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Sample records for fabaceae caesalpinioideae structural

  1. The Floral Nectary of Hymenaea stigonocarpa (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae): Structural Aspects During Floral Development

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Elder Antonio Sousa; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Considering that few studies on nectary anatomy and ultrastructure are available for chiropterophilous flowers and the importance of Hymenaea stigonocarpa in natural ‘cerrado’ communities, the present study sought to analyse the structure and cellular modifications that take place within its nectaries during the different stages of floral development, with special emphasis on plastid dynamics. Methods For the structural and ultrastructural studies the nectary was processed as per usual techniques and studied under light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Histochemical tests were employed to identify the main metabolites on nectary tissue and secretion samples. Key Results The floral nectary consists of the inner epidermis of the hypanthium and vascularized parenchyma. Some evidence indicates that the nectar release occurs via the stomata. The high populations of mitochondria, and their juxtaposition with amyloplasts, seem to be related to energy needs for starch hydrolysis. Among the alterations observed during the secretory phase, the reduction in the plastid stromatic density and starch grain size are highlighted. When the secretory stage begins, the plastid envelope disappears and a new membrane is formed, enclosing this region and giving rise to new vacuoles. After the secretory stage, cellular structures named ‘extrastomatic bodies’ were observed and seem to be related to the nectar resorption. Conclusions Starch hydrolysis contributes to nectar formation, in addition to the photosynthates derived directly from the phloem. In these nectaries, the secretion is an energy-requiring process. During the secretion stage, some plastids show starch grain hydrolysis and membrane rupture, and it was observed that the region previously occupied by this organelle continued to be reasonably well defined, and gave rise to new vacuoles. The extrastomatic bodies appear to be related to the resorption of uncollected nectar. PMID

  2. Microsatellite development for the genus Guibourtia (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae) reveals diploid and polyploid species1

    PubMed Central

    Tosso, Felicien; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Kaymak, Esra; Daïnou, Kasso; Duminil, Jérôme; Hardy, Olivier J.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Nuclear microsatellites (nSSRs) were designed for Guibourtia tessmannii (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae), a highly exploited African timber tree, to study population genetic structure and gene flow. Methods and Results: We developed 16 polymorphic nSSRs from a genomic library tested in three populations of G. tessmannii and two populations of G. coleosperma. These nSSRs display three to 14 alleles per locus (mean 8.94) in G. tessmannii. Cross-amplification tests in nine congeneric species demonstrated that the genus Guibourtia contains diploid and polyploid species. Flow cytometry results combined with nSSR profiles suggest that G. tessmannii is octoploid. Conclusions: nSSRs revealed that African Guibourtia species include both diploid and polyploid species. These markers will provide information on the mating system, patterns of gene flow, and genetic structure of African Guibourtia species. PMID:27437170

  3. Role of the lens in controlling physical dormancy break and germination of Delonix regia (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae).

    PubMed

    Jaganathan, G K; Wu, G-R; Han, Y-Y; Liu, B L

    2017-01-01

    Physical dormancy occurs in all three subfamilies of Fabaceae, namely Mimosoideae, Papilionoideae and Caesalpinioideae, making it one of the largest plant families in terms of number of species with physical dormancy. However, little is known about the water gap structure and germination ecology of species in Caesalpinioideae. Freshly collected seeds of Delonix regia (Caesalpinioideae) did not imbibe water, thus they had physical dormancy. Both dry heat and wet heat were effective in breaking dormancy, however, longer duration was required at 80 °C and shorter duration at 90 °C. Seeds buried in the field for 2 years germinated to 21% and 42% after the first and second summer, respectively, compared with 3% germination in seeds at the time of maturity. Seeds incubated at 15/60 °C in the laboratory (mimicking summer conditions) for 3 months supported this conclusion, as dormancy was relieved in 18% and 24% of seeds stored dry and watered intermediately, respectively. All the dormancy breaking treatments resulted in lifting of palisade layers in the lens region to form a circular lid-like opening, i.e. water gap (Type II simple). Blocking experiments confirmed that water entered only through the lens and no secondary water entry point was observed. No apparent changes in morphology/anatomy of the hilum region were noted in dormant and non-dormant (water permeable) seeds. These results suggest that summer temperatures could open the lens in a proportion of seeds every year and that germination occurs during the subsequent wet season in the tropics.

  4. Microsatellite markers for Senna spectabilis var. excelsa (Caesalpinioideae, Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    López-Roberts, M. Cristina; Barbosa, Ariane R.; Paganucci de Queiroz, Luciano; van den Berg, Cássio

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Senna spectabilis var. excelsa (Fabaceae) is a South and Central American tree of great ecological importance and one of the most common species in several sites of seasonally dry forests. Our goal was to develop microsatellite markers to assess the genetic diversity and structure of this species. Methods and Results: We designed and assessed 53 loci obtained from a microsatellite-enriched library and an intersimple sequence repeat library. Fourteen loci were polymorphic, and they presented a total of 39 alleles in a sample of 61 individuals from six populations. The mean values of observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.355 and 0.479, respectively. Polymorphism information content was 0.390 and the Shannon index was 0.778. Conclusions: Polymorphism information content and Shannon index indicate that at least nine of the 14 microsatellite loci developed are moderate to highly informative, and potentially useful for population genetic studies in this species. PMID:26819856

  5. Phylogeography of the Tree Hymenaea stigonocarpa (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae) and the Influence of Quaternary Climate Changes in the Brazilian Cerrado

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Ana Carolina Simões; Lemos-Filho, José Pires; Ribeiro, Renata Acácio; Santos, Fabrício Rodrigues; Lovato, Maria Bernadete

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Hymenaea stigonocarpa (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae) is an endemic tree from the Brazilian cerrado (savanna vegetation), a biome classified as a hotspot for conservation priority. This study investigates the phylogeographic structure of H. stigonocarpa, in order to understand the processes that have led to its current spatial genetic pattern. Methods The polymorphism level and spatial distribution of variants of the plastid non-coding region between the genes psbC and trnS were investigated in 175 individuals from 17 populations, covering the greater part of the total distribution of the species. Molecular diversity indices were calculated and intra-specific relationships were inferred by the construction of haplotype networks using the median-joining method. Genetic differentiation among populations and main geographical groups was evaluated using spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA). Key Results Twenty-three different haplotypes were identified. The level of differentiation among the populations analysed was relatively high (FST = 0·692). Phylogeographic analyses showed a clear association between the haplotype network and geographic distribution of populations, revealing three main geographical groups: western, central and eastern. SAMOVA corroborated this finding, indicating that most of the variation can be attributed to differences among these three groups (58·8 %), with little difference among populations within groups (FSC = 0·252). Conclusions The subdivision of the geographic distribution of H. stigonocarpa populations into three genetically differentiated groups can be associated with Quaternary climatic changes. The data suggest that during glacial times H. stigonocarpa populations became extinct in most parts of the southern present-day cerrado area. Milder climatic conditions in the north and eastern portions of the cerrado resulted in maintenance of populations in these regions. Thus it is inferred that the most

  6. Diverse genotypes of Bradyrhizobium nodulate herbaceous Chamaecrista (Moench) (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae) species in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, José Miguel Ferreira Dos; Casaes Alves, Patricia Alves; Silva, Verônica Cordeiro; Kruschewsky Rhem, Mariana Ferreira; James, Euan K; Gross, Eduardo

    2017-03-01

    The genus Chamaecrista comprises more than 330 species which are mainly distributed across tropical America, especially in Brazil (256 spp.), the main center of radiation. In this study, nodulation of herbaceous Chamaecrista species that are commonly found growing in different vegetation types in the north eastern Brazilian state of Bahia was assessed together with the diversity of rhizobia isolated from their root nodules. Genetic characterization of the isolates was performed using molecular markers to examine the phylogeny of their "core" (16S rRNA, ITS, recA, glnII, dnaK and gyrB) and symbiosis-related (nifH, nodC) genomes. Nodule morphology, anatomy and ultrastructure were also examined, as was the capacity of the isolates to form nodules on Chamaecrista desvauxii and siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that the isolates belonged to seven clusters within the genus Bradyrhizobium, and more detailed analyses using sequences of the ITS region and concatenated housekeeping genes grouped the Chamaecrista rhizobia by vegetation type and plant species. These analyses also suggested some potentially novel Bradyrhizobium species, which was corroborated by analyses of their nifH and nodC sequences, as these formed separated branches from all Bradyrhizobium type strains. All the 47 strains tested produced effective nodules on C. desvauxii but none on siratro. Chamaecrista nodules are herein described for the first time in detail: they are indeterminate and structurally similar to others described in the Caesalpinioideae, with infection threads in the invasion and nitrogen fixation zones, and with both infected and uninfected (interstitial) cells in the nitrogen fixation zone.

  7. Large-scale phylogeography of the disjunct Neotropical tree species Schizolobium parahyba (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae).

    PubMed

    Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia C; Cruz, Fernanda; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Simon, Marcelo F; Salgueiro, Fabiano; Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia; Margis, Rogerio

    2012-10-01

    Neotropical rainforests exhibit high levels of endemism and diversity. Although the evolutionary genetics of plant diversification has garnered increased interest, phylogeographic studies of widely distributed species remain scarce. Here we describe chloroplast and nuclear variation patterns in Schizolobium parahyba (Fabaceae), a widespread tree in Neotropical rainforests that harbor two varieties with a disjunct distribution. Chloroplast and nuclear sequence analyses yielded 21 and 4 haplotypes, respectively. Two genetic diversity centers that correlate with the two known varieties were identified: the Southeastern Atlantic forest and the Amazonian basin. In contrast, the populations from southern and northeastern Atlantic forests and Andean-Central American forests exhibited low levels of genetic diversity and divergent haplotypes, likely related to historical processes that impact the flora and fauna in these regions, such as a founder's effect after dispersion and demographic expansion. Phylogeographic and demographic patterns suggest that episodes of genetic isolation and dispersal events have shaped the evolutionary history for this species, and different patterns have guided the evolution of S. parahyba. Moreover, the results of this study suggest that the dry corridor formed by Cerrado and Caatinga ecoregions and the Andean uplift acted as barriers to this species' gene flow, a picture that may be generalized to most of the plant biodiversity tropical woodlands and forests. These results also reinforce the importance of evaluating multiple genetic markers for a more comprehensive understanding of population structure and history. Our results provide insight into the conservation efforts and ongoing work on the genetics of population divergence and speciation in these Neotropical rainforests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Physiological epicotyl dormancy and recalcitrant storage behaviour in seeds of two tropical Fabaceae (subfamily Caesalpinioideae) species.

    PubMed

    Jayasuriya, K M G Gehan; Wijetunga, Asanga S T B; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C

    2012-01-01

    Physiological epicotyl dormancy in which the epicotyl elongates inside the seed before the shoot emerges has been reported for only a few tropical rainforest species, all of which are trees that produce recalcitrant seeds. In studies on seeds of Fabaceae in Sri Lanka, we observed a considerable time delay in shoot emergence following root emergence in seeds of the introduced caesalpinioid legumes Brownea coccinea and Cynometra cauliflora. Thus, our aim was to determine if seeds of these two tropical rainforest trees have physiological epicotyl dormancy, and also if they are recalcitrant, i.e. desiccation sensitive. Fresh seeds were (i) dried to various moisture levels, and (ii) stored at -1 and 5 °C to determine loss (or not) of viability and thus type of seed storage behaviour (orthodox, recalcitrant or intermediate). To identify the kind of dormancy, we tested the effect of scarification on imbibition and monitored radicle emergence and epicotyl growth (inside the seed) and emergence. FRESH SEEDS OF BOTH SPECIES HAD HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT (MC): 50 % for C. cauliflora and 30 % for B. coccinea. Further, all seeds of C. cauliflora and the majority of those of B. coccinea lost viability when dried to 15 % MC; most seeds of both species also lost viability during storage at -1 or 5 °C. Intact seeds of both species were water permeable, and radicles emerged in a high percentage of them in <30 days. However, shoot emergence lagged behind root emergence by 77 ± 14 days in B. coccinea and by 38 ± 4 days in C. cauliflora. Further, plumule growth inside seeds of C. cauliflora began almost immediately after radicle emergence but not until ∼30-35 days in B. coccinea seeds. Seeds of both species are recalcitrant and have physiological epicotyl dormancy. The kind of physiological epicotyl dormancy in seeds of C. cauliflora has not been described previously; the formula is C(nd) (root)-[Formula: see text] (epicotyl).

  9. Physiological epicotyl dormancy and recalcitrant storage behaviour in seeds of two tropical Fabaceae (subfamily Caesalpinioideae) species

    PubMed Central

    Jayasuriya, K. M. G. Gehan; Wijetunga, Asanga S. T. B.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Baskin, Carol C.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Physiological epicotyl dormancy in which the epicotyl elongates inside the seed before the shoot emerges has been reported for only a few tropical rainforest species, all of which are trees that produce recalcitrant seeds. In studies on seeds of Fabaceae in Sri Lanka, we observed a considerable time delay in shoot emergence following root emergence in seeds of the introduced caesalpinioid legumes Brownea coccinea and Cynometra cauliflora. Thus, our aim was to determine if seeds of these two tropical rainforest trees have physiological epicotyl dormancy, and also if they are recalcitrant, i.e. desiccation sensitive. Methodology Fresh seeds were (i) dried to various moisture levels, and (ii) stored at −1 and 5 °C to determine loss (or not) of viability and thus type of seed storage behaviour (orthodox, recalcitrant or intermediate). To identify the kind of dormancy, we tested the effect of scarification on imbibition and monitored radicle emergence and epicotyl growth (inside the seed) and emergence. Principal results Fresh seeds of both species had high moisture content (MC): 50 % for C. cauliflora and 30 % for B. coccinea. Further, all seeds of C. cauliflora and the majority of those of B. coccinea lost viability when dried to 15 % MC; most seeds of both species also lost viability during storage at −1 or 5 °C. Intact seeds of both species were water permeable, and radicles emerged in a high percentage of them in <30 days. However, shoot emergence lagged behind root emergence by 77 ± 14 days in B. coccinea and by 38 ± 4 days in C. cauliflora. Further, plumule growth inside seeds of C. cauliflora began almost immediately after radicle emergence but not until ∼30–35 days in B. coccinea seeds. Conclusions Seeds of both species are recalcitrant and have physiological epicotyl dormancy. The kind of physiological epicotyl dormancy in seeds of C. cauliflora has not been described previously; the formula is Cnd (root)− (epicotyl). PMID

  10. Intercellular pectic protuberances in Hymenaea stigonocarpa (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae): occurrence and functional aspects.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Elder Antônio Sousa; Machado, Sílvia Rodrigues

    2008-04-01

    A study of the anatomy and ultrastructural aspects of leaf mesophyll and floral nectaries of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne revealed the presence of intercellular pectic protuberances (IPPs) linking adjacent cells in both the leaf palisade cells and the secretory parenchyma of the floral nectary. Samples of the middle third of the leaf blade and of floral nectaries in anthesis were collected, fixed, and processed using standard procedures for light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopies. The IPPs of palisade cells of the mesophyll and the secretory parenchyma cells of the floral nectary take the form of scalae or strands, respectively. No evidence of the specific synthesis of these structures was observed, and they are apparently formed by the separation of adjacent cells due to cell expansion, when intercellular spaces develop. The IPPs observed in H. stigonocarpa increase cellular contact and probably act in apoplastic transport.

  11. Functional heterostyly in Tylosema esculentum (Caesalpinioideae).

    PubMed

    Hartley, Mary Luisa; Tshamekeng, Ernest; Thomas, Sandy M

    2002-01-01

    Tylosema esculentum is a long-lived perennial species endemic to arid areas of southern Africa. Its potential as a crop species has long been recognized as a result of the high oil and protein content of its seeds. The reproductive biology and breeding systems of the species were investigated in wild and experimental populations growing in Botswana. Field observations confirmed that the species is heterostylous with the pistil and anthers exhibiting reciprocal heights in the two morphs, although pollen size and sculpturing do not vary. The wet, nonpapillate stigma characteristic of the species is the first to be reported in the Caesalpinioideae. In vivo and in vitro diallel crossing experiments demonstrated that a diallelic self-incompatability system exists in T. esculentum. The major site of pollen tube inhibition in the intramorph crosses was found to be in the style. This is the first report of functional heterostyly in the Fabaceae and of a confirmed self-incompatibility system in the Caesalpinioideae. Three separate lines of evidence, the monitoring of fruit development in open-pollinated plants, fruit set in diallel crossing experiments, and observations made in wild populations, demonstrated that fruit set and, by implication, seed set, are very low in this species. Floral abscission was a major limitation to the production of mature pods but there were also significant losses at other developmental stages of fruit production. The results suggest that low seed set may be an adaptation of the species to an environment in which rainfall is scarce.

  12. Functional Heterostyly in Tylosema esculentum (Caesalpinioideae)

    PubMed Central

    HARTLEY, MARY LUISA; TSHAMEKENG, ERNEST; THOMAS, SANDY M.

    2002-01-01

    Tylosema esculentum is a long‐lived perennial species endemic to arid areas of southern Africa. Its potential as a crop species has long been recognized as a result of the high oil and protein content of its seeds. The reproductive biology and breeding systems of the species were investigated in wild and experimental populations growing in Botswana. Field observations confirmed that the species is heterostylous with the pistil and anthers exhibiting reciprocal heights in the two morphs, although pollen size and sculpturing do not vary. The wet, non‐papillate stigma characteristic of the species is the first to be reported in the Caesalpinioideae. In vivo and in vitro diallel crossing experiments demonstrated that a diallelic self‐incompatability system exists in T. esculentum. The major site of pollen tube inhibition in the intramorph crosses was found to be in the style. This is the first report of functional heterostyly in the Fabaceae and of a confirmed self‐incompatibility system in the Caesalpinioideae. Three separate lines of evidence, the monitoring of fruit development in open‐pollinated plants, fruit set in diallel crossing experiments, and observations made in wild populations, demonstrated that fruit set and, by implication, seed set, are very low in this species. Floral abscission was a major limitation to the production of mature pods but there were also significant losses at other developmental stages of fruit production. The results suggest that low seed set may be an adaptation of the species to an environment in which rainfall is scarce. PMID:12096820

  13. Enantiostylous types of Cassiinae species (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae).

    PubMed

    Almeida, N M; Cotarelli, V M; Souza, D P; Novo, R R; Siqueira Filho, J A; Oliveira, P E; Castro, C C

    2015-05-01

    Species of the subtribe Cassiinae present a wide diversity of floral types. Until recently it was considered that this diversity did not extend to their reproductive mechanisms. However, studies have recorded some variations in the enantiostylous pattern in this plant group. This study aims to investigate the morphological and functional variations of enantiostyly in species of the subtribe Cassiinae. Additionally, it proposes the recognition of enantiostylous types (ET) based on pollen deposition and capture mode. Morphological data were collected in fresh and fixed (alcohol 70%) buds and flowers, and also using photos and rehydrated material from herbarium sheets, for a total of 59 species. The parameters used to establish the ETs were pollination type, nature of pollen deposition on the pollinator body, deposition type, number of petals involved in pollen deposition, and pollen pathway. Morpho-functional features allowed the recognition of seven enantiostylous types (Flexuosa, Cana, Macranthera, Martiana, Amiciella, Repens and Ramosa) that present several levels of complexity. The type Ramosa was the most common and the Cana type was the least common. The types Repens, Martiana and Flexuosa do not have reciprocal pollen deposition, thus species with these types may be considered atypical. The groups resulting from similarity analysis partially coincide with the clades proposed in phylogenetic studies of Cassiinae. The recognition of functional ETs is important for understanding the evolution of reproductive strategies of Cassiinae species, and indicates an interesting line of investigation of enantiostyly in other plant groups. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Population history and gene dispersal inferred from spatial genetic structure of a Central African timber tree, Distemonanthus benthamianus (Caesalpinioideae)

    PubMed Central

    Debout, G D G; Doucet, J-L; Hardy, O J

    2011-01-01

    African rainforests have undergone major distribution range shifts during the Quaternary, but few studies have investigated their impact on the genetic diversity of plant species and we lack knowledge on the extent of gene flow to predict how plant species can cope with such environmental changes. Analysis of the spatial genetic structure (SGS) of a species is an effective method to determine major directions of the demographic history of its populations and to estimate the extent of gene dispersal. This study characterises the SGS of an African tropical timber tree species, Distemonanthus benthamianus, at various spatial scales in Cameroon and Gabon. Displaying a large continuous distribution in the Lower Guinea domain, this is a model species to detect signs of past population fragmentation and recolonization, and to estimate the extent of gene dispersal. Ten microsatellite loci were used to genotype 295 adult trees sampled from eight populations. Three clearly differentiated gene pools were resolved at this regional scale and could be linked to the biogeographical history of the region, rather than to physical barriers to gene flow. A comparison with the distribution of gene pools observed for two other tree species living in the same region invalidates the basic assumption that all species share the same Quaternary refuges and recolonization pathways. In four populations, significant and similar patterns of SGS were detected. Indirect estimates of gene dispersal distances (sigma) obtained for three populations ranged from 400 to 1200 m, whereas neighbourhood size estimates ranged from 50 to 110. PMID:20389306

  15. Population Genetic Structure of Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) Is Shaped by Habitat Fragmentation, Water Resources and Biological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lulu; Chen, Jianjun; Hu, Weiming; Yang, Tianshun; Zhang, Yanjun; Yukiyoshi, Tamura; Zhou, Yanyang; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background Habitat fragmentation, water resources and biological characteristics are important factors that shape the genetic structure and geographical distribution of desert plants. Analysis of the relationships between these factors and population genetic variation should help to determine the evolutionary potential and conservation strategies for genetic resources for desert plant populations. As a traditional Chinese herb, Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) is restricted to the fragmented desert habitat in China and has undergone a dramatic decline due to long-term over-excavation. Determining the genetic structure of the G. inflata population and identifying a core collection could help with the development of strategies to conserve this species. Results We investigated the genetic variation of 25 G. inflata populations based on microsatellite markers. A high level of population genetic divergence (FST = 0.257), population bottlenecks, reduced gene flow and moderate genetic variation (HE = 0.383) were detected. The genetic distances between the populations significantly correlated with the geographical distances, and this suggests that habitat fragmentation has driven a special genetic structure of G. inflata in China through isolation by distance. STRUCTURE analysis showed that G. inflata populations were structured into three clusters and that the populations belonged to multiple water systems, which suggests that water resources were related to the genetic structure of G. inflata. In addition, the biological characteristics of the perennial species G. inflata, such as its long-lived seeds, asexual reproduction, and oasis ecology, may be related to its resistance to habitat fragmentation. A core collection of G. inflata, that included 57 accessions was further identified, which captured the main allelic diversity of G. inflata. Conclusions Recent habitat fragmentation has accelerated genetic divergence. The population genetic structure of G. inflata has been

  16. Population Genetic Structure of Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) Is Shaped by Habitat Fragmentation, Water Resources and Biological Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lulu; Chen, Jianjun; Hu, Weiming; Yang, Tianshun; Zhang, Yanjun; Yukiyoshi, Tamura; Zhou, Yanyang; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation, water resources and biological characteristics are important factors that shape the genetic structure and geographical distribution of desert plants. Analysis of the relationships between these factors and population genetic variation should help to determine the evolutionary potential and conservation strategies for genetic resources for desert plant populations. As a traditional Chinese herb, Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) is restricted to the fragmented desert habitat in China and has undergone a dramatic decline due to long-term over-excavation. Determining the genetic structure of the G. inflata population and identifying a core collection could help with the development of strategies to conserve this species. We investigated the genetic variation of 25 G. inflata populations based on microsatellite markers. A high level of population genetic divergence (FST = 0.257), population bottlenecks, reduced gene flow and moderate genetic variation (HE = 0.383) were detected. The genetic distances between the populations significantly correlated with the geographical distances, and this suggests that habitat fragmentation has driven a special genetic structure of G. inflata in China through isolation by distance. STRUCTURE analysis showed that G. inflata populations were structured into three clusters and that the populations belonged to multiple water systems, which suggests that water resources were related to the genetic structure of G. inflata. In addition, the biological characteristics of the perennial species G. inflata, such as its long-lived seeds, asexual reproduction, and oasis ecology, may be related to its resistance to habitat fragmentation. A core collection of G. inflata, that included 57 accessions was further identified, which captured the main allelic diversity of G. inflata. Recent habitat fragmentation has accelerated genetic divergence. The population genetic structure of G. inflata has been shaped by habitat

  17. Structure of Pollen Apertures in the Detarieae sensu stricto (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae), with Particular Reference to Underlying Structures (Zwischenkörper)

    PubMed Central

    BANKS, HANNAH

    2003-01-01

    This study presents the pollen aperture morphology of 148 out of approx. 200 species in 16 genera of the Detarieae s.s. and 13 related genera, investigated with light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, using various staining techniques. Features of detarioid legume pollen apertures are described, illustrated and discussed in relation to function and phylogeny. Protruding apertures in the mature pollen grains of taxa in the Detarieae s.s are associated with underlying structures composed of pectic substances called ‘Zwischenkörper’. This is the first report of Zwischenkörper in legume pollen. A review of previous literature on Zwischenkörper, evidence of how they differ from onci, and a discussion of developmental origins, terminology and function, is given. Zwischenkörper occur in pollen of Daniellia, Eurypetalum, Eperua, Augouardia, Stemonocoleus, Baikiaea, Copaifera, Pseudosindora, Detarium, Sindora, Sindoropsis, Tessmannia, Gilletiodendron, Hylodendron, Hymenaea, Peltogyne and Guibourtia of the Detarieae s.s. clade of recent molecular analyses. Exinous projections and/or bridges are present over the centre of apertures in the pollen of Sindora, Copaifera, Detarium, Pseudosindora, Hylodendron and Sindoropsis, and may cover the Zwischenkörper of live pollen. Zwischenkörper also occur in the closely related genus Barnebydendron, the sister genus to the Detarieae s.l. clade Goniorrhachis, and also Cercis of the sister clade to the Detarieae s.l. plus Goniorrhachis. A modified form of Zwischenkörper occurs in the pollen of Schotia. Zwischenkörper were not detected in the genera Colophospermum, Prioria, Gossweilerodendron, Oxystigma, Kingiodendron and Hardwickia of the Prioria clade, or in Endertia, Lysidice and Saraca of the Amherstieae clade. None of these taxa have protruding apertures. PMID:12881406

  18. Is induction ability of seed germination of Phelipanche ramosa phylogenetically structured among hosts? A case study on Fabaceae species.

    PubMed

    Perronne, Rémi; Gibot-Leclerc, Stéphanie; Dessaint, Fabrice; Reibel, Carole; Le Corre, Valérie

    2017-09-20

    Phelipanche ramosa is a major root-holoparasitic damaging weed characterized by a broad host range, including numerous Fabaceae species. In France, the agricultural threat posed by P. ramosa has increased over two decades due to the appearance of a genetically differentiated pathovar presenting a clear host specificity for oilseed rape. The new pathovar has led to a massive expansion of P. ramosa in oilseed rape fields. The germination rate of P. ramosa seeds is currently known to vary among P. ramosa pathovars and host species. However, only a few studies have investigated whether phylogenetic relatedness among potential host species is a predictor of the ability of these species to induce the seed germination of parasitic weeds by testing for phylogenetic signal. We focused on a set of 12 Fabaceae species and we assessed the rate of induction of seed germination by these species for two pathovars based on in vitro co-cultivation experiments. All Fabaceae species tested induced the germination of P. ramosa seeds. The germination rate of P. ramosa seeds varied between Fabaceae species and tribes studied, while pathovars appeared non-influential. Considering oilseed rape as a reference species, we also highlighted a significant phylogenetic signal. Phylogenetically related species therefore showed more similar rates of induction of seed germination than species drawn at random from a phylogenetic tree. In in vitro conditions, only Lotus corniculatus induced a significantly higher germination rate than oilseed rape, and could potentially be used as a catch crop after confirmation of these results under field conditions.

  19. Effect of clonal reproduction on genetic structure in Pentaclethra macroloba (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae).

    PubMed

    Gaddis, Keith D; Zukin, Helen L; Dieterich, Inca A; Braker, Elizabeth; Sork, Victoria L

    2014-06-01

    The existence of monodominant forests on well-drained soils in tropical regions has been widely reported. Such forests most likely result from a combination of both ecological and evolutionary factors. Under conditions of high seed and seedling mortality, vegetative reproduction could create a reproductive advantage leading to forest dominance, and profoundly affect the distribution of genetic variation in a clonal species. We investigated these effects in a low diversity forest site in Northeastern Costa Rica dominated by the species Pentaclethra macroloba, which sprouts from the root mass of fallen trees and from snapped trunks. We examined the population structure of juvenile P. macroloba growing in different soil types and across an elevational gradient. Using seven molecular markers, we genotyped 173 juvenile P. macroloba from 18 plots (six plots in seasonally inundated swamps, and 12 plots in upland non-swamp) spanning 50-300m in elevation at La Selva Biological Station and the adjacent Reserva Ecológica Bijagual in Northeastern Costa Rica. We answered two specific questions: (1) How extensive is clonal reproduction? and (2) what is the distribution of genetic diversity and structure? We found that clonal reproduction occurred exclusively within inundated swamp areas. However, there was no significant difference between genetic diversity measures in swamp and non-swamp plots, which were both generally low when compared with other tropical forest species. Genetic structure was significant across all plots (F(ST) = -0.109). However, genetic structure among swamp plots (F(ST) = 0.128) was higher than among non-swamp upland plots (F(ST) = 0.093). Additionally, spatial autocorrelation among individuals within non-swamp upland plots was significant from the 25 to 100m spatial scale, but not within swamp plots. The degree of overall genetic structure we found in P. macroloba is high for a tropical forest tree. The incidence of clonal reproduction is a contributing

  20. Population genetic structure of an endangered Utah endemic, Astragalus ampullarioides (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Breinholt, Jesse W; Van Buren, Renee; Kopp, Olga R; Stephen, Catherine L

    2009-03-01

    The endangered Shivwits milkvetch, Astragalus ampullarioides, is a perennial, herbaceous plant. This Utah endemic was federally listed as endangered in 2001 because of its high habitat specificity and low numbers of individuals and populations. All habitat currently occupied by A. ampullarioides was designated as critical by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 2006 as a result of conservation litigation. We used AFLP markers to assess genetic differentiation among the seven extant populations and quantified genetic diversity in each. Six different AFLP markers resulted in 217 unambiguous polymorphic loci. We used multiple methods to examine any changes in population genetic structure in this species over time. Results indicate that A. ampullarioides had much higher gene flow among populations in the past, but has since fragmented into regional genetic units. These regions further fragmented genetically, and extant populations have differentiated through genetic drift. Populations had low levels of gene flow, even between geographically close populations. Rapid urban development reduces gene flow among regions and encroaches on populations of A. ampullarioides and remaining patches of unoccupied habitat. The genetic makeup of each of the extant populations should be carefully considered in management decisions such as population establishment or augmentation.

  1. Wood anatomy of tribe Detarieae and comparison with tribe Caesalpinieae (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Melandri, José Luis; de Pernía, Narcisana Espinoza

    2009-01-01

    We studied the wood anatomy of 29 species belonging to 10 genera of the tribe Detarieae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae and compare them with tribe Caesalpinieae. Detarieae is the largest of four tribes of Caesalpinioideae, with 84 genera, only eleven occur in Venezuela with species of timber importance. The specimens were collected in Venezuela and include wood samples from the collection of the Laboratorio de Anatomía de Maderas de la Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales de la Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela, and of the Forest Products Laboratory of the USDA Forest Service in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. The terminology and methodology used followed the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood Identification of the IAWA Committee, 1989. Measurements from each specimen were averaged (vessel diameters, vessel element lengths, intervessels pit size, fibre lengths and ray height). The species of Detarieae can be separated using a combination of diagnostic features. Wood characters that provide the most important diagnosis and may be used in systematics of Detarieae include: intercellular axial canals, rays heterocellular, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells, irregular storied structure and fibre wall thickness. For comparative anatomy between Detarieae and Caesalpinieae: intercellular axial canals, heterocellular rays, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells (in Detarieae) and regular storied structure, fibres septate, fibre wall thick or very thick, rays homocellular, multiseriate rays and silica bodies (in Caesalpinieae). Axial parenchyma is typically a good diagnostic feature for Leguminosae, but not for Detarieae and Caesalpinieae comparisons.

  2. Floral polymorphism in Chamaecrista flexuosa (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae): a possible case of atypical enantiostyly?

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Natan Messias; Castro, Cibele Cardoso; Leite, Ana Virgínia; Novo, Reinaldo Rodrigo; Machado, Isabel Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Reciprocal herkogamy, including enantiostyly and heterostyly, involves reciprocity in the relative positions of the sexual elements within the flower. Such systems result in morphologically and, since pollen is deposited on and captured from different parts of the pollinator, functionally distinct floral forms. Deviations from the basic pattern may modify the functionality of these mechanisms. For heterostylous species, such deviations are generally related to environmental disturbances, pollination services and/or reduced numbers of one floral morph. Deviations for enantiostylous species have not yet been reported. This study aims to investigate enantiostyly in Chamaecrista flexuosa, in particular the presence of deviations from the standard form, in an area of coastal vegetation in north-east Brazil. Methods Observations and investigations of floral biology, the reproductive system, pollinator behaviour, floral morphology and morphometry were performed. Key Results In C. flexuosa flowers, anthers of different size but similar function are grouped. The flowers were self-compatible and set fruits after every treatment, except in the spontaneous self-pollination experiment, thereby indicating their dependence on pollen vectors. The flowers were pollinated by bees, especially Xylocopa cearensis and X. grisencens. Pollen is deposited and captured from the ventral portion of the pollinator's body. Variations in the spatial arrangement of floral elements allowed for the identification of floral morphs based on both morphological and functional criteria. Using morphological criteria, morphologically right (MR) and morphologically left (ML) floral morphs were identified. Three floral morphs were identified using functional criteria: functionally right (FR), functionally central (FC) and functionally left (FL). Combinations of morphologically and functionally defined morphs did not occur in equal proportions. There was a reduced frequency of the MR–FR combination. Conclusions The results indicate the occurrence of an atypical enantiostyly in C. flexuosa. This seems to improve reproductive success by increasing the efficiency of pollen deposition and capture. PMID:24026440

  3. Structure of genetic diversity in the two major gene pools of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Kwak, Myounghai; Gepts, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Domesticated materials with well-known wild relatives provide an experimental system to reveal how human selection during cultivation affects genetic composition and adaptation to novel environments. In this paper, our goal was to elucidate how two geographically distinct domestication events modified the structure and level of genetic diversity in common bean. Specifically, we analyzed the genome-wide genetic composition at 26, mostly unlinked microsatellite loci in 349 accessions of wild and domesticated common bean from the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools. Using a model-based approach, implemented in the software STRUCTURE, we identified nine wild or domesticated populations in common bean, including four of Andean and four of Mesoamerican origins. The ninth population was the putative wild ancestor of the species, which was classified as a Mesoamerican population. A neighbor-joining analysis and a principal coordinate analysis confirmed genetic relationships among accessions and populations observed with the STRUCTURE analysis. Geographic and genetic distances in wild populations were congruent with the exception of a few putative hybrids identified in this study, suggesting a predominant effect of isolation by distance. Domesticated common bean populations possessed lower genetic diversity, higher F(ST), and generally higher linkage disequilibrium (LD) than wild populations in both gene pools; their geographic distributions were less correlated with genetic distance, probably reflecting seed-based gene flow after domestication. The LD was reduced when analyzed in separate Andean and Mesoamerican germplasm samples. The Andean domesticated race Nueva Granada had the highest F(ST) value and widest geographic distribution compared to other domesticated races, suggesting a very recent origin or a selection event, presumably associated with a determinate growth habit, which predominates in this race.

  4. Logging impacts on forest structure and seedling dynamics in a Prioria copaifera (Fabaceae) dominated tropical rain forest (Talamanca, Costa Rica).

    PubMed

    Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar J; Rocha, Oscar J

    2014-03-01

    The factors that determine the existence of tropical forests dominated by a single species (monodominated forests) have been the subject of debate for a long time. It has been hypothesized that the low frequency of disturbances in monodominated forests and the tolerance to shade of the monodominant species are two important factors explaining the prolonged dominance of a single species. We determined the role of these two factors by examining the effects of logging activities on the floristic composition and seedling dynamics in a Prioria copaifera dominated forest in Southeastern Costa Rica. We determined the floristic composition for trees > or = 2.5cm DBH and the associated recruitment, survival and mortality of tree canopy seedlings in two sites logged two (L-02) and 12 years (L-12) prior to sampling and an unlogged forest (ULF). Our results showed that L-02 stands had lower species richness (25 species) than the L-12 and ULF stands (49 and 46 species, respectively). As expected, we found significant logging effects on the canopy structure of the altered forests, particularly when comparing the L-02 and the ULF stands. Seedling density was higher in ULF (0.96 seedlings/ m2) than in the L-02 and L-12 stands (0.322 and 0.466 seedlings/m2, respectively). However, seedling mortality was higher in the ULF stands (54%) than in the L-02 (26%) and L-12 (15%) stands. P. macroloba in L-02 was the only species with abundant regeneration under P. copaifera in L-02 stand, where it accounted for 35% of the seedlings. Despite the reduction in seedling abundance observed after logging, P. copaifera seems to maintain large seedling populations in these forests, suggesting that this species maintains its dominance after logging disturbances. Our findings challenge the hypothesis that the regeneration of monodominant species is not likely to occur under heavily disturbed canopy conditions.

  5. Genetic diversity and mating system of Copaifera langsdorffii (Leguminosae/Caesalpinioideae).

    PubMed

    Gonela, A; Sebbenn, A M; Soriani, H H; Mestriner, M A; Martinez, C A; Alzate-Marin, A L

    2013-02-27

    Copaifera langsdorffii, locally known as copaíba, is a valuable tropical tree with medicinal properties of its oil. We studied the genetic variation, genetic structure, and the mating system of trees in stands of C. langsdorffii (Leguminosae/Caesalpinioideae) located in an extensive area between the Pardo and Mogi-Guaçu basins in São Paulo State, Brazil, and their offspring, conserved in an ex situ germplasm bank at the University of São Paulo in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, using six microsatellite loci. Leaves were collected from 80 seed trees and from 259 offspring and their DNA extracted. A total of 140 and 175 alleles were found in the seed trees and their offspring, respectively. Low genetic differentiation was observed between stands, indicating intense gene flow due to efficient pollen dispersion vectors. An estimation of the outcrossing rate showed that these stands are outcrossed (tm = 0.98, P > 0.05). The mean variance of the effective population size of each family in two of the stands was 3.69 and 3.43, while the total effective population size retained in the germplasm bank was between 81 and 96. The paternity correlation was low, ranging from 0.052 to 0.148, demonstrating that the families implanted in this germplasm bank are composed predominantly of half-sibs.

  6. Microsatellite development and flow cytometry in the African tree genus Afzelia (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae) reveal a polyploid complex1

    PubMed Central

    Donkpegan, Armel S. L.; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Dainou, Kasso; Hardy, Olivier J.

    2015-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellites were developed in the vulnerable African rainforest tree Afzelia bipindensis to investigate gene flow patterns. • Methods and Results: Using 454 GS-FLX technique, 16 primer sets were identified and optimized, leading to 11 polymorphic and readable markers displaying each six to 25 alleles in a population. Up to four alleles per individual were found in each of the loci, without evidence of fixed heterozygosity, suggesting an autotetraploid genome. Cross-amplification succeeded for all loci in the African rainforest species A. pachyloba and A. bella, which appeared tetraploid, and for most loci in the African woodland species A. africana and A. quanzensis, which appeared diploid, but failed in the Asian species A. xylocarpa. Flow cytometry confirmed the suspected differences in ploidy. • Conclusions: African Afzelia species are diploid or tetraploid, a situation rarely documented in tropical trees. These newly developed microsatellites will help in the study of their mating system and gene flow patterns. PMID:25606356

  7. Short Communication Mendelian inheritance, linkage, and genotypic disequilibrium in microsatellite loci of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae).

    PubMed

    Moraes, M A; Kubota, T Y K; Silva, E C B; Silva, A M; Cambuim, J; Moraes, M L T; Furlani Junior, E; Sebbenn, A M

    2016-07-29

    Hymenaea stigonocarpa is a deciduous and monoecious Neotropical tree species pollinated by bats. Due to overexploitation and habitat destruction, the population size has drastically diminished in nature. No previous study has investigated Mendelian inheritance, linkage, and genotypic disequilibrium in the available microsatellite markers in this species. So, our aim was to estimate these parameters using six microsatellite loci in a sample of 470 adults and 219 juveniles from two populations of H. stigonocarpa. In addition, 30 seeds per tree from 35 seed-trees were collected. Each seed was kept record of the seed-trees and fruit origin. Based on the six microsatellite loci, we found that only 10.6% of the cases showed significant deviations from Mendelian segregation and 15.3% showed linkage. We detected no evidence of genotypic disequilibrium between the loci in the adult trees or juveniles. Thus, our results suggest that these loci can be used with great accuracy in future genetic analyses of H. stigonocarpa populations.

  8. Inhibition of peroxidase activity and scavenging of reactive oxygen species by astilbin isolated from Dimorphandra mollis (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae).

    PubMed

    Petacci, Fernando; Freitas, Silvia S; Brunetti, Iguatemy L; Khalil, Najeh M

    2010-01-01

    Astilbin (5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-2,3-dihydroflavonol-3-ß-o-rhamnoside), a flavonoid with a large range of biological activities, was isolated from Dimorphandra mollis, a shrub common to the Brazilian Cerrado. The purpose of this study is to verify the effects of astilbin on myeloperoxidase (MPO) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and its antioxidant activity against hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and total antioxidant activity (TAC) by the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS•+). Astilbin inhibited MPO and HRP activities in a concentration-dependent relationship and effectively scavenged HOCl. The TAC by ABTS•+ of astilbin (IC50 ~ 20 mM) was higher than that of uric acid, which was used as a positive control. These data demonstrate that astilbin is a potent antioxidant and that it inhibits MPO and HRP activities efficiently.

  9. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of the sieve element occlusion gene family in Fabaceae and non-Fabaceae plants.

    PubMed

    Rüping, Boris; Ernst, Antonia M; Jekat, Stephan B; Nordzieke, Steffen; Reineke, Anna R; Müller, Boje; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Prüfer, Dirk; Noll, Gundula A

    2010-10-08

    The phloem of dicotyledonous plants contains specialized P-proteins (phloem proteins) that accumulate during sieve element differentiation and remain parietally associated with the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum in mature sieve elements. Wounding causes P-protein filaments to accumulate at the sieve plates and block the translocation of photosynthate. Specialized, spindle-shaped P-proteins known as forisomes that undergo reversible calcium-dependent conformational changes have evolved exclusively in the Fabaceae. Recently, the molecular characterization of three genes encoding forisome components in the model legume Medicago truncatula (MtSEO1, MtSEO2 and MtSEO3; SEO = sieve element occlusion) was reported, but little is known about the molecular characteristics of P-proteins in non-Fabaceae. We performed a comprehensive genome-wide comparative analysis by screening the M. truncatula, Glycine max, Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera and Solanum phureja genomes, and a Malus domestica EST library for homologs of MtSEO1, MtSEO2 and MtSEO3 and identified numerous novel SEO genes in Fabaceae and even non-Fabaceae plants, which do not possess forisomes. Even in Fabaceae some SEO genes appear to not encode forisome components. All SEO genes have a similar exon-intron structure and are expressed predominantly in the phloem. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of several subgroups with Fabaceae-specific subgroups containing all of the known as well as newly identified forisome component proteins. We constructed Hidden Markov Models that identified three conserved protein domains, which characterize SEO proteins when present in combination. In addition, one common and three subgroup specific protein motifs were found in the amino acid sequences of SEO proteins. SEO genes are organized in genomic clusters and the conserved synteny allowed us to identify several M. truncatula vs G. max orthologs as well as paralogs within the G. max genome. The unexpected

  10. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of the sieve element occlusion gene family in Fabaceae and non-Fabaceae plants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The phloem of dicotyledonous plants contains specialized P-proteins (phloem proteins) that accumulate during sieve element differentiation and remain parietally associated with the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum in mature sieve elements. Wounding causes P-protein filaments to accumulate at the sieve plates and block the translocation of photosynthate. Specialized, spindle-shaped P-proteins known as forisomes that undergo reversible calcium-dependent conformational changes have evolved exclusively in the Fabaceae. Recently, the molecular characterization of three genes encoding forisome components in the model legume Medicago truncatula (MtSEO1, MtSEO2 and MtSEO3; SEO = sieve element occlusion) was reported, but little is known about the molecular characteristics of P-proteins in non-Fabaceae. Results We performed a comprehensive genome-wide comparative analysis by screening the M. truncatula, Glycine max, Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera and Solanum phureja genomes, and a Malus domestica EST library for homologs of MtSEO1, MtSEO2 and MtSEO3 and identified numerous novel SEO genes in Fabaceae and even non-Fabaceae plants, which do not possess forisomes. Even in Fabaceae some SEO genes appear to not encode forisome components. All SEO genes have a similar exon-intron structure and are expressed predominantly in the phloem. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of several subgroups with Fabaceae-specific subgroups containing all of the known as well as newly identified forisome component proteins. We constructed Hidden Markov Models that identified three conserved protein domains, which characterize SEO proteins when present in combination. In addition, one common and three subgroup specific protein motifs were found in the amino acid sequences of SEO proteins. SEO genes are organized in genomic clusters and the conserved synteny allowed us to identify several M. truncatula vs G. max orthologs as well as paralogs within the G. max genome

  11. Optimization of DNA extraction from fresh leaf tissues of Melanoxylon brauna (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Borges, D B; Amorim, M B; Waldschmidt, A M; Mariano-Neto, E; Vivas, C V; Pereira, D G

    2012-05-22

    Melanoxylon brauna (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae) is an endemic and valuable hardwood tree species in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest; it is comparable to African ebony wood. We tested three protocols of DNA extraction based on the citrimonium bromide (CTAB) method and evaluated the quantity, purity and integrity of the DNA. We also determined whether these procedures interfere with PCR amplification in order to develop a protocol for M. brauna. We found that the quality and integrity of DNA were improved with the use of proteinase K in the extraction buffer and by modifications in the centrifugation speed. The lowest concentration of DNA was obtained with Doyle and Doyle's protocol (5.42 ng/μL). Ferreira and Grattapaglia's protocol modified for M. brauna provided the most DNA (36.89 ng/μL) and the highest quality DNA (purity ratio of 1.80 nm). The original Ferreira and Grattapaglia protocol provided 13.42 ng/μL DNA; however, the purity ratio (1.44 nm) indicates protein contamination. PCR results showed that Ferreira and Grattapaglia's protocol modified for M. brauna gave satisfactory quantity and purity of DNA for molecular studies.

  12. A new species of Bauhinia L. (Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae) from Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chatan, Wannachai

    2013-01-01

    A new liana species of the subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae), namely Bauhinia nakhonphanomensis, collected from the Phulangkha National Park, Nakhon Pranom Province, Thailand, is described and illustrated. It is easily recognized by the following combination of characters: tendrilled liana, entire leaves, acuminate or caudate leaf apices, oblong or elliptic floral bud, floral bud 25-35 mm long, raceme or panicle inflorescence, 10-13 mm long hypanthium, anther opening by longitudinal slits. Important comparative morphological characters with some closely related species are discussed.

  13. A new species of Bauhinia L. (Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae) from Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Chatan, Wannachai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new liana species of the subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae), namely Bauhinia nakhonphanomensis, collected from the Phulangkha National Park, Nakhon Pranom Province, Thailand, is described and illustrated. It is easily recognized by the following combination of characters: tendrilled liana, entire leaves, acuminate or caudate leaf apices, oblong or elliptic floral bud, floral bud 25–35 mm long, raceme or panicle inflorescence, 10–13 mm long hypanthium, anther opening by longitudinal slits. Important comparative morphological characters with some closely related species are discussed. PMID:24194667

  14. Genetic structure within the Mesoamerican gene pool of wild Phaseolus lunatus (Fabaceae) from Mexico as revealed by microsatellite markers: Implications for conservation and the domestication of the species.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Camacho-Pérez, Luciana; Villanueva-Viramontes, Sara; Andueza-Noh, Rubén H; Chacón-Sánchez, María I

    2014-05-01

    • Understanding genetic structure in wild relatives of a crop is important for crop improvement and conservation. Recently, two gene pools (MI and MII) were reported in wild Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) from Mexico, a domestication center of Mesoamerican landraces. However, the evidence was based on limited genomic sampling. Here we sought to confirm the existence of these two gene pools by increased genome and population sampling.• We characterized 67 wild populations of P. lunatus from Mexico with 10 microsatellite loci and studied the genetic structure by means of AMOVA, cluster analyses, assignment tests, and a georeferenced map.• AMOVA indicated that most of the variation is found among populations (77%) rather than within populations (23%). Assignment tests were key to confirm not only the presence of the two gene pools (MI and MII) in Mexico, but also to propose the possible existence of two subgroups within MI (MIa and MIb). While MI and MII are mainly divergent geographically, MIa and MIb overlap in their distribution. Admixed individuals, which may represent cases of gene flow among gene pools, were detected.• Our results show that the genetic structure of wild Lima bean in Mexico is more complex than previously thought and propose the presence of three gene pools (MIa, MIb, and MII), each one possessing relatively high levels of genetic diversity. We still need additional evidence, however, to confirm without doubt the split of the gene pool MI into subgroups MIa and MIb. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  15. Microsatellite primers for the rare shrub Acacia adinophylla (Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Nevill, Paul G.; Wardell-Johnson, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for the rare shrub Acacia adinophylla (Fabaceae) to assess genetic diversity and its spatial structuring. Methods and Results: Shotgun sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq produced 6,372,575 reads. Using the QDD pipeline, we designed 60 primer pairs, which were screened using PCR. Seventeen loci were developed, of which 12 loci were identified that were polymorphic, amplified reliably, and could be consistently scored. These loci were then screened for variation in individuals from three populations. The number of alleles observed for these 12 loci ranged from three to 18 and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.13 to 0.85. Conclusions: These markers will enable the quantification of genetic impact of proposed mining activities on the short-range endemic Acacia adinophylla. PMID:27843728

  16. Leaf volatile compounds and the distribution of ant patrollingin an ant-plant protection mutualism: Preliminary results on Leonardoxa (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae) and Petalomyrmex(Formicidae: Formicinae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouat, Carine; McKey, Doyle; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Pascal, Laurence; Hossaert-McKey, Martine

    2000-12-01

    While observations suggest that plant chemicals could be important in maintaining the specificity and permitting the functioning of ant-plant symbioses, they have been little studied. We report here the strongest evidence yet for chemical signalling between ants and plants in a specific ant-plant protection symbiosis. In the mutualism between Leonardoxa africana subsp. africana and Petalomyrmex phylax, ants continuously patrol young leaves, which are vulnerable to attacks by phytophagous insects. We provide experimental evidence for chemical mediation of ant attraction to young leaves in this system. By a comparative analysis of the related non-myrmecophytic tree L. africana subsp. gracilicaulis, we identify likely candidates for attractant molecules, and suggest they may function not only as signals but also as resources. We also propose hypotheses on the evolutionary origin of these plant volatiles, and of the responses to them by mutualistic ants.

  17. Hybrid origin of "Bauhinia blakeana" (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae), inferred using morphological, reproductive, and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Lau, Carol P Y; Ramsden, Lawrence; Saunders, Richard M K

    2005-03-01

    Bauhinia blakeana (Leguminosae subfam. Caesalpinioideae tribe Cercideae), or the Hong Kong Orchid Tree, is of great horticultural value. It is completely sterile and is shown here to be the result of hybridization between the largely sympatric species, B. purpurea and B. variegata. Although the analysis of patterns of morphological variation revealed only a few examples of phenotypic intermediacy, study of intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers enabled unequivocal identification of the parental species due to the presence of additive inheritance of alleles and the absence of any bands that are unique to B. blakeana. Investigation of aspects of the reproductive biology of the taxa furthermore revealed that the parental species are largely xenogamous, have flowering periods that overlap seasonally and temporally, and share common pollinators. Evidence is provided to show that B. blakeana is not naturally stabilized and is only maintained horticulturally by artificial propagation. It is therefore recommended that the hybrid be regarded as a horticultural cultivar rather than a naturally occurring species; a new cultivar name, Bauhinia 'Blakeana', is accordingly validated.

  18. Morphological analyses suggest a new taxonomic circumscription for Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae)

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Isys Mascarenhas; Funch, Ligia Silveira; de Queiroz, Luciano Paganucci

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hymenaea is a genus of the Resin-producing Clade of the tribe Detarieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) with 14 species. Hymenaea courbaril is the most widespread species of the genus, ranging from southern Mexico to southeastern Brazil. As currently circumscribed, Hymenaea courbaril is a polytypic species with six varieties: var. altissima, var. courbaril, var. longifolia, var. stilbocarpa, var. subsessilis, and var. villosa. These varieties are distinguishable mostly by traits related to leaflet shape and indumentation, and calyx indumentation. We carried out morphometric analyses of 14 quantitative (continuous) leaf characters in order to assess the taxonomy of Hymenaea courbaril under the Unified Species Concept framework. Cluster analysis used the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrices. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) were carried out based on the same morphometric matrix. Two sets of Analyses of Similarity and Non Parametric Multivariate Analysis of Variance were carried out to evaluate statistical support (1) for the major groups recovered using UPGMA and PCA, and (2) for the varieties. All analyses recovered three major groups coincident with (1) var. altissima, (2) var. longifolia, and (3) all other varieties. These results, together with geographical and habitat information, were taken as evidence of three separate metapopulation lineages recognized here as three distinct species. Nomenclatural adjustments, including reclassifying formerly misapplied types, are proposed. PMID:25009440

  19. Morphological analyses suggest a new taxonomic circumscription for Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae).

    PubMed

    Souza, Isys Mascarenhas; Funch, Ligia Silveira; de Queiroz, Luciano Paganucci

    2014-01-01

    Hymenaea is a genus of the Resin-producing Clade of the tribe Detarieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) with 14 species. Hymenaea courbaril is the most widespread species of the genus, ranging from southern Mexico to southeastern Brazil. As currently circumscribed, Hymenaea courbaril is a polytypic species with six varieties: var. altissima, var. courbaril, var. longifolia, var. stilbocarpa, var. subsessilis, and var. villosa. These varieties are distinguishable mostly by traits related to leaflet shape and indumentation, and calyx indumentation. We carried out morphometric analyses of 14 quantitative (continuous) leaf characters in order to assess the taxonomy of Hymenaea courbaril under the Unified Species Concept framework. Cluster analysis used the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrices. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) were carried out based on the same morphometric matrix. Two sets of Analyses of Similarity and Non Parametric Multivariate Analysis of Variance were carried out to evaluate statistical support (1) for the major groups recovered using UPGMA and PCA, and (2) for the varieties. All analyses recovered three major groups coincident with (1) var. altissima, (2) var. longifolia, and (3) all other varieties. These results, together with geographical and habitat information, were taken as evidence of three separate metapopulation lineages recognized here as three distinct species. Nomenclatural adjustments, including reclassifying formerly misapplied types, are proposed.

  20. Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species' ecological niches distances

    PubMed Central

    Fort, Florian; Jouany, Claire; Cruz, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e., ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits, and whole plant traits) in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species' ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems) are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems) are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance. PMID:25741353

  1. Nodulation in Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. (Caesalpinioideae), a Threatened Species Native to the Brazilian Cerrado

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Márcia Bacelar; Peix, Alvaro; de Faria, Sergio Miana; Mateos, Pedro F.; Rivera, Lina P.; Simões-Araujo, Jean L.; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa; dos Santos Isaias, Rosy Mary; Cruz, Cristina; Velázquez, Encarna; Scotti, Maria Rita; Sprent, Janet I.; James, Euan K.

    2012-01-01

    The threatened caesalpinioid legume Dimorphandra wilsonii, which is native to the Cerrado biome in Brazil, was examined for its nodulation and N2-fixing ability, and was compared with another, less-threatened species, D. jorgei. Nodulation and potential N2 fixation was shown on seedlings that had been inoculated singly with five bradyrhizobial isolates from mature D. wilsonii nodules. The infection of D. wilsonii by two of these strains (Dw10.1, Dw12.5) was followed in detail using light and transmission electron microscopy, and was compared with that of D. jorgei by Bradyrhizobium strain SEMIA6099. The roots of D. wilsonii were infected via small transient root hairs at 42 d after inoculation (dai), and nodules were sufficiently mature at 63 dai to express nitrogenase protein. Similar infection and nodule developmental processes were observed in D. jorgei. The bacteroids in mature Dimorphandra nodules were enclosed in plant cell wall material containing a homogalacturonan (pectic) epitope that was recognized by the monoclonal antibody JIM5. Analysis of sequences of their rrs (16S rRNA) genes and their ITS regions showed that the five D. wilsonii strains, although related to SEMIA6099, may constitute five undescribed species of genus Bradyrhizobium, whilst their nodD and nifH gene sequences showed that they formed clearly separated branches from other rhizobial strains. This is the first study to describe in full the N2-fixing symbiotic interaction between defined rhizobial strains and legumes in the sub-family Caesalpinioideae. This information will hopefully assist in the conservation of the threatened species D. wilsonii. PMID:23185349

  2. The Unique Pollen Morphology of Duparquetia (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae): Developmental Evidence of Aperture Orientation Using Confocal Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    BANKS, HANNAH; FEIST-BURKHART, SUSANNE; KLITGAARD, BENTE

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The phylogenetic affinities of the aberrant monotypic genus Duparquetia (subfamily Caesalpinioideae) are at present unresolved. Preliminary results from molecular analyses suggest a basal, isolated position among legumes. A study of Duparquetia pollen was carried out to provide further morphological characters to contribute to multi-data set analyses. Understanding the development of Duparquetia pollen was necessary to clarify the orientation of the apertures. • Methods Pollen grains and developing microspores were examined using light microscopy, confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Evidence for the orientation of the apertures was provided by the examination of microspores within developing tetrads, using (a) confocal microscopy to locate the position of the ectoapertures, and (b) light microscopy and Alcian blue stain to locate the position of the endoapertures. • Key Results Confocal microscopy has been used for the first time to examine developing microspores in order to obtain information on ectoapertures that was unavailable using other techniques. Pollen in Duparquetia develops in tetrahedral tetrads as in other eudicots, with the apertures arranged in a modified pattern following Fischer's rule. Pollen grains are asymmetrical and have one equatorial-encircling ectoaperture with two equatorial endoapertures, a unique feature in Leguminosae, and in eudicots. • Conclusions The pollen morphology of Duparquetia is so unusual that it provides little information to help determine its closest relatives. However, it does fit with a pattern of greater pollen morphological diversity in the first-branching caesalpinioid legume groups than in the more derived clades. The latitudinal ectoaperture of Duparquetia is unique within the Fabales and eudicot clades, resembling more closely the monosulcate pollen found in monocots and basal angiosperms; however, developmental patterns are recognizably similar to those of all other

  3. Hydrocarbon phytoremediation in the family Fabaceae--a review.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jessica; Soole, Kathleen; Bentham, Richard

    2011-04-01

    Currently, studies often focus on the use of Poaceae species (grasses) for phytoremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Research into the use of Fabaceae species (legumes) to remediate hydrocarbons in soils has been conducted, but these plants are commonly overlooked due to slower recorded rates of degradation compared with many grass species. Evidence in the literature suggests that in some cases Fabaceae species may increase total degradation of hydrocarbons and stimulate degradative capacity of the soil microbial community, particularly for contaminants which are normally more recalcitrant to degradation. As many recalcitrant hydrocarbons have negative impacts on human and ecosystem health, development of remediation options is crucial. Reconsideration of Fabaceae species for removal of such contaminants may lead to environmentally and economically sustainable technologies for remediation of contaminated sites.

  4. Fatty acid profiles of some Fabaceae seed oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fatty acid profiles of six seed oils of the Fabaceae (Leguminosae) family are reported and discussed. These are the seed oils of Centrosema pubescens, Clitoria ternatea, Crotalaria mucronata, Macroptilium lathyroides, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Senna alata. The most common fatty acid in the fatty a...

  5. Phytochemical and biological activities of Bituminaria bituminosa L. (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Azzouzi, Salima; Zaabat, Nabila; Medjroubi, Kamel; Akkal, Salah; Benlabed, Kadour; Smati, Farida; Dijoux-Franca, Marie-Geneviève

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the phytochemical composition, the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Bituminaria bituminosa L. (Fabaceae) (B. bituminosa). The aerial parts of B. bituminosa yielded two compounds. The structures of these compounds were determinated using UV, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR experiments and comparison of their spectroscopic properties with literature data. The antibacterial activity of the extracts (CH2Cl2, ethyl acetate and n-BuOH) was determinated using disk diffusion method against standard and clinical strains. Antioxidant potential of n-BuOH extract was evaluated through two methods: DPPH and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity assay. The n-BuOH extract from B. bituminosa yielded the isolation of isoflavone and flavone. The extracts CH2Cl2, ethyl acetate and n-BuOH demonstrated significant antibacterial activities. CH2Cl2 extract showed the maximum antibacterial activity with high concentration of 2 mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (20.45 mm, 16.41 mm and 15.74 mm inhibition zone, respectively). The value IC50 was 0.26 μg/mL for n-BuOH extract using DPPH method. Whereas the E% value was 0.10 L/mg every centimeter for cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity assay. The phytochemical study of B. bituminosa revealed the presence of isoflavone (daidzin) and flavone (isoorientin) and identified for the first time in this specie. The antibacterial activity of the plant B. bituminosa is certainly related to its chemical content. The n-BuOH extract showed a significant antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of microsatellite markers in the African tropical tree species Guibourtia ehie (Fabaceae, Detarioideae).

    PubMed

    Tosso, Félicien; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Migliore, Jérémy; Daïnou, Kasso; Kaymak, Esra; Kameni, Franck S Monthe; Hardy, Olivier J

    2017-07-01

    Microsatellite primers (simple sequence repeats [SSRs]) were developed in Guibourtia ehie (Fabaceae, Detarioideae) to study population genetic structure and the history of African vegetation. We isolated 18 polymorphic SSRs from a nonenriched genomic library. This set of primer pairs was tested on four populations, and the results showed two to 16 alleles per locus with mean observed and expected heterozygosities of 0.27 ± 0.05 and 0.57 ± 0.05, respectively. Cross-amplification tests in 13 congeneric species were successful for the four taxa belonging to the subgenus Gorskia. This set of microsatellite markers will be useful to investigate the phylogeography and population genetics of G. ehie, a key representative of African semideciduous moist forests.

