus neutralizing capacity. In conclusion, this report supports that plant resistance against viral infections can be achieved by the in vivo expression of camelid nanobodies. PMID:25648551

  10. Bioavailability of trace elements in beans and zinc-biofortified wheat in pigs.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Dorthe; Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Torun, Bulent; Cakmak, Ismail; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to study bioavailability of trace elements in beans and wheat containing different levels of zinc and to study how the water solubility of trace elements was related to the bioavailability in pigs. Three wheat and two bean types were used: wheat of Danish origin as a control (CtrlW), two Turkish wheat types low (LZnW) and high (HZnW) in zinc, a common bean (Com), and a faba bean (Faba). Two diets were composed by combining 81 % CtrlW and 19 % Com or Faba beans. Solubility was measured as the trace element concentration in the supernatant of feedstuffs, and diets incubated in distilled water at pH 4 and 38°C for 3 h. The bioavailability of zinc and copper of the three wheat types and the two bean-containing diets were evaluated in the pigs by collection of urine and feces for 7 days. The solubility of zinc was 34-63 %, copper 18-42 %, and iron 3-11 %. The zinc apparent digestibility in pigs was similar in the three wheat groups (11-14 %), but was significantly higher in the CtrlW+Faba group (23 %) and negative in the CtrlW+Com group (-30 %). The apparent digestibility of copper was higher in the HZnW (27 %) and CtrlW+Faba (33 %) groups than in the CtrlW (17 %) and LZnW (18 %) groups. The apparent copper digestibility of the CtrlW+Com diet was negative (-7 %). The solubility and digestibility results did not reflect the concentration in feedstuffs. The in vitro results of water solubility showed no relationship to the results of trace mineral bioavailability in pigs.

  11. Magnesium Sensitizes Slow Vacuolar Channels to Physiological Cytosolic Calcium and Inhibits Fast Vacuolar Channels in Fava Bean Guard Cell Vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Pei; Ward; Schroeder

    1999-11-01

    Vacuolar ion channels in guard cells play important roles during stomatal movement and are regulated by many factors including Ca(2+), calmodulin, protein kinases, and phosphatases. We report that physiological cytosolic and luminal Mg(2+) levels strongly regulate vacuolar ion channels in fava bean (Vicia faba) guard cells. Luminal Mg(2+) inhibited fast vacuolar (FV) currents with a K(i) of approximately 0.23 mM in a voltage-dependent manner at positive potentials on the cytoplasmic side. Cytosolic Mg(2+) at 1 mM also inhibited FV currents. Furthermore, in the absence of cytosolic Mg(2+), cytosolic Ca(2+) at less than 10 µM did not activate slow vacuolar (SV) currents. However, when cytosolic Mg(2+) was present, submicromolar concentrations of cytosolic Ca(2+) activated SV currents with a K(d) of approximately 227 nM, suggesting a synergistic Mg(2+)-Ca(2+) effect. The activation potential of SV currents was shifted toward physiological potentials in the presence of cytosolic Mg(2+) concentrations. The direction of SV currents could also be changed from outward to both outward and inward currents. Our data predict a model for SV channel regulation, including a cytosolic binding site for Ca(2+) with an affinity in the submicromolar range and a cytosolic low-affinity Mg(2+)-Ca(2+) binding site. SV channels are predicted to contain a third binding site on the vacuolar luminal side, which binds Ca(2+) and is inhibitory. In conclusion, cytosolic Mg(2+) sensitizes SV channels to physiological cytosolic Ca(2+) elevations. Furthermore, we propose that cytosolic and vacuolar Mg(2+) concentrations ensure that FV channels do not function as a continuous vacuolar K(+) leak, which would prohibit stomatal opening.

  12. Magnesium Sensitizes Slow Vacuolar Channels to Physiological Cytosolic Calcium and Inhibits Fast Vacuolar Channels in Fava Bean Guard Cell Vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Pei; Ward; Schroeder

    1999-11-01

    Vacuolar ion channels in guard cells play important roles during stomatal movement and are regulated by many factors including Ca(2+), calmodulin, protein kinases, and phosphatases. We report that physiological cytosolic and luminal Mg(2+) levels strongly regulate vacuolar ion channels in fava bean (Vicia faba) guard cells. Luminal Mg(2+) inhibited fast vacuolar (FV) currents with a K(i) of approximately 0.23 mM in a voltage-dependent manner at positive potentials on the cytoplasmic side. Cytosolic Mg(2+) at 1 mM also inhibited FV currents. Furthermore, in the absence of cytosolic Mg(2+), cytosolic Ca(2+) at less than 10 µM did not activate slow vacuolar (SV) currents. However, when cytosolic Mg(2+) was present, submicromolar concentrations of cytosolic Ca(2+) activated SV currents with a K(d) of approximately 227 nM, suggesting a synergistic Mg(2+)-Ca(2+) effect. The activation potential of SV currents was shifted toward physiological potentials in the presence of cytosolic Mg(2+) concentrations. The direction of SV currents could also be changed from outward to both outward and inward currents. Our data predict a model for SV channel regulation, including a cytosolic binding site for Ca(2+) with an affinity in the submicromolar range and a cytosolic low-affinity Mg(2+)-Ca(2+) binding site. SV channels are predicted to contain a third binding site on the vacuolar luminal side, which binds Ca(2+) and is inhibitory. In conclusion, cytosolic Mg(2+) sensitizes SV channels to physiological cytosolic Ca(2+) elevations. Furthermore, we propose that cytosolic and vacuolar Mg(2+) concentrations ensure that FV channels do not function as a continuous vacuolar K(+) leak, which would prohibit stomatal opening. PMID:10557247

  13. Soil genotoxicity assessment--results of an interlaboratory study on the Vicia micronucleus assay in the context of ISO standardization.

    PubMed

    Cotelle, Sylvie; Dhyèvre, Adrien; Muller, Serge; Chenon, Pascale; Manier, Nicolas; Pandard, Pascal; Echairi, Abdelwahad; Silvestre, Jérôme; Guiresse, Maritxu; Pinelli, Eric; Giorgetti, Lucia; Barbafieri, Meri; Silva, Valéria C; Engel, Fernanda; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2015-01-01

    The Vicia micronucleus assay was standardized in an international protocol, ISO 29200, "Assessment of genotoxic effects on higher plants-Vicia faba micronucleus test," for soil or soil materials (e.g., compost, sludge, sediment, waste, and fertilizing materials). The aim of this interlaboratory study on the Vicia micronucleus assay was to investigate the robustness of this in vivo assay in terms of its applicability in different countries where each participant were asked to use their own seeds and reference soil, in agreement with the ISO 29200 standard. The ISO 29200 standard protocol was adopted for this study, and seven laboratories from three countries (France, Italy, and Brazil) participated in the study. Negative and positive controls were correctly evaluated by 100 % of the participants. In the solid-phase test, the micronucleus frequency (number of micronuclei/1,000 cells) varied from 0.0 to 1.8 for the negative control (i.e., Hoagland's solution) and from 5.8 to 85.7 for the positive control (i.e., maleic hydrazide), while these values varied from 0.0 to 1.7 for the negative control and from 14.3 to 97.7 for the positive control in the case of liquid-phase test. The variability in the data obtained does not adversely affect the robustness of the protocol assessed, on the condition that the methodology described in the standard ISO 29200 is strictly respected. Thus, the Vicia micronucleus test (ISO 29200) is appropriate for complementing prokaryotic or in vitro tests cited in legislation related to risk assessment of genotoxicity potential.

  14. Seed coat-associated invertases of fava bean control both unloading and storage functions: cloning of cDNAs and cell type-specific expression.

    PubMed

    Weber, H; Borisjuk, L; Heim, U; Buchner, P; Wobus, U

    1995-11-01

    We have studied the molecular physiology of photosynthate unloading and partitioning during seed development of fava bean (Vicia faba). During the prestorage phase, high levels of hexoses in the cotyledons and the apoplastic endospermal space are correlated with activity of cell wall-bound invertase in the seed coat. Three cDNAs were cloned. Sequence comparison revealed genes putatively encoding one soluble and two cell wall-bound isoforms of invertase. Expression was studied in different organs and tissues of developing seeds by RNA gel analysis, in situ hybridization, enzyme assay, and enzyme activity staining. One extracellular invertase gene is expressed during the prestorage phase in the thin-walled parenchyma of the seed coat, a region known to be the site of photoassimilate unloading. We propose a model for an invertase-mediated unloading process during early seed development and the regulation of cotyledonary sucrose metabolism. After unloading from the seed coat, sucrose is hydrolyzed by cell wall-bound invertases. Thus, invertase contributes to establish sink strength in young seeds. The resultant hexoses are loaded into the cotyledons and control carbohydrate partitioning via an influence on the sucrose synthase/sucrose-phosphate synthase pathway. The developmentally regulated degradation of the thin-walled parenchyma expressing the invertase apparently initiates the storage phase. This is characterized by a switch to a low sucrose/hexoses ratio. Feeding hexoses to storage-phase cotyledons in vitro increases the sucrose-phosphate synthase/sucrose synthase ratio and changes carbohydrate partitioning in favor of sucrose. Concomitantly, the transcript level of the major storage product legumin B is downregulated.

  15. Seed coat-associated invertases of fava bean control both unloading and storage functions: cloning of cDNAs and cell type-specific expression.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, H; Borisjuk, L; Heim, U; Buchner, P; Wobus, U

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the molecular physiology of photosynthate unloading and partitioning during seed development of fava bean (Vicia faba). During the prestorage phase, high levels of hexoses in the cotyledons and the apoplastic endospermal space are correlated with activity of cell wall-bound invertase in the seed coat. Three cDNAs were cloned. Sequence comparison revealed genes putatively encoding one soluble and two cell wall-bound isoforms of invertase. Expression was studied in different organs and tissues of developing seeds by RNA gel analysis, in situ hybridization, enzyme assay, and enzyme activity staining. One extracellular invertase gene is expressed during the prestorage phase in the thin-walled parenchyma of the seed coat, a region known to be the site of photoassimilate unloading. We propose a model for an invertase-mediated unloading process during early seed development and the regulation of cotyledonary sucrose metabolism. After unloading from the seed coat, sucrose is hydrolyzed by cell wall-bound invertases. Thus, invertase contributes to establish sink strength in young seeds. The resultant hexoses are loaded into the cotyledons and control carbohydrate partitioning via an influence on the sucrose synthase/sucrose-phosphate synthase pathway. The developmentally regulated degradation of the thin-walled parenchyma expressing the invertase apparently initiates the storage phase. This is characterized by a switch to a low sucrose/hexoses ratio. Feeding hexoses to storage-phase cotyledons in vitro increases the sucrose-phosphate synthase/sucrose synthase ratio and changes carbohydrate partitioning in favor of sucrose. Concomitantly, the transcript level of the major storage product legumin B is downregulated. PMID:8535137

  16. Seed coat-associated invertases of fava bean control both unloading and storage functions: cloning of cDNAs and cell type-specific expression.

    PubMed

    Weber, H; Borisjuk, L; Heim, U; Buchner, P; Wobus, U

    1995-11-01

    We have studied the molecular physiology of photosynthate unloading and partitioning during seed development of fava bean (Vicia faba). During the prestorage phase, high levels of hexoses in the cotyledons and the apoplastic endospermal space are correlated with activity of cell wall-bound invertase in the seed coat. Three cDNAs were cloned. Sequence comparison revealed genes putatively encoding one soluble and two cell wall-bound isoforms of invertase. Expression was studied in different organs and tissues of developing seeds by RNA gel analysis, in situ hybridization, enzyme assay, and enzyme activity staining. One extracellular invertase gene is expressed during the prestorage phase in the thin-walled parenchyma of the seed coat, a region known to be the site of photoassimilate unloading. We propose a model for an invertase-mediated unloading process during early seed development and the regulation of cotyledonary sucrose metabolism. After unloading from the seed coat, sucrose is hydrolyzed by cell wall-bound invertases. Thus, invertase contributes to establish sink strength in young seeds. The resultant hexoses are loaded into the cotyledons and control carbohydrate partitioning via an influence on the sucrose synthase/sucrose-phosphate synthase pathway. The developmentally regulated degradation of the thin-walled parenchyma expressing the invertase apparently initiates the storage phase. This is characterized by a switch to a low sucrose/hexoses ratio. Feeding hexoses to storage-phase cotyledons in vitro increases the sucrose-phosphate synthase/sucrose synthase ratio and changes carbohydrate partitioning in favor of sucrose. Concomitantly, the transcript level of the major storage product legumin B is downregulated. PMID:8535137

  17. Development of PCR-based assays for detecting and differentiating three species of botrytis infecting broad bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Botrytis cinerea, B. fabae and B. fabiopsis are known to cause chocolate spot on broad bean. This study was conducted to develop PCR-based assays to detect and differentiate this three species. Two sets of primers, Bc-f/Bc-r for B. cinerea and Bfab-f/Bfab-r for B. fabiopsis, were designed based on t...

  18. Cross-amplification of Vicia sativa subsp. sativa microsatellites across 22 other Vicia species.

    PubMed

    Raveendar, Sebastin; Lee, Gi-An; Jeon, Young-Ah; Lee, Yun Jeong; Lee, Jung-Ro; Cho, Gyu-Taek; Cho, Joon-Hyeong; Park, Jong-Hyun; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-16

    The temperate and herbaceous genus Vicia L. is a member of the legume tribe Fabeae of the subfamily Papilionoideae. The genus Vicia comprises 166 annual or perennial species distributed mainly in Europe, Asia, and North America, but also extending to the temperate regions of South America and tropical Africa. The use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for Vicia species has not been investigated as extensively as for other crop species. In this study, we assessed the potential for cross-species amplification of cDNA microsatellite markers developed from common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa). For cross-species amplification of the SSRs, amplification was carried out with genomic DNA isolated from two to eight accessions of 22 different Vicia species. For individual species or subspecies, the transferability rates ranged from 33% for V. ervilia to 82% for V. sativa subsp. nigra with an average rate of 52.0%. Because the rate of successful SSR marker amplification generally correlates with genetic distance, these SSR markers are potentially useful for analyzing genetic relationships between or within Vicia species.

  19. Effects of soil pH on the Vicia-micronucleus genotoxicity assay.

    PubMed

    Dhyèvre, Adrien; Foltête, Anne Sophie; Aran, Delphine; Muller, Serge; Cotelle, Sylvie

    2014-11-01

    In the field of contaminated sites and soil management, chemical analyses only bring typological data about pollution. As far as bioavailability and effects on organisms are concerned, we need ecotoxicology tools. In this domain, among many existing tests, we chose to study genotoxicity because it is a short-term endpoint with long-term consequences. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of soil pH on the results of the Vicia faba root tip micronucleus test for the two following reasons: (i) to define the pH range within which the test can be performed without modifying the soil to be tested, within the framework of the ISO standard of the test and (ii) to provides information about the effects of the pH on the genotoxic potential of soils. In this context, we modified the pH of a standard soil with HCl or NaOH and we spiked the matrix with copper (2, 4 and 8 mmol kg(-1) dry soil) or with maleic hydrazide, an antigerminative chemical (5, 10 and 20 μmol kg(-1) dry soil). We concluded that the pH had no effect on the mitotic index or micronucleus frequency in the root cells of the negative controls: extreme pH values did not induce micronucleus formation in root cells. Moreover, according to our results, the Vicia-micronucleus test can be performed with pH values ranging between 3.2 and 9.0, but in the ISO 29200 "Soil quality--assessment of genotoxic effects on higher plants--V. faba micronucleus test" we recommended to use a control soil with a pH value ranging between 5 and 8 for a more accurate assessment of chemical genotoxicity. We also found that acid pH could increase the genotoxic potential of pollutants, especially heavy metals. With hydrazide maleic spiked soil, plants were placed in a situation of double stress, i.e. toxicity caused by extreme pH values and toxicity induced by the pollutant.

  20. Effect of phlorizin on sugar uptake by broadbean leaf discs. [Vica faba L

    SciTech Connect

    Lemoine, R.; Delrot, S.

    1986-04-01

    Phlorizin is a competitive inhibitor of Na/sup +//glucose symport in animal cells and of H/sup +//3-O-methylglucose (3-O-MeG) symport in liverworts. The effects of this compound on the uptake of (U-/sup 14/C) sucrose and of (/sup 14/C) 3-O-MeG by broadbean (Vicia faba L.) leaf discs were studied. Leaf discs without lower epidermis were preincubated in the dark for 30 min (fresh discs) or for 12 h (aged discs) on a medium buffered at pH 5.0 containing mannitol as an osmoticum. They were then incubated for 30 min in the light on a similar solution added with 1 mM (/sup 14/C) sucrose or (/sup 14/C) 3-O-MeG and 5 mM phlorizin. Phlorizin inhibited uptake of 3-O-MeG by 37 and 50% respectively in fresh and aged discs. Sucrose uptake was more sensitive to the inhibitor than 3-O-MeG uptake and was also more inhibited in aged than in fresh discs (76% inhibition vs 54%). Kinetic studies showed that the inhibition exerted by phlorizin in fresh material is of competitive type both for sucrose and for 3-O-MeG uptake. Electrophysiological measurements indicated that the inhibitor did not affect the transmembrane potential difference of parenchyma cells within 30 min. The data suggest that phlorizin can be recognized by the hexose and by the sucrose carrier of leaf cells.

  1. Cytological and molecular characterization of Vicia barbazitae Ten. & Guss.

    PubMed

    Ruffini Castiglione, M; Frediani, M; Gelati, M T; Venora, G; Giorgetti, L; Caputo, P; Cremonini, R

    2012-07-01

    Vicia barbazitae, a taxon belonging to section Vicia of subgenus Vicia, was recovered and analysed by cytological, karyological and molecular methods with the aim of both proposing a general characterisation of this species and studying the relationships among the species of section Vicia . Phylogenetic relationships among the species of the section Vicia and those of the sections Microcarinae, Wiggersia and Atossa were also analysed. Automated karyotype analysis has been determined after Feulgen's reaction; chromosome banding was performed by sequence-specific fluorochrome staining. Fluorescent chromosome banding showed CMA(+)/DAPI(-) NOR-associated heterochromatin in the satellite pair. Karyomorphological parameters, based on symmetry indices, the dendrogram of linkage distance constructed on 37 chromosome parameters, as well as the molecular data based on internal transcribed spacer sequences provided information about phylogenetic position of this species inside the section Vicia and among the species belonging to the sections Microcarinae, Wiggersia, Atossa and Vicia. From our karyological and molecular results, it emerges that V. barbazitae can be considered a natural member of section Vicia.