  7. Insect herbivores associated with an evergreen tree Goniorrhachis marginata Taub. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) in a tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Silva, J O; Neves, F S

    2014-08-01

    Goniorrhachis marginata Taub. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) is a tree species found in Brazilian tropical dry forests that retain their leaves during the dry season. That being, we addressed the following question: i) How do insect diversity (sap-sucking and chewing), leaf herbivory and defensive traits (tannin and leaf sclerophylly) vary on the evergreen tree species G. marginata between seasons? The abundance of sap-sucking insects was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. However, we did not verify any difference in the species richness and abundance of chewing insects between seasons. Leaf herbivory was higher in the rainy season, whereas leaf sclerophylly was higher in the dry season. However, herbivory was not related to sclerophylly. Insect herbivores likely decrease their folivory activity during the dry season due to life history patterns or changes in behaviour, possibly entering diapause or inactivity during this period. Therefore, G. marginata acts as a likely keystone species, serving as a moist refuge for the insect fauna during the dry season in tropical dry forest, and the presence of this evergreen species is crucial to conservation strategies of this threatened ecosystem.

  8. Discovery of cyclotides in the fabaceae plant family provides new insights into the cyclization, evolution, and distribution of circular proteins.

    PubMed

    Poth, Aaron G; Colgrave, Michelle L; Philip, Reynold; Kerenga, Bomai; Daly, Norelle L; Anderson, Marilyn A; Craik, David J

    2011-04-15

    Cyclotides are plant proteins whose defining structural features are a head-to-tail cyclized backbone and three interlocking disulfide bonds, which in combination are known as a cyclic cystine knot. This unique structural motif confers cyclotides with exceptional resistance to proteolysis. Their endogenous function is thought to be as plant defense agents, associated with their insecticidal and larval growth-inhibitory properties. However, in addition, an array of pharmaceutically relevant biological activities has been ascribed to cyclotides, including anti-HIV, anthelmintic, uterotonic, and antimicrobial effects. So far, >150 cyclotides have been elucidated from members of the Rubiaceae, Violaceae, and Cucurbitaceae plant families, but their wider distribution among other plant families remains unclear. Clitoria ternatea (Butterfly pea) is a member of plant family Fabaceae and through its usage in traditional medicine to aid childbirth bears similarity to Oldenlandia affinis, from which many cyclotides have been isolated. Using a combination of nanospray and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analyses, we examined seed extracts of C. ternatea and discovered cyclotides in the Fabaceae, the third-largest family of flowering plants. We characterized 12 novel cyclotides, thus expanding knowledge of cyclotide distribution and evolution within the plant kingdom. The discovery of cyclotides containing novel sequence motifs near the in planta cyclization site has provided new insights into cyclotide biosynthesis. In particular, MS analyses of the novel cyclotides from C. ternatea suggest that Asn to Asp variants at the cyclization site are more common than previously recognized. Moreover, this study provides impetus for the examination of other economically and agriculturally significant species within Fabaceae, now the largest plant family from which cyclotides have been described.

  9. Checklist of Fabaceae Lindley in Balaghat Ranges of Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present paper provides an enumeration of leguminous taxa of Balaghat Ranges of Maharashtra along with their habits, phenological deta and voucher specimen numbers. During the present work, a total of 123 species, 4 subspecies and 17 varieties of Fabaceae have been recorded for Balaghat Ranges of Maharashtra, of which 119 taxa are occurring in wild while 25 are under cultivation. The members of Fabaceae are dominant in herbaceous vegetation of the Balaghat Ranges. There are more species in genera like Crotalaria (23 taxa), Indigofera (16 taxa), Alysicarpus (14 taxa), Vigna (11 taxa) and Desmodium (8 taxa). Twelve taxa are endemic to India of which Indigofera deccanensis falls into Critically Endangered IUCN Red data category. The legumes of Balaghat Ranges have many actual and potential uses such as food, fodder and sources of edible oil, natural dyes, industrial lubricants, timber and medicines. About 19 leguminous taxa are wild relatives of food and fodder crops have resistance to pests and diseases, and abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity, can be used for crop improvement. PMID:25829859

  10. Bioactive isoflavones from Dalbergia vacciniifolia (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Innocent, Ester; Magadula, Joseph J; Kihampa, Charles; Heydenreich, Matthias

    2010-06-01

    Three new 5-dehydroxy isoflavone compounds, 6,2'-dimethoxy-7,4'-dihydroxyisoflavone (1), 6,2',4'-trimethoxy-7-hydroxyisoflavone (2), and 6,2',4',5'-tetramethoxy-7-O-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside] isoflavone (3), along with a known isoflavone, 6,2',4',5'-tetramethoxy-7-hydroxyisoflavone (4), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of Dalbergia vacciniifolia Vatke. Their structures were established by spectroscopic techniques including one- and two-dimension NMR. Compound 1 showed mild cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp larvae with a LC50 value of 266 microg/mL.

  11. Identification of Fabaceae plants using the DNA barcode matK.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ting; Sun, Zhiying; Yao, Hui; Song, Jingyuan; Zhu, Yingjie; Ma, Xinye; Chen, Shilin

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tested the applicability of the core DNA barcode MATK for identifying species within the Fabaceae family. Based on an evaluation of genetic variation, DNA barcoding gaps, and species discrimination power, MATK is a useful barcode for Fabaceae species. Of 1355 plant samples collected from 1079 species belonging to 409 diverse genera, MATK precisely identified approximately 80 % and 96 % of them at the species and genus levels, respectively. Therefore, our research indicates that the MATK region is a valuable marker for plant species within Fabaceae. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Use of the psbA-trnH region to authenticate medicinal species of Fabaceae.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ting; Ma, Xinye; Zhu, Xunzhi

    2013-01-01

    Fabaceae is a huge family that contains a large number of medicinal plants, many of which are commonly used in Chinese traditional medicine. However, traditional taxonomy has not been able to meet the complicated demands of species discrimination within Fabaceae. Thus, we employed a famous DNA barcode, the psbA-trnH region, to discriminate commonly used medicinal species of the family Fabaceae. Here, the psbA-trnH regions derived from 152 samples were amplified. These samples represented 104 Fabaceae medicinal species from 60 genera, including 25 authentic Fabaceae species listed in the Chinese pharmacopoeia and common adulterant species. The results indicate that the psbA-trnH region performed well in terms of its universality and high variability in length and composition. Species discriminative power analysis of the psbA-trnH region showed that 91.3% of species could be identified successfully by the BLAST1 method in conjunction with the nearest distance method. And, the species resolution rate of the TaxonGap method exceeded 93%. The results provide support for the use of the psbA-trnH plastid region as a sensitive marker to the authentication of Fabaceae medicinal plants.

  13. Evaluation of the impact of functional diversification on Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, and Pinaceae alcohol dehydrogenase enzymes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Claudia E; Fernandes, Cláudia L; de Souza, Osmar Norberto; de Freitas, Loreta B; Salzano, Francisco M

    2010-05-01

    The plant alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) have been intensively studied in the last years in terms of phylogeny and they have been widely used as a molecular marker. However, almost no information about their three-dimensional structure is available. Several studies point to functional diversification of the ADH, with evidence of its importance, in different organisms, in the ethanol, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, and bile acid metabolism. Computational results demonstrated that in plants these enzymes are submitted to a functional diversification process, which is reinforced by experimental studies indicating distinct enzymatic functions as well as recruitment of specific genes in different tissues. The main objective of this article is to establish a correlation between the functional diversification occurring in the plant alcohol dehydrogenase family and the three-dimensional structures predicted for 17 ADH belonging to Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, and Pinaceae botanical families. Volume, molecular weight and surface areas are not markedly different among them. Important electrostatic and pI differences were observed with the residues responsible for some of them identified, corroborating the function diversification hypothesis. These data furnish important background information for future specific structure-function and evolutionary investigations.

  14. Conservation genetics of Amorpha georgiana (Fabaceae), an endangered legume of the Southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Straub, Shannon C K; Doyle, Jeff J

    2009-11-01

    Amorpha georgiana (Fabaceae) is an endangered legume species found in longleaf pine savannas in the Southeastern United States. Approximately 900 individuals and 14 populations remain, most of which are concentrated in North Carolina. Eleven microsatellite loci were used to explore genetic diversity, population structure and recent population bottlenecks using genotypic data from 132 individuals collected at ten different localities. Although A. georgiana is quite rare, it exhibited high levels of genetic diversity (17.7 alleles/locus; H(o) = 0.65, H(E) = 0.75). Most of the genetic variation was found within rather than between populations of this species. The single remaining Georgia population was well differentiated from populations of the Carolinas (F(ST) > 0.1), which had weaker structure among them (F(ST) < 0.1). Only a geographically disjunct population showed strong evidence of a recent population bottleneck, perhaps due to a recent founder event. Hybridization with A. herbacea was also detected. For conservation management plans, A. georgiana populations in each geographic region (North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia) plus a disjunct population in North Carolina (Holly Shelter) should be treated as separate management units for which in situ conservation, including habitat restoration and use of prescribed burns, should ensure persistence of this species and preservation of its evolutionary potential.

  15. ITS non-concerted evolution and rampant hybridization in the legume genus Lespedeza (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bo; Zeng, Xiao-Mao; Gao, Xin-Fen; Jin, Dong-Pil; Zhang, Li-Bing

    2017-01-01

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) as one part of nuclear ribosomal DNA is one of the most extensively sequenced molecular markers in plant systematics. The ITS repeats generally exhibit high-level within-individual homogeneity, while relatively small-scale polymorphism of ITS copies within individuals has often been reported in literature. Here, we identified large-scale polymorphism of ITS copies within individuals in the legume genus Lespedeza (Fabaceae). Divergent paralogs of ITS sequences, including putative pseudogenes, recombinants, and multiple functional ITS copies were sometimes detected in the same individual. Thirty-seven ITS pseudogenes could be easily detected according to nucleotide changes in conserved 5.8S motives, the significantly lower GC contents in at least one of three regions, and the lost ability of 5.8S rDNA sequence to fold into a conserved secondary structure. The distribution patterns of the putative functional clones were highly different between the traditionally recognized two subgenera, suggesting different rates of concerted evolution in two subgenera which could be attributable to their different extents/frequencies of hybridization, confirmed by our analysis of the single-copy nuclear gene PGK. These findings have significant implications in using ITS marker for reconstructing phylogeny and studying hybridization. PMID:28051161

  16. Demographic history and the low genetic diversity in Dipteryx alata (Fabaceae) from Brazilian Neotropical savannas

    PubMed Central

    Collevatti, R G; Telles, M P C; Nabout, J C; Chaves, L J; Soares, T N

    2013-01-01

    Genetic effects of habitat fragmentation may be undetectable because they are generally a recent event in evolutionary time or because of confounding effects such as historical bottlenecks and historical changes in species' distribution. To assess the effects of demographic history on the genetic diversity and population structure in the Neotropical tree Dipteryx alata (Fabaceae), we used coalescence analyses coupled with ecological niche modeling to hindcast its distribution over the last 21 000 years. Twenty-five populations (644 individuals) were sampled and all individuals were genotyped using eight microsatellite loci. All populations presented low allelic richness and genetic diversity. The estimated effective population size was small in all populations and gene flow was negligible among most. We also found a significant signal of demographic reduction in most cases. Genetic differentiation among populations was significantly correlated with geographical distance. Allelic richness showed a spatial cline pattern in relation to the species' paleodistribution 21 kyr BP (thousand years before present), as expected under a range expansion model. Our results show strong evidences that genetic diversity in D. alata is the outcome of the historical changes in species distribution during the late Pleistocene. Because of this historically low effective population size and the low genetic diversity, recent fragmentation of the Cerrado biome may increase population differentiation, causing population decline and compromising long-term persistence. PMID:23591520

  17. Development of 23 polymorphic microsatellite loci in invasive silver wattle, Acacia dealbata (Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Guillemaud, Thomas; Broadhurst, Linda; Legoff, Isabelle; Henery, Martin; Blin, Aurélie; Ducatillion, Catherine; Ferrando, Nathalie; Malausa, Thibaut

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for silver wattle, Acacia dealbata (Fabaceae), which is both an ornamental and an invasive weed species. It is native to southeastern Australia and invasive in Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Methods and Results: The pyrosequencing of a microsatellite-enriched genomic DNA library of A. dealbata produced 33,290 sequences and allowed the isolation of 201 loci with a minimum of seven repeats of microsatellite motifs. Amplification tests led to the setup of two multiplex PCR mixes allowing the amplification of 21 loci. The polymorphism of these markers was evaluated on a sample of 32 individuals collected in southeastern Australia. The number of alleles and the expected heterozygosity varied between two and 11, and between 0.11 and 0.88, respectively. Conclusions: The level of polymorphism of this set of 23 microsatellites is large enough to provide valuable information on the genetic structure and the invasion history of A. dealbata. PMID:25995979

  18. Demographic history and the low genetic diversity in Dipteryx alata (Fabaceae) from Brazilian Neotropical savannas.

    PubMed

    Collevatti, R G; Telles, M P C; Nabout, J C; Chaves, L J; Soares, T N

    2013-08-01

    Genetic effects of habitat fragmentation may be undetectable because they are generally a recent event in evolutionary time or because of confounding effects such as historical bottlenecks and historical changes in species' distribution. To assess the effects of demographic history on the genetic diversity and population structure in the Neotropical tree Dipteryx alata (Fabaceae), we used coalescence analyses coupled with ecological niche modeling to hindcast its distribution over the last 21 000 years. Twenty-five populations (644 individuals) were sampled and all individuals were genotyped using eight microsatellite loci. All populations presented low allelic richness and genetic diversity. The estimated effective population size was small in all populations and gene flow was negligible among most. We also found a significant signal of demographic reduction in most cases. Genetic differentiation among populations was significantly correlated with geographical distance. Allelic richness showed a spatial cline pattern in relation to the species' paleodistribution 21 kyr BP (thousand years before present), as expected under a range expansion model. Our results show strong evidences that genetic diversity in D. alata is the outcome of the historical changes in species distribution during the late Pleistocene. Because of this historically low effective population size and the low genetic diversity, recent fragmentation of the Cerrado biome may increase population differentiation, causing population decline and compromising long-term persistence.

  19. The First Attested Extraction of Ancient DNA in Legumes (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Mikić, Aleksandar M

    2015-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) is any DNA extracted from ancient specimens, important for diverse evolutionary researches. The major obstacles in aDNA studies are mutations, contamination and fragmentation. Its studies may be crucial for crop history if integrated with human aDNA research and historical linguistics, both general and relating to agriculture. Legumes (Fabaceae) are one of the richest end economically most important plant families, not only from Neolithic onwards, since they were used as food by Neanderthals and Paleolithic modern man. The idea of extracting and analyzing legume aDNA was considered beneficial for both basic science and applied research, with an emphasis on genetic resources and plant breeding. The first reported successful and attested extraction of the legume aDNA was done from the sample of charred seeds of pea (Pisum sativum) and bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) from Hissar, southeast Serbia, dated to 1,350-1,000 Before Christ. A modified version of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method and the commercial kit for DNA extraction QIAGEN DNAesy yielded several ng μl(-1) of aDNA of both species and, after the whole genome amplification and with a fragment of nuclear ribosomal DNA gene 26S rDNA, resulted in the detection of the aDNA among the PCR products. A comparative analysis of four informative chloroplast DNA regions (trnSG, trnK, matK, and rbcL) among the modern wild and cultivated pea taxa demonstrated not only that the extracted aDNA was genuine, on the basis of mutation rate, but also that the ancient Hissar pea was most likely an early domesticated crop, related to the modern wild pea of a neighboring region. It is anticipated that this premier extraction of legume aDNA may provide taxonomists with the answers to diverse questions, such as leaf development in legumes, as well as with novel data on the single steps in domesticating legume crops worldwide.

  20. Air quality biomonitoring through pollen viability of Fabaceae.

    PubMed

    Duro, Anna; Piccione, Vincenzo; Zampino, Daniela

    2013-05-01

    In this study, pollen viability and germination of three plant species, Cercis siliquastrum L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., and Spartium junceum L., belonging to the Fabaceae family, was evaluated in sites with different intensity of road traffic, constantly monitored with continuous analysers for air pollutants (carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO(2)), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2))) by the Municipality of Catania. Two sites, in which road traffic was absent, were selected, too. The percentages of viable pollen by 2,3,5-trypheniltetrazolium chloride (TTC) test ranged from 59.0 to 90.2 % in C. siliquastrum, from 61.5 to 83.5 % in S. junceum and from 67.5 to 84.3 % in R. pseudoacacia. The percentages of germination varied from 41.0 to 72.7 % in C. siliquastrum, from 42.0 to 64.7 % in S. junceum and from 38.3 to 66.3 % in R. pseudoacacia. The highest percentages of viable pollens were found in no-road traffic stations by either TTC or germination tests, while the lowest values were detected in a site characterised by heavy road traffic. In the monitored period (2007-2009), pollen viability, germinability and tube length of C. siliquastrum resulted in a significant negative correlation to CO, SO(2) and NO(2), whereas data from TTC and germination tests on S. junceum and R. pseudoacacia pollens were not well correlated to air pollutants. The results showed that pollen viability, germination and tube growth in C. siliquastrum were affected by air pollution. S. junceum and R. pseudoacacia were not very influenced by air pollutants, suggesting a different pollen sensitivity of these species.

  1. A pharmacobotanical study of two medicinal species of Fabaceae

    PubMed Central

    Sonibare, Mubo A; Oke, Tolulope A; Soladoye, Mike O

    2014-01-01

    Objective To carry out a pharmacobotanical study of Lonchocarpus cyanescens (Schum & Thonn) Benth (L. cyanescens) and Leptoderris micrantha Dunn (L. micrantha) which are two key medicinal plants from the family Fabaceae. Methods The epidermal peel was obtained by soaking the leaf in concentrated nitric acid (HNO3) in a petri dish. Both surfaces were carefully mounted on clean glass slides and dehydrated by ethyl alcohol, and stained with safaranin O for 2 min. Transverse sections of plant leaf were obtained by free hand sectioning. Phytochemical screening for various constituents was carried out on the powdered leaves. Other parameters such as, moisture content, ash value, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, water and alcohol extractive values were obtained by standard techniques. Results The distinctive features of the species include: the presence of stomata on both surfaces of L. cyanescens and the absence in L. micrantha. Presence of larger epidermal cells in both upper and lower surfaces of L. cyanescens [(35.25±1.64)×(31.25±2.36), (43.0±2.63)×(39.5±5.11)] respectively compared to L. micrantha. Glandular multicellular trichomes are present in L. micrantha but absent in L. cyanescens. Numerous trichomes surround the transverse section of the leaf of L. micrantha but absent in L. cyanescens. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed that both species contain secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, tannins, saponins, steroids and flavonoids. Conclusions The microscopic and phytochemical data provided in this study are useful for the standardization of the medicinal plants. PMID:25182284

  2. Discovery and characterization of novel cyclotides originated from chimeric precursors consisting of albumin-1 chain a and cyclotide domains in the Fabaceae family.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Giang Kien Truc; Zhang, Sen; Nguyen, Ngan Thi Kim; Nguyen, Phuong Quoc Thuc; Chiu, Ming Sheau; Hardjojo, Antony; Tam, James P

    2011-07-08

    The tropical plant Clitoria ternatea is a member of the Fabaceae family well known for its medicinal values. Heat extraction of C. ternatea revealed that the bioactive fractions contained heat-stable cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs). The CRP family of A1b (Albumin-1 chain b/leginsulins), which is a linear cystine knot CRP, has been shown to present abundantly in the Fabaceae. In contrast, the cyclotide family, which also belongs to the cystine knot CRPs but with a cyclic structure, is commonly found in the Rubiaceae, Violaceae, and Cucurbitaceae families. In this study, we report the discovery of a panel of 15 heat-stable CRPs, of which 12 sequences (cliotide T1-T12) are novel. We show unambiguously that the cliotides are cyclotides and not A1bs, as determined by their sequence homology, disulfide connectivity, and membrane active properties indicated by their antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli and cytotoxicities to HeLa cells. We also show that cliotides are prevalent in C. ternatea and are found in every plant tissue examined, including flowers, seeds, and nodules. In addition, we demonstrate that their precursors are chimeras, half from cyclotide and the other half from Albumin-1, with the cyclotide domain displacing the A1b domain in the precursor. Their chimeric structures likely originate from either horizontal gene transfer or convergent evolution in plant nuclear genomes, which are exceedingly rare events. Such atypical genetic arrangement also implies a different mechanism of biosynthetic processing of cyclotides in the Fabaceae and provides new understanding of their evolution in plants.

  3. Discovery and Characterization of Novel Cyclotides Originated from Chimeric Precursors Consisting of Albumin-1 Chain a and Cyclotide Domains in the Fabaceae Family*

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Giang Kien Truc; Zhang, Sen; Nguyen, Ngan Thi Kim; Nguyen, Phuong Quoc Thuc; Chiu, Ming Sheau; Hardjojo, Antony; Tam, James P.

    2011-01-01

    The tropical plant Clitoria ternatea is a member of the Fabaceae family well known for its medicinal values. Heat extraction of C. ternatea revealed that the bioactive fractions contained heat-stable cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs). The CRP family of A1b (Albumin-1 chain b/leginsulins), which is a linear cystine knot CRP, has been shown to present abundantly in the Fabaceae. In contrast, the cyclotide family, which also belongs to the cystine knot CRPs but with a cyclic structure, is commonly found in the Rubiaceae, Violaceae, and Cucurbitaceae families. In this study, we report the discovery of a panel of 15 heat-stable CRPs, of which 12 sequences (cliotide T1–T12) are novel. We show unambiguously that the cliotides are cyclotides and not A1bs, as determined by their sequence homology, disulfide connectivity, and membrane active properties indicated by their antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli and cytotoxicities to HeLa cells. We also show that cliotides are prevalent in C. ternatea and are found in every plant tissue examined, including flowers, seeds, and nodules. In addition, we demonstrate that their precursors are chimeras, half from cyclotide and the other half from Albumin-1, with the cyclotide domain displacing the A1b domain in the precursor. Their chimeric structures likely originate from either horizontal gene transfer or convergent evolution in plant nuclear genomes, which are exceedingly rare events. Such atypical genetic arrangement also implies a different mechanism of biosynthetic processing of cyclotides in the Fabaceae and provides new understanding of their evolution in plants. PMID:21596752

  4. A new species Megabruchidius sophorae (Coleoptera, Bruchidae), feeding on seeds of Styphnolobium (Fabaceae) new to Bruchidae.

    PubMed

    Tuda, Midori; Morimoto, Katsura

    2004-01-01

    A new species Megabruchidiussophorae (Insecta, Coleoptera) is described from Japan (Honshu). The larval host of this bruchid is the seeds of the tree legume 'enju', or chinese scholar tree, Styphnolobium japonicum (a senior synonym of Sophora japonica), which is a new host genus to Bruchidae. Styphnolobium is positioned basally in molecular phylogeny of the leguminous subfamily Papilionoideae. Other members of Megabruchidius are known to feed on Gleditsia, the tree legumes that belong to the most ancestral subfamily Caesalpinioideae. Therefore, Megabruchidius utilizes ancestral groups of legumes as its host plants. Megabruchidius has been inferred to be ancestral, based on its behavior. The character state of the host for this third Megabruchidius species supports that the genus is ancestral, at least in the subfamily Bruchinae. We also reviewed the genera closely related to Megabruchidius, i.e., Bruchidius and Sulcobruchus in Bruchidini, and wrote a key to the species in the genus Megabruchidius.

  5. Morpho-anatomical and growth alterations induced by arsenic in Cajanus cajan (L.) DC (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Pita-Barbosa, Alice; Gonçalves, Elton Carvalho; Azevedo, Aristéa Alves

    2015-08-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic element to most organisms. Studies investigating anatomic alterations due to As exposure in plants are scarce but of utmost importance to the establishment of environmental biomonitoring techniques. So, this study aimed to investigate the effects of As on the development and initial root growth in Cajanus cajan (Fabaceae), characterize and quantify the possible damages, evaluate genotoxic effects, and identify structural markers to be used in environmental bioindication. Plants were exposed hydroponically to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg As L(-1), as sodium arsenate. Growth parameters were measured, and in the end of the exposure, root samples were analyzed for qualitative and quantitative anatomical alterations. Arsenic genotoxicity was evaluated through analysis of the mitotic index in the root apex. Compared to the control, As-treated seedlings showed an altered architecture, with significantly decreased root length (due to the lower mitotic index in the apical meristem and reduced elongation of parenchyma cells) with darkened color, and abnormal development of the root cap. A significant increase in vascular cylinder/root diameter ratio was also detected, due to the reduction of the cellular spaces in the cortex. The secondary xylem vessel elements were reduced in diameter and had sinuous walls. The severest damage was visible in the ramification zone, where uncommon division planes of phellogen and cambium cells and disintegration of the parenchyma cells adjacent to lateral roots were observed. The high sensibility of C. cajan to As was confirmed, since it caused severe damages in root growth and anatomy. The main structural markers for As toxicity were the altered root architecture, with the reduction of the elongation zone and increase of ramification zone length, and the root primordia retained within the cortex. Our results show a new approach about As toxicity and indicate that C. cajan is a promising species to be used for

  6. Bioacoustics of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) on Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an economically important pest of common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) in the tropics and subtropics. It is difficult to detect the presence of A. obtectus because the larvae are cryptic and spend most of their developmental time...

  7. Breeding biology of the threadstalk milkvetch, Astragalus filipes (Fabaceae), with a review of the genus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Astragalus L. (Fabaceae) is an enormous and diverse plant genus with a cosmopolitan distribution, but relatively few breeding biologies are known for its member species. Threadstalk (or basalt) milkvetch, Astragalus filipes Torrey ex. A. Gray, is common and widespread throughout the US Intermountai...

  8. Breeding biology of the threadstalk milkvetch, Astragalus filipes (Fabaceae), with a review of the genus

    Treesearch

    Kristal M. Watrous; James H. Cane

    2011-01-01

    Astragalus L. (Fabaceae) is an enormous and diverse plant genus with a cosmopolitan distribution, but relatively few breeding biologies are known for its member species. Threadstalk (or basalt) milkvetch, Astragalus filipes Torrey ex. A. Gray, is common and widespread throughout the U.S. Intermountain West, including the Great Basin. It is being studied and ultimately...

  9. Rationale for using Peltophorum africanum (Fabaceae) extracts in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Bizimenyera, S E; Swan, G E; Chikoto, H; Eloff, J N

    2005-06-01

    Peltophorum africanum (Fabaceae) is a deciduous tree widespread in southern Africa. The plant has many ethnomedical and ethnoveterinary uses. Root and bark decoctions are used to treat diarrhoea, dysentery, sore throat, wounds, back and joint pains, HIV-AIDS, venereal diseases and infertility. Pastoralists and rural farmers use the root and bark extracts to treat diarrhoea, dysentery, infertility, and to promote well-being and resistance to diseases in cattle. To evaluate these ethnobotanical leads, dried leaves, stem bark and root bark were extracted with ethanol, acetone, dichloromethane and hexane. Polyphenols in the extract were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method with gallic acid as standard. Qualitative antioxidant activity was screened by spraying thin layer chromatograms (TLC) of the extracts with 0.2% 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), and quantified with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and total antibacterial activity (TAA) were determined by serial microplate dilution for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis, with gentamicin as standard and tetrazolium violet as growth indicator. Acetone and ethanol extracted the largest quantity of material. Polyphenols concentration was 49.2% in acetone extract of the root and 3.8% in dichloromethane extract of the leaf. Antioxidant activity of at least 5 antioxidant compounds as measured by TEAC ranged from 1.34 (ethanol extract of the root) to 0.01 (hexane extract of the leaf). The total antibacterial activity (volume to which active compounds present in 1 g plant material can be diluted and still inhibit bacterial growth) was 1263 ml/g for ethanol extract of the root against S. aureus, and 800 ml/g for acetone extract of the root against P. aeruginosa. There was substantial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with MIC values of 0.08 mg/ml for S. aureus and 0.16 mg

  10. The First Attested Extraction of Ancient DNA in Legumes (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Mikić, Aleksandar M.

    2015-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) is any DNA extracted from ancient specimens, important for diverse evolutionary researches. The major obstacles in aDNA studies are mutations, contamination and fragmentation. Its studies may be crucial for crop history if integrated with human aDNA research and historical linguistics, both general and relating to agriculture. Legumes (Fabaceae) are one of the richest end economically most important plant families, not only from Neolithic onwards, since they were used as food by Neanderthals and Paleolithic modern man. The idea of extracting and analyzing legume aDNA was considered beneficial for both basic science and applied research, with an emphasis on genetic resources and plant breeding. The first reported successful and attested extraction of the legume aDNA was done from the sample of charred seeds of pea (Pisum sativum) and bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) from Hissar, southeast Serbia, dated to 1,350–1,000 Before Christ. A modified version of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method and the commercial kit for DNA extraction QIAGEN DNAesy yielded several ng μl-1 of aDNA of both species and, after the whole genome amplification and with a fragment of nuclear ribosomal DNA gene 26S rDNA, resulted in the detection of the aDNA among the PCR products. A comparative analysis of four informative chloroplast DNA regions (trnSG, trnK, matK, and rbcL) among the modern wild and cultivated pea taxa demonstrated not only that the extracted aDNA was genuine, on the basis of mutation rate, but also that the ancient Hissar pea was most likely an early domesticated crop, related to the modern wild pea of a neighboring region. It is anticipated that this premier extraction of legume aDNA may provide taxonomists with the answers to diverse questions, such as leaf development in legumes, as well as with novel data on the single steps in domesticating legume crops worldwide. PMID:26635833

  11. Ultrastructure and post-floral secretion of the pericarpial nectaries of Erythrina speciosa (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Elder Antônio Sousa

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The occurrence of nectaries in fruits is restricted to a minority of plant families and consistent reports of their occurrence are not found associated with Fabaceae, mainly showing cellular details. The present study aims to describe the anatomical organization and ultrastructure of the pericarpial nectaries (PNs) in Erythrina speciosa, a bird-pollinated species, discussing functional aspects of these unusual structures. Methods Samples of floral buds, ovaries of flowers at anthesis and fruits at several developmental stages were fixed and processed by the usual methods for studies using light, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Nectar samples collected by filter paper wicks were subjected to chemical analysis using thin-layer chromatography. Key Results The PNs are distributed in isolation on the exocarp. Each PN is represented by a single hyaline trichome that consists of a basal cell at epidermal level, stalk cell(s) and a small secretory multicellular head. The apical stalk cell shows inner periclinal and anticlinal walls impregnated by lipids and lignin and has dense cytoplasm with a prevalence of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. The secretory cells show voluminous nuclei and dense cytoplasm, which predominantly has dictyosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, plastids, mitochondria and free ribosomes. At the secretory stage the periplasmic space is prominent and contains secretion residues. Tests for sugar indicate the presence of non-reducing sugars in the secretory cells. Nectar samples from PNs contained sucrose, glucose and fructose. Conclusions The secretory stage of these PNs extends until fruit maturation and evidence suggests that the energetic source of nectar production is based on pericarp photosynthesis. Patrolling ants were seen foraging on fruits during all stages of fruit development, which suggests that the PNs mediate a symbiotic relationship between ants and plant, similar to the common role of many

  12. Phylogenetic relationships within Chamaecrista sect. Xerocalyx (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) inferred from the cpDNA trnE-trnT intergenic spacer and nrDNA ITS sequences

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Davi Coe; Lima, João Paulo Matos Santos; Fernandes, Afrânio Gomes; Nunes, Edson Paula; Grangeiro, Thalles Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    Chamaecrista belongs to subtribe Cassiinae (Caesalpinioideae), and it comprises over 330 species, divided into six sections. The section Xerocalyx has been subjected to a profound taxonomic shuffling over the years. Therefore, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis using a cpDNA trnE-trnT intergenic spacer and nrDNA ITS/5.8S sequences from Cassiinae taxa, in an attempt to elucidate the relationships within this section from Chamaecrista. The tree topology was congruent between the two data sets studied in which the monophyly of the genus Chamaecrista was strongly supported. Our analyses reinforce that new sectional boundaries must be defined in the Chamaecrista genus, especially the inclusion of sections Caliciopsis and Xerocalyx in sect. Chamaecrista, considered here paraphyletic. The section Xerocalyx was strongly supported as monophyletic; however, the current data did not show C. ramosa (microphyllous) and C. desvauxii (macrophyllous) and their respective varieties in distinct clades, suggesting that speciation events are still ongoing in these specimens. PMID:21734825

  13. The genus Machaerium (Fabaceae): taxonomy, phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Amen, Yhiya M; Marzouk, Amani M; Zaghloul, Mona G; Afifi, Mohamed S

    2015-01-01

    Machaerium, in the family Fabaceae, predominantly is a genus of a Neotropical distribution of trees, shrubs, and lianas occurring from southern Mexico to Brazil and northern Argentina and as far as South America. Several Machaerium species are widely used in traditional medicine and are considered to have multiple medicinal properties. This review aims to provide up-to-date and comprehensive information on the taxonomy, phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities of plants in the genus Machaerium.

  14. Dormancy-breaking requirements of Sophora tomentosa and Erythrina speciosa (Fabaceae) seeds.

    PubMed

    Luzia Delgado, Carolina Maria; Souza de Paula, Alexandre; Santos, Marisa; Silveira Paulilo, Maria Terezinha

    2015-03-01

    The physical dormancy of seeds has been poorly studied in species from tropical forests, such as the Atlantic Forest. This study aimed to examine the effect of moderate alternating temperatures on breaking the physical dormancy of seeds, the morphoanatomy and histochemistry of seed coats, and to locate the structure/region responsible for water entrance into the seed, after breaking the physical dormancy of seeds of two woody Fabaceae (subfamily Faboideae) species that occur in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Sophora tomentosa and Erythrina speciosa. To assess temperature effect, seeds were incubated in several temperature values that occur in the Atlantic Forest. For morphological and histochemical studies, sections of fixed seeds were subjected to different reagents, and were observed using light or epifluorescence microscopy, to analyze the anatomy and histochemistry of the seed coat. Treated and nonreated seeds were also analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to observe the morphology of the seed coat. To localize the specific site of water entrance, the seeds were blocked with glue in different regions and also immersed in ink. In the present work a maximum temperature fluctuation of 15 degrees C was applied during a period of 20 days and these conditions did not increase the germination of S. tomentosa or E. speciosa. These results may indicate that these seeds require larger fluctuation of temperature than the applied or/and longer period of exposition to the temperature fluctuation. Blocking experiments water inlet combined with SEM analysis of the structures of seed coat for both species showed that besides the lens, the hilum and micropyle are involved in water absorption in seeds scarified with hot water. In seeds of E. speciosa the immersion of scarified seeds into an aniline aqueous solution showed that the solution first entered the seed through the hilum. Both species showed seed morphological and anatomical features for seed coats of the

  15. Strigolactones, host recognition signals for root parasitic plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, from Fabaceae plants.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, Kaori; Xie, Xiaonan; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Takeuchi, Yasutomo; Ogasawara, Shin; Akiyama, Kohki; Hayashi, Hideo; Yoneyama, Koichi

    2008-07-01

    Both root parasitic plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi take advantage of strigolactones, released from plant roots as signal molecules in the initial communication with host plants, in order to commence parasitism and mutualism, respectively. In this study, strigolactones in root exudates from 12 Fabaceae plants, including hydroponically grown white lupin (Lupinus albus), a nonhost of AM fungi, were characterized by comparing retention times of germination stimulants on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with those of standards and by using tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). All the plant species examined were found to exude known strigolactones, such as orobanchol, orobanchyl acetate, and 5-deoxystrigol, suggesting that these strigolactones are widely distributed in the Fabaceae. It should be noted that even the nonmycotrophic L. albus exuded orobanchol, orobanchyl acetate, 5-deoxystrigol, and novel germination stimulants. By contrast to the mycotrophic Fabaceae plant Trifolium pratense, in which phosphorus deficiency promoted strigolactone exudation, neither phosphorus nor nitrogen deficiency increased exudation of these strigolactones in L. albus. Therefore, the regulation of strigolactone production and/or exudation seems to be closely related to the nutrient acquisition strategy of the plants.

  16. UHPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS-based metabolic profiling of Vicia faba L. (Fabaceae) seeds as a key strategy for characterization in foodomics.

    PubMed

    Abu-Reidah, Ibrahim M; del Mar Contreras, María; Arráez-Román, David; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Vicia faba (Fabaceae) is a popular food in many countries and a good source of nutrients. However, little is known about its phytochemical composition, specially referring to phenolic compounds. In the present work, the dietary metabolites from a hydro-methanolic extract of V. faba seeds were thoroughly characterized by a nontargeted analytical approach based on reversed-phase ultra-HPLC (UHPLC) coupled to QTOF-MS. A total of 155 primary and secondary metabolites of various structural types were characterized: carbohydrates, amino acids, organic acids, alkaloids, terpenoids, jasmonates, and, mainly, polyphenols. Among the latter group, 73 compounds were characterized for the first time in this legume. In addition, 24 new structures, belonging to jasmonates and glycosylated N-containing compounds, were also proposed. Thus, this methodology could be implemented in foodomics as a characterization strategy to complement the knowledge of the phytochemical composition of vegetables.

  17. Development, characterization, and cross-amplification of microsatellite markers in the understudied African genus Anthonotha (Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Demenou, Boris B.; Hardy, Olivier J.

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Anthonotha macrophylla (Fabaceae) is a common tree species throughout the Guineo-Congolian forest that is sometimes confounded with other congeneric species; it is expected to be an interesting phylogeographical model to infer the history of the African dense forests. We developed 18 microsatellite markers from this species and tested their transferability in 15 congeneric species. Methods and Results: A genomic library was obtained using the Illumina platform, and 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed. The polymorphic microsatellites displayed two to 24 alleles (average: 11.9 alleles per locus, expected heterozygosity range: 0.18–0.91, mean: 0.64) in three populations of A. macrophylla from Benin, Liberia, and Cameroon. Cross-amplification in one to nine individuals of 15 congeneric Anthonotha species (A. acuminata, A. brieyi, A. cladantha, A. crassifolia, A. ferruginea, A. fragrans, A. gilletii, A. lamprophylla, A. mouandzae, A. noldeae, A. pellegrinii, A. pynaertii, A. stipulacea, A. wijmacampensis, and A. xanderi) showed successful amplification in six to 17 loci, making most of these markers useful at the generic level. Conclusions: This set of markers will be useful to study species delimitation and the genetic structure of Anthonotha species, and thus to better understand the history of tropical African rainforests. PMID:28090412

  18. Pollen dispersal of tropical trees (Dinizia excelsa: Fabaceae) by native insects and African honeybees in pristine and fragmented Amazonian rainforest.

    PubMed

    Dick, Christopher W; Etchelecu, Gabriela; Austerlitz, Frédéric

    2003-03-01

    Tropical rainforest trees typically occur in low population densities and rely on animals for cross-pollination. It is of conservation interest therefore to understand how rainforest fragmentation may alter the pollination and breeding structure of remnant trees. Previous studies of the Amazonian tree Dinizia excelsa (Fabaceae) found African honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata) as the predominant pollinators of trees in highly disturbed habitats, transporting pollen up to 3.2 km between pasture trees. Here, using microsatellite genotypes of seed arrays, we compare outcrossing rates and pollen dispersal distances of (i) remnant D. excelsa in three large ranches, and (ii) a population in undisturbed forest in which African honeybees were absent. Self-fertilization was more frequent in the disturbed habitats (14%, n = 277 seeds from 12 mothers) than in undisturbed forest (10%, n = 295 seeds from 13 mothers). Pollen dispersal was extensive in all three ranches compared to undisturbed forest, however. Using a twogener analysis, we estimated a mean pollen dispersal distance of 1509 m in Colosso ranch, assuming an exponential dispersal function, and 212 m in undisturbed forest. The low effective density of D. excelsa in undisturbed forest (approximately 0.1 trees/ha) indicates that large areas of rainforest must be preserved to maintain minimum viable populations. Our results also suggest, however, that in highly disturbed habitats Apis mellifera may expand genetic neighbourhood areas, thereby linking fragmented and continuous forest populations.

  19. Development of microsatellite loci of pod mahogany, Afzelia quanzensis (Fabaceae), by Illumina shotgun sequencing, and cross-amplification in A. africana1

    PubMed Central

    Jinga, Percy; Palagi, Jason; Ashley, Mary V.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for Afzelia quanzensis (Fabaceae) as a first step toward investigating genetic diversity and population structure of the species in its native range. Methods and Results: Illumina shotgun sequencing was used to generate raw sequence reads, which were searched for potential microsatellite loci. A total of 70 potential microsatellite loci were tested for amplification and polymorphism, and 39 successfully amplified. Of the 39 loci that amplified, 12 were polymorphic while 27 were monomorphic. The 12 polymorphic loci were cross-amplified in A. africana, and eight successfully amplified. Conclusions: The 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci can be used for genetic studies of A. quanzensis, which can help determine its conservation status. Eight loci can also be used for genotyping in A. africana. PMID:27347453

  20. Seed Carotenoid and Tocochromanol Composition of Wild Fabaceae Species Is Shaped by Phylogeny and Ecological Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Míguez, Fátima; Méndez-Fernández, Leire; Agut, Agustí; Becerril, José M.; García-Plazaola, José I.; Kranner, Ilse; Colville, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Carotenoids distribution and function in seeds have been very scarcely studied, notwithstanding their pivotal roles in plants that include photosynthesis and phytohormone synthesis, pigmentation, membrane stabilization and antioxidant activity. Their relationship with tocochromanols, whose critical role in maintaining seed viability has already been evidenced, and with chlorophylls, whose retention in mature seed is thought to have negative effects on storability, remain also unexplored. Here, we aimed at elucidating seed carotenoids relationship with tocochromanols and chlorophylls with regard to phylogenetic and ecological traits and at understanding their changes during germination. The composition and distribution of carotenoids were investigated in seeds of a wide range of wild species across the Fabaceae (the second-most economically important family after the Poaceae). Photosynthetic pigments and tocochromanols were analyzed by HPLC in mature dry seeds of 50 species representative of 5 subfamilies within the Fabaceae (including taxa that represent all continents, biomes and life forms within the family) and at key timepoints during seedling establishment in three species representative of distinct clades. Total-carotenoids content positively correlated with tocopherols in the basal subfamilies Detarioideae, Cercidoideae, and Dialioideae, and with chlorophylls in the Papilionoideae. Papilionoideae lacked tocotrienols and had the highest total-carotenoids, chlorophyll and γ-tocopherol contents. Interestingly, lutein epoxide was present in 72% of the species including several herbs from different subfamilies. Overall, species original from temperate biomes presented higher carotenoids and lower tocochromanols levels than those from tropical biomes. Also shrub species showed higher carotenoids content than herbs and trees. During germination, total content of photosynthetic pigments increased in parallel to changes in relative abundance of carotenoids

  1. Seed Carotenoid and Tocochromanol Composition of Wild Fabaceae Species Is Shaped by Phylogeny and Ecological Factors.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Míguez, Fátima; Méndez-Fernández, Leire; Agut, Agustí; Becerril, José M; García-Plazaola, José I; Kranner, Ilse; Colville, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Carotenoids distribution and function in seeds have been very scarcely studied, notwithstanding their pivotal roles in plants that include photosynthesis and phytohormone synthesis, pigmentation, membrane stabilization and antioxidant activity. Their relationship with tocochromanols, whose critical role in maintaining seed viability has already been evidenced, and with chlorophylls, whose retention in mature seed is thought to have negative effects on storability, remain also unexplored. Here, we aimed at elucidating seed carotenoids relationship with tocochromanols and chlorophylls with regard to phylogenetic and ecological traits and at understanding their changes during germination. The composition and distribution of carotenoids were investigated in seeds of a wide range of wild species across the Fabaceae (the second-most economically important family after the Poaceae). Photosynthetic pigments and tocochromanols were analyzed by HPLC in mature dry seeds of 50 species representative of 5 subfamilies within the Fabaceae (including taxa that represent all continents, biomes and life forms within the family) and at key timepoints during seedling establishment in three species representative of distinct clades. Total-carotenoids content positively correlated with tocopherols in the basal subfamilies Detarioideae, Cercidoideae, and Dialioideae, and with chlorophylls in the Papilionoideae. Papilionoideae lacked tocotrienols and had the highest total-carotenoids, chlorophyll and γ-tocopherol contents. Interestingly, lutein epoxide was present in 72% of the species including several herbs from different subfamilies. Overall, species original from temperate biomes presented higher carotenoids and lower tocochromanols levels than those from tropical biomes. Also shrub species showed higher carotenoids content than herbs and trees. During germination, total content of photosynthetic pigments increased in parallel to changes in relative abundance of carotenoids

  2. Unusual alkaloids of the highland species Astragalus cryptanthus Wedd. (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Echeverría, Javier; Espinoza, Sergio M; Niemeyer, Hermann M

    2017-01-01

    Two unusual caprolactam alkaloids, 3-(dimethylamino)hexahydro-2H-azepin-2-one and 3-(methylamino)-hexahydro-2H-azepin-2-one, were isolated from the aerial parts of Astragalus cryptanthus Wedd.; their structures were unambiguously determined based on data from extensive 1D and 2D NMR, GC-MS and FT-IR spectroscopic analyses. This is the first report of this alkaloid type in the genus Astragalus.

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Gramineae and Fabaceae Soda Lignins

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Robles, Juan; Sánchez, Rafael; Espinosa, Eduardo; Savy, Davide; Mazzei, Pierluigi; Piccolo, Alessandro; Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Some agricultural residues such as wheat or barley straw, as well as certain fast-growing plants like Leucaena leucocephala and Chamaecytisus proliferus, could be used as raw materials for the paper industry as an alternative to traditional plants (eucalyptus, pine, etc.). In the present study, four types of lignin obtained from the spent liquors produced by the pulping processes using the abovementioned feedstocks were isolated and characterized. Lignin samples were acquired through an acid precipitation from these spent liquors. The characterization of the precipitated lignin samples were performed using a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and both liquid- and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to analyse the chemical structure, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for determining the thermal properties. Additionally, chemical composition of lignin fractions was also measured. Even though they were of different botanical origin, all the studied samples except for wheat straw lignin had a similar chemical composition and thermal behaviour, and identical chemical structure. Wheat straw lignin showed a greater amount of Klason lignin and lower carbohydrate content. Furthermore, this lignin sample showed a higher thermal stability and significantly different cross-peak patterns in the 2D-NMR experiments. The molecular structures corresponding to p-coumarate (PCA), ferulate (FA) and cinnamyl aldehyde end-groups (J) were only detected in wheat isolated lignin. PMID:28165411

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Gramineae and Fabaceae Soda Lignins.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Robles, Juan; Sánchez, Rafael; Espinosa, Eduardo; Savy, Davide; Mazzei, Pierluigi; Piccolo, Alessandro; Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2017-02-04

    Some agricultural residues such as wheat or barley straw, as well as certain fast-growing plants like Leucaena leucocephala and Chamaecytisus proliferus, could be used as raw materials for the paper industry as an alternative to traditional plants (eucalyptus, pine, etc.). In the present study, four types of lignin obtained from the spent liquors produced by the pulping processes using the abovementioned feedstocks were isolated and characterized. Lignin samples were acquired through an acid precipitation from these spent liquors. The characterization of the precipitated lignin samples were performed using a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and both liquid- and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to analyse the chemical structure, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for determining the thermal properties. Additionally, chemical composition of lignin fractions was also measured. Even though they were of different botanical origin, all the studied samples except for wheat straw lignin had a similar chemical composition and thermal behaviour, and identical chemical structure. Wheat straw lignin showed a greater amount of Klason lignin and lower carbohydrate content. Furthermore, this lignin sample showed a higher thermal stability and significantly different cross-peak patterns in the 2D-NMR experiments. The molecular structures corresponding to p-coumarate (PCA), ferulate (FA) and cinnamyl aldehyde end-groups (J) were only detected in wheat isolated lignin.

  5. Determination of a-glucosidase inhibitory activity from selected Fabaceae plants.

    PubMed

    Dej-Adisai, Sukanya; Pitakbut, Thanet

    2015-09-01

    Nineteen plants from Fabaceae family, which were used in Thai traditional medicine for treatment of diabetes, were determined of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity via enzymatic reaction. In this reaction, α-glucosidase was used as enzyme, which, reacted with the substrate, p-nitrophenol-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG). After that the product, p-nitro phenol (pNP) will be occurred and observed the yellow colour at 405 nm. In this study, acarbose was used as positive standard which, inhibited this enzyme with IC₅₀ as 331 ± 4.73 μg/ml. Caesalpinia pulcherrima leaves showed the highest activity with IC₅₀ as 436.97 ± 9.44 μg/ml. Furthermore, Bauhinia malabarica leaves presented moderately activity with IC₅₀ as 745.08 ± 11.15 μg/ml. However, the other plants showed mild to none activity of α-glucosidase inhibition. Accordingly, this study can support anti-diabetes of these plants in traditional medicine and it will be the database of the biological activity of Fabaceae plant.

  6. D-Pinitol in Fabaceae: an Oviposition Stimulant for the Common Grass Yellow Butterfly, Eurema mandarina.

    PubMed

    Mukae, Shin-Ya; Ohashi, Toshiki; Matsumoto, Yuika; Ohta, Shinji; Ômura, Hisashi

    2016-11-01

    The common grass yellow butterfly, Eurema mandarina (formerly Eurema hecabe mandarina) (Lepidoptera, Pieridae), recently has been separated taxonomically from a subtropical population of Eurema hecabe in Japan. This species is widely distributed in the temperate region of Japan, and feeds mainly on various ligneous plants within the Fabaceae. We attempted to identify an oviposition stimulant for E. mandarina from its primary hosts, Albizia julibrissin and Lespedeza cuneata. In both hosts, crude extract and an aqueous fraction elicited oviposition responses from gravid females. A polar subfraction of the aqueous fraction also stimulated high oviposition-stimulatory activity, comparable to the original aqueous fraction, suggesting that E. mandarina females use water-soluble compounds for host recognition. Subsequent activity-directed fractionation by ion exchange chromatography indicated that one of the key substances was contained in the neutral/amphoteric fraction. Chemical analyses revealed that the active fractions of both hosts contained D-(+)-pinitol as the major component. We examined female responses to authentic D-pinitol and found that it induced oviposition responses at concentrations greater than 0.1 %. Since this cyclitol is omnipresent in Fabaceae, we conclude that D-pinitol plays a role in mediating oviposition of E. mandarina on fabaceous plants.

  7. A kaempferol triglycoside from Tephrosia preussii Taub. (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Mba Nguekeu, Yves Martial; Awouafack, Maurice Ducret; Tane, Pierre; Nguedia Lando, Marius Roch; Kodama, Takeshi; Morita, Hiroyuki

    2017-04-13

    A phytochemical investigation of the MeOH extract of twigs and leaves of Tephrosia preussi was carried out to give a new kaempferol triglycoside, named tephrokaempferoside (1), together with five known compounds: tephrosin (2), betulinic acid (3), lupeol (4), β-sitosterol (5) and 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside of β-sitosterol (6). The structure of the new compound was characterised by analyses of NMR (1D and 2D) and MS data, and chemical conversion. Tephrokaempferoside (1) had weak antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae with an MIC value of 150 μg/mL.

  8. Seed storage protein gene promoters contain conserved DNA motifs in Brassicaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae

    PubMed Central

    Fauteux, François; Strömvik, Martina V

    2009-01-01

    Background Accurate computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs is difficult, particularly in eukaryotic promoters, which typically contain multiple short and degenerate DNA sequences bound by several interacting factors. Enrichment in combinations of rare motifs in the promoter sequence of functionally or evolutionarily related genes among several species is an indicator of conserved transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. This provides a basis for the computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs. Results We have used a discriminative seeding DNA motif discovery algorithm for an in-depth analysis of 54 seed storage protein (SSP) gene promoters from three plant families, namely Brassicaceae (mustards), Fabaceae (legumes) and Poaceae (grasses) using backgrounds based on complete sets of promoters from a representative species in each family, namely Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.), soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) respectively. We have identified three conserved motifs (two RY-like and one ACGT-like) in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae SSP gene promoters that are similar to experimentally characterized seed-specific cis-regulatory elements. Fabaceae SSP gene promoter sequences are also enriched in a novel, seed-specific E2Fb-like motif. Conserved motifs identified in Poaceae SSP gene promoters include a GCN4-like motif, two prolamin-box-like motifs and an Skn-1-like motif. Evidence of the presence of a variant of the TATA-box is found in the SSP gene promoters from the three plant families. Motifs discovered in SSP gene promoters were used to score whole-genome sets of promoters from Arabidopsis, soybean and rice. The highest-scoring promoters are associated with genes coding for different subunits or precursors of seed storage proteins. Conclusion Seed storage protein gene promoter motifs are conserved in diverse species, and different plant families are characterized by a distinct combination of conserved motifs

  9. Tortricid moths (Lepidopotera: Tortricidae) reared from the invasive weed Parkinsonia aculeta (Fabaceae), with comments on their host specificity, biology, and geographic distribution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During efforts to identify native herbivores of Parkinsonia aculeata L. (Fabaceae: Caesalpiniodeae) as potential biological control agents against this invasive weed in Australia, seven species of Tortricidae were reared in Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Venezuela: Amorbia concavana (Zeller), Pla...

  10. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for the endangered scrub Lupine, Lupinus aridorum (Fabaceae)

    DOE PAGES

    Ricono, Angela; Bupp, Glen; Peterson, Cheryl; ...

    2015-04-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed in scrub lupine (Lupinus aridorum, Fabaceae), an endemic species to Florida that is listed as endangered in the United States, to assess connectivity among populations, identify hybrids, and examine genetic diversity. We isolated and characterized 12 microsatellite loci polymorphic in scrub lupine or in closely related species (i.e., sky-blue lupine [L. diffusus] and Gulf Coast lupine [L. westianus]). Loci showed low to moderate polymorphism, ranging from two to 14 alleles per locus and 0.01 to 0.86 observed heterozygosity. In conclusion, these loci are the first developed for Florida species of lupine and will be used tomore » determine differentiation among species and to aid in conservation of the endangered scrub lupine.« less

  11. Cytisus scoparius (Fam. Fabaceae) in southern Brazil - first step of an invasion process?

    PubMed

    Cordero, Rodrigo León; Torchelsen, Fábio P; Overbeck, Gerhard E; Anand, Madhur

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of Scotch broom Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link (Fabaceae), is reported for the first time in Brazil. The species has been registered in the species-rich Campos Sulinos grasslands, in the Campos de Cima da Serra, and in the Serra do Sudeste. Naturalizing populations were frequently formed in natural habitats near to human settlements, where prevailing land uses and disturbances facilitate dispersal and establishment. The plant is an invasive species that has globally caused significant damage to biodiversity and economic losses. In Brazil, the species has a strong potential for spreading into a wide range of ecosystems. The Atlantic Forest biome and part of the Pampa biome, together known as the Campos Sulinos, represent optimal areas for the species. Features of the observed populations and recommendations for management are presented.

  12. Nutritional characteristics of seed proteins in 28 Vicia species (Fabaceae) from Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Pastor-Cavada, Elena; Juan, Rocio; Pastor, Julio E; Alaiz, Manuel; Vioque, Javier

    2011-10-01

    The study of local plants could provide useful data for the possible development of future crops with good nutritional and functional properties. The nutritional characteristics of the seed proteins of 28 Vicia species (31 taxa) (Fabaceae) from Spain were studied. Protein contents in studied Vicia ranged from 20.1% in V. articulata to 32% in V. pyrenaica. V. altissima, which is only deficient in Trp, showed the most balanced amino acid composition, while the remaining taxa were limiting in Met, Cys, and Trp. In vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) ranged from 78% in V. incana to 86.3% in V. hirsuta. In addition to the amino acid composition and IVPD, other nutritional parameters, such as amino acid score, biological value, protein efficiency ratio, or protein digestibility corrected amino acid score, were studied. Results confirm the interest of studying wild populations of cultivated and non cultivated Vicia species as potentially interesting sources of seeds with good nutritional characteristics.

  13. Nuclear DNA Content Variation and Species Relationships in the Genus Lupinus (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    NAGANOWSKA, BARBARA; WOLKO, BOGDAN; ŚLIWIŃSKA, ELWIRA; KACZMAREK, ZYGMUNT

    2003-01-01

    The 2C nuclear DNA content has been estimated by flow cytometry in 18 species and botanical forms of the genus Lupinus (family Fabaceae), using propidium iodide as a fluorescent dye. They represented distinct infrageneric taxonomic groups and differed in somatic chromosome numbers. Estimated 2C DNA values ranged from 0·97 pg in L. princei to 2·44 pg in L. luteus, which gives a more than 2·5-fold variation. Statistical analysis of the data obtained resulted in a grouping that supports the generally accepted taxonomic classification of the Old World lupins. The rough-seeded L. princei turned out to be an interesting exception, getting closer to smooth-seeded species. Results of DNA content analyses are discussed with regards to the phylogenetic relationships among the Old World lupins and some aspects of the evolution of the genus. PMID:12853281

  14. Development and characterisation of nine polymorphic microsatellite markers for Tephrosia calophylla Bedd. (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Parine, Narasimha Reddy; Lakshmi, P; Kumar, Devinder; Shaik, Jilani P; Alanazi, Mohammed; Pathan, Akbar Ali Khan

    2015-03-01

    Tephrosia calophylla Bedd. (Fabaceae) is an endangered tropical plant endemic to southwestern Ghats, India. The objective of this study was to contribute to the characterisation of the diversity of this rare species, which is necessary for its future conservation. Accordingly, microsatellite markers were designed, and their ability to detect polymorphisms was determined. Nine microsatellite markers were developed using genomic libraries, and all of the markers were successfully amplified in 42 individuals. Three to nine alleles per locus were observed, and the heterozygosity of the loci ranged from 0.381 to 0.905. The nine newly developed polymorphic markers recognise a sufficient number of varying loci to perform further studies on the conservation and breeding of this medicinal cultivar.

  15. Development and characterisation of nine polymorphic microsatellite markers for Tephrosia calophylla Bedd. (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Parine, Narasimha Reddy; Lakshmi, P.; Kumar, Devinder; Shaik, Jilani P.; Alanazi, Mohammed; Pathan, Akbar Ali Khan

    2014-01-01

    Tephrosia calophylla Bedd. (Fabaceae) is an endangered tropical plant endemic to southwestern Ghats, India. The objective of this study was to contribute to the characterisation of the diversity of this rare species, which is necessary for its future conservation. Accordingly, microsatellite markers were designed, and their ability to detect polymorphisms was determined. Nine microsatellite markers were developed using genomic libraries, and all of the markers were successfully amplified in 42 individuals. Three to nine alleles per locus were observed, and the heterozygosity of the loci ranged from 0.381 to 0.905. The nine newly developed polymorphic markers recognise a sufficient number of varying loci to perform further studies on the conservation and breeding of this medicinal cultivar. PMID:25737647

  16. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for the endangered scrub lupine, Lupinus aridorum (Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Ricono, Angela; Bupp, Glen; Peterson, Cheryl; Nunziata, Schyler O.; Lance, Stacey L.; Pruett, Christin L.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed in scrub lupine (Lupinus aridorum, Fabaceae), an endemic species to Florida that is listed as endangered in the United States, to assess connectivity among populations, identify hybrids, and examine genetic diversity. Methods and Results: We isolated and characterized 12 microsatellite loci polymorphic in scrub lupine or in closely related species (i.e., sky-blue lupine [L. diffusus] and Gulf Coast lupine [L. westianus]). Loci showed low to moderate polymorphism, ranging from two to 14 alleles per locus and 0.01 to 0.86 observed heterozygosity. Conclusions: These loci are the first developed for Florida species of lupine and will be used to determine differentiation among species and to aid in conservation of the endangered scrub lupine. PMID:25909046

  17. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for the endangered scrub lupine, Lupinus aridorum (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Ricono, Angela; Bupp, Glen; Peterson, Cheryl; Nunziata, Schyler O; Lance, Stacey L; Pruett, Christin L

    2015-04-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed in scrub lupine (Lupinus aridorum, Fabaceae), an endemic species to Florida that is listed as endangered in the United States, to assess connectivity among populations, identify hybrids, and examine genetic diversity. We isolated and characterized 12 microsatellite loci polymorphic in scrub lupine or in closely related species (i.e., sky-blue lupine [L. diffusus] and Gulf Coast lupine [L. westianus]). Loci showed low to moderate polymorphism, ranging from two to 14 alleles per locus and 0.01 to 0.86 observed heterozygosity. These loci are the first developed for Florida species of lupine and will be used to determine differentiation among species and to aid in conservation of the endangered scrub lupine.

  18. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for Piptadenia gonoacantha (Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Grando, Carolina; Bajay, Miklos M.; Bajay, Stephanie K.; Schwarcz, Kaiser D.; Campos, Jaqueline B.; Brancalion, Pedro H. S.; Pinheiro, José B.; Rodrigues, Ricardo R.; Souza, Anete P.; Zucchi, Maria I.

    2015-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were designed for Piptadenia gonoacantha (Fabaceae) and characterized to estimate genetic diversity parameters. The species is a native tree from the Atlantic Forest biome commonly used in forest restoration; it has medicinal potential and the wood is economically useful. • Methods and Results: Twenty-eight microsatellite loci were identified from an enriched genomic library. Fifteen loci resulted in successful amplifications and were characterized in a natural population of 94 individuals. Twelve loci were polymorphic, with allele numbers ranging from three to 15 per locus, and expected and observed heterozygosities ranging from 0.2142 to 0.8325 and 0.190 to 0.769, respectively. • Conclusions: The developed markers will be used in further studies of population genetics of P. gonoacantha, aimed at conservation and management of the species in natural populations and in forest restoration projects. PMID:25699220

  19. Medicinal Plants Used in Wound Care: A Study of Prosopis africana (Fabaceae) Stem Bark.

    PubMed

    Ezike, A C; Akah, P A; Okoli, C O; Udegbunam, S; Okwume, N; Okeke, C; Iloani, O

    2010-05-01

    The effects of the methanol extract of the stem bark of Prosopis africana (Guill., Perrott. and Rich.) Taubert (Fabaceae) on bleeding/clotting and coagulation time, excision and dead space wounds were studied in rats. Also, the extract was subjected to antibacterial, and acute toxicity and lethality (LD(50)) tests. The extract significantly (P<0.05) reduced bleeding/clotting and coagulation time in rats. It also reduced epithelialization period of excision wounds in rats and inhibited the growth of laboratory strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae to varying extents. Acute toxicity and lethality (LD(50)) test on the extract established an LD(50) of 774 mg/kg (i.p) in mice while phytochemical analysis gave positive reactions for alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and carbohydrates. The results of this study demonstrate the beneficial effects of the stem bark of P. africana in wound care.

  20. Evidence That Chlorinated Auxin Is Restricted to the Fabaceae But Not to the Fabeae1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    McAdam, Scott A.M.; McAdam, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Auxin is a pivotal plant hormone, usually occurring in the form of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). However, in maturing pea (Pisum sativum) seeds, the level of the chlorinated auxin, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl-IAA), greatly exceeds that of IAA. A key issue is how plants produce halogenated compounds such as 4-Cl-IAA. To better understand this topic, we investigated the distribution of the chlorinated auxin. We show for the first time, to our knowledge, that 4-Cl-IAA is found in the seeds of Medicago truncatula, Melilotus indicus, and three species of Trifolium. Furthermore, we found no evidence that Pinus spp. synthesize 4-Cl-IAA in seeds, contrary to a previous report. The evidence indicates a single evolutionary origin of 4-Cl-IAA synthesis in the Fabaceae, which may provide an ideal model system to further investigate the action and activity of halogenating enzymes in plants. PMID:25971549

  1. No evidence for Fabaceae Gametophytic self-incompatibility being determined by Rosaceae, Solanaceae, and Plantaginaceae S-RNase lineage genes.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Bruno; Vieira, Jorge; Cunha, Ana E; Vieira, Cristina P

    2015-06-02

    Fabaceae species are important in agronomy and livestock nourishment. They have a long breeding history, and most cultivars have lost self-incompatibility (SI), a genetic barrier to self-fertilization. Nevertheless, to improve legume crop breeding, crosses with wild SI relatives of the cultivated varieties are often performed. Therefore, it is fundamental to characterize Fabaceae SI system(s). We address the hypothesis of Fabaceae gametophytic (G)SI being RNase based, by recruiting the same S-RNase lineage gene of Rosaceae, Solanaceae or Plantaginaceae SI species. We first identify SSK1 like genes (described only in species having RNase based GSI), in the Trifolium pratense, Medicago truncatula, Cicer arietinum, Glycine max, and Lupinus angustifolius genomes. Then, we characterize the S-lineage T2-RNase genes in these genomes. In T. pratense, M. truncatula, and C. arietinum we identify S-RNase lineage genes that in phylogenetic analyses cluster with Pyrinae S-RNases. In M. truncatula and C. arietinum genomes, where large scaffolds are available, these sequences are surrounded by F-box genes that in phylogenetic analyses also cluster with S-pollen genes. In T. pratense the S-RNase lineage genes show, however, expression in tissues not involved in GSI. Moreover, levels of diversity are lower than those observed for other S-RNase genes. The M. truncatula and C. arietinum S-RNase and S-pollen like genes phylogenetically related to Pyrinae S-genes, are also expressed in tissues other than those involved in GSI. To address if other T2-RNases could be determining Fabaceae GSI, here we obtained a style with stigma transcriptome of Cytisus striatus, a species that shows significant difference on the percentage of pollen growth in self and cross-pollinations. Expression and polymorphism analyses of the C. striatus S-RNase like genes revealed that none of these genes, is the S-pistil gene. We find no evidence for Fabaceae GSI being determined by Rosaceae, Solanaceae, and

  2. The Usefulness of Edible and Medicinal Fabaceae in Argentine and Chilean Patagonia: Environmental Availability and Other Sources of Supply

    PubMed Central

    Molares, Soledad; Ladio, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Fabaceae is of great ethnobotanical importance in indigenous and urban communities throughout the world. This work presents a revision of the use of Fabaceae as a food and/or medicinal resource in Argentine-Chilean Patagonia. It is based on a bibliographical analysis of 27 ethnobotanical sources and catalogues of regional flora. Approximately 234 wild species grow in Patagonia, mainly (60%) in arid environments, whilst the remainder belong to Sub-Antarctic forest. It was found that 12.8% (30 species), mainly woody, conspicuous plants, are collected for food or medicines. Most of the species used grow in arid environments. Cultivation and purchase/barter enrich the Fabaceae offer, bringing it up to a total of 63 species. The richness of native and exotic species, and the existence of multiple strategies for obtaining these plants, indicates hybridization of knowledge and practices. Only 22% of the total species used are mentioned in bothcontexts of food and medicine, reflecting low-use complementation. This study suggests a significant ecological appearance and a high level of availability in shops and exchange networks in Patagonia, highlighting the need to consider the full set of environmental and socioeconomic factors in research related to the use and cultural importance of plants in regional contexts. PMID:22194774

  3. Molecular Phylogeny of Gueldenstaedtia and Tibetia (Fabaceae) and Their Biogeographic Differentiation within Eastern Asia

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yan-Ping; Meng, Ying; Sun, Hang; Nie, Ze-Long

    2016-01-01

    Tibetia and Gueldenstaedtia are two morphologically similar and small genera in Fabaceae, with distributions largely corresponding to the Sino-Himalayan and Sino-Japanese subkingdoms in eastern Asia, respectively. These two genera have confusing relationships based on morphology; therefore, we aimed to provide a clear understanding of their phylogenetic and biogeographic evolution within eastern Asia. In our investigations we included 88 samples representing five Gueldenstaedtia species, five Tibetia species, and outgroup species were sequenced using five markers (nuclear: ITS; chloroplast: matK, trnL-F, psbA-trnH and rbcL). Our phylogenetic results support (1) the monophyly of Tibetia and of Gueldenstaedtia, respectively; and (2) that Tibetia and Gueldenstaedtia are sister genera. Additionally, our data identified that Tibetia species had much higher sequence variation than Gueldenstaedtia species. Our results suggest that the two genera were separated from each other about 17.23 million years ago, which is congruent with the Himalayan orogeny and the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau in the mid Miocene. The divergence of Tibetia and Gueldenstaedtia is strongly supported by the separation of the Sino-Himalayan and Sino-Japanese region within eastern Asia. In addition, the habitat heterogeneity may accelerate the molecular divergence of Tibetia in the Sino-Himalayan region. PMID:27632535

  4. Microsatellite primers for vulnerable and thriving Acacia (Fabaceae) species from Australia’s arid zone1

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Cairo N.; Roberts, David G.; Denham, Andrew J.; Ayre, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for the common arid Australian shrub Acacia ligulata (Fabaceae) and the threatened overstory trees A. melvillei and A. pendula. Methods and Results: DNA sequence data generated by 454 sequencing were used to identify microsatellite nucleotide repeat motifs. Including previously developed primer sets, we report on the development of 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci for each species. Six of these were novel for A. melvillei and A. ligulata, and five were novel for A. pendula, while five more each were transferred from primers developed for related species (A. carneorum and A. loderi). We found three to 17 alleles per locus for each species, with high multilocus genotypic diversity within each of two A. ligulata and A. pendula stands, and one A. melvillei population. A second A. melvillei stand appeared to be monoclonal. Conclusions: These markers will allow assessment of population genetics, mating systems, and connectedness of populations of these and possibly other arid-zone acacias. PMID:25909043

  5. Effect of static electric fields in root cells of Vicia faba (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Demiray, H

    2006-01-01

    Serial electron microscopic sections were prepared from half-ripened meristematic root cells of Vicia faba (Fabaceae) which had been exposed gradually to 700, 1000, 2500, 3500, and 5000 V/m static electric fields during seven days with and without Zn and Cd electrodes. At the end of five weeks, wall loosenings and very small nuclei were observed in those root cells which were exposed to static electric currents from the lower side of the medium without electrodes, while abnormalities in cell formation, e.g., two cells with one nucleus, and GER occurrence were present in an electrolytic (Cd upward and Zn downward) medium. The cells exposed to a static current from the upper side of the medium had small nuclei and abnormal cell divisions in the electrolyte, but in a non-electrolyte very large nuclei and thicker cell walls were observed, the cytoplasm was dense with GER, pinocytosis was seen filled with mitochondria, and protoplast formation with big nuclei was seen in exocytosis.

  6. Tamarindus indica L. (Fabaceae): patterns of use in traditional African medicine.

    PubMed

    Havinga, Reinout M; Hartl, Anna; Putscher, Johanna; Prehsler, Sarah; Buchmann, Christine; Vogl, Christian R

    2010-02-17

    To increase the understanding of the ethnopharmacology of a single species, elaboration of dispersed primary data is required. Tamarindus indica L. (Fabaceae), or tamarind, is a common tree, especially in West Africa, with a good potential to contribute to affordable local health care based on traditional medicine (TM). For this single species review, more than 60 references with detailed information on the ethnopharmacology of Tamarindus indica in the African context were selected. It showed that most prominently, the fruits are used as laxative or febrifuge throughout the Sahel and Soudan ecological zones. Tamarind bark and leaves are often involved in the treatment of wounds, especially in central West Africa. While the bark is used to treat diarrhoea in West Africa, the leaves are used for this purpose in East Africa. Our findings suggest a difference in the way tamarind is used between East and West Africa and we assess the similarities of its uses within those regions. This review demonstrates the capability of literature research to reveal knowledge by mining and compiling information from the growing body of primary ethnopharmacologic data, much of which is published in this journal. By creating a specific profile of tamarind in the context of traditional medicine throughout Africa, the authors contribute to the collection of current ethnobotanic species accounts on Tamarindus indica that tend to be qualitative and more general.

  7. Seasonal variation of red clover (Trifolium pratense L., Fabaceae) isoflavones and estrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Booth, Nancy L; Overk, Cassia R; Yao, Ping; Totura, Steve; Deng, Yunfan; Hedayat, A S; Bolton, Judy L; Pauli, Guido F; Farnsworth, Norman R

    2006-02-22

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L., Fabaceae) dietary supplements are currently used to treat menopausal symptoms because of their high content of the mildly estrogenic isoflavones daidzein, genistein, formononetin, and biochanin A. These compounds are estrogenic in vitro and in vivo, but little information exists on the best time to harvest red clover fields to maximize content of the isoflavones and thus make an optimal product. Samples of cultivated red clover above-ground parts and flower heads were collected in parallel over one growing season in northeastern Illinois. Generally, autohydrolytic extracts of above-ground parts contained more isoflavones and had more estrogenic activity in Ishikawa endometrial cells as compared with extracts of flower heads. Daidzein and genistein contents peaked around June to July, while formononetin and biochanin A contents peaked in early September. Flower head and total above-ground parts extracts exhibited differential estrogenic activity in an Ishikawa (endometrial) cell-based alkaline phosphatase induction assay, whereas nondifferential activity was observed for most extracts tested in an MCF-7 (breast) cell proliferation assay when tested at the same final concentrations. Ishikawa assay results could be mapped onto the extracts' content of individual isoflavones, but MCF-7 results did not show such a pattern. These results suggest that significant metabolism of isoflavones may occur in MCF-7 cells but not in Ishikawa cells; therefore, caution is advised in the choice of bioassay used for the biological standardization of botanical dietary supplements.

  8. Exploration of diuretic potential and electrolyte excretion of Tephrosia purpurea (Fabaceae) in rats.

    PubMed

    Ashokkumar, D; Narayana, T V; Vidyasagar; Mazumder, Upal Kanti; Gupta, Malaya

    2012-03-01

    Tephrosia purpurea (Fabaceae) is a well-known traditional plant with diuretic effect but no scientific work published till date to support the claimed ethnomedical use. Therefore, the present study appraised the diuretic potential of methanol extract of Tephrosia purpurea (METP) in male wistar rats. The powdered plant material was extracted with methanol by hot extraction. The animals were divided into five groups for diuretic activity. The first group served as saline control (0.9%% saline solution, 25 ml/kg, body weight (b.w)), the second group received osmotic diuretic, urea (1 g/kg b.w), the third group received high-ceiling diuretic, furosemide (5 mg/kg b.w), and the other two groups were administered various concentrations of METP (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.w) orally to hydrated rats and their urine volume was measured at 5th and 24th hr after drug administration, while animals were deprived of food and water. After collection of urine, the parameters such as urine output, diuretic activity, electrolyte excretion of Na(++), K(++), Ca(2++), and Cl(-), and pH were analyzed. METP at various dose levels exhibited significant diuretic activity as evidenced by increased urine volume, electrolyte concentration, and alkaline pH in comparison to control group of animals. The present study provides a quantitative basis for explaining the folkloric use of Tephrosia purpurea as a diuretic agent in Indian traditional system of medicine.

  9. Morphofunctional Traits and Pollination Mechanisms of Coronilla emerus L. Flowers (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Aronne, Giovanna; Giovanetti, Manuela; De Micco, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    It is accepted that the papilionaceous corolla of the Fabaceae evolved under the selective pressure of bee pollinators. Morphology and function of different parts of Coronilla emerus L. flowers were related to their role in the pollination mechanism. The corolla has a vexillum with red nectar lines, a keel hiding stamens and pistil, and two wing petals fasten to the keel with two notched folds. Pollinators land on the complex of keel and wings, trigger the protrusion of pollen and finally of the stigma from the keel tip. Data on pollen viability and stigma receptivity prove that flowers are proterandrous. The results of hand-pollination experiments confirmed that insects are fundamental to set seed. Interaction with pollinators allows not only the transport of pollen but also the rupture of the stigmatic cuticle, necessary to achieve both allogamy and autogamy. Field observations showed that Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera visited the flowers. Only some of the Hymenoptera landed on the flowers from the front and elicited pollination mechanisms. Most of the insects sucked the nectar from the back without any pollen transfer. Finally, morphological and functional characteristics of C. emerus flowers are discussed in terms of floral larceny and reduction in pollination efficiency. PMID:22666114

  10. [Genetic Differentiation of the Three Species of Genus Astragalus L. of Section Cenantrum Bunge (Fabaceae)].

    PubMed

    Dymshakova, O S; Krivenko, D A; Belyaev, A Yu; Verkhozina, A V

    2015-08-01

    Genetic differentiation based on allozyme data was detected between species of the genus Astragalus L., section Cenantrum Bunge (Fabaceae): A.frigidus (L.) A. Gray s.l., A. mongholicus Bunge s. l, and A. sericeocanus Gontsch, which is endemic to the Northeast coast of Lake Baikal. The results of allozyme analysis confirm the natural division of the section into subsections based on morphological features. Differences between A. frigidus (subsection Elliptica Gontsch.) and A. mongholicus and A. sericeocanus (subsection Semilunaria Gontsch.) were observed. These differences were caused by the presence of species-specific alleles and the allele frequencies of the primary alleles, DN = 1.24. The genetic distance obtained for A. mongholicus and A. sericeocanus (0.10) corresponds to the status of closely related species of one subsection. Between populations of A. frigidus and between populations of A. mongholicus from the central part of areal, DN = 0.02 and 0.03 respectively. This genetic distance corresponds to the interpopulation level and was determined by the allele frequencies. The peripheral population of A. mongholicus is separated (DN = 0.36), which is probably due to the long isolation and the "founder effect."

  11. Antifungal, antibacterial and antimycobacterial activity of Entada abysinnica Steudel ex A. Rich (Fabaceae) methanol extract

    PubMed Central

    Mariita, Richard M.; Orodho, John A.; Okemo, Paul O.; Mbugua, Paul K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the antifungal, antibacterial and antimycobacterial properties of methanol extract of Entada abysinnica steudel ex. A. Rich (Fabaceae) leaves used by herbalists from the Lake Victoria region, Kenya. The extract was tested against four strains of mycobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium smegmatis) using BACTEC Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 system and the proportional method. Standard procedures were used to determine the zones of inhibition, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentrations (MBCs/MFCs) for Candida albicans, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The extract showed activity against some mycobacteria strains, especially M. tuberculosis. It also showed strong antimicrobial activity (zones of inhibition were between 9.00 and 14.10 mm) against C. albicans, Sa. typhi, and St. aureus. The extract gave a better zone of inhibition against C. albicans than fluconazole whose zone of inhibition was 13.00 mm. The MICs and MBCs for C. albicans and Sa. typhi were good. The crude extracts were also analyzed for the presence of phytochemicals. Phytochemical screening indicated that the extract most abundantly contained tannins, saponins, and flavonoids. The data suggest that the methanolic leaves extract of E. abysinnica could be a rich source of antimicrobial agents, especially antifungals. The results further show that there is some merit in the use of the plant in alternative medical practices. However, bioassays of isolated compounds are underway and will be reported during subsequent communications. PMID:21808560

  12. Metabolite fingerprinting, pathway analyses, and bioactivity correlations for plant species belonging to the Cornaceae, Fabaceae, and Rosaceae families.

    PubMed

    Son, Su Young; Kim, Na Kyung; Lee, Sunmin; Singh, Digar; Kim, Ga Ryun; Lee, Jong Seok; Yang, Hee-Sun; Yeo, Joohong; Lee, Sarah; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2016-09-01

    A multi-parallel approach gauging the mass spectrometry-based metabolite fingerprinting coupled with bioactivity and pathway evaluations could serve as an efficacious tool for inferring plant taxonomic orders. Thirty-four species from three plant families, namely Cornaceae (7), Fabaceae (9), and Rosaceae (18) were subjected to metabolite profiling using gas chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole-ion trap-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS), followed by multivariate analyses to determine the metabolites characteristic of these families. The partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) revealed the distinct clustering pattern of metabolites for each family. The pathway analysis further highlighted the relatively higher proportions of flavonols and ellagitannins in the Cornaceae family than in the other two families. Higher levels of phenolic acids and flavan-3-ols were observed among species from the Rosaceae family, while amino acids, flavones, and isoflavones were more abundant among the Fabaceae family members. The antioxidant activities of plant extracts were measured using ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays, and indicated that extracts from the Rosaceae family had the highest activity, followed by those from Cornaceae and Fabaceae. The correlation map analysis positively links the proportional concentration of metabolites with their relative antioxidant activities, particularly in Cornaceae and Rosaceae. This work highlights the pre-eminence of the multi-parallel approach involving metabolite profiling and bioactivity evaluations coupled with metabolic pathways as an efficient methodology for the evaluation of plant phylogenies.

  13. Ovularia puerariae Sawada is the hyphomycetous anamorph of a new Marasmius species on living leaves of kudzu (Pueraria montana, Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Roland; Lee, I-Shu; Chen, Chee-Jen

    2013-01-01

    An arthroconidial hyphomycete on living leaves of kudzu (Pueraria montana, Fabaceae), originally described by Sawada in 1959 as Ovularia puerariae, was rediscovered. This anamorph is connected to an unknown Marasmius teleomorph belonging to section Globulares, which develops on the same living leaves. Ultrastructure and LSU rDNA sequence analysis of the anamorph confirm this connection. The fungus does not have only a unique biology among agarics, comparable only to Mycena citricolor, but also has the potential for application as a control agent of kudzu. During comparison with similar anamorph genera, Illosporium graminicola was found to be a synonym for Beniowskia sphaeroidea.

  14. A review of the taxonomy, ethnobotany, chemistry and pharmacology of Sutherlandia frutescens (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    van Wyk, B-E; Albrecht, C

    2008-10-28

    Sutherlandia frutescens (tribe Galegeae, Fabaceae), a popular plant in traditional medicine, is indigenous to South Africa, Lesotho, southern Namibia and southeastern Botswana. It is chemically, genetically and geographically extremely variable and has been divided into three subspecies and several regional forms. A second species, Sutherlandia tomentosa, is localized along the Cape coast. Sutherlandia is sometimes treated as part of the genus Lessertia. There are numerous vernacular names and a wide diversity of uses, including poor appetite, indigestion, stomach complaints, dysentery, colds, influenza, kidney conditions, fever, diabetes, internal cancers, uterine troubles, liver conditions, backache, rheumatoid arthritis, urinary tract infections, stress and anxiety, dropsy and heart failure. Notable is the use as a bitter tonic ("blood purifier"), anti-stress medication ('musa-pelo) and, at least since 1895, specifically as a cancer tonic (both as treatment and as prophylaxis). Externally it is applied to haemorrhoids, inflamed wounds and eye infections. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shown antiproliferative, anti-HIV, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibacterial, anti-stress, anticonvulsant and antithrombotic activities. Aqueous extracts often differ in activity from organic solvent extracts. The presence of high levels of free amino acids, non-protein amino acids such as canavanine and GABA, the cyclitol pinitol, flavonols and triterpenes (including SU1, a cycloartane-type triterpene saponin) provide plausible hypotheses on how these compounds, individually or collectively, may be responsible for the reputed efficacy in a wide range of ailments. Results of animal studies, as well as a phase I clinical study, have shown no indications of toxicity. Sufficient preclinical data are now available to justify controlled clinical studies.

  15. Reproduction of Amorpha canescens (Fabaceae) and diversity of its bee community in a fragmented landscape.

    PubMed

    Slagle, Malinda W; Hendrix, Stephen D

    2009-10-01

    Loss of insect pollinators due to habitat fragmentation often results in negative effects on plant reproduction, but few studies have simultaneously examined variation in the bee community, site characteristics and plant community characteristics to evaluate their relative effects on plant reproduction in a fragmented habitat. We examined the reproduction of a common tallgrass prairie forb, Amorpha canescens (Fabaceae), in large (>40 ha) and small (<2 ha) prairie remnants in Iowa and Minnesota in relation to the diversity and abundance of its bee visitors, plant population size, and species density of the forb flowering community. We found significant positive effects of the diversity of bees visiting A. canescens on percent fruit set at a site in both years of the study and in 2002 an additional significant positive effect of plant species density. Abundance of bees visiting A. canescens had a significant positive effect on percent fruit set in 2002, but was only marginally significant in 2003. In 2003 but not 2002, the plant species density at the sites had a significant negative effect on the diversity and abundance of bees visiting A. canescens, indicating community-level characteristics can influence the bee community visiting any one species. Site size, a common predictor of plant reproduction in fragmented habitats did not contribute to any models of fruit set and was only marginally related to bee diversity one year. Andrena quintilis, one of the three oligolectic bee species associated with A. canescens, was abundant at all sites, suggesting it has not been significantly affected by fragmentation. Our results show that the diversity of bees visiting A. canescens is important for maintaining fruit set and that bee visitation is still sufficient for at least some fruit set in all populations, suggesting these small remnants act as floral resource oases for bees in landscapes often dominated by agriculture.

  16. Analgesic and anticonvulsant properties of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Taub) (Fabaceae) fruit aqueous extract in mice.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, John A O

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies in our laboratories and elsewhere have shown that the fruit of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Taub) (family: Fabaceae) is widely used in African traditional medicine for the management and/or control of an array of human ailments, including schistosomiasis, asthma, epilepsy, hypertension and so on. The present study was designed to investigate the analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Taub) fruit aqueous extract (TTE) in mice. Morphine (MPN, 10 mg/kg i.p.), diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg i.p.), phenobarbitone (20 mg/kg i.p.) and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) were used, respectively, as reference analgesic and anticonvulsant agents for comparison. T. tetraptera fruit aqueous extract (TTE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) produced dose-dependent, significant (p < 0.05-0.001) analgesic effects against thermally and chemically induced pain in mice. Like the standard anticonvulsant agents (phenobarbitone and diazepam) used, T. tetraptera fruit aqueous extract (TTE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) significantly (p < 0.05-0.001) delayed the onset of, and antagonized, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. Aqueous extract of the fruit (TTE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) also profoundly antagonized picrotoxin (PCT)-induced seizures, but only partially and weakly antagonized bicuculline (BCL)-induced seizures. However, the results of this experimental animal study indicate that Tetrapleura tetraptera (Taub) fruit aqueous extract (TTE) possesses analgesic and anticonvulsant properties. These findings lend pharmacological support to the suggested folkloric uses of the plant's fruit in the management and/or control of painful, arthritic inflammatory conditions, as well as for the management and/or control of epilepsy and childhood convulsions in some tropical African countries. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Endoreduplication intensity as a marker of seed developmental stage in the Fabaceae.

    PubMed

    Rewers, Monika; Sliwinska, Elwira

    2012-12-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) can be used to study cell cycle activity in developing, mature and germinating seeds. It provides information about a seed's physiological state and therefore can be used by seed growers for assessing optimal harvest times and presowing treatments. Because an augmented proportion of 4C nuclei usually is indicative of high mitotic activity, the 4C/2C ratio is commonly used to follow the progress of seed development and germination. However, its usefulness for polysomatic (i.e., containing cells with different DNA content) seeds is questioned. Changes in cell cycle/endoreduplication activity in developing seeds of five members of the Fabaceae were studied to determine a more suitable marker of seed developmental stages for polysomatic species based on FCM measurements. Seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris, Medicago sativa, Pisum sativum, Vicia sativa, and Vicia faba var. minor were collected 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 days after flowering (DAF), embryos were isolated and the proportion of nuclei with different DNA contents in the embryo axis and cotyledon was established. The ratios 4C/2C and (Σ>2C)/2C were calculated. Dried seeds were subjected to laboratory germination tests following international seed testing association (ISTA) rules. Additionally, the absolute nuclear DNA content was estimated in the leaves of the studied species. During seed development nuclei with DNA contents from 2C to 128C were detected; the endopolyploidy pattern depended on the species, seed organ and developmental stage. The cell cycle/endoreduplication parameters correlated negatively with genome size. The (Σ>2C)/2C ratio in the cotyledons reflected the seed developmental stage and corresponded with seed germinability. Therefore, this ratio is recommended as a marker in polysomatic seed research and production instead of the 4C/2C ratio, which does not consider the occurrence of endopolyploid cells. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  18. Eriosema (Fabaceae) Species Represent a Rich Source of Flavonoids with Interesting Pharmacological Activities.

    PubMed

    Awouafack, Maurice Ducret; Tane, Pierre; Spiteller, Michael; Eloff, Jacobus Nicolaas

    2015-07-01

    Many flavonoids have so far been isolated as main secondary metabolites in plant species of the genus Eriosema (Fabaceae), which contains approximately 160 species. A total of 52 flavonoids including isoflavones, dihydroflavonols, flavonols, flavanones, dihydrochalcones, isoflavanone and their pyrano or glucoside derivatives were isolated and characterized from the five species of this genus investigated to date. Total synthesis and semi-synthesis (acetylation, methylation, hydrogenation, and cyclization) of some isolated flavonoids were reported. Due to several significant pharmacological properties (antimicrobial, cytotoxicity, anti-mycobacterial, antioxidant, antiviral, erectile-dysfunction, vasodilatory and hypoglycemic) of the isolated flavonoids and derivatives, more scientists should be interested in investigating Eriosema species. The present review is the first to document all flavonoids that have been reported from the genus Eriosema to date together with their synthetic and semi-synthetic derivatives, and their pharmacological properties. Dihydrochalcones, which are precursors of other classes of flavonoids, are very rare in natural sources and their isolation from Eriosema species may explain the large number of flavonoids found in this genus. It appears that isoflavone could be a marker for species in this genus. The 83 flavonoids (1-83) documented include 52 isolates, 31 semi-synthetic and 3 totally synthetic derivatives. Data were obtained from Google scholar, Pubmed, Scifinder, Sciencedirect, and Scopus. With 52 different flavonoids isolated from only 5 of the approximately 160 species it shows the remarkable chemical diversity of this genus. This compilation of the biological activities and chemical composition may renew the interest of pharmacologists and phytochemists in this genus.

  19. Pollen grain morphology of Fabaceae in the Special Protection Area (SPA) Pau-de-Fruta, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Luz, Cynthia F P da; Maki, Erica S; Horák-Terra, Ingrid; Vidal-Torrado, Pablo; Mendonça Filho, Carlos Victor

    2013-01-01

    The presented paper considered the pollen morphology of thirteen species belonging to seven genera of the Fabaceae family occurring in the Pau-de-Fruta Special Protection Area (SPA), Diamantina, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The pollen grains of six species of Chamaecrista [C. cathartica (Mart.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, C. debilis Vogel, C. flexuosa (L.) Greene, C. hedysaroides (Vogel) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, C. glandulosa (L.) Greene, and C. papillata H.S. Irwin & Barneby] have a similar morphology, characterized by three long colporated apertures with a central constriction. The species share specific morphological features regarding pollen size, endoaperture type (circular, lalongate or lolongate) and SEM ornamentation patterns of the exine (rugulate with perforations or perforate). Andira fraxinifolia Benth., Dalbergia miscolobium Benth, Galactia martii DC, Periandra mediterranea (Vell.) Taub., Senna rugosa (G.Don) H.S. Irwin & Barneby and Zornia diphylla (L.) Pers showed different pollen types in small to large size; oblate spheroidal to prolate form; colpus or colporus apertures; circular, lalongate or lolongate endoapertures and distinctive SEM ornamentation patterns of the exine (perforate, microreticulate, reticulate or rugulate with perforations). Only Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville presents polyads. The pollen morphology variation of these species allowed the Fabaceae family to be characterized as eurypalynous in the SPA Pau-de-Fruta.

  20. Hedysarum L. (Fabaceae: Hedysareae) Is Not Monophyletic – Evidence from Phylogenetic Analyses Based on Five Nuclear and Five Plastid Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pei-Liang; Wen, Jun; Duan, Lei; Arslan, Emine; Ertuğrul, Kuddisi; Chang, Zhao-Yang

    2017-01-01

    The legume family (Fabaceae) exhibits a high level of species diversity and evolutionary success worldwide. Previous phylogenetic studies of the genus Hedysarum L. (Fabaceae: Hedysareae) showed that the nuclear and the plastid topologies might be incongruent, and the systematic position of the Hedysarum sect. Stracheya clade was uncertain. In this study, phylogenetic relationships of Hedysarum were investigated based on the nuclear ITS, ETS, PGDH, SQD1, TRPT and the plastid psbA-trnH, trnC-petN, trnL-trnF, trnS-trnG, petN-psbM sequences. Both nuclear and plastid data support two major lineages in Hedysarum: the Hedysarum s.s. clade and the Sartoria clade. In the nuclear tree, Hedysarum is biphyletic with the Hedysarum s.s. clade sister to the Corethrodendron + Eversmannia + Greuteria + Onobrychis clade (the CEGO clade), whereas the Sartoria clade is sister to the genus Taverniera DC. In the plastid tree, Hedysarum is monophyletic and sister to Taverniera. The incongruent position of the Hedysarum s.s. clade between the nuclear and plastid trees may be best explained by a chloroplast capture hypothesis via introgression. The Hedysarum sect. Stracheya clade is resolved as sister to the H. sect. Hedysarum clade in both nuclear and plastid trees, and our analyses support merging Stracheya into Hedysarum. Based on our new evidence from multiple sequences, Hedysarum is not monophyletic, and its generic delimitation needs to be reconsidered. PMID:28122062

  1. Hedysarum L. (Fabaceae: Hedysareae) Is Not Monophyletic - Evidence from Phylogenetic Analyses Based on Five Nuclear and Five Plastid Sequences.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei-Liang; Wen, Jun; Duan, Lei; Arslan, Emine; Ertuğrul, Kuddisi; Chang, Zhao-Yang

    2017-01-01

    The legume family (Fabaceae) exhibits a high level of species diversity and evolutionary success worldwide. Previous phylogenetic studies of the genus Hedysarum L. (Fabaceae: Hedysareae) showed that the nuclear and the plastid topologies might be incongruent, and the systematic position of the Hedysarum sect. Stracheya clade was uncertain. In this study, phylogenetic relationships of Hedysarum were investigated based on the nuclear ITS, ETS, PGDH, SQD1, TRPT and the plastid psbA-trnH, trnC-petN, trnL-trnF, trnS-trnG, petN-psbM sequences. Both nuclear and plastid data support two major lineages in Hedysarum: the Hedysarum s.s. clade and the Sartoria clade. In the nuclear tree, Hedysarum is biphyletic with the Hedysarum s.s. clade sister to the Corethrodendron + Eversmannia + Greuteria + Onobrychis clade (the CEGO clade), whereas the Sartoria clade is sister to the genus Taverniera DC. In the plastid tree, Hedysarum is monophyletic and sister to Taverniera. The incongruent position of the Hedysarum s.s. clade between the nuclear and plastid trees may be best explained by a chloroplast capture hypothesis via introgression. The Hedysarum sect. Stracheya clade is resolved as sister to the H. sect. Hedysarum clade in both nuclear and plastid trees, and our analyses support merging Stracheya into Hedysarum. Based on our new evidence from multiple sequences, Hedysarum is not monophyletic, and its generic delimitation needs to be reconsidered.

  2. Description of the early stages of Eccopsis galapagana Razowski & Landry (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a defoliator of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC (Fabaceae) in Colombia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The biology and early stages of Eccopsis galapagana Razowski & Landry are described and illustrated for the first time; details of the adults also are provided. Under outbreak conditions, the species has become a serious pest of algarrobo tree (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.; Fabaceae) in Colombia. Al...

  3. Divergence and diversification in North American Psoraleeae (Fabaceae) due to climate change.

    PubMed

    Egan, Ashley N; Crandall, Keith A

    2008-12-17

    Past studies in the legume family (Fabaceae) have uncovered several evolutionary trends including differential mutation and diversification rates across varying taxonomic levels. The legume tribe Psoraleeae is shown herein to exemplify these trends at the generic and species levels. This group includes a sizable diversification within North America dated at approximately 6.3 million years ago with skewed species distribution to the most recently derived genus, Pediomelum, suggesting a diversification rate shift. We estimate divergence dates of North American (NAm) Psoraleeae using Bayesian MCMC sampling in BEAST based on eight DNA regions (ITS, waxy, matK, trnD-trnT, trnL-trnF, trnK, trnS-trnG, and rpoB-trnC). We also test the hypothesis of a diversification rate shift within NAm Psoraleeae using topological and temporal methods. We investigate the impact of climate change on diversification in this group by (1) testing the hypothesis that a shift from mesic to xeric habitats acted as a key innovation and (2) investigating diversification rate shifts along geologic time, discussing the impact of Quaternary climate oscillations on diversification. NAm Psoraleeae represents a recent, rapid radiation with several genera originating during the Pleistocene, 1 to 2 million years ago. A shift in diversification rate is supported by both methods with a 2.67-fold increase suggested around 2 million years ago followed by a 8.73-fold decrease 440,000 years ago. The hypothesis that a climate regime shift from mesic to xeric habitats drove increased diversification in affected taxa was not supported. Timing of the diversification rate increase supports the hypothesis that glaciation-induced climate changes during the Quaternary influenced diversification of the group. Nonrandom spatial diversification also exists, with greater species richness in the American Southwest. This study outlines NAm Psoraleeae as a model example of a recent, rapid radiation. Diversification rate

  4. Divergence and diversification in North American Psoraleeae (Fabaceae) due to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Ashley N; Crandall, Keith A

    2008-01-01

    Background Past studies in the legume family (Fabaceae) have uncovered several evolutionary trends including differential mutation and diversification rates across varying taxonomic levels. The legume tribe Psoraleeae is shown herein to exemplify these trends at the generic and species levels. This group includes a sizable diversification within North America dated at approximately 6.3 million years ago with skewed species distribution to the most recently derived genus, Pediomelum, suggesting a diversification rate shift. We estimate divergence dates of North American (NAm) Psoraleeae using Bayesian MCMC sampling in BEAST based on eight DNA regions (ITS, waxy, matK, trnD-trnT, trnL-trnF, trnK, trnS-trnG, and rpoB-trnC). We also test the hypothesis of a diversification rate shift within NAm Psoraleeae using topological and temporal methods. We investigate the impact of climate change on diversification in this group by (1) testing the hypothesis that a shift from mesic to xeric habitats acted as a key innovation and (2) investigating diversification rate shifts along geologic time, discussing the impact of Quaternary climate oscillations on diversification. Results NAm Psoraleeae represents a recent, rapid radiation with several genera originating during the Pleistocene, 1 to 2 million years ago. A shift in diversification rate is supported by both methods with a 2.67-fold increase suggested around 2 million years ago followed by a 8.73-fold decrease 440,000 years ago. The hypothesis that a climate regime shift from mesic to xeric habitats drove increased diversification in affected taxa was not supported. Timing of the diversification rate increase supports the hypothesis that glaciation-induced climate changes during the Quaternary influenced diversification of the group. Nonrandom spatial diversification also exists, with greater species richness in the American Southwest. Conclusion This study outlines NAm Psoraleeae as a model example of a recent, rapid

  5. [Description, distribution, anatomy, chemical composition and uses of Mimosa tenuiflora(Fabaceae-Mimosoideae) in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Camargo-Ricalde, S L

    2000-12-01

    Because of some catastrophic events which occurred in Mexico during the 1980 decade, the utilization of "tepescohuite" bark against skin wounds and burns was popularized. The media manipulated the lack of available information about its medical properties and gave erroneous information to the society propagating a lot of myths. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to determine its taxonomic identity and to study the distribution, bark and wood anatomy of this species, and to determine its actual and historic uses, and the compilation of the information about bark pharmacology and toxicity. Its taxonomic identity is established as Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae). It blooms and fructifies from November to June, occurring in Mexico (the states of Oaxaca and Chiapas), Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil, at altitudes of 0-1110 (-1520) m. In Mexico, it is found in dry forests, thorny thickets, Pinus and Pinus-Quercus forests, and in M. tenuiflora pure thickets, along roads and in resting or abandoned culture lands. This species has an aggregate distribution in the forests and a uniform one in the thickets. It presents a mean density of 9 individuals per m2, with 0.45 of frequency per quadrat and 1.69 m2 of mean coverture, and it has a wide range of tolerance to climatic and edaphic factors, confirming their invasive character. Regionally, the wood is used as fuel and fence construction, and against skin wounds and burns (bark tea, powder and/or ointment), and diverse products, such as shampoos, creams, capsules, soaps, etc., are commercialized. The bark is wrinkled, reddish-brown to grey, fibrous texture, 0.5-1.5 mm thick, resinous and with an astringent odor and flavor, and with a great quantity of tannins. The wood presents extremely short vessel elements, with alternate areolate punctuations, and simple perforated plates, vasicentric axial parenchima, confluent stripes, uniseriated rays, extremely

  6. Biogeochemistry and biodiversity interact to govern N2 fixers (Fabaceae) across Amazon tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batterman, Sarah; Hedin, Lars; Lloyd, Jon; Quesada, Beto

    2015-04-01

    Dinitrogen (N2)-fixing trees in the Fabaceae fulfill a central role in tropical rainforests by supplying nitrogen from the atmosphere, yet whether they will support a forest CO2 sink in the future by alleviating nitrogen limitation may depend on whether and how they are controlled by local environmental conditions. Theory predicts that soil nutrients govern the function of N2 fixers, yet there have been no large-scale field-based tests of this idea. Moreover, recent findings indicate that N2-fixing species behave differently in biogeochemical cycles, suggesting that any environmental control may differ by species, and that the diversity of N2-fixing trees may be critical for ensuring tropical forest function. In this talk, we will use the RAINFOR dataset of 108 (~1.0 ha) lowland tropical rainforest plots from across the Amazon Basin to test whether the abundance and diversity of N2-fixing trees are controlled by soil nutrient availability (i.e., increasing with phosphorus and decreasing with nitrogen), or if fixer abundance and diversity simply follow the dynamics of all tree species. We also test an alternative - but not mutually exclusive - hypothesis that the governing factor for fixers is forest disturbance. Results show a surprising lack of control by local nutrients or disturbance on the abundance or diversity of N2 fixers. The dominant driver of fixer diversity was the total number of tree species, with fixers comprising 10% of all species in a forest plot (R2 = 0.75, linear regression). When considering the dominant taxa of N2 fixers (Inga, Swartzia, Tachigali) alone, environmental factors (nitrogen, phosphorus and disturbance) became important and clearly governed their abundance. These taxa, which contain >60% of N2-fixing trees in the data set, appear to have evolved to specialize in different local environmental conditions. The strong biogeochemistry-by-biodiversity interaction observed here points to a need to consider individual species or taxa of N2

  7. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for the endangered scrub Lupine, Lupinus aridorum (Fabaceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Ricono, Angela; Bupp, Glen; Peterson, Cheryl; Nunziata, Schyler O.; Lance, Stacey L.; Pruett, Christin L.

    2015-04-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed in scrub lupine (Lupinus aridorum, Fabaceae), an endemic species to Florida that is listed as endangered in the United States, to assess connectivity among populations, identify hybrids, and examine genetic diversity. We isolated and characterized 12 microsatellite loci polymorphic in scrub lupine or in closely related species (i.e., sky-blue lupine [L. diffusus] and Gulf Coast lupine [L. westianus]). Loci showed low to moderate polymorphism, ranging from two to 14 alleles per locus and 0.01 to 0.86 observed heterozygosity. In conclusion, these loci are the first developed for Florida species of lupine and will be used to determine differentiation among species and to aid in conservation of the endangered scrub lupine.

  8. The position of prenylation of isoflavonoids and stilbenoids from legumes (Fabaceae) modulates the antimicrobial activity against Gram positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Araya-Cloutier, Carla; den Besten, Heidy M W; Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2017-07-01

    The legume plant family (Fabaceae) is a potential source of antimicrobial phytochemicals. Molecular diversity in phytochemicals of legume extracts was enhanced by germination and fungal elicitation of seven legume species, as established by RP-UHPLC-UV-MS. The relationship between phytochemical composition, including different types of skeletons and substitutions, and antibacterial properties of extracts was investigated. Extracts rich in prenylated isoflavonoids and stilbenoids showed potent antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at concentrations between 0.05 and 0.1% (w/v). Prenylated phenolic compounds were significantly (p<0.01) correlated with the antibacterial properties of the extracts. Furthermore, the position of the prenyl group within the phenolic skeleton also influenced the antibacterial activity. Overall, prenylated phenolics from legume seedlings can serve multiple purposes, e.g. as phytoestrogens they can provide health benefits and as natural antimicrobials they offer preservation of foods.

  9. ST proteins, a new family of plant tandem repeat proteins with a DUF2775 domain mainly found in Fabaceae and Asteraceae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many proteins with tandem repeats in their sequence have been described and classified according to the length of the repeats: I) Repeats of short oligopeptides (from 2 to 20 amino acids), including structural cell wall proteins and arabinogalactan proteins. II) Repeats that range in length from 20 to 40 residues, including proteins with a well-established three-dimensional structure often involved in mediating protein-protein interactions. (III) Longer repeats in the order of 100 amino acids that constitute structurally and functionally independent units. Here we analyse ShooT specific (ST) proteins, a family of proteins with tandem repeats of unknown function that were first found in Leguminosae, and their possible similarities to other proteins with tandem repeats. Results ST protein sequences were only found in dicotyledonous plants, limited to several plant families, mainly the Fabaceae and the Asteraceae. ST mRNAs accumulate mainly in the roots and under biotic interactions. Most ST proteins have one or several Domain(s) of Unknown Function 2775 (DUF2775). All deduced ST proteins have a signal peptide, indicating that these proteins enter the secretory pathway, and the mature proteins have tandem repeat oligopeptides that share a hexapeptide (E/D)FEPRP followed by 4 partially conserved amino acids, which could determine a putative N-glycosylation signal, and a fully conserved tyrosine. In a phylogenetic tree, the sequences clade according to taxonomic group. A possible involvement in symbiosis and abiotic stress as well as in plant cell elongation is suggested, although different STs could play different roles in plant development. Conclusions We describe a new family of proteins called ST whose presence is limited to the plant kingdom, specifically to a few families of dicotyledonous plants. They present 20 to 40 amino acid tandem repeat sequences with different characteristics (signal peptide, DUF2775 domain, conservative repeat regions) from the

  10. ST proteins, a new family of plant tandem repeat proteins with a DUF2775 domain mainly found in Fabaceae and Asteraceae.

    PubMed

    Albornos, Lucía; Martín, Ignacio; Iglesias, Rebeca; Jiménez, Teresa; Labrador, Emilia; Dopico, Berta

    2012-11-07

    Many proteins with tandem repeats in their sequence have been described and classified according to the length of the repeats: I) Repeats of short oligopeptides (from 2 to 20 amino acids), including structural cell wall proteins and arabinogalactan proteins. II) Repeats that range in length from 20 to 40 residues, including proteins with a well-established three-dimensional structure often involved in mediating protein-protein interactions. (III) Longer repeats in the order of 100 amino acids that constitute structurally and functionally independent units. Here we analyse ShooT specific (ST) proteins, a family of proteins with tandem repeats of unknown function that were first found in Leguminosae, and their possible similarities to other proteins with tandem repeats. ST protein sequences were only found in dicotyledonous plants, limited to several plant families, mainly the Fabaceae and the Asteraceae. ST mRNAs accumulate mainly in the roots and under biotic interactions. Most ST proteins have one or several Domain(s) of Unknown Function 2775 (DUF2775). All deduced ST proteins have a signal peptide, indicating that these proteins enter the secretory pathway, and the mature proteins have tandem repeat oligopeptides that share a hexapeptide (E/D)FEPRP followed by 4 partially conserved amino acids, which could determine a putative N-glycosylation signal, and a fully conserved tyrosine. In a phylogenetic tree, the sequences clade according to taxonomic group. A possible involvement in symbiosis and abiotic stress as well as in plant cell elongation is suggested, although different STs could play different roles in plant development. We describe a new family of proteins called ST whose presence is limited to the plant kingdom, specifically to a few families of dicotyledonous plants. They present 20 to 40 amino acid tandem repeat sequences with different characteristics (signal peptide, DUF2775 domain, conservative repeat regions) from the described group of 20 to 40

  11. Review of the Eriococcidae (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) infesting Fabaceae in Argentina, with descriptions of three new species of Acanthococcus Signoret.

    PubMed

    González, Patricia; Claps, Lucía E; Juárez, Andrea; Moreno, Diego

    2017-02-15

    Three new species of Eriococcidae from Argentina, namely Acanthococcus haywardi Juárez & González sp. nov., A. punctatae Juárez & González sp. nov. and A. riojensis Juárez & González sp. nov., are described and illustrated, bringing the total number of eriococcid species now known from Argentina to 12, of which six belong to Acanthococcus Signoret and six to Hempelicoccus Kozár. They are found on 11 species of Fabaceae (subfamilies Mimosoideae and Caesalpinioidae), are widely distributed and are all restricted to the Neotropical region and the South American Transitional Zone. A key to the 12 Eriococcidae species now known on Fabaceae in Argentina is included.

  12. Pollen structure and function in caesalpinioid legumes.

    PubMed

    Banks, Hannah; Rudall, Paula J

    2016-03-01

    A diverse range of pollen morphologies occurs within the large, paraphyletic legume subfamily Caesalpinioideae, especially among early-branching lineages. Previous studies have hypothesized an association between surface ornamentation and pollination syndrome or other aspects of pollen function such as desiccation tolerance and adaptations to accommodate volume changes. We reviewed caesalpinioid pollen morphology using light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in combination with a literature survey of pollination vectors. Pollen structural diversity is greatest in the early-branching tribes Cercideae and Detarieae, whereas Cassieae and Caesalpinieae are relatively low in pollen diversity. Functional structures to counter desiccation include opercula (lids) covering apertures and reduced aperture size. Structures preventing wall rupture during dehydration and rehydration include different forms of colpi (syncolpi, parasyncolpi, pseudocolpi), striate supratectal ornamentation, and columellate or granular wall structures that resist tensile or compressive forces respectively. Specialized aperture structures (Zwischenkörper) may be advantageous for efficient germination of the pollen tube. In Detarieae and Cercideae in particular, there is potential to utilize pollen characters to estimate pollination systems where these are unknown. Supratectal verrucae and gemmae have apparently evolved iteratively in Cercideae and Detarieae. At the species level, there is a potential correlation between striate/verrucate patterns and vertebrate pollination. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  13. Predispersal seed predation is higher in a rare species than in its widespread sympatric congeners (Astragalus, Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Combs, Julie K; Lambert, Amy M; Reichard, Sarah H

    2013-11-01

    Rare plants may be rare, in part, because they are more susceptible to damage by predispersal insect seed predators than widespread congeneric species; thus, seed predation may be an important determinant of plant rarity. Scant evidence exists to either support or reject this hypothesis, limiting our ability to predict herbivore effects on plant rarity. We used a comparative framework to test this hypothesis in rare-common, sympatric congeners. We compared seed consumption by insect type and seed production among a rare Astragalus (Fabaceae) species and two sympatric, widespread congeners. We measured plant traits and tested whether traits were correlated with seed damage within and among rare-common species. Seed predation was significantly higher in a rare species than in common congeners over 2 yr. Seed production per pod was significantly lower in the rare species. Seed weevils exclusively consumed seeds of the rare species. Higher seed predation in the rare species is related to a combination of factors: plant phenology, dispersal ability, and vigor; seed predator identity; and insect phenology. Our results support the hypothesis that a rare plant is more susceptible to seed predators than two common, sympatric congeners. Seed predator reduction is a promising management tool to increase seed-set, recruitment, and survival of the rare species. Further studies that compare rare-common, sympatric congeners are greatly needed to broadly evaluate the hypothesis concerning rarity and susceptibility to seed predators and to inform conservation plans for rare species.

  14. Geographical isolation caused the diversification of the Mediterranean thorny cushion-like Astragalus L. sect. Tragacantha DC. (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Hardion, Laurent; Dumas, Pierre-Jean; Abdel-Samad, Farah; Kharrat, Magda Bou Dagher; Surina, Bostjan; Affre, Laurence; Médail, Frédéric; Bacchetta, Gianluigi; Baumel, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the origin and evolution of Mediterranean vascular flora within the long-term context of climate change requires a continuous study of historical biogeography supported by molecular phylogenetic approaches. Here we provide new insights into the fascinating but often overlooked diversification of Mediterranean xerophytic plants. Growing in some of the most stressing Mediterranean environments, i.e. coastal and mountainous opened habitats, the circum-Mediterranean Astragalus L. sect. Tragacantha DC. (Fabaceae) gathers several thorny cushion-like taxa. These have been the subjects of recent taxonomical studies, but they have not yet been investigated within a comprehensive molecular framework. Bayesian phylogenetics applied to rDNA ITS sequences reveal that the diversification of A. sect. Tragacantha has roots dating back to the Pliocene, and the same data also indicate an eastern-western split giving rise to the five main lineages that exist today. In addition, AFLP fingerprinting supports an old east-west pattern of vicariance that completely rules out the possibility of a recent eastern origin for western taxa. The observed network of genetic relationships implies that contrary to what is widely claimed in the taxonomic literature, it is range fragmentation, as opposed to a coastal-to-mountain ecological shift, that is likely the main driver of diversification.

  15. Novel three-dimensional cellulose produced from trunk of Astragalus gummifer (Fabaceae) tested for protein adsorption performance.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Murat; Odabasi, Mehmet; Mujtaba, Muhammad; Sen, Miren; Bulut, Esra; Akyuz, Bahar

    2016-05-01

    This is the first study to produce three-dimensional (3D) cellulose from any plant up to now. This 3D cellulose was produced from Astragalus gummifer(Fabaceae) trunk by using a modified method in which original the shape of cellulose was kept as natural. This novel 3D cellulose was characterized by SEM, TGA, FT-IR, XRD and elemental analysis to evidence the purity and to compare it with commercially available cellulose from cotton. Results from these characterizations were found convincing because almost the same physicochemical properties were observed for both newly obtained 3D cellulose and commercial one. Both fibers and pores on the surface of 3D cellulose were observed. Thanks to its diversified surface morphology, this novel 3D cellulose was tested for its protein adsorption performance and the results were compared with commercial cellulose as follows: maximum adsorption capacity at pH 8.0 was recorded as 59.2 mg/g for 3D cellulose while 29.6 mg/g for commercial cellulose. According to this result, it is clear to say that this sorbent has high affinity for lysozyme. Also this 3D cellulose could be useful for the other areas of separation science.

  16. Evolutionary response to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau uplift: phylogeny and biogeography of Ammopiptanthus and tribe Thermopsideae (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Su, Zhi-Hao

    2017-01-01

    Previous works resolved diverse phylogenetic positions for genera of the Fabaceae tribe Thermopsideae, without a thoroughly biogeography study. Based on sequence data from nuclear ITS and four cpDNA regions (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA, trnL-trnF) mainly sourced from GenBank, the phylogeny of tribe Thermopsideae was inferred. Our analyses support the genera of Thermopsideae, with the exclusion of Pickeringia, being merged into a monophyletic Sophoreae. Genera of Sophoreae were assigned into the Thermopsoid clade and Sophoroid clade. Monophyly of Anagyris, Baptisia and Piptanthus were supported in the Thermopsoid clade. However, the genera Thermopsis and Sophora were resolved to be polyphyly, which require comprehensive taxonomic revisions. Interestingly, Ammopiptanthus, consisting of A. mongolicus and A. nanus, nested within the Sophoroid clade, with Salweenia as its sister. Ammopiptanthus and Salweenia have a disjunct distribution in the deserts of northwestern China and the Hengduan Mountains, respectively. Divergence age was estimated based on the ITS phylogenetic analysis. Emergence of the common ancestor of Ammopiptanthus and Salweenia, divergence between these two genera and the split of Ammopiptanthus species occurred at approximately 26.96 Ma, 4.74 Ma and 2.04 Ma, respectively, which may be in response to the second, third and fourth main uplifts of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, respectively. PMID:28785518

  17. Cyanobacterial extracts containing microcystins affect the growth, nodulation process and nitrogen uptake of faba bean (Vicia faba L., Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Lahrouni, Majida; Oufdou, Khalid; Faghire, Mustapha; Peix, Alvaro; El Khalloufi, Fatima; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Oudra, Brahim

    2012-04-01

    The use of irrigation water containing cyanobacterial toxins may generate a negative impact in both yield and quality of agricultural crops causing significant economic losses. We evaluated the effects of microcystins (MC) on the growth, nodulation process and nitrogen uptake of a Faba bean cultivar (Vicia faba L., Fabaceae), particularly the effect of MC on rhizobia-V. faba symbiosis. Three rhizobial strains (RhOF4, RhOF6 and RhOF21), isolated from nodules of local V. faba were tested. The exposure of rhizobia to MC showed that the toxins had a negative effect on the rhizobial growth especially at the highest concentrations of 50 and 100 μg/l. The germination of faba bean seeds was also affected by cyanotoxins. We registered germination rates of 75 and 68.75% at the toxin levels of 50 and 100 μg/l as compared to the control (100%). The obtained results also showed there was a negative effect of MC on plants shoot, root (dry weight) and total number of nodules per plant. Cyanotoxins exposure induced a significant effect on nitrogen assimilation by faba bean seedlings inoculated with selected rhizobial strains RhOF6 and RhOF21, while the effect was not significant on beans seedling inoculated with RhOF4. This behavior of tolerant rhizobia-legumes symbioses may constitute a very important pathway to increase soil fertility and quality and can represent a friendly biotechnological way to remediate cyanotoxins contamination in agriculture.

  18. Comparison of RAPD and ISSR markers for assessment of genetic diversity among endangered rare Dalbergia oliveri (Fabaceae) genotypes in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phong, D T; Hien, V T T; Thanh, T T V; Tang, D V

    2011-10-06

    Dalbergia oliveri is a leguminous tree of the Fabaceae family. This species is popular and valuable in Vietnam and is currently listed on the Vietnam Red List and on the IUCN Red List as endangered. Two PCR techniques using RAPD and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to make a comparative analysis of genetic diversity in this species. Fifty-six polymorphic primers (29 RAPD and 27 ISSR) were used. The RAPD primers produced 63 bands across 35 genotypes, of which 24 were polymorphic. The number of amplified bands varied from one to four, with a size range from 250 to 1400 bp. The percentage polymorphism ranged from 0 to 75. Amplification of genomic DNA of the 35 genotypes, using ISSR analysis, yielded 104 fragments, of which 63 were polymorphic. The number of amplified fragments using ISSR primers ranged from one to nine and varied in size from 250 to 1500 bp. The percentage polymorphism ranged from 0 to 100. ISSR markers were relatively more efficient than RAPDs. The mental test between two Jaccard's similarity matrices gave r ≥0.802, showing good fit correlation between ISSRs and RAPDs. Clustering of isolates remained more or less the same for RAPDs compared to combined RAPD and ISSR data. The similarity coefficient ranged from 0.785 to 1.000, 0.698 to 0.956 and 0.752 to 0.964 with RAPD, ISSR, and the combined RAPD-ISSR dendrogram, respectively.

  19. Anti-diarrheal activity of the leaf extracts of Daniellia oliveri Hutch and Dalz (Fabaceae) and Ficus sycomorus Miq (Moraceae).

    PubMed

    Ahmadu, A A; Zezi, A U; Yaro, A H

    2007-06-10

    The leaves of the plants Daniellia oliveri (Fabaceae) and Ficus sycomorus (Moraceae) used in diarrhea treatment in Hausa ethnomedicine of Northern Nigeria were investigated. The study was carried out on perfused isolated rabbit jejunum and castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. The n-butanol extracts: NBD and NBF (0.16-3.2 mg/ml) caused a dose-dependent relaxation of isolated rabbit jejunum. The acute toxicity test for NBD and NBT in mice established an i.p LD(50) of > 4000 mg/kg for D. oliveri and 1131.4 mg/kg for F. sycomorus. In castor oil-induced diarrhea, 80% protection was observed for D. oliveri at doses of 200 mg/kg and 60% protection was observed at 100 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg respectively. For F. sycomorus 100% protection was observed at doses of 120 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg, for the n-butanol extract. The antidiarrheal activity was comparable to loperamide 5 mg/kg. The result revealed that the extracts have pharmacological activity against diarrhea.

  20. Anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity of Rubiaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae plants: A search for new sources of useful alternative antibacterials against MRSA infections.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Rad, M; Iriti, M; Sharifi-Rad, M; Gibbons, S; Sharifi-Rad, J

    2016-08-29

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of the extracts of the leaves of species from the Rubiaceae (Galium aparine L. and Asperula arvensis L.), Fabaceae (Lathyrus aphaca L. and Vicia narbonensis L.) and Poaceae (Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. and Hordeum murinum L.) plant families on a wide and extensive panel of isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MRSA). The effects of the methanolic leaf extracts of Rubiaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae plants on MRSA were evaluated by the disc diffusion assay and the broth dilution method. Among a total of 177 S. aureus isolates, 92 (51.97%) were found to be methicillin-resistant in an antibiogram and this was confirmed by the presence of the mecA gene in polymerase chain reaction method. All MRSA isolates were sensitive to all extracts. There were dose-dependent inhibitions on tested microorganisms for all plant extracts which showed maximum inhibition zones at a concentration of 300 mg/L. L. aphaca, G. aparine and H. murinum exhibited the highest antibacterial activity on the MRSA strains compared to the positive control (P < 0.05), as well as higher total polyphenol and flavonoid contents than other plant extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations on MRSA isolates ranged from 388.4 ± 0.2 mg/L, in D. sanguinalis, to 5.5 ± 0.1 mg/L, in L. aphaca. The methanolic extracts of L. aphaca (Fabaceae), G. aparine (Rubiaceae), and H. murinum (Poaceae) proved to have high antibacterial activity on MRSA isolates, thus representing promising antimicrobial agents in clinical settings.

  1. Pregermination heat shock and seedling growth of fire-following Fabaceae from four Mediterranean-climate regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, Mick E.; Fenner, Michael; Ne'eman, Gidi

    2001-12-01

    The role of heat-shock in stimulating the germination of soil-stored seeds from fire-following plant species is well known. However, the effects of high pre-germination temperatures on subsequent seedling growth are less well understood. In this study, we examined the effect of pre-germination heat shock at five temperatures (60°, 75°, 90°, 105° and 120°C, each applied for 5 min) on the seedling growth of four, fire-following Fabaceae species from four Mediterranean-type ecosystems; Hippocrepis multisiliquosa (Israel), Gastrolobium villosum (Western Australia), Cyclopia pubescens (South Africa) and Lupinus succulentus (California). Following heat treatment and subsequent germination, seedlings were grown in controlled conditions before being harvested at either 10, 20- or 40 d old. A significant increase in mean dry weight biomass was found at 10 days for Hippocrepis seedlings germinated from seeds pre-heated to 90°C. However, subsequent comparison of mean dry weight biomass for seedlings of this species at 20 and 40 d old showed no significant response to heat shock pre-treatment. Similarly, an initial increase in growth of Gastrolobium seedlings germinated from seeds heated to 90° and 105°C disappeared as the plants matured. Seedling growth of Lupinus and Cyclopia was unaffected by the pre-germination heat treatment of their seeds. Since seedling competition is influenced by the size and growth rates of neighbouring plants, any changes in seedling growth rates as a consequence of the temperature environment experienced by their seeds, may therefore influence patterns of post-fire plant community recovery.

  2. Wood growth patterns of Macrolobium acaciifolium (Benth.) Benth. (Fabaceae) in Amazonian black-water and white-water floodplain forests.

    PubMed

    Schöngart, Jochen; Piedade, Maria Teresa F; Wittmann, Florian; Junk, Wolfgang J; Worbes, Martin

    2005-09-01

    Macrolobium acaciifolium (Benth.) Benth. (Fabaceae) is a dominant legume tree species occurring at low elevations of nutrient-poor black-water (igapó) and nutrient-rich white-water floodplain forests (várzea) of Amazonia. As a consequence of the annual long-term flooding this species forms distinct annual tree rings allowing dendrochronological analyses. From both floodplain types in Central Amazonia we sampled cores from 20 large canopy trees growing at identical elevations with a flood-height up to 7 m. We determined tree age, wood density (WD) and mean radial increment (MRI) and synchronized ring-width patterns of single trees to construct tree-ring chronologies for every study site. Maximum tree age found in the igapó was more than 500 years, contrary to the várzea with ages not older than 200 years. MRI and WD were significantly lower in the igapó (MRI=1.52+/-0.38 mm year(-1), WD=0.39+/-0.05 g cm(-3)) than in the várzea (MRI=2.66+/-0.67 mm year(-1), WD=0.45+/-0.03 g cm(-3)). In both floodplain forests we developed tree-ring chronologies comprising the period 1857-2003 (n=7 trees) in the várzea and 1606-2003 (n=13 trees) in the igapó. The ring-width in both floodplain forests was significantly correlated with the length of the terrestrial phase (vegetation period) derived from the daily recorded water level in the port of Manaus since 1903. In both chronologies we found increased wood growth during El Niño events causing negative precipitation anomalies and a lower water discharge in Amazonian rivers, which leads to an extension of the terrestrial phase. The climate signal of La Niña was not evident in the dendroclimatic proxies.