  2. Genetic diversity of rhizobia nodulating native Vicia spp. in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Huss-Danell, Kerstin

    2016-05-01

    Despite the recognition that Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae is the most common symbiont of Vicia species worldwide, there is no available information on rhizobia nodulating native Vicia species in Sweden. We have therefore studied the genetic diversity and phylogeny of root nodule bacteria isolated from V. cracca, V. hirsuta, V. sepium, V. tetrasperma and V. sylvatica growing in different locations in Sweden as well as an isolate each from V. cracca in Tromsø, Norway, and V. multicaulis in Siberia, Russia. Out of 25 isolates sampled from the six Vicia species in 12 different locations, there were 14 different genotypes based on the atpD, recA and nodA gene phylogenies. All isolates were classified into Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae group based on the concatenated atpD and recA phylogeny and the nodA phylogeny.

  3. Genetic diversity of rhizobia nodulating native Vicia spp. in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Huss-Danell, Kerstin

    2016-05-01

    Despite the recognition that Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae is the most common symbiont of Vicia species worldwide, there is no available information on rhizobia nodulating native Vicia species in Sweden. We have therefore studied the genetic diversity and phylogeny of root nodule bacteria isolated from V. cracca, V. hirsuta, V. sepium, V. tetrasperma and V. sylvatica growing in different locations in Sweden as well as an isolate each from V. cracca in Tromsø, Norway, and V. multicaulis in Siberia, Russia. Out of 25 isolates sampled from the six Vicia species in 12 different locations, there were 14 different genotypes based on the atpD, recA and nodA gene phylogenies. All isolates were classified into Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae group based on the concatenated atpD and recA phylogeny and the nodA phylogeny. PMID:26924220

  4. Pulse diversity for polyphenolic secondary metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pulse species including guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.), Lablab purpureus L. Sweet, Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc., Teramnus labialis (L.f.) Spreng, alfalfa (Medicago sativa ssp. sativa), green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), fava beans (Vicia faba L.), blackeye pea (Vigna unguiculat...

  5. Cytological characterization of Vicia oroboides Wulfen in Jacq.

    PubMed

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica; Frediani, M; Ravalli, C; Venora, G; Cremonini, R

    2009-07-01

    Vicia oroboides, a rare taxon belonging to section Atossa of subgenus Vicia, was recovered and analysed by means of cytological and karyological methods with the aim of both characterising this species and integrating our knowledge on phylogeny of subgenus Vicia. Automated karyotype analysis and nuclear DNA content have been determined after Feulgen's reaction; chromosome banding was performed by fluorochrome staining to evidence heterochromatic blocks along the chromosome complement. The chromosome number is in line with the values of the species of section Atossa; the GC- and AT-rich sites were identified by CMA and DAPI staining. Karyomorphological parameters, based on symmetry indices, provide information about the phylogenetic position of this species inside the subgenus Vicia. DNA content is reported for the first time.

  6. Simultaneous Determination of Levodopa and Carbidopa from Fava Bean, Green Peas and Green Beans by High Performance Liquid Gas Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Mehran S.M., Mohseni; B., Golshani

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: According to many studies, sprouted fava beans are a rich source of levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-dopa) the precursor of dopamine, and they are now being investigated for use in the management of Parkinson’s disease. The addition of Carbidopa (C-dopa) can reduce the daily use of the L-dopa dosage requirements and it can also reduce the side effects which are associated with the L-dopa administration. Material and Methods: The present research was conducted to find the levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-dopa) and Carbidopa (C-dopa) in fava beans, green peas and green beans by High Performance Gas Chromatography (HPLC). Carbidopa (C-dopa) is a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor. As a substitution therapy, it used in combination to treat Parkinson’s disease. Result: We obtained L-dopa and C-dopa from fava beans which were in the fresh and dry sprouted form, whose concentrations were 1.4,1.5 and 2.6,2.4 mg/ml respectively. The maximal stimulation of the L-DOPA content was seen on day 8 for the fava beans, which was 100% higher than that of the control level. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that faba beans are a good source of natural L-dopa and C-dopa. The quantification of this capacity according to the stage and the plant part could be suitable for applications in the food industry and in plant medicine. The consumption of fava beans can increase the levels of L-dopa and C-dopa in the blood, with a marked improvement in the motor performance of the patients with parkinson disease, without any side effects. PMID:23905090

  7. Root exudates drive interspecific facilitation by enhancing nodulation and N2 fixation.

    PubMed

    Li, Bai; Li, Yu-Ying; Wu, Hua-Mao; Zhang, Fang-Fang; Li, Chun-Jie; Li, Xue-Xian; Lambers, Hans; Li, Long

    2016-06-01

    Plant diversity in experimental systems often enhances ecosystem productivity, but the mechanisms causing this overyielding are only partly understood. Intercropping faba beans (Vicia faba L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) result in overyielding and also, enhanced nodulation by faba beans. By using permeable and impermeable root barriers in a 2-y field experiment, we show that root-root interactions between faba bean and maize significantly increase both nodulation and symbiotic N2 fixation in intercropped faba bean. Furthermore, root exudates from maize promote faba bean nodulation, whereas root exudates from wheat and barley do not. Thus, a decline of soil nitrate concentrations caused by intercropped cereals is not the sole mechanism for maize promoting faba bean nodulation. Intercropped maize also caused a twofold increase in exudation of flavonoids (signaling compounds for rhizobia) in the systems. Roots of faba bean treated with maize root exudates exhibited an immediate 11-fold increase in the expression of chalcone-flavanone isomerase (involved in flavonoid synthesis) gene together with a significantly increased expression of genes mediating nodulation and auxin response. After 35 d, faba beans treated with maize root exudate continued to show up-regulation of key nodulation genes, such as early nodulin 93 (ENOD93), and promoted nitrogen fixation. Our results reveal a mechanism for how intercropped maize promotes nitrogen fixation of faba bean, where maize root exudates promote flavonoid synthesis in faba bean, increase nodulation, and stimulate nitrogen fixation after enhanced gene expression. These results indicate facilitative root-root interactions and provide a mechanism for a positive relationship between species diversity and ecosystem productivity. PMID:27217575

  8. Root exudates drive interspecific facilitation by enhancing nodulation and N2 fixation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bai; Li, Yu-Ying; Wu, Hua-Mao; Zhang, Fang-Fang; Li, Chun-Jie; Li, Xue-Xian; Lambers, Hans; Li, Long

    2016-01-01

    Plant diversity in experimental systems often enhances ecosystem productivity, but the mechanisms causing this overyielding are only partly understood. Intercropping faba beans (Vicia faba L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) result in overyielding and also, enhanced nodulation by faba beans. By using permeable and impermeable root barriers in a 2-y field experiment, we show that root–root interactions between faba bean and maize significantly increase both nodulation and symbiotic N2 fixation in intercropped faba bean. Furthermore, root exudates from maize promote faba bean nodulation, whereas root exudates from wheat and barley do not. Thus, a decline of soil nitrate concentrations caused by intercropped cereals is not the sole mechanism for maize promoting faba bean nodulation. Intercropped maize also caused a twofold increase in exudation of flavonoids (signaling compounds for rhizobia) in the systems. Roots of faba bean treated with maize root exudates exhibited an immediate 11-fold increase in the expression of chalcone–flavanone isomerase (involved in flavonoid synthesis) gene together with a significantly increased expression of genes mediating nodulation and auxin response. After 35 d, faba beans treated with maize root exudate continued to show up-regulation of key nodulation genes, such as early nodulin 93 (ENOD93), and promoted nitrogen fixation. Our results reveal a mechanism for how intercropped maize promotes nitrogen fixation of faba bean, where maize root exudates promote flavonoid synthesis in faba bean, increase nodulation, and stimulate nitrogen fixation after enhanced gene expression. These results indicate facilitative root–root interactions and provide a mechanism for a positive relationship between species diversity and ecosystem productivity. PMID:27217575

  9. Rainfastness of Poly(vinyl alcohol) Deposits on Vicia faba Leaf Surfaces: From Laboratory-Scale Washing to Simulated Rain.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Brett L; Thomson, Niall R; Lindsay, Christopher I; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V

    2016-06-01

    Rainfastness is the ability of agrochemical deposits to resist wash-off by rain and other related environmental phenomena. This work reports laboratory-scale and raintower studies of the rainfastness of fluorescently labeled poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) using fluorescent microscopy combined with image analysis. Samples of hydrolyzed PVA exhibit improved rainfastness over a threshold molecular weight, which correlates with PVA film dissolution, swelling, and crystalline properties. It was also established that the rainfastness of PVA scaled with the molecular weight over this threshold. These PVA samples were further characterized in order to determine the effect of the crystallinity on rainfastness. The quantification of rainfastness is of great interest to the field of agrochemical formulation development in order to improve the efficacy of pesticides and their adjuvants. PMID:27070864

  10. Cytology of Vicia species. X. Karyotype evolution and phylogenetic implication in Vicia species of the sections Atossa, Microcarinae, Wiggersia and Vicia.

    PubMed

    Ruffini Castiglione, M; Frediani, M; Gelati, M T; Ravalli, C; Venora, G; Caputo, P; Cremonini, R

    2011-10-01

    Automated karyotype analyses and sequence of rDNA spacers have been analysed for the species belonging to sections Atossa, Microcarinae, Wiggersia and Vicia. Karyomorphological parameters, based on Rec, Syi and TF% indices, have been determined and evidenced that, in term of symmetry, the karyotype of Vicia lathyroides was the most asymmetric one. A multivariate analysis using 34 karyological parameters, in addition to the symmetry indices, has been carried out and the corresponding dendrogram of linkage distances showed six different groups. Molecular investigations on the inclusive group in study by employing ITS DNA sequences indicated a different pattern of relationships. The cladistic analysis combining the molecular data set with karyological parameters evidenced that the species of sections Vicia and Atossa join closely to each other in a paraphyletic group, which includes the monophyletic section Wiggersia. Therefore, our karyological and molecular data provide information about the phylogenetic position of the analysed species inside the subgenus Vicia and are discussed in relation to previous results obtained by morphology, isozymes and ribosomal genes analyses.

  11. Comparative study on macro- and micro-elements concentration in Nicotiana tabacum and Faba siliquis plants by ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balazs, Zoltan; Voica, Cezara; Dehelean, Adriana; Magdas, Dana Alina; Ristoiu, Dumitru

    2015-12-01

    Plants are important components of ecosystems as they transfer elements from abiotic into biotic environments. The concentration of macro and micro-elements in tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum) and bean (Faba siliquis) was analyzed using ICP-MS technique. The results obtained indicated that the mean concentration of Mg, P, K and Ca in tobacco leaves was 0.965, 0.812, 4.412 and 2.694 g.kg-1, respectively, while in bean samples were 0.899, 2.024, 6.725 and 1.387 g.kg-1, respectively. Mn concentration ranged from 156.835 mg.kg-1 to 234.593 mg.kg-1 in tobacco leaves and from 116.174 mg.kg-1 to 440.423 mg.kg-1 in bean samples. The results for Cu and Zn were between 7.262 mg.kg-1 and 105.738 mg.kg-1, 68.549 mg.kg-1 and 113.720 mg.kg-1 (tobacco leaves); and 6.830 mg.kg-1 and 46.034 mg.kg-1, 50.166 mg.kg-1 and 77.242 mg.kg-1 (bean samples), respectively. In analyzed samples, Pb, Cd and As concentrations ranged between <0.001-0.717 mg.kg-1, 0.046 mg.kg-1 -6.218 mg.kg-1, <0.001-0.381 mg.kg-1. The paper discusses the transfer of metal ions (Mn, As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, respectively) from soil to these plants in terms of transfer factors (TF).

  12. HPLC analysis of Vicia guard cells indicates that products from photosynthetic carbon fixation and starch hydrolysis have an osmotic role during stomatal opening under blue (BL) and red (RL) light

    SciTech Connect

    Talbott, L.D.; Zeiger, E. )

    1991-05-01

    HPLC was used to quantify neutral sugars and organic acids in guard cells of sonicated Vicia faba epidermal peels irradiated with BL or RL in the presence of 1 mM KCl. Under photosynthetically inactive, low fluence-rates of BL, guard cells initially accumulate malate and citrate. At later times, sucrose and starch breakdown products such as maltose predominate. Guard cells opening under saturating fluence rates of RL show very little organic acid or maltose accumulation, and accumulate mainly sucrose. Changes in metabolite concentrations were correlated with stomatal apertures in both light treatments. These results support previous observations that light quality modulated alternative mechanisms of osmotic accumulation in guard cells, including K{sup +} uptake, photosynthesis and starch hydrolysis. At 5 mM, KCl suppresses RL but not BL-induced opening. These contrasting KCl treatments can be used to investigate osmoregulatory features in guard cells.

  13. Impact of Wheat/Faba Bean Mixed Cropping or Rotation Systems on Soil Microbial Functionalities

    PubMed Central

    Wahbi, Sanâa; Prin, Yves; Thioulouse, Jean; Sanguin, Hervé; Baudoin, Ezékiel; Maghraoui, Tasnime; Oufdou, Khalid; Le Roux, Christine; Galiana, Antoine; Hafidi, Mohamed; Duponnois, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Cropping systems based on carefully designed species mixtures reveal many potential advantages in terms of enhancing crop productivity, reducing pest and diseases, and enhancing ecological services. Associating cereals and legume production either through intercropping or rotations might be a relevant strategy of producing both type of culture, while benefiting from combined nitrogen fixed by the legume through its symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and from a better use of P and water through mycorrhizal associations. These practices also participate to the diversification of agricultural productions, enabling to secure the regularity of income returns across the seasonal and climatic uncertainties. In this context, we designed a field experiment aiming to estimate the 2 years impact of these practices on wheat yield and on soil microbial activities as estimated through Substrate Induced Respiration method and mycorrhizal soil infectivity (MSI) measurement. It is expected that understanding soil microbial functionalities in response to these agricultural practices might allows to target the best type of combination, in regard to crop productivity. We found that the tested cropping systems largely impacted soil microbial functionalities and MSI. Intercropping gave better results in terms of crop productivity than the rotation practice after two cropping seasons. Benefits resulting from intercrop should be highly linked with changes recorded on soil microbial functionalities. PMID:27695462

  14. Impact of Wheat/Faba Bean Mixed Cropping or Rotation Systems on Soil Microbial Functionalities

    PubMed Central

    Wahbi, Sanâa; Prin, Yves; Thioulouse, Jean; Sanguin, Hervé; Baudoin, Ezékiel; Maghraoui, Tasnime; Oufdou, Khalid; Le Roux, Christine; Galiana, Antoine; Hafidi, Mohamed; Duponnois, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Cropping systems based on carefully designed species mixtures reveal many potential advantages in terms of enhancing crop productivity, reducing pest and diseases, and enhancing ecological services. Associating cereals and legume production either through intercropping or rotations might be a relevant strategy of producing both type of culture, while benefiting from combined nitrogen fixed by the legume through its symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and from a better use of P and water through mycorrhizal associations. These practices also participate to the diversification of agricultural productions, enabling to secure the regularity of income returns across the seasonal and climatic uncertainties. In this context, we designed a field experiment aiming to estimate the 2 years impact of these practices on wheat yield and on soil microbial activities as estimated through Substrate Induced Respiration method and mycorrhizal soil infectivity (MSI) measurement. It is expected that understanding soil microbial functionalities in response to these agricultural practices might allows to target the best type of combination, in regard to crop productivity. We found that the tested cropping systems largely impacted soil microbial functionalities and MSI. Intercropping gave better results in terms of crop productivity than the rotation practice after two cropping seasons. Benefits resulting from intercrop should be highly linked with changes recorded on soil microbial functionalities.

  15. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans....

  16. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans....

  17. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans....

  18. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans....

  19. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans....

  20. Population Dynamics of Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Central Iowa Alfalfa Fields.

    PubMed

    Weiser Erlandson, L A; Obrycki, J J

    2015-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of Empoasca fabae Harris (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and adults of predatory species in the families Coccinellidae, Anthocoridae, Nabidae, Chrysopidae, and Hemerobiidae were sampled in Iowa alfalfa fields from June to September in 1999 and 2000. The relationship between each predatory taxa and E. fabae was examined using regression analysis. In 2000, all predators were found to be positively correlated with the presence of E. fabae during all periods sampled and most likely contributed to mortality. Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthoridae) was the most numerous insect predatory species; population numbers ranged from 0 to 1 and 0.1 to 3.7 adults per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Partial life tables were constructed for E. fabae nymphs for two alfalfa-growing periods. Nymphs were grouped into three age intervals: first and second, third and fourth, and fifth instars. For the first alfalfa growing period examined, E. fabae nymphal mortality was 70% in 1999 and 49% in 2000. During the last growing period of each season (August-September), total nymphal mortality was relatively low (<25%). Adult E. fabae density ranged from 5.4 to 25.6 and 1.4-9.2 per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. E. fabae population peaks were similar for each age interval in all growing periods. This study provides further information on the population dynamics of E. fabae and its relationship with select predatory species in Iowa alfalfa fields.

  1. Protecting beans from ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.

    1983-03-01

    A chemical treatment to protect navy beans from ozone damage increased yields by an average of more than 20% in 3 years of tests. An experimental antioxidant chemical, EDU, made by the DuPont company was tested as soil applications and sprays on several varieties and under a variety of soil and planting conditions. The average yield increases were between 16 and 24%. Chemical treatment also increased snap bean pod production by 12%.

  2. Transformation of Vicia narbonensis via Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Pickardt, T; Meixner, M; Schade, V; Schieder, O

    1991-02-01

    Shoot tips and epicotyl-segments of Vicia narbonensis were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58C1 pGV 3850 HPT, carrying a plasmid coding for hygromycin-phosphotransferase. On callus-induction medium containing 60 mg/l hygromycin for selection, approximately 18% of the explants produced hygromycin-resistant callus. After transfer to regeneration-medium these calluses produced hygromycin-resistant and nopaline-positive somatic embryos which could be regenerated to plantlets. The integration of the T-DNA into the plant genome was confirmed by Southern analysis.

  3. Two opsin genes from the vetch aphid, Megoura viciae.

    PubMed

    Gao, N; Foster, R G; Hardie, J

    2000-04-01

    The cDNAs of two opsins (Megopsin1 and Megopsin2) from the vetch aphid, Megoura viciae, have been sequenced and encoded for gene products with 378 and 371 amino acid residues, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Megopsin1 falls into the insect long-wavelength opsin group and Megopsin2 is a member of the insect UV-wavelength opsins. Both opsins share the key features of G-protein-coupled receptors and the specific motifs of photopigments. In situ hybridization demonstrated that the transcripts of Megopsin1 and Megopsin2 were expressed in the retinula cells of the compound eyes.