  3. Lack of divergence in seed ecology of two Amphicarpaea (Fabaceae) species disjunct between eastern Asia and eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Keliang; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C; Yang, Xuejun; Huang, Zhenying

    2015-06-01

    Many congeneric species are disjunct between eastern Asia and eastern North America. No previous study has compared the seed biology of closely related disjunct taxa of legumes or of a diaspore-heteromorphic species. Our objective was to compare seed dormancy in two such sister species in the genus Amphicarpaea (Fabaceae). We investigated the ecology and ecophysiology of aerial and subterranean seeds of the amphicarpic species Amphicarpaea edgeworthii from China and compared the results to those published for its sister species A. bracteata from eastern North America. The seed coat of aerial seeds of A. edgeworthii is well developed, whereas the seed coat of subterranean seeds is not. Aerial seeds have combinational dormancy (physical dormancy [PY] + physiological dormancy [PD]) broken by scarification followed by cold stratification or by after-ripening and scarification; whereas subterranean seeds have PD broken by cold stratification. Aerial seeds formed a persistent soil seed bank, and subterranean seeds a transient soil seed bank. Aerial seeds of A. bracteata also have PY+PD and subterranean seeds PD. Subterranean seeds of both species are desiccation intolerant. Dormancy in neither aerial nor subterranean seeds of both species has diverged over geological time. Compared to subterranean seeds, aerial seeds of both species dispersed over longer distances. Seed dispersal ability and degree of dormancy of neither species fits the high-risk/low-risk (H-H/L-L) strategy found in many diaspore-dimorphic species. Rather, both species have an H-L/L-H strategy for these two life history traits. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  4. Development of genomic microsatellites in Gleditsia triacanthos (Fabaceae) using illumina sequencing

    Treesearch

    Sandra A. Owusu; Margaret Staton; Tara N. Jennings; Scott Schlarbaum; Mark V. Coggeshall; Jeanne Romero-Severson; John E. Carlson; Oliver. Gailing

    2013-01-01

    Premise of the study: Fourteen genomic microsatellite markers were developed and characterized in honey locust, Gleditsia triacanthos, using Illumina sequencing. Due to their high variability, these markers can be applied in analyses of genetic diversity and structure, and in mating system and gene flow studies.

  5. Phylogeography of East Asian Lespedeza buergeri (Fabaceae) based on chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence variations.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dong-Pil; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Xu, Bo; Choi, Byoung-Hee

    2016-09-01

    The dynamic changes in land configuration during the Quaternary that were accompanied by climatic oscillations have significantly influenced the current distribution and genetic structure of warm-temperate forests in East Asia. Although recent surveys have been conducted, the historical migration of forest species via land bridges and, especially, the origins of Korean populations remains conjectural. Here, we reveal the genetic structure of Lespedeza buergeri, a warm-temperate shrub that is disjunctively distributed around the East China Sea (ECS) at China, Korea, and Japan. Two non-coding regions (rpl32-trnL, psbA-trnH) of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and the internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrITS) were analyzed for 188 individuals from 16 populations, which covered almost all of its distribution. The nrITS data demonstrated a genetic structure that followed geographic boundaries. This examination utilized AMOVA, comparisons of genetic differentiation based on haplotype frequency/genetic mutations among haplotypes, and Mantel tests. However, the cpDNA data showed contrasting genetic pattern, implying that this difference was due to a slower mutation rate in cpDNA than in nrITS. These results indicated frequent migration by this species via an ECS land bridge during the early Pleistocene that then tapered gradually toward the late Pleistocene. A genetic isolation between western and eastern Japan coincided with broad consensus that was suggested by the presence of other warm-temperate plants in that country. For Korean populations, high genetic diversity indicated the existence of refugia during the Last Glacial Maximum on the Korean Peninsula. However, their closeness with western Japanese populations at the level of haplotype clade implied that gene flow from western Japanese refugia was possible until post-glacial processing occurred through the Korea/Tsushima Strait land bridge.

  6. Development of genomic microsatellites in Gleditsia triacanthos (Fabaceae) using Illumina sequencing.

    PubMed

    Owusu, Sandra A; Staton, Margaret; Jennings, Tara N; Schlarbaum, Scott; Coggeshall, Mark V; Romero-Severson, Jeanne; Carlson, John E; Gailing, Oliver

    2013-12-01

    Fourteen genomic microsatellite markers were developed and characterized in honey locust, Gleditsia triacanthos, using Illumina sequencing. Due to their high variability, these markers can be applied in analyses of genetic diversity and structure, and in mating system and gene flow studies. • Thirty-six individuals from across the species range were included in a genetic diversity analysis and yielded three to 20 alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.214 to 0.944 and from 0.400 to 0.934, respectively, with minimal occurrence of null alleles. Regular segregation of maternal alleles was observed at seven loci and moderate segregation distortion at four of 11 loci that were heterozygous in the seed parent. • Honey locust is an important agroforestry tree capable of very fast growth and tolerance of poor site conditions. This is the first report of genomic microsatellites for this species.

  7. Development of genomic microsatellites in Gleditsia triacanthos (Fabaceae) using Illumina sequencing1

    PubMed Central

    Owusu, Sandra A.; Staton, Margaret; Jennings, Tara N.; Schlarbaum, Scott; Coggeshall, Mark V.; Romero-Severson, Jeanne; Carlson, John E.; Gailing, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Fourteen genomic microsatellite markers were developed and characterized in honey locust, Gleditsia triacanthos, using Illumina sequencing. Due to their high variability, these markers can be applied in analyses of genetic diversity and structure, and in mating system and gene flow studies. • Methods and Results: Thirty-six individuals from across the species range were included in a genetic diversity analysis and yielded three to 20 alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.214 to 0.944 and from 0.400 to 0.934, respectively, with minimal occurrence of null alleles. Regular segregation of maternal alleles was observed at seven loci and moderate segregation distortion at four of 11 loci that were heterozygous in the seed parent. • Conclusions: Honey locust is an important agroforestry tree capable of very fast growth and tolerance of poor site conditions. This is the first report of genomic microsatellites for this species. PMID:25202504

  8. New microsatellite loci for Prosopis alba and P. chilensis (Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Bessega, Cecilia F.; Pometti, Carolina L.; Miller, Joe T.; Watts, Richard; Saidman, Beatriz O.; Vilardi, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: As only six useful microsatellite loci that exhibit broad cross-amplification are so far available for Prosopis species, it is necessary to develop a larger number of codominant markers for population genetic studies. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers obtained for Prosopis species from a 454 pyrosequencing run were optimized and characterized for studies in P. alba and P. chilensis. • Methods and Results: Twelve markers that were successfully amplified showed polymorphism in P. alba and P. chilensis. The number of alleles per locus ranged between two and seven and heterozygosity estimates ranged from 0.2 to 0.8. Most of these loci cross-amplify in P. ruscifolia, P. flexuosa, P. kuntzei, P. glandulosa, and P. pallida. • Conclusions: These loci will enable genetic diversity studies of P. alba and P. chilensis and contribute to fine-scale population structure, indirect estimation of relatedness among individuals, and marker-assisted selection. PMID:25202541

  9. The inhibitory potential of the condensed-tannin-rich fraction of Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Fabaceae) against Bothrops atrox envenomation.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Valéria Mourão; da Silva, Wania Cristina Rodrigues; Raposo, Juliana D A; Freitas-de-Sousa, Luciana A; Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina; de Oliveira, Ricardo Bezerra; Veras Mourão, Rosa Helena

    2016-05-13

    Ethnobotanical studies have shown that Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Fabaceae) has been widely used in cases of snake envenomation, particularly in Northern Brazil. In light of this, the aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory potential of the condensed-tannin-rich fraction obtained from the bark of P. reticulata against the main biological activities induced by Bothrops atrox venom (BaV). The chemical composition of the aqueous extract of P. reticulata (AEPr) was first investigated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and the extract was then fractionated by column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20. This yielded five main fractions (Pr1, Pr2, Pr3, Pr4 and Pr5), which were analyzed by colorimetry to determine their concentrations of total phenolics, total tannins and condensed tannins and to assess their potential for blocking the phospholipase activity of BaV. The Pr5 fraction was defined as the fraction rich in condensed tannins (CTPr), and its inhibitory potential against the activities of the venom was evaluated. CTPr was evaluated in different in vivo and in vitro experimental protocols. The in vivo protocols consisted of (1) pre-incubation (venom:CTPr, w/w), (2) pre-treatment (orally administered) and (3) post-treatment (orally administered) to evaluate the effect on the hemorrhagic and edematogenic activities of BaV; in the in vitro protocol the effect on phospholipase and coagulant activity using pre-incubation in both tests was evaluated. There was statistically significant inhibition (p<0.05) of hemorrhagic activity by CTPr when the pre-incubation protocol was used [55% (1:5, w/w) and 74% (1:10, w/w)] and when pre-treatment with doses of 50 and 100mg/kg was used (19% and 13%, respectively). However, for the concentrations tested, there was no statistically significant inhibition in the group subjected to post-treatment administered orally. CTPr blocked 100% of phospholipase activity and 63.3% (1:10, w/w) of coagulant activity when it was pre

  10. Identification of phenolic secondary metabolites from Schotia brachypetala Sond. (Fabaceae) and demonstration of their antioxidant activities in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Labib, Rola M.; Handoussa, Heba; Swilam, Noha; El-Khatib, Ahmed H.; Sharapov, Farukh; Mohamed, Tamer; Krstin, Sonja; Linscheid, Michael W.; Singab, Abdel Nasser; Wink, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Schotia brachypetala Sond. (Fabaceae) is an endemic tree of Southern Africa whose phytochemistry and pharmacology were slightly studied. The present work aimed at profiling the major phenolics compounds present in the hydro-alcohol extract from S. brachypetala leaves (SBE) using LC/HRESI/MS/MS and NMR and prove their antioxidant capabilities using novel methods. Methods In vitro assays; DPPH, TEAC persulfate decolorizing kinetic and FRAP assays, and in vivo assays: Caenorhabditis elegans strains maintenance, Intracellular ROS in C. elegans, Survival assay, GFP expression and Subcellular DAF-16 localization were employed to evaluate the antioxidant activity. Results More than forty polyphenols, including flavonoid glycosides, galloylated flavonoid glycosides, isoflavones, dihydrochalcones, procyanidins, anthocyanins, hydroxy benzoic acid derivatives, hydrolysable tannins, and traces of methylated and acetylated flavonoid derivatives were identified. Three compounds were isolated and identified from the genus Schotia for the first time, namely gallic acid, myricetin-3-O-α-L-1C4-rhamnoside and quercetin-3-O-L-1C4-rhamnoside. The total phenolics content of SBE was (376 mg CAE/g), followed by flavonoids (67.87 QE/g). In vitro antioxidant activity of SBE was evidenced by DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 of 9 µg/mL), FRAP ferric reducing activity (5,000 mol Fe2+ E/mg) and ABTS peroxide inhibiting activity (1,054 mM Trolox E/mg). The tested extract was able to protect the worms against juglone induced oxidative stress, an increased survival rate (up to 41%) was recorded, when compared with the control group (11%) and attenuate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in dose-dependent and reached up to 72% for the highest tested concentration. SBE was also able to attenuate the levels of heat shock protein (HSP) expression in dose-dependent up to 60% in the 150 µg SBE/mL group. In DAF-16 Subcellular localization SBE treated worms showed nuclear

  11. Development of microsatellite markers in Cratylia mollis and their transferability to C. argentea (Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    López-Roberts, M. Cristina; de Queiroz, Luciano Paganucci; van den Berg, Cássio

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: This work aimed to develop microsatellite markers for Cratylia mollis as tools to assess its genetic diversity and structure and to evaluate their potential cross-amplification in related species. • Methods and Results: Microsatellite markers were developed using a microsatellite-enriched library and an intersimple sequence repeat library. From a set of 19 markers, 12 microsatellite loci were polymorphic and presented considerable variation in allele number (2–11), expected heterozygosity (0.226–0.883), and polymorphism information content per locus (0.212–0.870). Cross-amplification in C. argentea was successful in 16 loci, 12 of which were polymorphic (2–10 alleles). • Conclusions: The polymorphism of this set of microsatellite markers for C. mollis, as well as their successful cross-amplification in C. intermedia and C. bahiensis and their transferability to C. argentea, supports their use in future comparative studies to understand the mechanism involved in population divergence and speciation in the genus. PMID:25202484

  12. Phytodegradation potential of Erythrina crista-galli L., Fabaceae, in petroleum-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    de Farias, Vanessa; Maranho, Leila Teresinha; de Vasconcelos, Eliane Carvalho; da Silva Carvalho Filho, Marco Aurélio; Lacerda, Luiz Gustavo; Azevedo, Jayme Augusto Menegassi; Pandey, Ashok; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2009-04-01

    This work aimed at investigating both the tolerance and the phytodegradation potential of Erythrina crista-galli L. in petroleum-contaminated soil. It consisted in analyzing E. crista-galli germination, surviving, growth, and development when cultivated at different contaminant concentrations and pollutant degradation rates. This specimen was selected because it presented a special behavior among others also exposed to petroleum in an accident that occurred in the Araucaria region (south of Brazil), resulting in a four-million-liter oil spill. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse containing non-contaminated soil (NCS), vegetated contaminated soil (VCS), and non-vegetated contaminated soil (NVCS) at the following petroleum concentrations: 25 g kg(-1) (VCS-25), 50 g kg(-1) (VCS-50), and 75 g kg(-1) (VCS-75). After 60 days, the soil samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. Germination was more and more evident as higher petroleum concentrations were observed. The surviving rates of groups NCS, VCS-25, VCS-50, and VCS-75 were 64%, 70%, 61%, and 96%, respectively. The VCS group growth was reduced when compared to the control group (NCS). The individuals exposed to petroleum pollution presented differences in the anatomic structure of their roots when compared to the NCS group. It was observed that the petroleum degradation rate was higher for VCS group than for NVCS. E. crista-galli is potentially recommended for petroleum-contaminated soils because of its positive association in the presence of contamination.

  13. New Cytotoxic Bibenzyl and Other Constituents from Bauhinia ungulata L. (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Leôncio M; de Carvalho, Jarbas L; da Silva, Horlando C; Lemos, Telma L G; Arriaga, Angela M C; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Militão, Gardênia C G; Silva, Thiago D S; Ribeiro, Paulo R V; Santiago, Gilvandete M P

    2016-12-01

    A new bibenzyl, 2'-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-4-methylbibenzyl (1) and four known compounds identified as 2'-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybibenzyl (2), liquiritigenin (3), guibourtinidol (4) and fisetinidol (5) were isolated from the roots of Bauhinia ungulata L. Phytochemical investigations of the stems of B. ungulata led to the isolation of the known compounds identified as liquiritigenin (3), guibourtinidol (4), fisetinidol (5), taraxerol (6), betulinic acid (7), taraxerone (8), glutinol (9), a mixture of sitosterol (10) and stigmasterol (11), pacharin (12), naringenin (13) and eriodictyol (14). The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of their spectral data (IR, MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR). The cytotoxicity of the bibenzyl 1 has been evaluated against four human cancer cell lines, showing the IC50 values of 4.3 and 6.5 μg ml(-1) against pro-myelocytic leukemia (HL-60) and cervical adenocarcinoma (HEP-2) cell lines, respectively. This article also registers for the first time the (13) C-NMR data of the known bibenzyl 2.

  14. Morpho-anatomy, imbibition, viability and germination of the seed of Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Varela, Rodolfo Omar; Albornoz, Patricia Liliana

    2013-09-01

    Seed biology is a relevant aspect of tropical forests because it is central to the understanding of processes of plant establishment, succession and natural regeneration. Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil is a timber tree from South America that produces large seeds with thin weak teguments, which is uncommon among legumes. This study describes the morphology and anatomy of the seed coat, the viability, imbibition, and germination in this species. Seeds used during the essays came from 10 trees that grow naturally in Horco Molle, province of Tucumán, Argentina. Seed morphology was described from a sample of 20 units. The seed coat surface was examined with a scanning electron microscope. Transverse sections of hydrated and non-hydrated seeds were employed to describe the histological structure of the seed coat. Hydration, viability and germination experiments were performed under laboratory controlled conditions; and the experimental design consisted of 10 replicas of 10 seeds each. Viability and germination tests were conducted using freshly fallen seeds and seeds stored for five months. Morphologically the seeds of A. colubrina var. cebil are circular to subcircular, laterally compressed, smooth, bright brown and have a horseshoe fissure line (= pleurogram) on both sides. The seed coat comprises five tissue layers and a double (external and internal) cuticle. The outer cuticle (on the epidermis) is smooth and interrupted by microcracks and pores of variable depth. The epidermis consists of macroesclereids with non-lignified secondary walls. This layer is separated from the underlying ones during seed hydration. The other layers of internal tissues are comprised of osteosclereids, parenchyma, osteosclereids, and macrosclereids. The percentage of viable seeds was 93%, decreasing to 75% in seeds with five months old. Seed mass increased 76% after the first eight hours of hydration. Germination percentage was 75% after 76 hours. Germination of seeds stored for five

  15. Antioxidant responses of Annelids, Brassicaceae and Fabaceae to pollutants: a review.

    PubMed

    Bernard, F; Brulle, F; Dumez, S; Lemiere, S; Platel, A; Nesslany, F; Cuny, D; Deram, A; Vandenbulcke, F

    2015-04-01

    Pollutants, such as Metal Trace Elements (MTEs) and organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides), can impact DNA structure of living organisms and thus generate damage. For instance, cadmium is a well-known genotoxic and mechanisms explaining its clastogenicity are mainly indirect: inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and/or induction of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Animal or vegetal cells use antioxidant defense systems to protect themselves against ROS produced during oxidative stress. Because tolerance of organisms depends, at least partially, on their ability to cope with ROS, the mechanisms of production and management of ROS were investigated a lot in Ecotoxicology as markers of biotic and abiotic stress. This was mainly done through the measurement of enzyme activities The present Review focuses on 3 test species living in close contact with soil that are often used in soil ecotoxicology: the worm Eisenia fetida, and two plant species, Trifolium repens (white clover) and Brassica oleracea (cabbage). E. fetida is a soil-dwelling organism commonly used for biomonitoring. T. repens is a symbiotic plant species which forms root nodule with soil bacteria, while B. oleracea is a non-symbiotic plant. In literature, some oxidative stress enzyme activities have already been measured in those species but such analyses do not allow distinction between individual enzyme involvements in oxidative stress. Gene expression studies would allow this distinction at the transcriptomic level. A literature review and a data search in molecular database were carried out on the basis of keywords in Scopus, in PubMed and in Genbank™ for each species. Molecular data regarding E. fetida were already available in databases, but a lack of data regarding oxidative stress related genes was observed for T. repens and B. oleracea. By exploiting the conservation observed between species and using molecular biology techniques, we partially cloned missing candidates

  16. BIOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF EXTRACTS FROM PTEROCARPUS ERINACEUS POIR (FABACEAE) ROOT BARKS.

    PubMed

    Noufou, Ouédraogo; Anne-Emmanuelle, Hay; Claude W, Ouédraogo Jean; Richard, Sawadogo W; André, Tibiri; Marius, Lompo; Jean-Baptiste, Nikiema; Jean, Koudou; Marie-Genevieve, Dijoux-Franca; Pierre, Guissou Innocent

    2017-01-01

    Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. belonging to Fabacae familly is used as medicinal plant in Burkina Faso's folk medicine. Roots of P. erinaceus are used to treat ulcer, stomach ache and inflammatory diseases. The objective of the present study was to carry out phytochemical composition of methanol (MeOH) and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts from Pterocarpus erinaceus roots, to isolate pure compounds, and to evaluate their pharmacological activities. Chromatographic fractionation led to the isolation of active components of the extracts. The structures were established by NMR analysis and comparison with data from literature. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using croton oil-induced edema of mice ear as well as the effect of extracts against lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation was evaluated. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts. Friedelin (1), 3a-hydroxyfriedelan-2-one (2), a-sophoradiol (3) and stigmasterol (4) were isolated from DCM extract and maltol-6-O-apiofuranoside-glucopyranoside (5) isolated from MeOH. DCM extract and friedelin, 3a-hydroxyfriedelan-2-one, a-sophoradiol showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect against ear edema. Friedelin (1), α-sophoradiol (3) and maltol-6-O-apiofuranoside-glucopyranoside (5) exhibited lipoxygenase inhibition. MeOH extract (100 μg/mL) inhibited lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation activities at 45.1 ± 3% and 30.7 ± 0.5% respectively. MeOH extract, ethyl acetate fraction and butanol fraction exhibited antioxidant property with both two methods used. The results suggested that the extracts and compounds from roots of Pterocarpus erinaceus possessed local anti-inflammatory effect, antioxidant properties and inhibitor effect against lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation activities.

  17. Pharmacological properties and related constituents of stem bark of Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Noufou, Ouédraogo; Wamtinga, Sawadogo Richard; André, Tibiri; Christine, Bayet; Marius, Lompo; Emmanuelle, Hay A; Jean, Koudou; Marie-Geneviève, Dijoux; Pierre, Guissou Innocent

    2012-01-01

    To screen methanol and dichloromethane extracts of stem bark of Pterocarpus erinaceus for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, in vitro antioxidant activities and phytochemical analysis. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined by using carrageenan induced-edema of mice paw and croton oil-induced edema of mice ear; analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing. Phytochemical screening of extracts was performed by thin layer chromatography. The chromatographic fractionation led to the isolation of main active components as friedelin, lupeol and epicathechin. The structures were established by TLC and nuclear magnetic resonance studies. Both methanol and dichloromethane extracts, friedelin, lupeol and epicatechin showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect using croton oil induced-ear edema. Furthermore, the action of dichloromethane extract was more important. At the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the methanol extract was able to reduce the carrageenan induced-hind paw edema, while at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, it showed an important analgesic effect against writhing induced by acetic acid injection of 38.8%, 68.0% and 74.3%, respectively. Antioxidative properties of methanol extract and its dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions were assessed by using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. The methanol extract showed the stronger radical scavenging activity than dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions, with an antiradical power of 5, 3.5 and 2 respectively. The main components isolated from these extracts as friedelin, lupeol and epicathechin were responsible of these activities. The results suggest that the stem bark extracts of Pterocarpus erinaceus possessed important anti-inflammatory, analgesic activities and strong antioxidant properties, therefore, they could be used as potential natural ingredients in the pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. BIOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF EXTRACTS FROM PTEROCARPUS ERINACEUS POIR (FABACEAE) ROOT BARKS

    PubMed Central

    Noufou, Ouédraogo; Anne-Emmanuelle, Hay; Claude W, Ouédraogo Jean; Richard, Sawadogo W; André, Tibiri; Marius, Lompo; Jean-baptiste, Nikiema; Jean, Koudou; Marie-Genevieve, Dijoux-Franca; Pierre, Guissou Innocent

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. belonging to Fabacae familly is used as medicinal plant in Burkina Faso’s folk medicine. Roots of P. erinaceus are used to treat ulcer, stomach ache and inflammatory diseases. The objective of the present study was to carry out phytochemical composition of methanol (MeOH) and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts from Pterocarpus erinaceus roots, to isolate pure compounds, and to evaluate their pharmacological activities. Methods: Chromatographic fractionation led to the isolation of active components of the extracts. The structures were established by NMR analysis and comparison with data from literature. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using croton oil-induced edema of mice ear as well as the effect of extracts against lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation was evaluated. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts. Results: Friedelin (1), 3a-hydroxyfriedelan-2-one (2), a-sophoradiol (3) and stigmasterol (4) were isolated from DCM extract and maltol-6-O-apiofuranoside-glucopyranoside (5) isolated from MeOH. DCM extract and friedelin, 3a-hydroxyfriedelan-2-one, a-sophoradiol showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect against ear edema. Friedelin (1), α-sophoradiol (3) and maltol-6-O-apiofuranoside-glucopyranoside (5) exhibited lipoxygenase inhibition. MeOH extract (100 μg/mL) inhibited lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation activities at 45.1 ± 3% and 30.7 ± 0.5% respectively. MeOH extract, ethyl acetate fraction and butanol fraction exhibited antioxidant property with both two methods used. Conclusion: The results suggested that the extracts and compounds from roots of Pterocarpus erinaceus possessed local anti-inflammatory effect, antioxidant properties and inhibitor effect against lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation activities. PMID:28480397

  19. Influence of the drying method in the antioxidant potential and chemical composition of four shrubby flowering plants from the tribe Genisteae (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Pinela, José; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-11-01

    Flowers from several common Mediterranean shrubs, such as those from the Cytisus genus and Genista genus (tribe Genisteae/Fabaceae) have long been used for medicinal purposes and seasoning in the northeastern Portuguese region. Despite, the shade-drying traditionally used to process these plants, freeze-drying is claimed to better preserve the quality of medicinal plants. Herein, the effects of drying process in the antioxidants composition and properties of Cytisus multiflorus, Cytisus scoparius, Cytisus striatus and Pterospartum tridentatum were evaluated. Freeze-dried P. tridentatum revealed the highest antioxidant properties (EC(50) values ≤ 0.15 mg/ml). Freeze-drying benefits were confirmed showing, the samples submitted to this process, higher antioxidant activity and higher concentrations of hydrophilic (phenolics, ascorbic acid and sugars) and lipophilic (tocopherols, chlorophylls and lycopene) compounds. This process could be applied in scale-up treatments of the studied plants for cosmetic or pharmaceutical applications.

  20. Cluster Roots of Leucadendron laureolum (Proteaceae) and Lupinus albus (Fabaceae) Take Up Glycine Intact: An Adaptive Strategy to Low Mineral Nitrogen in Soils?

    PubMed Central

    HAWKINS, HEIDI-JAYNE; WOLF, GABRIELLE; STOCK, WILLIAM DAVID

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims South African soils are not only low in phosphorus (P) but most nitrogen (N) is in organic form, and soil amino acid concentrations can reach 2·6 g kg−1 soil. The Proteaceae (a main component of the South African Fynbos vegetation) and some Fabaceae produce cluster roots in response to low soil phosphorus. The ability of these roots to acquire the amino acid glycine (Gly) was assessed. • Methods Uptake of organic N as 13C–15N-Gly was determined in cluster roots and non-cluster roots of Leucadendron laureolum (Proteaceae) and Lupinus albus (Fabaceae) in hydroponic culture, taking account of respiratory loss of 13CO2. • Key Results Both plant species acquired doubly labelled (intact) Gly, and respiratory losses of 13CO2 were small. Lupin (but not leucadendron) acquired more intact Gly when cluster roots were supplied with 13C–15N-Gly than when non-cluster roots were supplied. After treatment with labelled Gly (13C : 15N ratio = 1), lupin cluster roots had a 13C : 15N ratio of about 0·85 compared with 0·59 in labelled non-cluster roots. Rates of uptake of label from Gly did not differ between cluster and non-cluster roots of either species. The ratio of C : N and 13C : 15N in the plant increased in the order: labelled roots < rest of the root < shoot in both species, owing to an increasing proportion of 13C translocation. • Conclusions Cluster roots of lupin specifically acquired more intact Gly than non-cluster roots, whereas Gly uptake by the cluster and non-cluster roots of leucadendron was comparable. The uptake capacities of cluster roots are discussed in relation to spatial and morphological characteristics in the natural environment. PMID:16223736

  1. Large-scale pattern of genetic differentiation within African rainforest trees: insights on the roles of ecological gradients and past climate changes on the evolution of Erythrophleum spp (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The evolutionary events that have shaped biodiversity patterns in the African rainforests are still poorly documented. Past forest fragmentation and ecological gradients have been advocated as important drivers of genetic differentiation but their respective roles remain unclear. Using nuclear microsatellites (nSSRs) and chloroplast non-coding sequences (pDNA), we characterised the spatial genetic structure of Erythrophleum (Fabaceae) forest trees in West and Central Africa (Guinea Region, GR). This widespread genus displays a wide ecological amplitude and taxonomists recognize two forest tree species, E. ivorense and E. suaveolens, which are difficult to distinguish in the field and often confused. Results Bayesian-clustering applied on nSSRs of a blind sample of 648 specimens identified three major gene pools showing no or very limited introgression. They present parapatric distributions correlated to rainfall gradients and forest types. One gene pool is restricted to coastal evergreen forests and corresponds to E. ivorense; a second one is found in gallery forests from the dry forest zone of West Africa and North-West Cameroon and corresponds to West-African E. suaveolens; the third gene pool occurs in semi-evergreen forests and corresponds to Central African E. suaveolens. These gene pools have mostly unique pDNA haplotypes but they do not form reciprocally monophyletic clades. Nevertheless, pDNA molecular dating indicates that the divergence between E. ivorense and Central African E. suaveolens predates the Pleistocene. Further Bayesian-clustering applied within each major gene pool identified diffuse genetic discontinuities (minor gene pools displaying substantial introgression) at a latitude between 0 and 2°N in Central Africa for both species, and at a longitude between 5° and 8°E for E. ivorense. Moreover, we detected evidence of past population declines which are consistent with historical habitat fragmentation induced by Pleistocene climate

  2. Hexavalent chromium-induced differential disruption of cortical microtubules in some Fabaceae species is correlated with acetylation of α-tubulin.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S; Michalopoulou, Vasiliki A

    2016-03-01

    The effects of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] on the cortical microtubules (MTs) of five species of the Fabaceae family (Vicia faba, Pisum sativum, Vigna sinensis, Vigna angularis, and Medicago sativa) were investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy after immunolocalization of total tubulin with conventional immunofluorescence techniques and of acetylated α-tubulin with the specific 6-11B-1 monoclonal antibody. Moreover, total α-tubulin and acetylated α-tubulin were quantified by Western immunoblotting and scanning densitometry. Results showed the universality of Cr(VI) detrimental effects to cortical MTs, which proved to be a sensitive and reliable subcellular marker for monitoring Cr(VI) toxicity in plant cells. However, a species-specific response was recorded, and a correlation of MT disturbance with the acetylation status of α-tubulin was demonstrated. In V. faba, MTs were depolymerized at the gain of cytoplasmic tubulin background and displayed low α-tubulin acetylation, while in P. sativum, V. sinensis, V. angularis, and M. sativa, MTs became bundled and changed orientation from perpendicular to oblique or longitudinal. Bundled MTs were highly acetylated as determined by both immunofluorescence and Western immunoblotting. Tubulin acetylation in P. sativum and M. sativa preceded MT bundling; in V. sinensis it followed MT derangement, while in V. angularis the two phenomena coincided. Total α-tubulin remained constant in all treatments. Should acetylation be an indicator of MT stabilization, it is deduced that bundled MTs became stabilized, lost their dynamic properties, and were rendered inactive. Results of this report allow the conclusion that Cr(VI) toxicity disrupts MTs and deranges the MT-mediated functions either by depolymerizing or stabilizing them.

  3. Antihypertensive activity of 80% methanol seed extract of Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth. subsp. aurea (Fabaceae) is mediated through calcium antagonism induced vasodilation.

    PubMed

    Getiye, Yohannes; Tolessa, Tesfaye; Engidawork, Ephrem

    2016-08-02

    Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth. subsp. aurea (CASA) (Fabaceae) seeds are used to treat hypertension in Ethiopian folklore medicine, particularly by Shinasha, Agew-awi and Amhara people in northwest Ethiopia. However, the claim has so far not been substantiated scientifically. The study was conducted to evaluate the antihypertensive activity of 80% methanol extract of CASA in animal model of hypertension as well as its vasorelaxant effect and possible underlying mechanisms in isolated guinea pig aorta. Hypotensive and antihypertensive effect of CASA extract was determined in vivo through the intravenous (iv) route in normotensive and hypertensive anesthetized rats using 2-kidney-1-clip (2K1C) rat model. Ex vivo, guinea pig thoracic aortic rings were isolated and suspended in organ bath, and the vasodepressor effects as well as the mechanism of action of the extract were studied by means of isometric tension recording experiments. The blood pressure fell dose-dependently and significantly in renal hypertensive and normotensive rats following i.v. administration, suggesting that the hydroalcoholic extract possesses hypotensive and antihypertensive effects. The extract also caused a dose-dependent relaxation of aorta pre-contracted with KCl at a concentration of 5-250mg/L, with a maximum relaxation of 92.1% achieved at 250mg/L. The relaxation mechanism was found to be independent of the muscarinic receptors, histamine receptors, ATP dependent K(+) channels, cyclooxygenase enzymes, cGMP/NO pathway and the endothelium system. The extract caused rightward shift of the Ca(++) dose-response curves, similar to that caused by verapamil, indicating that it produced vasorelaxation by inhibiting extracellular Ca(2+) influx. The findings demonstrate that the plant is endowed with antihypertensive effect, providing evidence for its traditional use. The effect may be, at least in part, due to dilation of blood vessels through blockage of Ca(2+) channels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  4. Response of Pisum sativum (Fabales: Fabaceae) to Sitona lineatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infestation: effect of adult weevil density on damage, larval population, and yield loss.

    PubMed

    Vankosky, M A; Cárcamo, H A; Dosdall, L M

    2011-10-01

    Sitona lineatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive pest in North America and its geographical range is currently expanding across the Canadian prairies. Adults and larvae of S. lineatus feed upon the foliage and root nodules, respectively, of field pea, Pisum sativum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and may contribute to economic losses when population densities are high. Integrated pest management (IPM) programs that incorporate economic thresholds should be used to manage S. lineatus populations in a sustainable manner. The impact of nitrogen fertilizer on field pea yield and the relationships between adult weevil density and above- and below-ground damage and yield were investigated in southern Alberta, Canada using exclusion cages on field pea plots. In each cage, 32 field pea plants were exposed to weevil densities ranging from zero to one adult weevil per plant. Nitrogen-fertilized plants yielded 16% more than unfertilized plants. Nitrogen-fertilized plants had fewer root nodules than unfertilized plants, but fertilizer had no effect on foliar feeding by S. lineatus. Adult density affected foliar feeding damage, with increases in above-ground damage associated with increases in S. lineatus density. Adult density did not affect root nodule damage, larval density, foliar biomass or seed weight. Overall, these results indicate that terminal leaf damage may be used to estimate adult weevil density but cannot be used to predict larval density or yield loss. Further research is required to better understand the impact of larval damage on yield and determine if economic thresholds can be developed using data from large-scale production systems.

  5. [Seedlings growth and survival of five Acacia (Fabaceae) species that coexists in neotropical semi-arid forests of Argentina, under different light and water availability conditions].

    PubMed

    Venier, Paula; Cabido, Marcelo; Mangeaud, Arnaldo; Funes, Guillermo

    2013-06-01

    Seedlings growth and survival of five Acacia (Fabaceae) species that coexists in neotropical semi-arid forests of Argentina, under different light and water availability conditions. Seedling establishment is one of the most risky stages of plants, especially in arid and semiarid regions, where low water availability and high solar radiation influence its emergence, development and survival. In seasonally dry xerophytic forests occurring in North-Western Córdoba, central Argentina, five neotropical species of Acacia co-exist: A. aroma, A. caven, A. atramentaria, A. gilliesii and A. praecox. With the aim to evaluate growth variables and survival of these five species seedlings, in response to water stress and different light availability conditions, a greenhouse experiment was undertaken from March to June of 2010. Although small differences were found between species (F = 5.66, p = 0.001), all of them showed high percentages of seedling survival in response to different light and water treatments, suggesting that seedlings would be tolerant to water stress and could be established both in light and shade. On the other hand, although all species showed an increase in growth in light conditions and without water stress, we have found some trends towards a greater growth in the seedlings ofA. aroma, A. caven and A. atramentaria when compared to those of A. praecox and A. gilliessi in most of the variables considered (F = 41.9, p < 0.0001; F = 7.06, p < 0.0001; F = 53.59, p < 0.0001). This pattern was confirmed through a cluster analysis that classified the species in two main groups. These results, together with others already reported, would indicate a regenerative niche differentiation that might be favoring the regional coexistence of these five species in semiarid forests in central Argentina.

  6. Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity and community structure on three co-occurring leguminous canopy tree species in a Neotropical rainforest.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew E; Henkel, Terry W; Catherine Aime, M; Fremier, Alex K; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2011-11-01

    • The ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis was historically considered restricted to the temperate zones, but recent studies have shown the importance of this symbiosis across the tropics. We examined ECM fungal diversity, host plant phylogeny and ECM host preferences in a rainforest dominated by the leguminous host plants Dicymbe corymbosa, Dicymbe altsonii and Aldina insignis. • Ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified by internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequencing and host species were verified with chloroplast trnL sequencing. To test whether Dicymbe and Aldina represent independent gains of the ECM symbiosis, we constructed a Fabaceae phylogeny using MatK and trnL. We identified four independent ECM lineages within the Fabaceae. • We detected a diverse community of 118 ECM species dominated by the /clavulina, /russula-lactarius, /boletus, and /tomentella-thelephora lineages. Ectomycorrhizal species in Agaricales, Atheliales and Polyporales may represent previously unrecognized tropical-endemic ECM lineages. Previous studies suggested that ECM fungi did not diversify in the tropics, but the /clavulina lineage appears to have a center of diversity in tropical South America. • Dicymbe and Aldina represent independent gains of the ECM symbiosis in Fabaceae but their fungal symbionts showed no host preferences. Spatial factors are more important than hosts in structuring the ECM fungal community in this ecosystem. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Short-term effects of reduced-impact logging on Copaifera spp. (Fabaceae) regeneration in eastern Amazon

    Treesearch

    Carine Klauberg; Edson Vidal; Carlos Alberto Silva; Andrew Thomas Hudak; Manuela Oliveira; Pedro Higuchi

    2017-01-01

    Timber management directly influences the population dynamics of tree species, like Copaifera spp. (copaíba), which provide oil-resin with ecological and economic importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the structure and population dynamics of Copaifera in unmanaged and managed stands by reduced-impact logging (RIL) in eastern Amazon in Pará state, Brazil....

  8. High levels of genetic differentiation and selfing in the Brazilian cerrado fruit tree Dipteryx alata Vog. (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Dipteryx alata is a native fruit tree species of the cerrado (Brazilian savanna) that has great economic potential because of its multiple uses. Knowledge of how the genetic variability of this species is organized within and among populations would be useful for genetic conservation and breeding programs. We used nine simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers developed for Dipteryx odorata to evaluate the genetic structure of three populations of D. alata located in central Brazil based on a leaf sample analysis from 101 adults. The outcrossing rate was evaluated using 300 open-pollinated offspring from 25 seed-trees. Pollen dispersal was measured by parentage analysis. We used spatial genetic structure (SGS) to test the minimal distance for harvesting seeds in conservation and breeding programs. Our data indicate that the populations studied had a high degree of genetic diversity and population structure, as suggested by the high level of divergence among populations . The estimated outcrossing rate suggested a mixed mating system, and the intrapopulation fixation index was influenced by SGS. We conclude that seed harvesting for genetic conservation and breeding programs requires a minimum distance between trees of 196 m to avoid collecting seeds from related seed-trees. PMID:21637609

  9. [The seeds of Campsiandra angustifolia (Fabaceae: Caesalpiniodeae) as a reflex of selective pressures on dispersal and establishment].

    PubMed

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro G; Durán, Sandra; Valerio, Alejandro; Herbas, Estela; Castañeda, Mario; Ochoa, José; Romo, Mónica

    2005-01-01

    We indirectly evaluated the selective pressures on dispersal and establishment of Campsiandra angustifolia, a common water-dispersed tree from the Peruvian Amazon, analyzing the variation in the relationship between the volume occupied by dispersal and establishment structures in a total of 535 seeds from 13 trees located at three different habitats. The seeds differed one order of magnitude in their total volume. However, independently of their size and the location of the maternal tree, the relationship between the volume occupied by dispersal and establishment structures was relatively constant (approximately 1) and showed a normal distribution with low skewness, indicating stabilizing selection. These results suggest that, in the habitats studied, dispersal and establishment processes may have similar importance to C. agustifolia. In species with seeds confined in pods, and therefore strongly space-limited, the relative volume of their seeds occupied by dispersal and establishment structures could be a better measure of the trade-off between these two processes than the variation in seed size.

  10. Concordance between Phylogeographical and Biogeographical Patterns in the Brazilian Cerrado: Diversification of the Endemic Tree Dalbergia miscolobium (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Renan Milagres Lage; Ribeiro, Renata Acácio; Lemos-Filho, José Pires; Lovato, Maria Bernadete

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have addressed the phylogeography of species of the Cerrado, the largest savanna biome of South America. Here we aimed to investigate the phylogeographical structure of Dalbergia miscolobium, a widespread tree from the Cerrado, and to verify its concordance with plant phylogeographical and biogeographical patterns so far described. A total of 287 individuals from 32 populations were analyzed by sequencing the trnL intron of the chloroplast DNA and the internal transcribed spacer of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Analysis of population structure and tests of population expansion were performed and the time of divergence of haplotypes was estimated. Twelve and 27 haplotypes were identified in the cpDNA and nrDNA data, respectively. The star-like network configuration and the mismatch distributions indicated a recent spatial and demographic expansion of the species. Consistent with previous tree phylogeographical studies of Cerrado trees, the cpDNA also suggested a recent expansion towards the southern Cerrado. The diversity of D. miscolobium was widespread but high levels of genetic diversity were found in the Central Eastern and in the southern portion of Central Western Cerrado. The combined analysis of cpDNA and nrDNA supported a phylogeographic structure into seven groups. The phylogeographical pattern showed many concordances with biogeographical and phylogeographical studies in the Cerrado, mainly with the Cerrado phytogeographic provinces superimposed to our sampling area. The data reinforced the uniqueness of Northeastern and Southeastern Cerrados and the differentiation between Eastern and Western Central Cerrados. The recent diversification of the species (estimated between the Pliocene and the Pleistocene) and the ‘genealogical concordances’ suggest that a shared and persistent pattern of species diversification might have been present in the Cerrado over time. This is the first time that an extensive ‘genealogical concordance’ between

  11. [Signaling Systems of Rhizobia (Rhizobiaceae) and Leguminous Plants (Fabaceae) upon the Formation of a Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis (Review)].

    PubMed

    Glyan'ko, A K

    2015-01-01

    Data from the literature and our own data on the participation and interrelation of bacterial signaling Nod-factors and components of the calcium, NADPH-oxidase, and NO-synthase signaling systems of a plant at the preinfection and infectious stages of the formation of a legume-rhizobium symbiosis are summarized in this review. The physiological role of Nod-factors, reactive oxygen species (ROS), calcium (Ca2+), NADPH-oxidase, nitric oxide (NO), and their cross influence on the processes determining the formation of symbiotic structures on the roots of the host plant is discussed.

  12. Development of microsatellite markers in Lupinus luteus (Fabaceae) and cross-species amplification in other lupine species.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Lorena B Parra; Straub, Shannon C K; Doyle, Jeff J; Ortega, Paula E Mora; Garrido, Haroldo E Salvo; Butler, Iván J Maureira

    2010-08-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed in Lupinus luteus L., an emerging temperate protein crop, to investigate genetic diversity, population structure, and to facilitate the generation of better yellow lupine varieties. • Thirteen polymorphic primer sets were evaluated in a European and Eastern European accession collection of L. luteus. The primers amplified di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats with 2-4 alleles per locus. These revealed a moderate to low level of genetic variation, as indicated by an average observed heterozygosity of 0.0126. Select loci also amplified successfully in the closely related species L. hispanicus Boiss. & Reut. and in the New World species L. mutabilis Sweet. • These results indicate the utility of primers for the study of genetic diversity across L. luteus populations and related lupine species. The use of these microsatellite markers will facilitate the implementation of several molecular breeding strategies in yellow lupine.

  13. Lethality of cytochalasin B and other compounds isolated from fungus Aspergillus sp. (Trichocomaceae) endophyte of Bauhinia guianensis (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Feitosa, André de O; Dias, Amanda Cristina S; Ramos, Gisele da C; Bitencourt, Heriberto R; Siqueira, José Edson S; Marinho, Patrícia Santana B; Barison, Andersson; Ocampos, Fernanda M M; Marinho, Andrey Moacir do R

    Endophytic fungi are fungi that colonize internal tissues of plants; several biologically active compounds have been isolated from these fungi. There are few studies of compounds isolated from endophytic fungi of Amazon plants. Thus, this study aimed the isolation and structural identification of ergosterol (1), ergosterol peroxide (2), mevalonolactone (3), cytochalasin B (4) and cytochalasin H (5) from Aspergillus sp. EJC 04, an endophytic fungus from Bauhinia guianensis. The cytochalasin B (4) and the diacetate derivative of cytochalasin B (4a) showed high lethality in the brine shrimp assay. This is the first occurrence of cytochalasins in Amazonian endophytic fungi from B. guianensis. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Phylogeography of the endangered rosewood Dalbergia nigra (Fabaceae): insights into the evolutionary history and conservation of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, R A; Lemos-Filho, J P; Ramos, A C S; Lovato, M B

    2011-01-01

    The Brazilian rosewood (Dalbergia nigra) is an endangered tree endemic to the central Brazilian Atlantic Forest, one of the world's most threatened biomes. The population diversity, phylogeographic structure and demographic history of this species were investigated using the variation in the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences of 185 individuals from 19 populations along the geographical range of the species. Fifteen haplotypes were detected in the analysis of 1297 bp from two non-coding sequences, trnV-trnM and trnL. We identified a strong genetic structure (F(ST)=0.62, P<0.0001), with a latitudinal separation into three phylogeographic groups. The two northernmost groups showed evidence of having maintained historically larger populations than the southernmost group. Estimates of divergence times between these groups pointed to vicariance events in the Middle Pleistocene (ca. 350,000-780,000 years ago). The recurrence of past climatic changes in the central part of the Atlantic forest, with cycles of forest expansion and contraction, may have led to repeated vicariance events, resulting in the genetic differentiation of these groups. Based on comparisons among the populations of large reserves and small, disturbed fragments of the same phylogeographic group, we also found evidence of recent anthropogenic effects on genetic diversity. The results were also analysed with the aim of contributing to the conservation of D. nigra. We suggest that the three phylogeographic groups could be considered as three distinct management units. Based on the genetic diversity and uniqueness of the populations, we also indicate priority areas for conservation.

  15. Phylogeography of the endangered rosewood Dalbergia nigra (Fabaceae): insights into the evolutionary history and conservation of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, R A; Lemos-Filho, J P; Ramos, A C S; Lovato, M B

    2011-01-01

    The Brazilian rosewood (Dalbergia nigra) is an endangered tree endemic to the central Brazilian Atlantic Forest, one of the world's most threatened biomes. The population diversity, phylogeographic structure and demographic history of this species were investigated using the variation in the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences of 185 individuals from 19 populations along the geographical range of the species. Fifteen haplotypes were detected in the analysis of 1297 bp from two non-coding sequences, trnV-trnM and trnL. We identified a strong genetic structure (FST=0.62, P<0.0001), with a latitudinal separation into three phylogeographic groups. The two northernmost groups showed evidence of having maintained historically larger populations than the southernmost group. Estimates of divergence times between these groups pointed to vicariance events in the Middle Pleistocene (ca. 350 000–780 000 years ago). The recurrence of past climatic changes in the central part of the Atlantic forest, with cycles of forest expansion and contraction, may have led to repeated vicariance events, resulting in the genetic differentiation of these groups. Based on comparisons among the populations of large reserves and small, disturbed fragments of the same phylogeographic group, we also found evidence of recent anthropogenic effects on genetic diversity. The results were also analysed with the aim of contributing to the conservation of D. nigra. We suggest that the three phylogeographic groups could be considered as three distinct management units. Based on the genetic diversity and uniqueness of the populations, we also indicate priority areas for conservation. PMID:20517347

  16. Humidity-regulated dormancy onset in the Fabaceae: a conceptual model and its ecological implications for the Australian wattle Acacia saligna

    PubMed Central

    Tozer, Mark G.; Ooi, Mark K. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Seed dormancy enhances fitness by preventing seeds from germinating when the probability of seedling survival and recruitment is low. The onset of physical dormancy is sensitive to humidity during ripening; however, the implications of this mechanism for seed bank dynamics have not been quantified. This study proposes a model that describes how humidity-regulated dormancy onset may control the accumulation of a dormant seed bank, and seed experiments are conducted to calibrate the model for an Australian Fabaceae, Acacia saligna. The model is used to investigate the impact of climate on seed dormancy and to forecast the ecological implications of human-induced climate change. Methods The relationship between relative humidity and dormancy onset was quantified under laboratory conditions by exposing freshly matured non-dormant seeds to constant humidity levels for fixed durations. The model was field-calibrated by measuring the response of seeds exposed to naturally fluctuating humidity. The model was applied to 3-hourly records of humidity spanning the period 1972–2007 in order to estimate both temporal variability in dormancy and spatial variability attributable to climatic differences among populations. Climate change models were used to project future changes in dormancy onset. Key Results A sigmoidal relationship exists between dormancy and humidity under both laboratory and field conditions. Seeds ripened under field conditions became dormant following very short exposure to low humidity (<20 %). Prolonged exposure at higher humidity did not increase dormancy significantly. It is predicted that populations growing in a temperate climate produce 33–55 % fewer dormant seeds than those in a Mediterranean climate; however, dormancy in temperate populations is predicted to increase as a result of climate change. Conclusions Humidity-regulated dormancy onset may explain observed variation in physical dormancy. The model offers a systematic

  17. Humidity-regulated dormancy onset in the Fabaceae: a conceptual model and its ecological implications for the Australian wattle Acacia saligna.

    PubMed

    Tozer, Mark G; Ooi, Mark K J

    2014-09-01

    Seed dormancy enhances fitness by preventing seeds from germinating when the probability of seedling survival and recruitment is low. The onset of physical dormancy is sensitive to humidity during ripening; however, the implications of this mechanism for seed bank dynamics have not been quantified. This study proposes a model that describes how humidity-regulated dormancy onset may control the accumulation of a dormant seed bank, and seed experiments are conducted to calibrate the model for an Australian Fabaceae, Acacia saligna. The model is used to investigate the impact of climate on seed dormancy and to forecast the ecological implications of human-induced climate change. The relationship between relative humidity and dormancy onset was quantified under laboratory conditions by exposing freshly matured non-dormant seeds to constant humidity levels for fixed durations. The model was field-calibrated by measuring the response of seeds exposed to naturally fluctuating humidity. The model was applied to 3-hourly records of humidity spanning the period 1972-2007 in order to estimate both temporal variability in dormancy and spatial variability attributable to climatic differences among populations. Climate change models were used to project future changes in dormancy onset. A sigmoidal relationship exists between dormancy and humidity under both laboratory and field conditions. Seeds ripened under field conditions became dormant following very short exposure to low humidity (<20 %). Prolonged exposure at higher humidity did not increase dormancy significantly. It is predicted that populations growing in a temperate climate produce 33-55 % fewer dormant seeds than those in a Mediterranean climate; however, dormancy in temperate populations is predicted to increase as a result of climate change. Humidity-regulated dormancy onset may explain observed variation in physical dormancy. The model offers a systematic approach to modelling this variation in population studies

  18. Structuralism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piaget, Jean

    Provided is an overview of the analytical method known as structuralism. The first chapter discusses the three key components of the concept of a structure: the view of a system as a whole instead of so many parts; the study of the transformations in the system; and the fact that these transformations never lead beyond the system but always…

  19. Structuralism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piaget, Jean

    Provided is an overview of the analytical method known as structuralism. The first chapter discusses the three key components of the concept of a structure: the view of a system as a whole instead of so many parts; the study of the transformations in the system; and the fact that these transformations never lead beyond the system but always…

  20. Molecular evidence for the hybrid origin of Bauhinia blakeana (Caesalpinioideae).

    PubMed

    Mak, Chun Yin; Cheung, Ka Shing; Yip, Pui Ying; Kwan, Hoi Shan

    2008-01-01

    Bauhinia blakeana Dunn is the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region emblem and a popular horticultural species in many Asian countries. It was first described as a new species from Hong Kong almost a century ago. This plant is sterile and has long been considered a hybrid, possibly from two related species, B. purpurea and B. variegata. However, not much evidence based on molecular methods was available to support this hypothesis. In this study, sequences of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), rbcL and atpB-rbcL intergenic spacer for five Bauhinia species and two varieties of one of the species were determined and compared. There were two types of ITS1 sequences in B. blakeana, one indistinguishable from that of B. purpurea and the other one identical to that of B. variegata. This confirmed that B. blakeana was a hybrid of these two species. Chloroplast atpB-rbcL intergenic spacer sequence of B. blakeana was identical to that of B. purpurea, indicating that B. purpurea was the female parent. The hybridization event seemed to occur only recently and was a rare incident. Its occurrence was likely facilitated by interspecific pollen competition. It appeared that human efforts played a crucial role in the preservation and ubiquity of B. blakeana.

  1. Early signaling, synthesis, transport and metabolism of ureides.

    PubMed

    Baral, Bikash; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Izaguirre-Mayoral, Maria Luisa

    2016-04-01

    The symbiosis between α nitrogen (N2)-fixing Proteobacteria (family Rhizobiaceae) and legumes belonging to the Fabaceae (a single phylogenetic group comprising three subfamilies: Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae and Papilionoideae) results in the formation of a novel root structure called a nodule, where atmospheric N2 is fixed into NH3(+). In the determinate type of nodules harbored by Rhizobium-nodulated Fabaceae species, newly synthesized NH3(+) is finally converted into allantoin (C4H6N4O3) and allantoic acid (C4H8N4O4) (ureides) through complex pathways involving at least 20 different enzymes that act synchronously in two types of nodule cells with contrasting ultrastructure, including the tree nodule cell organelles. Newly synthesized ureides are loaded into the network of nodule-root xylem vessels and transported to aerial organs by the transpirational water current. Once inside the leaves, ureides undergo an enzymatically driven reverse process to yield NH4(+) that is used for growth. This supports the role of ureides as key nitrogen (N)-compounds for the growth and yield of legumes nodulated by Rhizobium that grow in soils with a low N content. Thus, a concrete understanding of the mechanisms underlying ureide biogenesis and catabolism in legumes may help agrobiologists to achieve greater agricultural discoveries. In this review we focus on the transmembranal and transorganellar symplastic and apoplastic movement of N-precursors within the nodules, as well as on the occurrence, localization and properties of enzymes and genes involved in the biogenesis and catabolism of ureides. The synthesis and transport of ureides are not unique events in Rhizobium-nodulated N2-fixing legumes. Thus, a brief description of the synthesis and catabolism of ureides in non-legumes was included for comparison. The establishment of the symbiosis, nodule organogenesis and the plant's control of nodule number, synthesis and translocation of ureides via feed-back inhibition

  2. How territoriality and host-tree taxa determine the structure of ant mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejean, Alain; Ryder, Suzanne; Bolton, Barry; Compin, Arthur; Leponce, Maurice; Azémar, Frédéric; Céréghino, Régis; Orivel, Jérôme; Corbara, Bruno

    2015-06-01

    Very large colonies of territorially dominant arboreal ants (TDAAs), whose territories are distributed in a mosaic pattern in the canopies of many tropical rainforests and tree crop plantations, have a generally positive impact on their host trees. We studied the canopy of an old Gabonese rainforest (ca 4.25 ha sampled, corresponding to 206 "large" trees) at a stage just preceding forest maturity (the Caesalpinioideae dominated; the Burseraceae were abundant). The tree crowns sheltered colonies from 13 TDAAs plus a co-dominant species out of the 25 ant species recorded. By mapping the TDAAs' territories and using a null model co-occurrence analysis, we confirmed the existence of an ant mosaic. Thanks to a large sampling set and the use of the self-organizing map algorithm (SOM), we show that the distribution of the trees influences the structure of the ant mosaic, suggesting that each tree taxon attracts certain TDAA species rather than others. The SOM also improved our knowledge of the TDAAs' ecological niches, showing that these ant species are ecologically distinct from each other based on their relationships with their supporting trees. Therefore, TDAAs should not systematically be placed in the same functional group even when they belong to the same genus. We conclude by reiterating that, in addition to the role played by TDAAs' territorial competition, host trees contribute to structuring ant mosaics through multiple factors, including host-plant selection by TDAAs, the age of the trees, the presence of extrafloral nectaries, and the taxa of the associated hemipterans.

  3. Floristic and structural status of forests in permanent preservation areas of Moju river basin, Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J C; Vieira, I C G; Almeida, A S; Silva, C A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to analyze the floristic patterns and the structure of disturbed and undisturbed upland forests, in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs) along the Moju river, in the Brazilian state of Pará. Trees with a diameter equal to or larger than 10cm at 1.30m from the ground (DBH) ≥10cm were analyzed for the upper stratum. For the middle stratum, individuals with DBH between 4.99 and 9.99cm were sampled. Forty-five families and 221 species were found in disturbed forests, and 43 families and 208 species in undisturbed forests. Floristic similarity was high between strata and between forest types, with values above 50%. Similarity was highest between middle strata. The most species-abundant families in undisturbed forests were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Chrysobalanaceae and Myrtaceae; the species with the highest density there were Eschweilera grandiflora, Licania sclerophylla and Zygia cauliflora. In disturbed forests, the dominant families were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae and Melastomataceae. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 3.21 for undisturbed forests and 2.85 for disturbed forests. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis did not group the forests by their floristic composition in both upper and middle strata. Overall, the PPA forests along the Moju river, even if disturbed, did not show major floristic changes but substantially change their structural characteristics.

  4. In vitro antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of acetone leaf extracts of nine under-investigated Fabaceae tree species leads to potentially useful extracts in animal health and productivity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Fabaceae family is the second largest family of medicinal plants, containing more than 490 species which are being used as traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant and antibacterial activity as well as the cytotoxicity of acetone leaf extracts of nine tree species from the Fabaceae family that have not been investigated well previously for possible use in animal health and production. Methods The antibacterial activity was determined by a serial microdilution method against three Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria. Antioxidant activity was determined using free-radical scavenging assays. The safety of the extracts was ascertained using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on Vero African green monkey kidney cells. Results Six of the nine acetone extracts had significant antibacterial activity against at least one of the six bacterial species with (MIC 20–80 μg/mL). The Crotalaria capensis extract had the highest activity against Salmonella typhimurium, followed by Indigofera cylindrica with MICs of 20 μg/mL and 40 μg/mL respectively. The Dalbergia nitidula extract had free radical scavenging capacity (IC50 of 9.31 ± 2.14 μg/mL) close to that of the positive control Trolox in the DPPH assay. The Xylia torreana extract also had high activity (IC50 of 14.56 ± 3.96 μg/mL) in the ABTS assay. There was a good correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (R2 values > 0.8). The extracts had weak or no toxicity to Vero cells, compared to the positive control doxorubicin with the LC50 varying from 10.70 ± 3.47 to 131.98 ± 24.87 μg/mL at the concentrations tested. Conclusion Extracts of D. nitidula, X. torreana, C. capensis and I. cylindrica had a low cytotoxicity and high antimicrobial and/or antioxidant activity. These species are therefore promising candidates for the development of useful antimicrobial

  5. External Morphology and Ultra-Structure of Eggs and First Instar of Prepona Laertes Laertes (Hübner, [1811]), with Notes on Host Plant use and Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Fernando M S; Casagrande, Mirna M; Mielke, Olaf H H

    2011-01-01

    The external morphology and the tegument ultra-structure of Prepona laertes laertes (Hübner, [1811]) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Charaxinae) eggs and first instar larvae feeding on Inga spp. (Fabaceae) in a forest fragment in Joinville, Santa Catarina, Brazil, are described. Descriptions of the morphology with illustrations are presented, based upon observations through scanning electron microscopy and stereoscopic and optic microscopes attached to a camera lucida. Descriptions and illustrations of the head capsule, chaetotaxy, tegument, and setae are presented. The taxonomy, morphological characters, and host plant use of Prepona laertes immature stages are discussed. PMID:22208698

  6. “Ménage à trois”: the presence/absence of thyme shapes the mutualistic interaction between the host plant Medicago truncatula (Fabaceae) and its symbiotic bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Bodil K; Grøndahl, Eva; Ronfort, Joëlle; Bataillon, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The long-term maintenance of specialized mutualisms remains an evolutionary puzzle. Recent focus has been on factors governing the stability of these mutualisms, including sanctions by the host, partner choice, and coevolutionary constraint, that is, the genetic correlation (rG) between fitness of both partners. So far these studies have been typically carried out in a single environment. Here, we ask if the genetic correlation between fitness of the host plant Medicago truncatula (Fabaceae) and its bacterial symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti is affected by the presence/absence of a monoterpene (carvacrol) leached into the soil by Thymus vulgaris—a common plant of the Mediterranean vegetation, often co-occuring with Medicago. We show that the presence of carvacrol in the soil dramatically affects fitness of the rhizobial partner and increases the magnitude of rG between plant and rhizobia fitness (rG = 0.02 ± 0.05 vs. rG = 0.57 ± 0.02). This finding emphasizes the importance of heterogeneity in the biotic environment for understanding the evolution of species interactions. PMID:22957171

  7. Entomophthora leyteensis Villacarlos & Keller sp. nov. (Entomophthorales: Zygomycetes) infecting Tetraleurodes acaciae (Quaintance) (Insecta, Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a recently introduced whitefly on Gliricidia sepium (Jaq.) Walp. (Fabaceae) in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Villacarlos, L T; Mejia, B S; Keller, S

    2003-05-01

    Entomophthora leyteensis Villacarlos & Keller sp. nov., a species of Entomophthorales infecting the whitefly Tetraleurodes acaciae on Gliricidia sepium in the Philippines is described. Disease prevalence monitored weekly for 8 weeks indicated that the fungus could cause 8-31% infection within the whitefly population. Epizootics due to this fungus occurred in Inopacan, Leyte. Sampling live whitefly adults and dissecting them on glass slides for microscopic examination of fungal structures was found to give a better measure of prevalence than actual counts of infected insect cadavers. E. leyteensis is an important mortality factor for T. acaciae. Some speculations on the origin of the fungus are discussed here.

  8. New Boletaceae taxa from Guyana: Binderoboletus segoi gen. and sp. nov., Guyanaporus albipodus gen. and sp. nov., Singerocomus rubriflavus gen. and sp. nov., and a new combination for Xerocomus inundabilis.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Terry W; Obase, Keisuke; Husbands, Dillon; Uehling, Jessie K; Bonito, Gregory; Aime, M Catherine; Smith, Matthew E

    2016-01-01

    Binderoboletus segoi gen. and sp. nov., Guyanaporus albipodus gen. and sp. nov. and Singerocomus rubriflavus gen. and sp. nov. (Boletaceae, Boletales, Basidiomycota) are described from the Pakaraima Mountains and adjacent lowlands of Guyana. Xerocomus inundabilis, originally described from the central Brazilian Amazon and based solely on the type collection, is redescribed from numerous collections from Guyana and transferred into Singerocomus. These boletes occur in Neotropical forests dominated by ectomycorrhizal trees in the genera Dicymbe (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae), Aldina (Fabaceae subfam. Papilionoideae) and Pakaraimaea (Dipterocarpaceae). Three of the species were repeatedly found in a multiyear sporocarp survey in Dicymbe corymbosa-monodominant forest. Macromorphological, micromorphological, habitat and multilocus DNA sequence data are provided for each species. A molecular phylogenetic analysis based on a large taxon set across the Boletaceae justifies erection of the new genera.