  4. Transcriptomic analysis of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae in symbiosis with host plants Pisum sativum and Vicia cracca.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, R; Ramachandran, V K; Seaman, J C; East, A K; Mouhsine, B; Mauchline, T H; Prell, J; Skeffington, A; Poole, P S

    2009-06-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae forms nitrogen-fixing nodules on several legumes, including pea (Pisum sativum) and vetch (Vicia cracca), and has been widely used as a model to study nodule biochemistry. To understand the complex biochemical and developmental changes undergone by R. leguminosarum bv. viciae during bacteroid development, microarray experiments were first performed with cultured bacteria grown on a variety of carbon substrates (glucose, pyruvate, succinate, inositol, acetate, and acetoacetate) and then compared to bacteroids. Bacteroid metabolism is essentially that of dicarboxylate-grown cells (i.e., induction of dicarboxylate transport, gluconeogenesis and alanine synthesis, and repression of sugar utilization). The decarboxylating arm of the tricarboxylic acid cycle is highly induced, as is gamma-aminobutyrate metabolism, particularly in bacteroids from early (7-day) nodules. To investigate bacteroid development, gene expression in bacteroids was analyzed at 7, 15, and 21 days postinoculation of peas. This revealed that bacterial rRNA isolated from pea, but not vetch, is extensively processed in mature bacteroids. In early development (7 days), there were large changes in the expression of regulators, exported and cell surface molecules, multidrug exporters, and heat and cold shock proteins. fix genes were induced early but continued to increase in mature bacteroids, while nif genes were induced strongly in older bacteroids. Mutation of 37 genes that were strongly upregulated in mature bacteroids revealed that none were essential for nitrogen fixation. However, screening of 3,072 mini-Tn5 mutants on peas revealed previously uncharacterized genes essential for nitrogen fixation. These encoded a potential magnesium transporter, an AAA domain protein, and proteins involved in cytochrome synthesis.

  5. "The Bean Files."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haq, Krystyna; Longnecker, Nancy; Hickey, Ruth

    1999-01-01

    Describes classroom use and effectiveness of "The Bean Files," an internet package that uses humorous stories to introduce students to life on a wheat-sheep farm in the Mediterranean climate areas of Australia. The focus of the program is on the role of legume-cereal rotations in the farming system and the science underpinning this agricultural…

  6. Sharing Beans with Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Clare V.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and researchers have known for decades that the use of storybooks can have a positive impact on students' experiences with mathematics. This article describes how first graders in an urban public school actively engage with mathematics by using the story "Bean Thirteen" as a context for developing number sense. This…

  7. Climate Change and Phenology: Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) Migration and Severity of Impact.

    PubMed

    Baker, Mitchell B; Venugopal, P Dilip; Lamp, William O

    2015-01-01

    Climate change can benefit individual species, but when pest species are enhanced by warmer temperatures agricultural productivity may be placed at greater risk. We analyzed the effects of temperature anomaly on arrival date and infestation severity of potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae Harris, a classic new world long distance migrant, and a significant pest in several agricultural crops. We compiled E. fabae arrival dates and infestation severity data at different states in USA from existing literature reviews and agricultural extension records from 1951-2012, and examined the influence of temperature anomalies at each target state or overwintering range on the date of arrival and severity of infestation. Average E. fabae arrival date at different states reveal a clear trend along the south-north axis, with earliest arrival closest to the overwintering range. E. fabae arrival has advanced by 10 days over the last 62 years. E. fabae arrived earlier in warmer years in relation to each target state level temperature anomaly (3.0 days / °C increase in temperature anomaly). Increased temperature had a significant and positive effect on the severity of infestation, and arrival date had a marginal negative effect on severity. These relationships suggest that continued warming could advance the time of E. fabae colonization and increase their impact on affected crops.

  8. Climate Change and Phenology: Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) Migration and Severity of Impact.

    PubMed

    Baker, Mitchell B; Venugopal, P Dilip; Lamp, William O

    2015-01-01

    Climate change can benefit individual species, but when pest species are enhanced by warmer temperatures agricultural productivity may be placed at greater risk. We analyzed the effects of temperature anomaly on arrival date and infestation severity of potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae Harris, a classic new world long distance migrant, and a significant pest in several agricultural crops. We compiled E. fabae arrival dates and infestation severity data at different states in USA from existing literature reviews and agricultural extension records from 1951-2012, and examined the influence of temperature anomalies at each target state or overwintering range on the date of arrival and severity of infestation. Average E. fabae arrival date at different states reveal a clear trend along the south-north axis, with earliest arrival closest to the overwintering range. E. fabae arrival has advanced by 10 days over the last 62 years. E. fabae arrived earlier in warmer years in relation to each target state level temperature anomaly (3.0 days / °C increase in temperature anomaly). Increased temperature had a significant and positive effect on the severity of infestation, and arrival date had a marginal negative effect on severity. These relationships suggest that continued warming could advance the time of E. fabae colonization and increase their impact on affected crops. PMID:25970705

  9. Climate Change and Phenology: Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) Migration and Severity of Impact

    PubMed Central

    Lamp, William O.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change can benefit individual species, but when pest species are enhanced by warmer temperatures agricultural productivity may be placed at greater risk. We analyzed the effects of temperature anomaly on arrival date and infestation severity of potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae Harris, a classic new world long distance migrant, and a significant pest in several agricultural crops. We compiled E. fabae arrival dates and infestation severity data at different states in USA from existing literature reviews and agricultural extension records from 1951–2012, and examined the influence of temperature anomalies at each target state or overwintering range on the date of arrival and severity of infestation. Average E. fabae arrival date at different states reveal a clear trend along the south-north axis, with earliest arrival closest to the overwintering range. E. fabae arrival has advanced by 10 days over the last 62 years. E. fabae arrived earlier in warmer years in relation to each target state level temperature anomaly (3.0 days / °C increase in temperature anomaly). Increased temperature had a significant and positive effect on the severity of infestation, and arrival date had a marginal negative effect on severity. These relationships suggest that continued warming could advance the time of E. fabae colonization and increase their impact on affected crops. PMID:25970705

  10. Evidence of cyanamide production in hairy vetch Vicia villosa.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Tsunashi; Kato, Kenji; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Nakajima, Eri; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Hirota, Mitsuru

    2006-05-10

    Cyanamide (NH(2)CN) has recently been isolated as a plant growth inhibitor from Vicia villosa, which is the first discovery of cyanamide from natural sources. To reveal the presence of the biosynthesized cyanamide in plants, 3.4 mM potassium ((15)N)nitrate was administered to 15- to 35-day-old plants of V. villosa, from which the cyanamide was purified and subjected to GC/MS analysis. The isotopic ratio (15)N/((14)N + (15)N) of the cyanamide was calculated to be 0.143, while that of the cyanamide extracted from V. villosa grown in the presence of a natural N source was 0.0065. The (15)N-enrichment proved de novo biosynthesis of cyanamide.

  11. Interactions between extrafloral nectaries, aphids and ants: are there competition effects between plant and homopteran sugar sources?

    PubMed

    Engel, V; Fischer, M K; Wäckers, F L; Völkl, W

    2001-12-01

    Broad bean (Vicia faba), an annual plant bearing extrafloral nectaries (EFN) at the base of the upper leaves, is regularly infested by two aphid species, Aphis fabae and Acyrthosiphon pisum. EFN and A. fabae are commonly attended by the ant, Lasius niger, while Ac. pisum usually remains uninfested. Sugar concentration and sugar composition of extrafloral nectar did not change significantly after aphid infestation. The sugar concentration was significantly higher in EFN (c. 271 µg µl(-1)) than in the honeydew of A. fabae (37.5 µg µl(-1)). The presence of small A. fabae colonies had no significant effect on ant attendance of EFN, which remained at the same level as that on plants without A. fabae. Obviously, there was no significant competitive effect between the two sugar sources. We suggest that the high sugar concentration in the extrafloral nectar may outweigh the higher quality (due to the presence of melezitose) and quantity of aphid honeydew. Ants and the presence of EFN influenced aphid colony growth. While A. fabae colonies generally grew better in the presence of ants, Ac. pisum colonies declined on plants with EFN or A. fabae colonies. We conclude that EFN may provide some degree of protection for V. faba against those sucking herbivores that are not able to attract ants.

  12. Transcriptome analysis of the salivary glands of potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae.

    PubMed

    DeLay, Bridget; Mamidala, Praveen; Wijeratne, Asela; Wijeratne, Saranga; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Wang, Jian; Lamp, William

    2012-12-01

    The potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae, is a pest of economic crops in the United States and Canada, where it causes damage known as hopperburn. Saliva, along with mechanical injury, leads to decreases in gas exchange rates, stunting and chlorosis. Although E. fabae saliva is known to induce plant responses, little knowledge exists of saliva composition at the molecular level. We subjected the salivary glands of E. fabae to Roche 454-pyrosequencing which resulted significant number (30,893) of expressed sequence tags including 2805 contigs and 28,088 singletons. A high number of sequences (78%) showed similarity to other insect species in GenBank, including Triboliumcastaneum, Drosophilamelanogaster and Acrythosiphonpisum. KEGG analysis predicted the presence of pathways for purine and thiamine metabolic, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, drug metabolism, and lysine degradation. Pfam analysis showed a high number of cellulase and carboxylesterase protein domains. Expression analysis of candidate genes (alpha amylase, lipase, pectin lyase, etc.) among different tissues revealed tissue-specific expression of digestive enzymes in E. fabae. This is the first study to characterize the sialotranscriptome of E. fabae and the first for any species in the family of Cicadellidae. Due to the status of these insects as economic pests, knowledge of which genes are active in the salivary glands is important for understanding their impact on host plants.

  13. Identification and Characterization of FabA from the Type II Fatty Acid Synthase of Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Singh, Renu; Reynolds, Kevin A

    2016-01-22

    FabA is proposed to catalyze the dehydration step of chain elongation in fatty acid and undecylprodiginine biosynthesis in Streptomyces coelicolor. Analysis of the S. coelicolor genome has revealed a fabA gene (SCO4636-SCO4637, encoding a heterodimer 3-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase). Herein, we report the identification and characterization of the corresponding gene products. Kinetic analysis has demonstrated that FabA is capable of utilizing various chain lengths of straight- and branched-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-NAC substrates. Additionally, FabA does not discriminate between acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) from primary and secondary metabolism. These data provide the first experimental evidence that FabA has 3-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase activity and processes intermediates for both biosynthetic pathways.

  14. A comparative survey of leguminous plants as sources of the isoflavones, genistein and daidzein: implications for human nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, P B; Duke, J A; Brielmann, H; Boik, J; Hoyt, J E

    1997-01-01

    Over 80 taxa of mostly agriculturally important legumes were surveyed as sources of the metabolites, genistein and daidzein. Remarkably high concentrations (over 2 g.kg-1 dry weight) of the anticancer metabolite, genistein, were found in the leaves of Psoralea corylifolia (Indian bread root). All other legumes, with the exception of fermented soybean miso, had genistein levels < 400 mg.kg-1 dry weight. Concentrations of over 1 g.kg-1 dry weight and 0.95 g.kg-1 dry weight of the anticancer metabolite, daidzein, were found in the stems of the fava bean (Vicia faba) and roots of kudzu vine (Pueraria lobata), respectively. From this survey, our results indicate that the legumes, lupine (Lupinus spp.), fava bean, (Vicia faba), soybeans (Glycine max), kudzu (Pueraria lobata), and psoralea (Psoralea corylifolia), are excellent food sources for both genistein and daidzein. Miso, a fermented soybean product, is also a rich source of both isoflavones.

  15. A comparative survey of leguminous plants as sources of the isoflavones, genistein and daidzein: implications for human nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, P B; Duke, J A; Brielmann, H; Boik, J; Hoyt, J E

    1997-01-01

    Over 80 taxa of mostly agriculturally important legumes were surveyed as sources of the metabolites, genistein and daidzein. Remarkably high concentrations (over 2 g.kg-1 dry weight) of the anticancer metabolite, genistein, were found in the leaves of Psoralea corylifolia (Indian bread root). All other legumes, with the exception of fermented soybean miso, had genistein levels < 400 mg.kg-1 dry weight. Concentrations of over 1 g.kg-1 dry weight and 0.95 g.kg-1 dry weight of the anticancer metabolite, daidzein, were found in the stems of the fava bean (Vicia faba) and roots of kudzu vine (Pueraria lobata), respectively. From this survey, our results indicate that the legumes, lupine (Lupinus spp.), fava bean, (Vicia faba), soybeans (Glycine max), kudzu (Pueraria lobata), and psoralea (Psoralea corylifolia), are excellent food sources for both genistein and daidzein. Miso, a fermented soybean product, is also a rich source of both isoflavones. PMID:9395689

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54 Section 319.56-54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54 Section 319.56-54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54 Section 319.56-54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and...

  19. A cysteine endopeptidase with a C-terminal KDEL motif isolated from castor bean endosperm is a marker enzyme for the ricinosome, a putative lytic compartment.

    PubMed

    Schmid, M; Simpson, D; Kalousek, F; Gietl, C

    1998-10-01

    A papain-type cysteine endopeptidase with a molecular mass of 35 kDa for the mature enzyme, was purified from germinating castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) endosperm by virtue of its capacity to process the glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase precursor protein to the mature subunit in vitro (C. Gietl et al., 1997, Plant Physiol 113: 863-871). The cDNA clones from endosperm of germinating seedlings and from developing seeds were isolated and sequence analysis revealed that a very similar or identical peptidase is synthesised in both tissues. Sequencing established a presequence for co-translational targeting into the endoplasmic reticulum, an N-terminal propeptide and a C-terminal KDEL motif for the castor bean cysteine endopeptidase precursor. The 45-kDa pro-enzyme stably present in isolated organelles was enzymatically active. Immunocytochemistry with antibodies raised against the purified cysteine endopeptidase revealed highly specific labelling of ricinosomes, organelles which co-purify with glyoxysomes from germinating Ricinus endosperm. The cysteine endopeptidase from castor bean endosperm, which represents a senescing tissue, is homologous to cysteine endopeptidases from other senescing tissues such as the cotyledons of germinating mung bean (Vigna mungo) and vetch (Vicia sativa), the seed pods of maturing French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and the flowers of daylily (Hemerocallis sp.). PMID:9763713

  20. A cysteine endopeptidase with a C-terminal KDEL motif isolated from castor bean endosperm is a marker enzyme for the ricinosome, a putative lytic compartment.

    PubMed

    Schmid, M; Simpson, D; Kalousek, F; Gietl, C

    1998-10-01

    A papain-type cysteine endopeptidase with a molecular mass of 35 kDa for the mature enzyme, was purified from germinating castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) endosperm by virtue of its capacity to process the glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase precursor protein to the mature subunit in vitro (C. Gietl et al., 1997, Plant Physiol 113: 863-871). The cDNA clones from endosperm of germinating seedlings and from developing seeds were isolated and sequence analysis revealed that a very similar or identical peptidase is synthesised in both tissues. Sequencing established a presequence for co-translational targeting into the endoplasmic reticulum, an N-terminal propeptide and a C-terminal KDEL motif for the castor bean cysteine endopeptidase precursor. The 45-kDa pro-enzyme stably present in isolated organelles was enzymatically active. Immunocytochemistry with antibodies raised against the purified cysteine endopeptidase revealed highly specific labelling of ricinosomes, organelles which co-purify with glyoxysomes from germinating Ricinus endosperm. The cysteine endopeptidase from castor bean endosperm, which represents a senescing tissue, is homologous to cysteine endopeptidases from other senescing tissues such as the cotyledons of germinating mung bean (Vigna mungo) and vetch (Vicia sativa), the seed pods of maturing French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and the flowers of daylily (Hemerocallis sp.).

  1. Rapid adjustment of guard-cell abscisic acid levels to current leaf-water status

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, M.J.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    Detached broad bean (Vicia faba L.) leaflets were water stressed; within 15 minutes, guard-cell abscisic acid (ABA) concentration increased ninefold. This result eliminates the apparent discrepancy raised by reports of no correlation between initial water-stress effects on stomata and leaf ABA concentration. Six hours after stress relief, guard-cell ABA concentration was near the prestress value, which would seem to implicate other factors in stress after-effects on stomata.

  2. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  3. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  4. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  5. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  6. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  7. Sulfur dioxide induced programmed cell death in Vicia guard cells.

    PubMed

    Yi, Huilan; Yin, Jingjing; Liu, Xin; Jing, Xiuqing; Fan, Sanhong; Zhang, Hufang

    2012-04-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) induced nuclear condensation and nuclear fragmentation and rapid loss of guard cell viability in detached epidermis of Vicia leaves at concentrations of 1 mM and higher (3 h exposure). Caspase inhibitors Z-Asp-CH(2)-DCB (0.1 mM) and TLCK (0.1 mM) markedly suppressed SO(2)-induced cell death. The typical nuclear morphological changes and the inhibition effects of caspase inhibitors suggest the activation of a programmed cell death (PCD) pathway. SO(2)-induced cell death can be blocked by either antioxidants (0.1 mM AsA or 200 U/mL CAT) or Ca(2+) antagonists (0.1mM EGTA or LaCl(3)). AsA and CAT also blocked SO(2)-induced ROS production and [Ca(2+)](cyt) increase. However, EGTA and LaCl(3) can inhibit SO(2)-induced [Ca(2+)](cyt) increase, but cannot suppress SO(2)-induced ROS production. Our results indicate that high concentrations of SO(2) induce guard cell death via a PCD pathway through ROS mediating [Ca(2+)](cyt) elevation, which causes harmful effects to plants.

  8. Nutritional characteristics of seed proteins in 28 Vicia species (Fabaceae) from Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Pastor-Cavada, Elena; Juan, Rocio; Pastor, Julio E; Alaiz, Manuel; Vioque, Javier

    2011-10-01

    The study of local plants could provide useful data for the possible development of future crops with good nutritional and functional properties. The nutritional characteristics of the seed proteins of 28 Vicia species (31 taxa) (Fabaceae) from Spain were studied. Protein contents in studied Vicia ranged from 20.1% in V. articulata to 32% in V. pyrenaica. V. altissima, which is only deficient in Trp, showed the most balanced amino acid composition, while the remaining taxa were limiting in Met, Cys, and Trp. In vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) ranged from 78% in V. incana to 86.3% in V. hirsuta. In addition to the amino acid composition and IVPD, other nutritional parameters, such as amino acid score, biological value, protein efficiency ratio, or protein digestibility corrected amino acid score, were studied. Results confirm the interest of studying wild populations of cultivated and non cultivated Vicia species as potentially interesting sources of seeds with good nutritional characteristics.

  9. [Genetic variance in Vicia cracca cenopopulation inhabiting site with enhanced level of natural radioactivity].