  9. New sequestrate fungi from Guyana: Jimtrappea guyanensis gen. sp. nov., Castellanea pakaraimophila gen. sp. nov., and Costatisporus cyanescens gen. sp. nov. (Boletaceae, Boletales).

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew E; Amses, Kevin R; Elliott, Todd F; Obase, Keisuke; Aime, M Catherine; Henkel, Terry W

    2015-12-01

    Jimtrappea guyanensis gen. sp. nov., Castellanea pakaraimophila gen. sp. nov., and Costatisporus cyanescens gen. sp. nov. are described as new to science. These sequestrate, hypogeous fungi were collected in Guyana under closed canopy tropical forests in association with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) host tree genera Dicymbe (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae), Aldina (Fabaceae subfam. Papilionoideae), and Pakaraimaea (Dipterocarpaceae). Molecular data place these fungi in Boletaceae (Boletales, Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) and inform their relationships to other known epigeous and sequestrate taxa within that family. Macro- and micromorphological characters, habitat, and multi-locus DNA sequence data are provided for each new taxon. Unique morphological features and a molecular phylogenetic analysis of 185 taxa across the order Boletales justify the recognition of the three new genera.

  10. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of three plants used in Cameroonian ethnoveterinary medicine: Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae) leaves, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) seeds or leaves, and Mimosa pudica L. (Fabaceae) leaves in Kabir chicks.

    PubMed

    Nghonjuyi, Ndaleh Wozerou; Tiambo, Christian Keambou; Taïwe, Germain Sotoing; Toukala, Jean Paul; Lisita, Frederico; Juliano, Raquel Soares; Kimbi, Helen Kuokuo

    2016-02-03

    Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) and Mimosa pudica L. (Fabaceae) are widely used in the Cameroonian ethnoveterinary medicine as a panacea, and specifically for gastrointestinal disorders as well as an anthelmintic and antibacterial. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Aloe vera leaves, Carica papaya leaves or seeds, and Mimosa pudica leaves after acute and sub-chronic administration in chicks. For the acute toxicity test a single administration of each of the four hydroalcoholic extracts was given orally at doses ranging from 40 to 5120 mg/kg (n=5/group/sex). In the sub-chronic study, these extracts were given orally as a single administration to chicks at doses of 80, 160, 320 and 640 mg/kg/day for 42 days. The anti-angiogenic properties of these extracts (5-320 µg/mg) were investigated in the chick chorioallantoic membrane in vivo. In the acute toxicity test, none of the four studied hydroalcoholic extracts induced mortality or significant behavioural changes. The sub-acute treatment with the four plant extracts did not alter either the body weight gain or the food and water consumption. However, the results indicated that Aloe vera leaf extract acute treatment by oral route at doses up to 2560 mg/kg did not produce death in 50% (5/10) of chicks during 24h or 14 days of observation, but 20% (2/10) chicks died. The haematological and biochemical analyses did not show significant differences in any of the parameters examined in female or male groups, with the exception of a transient rise in white blood cell counts at high doses (640 mg/kg). Additionally, these extracts did not have the potential for anti-angiogenic effects through the inhibition of neo-angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane in vivo. The results showed that the therapeutic use of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Aloe vera leaves, Carica papaya leaves or seeds and Mimosa pudica leaves had very low

  11. Sieve element occlusion (SEO) genes encode structural phloem proteins involved in wound sealing of the phloem.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Antonia M; Jekat, Stephan B; Zielonka, Sascia; Müller, Boje; Neumann, Ulla; Rüping, Boris; Twyman, Richard M; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Prüfer, Dirk; Noll, Gundula A

    2012-07-10

    The sieve element occlusion (SEO) gene family originally was delimited to genes encoding structural components of forisomes, which are specialized crystalloid phloem proteins found solely in the Fabaceae. More recently, SEO genes discovered in various non-Fabaceae plants were proposed to encode the common phloem proteins (P-proteins) that plug sieve plates after wounding. We carried out a comprehensive characterization of two tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) SEO genes (NtSEO). Reporter genes controlled by the NtSEO promoters were expressed specifically in immature sieve elements, and GFP-SEO fusion proteins formed parietal agglomerates in intact sieve elements as well as sieve plate plugs after wounding. NtSEO proteins with and without fluorescent protein tags formed agglomerates similar in structure to native P-protein bodies when transiently coexpressed in Nicotiana benthamiana, and the analysis of these protein complexes by electron microscopy revealed ultrastructural features resembling those of native P-proteins. NtSEO-RNA interference lines were essentially devoid of P-protein structures and lost photoassimilates more rapidly after injury than control plants, thus confirming the role of P-proteins in sieve tube sealing. We therefore provide direct evidence that SEO genes in tobacco encode P-protein subunits that affect translocation. We also found that peptides recently identified in fascicular phloem P-protein plugs from squash (Cucurbita maxima) represent cucurbit members of the SEO family. Our results therefore suggest a common evolutionary origin for P-proteins found in the sieve elements of all dicotyledonous plants and demonstrate the exceptional status of extrafascicular P-proteins in cucurbits.

  12. In vitro activity of Peltophorum africanum Sond. (Fabaceae) extracts on the egg hatching and larval development of the parasitic nematode Trichostrongylus colubriformis.

    PubMed

    Bizimenyera, E S; Githiori, J B; Eloff, J N; Swan, G E

    2006-12-20

    Trichostrongylus colubriformis is an important cause of parasitic gastroenteritis in ruminants, where it causes protracted diarrhoea, rapid loss of weight, loss of production and death. The in vitro efficacy of extracts of Peltophorum africanum was determined against this parasitic nematode. Eggs and larvae of T. colubriformis were incubated at 23 degrees C in the extracts of the leaf, bark and root of P. africanum at concentrations of 0.008-25 mg ml-1 for 2 and 5 days, respectively. Thiabendazole and water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Inhibition of egg hatching and larval development increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing concentrations of the extracts. Concentrations of 0.2-1.0 mg ml-1 of the extracts of leaf, stem bark, and root bark of P. africanum completely inhibited the hatching of eggs and development of larvae. No eggs and larvae of T. colubriformis could be observed in wells incubated with all the three extracts at concentrations of 5 and 25 mg ml-1. The in vitro model results support the traditional use of P. africanum against nematode parasites. Further research is required to isolate and structurally identify the active anthelmintic compounds, and to improve methods of plant extraction of the effective anthelmintic components that will be readily adaptable for use by rural communities against helminthosis.

  13. Long-term effect of carbohydrate reserves on growth and reproduction of Prosopis denudans (Fabaceae): implications for conservation of woody perennials

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Alejandra E.; Agüero, Paola R.; Ravetta, Damián; González-Paleo, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Prosopis denudans, an extreme xerophyte shrub, is consumed by ungulates and threatened by firewood gathering, because it is one of the preferred species used by Mapuche indigenous people of Patagonia. In a scenario of uncontrolled use of vegetation, it is very difficult to develop a conservation plan that jointly protects natural resources and its users. We performed a field experiment to assess the impact of defoliation on growth, reproduction and stores of a wild population of P. denudans. We imposed four levels of defoliation (removal of 100, 66, 33 and 0% of leaves) and evaluated the short- and long-term (3 years) effects of this disturbance. Seasonal changes in shoot carbohydrates suggested that they support leaf-flush and blooming. Severely defoliated individuals also used root reserves to support growth and leaf-flush after clipping. Vegetative growth was not affected by defoliation history. Leaf mass area increased after the initial clipping, suggesting the development of structural defenses. The depletion of root reserves at the end of the first year affected inflorescence production the following spring. We conclude that P. denudans shrubs could lose up to one-third of their green tissues without affecting growth or inflorescence production. The removal of a higher proportion of leaves will diminish stores, which in turn, will reduce or completely prevent blooming and, therefore, fruit production the following seasons. Very few studies integrate conservation and plant physiology, and we are not aware, so far, of any work dealing with long-term plant carbon economy of a long-lived perennial shrub as an applied tool in conservation. These results might help the development of management strategies that consider both the use and the conservation of wild populations of P. denudans. PMID:27293747

  14. Long-term effect of carbohydrate reserves on growth and reproduction of Prosopis denudans (Fabaceae): implications for conservation of woody perennials.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Alejandra E; Agüero, Paola R; Ravetta, Damián; González-Paleo, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Prosopis denudans, an extreme xerophyte shrub, is consumed by ungulates and threatened by firewood gathering, because it is one of the preferred species used by Mapuche indigenous people of Patagonia. In a scenario of uncontrolled use of vegetation, it is very difficult to develop a conservation plan that jointly protects natural resources and its users. We performed a field experiment to assess the impact of defoliation on growth, reproduction and stores of a wild population of P. denudans. We imposed four levels of defoliation (removal of 100, 66, 33 and 0% of leaves) and evaluated the short- and long-term (3 years) effects of this disturbance. Seasonal changes in shoot carbohydrates suggested that they support leaf-flush and blooming. Severely defoliated individuals also used root reserves to support growth and leaf-flush after clipping. Vegetative growth was not affected by defoliation history. Leaf mass area increased after the initial clipping, suggesting the development of structural defenses. The depletion of root reserves at the end of the first year affected inflorescence production the following spring. We conclude that P. denudans shrubs could lose up to one-third of their green tissues without affecting growth or inflorescence production. The removal of a higher proportion of leaves will diminish stores, which in turn, will reduce or completely prevent blooming and, therefore, fruit production the following seasons. Very few studies integrate conservation and plant physiology, and we are not aware, so far, of any work dealing with long-term plant carbon economy of a long-lived perennial shrub as an applied tool in conservation. These results might help the development of management strategies that consider both the use and the conservation of wild populations of P. denudans.

  15. Discovery, isolation, and structural characterization of cyclotides from Viola sumatrana Miq.

    PubMed

    Niyomploy, Ploypat; Chan, Lai Yue; Poth, Aaron G; Colgrave, Michelle L; Sangvanich, Polkit; Craik, David J

    2016-11-01

    Cyclotides are cyclic peptides from plants in the Violaceae, Rubiaceae, Fabaceae, Cucurbitaceae, and Solanaceae families. They are sparsely distributed in most of these families, but appear to be ubiquitous in the Violaceae, having been found in every plant so far screened from this family. However, not all geographic regions have been examined and here we report the discovery of cyclotides from a Viola species from South-East Asia. Two novel cyclotides (Visu 1 and Visu 2) and two known cyclotides (kalata S and kalata B1) were identified in V. sumatrana. NMR studies revealed that kalata S and kalata B1 had similar secondary structures. Their biological activities were determined in cytotoxicity assays; both had similar cytotoxic activity and were more toxic to U87 cells compared with other cell lines. Overall, the study strongly supports the ubiquity of cyclotides in the Violaceae and adds to our understanding of their distribution and cytotoxic activity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Pollination biology in hybridizing Baptisia (Fabaceae) populations.

    PubMed

    Leebens-Mack, J; Milligan, B

    1998-04-01

    In their classic study, Alston and Turner (American Journal of Botany, vol. 50, 159-173, 1963) documented extensive hybridization among four morphologically distinct Baptisia species native to East Texas. While Alston and Turner found putative F1 hybrids in great numbers, they found no evidence of backcrossing. In this study prezygotic and postzygotic reproductive barriers between two of these species, B. leucophaea and B. sphaerocarpa, were investigated and found to be quite weak. Flowering times overlap and bumble bees were observed visiting both species and intermediate hybrids. While pollinator constancy in flights between B. leucophaea and B. sphaerocarpa was moderately strong, significant levels of constancy were not observed in flights involving hybrids and either parental species. Thus, backcrossing was not impeded by pollinator behavior. Further, hybrid pollen was highly stainable (93.5%) and able to effectively set seed in crossing experiments with both parental species. Pollinator behavior was compared in experimental populations with and without hybrid ramets and found to differ between these two treatments. Hybrids were found to facilitate pollinator movement between species. In total, these results suggest that reproductive isolation is not responsible for the rarity of backcrossing in naturally hybridizing B. leucophaea and B. sphaerocarpa populations.

  17. Reproductive biology of Butea monosperma (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Tandon, Rajesh; Shivanna, K R; Mohan Ram, H Y

    2003-11-01

    The reproductive biology encompassing phenology, floral biology, pollination and breeding systems, of Butea monosperma, a beautiful tree of the Indian subcontinent, was investigated in a protected dry, deciduous forest located in New Delhi. Phenological studies indicated that although the species shows a regular flowering season, all trees do not flower every year. Flowers are typically papilionaceous; the stigma is wet papillate and the style is hollow. The flowers show characteristics of bird pollination being large and bright orange-red in colour with copious amounts of nectar, and exhibiting diurnal anthesis. Although the flowers are frequented by as many as seven species of birds belonging to six families, only one species, the purple sunbird (Nectarinia asiatica), is the effective pollinator. The flowers are also pollinated by the three-striped squirrel (Funambulus tristiatus). Unlike other flower visitors, these two pollinators forage the nectar from the open side of the keel (legitimate path) during which pollen grains are deposited on their body parts. After the first visit of a sunbird or a squirrel, virgin flowers showed pollen load on the stigma and developed into fruits. B. monosperma shows a weak form of self-incompatibility. Fruit set following manual self-pollination (5.25 %) was comparable with open-pollination (approx. 5 %) but was significantly lower than manual cross-pollination (22.51 %). This indicates that there is a high degree of geitonogamous pollination in this species, which may lead to a weakening of self-incompatibility as a means of reproductive assurance. The results are analysed in the light of prevailing discussions on specialized vs. generalized pollination systems.

  18. Charcoal records reveal past occurrences of disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshibamba Mukendi, John; Hubau, Wannes; Ntahobavuka, Honorine; Boyemba Bosela, Faustin; De Cannière, Charles; Beeckman, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Past disturbances have modified local density, structure and floristic composition of Central African rainforests. As such, these perturbations represent a driving force for forest dynamics and they were presumably at the origin of present-day forest mosaics. One of the most prominent disturbances within the forest is fire, leaving behind charcoal as a witness of past forest dynamics. Quantification and identification of ancient charcoal fragments found in soil layers (= pedoanthracology) allows a detailed reconstruction of forest history, including the possible occurrence of past perturbations. The primary objective of this study is to present palaeoenvironmental evidence for the existence of past disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region (Democratic Republic of the Congo) using a pedoanthracological approach. We quantified and identified charcoal fragments from pedoanthracological excavations in the Yangambi, Yoko, Masako and Kole forest regions. Charcoal sampling was conducted in pit intervals of 10 cm, whereby pottery fragments were also registered and quantified. Floristic identifications were conducted using former protocols based on wood anatomy, which is largely preserved after charcoalification. 14 excavations were conducted and charcoal was found in most pit intervals. Specifically, 52 out of 56 sampled intervals from the Yangambi forest contained charcoal, along with 47 pit intervals from the Yoko forest reserve, 34 pit intervals from the Masako forest and 16 from the Kole forest. Highest specific anthracomasses were recorded in Yoko (167 mg charcoal per kg soil), followed by Yangambi (133 mg/kg), Masako (71,89 mg/kg) and finally Kole (42,4 mg/kg). Charcoal identifications point at a manifest presence of the family of Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae). This family is characteristic for the tropical humid rainforest. The presence of charcoal fragments from these taxa, associated with pottery sherds on different depths within the profiles, suggests

  19. Plant architecture and growth response of kudzu (fabaceae: Fabaceae) to simulated insect herbivory.

    PubMed

    Frye, M J; Hough-Goldstein, J

    2013-10-01

    Kudzu [Pueraria montana variety lobata (Willd.) Maesen & S. M. Almeida] plant architecture and growth were compared for plants subjected to 4 wk of simulated herbivory (75% leaf cutting) and no damage. Simulated herbivory reduced above-ground and root biomass by 40 and 47%, respectively, whereas total vine length and average length of the 10 longest vines were reduced by 48 and 43%, respectively, compared with control plants. Plant architecture was also affected, with damaged plants showing a significantly reduced proportion of primary vines, shorter secondary vines, and reduced average internode distances compared with the control plants. In natural situations, these changes would reduce the ability of kudzu to compete for light and other resources by affecting the plant's climbing habit.

  20. The structure and functionality of contractile forisome protein aggregates.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Magnus S; Uhlig, Katja; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Duschl, Claus

    2008-01-01

    Although they have been discovered decades ago, only in the last years forisome protein aggregates received broader attention due to their ability to convert chemical into mechanical energy. In contrast to most other motor proteins, these proteins from Fabaceae plants are independent of high-energy chemical compounds, like e.g. ATP, but undergo an anisotropic shape transition (longitudinally expanded to contracted) in response to ion concentration changes (Ca(2+), H(+), etc.), instead. We present morphological and functional data on forisomes obtained using atomic force microscopy (AFM). High-aspect ratio AFM tips allow the detailed elucidation of structural characteristics that are inaccessible with standard AFM tips. Microindentation measurements were employed to calculate the elasticity of the forisome material. Young's moduli were found to be approximately 32.7 kPa in the expanded state and approximately 2.748 kPa in the contracted state of the polymer. These results are compared to investigations where a tipless AFM cantilever was utilized to exert a load against the shape transition. In the latter experiments, an energy conversion of approximately 2.29 pJ per stroke was detected. Energetical considerations support the hypothesis that the switching process is accompanied by a change in cross-linking of the constituent subunits and allow estimating the extent of cooperativity during the pH-induced transition. Finally, useful parameters were identified and characterized that are crucial for the application of forisomes as functional elements in microfluidic chips.

  1. Variation in Soil Microbial Community Structure Associated with Different Legume Species Is Greater than that Associated with Different Grass Species

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Honghui; Fu, Shenglei; Yao, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Plants are the essential factors shaping soil microbial community (SMC) structure. When most studies focus on the difference in the SMC structure associated different plant species, the variation in the SMC structure associated with phylogenetically close species is less investigated. Legume (Fabaceae) and grass (Poaceae) are functionally important plant groups; however, their influences on the SMC structure are seldom compared, and the variation in the SMC structure among legume or grass species is largely unknown. In this study, we grew three legume species vs. three grass species in mesocosms, and monitored the soil chemical property, quantified the abundance of bacteria and fungi. The SMC structure was also characterized using PCR-DGGE and Miseq sequencing. Results showed that legume and grass differentially affected soil pH, dissolved organic C, total N content, and available P content, and that legume enriched fungi more greatly than grass. Both DGGE profiling and Miseq-sequencing indicated that the bacterial diversity associated with legume was higher than that associated with grass. When legume increased the abundance of Verrucomicrobia, grass decreased it, and furthermore, linear discriminant analysis identified some group-specific microbial taxa as potential biomarkers of legume or grass. These data suggest that legume and grass differentially select for the SMC. More importantly, clustering analysis based on both DGGE profiling and Miseq-sequencing demonstrated that the variation in the SMC structure associated with three legume species was greater than that associated with three grass species. PMID:28620371

  2. Cryptic speciation in the Caesalpinia hintonii complex (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) in a seasonally dry Mexican forest.

    PubMed

    Sotuyo, Solange; Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Chase, Mark W; Lewis, Gwilym P; Oyama, Ken

    2007-12-01

    [corrected] The Caesalpinia hintonii group comprises six species of endemic shrubs or trees, C. epifanioi, C. hintonii, C. laxa, C. macvaughii, C. melanadenia and C. oyamae, found in scattered patches of seasonally dry forest in the Río Balsas depression and the neighbouring Tehuacán-Cuicatlán valley, which are part of the Mexican morphotectonic province of Sierra Madre del Sur. An evaluation is made of phylogeographic patterns and genetic diversity with a phylogenetic analysis of the C. hintonii complex in order to study the dynamics of speciation in this endemic group of legumes. A phylogeographic study based on four highly variable non-coding plastid regions (trnL intron, trnL-F intergenic spacer, trnH-psbA intergenic spacer, and accD-psaI intergenic spacer) was carried out for the Caesalpinia hintonii complex. Five of the six taxa of the C. hintonii complex were included. The plastid analyses involving multiple accessions of each taxon from throughout their ranges resolved C. epifanioi and C. hintonii as well-supported clusters, but C. oyamae has two unexpectedly divergent lineages. Two well-supported geographic clades: eastern (C. epifanioi, C. melanadenia and C. oyamae) and western (C. hintonii and C. macvaughii) were established. The analyses performed provide evidence of recent morphostatic radiation in C. oyamae resulting from isolation and local adaptation. This pattern of genetic differentiation without morphological divergence may be a model that fits many groups of tropical woody taxa inhabiting similarly dry forests subjected to shifting selection.

  3. Cryptic Speciation in the Caesalpinia hintonii Complex (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) in a Seasonally Dry Mexican Forest

    PubMed Central

    Sotuyo, Solange; Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Chase, Mark W.; Lewis, Gwilym P.; Oyama, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Backgroud and Aims The Caesalpinia hintonii group comprises six species of endemic shrubs or trees, C. epifanioi, C. hintonii, C. laxa, C. macvaughii, C. melanadenia and C. oyamae, found in scattered patches of seasonally dry forest in the Río Balsas depression and the neighbouring Tehuacán–Cuicatlán valley, which are part of the Mexican morphotectonic province of Sierra Madre del Sur. An evaluation is made of phylogeographic patterns and genetic diversity with a phylogenetic analysis of the C. hintonii complex in order to study the dynamics of speciation in this endemic group of legumes. Methods A phylogeographic study based on four highly variable non-coding plastid regions (trnL intron, trnL-F intergenic spacer, trnH-psbA intergenic spacer, and accD-psaI intergenic spacer) was carried out for the Caesalpinia hintonii complex. Five of the six taxa of the C. hintonii complex were included. Key Results and Conclusions The plastid analyses involving multiple accessions of each taxon from throughout their ranges resolved C. epifanioi and C. hintonii as well-supported clusters, but C. oyamae has two unexpectedly divergent lineages. Two well-supported geographic clades: eastern (C. epifanioi, C. melanadenia and C. oyamae) and western (C. hintonii and C. macvaughii) were established. The analyses performed provide evidence of recent morphostatic radiation in C. oyamae resulting from isolation and local adaptation. This pattern of genetic differentiation without morphological divergence may be a model that fits many groups of tropical woody taxa inhabiting similarly dry forests subjected to shifting selection. PMID:17913727

  4. Hepatoencephalopathy syndrome due to Cassia occidentalis (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) seed ingestion in horses.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Filho, J P; Cagnini, D Q; Badial, P R; Pessoa, M A; Del Piero, F; Borges, A S

    2013-03-01

    Cassia occidentalis is a bush from the Leguminosae family, subfamily Caesalpinoideae, and is a toxic plant of veterinary interest due to the occasional contamination of animal rations. This report describes the clinical and histopathological findings of an outbreak of C. occidentalis poisoning in horses. Twenty mares were poisoned after consuming ground corn contaminated with 8% of C. occidentalis seeds. Of the 20 animals affected, 12 died: 8 mares were found dead, 2 died 6 h after the onset of clinical signs compatible with hepatic encephalopathy and the 2 other animals were subjected to euthanasia 12 h after the onset of the clinical signs. The remaining 8 mares presented with mild depression and decreased appetite, but improved with treatment and no clinical sequelae were observed. In 6 animals that underwent a necropsy, an enhanced hepatic lobular pattern was noted and within the large intestine, a large number of seeds were consistently observed. Hepatocellular pericentrolobular necrosis and cerebral oedema were the main histological findings. In one mare, there was mild multifocal semimembranosus rhabdomyocytic necrosis and haemorrhage. Seeds collected from intestinal contents and sifted from the culpable feedstuff were planted. Examination of the leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds of the resultant plants identified C. occidentalis. Horses poisoned by C. occidentalis seeds demonstrate clinical signs associated with hepatoencephalopathy and frequently die suddenly. Lesions primarily involve the liver and secondarily, the central nervous system. Cassia occidentalis poisoning should be considered a differential diagnosis in horses with hepatoencephalopathy and special caution should be taken with horse rations to avoid contamination with seeds of this toxic plant.

  5. Post-zygotic Reproductive Isolation Between Sympatric Taxa in the Chamaecrista desvauxii Complex (Leguminosae–Caesalpinioideae)

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Cristiana Barros Nascimento; Lambert, Sabrina Mota; Borba, Eduardo Leite; de Queiroz, Luciano Paganucci

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Differences in the mating systems and the mechanisms of reproductive isolation between Chamaecrista desvauxii var. graminea and C. desvauxii var. latistipula were examined in the Chapada Diamantina, Brazil. These taxa occur sympatrically, and their populations demonstrate marked morphological differences. The objective of the present work was to determine if reproductive isolation mechanisms exist between these two populations of C. desvauxii, and to determine the influence of these putative mechanisms on their genetic differentiation. Methods Field observations were made of floral biology, phenology and floral visitation, and experiments on intra- and interpopulation pollination and germination rates of the resultant seeds were performed. A genetic examination of the populations was undertaken using four allozyme loci. Key Results The varieties examined demonstrated overlapping of flowering periods during the months of June to September. The main pollinator for both varieties was the bee Bombus brevivillus. Both varieties are self-compatible, and a large number of fruits are formed in cross-pollinations with high seed germination rates. Inter-taxa pollinations result in high levels of fruit production, but no seeds are formed. Two of the four loci examined were diagnostic for the varieties, and exclusive high-frequency alleles were encountered at the other loci, leading to a high genetic distance between the two populations (0·495). Conclusions Pre-zygotic barriers were not found between the two varieties, and these remain isolated due to post-zygotic events. The two varieties demonstrate marked differences in their morphology, floral biology, phenology and genetic make-up, all of which indicate that they should be treated as two distinct species. A complete revision involving the other varieties of the C. desvauxii complex will be necessary in order to define these two taxa formally. PMID:17331960

  6. A new species of Erythrostemon (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) from the western Río Balsas Depression, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sotuyo, Solange; Contreras-Jiménez, José Luis; Lewis, Gwilym P

    2017-01-01

    A new legume species from a seasonally dry forest of the Western Río Balsas Depression, in the states of Guerrero and Michoacán, Mexico, Erythrostemon guevarafeferii, is herein described and illustrated. The new species shows morphological affinities with Erythrostemon hintonii, from which it is distinguished in having fewer leaflets per pinna, mature leaflets disposed toward the upper half of the pinnae rachises, long inflorescences on curved slender peduncles, abundant red glands on its flowers and inflorescences, and its fruit glabrous with red stipitate glands at maturity. A taxonomic key to the Río Balsas Depression species of Erythrostemon is included.

  7. Karyomorphology and karyotype asymmetry in the South American Caesalpinia species (Leguminosae and Caesalpinioideae).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, P S; Souza, M M; Corrêa, R X

    2014-10-20

    With the purpose of addressing the pattern of karyotype evolution in Caesalpinia species, chromosome morphology was characterized in five species from Brazil, and karyotypic asymmetry was analyzed in 14 species from South America. All accessions had the chromosome number 2n = 24, which was first described here for Caesalpinia laxiflora Tul. and Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. The karyotype formula of C. laxiflora, Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul., and C. macrophyllum was 12 m. The formula varies amongst the populations of Caesalpinia bracteosa Tul. (11 m + 1 sm) and Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (10 m + 2 sm and 9 m + 3 sm). The intra- and interspecific variations in chromosome length were significant (analysis of variance, P < 0.05). Analyzing the asymmetry index (AI), revealed that Caesalpinia calycina Benth. had the most asymmetrical karyotype (AI = 10.52), whereas Caesalpinia paraguarienses (D. Parodi) Burkat. and Caesalpinia gilliesii (Hook.) Benth. had the most symmetrical karyotypes (AI = 0.91 and 1.10, respectively). There has been a trend to lower AI values for the Caesalpinia s.l. species assigned in Libidibia and intermediate values for those combined into Poincianella. On the other hand, the karyotypes of Erythrostemon species had extremely different AI values. This study confirms the existence of karyotype variability in Caesalpinia s.l. while revealing a possible uniformity of this trait in some of the new genera that are being divided from Caesalpinia s.l. More broadly, the 2n = 24 chromosome number is conserved. Metacentric chromosomes and low AI values predominate among Caesalpinia s.l. and Cenostigma.

  8. A new species of Erythrostemon (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) from the western Río Balsas Depression, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Sotuyo, Solange; Contreras-Jiménez, José Luis; Lewis, Gwilym P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new legume species from a seasonally dry forest of the Western Río Balsas Depression, in the states of Guerrero and Michoacán, Mexico, Erythrostemon guevarafeferii, is herein described and illustrated. The new species shows morphological affinities with Erythrostemon hintonii, from which it is distinguished in having fewer leaflets per pinna, mature leaflets disposed toward the upper half of the pinnae rachises, long inflorescences on curved slender peduncles, abundant red glands on its flowers and inflorescences, and its fruit glabrous with red stipitate glands at maturity. A taxonomic key to the Río Balsas Depression species of Erythrostemon is included. PMID:28228685

  9. A profile of protein-protein interaction: Crystal structure of a lectin-lectin complex.

    PubMed

    Surya, Sukumaran; Abhilash, Joseph; Geethanandan, Krishnan; Sadasivan, Chittalakkottu; Haridas, Madhathilkovilakathu

    2016-06-01

    Proteins may utilize complex networks of interactions to create/proceed signaling pathways of highly adaptive responses such as programmed cell death. Direct binary interactions study of proteins may help propose models for protein-protein interaction. Towards this goal we applied a combination of thermodynamic kinetics and crystal structure analyses to elucidate the complexity and diversity in such interactions. By determining the heat change on the association of two galactose-specific legume lectins from Butea monosperma (BML) and Spatholobus parviflorus (SPL) belonging to Fabaceae family helped to compute the binding equilibrium. It was extended further by X-ray structural analysis of BML-SPL binary complex. In order to chart the proteins interacting mainly through their interfaces, identification of the nature of forces which stabilized the association of the lectin-lectin complex was examined. Comprehensive analysis of the BMLSPL complex by isothermal titration calorimetry and X-ray crystal structure threw new light on the lectin-lectin interactions suggesting of their use in diverse areas of glycobiology.

  10. Guyanagarika, a new ectomycorrhizal genus of Agaricales from the Neotropics.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, Marisol; Henkel, Terry W; Aime, Mary Catherine; Smith, Matthew E; Matheny, Patrick Brandon

    2016-12-01

    A new genus and three new species of Agaricales are described from the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana in the central Guiana Shield. All three of these new species fruit on the ground in association with species of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) tree genus Dicymbe (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae) and one species has been shown to form ectomycorrhizas. Multi-locus molecular phylogenetic analyses place Guyanagarika gen. nov. within the Catathelasma clade, a lineage in the suborder Tricholomatineae of the Agaricales. We formally recognize this 'Catathelasma clade' as an expanded family Catathelasmataceae that includes the genera Callistosporium, Catathelasma, Guyanagarika, Macrocybe, Pleurocollybia, and Pseudolaccaria. Within the Catathelasmataceae, Catathelasma and Guyanagarika represent independent origins of the ectomycorrhizal habit. Guyanagarika is the first documented case of an ECM Agaricales genus known only from the Neotropics. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Structure elucidation and DNA binding specificity of natural compounds from Cassia siamea leaves: A biophysical approach.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Mehtab; Ahmad, Faheem; Malla, Ali Mohammed; Khan, Mohd Sohrab; Rehman, Sayeed Ur; Tabish, Mohammad; Silva, Manuela Ramos; Silva, P S Pereira

    2016-06-01

    A novel isoflavone, 5,6,7-trimethoxy-3-(3',4',5'-trimethoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one (1) along with a known pyranocoumarin, Seselin (2) have been isolated from the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Cassia siamea (Family: Fabaceae). Compound 1 has been reported for the first time from any natural source and has not been synthesized so far. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physical evidences viz. elemental analysis, UV, FT-IR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and mass spectral analysis. Structure of compound (1) was further authenticated by single-crystal X-ray analysis and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A multi-technique approach employing UV-Visible spectroscopy, fluorescence, KI quenching studies, competitive displacement assay, circular dichroism and viscosity studies have been utilized to probe the extent of interaction and possible binding modes of isolated compounds (1-2) with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA). Both the compounds were found to interact with DNA via non-intercalative binding mode with moderate proficiencies. Groove binding was the major interaction mode in the case of compound 2 while compound 1 probably interacts with DNA through electrostatic interactions. These studies provide deeper insight in understanding of DNA-drug (natural products) interaction which could be helpful to improve their bioavailability for therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prenylated isoflavonoids: Botanical distribution, structures, biological activities and biotechnological studies. An update (1995-2006).

    PubMed

    Botta, Bruno; Menendez, Pilar; Zappia, Giovanni; de Lima, Roberto Alves; Torge, Roberta; Monachea, Giuliano Delle

    2009-01-01

    In contrast with the parent class of flavonoids, the distribution of the isoflavonoid class in the plant kingdom is relatively limited, probably owing to the sporadic occurrence of isoflavone synthase. Isoflavonoids have been mostly found in the subfamily Fabaceae/Papilionoideae of the Leguminosae family. Isoprenoid-substituted (also called complex) isoflavonoids are expressed from a smaller number of plants, as a result of the similarly restricted distribution of prenyltransferases (PT-ase). After the reviews of Tanara & Ibrahim (1995), Boland & Donnelly (1997), the Handbook of Flavonoids by Harborne & C ( Handbook of Flavonoids, 1999), and the paper by Harborne and Williams (2000) few other reports concern the distribution and the biological activity of complex isoflavonoids, except a list of isoflavonoids produced from non leguminous plants. This review deals with an update of the literature on isoprenylated isoflavonoids in the years 1995-2006 and is focused on the following highlights. 1. Natural sources of complex isoflavonoids (2000-2006); 2. Chemical structure variety: new entries (2000-2006) 3. Biological activities and a possible structure-activity relationship (1995-2006) 4. In vitro production and microbial metabolism (1995-2006).

  13. Effect of structurally related flavonoids from Zuccagnia punctata Cav. on Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    D'Almeida, Romina E; Alberto, María R; Morgan, Phillip; Sedensky, Margaret; Isla, María I

    2014-03-01

    Zuccagnia punctata Cav. (Fabaceae), commonly called jarilla macho or pus-pus, is being used in traditional medicine as an antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and to relieve muscle and bone pain. The aim of this work was to study the anthelmintic effects of three structurally related flavonoids present in aerial parts of Z. punctata Cav. The biological activity of the flavonoids 7-hydroxyflavanone (HF), 3,7-dihydroxyflavone (DHF) and 2´,4´-dihydroxychalcone (DHC) was examined in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results showed that among the assayed flavonoids, only DHC showed an anthelmintic effect and alteration of egg hatching and larval development processes in C. elegans. DHC was able to kill 50% of adult nematodes at a concentration of 17 μg/mL. The effect on larval development was observed after 48 h in the presence of 25 and 50 μg/mL DHC, where 33.4 and 73.4% of nematodes remained in the L3 stage or younger. New therapeutic drugs with good efficacy against drug-resistant nematodes are urgently needed. Therefore, DHC, a natural compound present in Z. punctata, is proposed as a potential anthelmintic drug.

  14. Isolation and structural characterization of dihydrobenzofuran congeners of licochalcone A.

    PubMed

    Simmler, Charlotte; Lankin, David C; Nikolić, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B; Pauli, Guido F

    2017-09-01

    In an effort to explore the residual complexity of naturally occurring chalcones from the roots of Glycyrrhiza inflata (Fabaceae), two new licochalcone A (LicA) derivatives were isolated as trace metabolites from enriched fractions. Both constituents contain a dihydrofuran moiety linked to carbons C-4 and C-5 of the retrochalcone core. Compound 1 (LicAF1) represents a new chemical entity, whereas compound 2 (LicAF2) has previously been reported as a Lewis acid catalyzed rearrangement of LicA. Evaluation of chirality revealed that both dihydrofuran derivatives existed as a mixture of R and S enantiomers. Interestingly, when solutions were exposed to sunlight, both dihydrofuran retrochalcones, initially isolated as trans isomers, were found to rapidly isomerize yielding trans and cis isomers. Analysis of the 1D (1)H NMR spectra of the photolysis products revealed the presence of two sets of proton resonances ascribed to each of the geometric isomers. An up-field shift of all proton resonances arising from the cis isomer was observed, suggesting that anisotropic shielding effects were introduced through an overall perturbation of the 3-dimensional structure upon photoisomerization. Similar up-field shifts were observed in the (13)C spectrum of the cis isomer, except for the CO, C-α, and C-6 carbons, which experienced downfield shifts. Analogous NMR results were observed for LicA. Hence, the results presented herein encompass the isolation and full characterization of LicAF analogs 1 and 2, and observations of their trans-to-cis photoisomerization through the systematic analysis of their NMR spectra. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Crystal Structures and Binding Dynamics of Odorant-Binding Protein 3 from two aphid species Megoura viciae and Nasonovia ribisnigri

    PubMed Central

    Northey, Tom; Venthur, Herbert; De Biasio, Filomena; Chauviac, Francois-Xavier; Cole, Ambrose; Ribeiro, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Grossi, Gerarda; Falabella, Patrizia; Field, Linda M.; Keep, Nicholas H.; Zhou, Jing-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Aphids use chemical cues to locate hosts and find mates. The vetch aphid Megoura viciae feeds exclusively on the Fabaceae, whereas the currant-lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri alternates hosts between the Grossulariaceae and Asteraceae. Both species use alarm pheromones to warn of dangers. For N. ribisnigri this pheromone is a single component (E)-β-farnesene but M. viciae uses a mixture of (E)-β-farnesene, (−)-α-pinene, β-pinene, and limonene. Odorant-binding proteins (OBP) are believed to capture and transport such semiochemicals to their receptors. Here, we report the first aphid OBP crystal structures and examine their molecular interactions with the alarm pheromone components. Our study reveals some unique structural features: 1) the lack of an internal ligand binding site; 2) a striking groove in the surface of the proteins as a putative binding site; 3) the N-terminus rather than the C-terminus occupies the site closing off the conventional OBP pocket. The results from fluorescent binding assays, molecular docking and dynamics demonstrate that OBP3 from M. viciae can bind to all four alarm pheromone components and the differential ligand binding between these very similar OBP3s from the two aphid species is determined mainly by the direct π-π interactions between ligands and the aromatic residues of OBP3s in the binding pocket. PMID:27102935

  16. Structural characterization and rheological properties of a galactomannan from Astragalus gombo Bunge seeds harvested in Algerian Sahara.

    PubMed

    Chouana, T; Pierre, G; Vial, C; Gardarin, C; Wadouachi, A; Cailleu, D; Le Cerf, D; Boual, Z; Ould El Hadj, M D; Michaud, P; Delattre, C

    2017-11-01

    A water soluble polysaccharide (WSP) was extracted and purified from Astragalus gombo seeds (Fabaceae) harvested in Septentrional Sahara (Ouargla, Algeria) with a yield of 6.8% (w/w of the dry seed ground). It was characterized by gas chromatography coupled to the mass spectrometry (GC-MS), size exclusion chromatography with Multi-Angle Light Scattering analysis (SEC-MALLS), high-resolution (1)H and (13)C NMR, and rheological measurements. The structural characterization indicated that this WSP fraction is a galactomannan with a mannose/galactose ratio of 1.7 formed by a backbone of β-(1,4)-d-mannopyranosyl residues (63%) substituted at O-6 position by a single α-galactopyranose residue (37%). SEC-MALLS analysis revealed that this galactomannan has an average molecular mass (Mw) of 1.1×10(6)g/mol, an intrinsic viscosity of 860mL/g and, a random coil conformation structure. Rheological analysis in semi diluted regimes shown pseudo-plastic and viscoelastic behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Paths of water entry and structures involved in the breaking of seed dormancy of Lupinus.

    PubMed

    Robles-Díaz, Erika; Flores, Joel; Yáñez-Espinosa, Laura

    2016-03-15

    Physical dormancy is the water impermeability of the seed coat caused by one or more palisade cell layer(s) called macrosclereids. The specialised structure for water entry sites is the water gap, which serves as a detector of environmental cues for germination. In Fabaceae, the water gap is the lens, although another seed structure for water entry could exist. In this study, we identified the initial site of water entry, observed the hydration of a cushion-like structure near the radicle, described the anatomy of the water gap, and analysed the association of anatomical seed traits with the initial site of water entry and the imbibition velocity of six species of Lupinus from the state of Jalisco, Mexico. Dye tracking with a toluidine blue solution was used to identify the initial site of water entry. The anatomical description was performed using conventional microtechnique and a light microscope. The entry of the toluidine solution into seeds of L. montanus was observed after 6h, followed by L. exaltatus and L. mexicanus after 18h and L. elegans, L. reflexus and L. rotundiflorus after 48h. The site of water entry was the lens in L. elegans, L. exaltatus, L. reflexus and L. rotundiflorus and the micropyle in L. mexicanus and L. montanus. The cushion-like structure was responsible for water accumulation in embryo imbibition. Significant differences among anatomical seed traits such as thickness in the hilar region, the counter-palisade layer, cushion-like structure, epidermis, hypodermis, and innermost parenchyma layer were found among the species.

  18. Spatial structure and the effects of host and soil environments on communities of ectomycorrhizal fungi in wooded savannas and rain forests of Continental Africa and Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Tedersoo, Leho; Bahram, Mohammad; Jairus, Teele; Bechem, Eneke; Chinoya, Stephen; Mpumba, Rebecca; Leal, Miguel; Randrianjohany, Emile; Razafimandimbison, Sylvain; Sadam, Ave; Naadel, Triin; Kõljalg, Urmas

    2011-07-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi play a key role in mineral nutrition of terrestrial plants, but the factors affecting natural distribution, diversity and community composition of particularly tropical fungi remain poorly understood. This study addresses shifts in community structure and species frequency of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi in relation to host taxa, soil depth and spatial structure in four contrasting African ecosystems. We used the rDNA and plastid trnL intron sequence analysis for identification of fungi and host plants, respectively. By partitioning out spatial autocorrelation in plant and fungal distribution, we suggest that African EcM fungal communities are little structured by soil horizon and host at the plant species and family levels. These findings contrast with patterns of vegetation in these forests and EcM fungal communities in other tropical and temperate ecosystems. The low level of host preference indirectly supports an earlier hypothesis that pioneer Phyllanthaceae may facilitate the establishment of late successional Fabaceae and potentially other EcM host trees by providing compatible fungal inoculum in deforested and naturally disturbed ecosystems of tropical Africa.

  19. Sarcodon in the Neotropics II: four new species from Colombia and a key to the regional species.

    PubMed

    Grupe, Arthur C; Vasco-Palacios, Aída Marcela; Smith, Matthew E; Boekhout, Teun; Henkel, Terry W

    2016-01-01

    This work reports on four species of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) tooth fungus genus Sarcodon (Bankeraceae, Thelephorales, Basidiomycota) recently discovered in the Colombian Amazon. Sarcodon colombiensis sp. nov., Sarcodon rufobrunneus sp. nov., Sarcodon pallidogriseus sp. nov. and Sarcodon bairdii sp. nov. are described as new to science. These fungi occur in forests dominated by ECM trees in the genera Pseudomonotes (Dipterocarpaceae), Dicymbe (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae) and Aldina (Fabaceae subfam. Papilionoideae). These records bring the number of Sarcodon species known from the Neotropics to 10. Each of the new species possesses the accepted diagnostic characters for the genus: pileate-stipitate stature, a dentate hymenophore, determinate basidiomata development, fleshy, non-zonate context, and brown, tuberculate basidiospores. Molecular phylogenetic analysis corroborated the generic placement of the species, and, in combination with morphological characters, confirmed that they are new to science. Macromorphological, micromorphological, habitat and DNA sequence data from the nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) are provided for each of the new species. A key is provided that allows identification of all known Neotropical Sarcodon species and similar extralimital taxa. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  20. Phytochemical profile and antimicrobial properties of Lotus spp. (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Girardi, Felipe A; Tonial, Fabiana; Chini, Silvia O; Sobottka, Andréa M; Scheffer-Basso, Simone M; Bertol, Charise D

    2014-09-01

    The phytochemical profile and antimicrobial activity of cultivar (cv.) extracts of Lotus uliginosus (cvs. Trojan and Serrano), L. tenuis (cv. Larrañaga) and L. corniculatus (cv. São Gabriel) were investigated. The phytochemical analysis revealed tannins, coumarins and flavonoids in all extracts, with variations among cultivars, showing genotypic variability. By High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method, the cvs. Larrañaga and São Gabriel showed the highest percentage of catechin and epicatechin, respectively, and presented rutin, which was not detected in the other ones. These genotypes showed antifungal activity but not antibacterial one. The cv. Larrañaga inhibited the mycelia growth of Alternaria sp. and Fusarium graminearum while the cv. São Gabriel was active only against Alternaria sp. The cultivars showed the greatest amounts of secondary metabolites and demonstrated significant activity against filamentous fungi. The results provide a direction for further research about pharmacological use of Lotus spp.

  1. [Desiccation tolerance in seeds of Prosopisferox and Pterogyne nitens (Fabaceae)].

    PubMed

    Morandini, Marcelo Nahuel; Giamminola, Eugenia Mabel; de Viana, Marta Leonor

    2013-03-01

    The high number of endemisms and species diversity together with the accelerated biodiversity loss by deforestation, especially in North Western Argentina, points out the need to work on species conservation combining ex situ and in situ strategies. The aim of this work was to study the desiccation tolerance in seeds of P ferox and P nitens for long term ex situ conservation at the Germplasm Bank of Native Species (BGEN) of the National University of Salta (Argentina). The fruits were collected from ten individuals in P ferox at the National Park Los Cardones and from two sites (Orán and Rivadavia) for P nitens. Desiccation tolerance was assessed following previous established methodologies. The moisture content (MC) of the seeds was determined by keeping them in oven at 103 degreeC and weighting the samples at different intervals till constant weight. Germination essays were carried out with two treatments (control and scarification), with different seed MC (fresh, 10-12%, 3-5%) and in desiccated seeds (3-5% MC) stored six months at -20 degreeC. The MC in P ferox seeds was 14.2% and 10% in P nitens, for both populations studied. Percentage germination in P ferox was higher in the scarification treatments (<82%). The difference between treatments increased with the reduction in MC and the storage for six months at -20 degreeC. Fresh seeds of P nitens do not need scarification treatment, but it is required with the reduction in MC and storage. Mean germination percentage of desiccated seeds stored six months at -20 degreeC was similar in both populations and greater than 82%.We concluded that both species are probably orthodox because seeds tolerated desiccation to 3-5% and storage for six months at -20 degree C.

  2. Microsatellite markers for the yam bean Pachyrhizus (Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Delêtre, Marc; Soengas, Beatriz; Utge, José; Lambourdière, Josie; Sørensen, Marten

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the understudied root crop yam bean (Pachyrhizus spp.) to investigate intraspecific diversity and interspecific relationships within the genus Pachyrhizus. • Methods and Results: Seventeen nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with perfect di- and trinucleotide repeats were developed from 454 pyrosequencing of SSR-enriched genomic libraries. Loci were characterized in P. ahipa and wild and cultivated populations of four closely related species. All loci successfully cross-amplified and showed high levels of polymorphism, with number of alleles ranging from three to 12 and expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.095 to 0.831 across the genus. • Conclusions: By enabling rapid assessment of genetic diversity in three native neotropical crops, P. ahipa, P. erosus, and P. tuberosus, and two wild relatives, P. ferrugineus and P. panamensis, these markers will allow exploration of the genetic diversity and evolutionary history of the genus Pachyrhizus. PMID:25202568

  3. Phenotypic correlations among plant parts in Iberian Papilionoideae (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Herrera, Javier

    2005-01-01

    Different plant organs may show varying degrees of form diversification or conservatism across phylogenetically related taxa. The present study uses data from a recent systematic study of Iberian Papilionoideae to investigate diversification and covariation in reproductive and vegetative plant parts. The appropriateness of imprecise (but comprehensive) taxonomic quantitative information is tested. Organ size covariation and phenotypic correlations were studied among tribes, genera and species. Scale relationships were investigated by Reduced Major Axis regression. Variables used were the maximum dimensions of calyx, corolla, keel petal, fruit, seed, stipule, leaflet and petiole. As regards tribe averages, the length of the corolla and that of calyx correlated positively and significantly. In contrast, pod length was unrelated to corolla size and largely tribe-specific. Within genera, the sizes of calyx, corolla and fruit sometimes covaried linearly (e.g. Lathyrus species) and other times did not (Genista, Astragalus). Information from taxonomic studies can be useful to establish major phenotypic correlations in plants. Results underscore the implications of tribal ownership in the Papilionoideae and illustrate the extensive morphological diversification of pods relative to flowers in this group.

  4. Cycloartane-type glycosides from two species of Astragalus (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Linnek, Jens; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Duchamp, Olivier; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2009-04-01

    Three known cycloartane-type glycosides were isolated from the roots of two different species of Astragalus, A. glycyphyllos, A. sempervirens. The identification of these compounds were mainly achieved by 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and FAB-MS. The results of our studies confirm that triterpene saponins from the cycloartane-type skeleton might be chemotaxonomically significant to the genus Astragalus.

  5. Genetic characterization of three varieties of Astragalus lentiginosus (Fabaceae).

    Treesearch

    Brian J. Knaus; Rich C. Cronn; Aaron. Liston

    2005-01-01

    Astragalus lentiginosus is a polymorphic species that occurs in geologically young habitats and whose varietal circumscription implies active morphological and genetic differentiation. In this preliminary study, we evaluate the potential of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to resolve infraspecific taxa in three varieties of...

  6. Pollination ecology of the rare desert species Eremosparton songoricum (Fabaceae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pollination ecology of Eremosparton songoricum (Litv.) Vass., a rare desert species endemic to central Asia, was examined by a series of observational studies and manipulative experiments in two natural populations during 2007–2008. Results showed that the duration of flowering lasted 21 and 23 ...

  7. Photonastic Control of Leaflet Orientation in Melilotus indicus (Fabaceae) 1

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Amnon; Gilboa, Sarah; Koller, Dov

    1987-01-01

    Leaflet orientation in Melilotus indicus (L.) All. Is under photonastic control during the day and nyctinastic control during the night, but also exhibits a diaphototropic (solar-tracking) response. Detached leaves with the two lateral leaflets excised were used to study the solar-tracking capability of the terminal leaflet. Perception of the photonastic excitation is located in the pulvinule. The lower (abaxial) and upper (adaxial) surfaces perceive photonastic excitation, which results in concomitant contraction of the side exposed to light and/or expansion of the opposite side. Steady state laminar elevation is determined by the fluence rates of the light incident simultaneously on the opposite sides. Light sensitivity of the lower side exceeds that of the upper. Response to photonastic excitation of either side is affected by angle of incidence of the light, but angular dependence is restricted to a limited range of angle of incidence, which differs for the two sides. This may be accounted for by the different topography of the two pulvinar surfaces and the localization in them of the light-sensitive tissues. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16665437

  8. Unequivocal assignments of flavonoids from Tephrosia sp. (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Arriaga, A M C; Lima, J Q; Vasconcelos, J N; de Oliveira, M C F; Andrade-Neto, M; Santiago, G M P; Uchoa, D E A; Malcher, G T; Mafezoli, J; Braz-Filho, R

    2009-06-01

    (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts of praecansone B, pongaflavone and dehydrorotenone isolated from Tephrosia egregia Sandw and obovatin from T. toxicaria Pers. were unambiguously assigned by 1D and 2D NMR experiments including (1)H, (1)H COSY, gHMQC and gHMBC, allowing the correction of literature assignments.

  9. Roles of rhizobial symbionts in selenium hyperaccumulation in Astragalus (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Alford, Élan R; Lindblom, Stormy D; Pittarello, Marco; Freeman, John L; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A; Broeckling, Corey; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H; Paschke, Mark W

    2014-11-01

    Are there dimensions of symbiotic root interactions that are overlooked because plant mineral nutrition is the foundation and, perhaps too often, the sole explanation through which we view these relationships? In this paper we investigate how the root nodule symbiosis in selenium (Se) hyperaccumulator and nonaccumulator Astragalus species influences plant selenium (Se) accumulation. In greenhouse studies, Se was added to nodulated and nonnodulated hyperaccumulator and nonaccumulator Astragalus plants, followed by investigation of nitrogen (N)-Se relationships. Selenium speciation was also investigated, using x-ray microprobe analysis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Nodulation enhanced biomass production and Se to S ratio in both hyperaccumulator and nonaccumulator plants. The hyperaccumulator contained more Se when nodulated, while the nonaccumulator contained less S when nodulated. Shoot [Se] was positively correlated with shoot N in Se-hyperaccumulator species, but not in nonhyperaccumulator species. The x-ray microprobe analysis showed that hyperaccumulators contain significantly higher amounts of organic Se than nonhyperaccumulators. LC-MS of A. bisulcatus leaves revealed that nodulated plants contained more γ-glutamyl-methylselenocysteine (γ-Glu-MeSeCys) than nonnodulated plants, while MeSeCys levels were similar. Root nodule mutualism positively affects Se hyperaccumulation in Astragalus. The microbial N supply particularly appears to contribute glutamate for the formation of γ-Glu-MeSeCys. Our results provide insight into the significance of symbiotic interactions in plant adaptation to edaphic conditions. Specifically, our findings illustrate that the importance of these relationships are not limited to alleviating macronutrient deficiencies. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  10. Phylogenetic relationships among morphotypes of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Caesalpinioideae: Leguminosae) evidenced by trnL intron sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juchum, Fabrício Sacramento; Costa, Marco Antônio; Amorim, André Márcio; Corrêa, Ronan Xavier

    2008-11-01

    Caesalpinia echinata (brazilwood or Pernambuco wood) comprises a complex of three morphological leaf variants, characterized by differences in the number and size of the pinnae and leaflets, and occurring in allopatric and sympatric populations. The present study evaluates the utility of the chloroplast DNA trnL intron in a phylogenetic analysis of the three leaf variants along with other species of Caesalpinia and generic relatives. Our study supports the hypothesis that the name C. echinata designates a species complex and provides evidence that one of the forms, the highly divergent C. echinata large-leafleted variant, represents a distinct taxon.

  11. Bilobate leaves of Bauhinia (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae, Cercideae) from the middle Miocene of Fujian Province, southeastern China and their biogeographic implications.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yanxiang; Wong, William Oki; Shi, Gongle; Shen, Si; Li, Zhenyu

    2015-11-16

    Morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies suggest that the pantropical genus Bauhinia L. s.l. (Bauhiniinae, Cercideae, Leguminosae) is paraphyletic and may as well be subdivided into nine genera, including Bauhinia L. s.s. and its allies. Their leaves are usually characteristic bilobate and are thus easily recognized in the fossil record. This provides the opportunity to understand the early evolution, diversification, and biogeographic history of orchid trees from an historical perspective under the framework of morphological and molecular studies. The taxonomy, distribution, and leaf architecture of Bauhinia and its allies across the world are summarized in detail, which formed the basis for classifying the bilobate leaf fossils and evaluating the fossil record and biogeography of Bauhinia. Two species of Bauhinia are described from the middle Miocene Fotan Group of Fujian Province, southeastern China. Bauhinia ungulatoides sp. nov. is characterized by shallowly to moderately bilobate, pulvinate leaves with shallowly cordate bases and acute apices on each lobe, as well as paracytic stomatal complexes. Bauhinia fotana F.M.B. Jacques et al. emend. possesses moderately bilobate, pulvinate leaves with moderately to deeply cordate bases and acute or slightly obtuse apices on each lobe. Bilobate leaf fossils Bauhinia ungulatoides and B. fotana together with other late Paleogene - early Neogene Chinese record of the genus suggest that Bauhinia had been diverse in South China by the late Paleogene. Their great similarities to some species from South America and South Asia respectively imply that Bauhinia might have undergone extensive dispersals and diversification during or before the Miocene. The fossil record, extant species diversity, as well as molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that the Bauhiniinae might have originated in the Paleogene of low-latitudes along the eastern Tethys Seaway. They dispersed southwards into Africa, migrated from Eurasia to North America via the North Atlantic Land Bridge or floating islands during the Oligocene. Then the genus spread into South America probably via the Isthmus of Panama since the Miocene onward, and underwent regional extinctions in the Boreotropics of mid-high-latitudes during the Neogene climatic cooling. Hence, Bauhinia presently exhibits a pantropical intercontinental disjunct distribution.

  12. The Plant Structure Ontology, a Unified Vocabulary of Anatomy and Morphology of a Flowering Plant1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ilic, Katica; Kellogg, Elizabeth A.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Zapata, Felipe; Stevens, Peter F.; Vincent, Leszek P.; Avraham, Shulamit; Reiser, Leonore; Pujar, Anuradha; Sachs, Martin M.; Whitman, Noah T.; McCouch, Susan R.; Schaeffer, Mary L.; Ware, Doreen H.; Stein, Lincoln D.; Rhee, Seung Y.

    2007-01-01

    Formal description of plant phenotypes and standardized annotation of gene expression and protein localization data require uniform terminology that accurately describes plant anatomy and morphology. This facilitates cross species comparative studies and quantitative comparison of phenotypes and expression patterns. A major drawback is variable terminology that is used to describe plant anatomy and morphology in publications and genomic databases for different species. The same terms are sometimes applied to different plant structures in different taxonomic groups. Conversely, similar structures are named by their species-specific terms. To address this problem, we created the Plant Structure Ontology (PSO), the first generic ontological representation of anatomy and morphology of a flowering plant. The PSO is intended for a broad plant research community, including bench scientists, curators in genomic databases, and bioinformaticians. The initial releases of the PSO integrated existing ontologies for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), maize (Zea mays), and rice (Oryza sativa); more recent versions of the ontology encompass terms relevant to Fabaceae, Solanaceae, additional cereal crops, and poplar (Populus spp.). Databases such as The Arabidopsis Information Resource, Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre, Gramene, MaizeGDB, and SOL Genomics Network are using the PSO to describe expression patterns of genes and phenotypes of mutants and natural variants and are regularly contributing new annotations to the Plant Ontology database. The PSO is also used in specialized public databases, such as BRENDA, GENEVESTIGATOR, NASCArrays, and others. Over 10,000 gene annotations and phenotype descriptions from participating databases can be queried and retrieved using the Plant Ontology browser. The PSO, as well as contributed gene associations, can be obtained at www.plantontology.org. PMID:17142475

  13. Information Structure and Linguistic Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zierer, Ernesto

    1972-01-01

    This document describes a format for analyzing the information content of sentences and the language patterns that accompany particular information content. The author writes in terms of information structures, each information structure having a corresponding linguistic structure composed of distinctive features. The information structure of a…

  14. Structural ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Wachtman, J.B. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The present work discusses opportunities for application of structural ceramics in heat engines, industrial-wear parts, prosthetics and bearings; conceptual and detailed design principles for structural ceramics; the processing, consolidation, and properties of members of the SiC family of structural ceramics; and the silicon nitride and sialon families of hot-pressed, sintered, and reaction-bonded, structural ceramics. Also discussed are partially-stabilized zirconia and zirconia-toughened ceramics for structural applications, the processing methods and mechanisms of fiber-reinforcement in ceramic-matrix fiber-reinforced composites, and the tribological properties of structural ceramics.

  15. Phytotoxic cyanamide affects maize (Zea mays) root growth and root tip function: from structure to gene expression.

    PubMed

    Soltys, Dorota; Rudzińska-Langwald, Anna; Kurek, Wojciech; Szajko, Katarzyna; Sliwinska, Elwira; Bogatek, Renata; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka

    2014-05-01

    Cyanamide (CA) is a phytotoxic compound produced by four Fabaceae species: hairy vetch, bird vetch, purple vetch and black locust. Its toxicity is due to complex activity that involves the modification of both cellular structures and physiological processes. To date, CA has been investigated mainly in dicot plants. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of CA in the restriction of the root growth of maize (Zea mays), representing the monocot species. CA (3mM) reduced the number of border cells in the root tips of maize seedlings and degraded their protoplasts. However, CA did not induce any significant changes in the organelle structure of other root cells, apart from increased vacuolization. CA toxicity was also demonstrated by its effect on cell cycle activity, endoreduplication intensity, and modifications of cyclins CycA2, CycD2, and histone HisH3 gene expression. In contrast, the arrangement of microtubules was not altered by CA. Treatment of maize seedlings with CA did not completely arrest mitotic activity, although the frequency of dividing cells was reduced. Furthermore, prolonged CA treatment increased the proportion of endopolyploid cells in the root tip. Cytological malformations were accompanied by an induction of oxidative stress in root cells, which manifested as enhanced accumulation of H2O2. Exposure of maize seedlings to CA resulted in an increased concentration of auxin and stimulated ethylene emission. Taken together, these findings suggested that the inhibition of root growth by CA may be a consequence of stress-induced morphogenic responses. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  16. Website Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Larry S.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation reports the results of an exploratory data analysis investigation of the relationship between the structures used for information organization and access and the associated storage structures within state government websites. Extending an earlier claim that hierarchical directory structures are both the preeminent information…

  17. Website Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Larry S.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation reports the results of an exploratory data analysis investigation of the relationship between the structures used for information organization and access and the associated storage structures within state government websites. Extending an earlier claim that hierarchical directory structures are both the preeminent information…

  18. Containment Structures Versus Suppressive Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-02-01

    may now be posed as follows: For a shell thickness h determined by the requirement for fragment containment,* how small can the midsurface radius R...notoriously inefficient. 2. Since structural weight of fragment containment structures varies approximately as the midsurface area, the structure

  19. Organisational Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006

    2006-01-01

    An understanding of organisational structure can provide guidance for organisations that want to change and innovate. Many writers agree that this understanding allows organisations to shape how their work is done to ultimately achieve their business goals--and that too often structure is given little consideration in business strategy and…

  20. Reconfigurable structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A reconfigurable structure includes a plurality of selectively extensible and retractable limbs, at least one node pivotably receiving respective ends of at least two limbs, and an actuator associated with each limb for extending and retracting the limb. The structure may further include an addressable module associated with each actuator to control the actuator.