    PubMed

    Evseeva, T I; Maĭstrenko, T A; Geras'kin, S A; Belykh, E S

    2007-01-01

    The contribution of low dose rate ionizing radiation into genetic variance in Vicia cracca L. cenopopulation inhabiting high natural background territories more then 40 years quantity estimation was made. Incorporated in the aboveground parts of Vicia cracca 230Th determine both the level of intrapopulation genetic variance and the adaptive possibility. Significantly increased frequency of double fragments was revealed in root tips of plants inhabiting all experimental plots. This type of damages depends on 226Ra concentrations accumulated in the aboveground parts of Vicia cracca. External irradiation influences the embryonic lethals. It was found that the relative contribution on mutagenesis induced by ionizing radiation was significant and was about 3-5% of the total variance.

  10. A Substrate Mimic Allows High-Throughput Assay of the FabA Protein and Consequently the Identification of a Novel Inhibitor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa FabA

    PubMed Central

    Moynié, Lucile; Hope, Anthony G.; Finzel, Kara; Schmidberger, Jason; Leckie, Stuart M.; Schneider, Gunter; Burkart, Michael D.; Smith, Andrew D.; Gray, David W.; Naismith, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotes and prokaryotes possess fatty acid synthase (FAS) biosynthetic pathways that comprise iterative chain elongation, reduction, and dehydration reactions. The bacterial FASII pathway differs significantly from human FAS pathways and is a long-standing target for antibiotic development against Gram-negative bacteria due to differences from the human FAS, and several existing antibacterial agents are known to inhibit FASII enzymes. N-Acetylcysteamine (NAC) fatty acid thioesters have been used as mimics of the natural acyl carrier protein pathway intermediates to assay FASII enzymes, and we now report an assay of FabV from Pseudomonas aeruginosa using (E)-2-decenoyl-NAC. In addition, we have converted an existing UV absorbance assay for FabA, the bifunctional dehydration/epimerization enzyme and key target in the FASII pathway, into a high-throughput enzyme coupled fluorescence assay that has been employed to screen a library of diverse small molecules. With this approach, N-(4-chlorobenzyl)-3-(2-furyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-amine (N42FTA) was found to competitively inhibit (pIC50 = 5.7 ± 0.2) the processing of 3-hydroxydecanoyl-NAC by P. aeruginosa FabA. N42FTA was shown to be potent in blocking crosslinking of Escherichia coli acyl carrier protein and FabA, a direct mimic of the biological process. The co-complex structure of N42FTA with P. aeruginosa FabA protein rationalises affinity and suggests future design opportunities. Employing NAC fatty acid mimics to develop further high-throughput assays for individual enzymes in the FASII pathway should aid in the discovery of new antimicrobials. PMID:26562505

  11. Characterization of globulins from common vetch (Vicia sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana C; Teixeira, Artur R; Ferreira, Ricardo B

    2004-07-28

    The proteins from Vicia sativa L. (common vetch) seeds were investigated. Protein comprises approximately 11.4% of the seed fresh weight, >50.8% of which is composed by globulins and 43.6% by albumins. The globulins may be fractionated into two main components, which were named alpha-vicinin (comprising 73% of the total globulin fraction, and hence >37% of the total seed protein) and beta-vicinin. Two minor globulin components are also present, gamma-vicinin and delta-vicinin. alpha-Vicinin, the legumin-like globulin, with a sedimentation coefficient of 10.6 S, is a nonglycosylated, disulfide-bond-containing globulin, composed of a group of subunits with molecular masses ranging from 50 to 78 kDa. Upon reduction, each of these subunits releases a heavy polypeptide chain (34-66 kDa) and a light polypeptide chain (21-23 kDa). beta-Vicinin, the vicilin-like globulin, with a sedimentation coefficient of 7.7 S, is a nonglycosylated globulin that contains no disulfide bonds and consists of two major polypeptides with molecular masses of 58 and 66 kDa. gamma-Vicinin is a minor, glycosylated, disulfide-bond-containing globulin. In the reduced form, it comprises six polypeptide chains with molecular masses of 12, 19, 21, 22, 23, and 31 kDa. Finally, delta-vicinin is a minor, highly glycosylated globulin that exhibits hemagglutinating activity. It is composed of a major 47 kDa polypeptide and two minor (33 and 38 kDa) polypeptides. N-terminal sequencing of the delta-vicinin 47 kDa polypeptide revealed no homology to any other known storage protein.

  12. The effect of L-tryptophane on yield of field bean and activity of soil microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Kucharski, J; Nowak, G

    1994-01-01

    The pot trial was performed to study the effect of L-tryptophane (as an auxin precursor) applied in the amount 0.3 and 3.0 mg per 1 kg of the soil on yield and the chemical composition of field bean. The effects of this compound on dehydrogenases activity in the cells Rhizobium leguminosarum isolated from root nodules, soil dehydrogenases activity and number of microorganisms from different systematic or physiological groups were also studied. The effects of L-tryptophane were compared to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) after application to soil in the rate 0.2 mg per 1 kg of the soil of foliar spraying in the rate 20 mg Din 1 dm3 of distilled water. Studies were carried out in three experimental series: without microorganisms or with addition of Azotobacter sp. or Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar. viciae to the soil. It was found that L-tryptophane and IAA did not affect the yield of above ground part and roots of field bean and their effects on macronutrients concentration were not direct and dependent on the nutrient and experimental series. L-tryptophane and auxine increased the dehydrogenases activity in the cells of Rhizobium leguminosarum isolated from root nodules and the effect on the activity of soil dehydrogenases and urease was dependent on the rate of L-tryptophane. This chemical adversely affected the numbers of some microorganisms groups.

  13. Contributions of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic cell types to leaf respiration in Vicia faba L. and their responses to growth temperature.

    PubMed

    Long, Benedict M; Bahar, Nur H A; Atkin, Owen K

    2015-11-01

    In intact leaves, mitochondrial populations are highly heterogeneous among contrasting cell types; how such contrasting populations respond to sustained changes in the environment remains, however, unclear. Here, we examined respiratory rates, mitochondrial protein composition and response to growth temperature in photosynthetic (mesophyll) and non-photosynthetic (epidermal) cells from fully expanded leaves of warm-developed (WD) and cold-developed (CD) broad bean (Vicia faba L.). Rates of respiration were significantly higher in mesophyll cell protoplasts (MCPs) than epidermal cell protoplasts (ECPs), with both protoplast types exhibiting capacity for cytochrome and alternative oxidase activity. Compared with ECPs, MCPs contained greater relative quantities of porin, suggesting higher mitochondrial surface area in mesophyll cells. Nevertheless, the relative quantities of respiratory proteins (normalized to porin) were similar in MCPs and ECPs, suggesting that ECPs have lower numbers of mitochondria yet similar protein complement to MCP mitochondria (albeit with lower abundance serine hydroxymethyltransferase). Several mitochondrial proteins (both non-photorespiratory and photorespiratory) exhibited an increased abundance in response to cold in both protoplast types. Based on estimates of individual protoplast respiration rates, combined with leaf cell abundance data, epidermal cells make a small but significant (2%) contribution to overall leaf respiration which increases twofold in the cold. Taken together, our data highlight the heterogeneous nature of mitochondrial populations in leaves, both among contrasting cell types and in how those populations respond to growth temperature.

  14. Breeding Beans with Bruchid and Multiple Virus Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are worldwide threats to dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production. Beans planted in the lowlands of Central America and the Caribbean also need resistance to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV). The common bean weev...

  15. A biovar-specific signal of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae induces increased nodulation gene-inducing activity in root exudate of Vicia sativa subsp. nigra.

    PubMed Central

    van Brussel, A A; Recourt, K; Pees, E; Spaink, H P; Tak, T; Wijffelman, C A; Kijne, J W; Lugtenberg, B J

    1990-01-01

    Flavonoids in root exudate of leguminous plants activate the transcription of Rhizobium genes involved in the formation of root nodules (nod genes). We report that inoculation with the homologous symbiont R. leguminosarum bv. viciae results in an increased nod gene-inducing activity (Ini) in root exudate of V. sativa subsp. nigra, whereas inoculation with heterologous Rhizobium strains results in exudates with nod gene-inducing activity comparable to that of uninfected plants. Ini can be demonstrated by using either of the isogenic indicator strains containing an inducible nod promoter fused to the Escherichia coli lacZ reporter gene and the regulatory nodD gene of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae, R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii, or R. meliloti. The presence of genes nodDABCEL of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae appeared to be essential for induction of Ini. Mutation of the genes nodI and nodJ causes a delay of Ini, whereas gene nodF appears to be required for both the timely appearance and the maximum level of Ini activity. The nodE gene is responsible for the biovar specificity of induction of Ini by Rhizobium spp. Ini is caused by a soluble heat-stable factor of rhizobial origin. This Rhizobium-produced Ini factor has an apparent molecular weight between 1,000 and 10,000 and does not originate from flavonoid precursors. PMID:2394688

  16. Perspectives into factors limiting in vivo digestion of legume proteins: antinutritional compounds or storage proteins?

    PubMed

    Carbonaro, M; Grant, G; Cappelloni, M; Pusztai, A

    2000-03-01

    The in vivo protein digestibility of raw and cooked common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and of protein fractions extracted from them was determined with growing rats. Overnight-fasted rats were intubated with a protein suspension or fed the same amount of protein added to a basal diet. The rats were killed 1 h later, the contents of stomach and small intestine were washed out, and their protein contents were measured. The in vivo digestibility of proteins of raw common bean flour was 72.4% and not significantly improved after cooking. In contrast, the digestibility of faba bean proteins was decreased from 86.5 to 60.6% by the thermal treatment. Globulins from either species had similar digestibilities (approximately 70%). Proteins in the soluble fraction of cooked beans were more digestible than those in the insoluble fraction, which contained the bulk of the proteins. Hemagglutination assay and trypsin inhibitor determination indicated that after the thermal treatment only very low, nonharmful, levels of both lectin and inhibitor remained. Faba bean contained more polyphenols than common bean samples, with most of the polyphenols being bound to globulins. However, protein-bound polyphenols were markedly decreased after cooking. SDS-PAGE characterization of the gastrointestinal digesta of globulins and amino acid analysis of undigested proteins of whole cooked common bean and faba bean suggested that it is mainly the structural properties of the storage proteins and not their binding of polyphenols, which determines the extent of protein aggregation on autoclaving and may therefore be responsible for their low digestibility. PMID:10725143

  17. Diverse bacteria isolated from root nodules of wild Vicia species grown in temperate region of China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xia; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Feng; Sui, Xin Hua; Chen, Wen Xin

    2008-12-01

    In the present study, a total of 154 bacterial strains isolated from nodules of eighteen Vicia species mainly grown in the temperate Chinese provinces were characterized by ARDRA, ITS PCR-RFLP, BOX-PCR, sequencing of 16S rDNA, nodC, nifH, atpD and glnII, and nodulation tests. The results demonstrated that most of the R. leguminosarum strains were effective microsymbionts of the wild Vicia species, while genomic species related to Rhizobium gallicum, Mesorhizobium huakuii, Ensifer meliloti and Bradyrhizobium spp. were symbiotic bacteria occasionally nodulating with Vicia species. In addition, fourteen strains related to Agrobacterium, Phyllobacterium, Ensifer, Shinella and R. tropici, as well as 22 strains of R. leguminosarum might be nodule endophytes without symbiotic genes. Diverse symbiotic gene lineages were found among the test strains and a strong association was found among the symbiotic gene types and genomic species, indicating the absence of lateral gene transfer. These results greatly enlarged the rhizobial spectrum of Vicia species.

  18. Analysis of variation for white mold resistance in the BeanCAP snap bean panel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold disease caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Lib. de Bary, is one of the most devastated diseases that infect snap and dry beans (Miklas et al. 2013). The USDA-NIFA supported Bean Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP) has assembled and genotyped dry and a snap bean panels. The snap bean pa...

  19. Registration of ‘Krimson’ cranberry bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cranberry is an important dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) market class grown in the United States and Canada. Beet curly top virus (BCTV) plagues cranberry bean production in the western U.S. (CA, ID, OR, WA). ‘Krimson’ (Reg. No. CV PI 663911 ) cranberry bean released by the USDA-ARS in 2009, ...

  20. Phytohemagglutination Activity in Extruded Dry Bean Powder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry beans are a highly nutritious food. Besides making beans palatable, cooking is required to denature lectin, a protein found in beans. If consumed raw or undercooked, lectin poisoning can occur. Symptoms of lectin poisoning include vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, and occur within hours of...

  1. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal,...

  2. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal,...

  3. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal,...

  4. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal,...

  5. Comparative Studies on Plastoquinones. III. Distribution of Plastoquinones in Higher Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Rita; Crane, F. L.

    1967-01-01

    The distribution of plastoquinones A 45, B and C was studied in representatives from 34 different plant families beginning with liverworts and mosses to higher plants. All of these species, including many monocots and dicots, contained significant amounts of the 3 quinones. Two species of Aesculus contained plastoquinone A 20 in addition to plastoquinone A 45, B, and C. Many dicots, such as Aesculus, watermelon, tobacco and tomato accumulated increasing quantities of plastoquinones A and C1-C4 during the growing season. The concentrations of plastoquinones B and C5-C6 tended to remain at a constant low level during the season (<0.01 μmole per mg chlorophyll). Preliminary studies with bean plants (Vicia faba and Phaseolus sp.) indicate that the levels of quinones varied little under different growth conditions (day length and temp.) although Vicia faba tended to have higher PQ A values with increased temperature. PMID:16656647

  6. Winged bean in human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Kadam, S S; Salunkhe, D K

    1984-01-01

    Protein calorie malnutrition is prevalent in many developing countries of the tropics and subtropics. Improvement of protein supply to meet the demand of a growing population necessitates utilization of unconventional protein sources. Winged bean, a high protein crop, is one of the important underexploited legumes of the tropics. All the plant parts, viz., seeds, immature pods, leaves, flowers and tubers are edible. Mature seeds contain 29 to 37% proteins and 15 to 18% oil. It has fairly good amounts of phosphorus, iron, and vitamin B. Essential amino acid composition of winged bean is very similar to that of soybean. The fatty acid composition is very much comparable to groundnut. It contains relatively high amounts of behenic acid and parinaric acid. The trypsin inhibitor in winged bean has been shown to be heat resistant. Other toxic factors such as hemagglutinins and cyanide have also been reported. Winged bean seeds are hard to cook. Soaking of seeds in the Rockland's soak solution containing sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, and sodium pyrophosphate reduces cooking time significantly. The potential uses of this important crop in human nutrition and future research needs are discussed.

  7. Comparative studies on fermentation products of cocoa beans.

    PubMed

    Samah, O A; Ibrahim, N; Alimon, H; Karim, M I

    1993-05-01

    The maximum amounts of acetic acid produced by ripe and unripe cocoa beans were 157 mg and 110 mg/10 g wet wt of cotyledon, respectively. The unripe beans had a lower pH than the ripe beans after 6 days' fermentation. About 40% of ripe beans achieved a chocolate colour compared with 27% of unripe beans.

  8. Intercropping Corn with Lablab bean, Velvet Bean, and Scarlet Runner Bean for Forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low crude protein (CP) concentration in corn (Zea mays L.) forage is its major limitation in dairy rations. This experiment was designed to determine if intercropping corn with climbing beans is a viable option to increase CP concentration in forage rather than purchasing costly CP supplements for ...

  9. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  10. Cytological and molecular characterization of Vicia esdraelonensis Warb. & Eig: a rare taxon.

    PubMed

    Ruffini Castiglione, M; Frediani, M; Gelati, M T; Ravalli, C; Venora, G; Caputo, P; Cremonini, R

    2007-01-01

    Vicia esdraelonensis, a rare taxon belonging to section Hypechusa of subgenus Vicia, was recovered and analyzed by cytological, karyological, and molecular methods, with the aim of both characterizing this species and furthering our knowledge of the phylogeny of subgenus Vicia. Automated karyotype analysis, nuclear DNA content, and chromatin organization were determined by the Feulgen reaction, as well as chromosome banding after double staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and chromomycin A3. The chromosome number and the nuclear DNA content were in agreement with the values of the species of section Hypechusa. The GC- and AT-rich preferential sites were determined by chromomycin A3 and DAPI staining. Karyomorphological parameters indicated that V. esdraelonensis is in an intermediate position in the spatial representation of the species of section Hypechusa on the basis of symmetry indices, as well as in the dendrogram of linkage distance constructed on 37 chromosome parameters. Molecular data based on internal transcribed spacer sequences show that V. esdraelonensis can doubtlessly be included in section Hypechusa and document its closeness to V. noeana. A cladistic analysis combining the molecular data set with karyological characters is also reported. Karyological, cytological, and molecular data allow characterization of the V. esdraelonensis genome and provide information about the phylogenetic position of this species within the Hyrcanicae series of section Hypechusa.

  11. Diversity enhances agricultural productivity via rhizosphere phosphorus facilitation on phosphorus-deficient soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Li, Shu-Min; Sun, Jian-Hao; Zhou, Li-Li; Bao, Xing-Guo; Zhang, Hong-Gang; Zhang, Fu-Suo

    2007-07-01

    Intercropping, which grows at least two crop species on the same pieces of land at the same time, can increase grain yields greatly. Legume-grass intercrops are known to overyield because of legume nitrogen fixation. However, many agricultural soils are deficient in phosphorus. Here we show that a new mechanism of overyielding, in which phosphorus mobilized by one crop species increases the growth of a second crop species grown in alternate rows, led to large yield increases on phosphorus-deficient soils. In 4 years of field experiments, maize (Zea mays L.) overyielded by 43% and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) overyielded by 26% when intercropped on a low-phosphorus but high-nitrogen soil. We found that overyielding of maize was attributable to below-ground interactions between faba bean and maize in another field experiment. Intercropping with faba bean improved maize grain yield significantly and above-ground biomass marginally significantly, compared with maize grown with wheat, at lower rates of P fertilizer application (<75 kg of P(2)O(5) per hectare), and not significantly at high rate of P application (>112.5 kg of P(2)O(5) per hectare). By using permeable and impermeable root barriers, we found that maize overyielding resulted from its uptake of phosphorus mobilized by the acidification of the rhizosphere via faba bean root release of organic acids and protons. Faba bean overyielded because its growth season and rooting depth differed from maize. The large increase in yields from intercropping on low-phosphorus soils is likely to be especially important on heavily weathered soils.

  12. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    PubMed

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. PMID:27341891

  13. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    PubMed

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans.