  1. Protein Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asmus, Elaine Garbarino

    2007-01-01

    Individual students model specific amino acids and then, through dehydration synthesis, a class of students models a protein. The students clearly learn amino acid structure, primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure in proteins and the nature of the bonds maintaining a protein's shape. This activity is fun, concrete, inexpensive and…

  2. Protein Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asmus, Elaine Garbarino

    2007-01-01

    Individual students model specific amino acids and then, through dehydration synthesis, a class of students models a protein. The students clearly learn amino acid structure, primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure in proteins and the nature of the bonds maintaining a protein's shape. This activity is fun, concrete, inexpensive and…

  3. Structural Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of abstracts and slides of papers presented at the NASA Lewis Structural Ceramics Workshop. Collectively, these papers depict the scope of NASA Lewis' structural ceramics program. The technical areas include monolithic SiC and Si3N4 development, ceramic matrix composites, tribology, design methodology, nondestructive evaluation (NDE), fracture mechanics, and corrosion.

  4. Tau Structures

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Jesus; Jiménez, Juan S.; Sayas, Carmen L.; Bolós, Marta; Zabala, Juan C.; Rivas, Germán; Hernández, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Tau is a microtubule-associated protein that plays an important role in axonal stabilization, neuronal development, and neuronal polarity. In this review, we focus on the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary tau structures. We describe the structure of tau from its specific residues until its conformation in dimers, oligomers, and larger polymers in physiological and pathological situations. PMID:27877124

  5. On Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acland, Henry

    Structure as an aspect of educational setting is discussed and illustrated in the course of an argument indicating that efforts to change schools, including Project Follow Through, should aim to change structures rather than people. It is asserted that educational reform in America usually attempts to change people, especially children, and that…

  6. Richat Structure

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Image taken 1/11/2001: The so-called Richat Structure is a geological formation in the Maur Adrar Desert in the African country of Mauritania. Although it resembles an impact crater, the Richat Structure formed when a volcanic dome hardened and gradually eroded, exposing the onion-like layers of rock. The Richat Structure can be found on Landsat 7 WRS Path 203 Row 45, center: 21.68, -11.94. To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ Credit: NASA/GSFC/Landsat 7/USGS

  7. Spacecraft Structures

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This activity challenges students to solve a real-world problem that is part of the space program using creativity, cleverness and scientific knowledge while learning about forces, structures and e...

  8. Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    After an 800-foot-tall offshore oil recovery platform collapsed, the engineers at Engineering Dynamics, Inc., Kenner, LA, needed to learn the cause of the collapse, and analyze the proposed repairs. They used STAGSC-1, a NASA structural analysis program with geometric and nonlinear buckling analysis. The program allowed engineers to determine the deflected and buckling shapes of the structural elements. They could then view the proposed repairs under the pressure that caused the original collapse.

  9. Structures research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abu-Saba, Elias; Mcginley, Williams; Shen, Ji-Yao

    1992-01-01

    The main objective of the structures group is to provide quality aerospace research with the Center for Aerospace Research - A NASA Center for Excellence at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University. The group includes dedicated faculty and students who have a proven record in the area of structures, in particular space structures. The participating faculty developed accurate mathematical models and effective computational algorithms to characterize the flexibility parameters of joint dominated beam-truss structures. Both experimental and theoretical modelling has been applied to the dynamic mode shapes and mode frequencies for a large truss system. During the past few months, the above procedures has been applied to the hypersonic transport plane model. The plane structure has been modeled as a lumped mass system by Doctor Abu-Saba while Doctor Shen applied the transfer matrix method with a piecewise continuous Timoshenko tapered beam model. Results from both procedures compare favorably with those obtained using the finite element method. These two methods are more compact and require less computer time than the finite element method. The group intends to perform experiments on structural systems including the hypersonic plane model to verify the results from the theoretical models.

  10. Structures Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center Structures Division is an international leader and pioneer in developing new structural analysis, life prediction, and failure analysis related to rotating machinery and more specifically to hot section components in air-breathing aircraft engines and spacecraft propulsion systems. The research consists of both deterministic and probabilistic methodology. Studies include, but are not limited to, high-cycle and low-cycle fatigue as well as material creep. Studies of structural failure are at both the micro- and macrolevels. Nondestructive evaluation methods related to structural reliability are developed, applied, and evaluated. Materials from which structural components are made, studied, and tested are monolithics and metal-matrix, polymer-matrix, and ceramic-matrix composites. Aeroelastic models are developed and used to determine the cyclic loading and life of fan and turbine blades. Life models are developed and tested for bearings, seals, and other mechanical components, such as magnetic suspensions. Results of these studies are published in NASA technical papers and reference publication as well as in technical society journal articles. The results of the work of the Structures Division and the bibliography of its publications for calendar year 1995 are presented.

  11. Centriole structure

    PubMed Central

    Winey, Mark; O'Toole, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Centrioles are among the largest protein-based structures found in most cell types, measuring approximately 250 nm in diameter and approximately 500 nm long in vertebrate cells. Here, we briefly review ultrastructural observations about centrioles and associated structures. At the core of most centrioles is a microtubule scaffold formed from a radial array of nine triplet microtubules. Beyond the microtubule triplets of the centriole, we discuss the critically important cartwheel structure and the more enigmatic luminal density, both found on the inside of the centriole. Finally, we discuss the connectors between centrioles, and the distal and subdistal appendages outside of the microtubule scaffold that reflect centriole age and impart special functions to the centriole. Most of the work we review has been done with electron microscopy or electron tomography of resin-embedded samples, but we also highlight recent work performed with cryoelectron microscopy, cryotomography and subvolume averaging. Significant opportunities remain in the description of centriolar structure, both in mapping of component proteins within the structure and in determining the effect of mutations on components that contribute to the structure and function of the centriole. PMID:25047611

  12. Composite structural materials. [aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of filamentary composite materials in the design and construction of primary aircraft structures is considered with emphasis on efforts to develop advanced technology in the areas of physical properties, structural concepts and analysis, manufacturing, and reliability and life prediction. The redesign of a main spar/rib region on the Boeing 727 elevator near its actuator attachment point is discussed. A composite fabrication and test facility is described as well as the use of minicomputers for computer aided design. Other topics covered include (1) advanced structural analysis methids for composites; (2) ultrasonic nondestructive testing of composite structures; (3) optimum combination of hardeners in the cure of epoxy; (4) fatigue in composite materials; (5) resin matrix characterization and properties; (6) postbuckling analysis of curved laminate composite panels; and (7) acoustic emission testing of composite tensile specimens.

  13. Adenovirus structure.

    PubMed

    Rux, John J; Burnett, Roger M

    2004-12-01

    Structural studies continue to play an essential role as the focus of adenovirus research shifts in emphasis from basic biology to adenovirus-based vector technologies. A crucial step in developing novel therapeutics for gene replacement, cancer, and vaccines is often to modify the virion. Such engineered changes are designed to retarget the virus, or to reduce the immunological responses to infection. These efforts are far more effective when they are based on detailed structural knowledge. This minireview provides a brief summary of the wealth of information that has been obtained from the combined application of X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy. This knowledge now includes a good working model for the architectural organization of the virion, and atomic resolution molecular structures for all the major capsid proteins, hexon, penton, and fiber. We highlight new developments, which include the structure of the penton base and the discovery that adenovirus has several relatives. We sketch how the structural information can be used to engineer novel virions and conclude with the prospects for future progress.

  14. Tension Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The fabric structure pictured is the Campus Center of La Verne College, La Verne, California. Unlike the facilities shown on the preceding pages, it is not air-supported. It is a "tension structure," its multi-coned fabric membrane supported by a network of cables attached to steel columns which function like circus tent poles. The spider-web in the accompanying photo is a computer graph of the tension pattern. The designers, Geiger-Berger Associates PC, of New York City, conducted lengthy computer analysis to determine the the best placement of columns and cables. The firm also served as structural engineering consultant on the Pontiac Silverdome and a number of other large fabric structures. Built by Birdair Structures, Inc., Buffalo, New York, the La Verne Campus Center was the first permanent facility in the United States enclosed by the space-spinoff fabric made of Owens-Corning Beta fiber glass coated with Du Pont Teflon TFE. The flexible design permits rearrangement of the interior to accommodate athletic events, student activities, theatrical productions and other recreational programs. Use of fabric covering reduced building cost 30 percent below conventional construction.

  15. Structural Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    All over the world, officials charged with preserving historical structures are faced with a problem of environmental contamination of building materials that cause structural deterioration. First requisite for preserving the structure is identification of the nature of contaminants. A "non-invasive"technique based on space technology has been developed and tested. It employs a neutron source and a gamma ray detector. Placed on one side of the wall to be examined, the source fires neutrons created by the decay of a radioactive isotope. As they pass through the wall, the neutrons collide with atoms and the atoms, depending on their type, emit various kinds of gamma rays. These rays are identified by the gamma ray detector on the other side of the wall. Energy of the rays shows the kind of element present. The intensity level indicates the quantity. Composition of the contaminants within the walls is determined by a multichannel analyzer.

  16. Structures protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Materials of which an aircraft is made and the methods used to hold these materials together forming the aircraft structure were studied as factors important in protecting a modern aircraft from hazardous natural environments. Since all-metal aircraft are being replaced by aircraft constructed partly of fiber reinforced plastics with desirable light weight and high strength properties but with poor electrical conductivity, the danger of lightning strikes has become more serious. Lightning effects on metal structures were reviewed and design protection was discussed. The expected lightning effects on nonmetallic materials such as fiberglass and advanced composites were also reviewed.

  17. Nanocrystal structures

    DOEpatents

    Eisler, Hans J.; Sundar, Vikram C.; Walsh, Michael E.; Klimov, Victor I.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Smith, Henry I.

    2006-12-19

    A structure including a grating and a semiconductor nanocrystal layer on the grating, can be a laser. The semiconductor nanocrystal layer can include a plurality of semiconductor nanocrystals including a Group II–VI compound, the nanocrystals being distributed in a metal oxide matrix. The grating can have a periodicity from 200 nm to 500 nm.

  18. Structural Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Julianne; Titmus, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    This article explores an alternative conception held by high school and first-year university biology students regarding the structure of the left and right ventricles of the heart and the significance of the left ventricular wall being thicker than the right. The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right ventricular wall due to…

  19. Structural evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.T.

    1993-03-01

    In this special report, financial executives discuss key trends in power project finance, new funding sources and evolving project structures. Industry wide, financial firms and developers are striving to improve the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of project financing, for projects in both greenfield development and the growing secondary market.

  20. Nanocrystal structures

    DOEpatents

    Eisler, Hans J [Stoneham, MA; Sundar, Vikram C [Stoneham, MA; Walsh, Michael E [Everett, MA; Klimov, Victor I [Los Alamos, NM; Bawendi, Moungi G [Cambridge, MA; Smith, Henry I [Sudbury, MA

    2008-12-30

    A structure including a grating and a semiconductor nanocrystal layer on the grating, can be a laser. The semiconductor nanocrystal layer can include a plurality of semiconductor nanocrystals including a Group II-VI compound, the nanocrystals being distributed in a metal oxide matrix. The grating can have a periodicity from 200 nm to 500 nm.

  1. Structured Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ellen; Borleske, Barbara; Gleason, Susan; Bailey, Bambi; Scantlebury, Kathryn

    1998-01-01

    Describes a tool that quantifies the number and kinds of interactions between students and teachers. Structured observation of classroom events indicates whether a teacher is interacting equitably with each student in the classroom. Science teachers were receptive to the relatively quantitative nature of the process. Both inservice and student…

  2. Structural Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Julianne; Titmus, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    This article explores an alternative conception held by high school and first-year university biology students regarding the structure of the left and right ventricles of the heart and the significance of the left ventricular wall being thicker than the right. The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right ventricular wall due to…

  3. Lightweight Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver and Co., Michigan City, IN.

    One of the newest and most promising developments in architecture has been the use of lightweight structures for encapsulating space. Using this new technology, builders can enclose large and small areas at a fraction of the cost of conventional construction and at the same time provide interior space that is totally flexible. This brochure shows…

  4. Ecological Importance of Small-Diameter Trees to the Structure, Diversity and Biomass of a Tropical Evergreen Forest at Rabi, Gabon.

    PubMed

    Memiaghe, Hervé R; Lutz, James A; Korte, Lisa; Alonso, Alfonso; Kenfack, David

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests have long been recognized for their biodiversity and ecosystem services. Despite their importance, tropical forests, and particularly those of central Africa, remain understudied. Until recently, most forest inventories in Central Africa have focused on trees ≥10 cm in diameter, even though several studies have shown that small-diameter tree population may be important to demographic rates and nutrient cycling. To determine the ecological importance of small-diameter trees in central African forests, we used data from a 25-ha permanent plot that we established in the rainforest of Gabon to study the diversity and dynamics of these forests. Within the plot, we censused 175,830 trees ≥1 cm dbh from 54 families, 192 genera, and 345 species. Average tree density was 7,026 trees/ha, basal area 31.64 m2/ha, and above-ground biomass 369.40 Mg/ha. Fabaceae, Ebenaceae and Euphorbiaceae were the most important families by basal area, density and above-ground biomass. Small-diameter trees (1 cm ≥ dbh <10 cm) comprised 93.7% of the total tree population, 16.5% of basal area, and 4.8% of the above-ground biomass. They also had diversity 18% higher at family level, 34% higher at genus level, and 42% higher at species level than trees ≥10 cm dbh. Although the relative contribution of small-diameter trees to biomass was comparable to other forests globally, their contribution to forest density, and diversity was disproportionately higher. The high levels of diversity within small-diameter classes may give these forests high levels of structural resilience to anthropogenic/natural disturbance and a changing climate.

  5. Ecological Importance of Small-Diameter Trees to the Structure, Diversity and Biomass of a Tropical Evergreen Forest at Rabi, Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Memiaghe, Hervé R.; Lutz, James A.; Korte, Lisa; Alonso, Alfonso; Kenfack, David

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests have long been recognized for their biodiversity and ecosystem services. Despite their importance, tropical forests, and particularly those of central Africa, remain understudied. Until recently, most forest inventories in Central Africa have focused on trees ≥10 cm in diameter, even though several studies have shown that small-diameter tree population may be important to demographic rates and nutrient cycling. To determine the ecological importance of small-diameter trees in central African forests, we used data from a 25-ha permanent plot that we established in the rainforest of Gabon to study the diversity and dynamics of these forests. Within the plot, we censused 175,830 trees ≥1 cm dbh from 54 families, 192 genera, and 345 species. Average tree density was 7,026 trees/ha, basal area 31.64 m2/ha, and above-ground biomass 369.40 Mg/ha. Fabaceae, Ebenaceae and Euphorbiaceae were the most important families by basal area, density and above-ground biomass. Small-diameter trees (1 cm ≥ dbh <10 cm) comprised 93.7% of the total tree population, 16.5% of basal area, and 4.8% of the above-ground biomass. They also had diversity 18% higher at family level, 34% higher at genus level, and 42% higher at species level than trees ≥10 cm dbh. Although the relative contribution of small-diameter trees to biomass was comparable to other forests globally, their contribution to forest density, and diversity was disproportionately higher. The high levels of diversity within small-diameter classes may give these forests high levels of structural resilience to anthropogenic/natural disturbance and a changing climate. PMID:27186658

  6. Superconducting structure

    DOEpatents

    Kwon, Chuhee; Jia, Quanxi; Foltyn, Stephen R.

    2003-04-01

    A superconductive structure including a dielectric oxide substrate, a thin buffer layer of a superconducting material thereon; and, a layer of a rare earth-barium-copper oxide superconducting film thereon the thin layer of yttrium-barium-copper oxide, the rare earth selected from the group consisting of samarium, gadolinium, ytterbium, erbium, neodymium, dysprosium, holmium, lutetium, a combination of more than one element from the rare earth group and a combination of one or more elements from the rare earth group with yttrium, the buffer layer of superconducting material characterized as having chemical and structural compatibility with the dielectric oxide substrate and the rare earth-barium-copper oxide superconducting film is provided.

  7. Superconducting Structure

    DOEpatents

    Kwon, Chuhee; Jia, Quanxi; Foltyn, Stephen R.

    2005-09-13

    A superconductive structure including a dielectric oxide substrate, a thin buffer layer of a superconducting material thereon; and, a layer of a rare earth-barium-copper oxide superconducting film thereon the thin layer of yttrium-barium-copper oxide, the rare earth selected from the group consisting of samarium, gadolinium, ytterbium, erbium, neodymium, dysprosium, holmium, lutetium, a combination of more than one element from the rare earth group and a combination of one or more elements from the rare earth group with yttrium, the buffer layer of superconducting material characterized as having chemical and structural compatibility with the dielectric oxide substrate and the rare earth-barium-copper oxide superconducting film is provided.

  8. Lightweight Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Present structural concepts for hot static structures are conventional "sheet & stringer" or truss core construction. More weight-efficient concepts such as honeycomb and lattice block are being investigated, in combination with both conventional superalloys and TiAl. Development efforts for components made from TiAl sheet are centered on lower cost methods for sheet and foil production, plus alloy development for higher temperature capability. A low-cost casting technology recently developed for aluminum and steel lattice blocks has demonstrated the required higher strength and stiffness, with weight efficiency approach- ing honeycombs. The current effort is based on extending the temperature capability by developing lattice block materials made from IN-718 and Mar-M247.

  9. Terminal structure

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frank [Langenhagen, DE; Allais, Arnaud [Hannover, DE; Mirebeau, Pierre [Villebon sur Yvette, FR; Ganhungu, Francois [Vieux-Reng, FR; Lallouet, Nicolas [Saint Martin Boulogne, FR

    2009-10-20

    A terminal structure (2) for a superconducting cable (1) is described. It consists of a conductor (2a) and an insulator (2b) that surrounds the conductor (2a), wherein the superconducting cable (1) has a core with a superconducting conductor (5) and a layer of insulation that surrounds the conductor (5), and wherein the core is arranged in such a way that it can move longitudinally in a cryostat. The conductor (2a) of the terminal structure (2) is electrically connected with the superconducting conductor (5) or with a normal conductor (6) that is connected with the superconducting conductor (5) by means of a tubular part (7) made of an electrically conductive material, wherein the superconducting conductor (5) or the normal conductor (6) can slide in the part (7) in the direction of the superconductor.

  10. Structural Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, John; Frankel, Kurt L.

    2011-05-01

    Structural geology and continental tectonics were ushered in to the modern quantitative age of geosciences with the arrival of the global plate tectonics paradigm (circa 1968), derived using new data from the oceans' depths, and John Ramsay's 1967 seminal work, Folding and Fracturing of Rocks. Fossen is to be applauded for crafting a unique, high-caliber, and accessible undergraduate textbook on structural geology that faithfully reflects this advance and the subsequent evolution of the discipline. This well-written text draws on Fossen's wealth of professional experience, including his broad and diverse academic research and experience in the petroleum industry. This book is beautifully illustrated, with excellent original color diagrams and with impressive color field photographs that are all keyed to locations and placed into geologic context.

  11. Microplastic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feely, Wayne E.

    1986-07-01

    Thick coatings (5-15μm) of a new dual image, aqueous developable photoresist can be exposed using a light attenuating photomask consisting of clear, opaque and grey areas and then processed to yield thermally stable 3-dimensional structures which are potentially useful as mechanical and optical components of devices. In the positive mode, relief and intaglio images are produced by processing similar to positive novolak based resists with 1- 2μm resolution and with the added feature that the images can be made thermally stable to temperatures >300° C. Negative mode processing of coated wafers imaged with the special mask produces thermally stable structures with tunnels or hollow chambers as well as cantilever beams. Because these structures are crosslinked at the time of development, processing in the negative mode shows much wider latitude than is the case in the positive mode. Images by negative mode processing are capable of submicron resolution, higher aspect ratio (>3 vs <1.6), and inward sloping wall profiles adjustable by exposure. The acid hardening resin compositions cover a broad range of compositions so that resins can be tailored to meet specific property requirements.

  12. [Structure and floristic composition of three oak forests in the northern region of the Central Cordillera in Colombia].

    PubMed

    León, Juan D; Vélez, Gladys; Yepes, Adriana P

    2009-12-01

    Andean ecosystems harbor a high floristic diversity, which is being threatened by human disturbances such us deforestation and by the expansion of the agricultural frontier. One of these ecosystems are the Andean oak forests dominated by Quercus humboldtii, a threatened species in Colombia. We assessed the floristic composition and structure of three Andean oak forests located in three localities (San Andrés de Cuerquia, Belmira and Guarne) of Antioquia. The main goal was to determine whether these forests showed similarities in their structure and floristic composition. In each site, a permanent plot of 5000 m2 (0.5 ha) was established. All trees with D > or = 10 cm were sampled and identified to species. The Importance Value Index (IVI) was calculated as the sum of relative density (DeR), dominance (DoR) and frequency (FR) of a species. Trees with 5 < or = D < 10 cm and 2 < or = D < 5 cm were registered in sub-plots of 0.05 and 0.0144 ha, respectively. Finally, we used Jaccard's Index to quantify the floristic similarity among oak forest. When we considered all trees with D > or = 10 cm in the three forests, the number of species ranged from 18 to 54, whilst the number of individuals ranged from 326 to 680. The Guarne oak forest showed the highest species richness. In all sites, Q. humboldtii (Fagaceae) was the most important species in relation to the IVI, while Clusia sp. (Clusiaceae) and Myrsine coriaceae (Myrsinaceae) were the most important species in San Andrés de Cuerquia, Clethra fagifolia (Clethraceae) was important only in Belmira and Myrcia popayanensis (Myrtaceae) was important in Guarne. The families with the highest number of species were Fabaceae, Melastomataceae and Rubiaceae. Floristic similarity among places was low. The size distribution of trees had an inverse J-shape curve for all sites with changes in the abundance for size class. The three oak forests differed in their structure and floristic composition probably because of different

  13. Structural representation of data structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantoni, Virginio; Gaggia, Alessandro; Gatti, Riccardo; Lombardi, Luca

    2014-06-01

    Study of the morphology of proteins, and their 3D structure, supports investigations of their functions and represents an initial step towards protein-based drug design. The goal of this paper is to define techniques, based on the geometrical and topological structure of protein surfaces, for the detection and analysis of sites of potential protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions. Two protein representation modalities based on the Concavity Tree (CT) and the Enriched Complex Extended Gaussian Image (EC-EGI) are considered. In particular, the concavity tree, in which the interface is usually extended and roughly planar, is considered to be better suited to protein-protein interaction studies. Instead, the EGI is more suited to protein-ligand interactions, in which the small ligand molecule usually has to fit into the protein cavity. In fact, the histogram of the orientations is better suited to representing a mainly convex object and its dual matching region (the cavity). Both these data structures are open, and can be easily integrated with biochemical features.

  14. Airfoil structure

    DOEpatents

    Frey, Gary A.; Twardochleb, Christopher Z.

    1998-01-01

    Past airfoil configurations have been used to improve aerodynamic performance and engine efficiencies. The present airfoil configuration further increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress within the airfoil itself. The airfoil includes a chord and a span. Each of the chord and the span has a bow being summed to form a generally "C" configuration of the airfoil. The generally "C" configuration includes a compound bow in which internal stresses resulting from a thermal temperature gradient are reduced. The structural configuration reduces internal stresses resulting from thermal expansion.

  15. Airfoil structure

    DOEpatents

    Frey, G.A.; Twardochleb, C.Z.

    1998-01-13

    Past airfoil configurations have been used to improve aerodynamic performance and engine efficiencies. The present airfoil configuration further increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress within the airfoil itself. The airfoil includes a chord and a span. Each of the chord and the span has a bow being summed to form a generally ``C`` configuration of the airfoil. The generally ``C`` configuration includes a compound bow in which internal stresses resulting from a thermal temperature gradient are reduced. The structural configuration reduces internal stresses resulting from thermal expansion. 6 figs.

  16. Sarcodon in the Neotropics I: new species from Guyana, Puerto Rico and Belize.

    PubMed

    Grupe, Arthur C; Baker, Anthony D; Uehling, Jessie K; Smith, Matthew E; Baroni, Timothy J; Lodge, D Jean; Henkel, Terry W

    2015-01-01

    Four species of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) genus Sarcodon (Bankeraceae, Thelephorales, Basidiomycota) are described as new to science. Sarcodon pakaraimensis sp. nov. is described from forests dominated by the ECM trees Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea (Dipterocarpaceae) and Dicymbe jenmanii (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae) in the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana. Sarcodon portoricensis sp. nov. is described from lower montane wet forest within the El Yunque National Forest of Puerto Rico. Sarcodon quercophilus sp. nov. and Sarcodon umbilicatus sp. nov. are described from Quercus (Fagaceae) cloud forests within the Maya Mountains of Belize. The discovery of these species is significant given that the majority of the approximately 87 described Sarcodon species are north temperate or boreal in distribution and frequently associate with coniferous host plants; these constitute the most recent records for Sarcodon from the greater Neotropics. Each of the new species is morphologically consistent with accepted diagnostic characters for Sarcodon: pileate-stipitate stature, a dentate hymenophore, determinate basidiomatal development, fleshy, non-zonate context and brown, tuberculate basidiospores. DNA (ITS) sequence analysis corroborated the generic placement of S. pakaraimensis, S. portoricensis, S. quercophilus and S. umbilicatus and, along with morphological differences, supported their recognition as distinct species. Macromorphological, micromorphological, habitat and DNA sequence data from the nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) are provided for each of the new species. A key to Neotropical Sarcodon species and similar extralimital taxa is provided.

  17. Tamarindus indica: Extent of explored potential

    PubMed Central

    Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Narwaria, Jitendra; Rai, Gopal; Jain, Alok Pal

    2011-01-01

    Tamarindus is a monotypic genus and belongs to the subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae), Tamarindus indica L., commonly known as Tamarind tree is one of the most important multipurpose tropical fruit tree species in the Indian subcontinent. Tamarind fruit was at first thought to be produced by an Indian palm, as the name Tamarind comes from a Persian word “Tamar-I-hind,” meaning date of India. Its name “Amlika” in Sanskrit indicates its ancient presence in the country. T.indica is used as traditional medicine in India, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria,and most of the tropical countries. It is used traditionally in abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, helminthes infections, wound healing, malaria and fever, constipation, inflammation, cell cytotoxicity, gonorrhea, and eye diseases. It has numerous chemical values and is rich in phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic activity, antimicrobial activity, antivenomic activity, antioxidant activity, antimalarial activity, hepatoprotective activity, antiasthmatic activity, laxative activity, and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Every part of the plant from root to leaf tips is useful for human needs. Thus the aim of the present review is to describe its morphology, and explore the phytochemical constituents, commercial utilization of the parts of the plant, and medicinal and pharmacologic activities so that T. indica's potential as multipurpose tree species can be understood. PMID:22096321

  18. Evaluation of Bauhinia monandra aqueous and ethanol extracts in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Caio C; Marinho, Ciro M F; Moreira-Junior, Valderes F; Queiroz, Fernando M; Dantas, Gláucia L S; Macedo, Márcia F S; Oliveira, Cláudia N; Schwarz, Aline

    2010-07-01

    Bauhinia monandra Kurz. (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae) is a plant widely employed in Brazilian folk medicine for hypoglycemia. However, little is known about the effect of maternal exposure to this plant on fetal development. The aqueous and ethanol extracts obtained from B. monandra dried leaves were administered to pregnant Wistar rats throughout gestation (day 1 to day 20) at 1,400 or 7,000 mg/kg/day (n = 6/group). Maternal toxicity was not observed in the dams of both groups, and was evaluated by observing body weight, water and food intake during treatment, by measuring serum biochemical levels of creatinine, urea, AST and ALT, and by studying the histopathology of liver, kidney, pancreas, spleen and uterus at the end of treatment (gestation day 20). Both extracts and doses did not impair reproductive performance or delay fetal development, measured by observing implantations and reabsorptions in the uterus, by counting the number of corpora lutea in ovaries, by recording the litter weight and number of live and dead fetuses and by analyzing possible skeleton and viscera malformations in the fetuses. Also, the aqueous extract promoted decreased post-implantation loss when compared to the control group. The aqueous and ethanol extracts from B. monandra dried leaves (1,400 or 7,000 mg/kg/day) did not cause maternal or fetal toxicities and the aqueous extract promoted increased implantation and decreased post-implantation loss in the pregnant rats.

  19. Cantharellaceae of Guyana II: new species of Craterellus, new South American distribution records for Cantharellus guyanensis and Craterellus excelsus, and a key to the Neotropical taxa.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Terry W; Wilson, Andrew W; Aime, M Catherine; Dierks, Janina; Uehling, Jessie K; Roy, Melanie; Schimann, Heidy; Wartchow, Felipe; Mueller, Gregory M

    2014-01-01

    Craterellus olivaceoluteus sp. nov. and Craterellus cinereofimbriatus sp. nov. are described as new to science. These fungi were collected from Guyana in association with ectomycorrhizal host trees in the genera Dicymbe (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae) and Pakaraimaea (Dipterocarpaceae). Cantharellus guyanensis Mont., originally described from French Guiana, is redescribed from recent collections from Guyana, with additional range extensions for the species provided based on material examined from French Guiana, Venezuela, and north central, northeastern and southern Brazil, circumscribing nearly the entire Guiana Shield region and beyond. A new distribution record from French Guiana is provided for Craterellus excelsus T.W. Henkel & Aime. Macromorphological, micromorphological and habitat data are provided for the new species and C. guyanensis as well as DNA sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal regions of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 28S large subunit (LSU); additional sequence data is provided for C. guyanensis and C. excelsus specimens collected outside Guyana. The relationships of these taxa within the Cantharellaceae were evaluated with phylogenetic analyses of ITS and LSU sequence data. This work brings the total number of Cantharellaceae species known from Guyana to eight. A key to the Cantharellus and Craterellus species known from the lowland Neotropics and extralimital montane Central and South America is provided.

  20. Structures of

    PubMed

    Kirik; Solovyov; Blokhin; Yakimov

    2000-06-01

    Crystal structures of [Pd(NH3)2X2] complexes, where X = Br or I, diamminediiodo-/-dibromopalladium(II), have been studied by X-ray powder diffraction. The series consists of five complexes: cis-[Pd(NH3)2Br2] (I) [a = 13.3202 (7), b = 12.7223 (6), c = 7.05854 (3) A, Z = 8, space group Pbca], trans-[Pd(NH3)2Br2] (II) [a = 6.7854 (3), b = 7.1057 (3), c = 6.6241 (2) A, alpha = 103.221 (3), beta = 102.514 (2), gamma = 100.386 (3) degrees, Z = 2, space group P1], beta-trans-[Pd(NH3)2Br2] (III) [a = 8.4315 (3), b = 8.4206 (3), c = 8.0916 (2) A, Z = 4, space group Pbca], cis-[Pd(NH3)2I2] (IV) [a = 13.9060 (8), b = 13.5035 (8), c = 7.5050 (4) A, Z = 8, space group Pbca], and beta-trans-[Pd(NH3)2I2] (V) [a = 8.8347 (5), b = 8.8410 (5), c = 8.6081 (2) A, Z = 4, space group Pbca]. Patterson synthesis and Rietveld refinement have been used for structural determination. Molecular structures with column- or parquet-type packing of flat complexes are characteristic of these substances. Corresponding cis- and beta-trans compounds are isostructural. The thermal transformations cis-->trans-->beta-trans (cis-->beta-trans in the case of iodine) are considered. Cl derivatives are also discussed. The transformations proceed irreversibly and are accompanied by decreasing specific volume. Owing to these features, they can be classified as chemical reactions. High-temperature X-ray powder diffraction was used to study the transformations in air. The set of data is consistent with a solid state transformation from cis to trans. According to this model, the columns of molecules remain intact during the process, and the transformation proceeds via the breaking of Pd...X and Pd...N intermolecular bonds. The powder diffraction data have been deposited in ICDD-JCPDS (45-0596, 46-0876, 46-0879, 47-1690, 48-1185).

  1. Armor structures

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry Shiu-Hung [Idaho Falls, ID; Lacy, Jeffrey M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-04-01

    An armor structure includes first and second layers individually containing a plurality of i-beams. Individual i-beams have a pair of longitudinal flanges interconnected by a longitudinal crosspiece and defining opposing longitudinal channels between the pair of flanges. The i-beams within individual of the first and second layers run parallel. The laterally outermost faces of the flanges of adjacent i-beams face one another. One of the longitudinal channels in each of the first and second layers faces one of the longitudinal channels in the other of the first and second layers. The channels of the first layer run parallel with the channels of the second layer. The flanges of the first and second layers overlap with the crosspieces of the other of the first and second layers, and portions of said flanges are received within the facing channels of the i-beams of the other of the first and second layers.

  2. Digital structural

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, J.M.; Anderson, R.C.; Tanaka, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    Magmatic and tectonic activity have both contributed significantly to the surface geology of Mars. Digital structural mapping techniques have now been used to classify and date centers of tectonic activity in the western equatorial region. For example, our results show a center of tectonic activity at Valles Marineris, which may be associated with uplift caused by intrusion. Such evidence may help explain, in part, the development of the large troughs and associated outflow channels and chaotic terrain. We also find a local centre of tectonic activity near the source region of Warrego Valles. Here, we suggest that the valley system may have resulted largely from intrusive-related hydrothermal activity. We hope that this work, together with the current Mars Global Surveyor mission, will lead to a better understanding of the geological processes that shaped the Martian surface.

  3. Staggering Structure

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-06

    This view from NASA's Cassini spacecraft shows a wave structure in Saturn's rings known as the Janus 2:1 spiral density wave. Resulting from the same process that creates spiral galaxies, spiral density waves in Saturn's rings are much more tightly wound. In this case, every second wave crest is actually the same spiral arm which has encircled the entire planet multiple times. This is the only major density wave visible in Saturn's B ring. Most of the B ring is characterized by structures that dominate the areas where density waves might otherwise occur, but this innermost portion of the B ring is different. The radius from Saturn at which the wave originates (toward lower-right in this image) is 59,796 miles (96,233 kilometers) from the planet. At this location, ring particles orbit Saturn twice for every time the moon Janus orbits once, creating an orbital resonance. The wave propagates outward from the resonance (and away from Saturn), toward upper-left in this view. For reasons researchers do not entirely understand, damping of waves by larger ring structures is very weak at this location, so this wave is seen ringing for hundreds of bright wave crests, unlike density waves in Saturn's A ring. The image gives the illusion that the ring plane is tilted away from the camera toward upper-left, but this is not the case. Because of the mechanics of how this kind of wave propagates, the wavelength decreases with distance from the resonance. Thus, the upper-left of the image is just as close to the camera as the lower-right, while the wavelength of the density wave is simply shorter. This wave is remarkable because Janus, the moon that generates it, is in a strange orbital configuration. Janus and Epimetheus share practically the same orbit and trade places every four years. Every time one of those orbit swaps takes place, the ring at this location responds, spawning a new crest in the wave. The distance between any pair of crests corresponds to four years' worth of

  4. Leaves and fruits of Bauhinia (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae, Cercideae) from the Oligocene Ningming Formation of Guangxi, South China and their biogeographic implications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The pantropical genus Bauhinia, along with the northern temperate Cercis and several tropical genera, bear bilobate, bifoliolate, or sometimes unifoliolate leaves, which constitute the tribe Cercideae as sister to the rest of the family Leguminosae based on molecular phylogenetics. Hence, the fossil record of Cercideae is pivotal to understand the early evolution and biogeographic history of legumes. Results Three fossil species of Bauhinia were described from the Oligocene Ningming Formation of Guangxi, South China. Bauhinia ningmingensis sp. nov. is characterized by its bifoliolate, pulvinate leaves bearing basal acrodromous primary veins and brochidodromous secondary veins. B. cheniae sp. nov. bears moderately or deeply bilobate, pulvinate leaves, with basal actinodromous primary veins and eucamptodromous secondary veins. B. larsenii D.X. Zhang et Y.F. Chen emend. possesses shallowly or moderately bilobate, pulvinate leaves bearing basal actinodromous primary veins and brochidodromous secondary veins, as well as elliptic, stipitate, non-winged, and oligo-seeded fruits. Meanwhile, previously reported Bauhinia fossils were reviewed, and those pre-Oligocene foliage across the world are either questionable or have been rejected due to lacking of reliable evidence for their pulvini or/and basal actinodromous or acrodromous venations. Besides Oligocene leaves and fruits presented here, foliage and/or wood of Bauhinia have been documented from the Miocene–Pliocene of Thailand, India, Nepal, Uganda, and Ecuador. Conclusions Bauhinia has exhibited a certain diversity with bifoliolate- and bilobate-leafed species in a low-latitude locality–Ningming since at least the Oligocene, implying that the tropical zone of South China may represent one of the centres for early diversification of the genus. The reliable macrofossils of Bauhinia and Cercis have made their debut in the Eocene–Oligocene floras from mid-low latitudes and appeared to lack in the coeval floras at high latitudes, implying a possible Tethys Seaway origin and spread of legumes. However, detailed scenarios for the historical biogeography of Bauhinia and its relatives still need more robust dataset from palaeobotany and molecular phylogeny in future research. PMID:24758153

  5. Leaves and fruits of Bauhinia (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae, Cercideae) from the Oligocene Ningming Formation of Guangxi, South China and their biogeographic implications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Song, Zhuqiu; Chen, Yunfa; Shen, Si; Li, Zhenyu

    2014-04-24

    The pantropical genus Bauhinia, along with the northern temperate Cercis and several tropical genera, bear bilobate, bifoliolate, or sometimes unifoliolate leaves, which constitute the tribe Cercideae as sister to the rest of the family Leguminosae based on molecular phylogenetics. Hence, the fossil record of Cercideae is pivotal to understand the early evolution and biogeographic history of legumes. Three fossil species of Bauhinia were described from the Oligocene Ningming Formation of Guangxi, South China. Bauhinia ningmingensis sp. nov. is characterized by its bifoliolate, pulvinate leaves bearing basal acrodromous primary veins and brochidodromous secondary veins. B. cheniae sp. nov. bears moderately or deeply bilobate, pulvinate leaves, with basal actinodromous primary veins and eucamptodromous secondary veins. B. larsenii D.X. Zhang et Y.F. Chen emend. possesses shallowly or moderately bilobate, pulvinate leaves bearing basal actinodromous primary veins and brochidodromous secondary veins, as well as elliptic, stipitate, non-winged, and oligo-seeded fruits. Meanwhile, previously reported Bauhinia fossils were reviewed, and those pre-Oligocene foliage across the world are either questionable or have been rejected due to lacking of reliable evidence for their pulvini or/and basal actinodromous or acrodromous venations. Besides Oligocene leaves and fruits presented here, foliage and/or wood of Bauhinia have been documented from the Miocene-Pliocene of Thailand, India, Nepal, Uganda, and Ecuador. Bauhinia has exhibited a certain diversity with bifoliolate- and bilobate-leafed species in a low-latitude locality-Ningming since at least the Oligocene, implying that the tropical zone of South China may represent one of the centres for early diversification of the genus. The reliable macrofossils of Bauhinia and Cercis have made their debut in the Eocene-Oligocene floras from mid-low latitudes and appeared to lack in the coeval floras at high latitudes, implying a possible Tethys Seaway origin and spread of legumes. However, detailed scenarios for the historical biogeography of Bauhinia and its relatives still need more robust dataset from palaeobotany and molecular phylogeny in future research.

  6. Asteroid structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, E.

    2014-07-01

    Even before the first space missions to asteroids, in the mid-1990s, it was known that asteroids have weird structures. Photometry indicated complicated shapes, and the pioneering radar investigations by Ostro and colleagues followed by adaptive optics campaigns and flybys showed odd binary forms, and confirmed the common presence of satellites, and indications of highly varying surface roughness. Some asteroids turned out to be dominated by a single major cratering event, while others showed no evidence of a major crater, or perhaps for global crater erasure. The first space mission to orbit an asteroid, NEAR, found a mixture of heavily cratered terrains and geomorphically active 'ponds', and indicated evidence for global seismicity from impact. The next mission to orbit an asteroid, Hayabusa, found what most agree is a rubble pile, with no major craters and an absence of fines. There is to date no direct evidence of asteroid interior geology, other than measurements of bulk density, and inferences made for mass distribution asymmetry based on dynamics, and inferences based on surface lineaments. Interpolating from the surface to the interior is always risky and usually wrong, but of course the answer is important since we are someday destined to require this knowledge in order to divert a hazardous asteroid from impact with the Earth. Even considering the near-subsurface, here we remain as ignorant as we were about the Moon in the early 1960s, whether the surface will swallow us up in dust, or will provide secure landing and anchoring points. Laboratory experimentation in close to zero-G is still in its early stages. Adventures such as mining and colonization will surely have to wait until we better know these things. How do we get from here to there? I will focus on 3 areas of progress: (1) asteroid cratering seismology, where we use the surface craters to understand what is going on inside; (2) numerical modeling of collisions, which predicts the internal

  7. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is structural biology? Structural biology is a field of science focused ...

  8. Magnetic multilayer structure

    DOEpatents

    Herget, Philipp; O'Sullivan, Eugene J.; Romankiw, Lubomyr T.; Wang, Naigang; Webb, Bucknell C.

    2017-03-21

    A mechanism is provided for an integrated laminated magnetic device. A substrate and a multilayer stack structure form the device. The multilayer stack structure includes alternating magnetic layers and diode structures formed on the substrate. Each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure is separated from another magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure by a diode structure.

  9. Magnetic multilayer structure

    SciTech Connect

    Herget, Philipp; O'Sullivan, Eugene J.; Romankiw, Lubomyr T.; Wang, Naigang; Webb, Bucknell C.

    2016-07-05

    A mechanism is provided for an integrated laminated magnetic device. A substrate and a multilayer stack structure form the device. The multilayer stack structure includes alternating magnetic layers and diode structures formed on the substrate. Each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure is separated from another magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure by a diode structure.

  10. [Diversity, structure and regeneration of the seasonally dry tropical forest of Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ramírez, Angélica María; García-Méndez, Socorro

    2015-09-01

    Seasonally dry tropical forests are considered as the most endangered ecosystem in lowland tropics. The aim of this study was to characterize the floristic composition, richness, diversity, structure and regeneration of a seasonally dry tropical forest landscape constituted by mature forest, secondary forest and seasonally inundated forest located in the Northeastern part of the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. We used the Gentry's standard inventory plot methodology (0.1 ha per forest type in 2007) for facilitating comparison with other Mesoamerican seasonally dry tropical forests. A total of 77 species belonging to 32 families were observed in the study area. Fabaceae and Euphorbiaceae were the families with the largest taxonomic richness in the three forest types. Low levels of β diversity were observed among forest types (0.19-0.40), suggesting a high turnover of species at landscape level. The non-regenerative species were dominant (50-51 %), followed by regenerative species (30- 28 %), and colonizer species (14-21 %) in the three forest types. Zoochory was the most common dispersal type in the study area. The 88 % of the observed species in the study area were distributed in Central America. Some floristic attributes of the seasonally dry tropical forest of the Yucatán Peninsula, fall into the values reported for Mesoamerican seasonally dry tropical forests. Natural disturbances contributed to explain the high number of individuals, the low number of liana species, as well as the low values of basal area observed in this study. Our results suggested that the seasonally dry tropical forest of Yucatán Peninsula seems to be resilient to natural disturbances (hurricane) in terms of the observed number of species and families, when compared with the reported values in Mesoamerican seasonally dry tropical forests. Nonetheless, the recovery and regeneration of vegetation in long-term depends on animal-dispersed species. This study highlights the importance of

  11. Common structure-balance between spacetime structure and massenergy structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Daqing; Cao, Dayong

    2017-01-01

    According to Einstein field equation, there is a balance between spacetime structure and massenergy structure. nd the paper consider it as a common structurewhich was brought forward by Daqing Cao in 2011 ecause it is general structure in the universe and everything have the same model of structure in their one system. The Jovian planets is spacetime structure of solar system because they are gas-sphere and they have more density of spacetime (spacetime/massenergy) than the density of massenergy (massenergy/spacetime). The terrestrial planets is massenergy structure of solar system because they are rock-ball and they have more density of massenergy than the density of spacetime. That can explain of that the Jovian planets of big mass is far away from sun. With the idea that the wave is spacetime and the wave effect is spacetime structure, the planets have elliptic orbits and the same direction of their revolution. Because sun is like a massenergy center of the massenergy structure and the terrestrial planets, the paper supposes there is a dark sun-a dark hole who has a spacetime center of spacetime structure and influences on the orbits of the Jovian planets. http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/APR16/Session/M13.8

  12. Structural Health Monitoring of Large Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyoung M.; Bartkowicz, Theodore J.; Smith, Suzanne Weaver; Zimmerman, David C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a damage detection and health monitoring method that was developed for large space structures using on-orbit modal identification. After evaluating several existing model refinement and model reduction/expansion techniques, a new approach was developed to identify the location and extent of structural damage with a limited number of measurements. A general area of structural damage is first identified and, subsequently, a specific damaged structural component is located. This approach takes advantage of two different model refinement methods (optimal-update and design sensitivity) and two different model size matching methods (model reduction and eigenvector expansion). Performance of the proposed damage detection approach was demonstrated with test data from two different laboratory truss structures. This space technology can also be applied to structural inspection of aircraft, offshore platforms, oil tankers, ridges, and buildings. In addition, its applications to model refinement will improve the design of structural systems such as automobiles and electronic packaging.

  13. Nonlinear Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Nonlinear structural analysis techniques for engine structures and components are addressed. The finite element method and boundary element method are discussed in terms of stress and structural analyses of shells, plates, and laminates.

  14. Study of Boundary Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    THEORY OF ABC-CBA STACKING BOUNDARY IN fcc STRUCTURE .......... 11 - 4 TRANSITIONS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIA AMONG GRAIN BOUNDARY STRUCTURES...19 B THEORY OF ABC-CBA STACKING BOUNDARY IN fcc STRUCTURE .......... 37 C TRANSITIONS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIA AMONG GRAIN BOUNDARY...layer structure. 10 SECTION 3 THEORY OF ABC-CBA STACKING BOUNDARY IN fcc STRUCTURE The (111) planes of the fcc structure is stacked as ABCABC... as

  15. Germination pretreatments to break hard-seed dormancy in Astragalus cicer L. (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conservationists often propagate rare species to improve their long-term population viability. However, seed dormancy can make propagation efforts challenging by substantially lowering seed germination. Here I statistically compare several pretreatment options for seeds of Astragalus cicer L.: unscarified controls and scarification via physical damage, hot water, acid, and hydrogen peroxide. Although only 30% of unscarified seeds germinated, just physical scarification significantly improved germination, whereas one treatment, hot water, resulted in no germination at all. I recommend that rare species of Astragalus, as well as other hard-seeded legumes, be pretreated using physical scarification. Other methods may require considerable optimization, wasting precious time and seeds. PMID:27833803

  16. Ontogenetic variation of volatiles and antioxidant activity in leaves of Astragalus compactus Lam. (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Naghiloo, Somayeh; Movafeghi, Ali; Delazar, Abbas; Nazemiyeh, Hosein; Asnaashari, Solmaz; Dadpour, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    The genus Astragalus is a rich source of a variety of biologically active compounds including phenols, saponins, polysaccharides and essential oils. The present study was conducted to determine ontogenetic variation of the volatile organic compounds as well as total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity in leaves of A. compactus. The leaves of plant were harvested at vegetative, flowering and fructification stages and were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and the antioxidant capacity was evaluated with the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. Different classes of volatile compounds were identified including alcohols, esters, hydrocarbons, sterols and terpenoides. Significant variation of these compounds was found during phenological stages of development. Sterols and hydrocarbons were the main components of essential oils at the vegetative stage. The presence of terpenoides (phytol) and alcohols (docosanol) was significant at the flowering stage. Fructification phase was characterized by the high content of sterols and hydrocarbons and absence of phytol. The antioxidant activity and phenolic content were related to the physiological stage and the highest amount detected at fructification phase. The ontogenetic variations of phenolic contents and antioxidant properties are largely contributed by climatic factors such as temperature and solar radiation. PMID:27418917

  17. Antinociceptive activity of the chloroform fraction of Dioclea virgata (Rich.) Amshoff (Fabaceae) in mice.

    PubMed

    Mota, Vanine Gomes; de Carvalho, Fabíola Lélis; de Morais, Liana Clébia Soares Lima; Bhattacharyya, Jnanabrata; de Almeida, Reinaldo Nóbrega; de Alencar, Jacicarlos Lima

    2011-01-01

    Acute treatment with the chloroform fraction of Dioclea virgata (Rich.) Amshoff (CFDv) in mice produced decreased ambulation and sedation in the behavioral pharmacological screening. Doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg CFDv decreased latency of sleep onset in the test of sleeping time potentiation. In the open field, animals treated with CFDv reduced ambulation and rearing (250 mg/kg), as well as defecation (125; 250 mg/kg). Regarding the antinociceptive activity, CFDv (125, 250, 500 mg/kg) increased latency to first writhing and decreased the number of writhings induced by acetic acid. In the formalin test, CFDv (250 mg/kg) decreased paw licking time in the first and second phases indicating antinociceptive activity that can be mediated both peripherally and at the central level. CFDv did not affect motor coordination until 120 minutes after treatment. CFDv shows psychopharmacological effects suggestive of CNS-depressant drugs with promising antinociceptive activity.

  18. Dust deposition effects on growth and physiology of the endangered Astragalus jaegerianus (Fabaceae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Scoles-Sciulla, Sara J.; Defalco, Lesley A.

    2009-01-01

    Human expansion into the Mojave Desert is a significant threat to rare desert plants. While immediate habitat loss is often the greatest concern, rare plants situated near areas where soil surfaces experience frequent disturbance may be indirectly impacted when fine particulate dust accumulates on leaf surfaces. Remaining populations of the federally listed Astragalus jaegerianus (Lane Mountain milkvetch) occur on land open to expanding military activities and on adjacent public land with increasing recreational use. This study was initiated to determine whether dust accumulation could decrease the vigor and fitness of A. jaegerianus through reduced growth. Beginning in early May 2004, plants located on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land were dusted bimonthly at canopy-level dust concentrations ranging from 0 to 32 g/m2, and physiology and growth were monitored until late June when plants senesced. The maximum experimental dust level simulates dust concentrations of Mojave Desert perennials neighboring military activities at a nearby army training center. Average shoot growth declined with increasing dust accumulation, but seasonal net photosynthesis increased. Further investigation of plants grown in a greenhouse supported similar trends. This pattern of greater net photosynthesis with increasing dust accumulation may be explained by higher leaf temperatures of dusted individuals. Ambient dust deposition measured in traps near field plants (May 2004–July 2004) ranged from 0.04–0.17 g/m2/ d, which was well below the lowest level of dust on experimental plants (3.95 g/m2/d). With this low level of ambient deposition, we expect that A. jaegerianus plants in this population were not greatly affected by the dust they receive at the level of recreational use during the study.

  19. Redox properties of Abarema cochliacarpos (Gomes) Barneby & Grime (Fabaceae) stem bark ethanol extract and fractions.

    PubMed

    Dias, A S; Lima, A C B; Santos, A L M L; Rabelo, T K; Serafini, M R; Andrade, C R; Fernandes, X A; Moreira, J C F; Gelain, D P; Estevam, C S; Araujo, B S

    2013-01-01

    The redox properties of the hydroethanol extract (EE) and its ethyl acetate (EAF) and hydromethanol (HMF) fractions obtained from Abarema cochliacarpos (Gomes) Barneby & Grimes stem bark were evaluated. EAF had the highest total phenol content (848.62 ± 78.18 mg g⁻¹), while EE showed the highest content of catechin (71.2 µg g⁻¹). EE, EAF and HMF exhibited the highest levels of antioxidant activity at 100 and 1000 µg mL⁻¹ when the non-enzymatic antioxidant potential was evaluated by the total reactive antioxidant potential, total antioxidant reactivity and nitric oxide scavenging assays. In addition, EAF and HMF showed SOD-like activity. The results for EE, EAF and HMF in this study showed that A. cochliacarpos (Gomes) Barneby & Grimes stem bark have redox properties and may be able to help the endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems to keep the redox balance.

  20. Antibacterial activity of endophytic fungi from leaves of Indigofera suffruticosa Miller (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Irailton Prazeres; da Silva, Luís Cláudio Nascimento; da Silva, Márcia Vanusa; de Araújo, Janete Magali; Cavalcanti, Marilene da Silva; Lima, Vera Lucia de Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy leaves of Indigofera suffruticosa Miller, a medicinal plant found in Brazil which is used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. Among 65 endophytic fungi isolated, 18 fungi showed activity against at least one tested microorganism in preliminary screening, and the best results were obtained with Nigrospora sphaerica (URM-6060) and Pestalotiopsis maculans (URM-6061). After fermentation in liquid media and in semisolid media, only N. sphaerica demonstrated antibacterial activity (in Potato Dextrose Broth-PDB and in semisolid rice culture medium). In the next step, a methanolic extract from rice culture medium (NsME) and an ethyl acetate extract (NsEAE) from the supernatant of PDB were prepared and both exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The best result was observed against Staphylococcus aureus, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 1.56 mg/mL and 6.25 mg/mL, respectively, for NsME and MIC and MBC values of 0.39 mg/mL and 3.12 mg/mL, respectively, for NsEAE. This study is the first report about the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi residing in I. suffruticosa leaves, in which the fungus N. sphaerica demonstrated the ability to produce bioactive agents with pharmaceutical potential, and may provide a new lead in the pursuit of new biological sources of drug candidates. PMID:25999918

  1. Uromyces ciceris-arietini, the cause of chickpea rust: new hosts in the Trifolieae, Fabaceae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plants of Medicago polymorpha in Riverside and San Diego, California were collected with severe rust caused by Uromyces ciceris-arietini. Reported hosts of U. ciceris-arietini are Cicer arietinum (chickpea) and Medicago polyceratia. To confirm the potential new host range, a monouredinial isolate RM...

  2. Relationships Between Aphids (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphididae) and Slugs (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Agriolimacidae) Pests of Legumes (Fabaceae: Lupinus)

    PubMed Central

    Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants. PMID:27324580

  3. Management of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) at Different Stages of Soybean (Fabales: Fabaceae) Development.

    PubMed

    Seiter, Nicholas J; Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I; Greene, Jeremy K; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Roberts, Phillip M; Reisig, Dominic D

    2016-03-29

    The invasive plataspidMegacopta cribraria(F.) is now distributed throughout much of the southeastern United States. While it readily feeds and develops on the invasive weed kudzu,Puereria montana(Loureiro) Merrill var.lobata(Willdenow),M. cribrariais an economic pest of soybean,Glycine max(L.) Merrill. Differences in the susceptibility of soybean toM. cribraria-induced yield reductions based on plant phenology were assessed using two experimental protocols in Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina from 2011 to 2013 in which soybeans were protected fromM. cribrariausing insecticides during different stages of plant phenology. In the first protocol, where insecticide applications were initiated at progressively later stages in soybean development depending on treatment, yields in the untreated plots were reduced by an average of 13% compared with plots that were protected beginning at full flowering (R2). Soybean plots that were protected beginning at 4 wk after full flowering or earlier did not suffer yield reductions fromM. cribraria In the second protocol, where insecticide applications began at R2 and were discontinued at progressively later stages in soybean development depending on treatment, yields in the untreated plots were reduced by an average of 12% compared with plots that were protected until 8 wk after R2. Plots in which protection was discontinued beginning at 4 wk after full flowering or later did not suffer yield reductions. The period from two to 6 wk after R2 (generally coinciding with pod and seed development - stages R3-R5) was identified as critical for management ofM. cribraria. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Genetic variation in Pueraria lobata (Fabaceae), an introduced, clonal, invasive plant of the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Pappert, R A; Hamrick, J L; Donovan, L A

    2000-09-01

    Pueraria lobata (kudzu), a clonal, leguminous vine, is invading the southeastern United States at a rate of 50 000 ha per year. Genetic variability and clonal diversity were measured in 20 southeastern U.S. populations using 14 allozyme loci. Within its U.S. range, 92.9% of the loci were polymorphic and overall genetic diversity was 0.290. Such high levels of genetic diversity are consistent with its history of multiple introductions over an extended period of time. The average proportions of polymorphic loci and genetic diversity within populations were 55.7% (range = 28.6-85.7%) and 0.213 (range = 0.114-0.317), respectively. The proportion of total genetic diversity found among populations was similar to species with equivalent life history characters (G(ST) = 0.199). No regional patterns of variation were seen. The number of putative genotypes in each population ranged from 2 to 26. Mean genotypic diversity was 0.694, ranging from 0.223 to 0.955. Such high levels of genotypic diversity indicate that local sites are often colonized by several propagules (most likely seeds) and/or that sexual reproduction occurs within populations after establishment. An excess of heterozygosity was observed in populations with few unique genets, implying that selection for highly heterozygous individuals may occur in populations of P. lobata.

  5. INBREEDING EFFECTS IN WILD LUPINE (FABACEAE): DOES POPULATION SIZE MATTER? (R826596)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  6. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Abnormal seedling description. (i) Cotyledons: (A) For garden bean (Phaseolus vulgaris in part), remove any... necrosis or decay. (B) All other kinds: (1) Both missing and the seedling generally weak. (2) [Reserved... seedling, usually associated with visible defects of, or damage to, the main stem of the epicotyl. (F...

  7. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Abnormal seedling description. (i) Cotyledons: (A) For garden bean (Phaseolus vulgaris in part), remove any... necrosis or decay. (B) All other kinds: (1) Both missing and the seedling generally weak. (2) [Reserved... seedling, usually associated with visible defects of, or damage to, the main stem of the epicotyl. (F...

  8. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Abnormal seedling description. (i) Cotyledons: (A) For garden bean (Phaseolus vulgaris in part), remove any... necrosis or decay. (B) All other kinds: (1) Both missing and the seedling generally weak. (2) (ii) Epicotyl... one primary leaf. (E) Primary leaves too small in proportion to the rest of the seedling, usually...

  9. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Abnormal seedling description. (i) Cotyledons: (A) For garden bean (Phaseolus vulgaris in part), remove any... necrosis or decay. (B) All other kinds: (1) Both missing and the seedling generally weak. (2) [Reserved... seedling, usually associated with visible defects of, or damage to, the main stem of the epicotyl. (F...

  10. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Abnormal seedling description. (i) Cotyledons: (A) For garden bean (Phaseolus vulgaris in part), remove any... necrosis or decay. (B) All other kinds: (1) Both missing and the seedling generally weak. (2) (ii) Epicotyl... one primary leaf. (E) Primary leaves too small in proportion to the rest of the seedling, usually...

  11. [Pollen morphology of species of genus Senna (Fabales: Fabaceae) in Southeast Ibera, Corrientes, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Pacella, Lionel

    2014-06-01

    The system of Ibera lake and marshes in the Province of Corrientes, covers an area of approximately 12 000km2, and is considered one of the most important wetlands in Latin America. Given the wide diversity of tropical communities in this area, it is important to generate new information about the different species of this ecosystem, through pollen morphology, as lake sediments favor the pollen grains conservation. With the aim to promote future research on systematics, vegetation history and melissopalynology of this region, this study attempted to describe the pollen morphology of the well represented genus Senna. For this, we conducted 5-8 days collection trips in Southeast Ibera, on a monthly basis between 2009 and 2011. Based on the plants collected, the literature review and databases from the herbarium of the Botanical Institute of Northeast Argentina, we developed a list of species for the Province of Corrientes. For the pollen morphology, we manually took at least three flower buds per flower in the sampled sites, and for those species not sampled in the field, samples were obtained from the IBONE herbarium. Palynological material preparation was carried out by a modified technique of Erdtman acetolysis. The palynological descriptions considered the polar and equatorial diameter, exine thickness, openings and sculptural elements. Our results showed that Senna genus is euripalynic, composed of 3-colporate pollen grains, small to medium size, radiosymmetric, isopolar, oblates-spheroidals to prolates, subcircular field, subtriangular to triangular and long colpis. We described for the first time, the pollen morphology of 17 species of the genus Senna for this area, and recognized two groups considering endoapertures: lalongates and circular. The list of species belonging to the genus Senna presented here could be considered in restoration and recovery plans. A major constraint for the correct interpretation of the environmental changes impacts in vegetation, whether of climatic and/or anthropogenic origin, is the knowledge of pollen morphology of tropical species. A palynological database is of high value for the interpretation and determination of plant species.

  12. COX-2 inhibitors from stem bark of Bauhinia rufescens Lam. (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Aminu; Sirat, Hasnah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the stem bark of Bauhinia rufescens resulted in the isolation of a new cyanoglucoside and menisdaurin from methanol extract and oxepin from petroleum ether extract. The isolated compounds were tested for their anti-inflammatory potentials based on the cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme (COX-2) model. Cyanoglucoside exhibited the highest activity among the compounds with an inhibition activity of 49.34 % at 100 µM (IC50 0.46 µM) compared to the positive control, indomethacin (79.20 %, IC50 0.24 µM). PMID:26600739

  13. Impact of Seed Predators on the Herb Baptisia Lanceolata (Fabales: Fabaceae)

    Treesearch

    Scott Horn; James L. Hanula

    2004-01-01

    The reproductive success of plants is a complex interaction among beneficial organisms such as pollinators, and destructive ones such as defoliators or seed predators that eat plant tissue. Many insects that consume reproductive tissue destroy much of a plant's reproductive output (Breedlove & Ehrlich 1968; Janzen 1971; Evans et al. 1989). In particular, the...

  14. First comparative phenetic studies of Argentinean species of Acacia (Fabaceae), using morphometric, isozymal, and RAPD approaches.

    PubMed

    Casiva, Paola V; Saidman, Beatriz O; Vilardi, Juan C; Cialdella, Ana M

    2002-05-01

    Morphological and genetic diversity among Acacia aroma, A. macracantha, A. caven, and A. furcatispina were studied with morphometric, isozymal, and RAPD approaches. The analysis of seven isozyme systems revealed 21 loci, and RAPD analysis showed 34 loci. Most of these loci allowed us to differentiate the species, with the exception of A. aroma and A. macracantha, the two most similar species. The levels of genetic variability estimated by isozymes were higher than those obtained from RAPD analyses. Morphometric characters showed highly significant differences among the species, although A. aroma and A. macracantha are differentiated only by thorn length. The phenogram obtained from isozyme data is consistent with morphological data. The RAPD phenogram based on allelic frequencies showed agreement with morphological and isozymal approaches only at the intraspecific levels, while the RAPD phenogram based on Nei and Li's similarity measures agreed with the phenograms constructed from isozyme and morphological data. High similarities and high indirect gene flow were found between A. aroma and A. macracantha, results that call the relationship between them into question.