  14. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Two Vicia sativa Subspecies: Mining Molecular Markers to Enhance Genomic Resources for Vetch Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Sung; Raveendar, Sebastin; Suresh, Sundan; Lee, Gi-An; Lee, Jung-Ro; Cho, Joon-Hyeong; Lee, Sok-Young; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Cho, Gyu-Taek; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    The vetch (Vicia sativa) is one of the most important annual forage legumes globally due to its multiple uses and high nutritional content. Despite these agronomical benefits, many drawbacks, including cyano-alanine toxin, has reduced the agronomic value of vetch varieties. Here, we used 454 technology to sequence the two V. sativa subspecies (ssp. sativa and ssp. nigra) to enrich functional information and genetic marker resources for the vetch research community. A total of 86,532 and 47,103 reads produced 35,202 and 18,808 unigenes with average lengths of 735 and 601 bp for V. sativa sativa and V. sativa nigra, respectively. Gene Ontology annotations and the cluster of orthologous gene classes were used to annotate the function of the Vicia transcriptomes. The Vicia transcriptome sequences were then mined for simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. About 13% and 3% of the Vicia unigenes contained the putative SSR and SNP sequences, respectively. Among those SSRs, 100 were chosen for the validation and the polymorphism test using the Vicia germplasm set. Thus, our approach takes advantage of the utility of transcriptomic data to expedite a vetch breeding program. PMID:26540077

  16. Transcriptome Analysis of Two Vicia sativa Subspecies: Mining Molecular Markers to Enhance Genomic Resources for Vetch Improvement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Sung; Raveendar, Sebastin; Suresh, Sundan; Lee, Gi-An; Lee, Jung-Ro; Cho, Joon-Hyeong; Lee, Sok-Young; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Cho, Gyu-Taek; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2015-11-02

    The vetch (Vicia sativa) is one of the most important annual forage legumes globally due to its multiple uses and high nutritional content. Despite these agronomical benefits, many drawbacks, including cyano-alanine toxin, has reduced the agronomic value of vetch varieties. Here, we used 454 technology to sequence the two V. sativa subspecies (ssp. sativa and ssp. nigra) to enrich functional information and genetic marker resources for the vetch research community. A total of 86,532 and 47,103 reads produced 35,202 and 18,808 unigenes with average lengths of 735 and 601 bp for V. sativa sativa and V. sativa nigra, respectively. Gene Ontology annotations and the cluster of orthologous gene classes were used to annotate the function of the Vicia transcriptomes. The Vicia transcriptome sequences were then mined for simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. About 13% and 3% of the Vicia unigenes contained the putative SSR and SNP sequences, respectively. Among those SSRs, 100 were chosen for the validation and the polymorphism test using the Vicia germplasm set. Thus, our approach takes advantage of the utility of transcriptomic data to expedite a vetch breeding program.

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Two Vicia sativa Subspecies: Mining Molecular Markers to Enhance Genomic Resources for Vetch Improvement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Sung; Raveendar, Sebastin; Suresh, Sundan; Lee, Gi-An; Lee, Jung-Ro; Cho, Joon-Hyeong; Lee, Sok-Young; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Cho, Gyu-Taek; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    The vetch (Vicia sativa) is one of the most important annual forage legumes globally due to its multiple uses and high nutritional content. Despite these agronomical benefits, many drawbacks, including cyano-alanine toxin, has reduced the agronomic value of vetch varieties. Here, we used 454 technology to sequence the two V. sativa subspecies (ssp. sativa and ssp. nigra) to enrich functional information and genetic marker resources for the vetch research community. A total of 86,532 and 47,103 reads produced 35,202 and 18,808 unigenes with average lengths of 735 and 601 bp for V. sativa sativa and V. sativa nigra, respectively. Gene Ontology annotations and the cluster of orthologous gene classes were used to annotate the function of the Vicia transcriptomes. The Vicia transcriptome sequences were then mined for simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. About 13% and 3% of the Vicia unigenes contained the putative SSR and SNP sequences, respectively. Among those SSRs, 100 were chosen for the validation and the polymorphism test using the Vicia germplasm set. Thus, our approach takes advantage of the utility of transcriptomic data to expedite a vetch breeding program. PMID:26540077

  18. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics. PMID:24462702

  19. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics.

  20. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of two closely related northeast China Vicia species revealed with RAPD and ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Wang, Hao-You

    2010-06-01

    RAPD and ISSR analyses revealed genetic diversity and relationships among 11 populations of two closely related northeast China Vicia species, Vicia ramuliflora and V. unijuga. Both methods yielded similar and complementary results, showing high genetic diversity. Vicia ramuliflora had 100% polymorphic loci in both RAPD and ISSR, and V. unijuga had 100% polymorphic loci for RAPD and 98.96% for ISSR. Genetic differentiation was moderate among populations of each species. Genetic variation was distributed mainly within populations for the two species. The high level of gene flow was important for the allocation of genetic variation. The UPGMA dendrogram and principal coordinates analysis at the level of individuals and populations showed that V. ramuliflora and V. unijuga were more closely related than either of them was to the outgroup species, V. cracca. The small molecular variance of V. ramuliflora and V. unijuga supports the conclusion that these two species had a common ancestor.

  1. Rhizobium ecuadorense sp. nov., an indigenous N2-fixing symbiont of the Ecuadorian common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genetic pool.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Martins, Talita Busulini; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Marçon Delamuta, Jakeline Renata; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

    2015-09-01

    There are two major centres of genetic diversification of common bean (Phaseolus vilgaris L.), the Mesoamerican and the Andean, and the legume is capable of establishing nitrogen-fixing symbioses with several rhizobia; Rhizobium etli seems to be the dominant species in both centres. Another genetic pool of common bean, in Peru and Ecuador, is receiving increasing attention, and studies of microsymbionts from the region can help to increase our knowledge about coevolution of this symbiosis. We have previously reported several putative new lineages from this region and here present data indicating that strains belonging to one of them, PEL4, represent a novel species. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny, PEL4 strains are positioned in the Rhizobium phaseoli/R. etli/Rhizobium leguminosarum clade, but show unique properties in several morphological, physiological and biochemical analyses, as well as in BOX-PCR profiles ( < 75% similarity with related species). PEL4 strains also differed from related species based on multilocus sequence analysis of three housekeeping genes (glnII, gyrB and recA). Nucleotide identities of the three concatenated genes between PEL4 strains and related species ranged from 91.8 to 94.2%, being highest with Rhizobium fabae. DNA-DNA hybridization ( < 47% DNA relatedness) and average nucleotide identity values of the whole genomes ( < 90.2%) also supported the novel species status. The PEL4 strains were effective in nodulating and fixing N2 with common beans. The data supported the view that PEL4 strains represent a novel species, Rhizobium ecuadorense sp. nov. The type strain is CNPSo 671(T) ( = UMR 1450(T) = PIMAMPIRS I 5(T) = LMG 27578(T)).

  2. Scavenging effects of methanolic extracts of broad beans on free-radical species.

    PubMed

    Okada, M; Okada, Y; Inaba, R; Iwata, H

    1998-04-01

    This report describes the antioxidant characteristics of methanolic extracts from broad beans (Vicia fava). The methanolic extracts of broad beans (MEBB) exhibited a marked scavenging effect on superoxide. MEBB also exerted scavenging activities on hydrogen peroxide and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical. The radical scavenging activity of MEBB was highest when the scavenging effect of MEBB on Superoxide (IC(50) = 0.15 mg/ml) was examined. These results suggest that MEBB have effective activities both as a radical scavenger and as a hydrogen donor. The chelating activity of MEBB (0.70 mg/ml) on Fe(2+) and Cu(2+) was 31.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The antioxidant effect of MEBB on lipid peroxidation might be attributed to their properties of scavenging free-radical species and their chelating activity on metal ions. The antioxidant activity of MEBB against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (BHP)-induced oxidative stress in WI-38 cells was assessed. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were measured as indices of oxidative stress. WI-38 cells incubated with 0.1 mM BHP for 2 hr exhibited the increase of SOD, catalase and GSH-Px activities over the control. When the cells incubated in MEBB (45-450 μg/ml) for 18 hr were subjected to a BHP challenge test, SOD activity returned to its control value or lower at all levels tested. When catalase activity was determined, a similar trend occurred except in the cells incubated in 112.5 μ g/ml MEBB. These results imply that MEBB inhibit oxidative stress in WI-38 cells. PMID:21432501

  3. Bean Samples The Ocean of Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Lunar Module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, holds a Special Environmental Sample Container filled with lunar soil collected during the extravehicular activity (EVA) in which Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Bean participated. Connrad, who took this picture, is reflected in the helmet visor of the Lunar Module pilot.

  4. Astronaut Alan Bean shaves while aboard Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, uses battery powered shaver while in the crew quarters of the Skylab space station's Orbital Workshop (OWS) crew quarters. This photograph was taken with a 35mm Nikon camera held by one of Bean's fellow crewmen during the 56.5 day second manned Skylab mission in Earth orbit.

  5. Registration of ‘Samurai’ Otebo Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Samurai’ otebo bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI ), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2015 as an upright, full-season cultivar with virus [caused by Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV)] resistance and high-yield potential. Samurai was developed using ped...

  6. Extraction and analysis of coffee bean allergens.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, S B; Karr, R M; Salvaggio, J E

    1978-05-01

    Workers in the coffee industry can develop occupational allergic disease upon exposure to dust associated with coffee manufacturing. Since controversy exists as to the source or chemical nature of these allergens, the mouse model of reaginic antibody production was used to assess the potential sources of allergens in samples obtained from a local coffee manufacturing plant. Mice were immunized with extracts of coffee dust and beans and the resulting reaginic antibody response determined by the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction. Cross-reacting allergens were detected in samples of coffee dust, cleaner can debris and green coffee beans, but not in chaff or roasted coffee beans. None of the allergens detected in coffee samples cross-reacted with extract of castor beans, although these extracts contained the potent castor bean allergen. Green coffee bean allergens partially purified by gel filtration were heterogeneous with respect to molecular size, although quite similar in their reactivity with reaginic antiserum. These results suggest that the green coffee bean is the major source of allergen in coffee manufacturing plants. This allergen is heterogeneous with respect to size and heat lability, and is immunochemically different from the castor bean allergen.

  7. Nutritional and health benefits of dried beans.

    PubMed

    Messina, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    Dried beans (often referred to as grain legumes) may contribute to some of the health benefits associated with plant-based diets. Beans are rich in a number of important micronutrients, including potassium, magnesium, folate, iron, and zinc, and are important sources of protein in vegetarian diets. In particular, they are among the only plant foods that provide significant amounts of the indispensable amino acid lysine. Commonly consumed dried beans are also rich in total and soluble fiber as well as in resistant starch, all of which contribute to the low glycemic index of these foods. They also provide ample amounts of polyphenols, many of which are potent antioxidants. Intervention and prospective research suggests that diets that include beans reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, favorably affect risk factors for metabolic syndrome, and reduce risk of ischemic heart disease and diabetes. The relatively low bean intakes of North Americans and northern Europeans can be attributed to a negative culinary image as well as to intestinal discomfort attributable to the oligosaccharide content of beans. Cooking practices such as sprouting beans, soaking and discarding soaking water before cooking, and cooking in water with a more alkaline pH can reduce oligosaccharide content. Promotional efforts are needed to increase bean intake.

  8. Identification of protein secretion systems and novel secreted proteins in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    PubMed Central

    Krehenbrink, Martin; Downie, J Allan

    2008-01-01

    Background Proteins secreted by bacteria play an important role in infection of eukaryotic hosts. Rhizobia infect the roots of leguminous plants and establish a mutually beneficial symbiosis. Proteins secreted during the infection process by some rhizobial strains can influence infection and modify the plant defence signalling pathways. The aim of this study was to systematically analyse protein secretion in the recently sequenced strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Results Similarity searches using defined protein secretion systems from other Gram-negative bacteria as query sequences revealed that R. l. bv. viciae 3841 has ten putative protein secretion systems. These are the general export pathway (GEP), a twin-arginine translocase (TAT) secretion system, four separate Type I systems, one putative Type IV system and three Type V autotransporters. Mutations in genes encoding each of these (except the GEP) were generated, but only mutations affecting the PrsDE (Type I) and TAT systems were observed to affect the growth phenotype and the profile of proteins in the culture supernatant. Bioinformatic analysis and mass fingerprinting of tryptic fragments of culture supernatant proteins identified 14 putative Type I substrates, 12 of which are secreted via the PrsDE, secretion system. The TAT mutant was defective for the symbiosis, forming nodules incapable of nitrogen fixation. Conclusion None of the R. l. bv. viciae 3841 protein secretion systems putatively involved in the secretion of proteins to the extracellular space (Type I, Type IV, Type V) is required for establishing the symbiosis with legumes. The PrsDE (Type I) system was shown to be the major route of protein secretion in non-symbiotic cells and to secrete proteins of widely varied size and predicted function. This is in contrast to many Type I systems from other bacteria, which typically secrete specific substrates encoded by genes often localised in close proximity to the genes encoding the

  9. First isolation of natural cyanamide as a possible allelochemical from hairy vetch Vicia villosa.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Tsunashi; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2003-02-01

    Cyanamide was isolated from the leaves and stems of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), guided by plant growth inhibitory activity against lettuce (Lectuca sativa) seedlings. A large proportion of the inhibitory activity in the crude extract was explained by the presence of cyanamide, suggesting it to be a possible allelochemical in this species. The amount in a 9-day-old seedling, which had been grown without nutrients, reached approx. 40 times that of a nongerminated seed, demonstrating cyanamide biosynthesis in the seedlings. This is the first report on the isolation of a possible allelochemical from hairy vetch and also of the finding of cyanamide as a natural product.

  10. 7 CFR 457.150 - Dry bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... seed company, containing at a minimum: (a) The contract seed bean producer's promise to plant and grow... knifing. Severance of the bean plant from the ground, including the pods and beans, and placing them into... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dry bean crop insurance provisions. 457.150...

  11. 7 CFR 457.150 - Dry bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... seed company, containing at a minimum: (a) The contract seed bean producer's promise to plant and grow... knifing—Severance of the bean plant from the ground, including the pods and beans, and placing them into... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry bean crop insurance provisions. 457.150...

  12. 7 CFR 457.150 - Dry bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... seed company, containing at a minimum: (a) The contract seed bean producer's promise to plant and grow... knifing. Severance of the bean plant from the ground, including the pods and beans, and placing them into... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dry bean crop insurance provisions. 457.150...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree,...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree,...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia siliqua (Linne), a leguminous...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree,...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree,...

  18. Breeding black beans for Haiti with multiple virus resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black bean production in the lowlands of Central America and the Caribbean is threatened by Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV). Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop, test and release tropically-adapted black bean lines with resis...

  19. 7 CFR 457.150 - Dry bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... beans may qualify for optional units only if the seed bean processor contract specifies the number of... dry beans; except, if the price of the damaged production can be increased by conditioning, we may... if it is not practical to replant to the same type of beans as originally planted. 9....

  20. Key odorants in cured Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of differing bean quality.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Makoto; Inai, Yoko; Miyazawa, Norio; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Fujita, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The odor-active volatiles in Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of two grades, red whole beans as standard quality and cuts beans as substandard quality, were characterized by instrumental and sensory analyses. The higher contents of vanillin and β-damascenone in red whole beans than in cuts beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the sweet and dried fruit-like notes, while the higher contents of guaiacol and 3-phenylpropanoic acid in cuts beans than in red whole beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the phenolic and metallic notes. A sensory evaluation to compare red whole beans and their reconstituted aroma characterized both samples as being similar, while in respect of the phenolic note, the reconstituted aroma significantly differed from the reconstituted aroma with guaiacol added at the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol in cuts beans. It is suggested from these results that the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol could be used as an index for the quality of Madagascar vanilla beans.

  1. [Comparative study of the composition and nutritional value of the seeds and protein concentrations in legumes].

    PubMed

    Cantoral, R; Fernández-Quintela, A; Martínez, J A; Macarulla, M T

    1995-09-01

    The nutritional properties of three legumes: pea (Pisum sativum), faba bean (Vicia faba) and soya (Glycine max) have been characterized. From these seeds, protein concentrates were elaborated by wet processing and two different procedures of drying were followed (freeze-drying and alcohol washing). The composition and content of several antinutritional factors (phytates, tannins, trypsin inhibitors and lectins) were assessed in all of them. Also some functional properties regarding their potential use in food technology were evaluated, such as protein solubility at different pH, as well as water and oil absorption capacities. All the obtained concentrates showed high protein contents, nevertheless protein extraction efficiency was smaller in alcohol-washed concentrates than in the lyophilized ones. In the other hand, the concentrates obtained from pea and faba bean showed higher yields than those obtained from soya. The content of antinutritional factors were markedly reduced after the concentration process. Furthermore, the functional properties of pea and faba bean protein concentrates point out their suitability for food preparation as previously reported for soya. PMID:9382685

  2. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... regulations to allow the importation of French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into...

  3. In vitro anthelmintic effect of Vicia pannonica var. purpurascens on trichostrongylosis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Kozan, Esma; Anul, Serap Arabaci; Tatli, I Irem

    2013-07-01

    Vicia species are used for the treatment of malaria, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, kidney problems and infertility in Turkish traditional medicine. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic effects of Vicia pannonica Crantz. var. purpurascens (DC). Ser. extracts. Larval motility test was used to determine anthelmintic activity of this plant. Motility of the larvae is measured by observation. The methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, acetone, and aqueous extracts of the aerial parts of the plant including the leaves and flowers were applied to developing trichostrongylus larvae at 1, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.2 and 0.1 mg/ml doses. Thiabendazole and distilled water with 5% DMSO was used as positive and negative control. All of the extracts were 100% effective. Two flavone and flavonol glycosides; luteolin-7-β-O-glucopyranoside (1) and quercetin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside (2) were isolated from the acetone extract and their structures were elucidated by spectral techniques. The solutions prepared from two flavonoid fractions at several doses were performed in vitro to larvae in the same way. Both of them were 100% effective at 1 and 0.8 mg/ml doses. Results of the present study support the utilization of these plant species employed in Turkish folk medicine.

  4. In vitro anthelmintic effect of Vicia pannonica var. purpurascens on trichostrongylosis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Kozan, Esma; Anul, Serap Arabaci; Tatli, I Irem

    2013-07-01

    Vicia species are used for the treatment of malaria, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, kidney problems and infertility in Turkish traditional medicine. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic effects of Vicia pannonica Crantz. var. purpurascens (DC). Ser. extracts. Larval motility test was used to determine anthelmintic activity of this plant. Motility of the larvae is measured by observation. The methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, acetone, and aqueous extracts of the aerial parts of the plant including the leaves and flowers were applied to developing trichostrongylus larvae at 1, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.2 and 0.1 mg/ml doses. Thiabendazole and distilled water with 5% DMSO was used as positive and negative control. All of the extracts were 100% effective. Two flavone and flavonol glycosides; luteolin-7-β-O-glucopyranoside (1) and quercetin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside (2) were isolated from the acetone extract and their structures were elucidated by spectral techniques. The solutions prepared from two flavonoid fractions at several doses were performed in vitro to larvae in the same way. Both of them were 100% effective at 1 and 0.8 mg/ml doses. Results of the present study support the utilization of these plant species employed in Turkish folk medicine. PMID:23562885

  5. The "white kidney bean incident" in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Haruko; Date, Kimie

    2014-01-01

    Lectin poisoning occurred in Japan in 2006 after a TV broadcast that introduced a new diet of eating staple foods with powdered toasted white kidney beans, seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris. Although the method is based on the action of a heat-stable α-amylase inhibitor in the beans, phaseolamin, more than 1,000 viewers who tried the method suffered from acute intestinal symptoms and 100 people were hospitalized. Lectins in the white kidney beans were suspected to be the cause of the trouble. We were asked to investigate the lectin activity remaining in the beans after the heat treatment recommended on the TV program. The test suggested that the heat treatment was insufficient to inactivate the lectin activity, which, combined with our ignorance of carbohydrate signaling in the intestine, was the cause of the problem.