  15. Spatiotemporal Evolution of Calophaca (Fabaceae) Reveals Multiple Dispersals in Central Asian Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming-Li; Wen, Zhi-Bin; Fritsch, Peter W.; Sanderson, Stewart C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Central Asian flora plays a significant role in Eurasia and the Northern Hemisphere. Calophaca, a member of this flora, includes eight currently recognized species, and is centered in Central Asia, with some taxa extending into adjacent areas. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus utilizing nuclear ribosomal ITS and plastid trnS-trnG and rbcL sequences was carried out in order to confirm its taxonomic status and reconstruct its evolutionary history. Methodology/Principal Finding We employed BEAST Bayesian inference for dating, and S-DIVA and BBM for ancestral area reconstruction, to study its spatiotemporal evolution. Our results show that Calophacais monophyletic and nested within Caragana. The divergence time of Calophaca is estimated at ca. 8.0 Ma, most likely driven by global cooling and aridification, influenced by rapid uplift of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau margins. Conclusions/Significance According to ancestral area reconstructions, the genus most likely originated in the Pamir Mountains, a global biodiversity hotspot and hypothesized Tertiary refugium of many Central Asian plant lineages. Dispersals from this location are inferred to the western Tianshan Mountains, then northward to the Tarbagatai Range, eastward to East Asia, and westward to the Caucasus, Russia, and Europe. The spatiotemporal evolution of Calophaca provides a case contributing to an understanding of the flora and biodiversity of the Central Asian mountains and adjacent regions. PMID:25849146

  16. Ontogenetic variation of volatiles and antioxidant activity in leaves of Astragalus compactus Lam. (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Naghiloo, Somayeh; Movafeghi, Ali; Delazar, Abbas; Nazemiyeh, Hosein; Asnaashari, Solmaz; Dadpour, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    The genus Astragalus is a rich source of a variety of biologically active compounds including phenols, saponins, polysaccharides and essential oils. The present study was conducted to determine ontogenetic variation of the volatile organic compounds as well as total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity in leaves of A. compactus. The leaves of plant were harvested at vegetative, flowering and fructification stages and were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and the antioxidant capacity was evaluated with the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. Different classes of volatile compounds were identified including alcohols, esters, hydrocarbons, sterols and terpenoides. Significant variation of these compounds was found during phenological stages of development. Sterols and hydrocarbons were the main components of essential oils at the vegetative stage. The presence of terpenoides (phytol) and alcohols (docosanol) was significant at the flowering stage. Fructification phase was characterized by the high content of sterols and hydrocarbons and absence of phytol. The antioxidant activity and phenolic content were related to the physiological stage and the highest amount detected at fructification phase. The ontogenetic variations of phenolic contents and antioxidant properties are largely contributed by climatic factors such as temperature and solar radiation.

  17. Evaluation of hypotheses concerning the origin of Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae) using isoenzyme data.

    PubMed

    Raelson, J V; Grant, W F

    1988-08-01

    An isoenzyme survey was conducted for several geographically dispersed accessions of four diploid Lotus species, L. alpinus Schleich., L. japonicus (Regel) Larsen, L. tenuis Waldst. et Kit and L. uliginosus Schkuhr, and for the tetraploid L. corniculatus L., in order to ascertain whether isoenzyme data could offer additional evidence concerning the origin of L. corniculatus. Seven enzyme systems were examined using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. These were PGI, TPI, MDH, IDH, PGM, 6-PGDH, and ME. Lotus uliginosus had monomorphic unique alleles, that were not found within L. corniculatus, at 7 loci. These loci and alleles are: Tpi1-112, Pgm1,2-110, Pgm3-82, Mdh3-68, 6-Pgdh1-110, 6-Pgdh2-98,95, and Me2-100. Other diploid taxa contained alleles found in L. corniculatus for these and other loci. The implications of the isoenzyme data to theories on the origin of L. corniculatus are discussed.

  18. Oberholzeria (Fabaceae subfam. Faboideae), a New Monotypic Legume Genus from Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Swanepoel, Wessel; le Roux, M. Marianne; Wojciechowski, Martin F.; van Wyk, Abraham E.

    2015-01-01

    Oberholzeria etendekaensis, a succulent biennial or short-lived perennial shrublet is described as a new species, and a new monotypic genus. Discovered in 2012, it is a rare species known only from a single locality in the Kaokoveld Centre of Plant Endemism, north-western Namibia. Phylogenetic analyses of molecular sequence data from the plastid matK gene resolves Oberholzeria as the sister group to the Genisteae clade while data from the nuclear rDNA ITS region showed that it is sister to a clade comprising both the Crotalarieae and Genisteae clades. Morphological characters diagnostic of the new genus include: 1) succulent stems with woody remains; 2) pinnately trifoliolate, fleshy leaves; 3) monadelphous stamens in a sheath that is fused above; 4) dimorphic anthers with five long, basifixed anthers alternating with five short, dorsifixed anthers, and 5) pendent, membranous, one-seeded, laterally flattened, slightly inflated but indehiscent fruits. PMID:25816251

  19. Strongylodon juangonzalezii, a remarkable new species of Strongylodon (Fabaceae) from Mulanay, Quezon Province, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Hadsall, Annalee S.; Alejado, Michelle DR.; Larona, Ariel R.; Lambio, Ivy Amor F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Strongylodon juangonzalezii Hadsall, Alejado & Cajano, collected from Buenavista Protected Landscape, Mulanay, Quezon, is hereby described. The new species is remarkable for its plagiotropic dense inflorescence made up of 27–31 flowers per cluster in a lateral branch. Flowers are lilac when young, then gradually turn blue when mature. A comparison of the morphology of Strongylodon juangonzalezii and related species of Strongylodon in the Philippines is provided. Detailed illustration based on the holotype and photos from its natural habitat are also included. With this new species, the Philippines now harbors eight endemic species of Strongylodon. A key to distinguish the species is provided. PMID:27872556

  20. Germination pretreatments to break hard-seed dormancy in Astragalus cicer L. (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Statwick, Joseph M

    2016-01-01

    Conservationists often propagate rare species to improve their long-term population viability. However, seed dormancy can make propagation efforts challenging by substantially lowering seed germination. Here I statistically compare several pretreatment options for seeds of Astragalus cicer L.: unscarified controls and scarification via physical damage, hot water, acid, and hydrogen peroxide. Although only 30% of unscarified seeds germinated, just physical scarification significantly improved germination, whereas one treatment, hot water, resulted in no germination at all. I recommend that rare species of Astragalus, as well as other hard-seeded legumes, be pretreated using physical scarification. Other methods may require considerable optimization, wasting precious time and seeds.

  1. From flowering to dispersal: reproductive ecology of an endemic plant, Astragalus australis var. olympicus (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Kaye, T N

    1999-09-01

    Astragalus australis var. olympicus is an endemic plant of the Olympic Mountains, Washington. It is considered a Species of Concern by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This study focused on the reproductive biology of the plant from flower production through seed germination to identify possible weak points that might contribute to its rarity and impede its conservation. Most plants produced a large mean number of flowers and ovules (314.8 and 4106, respectively), but relatively few of these formed fruits and seeds (25.8 and 3.8%, respectively). In decreasing importance, ovules in fruits were lost to predation, seed abortion, and lack of fertilization. The percentages of these fates differed among sites and years. Excluding pollinators by bagging flowers reduced fruit set by ∼50%, but seed set per fruit and seed mass were unaffected. Germination was affected by scarification, temperature, and moisture availability. About 11% of seeds damaged by predispersal seed predators (weevil larvae) remained viable and were released from dormancy. I hypothesize that predispersal seed predation (over 80% at one site) has a negative effect on population growth. Conservation of this species could benefit from improved fruit set and decreased seed predation.

  2. [Seeds germination of Caesalpinia paraguariensis (Fabaceae): scarificator agents and cattle effects].

    PubMed

    Ortega Baes, P; de Viana, M L; Larenas, G; Saravia, M

    2001-03-01

    The tree Caesalpinia paraguariensis grows in the Chaco region, Argentina. Fruits are indehiscent with many seeds. This species is an important source of wood and the fruits are consumed by cattle in Salta province. We studied seed germination under chemical, mechanical and biological scarification. Seeds from controls (without scarification) and those with biological scarification had a smaller (and similar) germination rate. The non-germinated seeds from biological treatments were mechanically scarified and their germination rate was similar to others under the mechanical treatment. Passage by digestive tracts would not enhance germination because viable seeds are still dormant due to their hard coats.

  3. Isolation and characterisation of plant defensins from seeds of Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Hippocastanaceae and Saxifragaceae.

    PubMed

    Osborn, R W; De Samblanx, G W; Thevissen, K; Goderis, I; Torrekens, S; Van Leuven, F; Attenborough, S; Rees, S B; Broekaert, W F

    1995-07-17

    From seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum, Clitoria ternatea, Dahlia merckii and Heuchera sanguinea five antifungal proteins were isolated and shown to be homologous to plant defensins previously characterised from radish seeds and gamma-thionins from Poaceae seeds. Based on the spectrum of their antimicrobial activity and the morphological distortions they induce on fungi the peptides can be divided into two classes. The peptides did not inhibit any of three different alpha-amylases.

  4. Breeding biology and incremental benefits of outcrossing for the restoration wildflower, Hedysarum boreale (Fabaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Northern sweetvetch, Hedysarum boreale, is an herbaceous perennial of the Rocky Mountains whose seed is desired for rehabilitating degraded plant communities. Through experimental manual pollinations, the necessity of pollinators was shown by the failures of autopollination and wind pollination, ev...

  5. Identity of naturalised exotic Wisteria (fabaceae) in the south-eastern United States

    Treesearch

    J.L. Trusty; B.G. Lockaby; W.C. Zipperer; L.R. Goertzen

    2007-01-01

    Exotic Wisteria are increasingly serious invasive plants of watersheds and managed forests throughout the south-eastern United States. Naturalised individuals are frequently identified as either Wisteria floribunda or W. sinensis. but may differ significantly from the original descriptions of either of those species. Here, we use...

  6. EFFECTS OF PLANT SIZE ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND WATER RELATIONS IN THE DESERT SHRUB PROSOPIS GLANDULOSA (FABACEAE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Jornada del Muerto basin of the Chihuahuan Desert of southern New Mexico, USA, has undergone a marked transition of plant communities. Shrubs such as mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) have greatly increased or now dominate in areas that were previously dominated by perennial gra...

  7. Spatiotemporal evolution of Calophaca (Fabaceae) reveals multiple dispersals in the Central Asian mountains and adjacent regions

    Treesearch

    Ming-Li Zhang; Zhi-Bin Wen; Peter W. Fritsch; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2015-01-01

    The Central Asian flora plays a significant role in Eurasia and the Northern Hemisphere. Calophaca, a member of this flora, includes eight currently recognized species, and is centered in Central Asia, with some taxa extending into adjacent areas. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus utilizing nuclear ribosomal ITS and plastid trnS-trnG and rbcL sequences was carried...

  8. Ultrastructural changes of the egg apparatus associated with fertilisation of natural tetraploid Trifolium pratense L. (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Buyukkartal, H Nurhan Bakar

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the ultrastructural changes of the egg apparatus associated with fertilisation of the natural tetraploid Trifolium pratense. The pollen tube enters one of the synergids through the filliform apparatus from the micropyle. Before the entry of the pollen tube into the embryo sac, one of the synergids begins to degenerate, as indicated by increased electron density and a loss of volume. This cell serves as the site of entry for the pollen tube. Following fertilization, the vacuolar organisation in the zygote changes; in addition to the large micropylar vacuole, there are several small vacuoles of varying size. Ribosomal concentration increases significantly after fertilisation. In T. pratense, ultrastructural changes between the egg cell and zygote stages are noticeable. Several marked changes occur in the egg cell because of fertilisation. The zygote cell contains ribosomes has many mitochondria, plastids, lipids, vacuoles. After fertilization, most of the food reserves are located in the integument in the form of starch. The zygote shows ultrastructural changes when compared to the egg cell and appears to be metabolically active.

  9. Species delimitation and recognition in the Pediomelum megalanthum complex (Fabaceae) via multivariate morphometrics

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Ashley N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pediomelum is a genus endemic to North America comprising about 26 species, including the megalanthum complex, which consists of Pediomelum megalanthum and its varieties retrorsum and megalanthum, Pediomelum mephiticum, and the recently described Pediomelum verdiense and Pediomelum pauperitense. Historically, species of the megalanthum complex have been variably recognized at the species or variety levels, dependent upon the relative importance of morphological characters as diagnostic of species. Ten quantitative morphological characters regarded as diagnostic at the species level were analyzed using multivariate morphometrics across these taxa in order to examine the discriminatory power of these characters to delineate species and to aid in species delimitation. The analyses support the recognition of Pediomelum megalanthum, Pediomelum mephiticum, and Pediomelum verdiense at the species level, Pediomelum retrorsum as a variety under Pediomelum megalanthum, and suggest the sinking of Pediomelum pauperitense into Pediomelum verdiense. The findings of the present study help quantify the power of certain characters at delimiting taxa and provide a basis for taxonomic revision of the Pediomelum megalanthum complex. PMID:25698894

  10. Bi-parental cytoplasmic DNA inheritance in Wisteria (fabaceae): evidence from a natural experiment

    Treesearch

    Jennifer L. Trusty; Kataren J. Johnson; Graeme B. Lockaby; Leslie R. Goertzen

    2007-01-01

    Cytoplasmic inheritance was investigated in interspecific hybrids of Wisteria sinensis and W. floribunda. Species-specific nuclear, mitochondrial and plastid DNA markers were identified from wild-collected plants of each species in its native range. These markers provide evidence for the bi-parental transmission of plastids in...

  11. EFFECTS OF PLANT SIZE ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND WATER RELATIONS IN THE DESERT SHRUB PROSOPIS GLANDULOSA (FABACEAE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Jornada del Muerto basin of the Chihuahuan Desert of southern New Mexico, USA, has undergone a marked transition of plant communities. Shrubs such as mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) have greatly increased or now dominate in areas that were previously dominated by perennial gra...

  12. In vivo and in vitro estrogenic activity of extracts from Erythrina poeppigiana (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Njamen, Dieudonné; Djiogue, Sefirin; Zingue, Stephane; Mvondo, Marie Alfrede; Nkeh-Chungag, Benedicta N

    2013-08-22

    In developing countries, around 80% of the population still resorts on traditional medicine for their primary health care. Erythrina poeppigiana (Walp.) O.F. Cook, one of these medicinal plants, was found to be particularly rich in isoflavonoids which exhibited, individually, significant estrogenic activity in vitro. The possible combined effects of these bioactive isoflavones, as they are naturally found in the crude extracts of E. poeppigiana, prompted us to assess their in vivo estrogenicity. We first tested the ability of the extracts to transactivate estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in vitro using U2OS human osteosarcoma cells. We next investigated their effects in vivo in an uterotrophic assay, using ovariectomized rats treated with the extracts at the doses of 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg BW/d orally for 3 days. Finally, we assessed their ability to relieve hot flushes, using data loggers. At the end of treatments, animals were sacrificed, and organs (mammary glands, vagina, and uteri) were collected for histo-morphometric analyses. The methanol extract significantly and dose-dependently transactivated ERα at all tested doses. All extracts induced significant increases of vaginal and uterine epithelial heights. Only the dichloromethane extract could significantly relieve hot flushes as estradiol. These results indicate that E. poeppigiana extracts have estrogen-like effects in vivo, suggesting that its active principles act in synergy when they are taken in combination in the crude extract. These findings, therefore, support the traditional use of E. poeppigiana to alleviate some menopausal problems; our previous phytochemical investigations contribute to the standardization of this phytomedicine.

  13. Adaptive gains through repeated gene loss: parallel evolution of cyanogenesis polymorphisms in the genus Trifolium (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Olsen, Kenneth M; Kooyers, Nicholas J; Small, Linda L

    2014-08-05

    Variation in cyanogenesis (hydrogen cyanide release following tissue damage) was first noted in populations of white clover more than a century ago, and subsequent decades of research have established this system as a classic example of an adaptive chemical defence polymorphism. Here, we document polymorphisms for cyanogenic components in several relatives of white clover, and we determine the molecular basis of this trans-specific adaptive variation. One hundred and thirty-nine plants, representing 13 of the 14 species within Trifolium section Trifoliastrum, plus additional species across the genus, were assayed for cyanogenic components (cyanogenic glucosides and their hydrolysing enzyme, linamarase) and for the presence of underlying cyanogenesis genes (CYP79D15 and Li, respectively). One or both cyanogenic components were detected in seven species, all within section Trifoliastrum; polymorphisms for the presence/absence (PA) of components were detected in six species. In a pattern that parallels our previous findings for white clover, all observed biochemical polymorphisms correspond to gene PA polymorphisms at CYP79D15 and Li. Relationships of DNA sequence haplotypes at the cyanogenesis loci and flanking genomic regions suggest independent evolution of gene deletions within species. This study thus provides evidence for the parallel evolution of adaptive biochemical polymorphisms through recurrent gene deletions in multiple species.

  14. Cytotoxicity, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of eight compounds isolated from Entada abyssinica (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Dzoyem, Jean P; Melong, Raduis; Tsamo, Armelle T; Tchinda, Alembert T; Kapche, Deccaux G W F; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T; McGaw, Lyndy J; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2017-03-06

    Entada abyssinica is a plant traditionally used against gastrointestinal bacterial infections. Eight compounds including three flavonoids, three terpenoids, a monoglyceride and a phenolic compound isolated from E. abyssinica were investigated for their cytotoxicity, antibacterial and antioxidant activity. Compounds 7 and 2 had remarkable activity against Salmonella typhimurium with the lowest respective minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 1.56 and 3.12 µg/mL. The antioxidant assay gave IC50 values varied from 0.48 to 2.87 μg/mL in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, from 2.53 to 17.04 μg/mL in the 2,2'-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) assay and from 1.43 to 103.98 µg/mL in the FRAP assay. Compounds had relatively low cytotoxicity (LC50 values ranging from 22.42 to 80.55 µg/mL) towards Vero cells. Ursolic acid had the most potent cytotoxicity against THP-1 and RAW 264.7 cells with LC50 values of 9.62 and 4.56 μg/mL respectively, and selectivity index values of 7.32 and 15.44 respectively. Our findings suggest that among the terpenoid and flavonoid compounds studied, entadanin (compound 7) possess tremendous antibacterial activity against S. typhimurium and could be developed for the treatment of bacterial diseases.

  15. Horticulture hybrid cultivars and exotic plant invasion: A case study of Wisteria (Fabaceae)

    Treesearch

    J.L. Trusty; B.G. Lockaby; W.C. Zipperer; L.R. Goertzen

    2008-01-01

    Ornamental plant horticulture has had a long history in the USA, beginning with the first botanical garden started by John Bartram in Philadelphia in 1728 (Hedrick, 1988). From this modest start, the nursery and horticulture business in the USA was flourishing by the early 19th century. The growth and sale of useful and attractive plant species inspired American plant...

  16. INBREEDING EFFECTS IN WILD LUPINE (FABACEAE): DOES POPULATION SIZE MATTER? (R826596)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. New species of Tetradiplosis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) inducing galls on Prosopis caldenia (Fabaceae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Juan José; Corró-molas, Barbara; Alfonso, Graciela L

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of Tetradiplosis inducing galls on Prosopis caldenia are described from Argentina: Tetradiplosis panghitruz Martínez n. sp. and Tetradiplosis rayen Martínez n. sp. Tetradiplosispanghitruz induces multilocular galls on vegetative stems, whereas T. rayen induces unilocular galls containing multiple larvae on the rachis of the developing inflorescences. The adult male, female, pupa and larva are described and illustrated for both species. A key to the known species of the genus is provided.

  18. Oberholzeria (Fabaceae subfam. Faboideae), a new monotypic legume genus from Namibia.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, Wessel; le Roux, M Marianne; Wojciechowski, Martin F; van Wyk, Abraham E

    2015-01-01

    Oberholzeria etendekaensis, a succulent biennial or short-lived perennial shrublet is described as a new species, and a new monotypic genus. Discovered in 2012, it is a rare species known only from a single locality in the Kaokoveld Centre of Plant Endemism, north-western Namibia. Phylogenetic analyses of molecular sequence data from the plastid matK gene resolves Oberholzeria as the sister group to the Genisteae clade while data from the nuclear rDNA ITS region showed that it is sister to a clade comprising both the Crotalarieae and Genisteae clades. Morphological characters diagnostic of the new genus include: 1) succulent stems with woody remains; 2) pinnately trifoliolate, fleshy leaves; 3) monadelphous stamens in a sheath that is fused above; 4) dimorphic anthers with five long, basifixed anthers alternating with five short, dorsifixed anthers, and 5) pendent, membranous, one-seeded, laterally flattened, slightly inflated but indehiscent fruits.

  19. Relationships Between Aphids (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphididae) and Slugs (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Agriolimacidae) Pests of Legumes (Fabaceae: Lupinus).

    PubMed

    Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants.

  20. An evaluation of pollination mechanisms for purple prairie-clover, Dalea purpurea (Fabaceae: Amorpheae)

    Treesearch

    James H. Cane

    2006-01-01

    Purple prairie-clover (Dalea purpurea Ventenat) is a common perennial forb that flowers during mid-summer throughout the Great Plains and adjacent biomes. Seed of D. purpurea is used for prairie restoration. This study characterizes the reproductive biology of D. purpurea. Manual pollination field trials showed that D. purpurea has a mixed pollination system. It is...

  1. Breeding biology and incremental benefits of outcrossing for the restoration wildflower, Hedysarum boreale Nutt. (Fabaceae)

    Treesearch

    Katherine A. Swoboda; James H. Cane

    2012-01-01

    Northern sweetvetch (Hedysarum boreale Nutt.) is an herbaceous perennial legume of the Rocky Mountains, USA, whose seed is desired for rehabilitating degraded plant communities. Through experimental pollinations, the necessity of pollinators was shown by the failure of autogamy, despite stigmas first becoming receptive in the bud in close proximity to the dehiscing...

  2. Inferring ancestral distribution area and survival vegetation of Caragana (Fabaceae) in Tertiary

    Treesearch

    Mingli Zhang; Juanjuan Xue; Qiang Zhang; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2015-01-01

    Caragana, a leguminous genus mainly restricted to temperate Central and East Asia, occurs in arid, semiarid, and humid belts, and has forest, grassland, and desert ecotypes. Based on the previous molecular phylogenetic tree and dating, biogeographical analyses of extant species area and ecotype were conducted by means of four ancestral optimization approaches: S-DIVA,...

  3. In Vitro Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae))

    PubMed Central

    Koné, Mongomaké; Koné, Tchoa; Silué, Nakpalo; Soumahoro, André Brahima; Kouakou, Tanoh Hilaire

    2015-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an indigenous grain legume. It occupies a prominent place in the strategies to ensure food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Development of an efficient in vitro regeneration system, a prerequisite for genetic transformation application, requires the establishment of optimal conditions for seeds germination and plantlets development. Three types of seeds were inoculated on different basal media devoid of growth regulators. Various strengths of the medium of choice and the type and concentration of carbon source were also investigated. Responses to germination varied with the type of seed. Embryonic axis (EA) followed by seeds without coat (SWtC) germinated rapidly and expressed a high rate of germination. The growth performances of plantlets varied with the basal medium composition and the seeds type. The optimal growth performances of plants were displayed on half strength MS basal medium with SWtC and EA as source of seeds. Addition of 3% sucrose in the culture medium was more suitable for a maximum growth of plantlets derived from EA. PMID:26550604

  4. Phenotypic characterization of the CRISPA (ARP gene) mutant of pea (Pisum sativum; Fabaceae): a reevaluation.

    PubMed

    DeMason, Darleen A; Chetty, Venkateswari

    2014-03-01

    Leaf form and development are controlled genetically. The ARP genes encode MYB transcription factors that interact with Class 1 KNOX genes in a regulatory module that controls meristem-leaf determinations and is highly conserved in plants. ARP loss of function alleles and subsequent KNOX1 overexpression cause many unusual leaf phenotypes including loss or partial loss of the ability to produce a lamina and production of "knots" on leaf blades. CRISPA (CRI) is the ARP gene in pea, and a number of its mutant alleles are known. We made morphological and anatomical evaluations of cri-1 mutant plants while controlling for genetic background and for heteroblastic effects, and we used aldehyde fixation and resin preparations for anatomical analysis. Further, we compared gene expression in WT and cri-1 shoot tips and HOP1/PsKN1 and CRI expression in other leaf mutants. The cri-1 plants had more extensive abnormalities in the proximal than in the distal regions of the leaf, including ectopic stipules, narrow leaflets, and shortened petioles with excessive adaxial expansion. "Knots" were morphologically and anatomically variable but consisted of vascularized out-pocketing of the adaxial leaflet surface. HOP1/PsKN1 and UNI mRNA levels were higher in cri-1 shoot tips, and some auxin-regulated genes were lower. Low LE expression suggests that the GA level is high in cri-1 shoot tips. The CRISPA gene of pea suppresses KNOX1 genes and UNI and functions to (1) maintain proximal-distal regions in their appropriate positions, (2) restrict excessive adaxial cell proliferation, and (3) promote laminar expansion.

  5. Development and characterization of 37 novel EST-SSR markers in Pisum sativum (Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Xiaofeng; McPhee, Kevin E.; Coram, Tristan E.; Peever, Tobin L.; Chilvers, Martin I.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Simple sequence repeat markers were developed based on expressed sequence tags (EST-SSR) and screened for polymorphism among 23 Pisum sativum individuals to assist development and refinement of pea linkage maps. In particular, the SSR markers were developed to assist in mapping of white mold disease resistance quantitative trait loci. • Methods and Results: Primer pairs were designed for 46 SSRs identified in EST contiguous sequences assembled from a 454 pyrosequenced transcriptome of the pea cultivar, ‘LIFTER’. Thirty-seven SSR markers amplified PCR products, of which 11 (30%) SSR markers produced polymorphism in 23 individuals, including parents of recombinant inbred lines, with two to four alleles. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0 to 0.43 and from 0.31 to 0.83, respectively. • Conclusions: These EST-SSR markers for pea will be useful for refinement of pea linkage maps, and will likely be useful for comparative mapping of pea and as tools for marker-based pea breeding. PMID:25202482

  6. Isolation and characterization of novel EST-derived genic markers in Pisum sativum (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Jain, Shalu; McPhee, Kevin E

    2013-11-01

    Novel markers were developed for pea (Pisum sativum) from pea expressed sequence tags (ESTs) having significant homology to Medicago truncatula gene sequences to investigate genetic diversity, linkage mapping, and cross-species transferability. • Seventy-seven EST-derived genic markers were developed through comparative mapping between M. truncatula and P. sativum in which 75 markers produced PCR products and 33 were polymorphic among 16 pea genotypes. • The novel markers described here will be useful for future genetic studies of P. sativum; their amplification in lentil (Lens culinaris) demonstrates their potential for use in closely related species.

  7. Isolation and characterization of novel EST-derived genic markers in Pisum sativum (Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Shalu; McPhee, Kevin E.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Novel markers were developed for pea (Pisum sativum) from pea expressed sequence tags (ESTs) having significant homology to Medicago truncatula gene sequences to investigate genetic diversity, linkage mapping, and cross-species transferability. • Methods and Results: Seventy-seven EST-derived genic markers were developed through comparative mapping between M. truncatula and P. sativum in which 75 markers produced PCR products and 33 were polymorphic among 16 pea genotypes. • Conclusions: The novel markers described here will be useful for future genetic studies of P. sativum; their amplification in lentil (Lens culinaris) demonstrates their potential for use in closely related species. PMID:25202494

  8. Development and characterization of 37 novel EST-SSR markers in Pisum sativum (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xiaofeng; McPhee, Kevin E; Coram, Tristan E; Peever, Tobin L; Chilvers, Martin I

    2013-01-01

    Simple sequence repeat markers were developed based on expressed sequence tags (EST-SSR) and screened for polymorphism among 23 Pisum sativum individuals to assist development and refinement of pea linkage maps. In particular, the SSR markers were developed to assist in mapping of white mold disease resistance quantitative trait loci. • Primer pairs were designed for 46 SSRs identified in EST contiguous sequences assembled from a 454 pyrosequenced transcriptome of the pea cultivar, 'LIFTER'. Thirty-seven SSR markers amplified PCR products, of which 11 (30%) SSR markers produced polymorphism in 23 individuals, including parents of recombinant inbred lines, with two to four alleles. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0 to 0.43 and from 0.31 to 0.83, respectively. • These EST-SSR markers for pea will be useful for refinement of pea linkage maps, and will likely be useful for comparative mapping of pea and as tools for marker-based pea breeding.

  9. Anatomical, biochemical, and photosynthetic responses to recent allopolyploidy in Glycine dolichocarpa (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Coate, Jeremy E; Luciano, Amelia K; Seralathan, Vasu; Minchew, Kevin J; Owens, Tom G; Doyle, Jeff J

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that polyploidy has pronounced effects on photosynthesis. Most of these studies have focused on synthetic or recently formed autopolyploids, and comparatively little is known about the integrated effects of natural allopolyploidy, which involves hybridity and genome doubling and often incorporates multiple genotypes through recurrent origins and lineage recombination. Glycine dolichocarpa (designated T2) is a natural allotetraploid with multiple origins. We quantified 21 anatomical, biochemical, and physiological phenotypes relating to photosynthesis in T2 and its diploid progenitors, G. tomentella (D3) and G. syndetika (D4). To assess how direction of cross affects these phenotypes, we included three T2 accessions having D3-like plastids (T2(D3)) and two accessions having D4-like plastids (T2(D4)). T2 accessions were transgressive (more extreme than any diploid accession) for 17 of 21 phenotypes, and species means differed significantly in T2 vs. both progenitors for four of 21 phenotypes (higher for guard cell length, electron transport capacity [J(max)] per palisade cell, and J(max) per mesophyll cell; lower for palisade cells per unit leaf area). Within T2, four of 21 parameters differed significantly between T2(D3) and T2(D4) (palisade cell volume; chloroplast number and volume per unit leaf area; and J(max) per unit leaf area). T2 is characterized by transgressive photosynthesis-related phenotypes (including an ca. 2-fold increase in J(max) per cell), as well as by significant intraspecies variation correlating with plastid type. These data indicate prominent roles for both nucleotypic effects and cytoplasmic factors in photosynthetic responses to allopolyploidy.

  10. Antiphytopathogenic activity of Psoralea glandulosa (Fabaceae) against Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora cinnamomi.

    PubMed

    Madrid Villegas, Alejandro; Díaz Peralta, Katy; González Tapia, César; Catalán Marín, Karen; Espinoza Catalán, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The resinous exudate, three meroterpenes, namely bakuchiol (1), 3-hydroxybakuchiol (2), 12-hydroxyisobakuchiol (3), and one furanocoumarin, psoralen (4), were isolated from the leaves of culen (Psoralea glandulosa). In addition to these, two semi-synthetic derivatives, bakuchiol acetate (5) and bakuchiol methyl eter (6), were obtained from 1, and were subsequently evaluated in vitro for the inhibitory effect of resin and compounds on the mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr. and Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands. The resinous exudate inhibited the mycelial growth of both the pathogens, while bakuchiol (1) exhibited an inhibitory effect on the mycelial growth of B. cinerea up to 94% at a concentration of 150 mg/L and psoralen (4) reduced the mycelial growth of P. cinnamomi up to 80% at a concentration of 150 mg/L. These compounds have the ability of blocking the development of mycelial growth and may be used as a potential biopesticide in the agricultural sector once the in vivo test results have been validated.

  11. Antinociceptive Activity of the Chloroform Fraction of Dioclea virgata (Rich.) Amshoff (Fabaceae) in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Vanine Gomes; de Carvalho, Fabíola Lélis; de Morais, Liana Clébia Soares Lima; Bhattacharyya, Jnanabrata; de Almeida, Reinaldo Nóbrega; de Alencar, Jacicarlos Lima

    2011-01-01

    Acute treatment with the chloroform fraction of Dioclea virgata (Rich.) Amshoff (CFDv) in mice produced decreased ambulation and sedation in the behavioral pharmacological screening. Doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg CFDv decreased latency of sleep onset in the test of sleeping time potentiation. In the open field, animals treated with CFDv reduced ambulation and rearing (250 mg/kg), as well as defecation (125; 250 mg/kg). Regarding the antinociceptive activity, CFDv (125, 250, 500 mg/kg) increased latency to first writhing and decreased the number of writhings induced by acetic acid. In the formalin test, CFDv (250 mg/kg) decreased paw licking time in the first and second phases indicating antinociceptive activity that can be mediated both peripherally and at the central level. CFDv did not affect motor coordination until 120 minutes after treatment. CFDv shows psychopharmacological effects suggestive of CNS-depressant drugs with promising antinociceptive activity. PMID:21776190

  12. Antimalarial activity of Sida acuta Burm. f. (Malvaceae) and Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Karou, Damintoti; Dicko, Mamoudou H; Sanon, Souleymane; Simpore, Jacques; Traore, Alfred S

    2003-12-01

    Among strategies to combat malaria, the search for new antimalarial drugs appears to be a priority. Sheering for new antimalarial activities, four plants of the traditional medicine of Burkina Faso: Combretum micranthum, Khaya senegalensis, Pterocarpus erinaceus and Sida acuta, were tested in vitro on fresh clinical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. The screening showed that Sida acuta has a significant activity (IC50 < 5 microg/ml), and Pterocarpus erinaceus has a moderate activity (5 microg/ml < IC50 < 50 microg/ml). Further chemical screening showed that the activity of the most active plant, Sida acuta, was related to its alkaloid contents.

  13. Morphological and microsatellite diversity associated with ecological factors in natural populations of Medicago laciniata Mill. (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Badri, Mounawer; Zitoun, Adel; Ilahi, Houcine; Huguet, Thierry; Aouani, Mohamed Elarbi

    2008-12-01

    Genetic variability in 10 natural Tunisian populations of Medicago laciniata were analysed using 19 quantitative traits and 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci. A large degree of genetic variability within-populations and among-populations was detected for both quantitative characters and molecular markers. High genetic differentiation among populations for quantitative traits was seen, with Q(ST) = 0.47, and F(ST) = 0.47 for microsatellite markers. Several quantitative traits displayed no statistical difference in the levels of Q(ST) and F(ST). Further, significant correlations between quantitative traits and eco-geographical factors suggest that divergence in the traits among populations may track environmental differences. There was no significant correlation between genetic variability at quantitative traits and microsatellite markers within populations. The site-of-origin of eco-geographical factors explain between 18.13% and 23.40% of genetic variance among populations at quantitative traits and microsatellite markers, respectively. The environmental factors that most influence variation in measured traits among populations are assimilated phosphorus (P(2)0(5)) and mean annual rainfall, followed by climate and soil texture, altitude and organic matter. Significant associations between eco-geographical factors and gene diversity, He, were established in five microsatellite loci suggesting that these simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are not necessarily biologically neutral.

  14. Flower morphology, pollination biology and mating system of the complex flower of Vigna caracalla (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae).

    PubMed

    Etcheverry, Angela Virginia; Alemán, Maria Mercedes; Fleming, Trinidad Figueroa

    2008-09-01

    Vigna caracalla has the most complex flower among asymmetrical Papilionoideae. The objective of this study was to understand the relationships among floral characteristics, specialization, mating system and the role of floral visitors under different ecological contexts. Five populations were studied in north-western Argentina, from 700 to 1570 m a.s.l. Anthesis, colour and odour patterns, stigmatic receptivity, visitors and pollination mechanism were examined and mating-system experiments were performed. The petals are highly modified and the keel shows 3.75-5.25 revolutions. The sense of asymmetry was always left-handed. Hand-crosses showed that V. caracalla is self-compatible, but depends on pollinators to set seeds. Hand-crossed fruits were more successful than hand-selfed ones, with the exception of the site at the highest elevation. Bombus morio (queens and workers), Centris bicolor, Eufriesea mariana and Xylocopa eximia trigger the pollination mechanism (a 'brush type'). The greatest level of self-compatibility and autonomous self-pollination were found at the highest elevation, together with the lowest reproductive success and number of pollinators (B. morio workers only). Self-fertilization may have evolved in the peripheral population at the highest site of V. caracalla because of the benefits of reproductive assurance under reduced pollinator diversity.

  15. Anti-Mayaro virus activity of Cassia australis extracts (Fabaceae, Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Spindola, Kassia C W; Simas, Naomi K; Salles, Tiago S; de Meneses, Marcelo D F; Sato, Alice; Ferreira, Davis; Romão, Wanderson; Kuster, Ricardo M

    2014-11-27

    The arthropod-borne Mayaro virus (MAYV) causes 'Mayaro fever', a disease of medical significance, primarily affecting individuals in permanent contact with forested areas in tropical South America. Studies showed that the virus could also be transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Recently, MAYV has attracted attention due to its likely urbanization. To date, there are no drugs that can treat this illness. Fractions and compounds were obtained by chromatography from leaf extracts of C. australis and chemically identified as flavonoids and condensed tannins using spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques (UV, NMR, and ESI-FT-ICR MS). Cytotoxicity of EtOAc, n-BuOH and EtOAc-Pp fractions were measured by the dye-uptake assay while their antiviral activity was evaluated by a virus yield inhibition assay. Larvicidal activity was measured by the procedures recommended by the WHO expert committee for determining acute toxicity. The following group of substances was identified from EtOAc, n-BuOH and EtOAc-Pp fractions: flavones, flavonols, and their glycosides and condensed tannins. EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions inhibited MAYV production, respectively, by more than 70% and 85% at 25 μg/mL. EtOAc-Pp fraction inhibited MAYV production by more than 90% at 10 μg/mL, displaying a stronger antiviral effect than the licensed antiviral ribavirin. This fraction had an excellent antiviral effect (IC90 = 4.7 ± 0.3 μg/mL), while EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions were less active (IC90 = 89.1 ± 4.4 μg/mL and IC90 = 40.9 ± 5.7 μg/mL, respectively). C. australis can be used as a source of compounds with anti-Mayaro virus activity. This is the first report on the biological activity of C. australis.

  16. Insecticidal and genotoxic activity of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. (Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823.

    PubMed

    Dua, Virendra K; Kumar, Arvind; Pandey, Akhilesh C; Kumar, Sandeep

    2013-02-04

    Indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides to eradicate mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance. Plants provide a reservoir of biochemical compounds; among these compounds some have inhibitory effect on mosquitoes. In the present study the larvicidal, adulticidal and genotoxic activity of essential oil of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. against Culex quinquefasciatus Say was explored. Essential oil was isolated from the seeds of P. corylifolia Linn. Larvicidal and adulticidal bioassay of Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out by WHO method. Genotoxic activity of samples was determined by comet assay. Identification of different compounds was carried out by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry analysis. LC50 and LC90 values of essential oil were 63.38±6.30 and 99.02±16.63 ppm, respectively against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The LD50 and LD90 values were 0.057±0.007 and 0.109±0.014 mg/cm2 respectively against adult Cx. quinquefasciatus,. Genotoxicity of adults was determined at 0.034 and 0.069 mg/cm2. The mean comet tail length was 6.2548±0.754 μm and 8.47±0.931 μm and the respective DNA damage was significant i.e. 6.713% and 8.864% in comparison to controls. GCMS analysis of essential oil revealed 20 compounds. The major eight compounds were caryophyllene oxide (40.79%), phenol,4-(3,7-dimethyl-3-ethenylocta-1,6-dienyl) (20.78%), caryophyllene (17.84%), α-humulene (2.15%), (+)- aromadendrene (1.57%), naphthalene, 1,2,3,4-tetra hydro-1,6-dimethyle-4-(1-methyl)-, (1S-cis) (1.53%), trans- caryophyllene (0.75%), and methyl hexadecanoate (0.67%). Essential oil obtained from the seeds of P. corylifolia showed potent toxicity against larvae and adult Cx. quinquefasciatus. The present work revealed that the essential oil of P. corylifolia could be used as environmentally sound larvicidal and adulticidal agent for mosquito control.

  17. Genetic diversity and differentiation in Dalbergia sissoo (Fabaceae) as revealed by RAPD.

    PubMed

    Wang, B-Y; Shi, L; Ruan, Z-Y; Deng, J

    2011-01-01

    Dalbergia sissoo, a wind-dispersed tropical tree, is one of the most preferred timber tree species of South Asia. Genetic diversity and differentiation among natural populations of D. sissoo were examined for the first time. We found a relatively high level of genetic diversity in D. sissoo, both at the species level (percentage of polymorphic bands = 89.11%; H = 0.2730; I = 0.4180) and the population level (percentage of polymorphic bands = 68.7%; H = 0.239; I = 0.358), along with a relatively low degree of differentiation among populations (GST = 0.1311; AMOVA = 14.69%). Strong gene flow among populations was estimated, N(m) = 3.3125. The Mantel test suggested that genetic distances between populations were weakly correlated with geographic distances (R = 0.3702, P = 0.1236). The high level of genetic diversity, low degree of differentiation, strong gene flow, and weak correlation between genetic and geographic distances can be explained by its biological character and wide-spread planting. This information will be useful for the introduction, conservation and further studies of D. sissoo and related species.

  18. Effect of methanol leaf extract of Dalbergia saxatilis Hook.f (fabaceae) on renal function

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Fatima Ismail; Abdulkadir Umar, Zezi; Umar Habib, Danmalam; Abdullahi Hamza, Yaro

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Dalbegia saxatilis (D.saxatilis) is used as a decoction in traditional medicine for ailments such as cough, small pox, skin lesions, bronchial ailments and toothache. This study is aimed at evaluating the toxic effect of methanol leaf extract of D.saxatilis on renal function. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into four groups of five: control animals (group 1) received distilled water 1 ml/kg while groups 2, 3 and 4 were given graded doses of the extract (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight, respectively) daily for 28 days. Body weight changes were estimated by weighing the rats twice weekly using digital weighing balance. After 28 days, blood samples were obtained for evaluation of renal indices and the kidney was used for histopathology. Data were analysed using one–way and repeated measures ANOVA using SPSS version 20. Results: Significant weight increase in all groups were observed (p<0.05). Significant reduction in electrolytes concentration was observed following treatment with extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) (p<0.05). Histopathological findings of the kidney revealed massive necrosis of the glomerulus with tubular distortion and lymphocyte hyperplasia at 250 and 500 mg/kg while intense glomerular and tubular necrosis was observed at 1000 mg/kg of the extract. Conclusion: Since different doses of the extract caused reduction in electrolyte concentration and damage to the kidney it is suggested that prolonged administration of the extract is associated with increased risk of kidney toxicity. PMID:28078240

  19. Selenium hyperaccumulation by Astragalus (Fabaceae) does not inhibit root nodule symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Alford, Elan R; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H; Fakra, Sirine C; Paschke, Mark W

    2012-12-01

    A survey of the root-nodule symbiosis in Astragalus and its interaction with selenium (Se) has not been conducted before. Such studies can provide insight into how edaphic conditions modify symbiotic interactions and influence partner coevolution. In this paper plant-organ Se concentration ([Se]) was investigated to assess potential Se exposure to endophytes. • Selenium distribution and molecular speciation of root nodules from Se-hyperaccumulators Astragalus bisulcatus, A. praelongus, and A. racemosus was determined by Se K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to characterize the response of root-nodule symbiosis in Se-hyperaccumulators and nonhyperaccumulators. • Nodules in three Se-hyperaccumulators (Astragalus crotalariae, A. praelongus, and A. preussii) are reported for the first time. Leaves, flowers, and fruits from Se-hyperaccumulators were routinely above the hyperaccumulator threshold (1,000 µg Se g(-1) DW), but root samples rarely contained that amount, and nodules never exceeded 110 µg Se g(-1) DW. Nodules from A. bisulcatus, A. praelongus, and A. racemosus had Se throughout, with a majority stored in C-Se-C form. Finally, an evaluation of nodulation in Se-hyperaccumulators and nonhyperaccumulators indicated that there was no nodulation inhibition because of plant Se tolerance. Rather, we found that in Se-hyperaccumulators higher levels of Se treatment (up to 100 µM Se) corresponded with higher nodule counts, indicating a potential role for dinitrogen fixation in Se-hyperaccumulation. The effect was not found in nonhyperaccumulators. • As the evolution of Se hyperaccumulation in Astragalus developed, root-nodule symbiosis may have played an integral role.

  20. Vigna pandeyana (Fabaceae), a new species from northern Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Sayajirao; Randive, Sonali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Vigna subg. Ceratotropis (Piper) Verdc. represents a homogenous and distinct group of species with highly specialized complex floral characters. It is most diverse in Asia. India, with 24 species, represents a secondary center of species diversity of the subgenus. New information A new species, Vigna pandeyana RD Gore, SP Gaikwad & SD Randive, is described from hill slopes of the northern Western Ghats of India. It resembles Vigna yadavii Gaikwad et al. and Vigna dalzelliana (Kuntze) Verdc. but differs from the latter in its dimorphic shoots (some subterranean, with cleistogamous flowers) and densely hairy pods, from the former by its curved style, flattened style beak, foveolate seed coat and absence of standard protuberance and horn-like keel pocket in cleistogamous flowers. PMID:25829861

  1. The Evolution of Vicia ramuliflora (Fabaceae) at Tetraploid and Diploid Levels Revealed with FISH and RAPD

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ying; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Haoyou; Liu, Xiangjun

    2017-01-01

    Vicia ramuliflora L. is a widely distributed species in Eurasia with high economic value. For past 200 years, it has evolved a tetraploid cytotype and new subspecies at the diploid level. Based on taxonomy, cytogeography and other lines of evidence, previous studies have provided valuable information about the evolution of V. ramuliflora ploidy level, but due to the limited resolution of traditional methods, important questions remain. In this study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were used to analyze the evolution of V. ramuliflora at the diploid and tetraploid levels. Our aim was to reveal the genomic constitution and parents of the tetraploid V. ramuliflora and the relationships among diploid V. ramuliflora populations. Our study showed that the tetraploid cytotype of V. ramuliflora at Changbai Mountains (M) has identical 18S and 5S rDNA distribution patterns with the diploid Hengdaohezi population (B) and the diploid Dailing population (H). However, UPGMA clustering, Neighbor-Joining clustering and principal coordinates analysis based on RAPD showed that the tetraploid cytotype (M) has more close relationships with Qianshan diploid population T. Based on our results and the fact that interspecific hybridization among Vicia species is very difficult, we think that the tetraploid V. ramuliflora is an autotetraploid and its genomic origin still needs further study. In addition, our study also found that Qianshan diploid population (T) had evolved distinct new traits compared with other diploid populations, which hints that V. ramuliflora evolved further at diploid level. We suggest that diploid population T be re-classified as a new subspecies. PMID:28135314

  2. Pollen source and resource limitation to fruit production in the rare species Eremosparton songoricum (Fabaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eremosparton songoricum (Litv.) Vass. is a rare, central Asian desert species which shows lower fruit set and seed set (<16%) than most hermaphroditic species. We hypothesized that fruit production was limited by pollen and resources. To evaluate potential fruit abortion due to pollen limitation, su...

  3. Insecticidal and genotoxic activity of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. (Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides to eradicate mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance. Plants provide a reservoir of biochemical compounds; among these compounds some have inhibitory effect on mosquitoes. In the present study the larvicidal, adulticidal and genotoxic activity of essential oil of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. against Culex quinquefasciatus Say was explored. Methods Essential oil was isolated from the seeds of P. corylifolia Linn. Larvicidal and adulticidal bioassay of Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out by WHO method. Genotoxic activity of samples was determined by comet assay. Identification of different compounds was carried out by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry analysis. Results LC50 and LC90 values of essential oil were 63.38±6.30 and 99.02±16.63 ppm, respectively against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The LD50 and LD90 values were 0.057±0.007 and 0.109±0.014 mg/cm2 respectively against adult Cx. quinquefasciatus,. Genotoxicity of adults was determined at 0.034 and 0.069 mg/cm2. The mean comet tail length was 6.2548±0.754 μm and 8.47±0.931 μm and the respective DNA damage was significant i.e. 6.713% and 8.864% in comparison to controls. GCMS analysis of essential oil revealed 20 compounds. The major eight compounds were caryophyllene oxide (40.79%), phenol,4-(3,7-dimethyl-3-ethenylocta-1,6-dienyl) (20.78%), caryophyllene (17.84%), α-humulene (2.15%), (+)- aromadendrene (1.57%), naphthalene, 1,2,3,4-tetra hydro-1,6-dimethyle-4-(1-methyl)-, (1S-cis) (1.53%), trans- caryophyllene (0.75%), and methyl hexadecanoate (0.67%). Conclusion Essential oil obtained from the seeds of P. corylifolia showed potent toxicity against larvae and adult Cx. quinquefasciatus. The present work revealed that the essential oil of P. corylifolia could be used as environmentally sound larvicidal and adulticidal agent for mosquito control. PMID:23379981

  4. Lotus alianus, a new species from Cabo Verde and nomeenclatural notes on Lotus section Pedrosia (Fabaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lotus alianus J.H. Kirkbr., sp. nov., is described and illustrated. It is a rare endemic species from the Republic of Cape Verde, and is found in dry habitats on just two islands, Ilhas de Santo Antao and Sao Vicente. In addition, two species names are synonymized with L. creticus L., and a lectotyp...

  5. In Vitro Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)).

    PubMed

    Koné, Mongomaké; Koné, Tchoa; Silué, Nakpalo; Soumahoro, André Brahima; Kouakou, Tanoh Hilaire

    2015-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an indigenous grain legume. It occupies a prominent place in the strategies to ensure food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Development of an efficient in vitro regeneration system, a prerequisite for genetic transformation application, requires the establishment of optimal conditions for seeds germination and plantlets development. Three types of seeds were inoculated on different basal media devoid of growth regulators. Various strengths of the medium of choice and the type and concentration of carbon source were also investigated. Responses to germination varied with the type of seed. Embryonic axis (EA) followed by seeds without coat (SWtC) germinated rapidly and expressed a high rate of germination. The growth performances of plantlets varied with the basal medium composition and the seeds type. The optimal growth performances of plants were displayed on half strength MS basal medium with SWtC and EA as source of seeds. Addition of 3% sucrose in the culture medium was more suitable for a maximum growth of plantlets derived from EA.

  6. Flower Morphology, Pollination Biology and Mating System of the Complex Flower of Vigna caracalla (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Etcheverry, Angela Virginia; Alemán, Maria Mercedes; Fleming, Trinidad Figueroa

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Vigna caracalla has the most complex flower among asymmetrical Papilionoideae. The objective of this study was to understand the relationships among floral characteristics, specialization, mating system and the role of floral visitors under different ecological contexts. Methods Five populations were studied in north-western Argentina, from 700 to 1570 m a.s.l. Anthesis, colour and odour patterns, stigmatic receptivity, visitors and pollination mechanism were examined and mating-system experiments were performed. Key Results The petals are highly modified and the keel shows 3·75–5·25 revolutions. The sense of asymmetry was always left-handed. Hand-crosses showed that V. caracalla is self-compatible, but depends on pollinators to set seeds. Hand-crossed fruits were more successful than hand-selfed ones, with the exception of the site at the highest elevation. Bombus morio (queens and workers), Centris bicolor, Eufriesea mariana and Xylocopa eximia trigger the pollination mechanism (a ‘brush type’). The greatest level of self-compatibility and autonomous self-pollination were found at the highest elevation, together with the lowest reproductive success and number of pollinators (B. morio workers only). Conclusions Self-fertilization may have evolved in the peripheral population at the highest site of V. caracalla because of the benefits of reproductive assurance under reduced pollinator diversity. PMID:18587133

  7. [Polymorphism of Phaseolus vulgaris var. aborigineus (fabaceae). Evidences of natural hibridation].

    PubMed

    Hoc, Patricia S; Espert, Shirley M; Drewes, Susana I; Burghardt, Alicia D

    2003-01-01

    A polymorphic population of Phaseolus vulgaris var. aborigineus growing at the Northwest of Argentina was studied. In order to know the origin of this polymorphism, some plants belonging to the var. aborigineus, other plants showing floral dimorphism and other individuals with particular characters were collected. Their seeds, obtained after field-work treatments of autogamy and free pollination, were sown in a greenhouse, isolated of the access of pollinators. The growth of each plant was followed until its fructification, and the number of plants that died due to infections was recorded. The number of plants that flowered and fructified was registered in order to study their reproductive success. The floral, fruit and seed qualitative and quantitative characters were documented. With the results obtained, the authors concluded that those individuals that showed floral dimorphism are probably a result of hybridization and introgression between the var. aborigineus and "old cultivars". This hypothesis is supported by the presence of divergent segregation, observed in the offspring of the plants with this segregation. Other crops should allow the genic flow between the parental entities, with the consequence of the establishment of an hybrid population coexistent with their ancestors. Perhaps, as a result of introgression, the stabilized lines exhibit characters different from their parental varieties. The results of autopollination and free pollination in those individuals assigned to var. aborigineus, showed that free pollination brings a great genetic plasticity, because next generations can persist and resist infections. The offspring of the F1 was followed. The plants that belonged to var. aborigineus, product of free pollination, exhibited fast growth and were healthy, while the descendant of the individuals with the floral dimorphism showed characteristics that allowed to conclude the possible existence of degeneration of the hybrid progeny; this characteristics were: curled radicles with cotyledons that never emerge, plantule's apex that soon die with the following development of branches from the cotyledon's axil, and death after some weeks. This degeneration indicates that an unwanted gene flow in the area could lead to a decline in the wild bean population. The vigor, high reproductive success and resistance to illnesses of the individuals corresponding to the var. vulgaris, whose progenitor was treated for free fecundation, and the offspring of the plants with cultivated characteristics, are indicative of the necessity of preserving this germplasm to evaluate its agronomic potential to brief term. The DNA analyses already initiated, will allow the confirmation of the hypotheses outlined in this work.

  8. Structural design of active precision structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charon, W.

    The independent structural design for stochastically disturbed active structures, as part of the integrated structure/control design methodology, is the subject of this paper. The methodology requires the consideration of a generic controller in order to guarantee the performances of the active structure resulting from the mechanical design. An elastic 20 m long Extendable and Retractable Mast fitted with piezoelectric local actuators and an offset rigid antenna illustrates the method. Configurations, values of modal dampings are investigated using modal analysis, analysis of disturbance and actuator effects, inclusion of modal shapes, choice of actuators and sensors, determination of final performances.

  9. Crystal structure and prediction.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Tejender S; Dubey, Ritesh; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2015-04-01

    The notion of structure is central to the subject of chemistry. This review traces the development of the idea of crystal structure since the time when a crystal structure could be determined from a three-dimensional diffraction pattern and assesses the feasibility of computationally predicting an unknown crystal structure of a given molecule. Crystal structure prediction is of considerable fundamental and applied importance, and its successful execution is by no means a solved problem. The ease of crystal structure determination today has resulted in the availability of large numbers of crystal structures of higher-energy polymorphs and pseudopolymorphs. These structural libraries lead to the concept of a crystal structure landscape. A crystal structure of a compound may accordingly be taken as a data point in such a landscape.

  10. Crystal Structure and Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Tejender S.; Dubey, Ritesh; Desiraju, Gautam R.

    2015-04-01

    The notion of structure is central to the subject of chemistry. This review traces the development of the idea of crystal structure since the time when a crystal structure could be determined from a three-dimensional diffraction pattern and assesses the feasibility of computationally predicting an unknown crystal structure of a given molecule. Crystal structure prediction is of considerable fundamental and applied importance, and its successful execution is by no means a solved problem. The ease of crystal structure determination today has resulted in the availability of large numbers of crystal structures of higher-energy polymorphs and pseudopolymorphs. These structural libraries lead to the concept of a crystal structure landscape. A crystal structure of a compound may accordingly be taken as a data point in such a landscape.

  11. Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) online resource provides high quality chemical structures and annotations in association with toxicity data. It helps to build a data foundation for improved structure-activity relationships and predictive toxicology. DSSTox publishes summarized chemical activity representations for structure-activity modeling and provides a structure browser. This tool also houses the chemical inventories for the ToxCast and Tox21 projects.

  12. Structural system identification: Structural dynamics model validation

    SciTech Connect

    Red-Horse, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    Structural system identification is concerned with the development of systematic procedures and tools for developing predictive analytical models based on a physical structure`s dynamic response characteristics. It is a multidisciplinary process that involves the ability (1) to define high fidelity physics-based analysis models, (2) to acquire accurate test-derived information for physical specimens using diagnostic experiments, (3) to validate the numerical simulation model by reconciling differences that inevitably exist between the analysis model and the experimental data, and (4) to quantify uncertainties in the final system models and subsequent numerical simulations. The goal of this project was to develop structural system identification techniques and software suitable for both research and production applications in code and model validation.

  13. Space Structure Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The duration of my Summer 2015 Internship Tour at NASA's Johnson Space Center was spent working in the Structural Engineering Division's Structures Branch. One of the two main roles of the Structures Branch, ES2, is to ensure the structural integrity of spacecraft vehicles and the structural subsystems needed to support those vehicles. The other main objective of this branch is to develop the lightweight structures that are necessary to take humans beyond Low-Earth Orbit. Within ES2, my four projects involved inflatable space structure air bladder material testing; thermal and impact material testing for spacecraft windows; structural analysis on a joint used in the Boeing CST-100 airbag system; and an additive manufacturing design project.

  14. Structural materials and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High density structural (blocking) materials composed of a polyimide filled with glass microballoons. Structural components such as panels which have integral edgings and/or other parts made of the high density materials.

  15. Structural materials and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    High density structural (blocking) materials composed of a polyimide filled with glass microballoons. Structural components such as panels which have integral edgings and/or other parts made of the high density materials.

  16. Structural materials and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High density structural (blocking) materials composed of a polyimide filled with glass microballoons and methods for making such materials. Structural components such as panels which have integral edgings and/or other parts made of the high density materials.

  17. Reinforced structural plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubowitz, H. R.; Kendrick, W. P.; Jones, J. F.; Thorpe, R. S.; Burns, E. A. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    Reinforced polyimide structures are described. Reinforcing materials are impregnated with a suspension of polyimide prepolymer and bonded together by heat and pressure to form a cured, hard-reinforced, polyimide structure.

  18. THE STRUCTURE OF MERCURY,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    cubic structure is found to have lower energy than the alpha-Hg structure. This discrepancy can be attributed to inadequacies in the pseudopotentials, and can be rectified by a small adjustment of the potential.

  19. Structural Engineering: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation presents the work of the Structural Engineering Division of the Engineering Directorate. The work includes: providing technical expertise and leadership for the development, evaluation, and operation of structural, mechanical, and thermal spaceflight systems.

  20. Structure of "polywater".

    PubMed

    Donohue, J

    1969-11-21

    A structure for "polywater" is proposed. It consists of hydrogen-bonded clusters of water molecules lying at the vertices of rhombic dodecahedra. This structure contains features which are less unattractive than those which are part of several earlier models.

  1. Rheology of Structured Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelbaliev, G. I.; Rasulov, S. R.; Rzaev, A. G.; Mustafaeva, G. R.

    2017-07-01

    Rheological models of structured oils are proposed and compared with available experimental data on oils from different deposits. It is shown that structured oils can possess properties of Bingham and power-law non-Newtonian fluids.

  2. Lightweight Materials & Structures

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Lightweight Materials and Structures (LMS) project will mature high-payoff structures and materials technologies that have direct application to NASA’s future space exploration needs.One of the...

  3. Representing Substantive Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Fred N.; Stewart, James

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the meaning of Schwab's "substantive structures" of a discipline in terms of science philosophy. Presents three techniques for representing substantive structures and discusses some of their uses in science education research. (SK)

  4. Photon structure function - theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1984-12-01

    The theoretical status of the photon structure function is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the hadronic mixing problem and the ability of perturbative QCD to make definitive predictions for the photon structure function. 11 references.

  5. Structural acoustic modeling of aircraft fuselage structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehrle, Ralph; Klos, Jacob; Robinson, Jay; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2002-11-01

    Recent studies at NASA Langley Research Center have examined the development and validation of finite element and boundary element modeling techniques for the prediction of structural acoustic response of aircraft fuselage structures. The goal of this work is to provide increased confidence in the modeling techniques so that interior noise criteria can be incorporated early in the design process. These efforts have focused on the development and validation of high-fidelity physics-based numerical models for structural acoustic predictions into the kilohertz region. Finite element models were developed based on the geometric and material properties of the aircraft fuselage structures. Experimental modal analysis and point force frequency response functions were used to validate and refine the finite element models. Once validated, the finite element predictions of the velocity response were used as boundary condition input for boundary element predictions of the radiated sound power. Experiments in the Structural Acoustic Loads and transmission (SALT) Facility at NASA Langley were used to validate the acoustic predictions. Numerical and experimental results will be presented for conventional aluminum rib and stringer-stiffened aircraft structures, a honey comb composite sidewall panel, and damped acrylic windows. Numerical predictions were in good agreement with the experimental data.

  6. Structural health monitoring for ship structures

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, Charles; Park, Gyuhae; Angel, Marian; Bement, Matthew; Salvino, Liming

    2009-01-01

    Currently the Office of Naval Research is supporting the development of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for U.S. Navy ship structures. This application is particularly challenging because of the physical size of these structures, the widely varying and often extreme operational and environmental conditions associated with these ships missions, lack of data from known damage conditions, limited sensing that was not designed specifically for SHM, and the management of the vast amounts of data that can be collected during a mission. This paper will first define a statistical pattern recognition paradigm for SHM by describing the four steps of (1) Operational Evaluation, (2) Data Acquisition, (3) Feature Extraction, and (4) Statistical Classification of Features as they apply to ship structures. Note that inherent in the last three steps of this process are additional tasks of data cleansing, compression, normalization and fusion. The presentation will discuss ship structure SHM challenges in the context of applying various SHM approaches to sea trials data measured on an aluminum multi-hull high-speed ship, the HSV-2 Swift. To conclude, the paper will discuss several outstanding issues that need to be addressed before SHM can make the transition from a research topic to actual field applications on ship structures and suggest approaches for addressing these issues.

  7. Structural design methodology for large space structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dornsife, Ralph J.

    The Department of Defense requires research and development in designing, fabricating, deploying, and maintaining large space structures (LSS) in support of Army and Strategic Defense Initiative military objectives. Because of their large size, extreme flexibility, and the unique loading conditions in the space environment, LSS will present engineers with problems unlike those encountered in designing conventional civil engineering or aerospace structures. LSS will require sophisticated passive damping and active control systems in order to meet stringent mission requirements. These structures must also be optimally designed to minimize high launch costs. This report outlines a methodology for the structural design of LSS. It includes a definition of mission requirements, structural modeling and analysis, passive damping and active control system design, ground-based testing, payload integration, on-orbit system verification, and on-orbit assessment of structural damage. In support of this methodology, analyses of candidate LSS truss configurations are presented, and an algorithm correlating ground-based test behavior to expected microgravity behavior is developed.