  6. Locust bean gum: a versatile biopolymer.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Jani, Girish K; Moradiya, Naresh G; Randeria, Narayan P; Nagar, Bhanu J

    2013-05-15

    Biopolymers or natural polymers are an attractive class of biodegradable polymers since they are derived from natural sources, easily available, relatively cheap and can be modified by suitable reagent. Locust bean gum is one of them that have a wide potentiality in drug formulations due to its extensive application as food additive and its recognized lack of toxicity. It can be tailored to suit its demands of applicants in both the pharmaceutical and biomedical areas. Locust bean gum has a wide application either in the field of novel drug delivery system as rate controlling excipients or in tissue engineering as scaffold formation. Through keen references of reported literature on locust bean gum, in this review, we have described critical aspects of locust bean gum, its manufacturing process, physicochemical properties and applications in various drug delivery systems.

  7. Portrait of Astronaut Alan L. Bean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Portrait of Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Prime Crew Lunar Module Pilot of the Apollo 12 Lunar Landing Mission, in his space suit minus the helmet. He is standing outside beside a mock-up of the Lunar Lander.

  8. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Stephen E; Rao, Idupulapati M; Blair, Matthew W; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation.

  9. The "white kidney bean incident" in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Haruko; Date, Kimie

    2014-01-01

    Lectin poisoning occurred in Japan in 2006 after a TV broadcast that introduced a new diet of eating staple foods with powdered toasted white kidney beans, seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris. Although the method is based on the action of a heat-stable α-amylase inhibitor in the beans, phaseolamin, more than 1,000 viewers who tried the method suffered from acute intestinal symptoms and 100 people were hospitalized. Lectins in the white kidney beans were suspected to be the cause of the trouble. We were asked to investigate the lectin activity remaining in the beans after the heat treatment recommended on the TV program. The test suggested that the heat treatment was insufficient to inactivate the lectin activity, which, combined with our ignorance of carbohydrate signaling in the intestine, was the cause of the problem. PMID:25117222

  10. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928

  11. Red kidney beans--to eat or not to eat?

    PubMed

    Venter, F S; Thiel, P G

    1995-04-01

    The importation of dry red kidney beans (a variety of the species Phaseolus vulgaris) for cultivation or consumption in South Africa is prohibited because of their potential toxicity to humans. It has been established that the haemagglutinating lectins (e.g. phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)) in kidney beans are responsible for this toxicity. Dry bean varieties available on the South African market for human consumption as well as locally produced (for this study) and imported dry red kidney beans and imported canned red kidney beans were compared. The PHA activity and the effect of heat thereon were measured, before and after overnight soaking. The PHA activity in extracts of uncooked and incompletely cooked red kidney beans was not higher than the levels measured in 50% of the other bean varieties included in the study. These findings indicate that the toxic potentials and health risks associated with red kidney beans are similar to those of other dry beans already commercially available to South Africans.

  12. Red kidney beans--to eat or not to eat?

    PubMed

    Venter, F S; Thiel, P G

    1995-04-01

    The importation of dry red kidney beans (a variety of the species Phaseolus vulgaris) for cultivation or consumption in South Africa is prohibited because of their potential toxicity to humans. It has been established that the haemagglutinating lectins (e.g. phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)) in kidney beans are responsible for this toxicity. Dry bean varieties available on the South African market for human consumption as well as locally produced (for this study) and imported dry red kidney beans and imported canned red kidney beans were compared. The PHA activity and the effect of heat thereon were measured, before and after overnight soaking. The PHA activity in extracts of uncooked and incompletely cooked red kidney beans was not higher than the levels measured in 50% of the other bean varieties included in the study. These findings indicate that the toxic potentials and health risks associated with red kidney beans are similar to those of other dry beans already commercially available to South Africans. PMID:7777998

  13. Bean Type Modifies Larval Competition in Zabrotes subfasciatus (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, S O D; Rodrigues, A S; Vieira, J L; Rosi-Denadai, C A; Guedes, N M P; Guedes, R N C

    2015-08-01

    Larval competition is particularly prevalent among grain beetles that remain within their mother-selected grain throughout development, and the behavioral process of competition is usually inferred by the competition outcome. The Mexican bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) is subjected to resource availability variation because of the diversity of common bean types and sizes, from small (e.g., kidney beans) to large (e.g., cranberry beans). The competition process was identified in the Mexican bean weevil reared on kidney and cranberry beans by inference from the competition outcome and by direct observation through digital X-ray imaging. Increased larval density negatively affected adult emergence in kidney beans and reduced adult body mass in both kidney and cranberry beans. Developmental time was faster in cranberry beans. The results allowed for increased larval fitness (i.e., higher larval biomass produced per grain), with larval density reaching a maximum plateau >5 hatched larvae per kidney bean, whereas in cranberry beans, larval fitness linearly increased with density to 13 hatched larvae per bean. These results, together with X-ray imaging without evidence of direct aggressive interaction among larvae, indicate scramble competition, with multiple larvae emerging per grain. However, higher reproductive output was detected for adults from lower density competition with better performance on cranberry beans. Larger populations and fitter adults are expected in intermediate larval densities primarily in cranberry beans where grain losses should be greater.

  14. Effect of processing on ochratoxin A content in dried beans.

    PubMed

    Iha, M H; Trucksess, M W; Tournas, V H

    2009-10-01

    Dried pink beans naturally contaminated with ochratoxin A (OTA) and dried carioca beans artificially contaminated with OTA by inoculation with Aspergillus ochraceus (ATCC 22947) were tested for ochratoxin A levels as follows: dried beans were washed with water for 2, 60 or 120 min, soaked in water for 60, 120 min or 10 h, and cooked for 60 or 120 min. At each step, test water and beans were separated. Test water, raw beans and cooked beans were analyzed for OTA. The amount of OTA partitioned into water and in residual beans was determined by methanol-sodium bicarbonate extraction, buffer dilution, immunoaffinity column cleanup, liquid chromatographic separation and fluorescence detection. The results demonstrated that the distribution of OTA in processing water and beans depends on the method of preparation. All treatments (washing, soaking and cooking) when applied individually reduced the amounts of OTA retained in bean flour and whole beans. Higher amounts of OTA remained in whole beans than in bean flour after removing the processing water. The combination of the three treatments eliminated about 50% of the toxin from whole beans. This study provides evidence that discarding the washing, soaking and cooking water leads to a significant reduction in OTA contamination in dried beans. PMID:19693718

  15. Bean Type Modifies Larval Competition in Zabrotes subfasciatus (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, S O D; Rodrigues, A S; Vieira, J L; Rosi-Denadai, C A; Guedes, N M P; Guedes, R N C

    2015-08-01

    Larval competition is particularly prevalent among grain beetles that remain within their mother-selected grain throughout development, and the behavioral process of competition is usually inferred by the competition outcome. The Mexican bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) is subjected to resource availability variation because of the diversity of common bean types and sizes, from small (e.g., kidney beans) to large (e.g., cranberry beans). The competition process was identified in the Mexican bean weevil reared on kidney and cranberry beans by inference from the competition outcome and by direct observation through digital X-ray imaging. Increased larval density negatively affected adult emergence in kidney beans and reduced adult body mass in both kidney and cranberry beans. Developmental time was faster in cranberry beans. The results allowed for increased larval fitness (i.e., higher larval biomass produced per grain), with larval density reaching a maximum plateau >5 hatched larvae per kidney bean, whereas in cranberry beans, larval fitness linearly increased with density to 13 hatched larvae per bean. These results, together with X-ray imaging without evidence of direct aggressive interaction among larvae, indicate scramble competition, with multiple larvae emerging per grain. However, higher reproductive output was detected for adults from lower density competition with better performance on cranberry beans. Larger populations and fitter adults are expected in intermediate larval densities primarily in cranberry beans where grain losses should be greater. PMID:26470357

  16. Effect of processing on ochratoxin A content in dried beans.

    PubMed

    Iha, M H; Trucksess, M W; Tournas, V H

    2009-10-01

    Dried pink beans naturally contaminated with ochratoxin A (OTA) and dried carioca beans artificially contaminated with OTA by inoculation with Aspergillus ochraceus (ATCC 22947) were tested for ochratoxin A levels as follows: dried beans were washed with water for 2, 60 or 120 min, soaked in water for 60, 120 min or 10 h, and cooked for 60 or 120 min. At each step, test water and beans were separated. Test water, raw beans and cooked beans were analyzed for OTA. The amount of OTA partitioned into water and in residual beans was determined by methanol-sodium bicarbonate extraction, buffer dilution, immunoaffinity column cleanup, liquid chromatographic separation and fluorescence detection. The results demonstrated that the distribution of OTA in processing water and beans depends on the method of preparation. All treatments (washing, soaking and cooking) when applied individually reduced the amounts of OTA retained in bean flour and whole beans. Higher amounts of OTA remained in whole beans than in bean flour after removing the processing water. The combination of the three treatments eliminated about 50% of the toxin from whole beans. This study provides evidence that discarding the washing, soaking and cooking water leads to a significant reduction in OTA contamination in dried beans.

  17. Preharvest herbicide treatments affect black bean desiccation, yield, and canned bean color

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field trial was conducted near Richville, Michigan in 2013 and 2014 to evaluate the effects of preharvest herbicide treatments on desiccation, yield, and canned black bean quality and color. Three Type II black bean varieties, Zorro, Eclipse, and Zenith, were planted on two different dates in each...

  18. Dynamic transcriptome profiling of Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) infection in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is widespread, with Phaseolus species as the primary host plants. Numerous BCMV strains have been identified on the basis of a panel of bean varieties that distinguish the pathogenicity types with respect to the viral strains. Here, we report the transcriptional respo...

  19. An outbreak of Vicia villosa (hairy vetch) poisoning in grazing Aberdeen Angus bulls in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Odriozola, E; Paloma, E; Lopez, T; Campero, C

    1991-06-01

    Vicia villosa (hairy vetch) is used as a forage source in some cattle-producing areas in Argentina. The plant had no previous reports of toxicity in this country. A herd of 33 Aberdeen Angus bulls grazed during 20 days in October on a pasture composed mainly of hairy vetch. Eight animals developed conjunctivitis, rinitis, dermatitis, loss of hair and fever. All of them died within 15 d after the development of signs with a marked loss of body condition. No more animals became sick 5 d after the removal of the herd from the pasture. Serum parameters tested (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, GOT, alfa-GT and bilirubin) enlarged liver and spleen, generalized hemorrhage in the abomasum, dilated kidneys and multiple pale areas on the heart. Severe necrotizing granulomatous myocarditis, interstitial nephritis, and necrotizing cholangitis were the most striking microscopic changes. Close observation of animals feeding on pastures in which V villosa is dominant is the only prevention. PMID:1858312

  20. [Effects of UV-B radiation on the growth and reproduction of Vicia angustifolia].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Xing-An; Wang, Ren-Jun; Qiu, Nian-Wei; Ma, Zong-Qi; Du, Guo-Zhen

    2012-05-01

    A simulation experiment with supplementation and exclusion of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation was conducted to study the effects of enhanced and near ambient UV-B radiation on the growth and reproduction of alpine annual pasture Vicia angustifolia on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Enhanced UV-B decreased the plant height and biomass, biomass allocation to fruit, flower number, and 100-seed mass significantly, delayed flowering stage, increased the concentration degree of flowering and success rate of reproduction, but had little effect on seed yield. Near ambient UV-B radiation made the plant height increased after an initial decrease, decreased biomass allocation to fruit and 100-seed mass, but little affected flowering duration, flower number, and seed yield. Both enhanced and near ambient UV-B radiation could inhibit the growth and production of V. angustifolia, and the effect of enhanced UV-B radiation was even larger.

  1. Distribution and status of Vicia menziesii Spreng. (Leguminosae): Hawaii's first officially listed endangered plant species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warshauer, F.R.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Vicia menziesii Spreng., Hawai'i's first officially listed endangered plant species, formerly occurred across a large area in the upper montane-mesic forest habitat on the windward side of the island of Hawai'i. Until this species was `rediscovered? in 1974, it had last been seen in 1915, and it was presumed to be extinct. The population is presently thought to number 150?300 plants, most of which are seedlings. These are located within a 200 ha area on the eastern flank of Mauna Loa volcano. The primary factors responsible for the decline of V. menziesii are habitat loss and excessive predation on the plants by introduced ungulates. Continued logging and cattle grazing within its remnant range are major threats to its existence. Enhancing the survival of V. menziesii may best be accomplished by stabilizing its remaining habitat and allowing the population to reestablish itself naturally.

  2. Suppression of nodulation gene expression in bacteroids of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae.

    PubMed Central

    Schlaman, H R; Horvath, B; Vijgenboom, E; Okker, R J; Lugtenberg, B J

    1991-01-01

    The expression of nod genes of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae in nodules of Pisum sativum was investigated at both the translational and transcriptional levels. By using immunoblots, it was found that the levels of NodA, NodI, NodE, and NodO proteins were reduced at least 14-fold in bacteriods compared with cultured cells, whereas NodD protein was reduced only 3-fold. Northern (RNA) blot hybridization, RNase protection assays, and in situ RNA hybridization together showed that, except for the nodD transcript, none of the other nod gene transcripts were present in bacteroids. The amount of nodD transcript in bacteroids was reduced only two- to threefold compared with that in cultured cells. Identical results were found with a Rhizobium strain harboring multicopies of nodD and with a strain containing a NodD protein (NodD604) which is activated independently of flavonoids. Furthermore, it was found that mature pea nodules contain inhibitors of induced nod gene transcription but that NodD604 was insensitive to these compounds. In situ RNA hybridization on sections from P. sativum and Vicia hirsuta nodules showed that transcription of inducible nod genes is switched off before the bacteria differentiate into bacteroids. This is unlikely to be due to limiting amounts of NodD, the absence of inducing compounds, or the presence of anti-inducers. The observed switch off of transcription during the development of symbiosis is a general phenomenon and is apparently caused by a yet unknown, negative regulation mechanism. Images PMID:1712355

  3. Bean with Tools on the Ocean of Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Lunar Module pilot, pauses near a tool carrier during extravehicular activity (EVA) on the Moon's surface. Commander Charles Conrad Jr., who took the black and white photo, is reflected in Bean's helmet visor.

  4. Astronaut Alan Bean participates in lunar surface simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot of the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, participates in lunar surface simulation training in bldg 29 at the Manned Spacecraft Center. Bean is strapped to a one-sixth gravity simulator.

  5. Preservation of flavor in freeze dried green beans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Davis, D.

    1973-01-01

    Before freeze drying, green beans are heated to point at which their cell structure is altered. Beans freeze dried with altered cell structure have improved rehydration properties and retain color, flavor, and texture.

  6. 32. Coffee bean sluiceway on ground floor showing chute bringing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Coffee bean sluiceway on ground floor showing chute bringing beans from first floor hopper. HAER PR, 6-MAGU, 1B-17 - Hacienda Buena Vista, PR Route 10 (Ponce to Arecibo), Magueyes, Ponce Municipio, PR

  7. Registration of AO-1012-29-3-3A red kidney bean germplasm line with bean weevil, BCMV and BCMNV resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are important seed-borne diseases of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Americas and Africa. The bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say) is an aggressive post-harvest pest of the common bean. The development of bea...

  8. Urea synthesis in rats fed diet containing kidney beans.

    PubMed

    Scislowski, P W; Grant, G; Harris, I; Pickard, K; Pusztai, A

    1992-10-01

    When rats were fed a diet containing kidney bean (Phaesolus vulgaris) urea excretion was increased 3-5 fold. Isolated liver mitochondria from rats fed the kidney bean diet produced 40% more citrulline in the presence of arginine than mitochondria isolated from control rats. Mitochondrial activities of urea cycle enzymes and N-acetylglutamate synthetase were similar in animals fed diets containing kidney bean or lactalbumin. The possible mechanisms causing acute urea production in rats fed with kidney bean are discussed.

  9. Urea synthesis in rats fed diet containing kidney beans.

    PubMed

    Scislowski, P W; Grant, G; Harris, I; Pickard, K; Pusztai, A

    1992-10-01

    When rats were fed a diet containing kidney bean (Phaesolus vulgaris) urea excretion was increased 3-5 fold. Isolated liver mitochondria from rats fed the kidney bean diet produced 40% more citrulline in the presence of arginine than mitochondria isolated from control rats. Mitochondrial activities of urea cycle enzymes and N-acetylglutamate synthetase were similar in animals fed diets containing kidney bean or lactalbumin. The possible mechanisms causing acute urea production in rats fed with kidney bean are discussed. PMID:1445392

  10. Blanching of green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Kaack, K

    1994-12-01

    Experiments with one and two steps blanching of green beans have been carried out. Inactivation of the peroxydase requires more heating than inactivation of the enzymes which gives rise to off flavour from aldehydes. When blanching for about one minute to inactivate lipoxygenase, aldehyde formation of flavour ceases. The content of vitamin C decreases during blanching according to a first order reaction. Since considerable loss of vitamin C occurs during blanching, the treatment time should be reduced to a minimum. During preblanching at 65-75 degrees C and final blanching, chlorophyll is degraded to pheophytin and the surface colour expressed by the Hunter-values (-a/b) increases with time which means that the colour of the beans changes from green to yellow. The firmness of beans, which was measured by use of a tenderometer, decreases during blanching according to a first order reaction with 40 kcal/mole activation energy. Preblanching at 65-75 degrees C increases the firmness of the beans linearly with treatment time. This increase in firmness is stable after final blanching at 95 degrees C and even after thawing of frozen beans.

  11. Plant, cell, and molecular mechanisms of abscisic-acid regulation of stomatal apertures. In vivo phosphorylation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in guard cells of Vicia faba L. is enhanced by fusicoccin and suppressed by abscisic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Z.; Aghoram, K.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    Plants regulate water loss and CO{sub 2} gain by modulating the aperture sizes of stomata that penetrate the epidermis. Aperture size itself is increased by osmolyte accumulation and consequent turgor increase in the pair of guard cells that flank each stoma. Guard-cell phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, which catalyzes the regulated step leading to malate synthesis, is crucial for charge and pH maintenance during osmolyte accumulation. Regulation of this cytosolic enzyme by effectors is well documented, but additional regulation by posttranslational modification is predicted by the alteration of PEPC kinetics during stomatal opening. In this study, the authors have investigated whether this alteration is associated with the phosphorylation status of this enzyme. Using sonicated epidermal peels (isolated guard cells) pre-loaded with {sub 32}PO{sub 4}, the authors induced stomatal opening and guard-cell malate accumulation by incubation with 5 {micro}M fusicoccin (FC). In corroboratory experiments, guard cells were incubated with 5 {micro}M fusicoccin (FC). In corroboratory experiments, guard cells were incubated with the FC antagonist, 10 {micro}M abscisic acid (ABA). The phosphorylation status of PEPC was assessed by immunoprecipitation, electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and autoradiography. PEPC was phosphorylated when stomata were stimulated to open, and phosphorylation was lessened by incubation with ABA.

  12. 7 CFR 457.155 - Processing bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing bean crop insurance provisions. 457.155... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.155 Processing bean crop insurance provisions. The Processing Bean Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and...

  13. 7 CFR 457.155 - Processing bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processing bean crop insurance provisions. 457.155... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.155 Processing bean crop insurance provisions. The Processing Bean Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and...

  14. 7 CFR 457.155 - Processing bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing bean crop insurance provisions. 457.155... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.155 Processing bean crop insurance provisions. The Processing Bean Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and...

  15. 7 CFR 457.155 - Processing bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing bean crop insurance provisions. 457.155... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.155 Processing bean crop insurance provisions. The Processing Bean Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and...

  16. 7 CFR 457.155 - Processing bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing bean crop insurance provisions. 457.155... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.155 Processing bean crop insurance provisions. The Processing Bean Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and...

  17. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  18. Differential soil acidity tolerance of dry bean genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil acidity is a major yield limiting factors for bean production in the tropical regions. Using soil acidity tolerant genotypes is an important strategy in improving bean yields and reducing cost of production. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating 20 dry bean geno...

  19. Activities to Grow On: Buttons, Beads, and Beans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzolis, Amy; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents new ideas for using buttons, beans, and beads as teaching manipulatives for elementary school children. The ideas include a button scavenger hunt, a button count, a cup puppet bean game, a numbers guessing game with beans in jars, and a bead stringing activity. (SM)

  20. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  1. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  2. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  7. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. Binding of Shewanella FadR to the fabA fatty acid biosynthetic gene: implications for contraction of the fad regulon.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huimin; Zheng, Beiwen; Gao, Rongsui; Feng, Youjun

    2015-09-01

    The Escherichia coli fadR protein product, a paradigm/prototypical FadR regulator, positively regulates fabA and fabB, the two critical genes for unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) biosynthesis. However the scenario in the other Ɣ-proteobacteria, such as Shewanella with the marine origin, is unusual in that Rodionov and coworkers predicted that only fabA (not fabB) has a binding site for FadR protein. It raised the possibility of fad regulon contraction. Here we report that this is the case. Sequence alignment of the FadR homologs revealed that the N-terminal DNA-binding domain exhibited remarkable similarity, whereas the ligand-accepting motif at C-terminus is relatively-less conserved. The FadR homologue of S. oneidensis (referred to FadR_she) was over-expressed and purified to homogeneity. Integrative evidence obtained by FPLC (fast protein liquid chromatography) and chemical cross-linking analyses elucidated that FadR_she protein can dimerize in solution, whose identity was determined by MALDI-TOF-MS. In vitro data from electrophoretic mobility shift assays suggested that FadR_she is almost functionally-exchangeable/equivalent to E. coli FadR (FadR_ec) in the ability of binding the E. coli fabA (and fabB) promoters. In an agreement with that of E. coli fabA, S. oneidensis fabA promoter bound both FadR_she and FadR_ec, and was disassociated specifically with the FadR regulatory protein upon the addition of long-chain acyl-CoA thioesters. To monitor in vivo effect exerted by FadR on Shewanella fabA expression, the native promoter of S. oneidensis fabA was fused to a LacZ reporter gene to engineer a chromosome fabA-lacZ transcriptional fusion in E. coli. As anticipated, the removal of fadR gene gave about 2-fold decrement of Shewanella fabA expression by β-gal activity, which is almost identical to the inhibitory level by the addition of oleate. Therefore, we concluded that fabA is contracted to be the only one member of fad regulon in the context of fatty acid

  9. Crystal Structures and Binding Dynamics of Odorant-Binding Protein 3 from two aphid species Megoura viciae and Nasonovia ribisnigri.

    PubMed

    Northey, Tom; Venthur, Herbert; De Biasio, Filomena; Chauviac, Francois-Xavier; Cole, Ambrose; Ribeiro, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Grossi, Gerarda; Falabella, Patrizia; Field, Linda M; Keep, Nicholas H; Zhou, Jing-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Aphids use chemical cues to locate hosts and find mates. The vetch aphid Megoura viciae feeds exclusively on the Fabaceae, whereas the currant-lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri alternates hosts between the Grossulariaceae and Asteraceae. Both species use alarm pheromones to warn of dangers. For N. ribisnigri this pheromone is a single component (E)-β-farnesene but M. viciae uses a mixture of (E)-β-farnesene, (-)-α-pinene, β-pinene, and limonene. Odorant-binding proteins (OBP) are believed to capture and transport such semiochemicals to their receptors. Here, we report the first aphid OBP crystal structures and examine their molecular interactions with the alarm pheromone components. Our study reveals some unique structural features: 1) the lack of an internal ligand binding site; 2) a striking groove in the surface of the proteins as a putative binding site; 3) the N-terminus rather than the C-terminus occupies the site closing off the conventional OBP pocket. The results from fluorescent binding assays, molecular docking and dynamics demonstrate that OBP3 from M. viciae can bind to all four alarm pheromone components and the differential ligand binding between these very similar OBP3s from the two aphid species is determined mainly by the direct π-π interactions between ligands and the aromatic residues of OBP3s in the binding pocket. PMID:27102935

  10. Crystal Structures and Binding Dynamics of Odorant-Binding Protein 3 from two aphid species Megoura viciae and Nasonovia ribisnigri

    PubMed Central

    Northey, Tom; Venthur, Herbert; De Biasio, Filomena; Chauviac, Francois-Xavier; Cole, Ambrose; Ribeiro, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Grossi, Gerarda; Falabella, Patrizia; Field, Linda M.; Keep, Nicholas H.; Zhou, Jing-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Aphids use chemical cues to locate hosts and find mates. The vetch aphid Megoura viciae feeds exclusively on the Fabaceae, whereas the currant-lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri alternates hosts between the Grossulariaceae and Asteraceae. Both species use alarm pheromones to warn of dangers. For N. ribisnigri this pheromone is a single component (E)-β-farnesene but M. viciae uses a mixture of (E)-β-farnesene, (−)-α-pinene, β-pinene, and limonene. Odorant-binding proteins (OBP) are believed to capture and transport such semiochemicals to their receptors. Here, we report the first aphid OBP crystal structures and examine their molecular interactions with the alarm pheromone components. Our study reveals some unique structural features: 1) the lack of an internal ligand binding site; 2) a striking groove in the surface of the proteins as a putative binding site; 3) the N-terminus rather than the C-terminus occupies the site closing off the conventional OBP pocket. The results from fluorescent binding assays, molecular docking and dynamics demonstrate that OBP3 from M. viciae can bind to all four alarm pheromone components and the differential ligand binding between these very similar OBP3s from the two aphid species is determined mainly by the direct π-π interactions between ligands and the aromatic residues of OBP3s in the binding pocket. PMID:27102935

  11. Evaluation of the reaction oof interspecific hybrids of common bean and tepary bean to Bradyrhizobium y Rhizobium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interspecific hybrids between common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., and tepary bean, Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray, have the potential to increase bean production in regions where rainfall is limited. In 2014, an experiment was initiated using a split-plot design. The treatments included inoculation, ...

  12. Mapping snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) pod and color traits, in a dry bean x snap bean recombinant inbred population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) breeding programs are tasked with developing varieties that meet the standards of the vegetable processing industry and ultimately that of the consumer; all the while matching or exceeding the field performance of existing varieties. While traditional breeding methods ...

  13. Determination of antioxidant properties of aroma extracts from various beans.

    PubMed

    Lee, K G; Mitchell, A E; Shibamoto, T

    2000-10-01

    Aroma extracts from fresh soybeans, mung beans, kidney beans, and azuki beans were prepared using simultaneous steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDE) under mild conditions (55 degrees C and 95 mmHg). Extracts were examined for antioxidative activities in two different assays. The aroma extracts isolated from all beans inhibited the oxidation of hexanal for nearly one month at a level of 250 microL/mL. Mung bean and soybean extracts inhibited malonaldehyde (MA) formation from cod-liver oil by 86% and 88%, respectively, at the 250 microL/mL level. Azuki and kidney bean extracts inhibited MA formation from cod-liver oil by 76% and 53%, respectively, at the 250 microL/mL level. The antioxidative activities of mung bean and soybean extracts were comparable with that of the natural antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E).

  14. Determination of antioxidant properties of aroma extracts from various beans.

    PubMed

    Lee, K G; Mitchell, A E; Shibamoto, T

    2000-10-01

    Aroma extracts from fresh soybeans, mung beans, kidney beans, and azuki beans were prepared using simultaneous steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDE) under mild conditions (55 degrees C and 95 mmHg). Extracts were examined for antioxidative activities in two different assays. The aroma extracts isolated from all beans inhibited the oxidation of hexanal for nearly one month at a level of 250 microL/mL. Mung bean and soybean extracts inhibited malonaldehyde (MA) formation from cod-liver oil by 86% and 88%, respectively, at the 250 microL/mL level. Azuki and kidney bean extracts inhibited MA formation from cod-liver oil by 76% and 53%, respectively, at the 250 microL/mL level. The antioxidative activities of mung bean and soybean extracts were comparable with that of the natural antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). PMID:11052738

  15. Altered growth and polyamine catabolism following exposure of the chocolate spot pathogen Botrytis fabae to the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Oxenham, Senga K; Svoboda, Katja P; Walters, Dale R

    2005-01-01

    Biomass of the fungal pathogen Botrytis fabae in liquid culture amended with two chemotypes of the essential oil of basil, Ocimum basilicum, was reduced significantly at concentrations of 50 ppm or less. The methyl chavicol chemotype oil increased the activity of the polyamine biosynthetic enzyme S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC), but polyamine concentrations were not significantly altered. In contrast, the linalol chemotype oil decreased AdoMetDC activity in B. fabae, although again polyamine concentrations were not altered significantly. However activities of the polyamine catabolic enzymes diamine oxidase (DAO) and polyamine oxidase (PAO) were increased significantly in B. fabae grown in the presence of the essential oil of the two chemotypes. It is suggested that the elevated activities of DAO and PAO may be responsible, in part, for the antifungal effects of the basil oil, possibly via the generation of hydrogen peroxide and the subsequent triggering of programmed cell death. PMID:16392245

  16. Molecular characterization of the first commercial transgenic common bean immune to the Bean golden mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Aragão, Francisco J L; Nogueira, Elsa O P L; Tinoco, Maria Laine P; Faria, Josias C

    2013-06-20

    Golden mosaic of common bean is caused by the Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV). The disease is one of the greatest constraints on bean production in Latin America and causes significant yield losses. The RNAi concept was explored to silence the rep (AC1) viral gene and a transgenic bean line immune to BGMV upon inoculation at high pressure was previously generated. Identification of the transgene insert confirmed the presence of a single locus corresponding to two intact copies of the RNAi cassette in opposite orientation and three intact copies of the AtAhas gene. It is flanked by Phaseolus genomic sequences and interspersed by one nuclear and three chloroplastic genomic sequences. Southern analyses showed that the transgenes were structurally stable for eight self-pollinated generations and after backcrosses with a non transgenic commercial variety. Transgene expression analyses revealed similar levels of siRNA in leaves of transgenic plants cultivated under field conditions in three distinct regions. siRNA were also analyzed during seed development in common bean transgenic plants. siRNA signals were also detected in seeds, albeit at significantly lower levels than those observed in leaves, and could not be detected in seeds cooked during 10 min. This information is relevant to demonstrate that GM beans are free of siRNA signals after cooking and therefore suitable for human consumption. Additionally, characterization of the locus where the transgene was integrated in the common bean genome provides a valuable tool to trace this GM bean material in the field and in the market.

  17. Comparison of media used to evaluate Rhizobium leguminosarum bivar viciae for phosphate-solubilizing ability.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jia; Knight, J Diane; Leggett, Mary E

    2009-07-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum is well known for its ability to fix nitrogen (N). In addition, its capacity to solubilize phosphate (Ph) has been receiving attention in recent years. Our ultimate objective was to select a R. leguminosarum bv. viciae isolate with superior Ph-solubilizing ability. The first step was to identify a culture medium that is sensitive and effective in identifying the ability of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae isolates to solubilize Ph. Thirty isolates were evaluated for Ph solubilization in broth and on solid formulations of three media: yeast mannitol extract (YEM), National Botanical Research Institute phosphate nutrient medium (MNBRI), and Pikovskaya phosphate medium (PVK). All media contained 5 g/L CaHPO4 as the only phosphorus (P) source. All 30 isolates increased the Ph concentration in liquid cultures, but the amount of Ph released into solution by individual isolates varied from one medium to another. In contrast, only a subset of the 30 isolates solubilized Ph on the solid cultures. Furthermore, some of the isolates that were able to solubilize Ph were only able to do so on a single medium. Regression analysis revealed no relationship between the Ph concentration in the liquid media and the zones of clearing on the solid media (p > 0.05). Although the pH of all of the liquid media dropped after 12 days of growth of the isolates, a relationship between Ph concentration and pH existed only for the MNBRI medium (r2 = 0.485, p < 0.001). Increasing the amount of N in the MNBRI medium from 0.1 g/L of (NH4)2SO4 to 0.5 g/L of (NH4)2SO4 did not affect the amount of Ph in solution, but it profoundly reduced the survival of the R. leguminosarum by approximately 50-fold. Consequently, the surviving bacteria were either more efficient at solubilizing Ph in the high N media or organic acids released from the lysis of the dead cells solubilized the CaHPO4 source. PMID:19767866

  18. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  19. Mung bean: technological and nutritional potential.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, P K; Linnemann, A R; Van Boekel, M A J S; Khetarpaul, N; Grewal, R B; Nout, M J R

    2015-01-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek) has been intensively researched; scattered data are available on various properties. Data on physical, chemical, food processing, and nutritional properties were collected for whole mung bean grains and reviewed to assess the crop's potential as food and to set research priorities. Results show that mung bean is a rich source of protein (14.6-33.0 g/100 g) and iron (5.9-7.6 mg/100 g). Grain color is correlated with compounds like polyphenols and carotenoids, while grain hardness is associated with fiber content. Physical properties like grain dimensions, sphericity, porosity, bulk, and true density are related to moisture content. Anti-nutrients are phytic acid, tannins, hemagglutinins, and polyphenols. Reported nutrient contents vary greatly, the causes of which are not well understood. Grain size and color have been associated with different regions and were used by plant breeders for selection purposes. Analytical methods require more accuracy and precision to distinguish biological variation from analytical variation. Research on nutrient digestibility, food processing properties, and bioavailability is needed. Furthermore, the effects of storage and processing on nutrients and food processing properties are required to enable optimization of processing steps, for better mung bean food quality and process efficiency.

  20. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  1. Synthesis of a jojoba bean disaccharide.

    PubMed

    Kornienko, A; Marnera, G; d'Alarcao, M

    1998-08-01

    A synthesis of the disaccharide recently isolated from jojoba beans, 2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-chiro-inositol, has been achieved. The suitably protected chiro-inositol unit was prepared by an enantiospecific synthesis from L-xylose utilizing SmI2-mediated pinacol coupling as a key step.

  2. Registration of ‘Alpena' navy bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Alpena’ navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI -), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2014 as an upright, midseason cultivar with uniform dry down and excellent canning quality. Alpena was developed using pedigree breeding method to the F3 generation ...

  3. Insecticide Efficacy and Timing for Control of Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Dry and Snap Beans.

    PubMed

    Goudis, L A; Trueman, C L; Baute, T S; Hallett, R H; Gillard, C L

    2016-02-01

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a recent pest of corn, dry,and snap beans, in the Great Lakes region, and best practices for its management in beans need to be established.Insecticide efficacy and application timing field studies, conducted in 2011–2013, determined that lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorantraniliprole were capable of reducing western bean cutworm feeding damage in dry beans from 2.3 to 0.4% in preharvest samples, and in snap beans from 4.8 to 0.1% of marketable pods, respectively. The best application timing in dry beans was determined to be 4–18 d after 50% egg hatch. No economic benefit was found when products were applied to dry beans, and despite high artificial inoculation rates, damage to marketable yield was relatively low. Thiamethoxam, methoxyfenozide, and spinetoram were also found to be effective at reducing western bean cutworm damage in dry bean to as low as 0.3% compared to an untreated control with 2.5% damaged pods. In snap beans, increased return on investment between CAD$400 and CAD$600 was seen with multiple applications of lambda-cyhalothrin, and with chlorantraniliprole applied 4 d after egg mass infestation.

  4. Accumulation of nickel ions in seedlings of Vicia sativa L. and manifestations of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ivanishchev, V V; Abramova, E A

    2015-05-01

    The accumulation of nickel ions in the roots and shoots of vetch seedlings (Vicia sativa L.) at increasing concentrations of nickel chloride in the medium was studied. It was shown that the accumulation of nickel in the shoots was increased when the concentration of nickel chloride in the medium was more than 50 μM. The bioconcentration factor and sustainability index for vetch seedlings were calculated under the experimental conditions. The obtained results were similar to parameters for other plants, grown on a nutrient medium or soil substrate. First, the obtained results allowed estimate the limits of nickel chloride concentrations for four of five zones, which correspond to the theoretical concept of dose-response curves in the studies on the influence of physiologically essential heavy metals on plants (Prasad 2010). Some parameters of oxidative stress caused by the presence of nickel chloride in the medium were shown. It seems that at low nickel concentrations in the medium in vetch seedlings the increase of several biochemical parameters (catalase activity and proline) caused by the high amylase activity in seeds.