  8. Structural design methodology for large space structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dornsife, Ralph J.

    1992-02-01

    The Department of Defense requires research and development in designing, fabricating, deploying, and maintaining large space structures (LSS) in support of Army and Strategic Defense Initiative military objectives. Because of their large size, extreme flexibility, and the unique loading conditions in the space environment, LSS will present engineers with problems unlike those encountered in designing conventional civil engineering or aerospace structures. LSS will require sophisticated passive damping and active control systems in order to meet stringent mission requirements. These structures must also be optimally designed to minimize high launch costs. This report outlines a methodology for the structural design of LSS. It includes a definition of mission requirements, structural modeling and analysis, passive damping and active control system design, ground-based testing, payload integration, on-orbit system verification, and on-orbit assessment of structural damage. In support of this methodology, analyses of candidate LSS truss configurations are presented, and an algorithm correlating ground-based test behavior to expected microgravity behavior is developed.

  9. Optimization of composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Structural optimization is introduced and examples which illustrate potential problems associated with optimized structures are presented. Optimized structures may have very low load carrying ability for an off design condition. They tend to have multiple modes of failure occurring simultaneously and can, therefore, be sensitive to imperfections. Because composite materials provide more design variables than do metals, they allow for more refined tailoring and more extensive optimization. As a result, optimized composite structures can be especially susceptible to these problems.

  10. Synchronously Deployable Truss Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, M. D.; Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Structure lightweight, readily deployed, and has reliable joints. New truss concept, designated as "pac truss," developed. Features easy deployment without need for complex mechanisms. Structures of this type deployed in free flight by controlled release of stored energy in torsional springs at selected hinges located throughout structure. Double-folding technique used in beam model applicable to flat planar trusses, allowing structures of large expanse to fold into compact packages and be deployed for space-platform applications.

  11. The Structural Strategies Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    I UaNesar and Didai 6? Week aeinbe) 1.Subject matter structure Content sequencing Organization of content Synthesizing of content Structural...SUMMARY Problem Marked differences may be observed in the way subject matter is organized and presented, even within similar technical content areas...the content of a subject by identifying its major elements or structures and for guiding the development of content around these structures are

  12. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOEpatents

    Wood, James L.

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources.

  13. Endjoints For Structural Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Harold G.; Mikulas, Martin M.; Wallsom, Richard E.

    1989-01-01

    Endjoint and connecting-node system designed for use in erection of frames. System structurally sound and simple to operate. All nodes and struts interchangeable. Nodes and struts attach to form cubic cell structures to produce beams, platforms, towers, or combinations of these. Design suitable for use in construction of space structures and such terrestrial skeletal frameworks as antenna-reflector supports, roof structures for large buildings, lookout towers, radio-transmitter towers, powerline pylons, and scaffolds.

  14. Computational structures technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    1992-01-01

    Computational structures technology (CST), which has emerged from FEM developments, is a fusion of materials modeling, structural and dynamic analysis and synthesis methods, on the one hand, and numerical analysis and approximation theory, on the other. In addition to computational materials modeling, CST encompasses computational methods for predicting the response, performance, failure, and service life of structures and their components, as well as automated methods for structural synthesis and optimization.

  15. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOEpatents

    Wood, J.L.

    1992-12-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. 2 figs.

  16. The Structures of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This booklet reveals how structural biology provides insight into health and disease and is useful in developing new medications. It contains a general introduction to proteins, coverage of the techniques used to determine protein structures, and a chapter on structure-based drug design. The booklet features "Student Snapshots," designed to…

  17. Durability of structural panels

    Treesearch

    Eddie W. Price; [Editor

    1984-01-01

    Twenty papers from the proceedings of a workshop are presented on the durability of a group of structural panels for use in roof, wall, and floor sheathing applications. The panel types are waferboard,flakeboard, strandboard, oriented structural board, and structural particleboard. A summary of the proceedings is given as the final presentation.

  18. Structural Ceramics Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 30 NIST Structural Ceramics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Structural Ceramics Database (WebSCD) provides evaluated materials property data for a wide range of advanced ceramics known variously as structural ceramics, engineering ceramics, and fine ceramics.

  19. Intelligent structures technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawley, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on intelligent structures technology are presented. Topics covered include: embedding electronics; electrical and mechanical compatibility; integrated circuit chip packaged for embedding; embedding devices within composite structures; test of embedded circuit in G/E coupon; temperature/humidity/bias test; single-chip microcomputer control experiment; and structural shape determination.

  20. Programing Structural Synthesis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Program aids research in analysis and optimization. Programing Structural Synthesis System (PROSSS2) developed to provide structural-synthesis capability by combining access to SPAR with CONMIN program and set of interface procedures. SPAR is large general-purpose finite-element structural-analysis program, and CONMIN is large general-purpose optimization program. PROSSS2 written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.

  1. Structured FORTRAN Preprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, J. A.; Lawson, C. L.; Van Snyder, W.; Tsitsivas, H. N.

    1985-01-01

    SFTRAN3 supports structured programing in FORTRAN environment. Language intended particularly to support two aspects of structured programing -- nestable single-entry control structures and modularization and top-down organization of code. Code designed and written using these SFTRAN3 facilities have fewer initial errors, easier to understand and less expensive to maintain and modify.

  2. Building safer structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ҫelebi, Mehmet; Page, Robert A.; Seekins, Linda

    2011-04-13

    In this century, major earthquakes in the United States have damaged or destroyed numerous buildings, bridges, and other structures. By monitoring how structures respond to earthquakes and applying the knowledge gained, scientists and engineers are improving the ability of structures to survive major earthquakes. Many lives and millions of dollars have already been saved by this ongoing research.

  3. Structural Enhancement of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumpower, David L.; Goldsmith, Timothy E.

    2004-01-01

    Structural learning aids, such as interactive overviews (IOs), have previously been shown to facilitate text comprehension and recall. In this study, we examined the effects of structural aids on learners' structural knowledge and their performance on a procedural transfer task. In Experiment 1, 90 college students were presented definitions of…

  4. Organizational Knowledge Management Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walczak, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To propose and evaluate a novel management structure that encourages knowledge sharing across an organization. Design/methodology/approach: The extant literature on the impact of organizational culture and its link to management structure is examined and used to develop a new knowledge sharing management structure. Roadblocks to…

  5. Railway vehicle body structures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The strength and durability of railway vehicle structures is a major topic of engineering research and design. To reflect this importance the Railway Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers organised a conference to discuss all matters relating to railway vehicle design. This book presents the papers discussed in that conference. The contents include: Vehicle body design and the UIC's international contribution; LUL prototype 1986 stock - body structure; vehicle structure for the intermediate capacity transmit system vehicles; car body technology of advanced light rapid transit vehicles; concepts, techniques and experience in the idealization of car body structures for finite element analysis; Calcutta metropolitan railway; design for a lightweight diesel multiple unit body; the design of lightweight inter-city coal structures; the BREL international coach body shell structure; new concepts and design techniques versus material standards; structures of BR diesel electric freight locomotives; structural design philosophy for electric locomotives; suspension design for a locomotive with low structural frequencies; freight wagon structures; a finite element study of coal bodyside panels including the effects of joint flexibility; a fresh approach to the problem of car body design strength; energy absorption in automatic couplings and draw gear; passenger vehicle design loads and structural crashworthiness; design of the front part of railway vehicles (in case of frontal impact); the development of a theoretical technique for rail vehicle structural crashworthiness.

  6. Vitrified underground structures

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Mark T.; Buelt, James L.; Stottlemyre, James A.; Tixier, Jr., John S.

    1992-01-01

    A method of making vitrified underground structures in which 1) the vitrification process is started underground, and 2) a thickness dimension is controlled to produce substantially planar vertical and horizontal vitrified underground structures. Structures may be placed around a contaminated waste site to isolate the site or may be used as aquifer dikes.

  7. Structural Enhancement of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumpower, David L.; Goldsmith, Timothy E.

    2004-01-01

    Structural learning aids, such as interactive overviews (IOs), have previously been shown to facilitate text comprehension and recall. In this study, we examined the effects of structural aids on learners' structural knowledge and their performance on a procedural transfer task. In Experiment 1, 90 college students were presented definitions of…

  8. Chromosome structure and function

    SciTech Connect

    Risley, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents topics in chromosome structure and function. Topics covered include: the structure of interphase chromatin; chromatin structure, gene expression and differentiation; organization of mitotic chromosomes; organization of meiotic chromosomes and synaptonimal complexes; the lampbrush chromsome of animal oocytes; dosage compensation in mammals: x chromosome inactivation; and polytene chromosomes.

  9. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1984-01-01

    Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

  10. HIV Structural Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 102 HIV Structural Database (Web, free access)   The HIV Protease Structural Database is an archive of experimentally determined 3-D structures of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1), Human Immunodeficiency Virus 2 (HIV-2) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Proteases and their complexes with inhibitors or products of substrate cleavage.

  11. Weatherizing a Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with weatherizing a structure. Its objective is for the student to be able to analyze factors related to specific structures that indicate need for weatherizing activities and to determine steps to correct defects in structures that…

  12. Hypermedia 1990 structured Hypertext tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Hypermedia 1990 structured Hypertext tutorial is presented in the form of view-graphs. The following subject areas are covered: structured hypertext; analyzing hypertext documents for structure; designing structured hypertext documents; creating structured hypertext applications; structuring service and repair documents; maintaining structured hypertext documents; and structured hypertext conclusion.

  13. Materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, Theodore T.; Langenbeck, Sharon L.; Al-Jamily, Ghanim; Arnold, Joe; Barbee, Troy; Coulter, Dan; Dolgin, Ben; Fichter, Buck; George, Patricia; Gorenstein, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Materials and structures technology covers a wide range of technical areas. Some of the most pertinent issues for the Astrotech 21 missions include dimensionally stable structural materials, advanced composites, dielectric coatings, optical metallic coatings for low scattered light applications, low scattered light surfaces, deployable and inflatable structures (including optical), support structures in 0-g and 1-g environments, cryogenic optics, optical blacks, contamination hardened surfaces, radiation hardened glasses and crystals, mono-metallic telescopes and instruments, and materials characterization. Some specific examples include low coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) structures (0.01 ppm/K), lightweight thermally stable mirror materials, thermally stable optical assemblies, high reliability/accuracy (1 micron) deployable structures, and characterization of nanometer level behavior of materials/structures for interferometry concepts. Large filled-aperture concepts will require materials with CTE's of 10(exp 9) at 80 K, anti-contamination coatings, deployable and erectable structures, composite materials with CTE's less than 0.01 ppm/K and thermal hysteresis, 0.001 ppm/K. Gravitational detection systems such as LAGOS will require rigid/deployable structures, dimensionally stable components, lightweight materials with low conductivity, and high stability optics. The Materials and Structures panel addressed these issues and the relevance of the Astrotech 21 mission requirements by dividing materials and structures technology into five categories. These categories, the necessary development, and applicable mission/program development phasing are summarized. For each of these areas, technology assessments were made and development plans were defined.

  14. Multiple protein structure alignment.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, W. R.; Flores, T. P.; Orengo, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    A method was developed to compare protein structures and to combine them into a multiple structure consensus. Previous methods of multiple structure comparison have only concatenated pairwise alignments or produced a consensus structure by averaging coordinate sets. The current method is a fusion of the fast structure comparison program SSAP and the multiple sequence alignment program MULTAL. As in MULTAL, structures are progressively combined, producing intermediate consensus structures that are compared directly to each other and all remaining single structures. This leads to a hierarchic "condensation," continually evaluated in the light of the emerging conserved core regions. Following the SSAP approach, all interatomic vectors were retained with well-conserved regions distinguished by coherent vector bundles (the structural equivalent of a conserved sequence position). Each bundle of vectors is summarized by a resultant, whereas vector coherence is captured in an error term, which is the only distinction between conserved and variable positions. Resultant vectors are used directly in the comparison, which is weighted by their error values, giving greater importance to the matching of conserved positions. The resultant vectors and their errors can also be used directly in molecular modeling. Applications of the method were assessed by the quality of the resulting sequence alignments, phylogenetic tree construction, and databank scanning with the consensus. Visual assessment of the structural superpositions and consensus structure for various well-characterized families confirmed that the consensus had identified a reasonable core. PMID:7849601

  15. Structures of membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Vinothkumar, Kutti R.; Henderson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In reviewing the structures of membrane proteins determined up to the end of 2009, we present in words and pictures the most informative examples from each family. We group the structures together according to their function and architecture to provide an overview of the major principles and variations on the most common themes. The first structures, determined 20 years ago, were those of naturally abundant proteins with limited conformational variability, and each membrane protein structure determined was a major landmark. With the advent of complete genome sequences and efficient expression systems, there has been an explosion in the rate of membrane protein structure determination, with many classes represented. New structures are published every month and more than 150 unique membrane protein structures have been determined. This review analyses the reasons for this success, discusses the challenges that still lie ahead, and presents a concise summary of the key achievements with illustrated examples selected from each class. PMID:20667175

  16. Structural realism beyond physics.

    PubMed

    Tulodziecki, Dana

    2016-10-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to test structural realism against (one example from) the historical record. I begin by laying out an existing challenge to structural realism - that of providing an example of a theory exhibiting successful structures that were abandoned - and show that this challenge can be met by the miasma theory of disease. However, rather than concluding that this is an outright counterexample to structural realism, I use this case to show why it is that structural realism, in its current form, has trouble dealing with theories outside physics. I end by making some concrete suggestions for structural realists to pursue if, indeed, they are serious about extending structural realism to other domains.

  17. Computers boost structural technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Venneri, Samuel L.

    1989-01-01

    Derived from matrix methods of structural analysis and finite element methods developed over the last three decades, computational structures technology (CST) blends computer science, numerical analysis, and approximation theory into structural analysis and synthesis. Recent significant advances in CST include stochastic-based modeling, strategies for performing large-scale structural calculations on new computing systems, and the integration of CST with other disciplinary modules for multidisciplinary analysis and design. New methodologies have been developed at NASA for integrated fluid-thermal structural analysis and integrated aerodynamic-structure-control design. The need for multiple views of data for different modules also led to the development of a number of sophisticated data-base management systems. For CST to play a role in the future development of structures technology and in the multidisciplinary design of future flight vehicles, major advances and computational tools are needed in a number of key areas.

  18. Defining Dynamic Route Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelinski, Shannon; Jastrzebski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This poster describes a method for defining route structure from flight tracks. Dynamically generated route structures could be useful in guiding dynamic airspace configuration and helping controllers retain situational awareness under dynamically changing traffic conditions. Individual merge and diverge intersections between pairs of flights are identified, clustered, and grouped into nodes of a route structure network. Links are placed between nodes to represent major traffic flows. A parametric analysis determined the algorithm input parameters producing route structures of current day flight plans that are closest to todays airway structure. These parameters are then used to define and analyze the dynamic route structure over the course of a day for current day flight paths. Route structures are also compared between current day flight paths and more user preferred paths such as great circle and weather avoidance routing.

  19. Theoretical electronic structure of structurally modified graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, Marc David

    Graphene has emerged as a promising replacement for silicon in next-generation electronics and optoelectronic devices. If graphene is to be used in semiconductor devices, however, it must acquire an electronic band gap. Numerous approaches have been proposed to control the band gap of graphene, including the periodic patterning of defects. However, the mechanism for band gap opening and the associated physics in graphene patterned with defects remain unclear. Using both analytic theory and first-principles calculations, we show that periodic patterning of defects on graphene can open a large and tunable band gap, induce strong absorption peaks at optical wavelengths, and host a giant band gap quantum spin Hall phase. First, a geometric rule is analytically derived for the arrangements of defects that open a band gap in graphene, with one ninth of all possible patterns opening a band gap. Next, we perform ab-initio density functional calculations to compare the effects of structural vacancies, hexagonal BN dopants, and passivants on the electronic structure of graphene. Qualitatively, these three types of structural defects behave the same, with only slight differences in their resulting band structures. By adjusting the shape of structural defects, we show how to move the Dirac cones in reciprocal space in accordance with the tight-binding model for the anisotropic honeycomb lattice, while the fundamental mechanism for band gap opening remains the same. To quantitatively predict the band gap and optical properties of these materials, we employ many-body perturbation theory with Green's functions (GW/Bethe-Salpeter equation) to directly include electron-electron and electron-hole interactions. Structurally modified graphene shows a strong renormalization of the fundamental band gap over single particle descriptions, and a strong electron-hole interaction as indicated by strong exciton binding energies (> 0.5 eV). Finally, we show that structurally modified graphene

  20. Unusual DNA structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, R.D.; Harvey, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Unusual DNS Structures and the Probes Used for Their Detection; The Specificity of Single Strand Specific Endonucleases; Chromatin STructure and DNA Structure at the hsp 26 Locus of Drosophilia; Cruciform Extrusion in Supercoiled DNA-Mechanisms and Contextual Influence; Torsional Stress, Unusual DNA Structures, and Eukaryotic Gene Expression; DNA Sequence and Structure: Bending to Biology. Cruciform Transitions Assayed Using a Psoralen Cross-linking Method: Applications to Measurements of DNA Torisonal Tension; NMR-Distance Geometry Studies of Helical Errors and Sequence Dependent Conformations of DNA in Solution; Hyperreactivity of the B-Z Junctions Probed by Two Aromatic Chemical Carcinogens; Inherently Curved DNA and Its Structural Elements; and DNA Flexibility Under Control: The Juma Algorithm and its Application to BZ Junctions.

  1. BOMB STABILIZING STRUCTURE

    DOEpatents

    Kelley, J.L.; Runyan, C.E.

    1963-12-10

    A stabilizinig structure capable of minimizing deviations of a falling body such as a bomb from desired trajectory is described. The structure comprises a fin or shroud arrangement of double-wedge configuration, the feeding portion being of narrow wedge shape and the after portion being of a wider wedge shape. The structure provides a force component for keeping the body on essentially desired trajectory throughout its fall. (AEC)

  2. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  3. [Hospital organizational structure].

    PubMed

    Bittar, O J

    1994-01-01

    The basic point for an Institution to work is the existence of a definite organizational structure that puts together similar areas allowing decisions and the operationalization of different tasks. Knowledge and analysis of structures of private and public hospitals and a bibliography review about the issue is the purpose of this paper. Suggestions are given about the elaboration of small structures and the utilization of matrix management in order to accomplish the hospitals objectives.

  4. Structures and Acoustics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acquaviva, Cynthia S.

    2001-01-01

    The Structures and Acoustics Division of the NASA Glenn Research Center is an international leader in rotating structures, mechanical components, fatigue and fracture, and structural aeroacoustics. Included in this report are disciplines related to life prediction and reliability, nondestructive evaluation, and mechanical drive systems. Reported is a synopsis of the work and accomplishments completed by the Division during the 1997, 1998, and 1999 calendar years. A bibliography containing 93 citations is provided.

  5. Structures and Acoustics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acquaviva, Cynthia S.

    1999-01-01

    The Structures and Acoustics Division of NASA Glenn Research Center is an international leader in rotating structures, mechanical components, fatigue and fracture, and structural aeroacoustics. Included are disciplines related to life prediction and reliability, nondestructive evaluation, and mechanical drive systems. Reported are a synopsis of the work and accomplishments reported by the Division during the 1996 calendar year. A bibliography containing 42 citations is provided.

  6. EXPANDABLE SPACE STRUCTURE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    space mission profile is defined at an altitude of 257 n mi and 33.3 deg inclination. Preliminary design criteria, including structural loads and space environmental conditions, are established. Effects of thermal radiation, meteoroids, and space radiation are discussed. Results of thermal heat balance analyses programed on the IBM 7090 are presented. Structural factors of safety are defined. A structural configuration is chosen from the standpoint of strength, operational reliability, manufacturing feasibility, and minimum weight and cost. Preliminary tooling and

  7. Integrated structural health monitoring.

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C. R.

    2001-01-01

    Structural health monitoring is the implementation of a damage detection strategy for aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering infrastructure. Typical damage experienced by this infrastructure might be the development of fatigue cracks, degradation of structural connections, or bearing wear in rotating machinery. The goal of the research effort reported herein is to develop a robust and cost-effective structural health monitoring solution by integrating and extending technologies from various engineering and information technology disciplines. It is the authors opinion that all structural health monitoring systems must be application specific. Therefore, a specific application, monitoring welded moment resisting steel frame connections in structures subjected to seismic excitation, is described along with the motivation for choosing this application. The structural health monitoring solution for this application will integrate structural dynamics, wireless data acquisition, local actuation, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, and statistical pattern recognition algorithms. The proposed system is based on an assessment of the deficiencies associated with many current structural health monitoring technologies including past efforts by the authors. This paper provides an example of the integrated approach to structural health monitoring being undertaken at Los Alamos National Laboratory and summarizes progress to date on various aspects of the technology development.

  8. Integrated structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrar, Charles R.; Sohn, Hoon; Fugate, Michael L.; Czarnecki, Jerry J.

    2001-07-01

    Structural health monitoring is the implementation of a damage detection strategy for aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering infrastructure. Typical damage experienced by this infrastructure might be the development of fatigue cracks, degradation of structural connections, or bearing wear in rotating machinery. The goal of the research effort reported herein is to develop a robust and cost-effective structural health monitoring solution by integrating and extending technologies from various engineering and information technology disciplines. It is the author's opinion that all structural health monitoring systems must be application specific. Therefore, a specific application, monitoring welded moment resisting steel frame connections in structures subjected to seismic excitation, is described along with the motivation for choosing this application. The structural health monitoring solution for this application will integrate structural dynamics, wireless data acquisition, local actuation, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, and statistical pattern recognition algorithms. The proposed system is based on an assessment of the deficiencies associated with many current structural health monitoring technologies including past efforts by the authors. This paper provides an example of the integrated approach to structural health monitoring being undertaken at Los Alamos National Laboratory and summarizes progress to date on various aspects of the technology development.

  9. Deployable Soft Composite Structures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-02-19

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel.

  10. Deployable Soft Composite Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel.

  11. STRUMPACK -- STRUctured Matrices PACKage

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-01

    STRUMPACK - STRUctured Matrices PACKage - is a package for computations with sparse and dense structured matrix, i.e., matrices that exhibit some kind of low-rank property, in particular Hierarchically Semi Separable structure (HSS). Such matrices appear in many applications, e.g., FEM, BEM, Integral equations. etc. Exploiting this structure using certain compression algorithms allow for fast solution of linear systems and/or fast computation of matrix-vector products, which are the two main building blocks of matrix computations. STRUMPACK has presently two main components: a distributed-memory dense matrix computations package and a shared-memory sparse direct solver.

  12. Space station structures development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teller, V. B.

    1986-01-01

    A study of three interrelated tasks focusing on deployable Space Station truss structures is discussed. Task 1, the development of an alternate deployment system for linear truss, resulted in the preliminary design of an in-space reloadable linear motor deployer. Task 2, advanced composites deployable truss development, resulted in the testing and evaluation of composite materials for struts used in a deployable linear truss. Task 3, assembly of structures in space/erectable structures, resulted in the preliminary design of Space Station pressurized module support structures. An independent, redundant support system was developed for the common United States modules.

  13. Mitotic chromosome structure

    SciTech Connect

    Heermann, Dieter W.

    2012-07-15

    Mounting evidence is compiling linking the physical organizational structure of chromosomes and the nuclear structure to biological function. At the base of the physical organizational structure of both is the concept of loop formation. This implies that physical proximity within chromosomes is provided for otherwise distal genomic regions and thus hierarchically organizing the chromosomes. Together with entropy many experimental observations can be explained with these two concepts. Among the observations that can be explained are the measured physical extent of the chromosomes, their shape, mechanical behavior, the segregation into territories (chromosomal and territories within chromosomes), the results from chromosome conformation capture experiments, as well as linking gene expression to structural organization.

  14. Deployable Soft Composite Structures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel. PMID:26892762

  15. Structural building response review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-15

    The integrity of a nuclear power plant during a postulated seismic event is required to protect the public against radiation. Therefore, a detailed set of seismic analyses of various structures and equipment is performed while designing a nuclear power plant. This report describes the structural response analysis method, including the structural model, soil-structure interaction as it relates to structural models, methods for seismic structural analysis, numerical integration methods, methods for non-seismic response analysis approaches for various response combinations, structural damping values, nonlinear response, uncertainties in structural properties, and structural response analysis using random properties. The report describes the state-of-the-art in these areas for nuclear power plants. It also details the past studies made at Sargent and Lundy to evaluate different alternatives and the conclusions reached for the specific purposes that those studies were intended. These results were incorporated here because they fall into the general scope of this report. The scope of the present task does not include performing new calculations.

  16. Structural Materials: 95. Concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power plant concrete structures and their materials of construction are described, and their operating experience noted. Aging and environmental factors that can affect the durability of the concrete structures are identified. Basic components of a program to manage aging of these structures are identified and described. Application of structural reliability theory to devise uniform risk-based criteria by which existing facilities can be evaluated to achieve a desired performance level when subjected to uncertain demands and to quantify the effects of degradation is outlined. Finally, several areas are identified where additional research is desired.

  17. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOEpatents

    Wood, James L.

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. One layer of each set of bilayers consist of titanium, and the second layer of each set of bilayers consist of an alloy of nickel with carbon interstitially present in the nickel alloy.

  18. Roadmap on structured light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Forbes, Andrew; Berry, M. V.; Dennis, M. R.; Andrews, David L.; Mansuripur, Masud; Denz, Cornelia; Alpmann, Christina; Banzer, Peter; Bauer, Thomas; Karimi, Ebrahim; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Padgett, Miles; Ritsch-Marte, Monika; Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Bigelow, Nicholas P.; Rosales-Guzmán, C.; Belmonte, A.; Torres, J. P.; Neely, Tyler W.; Baker, Mark; Gordon, Reuven; Stilgoe, Alexander B.; Romero, Jacquiline; White, Andrew G.; Fickler, Robert; Willner, Alan E.; Xie, Guodong; McMorran, Benjamin; Weiner, Andrew M.

    2017-01-01

    Structured light refers to the generation and application of custom light fields. As the tools and technology to create and detect structured light have evolved, steadily the applications have begun to emerge. This roadmap touches on the key fields within structured light from the perspective of experts in those areas, providing insight into the current state and the challenges their respective fields face. Collectively the roadmap outlines the venerable nature of structured light research and the exciting prospects for the future that are yet to be realized.

  19. Flexible Volumetric Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Schlecht, Robin W. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A flexible volumetric structure has a first spring that defines a three-dimensional volume and includes a serpentine structure elongatable and compressible along a length thereof. A second spring is coupled to at least one outboard edge region of the first spring. The second spring is a sheet-like structure capable of elongation along an in-plane dimension thereof. The second spring is oriented such that its in-plane dimension is aligned with the length of the first spring's serpentine structure.

  20. Bioinspired structural materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegst, Ulrike G. K.; Bai, Hao; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2015-01-01

    Natural structural materials are built at ambient temperature from a fairly limited selection of components. They usually comprise hard and soft phases arranged in complex hierarchical architectures, with characteristic dimensions spanning from the nanoscale to the macroscale. The resulting materials are lightweight and often display unique combinations of strength and toughness, but have proven difficult to mimic synthetically. Here, we review the common design motifs of a range of natural structural materials, and discuss the difficulties associated with the design and fabrication of synthetic structures that mimic the structural and mechanical characteristics of their natural counterparts.

  1. Bioinspired structural materials.

    PubMed

    Wegst, Ulrike G K; Bai, Hao; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P; Ritchie, Robert O

    2015-01-01

    Natural structural materials are built at ambient temperature from a fairly limited selection of components. They usually comprise hard and soft phases arranged in complex hierarchical architectures, with characteristic dimensions spanning from the nanoscale to the macroscale. The resulting materials are lightweight and often display unique combinations of strength and toughness, but have proven difficult to mimic synthetically. Here, we review the common design motifs of a range of natural structural materials, and discuss the difficulties associated with the design and fabrication of synthetic structures that mimic the structural and mechanical characteristics of their natural counterparts.

  2. The Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Community in a Neotropical Forest Dominated by the Endemic Dipterocarp Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew E.; Henkel, Terry W.; Uehling, Jessie K.; Fremier, Alexander K.; Clarke, H. David; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) plants and fungi can be diverse and abundant in certain tropical ecosystems. For example, the primarily paleotropical ECM plant family Dipterocarpaceae is one of the most speciose and ecologically important tree families in Southeast Asia. Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea is one of two species of dipterocarp known from the Neotropics, and is also the only known member of the monotypic Dipterocarpaceae subfamily Pakaraimoideae. This Guiana Shield endemic is only known from the sandstone highlands of Guyana and Venezuela. Despite its unique phylogenetic position and unusual geographical distribution, the ECM fungal associations of P. dipterocarpacea are understudied throughout the tree’s range. In December 2010 we sampled ECM fungi on roots of P. dipterocarpacea and the co-occurring ECM tree Dicymbe jenmanii (Fabaceae subfamily Caesalpinioideae) in the Upper Mazaruni River Basin of Guyana. Based on ITS rDNA sequencing we documented 52 ECM species from 11 independent fungal lineages. Due to the phylogenetic distance between the two host tree species, we hypothesized that P. dipterocarpacea would harbor unique ECM fungi not found on the roots of D. jenmanii. Although statistical tests suggested that several ECM fungal species did exhibit host preferences for either P. dipterocarpacea or D. jenmanii, most of the ECM fungi were multi-host generalists. We also detected several ECM fungi that have never been found in long-term studies of nearby rainforests dominated by other Dicymbe species. One particular mushroom-forming fungus appears to be unique and may represent a new ECM lineage of Agaricales that is endemic to the Neotropics. PMID:23383090

  3. The ectomycorrhizal fungal community in a neotropical forest dominated by the endemic dipterocarp Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew E; Henkel, Terry W; Uehling, Jessie K; Fremier, Alexander K; Clarke, H David; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) plants and fungi can be diverse and abundant in certain tropical ecosystems. For example, the primarily paleotropical ECM plant family Dipterocarpaceae is one of the most speciose and ecologically important tree families in Southeast Asia. Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea is one of two species of dipterocarp known from the Neotropics, and is also the only known member of the monotypic Dipterocarpaceae subfamily Pakaraimoideae. This Guiana Shield endemic is only known from the sandstone highlands of Guyana and Venezuela. Despite its unique phylogenetic position and unusual geographical distribution, the ECM fungal associations of P. dipterocarpacea are understudied throughout the tree's range. In December 2010 we sampled ECM fungi on roots of P. dipterocarpacea and the co-occurring ECM tree Dicymbe jenmanii (Fabaceae subfamily Caesalpinioideae) in the Upper Mazaruni River Basin of Guyana. Based on ITS rDNA sequencing we documented 52 ECM species from 11 independent fungal lineages. Due to the phylogenetic distance between the two host tree species, we hypothesized that P. dipterocarpacea would harbor unique ECM fungi not found on the roots of D. jenmanii. Although statistical tests suggested that several ECM fungal species did exhibit host preferences for either P. dipterocarpacea or D. jenmanii, most of the ECM fungi were multi-host generalists. We also detected several ECM fungi that have never been found in long-term studies of nearby rainforests dominated by other Dicymbe species. One particular mushroom-forming fungus appears to be unique and may represent a new ECM lineage of Agaricales that is endemic to the Neotropics.

  4. Adaptive structures to enable ground test validation of precision structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Ben K.; Fanson, James F.; Chen, Gun-Shing; Kuo, Chin-Po

    1990-01-01

    The use of analytical models and ground-based experimental validation of precision space structures is addressed. The application of adaptive structures to such validation of precision space structures is addressed, with the focus on adaptive truss structures.

  5. Stable umbral chromospheric structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriques, V. M. J.; Scullion, E.; Mathioudakis, M.; Kiselman, D.; Gallagher, P. T.; Keenan, F. P.

    2015-02-01

    Aims: We seek to understand the morphology of the chromosphere in sunspot umbra. We investigate if the horizontal structures observed in the spectral core of the Ca II H line are ephemeral visuals caused by the shock dynamics of more stable structures, and examine their relationship with observables in the H-alpha line. Methods: Filtergrams in the core of the Ca II H and H-alpha lines as observed with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope are employed. We utilise a technique that creates composite images and tracks the flash propagation horizontally. Results: We find 0.̋15 wide horizontal structures, in all of the three target sunspots, for every flash where the seeing is moderate to good. Discrete dark structures are identified that are stable for at least two umbral flashes, as well as systems of structures that live for up to 24 min. We find cases of extremely extended structures with similar stability, with one such structure showing an extent of 5''. Some of these structures have a correspondence in H-alpha, but we were unable to find a one-to-one correspondence for every occurrence. If the dark streaks are formed at the same heights as umbral flashes, there are systems of structures with strong departures from the vertical for all three analysed sunspots. Conclusions: Long-lived Ca II H filamentary horizontal structures are a common and likely ever-present feature in the umbra of sunspots. If the magnetic field in the chromosphere of the umbra is indeed aligned with the structures, then the present theoretical understanding of the typical umbra needs to be revisited. Movies associated to Figs. 3 and 4 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. Structural attachments for large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruett, E. C.; Loughead, T. E.; Robertson, K. B., III

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating beams in space and using them as components of a large, crew assembled structure, was investigated. Two projects were undertaken: (1) design and development of a ground version of an automated beam builder capable of producing triangular cross section aluminum beams; and (2) design and fabrication of lap joints to connect the beams orthogonally and centroidal end caps to connect beams end to end at any desired angle. The first project produced a beam building machine which fabricates aluminum beams suitable for neutral buoyancy evaluation. The second project produced concepts for the lap joint and end cap. However, neither of these joint concepts was suitable for use by a pressure suited crew member in a zero gravity environment. It is concluded that before the beams can be evaluated the joint designs need to be completed and sufficient joints produced to allow assembly of a complex structure.

  7. Understanding the structure

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak

    1994-01-01

    Urban forests are complex ecosystems created by the interaction of anthropogenic and natural processes. One key to better management of these systems is to understand urban forest structure and its relationship to forest functions. Through sampling and inventories, urban foresters often obtain structural information (e.g., numbers, location, size, and condition) on...

  8. Absolute-structure reports.

    PubMed

    Flack, Howard D

    2013-08-01

    All the 139 noncentrosymmetric crystal structures published in Acta Crystallographica Section C between January 2011 and November 2012 inclusive have been used as the basis of a detailed study of the reporting of absolute structure. These structure determinations cover a wide range of space groups, chemical composition and resonant-scattering contribution. Defining A and D as the average and difference of the intensities of Friedel opposites, their level of fit has been examined using 2AD and selected-D plots. It was found, regardless of the expected resonant-scattering contribution to Friedel opposites, that the Friedel-difference intensities are often dominated by random uncertainty and systematic error. An analysis of data collection strategy is provided. It is found that crystal-structure determinations resulting in a Flack parameter close to 0.5 may not necessarily be from crystals twinned by inversion. Friedifstat is shown to be a robust estimator of the resonant-scattering contribution to Friedel opposites, very little affected by the particular space group of a structure nor by the occupation of special positions. There is considerable confusion in the text of papers presenting achiral noncentrosymmetric crystal structures. Recommendations are provided for the optimal way of treating noncentrosymmetric crystal structures for which the experimenter has no interest in determining the absolute structure.

  9. Organisational Structure & Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Structural change is seen as a way to meet the challenges of the future that face many organisations. While some writers agree that broad-ranging structural change may not always transform an organisation or enhance its performance, others claim that innovation will be a major source of competitive advantage to organisations, particularly when…

  10. Calcium silicate insulation structure

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, Thomas G.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    An insulative structure including a powder-filled evacuated casing utilizes a quantity of finely divided synthetic calcium silicate having a relatively high surface area. The resultant structure-provides superior thermal insulating characteristics over a broad temperature range and is particularly well-suited as a panel for a refrigerator or freezer or the insulative barrier for a cooler or a insulated bottle.

  11. Hierarchical Porous Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, Christopher John

    2016-06-07

    Materials Design is often at the forefront of technological innovation. While there has always been a push to generate increasingly low density materials, such as aero or hydrogels, more recently the idea of bicontinuous structures has gone more into play. This review will cover some of the methods and applications for generating both porous, and hierarchically porous structures.

  12. Tapered structure construction

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Eric D.; Takata, Rosalind K.; Slocum, Alexander H.; Nayfeh, Samir A.

    2016-04-05

    Feeding stock used to form a tapered structure into a curving device such that each point on the stock undergoes rotational motion about a peak location of the tapered structure; and the stock meets a predecessor portion of stock along one or more adjacent edges.

  13. Air-Supported Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto. School Planning and Building Research Section.

    This study has been prepared to set out some of the benefits and the problems involved in the use of air-supported structures. Also indicated are the types of inquiries that should be made when the use of such structures is being considered. Technical and engineering details, such as the properties of various fabrics, are not included. (Author)

  14. Generalized holomorphic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yicao

    2014-12-01

    We define the notion of generalized holomorphic principal bundles and establish that their associated vector bundles of holomorphic representations are generalized holomorphic vector bundles defined by M. Gualtieri. Motivated by our definition, several examples of generalized holomorphic structures are constructed. A reduction theorem of generalized holomorphic structures is also included.

  15. Piaget's Structural Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broughton, John M.

    1981-01-01

    Piaget's theory is identified as a branch of structuralism concerned with the concept of truth, in distinction from French structuralism, which is focused on meaning. The two branches are compared and contrasted, and relations between logic and language are explored. Similarities and differences in the theories of Piaget, Levi-Strauss, and Chomsky…

  16. Agricultural Structures, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linhardt, Richard E.; Burhoe, Steve

    This guide to a curriculum unit in agricultural structures is designed to expand the curriculum materials available in vocational agriculture in Missouri. It and Agricultural Structures I (see note) provide reference materials to systematize the curriculum. The six units cover working with concrete (19 lessons, 2 laboratory exercises), drawing and…

  17. Air-Supported Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto. School Planning and Building Research Section.

    This study has been prepared to set out some of the benefits and the problems involved in the use of air-supported structures. Also indicated are the types of inquiries that should be made when the use of such structures is being considered. Technical and engineering details, such as the properties of various fabrics, are not included. (Author)

  18. Fabricating Structural Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engler, E. E.; Ehl, J.; Muench, W.; Morfin, H.; Huber, J.; Braun, R.; Marx, W.; Alberi, A.; Romaneck, R.; Johnson, C.; Giannuzzi, O.; Weyhreter, A.

    1982-01-01

    Automatic machine described in new report has demonstrated on Earth feasibility of machine fabricating beams for huge structures in space. Such structures include solar mirrors, radiometer reflectors, microwave power transmitters, solar-thermal power generators, and solar photoelectric generators, ranging in size from few hundred meters long to tens of kilometers long.

  19. Clinical trial structures

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Most errors in clinical trials are a result of poor planning. Fancy statistical methods cannot rescue design flaws. Thus careful planning with clear foresight is crucial. The selection of a clinical trial design structure requires logic and creativity. Common structural designs are discussed. PMID:21423788

  20. Glued structural members

    Treesearch

    Russell C. Moody; Jen Y. Liu

    1999-01-01

    Glued structural members are manufactured in a variety of configurations. Structural composite lumber (SCL) products consist of small pieces of wood glued together into sizes common for solid-sawn lumber. Glued-laminated timber (glulam) is an engineered stress-rated product that consists of two or more layers of lumber in which the grain of all layers is oriented...

  1. Sensitivity to Visual Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipman, Susan F.; And Others

    Described are three experiments which probed children's sensitivity to structure or organization in visual patterns. Each experiment employed a different paradigm (complexity judgment, discrimination learning, recognition learning, and memory) in order to tap different aspects of children's use of structural information. Subjects were children in…

  2. Space Station structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, W.

    1985-04-01

    A brief overview of some structural results that came from space station skunk works is presented. Detailed drawings of the pressurized modules, and primary truss structures such as deployable single fold beams, erectable beams and deployable double folds are given. Typical truss attachment devices and deployable backup procedures are also given.

  3. Frontiers of Nuclear Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarewicz, Witold

    1997-12-31

    Current developments in nuclear structure at the `limits` are discussed. The studies of nuclear behavior at extreme conditions provide us with invaluable information about the nature of the nuclear interaction and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this talk frontiers of nuclear structure are briefly reviewed from a theoretical perspective, mainly concentrating on medium-mass and heavy nuclei.

  4. Inflatable Column Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Lightweight structural member easy to store. Billowing between circumferential loops of fiber inflated column becomes series of cells. Each fiber subjected to same tension along entire length (though tension is different in different fibers). Member is called "isotensoid" column. Serves as jack for automobiles or structures during repairs. Also used as support for temporary bleachers or swimming pools.

  5. Inflatable Column Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Lightweight structural member easy to store. Billowing between circumferential loops of fiber inflated column becomes series of cells. Each fiber subjected to same tension along entire length (though tension is different in different fibers). Member is called "isotensoid" column. Serves as jack for automobiles or structures during repairs. Also used as support for temporary bleachers or swimming pools.

  6. The Cambridge Structural Database

    PubMed Central

    Groom, Colin R.; Bruno, Ian J.; Lightfoot, Matthew P.; Ward, Suzanna C.

    2016-01-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) contains a complete record of all published organic and metal–organic small-molecule crystal structures. The database has been in operation for over 50 years and continues to be the primary means of sharing structural chemistry data and knowledge across disciplines. As well as structures that are made public to support scientific articles, it includes many structures published directly as CSD Communications. All structures are processed both computationally and by expert structural chemistry editors prior to entering the database. A key component of this processing is the reliable association of the chemical identity of the structure studied with the experimental data. This important step helps ensure that data is widely discoverable and readily reusable. Content is further enriched through selective inclusion of additional experimental data. Entries are available to anyone through free CSD community web services. Linking services developed and maintained by the CCDC, combined with the use of standard identifiers, facilitate discovery from other resources. Data can also be accessed through CCDC and third party software applications and through an application programming interface. PMID:27048719

  7. Structural wildland intermix

    Treesearch

    Ronny J. Coleman

    1995-01-01

    Because many major population centers are located in wildland areas, many structures have been destroyed by increasingly more costly wildland fires. The structure and jurisdiction of the fire service in California are complex, and a uniform approach to fire prevention is lacking. A description of many of the fire issues in the wildland-urban intermix is provided. The...

  8. The Structure of Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molm, Linda D.

    2010-01-01

    Reciprocity is one of the defining features of social exchange and social life, yet exchange theorists have tended to take it for granted. Drawing on work from a decade-long theoretical research program, I argue that reciprocity is structured and variable across different forms of exchange, that these variations in the structure of reciprocity…

  9. The Structures of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of General Medical Sciences (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet, geared toward an advanced high school or early college-level audience, explains how structural biology provides insight into health and disease and is useful in developing new medications. This publication contains a general introduction to proteins, coverage of the techniques used to determine protein structures, and a chapter on…

  10. Story Structure and Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Story structure instruction, focusing on forming a mental picture of a story's structure and understanding of story parts, improved poor-reading fourth-graders' (N=20) story writing skills in terms of organization and overall quality but not coherence and creativity, indicating that instruction in story parts can improve some children's writing.…

  11. The Cambridge Structural Database.

    PubMed

    Groom, Colin R; Bruno, Ian J; Lightfoot, Matthew P; Ward, Suzanna C

    2016-04-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) contains a complete record of all published organic and metal-organic small-molecule crystal structures. The database has been in operation for over 50 years and continues to be the primary means of sharing structural chemistry data and knowledge across disciplines. As well as structures that are made public to support scientific articles, it includes many structures published directly as CSD Communications. All structures are processed both computationally and by expert structural chemistry editors prior to entering the database. A key component of this processing is the reliable association of the chemical identity of the structure studied with the experimental data. This important step helps ensure that data is widely discoverable and readily reusable. Content is further enriched through selective inclusion of additional experimental data. Entries are available to anyone through free CSD community web services. Linking services developed and maintained by the CCDC, combined with the use of standard identifiers, facilitate discovery from other resources. Data can also be accessed through CCDC and third party software applications and through an application programming interface.

  12. Structural transitions in clusters.

    PubMed

    Hartke, Bernd

    2002-05-03

    If one adds more particles to a cluster, the energetically optimal structure is neither preserved nor does it change in a continuous fashion. Instead, one finds several cluster size regions where one structural principle dominates almost without exception, and rather narrow boundary regions in-between. The structure of the solid is usually reached only at relatively large sizes, after more than one structural transition. The occurrence of this general phenomenon of size-dependent structural transitions does not seem to depend on the nature of the particles, it is found for atomic, molecular, homogeneous, and heterogeneous clusters alike. Clearly, it is a collective many-body phenomenon which can in principle be calculated but not understood in a fully reductionistic manner. Actual calculations with sufficient accuracy are not feasible today, because of the enormous computational expense, even when unconventional evolutionary algorithms are employed for global geometry optimization. Therefore, simple rules for cluster structures are highly desirable. In fact, we are dealing here not just with the academic quest for linkages between cluster structure and features of the potential energy surface, but structural transitions in clusters are also of immediate relevance for many natural and industrial processes, ranging from crystal growth all the way to nanotechnology. This article provides an exemplary overview of research on this topic, from simple model systems where first qualitative explanations start to be successful, up to more realistic complex systems which are still beyond our understanding.

  13. Agricultural Structures, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linhardt, Richard E.; Burhoe, Steve

    This guide to a curriculum unit in agricultural structures is designed to expand the curriculum materials available in vocational agriculture in Missouri. It and Agricultural Structures I (see note) provide reference materials to systematize the curriculum. The six units cover working with concrete (19 lessons, 2 laboratory exercises), drawing and…

  14. Multidimensional period doubling structures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Yup; Flom, Dvir; Ben-Abraham, Shelomo I

    2016-05-01

    This paper develops the formalism necessary to generalize the period doubling sequence to arbitrary dimension by straightforward extension of the substitution and recursion rules. It is shown that the period doubling structures of arbitrary dimension are pure point diffractive. The symmetries of the structures are pointed out.

  15. Trajectory structures and transport

    SciTech Connect

    Vlad, Madalina; Spineanu, Florin

    2004-11-01

    The special problem of transport in two-dimensional divergence-free stochastic velocity fields is studied by developing a statistical approach, the nested subensemble method. The nonlinear process of trapping determined by such fields generates trajectory structures whose statistical characteristics are determined. These structures strongly influence the transport.

  16. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Periodic truss structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zok, Frank W.; Latture, Ryan M.; Begley, Matthew R.

    2016-11-01

    Despite the recognition of the enormous potential of periodic trusses for use in a broad range of technologies, there are no widely-accepted descriptors of their structure. The terminology has been based loosely either on geometry of polyhedra or of point lattices: neither of which, on its own, has an appropriate structure to fully define periodic trusses. The present article lays out a system for classification of truss structure types. The system employs concepts from crystallography and geometry to describe nodal locations and connectivity of struts. Through a series of illustrative examples of progressively increasing complexity, a rational taxonomy of truss structure is developed. Its conceptual evolution begins with elementary cubic trusses, increasing in complexity with non-cubic and compound trusses as well as supertrusses, and, finally, with complex trusses. The conventions and terminology adopted to define truss structure yield concise yet unambiguous descriptions of structure types and of specific (finite) trusses. The utility of the taxonomy is demonstrated by bringing into alignment a disparate set of ad hoc and incomplete truss designations previously employed in a broad range of science and engineering fields. Additionally, the merits of a particular compound truss (comprising two interpenetrating elementary trusses) is shown to be superior to the octet truss for applications requiring high stiffness and elastic isotropy. By systematically stepping through and analyzing the finite number of structure types identified through the present classification system, optimal structures for prescribed mechanical and functional requirements are expected to be ascertained in an expeditious manner.

  18. The Structure of Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molm, Linda D.

    2010-01-01

    Reciprocity is one of the defining features of social exchange and social life, yet exchange theorists have tended to take it for granted. Drawing on work from a decade-long theoretical research program, I argue that reciprocity is structured and variable across different forms of exchange, that these variations in the structure of reciprocity…

  19. The Changing Family Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter issue contains feature articles and short reports on how and why family structures are undergoing substantial change in many parts of the world. These articles include: (1) "The Changing Family Structure," a review of how families are changing and why; (2) "Peru: Families in the Andes"; (3) "Thailand:…

  20. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1985-01-01

    Various topics relating to composite structural materials for use in aircraft structures are discussed. The mechanical properties of high performance carbon fibers, carbon fiber-epoxy interface bonds, composite fractures, residual stress in high modulus and high strength carbon fibers, fatigue in composite materials, and the mechanical properties of polymeric matrix composite laminates are among the topics discussed.

  1. Lightweight Composite Intertank Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehle, Greg V.

    1995-01-01

    Report presents results of study for proposed lightweight composite material alternative to present semimonocoque aluminum intertank structure for advanced launch vehicles. Proposed structure integrated assembly of sandwich panels made of laminated epoxy-matrix/carbon-fiber skins, and aluminum honeycomb core.

  2. Trends in aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, M. F.

    1978-01-01

    Recent developments indicate that there may soon be a revolution in aerospace structures. Increases in allowable operational stress levels, utilization of high-strength, high-toughness materials, and new structural concepts will highlight this advancement. Improved titanium and aluminum alloys and high-modulus, high-strength advanced composites, with higher specific properties than aluminum and high-strength nickel alloys, are expected to be the principal materials. Significant advances in computer technology will cause major changes in the preliminary design cycle and permit solutions of otherwise too-complex interactive structural problems and thus the development of vehicles and components of higher performance. The energy crisis will have an impact on material costs and choices and will spur the development of more weight-efficient structures. There will also be significant spinoffs of aerospace structures technology, particularly in composites and design/analysis software.

  3. Optoelectronic Mounting Structure

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Baca, Johnny R. F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Chu, Dahwey; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Peterson, David W.; Peterson, Gary D.; Reber, Cathleen A.; Reysen, Bill H.

    2004-10-05

    An optoelectronic mounting structure is provided that may be used in conjunction with an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module. The mounting structure may be a flexible printed circuit board. Thermal vias or heat pipes in the head region may transmit heat from the mounting structure to the heat spreader. The heat spreader may provide mechanical rigidity or stiffness to the heat region. In another embodiment, an electrical contact and ground plane may pass along a surface of the head region so as to provide an electrical contact path to the optoelectronic devices and limit electromagnetic interference. In yet another embodiment, a window may be formed in the head region of the mounting structure so as to provide access to the heat spreader. Optoelectronic devices may be adapted to the heat spreader in such a manner that the devices are accessible through the window in the mounting structure.

  4. Deployable reflector structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin, Jr. (Inventor); Hoberman, Charles (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A deployable reflector structure is presented. The structure has a number of movable reflector panels pivotably supported on rigid arms. Several such arms are pivotably connected to a central structure. The arm can move in starburst fashion from a packaged stage, where all arms are vertical, to a deployed stage, where all arms are horizontal. All of the movable reflector panels are maintained at a predetermined angle to an axis of the reflector structure when the arms are pivoted. The reflector panels are stacked tightly on top of each other in the packaged state of the reflector structure. Simple mechanisms are used for avoiding interference between panels on different arms in the packaged stage and for fitting the movable panels together like tiles in the deployed stage.

  5. Regularized Structural Equation Modeling.

    PubMed

    Jacobucci, Ross; Grimm, Kevin J; McArdle, John J

    A new method is proposed that extends the use of regularization in both lasso and ridge regression to structural equation models. The method is termed regularized structural equation modeling (RegSEM). RegSEM penalizes specific parameters in structural equation models, with the goal of creating easier to understand and simpler models. Although regularization has gained wide adoption in regression, very little has transferred to models with latent variables. By adding penalties to specific parameters in a structural equation model, researchers have a high level of flexibility in reducing model complexity, overcoming poor fitting models, and the creation of models that are more likely to generalize to new samples. The proposed method was evaluated through a simulation study, two illustrative examples involving a measurement model, and one empirical example involving the structural part of the model to demonstrate RegSEM's utility.

  6. Inflatable nested toroid structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J. (Inventor); Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Spexarth, Gary R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An inflatable structure comprises at least two generally toroidal, inflatable modules. When in a deployed mode, the first, inner module has a major diameter less than that of a second, outer module and is positioned within the inner circumference of the outer module such that the first module is nested circumferentially alongside the second module. The inflatable structure, in a non-deployed, non-inflated mode, is of compact configuration and adapted to be transported to a site of deployment. When deployed, the inflatable structure is of substantially increased interior volume. In one embodiment, access between the interior of the first module and the second module is provided by at least one port or structural pass-through. In another embodiment, the inflatable structure includes at least one additional generally toroidal module external of and circumferentially surrounding the second module.

  7. Trends in aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, M. F.

    1978-01-01

    Recent developments indicate that there may soon be a revolution in aerospace structures. Increases in allowable operational stress levels, utilization of high-strength, high-toughness materials, and new structural concepts will highlight this advancement. Improved titanium and aluminum alloys and high-modulus, high-strength advanced composites, with higher specific properties than aluminum and high-strength nickel alloys, are expected to be the principal materials. Significant advances in computer technology will cause major changes in the preliminary design cycle and permit solutions of otherwise too-complex interactive structural problems and thus the development of vehicles and components of higher performance. The energy crisis will have an impact on material costs and choices and will spur the development of more weight-efficient structures. There will also be significant spinoffs of aerospace structures technology, particularly in composites and design/analysis software.

  8. Electron Structure of Francium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koufos, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    This talk presents the first calculations of the electronic structure of francium for the bcc, fcc and hcp structures, using the Augmented Plane Wave (APW) method in its muffin-tin and linearized general potential forms. Both the Local Density Approximation (LDA) and Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA), were used to calculate the electronic structure and total energy of francium (Fr). The GGA and LDA both found the total energy of the hcp structure slightly below that of the fcc and bcc structure, respectively. This is in agreement with similar results for the other alkali metals using the same methodology. The equilibrium lattice constant, bulk modulus and superconductivity parameters were calculated. We found that under pressures, in the range of 1-5 GPa, Fr could be a superconductor at a critical temperature of about 4K.

  9. Iconicity as structure mapping

    PubMed Central

    Emmorey, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Linguistic and psycholinguistic evidence is presented to support the use of structure-mapping theory as a framework for understanding effects of iconicity on sign language grammar and processing. The existence of structured mappings between phonological form and semantic mental representations has been shown to explain the nature of metaphor and pronominal anaphora in sign languages. With respect to processing, it is argued that psycholinguistic effects of iconicity may only be observed when the task specifically taps into such structured mappings. In addition, language acquisition effects may only be observed when the relevant cognitive abilities are in place (e.g. the ability to make structural comparisons) and when the relevant conceptual knowledge has been acquired (i.e. information key to processing the iconic mapping). Finally, it is suggested that iconicity is better understood as a structured mapping between two mental representations than as a link between linguistic form and human experience. PMID:25092669

  10. Cosmic structure formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertschinger, Edumund

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews the prevailing paradigm for how galaxies and larger structures formed in the universe: gravitational instability. Basic observational facts are summarized to motivate the standard cosmological framework underlying most detailed investigations of structure formation. The observed univers approaches spatial uniformity on scales larger than about 10(exp 26) cm. On these scales gravitational dynamics is almost linear and therefore relatively easy to relate to observations of large-scale structure. On smaller scales cosmic structure is complicated not only by nonlinear gravitational clustering but also by nonlinear nongravitational gas dynamical processes. The complexity of these phenomena makes galaxy formation one of the grand challenge problems of the physical sciences. No fully satisfactory theory can presently account in detail for the observed cosmic structure. However, as this article summarizes, significant progress has been made during the last few years.

  11. Cosmic structure formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertschinger, Edumund

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews the prevailing paradigm for how galaxies and larger structures formed in the universe: gravitational instability. Basic observational facts are summarized to motivate the standard cosmological framework underlying most detailed investigations of structure formation. The observed univers approaches spatial uniformity on scales larger than about 10(exp 26) cm. On these scales gravitational dynamics is almost linear and therefore relatively easy to relate to observations of large-scale structure. On smaller scales cosmic structure is complicated not only by nonlinear gravitational clustering but also by nonlinear nongravitational gas dynamical processes. The complexity of these phenomena makes galaxy formation one of the grand challenge problems of the physical sciences. No fully satisfactory theory can presently account in detail for the observed cosmic structure. However, as this article summarizes, significant progress has been made during the last few years.

  12. Mobile marine operations structure

    SciTech Connect

    Bhalaik, A.; Braddick, P.W.; Brittin, D.S.; Johnson, G.L.

    1987-09-22

    This patent describes the process of installing a marine operations structure in a pre-determined sea floor location. The structure has a central core and a support base having at least two differently sloped ice wall surfaces for achieving fracturing of ice features, and having at least two series of circumferentially arranged ballast tanks. It consists of positioning the structure over a selected sea floor location by the use of at least three tug boats connected to the structure by tension cables arranged radially with respect to the structure; flooding a first series of lower ballast tanks in a sequential ballasting operation; flooding a second series of ballast tanks located at a higher elevation within the structure than the first series of ballast tanks; maintaining radial forces along the tension cables during the flooding steps; and after the structure has become founded on the bottom of the sea, pumping sea waver into fluid tanks some of which are located at an elevation above the water level.

  13. Fundamentals of Structural Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, David D.; Fletcher, Raymond C.

    2005-09-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors. The book integrates field mapping using modern technology with the analysis of structures based on a complete mechanics MATLAB is used to visualize physical fields and analytical results and MATLAB scripts can be downloaded from the website to recreate textbook graphics and enable students to explore their choice of parameters and boundary conditions The supplementary website hosts color images of outcrop photographs used in the text, supplementary color images, and images of textbook figures for classroom presentations The textbook website also includes student exercises designed to instill the fundamental relationships, and to encourage the visualization of the evolution of geological structures; solutions are available to instructors

  14. Structural basis of aspartylglucosaminuria

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Seiji; Ohno, Kazuki; Sugawara, Kanako; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Togawa, Tadayasu; Sakuraba, Hitoshi

    2008-12-26

    To elucidate the basis of aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU) from the viewpoint of enzyme structure, we constructed structural models of mutant aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA) proteins using molecular modeling software, TINKER. We classified the amino acid substitutions responsible for AGU and divided them into three groups based on the biochemical phenotype. Then, we examined the structural changes in the AGA protein for each group by calculating the solvent-accessible surface area (ASA), the number of atoms affected, and the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD). Our results revealed that the structural changes in group 1, which exhibits folding/transport defects and a complete deficiency of AGA activity, were generally large and located in the core region of the enzyme molecule. In group 2, exhibiting the mature AGA protein but no AGA activity, the functionally important region of the enzyme molecule was seriously affected. In group 3 exhibiting residual AGA activity, the structural changes in AGA were small and localized near the surface of the enzyme molecule. Coloring of affected atoms based on the distances between the wild-type and mutant ones revealed the characteristic structural changes in the AGA protein geographically and semi-quantitatively. Structural investigation provides us with a deeper insight into the basis of AGU.

  15. Dietary specialization in European species groups of seed beetles (Coleoptera: Bruchidae: Bruchinae).

    PubMed

    Delobel, Bernard; Delobel, Alex

    2006-09-01

    Because of their particular biology, seed beetles exhibit a strong relationship with their larval host plants. In Europe, however, field data have long been scarce and unreliable. The results of Legume seed collections of nearly 1,000 samples belonging to 292 species from various locations in Europe are summarized. The status of current Bruchidius species groups is amended on morphological and phylogenetic bases. Recent advances in the knowledge of phylogenetic structures of both Fabaceae and Bruchinae provide a new picture of Bruchinae-Fabaceae interactions. It reveals a certain level of host conservatism. The hypothesis of radiative adaptation seems the most compatible with observed data.

  16. ACEE composite structures technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klotzsche, M. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Composite Primary Aircraft Structures Program has made significant progress in the development of technology for advanced composites in commercial aircraft. Commercial airframe manufacturers have demonstrated technology readiness and cost effectiveness of advanced composites for secondary and medium primary components and have initiated a concerted program to develop the data base required for efficient application to safety-of-flight wing and fuselage structures. Oral presentations were compiled into five papers. Topics addressed include: damage tolerance and failsafe testing of composite vertical stabilizer; optimization of composite multi-row bolted joints; large wing joint demonstation components; and joints and cutouts in fuselage structure.

  17. Metal matrix composite structures

    SciTech Connect

    Krivov, G.A.; Beletsky, V.M.; Gribkov, A.N.

    1993-12-31

    High strength-weight properties, stiffness and fatigue resistance characteristics together with low sensitivity to stress concentration make metal matrix composites (MMC) rather promising for their use in structures. Metal matrix composites consist of a matrix (aluminum, magnesium, titanium and their alloys are the most frequently used) and reinforcers (carbon and boron fibers, high-strength steel wire, silicon carbide whiskers, etc.). This work considers various types of MMC and their applications in structures. The methods of structure production from metal matrix CM of aluminum-boron system with the help of machining, deformation, part joining by welding and riveting are given.

  18. Heat flow in structures

    SciTech Connect

    Burrer, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    Heat is transferred through a wall structure by the mechanisms of conduction, convection, and radiation. These mechanisms are introduced and developed in terms of their thermal resistances. Temperature difference is identified as the cause of heat flow through the structure which is impeded by the thermal resistances of the structures. Calculations are made of the thermal resistances at several points in a specific test wall section. The performance predicted from these calculations is compared to thermographic measurements made on the wall under laboratory controlled conditions. These comparisons are used to draw conclusions as to the usefulness and limitations of thermographic practices.

  19. Structures of thrombospondins

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, C. B.; Lawler, J.; Mosher, D. F.

    2008-01-01

    Thrombospondins are large secreted, multi-modular, calcium-binding glycoproteins that have complex roles in mediating cellular processes. Determination of high-resolution structures of thrombospondins has revealed unique and interesting protein motifs. Here, we review this progress and discuss implications for function. By combining structures of modules from thrombospondins and related extracellular proteins it is now possible to prepare an overall model of the structure of thrombospondin-1 and thrombospondin-2 and discern features of other thrombospondins. (Part of a multi-author Review) PMID:18193164

  20. Deployable geodesic truss structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr. (Inventor); Rhodes, Marvin D. (Inventor); Simonton, J. Wayne (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A deployable geodesic truss structure which can be deployed from a stowed state to an erected state is described. The truss structure includes a series of bays, each bay having sets of battens connected by longitudinal cross members which give the bay its axial and torsional stiffness. The cross members are hinged at their mid point by a joint so that the cross members are foldable for deployment or collapsing. The bays are deployed and stabilized by actuator means connected between the mid point joints of the cross members. Hinged longerons may be provided to also connect the sets of battens and to collapse for stowing with the rest of the truss structure.