  5. Identification of Novel O-Linked Glycosylated Toxoplasma Proteins by Vicia villosa Lectin Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kevin; Peng, Eric D; Huang, Amy S; Xia, Dong; Vermont, Sarah J; Lentini, Gaelle; Lebrun, Maryse; Wastling, Jonathan M; Bradley, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii maintains its intracellular life cycle using an extraordinary arsenal of parasite-specific organelles including the inner membrane complex (IMC), rhoptries, micronemes, and dense granules. While these unique compartments play critical roles in pathogenesis, many of their protein constituents have yet to be identified. We exploited the Vicia villosa lectin (VVL) to identify new glycosylated proteins that are present in these organelles. Purification of VVL-binding proteins by lectin affinity chromatography yielded a number of novel proteins that were subjected to further study, resulting in the identification of proteins from the dense granules, micronemes, rhoptries and IMC. We then chose to focus on three proteins identified by this approach, the SAG1 repeat containing protein SRS44, the rhoptry neck protein RON11 as well as a novel IMC protein we named IMC25. To assess function, we disrupted their genes by homologous recombination or CRISPR/Cas9. The knockouts were all successful, demonstrating that these proteins are not essential for invasion or intracellular survival. We also show that IMC25 undergoes substantial proteolytic processing that separates the C-terminal domain from the predicted glycosylation site. Together, we have demonstrated that lectin affinity chromatography is an efficient method of identifying new glycosylated parasite-specific proteins.

  6. Systemic granulomatous disease in Brazilian cattle grazing pasture containing vetch (Vicia spp).

    PubMed

    Fighera, Rafael A; Barros, Claudio S L

    2004-04-01

    Vetch associated disease (hairy vetch poisoning) was observed in 8 herds of dairy cows in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. In the pasture where 4 of these 8 herds were, Vicia villosa was the only vetch species represented, while cattle in the remaining 4 herds had access to both V villosa and V sativa but with large predominance of the former. Observed clinical signs included fever, dramatic drop in milk yield, thickening and wrinkling of the skin with multifocal plaques of alopecia, pruritus, conjunctivitis, nasal and ocular serous discharge, loss of weight and diarrhea. The mean morbidity in the 8 affected herds, representing 219 cattle, was 11.1% and the mortality was 100%. The duration of the clinical disease varied from 10 to 30 d. Gross lesions consisted of multifocal to coalescing grey-white soft to moderately firm nodules which infiltrated several organs, but were particularly prominent in lymph nodes, adrenal, renal cortex, spleen, liver, and myocardium. Microscopically the lesions consisted of extensive cellular infiltration composed of variable proportions of epithelioid macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and multinucleated giant cells; variable numbers of eosinophils were present in the inflammatory foci of several organs, but they were more prominent in the myocardium.

  7. Common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) germplasm: correlations of crude protein and mineral content to seed traits.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Aysen; Gücer, Seref; Acikgoz, Esvet

    2011-09-01

    In order to increase knowledge of seed nutritive value and to demonstrate its relationship in common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) germplasm, 388 common vetch accessions were grown under field conditions in 2008-2009 growing season in Bursa province of Turkey. Seeds were analyzed for seed minerals (Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, P, S, Zn and K) and crude protein (CP) content. The accessions were grouped according to testa and cotyledon color and seed size, and the results were evaluated by analysis of variance to determine relationships between minerals and CP content, testa and cotyledon colors, and seed weight. In general, there was no significant difference between testa colors or cotyledon colors in minerals and CP content. However, seed weight was closely associated with minerals and CP contents in this study. Analysis of variance and correlation analysis showed that seed weight was closely associated with some minerals and CP content. The small seeds had significantly higher Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, S, Zn and CP contents than medium and large seeds.

  8. Impact of TiO₂ nanoparticles on Vicia narbonensis L.: potential toxicity effects.

    PubMed

    Ruffini Castiglione, M; Giorgetti, L; Cremonini, R; Bottega, S; Spanò, C

    2014-11-01

    This work was aimed to provide further information about toxicology of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) on Vicia narbonensis L., considering different endpoints. After exposure to TiO2 nanoparticle suspension (mixture of rutile and anatase, size <100 nm) at four different concentrations (0.2, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 ‰), the seeds of V. narbonensis were let to germinate in controlled environmental conditions. After 72 h, the extent of the success of the whole process (seed germination plus root elongation) was recorded as the vigour index, an indicator of possible phytotoxicity. After the characterisation of the hydric state of different materials, oxidative stress and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant responses were considered as indicators of possible cytotoxicity and to assess if damage induced by TiO2 NPs was oxidative stress-dependent. Cytohistochemical detection of in situ DNA fragmentation as genotoxicity endpoint was monitored by TUNEL reaction. The treatments with TiO2 NPs in our system induced phytotoxic effects, ROS production and DNA fragmentation. The nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant responses were gradually and differentially activated and were able to maintain the oxidative damage to levels not significantly different from the control. On the other hand, the results of DNA fragmentation suggested that the mechanisms of DNA repair were not effective enough to eliminate early genotoxicity effects.

  9. Metabolic responses in root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia sativa exposed to the imazamox herbicide.

    PubMed

    García-Garijo, A; Tejera, N A; Lluch, C; Palma, F

    2014-05-01

    Alterations on growth, amino acids metabolism and some antioxidant enzyme activities as result of imazamox treatment were examined in determinate and indeterminate nodules, formed by Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia sativa, respectively. Young seedlings of both legumes were inoculated with their respective microsymbionts and grown under controlled conditions. At vegetative growth, plants were treated with imazamox (250μM) in the nutrient solution and harvested 7days after. Imazamox was mainly accumulated in V. sativa where concentrations were more than six fold higher than those detected in P. vulgaris. Nodule dry weight and total nitrogen content were reduced by the herbicide treatment: the highest decrease of nodule biomass (50%) and nitrogen content (40%) were registered in V. sativa and P. vulgaris, respectively. The concentration of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) did not change in neither determinate nor indeterminate nodules even though the acetohydroxyacid synthase activity decreased in root and nodules of both symbioses with the herbicide application. Based on this last result and taking into account that total free amino acids increased in roots but not in nodules of common vetch, a possible BCAA translocation from root to nodule could occur. Our results suggest that the maintenance of BCAA balance in nodule become a priority for the plant in such conditions. The involvement of activities glutathione-S-transferase, guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in the response of the symbioses to imazamox are also discussed.

  10. Microtubules are essential for guard-cell function in Vicia and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Eisinger, William; Ehrhardt, David; Briggs, Winslow

    2012-05-01

    Radially arranged cortical microtubules are a prominent feature of guard cells. Guard cells expressing GFP-tubulin showed consistent changes in the appearance of microtubules when stomata opened or closed. Guard cells showed fewer microtubule structures as stomata closed, whether induced by transfer to darkness, ABA, hydrogen peroxide, or sodium hydrogen carbonate. Guard cells kept in the dark (closed stomata) showed increases in microtubule structures and stomatal aperture on light treatment. GFP-EB1, marking microtubule growing plus ends, showed no change in number of plus ends or velocity of assembly on stomatal closure. Since the number of growing plus ends and the rate of plus-end growth did not change when microtubule structure numbers declined, microtubule instability and/or rearrangement must be responsible for the apparent loss of microtubules. Guard cells with closed stomata showed more cytosolic GFP-fluorescence than those with open stomata as cortical microtubules became disassembled, although with a large net loss in total fluorescence. Microtubule-targeted drugs blocked guard-cell function in Vicia and Arabidopsis. Oryzalin disrupted guard-cell microtubules and prevented stomatal opening and taxol stabilized guard-cell microtubules and delayed stomatal closure. Gas exchange measurements indicated that the transgenes for fluorescent-labeled proteins did not disrupt normal stomatal function. These dynamic changes in guard-cell microtubules combined with our inhibitor studies provide evidence for an active role of microtubules in guard-cell function.

  11. Phytoremediation of phenol using Vicia sativa L. plants and its antioxidative response.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Sabrina G; Sosa Alderete, Lucas G; Medina, María I; Agostini, Elizabeth

    2012-06-01

    Common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) is a legume species with an extensive agricultural use. However, the phytoremediation potentiality of this species has not been sufficiently explored because little is known about its resistance to inorganic and organic pollutants. In the present work, phenol tolerance of common vetch was assayed at different stages of growth. Germination index and germination rate decreased only at high phenol concentrations (250 and 500 mg L(-1)), whereas 30-day-old plants were able to tolerate this pollutant, with high removal efficiencies. The activities of antioxidative enzymes, such as peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase, increased significantly with the highest phenol concentration, whereas superoxide dismutase activity, malondialdehyde, and H(2)O(2) levels remained unaltered. Besides, an increase in two basic isoforms of POD was observed in plants treated with phenol. The results suggested that common vetch has an efficient protection mechanism against phenol-induced oxidative damage. Moreover, it could tolerate and remove high phenol concentrations, avoiding serious phytotoxic effects. Thus, V. sativa could be considered an interesting tool in the field of phytoremediation.

  12. The effect of diesel fuel on common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Adam, Gillian; Duncan, Harry

    2003-03-01

    When petroleum hydrocarbons contaminate soil, the carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio of the soil is altered. The added carbon stimulates microbial numbers but causes an imbalance in the C:N ratio which may result in immobilization of soil nitrogen by the microbial biomass, leaving none available for plant growth. As members of Leguminosae fix atmospheric nitrogen to produce their own nitrogen for growth, they may prove more successful at growing on petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites. During a wider study on phytoremediation of diesel fuel contaminated soil, particular attention was given to the performance of legumes versus other plant species. During harvesting of pot experiments containing leguminous plants, a recurring difference in the number and formation of root nodules present on control and contaminated Common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) plants was observed. The total number of nodules per plant was significant reduced in contaminated plants compared to control plants but nodules on contaminated plants were more developed than corresponding nodules on control plants. Plant performance of Common vetch and Westerwold's ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) was compared to illustrate any difference between the ability of legumes and grasses to grow on diesel fuel contaminated soil. Common vetch was less affected by diesel fuel and performed better in low levels of diesel fuel contaminated soil than Westerwold's ryegrass. The total amount of diesel fuel remaining after 4 months in Common vetch planted soil was slightly less than in Westerwold's ryegrass planted soil.

  13. Plant regeneration from protoplasts ofVicia narbonensis via somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tegeder, M; Kohn, H; Nibbe, M; Schieder, O; Pickardt, T

    1996-11-01

    Protoplasts ofVicia narbonensis isolated from epicotyls and shoot tips of etiolated seedlings were embedded in 1.4% sodium-alginate at a final density of 2.5×10(5) protoplasts/ml and cultivated in Kao and Michayluk-medium containing 0.5 mg/I of each of 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, naphthylacetic acid and 6 -benzylaminopurine. A division frequency of 36% and a plating efficiency of 0.40-0.5% were obtained. Six weeks after embedding, protoplast-derived calluses were transferred onto gelrite-solidified Murashige and Skoog-media containing various growth regulators. Regeneration of plants was achieved via two morphologically distinguishable pathways. A two step protocol (initially on medium with a high auxin concentration followed by a culture phase with lowered auxin amount) was used to regenerate somatic embryos, whereas cultivation on medium containing thidiazuron and naphthylacetic acid resulted in shoot morphogenesis. Mature plants were recovered from both somatic embryos as well as from thidiazuron-induced shoots.

  14. Identification of Novel O-Linked Glycosylated Toxoplasma Proteins by Vicia villosa Lectin Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kevin; Peng, Eric D; Huang, Amy S; Xia, Dong; Vermont, Sarah J; Lentini, Gaelle; Lebrun, Maryse; Wastling, Jonathan M; Bradley, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii maintains its intracellular life cycle using an extraordinary arsenal of parasite-specific organelles including the inner membrane complex (IMC), rhoptries, micronemes, and dense granules. While these unique compartments play critical roles in pathogenesis, many of their protein constituents have yet to be identified. We exploited the Vicia villosa lectin (VVL) to identify new glycosylated proteins that are present in these organelles. Purification of VVL-binding proteins by lectin affinity chromatography yielded a number of novel proteins that were subjected to further study, resulting in the identification of proteins from the dense granules, micronemes, rhoptries and IMC. We then chose to focus on three proteins identified by this approach, the SAG1 repeat containing protein SRS44, the rhoptry neck protein RON11 as well as a novel IMC protein we named IMC25. To assess function, we disrupted their genes by homologous recombination or CRISPR/Cas9. The knockouts were all successful, demonstrating that these proteins are not essential for invasion or intracellular survival. We also show that IMC25 undergoes substantial proteolytic processing that separates the C-terminal domain from the predicted glycosylation site. Together, we have demonstrated that lectin affinity chromatography is an efficient method of identifying new glycosylated parasite-specific proteins. PMID:26950937

  15. Identification of Novel O-Linked Glycosylated Toxoplasma Proteins by Vicia villosa Lectin Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kevin; Peng, Eric D.; Huang, Amy S.; Xia, Dong; Vermont, Sarah J.; Lentini, Gaelle; Lebrun, Maryse; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Bradley, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii maintains its intracellular life cycle using an extraordinary arsenal of parasite-specific organelles including the inner membrane complex (IMC), rhoptries, micronemes, and dense granules. While these unique compartments play critical roles in pathogenesis, many of their protein constituents have yet to be identified. We exploited the Vicia villosa lectin (VVL) to identify new glycosylated proteins that are present in these organelles. Purification of VVL-binding proteins by lectin affinity chromatography yielded a number of novel proteins that were subjected to further study, resulting in the identification of proteins from the dense granules, micronemes, rhoptries and IMC. We then chose to focus on three proteins identified by this approach, the SAG1 repeat containing protein SRS44, the rhoptry neck protein RON11 as well as a novel IMC protein we named IMC25. To assess function, we disrupted their genes by homologous recombination or CRISPR/Cas9. The knockouts were all successful, demonstrating that these proteins are not essential for invasion or intracellular survival. We also show that IMC25 undergoes substantial proteolytic processing that separates the C-terminal domain from the predicted glycosylation site. Together, we have demonstrated that lectin affinity chromatography is an efficient method of identifying new glycosylated parasite-specific proteins. PMID:26950937

  16. Volatile compounds as potential defective coffee beans' markers.

    PubMed

    Toci, Aline T; Farah, Adriana

    2008-06-01

    Although Brazil is the largest raw coffee producer and exporter in the world, a large amount of its Arabica coffee production is considered inappropriate for exportation. This by-product of coffee industry is called PVA due to the presence of black (P), green (V) and sour (A) defective beans, which are known to contribute considerably for cup quality decrease. Data on the volatile composition of Brazilian defective coffee beans are scarce. In this study, we evaluated the volatile composition of defective coffee beans (two lots) compared to good quality beans from the respective lots. Potential defective beans' markers were identified. In the raw samples, 2-methylpyrazine and 2-furylmethanol acetate were identified only in black-immature beans and butyrolactone only in sour beans, while benzaldehyde and 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine showed to be potential markers of defective beans in general. In the roasted PVA beans, pyrazine, 2,3-butanediol meso, 2-methyl-5-(1-propenyl)pyrazine, hexanoic acid, 4-ethyl-guayacol and isopropyl p-cresol sulfide also showed to be potential defective coffee beans' markers.

  17. Biofortified black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in a maize/bean diet provide more bioavailable iron to piglets than standard black beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard black beans to deliver iron (Fe) for hemoglobin synthesis. Two lines of black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), one standard (“Low”) and the other biofortified (“High”) in Fe (71 and 106 ug Fe/g, respectively) were used. Maize-bas...

  18. Chemometric dissimilarity in nutritive value of popularly consumed Nigerian brown and white common beans.

    PubMed

    Moyib, Oluwasayo Kehinde; Alashiri, Ganiyy Olasunkanmi; Adejoye, Oluseyi Damilola

    2015-01-01

    Brown beans are the preferred varieties over the white beans in Nigeria due to their assumed richer nutrients. This study was aimed at assessing and characterising some popular Nigerian common beans for their nutritive value based on seed coat colour. Three varieties, each, of Nigerian brown and white beans, and one, each, of French bean and soybean were analysed for 19 nutrients. Z-statistics test showed that Nigerian beans are nutritionally analogous to French bean and soybean. Analysis of variance showed that seed coat colour varied with proximate nutrients, Ca, Fe, and Vit C. Chemometric analysis methods revealed superior beans for macro and micro nutrients and presented clearer groupings among the beans for seed coat colour. The study estimated a moderate genetic distance (GD) that will facilitate transfer of useful genes and intercrossing among the beans. It also offers an opportunity to integrate French bean and soybean into genetic improvement programs in Nigerian common beans.

  19. Bean Common Mosaic Virus and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus: Relationships, Biology, and Prospects for Control.

    PubMed

    Worrall, Elizabeth A; Wamonje, Francis O; Mukeshimana, Gerardine; Harvey, Jagger J W; Carr, John P; Mitter, Neena

    2015-01-01

    The closely related potyviruses Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are major constraints on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production. Crop losses caused by BCMV and BCMNV impact severely not only on commercial scale cultivation of this high-value crop but also on production by smallholder farmers in the developing world, where bean serves as a key source of dietary protein and mineral nutrition. In many parts of the world, progress has been made in combating BCMV through breeding bean varieties possessing the I gene, a dominant gene conferring resistance to most BCMV strains. However, in Africa, and in particular in Central and East Africa, BCMNV is endemic and this presents a serious problem for deployment of the I gene because this virus triggers systemic necrosis (black root disease) in plants possessing this resistance gene. Information on these two important viruses is scattered throughout the literature from 1917 onward, and although reviews on resistance to BCMV and BCMNV exist, there is currently no comprehensive review on the biology and taxonomy of BCMV and BCMNV. In this chapter, we discuss the current state of our knowledge of these two potyviruses including fundamental aspects of classification and phylogeny, molecular biology, host interactions, transmission through seed and by aphid vectors, geographic distribution, as well as current and future prospects for the control of these important viruses.

  20. Bean Common Mosaic Virus and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus: Relationships, Biology, and Prospects for Control.

    PubMed

    Worrall, Elizabeth A; Wamonje, Francis O; Mukeshimana, Gerardine; Harvey, Jagger J W; Carr, John P; Mitter, Neena

    2015-01-01

    The closely related potyviruses Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are major constraints on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production. Crop losses caused by BCMV and BCMNV impact severely not only on commercial scale cultivation of this high-value crop but also on production by smallholder farmers in the developing world, where bean serves as a key source of dietary protein and mineral nutrition. In many parts of the world, progress has been made in combating BCMV through breeding bean varieties possessing the I gene, a dominant gene conferring resistance to most BCMV strains. However, in Africa, and in particular in Central and East Africa, BCMNV is endemic and this presents a serious problem for deployment of the I gene because this virus triggers systemic necrosis (black root disease) in plants possessing this resistance gene. Information on these two important viruses is scattered throughout the literature from 1917 onward, and although reviews on resistance to BCMV and BCMNV exist, there is currently no comprehensive review on the biology and taxonomy of BCMV and BCMNV. In this chapter, we discuss the current state of our knowledge of these two potyviruses including fundamental aspects of classification and phylogeny, molecular biology, host interactions, transmission through seed and by aphid vectors, geographic distribution, as well as current and future prospects for the control of these important viruses. PMID:26111585